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AliBBRUNIi India. An Account of the Beli^on, 
Philosophy, Literature, Ueography, Chronology, 
Astronomy, Customs.Laws, and Astrolwy of India, 
about A.D. 1030. By Dr. Buwabd 0. Saobad. 

BABTH (Dr. A.): The ReUglons Of India. 
Authorised Translation by Rev. 3 , Wood. 

BIGAKDBT (B. F.) : Life OF Legend of Gaudama, 
the Buddha of the Burmese ; wUb Annota- 
tions, the Ways to Neibban, and Notice on the 
Phongyies or Burmese Monks. 

BEAL (Prof. S.]: Life Of Hlueu-Tslang. By the 
Sh^ans Hwui Li and Yhh-Tsuno. With a 
Preface containing an Account of the Works of 

COWELL (Prof. B. B.): SaFva-Darsana-Sam- 
graha; or. Review of the Different Systems of 
Uiodo Philosophy. By Madhava Acuabya. 
Translated by Prof. B. B. Cowbll, M.A., and 
Prof. A. B. QouoH, M.A. 

DOWSON (Prof. J.): Classical Dictionary of 
Hindu Mythology and Religion, Geo- 
graphy, History, and Literature. 

WBBER (Or. A.) ; Hlstory Of Indian Literature. 
Translated by John Mann, M.A., and THSODons 
ZaohabiAB, Fh,D, Konrth Edition. 

OtAer Volumes to /allow. 




ABOUT A.D. loao 



Dh. edwakd c. sachau 

Prof««8or Id the Soytl Uglvenity ot Berlin^ end Madpal of the ^^mioar/ for 
Oriental Lauguajfce; ^«aiiier of tbe fioyel Academy of Berlin, and 
Correepondlng Member of the Imperial Academy of Vienna 
HoDonry Membw of the Aaiado Hociety of Great Britain and Ireland, London, 
and of (ho American Oriental Society, Cambridge, V.S.A. 

VOL. r 





Nev Bditim, 19ID 
Pop^doT ■Re’i$mc, 1914 

The rights i^tratulntion and o/reproduetiim are reserved 









The literary history of the East represents the court of 
King Mahtnfid at Ghazna, the leading monarch of Asiatic 
history between a.d. 997-1030, as having been a centre 
of literature, and of poetry in particular. There were 
fonr hundred poets chanting in his halls and gardens, 
at their head famous Unsnrl, invested with the recently 
created dignity of a poet-laureate, who by his verdict 
opened the way to royal favour for rising talents ; there 
was grand Firdausi, composing his heroic epos by the 
special orders of the king, with many more kindred 
spirits. Unfortunately history knows very little of all 
this, save the fact that Persian poets flocked together 
in Ghazna, trying their kasidas on the king, his minis- 
ters and generals. History paints Mahmfld as a suc- 
cessful warrior, but ignores him as a Majcenas. With 
the sole exception of the lucubrations of bombastic 
Utbl, all contemporary records, the MaJcdmdl of AM- 
Ksfr Mishldni, the TaJxikdt of his secretary Baihakt, 
the ohroniclea of MullH Muhammad Qhaznavt, Mahmfld 
Wair&k, and others, have ])ei'ished, or not yet come to 
light, and the attempts at a literary history dating from 
a time 300-400 years later, the so-called Tadhkiras, 
weigh very light in the scale of matter-of-fact examina- 
tum, failing almost invariably whenever they are applied 
to for information on some detail of ancient Persian 
Uferatnre. However this may be, Unsnrt, the pane- 

and Plr- 


ftsd Alb^ 


gyrist, does not seem to have missed the son of royal 
favour, whilst Firdaasl, immortal Firdausi, had to dy 
in disguise to evade the doom of being trampled to 
death fey elephants. Attracted by the rising fortune 
of the young emperor, he seems to have repaired to his 
court only a year after his enthronisatlon, i.e. A.ii. 998. 
But when he bad finished his Shdhndma, and found 
himself disappointed in his hopes for reward, he flung 
at him his famous satire, and fled into peaceless exile 
(A.D. loio).i In the case of the king versus the poet 
the king has lost. As long os Firdausi retains the 
place of honour accorded to him in the history of the 
world’s mental achievements, the stigma will cling to 
the name of Mahmfld, that he who hoarded up perhaps 
more worldly treasures than were ever hoarded up, did 
not know how to honour a poet destined for immor- 

And how did the author of this work, as remark- 
able among the prose compositions of the East as the 
Shdhndma in poetry, fare with the royal Mmcenas of 

Alberuni, or, oa his compatriots called him, Abfe 
Raifeiln, was born a.d. 973, in the territory of modern 
Khiva, then called Khw&iizm, or Chorasmia in anti- 
quity.^ Early distinguishing himself in science and 
literature, be played a political part as councillor of 
the ruling prince of hie native country of the Ma’mflDi 
family. The counsels he gave do not seem always to 
have suited the plana of King Mafemfed at Gbozna, who 
was looking out for a pretext for interfering in the 
affairs of independent Khiva, although its rulers were 
his own near relatives. This pretext was furnished fey 
a military dneute. 

' Of. J. Mohl, Li lAvn dei Meii, tndolt, Ao. FnblK par 
Hobl, 1876, preface, pp. zl. leq. 

I Tbero is a reminisoenoa of hla native country, 1 . 166, when ha 
speaks of a kind of measure used in KhwSrizm. 



Mnl.unftd marched into the country, not without some 
fighting, establisiied there one of his generals as pi-ovin- 
cial governor, and soon retnmed to Gliazna with much 
booty and a great part of the Khiva troops, together 
with the princes of the deposed family of Ma’mfin and 
the leading men of the country as prisoners of war or 
as hostages. Among the last was Abfl-llailjiin Muham- 
mad Ibn Ahmad Alberuni. 

This happened in the spring and summer of A.D. 
loiy. The Chorasmian princes wore sent to distant 
fortresses as prisoners of state, the Chorasmian soldiers 
were incorporated in Mahmftd's Indian army ; and Al- 
beruni — what treatment did he experience at Ghazna? 
From the very ontset it is not likely that both the king 
and bis chancellor, Ahmad Ibn Hasan Maimaiidi, shonld 
have accorded siiedal favours to a man whom they knew 
to have been their political antagonist for years. The 
latter, the same man who had been the canse of the 
tragic catastrophe in the life of Firdausi, was in office 
under Mahmhd from A.P. 1007-1025, and a second 
time under his son and successor, Mas'ftd, from 1030- 
ZO33. There is nothing to tell ns that Albemni was 
ever in the service of the state or court in Ghazna. A 
friend of his and companion of his exile, the Christian 
philosopher and jibysician from Bagdad, Abnikhair 
Alkhammar, seems to have practised in Ghazna his 
medical profession, Alberuni probably enjoyed the 
reputation of a great munajjim, i.i>. astrologer-astrono- 
mer, and perhaps it was in tliis cjuality that he had 
relations to the court and its head, as Tycho de Brahe 
to the Emperor Hiidolf. When writing the 'IvSiku, 
thirteen years after his involuntary immigration to 
Afghanistan, he was a master of astrology, both ac- 
cording to the Greek and the Hindu system, and indeed 
Eastern writers of later centuries seem to consider him 
as having been the court astrologer of King Mal.imfld. 
In a book written five hundred years later (v. Chresto- 



maihie Persane, &c., par Ch. Schefer, Paris, 1883, i p. 
107 of the Persian text), there is a story of a praotic^ 
joke which played on Alberimi as an astrolo* 

ger. Whether this be historic tmth or a late invention, 
anyhow the story does not throw ranch light on the 
aathor’s sitnation in a period of his life which is the 
most interesting to us, that one, namely, when he 
oominenoed to study India, Sanskrit and Sanskrit 

Historic tradition failing us, we are reduced to a 
single source of information — the aathor’s work — and 
must examine to what degree bis personal relations are 
indicated by his own words. When he wrote, King 
Muljmfld h^ been dead only a few weeks. Le roiest 
mort — but to whom was Vive le roi to be addressed ? 

Two heirs claimed the throne, Muhammad and 
Mas'ud, and were marching against each other to settle 
their claims by the sword. Under these circumstances 
it comes out as a characteristic fact that the book has 
no dedication whatever, either to the memory of Mah- 
mhd, or to one of the rival princes, or to any of the 
indifferent or non-political princes of the royal house. 
As a cautions politician, he awaited the issue of the 
contest ; but when the dice had been thrown, and 
Mas'ffd was firmly established on the throne of his 
father, he at once hastened to dedicate to him the 
greatest work of his life, the Canon Masudims. If he 
had been affected by any feeling of sincere gratitude, 
he might have erected in the ’Iv 56 Kd a monument to 
the memory of the dead king, under whose rule he had 
made the necessary preparatory studies, and might have 
praised him as the great propagator of Islam, without 
probably incurring any risk. He has not done so, and 
the terms in which he speaks of Mahmfid thronghont 
his book are not such as a man would use when speak- 
ing of a deceased person who had been his benefactor. 

He is called simply The Amir ii 13 (Arabic 



text, p. 208, 9), The Amir Mahmud, may Ood's mercy 
be with him, i. ii6 (text, p. 56, 8), The Amir 
may the grace of God be withhim, ii. t03 (text, p. 252, 1 1). 
The title Amir was nothing very complimentary. It 
had been borne by his ancestors when they were simply 
generals and provincial governors in the service of the 
S&mAn! king of Transoxiana and Khurasan. Speaking 
of MabmOd and his father Saboktagin, the author says, 
yamtn-aida/iia Mahmild, may God’a mercy be with them, 
L 22 (text, p. 1 1, 9). He had received the title yamtn- 
aldavla, i.e. The right hand of the dynasty (of the 
Kbalif), from the Khalif, as a recognition of the legiti- 
macy of his mle, resembling the mvestitnre of the 
German Emperor by the Pope in the Middle Ages. 
Lastly, we find at ii. 2 (text, p. 203, 20) the following 
terms: "The strongest of the pillars (of Islam), the 
pattern of a Sultan, MaJimUd, the lion of the world and 
the rarity of the age, may God’s mercy he ivith him.” 

Whoever knows the style of Oriental authors when 
speaking of crowned heads, the style of their prefaces, 
which attains the height of absurdity at the cxiurt of 
the Moghnl emperors at Delhi, will agree with me that 
the manner in which the author mentions the dead 
king is cold, cold in the extreme ; that the words of 
praise bestowed upon him are meagre and stiff, a poor 
sort of praise for a man who had been the first man in 
Islam, and the founder of Islam in India ; lastly, that 
the phrases of benediction which are appended to his 
name, nccoi'ding to a general custom of Islam, are the 
same as the author would have employed when speak- 
ing of any acquaintance of his in common life who liad 
died. He says of Mobmfid (i. 22) : “ He utterly ruined 
the prosperity of the country (of India), and performed 
those wonderful exploits by which the Hindus became 
like atoms of dust scattered in all directions, and like a 
tale of old ip the month of the people.” To criticise 
these words from a Muslim point of view, the passage of 



tha mining of the prospeiily of the conniay was per- 
feotly oat of place ia the glorifcation of a Qhhzt like 

That it was not at all against the moral principles of 
Alheruni to write such dedications to princes is shown 
by two other publications of his, with dedications which 
exhibit the customary Byzantinism of the time. In the 
preface of the “ Chronology of Ancient Nations ” (trans- 
lated, &c., by Edward Saohan, London, 1879), he extols 
with abundant praise the prince of Hyrcania or Jnrjdn, 
Shams-alma'lll, who was a dwarf by the side of giant 
MahmUd. The studied character of the neglect of 
Mahmud in the ‘IrSeica comes out more strongly if we 
compare the unmerited praise which Alberuni lavishes 
upon his son and snccessor. The preface of his Gantm 
Mamdicits is a farrago of high-sounding words in 
honour of King Mas'lld, who was a drunkard, and lost 
in less than a decennium most of what his father's 
sword and policy had gained in thirty-three yew^. 
The tenor of this jireface, taken from the manuscript 
of the Boyal Library in Berlin, is as follows : — 

To those wholead the communityof the believers in the 
place of the Prophet and by the help of the Word of God 
belongs "the king, the lord majestic and venerated, the 
helper of the representative of God, the furtherer of the 
law of God, the protector of the slaves of God, who 
punishes the enemies of God, Abh-Sa'id Mas'hd Ibn 
Yamin-aldanla and ’Amtn-almilla Maljmfld — may God 
give him a long life, and let him perpetually rise to 
glorions and memorable deeds. For a confirmation of 
what we here say of him lies in the fact that God, on 
considerbg the matter, restored the right (ie. the right 
of being ruled by Mas' fid) to his people, after it had been 
concealed. God brought it to light. After he had been 
in distress, God helped him. After he had been rejected, 
God raised him, and brought him the empire and the 
rule, after people from all sides had tried to get posses- 



sion of ib, speaking : ‘ How shonld he come to rule over 
us, as we have a better right to the rule than he ? ’ 
But then they received (from God) an answer in the 
event (lit. sign) which followed. God carried out His 
promise relating to him (Mas'hd), giving him the inheri- 
tance without his asking for it, as He gave the inherU 
tanee of David to Solomon without reserve. (Tliat is, the 
dead Eilng MahmUd had proclaimed as his successor his 
sou Muhammad, not Mas'fld, but the latter contested the 
will of his father, and in the following contest with his 
brother he was the winner.) If God bod not chosen 
him, the hearts of men would not have been gained (?) 
for him, and the intrigues of bis enemies would not 
have missed their aim. In short, the souls of men 
hastened to meet him in order to live under his shadow. 
The order of God was an act of predestination, and his 
becoming king was written in the Book of Books in 
heaven (from all eternity). 

“He — may God make his rnle everlasting! — has 
conferred upon me a favour which was a high distinc- 
tion to me, and has placed me under the obligation of 
everlasting gratitude. For although a benefactor may 
dispense with the thank-offerings for his deeds, &o., a 
sound heart inspires those who receive them with the 
fear that they might be lost (to general notice), and 
lays upon them the obligation of spreading them and 
making them known in the world. But already, before 
I received this favour, I shared with the inhabitants of 
all his countries the blessings of his rule, of peace and 
justice. However, then the fecial service (towards 
his Majesty) became incumbent upon me, after (until 
that time) obeying in general (his Majesty) had been 
incumbent on me. (This means, probably, that Mos'fld 
conferred a special benefit (a pension ?) on the author, 
not immediately after be had come to the throne, bnt 
some time later.) Is it not be who lias enabled me for 
the rest of my life (Albenini was then sixty-one years 


old) to devote myself entirely to the service of science, 
as he let me dwell under the shadow of bis power and 
let the cloud of his favour rain on me, always personally 
distinguishing and befriending me, &o. ? And with 
regard to this (the favour conferred upon me), he has 
deigned to send bis orders to the treasury and the 
ministry, which certainly is the utmost that kings 
can do for their subjects. May God Almighty reward 
him both in this and in yonder world,” &o. 

UTiereupon, finding that liis Majesty did not require 
bis actual service, and besides, finding that science stood 
in the highest favour with him, he composes a book on 
astronomy, to which he had been addicted all his life, 
and adorns it with the name of his Majesty, calling it 
Canon Masudicus {^UcAn'An Almas-Adi), &a 

To put the phrateS of this preface into plain language, 
the author was in favour with King Mas'fid; he had 
access to the court — living, probably, near it — and 
received an income which enabled him to devote him- 
self entirely to bis scientific work. Besides, all this 
appears as a new state of things, the reverse of wfiich 
had been the case under the king’s predecessor, his 
father, Mahmfld. We do not know the year in which 
this change in the life of Albemni was brought about. 
Perhaps it was in some way connected with the fact 
that the chancellor, Maimand!, died a.d. 1033, and that 
after him one AbQ-Kasr Ahmad Ibn Muhammad Ibn 
‘Abdussamad became chancellor, who before, x.e. from 
lOiy to 1033, administered Khwarizm, the native 
country of Alberuui. He and Maimand! had been 
political antagonists — not so he and ‘Abdnf^amad. 

The difference of the author's condition, as it appears 
to have been under Maa'fld, from what it was under 
Mahmftd when he prepared the 'IvSiko, is further illus- 
trated by certain passages in the book itself. When 
speaking of the difficulties with which he had to grapple 
in his efforts to learn everything about India, he con- 



tiiiues : “ Whafc scholar, however, has the same favour- 
able opportunities of studying this subject as I have ? 
That would be only the case with one to whom the 
grace of God accords, what it did not accord to me, a 
perfectly free disposal of bis own doings and goings ; 
for it has never fallen to my lot in my own doings and 
goings to be perfectly independent, nor to be invested 
with sufUcient power to dispose and to order as I 
thought best. However, I thank God for that which 
He has bestowed upon me, and which must be con- 
sidered as suffioient for the purpose ” (i. 24). These 
lines seem to say that the author, both at Ghazna and 
in India, at Multfin, PeshlLvar, &c., had the opportunity 
of conversing with pandits, of procuring their help, and 
of buying books ; that, however, in other directions he 
was not his own master, but had to obey a higher will ; 
and lastly, that he was not a man in authority. 

In another place (i. 152) he explains that art and 
science require the protection of kings. “For they 
alone could free the minds of scholare from the daily 
anxieties for the necessities of life, and stimnlate-their 
energies to earn more fame and favour, the yearning for 
which is the pith and marrow of human nature. The 
present times, however, are not of this kind. They are 
thd very opposite, and therefore it is quite impossible 
that a new science or any new kind of research ahonld 
arise in our days. What we have of sciences is nothing 
but the scanty remains of bygone better times." Com- 
pare with this a dictum quoted (i. 188): "The scholars 
are well aware of the use of money, but the rich ore 
igoorant of the nobility of scienoe." 

These are not the words of an author who basks in 
the sunshine of royal protection. The time he speaks 
of is the time of Mabmfld, and it is Mal.imfid whom he 
accuses of having failed in the duties of a protector of 
art and science imposed upon him by his royal office. 
Firdausi, in his satire (Mohl, i. prdf. p. ^v.), calle 



him “ un roi jui n’a ni foi ni loi ni matiiirti ” (royo/«) ; 
and he says: le roi avait iti un Jiomme digne de 

venom, il aurait honori U savoir," &o. It is moat 
remarkable to what degree Firdausi and Alberuoi agree 
in their judgment of the king. To neither of them had 
he been a Meecenaa. 

In the absence of positive information, we have tried 
to form a chain of oombinations from which we may 
infer, with a tolerable degree of certainty, that oar 
author, during the thirteen years of bis life from toiy 
to 1030, after he had been carried from his native 
country to the centre of Mabrndd’s realm, did not enjoy 
the favours of the king and his leading men ; that he 
stayed in different parts of India (as a companion of 
the princes of his native country?), probably in the 
character of a hdttage or political prisoner kept on 
hononrable terms ; that he spent his leisure in the 
study of India ; and that he had no official inducement 
or encouragement for this study, nor any hope of royal 

A radical change in all this takes place with the 
accession of Mas' dd. There is no more complaint of the 
time and its ruler. Alberuni is all glee and exultation 
about the royal favours and support accorded to him 
and to his studies. He now wrote the greatest work of 
his life,^ and with a swelling heart and overflowing 
words he proclaims in the preface the praise of his 
benefactor. Living in Ghazna, he seems to have for- 
gotten India to a great extent. For in the Canon 
Masudicua he rarely- refers to India ; its chapter on 
Hindu eras does not prove any progress of bis studies 
beyond that which he exhibits in the ’Iv&Kd, and at 
the end of it he is even capable of confounding the era 

> The Oamm ifotwiioiw, exUnt in tom good ooploa in Baropcan 
libraries, wait* for the patronage of some Academy of Boiencea 
or some Government, and for the combination of two echolara, an 
aatronomer and an Arabic philologist, for the porpoee of an edition 
and translation. 



of the astronomers, as used in the Khandnkkddi/aka of 
Brahmagupta, with the Guptakilla. 

If the author and his countrymen had suffered and Thstutiioi'. 
were still enffenng from the oppression of King Jilalj- inmu. 
mffd, the Hindus were in the same position, and per- 
haps it was tliis community of mishap which inspired 
him with sympathy for them. And certainly the 
Hindus aud their world of thought have a paramount, 
fascinating interest for him, and he inquires with the 
greatest predilection into every Indian subject, how- 
soever heathenish it may he, as though he were treating 
of the most important questions for the souls of Muham- 
madans, — of free-will and predestination, of future 
reward and punishment, of the creation or eternity of 
the Word of God, &c. To Mahmfld the Hindus were 
infidels, to be dispatched to hell as soon as they refused 
to be plundered. To go on expeditions and to fill the 
treasury with gold, not to make lasting conquests of 
territories, was the real object of his famous expeditions ; 
and it was with this view that he cut his way through 
enormous distances to the richest temples of India at 
Tanfishar, MathurS,, Kanoj, and Soraanath. 

To Albernni the Hindus were excellent philosophers, 
good mathematicians and astronomers, though he nmvely 
believes himself to be supeiior to them, and disdains to 
be put on a level with them (i. 23).^ He does not 
conceal whatever he considers wrong and unpractical 
with then), but he duly appreciates their mental 
achievements, takes the greatest pains to appropriate 
them to himself, even such as could not be of any use 
to him or to his readers, tij. Sanskrit metrics; and 
whenever he hits upon something tlmt is noble and 
grand both in science and in practical life, he never 
fails to lay it before his readers with warm-hearted 
words of approbation. Spi'aking of the construction of 
the ponds at holy bathing-places, he says; “In this 

‘ For a similar trait of self-confidence rj. 1, 277, last lloos. 

YOU J. b 

xviii PREFACE. 

tliey have attained a very high degree of art, so that 
our people (the Muslims), when they sed them, wonder 
at them, and are nnable to describe them, mnch less to 
construct anything like them" (ii. 144). 

Apparently Alberuni felt a strong inclination towards 
Indian philosophy. He seems to have tliougbt tlmt the 
philosophers both in oncient Greece and India, whom 
he most carefnlly and repeatedly distingnishes from the 
ignorant, image-loving crowd, held in reality the very 
same ideas, the same as seem to have been his own, i.e. 
those of a pure monotheism ; that, in fact, originally all 
men were alike pare and virtuous, worshipping one sole 
Almighty God, but that the dark passions of the crowd 
in the course pf time had given rise to the difference of 
religion, of philosophical and political persuasions, and 
of idolatry. “ The first cause of idolatry was the desire 
of commemorating the dead and of consoling the living ; 
but on this basis it has developed, and has finally 
become a foul and pemicions abuse” (i. 124). 

He seems to have revelled in tlie pure theories of 
the BhagwoodgUA, and it deserves to be noticed that he 
twice mentions the saying of Vy^sa, “Learn twenty- 
five (i.€., the elements of existence) by distinctions, &c. 
Afterwards adhere to whatever religion yon like ; yonr 
end will be salvation ’’ (i. 44, and also i. 104). In one 
case he even goes so far as to speak of Hindu scholars 
as “ enjoying the help of God,” which to a Muslim means 
as much as inspired hy God, guided hy divine inspiration 
(ii. 108). These words are an addition of tte anther’s 
in his paraphrase of the BrihcUsa'rhhUd of Varlhamihira, 
V. 8. There can be scarcely any doubt i;hat Muslims 
of later times would have found fanlt with him for going 
to such length in his interest for those heathenish 
doctrines, aud it is a singular fact that Alberuni wrote 
under a prince who burned and impaled the Karmatians 
{cf. note to i. 31). 

Still he was a Muslim ; whether Sunn! or Shl'a 


cannot be gathered from the ’IvStica. He sometimes 
takes an occasion for pointing ont to the reader the 
saperiority of Islam over Brahmanic India. He con- 
trasts the democratic equality of men with the castes 
of India, the matrimonial law of Islam with degraded 
forms of it in 'India, the cleanliness and decency of 
Muslims with filthy customs of the Hindus. With all 
this, his recognition of Islam is not without a tacit 
reserve. He dares not attack Islam, but he attacks the 
Arabs. In his work on chronology he reproaches the 
ancient Muslima with having destroyed the civilisation 
of Eran, and gives ns to understand that the ancient 
Arabs were certainlynothing better than the Zoroastrian 
Eraninns. So too in the 'IrStico, whenever he speaks of 
a dark side in Hindu life, he at once turns round sharply 
to compare the manners of the ancient Arabs, and to 
declare that they were quite as bad, if not worse. This 
could only be meant as a hint to the Muslim reader not 
to be too haughty towards the poor bewildered Hindu, 
trodden down by the savage hoi-des of King Mal.imild, 
and not to forget that the founders of Islam, too, were 
certainly no angels. 

Independent in his thoughts about religion and Th«>iiithor,i 
philosophy, he is a friend of clear, determined, and manly 
words. He abhors half-truths, veiled words, and waver- 
ing action. Everywhere he comes forward as a champion 
of his conviction with the courage of a man. As in 
religion and philo8oi)hy, so too in politics. There are 
some remarkable sentences of political philosophy in 
the introductions to chapters ix. and Ixxi, As a poli- 
tician of a highly conservative stanip, he stands up 
for throue aud altar, and declares that “'their union 
represents the highest development of human society, 
all that men can possibly desire '' (i. 99). He is capable 
of admiring the mildness of the law of the Gospel : “ To 
offer to him who has beaten your cheek the other cheek 
also, to bless your enemy and to pray for him. Upon 



my life, this is a noble philosophy ; but the people of 
this world are not all philosophers. Most of them are 
ignorant and erring, who cannot be kept on the straight 
road save by the sword and the whip. And, indeed, 
ever since Constantine the Victorious became a Chris- 
tian, both sword and whip have ever been employed, for 
without them it would be impossible to rule ” (ii. l6l ). 
Although a soholar by profession, he is capable of taking 
the practical side of a case, and he applauds the Khalif 
Mu^viya for having sold the golden gods of Sicily to 
the princes of Sindh for money’s worth, instead of 
destroying them as heathen abominations, as bigoted 
Muslims would probably have liked him to do. His 
preaching the union of. throne and altar does not prevent 
him from speaking with undisguised contempt of the 
“ preconcerted tricks of the priests ” having the purpose 
of enthralling the ignorant crowd (i. 123). 

He is a stem judge both of himself and of others. 
Himself perfectly sincere, it is sincerity which be 
demands from others. Whenever he does not fully 
understand a subject, or only knows part of it, he will 
at once tell the reader so, either asking the reader’s 
pardon for his ignorance, or promising, though a man 
of fifty-eight years, to continue his labours and to 
publish their results in time, as though he were acting 
under a moral responsibility to the public. He always 
sharply draws the limits of his knowledge; and although 
he has only a smattering of the metrical system of the 
Hindus, he communicates whatever little he knows, 
guided by the principle that the best must not be the 
enemy of the better (i. 200, 6-9), as though he were 
afraid that he should not live long enough to finish the 
study in question. He is not a friend of those who 
hate to avow their ignorance by a frank I do not 
know" (i. 177), and he is roused to strong indignation 
whenever he meets with want of sincerity. If Brahma^ 
gupta teaches two theories of the eclipses, the popular 



one of the dragon Rahu’s devouring the luminous body, 
and the scientific one, he certainly committed the sia 
against conscience from undue concessions to the priests 
of the nation, and from fear of a fate like that which 
befell Socrates when he came into collision with the 
persuasions of the majority of liis countrymen. Cf. 
chapter lix. In another place he accuses Brahma- 
gupta of injustice and rudeness to his predecessor, 
Aryabhata (i. 376). lie finds in the works of Varil- 
hamihira by the side of honest scientific work sentences 
which sound to him “lihe the runiujs of a madman” 
(ii. 1 17), but he is kind enough to suggest that behind 
those passages there is perhaps an esoteric meaning, 
unknown to him, but more to the credit of the author. 
When, however, VarUhataihira seems to exceed all 
limits of common sense, Alberuni thinks that "to suck 
things silence is Ike only •proper ansieer ” (ii. 1 14). 

His professional zeal, and the principle that leaniing 
is the fruit of repetition (ii. 198), sometimes induce him 
to indulge in repetitions, and his thorough honesty 
sometimes misleads him to use harsh and even rude 
words. He cordially hates the verbosity of Indian 
authors or versifiers,' who use lots of words where a 
single one would be sufficient. He calls it “mere 
nonsense — a means of keeping people in the dark and 
throwing an air of mystery about the subject And in 
any case this copiousness (of words denoting the same 
thing) offers painful difficulties to those who want to 
lenm the whole language, and only results in a sheer 
waste of time” (i. 229, 299, 19). He twice explains 
the origin of the Dtbajat, i.e. Maledives and Laccadives 
(i. 233 ; ii. lo€), twice the configuration of the borders 
of the Indian Ocean (i. 197, 270). 

Whenever he suspects humbug, he is not backward in 
callingit by the right name. Thinking of the horrid 
practices of Rasuyana, i.e. the art of making gold, of 

' ty. bis sarcasiD!^ on the vcrsif} iag bias of Hindu aucbois, i. 137. 

xxii PREFACE. 

making old people young, &c., he bursts out into 
sarcastic words which are more coarse in the original 
than in my translation (i. 189). In eloquent words he 
utters his indignation on the sanie subject (i. 193) • 
“ The greediness of the ignorant Hindu princes for gold- 
making does not know any limit,” &c. There is a spark 
of grim hnmonr in his words on i. 237, where he criti- 
cises the cosmographic ravings of a Hindu author: 
" We, on our part, found it already troublesome enough 
to enumerate all the seven seas, together with the seven 
earths, and now this author thinks he can make the 
subject more easy and pleasant to ns by inventing some 
more earths below those already enumerated our- 
selves ! ” And when jugglers from Kanoj lectured to 
him on chronology, the stem scholar seems to have been 
moved to something like a grin. “ I used great care in 
examining every single one of them, in repeating the 
same qnestions at different times in a different order 
and context. Bat lo! what different answers did I 
get ! God is all-wise ” (ii. 129). 

Th* ten- In the opening of his book Alberuni gives an account 
w”work. of the circumstances which suggested to him the idea 
of writing the 'Ii-SiKa. Once the conversation with a 
friend of bis, else unknown, ran on the then existing 
literature on the history of religion and philosophy, 
its merits and demerits. When, in particular, the 
iterature on the belief of the Hindus came to be criti- 
cised, Alberuni maintained that all of it was second- 
hand and thoroughly uncritical. To verify the matter, 
his . friend once more examines the books in question, 
which results in his agreeing with our author, and his 
asking him to fill up this gap iu the Arabic literature 
of the time. Tbe book he has produced is not a polemi- 
cal one. He will not convert the Hindus, nor lend 
a direct help to missionary zealots. He will simply 
describe Hinduism, without identifying himself with it. 
He takes care to inform the reader that ^ is not respon- 

PREFACE. xxiii 

Bible for whatsoever repugnant detail he has to relate, 
but the Hindus themselves. He gives a repertory of 
information on Indian subjects, destined for the use of 
those who lived in peaceable intercourse with them, and 
wished to have an insight into their mode and world of 
thought (i. 7 ; ii. 246). 

The author has nothing in common with the Muham- 
madan Ghtlsi who wanted to convert the Hindus or to 
kill them, and bis book scarcely reminds the reader of 
the incessant war between Islam and India, during 
which it had been prepared, and by which the possi- 
bility of writing such a book had first been given. It 
is like a magic island of quiet, impartial research in 
the midst of a world of clashing swords, burning towns, 
and plundered temples. The object which the author 
had in view, and never for a moment lost sight of, was 
to afford the necessary information and training to 
“ any o>ie {in Islam) ivho wants to converse with the 
JTindus, and to discuss with them q^iestions of religion, 
science, or literature, on the very basis of their own cimlir- 
sation" (ii. 246). 

It is difficult to say what kind of readers Alberuni had t Th« author 
or expected to have, not only for the ’IrSiKo, but for all 
his other publications on Indian snbjects. Probably 
educated, and not bigoted or fanatical Muslims in Sindh, 
in parts of thePanjab, where they were living by the side 
of Hindus and iu daily intercourse with them ; perhaps, 
also, for such in Kabul, the suburb of which had still a 
Hindu population in the second half of the tenth century, 

Ghozna, and other parts of Afghanistan. When speak- 
ing of the PuHsaaiddhdnta, a staiidai-d work on astro- 
nomy, he says ; " A translation of his (Pnlisa’s) whole 
work into Arabic has not hitherto yet been undertaken, 
because in his mathematical problems there is an evi- 
dent religious and theological tendency " ’ {i. 37 5 )- 

‘ Alberuni does not seem to Iists shared these scruples, for be 
tranalated it into Arabic (</. i. 154). 





does not tell us what this particular tendency was to 
which the readers objected, but we learn so much from 
this note that in bis time, and probably also in his 
neighbourhood, there were circles of educated men who 
had an interest in getting the scientific works of bdia 
translated into Arabic, who at the same time were suffi- 
ciently familior with the subject-matter to criticise the 
various representations of the same subject, and to give 
the preference to one, to the exclusion of another. That 
onr author had a certain public among Hindus seems 
to be indicated by the fact that he composed some 
publications for people in Kashmir ; cf. preface to the 
edition of the text, p. xx. These relations to Kashmir 
are very difficult to understand, as Muslims had not 
yet conquered the country, nor entered it to any extent, 
and as the author himself (i. 206) relates that it was 
closed to iuterconrse with all strangers save a few Jews. 
Whatever the interest of Muslims for the literature of 
and on India may have been, we are under the impression 
that this kind of literature has never taken deep root ; 
for after Albemni’s death, in A.D. 1048, there is no more 
original work in this field ; and even Albemni, when he 
wrote, was quite alone in the field. Enumerating the 
difficulties which beset bis study of India, he says : “ I 
found it very bard to work into the subject, although I 
have a great liking for it, in which respect I stand quite 
alone in my time,” &c. (L 24). And certainly we do not 
know of any Indianist like him, before his time or 

In general it is the method of our author not to speak 
himself, but to let the Hindus speak, giving extensive 
quotations from their classical authors. He presents a 
picture of Indian civilisation as pointed by the Hindus 
themselves. Many chapters, not all, open with a short 
characteristic introduction of a general nature. Tlie body 
of most chapters consists of three parts. The first is 
9 .prieis of the question, as the author understands it. 



The second part brings forward the doctrines of the 
Hindus, quotations from Sanskrit books in the chapters 
on religion, philosophy, astronomy, and astrology, and 
other kinds of information which had been- communi- 
cated to him by word of mouth, or things which he 
bad himself observed iii the chapters on literature, 
historic chronology, geography, law, manners, and cus- 
toms. In the third part he does the same as ^[egas- 
thenea had already done ; he tries to bring the sometimes 
very exotic subject nearer to the underslauding of his 
readers by comparing it with the theories of ancient 
Greece, and by oilier comparisons. As an example of 
this kind of arrangement, cf. Chapter v. In the dis- 
position of every single chapter, as well as in the 
sequence of the chapters, a perspicuous, well-considered 
plan is apparent. There is no patchwork nor anything 
superfluous, and the words fit to the subject as close as 
possible. We seem to recognise the professional mathe- 
matician in the perspicuity and classical order through- 
out the whole composition, and there was scarcely an 
occasion for him to e.xciise himself, as be does at the 
end of Chapter i. (i. 26), for not being able everywhere 
strictly to adhere to tlie geometrical method, as he was 
sometimes compelled to introduce an unknown factor, 
because the explanation conld only be given in a later 
part of the book. 

He does not blindly accept the traditions of former 
ages ; he wants to understand and to criticise them. He 
wants to sift the wheat from the chaff, and be will 
discai-d everything that militates against the laws of 
nature and of reason. The reader will remember that 
Alberuni was also a physical scholar, and had published 
works on most departments of natural science, optics, 
mechanics, mineralogy, and chemistry ; (^f. his geolo- 
gical speonlation on the indications of India once having 
been a sea (i. 198), and a characteristic specimen of his 
natural philosophy (i. 400). That he believed in the 

The fliitlior'e 



xxvi PREFACE. 

action of the planets on the sublanary world I take for 
certain, though he nowhere says so. It would hardly 
be intelligible why he shoald have spent so much time 
and labour on the study of Greek and Indian astrology 
if he had not believed in the truth of the thing. He 
gives a sketch of Indian astrology in Chapter Ixzx., 
becanse Muslim readers “ are not acquainted with the 
Hindu methods of astrology, and have never had an 
opportunity of studying an Indian book" (ii. 2li). 
Bardesanes, a Syrian philosopher and poet in the 
second half of the second Christian century, condemned 
astrology in plain and weighty words. Alberuui did 
not rise to this height, remaining entangled in the 
notions of Greek astrology. 

He did not believe in alchemy, for he distinguishes 
between such of its practices as are of a chemical or 
mineralogical character, and such as are intentional 
deceit, which he condemns in the strongest possible 
terms (i. 187). 

He criticises manuscript tradition like a modern 
philologist. He sometimes supposes the text to be 
corrupt, and inquires into the cause of the corruption ; 
he discusses various readings, and proposes emenda- 
tions. He guesses at lacunce, criticises different transla- 
tions, and complains of the carelessness and ignorance 
of the copyists (ii. 76 ; i. 162-163). is aware that 
Indian works, badly translated and carelessly copied by 
the successive copyists, very soon degenerate to such a 
degree that an Indian author would hardly recognise 
his own work, if it were presented to him in such a 
garb. All these complaints are perfectly true, particu- 
larly as regards the proper names. That in his essays 
at emendation he sometimes went astray, that, t.g. he 
was not prepared fnlly to do justice to Brahmagupta, 
will readily be excused by the fact that at his time it 
was next to impossible to leam Sanskrit with a suffi- 
cient degree of accuracy and completeness. 



When I rlrew the first sketch of the life of Albemni 
ten years ago, !• cherished the hope that more materials 
for hU biography would come to light in the libraries 
of both the Kast and West. This has not been the 
case, so fai- as I am aware. To gain an estimate of his 
character we niiist try to read between the Lines of his 
books, and to glean whatever minute indications may 
there be found. A picture of his cliaroeter cannot 
therefore at the present be anything but very imperfect, 
and a detailed appreciation of his services in the ad- 
vancement of science cannot be undertaken until all 
the numerous works of bis pen have been studied and 
rendered accessible to the learned world. The principal 
domain of his work included astronomy, mathematics, 
chronology, mathematical geography, physics, chemistry, 
and mineralogy. By the side of this professional work 
he composed about twenty books on India, both transla- 
tions and original compositions, and a number of tales 
and legends, mostly derived from the ancient lore of 
Eran and India. As probably most valuable contribu- 
tions to the historic literature of the time, we must 
mention his history of his native country Khw&rizm, 
and the history of the famous sect of the Sarmatians, 
the loss of both of which is much to be deplored. 


The court of the Kbalifs of the house of Omayya at 
Damascus does nob seem to have been a home for 
literature. Except for the practical necessities of ad- 
ministration, they had no desire for the civilisation of 
Greece, Egypt, or Persia, their thoughts being engrossed 
by war and politics and the amassing of wealth. Pro- 
bably they had a certain predilection for poetry common 
to all Arabs, but they did not think of encouraging 
historiography, much to their own disadvantage. In 
many ways these Arab princes, only recently emerged 

Oo tit* ori> 
yintt n( 

xxviii PREFACE. 

from the rooky wilderness of the Hij 3 z, and snddenly 
raised to imperial power, retained much of the great 
Bedouin Shaikh of the desert. Several of them, shun- 
ning Damascus, preferred to stay in the desert or on 
its border, and we may Buriuise that in their house- 
holds at iiusilfa and Khuniisara there was scarcely 
more thought of literature than at present in the halls 
of Ibn Arrashld. the wily head of the Shammar at Huil. 
The cradle of Arabic literature is not Damascus, but 
Bagdad, and the protection necessary for Us rise and 
growth was afforded by the Khalifs of the house of 
Abbils, whose Arab nature has been modified by the 
influence of Eranian civilisation during a long stay in 

I'Tie foundation of Arabic literature was laid between 
A.D. 750 and 850. It is only the tradition relating to 
their religion and prophet and poetry that is peculiar 
to the Arabs; everything else is of foreign descent. 
The development of a large literature, with nnmerons 
ramifications, is cliieHy the work of foreigners, carried 
ont with foreign materials, as in Rome the originea of 
the national literature mostly point to Greek sources. 
Greece, Persia, and India were taxed to help the sterility 
of the Arab mind. 

What Greece has contributed by lending its Aiistotle, 
Ptolemy, and Harpocrates is known in general. A de- 
tailed description of the influx and spread of Greek 
literature would mark a memorable progress in Oriental 
philology. Such a work may bo undertaken with some 
chance of success by one whtf is familiar with the state 
of Greek literature at the centres of learning during the 
last centuries of Greek heathendom, nlthongli he would 
have to struggle against the .lamentable fact that most 
Arabic books of this most ancient period are lost, and 
probably lost for ever. 

What did Persia, or rather the Sasanian empire, over- 
ntcmtur*. run by the Arab hordes, oflier to its victors in literature ? 



It left to the east of the Khalifat© the laognage of 
administration, the use of which daring the following 
centuries, till recent times, was probably never muoh 
discontinued. It was this Perso-Sasaniau language of 
adminktration which passed into the vise of the smaller 
Eastern dynasties, reared under the Abbaside Kbalifs, 
and became the language of literature at the court of 
one of those dynasties, that of the S&milni kings of 
Transoxiana and Khurhsiln. Thus it has come to pass 
that the dialect of one of the most western parts of 
Bran first emerged as the language of literature in its 
farthest east. In a similar way modern (ierman is an 
offspring of the language used in the chanceries of the 
Luxembourg emperors of Germany. 

The bulk of the narrative literature, tales, legends, 
novels, came to the Arabs in translations from the Per- 
sian, e.g. the “Thousand and One Nights,” the storiestold 
the mouth of animals, like Kalila and Dininti, pro- 
bably all of Buddhistic origin, portions of the national 
lore ofEran, taken from the A’AarfdtJidiaft.orLord’sBook, 
and afterwards immortalised by Firdausi; but more 
than anything else love-stories. All this was the fashion 
under the Abbaside Kbalifs, and is said to have attained 
the height of popularity during the rule of Almuktadir, 
X.D. 908-932. Besides, much favour was apparently 
bestowed upon didactic, parmnetic compositions, mostly 
clothed in the garb of a testament of this or that Sasanian 
king or sage, o.r;. Aviusliirvanaud his minister Buzurju- 
mihr, likewise upon collectionsof mornlisticnpotliegms. 
All this was translated from Persian, or pretended to 
be BO, Books on tUo science of war, the knowledge of 
weapons, the veteriuary art, falconry, and the various 
methods of divination, and some books on medicine 
and de rebus venereis, were likewise borrowed from the 
Persians. It is noteworthy that, on the other hand, 
there are very few traces of the exact sciences, such as 
tnathematics and astronomy, among the Sasanian Per- 



Icdtiili ele- 

nientJi in 



sians. Either they had only little of this kind, or the 
Arabs did not oboose to get it translated. 

An anthor by the name of ‘Ali Ibn Ziy^d Altainfmi 
is said to have translated from Persian a book, Zij- 
aUhahriydr, which, to judge by the title, must have 
been a system of astronomy. It seems to have been 
extant when Alberuni wrote his work on chronology ; 
viiU “ Chronology of Ancient Natioue,” translated, &c., 
by Edward Sachau, London, 1 876, p. 6, and note p. 368. 
Perhaps it was from this source that the famous Alkh- 
w&rizmi drew his knowledge of Persian astronomy, 
which he is said to have exhibited in his extract from 
the Brahmasiddhdnta, coniposed by order of the Khalif 
Ma'mdn. For we are expressly told (cw/e Gildemeister, 
Sffriptorxcm Ar<d»im de rebus huiicis loci, <Scc., p. loi) 
that he used the media, i.e. the mean places of the 
planets as fixed by Brahmagupta, whilst in other 
things he deviated from him, giving the equations of 
the planetary revolutions according to the theory of 
the Persians, and the declination of the sun according 
to Ptolemy. Of what kind this Persian astronomy was 
we do not know, but we must assume that it was of a 
scientific character, based on observation and compu- 
tation, else Alkhwarizmi would not have introduced 
its results into his own work. Of the terminology 
of Arabian astronomy, the word = Caput 

draconis, is probably of Sasanian origin (gaocilhra), as 
well as the word flj ( = canon), i.e. a collection of astro- 
nomical tables with the necessary explanations, perhaps 
also kardaj, hanlaja, a measure in geometry equal to 
^of the circumference of a circle, if it be identical 
with the Persian karda, i.e. eul. 

What India has contributed reached Bagdad by two 
different roads. Part has come directly in translations 
from the Sanskrit, part has travelled through Eran, 
having originaUy been translated from Sanskrit (Pal! ? 
Pr&ki-it ?) into Persian, and farther from Persian into 



Arabic. Ib this way, e.ff. the fables of KaWa and 
IHmTia have been communicated to the Arabs, and a 
book on medicine, probably the famous Caraka. Cf. 

lihrist, p. 303. 

In this coijimunicatiou between India and Bagdad 
we mast not only distinguish between two diSerout 
roads, but also between two different periods. 

As Sindh was under the actual rule of the Khalif 
Mausftr (A.n 753-774), there came embassies from that 
part of India to Bagdad, and among them scholars, who 
brought along with them two books, the Brahinnsid- 
dhdnta to Brahmagupta (Siudhind), and his Khavi^a- 
kkddyaka (Arkand). With the help of these pandits, 
Alfazfii'l, perhaps also Yakhb Ibn Xarik, translated them. 
Both works have been largely used, and have exercised 
a great influence. It was on this occasion that the 
Arabs first became acquainted with a scientific system 
of astronomy. They learned from Brahmagupta earlier 
than from Ptolemy. 

Another influx of Hindu learning took place under 
Harun, A.n. 786-808. The ministerial family Barmak, 
then at the zenith of their power, had come with the 
ruling dynasty from Balkh, where an ancestor of theirs 
had been an official in the Buddhistic temple 
i.e. nam tu 7 /tira = the new temple (or monastery). The 
nam6 Barmak is said to be of Indian descent, meaning 
faramaka, i.e. the superior (abbot of the rihdra ^). Cf. 
Kern, Gcschichte des BnddhimitR in Indim, ii. 445, 543- 
Of oonrae, the Barmak family had been converted, but 
their contemporaries never thought much of their pro- 
fession of Islam, nor regarded it as genuine. Induced 
probably by family traditions, they sent scholars to 
India, there to study medicine and pharmacology, Be- 
sides, they engaged Hindu scholars to come to Bagdad, 
made them the chief physicians of their hospitals, and 
ordered them to translate from Sanskift into Arabic 
books on medicine, pharmacology, toxicology, pbilo- 



Bophy, aatrol^y, and other subjects. Still in later 
centuries MusUm scholars sometimes travelled for 
the same purposes as the emissaries of the Barmak, 
e.ff. AlmnwafPak not long before Alberuni’s time (Codex 
Vindabonensis, sive medici Abu Manaur liber /undamcn- 
torum pharmaeologice, ed. Seligmann, Vienna, 1859, pp. 
6, 10, and 15, 9). 

Soon afterwards, when Sindh was no longer politically 
dependent upon Bagdad, all this intercourse ceased en- 
tirely. Arabic literature turned off into other channels. 
There is no more mention of the presence of Hindu 
scholars at Bagdad nor of translations of the Sanskrit. 
Greek learning had already won an omnipotent sway 
over the mind of the Arabs, being communicated to 
them by the labours of Nestorian physicians, the philo- 
sophers of Harran, and Christian scholars in Syria and 
other parts of the Kbalifate. Of the more ancient or 
Indo-Arabian stratum of scientific literature nothing has 
reached our time save a nnmher of titles of books, many 
of them in such a corrupt form as to baffle all attempts 
at decipherment. 

Among the Hindn physicians of this time one 
is mentioned, i.e. the son of DHN, director of the hos- 
pital of the Barmaks in Bagdad. This name may be 
Dhanya or Dhanin, chosen probably on account of its 
etymological relationship with the name Dhanvantari, 
the name of the mythical physician of the gods in 
Mann’s law-book and the epos (tf. A. Weber, Indiscke 
Litleralurgesohichte, pp. 284. 287). A similar relation 
seems to exist between the names Kimkn, that of a 
physician of the same period, and KtiAkdyana, an 
authority in Indian medicine (if. Weber, I, c,, pp. 287 
note, and 284 note, 302). 

The name that of an author of a book on 
drinkables, may be identical with Atri, mentioned as a 
medical author by Weber, 1 . c., p. 288. 

There was a book by one Ijuj (also written on 



wisdom or philosophy (cf. Fihrist, p. 305). According 
to Middle-Iudian phonetics this name ia = redai>ydsa.^ 
A man of this name, also called Vydsa or Bddardyana, 
is, according to the literary tradition of India, the 
originator of the Vedanta soliool of philosophy {cf. 
Oolebroke, Essays, i, 332), and this will remind the 
reader that in the Arabian Sufism the Indian Vedd-uta 
philosophy reappears. 

Further, an author Sadbrmf is mentioned, 

unfortunately without an indication of the content.sof 
his book. Albernni (i. 157) mentions one Satya as the 
author of a jiUaka {cf. Weber, 1 . c., p. 278), and this 
name is perhaps an abbreviation of that one here 
mentioned, i.e. Batyavarman. 

A work on astrology is attributed to one 
SNOHL {vide Fihrist, p. 271), likewise enumerated 
by Albemni in a list of names (i.- 158). The Indian 
equivalent of this name is notnertairi (</. note toi. 158). 

There is also mentioned a book on the signs of swords 
by one probably identical with Vydghra, which 

occurs as a name of Indian authors {cf. i. Fihrist, p. 


The famous Buddha legend in Christian garb, most 
commonly called Joasaph and Barlaam, bears in Fihrist, 
p. 300, the title The former word isgeue- 
rally explained as Bodhisntlra, although there is no 
law in Indian phonetics which admits the change of 
Bottva to mf. The second name is tliat of Buddha's 
spiritual teacher and guide, in fact, his purohila, and 
with this word I am inclined to identify the signs in 
question, i.«, tXbyU. 

What Ibn Wfl^ib in his chronicle (ed. by Hontsma) 
relates of India, on pp. 92-106, is not of much value. 
His words on p, 105, “the king =i 6 hosha, who 

‘ Benfef in KalQag vnd Damnag, EMnlavg. p. note 3. The 
word has received currency in the form Bidpai. 

’ Of. Benfey, 1. c.. BirUeilung, p. xl. 




lived in the time of Sindb&d the sage, and this Ghosha 
composed the book on the cunning of the women,” are 
perhaps an indication of some fables of Buddhagliosha 
having been translated into Arabic. 

Besides books on astronomy, mathematics 

astrology, chiefly j&talcaa, on medicine and 
pharmacology, the Arabs translated Indian works on 
snakes {sar^vidyd), on poison on all 

kinds of anguriog, on talismans, on the veterinary art, 
de arte amandi, numerous tales, a life of Buddha, books 
on logic and philosophy in general, on ethics, politics, 
and on the science of war. Many Arab authors took 
up the subjects communicated to them by the Hindus 
and worked them out in original compositions, commen- 
taries, and extracta A favourite subject of theirs was 
Indian mathematics, the knowledge of which became 
far spread by the publications of Alkindt and many 

The smaller dynasties which in later times tore the 
sovereignty over certain eastern conntriea of the Khali- 
fats oat of the hands of the snccessors of Mansur anti 
Harun, did not continue their literary commerce with 
India. The Band-Laith (a.d. 872-903), owning great 
part of Afghanistan together with Ghazna, were the 
neighbours of Hindus, but their name is in no way 
connected with the history of literature. For the 
Buyide princes who ruled over Western Persia and 
Babylonia between A.D. 932 and 1055, the fables of 
Kalila and Dimna were translated. Of all these princely 
houses, no doubt, the Somanides, who held almost the 
whole east of the Kbalifate under their sway duriog 
892-999, hod most relations with the Hindus, those in 
Kabul, the Panjab, and Sindh ; and their minister, 
Aljaibftni, probably had collected much information 
about India. Originally the slave of the Samanides, 
then their general and provincial governor, Alptagin, 
made himself practically independent in Ghazna a few 



years before Albenini was bom, and his successor, 
Sabuktagln, Mahmdd’s father, paved the road for the 
war with India (i. 22), and for the lasting establish- 
ment of Islam in India. 

Some of the books that had been translated under 
the first Abbaside Kfaalifs were extant in the library 
of Alberuni when he wrote the the Bntlma- 

siddhdnta or Sindhind, and tlie Khai.idakfuldi/aka or 
Arkand in the editions of AlfarArl and of Yakilb Ibn 
Tftrik, the Caraka in the edition of ‘All Ibn Zain. and 
the Paficatantm or Kalila and Dimna. He also used an 
Arabic translation of the Karanasdra by Vitte^vara 
(ii. 55), but we do not learn from him whether this was 
an old translation or a modern one made in Alberuni’s 
time. These books offered to Alberuni — he complains 
of it repeatedly — the same difficulties as to us, viz., 
besides tlie faults of the translators, a considerable 
corruption of the text by the negligence of the copyists, 
more particularly as regards the proper names. 

When Alberuni entered India, he probably had a 
good general knowledge of IndLin mathematics, astro- 
nomy, and chronology, acquired by the study of Brahma- 
gupta and his Arabian editors. What Hindu author 
was his teacher and that of the Arabs in pure mathe- 
matics ’lot known. Besides Alfazilri 

and Takftb Ibn T 3 ,rik, he learned from Alkhwarizml, 
something from Abulhasan of Ahwiiz, things of little 
value from Alldndl and Abu-Ma'shar of Balkh, and 
single details from the famous book of Aljailiaul, Of 
other sources which he has used in the 'IvSiKif, he 
quotes : (l.) A Muhammadan canon called Alhaifan, he. 
aharga^a. I cannot trace the history of the book, but 
suppose that it was a practical handbook of chronology 
for the purpose of oonvertiug Arabian and Persian dates 
into Indian ones and vice vej'sd, which had perhaps been 
necessitated by the wants of the administration under 
Sabuktagin and Mahmiid. The name of the author is 

The author'! 
atiifly ol 
Todta bofore 
])• wrote 
tlie urciOTt 



not mentioned. (2.) Ab& Ahmad Ibn Oatlaghtsgtn, 
quoted i. 3 1 as having computed the latitudes of Karli 
and Tftneshar. 

Ttvo other anthorities on astronomical subjects are 
quoted, but not in relation to Indian astronomy, 
Mohammad Ibn lehtlk, from Sarakks, il. 15, and a book 
called Ghvrrat-ali^’dt, perhaps derived from an Indian 
aonrce, as the name is identical with Karaijaiilaka. 
The author is perhaps Abd-Miihammad AlnMb from 
Amul (<^. note to ii. 90). 

In India Alberuni recommenced his study of Indian 
asti'onomy, thie time not from translations, but from 
Sanskrit originals, and we here meet with the remark- 
able fact that the works which about A.R. 770 had been 
the standard in India still held the same high position 
A.D. 1020, viz., the works of Brahmagupta. Assisted 
by learned pandits, he tried to translate them, as also 
the PulisasidiVidnta (^eide preface to the edition of the 
text, § s), and when he composed the 'Ji'Siko, he had 
already come forward with several books devoted 
to special points of Indian astronomy. As such he 
quotes : — 

(i.) A treatise on the determination of the lunar 
stations or nakshatras, ii. 83. 

(2.) The Khaydl-aJlcxisiA/aini, which contained, pro- 
bably beside other things, a description of the Yoga 
theory, ii. 208. 

(3.) A book called The Arabic Kha^dakhAdynl^, on 
the same subject as the preceding one, ii. 208. 

(4.) A book containing a desoriptiou of the Ka/ra^ae, 
the title of which is not mentioned, ii. 194, 

(5.) A treatise on the various systems of numeration, 
as iised by different nations, i. 174, which probably 
described also the related Indian subjects. 

(6.) A book called “ Key of Astronomy,” on the ques- 
tion whether the sun rotates round the earih or the 
earth round the sun, i. 277. We may suppose that in 



thia book he had also made use of the notions of Indian 

(7.) Lastly, several pnblicationa on the different 
methods for the computation of geographical longitude, 
i. 3 1 5. He does not mention their titles, nor whether 
they had any relation to Hindu methods of calculation. 

Perfectly at home in all departments of Indian astro* 
nomy and chronology, he began to write the ’IrStKd 
In the chapters on these subjects he continues a literary 
movement which at his time had already gone on for 
centuries; but he surpassed his predecessors by going 
back upon the original Sanskrit sources, trying to check 
his pandits by whatever Sanskrit he had contrived to 
learn, by making new and more accurate translations, 
and by bis conscientions method of testing the data of 
the Indian astronomers by calculation. His work repre- 
sents a scientific renaissance in comparison with the 
aspirations of the scholars working in Bagdad under the 
first Abbaside Khalifs. 

Albernni seems to think that Indian astrology had 
not been transferred into the more ancient Arabic 
literature, as we may conclude from his introduction to 
Chapter Ixxx. : “ Our fellow-believers in these (Muslim) 
countries are not acquainted with the Hindu methods 
of astrology, and have never had an opportunity of 
stidying an Indian book on the subjeob,” ii. 211. We 
cannot prove that the works of Varuhamihira, e.g. his 
a.'ni. Aoy/iwy’diaiflwi, which Albernni was 
translating, had already been accessible to the Arabs at 
the time of Mansfir, but we are inclined to think that 
Alberuui’s judgment on this head is too sweeping, for 
books on astrology, and particularly on j&taka, had 
already been translated in the early days of the Abba- 
side rule. Cf. Fihrist, pp. 270, 371. 

As regards Indian medicine, we can only say that 
Albernni does not seem to have made a special stndy 
of it, for he simply uses the then current translation of 

xxxviii PRBPACB, 

Caraka, although complaining of its incorrectness, i. 
159, 162, 382. He has translated a Sanskrit treatise 
on loathsome diseases into Arabic (c/. preface to the 
edition of the original, p. xxi. No. 18), but we do not 
know whether before the 'It-SiKo or after it. 

What first induced Alberuni to write the Iv8«a was 
not the wish to enlighten his countrymen on Indian 
astronomy in particular, but to present them with an 
impartial description of the Indian theological and 
philosophical doctrines on a broad basis, with every 
detail pertaining to them. So he himself says both at 
the beginning and end of the book. Perhaps on this 
subject he could give his readers more perfectly new 
information than on any other, for, according to his 
own statement, he had in this only one predecessor, 
Aleranshahrl. Not knowing him or that authority 
which he follows, i.e. Zurk&n, we cannot form an 
^timate as to how far Alberuni’s strictures on them 
(i. 7) are founded. Though there can hardly be any 
doubt that Indian philosophy in one or other of its 
principal forms had been communicated to the Arabs 
already in the first period, it seems to have been some- 
thing entirely new when Alberuni produced before his 
compatriots or fellow-believers the S&tiikhya by Kapila, 
and the Book of Patanjali in good Arabic translations. 
It was this particular work which admirably qualified 
him to write the corresponding chapters of the 'IvStKo. 
The philosophy of India seems to have fascinated his 
mind, and the noble ideas of the BhagavadgUd pro- 
bably came near to the standard of bis own persua- 
sions. Perhaps it was he who first introduced this 
gem of Sanskrit literature into the world of Muslim 

As regards the Pur^as, Alberuni was perhaps the 
first Muslim who took up the study of them. At all 
events, we cannot trace any acquaintance with them on 
the part of the Arabs before his time. Of tlie litera- 



tnre of fables, he knew the Pahcatanlra ia the Arabic 
edition of Ibn Aliniikaffa. 

Jadging Alberuni in relation to hia predecessors, we 
come to the conclusion that his work formed a most 
marked prc'gress. His description of Hindu philosophy 
was probably unparalleled. His system of chronology 
and astronomy was more complete and accurate than 
bad ever before been given. His communications from 
the I’lirflpns were probably entirely new to his readers, 
as also the important chapters on literature, manners, 
festivals, actual geography, and the much-qnoted chap- 
ter on historic chronology. He once quotes Eaul, with 
whose works he was intimately acquainted, and some 
Sftft philosophers, but from neither of them could he 
learn much about India. 

In the following pt^es we give a list of the Sanskrit 
books quoted in the ’IvStKo : — 

Sources of the chapters on theology and -philosophy : 
Sdriikliya, by Kapila ; Book of Pataflj^i ; GUd, t.«. some 
edition of the Bliagavadgild. 

He seems to have used more sources of a similar 
nature, but he does not quote from them. 

Sources ofaPaurflnic kind : Vislmu-Dharma, Visknvr 
Pmdna, Malsya-Pnrdna, Vdgii.-Piirdna,Aditya-P'urdna. 

Sources of the chapters on astronomy, olironology, 
geography, and astrology : PtdisasiddhdnUi ; Brahma- 
kddhdnta, Kliandakhddynkci, lJitarakhaii4aI:hddyaka, 
by Brahmagupta; Commentary of the Khay.ij.akhdd’ 
yahm, by Bnlabbadra, perhaps also some other work of 
his 5 Brihntaavihitil, Pahcasiddhdntikd, Brihatfdiakam, 
Zaghu-jdtakam, by Vardhamihira ; Commentary of the 
Si'iliatsaThhitd, a book called Srddhava (perhaps Sarva^ 
dhara), by Utpala, from Kashmir ; a book by Aryabhata, 
junior; JCara'^asdrn, by Vitte^vara; Karanatilaka, by 
Vijayanandin ; Srijidla ; Book of the Rishi (sic) Bhuwna- 
kola; Book of the Brdhman Bhattila; EooA of Ihirlahht, 

Sla SA}i»Urk 



from ifultan ; £ook oj JivaSarman ; Book of Samaya ; 
Book of Auliatta (?), the son of Sahdwi (?) ; The Minor 
Mdnasa, by Paflcala ; SrAdkavn {Sai-valJuira ?), by 
Mah&deva Candrablja ; Calendar from Kashmir. 

As regards some of these authors, tiiip&la, Jira^r- 
man, Samaya (?), and Auliatta (?), the nature of the 
quotations leaves it uncertain whether Alberuni quoted 
from books of theirs or from oral communications which 
he had received from them. 

Source on medicine : Caraka, in the Arabic edition of 
'Alt Ibn Zoin, from Tabaristau. 

In the chapter on metrics, a lexicographic work by 
one Haribhata (?), and regarding elephants a “ Book 
on the Medicine of Elephants,” are quoted. 

His communications from the Mahdbkdrata and 
B&nulyana, and the way in which he speaks of them, 
do not give us the impression that he had these books 
before him. He had some information of Jaina origin, 
but does not mention bis sonrce (Aryabhata, jnn. ?) 
Once he quotes TAaxi'a’i Bharmasdstra, but in a manner 
which makes me doubt whether he took the words 
directly from the book itself.^ 

The quotations which he has made from these sources 
are, some of them, very extensive, e.g. those from the 
BhagavadyUd. In the chapter on literature be men- 
tions many more books than those here enumerated, 
but does not tell us whether he made use of them for 
the Ti'StKd. Sometimes he mentions Hindu individuals 
as his informants, e,g. those from Somanilth, i. i6i, 165, 
and from Kanoj, i. 165 ; ii. 129. 

In Chapter i. the author speaks at large of the radical 
difference between Muslims and Hindus in everything, 
and tries to account for it both by the history of India 
and by the peculiarities of the national character of its 
inhabitants (L ij stg.). Everything in India is just 

> The places where mention of these books occurs are given in 
Index I. Of. also the annotations on single cases. 


the reverse of what it is in Islam, “ and if ever a custom 
of theirs resembles one of ours, it has certainly just the 
opposite meaning ” (i. 179). Much more certainly than 
to Albernnt, India would seem a laud of wonders and 
monstrosities to most of his readers. Therefore, in 
order to sliow that there were other nations who held 
and bold similar notions, he compares Grreek philosophy, 
chiefly that of Plato, and tries to illustrate Hindu 
notions by those of the Greeks, and thereby to bring 
them neares' to the understanding of his i-eaders. 

The role which Greek literature plays in Alberuui’s 
work in the distant country of the Paktyes and Gandhari 
is a singular fact in the history of civilisation. Plato 
before the doors of India, perhaps in India itself ! A 
considerable portion of the then extant Greek literature 
had found its way into the library of Alberuni, who 
uses it in the most conscientious and appi’eciative way, 
and takes from it choice passt^es to confront Greek 
thought with Indian. And more than this : on the 
part of his readers he seems to presuppose not only that 
they were acquainted with them, but also gave them 
the credit of first-rate authorities. Not knowing Greek 
or Syriac, he read them in Arabic translations, some of 
which reflect much credit upon their authors. The 
books he quotes are these : — 

PUto, Phtido. 

Timant, SD edjtioD with a commentary. 

Ztgea. lu the copy of it there was an appendix relating 
to the pedigree of Hlppukrutee. 

PiDCIos, Ociumoiitary on 7 'imaui (dlffereut from the extant 

AHitotle, only short roforencos to bis Phytiea and Mclaphj/tiea, 
Letter (0 Alexander. 

Jobaanes Graruinatloiis, Conira Predum. 

Alexander of AphriHlisias Commentary on Aristotlo’a 


Apollonius oS Tyaua. 

Porphyry, Liber kuloriarum pMloiophorum (I). 


Greek end 
other iiHiul- 



AratnB, PAononuna, with a commentary. 

Galecne, Protreptieui. 

Ttpl fwffirtus rtiy Kari riirovt. 

T«pl ffui’6^<reaf ^p/iiKvr Kari yiKT). 

Commentary on the Apophthegms of Hippoknttea. 

Ei Mol* antmx. 

Book of the Proof. 

Ptolemy, Ahnaseit. 



Pseado'EaUiaUieoes, Alexander romonoe. 

Scholia to the Art fframnuUica of Dionysius Thrax. 

A synohronistio history, resembling in part that of Johannes 
Halalas, in part the OAromton of Busebins. Cy. notes to 1. 

II 3 , 105. 

The other analogies which he draws, not taken from 
Greek, but from Zoroastrian, Christian, Jewish, Mani- 
chjean, and Sfiii sources, are not very numerous. He 
refers only rarely to Eranian traditions ; e/'. Index II. 
(Persian traditions and Zoroastrian). Most of the 
notes on Christian, Jewish, and Manichasan subjects 
may have been taken from the book of Erdnsbabri (ef. 
his own words, i. 6, 7), although he knew Christianity 
from personal experience, and probably also from the 
communications of his learned friends Abulkhair Al- 
khammdrand Abh-Sahl Almaslhl, both Christians from 
the farther west (cf. Oh/ronologie Orientalischer Volker, 
EMeitung, p. xxxii.). The interest he has in Mdni’s 
doctrines and books seems rather strange. We are not 
acquainted with the history of the remnants of Msni- 
chteism in those days and countries, but cannot help 
thinking that the quotations from Mdni’s “ Book of 
Mysteries” and Thesaums Vivijicationia do not justify 
Alberum's judgment in this direction. He seems to 
have seen in them venerable documents of a high 
antiquity, instead of the ayncretistic ravings of a would- 
be prophet 

That he was perfectly right in comparing the Sflfl 
philosophy — be derives the word from o-o^to, i. 33 — 



with certain doctrines of the Hindus is apparent to 
any one who is aware of the essential identity of the 
systems of the Greek Neo-Pythagoreans, the Hindu 
Yed&nta philosophers, and the SCifts of the Muslim 
world. The authors whom he quotes, Abfl Yazid 
Albistilmi and AbA Bakr Alshibit, are well-known 
representatives of Sufism, Cf. note to i. 87, 88. 

As far as the present state of research allows one to 
judge, the work of Alberuni has not been continued. 
In astronomy he seems by his Caimi Masudicus to 
represent the height, and at the same time the end, of 
the independent development of this science among the 
Arabs. But numerous scholars toiled on in his wake, 
whilst in the study of India, and for the translation of 
the staudai'd works of Sanskrit literature, he never had 
a successor before the days of the Emperor Akbar. 
There followed some authors who copied from his 
'IrStico, but there .was none who could carry on the 
work in kis spirit and method after he had died, 
eighteen years after the composition of the 'IrStKd. 
We must liere mention two authors who lived not long 
after him, under the. same dynasty, and probably in the 
same place, Ghazna, viz., Oardezi (c/. note to ii. 6), who 
wrote between A.U. 1049 and 1052, and Muhammad 
Ibn ‘Ukail, who wrote between A.D. 1089 and 1099 
(c/. note to i. S). Of the later authors who studied 
Albaruni’s ’IvSiKd and copied from it, the most notorious 
is Raahld-aldln, who transferred, the whole geogra- 
phical Chapter xviii. into his huge chronicle. 

When Alberuni entered India, times were not favour- 
able for opening friendly relations with native scholars. 
India recoiled from the touch of tlie impure barbarians. 
The P&la dynasty, once ruling over Kabulistan and the 
Pan jab, had disappeared from the theatre of history, and 
their former dominions were in the firm grasp of King 
Mahmfid and under the administration of his slaves, 
of Turkish descent. The princes of North-Western 






India had been too narrow-minded, too blind in their 
self-conceit, duly to appreciate the danger threatening 
from G-hazna, and too little politic in due time to nnite 
for a common defence and repulse of the enemy. 
Single-handed Anandapilla had had to fight it oat, and 
had succumbed ; but the others were to follow, each one 
in his turn. All those who would not bear the yoke 
of the mlinohaa fled and took np their abode in the 
neighbouring Hindu empii'es. 

Kashmir was still independent, ahd was hermetically 
sealed to all strangers (i. 206). AnandopUla had tied 
there. MahmCid had tried the conquest of the coun- 
try, but failed. About the time when Alberuni wrote, 
the rule passed from the hands of Saftgrainadeva, 
A.D. 1007-1030, into those of Anantadeva, a.d. 1030- 

Central and Lower Sindh were rarely meddled with 
by Mahmfid. Tlie country seems to hare been split 
into minor principalities, ruled by petty Muslim 
dynasties, like the Karmatian dynasty of Multau, 
deposed by Mahraftd. 

In the conditions of the Gurjara empire, the capital of 
which was Anhilvara or Pattan, the famous expedition 
of Mahniftd to Somanath, a.d. 1025, in some ways re- 
sembling that of Napoleon to Moscow, does not seem 
to have pi-odnced any lasting changes. The country 
was under the sway of the Solanki dynasty, who in 
A.D. 980 had taken the place of the Chlukyaa. King 
Citmup^a flod before Mahmfld, who raised another 
prince of tlie same Imuse, Devularman, to the throne ; 
but soon after we find a son of CAmiinda, Diirlabha, as 
king of Gutjara till a.d. 1037. 

Miilava was ruled by the Pr&mhra dynasty, who, 
like the kings of Kashmir, had afforded a refuge to a 
fugitive prince of the P&la dynasty of Kabulistan. 
Bhojadeva of Mitlava, ruling between a.d. 997 and 
1053, is mentioned by Albemni. His court at Db&r, 



where he hacl gone from Ujjaiii, was a rencTezvons of 
the scholars of the time. 

Kanoj formed at that time part of the realm of the 
Pftla princes of Gauda or Bengal, who resided in 
Monglr. Daring the reigii of Kiljynpaia, Kanoj had 
been plundered and destroyed by Mahmftd, a.d. 1017, 
in conseqiteDce of which a new city farther away from 
the lidenchas, Biirl. had been fonmled, but does not 
seem to have grown to any importance, Residing in 
this place, the King Maliipala tried about A.p, loaS to 
consolidate and to extend his empire. Both these rulers 
are said to have been Buddhists. Cf. Kern, Oeschichte 
des Buddhism m in Indies, ii. 544. 

The centres of Indian learning were Benares and 
Kashmir, both inaccessible to a barbarian like Albcruni 
(i. 22), but in the paiM^s of India under Muslim adminis- 
tration he seems to have found the pandits he wanl:ed, 
perhaps also at Ghazna among the pi'isouers of war. 

India, as far as known to Albernni, was Bralimanic, Thcnuthur 
not Buddhistic. In the first half of the eleventh cen- 
tnry all traces of Buddhism in Central Asia, Khui-asan, 
Afghanistan, and North-Western India seem to have 
disappeared ; and it is a remarkable fact that a man of 
the inquisitive mind of Albernni knew scarcely any- 
thing at all about Buddhism, nor had any means for 
procuring information on the subject. His notes on 
Buddhism ore very scanty, all derived from the book 
of Eranshahrl, who, in his tnru, had copied the book of 
one Zurkiln, and this book he seems to indicate to have 
been a bad one. Cf. i. 7, 249, 326. 

Buddha is said to be the author of a book called 
0 {l 4 drMini (not (.fAdhdmana, as I have written, i. 158), 
w. Jewel, on the knowledge of the Buprnnutunilistic 

The Buddhists or Shamanians, i.e. irnmana. are called 
Mvh,amviira, which I translate the red-robt wearers, 
taking it for identical with rnldajiatu. Cf. note to i. 21. 

xlvi PREPACB. 

Mentioniiig the trinity of the Buddhistic system, 
luddlia, dhamia, sangha, he calls Bnddha Buddkodana, 
which is a mistake for something like the son of&tiddho- 
dana. Cf. note to i. 40 and i. 380, which latter passage 
is probably derived from the Vishtiu-Dharma (on which 
vide note to 1. 54). 

Of Buddhistic authors there are mentioned Oandra, 
the grammarian, i. 135 (y'. Kern, Qmhichte des Bud- 
dhianvus in Indim, ii, 520), Sngrlva, the author of an 
astronomical work, and a pupil of his, i, 1 56. 

Of the manners and customs of the Buddhists, only 
their practice of disposing of their dead by throwing 
them into flowing water is mentioned, ii. 169. 

Alberuni speaks (ii. 1 1) of a building erected by King 
Kanishka in Peshavar, and called Kaniskkacailya, as 
existing in his time, most likely identical with that 
stUpa which he is reported to have built in consequence 
of a prophecy of no leas a person than Buddha himself. 
Of. Kem, 1. c., ii. 187. The word hikdr, i.e. vihdra, which 
Alberuni sometimes uses in the meaning of temple and 
the like, is of Buddhistic origin. Cf. Kem, 1. c., ii. 57. 

Among the various kinds of writing used in India, he 
enumerates as the last one the “ BhaikshuH, used in 
TJdmvpdr in Pdrvadeia. This last is t/te writiny oj 
Buddha,” i. 173. Was this Udunpflr (we may also read 
Udanna^v) the Buddhistic monastery in Magadlia, 
UdaT},dapuTt, that was destroyed by the Muslims, a.d. 
1200? Cf. Kern, 1. c., ii. 545. 

The kosmographic views of the Buddhists, as given 
by Alberuni, i. 249, 326, ought to be examined os to 
their origin. Perhaps it will be possible to point out 
the particular Buddhistic book whence they were taken. 

He speaks twice of an antagonism between Buddha 
and Zoroaster. 

If Alberuni had had the same opportunity for travel- 
ling in India as Hiouen-Tsang had, he would easily 
have collected plenty of information on Buddhism. 



Consiileriug the mpagreness of his notes on this subject, 
we readily believe that he never found a Buddhistic 
book, and never knew a Buddhist “from whom I might 
have learned their theories,” i. 249. His Brahman pan- 
dits probably know enough of Buddhism, but did not 
choose to tell hipi. 

Lastly, India, as known to Alberuni, was in matters 
of religion Vishnuitio {mishiava), not Sivaitio {Mim). 
Visb^in, or N&rftyapa,isthe first god in the pantheon of 
his Hindu informants and literary authorities, whilst 
Siva is only incidentally mentioned, and thaj; not always 
in a favourable manner. This indicates a remarkable 
change in the religious history of those countries. For 
the predecessors of Mahmfld inthejole over Kabulistan 
and the Panj&b, the Pflla dynasty, were worshippers of 
Siva {cf. Lassen, Indische Alterthum^cunde, 3, 895), as 
we may judge from their coins, adorned with the image 
of Nanda, the ox of $iva, and from the etymology of 
their names. Cf. note to ii. 13, and Lassen, 1 . c.. 3, 91 5. 
The image of Nanda reappears a second time on the 
coins of the last of the descendants of Hing Mabmdd on 
the throne of dhazna. 


It was in the summer of 1883 that I began to work at 
the edition and translation of the ’IvStxo, after having 
fulfilled the literary duties resulting from my journey 
in Syria and Mesopotamia in 1879 and 1880. A copy 
of the Arabic manuscript had been prepared in 1872, 
and collated in Stambul in the hot summer months of 


In order to test my comprehension of the book, I 
translated it into German from beginning to end between 
February 1883 and February 1884. In the summer of 
the latter year the last hand was laid to the constitu- 
tion of the Arabic text as it was to be printed. 



In 18S5— 86 the edition of the Arabic original was 
printed. At the eame time I translated the whole book 
a second time, into English, hnishing the translation of 
every single sheet as the original was carried through 
the press. 

In i88y and the first half of 1888 th^ English trans- 
lation, with annotations and indices, was printed. 

Hy work during all these years was not uninter- 

Translating an Arabic book, written in the style of 
Albenini, into English, is, for a person to whom Buglish 
is not his mother-tongue, an act of temerity, which, 
when I was called upon to commit it, gravely affected 
my conscience to such a degree that I began to falter, 
and serionsly thought of giving up the whole thing alto- 
gether. But then there rose up before “ my mind's 
eye” the venerable figure of old MacGnckin de Slane, 
and as he had been gathered to his fathers. I could not 
get back the word I had given him. Of. preface to the 
edition of the Arabic text, p. viii. Assuredly, to do 
justice to the words of Alberuni would require a com- 
mand over English like that of Sir Theodore- Martin, 
the translator of “ Faust,” or Chenery, the translator of 

As regards my own translation. I can only say I have 
tried to find common sense in the author’s language, 
and to render it as clearly as I could. In this I was 
greatly assisted by my friend the Rev. Robert Gwynne, 
Vicar of St. Mary’s, Soho, London, whose training in 
Eastern languages and literature qualified him to co- 
operate in revisiug the entire manuscript and correcting 
the proof sheets. 

Perhaps it will not be superfluous to point ont to the 
reader who does not know Arabic that this language 
sometimes exhibits sentences perfectly clear as to the 
meaning of every single word and the syntactic construc- 
tion, and nevertheless admitting of entirely different 

PRBPACB. xli, 

interpretations. Besides, a first translator who steers 
ont on such a sea, like him who first tries to explain a 
difficult, hardly legible inscription, exposes himself to 
many dangers which he would easily have avoided had 
kind fortune permitted him to follow in the wake of 
other explorers. Under these eiroumstanceB, I do not 
flatter myself that 1 have caught tlie sense of the author 
everywhere, and I warn the reader not to take a trans- 
lation, in particular a first translation, from Arabic 
for mere than it is. It is nothing absolute, but only 
relative in many respects ; and if an ludianist does not 
find good Indian thought in my translation, 1 would 
advise him to consult the next Arabic philologist he 
meets. If the two can obtain a better insight into the 
subject-matter, they are very likely to produce a better 
rendering of the words. 

My annotations do not pretend to be a running com- 
mentary on the book, for that cannot be written except 
by a professed ludianist. They contain some informa- 
tion as to the sources used by Albenmi, and as to those 
materials which guided me in translating. On the 
phonetic peculiarities of the Indian words as transcribed 
by Albemni, the reader may compare a treatise of mine 
called Indo-Arabische Studien, and presented to the 
Boyal Academy of Berlin on 21 st Juue of this year. 

My friend Dr. Robert Schrain, of the University of 
Vienna, has examined all the mathematical detaUs of 
chronology and astronomy. The results of his studies 
are presented to the reader in the annotations signed 
with his same. All this is Dr. Schram’s special domain, 
in which he has no equal. My thanks are due to him 
for lending me his help in parts of the work where my 
own attempts at verification, after prolonged exertions 
in the same direction, proved to be insufficient. 

Of the two indices, the former contains all words of 
Indian origin occurring in the book, some pure Sauskrit, 
some vernacular, others in the form exhibited by tbe 



Arabic manuscript, howsoe7er faulty it may be. The 
reader will perhaps here and there derive some advan- 
tage from comparing the index of the edition of the 
Arabic original. The second index contains names of 
persons and places, &c., mostly of non-Indian origin. 

It was the Committee of the Oriental Translation 
Fund, consisting at the time of Osmond de Beauvoir 
Priaulx, Edward Thomas, James Fergnsson, Reinhold 
Rost, and Theodore Goldstucker, who first proposed to 
me to translate the TvScko. Thomas, Goldstucker, and 
Fergusson are beyond the reach of human words, but 
to 0 . de Beauvoir Priaulx, Esq., and to Dr. Rost, I desire 
to express my sincerest gratitude for the generous help 
and the untiring iiiterest which they have always ac- 
corded to me, though so many years have rolled on since 
I first pledged to them my word. Lastly, Her Majesty’s 
India Office has extended its patroni^ from the edition 
of the Arabic original also to this edition of the work in 
an English garb. 

Of the works of my predecessors, the famous publica- 
tion of Reinaud, the Mivwire giographiqxie, historixpte e( 
sciintxjiqxie sur Vltuie, Paris, 1849, has been most useful 
to me. Cf. on this and the labours of my other pre- 
decessors I 2 of the preface to the edition of the Arabic 

The Sanskrit alphabet has been transliterated in the 
following way : — a, d, i, i, n, ii — ri, m, au — k, kh, g, <jh, 
li—c, eh, j, jk, (k, d, dh, 9 — t, th, d, dk, n — p, ph, 

h, ih, VI — y, r, I, v — s^t, a, h. 


BkRI.IK, Aw/uttii, 18S8. 


{For Albe)-un(» SynoptU of the Single Chapten gf the Booh, 
vide pp, 9-16.) 

VOL rial 

t 3. Author’s Prkpacb. 

9. Synopsis or thb Eighty Oeaftxrs. 

17. Craptbe I.. Author’s Spsoial Introduction. 

*7. Chapters U.-XI., on Religion, Philosophy, and 
Related Subjects. 

125. Chapters XII.-XVII., on Litebatuee, Metrology 
Usages, and Related Subjects 
196. Chapters XVIII.-XXXI., on Geography, Cosmo- 


319 TO Vol,.II. f. 129. Chapters XXXII.-LXII.. on Chro- 
nology, Astronomy, and Belated Subjects. 
n. 130. Chapters LXIII.-LXXIX., on Manners and Cus- 
toms, Festivals, and Related Subjects. 

211. Chapter LXXX., on Astrology. 

247. Annotations or the Translator. 

403-431. Indices. 







VOL. T, 



In thk Name o? God, the Compassionate, the 

No one will deny that in questions of historic authen- 
tioity hearsay does not equal eye-^tness ; for in the latter 
the eye of the observer apprehends the substance of that 
which is observed, both in the time when and in the 
place where it exists, whilst hearsay has its peculiar 
drawbacks. But for these, it would even be preferable 
to eye-witness ; for the object of eye-witness can only be 
actual momentary existence, whilst hearsay comprehends 
alike the present, the past, and the future, so as to apply 
in a certain sense both to that which is and to that 
which is not (t.e. which either has ceased to exist or 
has not yet come into existence). Written tradition 
is one of the species of hearsay — we might almost say, 
the most preferable. How could we know the history 
of nations but for the everlasting monuments of the 

The tradition regarding an event which in itself does 
not contradict either logical or physical laws will invari- 
ably depend for its cliaracter as true or false upon the 
ehajacter of the reporters, who are influenced by the 
divergency of interests and all kinds of animosities 
and antipathies between the various nations. We must 
distinguish different classes of reporters. 

One of them tells a lie, as intending to further an 



I. On tra- 
dition, hur- 
ray and eye- 

a. lliedlf. 
fereut ktoda 
of reporter*. 

3. Pralae 
of truth lul* 



P»go 3. 

interest of Ws own, either 6y lauding hie family or 
nation, because he is one of them, or 6y attojslnng 
the family or nation on the opposite side, thinking that 
thereby he can gain his ends. In both oases he acts 
from motives of objectionable cupidity and animosity. 

Another one tells a lie regarding a class of people 
whom be likes, as being under obligations to them, or 
whom he hates because something disagreeable has 
happened between them. Such a reporter is near akin 
to the first-mentioned one, as he too acts from motives 
of personal predilection and enmity. 

Another tells a He because he is of such a base 
nature as to aim thereby at some profit, or because he 
is such a coward as to be afraid of telling the truth. 

Another tells a He because it is his nature to He, and 
he cannot do otherwise, which proceeds from the essen- 
tial meanness of his character and the depravity of hie 
innermost being. 

Lastly, a man may tell a lie from ignorance, blindly 
following others who told him. 

If, now, reporters of this kind become so numerous 
as to represent a certain body of tradition, or if in the 
course of time they even come to form a consecutive 
series of communities or nations, both the first reporter 
and his followers form the connecting links between 
the hearer and the inventor of the He; and if the 
connecting links are eliminated, there remains the 
originator of the story, one of the various kinds of liars 
we have enumerated, as the only person with whom we 
have to deal. 

That man only is praiseworthy who shrinks from a 
lie and always adheres to the truth, enjoying credit 
even among liars, not to mention others. 

It has been said in the Koran, “ ^eak the truth, even if 
it were against youretlvea” 4, 1 34) ; and the Messiidi 
expresses himself in the Gospel to this effect : " Do not 
■mind the fury of kings in speaking the hefore them. 



They only possess your body, but they have no jwtw over 
your soul” {of. St. Matt. x. i8, 19, 28 ; St. Luke xii. 4). 

In these words the Messiah orders us to exercise moral 
courage. For what the crowd calls courage — bravely 
dashing into the fight or plunging into an abyss of de- 
struction — is only a species of courage, whilst the genus, 
far above all species, is to scorn death, whether by word 
or deed. 

Now as justice (i.s. being just) is a quality liked and 
coveted for its own self, for its intrinsic beauty, the 
same applies to truthfulness, except perhaps in the case 
of such people as never tasted how sweet it is, or know 
the troth, but deliberately shun it, like a notorious liar 
who once was asked if he had ever spoken the truth, 
and gave the answer, “If I were not afraid to speak 
the troth, I should say, no.” A liar will avoid the path 
of justice ; he will, as matter of preference, aide with op- 
pression and false witness, breach of confidence, fraudu- 
lent appropriation of the wealth of others, theft, and all 
the vices which serve to ruin the world and mankind. 

When I once called upon the master ’Abll-Sahl i. on the 
'Abd-Almnn'im Ibn'Ali Ibn Nllh At-tiflist, may God Mutfim'’* 
strengthen him ! Ifound that he blamed the tendency of roUgtn<w 
the author of a book on theMu'tazila sect to misrepresent piiicTi soc. 
their theory. For, according to them, God is omniscient 11. cxom- 
of himself, and this dogma that author had expressed in npiritoth« 
such a way as to say that Ood has no knowledge (like critioiam nt 
the knowledge of man), thereby misleading uneducated RrABflliQhrl, 
people to imagine that, according to the Mii'tazilites, uked^ 
Qod is ignorant. Praise be to God, who is far above all no tlio mb. 
such and similar unworthy descriptions I Thereupon I ^‘fv, sa 
pointed out to the master that precisely the same method method, 
is much in fashion among those who undertake the task 
of ^ving an account of religious and philosophical 
systems from which they slightly differ or to which they 
are entirely opposed. Such misrepresentation is easily 
detected in a report about dogmas comprehended withi^ 



P«g0 4. 

the frame of one single religion, because they are closely 
related and blended with each other. On the other hand, 
you would have great difficulty in detecting it in a 
report abont entirely foreign systems of thought totally 
differing both in principle and details, for such a research 
is rather an out>of-the-way one, and there are few means 
of arriving at a thorough comprehension of it. The 
same tendency prevails throughout our whole literature 
on philosophical and religions sects. If such an author 
is not alive to the requirements of a strictly scientific 
method, he will procure some superficial information 
which will satisfy neither the adherents of the doctrine 
in question nor those who really know it. In such a 
case, if he be an honest character, he will simply 
retract and feel ashamed ; but if he be so base as not 
to give due honour to truth, he will persist in litigious 
wrangling for his own original standing-point. If, on 
the contrary, an author has the right method, he will do 
his utmost to deduce the tenets of a sect from their 
legendary lore, things which people tell him, pleasant 
enough to listen to, bnt which he would never dream of 
taking for true or believing. 

In order to illustrate the point of our conversation, 
one of those present referred to the religions and doc- 
trines of the Hindus by way of an example. There- 
upon 1 drew their attention to the fact that everything 
which exists on this subject in our literature is second- 
hand information which one has copied from the other, 
a farrago of materials never sifted by the sieve of 
ci'itical examination. Of all authors of this class, I know 
only one who had proposed to himself to give a simple 
and exact report of Iffie subject sum ird ac tludio, vis. 
'Abd-al'abbfts Aldr&nshabrl. He himself did not believe 
in any of the then existing religions, bnt was the sole 
believer in a religion invented by himself, which he 
tried to propagate. He has given a very good account 
of the doctrines of the Jews and Christians as well as 



of the conteats of both the Thora and the Gospel. 
Besides, he famishes as with a naost excellent account 
of the Manichosans, and of obsolete religions of bygone 
times which are mentioned in their books. But when 
he came in his book to speak of the Hindus and the 
Bnddhists, his arrow missed the mark, and is the latter 
port he went astray through hitting upon the book of 
Zavkdn, the contents of which he incorporated in his 
own work. That, however, which he has not taken 
from Zaj-kdn, he himself has heard from common people 
among Hindus and Bnddhists. 

At a Bubseqnent period the master ’Abft-Sahl studied 
the books in question a second time, and when be found 
the matter exactly as I have here described it. he incited 
me to write down what I know about the Kindns as a 
help to those who want to discuss religions questions 
with them, and as a repertory of information to those 
who want to associate with them. In order to please 
him I have done so, and written this book on the 
doctrines of the Hindus, never making any unfounded 
imputations against those, our religious antagonists, and 
at the same time not considering it inconsistent with 
my duties as a Muslim to quote their own words at full 
length when I thought they would contribute to eluci- 
date a subject. If the contents of these quotations 
happen to be utterly heathenish, and the followers of the 
truth, i.e. the Muslims, find them objectionable, we can 
only say that such Is the belief of the Hindus, and that 
they themselves are best qualified to defend it. 

This book is not a polemical one. I shall not produce 
the arguments of our antagonists in order to refute such 
of them as I believe to be in the wrong. My book is 
nothing but a simple hi8to7'ic record of facts. I shall 
place before the reader the theories of the Hindus 
exactly as they are, and I shall mention in connection 
with theta similar theories of the Greeks in order to 
show the relationship existing between them. For the 


Greek philoBOphers, although aiming at truth in the 
abstract, never in all questions of popular bearing rise 
much above the customary exoteric expressions and 
tenets both of their religion and law. Besides Greek 
ideas we shall only now and then mention those of the 
softs or of some one or other Christian sect, beoanse in 
their notions regarding the transmigration of souls and 
tlie pantheistic doctrine of the unity of God with orea* 
tion there U much in common between these systems. 

I have already translated two books into Arabic, one 
about the origines and a description of all created 
beings, called Sd/ihkhya, and another abont the emanci- 
pation of the soul from the fetters of the body, called 
PataHjali {PdlaHjala t) . These two books contain most 
of the elements of the belief of the Hindus, but not 
all the single rules derived therefrom. 1 hope that the 
present book will enable the reader to dispense with 
these two earlier ones, and with other books of the same 
kind ; that it will give a sufficient representation of the 
subject, and will enable him to make himself thoroughly 
acquainted with it — God willing ! 































A8TB0L0&7, BTO. 



























CHAPTER xxvn. 


Fags 6. 

























































































































IQKQV 192 B 




Tugs 9 . 

BEFnitE eiitei'ing; on oiir exposition, we must form an 
adequate idea of that wliich renders it so particularly dif- 
ficult to penetrate to the essential nature of any Indian 
Bubject. The knowledge of these difficulties will either 
facilitate the progress of our work, or serye as an apology 
for any shortcomings of ours. For the reader must 
always bear in mind that the Hindus entirely differ 
from us in every respect, iimny a subject appearing 
intricate and obscure which would be perfectly clear 
if there were more connection between us. The barriers 
which separate Muslims and Hindus rest on different 

First, they differ from ns in everything which other 
nations liave in common. And here we first mention 
the language, although the difference of language also 
exists between other nations. If you want to conquer 
this difliculty (i.e. to learn Sanskrit), yon will not find 
it easy, because the Inngiiaga is of au enormous range, 
both in words and inilectious, something like the 
Arabic, calling one aiid the same thing by various 
nanu'.'i, both original and derived, and using one and 
the same word for a variety of subjects, which, in order 
to be properly understood, must be distinguislied from 
each other by various qualifying epithets. For nobody 
could distinguish between the various meanings of a 
word unless he understands the context in which it 


Uioi or the 

wlklob te* 

B u tUo 


frori) thu 

Mkix 1 lni« 
H(jd make 
it PO ikftrtl* 
L'ii]arly dlf* 
fiCAiib fur n 
Hfiielim td 
utiuly uny 

lii'ak m* 
puu : Oif- 
forenao of 
(be luQ' 
KUitge And 
i'a parti* 


occurs, and its relation both to the following and the 
preceding parts of the sentence: The Hindus, like 
other people, boast of this enormous range of their lan- 
guage, whilst in reality it is a defect. 

Further, the language is divided into a neglected 
vernacular one, only in use among the common people, 
and a classical one, only in use among the upper and 
educated classes, which is much cultivated, and subject 
to the rules of grammatical inflection and etymology, 
and to all the niceties of grammar and rhetoric. 

Besides, some of the sounds (consonants) of which 
the language is composed are neither identical with the 
sounds of Arabic and Persian, nor resemble them in 
any.way. Our tongue and uvnla could scarcely manage 
to correctly pronounce them, nor our ears in hearing to 
distinguish them from similar sounds, nor could we 
transliterate them with our characters. It is very 
difficult, therefore, to express an Indian word in our 
writing, for in order to fix the pronnnciation we mast 
change our orthographical points and signs, and must 
pronounce the case-endings either according to the 
common Arabic rules or according to special rules 
adapted for the purpose, 

Add to this that the Indian scribes are careless, and 
do not take pains to produce correct and well-collated 
copies. In consequence, the highest results of the 
author’s mental development are lost their negli- 
gence, and his hook becomes already in the first or 
second copy so full of faults, that the text appears as 
something entirely new, which neither a scholar nor 
one familiar with the subject, whether Hindu oi' Muslim, 
ooiild any longer understand. It will sufficiently illus- 
trate the matter if we tell the reader that we have 
sometimes written down a word from the mouth of 
Hindus, taking the greatest pains to fix its pronniicia- 
tioD, and that afterwards when we repeated it to them, 
they had great difficulty in recognising it. 



As in other foreign tongues, so also in Sanskrit, two 
or three consonants may follow each other without an 
inteirening vowel — consonants which in our Persian 
grammatical system are considered as having a hidden 
vowel. Since most Sanskrit words and names begin 
with such consonants without vowels, we find it very 
difficult to pronounce them, 

Besides, the scientific books of the Hindus are com- 
posed in varioue favourite metres, by which they intend, 
considering that the books soon become corrupted by 
additions and omissions, to preserve them exactly as Pag«i«. 
they are, in order to facilitate their being learned by 
heart, because they consider as canonical only that 
which is known by heart, not that which exists in 
writing, Now it is well known that in all metrical 
compositions there is mnch misty and constrained 
phraseology merely intended to fill up the metre and 
serving as a kind of patchwork, and this necessitates 
a certain amount of verbosity. This is also one of 
the reasons why a word has sometimes one meaning 
and sometimes another. 

From all this it will appear that the metrical form 
of literary composition is one of the causes which 
make the study of Sanskrit literature so particularly 

Secondly, they totally differ from us in religion, as BocondrM- 
we believe in nothing in which they believe, and vice 
vtrsd. On the whole, there is very little disputing 
about theological topics among themselves ; at the 
utmost, they fight with words, but they will never stake 
their soul or body or their property on religious contro- 
versy. On the contrary, all their fanaticism is directed 
against those who do not belong to them— against all 
foreigners. They call them mleccha, i.e. impure, and 
forbid having any connection with them, be it by 
intermarri^e or any other kind of relationship, or 
by sitting, eating, and drinking with them, because 



thereby, they think, they wonid be polluted. They 
consider as impure anything which touches the fire 
and the water of a foreigner; and no household can 
exist without these two elements. Besides, they nerer 
desire that a thing which once has been polluted should 
be purified and thus recovered, as, under ordinary oir- 
cumstances, if anybody or anything has become unclean, 
he or it would strive to regain the state of purity. 
They are not allowed to receive anybody who does not 
belong to them, even if he wished it, or was inclined to 
their religion. This, too, renders any connection with 
them quite impossible, and constitutes the widest gulf 
between us and them. 

Thirds. In the thiid place, in all manners and usages they 

ISiau'Sf- differ fi'om us to such a degree as to frighten their 

IhSrm^n- children with ns, with our dress, and our ways and 
customs, and as to declare us to be devil’s breed, and 
our doings as the very opposite of all that is good and 
proper. By the by, we must confess, in order to be 
just, that a similar depreciation of foreigners not only 
prevails among us and the Hindus, but is common to 
all nations towards each other. I recollect a Hindu 
who wreaked his vengeance on us for the following 
reason : — 

Some Hindu king had perished at the hand of an 
enemy of his who had marched against him from our 
country. After his death there was born a child to 
him, which succeeded him, by the name of Sagarn. 
On coming of age, the young man asked his mother 
about his father, and then she told him what had hap- 
pened. Kow he was infiamed with hatred, marched 
out of his country into the country of the enemy, and 
plentifully satiated Ins thirst of vengeance upon them. 
After having become tired of slaughtering, he compelled 
the survivors to dress in our dress, which was meant as 
an ignominious punishment for them. When I heard 
of it, I felt thankful that he was gracious enough not 



to compel US to Indianise ourselves and to adopt Hindu 
dress and manners. 

Another circumstsnce which increased the already 
existing antagonism between Hindus and foreigners is 
that the so-called Shamaniyya (Buddhists), though they 
cordially hate the Brahmans, still are nearer akin to 
them than to others. In former times, Kburfls^n, Persis, 
'Irftk) Mosul, the country up to the frontier of Syria, 
was Buddhistic, but then ^arathustra went forth from 
Adharbaijfln and preached Msgism in Baikh (Baktra). 
His doctrine came into favour with King Gushtasp, 
and his son Isfendiy^ spread the new faith both in 
east and west, both by force and by treaties. He 
founded fire-temples through his whole empire’, from 
the frontiers of China to those of the Greek empire. 
The succeeding kings made their religion (i.e. Zoroas- 
trianism) the obligatory state-religion for Persis and 
‘Ir8.k. In consequence, the Buddhists were banished 
from those countries, and bad to emigrate to the coun- 
tries east of Balkb. There are some Magians up to the 
present time in India, whei'e they are called Maya. 
From that time dates their aversion towards the coun- 
tries of Khurasan. But then came Islam ; the Persian 
empire perislied, and the repugnance of the Hindus 
against foreigners increased more and more when the 
Muslims began to make their inroads into their conntry ; 
for Muhammad Ibn Elk.^sim Ibn Elmunabbih entered 
Sindh from the side of Sijistan(Sakasteoe)ai)dconquered 
the cities of BabmanwH and Mfilasthilna, the former of 
which he called Al-man^Ura, the latter Al-ma'mUra. 
He entered India proper, and penetrated even as for as 
Eanauj, marched through the country of Gandhflra, and 
on his way back, through the confines of Kashmir, some- 
times fighting sword in hand, sometimes gaining his ends 
by treaties, leaving to the people their ancient belief, 
except in the case of those who wanted to become Mus- 
lims. All these events planted a deeply rooted hatred 
in their hearts. 

rourth rail- 
: Av«r. 
stoik or tho 

tomrd* tbo 
oouQtiico of 
th* Wot. 
hod >Man 
of tho Mui> 
Umo luto 

Poi:o II. 




injkdAii COD* 
quMtof the 
toantry hy 


Fifth ree- 
too : Tho 
of tho Hlo> 

dUt» ADfi 

thtlr dt- 
procUtlon of 

Now in the fallowing times no Mnslim conqoeror 
passed beyond the frontier of K^bnl and the river Sindh 
until the days of the Turks, when they seized the power 
in Ghazna under the Sd.m&nt dynasty, and the supreme 
power fell to the lot of Nibir-addaula Sabnktagtn. 
This prince chose the holy war as his calling, and there- 
fore called himself Al-ghdat (i.e. warrirng on tht r<Md of 
AUalC). In the interest of his snccessors he oonstmcted, 
in order to weaken the Indian frontier, those roods 
on which afterwards his son Yamln-addanla Mahmhd 
marched into India during a period of thirty years and 
more. God be merciful to both father and son ! Mah- 
m&d utterly ruined the prosperity of the country, and 
performed there wonderful exploits, by which theQindne 
became like atoms of dust scattered in all directions, 
and like a tale of old in the month of the people. Their 
scattered remains cherish, of course, the most inveterate 
aversion towards all Muslims. This is the reason, too, 
why Hindu sciences have retired far away from those 
parts of the country conquered by us, and have fled to 
places which our hand cannot yet reach, to Kashmir, 
Benares, and other places. And there the antagonism 
between them and all foreigners receives more and 
more nourishment both from political and religions 

In the fifth place, there are other causes, the mention- 
ing of which sounds like a satire — peculiarities of their 
national character, deeply rooted in them, but manifest 
to everybody. We can only say, folly is an illness for 
which there is no medicine, and the Hindus believe that 
there is no country but theirs, no nation like theirs, no 
kings like theirs, no religion like theirs, no science like 
theirs. They are haughty, foolishly vain, self-conceited, 
and stolid. They are by nature niggardly in commnni- 
cating that which they know, and they take the greatest 
possible care to withhold it from men of another caste 
among their own people, still much more, of course. 



from anj foreigner. According to tbeir belief, there ia 
no other conntry on earth but theirs, no other race of 
man but theirs, and no created beings besides them have 
any knowledge or science whatsoever. Their haughti- 
ness is such that, if yon tell them of any science or 
scholar in Khiirls^n and Persis, they will think you to 
be both an ignoramus and a liar. If they travelled and 
mixed with other nations, they would soon change their 
mind, for their ancestors were not as narrow-minded 
as the present generation is. One of their scholars, 
Varahamihira, in a passage where be calls on the people 
to honour the Brahmans, says : “ The Greeks, though 
impure, must he honoured, since they were trained in 
sciences, and therein excelled others. What, then, are 
UK to say of a Brahman, if he combines with his Pag* 
purity the height of scie^u:eJ'' In former times, the 
Hindus used to acknowledge that the progress of science 
due to the Grreeks ia much more important than that 
which is due to themselves. But from this passage of 
Varlhamihira alone yon see what a self-lauding man 
be is, whilst he gives himself airs as doing justice to 
others. At first I stood to their astronomers in the 
relation of a pupil to his master, being a stranger 
among them and not acquainted with their peculiar 
national and traditional methods of science. On having 
made some progress, 1 began to show them the elements 
on which this science rests, to point out to them some 
rules of logical deduction and the scientific methods of 
all mathematics, and then they docked together round 
me from all pai'ta, wondering, and most eager to learn 
from me, asking me at the same time from what Hindu 
master I bad learnt those things, whilst in reality I 
showed them what they were worth, and thought myself 
a great deal superior to them, disdaining to be put on a 
level with them. They almost thought me to be a 
sorcerer, and when speaking of me to their leading men 
in tbeir native tongue, they spoke of me as the sea or as 


the vMter which it to acid that vinegar in comparison is 

PanoBfti Now such is the state of thiogs in India. I have 
tb« kuU)or. fonnd it very hard to work my way into the subject, 
although I have a great liking for it, in which respect I 
stand quite alone in my time, and although 1 do not 
spare either trouble or money in oolleeting Sanskrit 
books from places where I supposed they were likely 
to be found, and in procuring for myself, even from very 
remote places, Hindu scholars who understand them 
and are able to teach me. What scholar, however, has 
the same favourable opportunities of studying this sub- 
ject as I have ? That would be only the case with one 
to whom the grace of God accords, what it did not 
accord to me, a perfectly free disposal of his own doings 
and goings ; for it baa never fallen to my lot in my own 
doings and goings to be perfectly independent, nor to 
be invested with sufficient power to dispose and to order 
as I thought best. However, 1 thank God for that 
which Ho has bestowed upon me, and which must be 
considered as sufficient for the purpose. 

Theiuthor 'Phe heathen Greeks, before the rise of Christianity, 
f*to!l"oD’S held much the same opinions as the Hindus; their 
«im^«ring Q^jugated classes thought much the same as those of 
toSuMof the Hindus; their common people held the same 
n«r’'iSrin“* idolatrous views as those of the Hindus. There- 
fore I like to confront the theories of the one nation 
chirMuraa ^'th those of the Other simply on account of their 
5Su'7hJj?of clos® relationship, nob in order to correct them. For 
uuHitidui that which is not the truth {i.e. the true belief or 
monotheism) does not admit of any correction, and all 
heathenism, whether Greek or Indian, is in its pith and 
marrow one and the same belief, because it is only a 
deviation from the ti'uth. The Greeks, however, had 
philosophers who, living in their country, discovered 
and worked out for them the elements of science, not of 
popular superstition, for it is the object of the upper 



classes to be guided by the results of science, whilst the 
common crowd will always be inclined to plunge into 
wrong-headed wrangling, as long as they are not kept 
down by fear of punishment. Think of Socrates when 
he opposed the crowd of his nation as to their idolatry 
and did not want to call the stars gods I At once eleven 
of the twelve judges of the Athenians agreed on a sen- 
tence of death, and Socrates died faithful to the truth. 

The Hindus had no men of this stamp both capable 
and willing to bring sciences to a classical perfection. 
Therefore you mostly find that even the so-called 
scientific theorems of the Hindus are in a state of utter 
confusion, devoid of any logical order, and in the last in- 
stance alwaysmixedup with the sillynotionsofthecrowd, 
e.g. imtneiise numbers, enormous spaces of time, and 
all kinds of religious dogmas, which the vulgar belief 
does not admit of being called into question. Therefore 
it is a prevailing practice among the Hindus in 

verba magislri ; and I can only compare their mathema- 
tical and astronomical literature, as far as I know it, to 
a mixture of pearl shells and sour dates, or of pearls 
and dong, or of costly crystals and common pebbles. 
Both kinds of things are equal in their eyes, since they 
cannot raise themselves to the methods of a strictly 
scientific deduction. 

In most parts of my work I simply relate without 
criticising, unless there be a special reason for doing so. 
I mention the necessary Sanskrit names and technical 
terms once where the context of our explanation de- 
mands it. If the word is an original one, the meaning 
of which can be rendered in Arabic, I only use the 
correspondlug Arabic word; if, however, the Sanskrit 
word be more practical, wo keep this, trying to trans- 
literate it as accurately as possible. If tlie word is a 
secondary or derived one, but in general use, we also 
keep it, though there be a corresponding term in Arabic, 
bat before using it we explain its signification. In 

Pag« i> 

Th« ■uthor’s 



this way wa have tried to facilitate the undentaodiag 
of the terminology. 

Lastly, we observe that we cannot always in oar 
discussions strictly adhere to the geometrical method, 
only referring to that which precedes and never to that 
which follows, as we must sometimes introduce in a 
chapter an unknown factor, the explanation of which 
can only be given in a later part of the book, Gk>d 
helping ns ! 

( 27 ) 



The belief of educated and uneducated people differs in 
every nation ; for the former strive to conceive abstract 
ideas and to deiine general principles, whilst the latter 
do not pass beyond the apprehension of the senses, and 
are content with derived rules, without caring for de* 
tails, especially in questions of religion and law, regard- 
ing which opinions and interests are divided. 

The Hindus believe with regard to God that he is 
one, eternal, without beginning and end, acting by free- 
will, almighty, all-wise, living, giving life, ruling, pre- 
serving ; one who in his sovereignty is unique, beyond 
all likeness and unlikeness, and that he does not re- 
semble anything nor does anything resemble him- In 
order to illustrate this we shall produce some extracts 
from their literature, lest the reader should think that 
our account is nothing but hearsay. 

In the book of Patanjali the pupil asks : 

“ Who is the worshipped one, by the worship of whom 
blessing is obtained ? " 

The master says ; 

" It is he who, being eternal and nuiqne, does not for 
his part stand in need of any bnman action for which 
he might give as a recompense either a blissful repose, 
which is hoped and longed for, or a troubled existence, 
which is feared and dreaded. He is nnattainable to 
thought, being sublime beyond all nnlikeness which is 
abhorrent and all likeness which is sympathetic. Se 

Tlia natuia 
or God. 






P' ge «4. 

by his essence knows from all eternity. Knowledge, in 
the human sense of the term, has as its object that 
which was unknown before, whilst not knowing does 
not at any time or in any condition apply to God." 

Further the pnpil speaks : 

" Do you attribute to him other qualities besides 
those you have mentioned ? ” 

llie master says t 

“ He is height, absolute in the idea, not in apace, for 
he is sublime beyond all existence in any space. He 
is the pure absolute good, longed for by every created 
being. He is the knowledge free from the defilement 
of forgetfulness and not-knowing.” 

The pupil speaks : 

“ Do you attribute to him speech or not ? ” 

The master says : 

“ As he knows, he no doubt also speaks.” 

The pupil asks : 

“ If he speaks because he knows, what, then, is the 
difference between him and the kncyioing sages who 
have spoken of their knowing ? ” 

The master says : 

“ The difference between them is time, for they have 
learned in time and spoken in time, after having been 
not-knowing and not-speaking. By speech they have 
transferred their knowledge to others. Therefore their 
speaking and acquiring knowledge take place in time. 
And as divine matters have no connection with time, 
God is knowing, speaking from eternity. It was he 
who spoke to Brahman, and to others of the first beings 
in different ways. On the one he bestowed a book ; 
for the other he opened a door, a means of commnoi- 
cating with him; a third one he inspired so that he 
obtained by cogitation what God bestowed npon him.” 

The pupil asks : 

“ Whence has he this knowing?” 

'The master answers : 



“ His knowing is the same from all eternity, for ever 
and ever. As he has never been not-knowing, lie is 
knowing of himself, having never acquired any know- 
ledge which he did not possess before. He speaks in 
the Veda whioh he sent down npon Brahman ; 

" ‘ Praise and celel/rate him who hcu spoken Vu Veda, 
and was hefore the Veda.’ ” 

The pupil asks : 

" How do yon worship him to whom the perception 
of the senses cannot attain ? 

The master says : 

“ His name proves his existence, for where there is a 
report there must be something to which it refers, and 
where there is a name there must be something which 
is named. He is hidden to the senses and niiperceiv- 
abie by them. However, the soul perceives him, and 
thought comprehends his qualities. This meditation 
is identical with worshipping him exclusively, and by 
practising it nninterrnptedly beatitude is obtained.” 

In this way the Hindus express themselves in this 
very famous book. 

The. following passage is taken from the book Oiid, Quoutinn 
a part of the book Bhdrata, from the conversation be- Lmu ents. 
tween V&sndeva and Arjuna : — 

“ I am the universe, without a beginning by being 
bom, or without an end by dying. I do not aim by 
whatever I do at any recompense. I do not specially 
belong to one class of beings to the exclusion of others, 
as if 1 were the friend of one and the enemy of others. 

1 have given to each one in my creation what is sufS- 
dent for him in all his functions. Therefore whoever 
knows me in this oa])acity, and tries to become similar 
to me by keeping desire apart from his action, his 
fetters will be loosened, and he will easily be saved and 

This passage reminds one of the definition of philo- 

Od the 
Dctioni ol 
tbe action 
and t)iQ 


from the 

PaC* l}i 


Bophy as (he striving to ieccme as much as possihls simi- 
lar to Ood. 

Farther, Y^Budeva speaks in the aanie book : — 

" It is desire which oaoses most men to take refnge 
with God for their wants. Bnt if yon examine their 
case closely, you will find that they are very far from 
having an aconrate knowledge of him j for God is not 
apparent to every one, so that he might perceive hitn 
with his sensea Therefore they do not know him. 
Some of them do not pass beyond what their senses 
perceive ; some pass beyond this, bnt stop at the know- 
ledge of the laws of natv/re, without learning that above 
them there is one who did not give birth nor was bom, 
the essence of whose being has not been comprehended 
by the knowledge of any one, while his knowledge 
comprehends everything.” 

Tbe Hindus differ among themselves as to the defini- 
tion of what is action. Some who make God the source 
of action consider him as the universal cause ; for as the 
existence of the agents derives from him, he is the 
cause of their action, and in consequence it is his 
own action coming into existence through their inter- 
mediation. Others do not derive action from God, hut 
from other sources, considering them as the jMrtieular 
causes which in the last instance — according to external 
observation — produce the action in question. 

In the book Sdmkkya the devotee speaks : “ Has there 
been a difference of opinion abont action and the agent, 
or not? ” 

Tbe sage speaks : “ Some people say that the soul is 
not alive and the matter not living; that God, who is 
self-euffioing, is he who unites them and separates them 
from each other ; that therefore in reality be himself is 
the agent. Action proceeds from him in such a way 
that he causes both the soul and the matter to move, 
like as that which is living and powerful moves that 
which is dead and weak. 


“ Others say that the nnion of adion and the agent is 
effected by nature, and that snch is the usual process 
in everything that increases and decreases. 

“Others say the agent is the soul, because in the 
V^da it is said, ‘ Every being comes from Pnrusha.’ 
According to others, the agent is time, for the world is 
tied to time as a sheep is tied to a strong cord, so that 
its motion depends upon whether the cord is drawn 
tight or slackened. Still others say that action is 
nothing but a recompense for something which has 
been done before. 

“All these opinions are wrong. The truth is, that 
action entirely belongs to matter, for matter binds the 
soul, causes it to wander about in different shapes, 
and then sets it free. Therefore matter is the agent, 
all that belongs to matter helps it to accomplish 
action. Hut the soul is not an agent, because it is 
devoid of the different faculties.” 

This is what educated people believe about God. 
They call him Uvara, i.e. self-sufficing, beneficent, who 
gives without receiving. They consider the unity of 
God as absolute, bat that everything beside God which 
may appear as a nnity is really a plurality of things. 
The existence of God they consider as a real existence, 
because everything that exists exists through him. It 
is not impossible to think that the existing beings are 
not and that he is, but it is impossible to think that he 
is not and that they are. 

If we now pass from the ideas of the educated people 
among the Hindus to those of the common people, we 
must first state that they present a great variety. Some 
of them are simply abominable, but similar errors also 
occur in other religions. Nay, even in Islam we must de- 
cidedly disapprove, e.g. of the anthropomorphic doctrines, 
the teachings of the Jabriyya sect, the prohibition of 
the discussion of religions topics, and snch like. Every 
religions sentence destined for the people at large must 

0^l\ ATIil vul> 
gar DotioiLB 
aboMt ib« 
nature o( 


be carefully worded, as tbe following example abows. 
Some Hindn aoholar calls God a point, meaning to say 
thereby that the qualities of bodies do not apply to him. 
Now some uneducated man reads this and imapnee, 
God is as small as a point, and he does not find oat 
what the word^nn< in this sentence was really intended 
to express. He will not ereo stop with this offensiye 
comparison, bat will desoribe God aa mnoh larger, and 
will say, “Heis twelve fingers long and ten fingers broad.” 
Praise be to God, who is far above measnre and number ! 
Further, if an uneducated man hears what we have 
mentioned, that God comprehends the universe so that 
nothing is concealed from him, he will at once imt^iue 
that this comprehending is effected by means of eye- 
sight ; that eyesight is only possible by means of an eye, 
and that two eyes are better than only one ; and in con- 
sequence he will describe God as having a thousand eyes, 
meaning to describe his omniscience. 

Similar hideous fictions are sometimes met with 
among tbe Hindus, especially among those castes who 
are not allowed to occupy themselves with science, of 
whom we shall speak hereafter. 

( 33 } 



On this subject the ancieut Greeks held nearly the 
same view as the Hindus, at all events in those times 
before philosophy rose high among them tinder the care 
of the seven so-called pillars of wisdom, viz. Solon of 
Athens, Bias of Piiene, Periander of Corinth, Thales of 
Miletus, Chilon of Laced«mon, Pittacus of Lesbos, and 
Cleobulns of Lindos, and their successors. Some of is- 
them thought that all things are otic, and this 07te thing 
is according to some rh Aovffdv«tv, according to others 
^ ; that e. 0 . man has only this prerogative 

before a stone and the inanimate world, that he is by 
one degree nearer than they to the First Cause. Bnt 
this he would not be anything better than they. 

Others think that only tlie First Cause has real exist- 
ence, because it alone is self-sufiicing, whilst everything 
else absolutely requires it ; that a thing which for its 
existence stands in need of something else has only a 
dream-life, no real life, and that reality is only that one 
and first being (the First Cause). 

This is also the theory of the Mfis, i.e. the sages, 
for means in Greek wisdom (o-o^w). Therefore a 
philosopher is called paildsdpd (^tXdcrcx^os), i.e. loving 
wisdom.' When in Islam persons adopted something 
like the doctrines of theB& philosophers, they also adopted 
their name ; but some people did not understand the 
meaning of the word, and erroneously combined it with 
VOL. I. 0 



the Arabic word fvffa, as if the iSto/E ( * ^AAro^t) were 
identical with the so-called 'Akl-affuffa among the com- 
panions of Muhammad. In later times the word was 
corrupted by misspelling, so that Gnally it was taken for 
a derivation from f i3/, i.e. th6 wool 0 / goats. AbH-alfatb 
Albusti made a Mtudable effort to avoid this mistake 
when he said, “ From olden times people have differed 
as to the meaning of the word and have thought 
it a deiivative from <«!/, i.«. wool. I, for my part, 
understand by the word a youth who is fd/i, i.e. pure. 
This wt/5 has become f4/i, and in this form the name 
of a class of thinkers, the 

I'urther, the same Greeks think that the existing 
world is only one thing ; that the First Cause appears in 
it under various shapes j that the power of the First 
Cause is inherent in the parts of the world under dif- 
ferent circumstances, which cause a certain difference of 
the things of the world notwithstanding their original 

Others thought that he who turns with his whole 
being towards the First Cause, striviug to become as 
much as possible similar to it, will become united with 
it after having passed the intermediate stages, and 
stripped of all appendages and impediments. Similar 
views are also held by the because of the similarity 
of the dogma. 

As to the souls and spirits, the Greeks think that 
they exist by themselves tefore they enter bodies ; that 
they exist in certain numbers and groups, which stand 
in various relations to each other, lowing each other 
and not knowing ; that they, whilst staying in bodies, 
earn by the actions of their free-will that lot which 
awaits them after their separation from the bodies, 
i.e. the faculty of ruling the world in various ways, 
Therefore they called them gods, built temples in their 
OuieuuK, names and offered them sacrifices; as Galenas says in 
his book called TporptTfrtKbs el? ris T*;(kos : “ Excel- 



lent men have obtained the honour of being reckoned 
among the deified beings only for the noble spirit in 
which they cultivated the arts, not for their prowess in 
wrestling and discns*tbvowing. E.g. Asclepius and 
Dionysos, wJiether they were originally human beings 
in bygone times and afterwards deified, or were divine 
beings from the very beginning, deserved in any case 
the greatest of honours, because the one taught man- Puir'ir. 
kind the science of medicine, the other the art of the 
cultivation of the vine,” 

Galenus says in his commentary on the aphorisms of 
Hippocrates : “ As i-egai-ds the offerings to Asclepius, 
we have never heard that anybody offered him a goot, 
because the weaving of goat’s-hair is not easy, and 
much goat’s-meat produces epilepsy, since the humours 
of the goats are bad. People only offer him a cock, 
as also Hippocrates has done. For this divine man 
acquired for mankind the art of medicine, which is 
much superior to that which Dionysos and Demeter 
have invented, i.e. the wine and the cereals whence 
bread is prepared. Therefore cereals are called by the 
name of Demeter and the vine is called by the name 
of Dionysos.” 

Plato says in his Timceus: “The Oi.oi whom the pioto. 
barbarians call gods, because of their not dying, are 
the S'ujiuvti, whilst they call the god the first god.” 

Further he says : “ God spoke to the gods, ‘ Yon are 
not of yourselves exempt from destruction. Only you 
will not perish by death. You have obtained from 
my will at the time when 1 created you, the firmest 

In another passage of the same book he says : “ God 
is in the single number ; there are no gods in the plural 

These quotations prove that the Greeks call in 
general gcd everything that is glorious and noble, mti 
the like usage exists among many nations. TIuey go 





0/ (lonami- 

In Arabic, 
fttiU Syriac. 



eveo 8« far af? to call yo(/.« the mountMne, the seas, &c. 
Secondly, they apply the term god in a special sense 
to the First Cause, to the angels, and to their souls. 
According to a third usage, Plato calls gods the SddnAl 
(s Mourat), But on this subject the terms of the 
interpreters are not perfeotiy clear ; in consequence 
of winch we only know the name, but not what it 
means. Johannes Grammaticus says in his refutation 
of Proolus; "The Greeks gave the name of gods to 
the visible bodies in heaven, as many bai'barians do. 
Afterwards, when they came to philosophise on the 
abstract ideas of the world of thought, they called these 
by the name of gods.” 

Hence we must necessarily infer that being deified 
means something like the state of angels, according 
to our notions. This Galenus says in clear words 
in the same book : " If it is true that Asolepius was 
a man in bygone times, and that then God deigned 
to make him one of the angels, everything else is idle 

In another passage of the same book he says : “ God 
spoke to Lyciirgiis, ‘ I am in doubt concerning yon, 
whether to call you a man or an angel, but 1 incline to 
the latter.’” 

There are, however, certain expressions which are 
offensive according to the notions of one religion, whilst 
they are admissible according to those of another, which 
may pass in one language, whilst they are rejected by 
another. To this class belongs the word apotluosis, 
which has a bad sound in the ears of Muslims. If we 
consider the nse of the word god in the Arabic language, 
we find that all the names by which the pure truth, i.e. 
Allfih, bos been named, may somehow or other be applied 
to other beings besides him, except the word Alldk, 
which only applies to God, and which has been called 
his greatest name. 

If we consider the use of the word in Hebrew and 



Syriac, in wliich two laiiguages the sacred books before 
tlie Koran were revealed, we find that in the Thora and 
the following books of propliets which are reckoned 
with the Thora as one whole, that word Bahb oorre- 
sponds lo the word AUdh in Arabic, in so far as it can- 
not in a genitire constniotlon be aljplied to anybody 
besides God, and yon cannot say the rahh of the house, 
the rahh of the property (which in Arabic is allowed). 
And, secondly, we find that the word 'Uloah in Hebrew 
con-esponds in its usage there to the word liahh in 
Arabic (i.e. that in Hebrew the woi-d may apply 

to other beings bat God, like the word in Arabic). 

The following passages occur in those books : — 

“ The sons of Elohim came in auto the daaghters of 
men ” (Qen. vi. 4), before the deUige, aud cohabited with 

“ Satan entered together with the sons of Elohim into 
their meeting ’’ (Job i. 6). 

In the Thora of Moses God speaks to him : “ I have 
made thee a god to Pharaoh” (Exod. vii. l). 

In the 82d Psalm of the Psalter of David the fol- 
lowing occurs: “God standeth in the congregation of 
the gods” (Ps. Ixxxii. i), i.e. of the angels. 

In the Thora the idols are called foreign gods. If 
the Thora had not forbidden to worship any other beiug 
but God, if it had not forbidden people to prostrate 
themselves before the idols, nay, even to mention them 
and to think of them, one might infer from this expres- 
sion {foreign gods) that the order of the Bible refers 
only to the abolition of foreign gods, which would mean 
gods that are not Eehrew ones (as if the Hebrews bad 
adored national gods, in opposition to the gods of their 
neighbours). The nations round Palestine were idol 
worshippers like the heathen Greeks, aud the Israelites 
always rebelled against God by worshipping the idol of 
Baal (lit. Ba'ld) and the idol of Ashtaroth, i.e. Venus. 

From all this it is evident that the Hebrews used to 


Fiiia 19. 

3 « 

apply tlie term beinff gal, grammatically a term like 
ieiii;/ king, to the angels, to the souls invested with 
divine power (v. p. 34) ; by way of comparison, also, 
to the images which were made to represent the bodies 
of those beings ; lastly, metaphorically, to kings and to 
other great men. 

Passing from the word Ood to those of faOitr and 
son, we must state that Islam is not liberal in the use of 
them ; for in Arabio the word son means nearly always 
as much as a ehUd in the natural order of things, and 
from the ideas involved in parentage and birth can 
never be derived any expression meaning the Eternal 
Lord of creation. Other languages, however, take much 
more liberty in this respect ; so that if people address a 
man by father, it is nearly the same as if they addressed 
him by sir. As is well known, phrases of this kind 
have become so prevalent among the Christians, that 
anybody who does not always use the ytords father and 
son in addressing people would scarcely be considered 
as one of them. By the son they understand most 
especially Jesus, but apply it also to others besides 
him. It is Jesus who orders his disciples to say in 
prayer, “0 our father which art in heaven” (St. 
Matt. vi. 9) ; and informing them of his approaching 
death, he says that "he is going to his father and to 
their (St. John xx. 17). In most of bis speeches 
he explains the word the son as meaning himself, that 
he is the son of man. 

Ilesides the Christians, the Jews too use similar ex- 
pressions ; for the 2d Book of Kings relates that God 
consoled David for the loss of his son, who bod been 
borne to him by the wife of Uriah, and promised him 
another son from her, whom he would adopt as his 
ottm son (l Cbron. xxii. 9, 10). If the nse of the 
Hebrew language admits that Salomo is by adoption a 
son of God, it is admissible that he who adopted was a 
father, viz. God. 



The Mauichffians stand in a near relationship to the 
Christians. Mani expresses himself in a similar way in 
the book called Kanz-al'ihyd {Thesaurus Vivijicationis ) : 
“ The resplendent hosts will be called young women and 
virgins, fathers and mothers, sons, brothers, and sisters, 
beoanse snch is the custom in the books of the prophets. 
In the country of joy there is neither male nor female, 
nor are there organs of generation. All are invested 
with living bodies. Since they have divine bodies, they 
do not differ from each other in weakness and force, in 
length and shortness, in figure and looks ; they are like 
similar lamps, which are lighted by the same lamp, and 
which are nourished by the same material. The cause 
of this kind of name-giving arises, in the last instance, 
from the rivalry of the two realms in mixing up with 
each other. When the low dark realm rose from the 
abyss of chaos, and was seen by the high resplendent 
realm as consisting of pairs of male and female beings, 
the latter gave similar outward forms to its own chil- 
dren, who started to fight that other world, so that it 
placed in the fight one kind of beings opposite the 
same kind of the other world.” 

The educated among the Hindus abhor anthropo- 
morphisms of this kind, but the crowd and the mem- 
bers of the single sects use them most extensively. 
They go even beyond all we have hitherto mentioned, 
BO as to speak of wife, son, daughter, of the rendering 
pregnant and other physical processes, all in connection 
with God. They are even so little pious, that, when 
speaking of these things, they do not even abstain from 
silly and unbecoming language. However, nobody 
minds these classes and their theories, thongh they be 
numerous. The main and most essential point of the 
Hindn world of thought is that which the Brahmans 
think and believe, for they are specially trained for pre- 
serving and maintaining their religion. And this it is 
which we shall explain, viz. the belief of the Brahmans. 

Wole , 
the Menl. 

WotloTIA nf 
the ddu* 

hue. AU 
beifiga ur 
u uuity. 




Tuit aa. 


llegarding the whole creation (rb ov), they think that 
it is a unity, as has already been declared, because 
VAsudeva speaks in the book called OHd : “ To speak 
accurately, we must say that all things are divine; for 
Vishpu made himself the earth that the living beings 
should rest thereupon ; he made himself water to nourish 
them thereby ; he made himself fire and wind in order 
to make them grow ; and he made himself the heart of 
every single being. He presented them with recollec- 
tion and knowledge and the two opposite qualities, as 
is mentioned in the Veda.” 

ITow much does this resemble the expression of the 
author of the book of Apollonius, De Causis Eerum, as 
if the one had been taken from the other ! He says : 
“There is in all men a divine power, by which all 
things, both material and immaterial, are apprehended.” 
Thus in Persian the immaterial Lord is called Klmdhd, 
and in a derivative sense the word is also used to mean 
a man, i.e. a human lord. 

I. Those Hindus who prefer clear and accurate defi- 
nitions to vague allusions call the soul which 

means man, because it is the living element in the 
existing world. Life is the only attribute which they 
give to it. They describe it as alternately knowing 
and not knowing, as not knowing iv (actually), 

and as knowing iv Wd/iei (potentially), gaining know- 
ledge by acquisition. The not-knowing of purusha is 
the cause why action comes into existence, and its 
knowing is the cause why action ceases. 

n. Next follows the general matter, i.e. the abstract 
lUv, which they call avyakta, i.e. a shapeless thing. It 
is dead, but has three powers potentially, not actoally, 
which are called sattva, rajas, and tamas. I have heal'd 
timt Buddhodana (sic), in speaking to his adherents the 
Shamaniaus, calls them huddha, dliarma, saiigha, as it 
were intelligence, religion, and igiwrance (sic). The first 
power is rest and goodness, and hence, come existing 



and growing. The second is exerliou and fatigue, and 
hence come lirmness and duration. The third is languor 
and ^resolution, and hence come ruin and perishing. 
Therefore the first power is attributed to the angels, 
the second to men, the third to the animals. The ideas 
before, a/Urwards, and (}iereupo}i, may be predicated of 
all these things only in the sense of a ceiiain 6ec|uenoe 
and on account of the inadequacy of language, but not 
BO as to indicate any ordinary notions of time. 

in. Matter proceeding from Svrn/its into irpa^is under 
the various shapes and with the three primary forces 
is called vyakta, ie. having shape, whilst the union of 
the abstract Hkg and of the shaped matter is called 
praJerili. This term, however, is of no use to ns ; we 
do not want to speak of an abstract matter, the term 
mo^^er alone being sufiicient for us, since the one does 
not esdst without the other. 

IV. Next comes nature., which they call ahahkdra. 
The word is derived from the ideas of overpowering, de- 
vdvping, and self-assertion, because matter when assum- 
ing shape canses things to develop into new forms, and 
this growing consists in the changing of a foreign ele- 
ment and assimilating it to the growing one. Uence 
it is as if Nature were trying to overpower those otlur 
or foreign elements in this process of changing them, 
and were subduing that which is changed. 

V. -IX. As a matter of course, each compound pre- 
supposes simple elements from wliich it is compounded 
and into which it is resolved again. The universal 
existences in the world are the five elements, i.e. accord- 
ing to the Hindus : heaven, wind, fire, water, and earth. 
They are called mahdbhita, i.e. having great natures. 
They do not think, as other people do, that the fire is 
a hot dry body near the bottom of the ether. They 
understand by fire the common fire on earth which 
comes from an infiammation of smoke. The Vdyu 
Purdna says : “ In the beginning were earth, water, wind. 

Vjuktn iind 
rrak |-ltL 


frum ydyn 





Puge 91, 

and heaven. Brahman, on seeing; sparks under the 
earth, brongbt them forward and divided them into 
three parts : the first, pdrlhiva, is the common fire, 
whioh requires wood and is extinguished by wateir j the 
second is divya, i,e, the sun ■, the third, vidyut, the 
lightning. The sun attraots the water ; the lightning 
shines through the water. In the animals, also, there is 
fire in the midst of moist substanoes, which serve to 
nourish the fire and do not extingnish it." 

X.-XIV. As these elements are compound, they pre* 
suppose simple ones whioh are called j>aHea mdtd/ras, 
i.e. five mothers. They describe them as the functions 
of the senses. The simple element of heaven is Sabda, 
i.e. that which is heard ; that of the wind is spar4a, 
i.e. that which is touched ; that of the fire is rApa, ie. 
tliat which is seen ; that of the water is rasa, i,e. that 
which is tasted ; and that of the earth is gandha, i.e. 
that which is smelled. With each of these makdih'&ia 
elements (earth, water, &c.) they connect, firstly, one of 
the pailca-mdldras elements, as we have here shown ; 
and, secondly, all those which have been attributed to 
the mahdbhiUa elemente previonsly mentioned. So 
the earth has all five qualities; the water has them 
minus the smelling ( = four qualities) ; the fire baa them 
mintis the smelling and tastin'^ (t.e. three qualities) ; the 
wind has them minus smelling, tasting, and seeing (is. 
two qualities) ; heaven has them mmus smelling, tast- 
ing, seeing, and touching (t.e. oue quality). 

1 do not know what the Hindus mean by bringing 
sound into relation with heaven. Perhaps they mean 
something similar to what Homer, the poet of the 
ancient Greeks, said, “ 27iose invested vdtk the seven melo- 
dies speak and give answer to cocA other in a pleasant 
tone.” Thereby he meant the seven planets ; as another 
poet says, “ The spheres endowed with different melodies 
are seven, moving eternally, praising the Creator, for it is 
he who holds them and embraces them unto the farthest 
end of the s(ariess sphere." 



Porphyry says in bis book on the opinions of the 
most prominent philosophers about the nature of the 
sphere : “ The heavenly bodies moving about in forms 
and shapes and with wonderful melodies, which are 
fixed for ever, as Pythagoras and Diogenes have ex- 
plained, point to their Ci'eator, who is without ecjual 
and witltout shape. People say that Diogenes had 
such subtle senses that he, and he alone, could hear the 
sound of the motion of the sphere.” 

Ail these expressions are rather hints than clear 
speech, but admitting of a correct interpretation on a 
scientific basis. Some successor of those philosophers, 
one of those who did not grasp the full truth, says: 

“ Sight is watery, hearing airy, smelling fiery, tasting 
earthy, and touching is what the soul bestows upon 
everybody by uniting itself with it.” I suppose this 
philosopher counects the sight with the water because 
he had heard of the moist substances of the eye and of 
their different classes (lacuna); he refers the smelling 
to the fire on account of frankincense and smoke ; the 
tasting to the earth because of his nourishment which 
the earth yields him. As, then, the four elements are 
finished, he is compelled for the fifth sense, the touch- 
ing, to have recourse to the soul. 

The result of all these elements which we have enu- 
merated, i.e. a compound of all of them, is the aiiimal. 

The Hindus consider the plants as a sjjecies of animal 
as Plato also thinks that the plants have a sense, 
because they have the faculty of distinguishing betwe^ 
that which suits them and that which is detrimental to 
them. The animal is an animal as distinguished from 
a stone by virtue of its possession of the senses. 

XV.-XIX. The senses are five, called imlriydiii, the iniiriysoi. 
hearing by the ear, the seeiitg by the eye, the smelling 
by the nose, the tasting by the tongue, and the touching 
by the skin. 

XX. Kext follows the will, whiclt directs the senses Munu. 





tion of tbo 

in tbe exercise of their varioas functions, and which 
dwells in tbe heart. Therefore tliey call it manas. 

XXI.-XXV. The animal nature is rendered perfect 
by five neccasai'y functions, which they call karmendri- 
yd\ii, t,«. the senses of action. The former senses bring 
about learning and knowledge, the latter action and 
work. We shall call them the necsssaria. They are : 
I, To produce a sound for any of the different wants 
and wishes a man may hare ; 3. To throw the bands 
with force, in order to draw towards or to put away ; 
3. To walk with the feet, in order to seek something 
or to fly from it ; 4, 5. The ejection of the superfluous 
elements of nourishment by means of the two openings 
created for the purpose. 

The whole of these elements are twenty-fire, viz. 

1 . The general soul. 

2. The abstract vXij. 

3. The shaped matter, 

4. The overpowering nature. 

5-9. The simple mothers. 

10-14. The primary elements. 

15-19. The senses of apperception. 

20. The directing will. 

21-25. The instrumental necessaria. 

Tbe totality of these elements is called tattva, and all 
knowledge is restricted to them. Therefore Vyfisa the 
son of Panl^ara speaks : " Learn twenty-fire by dis- 
tinctions, definitions, and divisions, as yon learn a 
logical syllogism, and something which is a certainty, 
not merely studying with the tongue. Afterwards 
adhere to whatever religion yon like; your end will 
be salvation,’' 

( 45 ) 



Voluntary actions cannot originate in the body of any 
animal, nnless the body be living and exist in close con- 
tact with that which is living of itself, i.e. the soul. 
The Hindus muntain that the soul is tv irpi^si, not 
8v>'d/t£i, ignorant of its own essential nature and of 
its material substratum, longing to apprehend what it 
does not know, and believing that it cannot exist unless 
by matter. As, therefore, it longs for the good which 
is duration, and wishes to learn that which is hidden 
from it, it starts off in order to be united with matter. 
However, substances which are dense and such as are 
tenuous, if they have these qualities in the very highest 
degree, can mix together only by means of interme- 
diary elements which stand in a certain relation to 
each of the two. Thus the air is the medium be- 
tween fire and water, which are opposed to each other by 
these two qualities, for the air is related to the fire in 
tenuity and to the water in density, and by either of 
these qualities it renders the one capable of mixing 
with the other, How, there is no greater antithesis than 
that between lody and not-hody. Therefore the soul, 
being what it is, cannot obtain the fulfilment of its 
wish but by similar media, spirits which derive their 
existence from the matres simplices in the worlds called 
Bk'(i/rloka, Bh/uvarloka, and Svarloka. The Hindus call 
them tenuoue bodies over which the soul rises like the 

Tba aoul 
longing (o 
be miltad 
with Ihe 
body, if 80 
unltod by 

ary spirit*. 



Fsgu 33. 

Five winds 

tliv Jnue* 
tioDs uf ihe 

TUe differ* 
euce ci£ Uis 

S' AiU do* 

n|>ou tbe 
difforencD ol 
tiio bodivH 
ftnd their 

son over the eaith, in order to distinguish them from 
the doise bod-Us which derive their existence from the 
common five elements. The sonl, in consequence of 
this union with the media, uses them as its vehicles. 
Thus the image of the sun, though he is only one, is re- 
presented in many mirrors which are placed opposite to 
him, as also in the water of vessels placed opposite. 
The sun is seen alike in each mirror and each vessel, 
and in each of them hie warming and light-giving effect 
ie perceived. 

When, now, the varions bodies, being from their 
nature compounds of different things, come into exist- 
ence, being composed of male elements, viz. bones, 
veins, and spei-ma, and of female elements, viz. flesh, 
blood, and liair, and being thus fully prepared to receive 
life, then those spirits unite themselves with them, and 
the bodies are to the spirits what castles or fortresses 
are to the various affairs of princes. In a farther stage 
of development five winds enter the bodies. By the 
first and second of them the inhaling and exhaling are 
effectetl, by the third the mixture of the victuals in the 
stomach, by the fourth the locomotion of the body from 
one place to the other, by the fifth the transferring of 
the apperception of the senses from one side of the body 
to the other. 

The spirits here mentioned do not, according to the 
notions of the Hindus, differ from each other in sub- 
stance, but have a precisely identical nature. However, 
their individual characters and manners differ in the 
same measure as the bodies with which they are united 
differ, on account of the three forces which are in them 
striving with each other for supremacy, and on account 
of their harmony being disturbed by the passions of 
envy and wrath. 

Such, then, is the supreme highest cause of the soul’s 
starting off into action. 

On the other hand, the lowest cause, as proceeding 



from matter, is this : that matter for its pait seeks for 
perfection, and always prefers that wliich is better to 
that which is less good, viz. proceeding from Suvitfus 
into T/>£gjs. In cousecpience of the vainglory and 
ambition which are its pith and marrow, matter pro- 
duces and shows all kinds of possibilities which it 
contains to its pupil, the soul, and carries it round 
through all classes of vegetable and animal beings. 
Hindus compare the soul to a dancing-girl who is clever 
in her art and knows well what effect each motion and 
pose of hers has. She is in the presence of a sybarite 
most eager of enjoying what she has learned. Now she 
begins to produce the various kinds of her art one after 
the other under the admiring gaze of the host, until her 
programme is finished and the eagerness of the spectator 
has been satisfied. Then she stops suddenly, since she 
oonld not produce anything but a repetition ; and as a 
repetition is not wished for, he dismisses her, and action 
ceases. The close of this kind of relation is illustrated 
by the following simile : A caravan has been attacked 
in the desert by robbers, and the members of it have 
fled in all directions except a blind man and a lame 
man, who remain on the spot in helplessness, despairing 
of their escape. After they meet and recognise each 
other, the lame speaks to the blind : " I cannot move, 
bat I can lead the way, whilst the opposite is the case 
with yon. Therefore put me on your shoulder and 
carry me, that I may show yovi the way and that we 
may escape together from tliis calamity." This the 
blind man did. They obtained their pui-pose by helping 
each other, and they left each other on coming out of 
the desert. 

Further, the Hindus speak in different ways of the 
agent, os we have already mentioned. So the Viehnu 
Purdna says: “Matter is the origin of the world. Its 
action in the world rises from an innate disposition, as 
a tree sows its own seed by an innate disposition, not 

Oi) mcittor 
accklni^ the 
union wUh 
tho eouL 

rJuu inr Kind 

uf uuluu. 


mailer rie- 
fioin ftu 
InimCu dU- 




iDtentlonally, and the wind cools the water though it 
only intends blowing. Voluntary action is only due to 
Vishnu.” By the latter expression the author means 
the living being who is above matter (God). Through 
him matter becomes an agoTii tolling for him as a friend 
toils for a friend without wanting anything for himself. 

On this theory Mini has built the following sentence : 
“The Apostles asked Jesus about the life of inanimate 
nature, whereupon he said, ' If that which is inanimate 
is separated from the living element which is com- 
mingled with it, and appears alone by itself, it is again 
Pftgo 14. inanimate and is not capable of living, whilst the living 
element which has left it, retaining its vital energy 
unimpaired, never dies.’” 

Oh matter The book of S^khya derives action from matter, for 
oflctta'"* the difference of forms under which matter appears 
depends upon the threeprimary forces, and upon whether 
of vh'i™-"’ one or two of them gain the supremacy over the 
remainder. These forces are the angelic, the human, 
aud the animal. The three forces belong only to matter, 
not to the soul. The task of the soul is to learn the 
actions of matter like a spectator, resembling a traveller 
who sits down in a village to repose. Each villager is 
busy with his own particular work, but he looks at 
them and considers their doings, disliking some, liking 
others, and taking an example from them. In this way 
he is bnsy without having himself any share in the 
business going on, and vrithout being the cause which 
has brought it about. 

The book of S&ihkhya brings action into relation with 
the soul, though the soul has nothing to do with action, 
only in so far as it resembles a man who happens to 
get into the company of people whom he does not 
know. They are robbers returning from a village 
which they have sacked and destroyed, and he has 
scarcely marched with them a short distance, when 
they are overtaken by the avengers. The whole party 



are taken prisoners, and together with them the inno* 
cent man is dragged off ; and being treated precisely 
as they are, he receires the same punishment, without 
haring taken part in their action. 

People say the soul resembles the rain-water which 
comes down from heaven, always the same and of the 
same nature. However, if it is gathered in vessels 
placed for the purpose, vessels of different materials, of 
gold, silver, glass, earthenware, clay, or bitter-salt earth, 
it begins to differ in appearance, taste, and smell. Thus 
the soul does not influence matter in any way, except 
in this, that it gives matter life by being in close con- 
tact with it. When, then, matter begins to act, the 
result is different, in conformity with the one of the 
thret primary fm-ces which happens to preponderate, 
and conformably to the mutual assistance which the 
other two latent forces affoid to the former. This 
assistance may be given in various ways, as the fresh 
oil, the dry wick, and the smoking fii-e help each other 
to prodnce light. The soul is in matter like the rider 
on a carriage, being attended by the senses, who drive 
the carriage according to the rider’s intentions. But 
the soul for its part is guided by the intelligence with 
which it is inspired by God. 'ITiis intelligence they 
describe as that by which the reality of things is appre- 
hended, which shows the way to the knowledge of God, 
and to snch actions as are liked and praised by every- 

VOL. I. 


( 50 ) 


tnc»l, and 
rcHult p( 

Vh^ as» 



As the wm-d of confession, “There is no god bat God, 
Muliamniad is his prophet,” is the shibboleth of Islam, 
the Trinity that of Christianity, and the institnte of 
the Sabbath that of Jadaism, so metempsychosis is 
the shibboleth of the Hindu religion. Therefore he 
who does not believe in it does not belong to them, 
and is not reckoned as one of them. For they hold the 
following belief : — 

The soul, as long as it has not risen to the highest 
absolute intelligence, does not comprehend the totality 
of objects at once, or, as it were, in no time. Therefore 
it must explore all particular beings and examine all the 
possibilities of existence ; and as their number is, though 
not nnlimited, still an enormous one, the soul wants an 
enormous space' of time in order to finish the contem- 
plation of such a multiplicity of objects. The soul 
acquires knowledge only by the contemplation of the 
individuals and the species, and of their peculiar actions 
and conditions. It gains experience from each object, 
and gathers thereby new knowledge. 

However, these actions differ in the same measure as 
the three primary forces differ. Besides, the world is 
not left without some direction, being led, as it were, by 
a bridle and directed towards a definite scope. There- 
fore the imperishable souls wander about in perishable 
bodies conformably to the difference of their actions, as 



they prove to be good or bad. 'fhe object of tlie migra- 
tiou through the world of reward heaven) is to 
direct the attention of the soul to the good, that it should 
become desirous of acc|iiiring as much of it as possible. 
The object of its migration through the world of pun- 
ishment (ie. hell) is to direct its attention to the bad 
and abominable, that it should strive to keep os far as 
possible aloof from it, 

'The migration begins from low stages, and rises to 
higher and better ones, not the contrary, as we state 
on purpose, since the one is « piwn as possible as the 
other. The difference of these lower and higher stages 
depends upon the difference of the actions, and this 
agnin results from the quantitative and qualitative 
diversity of the temperaments and the various degrees 
of combinations in which they appear. 

This migration lasts until the object aimed at has 
been completely attained both for the soul and matter ; 
the fewer aim being the disappearance of the shape of 
matter, except any such new formation as may appear 
desirable ; the higher aim being the ceasing of the desire 
of the soul to learn what it did not know before, the 
insight of the soul into the nobility of its own being 
and its independent existence, its knowing that it can 
dispense with matter after it has become acquainted 
with the mean nature of matter and the instability of 
its shapes, with all that which matter offers to the 
senses, and with the truth of the tales about its 
delights. Then the soul turns away from matter ; tlie 
oounecting links are broken, the union is dissolved. 
Separation and dissolution take place, and tlie soul 
returns to its home, carrying with itself as much of the 
bliss of’ knowledge as sesame develops grains and 
blossoms, afterwards never separating from its oil, 
The intelligent being, intelligence and its object, are 
united and become one. 

It is now our duty to produce from their literature 

5 * 


Ironi lltg 

Page 26 . 

some clear teatimonies as to this subject and cerate 
theories of oUier nations. 

V^eudera speaks to Arjuna instigating him to the 
battle, whilst they stand between the two lines: “ If you 
believe in predestination, you must know that neither 
they nor we are mortal, and do not go away without a 
return, for the souls are immortal and nnohaitgeable. 
They migrate through the bodies, while man ohaiiges 
from childhood into youth, iuto manhood and infirm 
age, the end of which is the death of the body. There- 
after the soul proceeds on its retnm.” 

Further he says : “ How can a man think of death 
and being killed who knows that the soul is eternal, 
not having been bom and not perishing; that the soul 
is Boinething stable and constant; that no swoi'd can 
cut it, no fire bum it, no water extinguish it, aud no 
wind wither it? The soul migrates from its body, after it 
has become old, into another, a different one, as the body, 
wlien its dress has become old, is clad in another. What 
then is your sorrow about a soul which does not perish ? 
If it were perishable, it would be more becoming that 
you should not sorrow about a thing which may be dis- 
pensed with, which does not exist, aud does not return 
into existence. But if you look more to your, body 
tlian to your soul, aud are in anxiety about its perish- 
ing, yon mnstaknow that aU that which is bom dies, 
and that all that which dies returns into another exist- 
ence. However, both life and death are not your con- 
cern. They ai'e in the hands of God, from whom all 
things come and to whom they return.” 

In the further course of conversation Arjuna speaks 
to VAsudeva : “How did you dare thus to fight Brahman, 
Brahman who was before the world was and before 
man was, whilst you are living among ns as a being, 
whose birth and age are known P ” 

Thereupon Viisudeva answered: “Eternity (pre-exist- 
ence) is common to both of us and to him. How often 



have we lived together, when I knew the times of our life 
and death, whilst they were concealed from you ! When 
I desire to appear in order to do some good, I array 
myself in a body, since one cannot be with man except 
in a human shape." 

People tell a tale of a king, whose name I have 
forgotten, who ordered his people after his death to 
bary bis body on a spot where never before had a dead 
person been buried. Now they sought for such a spot, 
but could not find it ; finally, on finding a rook pro- 
jecting out of the ocean, they thought they had found 
what they wanted. But then Vasndeva spoke unto 
them, “This king has been bnnied on this identical 
rock already many times. But now do as yon like ; for 
the king only wanted to give you a lesson, and this 
aim of his has now been attained." 

Y&sndeva says ; " He who hopes for salvation and 
strives to free himself from the world, but whose heart 
is not obedient to his wish, will be rewaixied for his 
action in the worlds of those who receive a good re- 
ward ; bat he does not attain his last object on account 
of his deficiency, therefore he will return to this world, 
and will be found worthy of entering a new shape of a 
kind of beings whose special occupation is devotion. 
Divine inspiration helps him to raise himself in this 
new shape by degrees to that which he' already wished 
for in the first shape. His heart begins to comply with 
his wish ; he is more and more purified in the different 
shapes, ontil he at last obtains salvation in an uninter- 
ropted series of new births." 

Further, YSsudeva says; “If the soul is free from 
matter, it is knowing ; but as long as it is clad in matter, 
the soul U not-knowing, on account of the turbid nature 
of matter. It thinks that it is an agent, and that the 
actions of the world are pre^red for its sake. There- 
fore it clings to them, and it is stamped with the im- 
pressions of the senses. When, then, the soul leaves 



Togo t?. 



the body, the traces of the impressions of the senses 
remain in it, and are not completely eradicated, as it 
longs for the world of sense and returns towai'ds it. 
And since it in these stages undergoes changes entirely 
opposed to each other, it is thereby subject to the 
infhtences of the thre4 ^mmary forces. What, therefore, 
can the soul do, its wing being cut, if it is not sufR- 
ciently trained and prepared ? ” 

V&sudeva says : “ ITie best of men ia the perfectly 
wise one, for he loves God and God loves him. How 
many times has he died and been bom again I Daring 
his whole life he perseveringly seeks for perfection till 
he obtains it.” 

In the Vishmi^D/iarma, M^rkapdeya, speaking of the 
spiritual beings, says: “Brahman, K&i-ttikeya, son of 
Mali^deva, Laksbml, who produced the Amiita, Daksha, 
who was beaten by MahMeva, Umadevi, the wife of 
Mah^eva, each of them has been in the middle of this 
Icalpa, and they have been the same already many 

Var&liamibira speaks of the influences of the comets, 
and of the calamities which befall men when they 
appear. 'Phese calamities compel them to emigrate 
from their homes, lean from exhaustion, moaning over 
their mishap, leading their children by the hand along 
the road, and speaking to each other in low tones, 
“ We are punished for the sins of onr kings ; ” where- 
upon others answer, “ Not so. This is the retribution 
for what we have done in the former life, before we 
entered these bodies." 

When Mi\n1 was banished from flrUnshohr, he went 
to India, learned metempsychosis from the Hindus, and 
transferred it into his own system. He says in the Book 
of Mysteries: “ Since the Apostles knew that the souls 
are immortal, and that in their migrations they array 
themselves in every form, that they are shaped in every 
animal, and are cast in the mould of every figure, they 



asked Messiahwhat would be the end of those soulswhich 
dill not receive tlie truth nor learn the origin of their 
existence. Whereupon he said, ‘ Any weak sonl which 
has not received all that belongs to ber of truth perishes 
without any rest or blisa”' Bj perishinff Mini means 
her being punished, not her total disappearance. For 
in another place he says : “ The partisans of Bardesanes 
think that the living soul rises and is purified in the 
oai'caae, not knowing that the latter is the enemy of 
the soul, that the carcase preventa the soul from rising, 
that it is a prison, and a painful punishment to the 
soul. If this human figure were a real existence, its 
creator would not let it wear out and suffer injury, and 
would not have compelled it to reproduce itself by the 
sperma in the uterus.” 

The following passage is taken from the book of PntiuijAii- 
Patafljali : — “ The soul, being on all sides tied to 
ignorance, which is the cause of its being fettered, 
is like rice in its cover. As long as it is there, 
it is capable of growing and ripening in the tran- 
sition stages between being born and giving bii-th 
itself. But if tlie cover is taken off the rice, it ce^es 
to develop in this way, and becomes stationary. 

The retribution of the soul depends on the various 
kinds of creatures through which it wanders, upon 
the extent of life, whether it be long or short, and 
upon the particular kind of its happiness, be it scanty 
or ample.” 

The pupil asks : " What is the condition of the spirit 
when it has a claim to a recompense or has committed 
a crime, and is then entangled in a kind of new birth 
either in order to receive bliss or to be punished ? ” 

The master says : “It migrates according to what 
it has previously done, fluctuating between happiness 
and misfortune, and alternately experiencing pain or 

The pupil asks : “ If a man commits something which 

fkoni Pluto 
flDd PmelUA. 


necessitates a retribntion for him in a different shape 
from that in which he has committed the thing, and if 
between both stages there is a great interval of time 
and the matter is forgotten, what then ? ” 

The master answers ; “ It is the nature of action to 
adliere to the spiiit, for action is its product, whilst 
the body is only an instrnment for it. Forgetting does 
not apply to spiritual matters, for they He ontside of 
time, with the nature of which the notions of long and 
short duration are necessarily connected. Action, by 
adhering to the spirit, frames its natnre and character 
into a condition similar to that one into which the soul 
will enter on its next migration. The soul in its purity 
knows this, thinks of it, and does not forget it ; but the 
light of the soul is covered by the turbid natnre of the 
body as long as it is connected with the body. Then 
the soul is like a man who remembers a thing which he 
once knew, but then forgot in consequence of insanity 
or an illness or some intoxication which overpowered his 
mind. Do you not observe that little children are in 
high spirits when people wish them a long life, and 
are sony when people imprecate upon them a speedy 
death? And what would the one thing or the other 
signify to them, if they had not tasted the sweetness of 
life and experienced the bitterness of death in former 
generations through which they had been migrating to 
undergo the due course of retribution ? ” 

The ancient Greeks agreed with the Hindus in this 
belief. Socrates says in the book Phaedo : “ We are 
reminded in the tales of the ancients that the souls 
go from here to Hades, and then come from Hades 
to here ; that the living originates from the dead, and 
that altogether things originate from their contrariea 
Therefore those who have died are among the living. 
Our souls lead an existence of their own in Hades. 
The soul of each man is glad or sorry at something, and 
contemplates this thing. This impressionable nature 



ties the soul to the body, nails it down in the body, 
and gives it, as it were, a bodily figure. The soal 
which is not pure cannot go to Hades. It quits the 
body still filled with its nature, and then migrates 
hastily into another body, in which it is, as it were, 
deposited and made fast. Therefore, it has no share in 
the living of the company of the unique, pure, divine 

Further he says: "If the soul is an independent 
being, our learning is nothing but remembering that 
which we had learned previously, because our rodIs 
were in some place before they appeared in this human 
figure. When people see a thing to the use of which 
they were accustomed in childhood, they are under the 
infinence of this impressionability, and a cymbal, for 
instance, reminds them of the boy who used to beat it, 
whom they, however, had forgotten. Forgetting is the 
vanishing of knowledge, and knowing is the soul’s 
remembrance of that which it had learned before it 
entered the body.” 

Proclus says: “Remembering and forgetting are 
peculiar to the soul endowed with reason. It is 
evident that the soul has always existed. Hence it 
follows that it has always been ^th knowing and for- 
getting, knowing when it is separated from the body, 
forgetting when it is in connection with the body. For, 
being separated from the body, it belongs to the realm 
of the spirit, and therefore it is knowing; but being 
connected with the body, it descends from the realm of 
the spirit, and is exposed to forgetting because of some 
forcible iuflnence prevailing over it.” 

Tlie same doctrine is professed by those Sflfi who 
teach that this world is a sleeping soul and yonder 
world a soul awake, and who at the same time admit 
that God is immanent in certain places — e.g. in heaven 
— ^in the seat and the throne of God (mentioned in the 
Koran). But then there are others who admit that 

PivgB ag. 





God iB immanent in the whole world, in animals, trees, 
and the inanimate world, which they call bis univenal 
appearance. To thbse who hold this view, the entexing 
of the seals into various beings in the coarse of metetH' 
psychosis is of no consequence. 

( 59 ) 

CHAmii VI. 


Tub Hindus call the world lolca. Its primary division 
consists of the upper, the low, and the middle. The 
upper one is called svarloka, i.e. paradise; the low, 
ndgaloka, i.e. the world of the serpents, which is hell ; 
besides they call it luiraloka, and sometimes also -pdliUa, 
i.e. the lowest world. The middle world, that one in 
which we live, is called madhynloka and matwshynloka, 
i.e. the world of men. In the latter, man has to earn, in 
the upper to receive his reward ; in the low, to receive 
punishment. A man who deserves to come to svarloka 
or ndgaloka receives there the full recompense of ids 
deeds during a certain length of time corresponding to 
the duration of his deeds, but in either of them there is 
only the soul, the soul free from the body. 

For those who do not deserve to rise to heaven and to 
sink as low as hell there is another world called tirgag- 
loka, the irrational world of plants and animals, through 
the iudividnals of which the soul has to wander in 
the meteinpsyoliosis until it reaches the human being, 
rising by degrees from the lowest kinds of the vegetable 
world to the highest classes of the sensitive world. The 
stay of the soul in this world has one of the following 
causes : either the award which is due to the soul is not 
sufBcient to raise it into heaven or to sink it into hell, 
or the soul is in its wanderings on the way back from 
hell ; for they believe that a soul returning to the human 

The three 



Truni tir« 

Png* 30 . 

world from heaven at once adopts a haman body, 
whilst that one which returns there from hell has first 
to wander about in plants and animals before it reaches 
the degree of living in a human body. 

The Hindus speak in their traditions of a large num- 
ber of hells, of their qualities and their names, and for 
each kind of sin they have a special hell. The number 
of hells is 88,000 according to the Vi 8 hr}.u-Purdiyx. 
We shall qnote what this book says on the subject : — 

“The man who makes a false claim and who bears 
false witness, he who helps these two and he who 
ridicules people, come into the Raurava hell. 

“ He who shads innocent blood, who robs others of 
their rights and plunders them, and who kills cows, 
comes into Rodha. Those also who strangle people 
come here. 

“ Whoso kills a Brahman, and he who steals gold, 
and their companions, the princes who do not look after 
their snbjects, he who commits adultery with the family 
of his teacher, or who lies down with his mother-in-law, 
come into Taptakiimbha, 

“ Whoso connives at the shame of bis wife for greedi- 
ness, commits adnltery with his sister or the wife of his 
son, sells his child, is stingy towards himself with his 
property in oi-der to save it, comes into Mah&jwdla, 

“ Whoso is disrespectful to his teacher and is not 
pleased with him, despises men, commits incest with 
animals, contemns the Veda and PoT&pas, or tries to 
make a gain by means of them in the markets, comes 
into i^avaia. 

“ A man who steals and oommits tricks, who opposes 
the straight line of conduct of men, who hates his 
father, who does not like God and men, who does not 
honour the gems which God has made glorious, and 
who considers them to be like other stones, comes into 

“ Whoso does not honour the rights of parents and 



grand])arent8, whoso does not do his duty towards the 
augels, the maker of arrows and spear-points, come to 

“ The maker of swords and knives comes to VUasana. 

" He who conceals his property, being greedy for the 
presents of the rulers, and the Brahman who sells meat 
or oil or butter or sauce or wine, come to Adkmnukha. 

“ He who rears cocks and cats, small cattle, pigs, and 
birds, comes to Rtulhirdndha. 

“ Public performers and singers in the markets, those 
who dig wells for drawing water, a man who cohabits 
with his wife on lioly days, who throws fire into the 
houses of men, who betrays his compauion and then 
receives him, being greedy for his property, come to 

“He who takes the honey out of the beehive comes 
to Vaitarani. 

“Whoso takes away by force the property and 
women of others in the intoxication of youth comes 
to Krishi^a. 

“ Whoso cuts down the trees comes to Afdpati-avana. 

“The hunter, and the maker of snares and traps, 
come to VaJmiju'dla. 

“ He who neglects the customs and rules, and he who 
violates the laws — and he is the worst of all — come to 

We have given this enumeration only in order to 
show what kinds of deeds the liindns abhor as sins. 

Some Hindus believe that the middle world, that one Accaniiiiv 
for earning, is the human world, and that a man wan- 
ders about in it, because he lins received a reward which uirimKii 
does not lead him into heaven, but at the same time 
saves him from bell. They consider heaven as a higher ti 
stage, where a man lives iit a state of bliss which must 
be of a certain duration on account of the good deeds 
he has done. On the contrary, they consider the wan- 
dering about in plants and animals as a lower stage. 



where a man dwells for punishment for a certain length 
of time, which is thought to correspond to the wretched 
deeds he has done. People who hold this view do not 
know of another hell, but this kind of degradation 
below the degree of living as a human being. 
jHge 31. All these degrees of retribution are necessoiy for this 
that the seekiug for salvation from the fetters 
matter frequently does not proceed on the straight 
line which leads to absolute knowledge, but on lines 
chosen by guessing or chosen because others had chosen 
them. Not one action of man shall be lost, not even 
the last of all ; it shall be brought to bis account after 
his good and bad actions have been balanced agiunst 
each other. The retribution, however, is not according 
to the deed, but according to the inteiitiou which a man 
had in doing it ; and a man will receive his reward 
either in the form in which he lives on earth, or in that 
form into which his soul will migrate, or in a kind of 
intermediary state after he has left bis shape and has 
not yet entered a new one. 

Here now the Hindus quit the path of philosophical 
speculation and tiii'ii aside to traditional fables as re- 
gards the two places where reward of punishment is 
given, «.y. that man exists there as an incorporeal being, 
aud that after having received the reward of his actions 
he again returns to a bodily appearance and human 
shape, in order to be prepared for his further destiny, 
ns Therefore the author of the book Sdmkkya does not 
i itiiotM* consider the reward of paradise a special gain, because it 
bus an end and is not eternal, and because this kind of 
life resembles the life of this our world; for it is not 
free from ambition and envy, having in itself vaiious 
degrees and classes of existence, whilst cupidity and 
desire do not ce<ase save where there is perfect equality, 
scifi I'hc Sdfl, too, do not consider the stay in paradise a 

special gain for another reason, because there the soul 
delights in other things but the Truth, i.e. Ood, and its 


thoughts are diverted from the Absolute Good by things 
which are not the Absolute Good. 

We have already said that, according to the belief of 
the Hindus, the soul exists in these two places without 
a body. But this is only the view of the educated 
among them, who understand by the soul an indepen- 
dent being. However, tlic lower classes, and those wiio 
cannot imagine the existence of tlie soul without a 
body, hold about this subject very different views. One 
is this, that the cause of the agony of death is the soul's 
waiting for a shape which is to be prepared. It does 
not quit the body before there has originated a cognate 
being of similar functions, one of those which nature 
prepai'es eithei' as an embryo in a mother’s womb or as 
a seed in the bosom of the earth. Then the soul quits 
the body in which it has been staying, 

Others bold the more traditional view tliat the soul 
does not wait for such a thing, that it quits its sha])e 
on account of its weakness whilst another body has 
been prepared for it out of the elements. This body 
is called ativdinka, Le. that which grows in haste, because 
it does not come into existence by beif^ born. The 
soul stays in this body a complete year in the greatest 
agony, no matter whether it has deserved to be rewarded 
or to be punished. This is like the Barzakh of the 
Persians, an intermediary stage between the jieriods of 
acting and eariiiug and that of receiving award. For 
this reason the heir of the deceased must, according to 
Hindu use, fulfil the rites of the year for the deceased, 
duties which end with the end of the year, for then the 
soul goes to that ]>Iace which is prepared for it. 

We shall now give some extracts from their litera- 
ture to illustrate these ideas. First from the V‘uh7}^l 

•'Maitreya asked ParA^ai'a about the purpose of hell 
and the punishment in it, whereupon he answered : ‘ It 
is for distinguishing the good from the bad, knowledge 

Oil tlia ai>iil 
luiivliiu tlia 

aociii^lng to 






iind iha 





Pnffo 3t« 


ftutikors OT 



from igaoranoe, and for the manifestation of justice. 
Bnt not ever; sinner enters hell. Some of them escape 
hell by previonsly doing works of repentance and ex- 
piation. The greatest expiation is nninterrnptedly 
thinking of Vishpu in every action. Others wander 
about in plants, filthy insects and birds, and abominable 
dirty creeping things like lice and worms, for such a 
length of time as they desire it.’ ” 

In the book SAifikkya we read: “He who deserves 
exaltation and reward will become like one of the 
angels, mixing with the hosts of spiritnal beings, not 
being prevented from moving freely in the heavens 
and from living in the company of their inhabitants, 
or like one of the eight classes of spiiitiial beings. But 
he who deserves humiliation as recompense for sins 
and crimes will become on animal or a plant, and will 
wander about until he deserves a reward so as to be 
saved from punishment, or until he offers himself aa 
expiation, flinging away the vehicle of the body, and 
thereby attaining salvation.” 

A theosoph who inclines towards metempsychosis 
says : “ The metempsychosis has four degrees : 

“ I. The transferring, i.e. the procreation as limited 
to the human species, because it transfers existence 
from one individual to another ; the opposite of this is — 

“ 2. The transfoTViimj, which concerns men in parti- 
cular, since they are transformed into monkeys, pigs, 
and elephants. 

“3. Astable condition of existence, like the condition 
of the plants. This is worse th&n transferring, because 
it is a stable condition of life, remains as it is through 
all time, and lasts as long os the mountains. 

“4. The dispersing, the opposite of number 3, which 
applies to the plants that are plucked, and to animals 
immolated as sacrifice, because they vanish without 
leaving posterity.” 

Abh-Ya'kfib of Sijistdn maintains in his book, called 
“ The disclosing of that whicli is veiM," that the species 



are preserved ; that metempsychosis always proceeds ia 
one and the same species, never crossing its limits and 
passing into another species. 

This was also the opinion of the ancient Greeks; 
for Johannes Grammaticus relates as the view of Plato 
that the rational souls will be clad in the bodies of 
animals, and that in this regard he followed the fables 
of Pythagoras. 

Socrates says in the book Phado: "The body is 
earthy, ponderous, heavy, and the soul, which loves it, 
wanders about and is attracted towards the place, to 
which it looks from fear of the shapeless and of Hades> 
the gathering-place of the souls. They are soiled, and 
circle round the graves and cemeteries, where souls 
have been seen appearing in shadowy forms. This 
phantasmagoria only occnrs to such souls as have not 
been entirely separated, in which there is still a part 
of that towards which the look is directed.” 

Further he says : “ It appears that these are not the 
souls of the good, but the souls of the wicked, which 
wander about in these things to make an expiation for 
the badness of their former kind of rearing. Thus they 
remain until they are again boLud in a body on account 
of the desire for the bodily shape which has followed 
them. They will dwell in bodies the character of 
which is like the character which they had in the world. 
Whoso, e.y. only cares for eating and drinking will enter 
the various kinds of asses and wild animals ; and he 
who preferred wrong and opnression will enter the 
various kinds of wolves, and falcons, and hawks.” 

Farther he says about the gathering-places of the 
souls after death: "If I did not think that I am 
going first to gods who are wise, ruling, and good, 
then afterwards to men, deceased ones, better than 
those here, I should be wrong not to be in sorrow about 

Further, Plato says about the two places of reward and 

VOL,^ R 

from Julian- 
lio« Gmiii- 

Paso J3. 



of punishment ; “ When a man dies, a daimon, i,a one of 
the guardians of hell, leads him to the tribunal of jodg- 
ment, and a guide whose special office it is brings him, to- 
gether with those assembled there, to Hades, and there he 
remains the necessary number of many and long cycles 
of time. Telephos says, ‘The rood of Hades is an 
even one.’ I, however, say, ‘ If the road were even or 
only a single one, a guide could be dispensed with.' 
How that soul which longs for the body, or whose deeds 
were evil and not just, which resembles souls that have 
committed mnrder, flies from there and encloses itself in 
every species of being until certain times pass by. 
Thereupon it is brought by necessity to that place 
which is suitable to it. But the pure soul finds com- 
panions and gnidea, gods, and dwells in the places 
which are suitable to it." 

Further be says : “ Those of the dead who led a 
middle sort of . life travel on a vessel prepared for 
them over Acheron. After they have received punish- 
ment and have been purified from crime, they wash 
and receive honour for the good deeds which they 
did according to merit Those, however, who had 
committed great sins, e.ff. the stealing from the sacri- 
fices of the gods, robberies on a great scale, unjust 
killing, repeatedly and consciously violating the laws, 
are thrown into Tartarus, whence they will never be 
able to escape." 

Further: "Those who repented of their sins already 
during their lifetime, and whose crimes were of a some- 
what lower degree, who, e.p. committed some act of 
violence against their parents, or committed a murder by 
mistake, are thrown into Tartarus, being punished there 
for a whole year ; but then the wave throws them out to 
a place whence they cry to their antagonists, asking 
them to abstain from further retaliation, that they may 
be saved from the horrors of punishment. If those now 
agree, they are saved } if pot, they are sent back into 



Tartarus. And this, their punishment, goes on until 
their antagonists agree to their demands for being re- 
lieved. lliose whose mode of life was virtuous are 
liberated from these places on this earth. They feel as 
though released from prison, and they will inhabit the 
pure earth.” 

Tarianisii a hnge deep ravine or gap into which the 
rivers flow. All people understand by the punishment 
of hell the most dreadful things which are known to 
them, and the Western countries, like Greece, have 
sometimes to suffer deluges and floods. But the de- 
scription of Plato indicates a place where there are 
glaring flames, and it seems that he means the sea or 
some part of the ocean, in which there is a whirlpool 
{durdUr, a pun upon Tartants). No donbt these de- 
scriptions represent the belief of the men of those 

{ 68 ) 

Fir*l iMrt : 
Koksmk in 

P«g0 34. 

I'urtime ki 



If the soul is bound np with the world, and its being 
boand up has a certain cause, it cannot be liberated 
from this bond save by the opposite of this identical 
canse. Now according to the Hindus, as we have 
already explained (p. 55), the reason of the bond is 
ignorance, and therefore it can only be liberated by 
hwwledge, by comprehending all things in snch a way 
as to define them both in general and in particular, 
rendering snperflaous any kind of deduction and re- 
moving all doubts. For the sonl distinguishing between 
things (tcc ovra) by means of definitions, recognises its 
own self, and recognises at the same time that it is its 
noble lot to last for ever, and that it is the vulgar lot of 
matter to change and to perish in all kinds of shapes. 
Then it dispenses with matter, and perceives that that 
which it held to be good and delightful is in reality 
bad and painful. In this manner it attains real know- 
ledge and turns away from being arrayed in matter. 
Thereby action ceases, and both matter and soul become 
free by separating from each other. 

The auUiqr of the book of Patailjali says : “ The con- 
centration of thought on the unity of God induces man 
to notice something besides that with which he is 
occupied. He who wants God, wants the good for the 
whole creation without a single exception for any reason 
whatever ; but he who occupies himself exclusively with 



his own self, will for its benefit neither inhale, breathe, 
nor exhale it {ivdsa and prasidsti). When a man 
attains to this degree, his spiritnal power prevails over 
his bodily power, and then he is gifted with the faculty 
of doing eight different things by which detachment is 
realised; for a man can only dispense with that which 
he is able to do, not with that which is outside his 
grasp. These eight things are ; — 

“ I. The faculty in man of making his body so thin 
that it becomes invisible to the eyes. 

“ 2. The faculty of making the body so light that it is 
indifferent to him whether be treads on thorns or mud 
or sand. 

“3. The faculty of making his body so big that it 
appears in a terrifying miiaculous shape. 

“4. The faculty of realising every wish. 

“ 5. The faculty of knowing whatever he wishes. 

“6. The faculty of becoming the ruler of whatever 
religions community he desires. 

“ 7. That those over whom he rules are humble and 
obedient to bim, 

“ 8. That all distances between a man and any far- 
away place vanish.” 

The terms of the Sfifi as to the hnotcing being and 
his attaining the stage of knowledgii come to the same 
effect, for tliey maintain that he has two souls — an 
eternal one, not exjDOsed to change and alteration, by 
which he knows that which is luilden, the trans- 
cendental woi'ld, and pei'forms wonders ; and onother, 
a human soul, which is liable to being changed and being 
born. From these and similar views the doctrines of 
the Ohristiaus do not much differ. 

The Hindus say : " If a man has the faculty to per- 
form these things, he can dispense with them, and will 
reach the goal by degrees, passing through several 
stages : — 

" I. The knowledge of things as to their names and 



Til* dlffar- 

Dili dagrMt 
of know- 

accord Ilia to 




Od know- 
l«i1n u- 


qualities and diatmctions, which, however, does not yet 
afford the knowledge of definitions. 

“ 2. Such a knowledge of things as proceeds as far as 
the definitions by which particulars are classed under 
the category of nniverssls, but regarding which a man 
must still practise distinction. 

“3. This distinction (nve%a) disappears, and man 
comprehends things at once as a whole, but within 

“4. This kind of knowledge is raised above and 
he who has it can dispense with names and epithets, 
which are only instruments of human imperfection. 
In this stage the intellecius and the intelligcns nnlte 
with the irUellectum, so as to be one and the same 

This is what Patalijali says about the knowledge 
which liberates the soul, In Sanskrit they call its 
liberation Molcsha — i.e. the eTid. By the same term 
they call the last contact of the eclipsed and eclipsing 
bodies, or their separation in both lunar and solar 
eclipses, because it is the end of the eclipse, the moment 
when the two luminaries which were in contact with 
each other separate. 

According to the Hindus, the organs of the senses 
have been made for acquiring knowledge, and the plea- 
sure which they afford has been created to stimulate 
people to research and iavestigation, as the pleasure 
which eating and drinking afford to the taste has been 
created to preserve the individual by means of nourish- 
ment. So the pleasure of coitvs serves to preserve the 
species by giving birth to new individuals. If there 
were not special pleasure in these two fnnotioDB, man 
and animals would not practise them for these pur- 

In the book Gitd we read : " Man is created for the 
purpose of knowing; and because knowing is always 
the same, man has been gifted with the same organs. 


If man were createJ for the purpose of acting, bis 
organs would be different, as actions are different in 
consequence of the difference of the three primary forces. 
However, bodily nature is bent upon acting on account 
of its essential opposition to knowing. Besides, it 
wishes to invest action with pleasures which in reality 
are pains. But knowledge is such as to leave this 
nature behind itself prostrated on the earth tike an 
opponent, and removes all darkness from the soul as 
an eclipse or clonds are removed from the sun." 

This resembles the opinion of Socrates, who thinks 
that the soul “being with the body, and wishing to 
inquire into something, then is deceived by the body. 
But by cogitations something of its desires becomes 
clear to it. Therefore, its cogitation takes place in that 
time when it is not disturbed by anything like hearing, 
seeing, or by any pain or pleasure, when it is quite by 
itself, and has as much as possible quitted the body 
and its companionship. In particular, the soul of the 
philosopher scorns the body, and wishes to be separate 
from it.” 

“ If we in this our life did not make use of the body, 
nor had anything in common with it except in cases of 
necessity, if we were not inoculated with its nature, 
but were perfectly free from it, we should come near 
knowledge by getting rest from the ignorance of the 
body, and we should become pure by knowing our- 
selves as for as God would permit us. And it is only 
right to acknowledge that this is the truth.” 

How we return and continue our quotation from the 
book OUd. 

" Likewise the other organs of the senses serve for 
acquiring knowledge. The knenoing jterson rejoices in 
turning them to and fro on the field of knowledge, so 
that they are his spies. The apprenhension of the senses 
is different according to time. The senses wliich serve 
the heart perceive only that which is present The 

trom riiito'R 

Ths prooew 
u( know- 
loijM iw. 
coral iig to 
(rim and 





heart; reflects over that which is present and rememhera 
also the past. The nature takes hold of the present, 
claims it for itself in the past, and prepares to wrestle 
with it in future. The reason understands the nature 
of a thing, no regard being had of time or date, since 
past and future are the same for it Its nearest helpers 
are reflecHcm and nature ; the most distant are the five 
senses. When the senses bring before reflection some 
particular object of knowledge, reflection cleans it from 
the errors of the functions of the senses, and hands'-it 
over to reason. Thereupon reason makes universal 
what was before particular, and communicates it to the 
soul. Thus the soul comes to know it.” 

Further, the Hindus think that a man becomes knoxo- 
ing in one of three ways: — 

1. By being inspired, not in a certain course of time, 
but at once, at birth, and in the cradle, as, e.g. the sage 
Kapila, for he was bom knowing and wise. 

2. By being inspired after a certain time, like the 
children of Brahman, for they were inspired when they 
came of age. 

3. By learning, and after a certain course of time, 
like all men who leam when their mind ripens. 

Pnga j6 Liberation through knowledge can only be obtained 
w™o!*'»nd fey *^bstaining from The branches of evil are many, 

Sth^chicf classify them as cupidity, wrath, and ignor- 

^ artcs. If the roots ore cut the branches will wither. 
And here we have first to consider the rule of the two 
forces of cupidity and wrath, which are the greatest and 
most pernicious enemies of man, deluding him by the 
pleasure of eating and the delight of revenge, whilst in 
reality they are much more likely to lead him into 
pains and crimes. They make a man similar to the 
wild beasts and the cattle, nay, even to the demons and 

Next we have to consider that man mnst prefer the 
reasoning force of mind, by which he becomes similar 



to the highest angels, to the forces of cupidity and 
wrath j and, lastly, that he must turn away from the 
actions of the world. Ho. cannot, however, ffive itp these 
actions unless he does away with their causes, which 
are his lust and ambition. Thereby the second of the 
thru primary fm-eea is out away. However, the abstain- 
ing fivin action takes place in two different ways : — 

1. By laziness, procrastination, and ignorance accord* 
ing to the third fane. Tliis mode is not desirable, for 
it will lead to a blatnable end. 

2. By judicious selection and by prefen-ing that which 
is better to that which is good, which way leads to a 
laudable end. 

The abstaining from actions is rendered perfect in this 
way, that a man quits anything that might occupy him 
and shuts himself up against it. Thereby lie will be 
enabled to restrain his senses from extraneous objects 
to such a degree that he does not any more know that 
there exists anything besides himself, and be enabled 
to stop all motions, and even the breathing. It is 
evident that a greedy man strains to effect his object, 
the man who strains becomes tired, and the tired man 
pants ; so the panting is the result of greediness. If 
this greediness is removed, the breathing becomes like 
the breathing of a being living at the bottom of the sea, 
that does not want breath ; and then the heart quietly 
rests on one thing, viz. the search for liberation and 
for arriving at the absolute unity. 

In the book GitA we read : “ How is a man to ob- 
tain liberation who disperses his heart and does not oue. 
concentrate it alone ujxm God, who does not exclu- 
sively direct his action towards him? But if a man 
turns away his cogitation from all other things and 
concentrates it upou the One, the light of bis heart will 
be steady like the light of a lamp Oiled with clean oil, 
stan^g in a corner where no wind makes it flicker, 
and he will be occupied in such a degree as not to 



Th« i>iu« 

mentft n! 
tba Hludu 

Piije 3r. 

perceire anything that ^ves pain, like heat or cold, 
knowing that everything besides the One, the Truth, 
is a vain phantom.” 

In the same book we read ; “ Pain and pleasure have 
no effect on the real world, just as the continuous flow 
of the streams to the ocean does not affect its water. 
How could anybody ascend this monntain pass save him 
who has conquered eu^dity and wrath and rendered 
them inert ? ” 

On account of what we have explained it is necessary 
that cogitation should be continuons, not in any way 
to be deflned by number ; for a number always de- 
notes repeated times, and repeated times presuppose a 
break in the cogitation occurring between two consecu- 
tive times. This would interrupt the continuity, and 
would prevent cogitation becoming united with the 
object of cogitation. And this is not the object kept 
in view, which is, on the contrary, the continuity of 

This goal is attained either in a single ^ape, i.e. a 
single stage of metempsychosis, or in several shapes, 
in this way, that a man perpetually practises virtuous 
behaviour and accustoms the soul thereto, so that this 
virtuous behaviour becomes to it a nature and an 
essential quality. 

Virtuous behaviour is that which is described by 
the religious law. Its principal laws, from which they 
derive many secondary ones, may be summed up in the 
following nine rules : — 

1. A man shall not kill. 

2. Nor lie. 

3. Nor steal 

4. Nor whore. 

5. Nor hoard up treasures. 

6. He is perpetually to practise holiness and purity. 

y. He is to perform the prescribed fasting without 

an interruption and to dress poorly. 



8. He is to hold fast to the adoration of God with 
praise and thanks. 

9. He is always to have in miud the word 6 m, the 
word of creation, without pronoimcing it. 

The injuDolion to abstain from killing as regards 
animals (No. i) is only a special part of the general 
order to ahslain from doing anything hurtfd. Under 
this head falls also the robbing of another man’s goods 
(No. 3), and the telling lies (No. 3), not to mention (he 
fonlness and baseness of so doing. 

The abstaining from hoarding up (No. 5) means that 
a man is to give up toil and fatigue ; that he who seeks 
the bounty of God feels sure that he is provided for ; 
and that, starting from the base slavery of material life, 
we may, by the noble liberty of cogitation, attain eternal 

Practising purity (No. 6) implies that a man knows the 
filth of the body, and that he feels called upon to bate 
it, and to love cleanness of soul. Tormenting oneself 
by poor dress (No. 7) means that a man should reduce 
the body.aUay its feverish desires, and sharpen its senses, 
Pythagoras once said to a man who took great care to 
keep bis body in a fiourishing condition and to allow it 
everything it desired, “Thou art not lazy in building 
thy prison and making thy fetter as strong as possible." 

The holding fast to meditation on God and the angels 
means a kind of familiar intercourse with them. The 
book Sdihlchya says : “ Man cannot go beyond anything 
in the wake of which he marches, it being a scope 
to him (ie. thus engrossing his thoughts and detaining 
him from meditation on God).” The book OtlA says ; 
" All that which is the object of a man’s continuous 
meditating and bearing in mind is stamped upon him, 
so that he even unconsciously is guided by it. Since, 
now, the time of heath is the time of remembering what 
we love, the soul on leaving the body is united with 
that object which we love, and is changed into it.” 



However, the reader must not believe that it is only 
the union of the soul with any forms of life that perish 
and return into existence that is perfect liberation, for the 
Qnotatioas sume book, “He who knows when dying that 

God is everything, and that from him everything pro- 
ceeds, is liberated, though his degree be lower than that 
of the saints.” 

The same book says : “ Seek deliverance from this 
world by abstaining from any connection with its follies, 
by having sincere intentions in all actions and when 
making offerings by fire to God, without any desire for 
reward imd recompense ; further, by keeping aloof from 
mankind.” The real meaning of all this is that you 
should not prefer one because he is yonr friend to 
another because be is your enemy, and that you should 
beware of negligence in sleeping when others are awake, 
and in waking when others are asleep ; for this, too, is 
a kind of being absent from them, though outwardly 
yon are ywessni with them. Further: Seek deliverance 
by guarding soul from soul, for the sonl is an enemy if 
it be addicted to lusts; but what an excellent friend 
it is when it is chaste / ” 

Oraok Socrates, caring little for his impending death and 

plIfaSoiH. being glad at the prospect of coming to his Lord, said : 

“ My degree must not be considered by any one of you 
lower than that of the swan,” of which people say that 
it is the bird of Apollo, the sun, and that it therefore 
knows what is hidden ; that is, when feeling thdt it will 
soon die, sings more and more melodies from joy at the 
prospect of coming to its Lord. “ At least my joy at my 
prospect of coming to the object of my adoration must 
not be less than the joy of this bird.” 

For similar reasons the ^dft define love as being en* 
grossed by the creature to the exclusion of God. 
s«ood In the hook of Pata'hjali we read : “ We divide the 
path of liberation into three parts : — 
u MoSii'* “ I. The practical one {liriydryoga),& process of habitu- 



ating the senseB in a gentle way to detach themselves 
from the external world, and to concentrate themselves 
npon the internal one. so that they exclusively occupy 
themselves with God, This is in general the path of 
him who does not desire anything save what is sufficient 
to sustain life." 

In the book Vi$hi}.u-l)harma we read: “The king 
Pariksba, of the family of Bhrigu> asked f^atilnika, the 
head of an assembly of sages, who stayed with him, for 
the explanation of some notion regarding the deity, and 
by way of answer the sage communicated what he had 
heard from Saiinalca, ^aunaka from U^anas, and U^anas 
from Brahman, as follows : ‘ God is without first and 
without last ; he has not been born from anything, and 
he has not borne anything save that of which it is im- 
possible to say that it is He, and just as impossible to 
say that it is Not-he. How should I be able to ponder 
on the absolute good which is an outflow of bis benevo- 
lence, and of the absolute bad which is a product of his 
wrath ; and how could I know him so as to worship him 
as is hie due, save by turning away from the world in 
general and by occupying myself exclusively with him, 
by perpetually cogitating on him ? ’ 

“ It was objected to him t ‘ Man is weak and his life 
is a trifling matter. He can hardly bring himself to 
abstain from the necessities of life, and this prevents 
him from walking on the path of liberation, If we 
were living in the first age of mankind, when life 
extended to thousands of years, and when the world 
was good because of the non-existence of evil, we might 
hope that that which is necessary on tliis ]iath should 
be done. But since we live in the last age, nlmt, 
according to your opinion, is there in this revolving 
world that might protect him against the floods of tiie 
ocean and save him from drowning ? ’ 

“ Thereupon Brahman spoke : ' Man wants nonrish- 
ment, shelter, and clothing. Therefore in them there 

ACCoMln^ to 

luid QUA. 



is no barm to him. But happiness is only to be found 
in abstaining from tMngs besides them, from superfluous 
and fatiguing actions. Worehip God, him alone, and 
venerate him ; approach him in the place of worehip 
with presents like perfumes and flowers ; praise' him 
and attach your heart to him so that it never leaves 
him. Give alms to the Brahmans and to others, and 
vow to God vows — special ones, like the abstaining 
from meat; general ones, like fasting. Vow to him ani- 
mals which you mast not hold to be something different 
from yourselves, so as to feel entitled to kill them. 
Know that he is everything. Therefore, whatever you 
do, let it be for his sake ; and if you enjoy anything of 
the vanities of the world, do not forget him in your 
intentions. If you aim at the fear of God and the 
faculty of worshipping him, thereby you will obtain 
liberation, not by anything else.’ ” 

The book QUA says : “ He who mortifies his lust does 
not go beyond the necessary wants ; and he who is 
content with that which is sufficient for the sustaining 
of life will not be ashamed nor be despised.” 

The same book says : “ If man is not without wants 
as regards the demands of human nature, if he wants 
nourishment to appease thereby the heat of hunger and 
exhanstion, sleep in order to meet the injurious influ- 
ences of fatiguing motions and a couch to rest upon, 
let the latter he clean and smooth, everywhere equally 
high above the ground and sufficiently large that he 
may stretch out his body upon it. Let him have a 
place of temperate climate, not hurtful by cold nor by 
heat, and where be is safe against the approach of 
reptiles. All this helps him to sharpen the functions 
of his heart, that he may without any interruption con- 
centrate his cogitation on the unity. For all things 
besides the necessities of life in the way of eating and 
clothing are pleasures of a kind which, in reality, are 
disguised pains. To acquiesce in them is impossible, 



and wonld end in the gravest inconvenience. There is 
pleasure only to him who kills the two intolerable 
enemies, lust and v/rath, already during his life and not 
when he dies, who derives his rest and bliss from within, 
not from without and who, in the final result, is able 
altogether to dispense with his senses." 

Visudeva spoke to Arjuna : " If you want the abso- 
lute good, take care of the nine doors of thy body, 
and know what is going in and out through them. 
Constrain thy heart from dispersing its thoughts, and 
quiet thy soul by thinking of the upper membrane of 
the child's brain, which is first soft, and then is closed 
and becomes strong, so that it would seem that there 
were no more need of it. Do not take perception of 
the senses for anything but the nature immanent in 
their organs, and therefore beware of following it.” 

II. The second part of the path of liberation is 
renunciation (the via omissionis), based on the know- 
ledge of the evil which exists in the changing things of 
creation and their vanishing shapes. In consequence 
the heart shuns them, the longing for them ceases, and 
a man is raised above the three primary forces which are 
the cause of actions and of their diversity, For he who 
acccrately understands tlie affairs of the world knows 
that the good ones among them are evil in reality, and 
that the bliss which they afford changes in the coui'se 
of recompense into pains. Therefore he avoids every- 
thing which might aggravate his condition of being 
entangled in the world, and which might result in 
making him stay in the world for a still lunger period. 

The book Oitd says : “ Men err in what is ordered 
and what U forbidden. They do not know how to dis- 
tinguish between good and evil in actions. Therefore, 
giving up acting altogether and keeping aloof from it, 
this is the action." 

The same book says: “The purity of knowledge is 
high above the purity of all other things, for by know- 

p«fr» 39- 

Thopsth of 
tloti aa the 
eecorid par( 
of the patli 
of Ubcratioii 
Accord) ne to 



Wonlilp 1* 
lUo third 
part of the 
inth of 

On Rul- 
yono no o 

pAth londlug 

U> Moh otiA. 

ledge ignorance is rooted out and certaintj is gained in 
exchange for donbt, which is a means of tortnre, for 
there is no rest for him who donbts.” 

It is evident from this that the first part of the path 
of liberation is instrumental to the second one. 

III. The third part of the path of liberation which is 
to be considered as instrumental to the preceding two 
is worthip, for this purpose, that God should help a man 
to obtain liberation, and deign to consider him worthy 
of such a shape of existence in the meteropsjchosis in 
which he may effect his progress towards beatitude. 

The author of the book CKtd distributes the duties of 
worship among the body, the voice, and the heart. 

What the body has to do is fasting, prayer, the fulfil- 
ment of the law, the service towards the angels and the 
sages among the Brahmans, keeping clean the body, 
keeping aloof from killing under all circumstances, and 
never looking at another man’s wife and other property. 

What the voice has to do is the reciting of the holy 
texts, praising God, always to speak the tmth, to 
address people mildly, to guide them, and to order 
them to do good. 

What the heart has to do is to have straight, honest 
intentions, to avoid haughtiness, always to be patient, 
to keep your senses under control, and to have a cheer- 
ful mind. 

The anthor (Patafijali) adds to the three parts of the 
path of liberation a fourth one of an illusory natnre, 
called Hasdyana, consisting of alchemistie tricks with 
various drugs, intended to realise things which by nature 
are impossible. We shall speak of these things after- 
wards {vide chap. xvii.). ’I'hey have no other relation to 
the theory of ifo^s/tabut this, that also in the tricks of 
EasAyana everything depends upon the intention, the 
well-understood determination to carry them out, this 
determination resting on the firm belief in them, and 
resulting in the endeavour to realise them. 


According to the Hindus, liberation is union with 
God; for they describe God as a being who can dis- 
pense with hoping for a recompense or with fearing 
opposition, unattainable to thought, because he is sub- 
lime beyond all uiilikeness wliich is abhorrent and all 
likeness which is sympathetic, knowing himself not by 
a knowledge which comes to him like an accident, re- 
garding something which had not in every phase before 
been known to him. And this same description the 
Hindus apply to the lUerated one, for he is equal to God 
in all these things except in the matter of beginning, 
since he has not existed from all eternity, and except 
this, that before liberation he existed in the world of 
entan/jlement, knowing the objects of knowledge only 
by a phantasmagoric kind of knowing which be had 
acquired by absolute exertion, whilst the object of his 
knowing is still covered, as it were, by a veil. On the 
contrary, in the world of liberation a!! veils are lifted, 
all covers taken off, and obstacles removed. There the 
being is absolutely knowing, not desirona of learning 
anything unknown, separated from the soiled percep- 
tions of the senses, united with the everlasting ideas. 
Therefore in the end of the book of Patailjali, after the 
pupil has asked about the nature of liberation the 
master says : “ If you wish, say, Liberation is the 
cessation of the functions of the three forces, and their 
returning to that home whence they had come. Or if 
yon wish, say. It is the return of the soul as a knovnng 
being into its own nature.” 

The two men, pupil and master, disagree regarding 
him who has arrived at the stage of liberatiou. The 
anchorite asks in the book of ijftibkhya, “ Why does 
not death take place when action ceases ? ” The sage 
replies, “ Because the cause of the separation is a 
certain condition of the soul whilst the spirit is still 
in the body. Soul and body are separated by a natural 
condition which severs their union. Frequently when 

VOL. I. F 

On tbo 
imtum of 

Pace 40. 

from Pata^ 





FiftiB Pa» 

tlie canse of an effect lias already ceased or disappeared, 
tlie effect itself still goes on for a certain time, slacken- 
ing, and by and by decreasing, till in tbe end it ceases 
totally ; e.g. the silk-weaver drives round his wheel with 
his mallet until it whirls round rapidly, then he leaves 
it ; however, it does not stand still, though the mallet 
that drove it round has been removed ; the motion of 
the wheel decreases by little and little, and finally it 
ceases. It is the same case with the body. After the 
action of the body has ceased, its effect is still lasting 
until it arrives, through the various stages of motion 
and of rest, at the cessation of physical force and of the 
effect which bod originated from preceding causea 
Thus liberation is finished when the body has been 
completely prostrated.” 

In the book of Patafijali there is a passage which 
expresses similar ideas. Speaking of a man who re- 
strains his senses and organs of perception, as the turtle 
draws in its limbs when it is afraid, he says that “ he 
is not fettered, because the fetter has been loosened, 
and he is not liberated, because bis body is still with 

There is, however, another passage in the same book 
which does not agree with the theory of liberation as 
expounded above. He says ; “ The bodies are the snares 
of the souls for the purpose of acquiring recompense. 
He who arrives at the stage of liberation has acquired, 
in bis actual form of existence, the recompense for all 
the doings of the past. Then he ceases to labour to 
acquire a title to a recompense in the future. He frees 
himself from the snare ; ha can dispense with the parti- 
cular form of his existence, and moves in it quite freely 
witlioiit being ensnared by it. He has even the faculty 
of moving wherever he likes, and if he like, he might 
rise above the face of death. For the thick, cohesive 
bodies cannot oppose an obstacle to his/orm of exist- 
ence (as, e.g. a mountain could not prevent him from 

CHAPTER Vll. 83 

passing through). How, then, could his body oppose an 
obstacle to his soul ? ” 

Similar views are also met with among the Sflfi. 
Some Sftfi author relates the following story : “ A com- 
pany of SClfi came down unto us, and sat down at some 
distance from ns. Then one of them rose, prayed, and 
on having finished his prayer, turned towards mo and 
spoke : ‘ 0 master, do you know here a place fit for us 
to die on ? ’ Now I thought he meant Bleeping, and so I 
pointed out to him a place. Tho man went there, threw 
himself on the back of his head, and remained motion- 
less. Now I rose, went to him and shook him, but lo! 
he was already cold.” 

The Sufi explains the Koranic verse, “We have 
made room for him on earth” (Sdra 18, 83), in this 
way: “If he wishes, the earth rolls itself up for 
him; if ho wishes, he can walk on the water aud in 
the air, which offer him sufficient resistance so as to 
enable him to walk, whilst the mountains do not offer 
him any resistance when he wants to pass through 

We next speak of those who, notwithstanding their 
greatest exertions, do not reach the stage of liberation. 
There are several classes of them. The boob Sdihlchya 
says: “He who enters upon the world with a virtuous 
character, who is liberal with what lie possesses of the 
goods of the world, is recompensed in it in this way, 
^at he obtains the fulfilment of his wishes and desires, 
that he moves about in the world in happiness, happy 
in body and soul and in all other condilioDS of life, For 
in reality good fortune is a recompense for former deeds, 
done either in the same shape or in some preceding 
shape. Whoso lives in this world piously but without 
knowledge will be raised and be rewarded, but not be 
liberated, because the means of attaining it are want- 
ing in his case. Whoso is content and acquiesces 
in possessing the faculty of practising the above-men- 

SAU p*. 


Oa Ui'tM 
who do not 
nccordlDg lo 



tioued eight commandments (sic, vide p. 74), whoso 
glories in them, is successfal by means of them, and 
believes that they are liberation, will remain in the 
same stage/’ 

The following is a parable characterising those who 
vie with each other in the progress through the various 
stages of knowledge : — A man is travelling together 
with his pupils for some business or other towards the 
end of the night. Then there appears something stand- 
ing erect before them on the road, the nature of which 
it is impossible to recognise on account of the darkness 
of night. The man turns towards his pupils, and asks 
them, one after the other, what it is ? The first says : 
“ I do not know what it is.” The second says : “ I do 
not know, and I have no means of learning what it is.” 
The third says : “ It is useless to examine what it is, 
for the rising of the day will reveal it. If it is some- 
thing terrible, it will disappear at daybreak ; if it is 
something else, the nature of the thing will anyhow be 
clear to us.” Now, none of them had attained to know- 
ledge, the first, because he was ignorant ; the second, 
because he was incapable, and had do means of know- 
ing *, the third, because he was indolent and acquiesced 
in bis ignorance. 

The fourth pupil, however, did not give an answer. 
Be stood still, and then he went on in the direction of 
the object. On coming near, be found that it was pump- 
kins on which there lay a tangled moss of something 
Now he knew that a living man, endowed with free 
will, does not stand still in his place until such a 
tangled moss is formed on his head, and he recognised 
at once that it was a lifeless object standing erect. 
Further, he could not be sure if it was not a hidden 
place for some dunghill. So he went quite close to it, 
struck against it with his foot till it fell to the ground. 
Thus all doubt having been removed, he returned to 
bis master and gave him the exact account. In such a 


way the master obtained the knowledge through the 
intermediation of his pupils. 

With regard to similar views of the ancient Greeks 
we can quote Ammonius, who relates the following as a 
sentence of Pythagoras : “ Let your desire and exertion 
in this world be directed towards the union with the First 
Cajae, which is the cause of the cause of your existence, 
that yon may endure for ever. You will be saved from 
destruction and from being wiped out ; you will go to 
the world of tbe true sense, of the true joy, of the true 
glory, in everlasting joy and pleasures.” 

Further, Pythagoras says : “ How can you hope for 
the state of detachment as long as you are clad in 
bodies ? And how will you obtain liberation as long as 
you are incarcerated in them ? ” 

Ammonius relates : “ Empedocles and his successors 
as far as Heracles (sic) think that the soiled souls always 
remain commingled with the world until they ask the 
universal soul for help. The universal soul intercedes 
for it with tbe Intelligence, the latter with the Creator. 
TheOreatoraffordssomethingof his light to Intelligence; 
Intelligence affords something of it to the universal soul, 
which is immanent in this world. Now tbe sonl wishes 
to be enlightened by Intelligence, until at last the 
individual soul recognises the universal soul, unites 
with it, and is attached to its world. But this is a pro- 
cess over which many ages must pass. Then the soul 
comes to a region where there is neither place nor time, 
nor anything of that which is in tbe world, like transient 
fatigue or joy.” 

Socrates saye : “ The soul on leaving space wandere 
to the holiness (rt ii<i6ap6v) wliich lives for ever and 
exists eternally, being related to it. It becomes like 
holiness in duration, because it is by means of something 
like contact able to receive impressions from holiness. 
This, its susceptibility to impressions, is called Intelli’ 

from Oroek 
Plato, and 

Pag* 45. 



Further, Socrates says: “The soul is very similar to 
the divine substance which does not die nor dissolve, 
and is the only irUelligibUe which lasts for ever ; the 
body is the contrary of it. ' When soul and body unite, 
nature orders body to serve, the soul to rule ; but when 
they separate, the soul goes to another place than that 
to which the body goes. There lb is happy with things 
that are suitable to it ; it reposes from being ciroum- 
soribed in space, rests from folly, impatience, love, fear, 
and other human evils, on this condition, that it had 
always been pure and hated the body. If, however, it 
has sullied itself by connivance with the body, by 
serving and loving it so that the body was subservient 
to its lusts and desires, in this case it does not ex- 
perience anything more real than the species of bodily 
things (rb trtu/iarottbes) and the contact with them.” 

Proclna says : “ The body in which the rational sonl 
dwells has received the figure of a globe, like the ether 
and its individual beings. The body in which both the 
rational and the irrational souls dwell has received an 
erect figure like man. The body in which only the 
irrational soul dwells has received a figure erect and 
curved at the same time, like that of the iri-ational 
animals. The body in which there is neither the one 
nor the other, in which there is nothing but the nourish- 
ing power, has received an erect figure, but it is at the 
same time curved and turned upside down, so that the 
head is planted in the earth, as is the case with the 
plants. The latter direction being the contrary to that 
of man, man is a heavenly tree, the root of which is 
directed towards its home, i.e. heaven, whilst the root 
of vegetables is directed towards their home, t.s. the 

Bniiaina 'I'he Hindus hold similar views about nature. Ar- 
juna usks, “What is Brahman like in the world?” 

tWAJI w .. V . . . ... 

Whereupon V&sndeva answers, " Im^ne him like an 
Aivatlha tree.” This is a huge precions tree, well 



known among them, standing upside down, the roots 
being above, the branches below. If it has ample 
nourishment, it becomes quite enormous ; the branches 
spread far, cling to the soil, and creep into it. Roots 
and branches above and below resemble each other to 
such a degree that it is dilTicult to say which is which. 

" Brahman is the upper roots of this tree, its trunk is 
the Veda, its branches are the different doctrines and 
schools, its leaves are the different modes of inter- 
pretation 5 its nourishment comes from the three forces ; 
the tree becomes strong and compact through the senses. 
The intelligent being has no other keen desire but that 
of felling this tree, i.e. abstaining from the world and 
its vanities. When he has succeeded in felling it, be 
wishes to settle in the place where it has grown, a 
place in which there is no returning in a further stage 
of metempsychosis. When he obtaius this, he leaves 
behind himself all the pains of heat and cold, and 
coming from the light of sun and moon aud common 
fires, he attains to the divine lights.” 

The doctrine of PataHjali is akin to that of the 
§(lfl regarding being occupied in meditation on the 
Truth (i.e. God), for they say, “ As long as you point 
to something, you are not a mo)tist; but when the 
Truth seizes upon the object of your pointing and 
annihilates it, then there is no longer an indicating 
person nor an object indicated.” 

There are some passages in their system which show 
that they believe in the pantheistic union ; e.g. ono of 
them, being asked what is the Truth (God), gave tlie 
following answer: “How should I not know the being 
which is I in essence and Not-l in space ? If I return 
once more into existence, thereby I am separated from 
him ; and if I am neglected (t.e. not born anew and 
sent into the world), thereby I become light and be- 
come accustomed to the union" {sic). 

Abfi-Bekr Ash-shibli says: “Cast off all, and yoa 

Fog* *3. 




will attain to na completely. Then yon will exist ; bnt 
you will not report about ns to others as long as yonr 
doing is like onrs.” 

Abd-Yazid Albist&ml once being asked how he had 
attained his stage in ^ofism, answered : “ 1 cast off my 
own self as a serpent casts off its skin. Then I oon> 
sidered my own self, and found that I was Se," i.e. 

The ^dfl explain the -Koranic passage (Sdra 2 , 68), 
*' TJien we spoke : Beat him with a part of her,” in the 
following manner: “The order to kill that which is 
dead in order to give life to it indicates that the heart 
does not become alive by the lights of knowledge 
nnless the body be killed by ascetic practice to each 
a degree that it does not any more exist as a reality, 
but only in a formal way, whilst yonr heart is a reality 
on which no object of the formal world has any in- 

Farther they say: "Between man and God there 
are a thousand stages of light and darkness. Men exert 
themselves to pass through darkness to light, and 
when they have attained to the stations of light, there 
is no return for them.” 

( 89 ) 



The subjeot of this chapter is very difGcnlt to study and 
understand accurately, since we Muslims look at it from 
without, and the Hindus themselves do not work it ont 
to scientific perfection. As we, however, want it for 
the farther progress of this treatise, we shall communi- 
cate all we have heard of it until the date of the present 
book. And first we give an extract from the book 

" The anchorite spoke : ‘How many classes and species 
are there of living bodies ? ’ 

“ The sage replied : ' There are three classes of them — 
the spiritual ones in the height, men in the middle, and 
animals in the depth. Their species are fourteen in 
number, eight of which belong to the spiritual beings : 
Brahman, Indra, Prajapati, Saumya, Gandharva, Tak- 
sha, Bd.ksbasa, and Pii&ca. Five species are those of 
the animals— cattle, wild beasts, birds, creeping thiiigs, 
and growing things, i.e. the trees. And, lastly, one 
species is represented by man,’” 

The author of the same book has in another part of 
it pven the following enumeration with different names : 
“Brahman, Indra, Prajflpati, Gandharva, Yaksha, Rfik- 
shasa, Pitaras, Pi^^ca.” 

The Hindus are people who rarely preserve one and 
the same order of things, and in their enumeration of 
things there is mnch that is arbitrary. They nse or 

Tbo varloiifa 
cloMea ol 
According to 


invent nnmbere of names, and who is to hinder or to 
control them ? 

In the book Oitd, Vftaiideva says : “ When the first of 
the three pnmary f wees prevails, it particularly applies 
itself to developing the intellect, pnrifying the senses, 
and producing action for the angels. Blissful rest is one 
of the eoDsequenoes of this force, and liberation one of 
its results. 

“ When the second force prevails, it particularly ap- 
plies itself to developing cupidity. It will le^ to 
fatigue, and induce to actions for the Yakeha and lUlk- 
shasa. In this case the recompense will be according 
to the action. 

“ If the third force prevails, it particularly applies 
itself to developing ignorance, and making people easily 
begniled by their own wishes. Finally, it produces 
wakefulness, carelessness, laziness, procrastination in 
fulfilling duties, and sleeping too long. If man acts, he 
acts for the classes of the Bhdta and Pi^^ca, the devils, 
for the Preta who carry the spirits in the air, not in 
paradise and not in hell. Lastly, this force will lead 
to punishment; man will be lowered from the stage 
of humanity, and will be changed into animals and 

In another place the same author says : " Belief and 
virtue are in the Deva among the spiritual beings. 
Therefore that man who resembles them believes in 
God, clings to him, and longs for him. Unbelief and 
vice are in the demons called Asura and E&ksliasa. 
That man wlie resembles them does not believe in God 
nor attend to his oommaiidments. He tries to make 
the world godless, and is occupied with things which 
are harmful in this world and in the world beyond, and 
are of no use.” 

The author If we uow comblno these statements with each other, 
If evident that there is some confusion both in 

^•pMtuei names and in their order. Accoi-ding to the most 



popular view of the majority of the Hindus, there are 
the following eight classes of spiritual beings : — 

1. The Deva, or angels, to whom the north belongs. 
They specially belong to the Hindus. People say that 
Zoroaster made enemies of the Shanianiyya or Bud- 
dhists by calling the devils by the name of the class of 
angels which they consider the highest, i.e. Deva. And 
this usage has been transmitted from Magian times 
down to the Persian language of onr days. 

2. Daitya 'ddnava, the demons who live in the 
sooth. To them everybody belongs who opposes the 
religion of the Hindus and persecutes the cows. Not- 
withstanding the near relationship which exists between 
them and the Deva, there is, as Hindns maintain, no 
end of quarrelling and fighting among them. 

3. Gandharva, the musicians and singers who make 
music before the Deva. Their harlots are called Ap- 

4. Yoltska, the treasurers or guardians of the Deva. 

5. Ddkskasa, demons of ugly and deformed shapes. 

6. Kinnara, having hnman shapes hut horses’ heads, 
being the contrary of the centaurs of the Greek, of 
whom the lower half has the shape of a horse, the upper 
half that of a man. The latter figure is that of the 
Zodiacal sign of Arcitenens. 

7. Ndga, beings in the shape of serpents. 

8. Vidy(Ulhara, demon-sorcerers, who exercise a 
certain witchcraft, but not such a one as to produce 
permanent results. 

If we consider this series of beings, we find the 
angelic power at the upper end and the demoniac at the 
lower, and between them there is much iuterblending. 
The qualities of these beings are different, inasmuch 
os they have attoined this stage of life in the course of 
metempsychosis by action, and actions are different on 
account of the three primary forces. They live very 
long, since they have enfirely stripped off the bodies, 

on thliUai 



P«ge 45 - 

On th« 


since they are free from all exertion, and ore abi.e to do 
things which are impossible to man. They serve man 
in whatever he desires, and ore near him in cases of need. 

However, we can learn from the extract from Sdmkhya 
that this view is not correct. For Brahman, Indra, and 
Praj&pati are not names of species, but of individuals, 
Brahman and Praj^pati very nearly mean the same, 
but they bear di^erent names on account of some 
quality or other. Indra is the ruler of the worlds. Be- 
sides, V&sudeva enumerates the Yaksha and B&kshaea 
together in one and the same class of demons, whilst 
the Purfti^as represent the Yaksha as guardian-angels 
and the servants of gnardian-nngels. 

After all this, we declare that the spiritual beings 
which we have mentioned are one category, who have 
attained their present stage of existence by action dur- 
ing the time when they were human beings. They have 
left their bodies behind them, for bodies are weights 
which impair the power and shorten the duration of 
life. Their qualities and conditions are different, in the 
same measure as one or other of the three primary forces 
prevails over them. The fii-st force is peculiar to the 
Deva, or augels who live in quietness and bliss. The 
predominant faculty of their mind is the comprehending 
of an idea without matter, as it is the predominant 
faculty of the mind of roan to comprehend the idea in 

The third force is peculiar to the Pilftca and Bhftta, 
whilst the second is peculiar to the classes between them. 

The Hindus say that the number of Deva is thiity- 
three ko^ or nvrs, of which eleven belong to Mah&- 
deva. Therefore this number is one of his surnames, 
and his name itself (Mah^deva) points in this direction. 
The Rum of the number of angels just mentioned would 
be 330.000,000. 

Further, they represent the Deva as eating and drink- 
iug, cohabiting, living and dying, since they exist 



within matter, though in the most subtle and most 
simple kind of it, and since they have attained this by 
action, not by knowledge. The book PalaHjali relates 
that Nandikeivara offered many sacrifices to Mahadeva, 
and was in consequence transferred into paradise in his 
human shape ; that Indra, the ruler, had intercourse with 
the wife of Nahnsha the Brahmin, and therefore was 
changed into a serpent by way of pimishinent. 

After the Deva comes the class of the Pitaras, the 
deceased ancestors, and after them the Bh'iUa, human 
beings who have attached themselres to the spii-itual 
beings (Deva), and stand in the middle between them 
and mankind. He who bolds this degree, bnt without 
being free from the body, is called either ^ishi or 
Siddlia or Muni, and these difier among themselves 
according to their qualities. Su/dha is he who has 
attained by his action the faculty to do in the world 
whatever he likes, but who does not aspire further, and 
does not exert himself on the path leading to liberation. 
He may ascend to the degree of a Rishi. If a Brahmin 
attains this degree, he is called Brahmarshi ; if the 
Kshatriya attains it, be is called HdgaraM. It is not 
possible for the lower classes to attain this degree. 
Eishis are the sages who, though they are only human 
beings, excel the angels on account of their knowledge. 
Therefore the angels learn from them, and above them 
there is none but Brahman. 

After the Brahmarshi and R^jarshi come those classes 
of the populace which exist also among ns, the castes, 
to whom we shall devote a separate chapter. 

All these latter beings are ranged under matter. 
Now, as regards the notion of that which is above 
matter, we say that the Zktj is the middle between 
matter and the spiritual divine ideas that are above 
matter, and that the Ih-ee primary forces exist in the vX>j 
dynamically (Ir Swipti). So the vXg, with ail that is 
comprehended in it, is a bridge from above to below. 

On tlx riui 
nil innl 

VlihQu tho 
unity of 
Ud Budra, 



Auy life which circalates in the vXt) under the exclu- 
sire influence of the First Cause is called Brahman, 
Prajdpati, and by many other names which occur in 
their religious law and tradition. It is identical with 
nature in so far as it is active, for all bringing into 
existence, the creation of the world also, is attributed 
by them to Brahman. 

Any life which oiroulates in the under the influ- 
ence of the second force is called Ndrdyatfa in the 
tradition of the Hindus, which means nature in so for 
as it has reached the end of its action, and is now^triv- 
ing to preserve that which has been produced. Thus 
Kcirilyana strives so to arrange the world that it should 

Any life which circulates in the under the influ- 
ence of ths third force is called Mahddeva and SnrhJ:ara, 
but his best-known name is Rudra. His work is 
destruction and annihilation, like nature in the lost 
stages of activity, when its power slackens. 

These tliree beings bear different names, as they cir- 
culate through the various degrees to above and below, 
and accordingly their actions are different. 

But prior to all these beings there is one source 
whence everything is derived, and in this unity they’ 
comprehend all three things, no more separating one 
from the other. This unity they call Vishnu, a name 
which more properly designates the middle force; but 
sometimes they do not even make a distinction between 
this middle force and the JU-st cause (i,s. they make 
K&rhyapa the causa eausarum). 

Here there is an analogy between Hindns and Cliris- 
tians, as the latter distingnish between tlie Three i’er- 
sons and give them separate names, Father, Son, and 
Holy Ghost, but unite them into one substance. 

This js what clearly results from a careful exami- 
nation of the Hindu doctrines. Of their traditional 
accounts, which are full of silly'notions, we shall speak 


hereafter in the coarse of onr explanation. You must 
not wonder if the Hindus, in their stories about the 
class of the Deva, whom we have explained as angels, 
allow them all sorts of things, unreasonable in them- 
selves, some perhaps not objectionable, others decidedly 
objectionable, both of which the theologians of Islam 
would declare to be incompatible with the dignity and 
nature of angels. 

If you compare these traditions with those of the 
Greeks regarding their own religion, you will cease to 
find the Hindu system strange. We have already men- 
tioned that they called the angels gods (p. 36).' Now 
consider their stories about Zeus, and you will under- 
stand the truth of our remark. As for anthropompr- 
pblsma and traits of animal life which they attribute to 
him, we give the following tradition : “ When he was 
born, his father wanted to devour him ; but his mother 
took a stone, wrapped rags round it, and gave him the 
stone to swallow, whereupon he went away.” This is 
also mentioned by Galeuus in his Book of Speedies, 
where he relates that Philo had in an enigmatical way 
desciibed the preparation of the <fiup[iaKov in 

a poem of his by the following words : — . 

“ Take red hair, diffusing ewect odour, the offering In the gods, 
And of man’s blood weigh weights of the number of tlte mental 

The poet means fve pounds of saffron, because the senses 
are Jive. The weights of the other ingredients of the 
mixture he describes in similar enigmatic terms, of 
which Galenas gives a commentary. In the same 
poem occurs the following verse : — 

“ And <if the puudonijmeue root which hoe groien in the distriel 
in which Zeus u)n« bom.” 

To which Galenus adds : “ This is Andropogon Nardus, 
which hears a false name, because it is called an ear of 
corn, although it is not an ear, but a root. The poet 

Cr«tk pnral. 
)g1«, rjinrJOB 
■bout Soul. 



prescribes that it should be Cretan, becaase the m^tho- 
logists relate that Zeus was bom on the mountain 
PAg«47. ^cKraiov in Greta, where his mother concealed him 
from his father Kronos, that he should not devour him 
as he had devonred others.” 

Besides, welUknown story-books tell that he married 
certain women one after the other, cohabited with 
others, doing violence to them and not marrying them ; 
among them Europe, the daughter of Phoenix, who was 
taken from him by Asterios, king of Crete. After- 
wards she gave birth to two children from him, Minos 
and RhadamanthuB. This happened long before the 
Israelites left the desert and entered Palestine. 

Another tradition is that he died in Crete, and was 
buried there at the time of Samson the Israelite, being 
780 years of :^e ; that he was called Zeus when be had 
become old, after he bad formerly been called Dios; and 
that the first who gave him this name was Cecrops, the 
first king of Athens. It was common to all of them 
to Indulge in their lusts without any restraint, and to 
favour the business of the pander ; and so far they were 
not unlike Zoroaster and King Gnshtasp when they 
desired to consolidate the realm and the rule {sic). 

Chroniclers maintain that Cecrops and his successors 
are the source of all the vices among the Athenians, 
meaning thereby such things as occur in the story of 
Alexander, viz. that Nectanehus, king of Egypt, after 
having fled before Artaxerxes the Black and hiding in 
the capital of Macedonia, occupied himself with astro- 
logy and soothsaying ; that he beguiled Olympias, the 
wife of King Philip, who was absent. He cunningly 
contrived to cohabit with her, showing himself to her 
in the figure of the god Ammon, as a serpent with two 
heads like rams’ heads. So she became pregnant with 
Alexander. Philip, on returning, was about to disclaim 
the paternity, but then he dreamt that it was the child 
of the god Ammon. Thereupon he recognised the child 



as hia, and spoke, “ Man cannot oppose the gods.” The 
combmation of the stars had shown to Nectanebus that 
he wonld die at the hands of his son. When then 
he died at the hands of Alexander from a wonnd in 
the neck, he recognised that he was his (Alexander’s) 

The tradition of the Greeks is full of similar things. 
We shall relate similar subjects when speaking of the 
maniages of the Hindus. 

Now we return to our subject, Regarding that part 
of the nature of Zeus whici has no connection with 
humanity, the Greeks say that he is Jupiter, the son of 
Saturn ; for Saturn alone is eternal, not having been 
bom, according to the philosophers of the Academy, as 
Galenus says in the Book 0 / Deduction. This is suffi- 
ciently proved by the book of Aratos on the 4>aivd/«ra, 
for he begins with the praise of Zeus : 

" We, mankind, do not leave him, nor can wo do without him ; 
Of him the roads are full. 

And the meeting-places of men. 

He is mild towards them ; 

Heprodnoea for them what the; wish, and incites them to work, 
Reminding them of the necessities of life, 

He indicates to them the times favourable 
For digging and ploughing for a good growth, 

Who has raised tho signs and stars in heaven. 

Therefore we bnmiliato oursoivea before him first and last,” 

And then be praises the spiritual beings (the Muses), 
If you compare Greek theology with that of the Hindus, 
you will find that Brahman is described in the same 
way as Zeus by Aratos. 

The author of the commentary on the ^aivofuva of 
Aratos maintains that he deviated from the custom of 
the poets of his time in beginning with the gods ; that 
it was his intention to speak of the celestial sphere. 
Further, he makes reflections on the origin of Asclepius, 
like Galenas, and says: “We should like to know 




P(ig0 48. 



which Zeas Aratos meant, the mystical or the physica] 
one. For the poet.Krates called the celratial sphere 
Zeus, and likewise Homer says : 

‘A* pieces o( enow are out off from Zan.’” 

Aratos calls the ether and the air Zeus in the passage ; 
" The roads and the meeting-places are full of him, and 
we all mnst inhale him.” 

Therefore the philosophers of the Stoa maintain that 
Zens is the spirit which is dispersed in the vXi), and 
similar to our souls, i.s. the nature which rules every 
natural body. The author supposes that he is mild, 
since he is the cause of the good ; therefore he is right 
in maintaining that he has not only created men, but 
also the gods. 

( 99 ) 



Ip a new order of things in political or social life is 
created by a man naturally ambitious of mling, who 
by his character and capacity really deserves to be a 
ruler, a man of firm conyictious and unshaken deter- 
mination, who even in times of reverses is supported by 
good luck, in so far as people then side with him in 
recognition of former merits of his, such an order is 
likely to become consolidated among those for whom 
it was created, and to continue as firm as the deeply 
rooted moantaius. it will remain among them as a 
generally recognised rule in all generations through the 
course of time and the flight of ages. If, then, this new 
form of state or society rests in some degree on religion, 
these twins, state and religion, are in perfect harmony, 
and their union represents the highest development of 
human society, all that men cau possibly desire. 

The kings of antiquity, who were industriously de- 
voted to the duties of their office, spent most of their 
oare on the division of their subjects into different 
classes and orders, which they tried to preserve from 
intermixture and disorder. Thei-efore they forbade 
people of different classes to have intercourse with each 
other, and laid upon each class a particular kind of 
work or art and handicraft. They did not allow any- 
body to transgress the limits of his class, and even 

Hirono uU 



punished those who would not be content with their 

CMUfot All this is well illustrated by the history of the 

PsriUiu. ancient Chosroes (Khusrau), for they had created great 
institutions of this kind, which coold not be broken 
through by the special merits of any individual nor by 
bribery. When Ardoshlr ben BAbak restored the Per- 
sian empire, be also restored the classes or castes of the 
population in the following way 

The firsA class were the knights and princes. 

The second class the monks, the fire-priests, and the 

The third class the physicians, astronomers, and other 
men of science. 

The fourth class the husbandmen and artisans. 

And within these classes there wero subdivisions, dis- 
tinct from each other, like the species within a genus. 
Ail institntioDS of this kind are like a pedigree, as long 
as their origin is remembered; but when once their 
origin has been forgotten, they become, as it were, the 
stable property of the whole nation, nobody any more 
questioning its origin. And forgetting is the necessary 
resnlt of any long period of time, of a long succession 
of centuries and generations. 

Among the Hindus institntions of this kind abound. 
We Muslims, of course, stand entirely on the other side 
of the question, considering all men as equal, except in 
piety ; and this is the greatest obstacle which prevents 
any approach or understanding between Hindus and 

Th* four The Hindus call their castes vtmta, i.e. colours, and 
from a genealogical point of view they call i^amjAtaka, 
i.e. Urths. These castes are from the very beginning 
only four. 

I. The highest caste are the BrAhmana, of whom the 
hooks of the Hindus tell that they were created from 
the head of Brahman. And as Brahman is only another 



name for the force called 7iature, and the head is the 
highest part of the animal body, the Brfthroana are the 
choice part of the whole genus. Therefore the Hindus 
consider them as the very best of mankind. 

II. Tite next caste are the Kshatriya, who were 
created, as they say, from the shoulders and hands of 
Brahman. Their degree is not much below that of the 

III. After them follow the Vaifya, who were created 
from the thigh of Brahman, 

IV. The Sfldra, who were created from his feet. 

Between the latter two classes there is no very 

great distance. Much, however, as these classes diSer 
from each other, they live together in the same towns 
and villages, mixed together in the same houses and 

After the $udra follow the people called Anti/ojn, who 
render various kinds of services, who are not reckoned 
amongst any caste, but only as members of a certain 
craft or profession. There are eight classes of them, 
who freely intermarry with each other, except the fuller, 
shoemaker, and weaver, for no others would condescend 
to have anything to do with them. These eight guilds 
are the fuller, shoemaker, juggler, the basket and shield 
maker, the sailor, fisherman, the hunter of wild animals 
and of birds, and the weaver. The four castes do not 
live together with them in one and the same place. 
These guilds live near the villages and towns of the 
fonr castes, but outside them, 

The people called Hue, 11, Poma (Domba), Caip.liila, 
and Badhatau (stc) are not reckoned amongst any caste 
or goild. They are occupied with dirty work, like the 
cleansing of the villages and other services. They are 
considered as one sole class, and distinguished only by 
their occupations. In fact, they are considered like 
illegitimate children ; for accoi’ding to general opinion 
they descend from a ^ddra father and a Br&hmanl 






l»f ttie ClMiM 
End KUlldi. 

CuElnmi ol 

PE;a 50 , 

mother as the children of fornication ; therefore they 
are degraded outcasts. 

The Hindus give to every single man of the four 
castes characteristic names, according to tlieir occu- 
pations and modes of life, £.1/. the Br&hmana is in 
general called by this name as long as he does his work 
staying at home. When he is busy with the service 
of one Are, he is called ; if he serves three Ares, lie 
is called agnihdtrin ; if be besides offers an offering to 
the fire, he is called dtkshita. And as it is with the 
Br^hmana, so is it also with the other castes. Of the 
classes beneath the castes, the Hddi are the best spoken 
of, because they keep themselves free from everything 
unclean. Next follow the Ddma, who play on the lute 
and sing. The still lower classes practise as a trade 
kUling and the indicting of judicial punishments. The 
worst of all are the Badhatau, who not only devour the 
fiesh of dead animals, but even of dogs and other 

Each of the four castes, when eating together, must 
form a group for themselves, one group not being 
allowed to comprise two men of different castes. If, 
further, in the group of the Br^hmana there are two 
men who live at enmity with each other, and the seat 
of the one is by the side of the other, they make a 
barrier between the two seats by placing a board 
between them, or by spreading a piece of dress, or in 
some other way ; and if there is only a line drawn 
between them, they are considered as separated. Since 
it is forbidden to eat the remains of a meal, every single 
man must have his own food for himself ; for if any one 
of the party who are eating should take of the food from 
one and the same plate, that which remains in the plate 
becomes, after the first eater has taken part, to him who 
wants to take as the second, the remains of the meal, 
and such is forbidden. 

Such is the condition of the four castes. Aijuna 



asked about the nature of the four castes and what 
must be their moral qualities, whereupon Y&sadeva 
answered : 

“The Brl^bmaua must have an ample iutellect, a 
quiet heart, truthful speech, much patience ; he must 
be master of his senses, a lover of justice, of evident 
purity, always directed upon worship, entirely bent 
upon religion. 

“ The Kshatriya must fill the hearts with terror, must 
he brave and high-minded, must have ready speech and 
a liberal hand, not minding dangers, only intent upon 
carrying the great tasks of bis calling to a happy end. 

“ The Yaifya is to occupy himself with agriculture, 
with the acquisition of caMe, and with trade. 

“The Shdra is to endeavour to render services and 
attention to each of the preceding classes, in order to 
make himself liked by them. 

“ If each member of these castes adheres to his cus- 
toms and usages, he will obtain the happiness he wishes 
for, supposing that he is not negligent in the worship of 
God, not forgetting to remember him in his most im- 
portant avocations. But if anybody wants to quit the 
works and duties of his caste and adopt those of another 
caste, even if it would bring a certain honour to the 
latter, it is a sin, because it is a transgressiou of the 

Further, Y^ndeva speaks, inspiring him with courage 
to fight the enemy : “ Dost thou not know, 0 man with 
the long arm, that thou art a Eshatriya ; that thy race 
has been created brave, to ruali boldly to the charge, 
to care little for the vicissitudes of time, never to give 
way whenever their soul has a foreboding of coming 
misfortune P for only thereby is the reward to be ob- 
tained. If he conquers, he obtains power and good 
fortune. If he perishes, he obtains paradise and bliss. 
Besides, then showest weakness in the presence of the 
enemy, and seemest melancholy at the prospect of 



HAkihft ftod 
tho varloui 

killing this host ; hot it will be infinitely worse if thy 
name will spread as that of a timid, cowardly man, that 
thy reputation among the heroes and the experienced 
warriors will be gone, that thou wilt be ont of their 
eight, and thy name no longer be remembered among 
them. I do not know a worse pnnishment than such 
a state. Death U better than to expose thyself to the 
oonseqaenoes of ignominy. If, therefore, God has 
ordered thee to fight, if be has deigned to confer upon 
thy caste the task of fighting and has created thee for 
it, carry ont his order and perform his will with a 
determination which is free from any desire, so that 
thy action be exclasively devoted to him.” 

Hindus differ among themselves as to which of these 
castes u capable of attaining to liberation ; for, according 
to some, only the Briihmana and Kshatriya are capable 
of it, since the others cannot learn the Veda, whilst 
according to the Hindu philosophers, liberation is 
common to all castes and to the whole human race, if 
their intention of obtaining it is perfect. This view- 
is based on the saying of Vydsa : “ Learn to know 
the twenty-five things thoroughly. Then you may 
follow whatever religion yon like ; yon will no doubt 
be liberated.” This view is also based on the fact 
that V&sudeva was a descendant of a ^ildra family, 
and also on the following saying of his, which he 
addressed to Arjnna: “God distributes recompense 
without injustice and without partiality. He reckons 
the good as bad if people in doing good forget him ; he 
reckons the bad as good if people in doing bad remem- 
ber him and do not forget him, whether those people be 
Vai^ya or i^hdra or women. How much more wilt this 
be the cose when they are BrilhmaQa or Kshatriya.” 

Fog* SI. 

( los ) 



The ancient Greeks received their religious and civil 
laws from sages among them who were called to the 
work, and of whom their countrymen believed that 
they received divine help, like Solon, Draco, Pythagoras, 
Minos, and others. Also their kings did the same ; for 
Mianos (sic), when ruling over the islands of the sea 
and over the Cretans about two hundred years after 
Moses, gave them laws, pretending to have received 
them from Zeus. About the same time also Minos (stc) 
gave his laws. 

At the time of Darius I., the successor of Cyrus, the 
Romans sent messengers to the Athenians, and received 
from them the laws in twelve books, under which they 
lived till the rule of Pompilius (Niima). This king 
gave them new laws 5 he assigned to the year twelve 
months, whilst up to that time it bad only had ten 
months. It appears that he introduced his innovations 
against the will of the Romans, for he ordered them to 
use as instrnments of barter in commerce pieces of 
pottery and hides instead of silver, which seems on 
his part to betray a certain anger against rebellious 

In the first chapter of the Book of Laws of Plato, the 
Athenian stranger says ; “ Who do yon think was the 

Iaw lad 
amuui; tbo 
foiindfid by 
thair Mgoi. 

Qiiotat too 
from Floto'f 



first who gave laws to you ? Was he an angel or a man? ” 
The man of Cnoasns said : “ He was an angel. In 
truth, with ns it was ^eus, but with the T^acedscmonians, 
as they maintain, the legislator was Apollo.” 

Further, he says in the same chapter: “It is the 
duty of the legislator, if he comes from God, to make 
the acquisition of the greatest virtues and of the highest 
justice the object of his legislation.’' 

He describes the laws of the Cretans as rendering 
perfect the happiness of those who make the proper 
use of them, because by them they acquira all the 
human good which is dependent upon the divine good. 

The Athenian says in the second chapter of the 
same book : “ The gods, pitying mankind as born for 
trouble, instituted for them feasts to the gods, the 
Muses, Apollo the ruler of the Muses, and to Dionysos, 
who gave men wine as a remedy against the bitterness 
of old age, that old men should again be young by 
forgetting sadness, and by bringing back the character 
of the soul from the state of affliction to the state of 

Further he says : “ They have given to men by in- 
spiration the arrangements for dancing, and the equally 
weighed rhythm as a reward for fatigues, and that they 
may become accustomed to live together with them in 
feasts and joy. Therefore they call one kind of their 
music praises, with an implied allusion to the prayers 
to the gods.” 

Such was the case with the Greeks, and it is precisely 
the same with the Hindus. For they believe that tlieir 
The religions law and its single precepts derive their origin 
from ^ishis, their sages, the pillars of their religion, 
and not from the prophet, i.e. Nftrfvyaija, who, when 
coming into this world, appears in some human figure. 
But he only comes in order to cut away some evil 
matter which threatens the world, or to set the world 
light ^ain when anything has gone wrong. Further, no 



law can be exchanged or replaced by another, for they 
use the laws simply as they find them. Therefore they 
can dispense with prophets, as far as law aud worship 
are concerned, though in other aSaii's of the creation 
they sometimes want them. 

As for the queBtioii of the abrogation of laws, it 
seems that this is not impossible with the Hindus, for 
they say that many things which are now forbidden 
were allowed before the coming of ^^'laudera, e.g, the 
flesh of cows. Such changes are necessitated by the 
change of the nature of man, aud by their being too 
feeble to bear the whole burden of their duties. To 
these changes also belong the changes of the matn- 
■numial system and of the theory of descent. For in 
former times there were three modes of determining 
descent or relationship ; 

1. The child bom to a man by his legitimate wife is 
the child of the father, as is the custom with us and 
with the Hindus. 

2. If a man marries a woman and has a child by her ; 
if, further, the marriage-contract stipulates that the 
children of the woman will belong to her father, the 
child is considered as the child of its grandfather who 
made that stipulation, and not as the child of its father 
who engendered it. 

3. If a stranger has a child by a married woman, the 
child belongs to her husband, since the wife being, as it 
were, the soil in which the child has grown, is the pro- 
perty of the husband, always presupposing that the 
sowing, i,s. the cohabitation, takes place with his eon* 

According to this principle, PA.p(lu was considered as 
the son of sdntanu ; for this king had been cursed by 
an. anchorite, and in consequence was unable to cohabit 
with hie wives, which was the more provoking to him 
as- he had not yet any children. Now he asked Vyasa, 
the son of ParSiara, to procreate for him children from 

Tiiw« miiy bo 
RbrogHUn or 




Tlia atory ol 
Pindn and 



Birth of 

with l{ba> 
tana nsd 

Fag* S3- 

Ms wives in bis place. PInda sect him one, bnt she 
was afraid of him when he cohabited with her, and 
trembled, in consequence of which she conceived a 
sickly child of yellow hue. Then the king sent him a 
second woman ; she, too, felt much reverence for him, 
and wrapped herself up in her veil, and in consequence 
she gave birth to Dhritarilahtra, who was blind and 
unhealthy. Lastly, he sent him a third woman, whom 
he enjoined to pnt aside all fear and reverence with 
regard to the saint. Laughing and in high spirits, she 
went in to him, and conceived from him a child of 
moon-like beauty, who excelled all men in boldness and 

The four sons of Pdndii had one wife in common, 
who stayed one month with each of them alternately. 
In the books of the Hindus it is told that Par^ara, the 
hermit, one day travelled in a boat in which there was 
also a daughter of the boatman. He fell in love with 
her, tried to seduce her, and finally she yielded; but 
there was nothing on the bank of the river to hide 
them from the looks of the people. However, instan- 
taneously there grew a tamarisk-tree to facilitate their 
purpose. How he cohabited with her behind the tama- 
risk, and made her conceive, whereupon she became 
pregnant with this his excellent son Vyilsa. 

All these customs have now been abolished and ab- 
rogated, and therefore we may infer from their tradi- 
tion that in principle the abrogation of a law is ailowalle. 

As regards unnatural kinds of man-iage, we must 
state that such exist still in our time, ns they also 
existed in the times of Arab heatheudom ; for the 
people inhabiting the mountains stretching from the 
region of Panchlr into the neighbourhood of Kasbmtr 
live under the rule that several brothers have one wife 
in common. Among the heathen Arabs, too, marriage 
was of different kinds : — 

I. An Arab ordered his wife to be sent to a certain 



man to demand sercual intercourse with him ; then he 
abstained from her during the whole time of her preg- 
nancy, since he wished to have from her a generous 
offspring. This is identical with the third kind of 
marriage among the Uincrns. 

2. A second kind was this, that the one Arab said to 
the other, “Cede me your wife, and I will cede yon 
mine,” and thus they exchanged their wives. 

3. A third kind is this, that several men cohabited 
with one wife. When, then, she gave birth to a child, 
she declared who was the father ; and if she did not 
know it, the fortane-tellers had to know it. 

4. The ^/ikdh-clmakt (= viatrimonium exosum), i.e. 
when a man married the widow of bis father or of bis 
son, the child of such a marriage was called daizan. 
This is nearly the same as a certain Jewish marriage, 
for the Jews have the law that a man must marry the 
widow of his brother, if the latter has not left children, 
and create a line of descent for his deceased brother ; 
and the offspring is considered as that of the deceased 
man, not as that of the real father. Thereby they want 
to prevent his memory dying ont in the world. In 
Hebrew they call a man who is married in this way 

There was a similar institotion among the Magians. 
In the book of Tausar, the great herbadh, addressed to 
Padashv^r-girshah, as an answer to his attacks on 
Ardashtr the son of Babak, we find a description of the 
institution of a man's being married as the substitute 
for another man, which existed among the Persians. 
If a nan dies without leaving male offspring, people 
ore to examine the case. If he leaves a wife, they 
marry her to his nearest relative. If he does not leave 
a wife, they marry his daughter or the nearest related 
woman to the nearest related male of the family. 
If there is no woman of his family left, they woo by 
means of the money of the deceased a woman for bis 

ftcndng the 



family, and laairy her to some male relative. The 
child of BQch a marriage is considered as the offspring 
of the deceased. 

Whoever neglects this duty and does not fulfil it, 
kills innumerable souls, since he outs off the progeny 
and the name of the deceased to all eternity. 

We have here given an account of these things in 
order that the reader may leom by the comparative 
treatment of the subject bow much superior the insti- 
tutions of Islam are, and how much more plainly this 
contrast brings out all customs and usages, differing 
from those of Islam, in their essential foulness. 

( "I ) 



uEscniKnoN ok tub individual idols. 

It is well known that ihe popular mind leans towards oriitin of 
the sensible world, and has an aversion to the world of mtiio 
abstract thought which is only understood by highly otman. 
educated people, of whom in every time and every 
place there are only few. And as common people will 
only acquiesce in pictorial representations, many of the 
leaders of religions communities have so far deviated 
from the right path as to give snch imagery in their 
bmks and houses of worship, like the Jews and Chris- 
tians, and, more than all, the Manichmaus. These 
words of mine would at once receive a suflicioiit illus- 
tration if, for example, a picture of the Prophet were 
made, or of Mekba and the Ka'ba, and were shown to 
an uneducated man or wotnau. Their joy in looking 
at the thing would bring them to kiss the picture, to 
rub their cheeks against it, and to i-oll themselves in 
the dust before it, as if they were seeing not the picture, 
but the original, and were in this way, as if they were 
present in the holy places, ])erfonnmg the rites of pil- 
grimage, the groat and the small ones. 

This is the cause which leads to tho manufacture of 
idols, monuments in honour of cei'tain much venerated 
persons, prophets, eagoR, angels, destined to keep alive 
their memory when they are absent or dead, to create 
for them a lasting place of grateful veneration in the 
hearts of men when they die. But when much time 


Btory o( 
and Eeraiu 

■bip as n- 
atnoted to 
tha low 
claMca of 


passes by after the setting np of the monnment, genera* 
tioos and centuries, its origin is forgotten, it becomes a 
matter of custom, and its veneration a rule for general 
practice. This being deeply rooted in the nature of 
man, the legislators of antiquity tried to influence them 
from this weak point of theirs. Therefore they made 
the veneration of pictures and similar monuments ob- 
ligatory on them, as is recounted in historic records, 
both for the times before and after the Deluge. Some 
people even pretend to know that all mankind, before 
God sent them his prophets, were one large idolatrous 

The followers of the Thora fix the beginning of ido* 
latry in the days of Ser&gh, the great-grandfather of 
Abraham. The Eomans have, regarding this question, 
the following tradition: — Romulus and Romanus (!), 
the two brothers from the country of the Franks, on 
having ascended the throne, built the city of Rome. 
Then Romulns killed his brother, and the consequence 
was a long succession of intestine troubles and warl. 
Finally, Romulns humiliated himself, and then be 
dreamt that there would only be peace on condition 
that he placed his brother on the thi-one. Now he got 
a golden image made of him, placed it at his side, and 
henceforward he need to say, “ We (not I) have ordered 
thus and thus,” which since has become the general 
use of kings.' Thereupon the troubles subsided. He 
founded a feast and a play to amnse and to gain over 
those who bore him ill-will on account of the murder 
of his brother. Besides, he erected a monument to the 
sun, consisting of four images on four horses, the green 
one for the earth, the blue for the water, the red for the 
fire, and the white for the sir. This monument is still 
in Rome in onr days. 

Since, however, here we have to explain the system and 
the theories of the Hindns on the subject, we shall now 
mention their ludicrous views ; but we declare at once 



that they are held only by the common uneducated 
people. For those who march on the path to liberation, 
or those who study philosophy and theology, and who 
desire abstract truth which they call sdra, are entirely 
free from worshipping anything but God alone, and 
would never dream of worshipping an image manufac- 
tured to represent him. A tradition illustrative of 
this is that which Saunaka told the king Partksha in 
these woi-ds : — 

There was once a king called ArabariBha, who had story or 
obtained an empire as large as he bad wished for. But biirUla i%iiU 
afterwards he came to like it no longer ; he retired from 
the world, and exclusively occupied himself with wor- 
shipping and praising God for a long time. Finally, 

God appeared to him in the shape of Indra, the prince 
of the angels, riding on an elephant. He spoke to the 
king : “ Demand whatever you like, and I will give it 

The king answered: “I rejoice in seeing thee, and 
I am thankful for the good fortune aud help thoti 
hast given ; but 1 do not demand anything from thee, 
but only from him who created thee.” 

Indra said : “ The object of worship is to receive a 
noble reward. Realise, therefore, your object, and accept 
the reward from him from whom hitherto you have 
obtained your wishes, and do not pick and choose, 
saying, ‘ Not from thee, but from another.’ ” 

The king answered : “ The earth has fallen to my lot, 
bnt I do not care for all that is in it. The object of 
my worship is to see the Lord, and that thou caiist not 
give me. Why, therefore, should I demand the fulfil- 
ment of my desire from thee ? ” 

Indra said : “ The whole world and whoever is upon 
it are obedient to me. Who are yon that you dare to 
oppose me ? ’’ 

The king answered: “J, too, hear and obey, but I 
worship him from whom thou hast received this power, 

VOL. I. H 


1 14 

who LB the lord of the nniverse, who has protected thee 
against the attacks of the two kings, Bali and Hiraii- 
y&ksha. Therefore let me do as I like, and turn away 
from me with my farewell greeting.” 

Indra said ; “ If you will absolutely oppose me, I will 
kill you and annihilate you.” 

The king answered : " People say that happiness is 
envied, but not so misfortune. He who retires from 
the world is envied by the angels, and therefore they 
will try to lead him astray. I am one of those who 
have retired from the world and entirely devoted them- 
selves to worship, and I shall not give it up as long as 
p»go sj. I live. I do not know myself to be guilty of a crime 
for which I should deserve to be killed by thee. If 
thou killest me without any offence on my part, it is 
thy concern. What dost thon want from me ? If my 
thoughts are entirely devoted to God, and nothing else 
is blended with them, thou art not able to do me any 
harm. Sufficient for me is the worship with which I 
am occupied, and now I return to it.” 

As the king now went on worshipping, the Lord 
appeared to him in the shape of a man of the grey 
lotus colour, riding on a bird called Garucla, holding in 
one of the four hands the Saiikha, a sea-shell which 
people blow when riding on elephants ; in the second 
hand the cakra, a round, cutting, orbicular weapon, 
which cuts everything it hits right through ; in the 
third an amulet, and in the fourth padma, i.e. the red 
lotus. When the king saw him, he shuddered from 
reverence, prostrated himself and uttered many proisea. 
The Lord quieted his terrified mind and promised him 
that he should obtain everything he wished for. The 
king spoke : ” I had obtained an empire which nobody 
disputed with me^ t was in conditions of life not 
troubled by sorrow' or sickness. It was as if the 
whole world belonged to me. But then I turned away 
from it, after I bad understood that the good of the 



world is really bad in the end. I do not wish for any- 
thing except what I now have. The only thing I now 
wish for is to be liberated from this fetter.” 

The Lord spoke : ” That you will obtain by keeping 
aloof from the world, by being alone, by uninterrupted 
meditation, and by restraining your senses to yourself.” 

The king spoke: "Supposing that I am able to do 
BO through that sanctity which the Lord has deigned 
to bestow upon me, how sliould any other man be able 
to do so? for mau wants eating and clothing, which 
connects him with the world. How is be to think of 
anything else ? ” 

The Lord spoke : " Occupy yourself with your empire 
iu as straightforward and prudent a way as possible : 
turn your thoughts upon me when you are engaged in 
civilising the world and protecting its inhabitants, iu 
giving alms, and in everything you do. And if you are 
overpowered by human forgetfulness, make to yourself 
an image like that in which you see me; offer to it 
perfumes and flowers, and make it a memorial of me, 
so that you may not forget me. If you are in sorrow, 
think of me ; if you speak, speak in my name ; if you 
act, act for me.” 

The king spoke: “Now I know what I have to do 
in general, but honour me further by instructing me 
in the details.” 

The Lord spoke : “That I have done already. I have 
inspired your judge Vasishtha with all that is required. 
Therefore rely upon him in all questions.” 

Then the figure disappeared from his sight, The 
king returned into his residence and did as he had 
been ordered. 

Prom that time, the Hindus say, people make idols, 
some with four hands like the appearance -we have 
described, others with two hands, as the story and 
description require, and conformably to the being which 
is to be represented. 


X&nda [md 
tLe voice 
from the 

Page sJ. 

The Idol "( 
Hu^&ii chU- 
ed Aditya. 


Another story of theirs is the following : — Brahman 
had a son called N^rada, who had no other desii-e but 
that of seeing the Lord. It was his custom, when he 
walked about, to hold a stick. If he threw it down, 
it became a serpent, and he was able to do miracles 
with it. He never went without it. One day being 
engrossed in meditation on the object of his hopes, he 
saw a (ire from afar. He went towards it, and then a 
voice spoke to him out of the fire : " What you demand 
and wish is impossible. You cannot see me save 
thus.” When he looked in that direction, he saw a 
fiery appearance in something like human shape. 
Henceforward it has been the custom to erect idols of 
certain shapes. 

A famous idol of theirs was that of Multfln, dedicated 
to the sun, and therefore called Aditya. It was of wood 
and covered with red Cordovan leather ; in its two eyes 
were two red rubies. It is said to have been made in 
the last Kritayuga. Suppose that it was made in the 
very end of Kritayuga, the time which has since elapsed 
amounts bo 216432 years. When Muhammad Ibn 
Alkilsim Ibn Almunabbih couc|uered Multan, he in- 
quired hdw the town had become so very nourishing 
and so many treasures had there been accumulated, and 
then he found out that this idol was the cause, for 
there came pilgrims from all sides to visit it. There- 
fore he thought it best to have the idol where it was, 
bub he hung a piece of cow’s-flesh on its neck by way 
of mockery. On the same place a mosque was built. 
When then the IjCarmatians occupied Mult&n, Jalani 
Ibo Shaib&n, the msiirper, broke the idol into pieces 
and killed its priests. He made his mansion, which 
was & castle built of brick on an elevated place, the 
mosque instead of the old mosque, which he ordered to 
be shnt from bati'ed against anything that had been 
done under the dynasty of the Caliphs of the house of 
'Umayya. When afterwards the blessed Piiuce Mab- 



mfid swept away their rnle from those countries, he 
made again the old mosque the place of the Friday- 
worship, and the second one was left to decay. At 
present it is only a barn-floor, where bunches of I.finiiil 
(Zamo 7 iia incrmis) are bound together. 

If we now subtract from the above-mentioned num- 
ber of years the hundreds, tens, and units, i.e. the 433 
years, as a kind of arbitrary equivalent for the sum of 
about 100 years, by which the rise of the ^armatians 
preceded our time, we get as the remainder 216,000 
years for the time of the end of the Kritayuga, and 
about the epoch of the era of the Hijra. How, then, 
could wood have lasted such a length of time, and 
particularly in a place where the air and the soil are 
rather wet? God knows best ! 

The city of Tilneshar is highly venerated by the mo idol of 
Hindus. 'J'he idol of that place is called Cakrasvihnin, 
i.e. the owner of the cakra, a weapon which we have .vaiLlii. 
already described (page 1 14). It is of bronze, aud is 
nearly the size of a man. It is now lying in the hippo- 
drome in Ghazna, together with the Lord of Somandlh, 
which is a representation of the penis of Mahiideva, 
called Linga. Of Sonianuth we shall hereafter speak in 
the proper place. This Cakrasvamin is said to have 
been made in the time of Bbiirata as a memorial of wars 
connected with this name. 

In Inner Kaslmilr, about two or three days’ journey mo idol 
from the capital in the direction towards the mountains 
of Bolor, there is a wooden idol called &dmda, which is 
much venerated and frer[uented by pilgrims. 

We shall now communicate a whole chapter from the 
book SarMiild, relating to the construction of idols, SAdihUAof 
which will help the student thoroughly to comprehend iiU'a. 
the present subject. 

Var(ihamihira says; ‘‘ If the figure is made to repre- 
sent R 4 ma the son of Hai^aratha, or Bali the son of 
Virooana, give it the height of 120 digits,” i.«. of idol 


digits, which most be rednced by one-tenth to become 
common digits, in this case io8. 

“ To the idol of Vishnu give eight hands, or four, or 
two, and on the left side under the breast give him the 
figin-e of the woman Sri. If you give him eight hwids, 
place in the right hands a sword, a club of gold or iron, 
an arrow, and make the fourth hand as if it were draw- 
p>se sr- ing water ; in the left hands give him a shield, a bow, a 
cakra, and a conch. 

“ If you give him four hands, omit the bow and the 
arrow, the sword and shield. 

“If you give him two hands, let the right hand be 
drawing water, the left holding a conch. 

“ If the figure is to represent Baladeva, the brother of 
Narflyaiia, put earrings into his ears, and give him eyes 
of a drunken man. 

“If you make both figures, Niirilyana and Baladeva, 
join with them their sister Bhagavatt {Durga,=Eka- 
nan^il), her left hand resting on her hip a little away 
from the side, and her right hand holding a lotus. 

“If you make her four-handed, place in theright hands 
a rosary and a hand drawing water ; in the left hands, a 
book and a lotus. 

“If you moke her eight-handed, place in the left hands 
the kama7),dalv,, i.e. a pot, a lotus, bow and book ; in the 
right hands, a rosary, a mirror, an arrow, and a water- 
drawing hand. 

“ If the figure is to represent Samba, the son of Vishiju, 
put only a club in his right hand. If it is to represent 
Pradyumna, the son of Vishnu, place in his right hand 
an arrow, in his left hand a bow. And if you make 
their two wives, place in their right hand a sword, in 
the left a buckler. 

“ The idol of Brahman has four faces towards the four 
sides, and is seated on a lotus. 

“ 'The idol of Skanda, the son of Mabftdeva, is a boy 
riding on a peacock, bis hand holding a ^akti, a weapon 



like a double-edged sword, which has in the middle a 
pestle like that of a mortar. 

“ The idol Indra holds in its hand a weapon called 
vajta of diamond. It has a similar handle to the Salcli, 
but on each side it has two swords which join at the 
handle. On his front place a third eye, and make him 
ride on a white elephant with four tusks. 

“ Likewise make on the front of the idol of Mahd.deva 
a third eyu right above, on his head a crescent, in his 
hand a weapon called similar to the clnb but with 
three branches, and a sword ; and let his left band hold 
his wife Gaurl, the daughter of Himavant, whom he 
presses to his bosom from the side. 

“ To the idol .Tina, i.e. Buddha, give a face and limbs as 
beautiful as possible, make the lines in the x)alms of his 
hands and feet like a lotus, and represent him seated 
on a lotus ; give him grey hair, and represent him with 
a placid expression, as if he were the father of creation. 

“ If you make Arbant, the figure of another body of 
Buddha, represent him as a naked youth with a fine 
face, beautiful, whose hands reach down to the knees, 
with the figure of his wife, under the left breast. 

“ The idol of Eevanta, the son of the sun, rides on a 
horse like a huntsman. 

“ The idol of Yima, the angel of death, rides on a 
buffalo, and holds a club in his hand. 

“ The idol of Kubera, the treasurer, wears a crown, has 
a big stomach and wide hips, and is riding on a man. 

“ The idol of the sun has a red face like the pith of 
the red lotus, beams like a diamond, has protruding 
limbs, rings in the ears, the neck adorned with pearls 
which hang down over the breast, wears a crown of 
several compartments, holds in his hands two lotuses, 
and is clod in the dress of the Northerners which reaches 
down to the ankle. 

"If you represent the Seven Mothers, represent several P»t»si- 
of them together in one figure, Brahm&pi with four faces 


towards the four directions, Kaumslrt with six faces, 
Vfdshijavl with four hands, Variihi with a hog's head 
on a hnman body, Indrilni with many eyes and a club 
in her hand, Bhagavatl (Durgd) sitting as people 
generally sit, C&mupdil ugly, with protruding teeth 
and a slim waist. Further join with them the sons of 
Mahi\deva, Kshetrapdia with bristling hair, a soar face, 
and an ugly figure, but Vinilyaka with an elephant's 
head on a human body, with four hands, as we have 
heretofore described.” 

The worshippers of these idols kill sheep and buffaloes 
with axes (kutdra), that they may nourish themselves 
with their blood. All idols are constructed according to 
certain measures determined by idol-fingers for every 
single limb, but sometimes they differ regarding the 
measure of a limb. If the artist keeps the right 
measure and does not make anything too large nor too 
small, he is free from sin, and is sure that the being 
which he represented will not visit him with any 
mishap. “If be makes the idol one cubit high and 
together with the throne two cubits, he will obtain 
health and wealth. If he makes it higher still, be will 
be praised. 

“ But he must know that making the idol too large, 
especially that of the Sun, will hurt the ruler, and 
making it too small will hurt the artist. If he gives it 
a thin belly, this helps and furtliera the famine in the 
country ; if he gives it a leau belly, this ruins property. 

“ If the band of the artist slips so as to produce some- 
thing like a wound, he will have a wouud in his own 
body which will kill him. 

“ If it U not completely even ou both sides, so that 
the one shoulder is higher than the other, his wife will 

“If he turns the eye upward, he will be blind for 
lifetime ; if he turns it downward, he will have many 
troubles and sorrows.” 



If the statue is made of some precious stone, it is 
better than if it were made of wood, and wood is better 
than clay. “The benefits of a statue of precious stone 
will be common to all the men and women of the 
empire. A golden statue will bring power to him who 
erected it, a statue of silver will bring him renown, one 
of bronze will bring him an increase of bis rule, one of 
stone the acquisition of landed propei-ty,” 

The Hindos honour their idols on account of those 
who erected them, not on account of the material of 
which they are made. We have already mentioned 
that the idol of Multan was of wood. E.g. the linga 
which Rama erected when he had finished the war with 
the demons was of sand, which he had heaped up with 
his own hand. But then it became petrified all at once, 
since the astrologically correct moment for the erecting 
of the monument fell before the moment when the 
workmen had finished the cutting of the stone monu- 
ment which Rama originally had ordered. Regarding 
the building of the temple and its peristyle, the cutting 
of the trees of four different kinds, the astrological 
determination of the favourable moment for the erec- 
tion, the celebration of the rites due on such an occa- 
sion, regarding all this Rfima gave very long and tedious 
instructions. Further, he ordered that servants and 
priests to minister to the idols should be nominated 
from different classes of the people. “To the idol of 
Vishiju are devoted the class called Bhagavata ; to the 
idol of the Sun, the Maga, i.e. the Magians ; to the idol 
of Mab&deva, a class of saints, anchorites with long 
hair, who cover their skin with ashes, hang on their 
persons the bones of dead people, and swim in the 
Ijools. 'Die BrAhmai.ia are devoted to the Eight 
Mothers, the Shamanians to Buddha, to Arhant the 
class called Nagna. On the whole, to each idol certain 
people are devoted who constructed it, for those know 
best how to serve it.’’ 

age 59- 


frucn Oltd 
show hit; 
that <^d ia 
Dot to be 
coii founded 
with tbe 

Oitr object in mentioning all this mad raving was to 
teach the reader the accnrate description of an idol, if 
he happens to see one, and to illustrate what we have 
said before, that such idols are erected only for unedu- 
cated low-class people of little understanding ; that the 
Hindus never made an idol of any supernatural being, 
much less of God ; and, lastly, to show how the crowd 
is kept in thraldom by all kinds of priestly tricks and 
deceits. Therefore the book Otld says : “ Many people 
try to approach me in their aspirations through some- 
thing which is different from me ; they try to insinuate 
themselves into my favour by giving alms, praise, and 
prayer to something besides me. I, however, confirm 
and help them in all these doings of theirs, and make 
them attain the object of their wishes, because I am 
able to dispense with them.” 

In the same book Vftsndeva speaks to Aijnna : “ Do 
yon not see that most of those who wish for something 
address themselves in offering and worshipping to the 
several classes of spiritual beings, and to the sun, moon, 
and other celestial bodies ? If now God does not dis- 
appoint their hopes, though he in no way stands in 
need of their worship, if he even gives them more than 
they asked for, and if he gives them their wishes in 
such a way as though they were receiving them from 
that to which they had addressed their prayers — viz. 
the idol — they will proceed to worship those whom 
they address, because they have not learned to know 
him, whilst ht, by admitting this kind of intermedia- 
tion, carries their affairs to the desired end. But that 
which is obtained by desires and intermediation is not 
lasting, since it is only as much as is deserved for any 
particular merit. Only that is lasting which is obtained 
from God alone, when people are disgnsted with old 
age, death, and birth (and desire to be delivered there- 
from by Molcslca).” 

This is what Vilsudeva says. When the ignorant crowd 



get a piece of good luck by accident or something at 
which tliey had aimed, and when with this some of the 
preconcerted tricks of the priests are brought into con- 
nection, the darkness in which they live increases 
vastly, not their intelligence. They will rush to those 
figures of idols, maltreating their own figures before 
them by shedding their own blood and mutilating their 
own bodies. 

The ancient Greeks, also, considered the idols as 
mediators between themselves and the First Cause, and 
worshipped them under the names of the stars and the 
highest substances. For they described the First Cause, 
not witli positive, but only with negative predicates, 
since they considered it too high to be described by 
human qualities, and since they wanted to describe it 
as free from any imperleotion. Therefore they could 
not address it in worship. 

When the heathen Arabs had imported into their 
country idols from Syria, they also worehipped them, 
hoping that they would intercede for them with God. 

Plato says in the fourth chapter of the Book of Laws : 

“ It is necessary to any one who gives perfect honours 
(to the gods) that he should take trouble with the 
mystery of the gods and Sakinat, and that he should 
not make special idols mastei'S over the ancestral gods. 
Further, it is the greatest duty to give honours as much 
as possible to the parents while they live.” 

By myslci'y Plato means a special kind of devotion. 

The word is much used among the IJivbians of I;Urrfin, 
the dualmtic Manichteans, and the theologiaus of the 

Galenus says in the book De Indole Animee: “At 
the time of the Kmperor Commodus, between 500-510 
years after Alexander, two men wont to an idol-mer- pii«»6o. 
chant and bargained with liim for an idol of Hermes. 

The one wanted to erect it in a temple as a memorial 
of Hermes, the other wanted to erect it on a tomb as a 



memorial of the deceased. However, they conld oot 
settle the hnainess with the merchant, and so they 
postponed it until the following day. The idol-merchant 
dreamt the following night that the idol addressed him 
and spoke to him ; ‘ 0 excellent man ! I am thy work. 
I have received through the work of thy hands a iigure 
which is thought to be the figure of a star. Now I am 
no longer a stone, as people called me heretofore ; I am 
now known as. Mercury. At present it stands in thy 
hands to make me either a memorial of something im- 
perishable or of something that has perished already.’” 

There is a treatise of Aristotle in which be answers 
certain questions of the Brahmins which Alexander bad 
sent him. There he says: “ If you maintain that some 
Greeks have fabled that the idols speak, that the people 
offer to them and think them to be spiritual beings, of 
all this we have no knowledge, and we cannot give a 
sentence on a subject we do not know.” In these words 
he rises liigh above the class of fools and uneducated 
people, and he indicates by them that he does not 
occupy himself with such things. It is evident that 
the first cause of idolatry was the desire of commemo- 
rating the dead and of consoling the living ; but on this 
basis it has developed, and hiu finally become a foul 
and pernicious abuse. 

The former view, that idols are only memorials, was 
also held by the Caliph Mo’fiwiya regarding the idols 
.of Sicily. When, in the summer of a.h. 53 , Sicily was 
conquered, and the conquerors sent him golden idols 
adorned with crowns and diamonds which had been 
captured there, be ordei-ed them to be sent to Sind, that 
they should be sold there to the princes of the country ; 
for he thought it best to sell them as objects costing 
sifins of so-and-so many denars, not having the slightest 
scruple on account of their being objects of abomin- 
able idolatry, but simply considering the matter from a 
political, not from a religions point of view. 

< *25 ) 



Veda means knowledge of that which was before nn- 
knowD. It is a religious system which, according to 
the Hindus, comes from God, and was promulgated 
by the month of Brahman. The Brahmins recite 
the Veda without understanding its meaning, and in 
the same way they learn it by heart, the one receiv- 
ing it from the other. Only few of them learn its 
explanation, and still less is the number of those who 
master the contents of the Veda and their interpretation 
to snch a degree as to be able to hold a theological 

The Brahmins teach the Veda to the Eshatriyas. 
The latter learn it, but are not allowed to teach it, not 
even to a Brahmin. The Vailya and ^(Idra are not 
allowed to hear it, much less to pronounce and recite 
it. If such a thing can be proved against one of them, 
the Brahmins drag him before the magistrate, and he 
is punished by haviug his tongue cut off. 

The Veda contains commandments and prohibitions, 
detailed statements about reward and punisbment in- 
tended to encourage and to deter ; but most of it con- 
tains hymns of praise, and treats of the various kinds 
of sacrifices to the fire, which are so numerous and 
difficult that you could hardly count them. 

They do not allow the Veda to be committed to 
writing, because it is recited according to certain modu- 

ootM reUt* 
Jructo tho 

The Veda 
by memoiy. 



latioQS, and they therefore avoid the nee of the pen, 
since it is liable to cause some error, and may occasion 
an addition or a defect in the written text. In conse- 
quence it has happened that they have several times 

Pngafij. forgotten the Veda and lost it. For they maintain that 
the following passage occurs in the conversations be- 
tween God and Brahman relating to the beginning of 
all things, according to the report of f^aunaka who had 
received it from the planet Venus: “Yon will forget 
the Veda at the time when the earth will be submerged; 
it will then go down to the depths of the earth, and 
none but the fish will be able to bring it out again. 
Therefore I shall send the fish, and it will deliver the 
Veda into your hands. And I shall send the boar to 
raise the earth with its tusks and to bring it out of the 

Further, the Hindus maintain that the Veda, together 
with all the rites of their religion and country, had been 
obliterated in the last Dv3.pararynga, a period of time 
of which we shall speak in the proper place, until it 
was renewed by VySsa, the son of Par&lara. 

The Vishnu JPur&naB&ys: “At the beginning of each 
Manvantara period there will be created anew a loi'd 
of a period whose children will rule over the whole 
earth, and a prince who will be the head of the world, 
and angels to whom men will bring fire-offerings, and 
the Great Bear, who will renew the Veda which is lost 
at the end of each period.” 

VMiikm This is the reason why, not long before our time, 
Vasukra, a native of Kashmir, a famous Brahmin, has 

wriiiii*. jjjg account undertaken the task of explaining 
the Veda and committing it to writing. He has taken 
on himself a task from which everybody else would 
have recoiled, bub he carried it out because he was 
afraid that the Veda might be forgotten and entirely 
vanish out of the memories of men, since he observed 
that the charactera of men grew worse and worse, and 



that they did not care much for virtue, nor even for 

There are certain pa.ssagea in the Veda which, as they 
maintain, must not be recited within dwellings, since 
tliey fear that they would cause an abortion both to 
women and the cattle. Therefore they step out into the 
open field to recite them there. There is hardly a single 
verse free from such and similar minatory injunctions. 

Ab we have already mentioned, the books of the 
Hindus are metrical compositions like the Bajtus poms 
of the Arabs. Most of them are composed in a metre 
called £oJca. The reason of this has already been 
explained. Galenas also prefers metrical composi- 
tion, and says in bis book Kora yevT] : “ The single 
signs wliich deuote the weights of medicines become 
corrupt by being copied ; they are also corrupted by the 
wanton mischief of some envious person. Therefore it 
is quite right that the books of IJamocrates on medi- 
cines should be preferred to others, and that they should 
gain fame and ])rai8e, since they are written in a Greek 
metre. If all books were written in this way it would 
be the best ; ” the fact being that a prose text is much 
more exposed to corruption than a metrical one. 

The Veda, however, is not composed in (,liis common 
metre, ^loka, but in another, Some Hindus say that 
no one could compose anything in the same metre. 
However, their scholai-s maintain that this is possible 
indeed, bat that they refrain from trying it merely from 
veneration for the Veda. 

According to their tradition, Vyllsa divided it into 
four parts : lHyvcdu, Yajurvcda-, Sdmavcda, and Atlnu-- 

Vylsa had four Mnhya, i.t. pupils. He taught a sepa- 
rate Veda to each of them, and matle him carry it in 
his memory. They are enumerated in the same oixler 
as the four parts of the Veda: Failu, Vaihmpdi/ana, 
Jaimini, SumatUu, 

Ths (our 

tlie (our 



On tbe 


On the 

The etrirT ul 

Each of the fonr parts has a peculiar kind of recita- 
tion. The first is Rigreda, consisting of metrical com- 
positions called fie, which are of different lengths. It 
is called Rigveda as being the totality of the rto. 
It treats of the sacrifices to the fire, and is recited in 
three different ways. First, in a uniform manner of 
reading, just as every other book is read. Secondly, in 
such a way that a pause is made after every single 
word. Thirdly, in a method which is the most meri- 
torions, and for which plenty of reward in heaven is 
promised. First you read a short passage, each word 
of which is distinctly pronounced j then yon repeat it 
together with a part of that which has not yet been 
recited. Next you recite the added portion alone, and 
then you repeat it together with the next part of that 
which has not yet been recited, &c., &c. Continning to 
do so till the end, ^on will have read the whole text twice. 

The Yajurveda is composed of kdndin. The word 
is a derivative nonn, and means the totality of the 
kdudin. The difference between this and the Rigveda 
is that it may be read as a text connected by the rules 
of Sarhdhi, which is not allowed in the case of Rigveda. 
The one as well as tbe other treats of works connected 
with the fire and the sacrifices. 

I have heard the following story abont the reason 
why tbe Rigveda cannot be recited as a text connected 
by the rales of Sartidhi : — 

Yajuavalkya stayed with his master, and his roaster 
hod a Brahmin friend who wanted to make a journey. 
Therefore he asked the master to send somebody to his 
house to perform there during his absence the rites to 
Homa, i.t. to bis fire, and to prevent it from being 
extinguished. Now the master sent his pupils to the 
house of his friend one after tbe other. So it came to 
be the turn of Yfljuavalkya, who was beautiful to look 
at and handsomely dressed. When he began the work 
which he was sent for, in a place where tbe wife of the 



absent man was present, she conceived an aversion to 
bis fine attire, and Yajnavaikja became aware of it, 
thongh she concealed it. On having finished, he took 
the water to sprinkle it over the head of the woman, 
for this holds with them the place of the blowing after 
an incantation, since blowing is disliked by them and 
considered as something impure. Then the woman said, 
“ Sprinkle it over this column.” So he did, and at once 
the column became green. Now the woman repented 
having missed the blessing of his pious action ; there- 
fore on the following day she went to the master, asking 
him to send her the same pupil whom he had sent the 
day before. Yajnavalkya, however, declined to go 
except in his tom. No urging had any effect upon 
him ; he did not mind the wrath of his master, but 
simply said, “ Take away from me all that you have 
taoght me.” And scarcely had he spoken the word, 
when on a sudden he had forgotten all he knew before. 
Now he turned to the Sun and asked him to teach him 
the Veda. The Sun said, “How is that possible, as I 
must perpetually wander, and you are incapable of 
doing the same ? ” But then Yajnavalkya clung to 
the chariot of the Sun and began to learn the Veda 
from him ; but he was compelled to interrupt the 
recitation here and there on account of the irregularity 
of the motion of the chariot. 

The Simaveda treats of the sacrifices, command- 
ments, and prohibitions. It is recited in a tone like 
a chant, and hence its name is derived, because sdmau 
means Uu siveetmst of recitation. The cause of this 
kind of recital is, that Narftynija, when he appeared on 
earth in the shape of V^mana, aud came to the king 
Bali, changed himself into a Brahman and began to 
recite the S^maveda with a touching melody, by 
which he exhilarated the king, in consequence of which 
there happened to him the well-known story. 

The Atharvanaveda is as a text connected by the 

VOL. I. I 

and Athar- 





1. Adi-pur^na, i.e. the first. 

2. ifaUga-purdna, i.e. the fish. 

3. Silrma-piirdna, i.t. the tortoise. 

4. FardAa-pur(!i^, i.e, the boar. 

5. Nanuirttha-purdifa, i.e. a haman being with a lion’s head. 

6. V/hiuina.purina, i.e. the dwarf. 

7. Fil^-jrunCna, i.e. the wind. 

8. ^atuia.}>unlna, i.e. a servant of Mahideva. 

9. Skanda-purdna, i.e. a son of HahAdeva. 

10. .^(fiti/a-jiut'dna, i.e. the sun. 

11. Sbmo.purdita, i.e. the moon. 

13 , ^StSm^a-purdija, i.e. the son of Visbpu. 

13. f^roAmde^a./iunSna, <.«. heaven. 

14, Mdrkandega'purd^a, i.e. a great Rishi. 

!$• TdrMya-purdifai i.e. the bird Oaru^a. 

16. T'filh^U'iiurdna, i.t. RAift^aija. 

17. £raAma.purd>fa, i.t. the natnre charged with the preserva- 

tion of the world, 

18. ShavMya-purdna, i.e, future things. 

Of all this literatnre I have 011I7 seen portioDs of the 
Matsya, Aditya, and Y&yn Parft^as. 

rales of SaihdhL It does not consist of the same com- 
positions as the Rig and Yajnr Yedas, but of a third 
kind called bhara. It is recited according to a melody 
with a nasal tone. This Yeda is less in favour with 
the Hindus than the others. It likewise treats of the 
sactificeB bo the fire, and contains ii^unotiona regarding 
the dead and what is to be done with them. 

As to the Purflpas, we first mention that the word 
means jfrsf, etemai. There are eighteen PurApas, most 
of them called by the names of animals, human or 
angelic beings, because they contain stories about them, 
or because the contents of the book refer in some way 
to them, or because the book consists of answers which 
the creature whose name forms the title of the book 
has given to certain questions. 

The PurUpas are of human origin, composed by the 
so-called Risbia In the following I give a list of their 
names, as I have heard them, and committed them to 
writing from dictation i — 



Another somewhat different list of the Pnr&nas has 
been read to me from the Vishnu-Purdna. I give it 
here in eatenso, as in all questions resting on tradition 
it is the duty of an author to give those traditions as 
completely as possible 

t* ;S!Mna. 

s. Psrfna, i.e. the red lotus. 

3 . Vitkov. 

4. iS'jra, t.e. MAbdilova. 

J. Bkdgavata, t.«. Vftsudova. 

6. Ndrada, i,c, the BOu of Brahma. 

7 . Mdria^deya. 

8. i.e. the fire. 

9. Bhavi$hya, i.e. the future. 

10. Braltmavaivarla, i.e. the wind. 

11. lAiya, i.e. au image of the siSoia of MahSdeva. 

12. FontAa. 

13. Skemda. 

14. Vdmana. 

15. Kdma. 

16. ileUega. i.e. tlic fish. 

17. Oartid”, i.e. the bird OD which Vishna rides. 

18. Brahm/tTula. 

These are the n.'tmes of the Puranas according to 
the Vishnu-Purdiia. 

The book Smriti is derived from the Veda. It con- 
tains commandments and prohibitions, and is composed 
by the following twenty sons of Brahman:— 

1. Apaafaniba. 

2. Par&Aara. 

3. ^Atfttapa. 

4. Samvarta. 

5. Daksha. 

6. Vnsiihtba. 

7. Aftgims. 

8. Yauta. 

9. Visbtm. 

10. Manu. 

11. Y&jnaralkya. 

12. Atrl. 

13. H.irtta. 

14. Ijikhita. 

15. tiiifikba. 

16. Oautarua. 

17. Vrihaspati. 
tS. KillyAyaua. 
jg, Vj'ilsa. 

20. Lianas. 

Besides, the Hindus have books about the jurispru- 
dence of their religion, on theosophy, on ascetics, on 
the process of becoming god and seeking Uheration 



13 * 


Fife 64- 



from the world, as, e.g. the book composed by Ganda 
the anchorite, which goes by his name ; the book Sdm~ 
khyfi, composed by KapUa, on divine subjects; the book 
of Poia^’aW, on the search for liberation and for the 
union of the soul with the object of its meditation ; 
the book Nydyahkdahd, composed by Sapila, on the 
Veda and its interpretation, also showing that it has 
been created, and distingoishing within the Veda be- 
tween such injanotiona as are obligatory only in cer- 
tain cases, and those which are obligatory in general ; 
further, the book Mimdthsd, composed by Jaimini, on 
the same snbject ; the book LavJcdyaia, composed by 
Bribaspati, treating of the subject that in all investiga- 
tions we must exclusively rely upon the apperception of 
the senses; the book Agastyamata, composed by Agastya, 
treating of the snbject that in all investigations we 
must nse the apperception of the senses as well as tradi- 
tion ; and the book Vishnu-dharvia. The word dharma 
means reward, bnt in general it is used for religion ; so 
that this title means The religion of Ood, who in this 
case is understood to be NSr&yana. Further, there are 
the books of the six pupils of Vyasa, viz. Dtvala, Svkra, 
Bhdrgava, Vrikaspati, Ydjnavalkya, and Manu. The 
Hindus have numerous books about all the branches 
of science. How could anybody know the titles of all 
of them, more especially if he is not a Hindn, bnt a 
foreigner ? 

Besides, they have a book which they hold in snch 
veneration that they firmly assert that everything which 
occurs in other books is found also in this book, but not 
all which occurs in this book is found in other books. 
It is called Bhdrata, and composed by VyAsa the son 
of ParAiara at the time of the great war between the 
children of PAndu and those of Knru. The title itself 
gives an indication of those times. The book has 
100,000 Siokas in eighteen parts, each of which iscalled 
Parvan- Here we give the list of them ; — 



t. Bnl^A-^rxn, i.t. tbe Icing's dwelling. 

3. Aranya, i.t. going out into tbe open field, nieauiiig the 
exodus of the cliildren of Ftli.i^u. 

3. Vird(a, i.t. tbe name of a king in whose realm tbe; dwelt 

duTing the time of tbeir conoealment. 

4. Udyoga, i.t. the preparing for battle. 

5. BkUhvM. 

6. j7nu,ia tbe Brahmin. 

Karna tbe son of tbe Sun. 

8. the brother of Zlurj/tv/Aafui. some of tbe greatest heroes 
who did tbe fighting, one alieiiyi ooming forward after 
bis predecessor bad been killed. 

9. QadA, i.e. the club. 

10, £ai(pfiila, t.e, the killing of the sleepers, when AitvatthSman 

tbe son of Droim attacked the cit; of Pancllla during 
tbe night and killed the inhabitants. 

11, Jalapradftnika, i.c. tbe successive drawing of water for tbe 

dead, after people have washed off the impurity caused 
by the touching of tbe dead. 

12, Stri, i.t, tbe lamentations of tbe women, 

13, .S'dnft, containing 24,000 ^tokas on eradicating hatred from 

the heart, in four parts : 

(l.) Rdjadharma, on tbe reward of tbe kings. 

(s.) BiinadAirrma, on the reward for almsgiving. 

(3.) Apaddharma, on tbe reward of those who are in need and 

(4.) Mokihadharma, on the toward of him who is liberated 
from the world. 

14, Aivamedha, i.t. tbe sacriGce of tbe horse which is sent onl 

together with an army to wander throngb the world, 

Then they proolaim in public that it belongs to tl)e king 
of the world, and that he who does not agree thereto is to 
come forward to light. The Brahmans follow the horse, 
and celebrate sacrifices to tbe fire in those places where 
the horse drops its dung. 

Ij, Uautala, i.e. the flghting of tbe Y&davas, the tribe of VAsn- 
deva, amoug themselves, 

16. Airamavdia, t,«. leaving one's own country. 

ty. FrufAdu, i,«. quitting the realm to seek llbcrHlion. 

18. BtutrgiTthatfa, i.e. journeying towards Paradise. 

Theae eighteen parts are followed by another one 
which is called Harivam 4 a~Parvm, which contains the 
traditions relating to V^sudeva. 

In this book there occur passages which, like riddles, 
admit of manifold intei pretations. As to the reason of piw« 45. 



this the Hindne relate the following story : — Yy^lBa 
asked Brahman to procure him somebody who might 
write for him the Bh&rata from hia dictation. Now be 
intmated with this task hia aon Vin&yako, who ia re- 
presented as an idol with an elephant’s head, and made 
it obligatory on him never to cease from writing. At 
the same time Vy^a made it obligatory on him to 
write only that which he understood. Therefore Vy&sa, 
in the course of hia dictation, dictated such sentences 
as compelled the writer to ponder over them, and thereby 
Vylaa gained time for resting awhile. 

( 135 ) 



The two sciences of grammar and metrics are anxiliaiy 
to the other sciences. Of the two, the former, grammar, 
holds the first place in their estimate, called vydkarana, 
i.t. the law of the correctness of their speech and ety- 
mological rules, by means of which they acquire an 
eloquent and classical style both in writing and reading. 
We Muslims cannot learn anything of it, since it is a 
branch coming from a root which is not within our 
grasp — I mean the language itself. That which I have 
been told as to titles of books on this science is the 
following : — 

1. Aindra, attributed to lodra, the head of the aageU. 

2. Cdvdra, composed b; Candra, one of the red-robe-wearing 

sect, the followers of Baddba. 

3. Dikaia, so called by the name of its author. Kis tribe, 

too, is called by a name derived from the same word, vis. 


4. Pdnini, so called from its author. 

5. Sdtantra, composed by ^rvavarman. 

6. composed by i^a^ideva, 

7 > J>utyavivriiti. 

8. SU^aAUdifUti, composed by UgmbhttL 

I have been told that the last-mentioned author was 
the teacher and instructor of Sb&h Anaudap&la, the sou 
of Jayap^la, who ruled in our time. After having com- 
posed the book he sent it to Kashmir, but the people 
there did not adopt it, being in such things haughtily con- 
servative. Now he complained of this to the ShSh, and 

List of 
bootu on 
gram mar. 

Sh&h Inim* 
dA[>4lA AUd 
htv mutur 


Tiilfl relnt« 
iiig to tho 
origin of 

The pra* 
dJlQQtina of 
the JliuflMs 
for iDOtiiotl 

the Sh 4 h, in accordance with the duty of a pupil towards 
his master, promised him to make him attain his wish. 
So he gave orders to send 200,000 dirham and presents 
of a similar value to Kashmir, to be distributed among 
those who studied the book of his master. The con- 
sequence was that tliey all rushed upon the book, and 
would not copy any other grammar but this one, show, 
ing themselves in the baseness of their avarice. The 
book beoame the fashion and highly prized. 

Of the origin of grammar they give the following 
account; — One of their kings, called SamnlvUhana, i.e. 
in the classical language, S&tavUhana, was one day in a 
pond playing with his wives, when he said to one of 
them “ Mdudakam dehi," i.e. do not sprinkle the water on 
me. The woman, however, understood it as if he had said 
modakam dehi, i.e. brittg sweetmeats. So she went away 
and brought him sweetmeats. And when the king 
disapproved of her doing so, she gave him an angry 
reply, and used coarse language towards him. Now he 
was deeply offended, and, in consequence, as is their 
custom, he abstained from all food, and concealed him- 
self in some corner until he was called upon by a sage, 
who consoled him, promising him that he would teach 
people grammar and the inflexions of the language, 
Thereupoh the sage went off to Mah^deva, praying, 
praising, and fasting devoutly. Mahideva appeared to 
him, and communicated to him some few rules, the like 
of which Abul’aswad Addu'al! has given for the Arabic 
language. The god also promised to assist him in the 
farther development of this science. Then the sage 
returned to the king and taught it to him. This was 
the beginning of the science of grammar. 

Grammar is followed by another science, called 
chandas, i.e. the metrical form of poetry, corresponding 
to our metrics — a science indispensable to them, since 
all their books are in verse. By composing their books 
in metres they intend to facilitate their being learned 

ru |[0 66 . 



by heart, and to prevent people in all questions of 
science ever recurring to a v/rilten text, save in a case 
of bare necessity. For they think that the mind of 
man sympathises with everything in which there is 
symmetry and order, and has an aversion to everything 
in which there is no order. Therefore most Hindus are 
passionately fond of their verses, and always desirous 
of reciting them, even if they do not understand the 
meaning of the words, and the audience will snap their 
hngersiQ token of joy and applause. They do not want 
prose compositions, although it is much easier to under- 
stand them. 

Most of their books are composed in &loka, in which 
1 am now exercising myself, being occupied in compos- 
ing for the Hindus a translation of the books of Euclid 
and of the Almagest, and dictating to them a treatise on 
the construction of the astrolabe, being simply guided 
herein by the desire of spreading science. K the Hin- 
dus happen to get some book which does not yet exist 
among them, they set at work to cliange it into Blokas, 
which are rather nnintelligible, since the metrical form 
entails a constrained, affected style, which will become 
apparent when we shall speak of their method of ex- 
pressing numbers. And if the verses are not sufficiently 
affected, their authors meet with frowning faces, as 
having committed something like mere prose, and then 
they will feel extremely unhappy. God will do me jus- 
tice in what I say of them. 

The first who invented this art were PiAgala and BcnWaon 

^ ° matHoa, 

ca-ly. (? G Z 7). The books on the subject are nu- 
merons. The most famous of them is the book Oaiaitu 
(?G— AI— S— T), so called from its author, famous to 
such a degree that even the whole science of metrics 
has been called by this name. Other books are that of 
Mrigal&fichana, that of Piugala, and that of jjUjl (? *0 
(Au)— L — Y— A— N — D). I, however, have not seen 
any of these books, nor do I know much of the chapter 

On the 
monnliiff of 
elio wehni* 
utkl tiortnn 


of the Brahma^siddkdnia which treats of metrical cal- 
cnlatioDS, and therefore I have no claim to a thorough 
knowledge of the laws of their metrics. Nevertheless, 
I do not think it right to pass bj a subject of which I 
have onlj a smattering, and I shall not postpone speak* 
ing of it until I shall have thoroughly mastered it. 

In .counting the syllables (gavachandat) they use 
similar figures to those used by Alkhalll Ibn Ahmad and 
our metricians to denote the consonant without vowel and 
the consonant with vowel, vizs. these two signs, | and >, 
the former of which is called laghu, i.e. light ; the latter, 
gum, i.e. heavy. lnaieasuriag(7?ui^n2<Aan(f(is),tbe^uru 
is reckoned double of a laghu, and its place may be 
filled by two laghu. 

Further, they have a syllable which they call long 
(dirgha), the measure or prosody of which is equal to 
that of a guru. This, 1 think, is a syllable with a 
long vowel (like kd, ki, M). Here, however, I must 
confess that up to the present moment I have not 
been able to gain a clear idea of the nature of both 
laghu and gum, so as to be able to illustrate them 
by similar elements in Arabic. However, I am in- 
clined to think that laghu does not mean a consonant 
without vowel, nor gum a c07Lsonant with vowel, but that, 
on the contrary, laghu means a consonant with a short 
vowel (e.g. ka, ki, leu), and gum means the same with 
a vowelless consonant (e.g. kat, kit, kut), like an element 
in Arabic metrics called Saiah (t.e. — or a long 
syllable the place of which may be taken by two short 
ones). That which makes me doubt as to the first- 
mentioned definition of laghu is this cironmstanoe, that 
the Hindus use mang laghu one after the other in an 
uninterrupted succession. The Arabs are not capable 
of pronouncing two vowelless consonants one after the 
other, but in other languages this is possible. The Per- 
sian metricians, for instance, coll such a consonant 
mooed hy a light vowel (ie. pronounced with a sound like 



the Hebrew Schwa). Unt, in any case, if such conso- 
nants are more than three in number, they are most 
difficult, nay, even impossible to pronounce ; whilst, on 
the other hand, there is not the slightest difficulty in 
pronouncing an uninterrupted series of short syllables 
consisting of a consonant with a short vowel, as when 
you say in Arabic, “ Badanuka Tcamathali fi/atika wafa' 
viuka bisuati shafatika ” (i.e. Thy body is like thy 
description, and thy month depends upon the width of 
thy lip). Further, although it is difficult to pronounce 
a vowelless consonant at the beginning of a word, most 
nouns of the niiidus begin, if not exactly with vowel- 
less consonants, still with such consonants as have only 
a Schwa-like vowel-sound to follow them. If such a 
consonant stands at the begiuuiug of a verse, they drop 
it in counting, since the law of the guru demands that 
in it the vowelless consonant shall Tiot precede fol- 
low the vowel {ka-t, ki-t, kv.-t). 

Further, as our people have composed out of the feet 
certain schemes or types, according to which 
verses are constructed, and have invented signs to 
denote the component parts of a foot, i.e. the consonant 
with and withotit a vowel, in like manner also the 
Hindus use certain names to denote the feet which are 
composed of layh-u and <jui'w, either the former preced- 
ing and the latter following or vice versd, in such a 
way, however, that the measure must always be the 
same, whilst the number of syllables may vary. By 
these names they denote a certain conventional prosodic 
unity (i.e. certain /«;<). By measure, I mean that latjhu 
is reckoned=one mdtrd, i,e. messure, and guru— two 
mdtrd. If they represent a foot in writing, they only 
express the measure of the syllables, not their number, 
as, e.g. (in Ar abic) a double consonant (kka) is counted 
as a consonant without vowel plus a consonant with 
vowel, and a consonant followed by-Tanwin {kun) is 
counted as a consonant with a vowel plus a consonant 

Pugg 67. 

of miiriL 


Tho ft{cigl« 


without TOwel, whilst in writing both are represented 
as one and the same thing (i.e. by the sign of the coii' 
sonant in qoestaon). 

Taken alone by themselves, laghn and guru are 
called by various names : the former, la, kali, rilpa, 
cdmara, and graka ; the latter, ga, niira, and a half 
tt'^iSaka. The latter name shows that a complete 
a/thSaka is equal to two guru or their equivalent. These 
names they have invented simply to facilitate the ver- 
sification of their metrical books. For this purpose 
they have invented so many names, that one may fit 
into the metre if others will not. 

The feet arising out of combinations of laghu and 
guru are the following : — 

Twofold both in nnmber and measure is the foot 1 1, 
t.e. two syllables and two mdtrd. 

Twofold in nnmber, not in measure, are the feet, | < 
and < I ; in measure they are = three mdtrd \ j | (bnt, 
in nnmber, only two syllables). 

The second foot < | (a trochee) is called knltikd. 

The quaternary feet are in each book called by dif- 
ferent names : 

< < jxUiAa , «.(. the half month. 

1 1 < jvalana, i.e. the fire. 

|<| madhya madku). 

< 1 1 parvata, i.e. the mountain, aleo called hitra and dim. 

1 1 1 1 ghana, i.t. the cube. 

The feet consisting of five mdtrd have manifold 
forms ; those of them which have special names are the 
following : — 

]<< Atutin, {.e, tho elephant. I < < | (Macuna). 

<|< ihtma, >.a the wish. I |||< kuiuma. 

A foot consisting of six mdtrd is < < < . 

Some people call these feet by the names of the 
chess figures, viz. : 

jvalana = the elephant. I pana/a = the puwn. 

madhya s the tower. I ghana = the horse. 



In a lexicographical work to which the author 

(? HaribhatU) has given his own name, the feet 

composed of three laffhu or guru are called by single 
consonants, which in the following diagram are written 
on their left 

7)^00 iwn, 

m < < < sixfold (l.«. eoDtafniog six fluttrd). 
y I < < Aajifai. 

r < I < kdma, 

t < < I (? laounn). 

S I I < jvalana. 

j I < I nadhya, 

AA < I I parvata. 

n I I I threefold (>.e, aontaiaiog three mdlrA). 

By means of these signs the author teaches how to 
construct these eight feet by an inductive method (a 
kind of algebraic permatation), saying ; 

“Place one of the two kinds (jjurv, and laglm.) in 
the first line nntnixed (that would be < < <, if we 
begin with a Then mix it with the second 
kind, and place one of this at the beginning of the 
second line, whilst the two other elements are of the 
first kind (| < < ). Then place this element of admix- 
ture in the middle of the third line (<|<), and lastly 
at the end of the fourth line (<<[). Then yoo have 
finished the first half. 

“ Further, place the second kind in the lowest line, 
nnmixed (| | |), and mix up with the line above it one 
of the first kind, placing it at the beginning of the line 
(< I |), then in the middle of the next following line 
(I < I), and lastly at the end of the next following line 
(I I <). Then the second half is finished, and all the 
possible combinations of three Tndlm have been ex* 

«. < < < 

5- 1 1 < •» 

a. 1 < < 1 

' First half. 

6. I< 1 

3- < 1 < 1 

7- < 1 1 

4- < < 1 J 

8. M 1 7 

Second half. 

This system of composition or permutation is correct. 

Od tbo nr- 
of f bd ^eoi. 
frc^ni HkH* 

Pftgd 68. 





bnt his calculation ebowing how to find that place 
which erery single foot occupies in this series of per- 
matations is not in accordance with it. For he says : 

“ Place the numeral 2 to denote each element of a 
foot (t.e. both guru and laghu), once for all, so that 
every foot is represented by 2, 2, 2. Mnltiply the 
left (number) by the middle, and the product by the 
right one. If this muHiplier (t.e. this number of the 
right side) is a laghu, then leave the product as it is ; 
bnt if it is a guru, subtract <me from the prodnct” 

The author exemplifies this with the sixth foot, i.c, 
I < |. He multiplies 2 by 2, and from the product (4) 
he subtracts i. The remaining 3 he multiplies by the 
third 2, and he gets the product of 6. 

This, however, is not correct for most of the feet, and 
I am rather inclined to believe that the text of the 
manuscript is corrupt. 

The proper order of the feet wonld accordingly be the 
following : 



























7 . 












The mixture of the first line (No. I.) is such that one 
bind always follows the other. In the second line 
(No. 11 .) two of one kind are followed by two of the 
other ; and in the third line (No. HI.) four of one kind 
are followed by four of the other. 

Then the author of the above-mentioned calculation 
goes on to say : “If the first element of the foot is a 
guim, subtract one before you multiply. If the multi- 
plier is a guru, subtract one from the product. Thus 
yon find the place which a foot occupies in this order.” 

As the Arabic verse is divided into two halves or 
bemistichs by tbe ariid, i,e, the last foot of the first 



hemistich, and the darb, i.e. the last foot of the second 
hemistich, in like manner the verses of the Hindus are 
divided into two halves, each of which is called foot 
(pdda). The Greeks, too, call them feet {lacimia ), — 
those words which are composed of it, <TvW 6 .^y\, and 
the consonants with or without vowels, with long, short, 
or doabtful vowels. 

The verse is divided into three, or more commonly 
into foar pdda. Sometimes they add a fifth pdda in 
the middle of the verse. The p&dae have no rhyme, 
bat there is a kind of metre, in which the I and 2 
pddas end with the same consonant or syllable as if 
rhyming on it, and also the pddas 3 and 4 end with 
the same consonant or syllable. This kind is called 
Ai-yd. At the end of the pdda a laghu may become a 
guru, thongh in general this metre ends with a laghu. 

The different poetical works of the Hindus contain 
a great number of metres. In the metre of 5 pdda, 
the fifth pdda is placed between pddas 3 and 4. The 
manes of the metres differ according to the number of 
syllables, and also according to the verses which fol- 
low. For they do not like all the verses of a long 
poem to belong to one and the same metre. They use 
many metres in the same poem, in order that it should 
appear like an embroidered piece of silk. 

The construction of the four pddas in the iour-pdda 
metre is the following : — 



< < paksbasi iuu^alca. 

< 1 1 parvstB. 

1 1 < jralano. 

< < paksba. 

< 1 1 parrata. 

< < paksba. 





< < pakeha. 

< < pakaba. 


1 1 < jvalaoa. 

1 1 < Jvalana. 



1 < 1 madb}'a. 

1 < 1 madbya, 




< 1 1 parrata. 

< < paksba. 

< 1 1 patvata, 

1 1 < jralana. 

On tba 




This is a representation of a species of their metres, 
called Skandha, containing four pdda. It consists of 
two halves, and each half has eight amiaka. 

Of the single wrhiaka, the ist, 3 d, and 5 th can never 
be a madkya, i.e, < |, and the 6 th mnst always be 
either a madkya or a ghana. If this condition is adhered 
to, the other amiakaa may be anything at all, just as 
accident or the fancy of the poet wills it. However, 
the metre mnst always be complete, neither more nor 
less. Therefore, observing the rules as to the formation 
of certain aihiakaa in the single pddas, we may repre- 
sent the four p&das in the following manner : — 

P4daL < < <11 1 I <- 

Pada 11. < < 1 1 < I < I <11 < < • 

Pflda III. < < < < < . 

p.gfl7* PldalV. < < |<< 1 < I < ( I I |<. 

According to this pattern the verse is composed. 

Arab and If yoo represent an Arabic metre by these signs of 
a"**" the Mndus, yon will find that they mean something 
entirely different from what the Arabic signs mean 
which denote a consonant with a short vowel and a 
consonant without a vowel. (The Arabic sign | means 
a consonant without a vowel ; the Hindu sign [ means 
a short syllable ; the Arabic sign o means a consonant 
followed by a short vowel ; the Hmdn sign < means a 
long syllable.) As an example, we give a representation 
of the regular complete Khafif metre, representing each 
foot by derivations of the root 

Metnm Khaf^. 
represented by derivations ol the root Jju. 

( 2 -) loloolo _ loo lolo I oloolo. 

represented by Arabic eigne. 

( 3 .) << 1 < <l<< <<|<, 

repreaented by the eigne of the Hindos. 


M 5 

We give the latter signs in an inverted order, since 
the Hindns read from the left to the right. 

I have already once pleaded as my excuse, and do so 
here a second time, that my slender knowledge of this 
science does not enable me to give the reader a complete 
inaight into the subject. Still I take the greatest pains 
with it, though I am well aware that it is only very 
little I can give. 

The name Yfitta applies to each four-pdifn metre in 
which the signs of both the prosody and the number of 
the syllables are like each other, according to a certain 
correspondence of the pddas among themselves, so that 
if you know oue pdda, you know also the other ones, 
for they are like it. Further, there is a law that a pdda 
cannot have less than four syllables, since a pdda with 
less does not occur in the Veda. For the same reason 
the smallest number of the syllables of a pdda is four, 
tile largest twenty-six. In consequence, there are 
twenty-three varieties of the VHtta metre, which we 
shall here enumerate : — 

I. The pdda has four heavy syllablos (^urv), and here ;ou can- 
not put two laghu in the place of one guru. 

». The nature of the second kind of the pdda is not clear to me, 

so I omit it. 

3. This pdda is built of 


+ pakeha. 


< < 

4. s 2 guru 

+ 3 laghn 

+ 3 !»“”'• 

< < 


< < < 

It would be better to describe this pdda as m paitha + 
Jvalana + paktha. 

= a kfitUkd 

+ jvalaRa 

+ paktha. 



< < 

K ghana + 





< < 

a ghana + 

parvata + 





VOL. I. K 

On tlis 



Sage 71. 


8. = k4ma, iiuuiM, juaUvna, gurvk 



Il< < 


= paitAa, 


jvalana, madhya, 

a guru. 

< < 

1 < < 

IK l<l 

< < 


s pakiha. 


jvalana, madhya. 


< < 


ll< l<l 

< < 

11 . 

a patuha. 


a jvalana, hcutin. 

< < 


ll<ll< l<< 


= ghano. 


pafaAa, 3 hattin. 



<< !<<!<< 


= parvala. 


Auauma, tnadkya. 




IlK l<l 


14 . 

= Auttn, pah&a, parvaia, Anwunta, panata, laghu, guru. 

|<< << < 

|l IlK <11 

1 < 


= 3 paJMa, 

porvoia, iuauma, a kdma, guru. 



|!|< <|< <K < 

l6. = pamOa, lilma, hu»uma, p<&aha, laghtt, guru, 

<< <|| <|< |||< << I < 

17. = 2 pakAa, parvata, gkana, jvalona, paluha, iunima. 

<< << <11 III! ||< << |||< 

18. = a palaha, parvaUt, ghana, jvalana, a idtno, yuru. 

<< << <I| l[|l ||< <!<<!< < 

19. = gwH, 2pai$lta, parvata, ^na, jveUma, 2ledna, guru. 

< << << <11 III I ||< <|< <|< < 

20- = 4pal:iha, jvalana, madkga, pdktha, a aadAga, guru. 
<<<<<<<< | 1 < 1<1 << |<| |<| < 
ai. = 4 pai$ha, ijvulana, 8 marfA^, guru. 

<<<<<<<<II<IIVH< |<|l<| < 

38 . a 4pa3ciha, iutuma, taadhya, patana, anadhya, guru, 

<<<<<<<< |[|< |<| | 1 < |<|| <[ < 

33. a 8 guru, 10 lagku, i>laui, jvalana, laghu, guru. 

<<<<<<<< llllllllll <i< ll< I < 


We have given sncb a lengthy account, thongh it be 
only of scanty use, in order that the reader may see 
for himself the example of an accumulation of laghus, 
which shows that laghu means a comonant followed hy 
askort vowel, not a consonant without a vowel. Further, 
be will thereby learn the way in which they represent 
a metre and the method of their scanning a verse. 
Lastly, he will learn that Alkhatll Ibn Ahmad ezolu> 
sively drew from his own genius when he invented the 
Arabic metrics, though, possibly, he may have heard, 
as some people think, that the Hindus use certain 
metres in their poetry. If we here take so much 
trouble with Indian metrics, we do it for the purpose 
of fixing the laws of the ^loka, since most of their 
books are composed in it. 

The &loka belongs to the ioxit-ydda metres. Bach 
pdda has eight syllables, which are different in all four 
pddas. The last syllable of eacli of the four pddas 
must be the same, viz. a guru. Further, the fifth 
syllable in ^achpdda must always be laghu, the sixth 
syllable guru. The seventh syllable must be laghu in 
the second and fourth pdda, guru in the first and third 
pddas. The other syllables are entirely dependent 
upon accident or the writer’s fancy. 

In order to show in what way the Hindus use 
arithmetic in their metrical system, we give in the 
following a quotation from Bralimagupta : “The first 
kind of poetry is gdyatrt, a metre consisting of two 
pddas. If we now suppose that the number of the 
syllables of this metre may be 24, and that the smallest 
number of the syllables of one pdda is 4, we describe 
the two pddas by 4 14, representing their smallest 
possible number of syllables. As, however, their largest 
possible number is 24, we add the difference between 
these 4 + 4 and 24, i.e. 16, to the right-side number, 
and get 4 + 20. If the metre bad three pddas, it 
would be represented by 4 4 f 16. The right-side 

llieorj of 
tUo ^okA. 

from Binb< 



pdda is always distiDgaietied from the others and called 
by a separate name ; but the preceding fMaa also are 
connected, so as to form one whole, and likewise called 
by a separate name. If the metre bad four pddaa, it 
would be represented by 4 + 4 + 4 + 12. 

“ If, however, the poet does not use the pddaa of 4, i.e, 
the smallest possible number of syllables, and if we 
Png* want to know the number of oombisations of the 24 
syllables whioh may occur in a two-pdda metre, we 
write 4 to the left and 20 to the right ; we add l to 4, 
again i to the sum, &c. ; we subtract i from 20, again 
i from the remainder, &c. ; and this we continue until 
we get both the same numbers with whioh we com- 
menced, the small number ui the line which commenced 
with the greater number, and the greater number in 
the line which commenced with the small number. 
See the following scheme ; — 



































The number of these combinations is 17, i.e. the dif- 
ference between 4 and 20 plus i. 

“ As regards the three^(2(fa metre with the presup- 
posed number of syllables, i.e, 24, its first species is 



that in which all three pddas have the emaneet pos- 
sible number of syllables, i.e. 4-144 16. 

"The right-side number and the middle number we 
write down as we have done with the pddaa of the two- 
pdda metre, and we make with them the same calcula- 
tion as we have done above. Besides, we add the left- 
side number in a separate column, bat do not make it 
undergo any changes. See the following scheme : — 























] t 

















“This gives the number of 13 permutations, but by 
changing the places of the numbers forwards and back- 
wards in the following method, the number may be 
increased sixfold, i.e. to 78 : — 

“ I. The right-side number keeps its place 5 the two 
other numbers exchange their places, so that the middle 
number stands at the left side j the leftrside number 
occupies the middle ; — 




$ j 


1 IS 


' '4 



13 Ac, 

“II.-IIL The right-side number is placed in the 
middle between the other two numbers, wbiob first 



keep their orlginel places, and then exchange them 
with each other; — 



“ rV.-V. The right-side number is placed to the left, 
and the other two nnmbei-s first keep their original 
places, and thefi exchange them with each other: — 



“Becanse, farther, the numbers of the syllables of a 
fdda rise like the square of 2, for after 4 follows 8, we 
may represent the syllables of the three in this 
way: 8H-8 + 8 (=4 + 4-1-16). Howeyer, their arith- 
metioal peculiarities follow another role. The four- 
fdda metM follows the analogy of the thtw-p&da 

Of the above-mentioned treatise of Brahmagupta I 
have only seen a single leaf: it contains, no doubt, 
important elements of arithmetia God affords help 


* 5 > 

and Bustaina by his mercy, i.e. I hope one day to leam 
those things. As far as I can guess with regard to the 
literatnre of the Greeks, they used in their poetry 
similar to the Kindus ; for Galenus says in hia book 
KOTck yfwj : “ The medicine prepared with saliva dis- p»g« 7j. 
covered by Meneorates baa been described by Dsmo- 
orates in a poem composed in a metre eousisting of 
three parts.” 

( JSa ) 

Ttraoi un- 
to the 
proffi-ow of 

On the 



The nniaber of scieBces is great, and it ms;; be still 
greater if the public miad is directed towards them at 
such times as they are in the ascendancy and in general 
faroar with all, when people not only honour science 
itself, but also its representatives. To do this is, in the 
first instance, the duty of those who rule over them, of 
kings and princes. For they alone could free the minds 
of scholars from the daily anxieties for the necessities 
of life, and stimulate their energies to earn more fame 
and favour, the yearning for which is the pith and mar- 
row of human nature. 

The present times, however, are not of this kind. 
They are the very opposite, and therefore it is quite 
impossible that a new science or any new kind of 
research should arise in our days. What we have of 
sciences is nothing but the scanty remains of bygone 
better times. 

If a science or an idea has once conquered the whole 
earth, every nation appropriates part of it. So do also 
the Hindus. Their belief about the oyclioal revolutions 
of times is nothing very special, but is simply in accord- 
ance with the results of soieutific observation. 

The science of astronomy is the most famous among 
them, since the affairs of their religion are in various 
ways connected with it. If a man wants to gain the 
title of an astronomer, he must not only know scientific 



or mathematical astronomy, but also astrology. The 
book known among Muslims as Sindhind is called by 
them SUidh&nta, i.e, straight, not crooked nor changing. 
By this name they call every standard book on astro- 
nomy, even such books as, according to our opinion, 
do not come up to the mark of our so-called iSij, ie, 
handbooks of mathematical astronomy. They have five 
SiddhAntas : — 

I. S^ya-siddhdnta, i.e. the Siddh&nta of the sun, 
composed by L&ta. 

II. Kasishfha’sitidhdnia, so called from one of the 
stars of the Great Bear, composed by Vishnucandra. 

III. PuHsa-siddhdnta, so called from Paulisa, the 
Greek, from the city of Saintra, which I suppose to be 
Alexandria, composed by Pulisa. 

IV. Romaka-siddhdnta, so called from the Rum, i.e, 
the subjects of the Roman Empire, composed by 

V. Brahina-siddhdnta, so called from Brahman, com- 
posed by Brahmagupta, the son of Jishnu, from the 
town of Bhillamala between Multan and Anhilw^ra, 
i6 yojana from the latter place (?). 

The authors of these books draw from one and the 
same source, the Book Paiihdmaha, so called from the 
first father, i.e. Brahman, 

Varflhamibira has composed an astronomical hand- 
book of small compass called PaTicM-siddhdntikA, which 
name ought to mean that it contains the pith and mar- 
row of the preceding five SiddhUntas. But this is not 
the case, nor is it so much better than they as to be 
called the most correct one of the five. So the name 
does not indicate anything but the fact that the number 
of Siddhdntas is five. 

Brahmagupta says: “Many of the Siddh^ntas are 
Stlrya, others Indu, Pulisa, Romaka, Vasishtha, and 
Tavana, i.e. the Greeks ; and though the Siddhfintos are 
many, they differ only in words, not in the subject- 


matter. He who studies them properly will find that 
they ag^ee with each other.” 

Up to the present time 1 hare not been able to pro- 
cure any of these books save those of Pulisa and of 
Brahmagupta. I have commenced translating them, 
but have not yet finished my work. Meanwhile I shall 
Fxc* u- here a table of contents of the Brahma-tiddMnta, 

which in any case will be useful and instructive, 
cecwtiu 8i Contents of the twenty-fonr chapters of the Brahma- 

1 . On the nature of the globe and the figure of heaven 
and earth. 

2. On the revolutions of the planets; on the calcnla- 
tion of time, i.e. how to find the time for different longi- 
tudes and latitudes ; how to find the mean places of the 
planets ; how to find the sine of an arc. 

3. On the correction of the places of the planets. 

4. On three problems : how to find the shadow, the 
bygone portion of the day and the ascendens, and how 
to derive one from the other. 

5. On the planets becoming visible when they leave 
the rays of the sun, and their becoming invisible when 
entering them. 

6. On the first appearance of the moon, and about 
her two cusps. 

y. On the lunar eclipse. 

8 . On the solar edipae. 

9. On the shadow of the moon. 

10. On the meeting and conjunction of the planets. 

1 1. On the latitudes of the ]^anets. 

1 2. A critical investigation for the purpose of dis- 
tinguishing between correct and corrupt passages in the 
texts of astronomical treatises and hand^oks. 

13. On arithmetic; on plane measure and cognate 

14. Scientific calculation cd the mean places of the 



15. Scientific calculation of the correction of the 
places of the planets. 

16. Scientific calcnlation of the three problems (7. 
chap. 4). 

17. On the deflection of eclipses. 

18. Scientific calculation of the appearance of the 
new moon and her two cusps, 

19. On Kufiaka, i.$. the pounding of a thing. The 
pounding of oil>produoiag substances is here compared 
with the most m,inuts and detailed research. This chapter 
treats of algebra and related subjects, and besides it 
contains other valuable remarks of a more or less 
arithmetical nature. 

20. On the shadow. 

21. On the calculation of the measures of poetry and 
on metrics. 

22. On cycles and instruments of observation. 

23. On time and the four measures of time, the solar, 
the civil, the lunar, and the sidereal. 

24. About numeral notation in the metrical books of 
this kind. 

These, now, are twenty-four chapters, according to 
his own statement, but there is a twenty-fifth one, 
called Dhydna-graha-adhydya, in wliich he tries to 
solve the problems by speculation, not by mathematical 
calculation. I have not enumerated it in this list, 
because the pretensions which he brings forward in 
this chapter are repudiated by mathematics. 1 am 
rather inclined to think that that which he produces is 
meant to be the ratio metaphysica of all astronomical 
methods, otherwise how could any problem of this 
Bdenoe be solved by anything save by mathematics ? 

Such books as do not reach the standard of a Sid- 
dhlnta are mostly called I'antra or Karaya. The 
former means ruling under a governor, the latter means 
following, i.e. following behind the Siddhanta. Under 
governors they understand the Acdryas, i.e. the sages, 
anchorites, the followers of Brahman. 

Oo thg 
Ittonitiira of 
TuDlnis uU'l 


PJgO 7S- 


There are two famons Tanlras by AryaMafa and 
Balabhadra, besides the liasdyana4aiUra by Blidnv- 
yaAaa (?). About what Kas&yana means we shall give a 
separate chapter (chap. xvii.). 

As for Karaxuis, there is one Qaeimd) called by his 
name, besides the Karana-Muiij.^-khddyaka by Brah- 
magupta. The last word, kha'j.ia, means a kind of 
their sweetmeats. With regard to the reason why he 
gave his book this title, 1 have been told the follow- 

Sugriva, the Buddhist, bad composed ah astrono- 
mical handbook which he called Dadhi-sAgara, i.e. 
the sea of soiir-milk; and a pupil of bis composed a 
book of the same kiud which he called K'dra-bahayd (?), 
i.«. a mountain of rice. Afterwards be composed an- 
other book which he called Lavana-mushfi, i.t. a hand- 
ful of salt. Therefore Brahmagupta called his book 
the Sweetmeat — khddyaka — in order that all kinds of 
victuals (sour-milk, rice, salt, <S:o.) should occur in the 
titles of the books on this science. 

The contents of the book Karana-khayda-khddyaka 
represent the doctrine of Aryabhata. Therefore Brah- 
magupta afterwards composed a second book, which he 
called Uitara-khamla-khddyaka, i.e. the explanation of 
the Khanda-khddyaka. And this book is again followed 
by another one called Khant^-khddyaka-iippd (ric), of 
which I do not know whether it is composed by Brah- 
magupta or somebody else. It explains the reasons 
and the nature of the calculations employed in the 
Kha'fji(jla-khdd7jaka. I suppose it is a work of Bala- 

Further, there is an astronomical handbook composed 
by Vijayanandin, the commentator, in the city of 
Benares, entitled B^arana-tilaka, i.e. the blaze on the 
front of the Karapas ; another one by Vitteivara the 
son of Bhadatta (? Mihdatta), of the dty of NIgarapura, 
called KaraiM^-sdm, ie. that which has been derived 



from the Korana; another one, by Bhftniiyafias (?), is 
called Karana-para-tilaka, which shows, as I am told, 
how the a^rrected places of the stars are derived from 
one another. 

There is a book by Utpala the Kashmirian called 
B&hunnikarana (?), i.e. breaking the Karaijias; and 
another called Kara7).a-pdla, i.e. killing the Karaiiias. 

Besides there is a book called Ka’i-ar)a-e\X<jldnai},i of 
which I do not know the author. 

There are more books of the same kind with other 
titles, e.g. the great composed by Mann, and the 

commentary by Utpala; the small Mdnasa, an epitome 
of the former by Pnficala {?), from the southern country ; 
Basagilikd, by Aryabhata ; Anj&shtaiata, by the same ; 
Lokdnanda, so called from the name of the author ; Bhat- 
iild (?), so called from its anthor, the Brahman Bbattiia. 

The boobs of this kind are nearly innumerable. 

As for astrological literature, each one of the follow- unasttoin- 
ins authors has composed a so-called Sanhiid, viz. : — iur«, th« 

^ ^ so-ciUlrj.! 

MS^davya. Balabbadra, BuhtiitAs. 

Parftpiaia. Divyatattva. 

Garga. VaiShamihira. 


SanihUd means that which is collected, books containing 
something of everything, e.g. forewarnings relating to a 
journey derived from meteorological occurrences ; pro- 
phecies regarding the fate of dynasties ; the knowledge 
of lucky and unlucky things; prophesying from the 
lines of the hand ; interpretation of dreams, and taking 
auguries from the flight or cries of bii'ds. For Hindu 
scholars believe in suoh things. It is the custom of 
their astronomers to propound in their SaibhitiU also 
the whole science of meteorology and cosmology. 

Each one of the following authors has composed a nieJito- 

book, Jdtaka, i.e. book of nativities, viz. : — bSkllon 

•B. , i»eu»ih«. 

ParSaara. Jtv.-i^rman. 

Satya. Maa, the Greek. 




Var&hamihira has composed two Jltakas, a small and 
a large one. The latter of these has been explained 
by Balabhadra, and the former 1 hare translated into 
Arabic. Further, the Hindus have a large book on the 
science of the astrology of nativities called Sdj-Avali, 
i.«. the chosen one, similar to the Vatidaj (= Persian 
gta^da ?), composed by Kaly4^ia-Varman, who gained 
high credit for his scientific works. But there is 
another book still larger than this, which comprehends 
the whole of astrological sciences, called Tavana, %.e. 
belonging to the Greeka 

Of Var&hamibira there are several small books, e.g. 

fifty-six chapters on astrology; HwOr 
pafica-hotriya (?), on the same subject. 

Travelling is treated of in tlie book Yogaydtrd and 
the book Tikan'liJ)‘y&trd, marriage and marrying in the 
book Vivdha-pai^a, architecture in the book {lacun^. 

The art of taking auguries from the flight or cries 
of birds, and of the foretelling by means of piercing a 
needle into a book, is propounded in the work called 
Srudhava (P^rotavya), which exists in three different 
copies. Mah&deva is said to be the author of the first, 
Vimalabnddhi the author of the second, and Bahg&Ia the 
author of the third. Similar subjects are treated in the 
book &Adh&mana (?), Le. the knowledge of the un- 
known, composed by Buddha, the originator of the sect 
of the red robe-wearers, the Shamanians ; and in the 
book Praina Gd^M-mana (?), i.e. questions of the science 
of the unknown, composed by Utpala. 

Besides, there are Hindu scholars of whom we know 
PafWTS. the names, but not the title of any book of theirs, viz. 

Piadyamna. Stresrata. 

SaAgabila (SrlAkbala 7). FtravAna (f). 

DlvAkare. Deraktrtti. 

FarS^vaia, PritbUdaka.STAmiD. 

Msdioi Medicine belongs to the same class of sciences as 
utomtiiM, aBtronomy, but there is this difference, that the latter 



stands in close relation to the religion of the Hindus. 
They have a book called by the name of its author, 
i.e, Caraka, which they consider as the best of their 
whole literature on medicine. According to their belief, 
Oaraka was a Itishi in the last Dvitpara^ynga, when 
his name was AgniveSa, but afterwards he was called 
CaraJea, i.e. the intelligent one, after the first elements 
of medicine had been laid down by certain ^ishis, the 
diildren of SHira. These latter had received them from 
Indra, Indra from A^vin, one of the two physicians of 
the Devas, and A^vin had received them from Praj^ 
pati, i.e. Brahman, ihe first father. This book has been 
translated into Arabic for the princes of the house of 
the Barmecides. 

The Hindus cultivate nnmerous other branches of 
science and literature, and have a nearly boundless 
literature. I, however, could not comprehend it with 
my knowledge. I wish I could translate the book 
Pwfioatantra, known among us as the book of Kalila 
and Dimna. It is far spread in various languages, in 
Persian, Hindi, and Arabic — in translations of people 
who are not free from the suspicion of having altered 
the text. For instance, 'Abdalh^h Ibn Almukaflfa' has 
added in his Arabic version the chapter about Barzdya, 
with the intention of raising doubts in the minds of 
people of feeble religious belief, and to gain and prepare 
them for the propagation of the doctrines of the Mani- 
chteans. And if he is open to suspicion in so far as he 
has added something to the text which he bad simply 
to translate, he is hardly free from suspicion in his 
oapacdty as translator. 

Od PaAoft' 

( i6o ) 



rh« Hindu Counting is innate to man. The meaanre of a thine 

eysum « • i i • i ® 

weight*. becomes kaown by its beiog compared with another 

thing which belongs to the same species and is assumed 
as a nnit b 7 general consent. Thereby the difference 
between the object and this standard becomes known. 

By weighing, people determine the amount of gravity 
of heavy bodies, when the tongue of the scales stands 
at right angles on the horizontal plane. Hindus want 
the scales very little, because their dirhams are deter- 
mined by number, not by weight, and their fractions, 
too, are simply counted as so-and-so many fulHs. The 
coinage of both dirhams and fulHs is different accord- 
ing to towns and districts. They weigh gold with the 
scales only when it is in its natural state or such as 
has been worked, e.g. for ornaments, but not coined. 
They use as a weight of gold the Fitrortiassi^ tola. 
They use the tola as frequently as we use the 
According to what 1 have been able to learn from them, 
it corresponds to three of our dirhams, of which lo 
equal y mithhdl. 

Therefore I tola — 2 -^ of our mithkdl. 

The greatest fraction of a tola is called mdska. 
Therefore \6 mdsha = i suiwna. 



i 6 i 

I mAaha = 4 an^i {erart4a), t-<- the seed of b tree 
called Ouura. 

I antjt = 4 
I yava = 6 taU. 

I kald s 4 pdUa. 
l pdiiti s4ffldfS(t). 

Arranged dilTerently we have— 

I luvariyt Si 16 nufa/ia = 64 on^t s 256 ynva s i 6 ookalda 
6400p<tda = 2j,6oo m<M (J). 

Six mds/cas are called t drahkshana. If you ask 
them about this weight, they will tell you that 2 draiik- 
shana = 1 viitkkAl. But this is a mistake; for i 
m^hkdl = $j- mdska. The relation between a drank- 
thevna and a mithkdl is as 20 to 21, and therefore i 
dTa'fikshana = mithkdl. If, therefore, a man gives 
the answer which we have just mentioned, he seems to 
have in mind the notion of a mithkdl as a weight which 
does uot much differ from a draiikshami; but by 
doubling the amount, saying 2 di-alikshanas instead of 
I, he entirely spoils the comparison. 

Since the unit of measure is not a natural unit, 
but a conventional one assumed by general consent, it 
admits of both practical and imaginary division. Its 
subdivisions or fractions are different in different places 
at one and the same time, and at different periods 
in one and the same country. Their names, too, are 
different according to places and times; changes which 
are produced either by the organic development of Ian- 
guages or by accident. 

A man from the neighbouriiood of Somanfltb told me 
that their mithkdl is equal to ours ; that 

I nith^Sl s 8 ruvu. 

I ruvu s 2 fdJi. 

I ptHi » 16 yam, i.t. barley-corn. 

Accordingly 1 mithkdl s 8 ruvu = 16 pili = 2j6 yava. 

SPhis comparison shows that the man was mistaken 

TOL. X. L 

i 62 






th« teok 

in comparing tlie two milhkdls; that what he called 
mithk&U is in reality the tola, and that he calls the 
mdaha by a different name, viz. •nivu. 

If the Hindns wish to be particularly painstaking in 
these things, they give the following scale, based on the 
measiirementB which VarAbamihira prescribes for the 
conslructioa of idols : — 

I fVR<( or particle of dual s i rt^a. 

8 r(\ja a I bdldgra, i.t. the end of a bafr. 

8 bdlAgi'a = I liihyd, i.e. the egg of a looee. 

8 lHhyi = I ylUS, i.e. a lonee. 

8 yiid = I yava, i.e. a barley-corn. 

Hence, Var&hamihira goes on to enomerate the measares 
for distances. His measui'es of weight are the same as 
those which we have already mentioned. He says : 

4 yovs = I on^l. 

4 amft = I mdeha. 
l6 mdtha = l ntrorna, i.e. gold. 

4 ivrarM = l pala. 

The measures of dry substances are the following : — 

^pala = I kwfara. 

4 ha 4 ava = i pnuOut. 

4 prattha = i iU/hata. 

The measures of liquid substances are the following: — 

8 pala = I iudaru. 

8 Itiiifava = i pratlha. 

4 praltha a | a 4 haha. 

4 ddhaka m | draiia. 

The following weights oconr in the book Caraka. I 
give them here according to the Arabic translation, as 
I have not received them from the Hindus vivd wet. 
The Arabic copy seems to be corrupt, like all other 
books of this kind which I know. Such corruption 
must of necessity occur in our Arabic writing, more 
particularly at a period like onrs, when people care 


80 little abont the correctness of what they copy. 
" Atreya says : 

6 x'<LrLicIc8 of dust s i uiftr^et, 

6 moKct = I niusturd-Beed (x^jikd). 

8 muslnrcl-aeecls = i rod rioe-oom. 

2 rod rloc-conia — 1 [tea. 
a peas a ( '»>«((< 

And I andi is erjiial to ^ d&nak, according to the 
scale by which 7 ddnak are equal to one dirhain. 
Further : 

4 andi St I mdtlia. 

5 mdilta St ! cai.ia (?). 

t l kartha or tuvariia of tho 
weight of 2 tHrlumt. 

4 tuvama = i jjoia. 

ipala = I tudava. 

4 ku(iaiKi = I prattha. 

4 praitha = i dtfhaha. 

4 d<fhaka = i droiui. 

2 drona = ! Hlrpa. 

2 iffJiyo = lyond(f)." 

The- weight pala is much used in all the business 
dealings of the Hindus, but it is different for different 
wares and in different provinces. According to some, 
1 pala = mand ; according to others, i pala = 14 
mithkdl; but the mand is not equal to 210 mithkdl. 
According to others, i pala = 16 mithkdl, but the 
mand is not ec[ual to 240 mithkdl. According to others, 
ipala = 15 dirham, but the mand is not equal to 225 
dirham. In reality, however, the relation between the 
pala aud the mand is different. 

Further, Atreya says : “ i dipiaka = 64 pala = 128 
dirham * i fatl. But if the imii is equal to ^ ddnak, 
one mvartfA contains 64 andi, and then a dirham has 
32 which, as each anrff is equal to | ddnak, are 
equal to 4 ddnak. The double amount of it is i } dir- 
ham " (sm). 

Such are the results when people, instead of trans- 
lating, indulge in wild conjecture and mingle together 
difierent theories in an uncritical manner. 

Putt ;l. 



authors on 

1^10 Uladu 

As regards the first theory, resting on the assumption 
of one mvar%ia being eqnal to three of oar dirhams, 
people in general agree in this — that 

I tumr/ia s ^pala. 

t pala s tg fiirAam. 

I paUt B fy uuinit. 

1 s 180 dirA'im. 

This leads me to think that i suvftrpa is eqnal to 3 
of our mithlfdl, not to 3 of our dirham,. 

Yardhamibira says in another place of his Saibhitfi ; 

“ Make a round vase of the diameter and height of 
one yard, and then expose it to the rain nntil it ceases. 
All the water that has been collected in it of the weight 
of 200 dirham is, if taken fourfold, eqnal to I ddhaha.” 

This, however, is only an approximate statement, 
because, as we have above mentioned in his own words, 
I ddbaka is eqnal to 768 either dirham, as they say, or 
milhkdl, os J suppose. 

^rlpiila relates, on the aathority of Vanlhamibira, that 
y>‘pala=2$6dirham=i ddhaka. But he is mistaken, 
for here the number 256 does not mean dirhams, but the 
nnmberoftheswuamacontainedin one ddhaka. And the 
number oipala contained in i dddiaka is 64, not 50. 

As I have been told, Jiva^arman gives the following 
detmled account of these weights : 

4 pala s t htdata. 

4 ihuiova B I praatka. 

4 praatha as I ddhaia. 

4 ddhaia as I drona. 
go drona s I kMrl. 

The reader must know that 16 mdshn are i tuvar^, 
but in weighing wheat or barley they reckon 4 suvar^a 
~ I pala, and in weighing water and oil they reckon 8 
aurariia= i pala. 

Tile balances with which the Hindus weigh things 
are which the weights are immovable, 

whilst the scales move on certain marks and lines. 



Therefore the balance is called (vld. The first lines 
mean the units of the weight from i to 5, and farther 
on to 10; the following lines mean the tenths, lO, 20, 
30, &c. With regard to the cause of this arrangement 
they relate the following saying of Vilsudeva : — 

"I will not kill i^i^iipiila, the son of my aunt, if he 
bos not committed a crime, but will pardon him uniil 
hn, and tlien 1 shall call him to account.” 

We shall relate this story on a later opportunity. 

Alfazflri uses in his astronomical handbook the word 
pcda for day^minutrA (i.e. sijctieth parts of a day). 1 have 
not found this use anywhere in Hindu literature, but 
they use the word to denote a correction in a mathe- 
matical sense. 

The Hindus have a weight called bhdra, which is 
mentioned in the books about the conquest of Sindh. 
It is equal to iooopala; for they explain it by 100 X 
20 pala, and as nearly equal to the weight of an ox. 

This is all I have lighted on as regards Hindu 

By measnring (with dry measures) people determine 
the body and the bulk of a thing, if it fills up a certain 
measure whic^i has been ganged as containing a certain 
quantity of it, it being understood that the way in 
which the things are laid out in the measure, the way 
in which their surface is determined, and the way in 
which, on the whole, they are arranged within the 
measure, are jn every case identical. If two objects 
which are to be weighed belong to the same species, 
they then prove to be equal, not only in bulk, but also 
in weight ; but if they do not belong to the same species, 
their bodily extent U equal, but not their weight. 

They have a measure called itsi (? silt), which is 
mentioned by every man from Kanauj and SomaniUh. 
According to the people of Kanauj — 




4 = 1 prcutha. 

I btH = I kudava. 



According; to the people of Somanath — 

|6 6M = t pnnlS. 

12 pnntt = 1 mora. 

According to another theory — 

12 frf<S s I kalaii. 

^ btit a: rmttfiu. 

From the same source 1 learnt that a mdna of wlieat 
is nearly equal to 5 mand. Therefore i Itsi (?) is 
equal to 20 mand. The bisi corresponde to the Khwil- 
rir^mian measure sukhkh, according to old style, whilst 
the kaloM coiresponds to the Khw&rizmian glvAr, foi' 
I ghUr = 1 2 suk/Jch. 

Uofifitircs of Mensuration is the determination of distances by 
• incM. jjjjgg Qf superficies by planes. A plane ought to 
be measured by part of a plane, but the mensuration 
by means of lines effects the same purpose, os lines 
determine the limits of planes. When, in quoting 
Varfihamihira, we had come so far as to determine the 
weight of a barley-corn (p. 162), we made a digression 
into an exposition of weights, where we used his 
authority about gravity, and now we shall return to 

him and consult him about distances. He says — 


8 barley-coras put tc^etber = 1 aiguia, i.e. finger. 

4 fingers = I rdma (?), i.e. the fist. 

24 fingers = i i.e. yard, also oalled<2<M{a 

4 yards = l dkanu, i.e. am = a fatbom. 

40 ams s t nn/vo. 

25 nalva = I itroin. 

Hence it follows that i kroh = 4000 yards ; and as 
our mile has just so many yards, i mile = l kroh. 
PuHsa the Greek also mentions in his Siddhllnta that 
I kroh K 4000 yards. 

The yard is equal to 2 mikyds or 24 fingers ; for the 
Hindus determine the iemku, i.e. mikyds, by idol-fingers. 
They do not call the twelfth part of a mikyds a finger 
in general, as tee do, but their mikyds is always a span. 
The span, i.e. the distance between the ends of the 


thamb and the small finger at their widest ])ossible 
stretching, is called viiasti and also kishhc. 

The distance between the ends of the fourth or ring- 
finger and the thumb, both being stretched out, is called 

The distance between the ends of the index-finger 
and of the thumb is called karabha, and is reckoned as 
equal to two-thirds of a span. 

The distance between the tops of tlie middle finger 
and of the thumb is called i&la. The Hindus maintain 
that the height of a man is eight times his idia, whether 
he be tall or small ; as people say with regard to the 
foot, that it is one-seventh of the height of a man. 

Regarding the construction of idols, the book Samhiid 

“The breadth of the palm has been determined as 6, 
the length as 7; the length of the middle finger as 5, 
that of the fourth finger as the same ; that of the index- 
finger as the same minus (i.e. 4 t) ; that of the small 
finger as the same minus J {i.e. 3|-) ; that of the thumb 
as equal to two-thirds of the length of the middle finger 
(i.t. 3^), so that the two last fingers are of equal length.” 

By the measurements and nnmbers of this passage, Pngo to. 
the author means idol~fingers. 

After the measure of the krosn has been fixed and nioroution 
found to he equal to our mile, the reader must learn #«>irio.niiio, 
that they have a iiieasure of distances, called ynjana, 
which is eqnal to 8 miles or to 32,000 yards. Perhaps 
somebody might believe that 1 kroh is = J faraakh, 
and maintain that the /ararilcki of the Hindus are 
16,000 yards long. But such is not the case. On 
the contrary, i hvh = yojana. In the terms of 
this measure, Alfaziirt has determined the oiroumfer* 
ence of the earth in his astronomical handbook. He 
calls it in the plural 'ajwdn. 

The elements of the calculations of the Hindus on luution 
the oitcumference of the circle rest on the assumption 


ence and 


that it is thrice its diameter. So the Maisya-Purdvta 
sajB, after it has mentioned the diameters of the sun 
and moon in yqjanas: “The circumference is thrice 
the diameter.” 

The AdUya-Punhia says, after it has mentioned the 
breadth of the Dvtpas, i.e. the islands and of their 
BnrToanding seas : “ The oiroumferenoe is thrice the 

The same oconrs also in the Vdya-PurdyA,. In later 
times, however, Hindus have become aware of the 
fraction following after the three wholes. According 
to Brahmagupta, the circumference is 3f times the 
diameter; but he finds this number by a method 
pecniiar to himself. He says : “ As the root of lo 
is nearly 34-, the relation between the diameter and 
its circumference is like the relation between i and 
the root of 10.” Then he multiplies the diameter 
by itself, the product by 10, and of this product he 
takes the root. Then the circumference is solid, i.e. 
consists of integers, in the same way as the root of 
ten. This calculation, however, makes the fraction 
larger than it really is. Archimedes defined it to be 
something between and 4^^. Brahmagupta relates 
with regard to Aryabhata, criticising hiiu, that he 
fixed the drcumference as 3393 ; that he fixed, the dia- 
meter in one place as 1080, in another place as 1050. 
According to the first statement, the relation between 
diameter and circumference would be like i : 33%. 
This fraction (^Yir) “ *^7 iV smaller than f. However, 
as regards the second statement, it contains no doubt a 
blunder in the text, not of the author ; for according to 
the text, the relation would be like 1:3} and some* 
thing over. 

PuUs% employs this relation in his calculations in 
the proportion of I : 3 

This fraction is here by so much smaller than one- 
seventh as it is according to Aryabhata, i.e. by jV. 



The same relation ia derived from the old theory, 
which Ya'kftb Ibn T^i'ik mentions in his book, Cojii- 
positio Spherarum, on the authority of his Hindu 
informant, vizs, that the circumference of the zodiac 
is 1,256,640,000 ijojana, and that its diameter is 
400,000,000 1/oJana. 

These numbers presuppose the relation between cir- 
eamference and diameter to be os i : 3 
These two numbers may be reduced by the ooinmon 
divisor of 360,000. Thereby we get 177 as numerator 
and 1250 as denominator. And this is the fraction 
'^hich Pulisa has adopted. 

( >70 ) 


Od Tiii'luus 
kliida of 



The tongue communicates the thought of the speaker 
to the hearer. Its action has therefore, as it were, a 
momentary life only, and it would have been impos- 
sible to deliver by oral tradition the accounts of the 
events of the past to later generations, more particularly 
if they are separated from them by long periods of 
time. This has become possible only by a new dis- 
covery of the human mind, by the art of writing, which 
spreads news over space as the winds spread, and over 
time as the spirits of the deceased spread. Praise 
therefore he unto Him who has arranged creation and 
created everything for the best ! 

The Hindus are not in the habit of writing on hides, 
like the Greeks in ancient times. Socrates, on being 
asked why he did not compose books, gave this reply : 
“ I do not transfer knowledge from the living hearts of 
men to the dead hides of sheep.” Muslims, too, used 
in the early times of Islam to write on hides, e.g. the 
treaty between tlie Prophet and the Jews of Khaibar 
and Ills letter to Kisr^, The copies of the Koran were 
written on the hides of gazelles, as are still nowadays 
the copies of the Thora. There occors this passage in 
the Koran (Sftra vi 91): “They make it kardiis," i.e. 
ro^a/Ha* The kiride (or charta) is made in Egypt, 



being cot oot of the papyrus stalk. Written on this 
material, the orders of the Khalifa went out into all the 
world until shortly before onr time. Papyrus has this 
advantage over vellum, that you can neither rub out 
nor change anything on it, because thereby it would be 
destroyed, It was in China that paper was first manu- 
factured. Chinese prisoners introduced the fabrication 
of paper into Samarkand, and thereupon it was made 
in various places, so as to meet the existing want. 

The Hindus have in the south of their country a 
slender tree like the date and cocoa-nut palms, bearing 
edible fruits and leaves of the length of one yard, and 
as broad as three fingers one put beside the other. 
They call these leaves tdH (tdla or tdr = Borassus jla- 
belli/cn-mis), and write on them. They bind a book of 
these leaves together by a cord on which they are 
arranged, the cord going through all the leaves by a 
hole in the middle of each. 

In Central and Northern India people use the bark of 
the Mi tree, one kind of which' is used as a cover for 
bows. It is called hhUrja. They take a piece one yard 
long and as broad as the outstretched fingers of the 
hatid, or somewhat less, and prepare it in various ways. 
They oil and polish it so as to make it hard and smooth, 
and then they write on it. The proper order of the 
single leaves is marked by numbers. The whole book 
is wrapped up in a piece of cloth and fastened between 
two tablets of the same size. Such a book is called 
(cf. ptuta, pustaka). Their letters, cud whatever 
else they have to write, they wj'ite on the bark of the 
i'&z tree. 

As to the writing or alphabet of the Hindus, we have 
already mentioned that it once had been lost and for- 
gotten ; that nobody cared for it, and that in conse- 
quence people became illiterate, sunken into gross 
ignorance, and entirely estranged from science. But 
then Vylsa, the son of I’ariUara, rediscovered their 

On the 


allphabet of fifty letters by an inspiration of God. A 
letter is called dkshara. 

Some people say that originally the number of their 
letters was less, and that it increased only by degrees. 
This is possible, or I should even say necessary. As for 
the Greek alphabet, a certain Asid/ias (sic) had formed 
sixteen characters to perpetuate science about the time 
when the Israelites ruled over Egypt. Tliereupon 
Klviush (sic) and Agenon (sic) brought them to the 
Greeks. By adding four new signs they obtained an 
alphabet of twenty letters. Later on, about the time 
when Socrates was poisoned, Simonides added fonr 
Pages?. other signs, and so the Atheniatis at last had a complete 
alphabet of twenty-four letters, which happened during 
the reign of Artaxerxes, the son of Darius, the son of 
Artaxerxea, the son of Cyrns, according to the chrono- 
graphers of the West. 

The great nnmber of the letters of the Hindu alpha- 
bet is explained, firstly, by the fact that they express 
every letter by a separate sign if it is followed by a 
vowel or a diphthong or a liamza (insarga), or a small 
extension of the sound beyond the measure of the 
vowel; and, secondly, by the fact that they have. con- 
sonants which are not found together in any other 
language, though they may be found scattered through 
different languages — sounds of snch a nature that oivr 
tongues, not being familiar with them, can scarcely pro- 
nounce them, and that our ears are frequently not able 
to distinguish between many a cognate pair of them. 

The Hindus write from the left to the right like the 
Greeks. They do not write on tlie basis of a line, 
above which the heads of the letters rise whilst their 
toils go down below, as in Arabic writing. On the 
contrary, their ground-line is above, a straight line 
above every single character, and from this line the 
letter hangs down and is written under it. Any sign 
aiove the line is nothing but a grammatical mark to 



denote the pronunciation of the cl)aracter above which 
it stands. 

The most generally known alphabet is called ISiddha- 
mdlnkd, which is by some considered as originating 
from Kashmir, for the people of Kashmir use it. But 
it is also used in Yavaimsl. This town and Kashmir are 
the high schools of Uindu sciences. The same writing 
is used in Madhyadeia, i.c, the middle country, the 
oonntry all ai'ouud Kanauj, which is also called Aryit* 

In Mdlava there is another alphabet called Ndyara, 
which dilTers from the former only in the sha])e of the 

Next comes an alphabet called Ardkandgari, i.e. half- 
nAgara, so called because it is compounded of the 
former two. It is used in Bhatiya and some parts of 

Other alphabets are the Malv.’dri, used iu Malwashau, 
in Southern Sind, towards the sea-coast ; the 
used in Bahmanwa or Almansura ; the Karndta, used in 
Karnatadela, wlieuce tiiose troops come which in the 
armies are kuowji as Kannara; the AndhH, used in 
Audhrade5a ; the Dii~wari {Dr&vidi), used in Dirwara- 
de^a (Dravi(lade.4a) ; the Ldrt, used in lArade^a (Lata- 
dela) ; the Qauri {Gaudi), used in Pdrvade^a, i.e. the 
Eastern country ; the BhaikshnH, used iu Udunpnr in 
PGrvadeia. This last is the writing of Buddha. 

The Hindus begin their books with (hi, the woi d of 
creation, as we begin them willv “ In the name of 
God.” The figure of the word om is Qv/ This flgnre 
does not consist of letters ; it is simply an image 
invented to represent this word, which people use, 
believing that it will bring them a blessing, and 
meaning thereby a confession of tlie uuity of God. 
Similar to this is the manner in which the Jews write 
the name of God, viz. by three Hebrew yods. In the 
Thora the word is written YHVH and pronounced 

Oa thfl locft] 
ul]»l>ubcte uf 

tUo liiiidiiA, 

On tbo 
word Om 

On tb«lr 



Adonai; Bometimes they also say Yah. The word 
Adcnai, which they pronounce, is not expressed in 

The Hindns do not use the letters of their alphabet 
for numerical notation, as we uBe the Arabic letters in 
the order of the Uebi-ew alphabet. As in difEereut parts 
of India the letters have different shapes, the numeral 
BignB, too, which are called aiUca, differ. The numeral 
Bigns which wt use ore derived from the finest forniB of 
the Hindu signs. Signs and figures are of no use if 
people do not know what they mean, but the people of 
Kashmir mark the single leaves of their books with 
figures which look like drawings or like the Chinese 
characters, the meaning of which can only be learned 
by a very long practice. However, they do not use 
them when reckoning in the sand. 

In arithmetic all nations agree that all the wders of 
numbers {e.g. one, ten, hundred, thousand) stand in a 
certain relation to the ten ; that each order is the tenth 
part of the following and the tenfold of the preceding. 
I have studied the names of the order$ of the numbers 
iu various languages with all kinds of people with 
whom I have been in contact, and have found that no 
nation goes beyond the thousand. The Arabs, too, stop 
with the thousand, which is certainly the most correct 
and the most natural thing to do. I have written a 
separate treatise on this snbject. 

Those, however, who go beyond the thousand in their 
numeral system are the Hindus, at least in their 
arithmetical technical terms, which have been either 
freely invented or derived according to certain etymoIo> 
gies, whilst in others both methods are blended together. 
They extend the names of the orders of numbers until 
the i8th order for religious reasons, the mathematicians 
being assisted by the grammarians with all kinds of 

The 18th order is called Pard/rdha, i.e. the half of 



heaven, or, more accurately, the half of that which is 
above. For if tlie Hindus coiistnicJt periods of time out 
of Kalpas, the unit of this order is a day of God (i.e. a 
half nyehthemeron). And as we do not know any body 
larger than heaven, half of it as a half of 

iht yreateat body, has been compared with a half of the 
greatest day. By doubling it, by uniting night to day, 
we get the whole of the greatest day. There can be no 
doubt that the name Pardrdha is accounted for in this 
way, and that ^ardr means the whole of heaven. 

The following are the names of the eighteen o^-ders of The«ighe- 

® ° aen OMflre 

numbers : — ctnumon*. 


1 . t'kaili. 

2. OaiaiH. 

3. S'atajii. 

4. Sakairmh. 

5. Ayuta- 

6 . Lakiha. 

7. Prayuia. 

8 . Keii- 

9. Nyarbuda. 

10. Padma. 

11. Eha>-va. 

12. Nikharva. 

13. Mahdpadma. 

14. ii'anku. 

15. Samvdra. 

16. Madhya. 

17. Antya. 

18. Parirdha. 

I shall now mention some of their differences of 
opinion relating to this system. 

Some Hindus maintain that there is a \glh older v»rt»tioni 
beyond the Pard/rdha, called Bhiiri, and (hat this is the tn'tlw'''* 
limit of reckoning. Butin reality is unlimited ^ ordera. 

it has only a technical limit, which is conventionally 
adopted as the last of the orders of numbers. By the 
word reckoning in the sentence above they seem to mean 
noiiienclature, as if they meant to say that the language 
has no name for any reckoniug beyond the 19th order. 

It is known that the unit of this order, i.e. one bhUri, is 
er.|ual to one-fifth of the gimtesl day, but on this subject 
they have no tradition. In tlieir tradition there are 
only traces of combinations of the gi-eateal day, as we 
shall hereafter explain. Therefore this 19th order 
is an addition of an artificial and hyper-accurate 



According to others, the limit of reckoning is kofi ; 
and starting from ko^i the succession of the orders of 
nnmberB would he kofi, thousands, hundreds, tenths; 
for the number of Devas is expressed in kdtis. Ac- 
cording to their belief tliere are thirty-three kotis of 
Devas, eleven of which belong to each of the three 
beings, Brahman, Norflyai.ia, and Mahi^deva. 

The names of the orders beyond that of the i8th 
have been invented by the grammarians, as we have 
said already (p. r74). 

Further, we observe that the popular name of the 
5th order is Daiu sahasra, that of the 7th order, Daia 
laksha ; for the two names which we have mentioned in 
the list above (Ayuta I’rayuta) are rarely used. 

The book of Aryabhata of Kusnniapura gives the 
following names of the orders from the ten till lO 
koti : — 

Ayatath. Kaiifodma. 

NiynUah. Po/rapadma. 


Further, it is noteworthy that some people establish 
a kind of etymological relationship between the dif- 
ferent names ; so they call the 6th order Niyuta, ac- 
cording to the analogy of the 5 th, which is called 
Ayuta. Further, they call the 8th order Arlvda, 
according to the analogy of the 9th, which is called 

There is a similar relation between Nikharva and 
Kharva, the names of the 12th and nth orders, and 
between ^aiiku and MakASanku, the names of the 1 3th 
and 14th orders. According to this analogy Mahd^ 
fttdma oagbt to follow immediately after i’adma, bnb 
this latter is the name of the :otli, the former the 
name of the 13th order. 

These are differences of theirs which can be traced 
back to certain reasons ; but besides, there are many 
differences without any reason, which simply arise 



from people dictating tiiese namcB withont observing 
any fixed order, or from the fact that they hate to 
Avow their ignorance by a frank / do not know , — a 
word which is difTicnlt to tiiem in any connection 

The Pulisa-siddhAnla gives tlie following list of the 
orders of the numbers ; — 



6 . Nlyiilunti. 

J. PrnyutarU. 

8 . Xoli. 

9. Ariudath. 

10. Xkarvu. 

The following orders, from the nth till the 18th, are 
the same as those of the above-mentioned list. 

The Hindus use the numeral signs in arithmetic in 
the same way as we do. 1 have composed a treatise 
showing how far, possibly, the Hindus are ahead of us 
in this subject. We have already explained that the 
Hindus compose their books in Slokas. If, now, they 
wish, in their astronomical handbooks, to express some 
numbers of the various orders, they express them by 
words used to denote certain numbers either in one 
order alone or at the same time in two orders {e.g. a 
word meaning either 20 or both 20 and 200). For 
each number they have appropriated quite a great 
quantity of words. Hence, if one word does not suit 
the metre, you may easily excliange it for a synonym 
which suits. Brahmagupta says: “If you want to 
write one, express it by everything which is unique, as 
the earth, the moon; lico by everything which is double, 
as, t.g. Uack and white ; three by everything which is 
threefold; the nought by heaven, the twelve by the 
names of the sun.” 

I have united in the following table all the ex- 
pressions for the numbers which I used to hear from 
them; for the knowledge of these things is most 
essential for deciphering their astronomical handbooks. 

VOL. I. M 




WteneTer I ehall oome to know all the meanings of 
these words, I will add them, if God permits ! 

0 = Mnya ajtd iha, both meao- 


gagana , «.(. hMven. 
viyui, <.«. bmveo. 

<.«. lieavon, 
amioro, t.<. faoavon. 
abhra, i.(. heaveo. 

1 = idi, <■!. tbe beginolne:. 




urvanf, dAoninf. 
fiUmaha, i.e. the first 

eandra, i.a the moon. 
HlAiitiK, ue. the cdood. 

z = ^na. 


focona, i.e. the two e^es. 




foMa, i.e. the two halves 
of a month. 
netra, i.e. the two e^es. 

3 s iriidla, ie. the three parts 
of time, 


vatVnfnora, da- 
Aana, lufana, AuliUan't, 
JvaUma, agni, t.a fire. 
[tr^HSOi] te. the three first 


foito, {.«. the worlds, earth, 
heaven and hell. 

^ = veda, i.e. their sacred code, 
because it has four parts. 

samudra, sd^ora, t.e. the 

dU, i.e, the fonr cardinal 



5 ■ faro. 

indriya, ie. the five 






Pd^ava, i.e. the fire rojal 
paUrin, tndrgo^. 

6 = nua. 



1*^1 (?) t.s. the year, 

r*ft» (?). 


7 = 0^0. 


parraia, ie. the moan* 

naga, ie. the mountains. 



8 B rasu. aeAfa. 

dhl, mailgiila. 
gnja, ndga. 

9 = po, chidra. 

nondo, pavana. 
rondAro. auti(?'a. 
nuvait = 9. 


Fags es. 




10 = dii, ihmdv. 

did, Sdvana-iiyaii. 

1 1 = liaiira, the destroj’or of tbe 

world. f 

MaAdi/tva, i.e. (Ixi {)riii('.e 
of llic augol:!. 

ais/iau/»'(it, t.e. tlin army 
Kuru bad. 

li B itfryu, beonuiie lliere are 

twelve BUDS. 

arka, i.e. tbe sull. 

mdsit, bhdnu. 

13 = fWla. 

14 = manu, the lords of the 
fourteen vuimunUirns. 

13 = lithi, i.i. tbe lonar clays in 
each half mouth. 

iQ js tiihfi, nryvi, bhO/iu. 

17 = iilyiithli. 

iK tl/tl-ili. 

19 = atiilhfili. 

30 = ntikha, ki-iti. 

21 s ulkfiti. 

22 = 

23 = 

24 = 

23 = {'itfm, t.e. the twenty- 
live things, through the 
knowledge of which lib- 
eration is obtained. 

As far as I have seen and heard of the Hindus, thej 
do not usually go beyond twenty-five with this kind 
of numerical notation. 

We shall now speak of certain strange manners and 
customs of the Hindus. The strangeness of a thing 
evidently rests on the fact that it occurs but rarely, and 
that we seldom have the opportunity of witnessing it. 
If such straugeness reaches a high degree, the thing 
becomes a curiosity, or even something like a miracle, 
which is no longer in accordance with tbe oidinary laws 
of nature, and which seems chimerical as long as it has 
not been witnessed. Many Hindu customs differ from 
those of our country and of our time to such a degree 
as to appear to us simply monstrous. One might 
almost think that they had iiitentiniially changed them 
into the opposite, for ojcv customs do not resemble 
theirs, but are the very reverse ; and if over a custom of 
tkma resembles one of ours, it has certainly just the 
opposite meaning. 

They do not cut any of the hair of tlie body. Originally 
they went naked in consef(uence of the heat, and by 
not cutting the haii' of the head they intended to pre- 
vent sunstroke. 


Anti cudtLiDS 

Pago 69. 


They divide the monstache into single plaits in 
order to presei’ve it. As regards their not cutting 
the hail' of the genitals, they try to make people 
believe that the catting of it incites to' lust and 
increases carnal desire, llierefore such of them as 
feel a strong desire for cohabitation never out the 
hair of the genitals. 

They let the nails grow long, glorying in their idle- 
ness, since they do not use them for any bnsiness or 
work, but only, while living a dolce far niente life, they 
scratch their heads with them and examine the hair for 

The Hindus eat singly, one by one, on a tablecloth 
of dung. They do not make use of the remainder of a 
meal, and the plates from which they have eaten are 
thrown away if they are earthen. 

They have red teeth in consequence of chewing areca- 
nnts with betel-leaves and chalk. 

They drink wine before having eaten anything, then 
they take their meal. They sip the stall of cows, but 
they do not eat their meat. 

They beat the cymbals with a stick. 

They use turbans for trousers. Those who want little 
dress are content to dress in a rag of two fingers’ breadth, 
which they hind over their loins with two cords; but 
those who like much dress, wear trousers lined with 
so mnch cotton as would suffice to make a number of 
counterpanes and saddle-rugs. These trousers have no 
(visible) openings, and they are so huge that the feet 
are not visible. The string by which the trousers are 
fastened is at the back. 

Their fiddr (a piece of dress covering the head 
and the upper port of breast and neck) is similar to 
the trousers, being also fastened at the back by 

The lappets of the kurfakas (short shirts from the 
shoulders to the middle of the body with sleeves, a 



female dress) have slashes both on the ri^Iit and left 

They keep the shoes tight till they begin to put 
them on. They are turned down from the calf before 
walking (?). 

In washing they begin with the feet, and then wash 
the face. They wash themselvos before cohabiting with 
their wives. 

CcBunt stanii'n ■i-i'.lvt pabm vilis, dum nmlieres nh imo 
iurmon moccntuv veliil occitpahc in araiuio, martins vero 
plane otiosus trianet. 

On festive days they besmear their bodies with dung 
instead of perfumes. 

The tnen wear articles of female dress; they use 
cosmetics, wear earrings, arm-rings, golden seal-rings on 
the ring-finger as well as on the toes of the feet. 

Miseret eos cutamili d viri qui rehis venereis fmi noti 
potest pushandila dicti, qni penem bucca devorans semen 
elicit sorhmdum. 

In cacando fadem vertunt versus murtim retetjentes 
pudenda ut videanitir a prcelereuntihis. 

Sacra faciunt viinlibus lifiga dictis, quw cst imago 
veretri Maliadevm. 

They ride without a saddle, but if they put on a 
saddle, they monnt the horse from its right side. In 
travelling they like to have somebody riding behind 

They fasten the ku(hdra, i.e. the dagger, at the waist 
on the right side. 

They wear a girdle called yajnopavita, passing from 
the left shoulder to the right side of the waist, 

In all consultations and emergencies tliey take the rage 
advice of the women, 

"When a child is born people show particular atten- 
tion to the man, not to the woman. 

Of two children they give the preference to the 
younger, particularly in the eastern parts of the country *, 



for they maintaiTi that the elder owes his birth to pre* 
dominant Inst, whilst the younger owes his origin to 
mature reflection and a calm proceeding. 

In shaking hands they grasp the hand of a man from 
the convex side. 

They do not ask permission to enter a house, but 
when they leave it they ask permission to do so. 

In their meetings they sit cross-legged. 

They spit out and blow their noses without any 
respect for the elder ones present, and they crack their 
lice before them. They consider the crepittts venii'is as 
a good omen, sneezing as a bad omen. 

They consider as unclean the weaver, but as clean 
the cupper and the flayer, who kills dying animals for 
money either by drowning or by burning, 

They use black tablets for the children in the schools, 
and write upon them along the long side, not the broad 
side, writing with a white material from the left to the 
right. One wonld think that the author of the follow- 
ing verses had meant the Hindus: — 

" How many a writer oesa paper aa black as charcoai, 

Whilst his pea writes oa it with white colour. 

By writing be places a bright day in a dark night, 

Weaving like a weaver, bnt withont adding a woof." 

They write the title of a book at the end of it, not at 
the beginning. 

They magnify the nouns of their language by pving 
them the feminine gender, as the Arabs magnify them 
by the diminutive form, 

If one of them hands over a thing to another, he 
expects that it should be thrown to him as we, throw a 
thiug to the dogs. 

If two men play at Nard (backgammon), a third 
one throws the dice between them. 

They like the juice which flows over the cheeks of 


the rutting elephant, which in reality has the most 
horrid smell. 

In playing chess they move the elephant straight on, on th« 
not to the other sides, one square at a time, like the chwT 
pawn, and to the four corners also one square at a time, 
like the queen (_firtdn). They say that these five squares 
(t.0. the one straight forward and the others at the 
corners) are the places occupied by the trunk and the 
four feet of the elephant 

They play chess — four persons at a time — with a 
pair of dice. Their arrangement of the figures on the 
chess-board is the following ; — 

































tower. 1 


As this kind of chess is not known among us, I shall 
here explain what I know of it. 

The four persons playing tc^etfaer sit so as to form a 
square round a chess-board, and throw the two dice 
alternately. Of the numbers of the dice the five and 
I'agofi. six are blank (i.«. do not count as such). In that 
cose, if the dice show five or six, the player takes one 
instead of the five, and fonr Instead of the six, because 
the figures of these two numerals are drawn in the 
following manner: — 

6 5 


so as to exhibit a certain likeness of form to 4 and i, 
viz. in the Indian signs. 

The name Sh&h or king applies here to the queen 

Each number of the dice causes a move of one of the 

The I moves either the pawn or the king. Their 
moves are the same as in the common chess. The king 
may be taken, but is not required to leave his place. 

The 2 moves the tower (rukh). It moves to the third 
square in the direction of the diagonal, as the elephant 
moves in our chess, 

The 3 moves the horse. Its move is the generally 
known one to the third square in oblique direction. 

The 4 moves the elephant. It moves in a straight 
line, as the tower does in our chess, unless it be pre- 
vented from moving on. If this is the case, as some- 
times happens, one of the dice removes the obstacle, 
and enables it to move on. Its smallest move is one 
square, the greatest fifteen squares, because the dice 
sometimes show two 4, or two 6, or a 4 and a 6. In 
consequence of one of these numbers, the elephant 
moves along the whole side of the margin on the chess- 
board ; iu consequence of the other number, it moves 



along the other side on the other margin of the hoard, 
in case there is no impediment in its way. In con- 
sequence of these two unmhers, the elephant, in the 
course of his moves, occupies the two ends of the 

The pieces have certain values, according to which 
the player gets his share of the stake, for the pieces are 
taken and pass into the hands of the player. The value 
of the king is 5, that of the elephant 4, of the horse 3, of 
the tower 2, and of the pawn i. Ho who takes a king 
gets 5. For two kings he gets lo, for three kings 15, 
if the winner is no longer in possession of his own king. 
But if he has still his own king, and takes all three 
kings, he gets 54, a number which represents a pro- 
gression based on general consent, not on an algebraic 

If the Hindus claim to differ from us, and to be 
something better than we, as we on our side, of course, 
do vice versd, we might settle the question by an ex- 
periment to be made with their boys. I never knew a 
Hindu boy who had only recently come into Muham- 
madan territory who was not thoroughly versed in the 
manners and customs of the people, hut at the same 
time he would place the shoes before his master in a 
wrong order, the right one to the left foot, and vice veo'sd; 
he would, in folding, turn his master’s garments inside 
out, and spread the carpets so that the under part is 
uppermost, and more of the kind. All of which is a 
consequence of the innate perversity of the Hindu 

However, I must not reproach the Hindus only witli 
their heathen practices, for the heathen Arabs too com- 
mitted crimes and obscenities. They cohabited with 
menstruating and pregnant women ; several men agreed 
to cohabit with the same woman in the same period of 
menstruation ; they adopted the children of others, of 
tiiedr guests, of the lover of their daughter, not to men* 

Hie imielu 



Cuitone ol 
tbs heathen 


1 86 

tion that in Bom© kinds of their worship they whistled 
on their fingers and clapped with their hands, and that 
they ate nnolean and dead animals. Islam has abolished 
all those things among the Arabs, as it has also abolished 
them in those parts of India the people of which have 
become Muhsunmadaos. Thanks be unto God 1 

( *87 ) 



We understand by witchcraft, making by some kind of 
delusion a thing appear to the senses as something dif* 
ferent from what it is in reality. Taken in this sense, 
it is far spread among people. Understood, however, 
as common people understand it, as the producing of 
something which is impossible, it is a thing which 
does not lie within the limits of reality. For as that 
which is impossible cannot be produced, the whole affair 
is nothing but a gross deception. Therefore witch- 
craft in this sense has nothing whatever to do with 

One of the species of witchcraft is alchemy, though 
it is generally not called by this name. But if a man 
takes a bit of cotton and makes it appear as a bit of 
gold, what would you call this but a piece of witch- 
craft? It is quite the same as if be were to take a bit 
of silver and make it appear as gold, only with this 
difference, that the latter is a generally-known process, 
the gilding of silver, the former is not. 

The Hindus do not pay particular attention to al- 
chemy, but no nation is entirely free from it, and one 
nation has more bias for it than another, which must 
not be construed as proving intelligence or ignorance; 
for we find that many intelligent people are entirely 
given to alchemy, whilst ignorant people ridicule the 
art and its adepts. Those intelligent people, though 

Oil nlclicni; 
Among the 
lIlcidiiA in 


The Hoionee 
of Rafl4yKQ&* 


boisterously exulting over their make-believe science, 
are not to be blamed for occupying themselves with 
alchemy, for their motive is simply excessive eagerness 
for acquiring fortune and foravoidiugmisfortune. Once 
a sage was asked why scholars always ilock to the doors 
of the rich, whilst the rich are not inoliued to call at 
the doors of scholars. “The scholars," he answered, 
"are well awai'e of the use of money, but the rich 
are ignorant of the nobility of science.” On the other 
hand, ignorant people are not to be praised, although 
they behave quite quietly, simply because they abstain 
from alchemy, for their motives are objectionable ones, 
rather practical resnlts of innate ignorance and stupidity 
than anything else. 

The adepts in this art try to keep it concealed, and 
shrink back from intercourse with those who do not 
belong to them. Therefore I have not been able to 
learn from the Hindus which methods they follow in 
this science, and what element they principally use, 
whether a mineral or an animal or a vegetable one. I 
only heard them speaking of the process of suUhnalian, 
of calciiuUion, of analysis, and of the waxing of talc, 
which they call in their language tdlaka, and so I guess 
that they incline towards the inineralogica! method of 

They have a science similar to alchemy which is 
quite peculiar to them. They call it Rasdyana, a word 
composed with rasa, i.e, gold. It means an art which 
is restricted to certain operations, drugs, and compound 
medioiues, moat of which are taken from plants. Its 
principles restore the health of those who were ill 
beyond hope, aud give back youth to fading old age, so 
that people become again what they were in the age 
near puberty ; white hair becomes black again, the 
keenness of the senses is restored as well as the capa- 
city for juvenile agility, and even for cohabitation, and 
the life of people in this world is even extended to a 



long period. And why not ? Have we not already 
mentioned on the authority of Patafijali (v. p. 88) that 
one of the methods leading to liberation is Rasdyana ? 

What man would hear this, being inclined to take it 
for truth, and not dart otf into foolish joy and not 
honour the master of such a wonderful art by popping 
the choicest bit of hie meal into his mouth ? 

A famous representative of this art was KiigA,i-juiia, a Niigiirjuatk, 
native of the fort Daibak, near Sonianfith. He excelled ur s bouk nu 
in it, and composed a book which contains the sub- 
stance of the whole literatnre on this subject, and is 
very rare. He lived nearly a hundred years before oar 

In the time of the King Vikram&ditya, of whose era «• 
we shall speak hereafter, there lived in the city of 
trjain a man of the name of Vyddi, who had turned TheoWie- 
his whole attention to this science, aud had ruined on mtha^a 
account of it both his life and property, bnt all his RtniddltjA, 
zeal did not even avail him so much as to help him to 
things which, under ordinary circumstances, are easily 
obtained. Becoming restricted in his means, he con- 
ceived a disgust to that which had been the object of 
all his exertions, and sat down on the bank of a river 
sighing, sorrowful, and despairiTig. He held in his 
hand his'pre.ia, from which he nsed to take the 
prescriptions for his medicines, but now he began to 
throw one leaf of it after the other into the water. A 
harlot happened to sit on the bank of the same river 
farther down, who, on seeing the leaves pass by, 
gathered them, and fished up some relating to Raid- 
yana. Vyft^i did not notice her till all the leaves of 
bis book had gone. Then the woman came to bim, 
asking why he had done so with bis book, whereupon 
he answered, “Because I have derived no advantage 
from it. 1 have not obtained what I ought to have 
obtained ; for its sake I have become bankrupt after 
having had great treasures, and now I am miserable 


after having bo long been in the hope of obtaining hap- 
piness.'' The harlot spoke : “ Do not give up a pursnit 
in which joQ have spent jour life ; do not despair of tlie 
possibility of .a thing wliich all sages before you have 
shown to be true. Perhaps the obstacle which prevents 
you from realising your plans is only of an accidental 
nature, which may perhaps be removed by au accident. 
1 have much solid cash. It is all yours that you may 
spend it on the realisation of your plans.” Thereupon 
Vyftdi resumed his work. 

However, books of this kind are written in an 
enigmatic style. So he happened to misunderstand a 
word in the prescription of a medicine, which meant 
oil and hunum blood, both being required for it. It 
was written raktdmala, and he thought it meant red 
ni'ffrohalanon. When he used the medicine it had 
no effect whatsoever. Kow be began to concoct the 
various drugs, but the ffame touched his head and 
dried np his brain. Therefore he oiled himself with 
oil, pouring it in great quantity over his skull. One 
day be rose to step away from the fireplace for some 
business or other, but as there happened to be a peg 
projecting from the roof right above his head, he 
knocked his head against it, and the blood began to 
flow. On account of the pain which be felt, he looked 
downward, and in consequence some drops of blood 
mbced with oil dropped from the upper part of his skull 
into the caldron without his noticing it. When, then, 
the concocting process was finished and he and his wife 
besmeared themselves with the concoction in order to 
try it, they both flew np into the air. Vikrawilditya on 
hearing of this affoir left his castle, and proceeded to 
the market-place in order to see them with his own 
eyes. Then the man shouted to him, '* Open thy month 
for my saliva.” The king, however, being disgusted, did 
not do it, and so the saliva fell down near the door, 
and immediately the threshold was filled with gold. 



VyA^i and the woman flew to any place they liked. 
He has composed famous books on this science. People 
say that both man and wife are still alive. 

A similar tale is the following: — In the city of 
DbAra, the capital of Mfilava, whicli is in our days ruled 
by Bbojadevn, there lies in the door of the Governnient- 
hoiise an oblong piece of pure silver, in which the out* 
lines of the limbs of a man are visible, Its origin is 
accounted for by tlie following story: — Once in olden 
times a man went to a king of theirs, bringing him a 
Easdyann, the use of which would make him immortal, 
victosions, invincible, and ca]>ablo of doing everything 
he desired. He asked the king to come alone to the 
place of their meeting, and the Mng gave orders to keep 
in readiness all the man required. 

The man began to boil the oil for several days, until 
at last it acquired consistency. Tlien he spoke to the 
king : “ Spring into it and I shall finish the process.” 
But the king, terrified at what he saw, had not the 
courage to dive into it. The man, on perceiving his 
cowardice, sjKike to him : “If you have not sufficient 
conrage, and will not do it for yourself, will you allow 
me myself to do it 'i ” Whereupon the king answered, 
“ Do as you like." Now he produced several packets of 
drugs, and iustructed him that when such and siich 
symptoms should appear, he should throw upon him 
tiuB or that packet. Then the man stepped forward to 
the caldron and threw himself into it, and at once he 
was dissolved and reduced into pulp. Now the king 
proceeded according to his instruction, but when he had 
nearly finished the process, and there remained only one 
packet that was not yet thrown into the moss, he began 
to be anxious, and to tliink wlinb might happen to his 
realm, in case the iiian should return to life as an 
immortal, victorious, invvAcible person, as has above been 
mentioned. And so he thought it preferable not to 
tirrow the last packet into the mass. The consequence 

Storr nhoiit 
t)<4 jiloco vt 

rtilTftI' Ju 

iixir uf tlio 

ill Ukaiu. 

Pu«o 9<. 



was that the caldron became cold, and the dissolved 
man became consolidated in the shape of the said piece 
of silver. 

The Hindns tell a tale about Vallabha, the king of 
the city of Vallabhl, whose era we have mentioned in 
the proper chapter. 

stoiToftix A man of the rank of a Siddha asked a herdsman 

IkiAIckand with reference to a plant called Thohar, of the species of 

vnkbbl the Laclaria, from which milk Bows when they are tom 
off, whether he had ever seen Ladana from which 
blood flows instead of milk. When the herdsman 
declared he had, he gave him some drink-money that 
he should show it to him, which he did. When the 
man now saw the plant, he set fire to it, and threw the 
dog of the herdsman into the flame. Enraged thereby, 
the herdsman caught the man, and did with him the 
same as he had done to his dog. Then he waited till 
the fire was extinguished, and fonnd both the man and 
the dog, but turned into gold. Ue took the dog with 
him, but left the man on the spot. 

Now some peasant happened to find it. He cat off 
a finger, and went to a fruit-seller who was called 
Banka, i.e. the poor, because he was an utter pauper, 
and evidently near bankruptcy. After the peasant had 
bought from him what he wanted, he returned to the 
golden man, and then he found that in the place where 
the cut off finger bad been, a new finger had grown. 
He cut it off a second time, and bought again from the 
same fruit-seller all that he wanted. But when the 
fruit-seller asked him whence he had the finger, he was 
stupid enough to tell him. So Rohka went out to the 
hody of the Siddha, and brought it on a carriage to his 
house. He stayed in his old abode, but managed by 
degrees to buy the whole town. The king Vallabha 
desired to own the same town, and asked him to cede 
it to him for money, but RaAks declined. Being how- 
ever afraid of the king’s resentment, he Hed to the lord 



of Altnaiisfira, made him presents of money, and a'lked 
him to help him by a naval force. The lord of Alraan- 
sdra complied with his desire, and assisted him. So he 
made a night-attack npon the king Vsllabha, and killed 
him and bis people, and destroyed his town. People 
say that etill in our time there are such traces left 
in that country as are found in places which were de- 
stroyed by an unexpected night-attack. 

The greediness of the ignorant Hindu princes for 
gold-making does not know any limit. If any one of 
them wanted to carry out a scheme of gold-making, 
and people advised him to kill a number of fine little 
children, the monster would not refrain from such a 
crime ; he would throw them into the fire. If this 
precious science of Bas&yana were banished to the 
utmost limits of the world, where it is anattainable to 
anybody, it would be the best. 

According to the Eranian tradition, Isfandiy^d is said 
to have spoken when dying : “ Kaus had been given the 
power and the miraculons things mentioned in the Book, 
of the Ijaw. Finally he went to the mountain Kfri as a 
decrepit man, bent down by old age, but he returned 
thence as a lively youth of well-proportioned figure and 
full of force, having made the clouds his carriage, as God 
allowed him.” 

As regards charms and incantations, the Hindus have 
a firm belief in them, and they, as a rule, are much in- 
clined towards them. The book which treats of tliose 
things is considered as a work of Garurla, a bird on 
which Nilruyapa rode. Somo people describe this bird 
in such a way as to Indicate a $ifrid-bird and its doings. 
It is an enemy of fish, catching them. As a rule, 
animals have by nature an aversion to their opponents, 
and try to beware of them ; here, however, there is an 
exception to this rule. For when this bird flutters 
above the water and swims on it, the fish rise from the 

VOL. I. N 

An Emnlcin 
P«gQ 95* 

On thft Mnl 



Tb« aSMb of 
chanDt on 
tiM MU o( 

deep to tbe aarface, and make it easy to him to catch 
them, as if he had bound them by his spell. Others 
describe it with each characteristics as might indi- 
cate a stork. The Vdyu Purdna attributes to it a 
pale oolonr. On the whole, Garnqla comes nearer to a 
stork than to a Sifrid, as the stork is by nature, like 
Garu<ila, a destroyer of snakes. 

Most of their charms are intended for those who have 
been bitten by serpents. Their excessive confidence in 
them is shown by this, which I heard a man say, that he 
had seen a dead man who had died from the bite of a 
serpent, but after the charm had been applied he had 
been restored to life, and remained alive, moving about 
like all others. 

Another man I heard as he told the following story : 
“ He had seen a man who had died from the bite of a 
serpent. A charm was applied, and in consequence he 
rose, spoke, made his will, showed where he had de- 
posited his treasures, and gave all necessary information 
about them. But when he inhaled the smell of a dish, 
he fell down dead, life being completely extinct.” 

It is a Hindu custom that when a man has been 
bitten by a venomous serpent, and they have no charmer 
at hand, they bind the bitten man on a bnndle of reeds, 
and place on him a leaf on which is written a blessing 
for that person who will accidentally light upon him, 
and save him by a charm from destruction, 

I, for my part, do not know what I am to say about 
these things, since I do not believe in them. Once a 
man who had very little belief in reality, and much less 
in the tricks of jugglers, told me that he had been 
poisoned, and that people had sent him some Hindus 
possessing the knowledge of charms. They sang their 
charms before him, and this had a quieting effect upon 
him, and soon he felt that he became better and better, 
whilst they were drawing lines in the air with their 
hands and with twigs, 



I myBelf have witnessed that in hunting gazelles they 
caught them with the hand. One Hindu even went so 
far as to assert that he, without catching the gazelle, 
would drive it before him and lead it straight into the 
kitchen. This, however, rests, as I believe I have found 
out, simply on the device of slowly and constantly 
acoQstoming the animals to one and the same melody. 
Our people, too, practise the same when hunting the 
ibex, which is more wild even than the gazelle. When 
they see the animals resting, they begin to walk round 
them in a circle, singing one and the same melody so 
long until the animals are accustomed to it. Then 
they make the circle more and more narrow, tUl at last 
they come near enough to shoot at the animals which 
lie there in perfect rest. 

The shooters of Kat&-birds have a custom of beating 
copper-vessels during the night with one and the same 
kind of beat, and they manage to catch them with the 
hand. If, however, the beat is changed, the birds fly 
off in all directions. 

All these things are pecnliar customs which have 
nothing whatsoever to do with charms. Sometimes the 
Hindns are considered as sorcerers because of their 
playing with balls on raised beams or on tight ropes, 
but tricks of this kind are common to all nations. 



Pftgd 96. 

{ 196 ) 

Tl)o inhahtt- 
ablo world 
mid U>o 




Tee reader is to imagine the inliabitabfe world, ^ 
oiKoviiivT], as Ijing in the northern half of the earth, 
and more accnratelj in one-half of this half — i.e. in 
one of the quarters of the earth. It is suiroonded bj 
a sea, which both in west and east is called ike cornpre- 
hending one ; the Greeks call its western part near their 
country (uKtavos. This sea separates the inhabitable 
world from whatever continents or inhabitable islands 
there may be beyond it, both towards west and east ; for 
it is not navigable on account of the darkness of the 
air and the thickness of the water, because there is 
no more any road to be traced, and because the risk 
is enormous, whilst the profit is nothing. Therefore 
people of olden times have fixed marks both on the sea 
and its shores which are intended to deter from enter- 
ing it. 

The inhabitable world does not reach the north on 
account of the cold, except in certain places where it 
penetrates into the north in the shape, as it were, of 
tongues and bays. In the south it reaches as far as 
the coast of the ocean, which in west and east is con- 
nected with the comprehending ocean. This southern 
ocean is navigable. It does not form the utmost 
Boutbera limit of the inhabitable world. On the con- 



trary, the latter stretches still more southward in the 
shape of large and small islands which fill the ocean. 

In this southern region laud and water dispute with 
each other their position, so that in one place the con- 
tinent protrudes into the sea, whilst in another the sea 
penetrates deeply into the continent. 

The continent protrudes far into the sea in the west- 
ern half of the earth, and extends its shores far into 
the south. On the plains of this continent live the 
western negroes, whence the slaves are brought; and 
there are the Mountains of the Moon, and 011 them are 
the sources of the Nile. On its coast, and the islands 
before the coast, live the various tribes of the Zanj. 

There are several bays or gulfs which penetrate into 
the continent on this western half of the earth — the 
bay of Berber A, that of Klysma (the Red Sea), and that 
of Persia (the Persian Gulf) ; and between these gulfs 
the western continent protrudes more or less into the 

In the eastern half of the earth the sea penetrates as 
deeply into the northern continent as the continent in 
the western Iralf protrudes into the sonthei'n sea, and 
in many places it has formed bays aud estuaries which 
mn far into the continent — bays being parts of the sea, 
estuaries being the outlets of rivers towards the sea. 

This sea is mostly called from some island in it or 
from the coast which borders it. Here, however, we 
are concerned only with that part of the sea which 
is bordered by the continent of India, and therefore is 
called the Indian Ocean. 

Ab to the orographic conSguration of the inhabitable tii« uroftn- 
world, imagine a range of towering mountaius like the nl'AHii'aiid" 
vertebrse of a pine stretching through the middle lati- 
tnde of the earth, and in longitude from east to west, 
passing through China, Tibet, the country of the Turks, 

Eibnl, Badhakhshan, TokhArist^n, BilmiyUn, Elghdr, 
Khardsd.n, Media, Adharbaijau, Armenia, the Roman 

India, a ra- 
rant alluvinl 

Pint oriea* 
tiUlon re* 
gardin^ Ua* 
U&hAra, and 


Empire, the country of the Franks, and of the Jal&Uka 
(Gallicians). Long as this range is, it has also a con- 
siderable breadth, and, besides, many windings which 
enclose inhabited plains watered by streams which 
descend from the mountains both towards north and 
Bonth. One of these plains is India, limited in the 
south by the above*mentioned Indian Ocean, and on 
all three otlier sides by the lofty mountains, the waters 
of which Sow down to it. But if you have seen the 
soil of India with your own eyes and meditate on its 
nature — if you consider the rounded stones found in 
the earth however deeply you dig, stones that are huge 
near the mountains and where the rivers have a violent 
current ; stones that are of smaller size at greater dis- 
tance from the mountains, and where the streams flow 
more slowly ; stones that appear pulverised in the shape 
of sand where the streams begin to stagnate near their 
months and near the sea — if yon consider all this, you 
could scarcely help thinkingjihat India has once been 
a sea which by degrees has been filled up by the alln- 
vium of the streams. 

The middle of India is the country ronnd EanoJ 
(Kanauj), which they call Madhyadeia, i.e. the middle 
of the realms. It is the middle or centre from a geo- 
graphical point of view, in so for as it lies half way be- 
tween the sea and the mount^s, in the midst between 
the hot and the cold provinces, and also between the 
eastern and western frontiers of India. Bnt it is a 
political centre too, because in former times it was the 
residence of their most famous heroes and kings. 

The country of Sindh lies to the west of Kanoj. In 
marching from onr country to Sindh we start from the 
country of Ntmrdz, i.e. the country of S^ist&n, whilst 
marching to Rind or India proper we start from the 
side of Kdbul. This, however, is not the only possible 
road. Yon may march into India from all sides, sup- 
posing that you can remove the obstacles in the way. 


• 99 

In the monntains which form the frontier of India 
towards the west there are tribes of the Hindus, or of 
people near akin to them — rebellious savage races— 
which extend as far as the farthermost frontiers of 
the Hindu race. 

Eanoj lies to the west of the Ganges, a yery large 
town, but most of it is now in ruins and desolate since 
the capital has been transferred thence to the city of 
B&rt, east of the Ganges. Between the two towns there 
is a distance of three to four days' marches. 

As Hanoj {Kanydkuhja) has become famous by the 
children of Pandu, the city of Mtihara {Mathurd) has 
become famous by Vasudeva. It lies east of the river 
Jaun {Yamund). The distance between M^bdra and 
Kanoj is 2i farsakh. 

TInSshar (Slhdnisvara) lies between the two rivers to 
the north both of Kanoj and Mah^ra, at a distance of 
nearly 8o farsakh from Kanoj, and nearly 50 farsakk 
from Mahhra. 

The river Ganges rises in the mountains which have 
already been mentioned. Its source is called GaiXgd- 
dvdra. Most of the other rivers of the country also rise 
in the same mountains, as we have already mentioned 
in the proper place. 

As for the distances between the various parts of Hindu 
India, those who have not themselves actually seen dBteriTiinin* 
them must rely upon tradition ; but unfortunately it is 
of such a nature that already Ptolemy incessantly com- 
plains of its transmitters and their bias towards story- 
telling. Fortunately I have found out a certain rule 
by which to control their lies. The Hindus frequently 
estimate the burden an oz could bear at 2000 and 3000 
mand (which is infinitely more than an ox could carry 
at once). In consequence they are compelled to let the 
caravan make the same march to and fro during many 
days — ^in fact, so long until the ox has carried the 
whole load assigned to it from one end of the route to 



Kiiarj to 
tlio Tree of 
aud tu Lbu 


Ph^v 98. 

Frfttn Ittrl 
to tho 
mouth of 
tbo Oiuttf«0. 

the other, and then thej reckon as the distance between 
the two places a march of $itch a rntmltr of days as the 
caravan has altogether spent in mai'ching to and fro. 
It is only with the greatest exertion and caution that 
we can to some extent cori’eot the statements of the 
Hindus. However, we could not make up our mind to 
suppress that which we know on account of that which 
we do not know. We ask the reader’s pardon where 
there is anything wrong, and now we continue. 

A man marching from Kanoj to the south between 
the two rivers Jaun and Ganges passes the followitig 
well-known places : — Jajjamau, llfarsaMi from Kanoj, 
each farsiikk being equal to four miles or one kur6h; 
AbhdptlHjSfarsakh; Kuraha, Zfarsahh; Barhamshil, 
8 farsahh; the Tree of Fray&ga, 12 farsakh, the place 
where the water of the Jaun joins the Ganges, where 
the Hindns torment themselves with various kinds of 
tortures, which are described in the books about religions 
sects. The distance from Prayaga to the place where 
the Ganges flows into the sea is 12 farsakh (sic). 

Other tracts of country extend from the Tree of 
Prayaga southward towards the coast. Arku-tirtha, 12 
farsakh horn I’rayaga; the realm Uwa7-yahdr, 40 far- 
sakh; tfrdaMshau on the coast, 50 farsakh. 

Thence along the coast towards the east there are 
countries which are now under the sway of Jaur ; first 
Daraur, 40 farsakh from tlrdabishau; Kdnji, 30 far- 
sakh ; Malaya, 40 farsakh ; K-Atik, 30 farsakh, which is 
the last of Jaur’s possessions in this direction. 

Marching from B&rl along the Ganges on its eastern 
side, you pass the following stations : — Ajodaha (Ayo* 
dhyd, Oudh), 25 farsakh from Bart ; the famous Band- 
rast, 20 farsakh. 

Thence changing the direction, and marching east- 
ward instead of southward, you come to Sharwdr, 35 
farsakh from Bandrasl ; Pdtaliputra, 20 farsakh ; 
MutujM., 1 5 farsakh ; Janpa, 30 farsakh ; Ddgumpdr, 



SO far$akh; Gangdsdtjara, 30 farsakh, where the 
Gauges flows into the sea. 

Marching from Kanoj towards the east, you oorae to kwioj 
BdA, 10 farsakk ; IMgum, 45 far$akk ; the empire 
of ShilafuU, 10 farsukh; the town Bikat, 12 faraakh, 
Farther on the couiitiy to the right is called Tilwat, 
the inhabitunts I'arH, people of very black colour and 
flat-nosed like the Turks. Thence you come to the 
mountains of Ktlmrh, which stretch away as far as the 

Opposite Tilwat the country to the left is the realm 
of Naipal. A man who had travelled in those countries 
gave me the following report : — “ When in Tanwat, he 
left the easterly direction and turned to the left. He 
inarched to Naipill, a distance of 20 faraakh, most of 
which was ascending country. From Naip'il became 
to Bhotesliar in thirty days, a distance of nearly 80 
faraakh, in which there is more ascending than descend- 
ing country. And there is a water which is several 
times crossed on bridges consisting of planks tied with 
cords to two canes, which stretch from rock to rock, and 
are fastened to milestones constructed on either side. 
People can y the burdens on their shoulders over such 
abridge, whilst below, atadepth of 100 yards, the water 
foams as white as snow, threatening to shatter the rocks. 

On the other side of the bridges, the burdens are trans- 
ported on the back of goats. My reporter told me that 
he had there seen gazelles with four eyes ; that this was 
not an accidental misforraation of nature, but that the 
whole species was of this nature. 

“Bhdbeahar is the first .frontier of Tibet. There the 
langnage changes as well as tlie costumes and the 
anthropological chariicter of the people. Thence the 
distance to the top of the highest peak is 20 faraakh. 
From the height of this mountain, India appears as 
a black expanse below the mist, the mountains lying 
below this peak like small hills, and 'Hbet and China 



From Kniiq] 
to BuwTia, 

Frcui K&DoJ 

From UA* 
hQn to 

Prom Bs* 
liiiA to 

appear as red. The descent towards Tibet and Cbinais 
leas than one/arsakk.” 

Marching from Kanoj towards the south-east, on the 
western side of the Ganges, yon come to the realm of 
JajdkiUi, 30 faraakh from Kanoj. The capital of the 
country is Kajikrdha. Between this town and Kanoj 
there are two of the most famous fortresses of India, 
GwMiyar (Gwalior) and K&lanjar. Dah&la [ — farsakh], 
a country the capital of which is Tiaurt, and the ruler 
of which is now Gangeya. 

The realm of Kan-nakara, 20 fanoMi. Apsd/r, Sana- 
vds, on the sea-coast. 

Marching from Kanoj towards the south-west, yon 
come to jisi, 18 farsakh from Kanoj ; Sahanyd, 17 far- 
sakh; Jandrd, iS farsakh; Rdjauri, farsakh; Bazdna, 
the capital of Guzarat, 20 farsakh. This town is called 
Ndrdyan by oar people. After it had fallen into 
decay the inhabitants migrated to another place called 
Jadftra (?). 

The distance between Mahhra and Kanoj is the same 
as that between Kanoj and Bazana, viz. 28 farsakh. 
If a man travels from Mfthnra to l^jain, he passes 
throDgh villages which are only farsakh and less dis- 
tant from each other. At the end of a march of 3 5 far- 
sakh, he comes to a large village called Dihdahi ; thence 
to Bdraakdr, 17 farsakh from Dhdabi ; Bhdilsdn, 5 far- 
sakh, a place most famous among the Hindus. The 
name of the town is identical with that of the idol wor- 
shipped there. Thence to Ardin, 9 farsakh. The idol 
worshipped there is called Mahakdla. Bhdr, 7 fwrsakh. 

Marching from Baz&na southward, you come to Mai- 
wdr, 25 farsakh from Baz&na. This is a kingdom the 
capital of which is Jattaraur. From this town to 
Milavil and its capital, Dhdr, the distance is 20 farsakh. 
The city of ^ jain lies 7 fa/rsakh to the east of Dhdr. 

From 'Djain to Bh&ilas&n, which likewise belongs to 
Mfllav&, the distance is \o farsakh. 

CHAPTER xvrn. 


Marching from Dh<lr southward, you come to Bkilini- 
hara, 20 farsalch irom DhSr ; Kand, 20 farsakh; Namd- 
mr, on the banks of the Narmada (Nerbiidda), 10 
farsakh ; Ali^dr, 20 farsakh ; Mandagir, on the banks 
of the river GQdivar, 60 farsakh, 

Again marcliing from DhUr southward, you come to 
the valley of Namiyya, 7 farsakh from DhAr ; Mahralta- 
BisJi,, 18 farsakh; the province of Kmikan, and its 
capital, TAna, on the sea-coast, 2^ farsakh. 

People relate that in the plains of Kunkan, called 
Ddnak, there lives an animal called sharava (Skr. 
Sarahha). It has four feet, but also on the back it has 
something like four feet directed upwards. It has a 
small proboscis, but two big horns with which it attacks 
the elephant and cleaves it in two. It has the shape 
of a buffalo, but is larger than a ganda (rhinoceros). 
According to popular tales, it sometimes rams some 
animal with its horns, raises it or part of it towards its 
back, so that it comes to lie between its upper feet. 
There it becomes a putrid mass of worms, which work 
their way into the back of the animal. In consequence 
it continually mbs itself against the trees, and finally 
it perishes. Of the same animal people relate that 
sometimes, when hearing the thunder, it takes it to be 
the voice of some animal. Immediately it proceeds to 
attack this imaginary foe ; in pursuing him it climbs 
up to the top of the mountain-peaks, and thence leaps 
towards him. Of course, it plunges into the depth and 
is dashed to pieces. 

The gwt,i 4 a exists in large numbers in India, more 
particularly about the Ganges. It is of the build of a 
buffalo, has a black scaly skin, and dewlaps hanging 
down under the chin. It has three yellow hoofs on 
each' foot, the biggest one forward, the others on both 
sides. The tail is not long ; the eyes lie low, farther 
down the cheek than is the case with all other animals. 
On the top of the nose there is a single horn which is 

Fi’om DJiii' 

KcptflB About 
varioiiA AUl- 
malA of 


Page ico> bent upwards. The Brahmins have the privilege of 
eating the flesh of the I have myself witnessed 

how an elephant coming across a young ganda was 
attacked by it. The gaiiili wounded with its horn a 
forefoot of the elephant, and threw it down on its face. 

1 thought that the was the rhinoceros (or 

harkadann), but a man who hod visited Sufdla, in the 
country of the Negroes, told me that the kark, which 
the Negroes call hnfUA, the horn of wliioli furnishes the 
material for the handles of our knives, comes nearer 
this descri])tion than the rhinoceros. It has vaiious 
colours. On the skull it has a conical horn, broad at 
the root, but not very high. The shaft of the horn (lit. 
its arrow) is black inside, and white everywhere else. 
On the front it has a second and longer horn of the 
same description, which becomes erect as soon . as the 
animal wants to ram with it. It sharpens this horn 
against the rocks, so that it cuts and pierces. It has 
hoofs, and a hairy tail like the tail of an ass. 

There are crocodiles in the rivers of India as in the 
Nile, a fact which led simple AljaUiz, in his ignorance 
of the courses of the rivers and the oonfignration of the 
ocean, to think that the river of Mnhrto (the river 
Siudh) was a branch of the Nile. Besides, there are 
other marvellous animals in the rivers of India of the 
crocodile tribe, makara, curious kinds of fishes, and an 
animal like a Ieather>bag, which appears to the ships 
and plays in swimming. It is called burl'd (porpoise ?). 
I suppose it to be the dolphin or * kind of dolphin. 
People say that it has a hole on the head for taking 
breath like the dolphin. 

In the rivers of Southern India there is an animal 
called by varions names, grdha, jcdatantu, and tanduA. 
It is thin, but very long. People say it spies and lies 
in wait for those who enter the water and stand in it, 
whether men or animals, and at once attacks them. 
First it circles round the prey at some distance, until 


20 $ 

its length comes to an end. Then it draws itself 
together, and winds itself like a knot round the feet of 
the prey, which is thus thrown off its legs and perishes. 
A man who had seen the animal told me that it has 
the head of a dog, and a tail to which there are attached 
many' long tentacles, which it winds round the prey, in 
case the latter is not weary enough. By means of these 
feelers it drags the prey towards the tail itself, and 
when once firmly encircled by the tail the animal is 

After this digression we return to our subject. 

Marching from Bazuna towards the south-west, you 
come to Anldlvdra, 6o farsakh from Bazana ; Somtv- 
ndth, on the sea-ooast, 50 farsakh. 

Marching from Anhilvara southward, you come to 
ZdrdSsh, to the two capitals of the country, BiJirdj and 
BihanjAr, 42 farsakh from Anhilvara Both are on the 
seaKwast to the east of Tuna. 

Marching from Baziina towards the west, you come 
to MiUtdn, 50 farsakh from Baziina ; Bhdtl, 1 5 farsakh. 

Marching from Bhati towards the south-west, you 
come to Avor. 1 5 farsakh from Bhati, a township be- 
tween two arras of the Sindh River ; BamhanwA Alman^ 
f^ra, 20 farsakh ; Ldhardni, at the mouth of the Sindh 
Biver, 30 farsakh. 

Marching from Kanoj towards the north-north-west, 
you come to Shirskdraka, 50 farsakh from Kanoj ; 
Binjaur, 18 farsakh, situated on the mountains, whilst 
opposite it in the plain there lies the city of Tfinf shar ; 
Dalmdla, the capital of Jalandhar, at the foot of the 
mountains, \%farsaJch; Balhiviar, \o farsakh; thence 
marching westward, you come to Ladda, 13 farsakh; 
the fortress Biymjiri, 8 farsakh ; tlience marching north- 
ward, yon come to i^askmlr, 2$ farsakh. 

Marching from Kanoj towards the west, you come 
to Biydmau, 10 farsakh from Kanoj ; KuH, \o farsakh; 
Andr, 10 farsakh; Mirat, 10 farsakh; Pdnipat, 10 

From 73n> 
rt\nrt to 

F»nm Atihll- 
vAm to Lo- 

From KnnoJ 
to Knahmir. 

From Kivni]j 
to OliftxncL 
Pflffo 1 01. 



farsakh. Between the latter two places Sows the river 
Jaitn; KawUal, \ofa/rsakh; Su/tindm, lofarsakh. 

Thence marching towards the north-west, you come 
to AdUtdkav/r, g farsakh; Jajjanir, 6 farsakh; Mando/- 
hUkdr, the capital of Lauhuwnr, east of the river Ir&wa, 
8 farsahh; the river Cam.drdha, 12 farsakh; the river 
Jailam, west of the river Biyatta, 8 farsakh; Wadhind, 
the capital of ^andbUr, west of the river Sindh, 20 
farsakh; PuTshdvm, lofarsakh; Dunpdr, ii farsakh; 
Kdbul, 1 2 farsakh ; Qkazna, 1 7 farsakh. 

NoiM about Kashmir lies on a plateau surrounded by high inao- 

Ka»hniir. ceggibje mountains. The south and east of the country 
belong to the Hindus, the west to various kings, the 
Bolar-Shah and the Shngn^n-Sh&h, and the more remote 
parts up to the frontiers of Badhakhshan, to the Wakh&n- 
Shfth. The north and part of the east of the country 
belong to the Turks of Khoten and Tibet. The distance 
from the peak of Bbdteshar to Kashmir through Tibet 
amounts to nearly 3CX) farsakh. 

The inhabitants of Kashmir are pedestrians, they 
have no riding animals nor elephants. The noble 
among them ride in palankins called katt, carried on 
the shoulders of men. They are particularly anxious 
about the natural strength of their country, and there- 
fore take always mnch care to keep a strong hold upon 
the entrances and roads leading into it. In consequence 
it is very difficult to have any commerce with them. 
In former times they used to allow one or two foreigners 
to enter their country, particularly Jews, but at present 
they do not allow any Hindu whom they do not know 
personally to enter, mnch less other people. 

The best known entrance to Kashmir is from the 
town Babrahiu, half way between the rivers Sindh and 
Jailam. Thence to the bridge over the river, where the 
water of the Kusn^ is joined by that of the Mahwi, 
both of which come from the mountains of Shamil&n, 
ftnd fall into the Jailam, the distance is 8 farsakh 



Thence you reach in five days thebe^nningof the ravine 
whence the river Jailsm comes ; at the other end of this 
ravine is the watch-station Svdr, on both sides of the 
river Jailam. Thence, leaving the ravine, yon enter 
the plain, and reach in two more days Addisht&n, the 
capital of Kashmir, passing on the road the village 
'C^k&ri, which lies on both sides of the valley, in the 
same manner as BaramCil^. 

The city of Kashmir covers a space of four farsal-U, 
being built along both banks of the river Jailam, which 
are connected with each other by bridges and ferry- 
boats. The Jailam rises in the mountains Haramakbt, 
where also the Ganges rises, cold, impenetrable regions 
where the snow never melts nor disappears. Behind 
them there is Mahdcin, i.e. Great China. When the 
Jailam has left the mountains, and has flowed two 
days’ journey, it passes through Addishtan. Four/aj- 
sakh farther on it enters a swamp of one square farsakh. 
The people have their plantations on the borders of this 
swamp, and on such parts of it as they manage to 
reclaim. Leaving this swamp, the Jailam passes the 
town "CshkarS, and then enters the above-mentioned 

The river Sindh rises in the mountains Unang in the 
territory of the Turks, which you can reach in the 
following way: — Leaving the ravine by which you 
enter Kashmir and entering the plateau, then you have 
for a march of two more days on your left the mountains 
of Bolor and Shamtl§,n, Turkish tribes who are called 
BktUtavarydn. Their king has tlie title Bhatta-SliAh, 
Their towns are Gilgit, Aswira, and ShiltAs, and their 
language is the Turkish. Kashmir suffers much from 
their inroads. Marching on the left side of the river, 
you always pass through cultivated ground and reach 
the capital; marching on the right side, you pass 
through villages, one close to the other, south of the 
oapitolj and thenoe yon reach the mountain KnlArjak, 

Tli« upp«r 
courBO of 
lha Sindh 
rtTor and 
tha north 
nod north- 
went iron* 

tiere of 

Pago 10*. 



The west* 
ern nnd 
soil 1 hern 
froDiten oi 

which is like a cupola, similar to the monntam Dim> 
bawand. The snow there never melts. It is always 
visible from the region of Takeshar and Lauh 3 ,war 
.(Lahore). The distance between this peak and the 
plateau of Kashmir is two faraakh. The fortress BUjiU 
giri lies south of it, and the fortress LahUr west of it, 
the two strongest places I have ever seen, The town 
R^jilwarl is three farsakh distant from the peak. This 
is the farthest place to which our merchants trade, and 
beyond which they never pass. 

This is the frontier of India from the north. 

In the western frontier mountains of India there live 
various tribes of the Afghans, and extend up to the 
neighbourhood of the Sindh Valley. 

The southern frontier of India is formed by the 
ocean. The coast of India begins with Tiz, the capital of 
MakrS.n, and extends thence in a sonth-eastem direction 
towards the region of Al-daibal, over a distance of 40 
farsakh. Between the two places lies the Gulf of 
TilrS,n. A gulf is like an angle or a vrinding line of 
water penetrating from the ocean into the continent, 
and is dangerons for navigation, specially on account of 
ebb and flood. An estuary is something similar to a 
gulf, but is not formed by the ocean’s penetrating into 
the continent. It is formed by an expanse of flowing 
water, which there is changed into standing water and 
is connected with the ocean. These estuaries, too, are 
dangerous for the ships, becanse the water is sweet and 
does not bear heavy bodies as well as salt water does. 

After the abore-roentioQed gulf follow the small 
Munha, the great Munha, then the Baw&rij, is. the 
pirates of Eacoh and Sdman^th, They are thus called 
because they commit their robberies on sea in ships 
called hira. The places on the coast are — Tawalleshar, 
50 farsakh from Daibal ; Ldhardnl, 12 farsakh ; Baga, 
12 farsakh; Kacch, where the mwiZ-tree grows, and 
Bdrot, 6 farsakh; Somandih, farsakh; Kanldyat, 



30 farsahh ; Asawil, 2 days ; Bihr^, 30 farmkk (?) ; 
Sanddn, 50 farsahh; SUbdra, 6 farsakh ; Tdna, 5 
farsakh. ’ 

Thence the coast-line comes to the country Ldrdii, 
in which lies the city of JUiitr, then to Vallabha, 
Kdvjt, Dai-vad. Next follows a great bay in which 
Singaldii lies, t.s. the island Sarandib (Ceylon). Kound 
the bay lies the city of Panjay&var («c). When this 
dty fallen into ruins, the king, Jaur, built instead 
of it, on the coast towards tlie west, a new city which 
he called Padndr. 

The next place on the coast is Gvimalndra, then Rdm- 
sAer (Rameshai- ?) opposite Sarandib ; the distance of the 
sea between them is 12 farsakh. The distance from 
Panjayiivar to E^msher is 40 farsakh, that between Rlm- 
sher and Setubandha 2 farsakh. Setnbandha means 
bridge <f the ocean. It is the dike of E 4 ma, the son of 
Dalaratha, which be built from the continent to the castle 
Laftk^. At present it consists of isolated mountains 
between which the ocean flows. Sixteen farsakh from 
Setubandha towards the east is Kihkind, the mountains 
of the monkeys. Every day the king of the monkeys 
comes out of the thicket together with his hosts, and 
settles down in particular seats prepared for them. The 
inhabitants of that repon prepare for them cooked rice, 
and bring it to them on leaves. After having eaten 
it they return into the thicket, but in case they are 
neglected, this would be the ruin of the country, as 
they are not only numerous, but also savage and aggres- 
sive. According to the popular belief, they are a race 
of men changed into monkeys on account pf the help 
which they had afforded to B&ma when making war 
against the demons ; he is believed to have bequeathed 
those villages to them as a legacy. When a man 
happens to fall in with them, and he recites to them 
the poetry of B&ma and pronounces the incantations of 
Bama, they will quietly listen to him ; they will even 

VOL. I. 0 



PRge «oj, 

Iilaada in 
tlu Indlnn 
And CliluMO 


lead on' tbe right path him who has gone astray and 
give him meat and drink. At all events, thus the 
matter stands according to popular belief. If there is 
any truth in this, the effect must be produced by the 
melody, the like of which we have already mentioned 
in connection with the hunting of gazelles (v. p. 195). 

The eastern islands in this oceau, which are nearer to 
China than to India, are the islands of the Zdhaj, called 
by the Hindus Stivarij^a-dvi^a, i.t. the gold islands. 
The western islands in this ocean are those of the Zanj 
(Negroes), and those in the middle are the islands 
Bamm and the Diva islands (Malediva, Laccadiva), to 
which belong also tbe l^umair islauds. It is peculiar 
to the Diva islands that they rise slowly ; first, there 
appears a eaudy tract above the surface of the ocean ; it 
rises more and more and extends in all directions, till 
at last it becomes a firm soil, whilst at the same time 
another island falls into decay and melts away, finally 
is submerged and disappears in the ocean. As soon as 
tbe inhabitants become aware of this process, they search 
for a new island of increasing fertility, transport there 
their cocoa-nnt palms, date palms, cereals, and house- 
hold goods, and emigrate to it. These islands are, 
according to their products, divided into two classes, the 
Biva’lcAiVia, i.e. the Diva of the kauri-shells, because 
there they gather kauri-shells from the branches of the 
cocoa-nut palms which they plant in the sea, and Diva- 
kanbdr, i.e. the Diva of the cords twisted from cocoa- 
nut fibi'es, and used for fastening together the planks of 
the ships. 

The island of Aluid^cwd^c belongs to the I^umair 
islands. Kamaw is not, as common people believe, the 
name of a tree which produces screaming human beads 
instead of fruits, but the name of a people the colour of 
whom is whitish. They are of short stature and of a 
build like tliat of the Turks. They practise the religion 
of the Hindus, and have the custom of piercing their 



ears. Some of the inhabitants of the Wdkwdk island 
are of black colour. In our countries there is a great 
demand for them as slaves. People fetch from tlience 
the black ebony-wood 5 it is the pith of a tree, the other 
parts of which are thrown away, whilst the kinds of 
wood called mulamma and diaulfa^ and the yellow 
sandal-wood are brought from the country of the Zanj 

In former times there were pearl-banks in the bay 
of Sarandlb (Ceylon), but at present they have been 
abandcmed. Since the Sarandib pearls have disap- 
peared, other pearls have been found at Snfilla in the 
country of tbe Zanj, so that people say the pearls of 
Sarandib have migrated to Sufala. 

India has the tropical rains in summer, which is called 
varshdkdla, and these rains are the more copious and 
last the longer the more northward the situation of a 
province of India is, and the less it is intersected by 
ranges of mountains. The people of Mfllt^n used to 
tell me that tliey have no va^shaJcdla, but the more 
northern provinces nearer the mountains have the var- 
shakdla. In Philtal and Indravedi it begins with the 
month Ashadha, and it rains continually for four 
months as though water-buckets were poured ont. In 
provinces still farther northward, round the mountains 
of Kashmir up to the peak of J'Marl between Dunpfir 
and Barshawar, copious min fails during two and a half 
months, beginning with tbe month Srfivan.'i. However, 
on the other side of this peak there is no rainfall ; for 
tbe clouds in the north are very heavy, and do not rise 
miicb above the surface. When, then, they reach the 
mountains, the mountain-sidra strike against them, and 
the clouds are pressed like olives or grapes, in conse- 
quence of which tbe rain pours down, and tbe clouds 
never pass beyond the mountains. Therefore Kashmir 
has no varshakdla, but continual snowfall during two 
and a half mouths, beginning with Magha, and shortly 

Ou fche 
miiiftiJl io 



after the middle of Caitra continoal rain sets in for a 
few days, melting the snow and cleansing the earth. 
This rale seldom has an exception ; howerer, a certain 
amount of extraordinary meteorological occurrences is 
peculiar to every province of India. 

( 213 ) 



We have already mentioned, near the beginning of the 
book, that the language of the Hindus is extremely Pag, . 04 . 
rich in nouns, both original and derivative, so that in 
some instances they call one thing by a multitude of 
different names. So 1 have beard them saying that 
they have a thousand names all meaning sun ; and, no 
doubt, each planet has quite os many, or nearly as 
many names, since they could not do with less (for the 
purposes of versification). 

The names of the week-days are the best known ThanimM 
names of the planets connected with the word hdra, attbo^ak. 
which follows after the planet’s name, as in Persian the 
word shamhiJt follows after the number of the week- 
day {d4,shamhih, si/ishambih, &o.). So they say — ■ 

Aditya tiira, i.«. Sunday, Brihaiiyaii bdra, i.e. Thursday. 

Soma bdra, i.e, Monday. Svhra bdra, {.«, Friday, 

Manyala bdra, {.e. I'ucsday, S'Miaiieani bdra, i.i. Saturday, 

Sudha idra, d.e. Wednevday. 

And thus they go on oonnting, beginning anew with 
Sunday, Monday, &o. 

Muslim astronomers call the planets the l<»'ds of the ontha 
days, and, in counting the 1mm of the day, they begin 
with the domimis of the day, and then count the planets 
in the order from above to below. For instance, the son 
is the dominve of the first day, and at the same time the 



doTfiiniis of its first honr. The second hour is ruled by 
the planet of the sphere next under the sphere of the 
sun, i.e. Venus. The third hour is ruled by Mercury, 
and the fourth by the moon. Therewith the descending 
from the sun to the (Bther, i.e. the atmosphere of the 
earth, has an end, and in counting they return to Satura. 
Aocordiiig to this system, the dominue of the twenty* 
fifth hour is the moon, and this is the first hour of 
Monday. So the moon is not only the domimui of the 
first hour of Monday, but also the dominxis of the whole 

On £f)a( lu sll this there is only one difference between our 

Hindus, viz. that m use the fi/iai 

imf/itpimJ. KaipiKiii, SO. that the thirteenth planet, counted from 
the dominiis diei, is the rfonii»?t5 of the succeeding night. 
This is the third planet if you count in an opposite 
direction, i.e. ascending from the lower planet-spheres 
to the higher. On the contrary, the Hindus make the 
dominiis diei the dominus of the whole wx^p^pov, so 
that day and night follow each other without having 
each a separate dominus. This, at all events, is the 
practice of the people at large. 

Sometimes, however, their chronological methods 
make me think that the Upai KaipiKai were not entirely 
nnknown to them. They call the hour hora, and by 
the same name they call the half of a zodiacal sign in 
the calculation of the ntmhahra. The following cal- 
culation of the dominus Iiorm is derived from one of 
their astronomical handbooks : — 

“ Divide the distance between the sun and the degree 
of the aseendens measured by equal degrees, by 15. and 
add to the quotient 1, dropping a fraction if there be 
any. This sum is then counted off from the dominva 
diei, according to the succession of the planets from 
above to below.” (The planet you arrive at in the end 
is the dominus of the hour in question.) This calcula- 
tion is more of a nature to make ns think of &pai 



KaipiKal as having been used, than of &pai tuyjiu- 


It is a custom of the Hiudus to enumerate the planets 
in the order of the week-days. They will persist in 
using it in their astronomical handbooks, as well as in 
other books, and they decline to use any other order, 
though it be much more oorreot. 

The Greeks mark the planets with figures, to fix 
thereby their limits on the astrolabe in an easily intel* 
ligible manner, images which are not letters of the 
alphabet. The Hindus use a similar system of abridge- 
ment ; however, their figures are not images invented 
for the pnrpose, but the initial characters of the names 
of the planets, e.ff. &=Aditya, or the snn ; c — GanAra, 
or the moon ; 6 = or Mercury. 

The following table exhibits the commonest names 
of the seven planets : — 

The rUaets. 

Their 2^amea in the Indiaa Langttage. 

Snn . . 1 

Xditya,, arka, divSkara, ravi, bibatn (?), 

Mood . | 

Soma, candra, indu, klmagu, liltarainu, faimara4ioi, 
&tt^4u, itladldhiti, himamaySkha. 

Mars. . 1 

MaAgala, bbaumyo, knja, Sra, vakra. ftvaneya, 
milieya, krar&ksbi (1), rakla. 

Mercury j 

Biidba, eanmya, okodra, jSa, bodhana, vitta (7), 

Jnpiter . | 

Vrihaspati, giirn, jiva, dcvejya, devapnrohita, deva. 
Diantrin, aksitas, sflri, deviiplta. 

Vanns . | 

Snkra, bhrign, sita, bbkrgava, ftsbatl (7), dftnavaguru, 
bbriguputra, Asphujit (7). 

Satorn . j 

Sanat^cara, manda, aslta, kopa, Adityaputra, saura, 
Arki, sAryupiitra. 

The multiplicity of names of the sun as exhibited 
in the previous table was the cause which led the 
theologians to assume also a multiplicity of sum, so 

Order of tbo 
I'Unota iicid 
ilkuir note* 

Pago to5. 

On tha 




the moon* 
P&g« ]q6. 

TLa name* 
of tLa 

that according to them there are twelre sans, each of 
which riees in a particnlar month. The book Vishnu- 
dharma says : “ Vishnu, i.e. NSTS,yana, who is without 
beginning in time and without end, divided himself 
for the angels into twelve parts, which became sons 
to Kafyapa These are the suns rising in the single 
mouths.” Those, however, who do not believe thatthe 
molliplioity of names is the source of this theory of 
twelve suns, point out that the other planets also have 
many names, but each only one body, and that, besides, 
the names of the sun are not only twelve, but many 
more. The names are derived from words with generic 
meanings, e.ff. Adilya, i.e. the beginning, because the 
sun is the beginning of the whole. Savitri means 
every being which has a progeny, and since all progeny 
in the world originates with the sun, he is called 
Samtii. Further, the sun is called Eavi, because be 
dries wet substances. The juice in the plants is called 
rasa, and he who takes it out of them is called ravi. 

The moon too, the companion of the sun, has many 
names, e.g. Soma, because she is lucky, and everything 
lucky is called somagraha, whilst all that is unlucky is 
c&Med pdpagraha. Further, Niieia, i.e. loid of the night, 
Ndkshatran&tha, i.e. lord of the lunar stations, Dvijt&mra, 
i.e. lord of the Brahmins, SitdrhSu, i.e. having a cold ray, 
because the moon’s globe is watery, which is a blessing 
to the earth. When the solar ray meets the moon, the 
ray becomes as cool as the moon herself, then, being 
redected, ih illuminates the darkness, makes the night 
cool and extinguishes any hurtful kind of combustion 
wrought by the sun. Similarly the moon is also called 
Candra, which means the eye qf NAidyaua, as the sun 
is his right eye. 

The following table exhibits the names of the months 
Disturbances and differences in lists of these names pro- 
ceed from the causes which we shall mention (v. p. 228) 
when speakingof theennmeration of the di^erent earths. 

I YbeirSuDft Tb« 6m 

Th« V(mtb4. I to Ht* Tb« M«ii£ag of th«M KuM occonUn; to the niAnu^omo. •ccaillag to th« 



the vhi 




of tho 
from cboAO 
ottho hin&r 


People think, with regard to the order of the names 
of snns as given by the Vislinu-dharvia, that it is 
correct and undisturbed ; for V^lsudeva has a separate 
name in each month, and his worshippers begin the 
months with Mlirgaltrsba, in which his name is KeSava. 
If yon count his names one after the other, you find that 
one which he bos iu the month Caitra, Vishnu, in accord- 
ance witit the tradition of the Vish-^u-dluirma. 

The names of the months are related to those of the 
lunar stations. As two or three stations belong to each 
month, the name of the month is derived from one of 
them. We have in the following table written these 
particular stations with red ink (in this translation with 
an asterisk), in order to point out their relationship with 
the names of the months. 

If Jnpiter shines in some Innar station, the month to 
which this station belongs is considered as tkt dominant 
of the year, and the whole year is called by the name of 
this month. 

If the names of the month given in the following 
table differ in some respects from those need heretofore, 
the reader must know that the names which we have 
hitherto used are the vernacular or vulgar ones, whilst 
those given in this table are the classical : — 

Th« Honths. 

Tha Lunitr 

The MootUe. 

The Lunar 

KArttika . | 
M&re^aiirslm ^ 
Pauahui , . j 
M&gba . .{ 


Caitr ... 1 




















_ guilt. 




Vciisakhn , 

Jyni>h(ba . 

Aabadhn . 

a’rAvana . 

nbadrujiiuia | 
l^Tayuja .-j 

















Main. ' 















The signs of the zodiac have names corresponding to 
the images which they represent, and which are the 
same among the Hindus as among all other nations. 
The third sign is called Mithuiia, which means a pair 
consisting of a Ijoy and a girl ; in fact, the same as tht 
Twins, the well-known image of this sign. 

Var&hamihira says in the larger book of nativities 
that the word applies to a man holding a lyre and a 
olnb, which makes me think that he identified Mithunn 
with Oi-ion {AljahUr). And this is the opinion of 
common people in general, to such a degree that the 
station is known as Aljauzd (instead of the Twins), 
though Aljauza does not belong to the image of this 

The same author explains the image of the sixth sign 
as a ship, and in its hand an ear of corn. I am inclined 
to think that in our manuscript there is a lacuna in this 
place, for a ship has no hand. The Hindus call this 
sign Kanyd, i.e. the virgin girl, and perhaps the passage 
in question ran originally thus: “A virgin in a sJiip 
holding an ear of corn in her hand.” This is the lunar 
station Ahinidk Al'a zal (Spica), The word ship makes 
one think that the author meant the lunar station 
At awn-d rj, y, S, e, Virginis), for the stars of AKawwA 
form a line, the end of which is a curve (like the keel 
of a ship), 

The image of the seventh sign he declares to be/?'e. 
It is called balance. 

Of the tenth sign Varfibamihira says that it has the 
face of a goat, whilst the remainder is a makara (hippo- 
potamus). However, after having compared the sign 
with a makara, he might have saved himself the trouble 
of attributing to it the face of a goat. Only the Greeks 
require the latter description, because they consider the 
sign as com])OBed of two animals, as a goat in the part 
above the breast and as a fish in the lower part. But 
the aqviatic animal called makara, as people describe 

On tho 

nainefl of 
tiiv of 

tho XodictOk 



it, does not require to be explained aa a composition of 
two animals. 

The image of the eleventh sign he calls a backet, and 
the n&me, Kumbha, corresponds to this statement. How- 
ever, if they sometimes enumerate this sign or part of 
it among the hAiman jigurea, this proves that they, fol- 
lowing the example of the Greeks, see in it Aquarwa. 

The image of the twelfth sign he describes as the 
figure of two fishes, althoagb the name of the sign in 
all langn^es signifies only one fish. 

Besides the well-known names, Varfibamihira men- 
tions also certain Indian names of the signs which are 
not generally known. We have united both kinds in 
the following table ; — 




s P-n 



















Jbga. : 






Kaorba. ' 






Tauksbika. 1 






AgokSni. 1 






Udruvaga. j 




Htoa. 1 

Auta, alio ! 
JltD. I 

It is the custom of the Hindus in enumerating the 
sodiacal signs not to begin with o for Aries and l 
for Taurus, but to begin with i for Aries and 2 for 
Tmrus, &o., so that Pisces are No, I2. 

( MI ) 



Braiimakda means tlie egg of Brahman, and applies in 
reality to the whole of heaven (aidrip), on account of its 
being ronnd, and of the particnlar kind of its motion. 
It applies even to the whole world, in so far as it is 
divided into an upper and an under part. When they 
enumerate the heavens, they call the sum of them 
Brahmintja. The Hindus, however, are devoid of train- 
ing in astronomy, and have no correct astronomical 
notiona In consequence, they believe that the earth 
is at rest, more particularly as they, when describing 
the bliss of paradise as something like worldly happi- 
ness, make the earth the dwelling-place of the different 
classes of gods, angels, &c., to whom they attribute loco- 
motion and the direction from the upper worlds to the 

According to the enigmatic expressions of their tradi- 
tion, the water was before every other thing, and it 
filled the space of the whole world. This was, as I 
understand them, at the beginning of the day of the sonl 
ipumakdhordtra, p. 332), and the beginning of formation 
and combination. Farther, they saythewaterwasroll* 
ing and foaming. Then something white came forth 
from the water, of which the Creator created the egg 
of Brahman. Kow, according to some, the egg broke ; 
Brahman came forth from it, the one half became the 
heaven, the other the earth, and the broken bits between 
the two halves became the rains. If they said mouii- 

The tgn of 
lU Qomin^r 
forth from 



Oraek mv» 
&Ufi2 ; Aiolfl* 


WftCer the 
Qreb cle- 
ment of 

TliO ogff of 

brokeM la 
two bailee. 


tains instead of rains, the matter wonid be somewhat 
more plausible. According to others, God spoke to 
Brahman : “ I create an egg, which I make for thy 
dwelling in it.” lie had created it of the above men- 
tioned foam of the water, but when the water sank and 
was absorbed, the egg broke into two halves. 

Similar opinions were held by the ancient Greeks 
regarding Asclepius, the inventor of the medical art ; 
for, according to Galenns, they represent him os holding 
an egg in his hand, whereby they mean to indicate that 
the world is round, the egg an image of the universe, 
and that the whole world needs the medical art. Ascle- 
plus does not hold a lower position in the belief of the 
Greeks than Brahman in the belief of the Hindus, for 
they say that he is a divine power, and that his name 
is derived from bis action, i.e. protecting against diy ness, 
which moans death, because death occurs when dryness 
and cold are prevalent. As for his natural origin, they 
call him the son of Apollo, the son of Phlegyas (?), and 
the son of Kronos, i.e. the planet Saturn. By this 
system of affiliation they mean to attribute to him the 
force of a threefold god. 

The theory of the Hindus, that the water existed 
before all creation, rests on this, that it is the cause of 
the cohesion of the atoms of everything, the cause of 
the growing of everything, and of the duration of life in 
every animated being. Thus the water is aninstrument 
in the hand of the Creator when he wants to create 
something out of matter. A similar idea is propounded 
by the Koran xL g: " And his (God’s) throne was on the 
water." Whether you explain it in an external way 
as an individnal body called by this name, and which 
God orders ns to venerate, or whether you give it the 
intrinsic meaning of realm, i.e. God’s realm, or the 
like, in any case the meaning is this, that at that 
time beside God there was nothing but the water and 
his throne. If this our book were not restricted to 



the ideas of one single nation, we should produce from 
the belief of the nations who lived in ancient times in 
and round Babel ideas similar to the egg of Brahman, 
and even more stupid and unmeaning than that. 

The theory of the division of the egg into two halves 
proves that its originator was the contrary of a scientific 
man, one who did not know that the heaven compre- 
hends the eartli, as the sheU of the egg of Brahman 
comprehends its yolk. He imagined the earth to be 
below and the heaven in only one of the six directions 
from the earth, i.e. above it. If he had known the 
troth, he might have spared himself the theory of the 
breaking of the egg. However, he wished by his theory 
to desciibe one half of the egg as spread out for the 
earth, and the other half placed upon it for a cnpola, 
trying to outvie Ptolemy in the planispheric represen- 
tation of a globe, but without success. - 

There have always been similar fancies adoat, which 
everybody intei'prets as best suits his religion and 
philosophy. So Plato says in his Timwus something 
like the Brahmftnda : “ The Creator cut a straight thread 
into halves. With each of them he described a circle, 
BO that the two circles met in two places, and one of 
them he divided into seven parts.” In these words he 
hints, as is his custom, at the original two motions of 
the universe (from east to west in the rotation, 
and from west to east in the jirecession of the equi- 
noxes), and at the globes of the planets. 

Brahmagupta says in the first chapter of the Brahma- 
tiddhdnta, where he enumerates the heavens, placing 
the moon in the nearest heaven, the other planets in 
the following ones, and Saturn in the seventh : ‘‘The 
fixed stars are in the eighth heaven, and this has been 
created round in order to last for ever, that in it the 
pious may be reworded, the wicked be punished, since 
there is nothing behind it.” He indicates in this chapter 
that the heavens are identical with the spheres, and he 

Page xia 




from Bmlb 



gives them in an order which differs from that of the 
traditional literature of their creed, as we shall show 
hereafter in the proper place. He indicates, too, that 
the ivund can only he slowly influenced from without. 
He evinces his knowledge of the Aristotelic notions 
regarding the round form and the rotating motion, and 
that there is no body in existence behind the spheres. 

If it is of this description, evidently BrahmAi:i4a is 
the totality of the spheres, i.e. the ai&fjp, in fact, the 
universe, for retribution in another life takes place, ac- 
cording to the ideas of the Hindus, within it. 

QtioUdoii Pnlisa says in bie SiddAdnla : “The totality of the 
world is the sum of earth, water, fire, wind, and heaven, 
of Puito». ijijjg latter was created behind the darkness. It appears 
to the eyes as blue, because it is not reached by the 
rays of the sun and not illuminated by them like the 
watery non-igneons globes, i.e. the bodies of the planet 
and the moon. When the rays of the sun fall upon 
these and the shadow of the earth does not reach them, 
their darkness disappears and their figures become visi- 
ble in the night. The light-giver is only one, all the 
othera receive the light from him.” In this chapter 
Pulisa speaks of the utmost limit that can be reached, 
and calls it heaven. He places it in darkness, since he 
says that it exists in a place which is not reached by 
the rays of the snn. The question as to the blue-grey 
colour of heaven which is perceived by the eye is of too 
great an extent to be touched upon here. 

Quputiona Brahmagupta says in the above-mentioned chapter : 
“Multiply the cycles of the moon, i,«. 57,;53,300,000, 
by the number of the yojana of her sphere, i.e. 324,000, 
tSStfc'*' “8 the product 18,712,069,200,000,000, t.e. 

the number of the yojana of the sphere of the zodiac." 
Of the yojana as a measure of distance we have already 
spoken in the chapter on metrology (ch. iv. p. 167). 
We give the just-mentioned calculation of Brahma- 
gupta, simply reproducing his words without any ror 



sponsibility of our own, for he has not explained ou 
what reason it rests. Vasislitha says that the Jlrah- 
luAnda comprehends the spheres, and thejust-meiitiuiiecl 
numbers are the measure of the Brahmai.ido, since the 
sphere of the zodiac is oounected witli it. The com- 
mentor Balabhadra says: “ We do not consider these 
numbers os a measure of heaven, for we cannot define 
its greatness, but we consider them us tlio utmost limit 
to which the human power of vision can penetrate. 
There is no possibility of human perception reaching 
above it ; but the other spheres differ from each other 
in greatness and smallness, so as to be visible in various 
degrees.” The followers of Aryabhata say : “ It is suffi- 
cient for US to know the space which is reached by the 
solar rays. We do not want the space which is not 
reached by the solar rays, though it be in itself of an 
enormous extent. That which is not reached by the 
rays is not reached by the perception of the senses, 
and that which is not reached by perception is not 

Let us now examine the bearing of the words of these 
authors. The words of Vasishtba prove that the Brah- 
milnda is a globe comprehending the eighth or so called 
zodiacal sphere, in which the fixed stars are placed, and 
that the two spheres touch each other. Now we on our 
own part were already obliged to assume an eighth 
sphere, but there is no reason why we shonld suppose 
a ninth one. 

On this head the opinions of people are divided. 
Some hold the existence of a ninth sphere to be a neces* 
sity on account of the rotation from east to west, in so 
far 08 it moves in this direction and compels everything 
which it comprehends to move in the same direction. 
Others assu me the ninth sphere on account of the same 
motion, but suppose that it by itself is motionless. 

The tendency of the representatives of the former 
theory is perfectly clear. However, Aristotle has proved 

VOL. I. P 


oil tbo 

of the nititb 



that each moving body is brought into motion by some- 
thing moving which is not within itself. So also this 
ninth sphere would presuppose a mover outside itself. 
What, however, should prevent this viover from putting 
the eight spheres into motion without the intermedia- 
tion of a ninth sphere ? 

Aiiiiotie, As regards tlie representatives of the second view, 
one might almost think that they hod a knowledge of 

QmuiiBnti. woi-ds of Arlstotls which we have quoted, and that 
they knew that the first mover is motionless, for they 
represent the ninth sphere as motionless and as the 
source of the east to west rotation. However, Anstotle 
has also proved that the first mover is not a body, 
whilst he must be a body, if they desciibe him as a 
globe, as a sphere, and as comprehending something 
else within itself and motionless. 

Thns the theory of the ninth sphere is proved to be 
an impossibility. To the same effect are the words of 
Ptolemy in the preface of his Alvicu/esi: "The first 
cause of the first motion of the universe, if we consider 
the motion by itself, is according to our opinion an in- 
visible and motionless god, and tlie stndy of this sub- 
ject we call a divine one. We perceive his action in 
the highest heights of the world, but as an altogether 
diffei-ent one from the action of those substances which 
can be perceived by the senses.” 

These are the words of Ptolemy on the first mover, 
without any indication of the ninth sphere. But the 
latter is mentioned by Johannes Grammaticus in his 
refutation of Proclns, where he says : “ Plato did not 
know a ninth, starless sphere.” And, according to Jo- 
hannes, it was this, the negation of the ninth sphere, 
which Ptolemy meant to say. 

Finally, there are other people who maintain that 
behind the last limit of motion there is an infinite rest- 
ing body or an infinite vacuum, or something which they 
declare to be neither a vaeuum nor a plenum. These 


a »7 

theories, however, have no connection whatsoever with 
our subject. 

Balabhadra gives us the impression of holding the 
same opinion as those who think that heaven or the 
heavens are a compact body holding in eqiulibriura all 
heavy bodies and carrying them, and that it is above 
the spheres. To Balabhadra it is just as easy to prefer 
tradition to eyesight, as it is difficult to us to prefer 
doubt to a clear proof. 

The truth is entirely with the followers of Aryabhata 
who give 118 the impression of really being men of great 
scientific attainments. It is perfectly evident that 
Bralimunt^ means the aidrip, together with all products 
of creation in it. 

( «8 ) 



Oo tli« The people of whom we have epokea in the preceding 

••rth.. chapter think that the earths are seven like seven 

covers one above the other, and the npper one they 
divide into seven parts, differing from onr astronomers, 
who divide it into KAi/xara, and from the Persians, who 
divide it into Kishvar. We shall afterwards give a clear 
explanation of their theories derived from the first 
authorities of their religious law, to expose the matter 
to fair criticism. If something in It appears strange to 
ns, so as tg require a commentary, or if we perceive some 
coincidence with others, even if both parties missed the 
mark, we shall simply put the case before the reader, 
not with the intention of attacking or reviling the 
Hindus, but solely in order to sharpen the minds of 
those who study these theories. 

oifforonces They do not differ among themselves as to the num- 
^?mcoo( her of earths nor as to the number of tbe parts of the 
^pUniliraa Upper earth, but they differ regarding their names and 
fiom live the order of these names. I am inclined to derive this 
difference from the great verbosity of their language, for 
luDsuaga. j thing by a multitude of names. 

For instance, they call the sun by a thousand different 
names according to their own statement, just as tbe 
Arabs call the lion by nearly as many. Some of these 
names are original, while others are derived from the 
changing conditions of his life or his actions and facul- 
ties. The Hindus and their like boast of this copious- 
ness, whilst in reality it is one of the greatest faults of 



the language. For it is the task of language to give a 
name to every tiling in creation and to its effects, a name 
based on general consent, so that everybody, when hear- 
ing this name pronounced by another man, understands 
what he means. If therefove one and the same name or 
word means a variety of things, it betrays a defect of the 
language and compels the hearer to ask the speaker 
whot he ineaus by the word. And thus the word in 
question must be dropped in order to be replaced either 
by a similar one of a sufficiently clear meaning, or by 
an epithet describing what is really meant. If one and 
the same thing is called by many names, and this is not 
occasioned by the fact that every tribe or class of people 
Dses a separate one of them, and if, in fact, one single 
name wonld be sufficient, all the other names save this 
one are to be classified as mere nonsense, as a means 
of keeping people in the dark, and throwing an air of 
mystery about the subject. And in any case this 
copiousness offers painful difficulties to those who want 
to learn the whole of the language, for it is entirely use- 
less, and only results in a sheer waste of time. 

Frequently it has crossed my mind that the authors 
of books and the transmitters of tradition have an aver- 
sion to mentioning the earths in a definite arrangement, 
and limit themselves to mentioning their names, or that 
the cojiyists of the books have arbitrarily altered the 
text. For those men who explained and translated the 
text to me were well versed in the language, and were not 
known as persons who would commit a wanton fraud. 

The following table exhibits the names of the earths, 
as far as I know them. We rely chiefly on that list, 
which has been taken from the Aditya-piir&iia, because 
it follows a certain rule, combtiiing every single earth 
and heaven with a single member of the members of the 
sun. The heavens are combined with the members from 
the skull to the womb, the earths with the members from 
the navel to the foot. This mode of comparison illus- 
trates their sequence and preserves it from confusion ; — 

Tho etirthn 
ftcroMioff to 
tta« Aiiipa* 



ase 113. 

































■§■2 ® 

Amiiu (7) 






















1 ^ 


S'arkaia (7) 


•a . 

^ $ 

« « 

A^&la (>) 











Uabftkhya (?) 




i-g a 





















JAgara (?) 


•f 4 

B* ^ 

s 'o i 

*r "S., 

GQ 0 






Of the Dllnavas— Namuci. Sai^kukarna, Kaban<lha(I), Nislikn- 
kil<k(?), iSfltadiintn, Lohftu. Kaliftga, Svlpada ; anti the miwter of 
(ho lerpcnta— Dliaiiiinjojra, Kllllya. 

Of the Daityio*— Surakslms, Mabrijambha, Hayngrlva, Krlahijn, 
Janarla(7], Safikh.^khsha, Oomuklia; and of the RAkxhMa— 
Nila, Mugba, Kratliannka, MnboaliMUba, Kamltnln, AAvatnra. 

Of the DAniivai— Rada (J). AnublAda, ARiiimukha, TArakAkfiba, 
TrWira, SWuinAra; and of fba RAkabasa— Cyavana, Nanda, ViiSila. 
And Ibnre arc many cities in Ibis world. 

Of the Daitya.s— KiVlanomi, Gajakarna. URjarn(?); and of the 
Baksbasa — Siimuii, Mnfija, Vrikavaktra, and the large birds called 

Of the Daityas— Virocana, Jayanta (?), Agnijihva, HiranySksha ; 
and of the BAksbasa — Vidynjjihva, MahSmegha; the serpent 
Earm&ra, Svastikajaya. 

Of the Daityas— Kesavi ; and of the RAkshasa — tlrdiivakiija (7), 
^tailrsha, t.e. haring a hundred heads, a friend of Indra ; VAsuki, 
a serpent. 

The king Bali ; and of the Daitya Mucuknnda. In this world 
there are many houses for the BAkshasa, and Vishnu resides there, 
and Sesha, the master of the serpents. 

After tbe earths follow the heavens, consisting of 
seven stories, one above the other. They are called 
lok(Xr which means “ {lalkefing-ploee.” In a similar 
manner also the Greeks considered the heavens as 
gathering'places. So Johannes Grammaticus says in 
his refutation of Proclus : “ Some philosophers thought 
that the sphere called ynAai^tas, i.e. milk, by which 
they mean the milky way, is a dwelling-place for 
rational souls.” The poet Homer says: “Thou hast 
made the pure lieaven an eternal dwelling-place for the 
gods. The winds do not shake it, the rains do not 
wet it, and the snow does not destroy it. For in it there 
is resplendent clearness without any covering cloud.” 

Plato says : “ God spoke to the seven planets : Yon 
are the gods of the gods, and I am the father of the 
actions ; I am he who made you so that no dissolution 

P6g« II4 

On tho 








Aiid Aria- 



I'xsaiis- is i)088ible; for anjthiDg bound, though capable of 
being loosened, 18 not exposed to destruction, as long 
as its order is good.” 

Aristotle says in his letter to Alexander : “ The 
world is the orfer of the whole creation. That which 
is above the world, and surrounds it on the sides, is the 
dwelling-place of the gods. Heaven is full of the goda 
to which we give the name of stare.” In another place 
of the eame book he says, "The earth ia bounded by 
the water, the water by the sir, the air by the fire, the 
fire by the aW^p. Therefore the highest place is the 
dwelling-place of the gods, and the lowest, the home 
of the aquatic animals.” 

There is a similar passage in the V&i/n-Pur&na to 
this effect, that the earth is held in its grasp by the 
water, the water by the pare fire, the fire by the wind, 
the wind by heaven, and heaven by its lord. 

The names of the lohut do not differ like those of 
the earths. There is a difference of opinion only re- 
garding their order. We exhibit the names of the 
lokas in a table similar to the former (p. 230). 

What niombere of 

Their NainM 

Th« Number of the 

the Suo they repre* 

fording tu tJie 
Zdiiva. Kdtfii ctud 


aent acoording to 



Tho stomach. 



Tb« breast. 



The moutli. 



Tho eyebrow. 



The forehead. 



f Above tho \ 
\ forehead. J 



The skull. 


ciiUcixuii This theoiy of the earths is the same with all Hindus, 
except alone the commentator of the book of Patafijali. 
Psga 116 . He had heard that the Pitaras, or fathers, had their 
gathering-place in the sphere of the moon, a tradition 
built on the theories of the astronomers. In oonse- 



quence he made the Innar sphere the first heaveu, 
whilst he ought to have identified it with BMirloka. 

A.nd because by this method he had one heaven too 
many, he dropped tlie Srarloka, the place of reward. 

The same author difl'ers besides in another point. 

As the seventh heaven, Katyaloka, is in the PiiriinaB 
also called Brnhmaloka, he placed the Brahmnloka 
above the Satyaloka, whilst it would have been much 
more reasonable to think that in this case one and the 
same thing is called by two different names, lie ought 
to have omitted the Brafamaloka, to have identified 
Pitpiloka with Bhftrloka, and not to have left out the 

So much about the seven earths and the seven 
hea'’ens. ^^'e shall now speak of the division of the 
surface of the uppermost earth and of related snbjects. 

Dtp {dvlpa) is the Indian word for island. Hence 'nio*y»toni 
the words Sangaladtp (Simhaladvlpa), which we call imdjta*. 
Serendtb, and the Diijajdi (Maledives, Laccadives). The 
latter are nnmerous islands, which become, so to speak, 
decrepit, are dissolved and flattened, and finally dis- 
appear below the water, whilst at the same time other 
formations of the same kind begin to appear above the 
water like a streak of sand which continually grows 
and rises and extends. The inhabitants of the former 
island leave their homes, settle on the new one and 
colonise it 

According to the religious traditions of the Hindus, 
earth on which we live is round and surrounded by 
a sea. On the sea lies an earth like a collar, and on 
this earth lies again a round sea like a collar. The 
nnmher of dry collars, called islands, is seven, and 
likewise that of the seas. Tlie size of both dvipns and 
seas rises in such a progression that each dvipa is the 
double of the preceding dvipa, each sea the double of 
the preceding sea, i.e. in the progression of the powers 
of two. If the middle earth is reckoned as one, the 

Tlis alM ot 
Uia Dilptf 
uid atos, 
accord lii|{ to 
the coiu- 
■iiciitator o( 
and Uio 



size of all seyen earths represented as collars is 127- 
If the sea surronading the middle earth is counted as 
one, the size of all seren seas represented as collars is 
127. The total size of both earths and seas is 254. 

The commentator of the book of I’ataAjali has adopted 
as the size of the middle earth 100,000 ycffana. Accord- 
ingly, the size of all the earths would be 12,700,000 
yojana. Farther he adopts as the size of the sea which 
surrounds the middle earth 200,000 yojana. Accord- 
ingly, the size of all the seas would be 25,400,000 
yojana, and the total size of all the earths and seas 
38,100,000 yojana. However, the author himself has 
not made these additions. Therefore we cannot com- 
pare his numbers with ours. But the Vdyu-Purdna 
says that the diameter of the totality of earths and seas 
is 37,900,000 yojana, a number which does not agree 
with the above-mentioned sum of 38,100,000 yojana. 
It cannot be accounted for, unless we suppose that the 
number of earths is only six, and that the progression 
begins with the nnmber 4 instead of 2. Such a num- 
ber of seas (i.e. 6) may possibly be explained in this 
way, that the seventh one has been dropped, because 
the author only wanted to find the size of the contin- 
ents, which induced him to leave the last surrounding 
sea out of the calculation. Bat if he once mentions 
the continents he must also mention all the seas which 
Burronnd them. Why he baa commenced the pro- 
gression with 4 instead of 2, I cannot account for by 
any of the principles of the caloulation as they have 
been laid down. 

Each Mpa and sea has a separate name, As far as 
we know them, we place them before the reader in the 
following table, and hope that the reader will excuse us 
for BO doing. 





Figs ii3. The difFereaces of the traditions as exhibited by this 
table cannot be accoonted for in any rational way. They 
can hardly have sprung from any other source but from 
arbitrary, accidental changes of the enumeration. The 
most appropriate of these traditions is that of the 
Matsya-Purdva, because it enumerates the dvtpas and 
seas one after the other according to a fixed order, a 
sea surrounding an island, an island surrounding a sea, 
the enumeration proceeding from the centre to the 

We shall now in this place record some related sub- 
jects, though it would perhaps be more correct to treat 
of them in some other part of the book. 

QiiotaHon The commentator of the book of Patanjali, wishing 
commoMta* to determine the dimension of the world, begins from 
jaiL below and says : “ The dimension of the darkness is one 
koti and 85 laksha yojana, i.e. 18,000,000 yojana. 

“Then follows i.a the hells, of the dimension 

of 13 kofi and 12 laksha, i.e. 131,200,000 yojama. 

“Then follows darkness, of one laksha, i.e. 

“ Above it lies the earth Vajra, so called on account 
of its hardness, because the word means a diamond, and 
ike molten thunder-holt, of 34,000 yojana. 

“ Above it lies the middle earth Garbha, of 60, 000 

“ Above it lies the golden earth, of 30,000 yojana. 

“ Above this the seven earths, each of 10,000 yojana, 
which makes the sum of 70,000 yojana. The upperone 
of them is that which contains the ihtpas and the seas. 

" Behind the sweet-water sea lies LoMloka, which 
means a not-gathering-place, i.e. a place without civilisa- 
tion and inhabitants. 

“ Thereupon follows the gold-earth of one Koji, i,e. 
10,000,000 yojana; above it the PUnloka oi 6,134,000 

" The totality of the seven lokas, which is called Brah- 



mdiida, has the dimension of 15 kofi, ie. 150,000,000 
yojam. And above this is the darkness tamos, similar 
to the lowest darkness, of 18,500,000 yojana.’’ 

We on our part found it already troublesome to 
enumerate all the seven seas, together with the seven 
earths, and now this author thinks he can make the sub- 
ject more easy and pleasant to us by inventing some nioro 
earths below those already enumerated by ourselves! 

The Vwhyu-Pur&ya.vj'asw treating of similar subjects, 
says: "There is a serpent under the seventh lowest 
earth, which is called Seshdkhya, worshipped among 
the spiritual beings. It is also called Ananlu. It has 
a thousand beads, and bears the earths without being 
molested by their heavy weight. These earths, one 
stored above the other, are gifted with good things 
and happiness, adorned with jewels, illuminated by 
their own rays, not by those of sun and moon. The 
latter two luminaries do not rise in them. Therefore 
their temperature is always equal, they have everlasting 
fragrant flowers, blossoms of trees and fruits ; their in- 
habitants have no notion of time, since they do not 
become aware of any motions by counting them. Their 
dimension is 70,000 yojana, the dimensions of each 
being 10,000. Narada, the Rislii, went down in order 
to see them, and to acquaint himself with the two kinds 
of beings which inhabit them, the Daitya and Ddnava, 

When he then found the bliss of paradise to be rather 
insignificant in comparison with that of these eai'tha, 
he returned to the angels, giving his report to them, 
and rousing their admiration by his description.” 

Further, the following passage : " Behind the sweet- 
water sea lies the gold earth, the double of the totality 
of the dvipas and seas; but not inhabited by men nor 
by demons. Behind it lies LoMloka, a mountain of the 
height of 10,000 yojana, and of the same breadth. Its Ph<i< 9- 
whole dimension is 50 koii, i.t. 500,000,000 yajanaP 

The -totality of all this is in the Hindu language 


sometimeB called d/idln, i.e. holding all things, and 
Bometimes vidhdlri, i.e. letting loose all things. It is also 
called the dwtlling-flaee of evei~y living being, and by 
various other names, which differ as people differ in 
their opinions about the vacnum. Those who believe 
In the vacuum make it the cause why all bodies are 
attracted towards it, whilst those who deny the vaeimn 
declare that it is not the cause of the attraction. 

Then the author of the VUhnu-Ptvr&i^a returns to the 
Lohas and says ; “ Everything which a' foot can tread 
upon and*a ship sail in, is Bk'Arlolca." This seems to 
be an indication of the surface of the uppermost earth. 
The air, which is between the earth and the snn, in 
which the Siddhas, the Munis, and the Gandharvas, 
the musicians, wander to and fro, is the Bhuvarloka, 
The whole of these thi-ee earths is called the three 
prithivt. That which is above them is Vydsa-mandala, 
i.e. the realm of Vy&sa. The distance between the 
earth and snn is 100,000 yojana, that between the sun 
and the moon is the same. The distance between the 
moon and Mercury is two lakshas, i.e. 200,000 yojana, 
that between Mercury and Venus is the same. The 
distances between Venus and Mars, Mars and Jupiter, 
Jupiter and Saturn, are equal, each bemg 200,000 
yojana. The distance between Saturn and the Great 
Bear is 100,000 yojana, and that from the Great Bear 
to the pole is looo yojana. Above it is Maharloka, at 
a distance of 20 millions of yojana; above it, the Jina- 
loka, at a distance of 80 millions } above it. Pitrildka, at 
a distance f 480 millions; above it, Satyaloka." 

This snm, however, is more than thrice the sum 
which we have mentioned on the authority of the com- 
mentator of the book of Patafljali, i.e. 150,000 yojana. 
But such is the custom of the copyists and scribes in 
every nation, and I cannot declare the students of the 
Pur^as to be free from it, for they are not men of 
exact learning. 

{ 239 ) 



The pole, in the language of the Hindue, is called TUorigin 
dhfuva, and the axis ialdka. The Hindus, with the 
exception of their astronomers, speak always only of 
OTui pole, the reason of which is their belief in the dome 
of heaven, as we have heretofore explained. According 
to Vdyu-Purdna, heaven revolves round the pole like a 
potter’s wheel, and the pole revolves round itself, with- 
out changing its own place. This revolution is finished 
in 30 muhilrta, i.e. in one nychthcmeron. 

Regarding the south pole, I have heard from them 
only one story or tradition, viz. the following. They 
had once a king called Somadatta, who by his noble 
deeds had deserved paradise ; but he did not like the 
idea of his body being torn away from his soul when 
he should depart into the other world. Now he called 
on the Rishi Vasishtha, and told to him that he loved 
his body, and did not wish to be separated from it ; but 
the Rishi informed him that it was impossible to take 
along with oneself the material body from this world 
into paradise. Thereupon he laid his desire before the 
children of Vasishtha ; however, these spat in his face, 
scoffed at him, and changed him into a cai).d&la with 
ear-rings in both ears, and clad in a hur(ak (i.e. a short 
shirt worn by the women round the shoulders, reaching 
down to the middle of the body). When he came in 
this condition to the Rishi, Vi^vfimitra, the latter found 
him to be a disgusting spectacle, and asked him what 



w&a the reason of his appearing so, whereupon Soma- 
datta informed him, and told him the whole story. 
Now Vi^v&mitra became very angry on his account ; he 
Tags ■». ordered the Brahmans into his presence in order to per- 
form a great sacriGce, among those also the children of 
Vasish^ha, and he spoke to them : " I wish to make a 
new world, and a new paradise for this pious king, that 
there he may obtain the ful6lment of bis wish.” There- 
upon he began to make the pole and the Great Bear in 
the south, but then Indra, the ruler, and the spiritual 
beings began to fear him. They went to him, humbled 
themselves before him, and asked him to desist from 
the work he had commenced on this condition, that 
they would carry Somadatta with his body, just as it 
was, into paradise. This they did, and in consequence 
the Kishi desisted from making a second world, but 
that which he had already made up to that moment 

It is well known that the north pole with us is called 
the Great Bear, the south pole Canopus. But some of 
our people (Muslims) who do not rise above the unedu- 
cated mass, maintain that in the south of heaven too 
there is a Great Bear of the same shape as the northern, 
which revolves round the southern pole. 

Such a thing would not be impossible nor even 
strange, if the report about it came from a trust- 
worthy man, who had made long sea-voyages. Cer- 
tainly in southern regions stars are seen which we do 
drtfAU on not know in our latitudes. So !^rip&la says that the 
People of Multdn see in summer time a red star a little 
below the meridian of Canopus, which they call ^Ulu, 
bean of CTUctfiasion, and that the Hindus consider 
sMutn&nu it as unlucky. Therefore, when the moon stands in 
the station Pdrvabhadrapada, the Hindus do not travel 
towards the south, because this star stands in the 

Aljaih^u! relates, in his Book of Routes, that on the 



island LangaMlda there is a large star visible, known 
as tha fever-star. It appears in winter about morning 
dawn in the east as high as a date-palm tree, having an 
oblong shape, composed of the tail of the Small Bear 
and his bock, and of some small stars situated there ; 
it is called the axt.of the vdll. Brahmagupta mentions 
it in oounectioii with the Fish. The Hindus tell rather 
ludicrous tales when speaking of the figure in which 
they represent this group of stars, viss, the figure of a 
four-footed aquatic auimal, which they call Sahvara and 
also Siiumdi'a. I suppose that the latter animal is the 
great lizard, for in I’ersia it is called Susmdr, which 
sounds much like the Indian i^i^vvidra. Of this kind 
of animals there is also an aquatic species, similar to 
the crocodile and the skink. One of those tales is the 

When Brahman wanted to create mankind, he divided The story tif 
himself into two halves, of which the light one was ' 
called Virdj, the left one Maim. The latter one is tlie 
being from whom the period of time called Manvanlarii 
has received its name. Mann had two sous, Priyavrata 
and UttfiiiapiLda, the bow-le^^ed king. The latter had 
a son called Ihruva, who was slighted by one of the 
wives of his father. On acconnt of this, he was pre- 
sented with the power to turn round all the stars as he 
pleased. He appeared in the Manvantara of Svayam- 
bhuva, the first of all Manvantaras, and he has for ever 
remained in his place. 

The Vd^u-Purdi,ia says : "The wind drives the stars quotutiona 
round the pole, which are bcumd to it by ties invisible to 
man. They move round like tbe beam in the olive-press, 
for its bottom is, as it were, standing still, whilst its end 
is moving round. 

The Fw^wiii-D/tarTnasays: “Vajra, one of the children 
of Balabhadra, the brother of Nfirayana, asked the Rislii r»ge igi. 
Mflrkapdeya as to the pole, upon which he answered: 

When God created the world, it was dark and desert. 



Thereapon he made the globe of the Bnn shining, and 
the globes of the stars watery, receiving the light of 
the sun from that side of his which he turns towards 
them. Fonrteen of these stars he placed round the 
pole in the shape of a ^iSumdra, which drive the other 
stars round the pole. One of them, north of the pole, 
on the uppermost ohin, is Uttilnap&da, on the lowest 
chiaYajna, on the head Dharma, on the breost NUrfl- 
yapa, on the two hands towards the east the two stars 
A^vin! the physicians, on the two feet Yaruna, and 
Aryaman towards the west, on the penis Samwatsara, 
on the back Mitra, on the tail Agni, Mahendra, Marici, 
and Ka^yapa.” 

The pole itself is Vishnn, the ruler of the inhabitants 
of paradise ; he is, further, the time rising, growing, 
getting old, and vanishing. 

Further, the Vish^u-Dkarma says : ” If a man reads 
this and knows it aconrately, God pardons to him the 
sins of that day, and fourteen years will be added to 
bis life, the length of which has been fixed before- 

How simple those people are ! Among us there are 
scholars who know Jietween i020to I0308tar8. Should 
those men breathe and receive life from God only on 
account of their knowledge of stars ? 

All the stars revolve, whatever may be the position 
of the pole with regard to them. 

If I had found a Hindu able to point out to me with 
his finger the single stars, I should have been able to 
identify them with the star-figures known among Greeks 
and Arabs, or with stars in the neighbourhood in cose 
they did not belong to any of these figures. 

( 243 ) 



We begin with the description of this mountain, since 
it is the centre of the Dvipas and seas, and, at the same 
time, the centre of Jambfldvipa. Brahmagupta says: 
“Manifold are the opinions of people relating to the 
description of the earth and to Mount Meru, particu- 
larly among those who study the Puranas and the reli- 
gious literature. Some describe this mountain as rising 
above the surface of the earth to an excessive height. 
It is situated under the pole, and the stars revolve 
round its foot, so that rising and setting depends upon 
Meru. It is called Meru because of its having the 
faculty of doing this, and because it depends alone 
upon the iniiaence of its bead that sun and moon 
become visible. The day of the angels who inhabit 
Meru lasts six months, and their night also six 

Brahmagupta quotes the following passage from the 
book of Jina, i.e. Buddha: “Mount Meru is quad- 
roDgolar, not roniid.” 

The commentator Balabhadra says: “Some people 
say that the earth is flat, and that Mount Meru is an 
illuminating, light-giving body. However, if such were 
the case, the planets would not revolve round the 
horizon of the inhabitants of Meru, and if it were 
shining it would be visible because of its height, as the 

g:Hpiii on 
tUo OHrtli 
)ind Mount 

ou i\\9 wmu 



Pnf* 198, 

The enthor 



The itste' 

menu of 





pole above it is visible. According to some, Mern con- 
sists of gold ; according to others it consists of jewels. 
Aryabha^ thinks that it has not absolute height, but 
only the height of one yojmia, and that it is ronnd, not 
quadrangular, the realm of the angels; that it is in- 
visible, althoDgli shining, because it is very distant from 
the inhabited earth, being situated entirely in the high 
north, in the cold iione, in the centre of a desert called 
Nandanorvma. However, if it were of a great height, 
it would not be possible on the 66th degree of latitude 
for the whole Tropic of Cancer to be visible, and for the 
son to revolve on it, being always visible without ever 

Ail that Balabhadra produces is foolish both in words 
and matter, and I cannot find why he felt himself called 
upon to write a commentary if he had nothiiig better 
to say. 

If be tries to refute the theory of the flatness of the 
earth by the planets revolving ronnd the horizon of 
Mern, this argument would go nearer proving the 
theory than refuting it. For if the earth were a flat 
expanse, and everything high 
on earth were parallel to the 
perpendicular height of Mern, 
there would be no change of 
horizon, and the same horizon 
would be the equinox for all 
places on earth. 

On the words of Aryabhafa 
as quoted by Balabhadra we 
make the following remarks. 

Let A B be the globe of the earth round the centre 
H. Further, A is a place on the earth in the 66th de- 
gree of latitude. We out off from the circle the arc 
A B, equal to the greatest declination. Then B is the 
place in the zenith of which the pole stands. 

Further, we draw the line A C touching the globe in 



the point A. This line lies in the plane of the horizon 
as far as the haman eye reaches round the earth. 

We join the points A and H with each other, 
and draw the line H B 0 , so that it is met in C by 
the line A C. Further, we let fall the perpendicular 
A T on H C, Now, it is evident that — 

A T i>i the ulus of (lie grentest. deoliiialinn i 

1 B Cite vened alne of Ibe grcalest declination ; 

T H the aine of tlio complement of the greateat ileclliiatinn. 

And as we here occupy ourselves with Aryabhata, 
we shall, according to his system, change the sines in 
kardajdt. Accoi-dingly — 

A T = t3g7. 

T H = 3140. 

H T = 29H. 

Because the angle H A C is a right angle, we have 
the equation — 

HT:TA = TA;Ta. 

And the square of A T is 1,951,609. If we divide it 
by T H, we get as quotient 622. 

Tlie diiference between this number and T B is 324, 
which is B C. And the relation of B C to B H, the latler 
being stmts fof«s = 3438, is the same as the relation of 
the number of yojanas of B 0 to the yojanas of B H. The 
latter number is, according to Aryabhata, 800. If it 
is multiplied by the jiist-mentioned difference of 324 
we get the sum of 259,200. And if we divide this 
number by the ainua totua we get 75 as quotient, which 
is the number of y<tjama of B C, equal to 600 milts or 
200 faraaklh 

If the perpendicular of a mountain is lOOfaraahJi, 
the ascent will be nearly the double. Whether Mount 
Mem has such a height or not, nothing of it can be 
visible in tlie 66th degree of latitude, and it would not 
cover anything of the Tropic of Cancer at all (so as to 
intercept from it the light of the sun). And if for those 



latitodea (66° and 23°) Mem is tinder the horizon, it 
is also under the horizon for all places of less latitude. 
If you compare Mem with a luminous body like the sun, 
yon know that the sun sets and disappears under the 
earth. Indeed Merit may be compared with the earth. 
It is not invisible to us because of its being far away 
in the cold zone, but because it lies below the horizon, 
because the earth is a globe, and everything heavy is 
attracted towards its centre. 

Aryabhata further tries to prove that Mount Mem 
has only a moderate height by the fact that the Tropic 
of Cancer is visible in places the latitude of which is 
equal to the complement of the greatest declination. 
We must remark that this argument is not valid, for we 
know the conditions of the lines of latitude and other 
lines in those countries only through ratiocination, not 
from eyesight nor from tradition, because they are unin- 
habited and their roads are impassable. 

If a man has come from those parts to Aryabba^ and 
told him that the Tropic of Cancer is visible in that lati- 
tude, we may meet this by stating that a man has also 
come to MS from the same region telling us that one 
part of it is there invisible. The only thing which 
covers the Tropic of Cancer is this mountain Meru. If 
Mem did not exist, the whole tropic would be visible. 
Who, now, has been able to make ont which of the 
two reports deserves most credit ? 

In the book of Aryabhata of Kusumapura we read 
that the mountain Meru is in Himavant, the cold zone, 
not higher than a yojana. In the translation, however, 
it has bees rendered so os to express that it is not higher 
than Himavant by more than a ytyana. 

This author is not identical with the elder Arya- 
bhata, but he belongs to his followers, for he quotes 
him and follows his example. I do not know which of 
these two namesakes is meant by Balabliadra. 

In general, what we know of the conditions of the 



place of this mountain we know only by ratiocination. 
About the mountain itself they have many traditions. 
Some give it the height of one yojana, others more ; 
some consider it as quadrangalar, others as an octagon. 
We shall now lay before the reader what the Rishia 
teach regarding this mountain. 

The MaUya-lMfAm says : “ It U golden and shining 
like fire which is not dulled by smoke. It has four 
diHerent colours on its four sides. The colour of the 
eastern side is white like the colour of the Brahmins, 
that of the northern is red like that of the Kshatriya, 
that of the southern is yellow like the colour of the 
Yni^ya, and that of the western is black like the colour 
of the Sildra. It is 86,000 yojana high, and 16,000 of 
these yojana lie within the earth. Each of its four sides 
has 34,000 yojana. There are rivers of sweet water 
running in it, and beautiful golden houses inhabited 
by the spiritual beings, the Deva, by their singers the 
Ganclliarva, and their harlots the Apsaras. Also Asuras, 
Daityas, and RSkshasas are living in it. Round the 
mountain lies the pond MUnasa, and around it to all 
four sides are the Loka'pdla, i.e. the guardians of the 
world and its inhabitants. Mount Meru has seven 
knots, i.e. great mountains, the names of which are 
Mahendra, Malaya, Sahya, Suktibam (?), Rikshabfnn (?), 
Vindhya, P^riydtra. The small mountains are nearly 
innumerable ; they are those which are inhabited by 

“The great mountains round Meru are the follow- 
ing: Simn,vant, always covered with snow, inhabited 
by the Rilkshasa, Pifelca, and Vaksha. Hemakilla, 
the golden, inhabited by the Gandharva and Apsaras. 
WisAflrfAa, inhabited by the Nilga or snakes, which have 
the following seven princes: Ananta, Vftsuki, Tak- 
shaka, Karkotaka, Mahapadma, Kambala, Advatara. 
iTOa, peacock-like, of many colours, inhabited by the 
Siddha and Brahmarsbi, the anchorites. The mountain 

/*«!•« Mfl 

on Mount 
Moii; and 
itiiiiH of 
tliu earth. 



from the 




iD«BtAtur of 

riQ th" wimo 



Sveta, inhabited by the Daitya and Danava. The 
mountain Srvagavant, inhabited by the Pitaras, the 
fathers and grandfathers of the Deva. Not far to the 
north of this mountain there are mountain-passes fnll 
of jewels and of trees wliich remain during a whole 
kalpa. And in the centre of these mountains is 
Ilfivi'ita, the highest of all. The whole is called 
Pumahajiariiata. The region between the Hiinavant 
and the SflAgarant is called Kail&sa, the play-ground of 
the B&kshasa and Apsaras.” 

The PwAn«-Pitrd»Mi says : “The great mountains of 
the middle earth are Srf-parvata, Malaya-parvata, Mal- 
yavant, Vindhya, Trikdta, Tripur§,ntika, and Kailftsa. 
Their inhabitants drink the water of the rivers, and live 
in eternal bliss.” 

The Vdyu-Pur&na contains similar statements about 
the four sides and the height of Meru as the hitherto 
quoted Purftnaa Besides, it says that on each side of it 
there is a quadrangular mountain, in the east the M^I- 
yavant, in the north Antla, in the west the Gaudbamu- 
dana, and in the south the Niahadha. 

The Aditya-Puraiia gives the same statement about 
the size of each of its four sides which we have quoted 
from the Matsya-P^l/l•dna, but I have not found in it a 
statement about the height of Mem. According to this 
I'nr^na, its east* side is of gold, the west of silver, the 
south of rubies, the north of different jewels. 

The extravagant notions of the dimensions of Mem 
would be impossible if they had not the same extravsr 
gaut notions regarding the earth, and if them is no 
limit fixed to guesswork, guesswork may without any 
hindrance develop into lying. For instance, the com- 
mentator of the book of Pataftjali not only makes Mem 
quadrangular, but even oblong. The length of one side 
he fixes at 1 5 koi.i, i.e. 1 50,000,000 yojatta, whilst he 
fixes the length of the other three sides only at the 
third of this, i.r. 5 ko{i. Hegardiug the four sides of 



Meru, he says that on the east are the mountain 
Malava and the ocean, and between them the kingdoms 
called Bbodru^va. On the north are Nila, Stta, Srii'tga- 
dri, and the ocean, and between them the kingdoms 
Hamyaka, lliraiimaya, and Kui'ii. On the west are the 
mountain Uandhanindana and the ocean, and between 
them the kingdom Ketumrda, On the aoutli are 
Mr&varta (?), Nishadha, IlemnkiHfii Himagiri, and the 
ocean, and between them the kingdoms BbA.ratavilrsiia, 
Kiitipurusha, and Harivnrslia. 

This is all I could find of Hindu traditions regarding 
Mern; and as I have never found a Buddhistic book, 
and never knew a Buddhist from whom I might have 
learned their theories on this subject, all I relate of 
them I can only relate on the authority of Aler^nshahrl, 
though, according to my mind, his report has no claim 
to scientific exactness, nor is it the report of a man who 
has a scientific knowledge of the subject. . According 
to him, the Buddhists believe that Morn lies between 
four worlds in the fonr cardinal directions ; that it is 
square at the bottom and round at the top ; that it has 
the length of 8o,cxx) yojana, one half of which rises into 
heaven, whilst the other half goes down into the earth. 
That side which is nest to our world consists of blue 
sapphires, which is the reason wliy heaven appears to 
U8 bine ; the other sides are of rubies, yellow and white 
gems. Thus Mem is the centre of the earth. 

The mountain liA/, as it is called by our common 
people, is with the Hindus the Lokuloka. They main- 
tain that the sun revolves from Lokfiloka towards 
Meru, and that he illumlDates only its inner northern 

Similar views are held by the Zoroastrians of Sog- 
diana, viss. that the mountain Ardiyil surrounds tlie 
world ; that outside of it is IJiiiin; similar to the pupil of 
the eye, in which there is something of everything, and 
that behind it there is a racuiim. In the centre of the 



A troillllnn 

the ZoTu< 





world ia the moantain Oimagar, between our xAt/ia 
and the aix other KkiiMra, the throne of heaven. Be- 
tween each two there ia burning Band, on which no 
foot could stand. The spheres revolve in the cliviala 
like mills, but in ours they revolve in on inclined course, 
beeanae onr eUma, that one inhabited by mankind, is 
the uppermost. 

( * 5 « ) 



We must ask the reader not to take any offence if he n9«cripHoa 
finds all the words and meanings which occur in the BcconJini w 
present chapter to be totally different from anything and rij(iv“ 
corresponding in Arabic. Asfor the difference of words, 
it is easily Sicconnted for by the difference of languages 
in general ; and as regards the difference of the meanings, 
we mention them only either in order to draw attention 
to an idea which might seem acceptable even to a 
Muslim, or to point out the irrational nature of a thing 
which has no foundation in itself. 

We have already spoken of the central Dvipa when 
describing the environs of the mountain in its centre. 

It is called Jambh-Dvlpa, from a tree growing in it, the 
'branches of which extend over -a space of lOO yojana. 

In a later chapter, devoted to the description of the 
inhabitable .world and its division, we shall finish the 
description of Jambft-Dvipa. Next, however, we shall 
describe the other Dvipas which surround it, following, 
as regards the order of the names, the authority of 
liatayO’PuT&ij.a, for the above-mentioned reason (v. p. 

236). But before entering into this subject we shall 
here insert a tradition of the V&yu-Purdya regai-ding 
the central Dvtpa (Jambh-Dvlpa). 

According to this source, “there are two kinds of 
inhabitants in Madhyade^a. First the Ki'ihpvTusho . 

Their men are known as the gold-coloured ones, their wjtiIdk m 
women as surenu. They live a long life withont ever dfii 



being ill. They never commit a sin, and do not know 
envy. Their food is a juice which they ex^jress from 
the dates of the palm treee, called madya (?). The 
second kind are the Suripurusha, having the colour 
of silver. They live years, are beardless, and 
their food is sugar-cane." Since they are described as 
beardless and silver-coloured, one might be inclined to 
take them for Tnrks ; but the fact of their eating dates 
and sugar-cane compels ns to see in them a more south- 
ern nation. But where do we find people of the colour 
of gold or silver? We know only of the colour of burnt 
silver, which occurs, e.g. among the Zanj, who lead a 
life without sorrow and envy, as they do not possess 
anything which gives birth to these passions. They 
live no doubt longer than we, but only a little longer, 
and by no means twice as long. The Zanj are so un- 
civilised that they have no notion of a natural death. 
If a man dies a natni-al death, they think he was 
poisoned. Every death is suspicions with them, if a 
man has not been killed by a weapon. Likewise it is 
regarded witb suspicion by them, if a man is touched 
by the breath of a consnmptive pei-son. 

». &kii- We shall now describe Sdka-Bvipa. It has, according 
to the Maisya-Purana, seven great rivers, one of which 
equals the Gauges in purity. In the first ocean there 
are seven monntains adorned with jewels, some of which 
are inhabited by Devas, others by demons. One of them 
is a golden, lofty mountain, whence the clouds rise 
which bring ns the rain. Another contains all the 
pogoias. medicines. Indra, the rnler, takes from it the rain. 
Another one is called Soma. Regarding this mountain 
they relate the following story : — 

Tiioatoryor Ka4yapa bad two wives, Kodrfl, the mother of the 
vlliVift.*'"* snakes, and Vinatil, the mother of the birds. Both 
in a plain where there was a grey horse. How- 
mJliSroffho the mother of the snakes maintained that the 
Aroiiu. horse was brown. Now they made the covenant that 



she who was wrong should become the slave of the 
other, bat they postponed the decision till the follow- 
ing day. .In the following night the mother of the 
snakes sent her black children to the hm-se, to wind 
themselves ronnd it and to conceal its colour. In con- 
sequence the mother of the birds became her slave for 
a time. 

The latter, Vinatil, hod two children, Auflm, the 
guardian of the tower of the sun, which is drawn by 
the horses, and 6arn<,la. The latter spoke to his mother : 
“ Demand from the children nourished at your breast 
what may restore you to liberty.” This she did. 
People also spoke to her of the ambrosia (amrita), 
which is with the Devas. Thereupon Garuda flew to 
the Devas and demanded it from them, and they ful- 
filled his wish. For Amrita is one of those things 
peculiar to them, and if somebody else gets it, he lives 
as long as the Devas. He humbled himself before them 
in oi-der to obtain the Amrita, for the purpose of freeing 
therewith his mother, at the same time promising to 
bring it back afterwards. They had pity upon him, 
and gave it him. Thereupon Garoda went to the 
monntain Soma, in which the Devas were living, 
Garuda gave the Amrita to the Devas, and thereby 
freed his mother. Then he spoke to them: “Do not 
come near the Amrita unless you have before bathed 
in the river Ganges.” This they did, and left the 
Amrita where it was. Meanwhile Garuda brought it 
back to the Devas, and obtained thereby a high rank 
in sanctity, so that he became the king of all the birds 
and the riding-bird of Vishnu. 

The inhabitants of i^Ska-Dvtpa are pious, long-lived 
beings, who can dispense with the rule of kings, since 
they do not know envy nor ambition. Their lifetime, 
not capable of any change, is as long as a Tretaynga. 
The four colours are among them, i.c. the different 
castes, which do not intermarry nor mix with each other. 





They live in eternal joy, without ever being sorry. 
According to Vishnu-Purdi}a, the names of their castes 
are Aryaka, Kurura, Vivirti^a (Vivaitiia), and (?), 
and they worship ViisudeTa. 

The third Dvipa is Kn^a-Dvlpa. According to the 
MaUya-Pu,r(lt,ia it has seven mountains containing 
jewels, fruit, flowers, odoriferous plants, and cereals. 
One of them, named Droi^a, contains famous medicines 
or drugs, particularly the vUaUjakara%ui, which heals 
every wound instantaneously, and mrUasa-ihjimn, which 
restores the dead to life.' Another one, called hari, is 
similar to a black cloud. On this mountain there is a 
fire called Mahisha, which has come out of the water, 
and will remain there till the destruction of the world ; 
it is this very fire which will burn the world. Kn^a- 
Dvipa has seven kingdoms and innumerable rivers 
flowing to the sea, which are then changed by ludra 
into rain. To the greatest rivers belong Jaunu (Ya- 
mun^), which purifies from all sins. About the in- 
habitants of this Dvipa, Maisya-Fur&na does not give 
any information. According to Vishnu-Furdna the 
inhabitants are pious, sinless people, every one of them 
living 10,000 years. They worship Jaiidrdana, and 
the names of their castes are Damin, Bushmin, Sneba, 

t KrAufleA* 


and Mandeha. 

The fourth, or Kraufica-Dvipa, has, according to the 
Maitya-Furd^a, mountains containing jewels, rivers 
which are branches of the Ganges, and kingdoms the 
people of which have a white colour and are pious and 
pure. According to Vighv-u-Purdi^ the people there 
live in one and the same place without any distinction 
among members of the community, but i^terwards it 
says that the names of their castes are Pushkara, 
Pushkala, Dhanya, and Tishya (?). They worship 

The filth, or ^almala-Dvlpa, has, according to the 
Mulsya-Fur&iia, mountains and rivers. Its inhabitants 



are pure, long-lived, mild, and never angry. They 
never anffer from dronglit or dearth, for their food 
comes to them simply in answer to their wishes, with- 
out their sowing or toiling. They come into exist- 
ence without being born ; they are never ill nor sorry. 
They do not require the rule of Idngs, since they do not 
know the desire for property. They live contented and 
in safety ; they always prefer that which is good and 
love virtue. The climate of tliis Dvlpa never alters in 
cold or heat, so they are not bound to protect them- 
selves against either. They "have no rain, but the 
water bubbles up for them out of the earth and drops 
down from the mountains. This is also the case in 
tlie following Dvtpas. The inhabitants are of one kind, 
without any distinction of caste. Every one lives 3000 

According to the Vi^nu-Purdna they have beauti- 
ful faces and worship Bhagavat. They bring offerings 
to the fire, and every one of them lives 10,000 years. 
The names of their castes are Kapila, Arnna, Pita, 
and Krishna. 

The sixth, or Gomeda-Dvipa, has, accoi-ding to the 
Matsya-Purdna, two great mountains, the deep-black 
Sumanas, which encompasses the greatest part of the 
Dvipa, and the Kumuda, of golden colour and very 
lofty ; the latter one contains all medicines. This 
Dvlpa has two kingdoms. 

Accoi’diug to Vish\Hi-Piii'Ai}a the inhabitants are 
pions and without sin and worship Vishiju. The 
n&mes of their castes are hlriga, Mfigadha, Mdnasa, and 
Mandaga. The climate of this Dvipa is so healthy and 
pleasant that the inhabitants of paradise now and then 
visit it on aooouut of the fragrancy of its air. 

The seventh, or Pushkara-Dvipa, has, according to 
the Matsya- Parana, in its eastern part the mountain 
Citmidld, i.e. having a variegated roof with horns of 
jewels. Its height is 34,000 yojana, and its circum- 

6. Gomeda* 




ference 25,000 yojana. In the west lies the monntain 
Munaaa, shining like the full moon ; its height is 
35,000 yojana. This mountain has a son who protects 
his father against the west. In the east of this Dvipa 
are two kingdoms where every inhabitant lives 10,000 
years; The water bubbles up for them out of the 
earth, and drops down from the mountains. They 
have no rain and no flowing river; they know neither 
summer nor winter. They are of one kind, without 
any distinction of caste. They never suffer from 
dearth, and do not get did. Everything they wish for 
comes to them, whilst they live quiet and happy with- 
out knowing anything else but virtue. It is as if they 
were in the suburb of paradise. All bliss is given to 
them; they live long and are without ambition. So 
there is no seiwice, no rule, no sin, no envy, no oppo- 
sition, no debating, no toiling in agriculture and dili- 
gence in trading. 

According to the Vi^mt-Purdna, Pushkara- Dvipa is 
so called from a large tree, which is also called nya- 
grodlia. Under this tree is Brahma-r&pa, i.e. the figure 
of Brahman, worshipped by the Deva and DInava. 
The inhabitants are equal among each other, not claim- 
ing any superiority, whether they be human beings or 
beings associating with the Devas. In this Dvipa 
there is only a single mountain, called Mdnasottama, 
which rises in a round form on the round Dvipa.- From 
its top all the other Dvtpas are visible, for its height 
is 50,000 yojana, and the breadth the same. 

( 2S7 ) 



The Vdy\ij-Pw&i}a enumerates the rivers rising in the pag« i,&, 
well-known great mountains which we have mentioned S!S*Kiir!.. 
as the knots of Mount Mora {vide p. 247). To facili- 
tate the study we exhibit them in the following table : — 

Tbe Gnat Knota. 

NHCDea of tho lUvorv vhloh rUe in th«m In 

Uahendia . | 

TrUfigA, RifibiknljA, Ikshnid, Tn'pavA (?), 
Aj&dA (7)» VaihiSavara. 

Malaya . . | 

Kritamftia, TamraTarnA, Fn»hpS)Ati, Utpala- 
Tatl (!)• 

Sahya . . | 

GodAvart, Bbtisaiatbl, Kriebna, VainyA, Sa- 
vanjaiA, TuogabbadrA, Sopiay^A, PAjaya (?), 

^kti . . I 

Kisbtka, BAlftka (1), EnmAtl. MaDdavAbint, 
Eirpa (Ij, FalA^inl. 

Riksha , 

^oa, MahAnada, NarmadA, Surasa, Kirra (I), 
UandAki^i DaiArnA, CltrekAtA, Taroaxll, 
Pipyala, ^ront, Kaiamoda (?), PUAbika (?), 
Citrapala. MahAvegA, BanJnlA, BAluvAhlpt, 
Suktivaci, ShakrnnA (t), TridlTi. 

Vlndhya ,j 

TApf, Payosbnl, NirblndbyA, 8ir»l (I), Nish- 
AdhA, vAnvA, Valtarant, Sloi, HAhu (1) 
Kumudvatt, TobA, Mafa^aurl, DureA, 


Vedasmriti, Vedavatl, Vritraghnl (?) ParnWA, 
NandanA, SaddAnA (?), lUmadt (?], BarA, 
Carmanvatl, LApa (?), VidiAA. 

TOI^ 1. 


The rivers o( 
Europe niid 
Aslu rising 
Incbo Hlme- 
Uym aod ire 


tu west sod 

Psgs 139. 

Itiiers of 


'Ilie Matsj/a-Purdna and Vdyu-Purdva mentioD the 
rivers Sowing in JambS-Dvlpa, and saj that they rise 
in the mountains of Himavant. In the following table 
we simply enumerate them, without following any 
particular principle of arrangement. The reader must 
imagiue that the mountaius form the boundaries of 
India. The northern mountains are the snowy Hima* 
vant. In their centre liee Kashmir, and they are con- 
nected with the country of the Turks. This mountain 
region becomes colder /md colder till the end of the 
iuhabitable world and Monnt Meru. Because this 
mountain has its chief esdiension in longitude, the rivers 
rising on its north aide Sow through the countries of the 
Turks, Tibetant, KhazarB,and Slavonians, andfall into the 
Sea of Jurjim (the Caspian Sea), or the sea of Khwflrizm 
(the Aral Sea), or the Sea Pontus (the Black Sea), or the 
northern Sea of the Slavonians (the Baltic) ; whilst the 
rivers rising on the southern slopes Sow through India 
and fall into the great ocean, some reaching it single, 
others combined. 

The rivers of India come either from the cold moun- 
tains in the north or from the eastern mountains, both 
of which in reality form one and the same chain, ex- 
tending towards the east, and then turning towards the 
south until they reach the great ocean, where parts of 
it penetrate into the sea at the place called the Dike of 
Pdma. Of course, these mountains differ very much 
in cold and heat. 

We exhibit tbe names of the rivers in the following 



Siodh or 
the n?6r 
of Vaihand, 

or Oollnm. 




to tbe west 
of Lahore. 

IrA^stl to 
the east of 




tha onuntry 



or Bnrwa, 






sn |l). 

















S'ij>i‘A, rises 
in the 

and passes 



Iti the moimtaiDS bordering on the kingdom of K&ya- sii.rih ri»o 
bieh, i.e. Kitbul, rises a river which is called Ghorwand, ‘so- 
on account of its many branches. It is joined by 
several affluents : — 

1. The river of the pass of Gbflzak. 

2. The river of the gorge of Panchtr, below the town 
of Parwin. 

3. 4. The river Sharvat and the river Siiwa, which 
latter flows through the town of Lanbag^, i.e. Lamghfin 5 
they join the Ghorvand at the fortress of Drflta. 

5, 6. The rivers Nflr and Kinl. 

Swelled by these affluents, the Ghorvand is a great 
river opposite the town of Purshdvar, being there called 
th$f 6 rd, from a ford near the village of Mahanftra, on 
the eastern banks of the river, and it falls into the river 
Sindh near the castle of Bitflr, below the capital of 
Alkandah&r (Gandbftra), i.e. Vaihand. 

The river Biyatta, known as Jailam, from the city of 



nirm of 
th» Fiinjib. 



this ntime on its western banks, and the river Cando- 
riiha join each other nearly fifty miles above Jahr&var, 
and pass along west of MnlttLn. 

The river Biydb flows east of Multftn, and joins after- 
wards the Biyatta and Gandarhba. 

The river Mva is joined by the river Kaj, which rises 
in Nagarkot in the mountains of Bhfttul. Thereupon 
follows as the fifth the river Shatladar (Satlej). 

After these five rivers have united below Multtln 
at a place called Pafleanada, i.6. the meeting-place of 
the five rivers, they form an enormous watercourse. 
In flood-times it sometimes swells to such a degree 
as to cover nearly a space of ten farsakh, and to rise 
above the tree of the plains, so that afterwards the 
rubbish carried by the floods is found in their highest 
branches like birds-nests. 

The Muslims call the river, after it has passed the 
Sindh! city Aror, as a united stream, the river of 
Mihr&n. Thus it extends, flowing straight on, be- 
coming broader and broader, and gaining in purity of 
water, enclosing in its course places like islands, until 
it reaches Almaushra, situated between several of its 
arms, and flows into the ocean at two places, near the 
city Loharili)!, and more eastward in the province of 
Kacch at a place called Sindhu-sdgara, i.e. the Siv/ili 

As the name union of the five riven occurs in this 
part of the world (in Panjflb), we observe that a similar 
name is used also to the north of the above-mentioned 
mountain chains, for the rivers which flow thence 
towards the north, after having united near Tirmidb 
and having formed the river of Balkli, are called the 
wiim of the seven rivers. The ^ioroastrians of Sogdiana 
have confounded these two things; for they say that 
the whole of the seven rivers is Sirulh, and its upper 
course Baridisk. A man descending on it sees the 
slaking of the sun on his right side if he turns bis 



face towards the west, as we see it here on our left 
side (sic). 

The river Sarsati falls into the sea at the distance of 
a bowshot east of Somanath. 

The river Jaun joins the Gauges below Kanoj, which 
lies west of it. The united stream fails into the great 
ocean near Gahg&s^gara. 

Between the mouths of the rivers Sarsati and Gauges 
is the mouth of the river Narmadil, which descends 
from the eastern mountains, takes its course in n south- 
western direction, and falls into the sea near the town 
Bahroj, nearly sixty yojana east of Somanith. 

Behind the Ganges how the rivers Rahab and Ka- 
wini, which join the river Sarwa near the city of Bill. 

The Hindus believe that the Ganges In ancient times 
Bowed in Paradise, and we shall relate at a subs'eqnent 
opportunity how it happened to come down upon 

The Matsya-Pui'diM says: “After the Ganges had 
settled on earth, it divided itself into seven arms, the 
middle of which is the main stream, known as the 
Ganges. Three flowed eastward, Nalini, Hridint, 
and I’avanl, and three westward, SitI, Cakshu, and 

The river Sita rises in the Himavant, and flows 
through these countries : Salila, Karstuba, Cina, Var- 
vara, Tavasa (?), Baba, Pushkara, Kulata, Mahgala, 
Kavara, and Bangavanta (?) ; then it falls into the 
western ocean. 

South of Sita flows the river Cakshu^, which irrigates 
the countries Ctna, Maru, KIlika (?), Dbfllika (?), Tuk- 
h&ra, Barbara, KIca (?), Palbava, and Blrwahcat. 

The river Sindh flows through the countries Sindliu, 
Darada, Zindutuiida (?), Glndhara, Riirasa (?), Krflra (?), 
Sivapanra, Indramarn, Sablt5(?), Saindliava, Kubata, 
Bahtmarvara, Mara, Mrflna, and Sukflrda. 

The river Ganges, which is the middle and main 

riven uf 


Page >3^- 



stream, flows throngh the Gandharva, the rousiciaiis, 
Kiitinara, Yakshas, Bakshasa, Vidyadhara, Uraga, i.e. 
those who creep on their breasts, tlie Berpents, Kalapa- 
grama, i.e. the city of the most virtuous, Kiihpurnsha, 
Khasa(?), the mountaineers, KirS,ta, Fulinda, the 
hunters in the plains, robbers, Kura, Bbarata, PahcAla, 
Kanshaka (?), M^tsya, Magadha, Brahmottara, and 
Tftmalipta. These are the good and bad beings 
through whose territories the Ganges flows. After- 
wards it enters into branches of the mountain Viii- 
dhya, where the elephants live, and then it falls into 
the southern ocean. 

Of the eastern Ganges arms, the Hr&dini flows throngh 
the oonntriea Nishaba, t^pakfliia, Dhivara, Prishaka, 
Ntlamukha, Ktkara, Ushtrakarna, i.€. people whose lips 
are tamed like their ears, Kirilta, Kaltdara, Vivarna, i.e. 
the colourless people, BO called on account of their intense 
blackness, Knshik^na, and Svargabhflmi, i.e, a country 
like Paradise. Finally it falls into the eastern ocean. 

The river Pflvani gives water to the Kiipatha (?), who 
are far from sin, Indradyumnasaras, i.e. the cisterns of 
the king Indradyuuma, Kbarapatba, Bttra, and Sahlcu* 
patha. It flows through the steppe UdylnamarClra, 
through the country of the Ku^apravarana, and Indra- 
dvipa, and afterwards it falls into the salt sea. 

The river Nalinl flows through Tdmara, Haihsam&rga, 
Samflhuka, and P&rpa. All these are pious people who 
abstain from evil. Then it flows throngh the midst of 
mountains and passes by the Karpaprflvarana, i.e. people 
whose ears fall down on their shoulders, A^vamukha, 
%.$. people with horse-fnoea, Parvatamaru, mountainous 
steppes, and BflmimaQ^ala. Finally it flows into the 

The Vishnu-Purdna mentions that the great rivers 
of the middle earth which flow into the ocean are 
Anutapata, Shikhi, Dipipa, Tridivd, Karma, Amrito 
and Sukrita. 

( 263 ) 



This and similar questions have received at the hands 
of the Hindus a treatment and solution totally different 
from that which they have received among ne Muslims. 
'ITie sentences of the Koran on these and other subjects 
necessary for man to know are not such as to require a 
strained interpretation in order to become positive cer- 
tainties in the minds of the hearers, and the same may 
be said regarding the holy codes revealed before the 
Koran. The sentences of the Koran on the subjects 
necessary for man to know are in perfect harmony with 
the other religious codes, and at the same time they are 
perfectly clear, without any ambiguity. Besides, the 
Koran- does not contain questions which have for ever 
been subjects of controversy, nor such questions the 
solution of which has always been despaired of, e.g. 
questions similar to certain pnzzles of chronology. 

Islam was already in its earliest times exposed to the 
machinations of people who were opposed to it in the 
bottom of their heart, people who preached Islam with 
sectarian tendencies, and who read to aitnple-miuded 
audiences out of their Koran-eopies passages of which 
not a single word was ever created (t.«. revealed) by 
God. But people believed them and copied these 
things on their authoj-ity, beguiled by their hypocrisy ; 
nay, they disregarded the true form of the book which 
they had bad until then, because tlie vulgar mind is 

Psge !}•. 

TIio Romn, 
It eorialii 
an<i clvur 
boalH of M 

hkUinoi) I 
1 . Uy a 

U. By the 


ol the 

Hiodut for 
their m* 


always inclined to any kind of delusion. Thus the 
pure tradition of Islam has been rendered confused by 
this Judaistic party. 

Islam encountered a second mishap at the hands of 
the Zindi^s, the followers of M^nl, like Ibn Almn^affa*, 
'Abd-alkarlm Ibn ‘Ab!>arauj&’, and others, who, being 
the fathers of criticism, and declaring one thing as jutt, 
another as admisHUe, &o., raised donbts in weak-minded 
people as to the One and First, %.«. the Unique and 
Eternal God, and directed their sympathies towards 
dualism. At the same time they presented the bio- 
graphy of M&nl to the people in such a beautiful garb 
that they were gained over to his side. Now this man 
did not confine himself to the trash of his sectarian 
theology, but also proclaimed his views about the form 
of the world, as may be seen from his books, which were 
intended for deliberate deception. His opinions were 
far-spread. Together with the inventions of the above- 
mentioned- Judaistic party, they formed a religions 
system which was declared to be the Islam, but with 
which God has nothing whatever to do. Whoso opposes 
it and firmly adheres to the orthodox faith in conformity 
with the Koran is stigmatised by them as an infidel and 
heretic and condemned to death, and they will not 
allow him to hear the word of the Koran. All these 
acts of theirs are more impions than even the words of 
Pharaoh, “I am your highest lord” (Snra, 79, 24), 
and “I do not know of any god for yon save myself" 
(Sura, 28, 38). If party spirit of this kind will go on 
and rule for a long time, we may easily decline from the 
straight path of honour and dnty. We, however, take 
our refnge with God, who renders firm the foot of every 
one who seeks Him, and who seeks the truth about 

The religious books of the Hindus and their codes 
of tradition, the Purfinas, contain sentences about the 
shape of the world which stand in direct opposition to 



Bcientifc truth as known to their astronomers. By 
these books people are guided in fulfilling the rites of 
their religion, and by means of them the great mass of 
the nation have been wheedled into a predilection for 
astronomical calculation and astrological predictioue 
and warnings. The consequence is, that they show much 
affection to their astronomers, declaring that they are 
excellent men, that it is a good omen to meet them, and 
firmly believing that all of them come into Paradise and 
none into hell. For this the astronomers requite them 
by accepting their popular notions as truth, by con- 
forming themselves to them, however far from truth 
most of them may be, and by presenting them with such 
spiritual stuff as they stand in need of. This is the 
reason why the two theories, the vulgar and the 
scientific, have become intermingled in the course of 
time, why the doctrines of the astronomers have been 
disturbed and confused, in particular the doctrines of 
those authors — and they are the majority — who simply 
copy their predecessors, who take the bases of their 
science from tradition and do not make them the objects 
of independent scientific research. 

We shall now explain the views of Hindu astrono- 
mers regarding the present subject, viz. the shape of 
heaven and earth. According to them, heaven as well 
as the whole world is ronnd, and the earth has a 
globular shape, the northern half being dry land, the 
southern half being covered with water. The dimen- 
sion of the earth is larger aecordiog to them than it is 
aocordiog to the Greeks and modern observations, and 
in their calculations to find this dimension they have 
entirely given up any mention of the traditional seas 
and Dv^as, and of the enormous sums of yojana attri- 
buted to each of them. The astronomers follow the 
theologians in everything which does not encroach upon 
their science, e.g. they adopt the theory of Mount Meru 
being under the north pole, and that of the island 

roen adoiiC 
notions lulo 
do4 trines, 

OU tliO 
ot tbs sartK, 

OU Mem 


Png* 133. 



rr<ijn the 
o( PulkHA. 

VadavSmukha lying ander the south pole. Now, it is 
entirely irrelevant whether Mem is there or not, as it 
is only required for the explanation of the particular 
mill-like rotation, which is necessitated by the fact that 
to each spot on the plane of the earth corresponds a spot 
in the sky as its zenith. Also the fable of the southern 
island Vatjavilmukha does no harm to their science, 
although it is possible, nay, even likely, that each pair of 
quarters of the earth forms a coherent, uninterrupted 
unity, the one as a continent, the other as an ocean 
(and that in reality there is no such island under the 
south pole). Such a disposition of the earth is required 
by the law of gravitation, for according to them the 
earth is in the centre of the universe, and everything 
heavy gravitates towards it. Evidently on account of 
this law of gravitation they consider heaven, too, as 
having a globular sliape. 

We shall now exhibit the opinions of the Hindu 
astronomers on this subject according to onr translation 
of their works. In case, however, one word or other in 
our translation should be used in a meaniug different 
from that which it generally has in our sciences, we ask 
the reader to consider only the original meaning of the 
word (not the technical one), for this only is meant. 

Pulisa says in his Siddhdnta; “Paulisa the Greek 
says somewhere that the earth has a globular ahafc, 
whilst in another place he says that it has the shape of 
a cover {i.e. of a flat plane). And in both sentences he 
is right ; for the plane or surface of the earth is round, 
and its diameter is a straight line. That he, however, 
only believed in the globular shape of the earth, may 
be proved by many passages of his work. Besides, all 
scholars agree on this head, as Vanihatnihira, Arya- 
bhata, Deva, Srtsbepa, Yishpucandra, and Brahman, 
If the earth were not round, it would not be girded 
with the latitudes of the different places on earth, day 
ami night would not be different in wititi-r and summer, 


and the conditions of the planets and of their rotations 
would be quite different from what they are. 

“The position of the earth is central. Half of it is 
clay, half water. Mount Meru is in the dry half, the 
home of the Deva, the angels, and above it is the pole. 

In the other half, which is covered by water, lies Vai^o- 
v&mnkha, under the south pole, a continent like an 
island, inhabited by the Daitya and Niiga, relatives of 
the Deva on Meru. Therefore it is also called Hait- 

“ The line which divides the two earth-halves, the 
dry and the wet, from each other, is called Nirakska, i.e. 
havini/ no latitude, being identical with our equator. In 
the four cardinal directions with relation to this line 
there are four great cities : — 

YamakoU, in the east. I Romaka, In the west. 

Lankti, in the south. 1 Siddbapura, iu the north, 

“ The earth is fastened on the two poles, and held by 
the axis. When the sun rises over the line which 
passes both through Meru and LaAkd, that moment is 
noon to Yamakoti, midnight to the Greeks, and evening 
to Siddhapura.” 

In the same manner things are represented by Arya- 

Brahmagupta, the son of Jiahnu, a native of Bhitla- Quoutiou 
mftla, says iu his Brahmasiddhdnta ■■ “ Many are the 
sayings of people about the shape of the earth, specially 
among those who study the Purftijas and the religious 
books. Some say that it is level like a mirror, others Fi>g< I3«. 
say that it is hollow like a bowl, Others maintain that 
it is level like a mirror, inclosed by a sea, tbis sea being 
inclosed by an earth, this earth being inclosed by a sea, 

&c., all of them being round like collars. Each sea 
or earth has the doable size of that which it incloses. 

The outside earth is sixty-four times as large as the 
central earth, and the sea inclosing the outside earth is 



Bixty-foar times as large os the sea inclosing the central 
earth. Several circumstances, however, compel ns to 
attiibate globular shape both to the earth and heaven, 
viz. the fact that the stars rise and set in different 
places at different times, so that, e.g. a man in Yama- 
ko^ observes one identical star rising above the western 
horizon, whilst a man in Bffra at the same time observes 
it rising above the eastern horizon. Another argument 
to the same effect is this, that a man on Meru observes 
one identical star above the horizon in the zenith of 
LabkH, the country of the demons, whilst a man in 
Lahk^ at the same time observes it above his head. 
Besides, all astronomical calculations are not correct 
unless we assume the globular figure of heaven and 
earth. Therefore we must declare that heaven is a 
globe, because we observe in it all the characteristics 
of a globe, and the observation of these characteristics 
of the world would not be correct unless in reality it 
were a globe. Now, it is evident that all the other 
theories about the world are futile.” 

Quoutioiit Aryabhata inquires into the nature of the world, 
“d says that it consists of earth, water, fire, and wind, 
“*"■ and that each of these elements is round. 

Likewise Yasishtha and Ldta say that the five ele- 
ments, viz. earth, water, fire, wind, and heaven, are 

Yarilhamihira says that all things which are per- 
ceived by the senses, are witnesses in favour of the 
globular shape of the earth, and refute the possibility 
of its having another shape. 

Aryabhata, Pulisa, Yasishfha, and Lfita agree in this, 
that when it is noon in Yamakofii it is midnight in 
Bfim, beginning of the day in Laukfi, and beginning of 
the night in Siddhapnra, which is not possible if the 
world is not round. Likewise the periodicity of the 
eclipses can only be explained by the world’s being 


Lata sajs : “ On each place of the earth only one-half 
of the globe of lieaven is seen. The more northern our 
latitude is, the more Mem and the pole rise above the 
horisson ; as they sink down below the horizon, the more 
southern is onr latitade. The equator sinks down from 
the zenith of places, the greater their latitude is both in 
north and south. A nan who is north of the equator 
only sees the north pole, whilst the sonth pole is invi- 
sible to him, and vice. versA." 

These are the words of Hindu astronomers regarding 
the globular shape of heaven and earth, and what is 
between them, and regarding the fact that the earth, 
situated in the centre of the globe, is only of a small 
size in comparison with the visible part of heaven. 
These thoughts are the elements of astronomy as con- 
tained in the first chapter of Ptolemy’s Almagest, and 
of similar books, though they are not worked out in 
that scientific form in which we are accustomed to give 


for the earth is more heavy than the water, and the 
water is fluid like the air. The globular form must be 
to the earth a physical uecessity, as long as it does not, 
by the order of God, take another form. Therefore the 
earth could not move towards the north, nor the water 
move towards the south, and in consequence one whole 
half is not tei-ra firina, nor the other half water, unless 
we suppose that the iem'a Jiimia half be liollow. As far 
as our observation, based on induction, goes, the terra 
fii'ma roust be in one of the two northern quarters, and 
therefore we guess that the same is the case on the 
adjacent quarter. We admit the possibility of the 
existence of the island Vadavilmukha, but we do not 
mainttun it, since all we know of it and of Mern is 
exclusively based on tradition. 

The equatorial line does not, in the quarter of the 
earth known to us, i-epresent a boundary between terra 

tlon» ro* 
^rdlnff tbo 
rotundity of 
tb« OArth. 
th« b*Unco 
of STAvUy 
betwoon tb« 
and Miitb* 
etix bidTM, 
ftnd the at- 
trnction of 

Pat# I3S. 


firma and the ocean. For in certain places the con- 
tinent protrudes far into the ocean, so as to pass beyond 
the equator, 6.g. the pMns of the negroes in the west, 
which protrude far towards the south, even beyond the 
itiffuntains qf the moon and the sources of the Nile, in 
fact, into regions which we do not exactly know. For 
that continent is desert and impassable, and likewise 
the sea behind Suf&la of the Zanj is unnavigable. No 
ship which ventured to go there has ever returned to 
relate what it had witnessed. 

Also a great part of India above the province of Sindh 
deeply protrudes far towards the south, and seems even 
to pass beyond the equator. 

In the midst between both lie Arabia and Yemen, 
but they do not go so far south as to cross the equator. 

Further, as the terra prma stretches far out into the 
ocean, thus the ocean too penetrates into terra firma, 
breaking into it in various places, and forming bays 
and gulfs. For instance, the sea extends as a tongue 
along the west side of Arabia as far as the neighbour- 
hood of Central Syria. It is narrowest near ^ulzum, 
whence it is also called the Sea of Kidxwm. 

Another and still larger arm of the sea exists east of 
Arabia, the -so-called Persian Sea. Between India and 
China, also, the sea forms a great curve towards the north. 

Hence it is evident that the coast-line of these 
countries does cot correspond to the equator, nor keep 
an invariable distance from it, 


and the explanation relating to the four cities will follow 
in its proper place. 

The difference of the times which has been remarked 
is one of the results of the rotundity of the earth, and 
of its occupying the centre of the globe. And if they 
attribute to the earth, thongh it be round, inhabitants — 
for cities cannot be imagined without inhabitants — the 
existence of men on earth is accounted for by the 



attraction of everything heavy towarda its centre, ia 
the middle of the world. 

Mncli to the same effect are the expressions of Vdyv,- Qnotntions 
Pv,rdna, viz. that noon in AmarAvatJ is sunrise in Vai- wyi. nnd 
vasvata, midnight in Sukhu, and sunset in Vibha. 

Similar, also, are the expressions of Matai/a-Piir&jiia, 
for this book explains that east of Meru lies the oity 
Amaravatlpura, the residence of Indra, the ruler, and 
his wife; south of Meru, the city Sashyamantpnra, 
the residence of Yama, the son of the Sun, where he 
pnnishes and requites mankind ; west of Meru, the oity 
Snkbapura, the residence of Varuna, i.e. the water ; and 
north of Mem, the city Vibhavaripura, belonging to the 
Moon. Sun and planets revolve round Meru. When 
the sun has his noon position in Amaritvatipura, it is 
the beginning of the day in Saiiiyamantpura, midnight 
in Snkha, and the beginning of the night in Vibhavari- 
pnra. ‘ And when the sun has his noon position in 
Saihyamanipura, he rises over Sukhapura, sets over 
Amaravatipura, and has his midnight position with 
relation to Vibhavaripura. p*ge t3«. 

If the author of the Matai/a-Pui-Ana says that the Anoteofthe 

, i-i • Auilic.r ti-i 

sun revolves round Meru, he means a mill-like rotation iiie |..i»8hku 
round those who inhabit Meru, who, in co«sec(iietice of not,!/a.pu. 
this nature of the rotation, do not know east nor west. 

The sun does not rise for the inhabitants of Meru in 
one particnlar place, bnt in various places. By the 
word east the author means the zenith of one city, and 
by wesi the zenith of another, Possibly those four cities 
of the Mataya-Pui'd^a, are identical with those men- 
tioned by the astronomers. But the author has not 
mentioned how far they are distant from Meru. What 
we have besides related as notions of the Hindus is 
perfectly correct and borne out by scientific methods ; 
however, they are wont never to speak of the pole unless 
they mention in the same breath also the mountain Meru. ff'P*" 

In toe definition of what is low the Hindus agree 
With ns, via. that it is the centre of the world, bnt their s"Tii«uon. 



expressions on tbis head are subtle, more particularly 
as this is one of the great questions which is only 
handled by the most eminent of their scholars. 

So Brahmagupta says : “ Scholars have declared that 
the globe of the earth is in the midst of heaven, and 
that Mount Mem, the home of the Devas, as well as 
Yai^av&mukha below, is the home of their opponents ; 
the Daitya and D&nava belong to it But this helm is 
aoeording to them only a relative one. _ Disregarding 
this, we say that the earth on all its sides is the 
same ; all people on earth stand upright, and all heavy 
things fall down to the earth by a law of nature, for 
it is the nature of the earth to attract and to keep 
things, as it is the nature of water to flow, that of Are 
to burn, and that of the wind to set in motion. If a 
thing wants to go deeper down than the earth, let it 
try. The earth is the only low thing, and seeds always 
return to it, in whatever direction you may throw 
them away, and never rise upwards from the earth.” 

Yarahamihira says : “ Mountains, seas, rivers, trees, 
cities, men, and angels, all are around the globe of the 
earth. And if Yamakoti and Kflm are opposite to each 
other, one could not say that the one is low in its 
relation to the other, since the low does not exist. How 
could one say of one place of the earth that it is low, 
as it is in every particular identical with any other 
place on earth, and one place could os little fall as auy 
other. Every one speaks to himself with regard to bis 
own self, ' 1 am aixm and the others are below’ whilst 
all of them are around the globe like the blossoms 
sprin^ng on the. branches of a Kadamba-tree. They 
encircle it on all sides, but each individual blossom has 
the same position as the other, neither the one hanging 
downward nor the other standing upright. For the 
earth attracts that which is npon her, for it is the below 
towards all directions, and heaven is the alwve towards 
all directions.” 

As the reader ^11 observe, these theories of the 



Hindus are based on the correct knowledge of the laws 
of nature, but, at the same time, they practise a little 
deceit upon their traditionalists and theologians. So 
Balabhadra the commentator says; "It is the most 
correct of the opinions of people, many and different ns 
they are, that the earth and Meru and the zodiacal 
sphere are round. And the Apia (?)-pur&iia-kS.ra, i.e. 
the faithful followers of the PurfLna, say: 'The earth 
is like the back of a tortoise ) it is not round from 
below.' They are perfectly right, because the earth is 
in the midst of the water, and that which appears 
above the water has the shape of a tortoise-back ; and 
the sea around the earth is not navigable. The fact 
of the earth being round is proved by eyesight” 

Here the reader must notice how Balabhadra declares 
the theory of the theologians as to the rotundity of the 
back to be true. He gives himself the air of not 
knowing that they deny that the womb, i.e. the other 
half of the globe, is round, and he busies himself with a 
traditional element (as to the earth being like the back 
of a tortoise), which, in reality, has no connection with 
the subject. 

Further, Balabhadra says : “ Human eyesight reaches 
to a point distant from the earth and its rotundity the 
96th part of 5000 yojana, i.e. 52 yojarui (exactly 52i^j-). 
Therefore man does not observe its rotundity, and hence 
the discrepancy of opinions on the subject.” 

Those pious men (the Apta (?)'purai,ia-ktira) do not 
deny the rotundity of the back of the earth ; nay, they 
maintain it by comparing the earth to the back of a 
tortoise. Only Balabhadra makes them deny it (by 
the words, “ the earth is not round from below,” 
ainoe he understood their words as meaning that the 
water surrounds the earth. That which rises above the 
water may either be globular or a plain rising above 
the water like an inverted drum, i.e. like a segment of 
a round pilaster. 

VOL. I. S 

from Hiiiu* 
bbulrrk, und 
tiio luithor’s 

cu tbeiDi 

rflge xjr. 

on Lhe ex* 
tout of 
vision o& 
the earcli. 


Pnrtber, the remark of Balabhadra (v. p. 273), 
that man, on account of the smallness of liis stature, 
cannot observe the rotundity of the earth, is not true ; 
because even if the human stature were as tall as the 
plumb-line of the highest mountain, if he were to make 
his observation only from one single point without 
going to other places, and without reasoning about the 
observations made at the different places, even such a 
height would be of no avail to him, and he would not be 
able to perceive the rotundity of the earth and its nature. 

What, however, is the connection of this remark 
with the popular theory ? If he had concluded from 
analogy that that side of the earth which is opposed 
to the Toujid one — I mean the lower half — was also 
round, and if he then had given his theory about the 
extent of the power of human vision as a result of 
reflection, not as a result of the perception of the 
senses, bis theory would seem to have a certain foun- 

With regard to Balabbadra’s definition of the extent 
which may be reached by the human eye, we propose 
the following calculation : — 

Let A B round the centre H represent the globe of 
the earth, B is the standing- 
point of the observer ; his 
stature is B C. Further, we 
draw the line 0 A, so that it 
touchea the earth. 

Now it is evident that the 
field of vision is B A, which 
we snppose to be equal to 
of the circle, i.«. 3f degrees, 
if we divide the circle into 
360 degrees. 

According to the method 
followed in the calculation of the. mountain Meru (in 
chap, xxiii.), we divide the square of T A, i.e. 50,625, by 



H T, «,«. 3431'. So we get as quotient T C = o^' 14' 45"; 
and B C, the stature of the observer, is 0° 7' 45". 

Our calculation is based on this, that H B, the siitus 
iotus, is 3438'. However, the radius of the earth is, 
according to the circumference which we have men- 
tioned, 795'' 27' 16" (yojam). If we measure B C by 
this measure, it is as i yojnna, 6 h'oia, 1035 yards 
(e 57,03s yards). If we suppose B C to be equal to four 
yaixls, it stands in the same relation to A T, according 
to the measure of the sine, aa 57,035, i.e. the yards 
which we have found as the measure of the stature, to 
A T according to the measure of the sine, i.e. 22$. If 
we now calculate the sine, we find it to be 0° o' i" 3"', 
and its arc bas the same measure. However, each degree 
of the rotundity of the earth represents the measure of 
13 yojana, 7 hroia, and 333J yards (sic). Therefoi'e the 
field of vision on the earth is 29 1 § yards (sic). 

(For an explanation of this calculation sec Hie notes.) 

The source of this calculation of Balabhadra's is the 
Piilisa-siddh&nta, which divides the arc of the quarter 
of a circle into 24 kardajdl. lie says: “If anybody 
asks for the reason of this, he must know that each of 
these kardajdt is of the circle = 225 minutes ( = 3| 
degi'ees). And if we reckon its sine, we find it also 
to be = 225 minutes.” This shows us that the sines are 
equal to their arcs in parts which are smaller than this 
kardaja. And because the shius lohis, according to 
Pulisa and Arynbha^, has the relation of the diameter 
to the circle of 360 degrees, this arithmetical equality 
brotight Balabhadra to think that the arc was perpen- 
dicular ; aud any expanse in which no convexity pro- 
trudes preventing the vision from passing, and which 
is not too small to be seen, is visible. 

This, however, is a gross ipistake ; for the arc is 
never perpendicular, and the sine, however small it 
be, never equals the arc. This is admissible only for 
such degrees as are supposed for the convenience of 

I’ligo Ij8. 



The Rxls of 
tho earth 
aceordh)ff to 


Whether tho 
eflitb mnvei 
or l9 at roet, 
uccoffling to 
gupta and 
tba author. 

PnffO 139. 

calculation, but it is never and nowhere true for the 
degrees of the earth. 

If Pulisa says (v. p. 267) that the earth is held 
by an axis, he does not mean thereby that in reality 
there exists such an axis, and that but for it the earth 
would fall. How could he say such a thing, since he 
ig of opinion that there are four inhabited cities around 
the world, which is explained by the fact that every- 
thing heavy falls from all sides down towards the earth ? 
However, Pulisa holds this view, that the motion 0! the 
peripheric parts is the reason why the central parts are 
motionless, and that the motion of a globe presupposes 
two poles, and one Hue connecting them, which in the 
idea is the axis. It is as if he meant to say, that the 
motion of heaven keeps the earth in its place, making 
it the natural place for the earth, outside of which it 
could never be. And this place lies on the midst of the 
axin of motion. For the other diameters of the globe 
may also be imagined to be axes, since <V Swa/ut they 
are all axes, and if the earth were not in the midst of 
an axis, there might be axes which did not pass through 
the earth. Hence one may say metaphorically that the 
earth is supported by the axes. 

As regards the resting of the earth, one of the ele- 
mentary problems of astronomy, which offers many and 
great difficulties, this, too, is a dogma with the Hindu 
astronomers. Brahm^upta says in the Brakmasid- 
dhdnia: "Some people maintain that the first motion 
(from east to west) does not lie in the meridian, but 
belongs to the earth. But VarUhamihira refutes them 
by saying: ‘If that were the case, a bii'd. would not 
return to its nest as soon as it had flown away from 
it towards the west.' And, in fact, it is precisely as 
Var&hamihira saya" 

Brahmagupta says in another place of the same book : 
" The followers of Aryabhata maintain that the earth 
is moving and heaven resting. People have tried to 



refute them by saying that, if such were the case, stones 
and trees would fall from the earth.” 

But Brahmagupta does not agree with them, and says 
that that would not necessarily follow from their theory, 
apparently because he thought that all heavy things are 
attracted towards the centre of the earth. He says; 
“ On the contrary, if that were the case, the earth would 
not vie t7i her^ring nn eve7t and un'^orm pace 'with the 
tainutce of heaven, the prdi.ios of the tiviea." 

There seems to be some confusion in this chapter, 
perhaps by the fault of the translator. For the minutes 
of heaven are 21 , 600 , and are called prdnui, i.e. breaths, 
because according to them each minute of the meridian 
revolves in the time of an ordinary human h-ealh. 

Supposing this to be true, and that the earth makes 
a complete rotation eastward in so many breaths as 
heaven does according to his (Brahmagupta’s) view, we 
cannot see what should prevent the earth from keeping 
an even and uniform pace with heaven. 

Besides, the rotation of the earth does in no way im- 
pair the value of astronomy, as all appearances of an 
astronomic character can quite as well be explained 
according to this theory as to the other. There are, 
however, other reasons which make it impossible, 
^niia question is most difficult to solve. The most pro- 
minent of both modem and ancient astronomers have 
deeply stndied the question of the moving of the earth, 
and tried to refute it. We, too, have composed a book 
on the subject called Mift&h'HTn-alhai'a {Key qf 
Astronomy), in which we think we have surpassed our 
predecessors, if not in the words, at all eveuts in the 

( «78 ) 



The astroQomera of the Hindas hold on this subject 
mostly the same views as ourselves. We shall give 
quotations from them, but shall at once confess that 
that which we are able to give Is very scanty indeed. 
Qiiotation Pulisa says: "The wind makes the sphere of the 
autd«ct fixed stars revolve ; the two poles keep it in its place, 
-and its motion appears to the inhabitants of Mount 
Meru as a motion from the left to the right ; to the 
inhabitants of VacjavAmukha as one from the right to 
the left” 

In another place he says : "If anybody asks for the 
direction of the motion of the stars which we see rising 
in the east and rotating towards the west until they set, 
let him know that the motion which wt see as a west- 
ward motion appears different according to the places 
which the spectators occupy. The inhabitants of Mount 
Meru see it as a motion from the left to the right, 
whilst the inhabitants of Vaijav&tnukha see it as the 
opposite, as a motion from the right to the left. The 
inWhitants of the equator 'see it exclusively as a 
westward motion, and the inhabitants of the parts of 
the earth between the poles and the equator see it 
more or less depressed, as their places have more or 

CHAPTER xxvrr. 


less northeni or Boiitliem latitude. The whole of this 
motion is caused by the wind, which makes the spheres 
revolve, and compels the planets and the other stars to 
rise in the east and to set in the west. This, however, 
is only an accidais. As for the esse7)tia rei, the motions 
of the heavenly bodies are directed towards the east, 
from towards Albutain, the latter lying east 

of the former. Dut if the inquirer does not know the 
lunar stations, and is not capable of procuring for him- rtga ms. 
self by their help an idea of this eastward motion, let 
him observe the moon herself, how she moves away from 
the sun once and a second time; bow she then comes 
near him, till she finally joins him. This will give him 
an idea of the second motion.” 

Brahmagupta says: “The sphere has been created Quotsuans 
as moving with the greatest rapidity possible about two urnumn-^ 
poles without ever slackening, and the stars have been Suiiibhilciii.. 
created where there is no Bain~li4-t nor Shara/dn, i.e. on 
the frontier between them, which is the vernal equinox.” 

Balabhadra, the commentator, says: “The whole 
world hangs on two poles, and moves in a circular 
motion, which begins with a kalpa and ends with a 
kalpa. Bub people must not therefore say that the 
world, on account of the continuity of its motion, is 
without beginning and without end.” 

Brahmagupta says: “The place without latitude 
{Ifiraksha), divided into sixty ghatikd, is the horizon 
for the inhabitants of Meru. There c-ast is west ; and 
behind that; place (beyond the equator) towards the 
south is Vaijav^inukha and the ocean which surrounds 
it. When the spheres and the stars revolve, the meri- 
dian becomes an horizon common to the Devas (in 
the north) and the Daityas (in tlie south), which they 
see together. Dut the direction of the motion appears 
bo them as diifereiit. The motion which the angels see 
as a motion to the right, the Daityas see as one to the 
left, and vice versA, just as a man who has a thing on his 



Critic! siui 
of the 

as tho 
motor of tlie 

right side, looking into the water, sees it on hia left. 
The cause of this nniform motion which never increases 
nor decreases is a wind, but it is not the common wind 
which we feel and hear; for this is lulled, and roused, 
and varies, whilst that wind never slackens." 

In another place Brahmagupta sa^s : '* The wind 
makes all the fixed stars and the planets revolve 
towards the west in one and the'same revolution ; bet 
the planets move also in a slow pace towards the east, 
like a dust-atom moving on a potter's-whcel in a direc- 
tion opposite to that in which the wheel is revolving. 
That motion of this atom which is visible is identical 
with the motion which drives the wheel round, whilst 
its individual motion is not perceived. In this view 
Aryabhata, and Vasishtha agree, but some people 
think that the earth moves while the sun is resting. 
That motion which mankind conceives as a motion from 
east to west, the angels (Deva) conceive as a motion 
from left to right, the Daityas as one from right to left." 

This is all 1 have read in Indian books on the 

Their speaking of the wind as the motor {supra) 
has, I think, only the purpose of bringing the subject 
near to the understanding of people and to facilitate its 
study : for people see with their own eyes that the 
wind, when blowing against instruments with wings 
and toys of this kind, puts them into motion. But as 
soon as they come to speak of the first mover (God), 
they at once give np any comparison with the natural 
wind, which in all its phases is determined by certain 
causes. For tltough it puts things into motion, the 
moving is not its essence ; and besides, it cannot move 
without being in contact with something, because the 
wind is a body, and is acted npon by external inflnences 
or means, its motion being oommensnrate with their 



Their Baying tliat the wind does not rest, simply 
means that the moving power works perpetually, and 
does not imply rest and motion such as are proper to 
bodies. Farther, their saying that it does not Blacken 
means that it is free from all kinds of accidents ; for 
Blackening and vmkening only occnr in such bodies or 
beings which are composed of elements of conflicting 

The expression that the two poles keep the sphere of 
the fixed stars (p. 278) moans that they keep or pre- 
serve it in its normal state of motion, not that they 
keep or preserve it from falling down. There is a story 
of an ancient Greek who thought that once upon a time 
the Milky Way had been a road of the sun, and that 
afterwards he had left it. Such a thing would mean 
that the motions ceased to be normal, and to something 
like this the expression of tke poles keeping the sphere of 
the fixed stars may be referred. 

The phrase of Balabhadra about the ending of the 
motion (that it ends with a kalpa, &c., p. 279) means 
that everything which exists and may be determined 
arithmetically has no doubt an end, for two reasons: 
first, because it has a beginning, for every number 
consists of 071 C and its reduplications, whilst the owe 
itself exists before all of them ; and, secondly, because 
part of it exists iu the present moment of time, for if 
days and nights increase in number through the con- 
tinuation of existence, they must necessarily have a 
beginning whence they started. If a man maintains 
that time does not exist in the sphere (as one of its 
imTsanent qualities), and thinks that day and night 
have only a relatm existence, exist only in relation to 
the earth and its inhabitants, that if, e.g., the earth were 
taken away out of the midst of the world, also night 
and day would cease to exist as well as the possibility 
of measuring elements composed of days, he wonld 
thereby impose upon Balabhadra the necessity of a 


On two 

tilC Hpliui'ft, 

On rbQ 
ruinti VO 



Tha marl* 
diui <)tvHad 
into alxtjf 

On the fixed 


of tha 


AMfleea fynm 
paiitU of 
the eai’( h. 

digression, and compel Inm to prove the cause, not of 
the first, but of the sccouil motion. The latter cause is 
the cycles of the planets, which have only a relation to 
tJie sphere, not bo the earth. These cycles Balabhadra 
indicates by the word Icalpa (v. p. 279), since it com- 
prehends them all, and since all of them begin with its 

If Drahmagnpta says of the meridian that it is 
divided into sixty parts (v. p. 279), it is as if any one of 
ns should say, the meridian is divided into twenty-four 
parts ; for the meridian is a medium for measuring and 
counting time. Its revolution lasts twenty-four hours, 
or, as the Hindus will have it, sixty ghatikd (or ghart). 
This is the reason why they have reckoned the risiugs 
of the zodiacal signs In gha(ikd, not in times of the 
meridian (360 degrees). 

If, further, Brahmagupta says that the wind causes 
the fixed stars and the planets to revolve, if he besides, 
in particular, attributes a slow eastward motion to the 
planets (p. 280), he gives the reader to understand that 
the fixed stars have no snch motion, or else he would 
have said that they, too, have the same slow eastward 
motion as the planets, not differing from them save in 
size and in the variation which they exhibit in the re- 
trograde motion. Some people relate that the ancients 
originally did not understand their (the fixed stars’) 
motions until, in long periods of time, they became 
aware of them. This opinion is confirmed by the fact 
that Brahmagupta’s book does not, among the various 
cycles, mention the cycles of the fixed stars, and that 
be makes their appearing and disappearing depend 
upon invariable degrees of the sun. 

If Brahmagupta maintains (p. 278) that to the in- 
habitants of the equator the fiA'st jnoiionia not a motion 
to the right and left, the reader must bear in mind the 
following. A man dwelling under either of the two 
poles, to whatever direction he turns, has always the 



moving heavenly bodies before himself, and as they 
move in one direction, they must necessarily first stand 
opposite one of bis bands, and then, moving on, come 
to stand opposite his other band. The direction of this 
motion appears to the inhabitants of the two poles just 
the very contrary, like the image of a thing in the 
water or a mirror, where its directions seem to be ex* 
changed. If the image of a man is reflected by the 
water or a mirror, he appears as a different man stand- 
ing opposite to the spectator, his right side opposite to ■«>' 
the left of the spectator, and his left side opposite to 
the right of the spectator. 

Likewise the inhabitants of places of northern lati- 
tude have the revolving heavenly bodies be/crre them- 
selves towards the sontfa, and the inhabitants of places 
of southern latitude have them before themselves 
towards the north. To them the motion appears 
the same as to the inhabitants of Mern and Vadavl- 
mukha. But as regards those living on the equator, 
the heavenly bodies revolve nearly above their heads, 
so they cannot have them before themselves in any 
direction. In reality, however, they deviate a little 
from the equator, and in consequence the people there 
have a uniform motion before themselves on two sides, 
the motion of the northern heavenly bodies from right 
to left, and that of the southern bodies from left to 
right. So they unite in their persons the faculty of 
the inhabitants of the two poles (viz. of seeing the 
heavenly bodies moving in different directions), aud it 
depends entirely upon their will, if they want to see 
the stare move from the right to the left or i-ms 

It is the line passing through the zenith of a man 
standing on the equator which Brahmagupta means 
when he says that it is divided into sixty parts (v. p. 


The authors of the Purflaas represent heaven as a 



dome or cupola standing on earth and resting, and the 
stars as beings which wander individually from east to 
west. How conld these men have any idea of the 
second motion ? And if they really had such an idea, 
how oonld an opponent of the same class of men con- 
cede the possibility that one and the same thing indi- 
vidually moves in two different directions ? 

We shall here communicate what we know of their 
theories, although we are aware that the reader will 
not derive any profit from them, since they are simply 

«juotiition The Matsya-Purdna says : “ The snn and the stars 
pass along southward as rapidly as an arrow revolv- 
round Meru. The sun revolves round something 
like a beam, the end of which is burning when its 
revolution is very rapid. The sun does not really 
disappear (during the night) ; he is then invisible only 
to some people, to some of the inhabitants of the four 
cities on the four sides of Meru. He revolves round 
Mem, starting from the north side of Mount Lokftloka ; 
he does not pass beyond Lok^loka, nor illuminate its 
south side. He is invisible daring the night, because 
he is so far away. Man can see him at a distance 
of 1000 yojana, but when he is so far away, a small 
object sufficiently near to the eye can render him 
invisible to the spectator. 

‘'When the sun stands in the zenith of Pnshkara- 
Dvtpa, he moves along the distance of one-thirtieth 
part of the earth in three-fifths of an honr. In so 
mnch time be traverses 21 laksha and 50,000 yojana, 
i.e. 2,1 50,000 yojana. Tlien he turns to the north, and 
the distance he traverses becomes thrice as large. In 
consequence, the day becomes long. The distance which 
the sun traverses in a southern day is 9 ko^i and 10,045 
yojana. When he then returns to the north and revolves 
round Kshira, i.e. the Milky Way, bis daily march ie 
I kofi and 2 1 laksha yojana,” 



Now we ask the reader to consider how confused 
these expressions are. If the author of the Matsya- 
Purdna says “the stars pass as rapidly as an arrow,” 
&c., we take this for a hyperbole intended for unedu- 
cated people; but we must state that the arrow-like 
motion of the stars is not peculiar to the south to the 
exclusion of the north. 'Diere are limits both in the 
north and south whence the sun returns, and the time 
of the sun's passing from the southern limit to the 
northern is equal to the time of his passing from the 
northern limit to the southern. Therefore his motion 
northwani has the same right of being described as as 
rapid as an oj-row. Herein, however, lies a hint of the 
theological opinion of the author regarding the north 
pole, for he thinks the north is the above and the south 
the beloio. Hence the stars glide down to the sonth 
like children on a see-saw plank. 

If, however, the author hereby means tke 3eco7id 
motion, whilst in reality it is the/trsi, we must state 
that the stars in the second motion do not revolve round 
Mem, and that the plane of this motion is inclined 
towards the horizon of Mem by one-twelftb of the circle. 

Farther, how far-fetched is this simile in which he 
connects the motion of the sun with a burning beam ! 
If we held the opinion that the sun moves as an un- 
interrupted round collar, his simile would be useful 
in so far as it refutes such an opinion. But as we 
consider the sun as a body, as it were, standing in 
heaven, bis simile is meaningless. And if he simply 
means to say tliat the sun describes a round circle, his 
comparing the sun to a buTning beam is qnite super- 
fluous, because a stone tied to the end of a cord describes 
a similar circle if it is made to revolve round the head 
(there being no necessity for describing it as buruing). 

That the sun rises over some people and sets over 
others, as he describes it, is true ; but here, too, he is 
not free from his theolt^cal opinions. This is shown 

ft tlia 
Author on 
tlio theory u| 





by his mention of the mountain Lok&loka and his re- 
mark that the rays of the sun fall on it, on its human 
or north side, not on its wild or south side. 

Further, the sun is not hidden daring the night on 
account of his great distance, but because he is covered 
by something — by the earth according to us, by Mount 
Meru according to the author of the Matsyo-PtirAiia. 
He imagines that the sun marches round Meru, whilst 
we are on one of its sides. In consequence we are in 
a varying distance from the sun’s path. That this is 
originally his opinion is condrmed by the later follow- 
ing remarks. That the sun is invisible daring the night 
has nothing whatever to do with his distance from us. 

The numbers which the author of the Malsya-Purdna 
mentions I hold to be corrupt, as they are not borne 
out by any calculation. He represents the path of the 
sun in the north as threefold that in the south, and 
makes this the cause of the difference of the length of 
the day. Whilst in reality the sum of day and night is 
always identical, and day and night in north and south 
stand in a constant relation to each other, it seems 
necessary that we should refer his remarks to a latitude 
where the summer-day is 45 ghafikd, the winter-day 
1 5 ghatikd long. 

Further, his remark that the sun hastens in the north 
(marches there more rapidly than in the south), re-, 
(juires to be proved. Tbe places of northern latitude 
have meridians not very distant from each other, be- 
cause of their being near to the pole, whilst the 
meridians become more distant from each other the 
nearer they ore to the equator. If, now, the sun hastens 
in traversing a smaller distance, he wants less time 
than for traversing tbe greater distance, more especially 
if on this greater distance bis march is slackening. 
In reality the opposite is the case. 

By his phrase when the mn revolves aiote Puskkarw- 
di 4 j)a (p. 284) is meant the line of the winter solstice. 



According to him, on this line the day must be longer 
than in any other place, whether it be the summer 
solstice or another. All this is nnintelligible. 

Similar notions are also found in the Vdyu-Piird)}a, QuntAiion 
viz. “ that the day in the south is twelve muh'di'la, iu riiyi. * 
tlie north eighteen, and that the sun between south and “ 
north has a declination of 17,221 yojuna in 183 days, i.e, 

94(iH*9) yojana for each day." 

0 u 6 mulif(Lrta is ecjual to four-fifths of an honr (^48 
minutes). The seutenco of the Vdyu-Pwdiia applies 
to a latitude where the longest day is 14! hours. p«goi4«- 

As regards the numbers of the yojanaii mentioned 
by the Vdyu-Purdna, the 'author means evidently the 
forlio of the double decimation of the sphere. Accord- 
ing to him, the declination is twenty-fonr degrees; 
therefore the yojanas of the whole sphere would be 
129,1571. And the days in which the sun traverses 
the double declination are half the solar year, no regard 
being had to the fractions of days, which are nearly 
five-eighths of a day. 

Further, the Vdyn-Pnrdna says “ that the sun in the 
north marches slowly during the day and rapidly dur- 
ing the night, and in the south versd. Therefore 
the day is long in the north, even as much as eighteen 
muhdrta.” This is merely the language of a person 
who has not the slightest knowledge of the eastern 
motion of the sun, and is not able to measure a day’s 
arc by observation. 

The Viah')}M-D)iarma says: “The orbit of the (ireat 
Bear lies under the pole ; under it the orbit of Saturn ; 
then that of Jupiter; next Mars, the Sun, Venus, 
Mercury, and the Moon. They rotate towards the 
east like a mill, in a uniform kind of motion which is 
peculiar to each star, some of them movuig rapidly, 
others slowly. Death and life repeat themselves on 
them from eternity thousands of times.” 

If you examine this statement according to scientific 



priuciples, you will find that it is confused. Conceding 
that the Great Bear is wider the pole and that the 
place of the pole is absolute height, the Great Bear 
lies below the zenith of the inhabitants of Meru. In 
this statement he is right, but he is mistaken with 
regard to the planets. For the word below is, accord- 
ing to him, to be understood so os to mean a greater or 
smaller distance from the. earth; and thus taken, his 
statement (regarding the distances of the planets from 
the earth) is not correct, unless we suppose that Saturn 
has, of all planets, the greatest declination from the 
equator, the next greatest Jupiter, then Mars, the Sun, 
Venus, &c., and that at the same time this amount of 
their declination is a constant one. This, however, 
does not correspond to reality. 

If we take the sum total of the whole statement of 
the VishnU'Dharma, the author is right in so far as the 
fixed stars are higher than the planets, but he is wrong 
in so far as the pole is not higher than the fixed stars. 

The mill-like rotation of the planets is the first 
motion towards the west, not the second motion indicated 
by the author. According to him, the planets are the 
spirits of individuals who have gained exaltation by 
their merits, and who have returned to it after the 
end of their life in a human shape. According to 
my opinion, the author uses a number in the words 
thowands of times (p. 287), either because he wanted 
to intimate that their existence is an existence in our 
meaning of the term, an evolution out of the 
into the vpofw (hence something finite, subject to 
numeration or determination by measure), or becanse 
lie meant to indicate that some of those spirits obtain 
mok^, others not. Hence their number is liable to 
a more or less, and everything of this description is of 
a finite nature. 

( 289 ) 



The extension of bodies in space is in three directions : 
length, hreadth, and depth or height. The path of any 
real direction, not an imaginary one, is limited ; there- 
fore the lines representing these three paths are limited, 
and their six end-pointa or limits are the directions. 
If you imagine an animal in the centre of these lines, 
i.e. where they cut each other, which turns its face 
towards one of them, the directions with relation to 
the animal are he/ore, behind, right, left, above, and 

If these directions are used in relation to the world, 
they acquire new names. As the rising and setting of 
the heavenly bodies depend upon the horizon and the 
first motion becomes apparent by the horizon, it is the 
most convenient to determine the directions by the 
horizon. The four directions, east, west, ‘north, south 
(corresponding to before, behind, left, and right), are 
generally known, but the directions which lie be- 
tween each two oE these are less known. These 
make eight du-ections, and, together with above and 
Islow, which do not need any further explanation, ten 

The Greeks determined the directions by the rising 
and setting places of the zodiacal signs, brought them 
into relation to the winds, and so obtained sixteen 

VOlf* la V 



Also the Arabs determined the directions by the 
blowing-points of the winds. Any wind blowing be- 
tween two cardinal winds they called in general Nakbd. 
Only in rare cases they are called by special names of 
their own. 

The Hindus, in giving names to the directions, have 
not taken any notice of the blowing of a wind; they 
simply call the four cardinal directions, as well as the 
secondary directions between them, by separate names. 
So they have eight directions in the horizontal plane, 
as exhibited by the following diagram : — 










the middle country. 










Besides there are two directions more for the two 
poles of the horizontal plane, the above and below, 
the former being called Upari, the second Adhas and 

These directions, and those in use among other 
nations, are based on general consent. Since the hori- 
zon is divided by innumerable circles, the directions 
also proceeding from its centre ai-e innumerable. The 



two ends of every possible diameter may be considered 
as be/oi‘e and behind, and therefore the two ends of the 
diameter cutting the former at right angles (and lying 
in the same plane) are riijhl and leji. 

The Hindus can never speak of anything, be it an 
object of the intellect or of imaginatioo, without repre* 
senting it as a personification, au individual. They at 
once marry him, make him celebrate marriage, make his 
wife become ])regnant aud give birth to something. Bo, 
too, in this case. The Vishnu-Dharma relates that 
Alri, the star who rules the stars of the Great Hear, 
married the directions, represented as one person, though 
they are eight in number, and that from her the moon 
was born. 

Another author relates : Dakska, *.e. Praj^pati, mar- 
ried Dharma, i.e. tiu reward, to ten of his daughters, i.e. 
the ten directions. From one of them he had many 
children. She was called Vasu, and her children the 
Vasus. One of them was the moon. 

No doubt our people, the Muslims, will laugh at such 
a birth of the moon. But I give them still more of this 
staff. Thus, «.y. they relate : The sun, the son of ICa4- 
yapa aud of Aditya, his wife, was horn in the sixth Man- 
vantara on the Innar station Vi^.'ikhi ; the moon, the son 
of Dharma, was horn on the station Krittikfi ; Mars, the 
eon of Prajapati, on Pfirvashadha ; Mercury, the son of 
the moon, on Dhanishtlia ; Jupiter, the son of Afigiras, Page ,,6. 
on Pilrvaphalguni j Venus, the daughter of Bhrigu, on 
Puabya ; Saturn on Revati ; the Bearer of the Tail, the 
son of Tama, the angel of death, on A^leaha, and the 
Head on Revatt. 

According to their custom, the Hindus attribute 
certain dominants to the eight directions in the 
horizontal plane, which we exhibit in the following 
table : — 


Tlieir Dominants. 

Tba DlroedouA, 

Their Doulnoute. 

Ths Dlrcotlons. 

Indra . , . 


Vanina . . 


The yire . , 


Vftyu . . . 


Yama . . . 


Kara . . . 


PrithD . . 




The Hindus construct a figare of these eight direc- 
tions, called lidJiucakm, i.e. the figore of the Head, by 
means of which they try to gain au omen or prophecy 
for hazard-playing. It is the following diagram : — 



The fignre is used in this way : First, yon most know 
the dominant of the day in question, and its place in 
the present figore. Next yon must know that one of 
the eight parts of the day in which yon happen to be. 
These eighths are counted on the lines, beginning with 



the dominant of Uie day, in uninterrupted succeBsion 
from east to south and west. Thus you find the domi- 
nant of the eighth in question. If, e.ff., you want to 
know the fifth eighth of Thursday whilst Jupiter is the 
d&minus diet la the south, and the line proceeding from 
the south terminates in noHh-west, we find that the 
dominant of the first eighth is Jupiter, that of -the 
secsond is Saturn, that of the third the sun, that of the 
fourth the moon, and that of the fifth Meroury in the 
north. In this way you go on counting the eighths 
through the day and the night tUl the end of the 
vvxOijfi^pov. When thus the direction of the eighth of 
the day in which you are has been found, it is considered raga 14;. 
by them as Eilhu ; and when sitting down to play, you 
must place yourself so tliat yon have this direction at 
your back. Then yon will win, according to their belief. 

It is no affair of the reader to despise a man who, on 
account of such an omen, in a variety of games stakes 
all his chances on one cast of the dice. Suffice it to 
leave to him the responsibility of his dice-playing. 

( 394 ) 

Tho Mohl 

ko4t oil tbo 



In the book of the Rishi Bhuvanako^awe read that the 
inhabitable world stretches from Himavant towards the 
soDth, and is called Bliarata-varsha, so called from a 
man, Bharata, who ruled over them and provided for 
them. The inhabitants of this oixoi'^cv^ are those to 
whom alone reward and punishment in another life 
are destined. It is divided into nine parts, called Nava- 
kka't^-praihama, i.e. the primary nine parts. Between 
each two parts there is a sea, which they traverse from 
one Mianda to the other. The breadth of the inhabit- 
able world from north to south is lOOO ijojatux.. 

By Himavant the author means the northern moun- 
tains, where the world, in consequence of the cold, 
ceases to be inhabitable. So all civilisation must of 
necessity be south of these mountains. 

His words, that the inhabitants are subject to reward 
and pv,nvi}mmt, indicate that there are other people 
not subject to it, These beings he must either raise 
from the degree of man to that of angels, who, in con> 
sequence of the simplicity of the elements they are 
composed of and of the purity of their nature, never 
disobey a divine order, being always willing to worship ; 
or he mast degrade them to the degree of irrational 
animals. According to him, therefore, there are no 
hnman beings outside tbe aiKov/Mvt] {i.e. Bharaior 


2 % 

Bliaratavarslia is not luclia alone, as llimlus think, 
according to whom their country is the world, and their 
race the only race of mankind ; for India is not 
traversed by an ocean separating one khui,nla from the 
Other. Further, they do not identify these with 

the dotpas, for the anthor says that on those seas 
people pass from one shore to the other. Further, 
it follows from his statement that all the inhabitants 
of tho earth and the Hindus are subjeot to reward 
and punishment, that they are one great religious 

The nine parts are called Prathama, i.e. primary 
because they also divide India alone into nine parts. 

So the division of the oiKovptvij is a primary one, bnt 
the division of Bharatavarsha a secondary one. Be- 
sides, there is still a third division into nine parts, as 
their astrologers divide each country into nine parts 
when they try to find the lucky and unlucky places 
in it. 

We find a similar tradition in the Vdyv-Pnrdna, viz. QuntoHoii 
that “the centi-e of Jambu-dvlpa is called Bharata- eur2?o, 
varsha, which means those who acquire sninething and 
nourish ihcmselccs. With them there are the four yuya. 

They are subject to reward and punishment; and 
Himavant lies to the north of the country. It is 
divided into nine parts, and between them there are 
navigable seas. Its length is 9000 yojana, its bre.adth 
1000; and because the country is also called Sam- 
n&ra (?), each ruler who rules it is called Samuara (?). 

The shape of its nine parts is ns follows,” 

Then the author begins to describe the mountains in 
the khapda between the east and north, and the rivers 
which rise there, hut he does not go beyond this de* 
Bcription. Thereby be gives us to understand tliat, 
according to his opinion, this khandn is the o(kov/xc>^;. iMge^t. 
But he contradicts himself in another place, where he 

On tha 


Bays that Jatnhu-dvipa is the centre among the Nava- 
khaif.^-pralhama, and the others lie towards the eight 
directions. There are angels on them, men, animals, 
and planta By these words he seems to mean the 

If the breadth of the olKoviiimj is looo y<\jana, its 
length must be nearly 2800. 

Further, the Vdyu-Purd\ia mentions the cities and 
countries which lie in each direction. We shall exhibit 
them in tables, together with similar information from 
other sources, for this method renders the study of the 
snbj'ect easier than any other. 

Here follows a diagram representing the division of 
Bharatavarsha into nine parts. 







Indradvtpa or 
Uadb;ad&a, i.t, 
tbe middle couutry. 






We have already heretofore mentioned tlmt tliat part 
of the earth in which the etKovnivi} lies resembles a 
tortoise, iKoanae its borders are round, because it rises 
above the water and is surrounded by the water, and 
because it has a globular convexity on its surface. 
However, there is a possibility that the origin of the 
name is this, that their astronomers and astrologers 
divide the directions according to the lunar stations. 



Therefore the country, too, is divided according to the 
lunar etations, and the figure which represents this 
division is similar to a toi’toise. Therefore it is called 
Kilrtna-cakra, i.e. the tortoise-cu-ole or the tortoise- 
shape. I’he following diagram is from the SaiiMld of 


















Varlhamihira calls each of the Nava-khn-xula a varfin.. 
He Bays: “By them (the varga^) Bharatavarsho, i.e. 
half of the world, is divided into nine parts, the cen- 
tral one, the eastern, &c.” Then he passes to the sonth, 
and thas round the whole horizon. That he under- 
stands hy Bharatavarsha India alone is indicated by 
his saying that each varga has a region, the king of 

Tuge > 40 . 


.it ShAmta* 


nocard Ins tn 



On tho 
cbftn^ of 
oil nunes. 


which is killed when some mishap befalls it. So 

To the ist or central varga, Ibe region P/UcSla. 


sd varga, 

. . .Magadba. 


3d varga, 

. . „ KaliAga. 


4tli varga. 

. . „ Avauli, t.e, U]ain. 


5II1 varga. 

■ • ,, Ananta. 


6tb varga, 

. . „ Blndbu and Saavlra 



. . KAralmura. 

8th varga. 

. , „ Madura. 


91b vaiga, 

. . „ Kbljnda. 

All these countries are parts of India proper. 

Most of the names of conntries under which they 
appear in this context are not those by which they are 
now generally known. Utpala, a native of Kashmir, 
says in his commentary on the book SaiiikUd regarding 
this sabject: “The names of conntries change, and 
particularly in the yugas. 5o MUlt&a was originally 
called Kl^yapapura, then Haihsapura, then Bagapura, 
then S^mbhapura, and then MdlasthAna, i.e. live oi-igi~ 
ned place, for nvAla means root, origin, and tdna means 

A yuga is a long space of time, but names change 
rapidly, when, for instance, a foreign nation with a 
different language occupies a country. Their tongues 
frequently mangle the words, and thus transfer them into 
their own langut^e, as is, e.g. the custom of the Greeks. 
Either they keep the original meaning of the names, and 
try a sort of translation, but then they undergo certain 
changes. So the city of ShUsh, which has its name from 
the Turkish language, where it is called TUsh-kand, i.e. 
slonc-ct^, is called atoru^tower in the book yeioypa<fiia. 
In this way new names spring up as translations of 
older ones. Or, secondly, the barbarians adopt and 
keep the local names, hut with such sounds and in such 
forma as are adapted to their tongnes, as the Arabs do 
in Arabising foreign names, which become disfigured in 



their mouth : c.j. Bilshang they call in their books 
t'tiaanj, and Sakilka7id they call in their revenue-books 
Fdr/aza (sic). However, what is more curious and 
strange is this, that sometimes one and the same lan- 
guage changes in the nioiit'i of the same people who 
speak it, in consecjnence of which strange and uncouth 
forms of words spring up, not intelligible save to him 
who discards every role of the language. And such 
changes are brought about iu a few yeara, without there 
being any stringent cause or necessity for it. Of course, 
in all of this the Hindns are actuated by the desire to 
have as many names as possible, and to practise on them 
the rules and arts of their etymology, and they glory in 
the enormous copiousnesB of their language which they 
obtain by sncb means. 

The following names of countries, which we have 
taken from the Vdyu-Purdna, are arranged according to 
the four directions, whilst the names taken from the 
SamhilA are arranged according to the eight directions. 
All these names are of that kind which we have here 
described (i.e. they are not the names now in general 
use). We exhibit them in the following tables : — 

The single coimtries of the middle realm, according to 
the V<iyU‘Purdi),a. 

Kurn, Paficala, Sklva, Jaiigala, Sdrasena, Bhadra- 
k&ra(l), Bodha, Pathe^vara, Vatsa, Kisadya, Kulya, 
Enntala, KM, Ko^ala, Arthaya8hava(?), Puhliiiga (!), 
Maehaka (I), Vrika. 

The people in the east 

Andlira, Vilka, Mudrnkaraka (?), PrfLtragira (?), Vahir- 
gira, Prathanga (?), Vaiigeya, Millava (I), Malavartiko, 
PrugjyotUha, Muijila, Abika (?), Trunraliptika, Mfila, 
Hagadba, Govinda (Gonauda ?). 

The people in the south : — 

P4ridyft. Kerala, Caulya, Kulya, Setiika, Mftshika, 
Ramana (?), Vanavksika, Mahlrashlra, Mtllusha, Ka- 

Paga ISO. 

Faga 151, 

Page isa. 



liftga, Abhira, tsbtka, Atavja, ^vara (?), Putiudra, 
Vindhyamuli, Vaidarbha, Dan^aka, Mfilika (!), Asmaka, 
Naitilu(I), Bhogavardhana, Ktintala, Andhra, Udbhira, 
Nalaka, Alika, D^kahin^tya, Vaide^a, Sl^i'piik&raka, 
Kolavana, Durga, Tillita (?), Puleya, Kifi,la(!), Riipaka. 
T&masa, Tarflpana (?), Karaekara, NtUikya, Uttaranar* 
moda, Bb&nnkaeehra (?), Maheya, Silraswata (?), Kac- 
eblya, SniAsbtra, Anartta, Hudvuda (?). 

The people in the west : — 

Malada (?), ICardsba, Mekala, TJtkaia, Uttamania, 
BaS^rna(?}, Bhoja, Kishkioda, Kosala, Traipnra, Vaidika, 
llisi-pura (?), Tumbura, Shattnmaua (?), Padha, Kar- 
napravarana (I), Hflna, Darva, Eiibaka {!), Trigartta, 
M^lava, Kirata, Tslmara. 

The people in the north : — 

V&hlika (!), V 4 dha, VHna (?), Abhlra, Kalatoyaka, 
Apardnta (?), Pahlava, Carmakhandika, G&ndh&ra, Ya- 
vana, Sindhn, Sanvlra, i.e. Multin and JahrawSr, 
Madhra (?), l^ka, Drih&la (?), Litta (Kulinda), Malla(?), 
Kodara (?), Atreya, Bharadva, Jifigala, Daseruka (!), 
Lamp&ka, Tillakilna (?), SHlika, J^ara.' 

Tlie name.'! of llu countries for llu tortoise-figure, as 
taken from the Sathliild of Vardhamihvra. 

I. The names o£ the conntries in the centre of the 
realm : — 

Bhadra, Ari, Meda, Mftndavya, Silvanl, Pojjihftna, 
Maru, Vatsa, Gliosha, the valley of the YamunA, S&ras- 
vota, Matsya, Mftthura, Kopa, Jyotisbo, Dharm&rariya, 
^(Irasena, Ganragrtva, Uddehika near BazAoa, Pili^^u, 
GiKla^TiliiAsbar, A^vattha, PoflcAla, S&keta, Kai^ka, 
Kiirn»TllDAsbar, KAlkoti, Kukiira, Pariyatra, Andum- 
bara, Kapiahthala, Gaja. 

U. The names of the countries in the east > 

Anjana, Vrishabadhvaja, Padma-Tulya (-sic), Vyft- 
ghramnkha, i.e, people with tiger-faoea, Suhma, Kar- 
va^, Candrapura, ^^rpakarna, i.e. people with ears like 



sieves, Kliasha, Magadlia, MouDt Sibira, Mithil&, Sama- 
ta^a, Odra, A^vavadana, i.e. people with horse-faces, 
Dantura, i.e. people with long teeth, Pritgiyotisha, 
Lohitya, Krlra-samndra (siie), f.£i, the milk-sea, Purn- 
shlda, Udnyagiri, ie. the moimtain of sunrise, Bhadra, 
Gaiiraka, Paun(,lra, Utkala, KH^i, Mekala, Ambashlha, 
Ekapada, i.e. the one-footed people, T&maliptiM, Kau- 
salnka, Vardbainflna. 

III. The names of the countries of the south-east 

Kosala, Kalh'iga, Vafiga, Upavahga, Jatbara, Afiga, 
Saulika, Vidarblia, Vataa, Andhra, Colika (?), tJrdhva- 
karna, i.e. people whose ears are directed upwards, 
Vrisha, Nulikera, Carmadvipa, the mountain Vindhya, 
Tripuri, Smalrudhara, Hemakhtya, VyUlagriva, i.e. 
peoplu whose bosoms are snakes, Mahagriva, i.e. people 
who have wide bosoms, Kishkindha, the country of the 
monkeys, Kandakastliala, Nishada, Kashtra, Dasfiriia, 
Pnrika, Nagnapariia, Savara. 

IV. The names of the countries in the south ; — 

Lahkii, i.e. the cupola of the eartli, K^lajina, Sairl- 

Idrna (?), Talikata, Girnagara, Malaya, Dardura, Ma- 
hendra, Maliodya, Bharukaccha, Kankata, Tafikana, 
Vanavilsi on the coast, i^ibika, Phanikira, Kolikana 
near llie sea, Abhira, Akara, Veiia a river, Avanti, i.e. 
the cily of Ujain, Da^apura, Gonarda, Keralaka, Karnata, 
Mahiltavi. Citrakdta, Nlsikya, Kollagiri, Cola, Kraufi- 
cadvlpa, Jat^dbara, Kauverya, Rishyamhka, Vaidfirya, 
^hklia, Mukta, Atri, Vilricara, Jarmapaffana (sic), 
Dvtpa, Oanar^jya, KrishnavaidClrya, Sibika, Silry&dri, 
Kulumanaga, Tumbavana, Ormapeyaka, Ydmyodadbi, 
Tilpa8&irama,IUshika, K^flci, Maruc!pat(ana, Dtvjlr4a (!), 
Siitihola, Rishabha, Baladevapa^tana, Dai;idaki1.vapa, 
Timitgil&iana {?), Bhadra, Kaccha, KiiAjaradart, Tamra- 

V. The names of the countries in the south-west 
(Nairrita ) : — 

P»ge 154. 

Page <;s. 


Eftmboja, Sindhu, Sauvira, i.e. Multan and Jahr^v&r, 
VadaT&mukba, Arav&mbashtba, Kapila, Pilra^ava, i.e. 
the PersiaoB, Shdra, Barbara, Kirata, Khaiuia, Krarja, 
Abhtra, Cahc&ka, Hemagiri, Sindhu, Kalaka, Raivataka, 
Suntshtra, BMara, Dramiila, Mahanjava, Nilrimukba, 
t.«. men with women's faces, t.e. the Turks, Anaiiia, 
Pheijiagiri, YaTana, i.e. the Greeks, Maraka, Kaii^april* 

VI. The names of the countries in the west ; — 

Mapim^n, Meghav&n, Vanaugha, Astaglri, i.e. the 

country of sunset, Apar&ntaka, S&ntika, Haihaya, Pra- 
^astfidri, Yokk^na, Pahcanada, i.e. the union of the five 
rivers, Matliara, Purata, Tirakruti (?), Jringa, VaUya, 
Kanaka, Saka, Mleccha, i.e. the Arabs. 

VII. The names of the countries in the north-west 
( Vdyava ) : — 

MA^ndavya, TukhSra, Tdlahala, Madra, Asmaka, Kulfi- 
Piige IS6. talahada, Strlritjya, i.e. women amongst whom no man 
dwells longer than half a year, Krisiihharana, i.e. people 
with lion-faces, Khastha, i.e. people who are bom from 
the trees, hanging on them by the navel-strings, Yenu- 
mat! (?), i.e. Tirmidli, Phalgulu, Guruha, Marukucca, 
Carmarafiga, i.e. people with coloured skins, Ekavilo- 
cana, i.e. the one-dyed men, Shlika, Dirghagriva, i.e. 
people with long bosoms, which means with long necks, 
Dlrghaniukha, i.e. people with long faces, Dlrghake^a, 
t.e. people with long hair. 

Vill. The names of the countries in the north : — 

KailAsa, Himavant, Vasnmant, Giri, Dhanushman (I), 
t.e. the people with bows, KraiiAoa, Mem, Knrava, 
Uttaraknrava, Kshudramlna, Kaikaya, VasAti, TAmuna, 
i.e. a kind of Greeks, Bhogaprastba, Arjunilyana, Ag- 
nltya, Adaria, Antardvlpa, Trigarta, Turagunana, i.e. 
people with horse-faces, Svamukha, i.e. people with 
dog-faces, Ke^adhara, CapitanAsika, i.e. flat-noses, 1)A- 
sera, KavAtadhAna, ^aradhAna, Taksha^ila, i.e. MArikala, 
PushkalAvati, i.e. Pilkala, KailAvata, KantbadhAna, 



Ambara, Madralca, Malava, Paiirava, Kacchfira, Danda, 
Pirtgalaka, Mdnaliala, Hilna, Kohala, Sataka, Mai.ulavya, 
Bhfltapura, Oaiidliara, Yai5ovati, Hematala, Kiljanya, 

Kliajara, Yaudheya, Uilsameya, Syam&ka, Kaheina- 
dhftrta ( !). 

IX. The names of the countries in the north-east 
(Aiidna ) : — 

Meru, Kanasli^hnriijya, Faiupilla, Ktra, KaJtnira, Pikjo i};. 
Abhi, SAruda, Tai'igai.ia, Kulitta, Saivindha, ilushtra, 
Brahmapiira, Diirva, Dfiiuara, VauariLjya, Kirita, Oina, 
Kauninda, Rhalla, Palola, Jatasura, Kuciatha, Khasha, 

Ghosha, Kncika, Ekacarana, i.e. the one-footed people, 
Anuvilva, Suvarnabhunii, i.e. the gold land, Arvasu- 
dhana (5t(;),Nandavishtha, Paiirava, Ciranivasana, Trine- 
tra, i.e. people with three eyes, Pufijidri, Gandharra. 

Hindu astronomers determine the longitude of the Onnomiika, 
inhabitable world by Lafiktt, which lies in its centre on and siddb'a- 
the equator, whilst Yamakoti lies on its east, Roniaka 
on its west, and SidJhapura on that part of the equator 
which is diametrically opposed to Laiika. Their remarks 
on the rising and setting of the heavenly bodies show 
that Yamakoti and Rhra are distant from each other 
by half a circle. It seems that they assign the countries 
of the West (i.e. North Africa) to Rflin or the Roman 
Empire, because the Rftm or Byzantine Greeks occupy 
the opposite shores of the same sea (the Mediterranean); 
for the Roman Empire has much northern latitude and 
penetrates high into the north. No part of it stretches 
far southward, and, of course, nowhere does it reach 
the equator, as the Hindus say with regard to Romaka. 

We shall here speak no more of Lahk^ (as we are 
going to treat of it in a separate chapter). Yamakofi 
is, according to Ya'kftb and Alfaz^rl, the country where 
is the city Tdra within a sea. I have not found the 
slightest trace of this name in Indian literature. As 
kofi means castle and Yama is the angel of death, the 



Tho meri- 
dian of 
UJaln the 
first mori- 

Psigo Ts8* 

Other flnt 

used by 

Westarn aB< 

word reminds me of Kan^iz, which, according to the 
Persians, had been built by Kalkii’fts or Jam in the 
most remote east, behind the sea. Kaikhusran tro- 
versed the sea to Kaugdiz when following the traces of 
Afrftsiftb the Turk, and there he went at the time of 
his anchorite life and expatiiation. For di» means in 
Persian castle, as ho(i in the Indian language. Abfl- 
Ma'shar of Balkh has based his geographical canon on 
Xangdiz as the o'’ of longitude oi' first meridian. 

How the Hindus came to suppose the enstence of 
Siddhapura I do not know, for they believe, like our- 
selves, that behind the inhabited half-circle there is 
nothing but uimavigablo seas. 

In what way the Hindus determine the latitude of 
a place has not come to our knowledge. That the 
longitude of the inhabitable world is a half-circle is a 
far-spread theory among their astronomers ; they differ 
(from Western astronomers) only as to the point which 
is to be its beginning. If we explain the theoiy of the 
Hindus as far as we understand it, their beginning of 
longitude is Ujain, which they consider as the eastern 
limit of one quarter (of the oiKovfievij), whilst the limit 
of the second quarter lies in the west at some distance 
from the end of civilisation, as we shall hereafter ex- 
plain in the chapter about the difference of the longi- 
tudes of two places. 

The theory of the Western astronomers on this point 
is a double one. Some adopt as the beginning of longi- 
tude the shore of the (Atlantic) ocean, and they ex- 
tend the first quarter thence as far as the environs of 
Balkh. Now, according to this theory, things have been 
united which have no connection with each other. So 
ShupfLr^&n and Ujain are placed on the same meridian. 
A theory which so little corresponds to reality is quite 
valueless. Others adopt the Islands of the Happy Ones 
as the beginning of longitude, and the quarter of the 
o'lKovfiw) they extend thence as far as the neighbour- 



hood of Jurjaa and NiBh^p{lr. Both these theories are 
totally different from that of the Hindus. This subject, 
however, shall be more accurately investigated in a sub- 
sequent chapter (p. 311). 

K I, by the grace of God, shall live long enough, I 
shall devote a speoial treatise to the longitude of Nishd- 
phr, where this sabjeot shall be thoroughly inquired 

VOL. I. 


( 3 o 6 > 

On the 
meaning ' 
the teim 
cupola <tl' 

The 1(017 


ON lankA, or the cupola of the earth. 

The midst of the inhabitable world, of its lon^tadiiial 
extension from east to west on the equator, is by the 
'astronomers (of the Muslims) called the cupola of the 
earth, and the great circle which passes through the 
pole and this point of the eqnator is called the meridian 
oftkecupda. We must, however, observe that whatever 
may be the natural form of the earth, there is no place 
on it which to the exclusion of others deserves the 
name of a cupola ; that this term is only a metaphorical 
one to denote a point from which the two ends of the 
inhabitable world in east and west are equidistant, 
comparable to the top of a cupola or a tent, as all 
things hanging down from this top (tent-ropes or walls) 
have the same length, and their lower ends the same 
distances therefrom. But the Hindns never call this 
point by a term that in onr language must be inter- 
preted by cupola ; they only say that Laiki is between 
the two ends of the inhabitable world and without 
of latitude, 'fhere Mvaua, the demon, fortified him- 
self when he had carried off the wife of Kilma, the 
son of Dalaratha. His labyrinthine fortress is colled 
(?), whilst in onr (Muslim) countries it is 
called Ydvana-ko(i, which has frequently been explaiued 
as Borne. 


The followiDg la the plan of the labyrinthine fort- 
ress : — 

B&ma attacked Ravana after having crossed the 
ocean on a dyke of the length of lOO yyana, which he 
had constrocted from a mountain in a place called 
SetuhandJia, i.e. bridge of the ocean, east of Ceylon. He 
fonght with him and killed him, and Rama's brother 
killed the brother of R.^Tana, as is described in the 
Btory of Rfliua and Rdmdyana. Thereupon he broke 
the dyke in ten different places by arrow-shots. 

According to the Hindus, LaAk^ is the castle of the onth» 

1 « 1 « . l»Und tff 

demons. It is 30 yojana above the earth, ^.e. 80 /dr- uaks. 
sakh. Its length from east to west is lOO yojana; its 
breadth from north to south is the same as the height 
(i.0. thirty). 

It is on account of Lafikfi and the island of Vadavil- 
Dtnkha that the Hindus consider the south as foreboding 
evil. In no work of piety do they direct themselves 

Tba dnt 


Tha altuft- 
tloii oC 


Tho Aiitlior'B 



ii'id Idtiiiri- 



southward or walk southward. The south occurs only 
in connection with impious actions. 

The line on which the astronomical calculations are 
based (as o* of longitude), which passes in a straight 
line from Lahk^ to Meru, passes — 

(l.) Through the city of Ujain (Ujjayint) in MAlava 

(2.) llirongh the neighbourhood of the fortress Bohi- 
taka in the district of MnltAn, which is now deserted. 

(3.) Through Kurukshetra, i.e. the plain of TAneshar 
(SthAnedvara), in the centre of their country. 

(4.) Through the river TamunA, on which the city of 
MathiirA is situated. 

(5.) Through the mountains of the Himavant, which 
are covered with everlasting snow, and where the 
rivers of their country rise. Behind them lies Mount 

The city of Ujain, which in the tables of the lon^- 
tndes of places is mentioned as Uzain, and as situated 
on the sea, is in reality lOO yojana distant from the sea. 
Some undiscriminating Muslim astronomer has uttered 
the opinion that Ujain lies on the meridian of Al- 
shabfirkAn in Al-jftzajAn; but such is not the case, for 
it lies by many degrees of the equator more to the east 
than Al-shabArkAn. There is some confusion about the 
longitude of Ujain, particularly among such (Muslim) 
astronomers as mix up with each other the different 
opinions about the first degree of longitude both in east 
and west, and are unable to distinguish them properly. 

No sailor who has traversed the ocean round the 
place which is ascribed to LafikA, and has travelled in 
that direction, has ever given such an account of it as 
tallies with the traditions of the Hindus or reaemhles 
them. In fact, there is no tradition which makes the 
thing appear to us more possible (than it is according 
to the reports of the Hindus). The name LaiikA, how- 
ever, makes me think of something entirely different, 


viz. that the clove is' called laxang, because it is im- 
ported from a country called Langa. According to the 
uniform report of all sailors, the ships which are sent 
to this country land their cargo in boats, viz. ancient 
Western denars aud various kinds of merchandise, 
striped Indian cloth, salt, and other usual articles of 
trade. These wares are deposited on the sliore on 
leather sheets, each of which is marked with tibe name 
of its owner. Thereupon the merchants retire to their 
ships. On the following day they find the sheets 
covered with cloves by way of payment, little or much, 
as the natives happen to own. 

The people with whom this trade is carried on are 
demons according to some, savage men according to 

The Hindus who are the neighbours of those regions 
(of LankA) believe that the small-pox is a wind blowing 
from the island of Lahk& towards the continent to can y 
off souls. According to one report, some men warn 
people beforehand of the blowing of this wind, and can 
exactly tell at what times it will reach the different 
parts of the country. After the sniall-pox has bi^oken 
out, they recognise from certain signs whether it is 
virulent or not. Against the virulent sraall-pox they 
use a method of tre,atment by which they destroy only 
one single limb of the body, hut do not kill. They 
use as medicine cloves, which they give to the patient 
to drink, together with gold-dust ; and, besides, the 
males tie the cloves, which are similar to date-kernels, 
to their necks. If these precautions are taken, ]ier- 
haps nine people out of ten will be proof against this 

All this miikes me think that the Lafiki^ which the 
Hindus mention is identical with the clove-country 
Langa, though their descriptions do not tally. How- 
ever, there is nocommunication kept up with the latter, 
for people say that when perchance a merchant is left 

A certfviii 
wind fis t>h« 
catme of 




behind on this i^uid, there is no more trace found of 
him. And this mj conjecture is strengthened by the 
fact that, according to the bookof R&ma and BAm&yana, 
behind the well-known country of Sindh there are 
oannibals. And, on the other hand, it is well known 
among all seamen that cannibalism is the cause of the 
savagery and bestiality of the inhabitants of the island 
of LangabilKis. 

( 3II ) 



He who aims at accuracy in this subject must try to 
determine the distance between the spheres of themeri- 
diaiis of the two places in question. Muslim astrono- 
mers reckon by equatorial time» corresponding to the 
distance between the two meridians, and begin to count 
from one (the western one) of the two places. The 
sum of equatorial minutes which they find is called 
the difference between the two longihtdee; for they con- 
sider as the longitude of each place the distance of its 
meridian from the great circle passing through the pole 
of the equator, which has been chosen as the limit of 
the oIkov/uio), and for this first meridian they have 
chosen the western (not the eastern) limit of the oIkov- 
It is all the same whether these equatorial times, 
whatsoever their number for each meridian may be, are 
reckoned as 360th parts of a circle, or as its 60th parts, 
so as to correspond to the day-miinutes, or as farsakh 
or yojan.a. 

The Hindus employ in this subject methods which 
do not rest on the same principle as ours. They are 
totally different ; and howsoever different they are, it is 
perfectly clear that none of them hits the right mark. 
As we (Muslims) note for each place its longitude, the 
Hindus note the number of yojanas of its distance from 
the meridian of TJjain. And the more to the west the 
poation of a place is, the greater is the number of 

On the 
Difltbod of 



On the clr* 
o< Ibe earth. 

Page i6i. 
from the 

And the 

yojanas ; the more to tbe east it is, the smaller is this 
number. They call itdeidnlara, i.e. thedifferince between 
the places. Further, they multij)ly the dei&ntara by 
the mean daily motion o£ the planet (the sun), and 
divide the product by 4800. Tlien the quotient repre- 
sents that amount of the motion of the star which 
corresponds to the number of yojana in question, t.c. 
that wliioh must be added to the mean place of tbe sun, 
as it has been found for moon or midnight of TJjain, if 
you want to find the longitude of the place in question. 

The number which they use as divisor (4800) is the 
number of thi ijojanas ol the circumference of tbe earth, 
for the difference between the spheres of the meridians 
of the two places stands in the same relation to the 
whole circumference of the earth as the mean motion 
of the planet (sun) from one place to the other to its 
whole daily rotation round the earth. 

If the circumference of the earth is 4800 y<yanas, the 
diameter is nearly 1527 ; but Pulisa reckons it as 1600, 
Brahmagupta as 1581 yojanas, each of which is equal 
to eight miles. The same value is given in the astro- 
nomical handbook Al-arkand as 1050. This number, 
however, is, according to Ibn Tarik, the radius, whilst 
the diameter is 2100 yojanas, each yojana being reck- 
oned as equal to four miles, and tbe circumference is 
stated as 6596^^ yojanas. 

Brahmagupta uses 4800 as the number of yojn.nns 
of the earth’s circumference in his canon Klmmlo’ 
hkddyaka, but in the amended edition be uses, instead 
of this, corrected circumference, (freeing with Pulisa. 
Tbe correction he propounds is this, that be multiplies 
the yojanas of the earth’s circumference by the sines of 
the complement of the latitude of the place, and divides 
the product by the sinus lotus ; then the quotient is 
the co 7 ' 7 rcted circumference of the earth, or the number 
of yojanas of the parallel circle of the place in question. 
Sometimes this number is called the collar of the meri- 



dian. Hereby people are frequently misled to think 
that the 4800 yojanas are the corrected circumference 
for the city of Ujain. If we calculate it (according to 
Brahmagupta’s correction), we find the latitude of Ujain 
to be 16J degrees, whilst in reality it is 24 degrees. 

The author of the canon Kcvrava-tilal'a makes this 
correction in the following way. He multiplies the 
diameter of the earth by 12 and divides the product 
by the ec|uinootia] shadow of the place. The gnomon 
stands in tho same relation to this shadow as the radius 
of the parallel circle of the place to the sine of the lati- 
tude of the place, not to the sinus totus. Evidently, the 
author of this method thinks that we have here the 
same kind of equation as that which the Hindus call 
vijastatrair&^il.a, i.e. thc^lacesmih the retrograde motion. 
Ad example of it is the following. 

If the price of a harlot of 1 5 years be, e.g. 10 denars, 
how much will it be when she is 40 years old ? 

The method is this, that you multiply the first number 
by the second {15 X 10 = 150), and divide the pro- 
duct by the third number (150 : 40 = 3|). Then the 
quotient or fourth number is her price when she has 
become old, viz. denars. 

Now the author of the Karana-tilaka, after having 
found that the straight shadow increases with the lati- 
tude, whilst the diameter of the circle decreases, thought, 
according to the analogy of the just mentioned calcnla- 
tion, that between this increase and decrease there is a 
certain ratio. Therefore lie maintains that the diameter 
of the circle decreases, i.c. becomes gradually STiialler 
than the diameter of tho eartii, at the same rate as the 
straight shadow increases. Thereupon he calculates the 
oorreoted circumference from the corrected diameter. 

After having thus found the longitudinal dilTerenoe 
between two places, he obseiwes a lunar eclipse, and 
fixes in day-minutes Ihe difference between the time of 
its appearance in the two places. Pnlisa multiplies 







According to 


rage Ida. 

these daj'ininntes by the circnmference of the earth, 
and divides the. product by 6o, viz. the minutes (or 
6oth parte) of the daily revolution. The quotient, 
then, is the number of the yojanaa of the distance 
between the two places. 

This calculation is correct. The result refers to the 
great ciixle on which Lahkit lies. 

Brahmagupta calculates in the same manner, save 
that he maltiplies by 48CX). The other details have 
already been mentioned. 

As far as this, one clearly recognises what the Hindu 
.astronomers aim at, be their method correct or faulty. 
However, we cannot say the same of their calculation of 
the de^dntara from the latitudes of two different places, 
which is reported by Alfazari in his canon in the fol- 
lowing manner : — 

“ Add together the squares of the sines of the lati- 
tudes of the two places, and take the root of the sum. 
This root is the poriio. 

“ Farther, square the difference of these two sines 
and add it to the poriio. Multiply the sum by 8 and 
divide the product by 377. The quotient, then, is the 
distance between the two places, that is to say, according 
to a rough calculation. 

“ Further, multiply the difference between the two 
latitudes by the yojanas of the circumference of the 
earth and divide the product by 360.” 

Evidently this latter calculation is nothing but the 
transferring of the difference between the two latitudes 
from the measure of degrees and minutes to the mea- 
sure of yojanas. Then he proceeds : — 

“ Now the square of the quotient is subtracted from 
the square of the roughly calculated distance, and of 
the remainder yon take the root, which represents the 
straight yojanas." 

Evidently the latter number represents the distance 
between the spheres of the meridians of the two places 



on the circle of latitade, whilst the roughly calculated 
inimber is the distance between the two places in 

This method of calculation is found in the astrono- 
mical handbooks of the Hindus in conformity with the 
account of Alfazilrt, save in one particular. The here- 
mentioned is the root of the difference between 
the squares of the sines of the two latitudes, not the 
sum of the squares of the sines of the two latitudes, 

But whatever this method may be, it does not hit the 
right mark. We have fully explained it in several of 
onr publications specially devoted to this sabject, and 
there we have shown that it is impossible to determine 
the distance between two places and the difference of 
longitude between them by means of their latitudes 
alone, and that only in case one of these two things is 
known (the distance between two places or the differ- 
ence between the longitudes of them), by this and 
by means of the two latitudes, the third value can be 

Based on the same principle, the following calcula- 
tion has been found, there being no indication by whom 
it was invented : — 

“ Multiply the yojanas of the distance between two 
places by 9, and divide the product by {lacuna)-, the 
root of the difference between its square and the square 
of the difference of the two latitudes. Ilivide this 
number by 6. Then you get as quotient the number 
of doy-minutes of the difference of the two longi- 

It is clear that the author of this calculation first 
takes the distance (between the two places), then he 
reduces it to the measure of the circumference of the 
circle. However, if we invert the calculation and re- 
duce the parts (or degrees) of the great circle to yojanas 
according to hia method, we get the number 3200, i.e. 
100 yojanas less than we have given on the authority of 

The nuthur 
thin iDCthed. 

of the 

3 i6 


K (jridolim 
nf At/*- 
bhi^ oi 
punt on tho 
murl^tau of 

On tiifl Inti* 
tude of 

Al-arkand (v. p. 312). The double uf it, 6400, comes 
near the number mentioned by Ibu T&rik {i.e. 6596^, 
V. p. 312), being only about 200 yojanas smaller. 

We shall now give the latitudes of some places, as we 
hold them to be correct. 

All canons of the Hindus agree in this that the line 
connecting Lafikft with Mei'ii divides the oIkov/xcvij 
lengthways in two halves, and that it passes through 
the city of Ujain, the fortress of Kohitaka, the river 
Yaraunfi., the plain of T&neshar, and the Cold Moun- 
tains. The longitudes of the places are measured by 
their distance from this line. On this head I know of 
no difference between them except the following pas- 
sage in the book of Aryabhata of Kusumapura : — 

“ People say that Kurukshetra, i.e. the ])lain of 
Titneshar, Lies on the line which connects Lanka with 
Mem and passes through Ujain. So they report on 
the authority of PuUea. But he was much too intelli- 
gent not to have known the subject better. The times 
of the eclipses prove that statement to be erroneous, 
and PritbuBvamin maintains that the difference be- 
tween the longitudes of Knrukshetra and Ujain is 120 

These are the words of Aryabhata. 

Ya'kftb Ibn 'Tarik says in his book entitled The Com- 
position of the Spheres, that the latitude of Ujain is 4^ 
degrees, but he does not say whether it lies in the north 
or the south. Besides, he states it, on the authority of 
the book Al-Arhand, to be 4f degrees. We, however, 
have found a totally different latitude of Ujain in 
the same book in a calculation relating to tbe distance 
between Ujain and Almansdra, which the author calls 
Brahmapavftta, i.e. Bambanwil, viz. latitude of Ujain, 
22° 29' ; latitude of Almansdra, 24° 

According to tbe same book, the straight shadow in 
Lohaniyye, i.e. LoharSnl, is 5-J digits. 



On the other hand, however, all the canons of the 
Hindus agree in this, that the latitude of Ujain is 24 
degrees, and that the sun culminates over it at the time 
of the summer solstice. 

Balabhadra, the commentator, gives as the latitude 
of Kanoj 26° 3S'; as that of Tuneshar, 30® 12'. Pag«i6j. 

The learned Ahd-Ahmad, the son of Oatlaghtogin, 
calculated the latitude of tlie city of Karll (!’), and 
found it to be 28''’ o', that of Tilneshar 27', and both 
places to be distant from each other by three days’ 
marches. What the cause of this difference is I do 
not know. 

According to the book Karanasdi'a, the latitude of 
Kashmir is 34® 9', and the straight shadow there 8^V 

I myself have found the latitude of the fortrew 
LauhUr to be 34° 10'. The distance from Lauhflr to 
the capital of Kashmir is 56 miles, half the way being 
rugged country, the other half plain. What other lati- 
tudes 1 have been able to observe myself, I shall 
enumerate in this place ; — 

Ohazna. . . . 33“ 35' Lamghjn . . . 34’ 43' 

KStinl . . . - 33 ° 47' Purshivar . . .34° 44 ' 

Kandt, the guard-station Waiband ... 34" 30' 

of the prince . . 33*55' ' Jailam . . . .33*20' 

Dunpflr. . . . 34* 20' The fortress Naiidna , 32" o' 

The distance between the latter place and Miiltiln is 
nearly 200 miles. 

SftllKot 3a’ 5li' 

Mandakkakor 3f° So' 

Mnltftn 29* 40' 

If the latitudes of places are known, and the distances 
between them have been measured, the difference be- 
tween their longitudes also may be found according Co 
the methods explained in the books to which we have 
referred the reader. 



We onrselreB have (in onr travels) in their country 
not passed beyond the places which we have mentioned, 
nor have we learned any more longitude and latitudes 
(of places in India) from their literature. It is God 
alone who helps us to reach onr objects I 

( 319 i 




According to tlie relation of Muliammad Ibn Zaka- Ontheno- 
riyyft Alr^Lzi, the most ancient philosophers of tlie 
Greeks thonght that the following five things existed o^rpiiiio- 
from all eternity, the axatov, the univeTsal soul, the first 
ilXij, space in the ahsti'oct, and time in the abstract. On 
these things Alrazi has founded that theory of his, 
which is at the bottom of his whole philosophy. 

Further, he distinguishes between time and duration 
in so far as number applies to the former, not to the 
latter; for a thiug which can be numbered is finite, 
whilst duration is infinite. Similarly, philosophers 
have explained time as duration with a beginning and 
an eqd, And-etemity as duration without beginning and 

According to AlrfizI, those five things are necessary 
postviates of the actually existing world. For that 
which the senses perceive in it is the acquiring 

shape by means of combination. Besides, the iki) 
occaptes some place, and therefore we must admit the 
existence of ^ace. The changes apparent in the world 
of sense compel us to assume the existence of time, for 
some of them are earlier, others later, and the before 
and the afte)-vxirds, the earlier and the later, and the 
simnltaneonB can only be perceived by means of the 


notion of time, which is a necessary postulate of the 
existing world. 

Further, there are Hviiu/ heinga in the existing world. 
Therefore we must assume the existence of tin amd. 
Among these living beings there are intellvjent ones, 
capable of carrying the arts to the highest perfection ; 
and this compels ns to assume the existence of a 
Creator, who is wise and intelligent, who establishes 
and an'auges everything in the best possible manner, 
and inspires people with the force of intelligence for 
the purpose of liberation. 

On the other hand, some sophists consider eternity 
and time as one and the same thing, and declare the 
motion which serves to measure time alone to be finite. 

Another one declares eternity to be the circnlar 
motion. No doubt this motion is indissolubly con- 
nected with that being which moves by it, and which 
is of the most sublime nature, since it lasts for ever. 
Thereupon he rises in Lis argnmentation from the 
moving being to its mover, and from the moving mover 
to the first mover who is motionless. 

This kind of research is very subtle and obscure. 
But for this, the opinions would not differ to such an 
extent that some people declare that there is no time 
at all, while others declare that time is an independent 
substance. According to Alexander of Aphrodisias, 
Aristotle gives in his book aKpoutrn the follow- 

Pne* i6^. iiig argumentation : “ Everything moving is moved by 
a mover ; ” and Galenus says on the same subject that 
he could not understand the notion of time, much less 
prove it. 

Tbaiiotiuiia The theory of the Hindus on this subject is rather 
phUwl!'' poor in thought and very little developed. VarAhami- 
fiar*”* hu-a says in the opening of his book iShn'i-AtVd, when 
speaking of that which existed from all eternity; “If 
has been said in the ancient books that the first 
primeval thing was darkness, which is not identical 



with the black colour, but a kind of non-existeiice like 
the state of a sleeping person. Then God created this 
world for Brahman as a cupola for him. He made it 
to consist of two parts, a higher and a lower one, and 
placed the sun and moon in it” Kapila declares: 

" God has always existed, and with him the world, with 
all its substances and bodiea He, however, is a cause 
to the world, and rises by the subtlety of his nature 
above the gross nature of the world.” Kumbhaka 
says; "The primeval one is Mahdbh'dta, ie. the com- 
pound of the five elements. Some declare that the 
primeval thing is time, others nature, and still others 
maintain that the director is karman, i.e. action.” 

In the book Vishnu-Dharma, Vajra speaks to 
kandeya : " Explain to me the times ; ” whereupon the 
latter answers: “Duration is dtmap7trusha,” i.e. a 
breath, and puriisha, which means the lord of the uni- 
verse. Thereupon, he commenced explaining to him 
the divisions of time and their dominants, just as we 
have propounded these things in detail in the proper 
chapters (chap, xxxiii. et seq.). 

The Hindus have divided duration into two periods, 
a period of motion, which has been determined as time, 
and a period of rest, which can be determined only in 
an imaginary way according to the analogy of that 
which has first been determined, the period of motion. 

The Hindus hold the eternity of the Creator to be 
detaininaUe, not meamrahle, since it is infinite. We, 
however, cannot refrain from remarking that it is 
extremely difficult to imagine a thuig which is dcter- 
minabie bat not measurable, and that the whole idea 
is very far-fetched. We shall here oommnnicate so 
much as will suffice for the reader of the opinions of 
the Hindus on this subject, as far as we know them. 

The common notion of the Hindus regarding creation TheDnyof 
is a popular one, for, as we have already mentioned, poriodo?" 
they believe matter to be eternal. Therefore, they do 

VOL, I. X 



peiind ni 

not, by the word creatio^i, nnderstand a formation of 
something out of nothing. They mean by creation only 
the working with a piece of clay, working out various 
combinations and ilgnres in it, and making such arrange- 
ments with it as will lead to certain ends and aims 
which are potentially in it. For this reason they at- 
tribute the creation to angels and demons, nay, even 
to human beings, who create either because they carry 
ont some legal obligation which afterwards proves 
beneficial for the creation, or because they intend to 
allay their passions after having become envious and 
ambitious. So, for instance, they relate that Vi^vd- 
mitra, the Rishi, created the buffaloes for this purpose, 
that mankind should enjoy all the good and useful 
things which they afford. All this reminds one of the 
words of Plato in the hook Timeeus: “The 6eoi, i.e. 
the gods, who, according to an order of their father, 
carried out the creation of man, took an immortal soul 
aud made it the be^nning ; thereupon they fashioned 
like a turner a moitol body upon it.” 

Here in this context we meet with a duration of time 
which Muslim authors, following the example of the 
Hindus, call the years of the world. People think that 
at their beginnings and endings creation and destruc- 
tion take place as kinds of new formations. This, 
however, is not the belief of the people at large. Ac- 
cording to them, this duration is a day of Brahman 
and a consecutive night of Brahman ; for Brahman is 
intrusted with creating. Further, the coming into 
existence is a motion in that which grows ont of some- 
thing different from itself, and the most apparent of 
the causes of this motion are the meteoric motors, i,e. 
the Stars. These, however, will never exercise regular 
influences on the world below them unless they move 
and change their shapes in every direction ( = their 
aspects). Therefore the coming into existence is limited 
to the day of Brahman, bemuse in it only, as the 



Hindns believe, the stars are moving and their spheres 
revolving according to their pre-established oi^er, and 
in consequence the process of coining into ejdstence 
is developed on the surface of the earth without any 

On the contrary, during the night of Brahman the 
spheres rest from their motions, and all the stars, as 
well as their apsides and nodes, stand still in one 
particular place. 

lu consequence all the affairs of the earth are in one 
and the same unchanging condition, therefore thecoming 
into existence has ceased, because he who makes things 
come into existence rests. So both the processes of act- 
ing and of being acted upon are suspended ; the elements 
rest from entering into new metamorphoses and com- 
binations, as they rest now in {lacuna ; perhaps ■■ the 
night), and they prepare themselves to belong to new 
beings, which will come into existence on the following 
day of Brahman. 

In this way existence circulates during the life of 
Brahman, a subject which we shall. propound in its 
proper place. 

According to these notions of the Hindus, creation 
and destruction only refer to the surface of the earth. 
By such a creation, not one piece of clay comes into 
existence which did not exist before, and by such a 
destruction not one piece of clay which exists ceases to 
exist. It is quite impossible that the Hindus should 
have the notion of a creation as long as they believe 
that matter existed from all eternity. 

The Hindus represent to their common people the 
two duraiiona here mentioned, the day of Brahman and 
the night of Brahman, os his vmking and sleeping ; and 
we do not disapprove of these terms, as they denote 
something which has a beginning and end. Further, 
the whole of the life of Brahman, consisting of a suo- 

Pago 1S5. 

rcmtirk of 
tbo author. 

wHklng tinfl 


ceBBion of motion and rest in the world during such a 
period, is considered as applying only to existence, not 
to non-existence, since during it the piece of clay exists 
and, besides, also its shape. The li/e of Brahman is only 
a day for that being who is above him, i.e. Pnrnsha (jf. 
chap. xzxv,}. When he dies all compounds are dissolved 
during bis night, and in consequence of the annihilation 
of the componnds, that also is suspended which kept 
him (Brahman) within the laws of nature. This, then, 
is the rest of Purnsha, and of all that is nnder his 
control {lU. and of his vehicles), 

Vu2gar»nd When common people describe these things, they 

notioQi on tnake the night of Brahman follow after the night of 

BnbmAu. Pnrosha ; and as Purusha is the name for a man, they 
attribute to him sleeping and waking. They derive 
destruction from his snoring, in consequence of which 
all things that hang together break asunder, and 
everything standing is drowned in the sweat of bis 
forehead. And more of the like they prodnce, things 
which the mind declines to accept and the ear refuses 
to hear. 

Therefore the educated Hindus do not share these 
opinions (regarding the waking and sleeping of Brah- 
man), for they know the real nature of sleep. They know 
that the body, a compound of antipathetic humores, 
requires sleep for the purpose of resting, and for this 
purpose that all which nature requires, after being 
wasted, should be duly replaced. So, in consequence 
of the constant dissolution, the body requires food in 
order to replace that which had been lost by emacia> 
tion. Further, it requires cohabitation for the purpose 
of perpetuating the species by the body, as without 
cohabitation the species would die out. Besides, the 
body requires other things, evil ones, but necessary, 
while simple substances can dispense with them, as 
also He can who is above them, like to whom there is 



Further; the Hindus maintain that the world will 
perish in consequence of the conjunction of the twelve oiiaufthu 
suns, which a])pear one after the other in the different 
months, mining the earth by burning and calcining it, 
and by withering and drying up all moist substances. 
Further, tlie world perishes in consequence of the union 
of the four rains which now come down in the different 
seasons of the year ; that which has been calcined attracts 
the water and is thereby dissolved, Lastly, the world 
perishes by the cessation of light and by tbe prevalence 
of darkness and non-esistence. By all this the world 
will be dissolved into atoms and be scattered. 

The Mutsya-FurAna says that the fire which burns 
the world has come out of the water ; that until then it 
dwelt on Mount Mahisha in the Kusba-Dvlpa, and was 
called by the name of this mountain. 

The Vishmt-PurAna says that “ Maharloka lies above 
the pole, and that the duration of the stay there is one rngo lee. 
kalpa. When the three worlds bum, the fire and 
smoke injure the inhabitants, and then they rise and 
emigrate to Janaloka, tbe dwelling-place of the sons of 
Brahman, who preceded creation, viz. Sanaka, Sananda, 
Sanandanada (?), Asuras, Kapila, Vodhu, and Pauca- 

The context of these passages makes it clear that 
ttis deatruotion of the world takes place at the end ot a 
kalpa, and hence is derived the theory of AbH-Ma'shar 
that a deluge takes place at the conjunction of the 
planets, because, in fact, they stand in conjunction at 
the end of each caturyuga and at tbe beginning of each 
kaliyvffa. If this eonjunctiou is not a complete one, 
the deluge, too, will evidently not attain the highest 
degree of its destructive power. Tbe farther we advance 
in the investigation of these subjects, the more light 
will be shed on all ideas of this kind, and the better 
the reader will understand all words and terms occur- 
ring in this context. 







Algr^lnshahri records a tradition, as representing the 
belief of the Bnddhists, which much resembles the silly 
tales just mentioned. On the sides of Mount Mem 
there are four worlds, which are alternately dvilised or 
desert A world becomes desert when it is overpowered 
by the fire, in consequence of the rising of seven suns, 
one after the other, over it, when the water of the 
fountains dries up, and the burning fire becomes so 
strong as to penetrate into the world. A world becomes 
civilised when the fire leaves it and migrates to another 
world ; after it has left, a strong wind rises in the world, 
drives the clouds, and makes them rain, so that the 
world becomes like an ocean. Out of its foam shells 
are produced, with which the sools are connected, and 
ont of these human beings originate when the water 
has snnk into the gronnd. Some Buddhists think that 
a man comes by accident from the perishing world to 
the growing world. Since he feels unhappy on account 
of his being alone, ont of bis thought there arises a 
spouse, and from this couple generation commences. 

< 327 / 



Agsording to the general nssge of Maslims, Hindus, 
and others, a day or nyehthemeron means the dura- 
tion of one revolution of the snn in a rotation of the 
unirerse, in which he starts from the one half of a 
yreat circle and returns to the same. Apparently it is 
divided into two halves : the day (i.e. the time of the 
sun’s being visible to the inhabitants of a certain place 
on earth), and the niyht (i.e. the time of his being in- 
visible to them). His being visible and being invisible 
are relative facts, which differ as the horizons differ. 
It is well known that the horizon of the equator, which 
the Hindus call the country without latitude, cuts the 
circles parallel to the meridian in two halves. In con- 
sequence, day and night are always equal there. How- 
ever, the horizons which cut the parallel circles without 
passing through their pole divide them into two un- 
equal halves, the more so the smaller the parallel circles 
are. In consequence, there day and night are unequal, 
except at the times of the two equinoxes, when on the 
whole earth, except Merd and Vadav^mukha, day and 
night are equal. Then all the places north and south 
of the line share in this peculiarity of the line, but only 
at this time, not at any other. 

The beginning of the day is the sun’s rising above 
the horizon, the beginning of the night his disappearing 
below it. The Hindus consider the day as the tot, the 

of dity atiil 





p»gti 167. night as the second, part of the nychthemeron. There- 
fore they call the former Sdvana, i.e. a day depending 
on the rising of the sun. Besides, they call it Jlfana- 
^y&hor&tra, ie. a human day, because, in fact, the great 
mass of their people do not know any other kind of day 
but this. Now, assuming the Sdvana to be known to 
the reader, we shall in the following use it as a standard 
and gauge, in order thereby to determine all the other 
kinds of days. 

DB|r of the After Auman day follows Pitrindm ahordtra, 

the nychthemeron of the forefathers, whose spirits, 
according to the belief of the Hindus, dwell in the 
sphere of the moon. Its day and night, depend upon 
light and darkness, not upon the rising and setting in 
relation to a certain horizon. When the moon stands 
in the highest parts of the sphere with reference to 
them, this is a day to them ; and when it stands in the 
lowest parts, it is night to them. Evidently their moon 
is the time of conjunction or full moon, and their mid- 
night is opposition or new moon. Therefore the nyoh- 
themeron of the forefathers is a complete lunar month, 
the day beginning at the time of half-moon, when the 
light on the moon’s body begins to increase, and the 
night beginning at the time of half-moon, when her 
light begins to wane. This follows of necessity from 
the just-mentioned determination of the noon and mid- 
night of the nychthemeron of the forefathers. . Besides, 
it may be brought near to the reader by a comparison, 
as the bright half of the light on the moon’s body may 
be oompared to the rising of half of the globe of the 
sun over the horizon, and the other half's setting below 
the horizon. The day of this nychthemeron extends 
from the last quarter of a month to the first quarter of 
the succeeding month ; the night from the first to the 
second quarter of one identical month. The totality 
of these two halves is the nychthemeron of the fore- 



Thus the subject is explained by the author of Vishnu- 
Dharma both at large and in detail, but afterwords he 
treats it a second time with very little understanding, 
and identifies the day of Ou fwtfatlura with the hlack 
half of the mouth from opposition to conjunction, and 
their night with its white half, whilst the correct state- 
ment is that w)]ich we have just mentioned. This view 
is also confirmed by their custom of oiTering gifts of 
food to the forefathers on the day of conjunction, for 
they explain noon to be the time of taking food. For 
this reason they offer food to the forefathers at the 
same time when they themselves take it. 

Next follows the Divydhordtra, i.e. the nychthemeron 
of the angels. It is known that the horizon of the 
gi-eatest latitude, i.e. that of 90 degrees, where the pole 
stands in the zenith, is the equator, not exactly, but 
approximately, because it is a little below the visible 
horizon for that place on earth which is occupied by 
Mount Meru; for its top and slopes the horizon in 
question and the equator may be absolutely identical, 
although the visible horizon lies a little below it (t.«. 
farther south). Further, it is evident that the zodiac 
is divided into two halves by being intersected by the 
equator, the one half lying above the equator (i.e. north 
of it), the second half below it. As long as the sun 
marches in the signs of northern declination it revolves 
like a mill, since the diurnal arcs which he describes 
are parallel to the horizon, as in the case of the sun- 
dials. For those who live under the north pole the 
sun appears above the horizon, therefore they have day, 
whilst for those living under the south pole the sun is 
concealed below the horizon, and therefore they have 
night. When, then, the sun migrates to the southern 
signs, he revolves like a mill below the horizon (i.«. 
south of the equator) ; hence it is night to the people 
living under the north pole and day to those living 
under the south pole. 



Fag« S&8. 


The dwellings of the Devaka, i.e. the spiritnal beings, 
are onder the two poles; therefore this kind of day 
is called by their name, i.e. the nychthemeron 0/ the 

Aryabhata of Kusumapnra says that the Dera see 
one half of the solar year, the D&nava the other ; that 
the Pitaras see one half of the lunar month, human 
beings the other. So one revolution of the sun in the 
zodiac affords day and night both to the Deva and 
Dflnava, and their totality is a nychthemeron. 

In consequence onr year is identical with the nych- 
themeron of the Deva. In it, however, day and night 
are not equal (as in the nychthemeron of the fore- 
fathers), because the sun moves slowly in the half of 
the northern declination about its apogee, by which the 
day becomes a little longer. However, this difference 
is not equal to the difference between the visible horizon 
and the real one, for this cannot be observed on the 
globe of the sun. Besides, according to Hindu notions, 
the inhabitants of those places are raised above the 
surface of the earth, dwelling on Mount Meru. Who- 
ever holds this view holds regarding the height of Meru 
the same opinions os those we have described in the 
pi^per place (in chap, xxiii.). In consequence of this 
height of Mount Meru, its horizon must fall a little 
lower (ie. more southward than the equator), and in 
consequence the rate of the day’s being longer than the 
night is lessened (as then the sun does not entirely 
reach his northern apogee, where he makes the longest 
days). If this were anything else but simply a reli- 
gpons tradition of the Hindus, besides being one regard* 
ing which even they do not agree among themselves, 
we should try to find, by astronomical calculation, the 
amount of this depression of the horizon of Mount 
Meru below the equator, but as there is no use in this 
subject (Mount Meru being simply an invention), we 
drop it 



Some uneducated Hindu heard people speak of the 
day of such a nychthemeron in the north, and of ita 
night in the south. In connection with these elements 
he determined the two parts of the year by the two 
halves of the zodiac, the one which ascends from the 
winter solstice, called the northern, and the one which 
descends from the summer solstice, called the southern. 
Then he identified the day of this nychthemeron with 
the ascending half, and its night with the descending 
half. All of which he has eternised in his books. 

Not much better is what the author of the Vi$hnv/- 
Dharma says : — “The half beginning with Capricomus 
is the day of the Astii'a, i.e. the Danavas, and their 
night begins with the sign of Cancer.’’ Previously he 
had said : “ The half beginning with Aries is the day 
of the Deva.’’ This author acted without any under- 
standing of the subject, for he simply confounds the 
two poles with each other (for according to this theory 
the half of the sun’s revolution, beginning with Capri- 
comua or the winter solstice, would be the day of the 
beings under the north pole or the Devas, not that of 
the beings under the sonth pole or Asuras, and the 
revoIntioD of the sun beginning with Cancer or the 
snmmer solstice would be the day of the Asuras, not 
their night). If this author bad really understood the 
sentence, and bad known astronomy, he would have 
come to other conclusions. 

Next follows the BrahmdhQrAtra,i.e. the nychtheine- 
ron of Brahman, It is not derived from light and dark- 
ness (as that of the forefathers), nor from the appearing 
or disappearing of a heavenly body (like that of the 
Deras), but from the physical nature of created things, 
in consequence of which they mow in the day and rest 
in the night. The length of the nychthemeron of 
Brahman is 8,640,000,000 of onr years. During one 
half of it, i.e. during the day, the aether, with all that 
is in it, is moving, the earth is producing, and the 





changes of existence and destruction are constantly 
going on upon the surface of the earth. During the 
other half, ie. the night, there occurs the opposite of 
everything which occurs in the day ; the earth is not 
changing, because those things which produce the 
changes are resting and all motions are stopped, as 
nature rests in the night and in the winter, and con- 

I’Hgv centrates itself, pi-eparing for a new existence in the 
day and in the summer, 

Each day of Brahman is a kalpa, as also each night, 
and a kalpa is that space of time which Muslim authors 
call the year of the Sindkind. 

Dny of Lastly follows the Furuahdhordtra, i.e. the nychthe- 

meron of the All-soul, which is also called Mah&kalpa, 
i.e. the greatest kalpa. The Hindus only use it for the 
purpose of determining duration in general by some- 
thing like a notion of time, but do not specify it as 
day and night. I almost feel inclined to think that 
the day of this nychthemeron means the duration of 
the soul’s being connected with the tSA.*;, whilst the 
night means the duration of their being separated from 
each other, and of the resting of the souls (from the 
fatigue of being mixed up with the vAij), and that that 
condition which necessitates the soul’s being connected 
with the vXt) or ite being separated from the vAij reaches 
its periodical end at the end of this nychthemeron. 
The Vislnm-Dkarma says: “The life of Brahman is 
the day of Purushs, and the night of Purusfaa has the 
same length.” 

The Hindus ^ree in assigning to the life of Brahman 
a hundred of his years. The number of our years which 
corresponds to otu of his years betrays itself to be a 
multiplication of 360 with the number of our years, 
which correspond to one nychthemeron of his. We 
have already mentioned (p. 331) the length of the 
nychthemeron of Brahman. Now the length of a year 
of Brahman is 3, 1 10,400,000,000 of our years {».«. 



360 X 8, 640, OCX), 000). A hundred years of the same' 
kind, reckoned in our years, are represented by the 
same nnmber increased by two ciphers, so that you get 
in the whole ten ciphers, viz. 311,040,000,000,000. 
This space of time is a day of Purnsha ; therefore bis 
nychthemeron is doable of it, viz. 622,080,000,000,000 
of ow years. 

According to the I^ita-Siddhdnia, the life of Brali- 
mah is a day of Purusba. However, it has also been 
mentioned that a day of Puruaha is a pardrdhakalpa. 
Other Hindus say that pardrdluxkalpa is the day of kha, 
i.e. the point, by which they mean the first cause, on 
which all existence depends. The kalpa occupies the 
eighteenth place in the scale of the d^rees of the num- 
bers (see p. 175). It is called pardrdha, which means 
the half of heaven. Now, the double of this would 
be the whole of heaven and the whole nychthemeron. 
Therefore kha is represented by the number 864, fol- 
lowed by twenty-four ciphers, this number representing 
mir years {cf. p. 331). 

These terms must, on the whole, be rather considered 
as a philosophical means of conveying an abstract 
notion of time than as mathematical values composed 
of the various kinds of numbers, for they are derived 
from the processes of combination and dissolution, of 
procreation and destruction. 


( 334 ) 







The HIndas are foolishlj painstaking in inventing the 
most minute particles of time, but their efforts have 
not resulted in a universally adopted and unifonn 
system. On the contrary, you hardly ever meet with 
two books or two men representing the subject iden- 
tically. In the first instance, the nyohthemeron is 
divided into sixty minutes or gJia^ We read in the 
book SrAdhava by TItpala the Kashmirian : “ If yon 
bore in a piece of wood a cylindrical hole of twelve 
fingers’ diameter and six fingers’ height, it contains three 
mand water. If yon bore in the bottom of this hole 
another hole as large as six plaited hairs of the hair of a 
yonng woman, not of an old one nor of a child, the three 
mand of water will flow ont through this hole in one 

Each minute is divided into sixty seconds, called 
eashdia or cakhaka, and also vighafihd. 

Each second is divided into six parts or i.e. 

breath. The above-mentioned book, Srddhava, explains 
the prdtf.a in the following manner : “ It is the breath 
of a sleeping person who sleeps a normal sleep, and not 
like a man who is ill, who snffers from retention of the 
uriue, who is hungry, or has eaten too much, whose 
mind is occupied with some soitow or pain ; for the 
breath of a sleeping person varies according to the 



conditions of his soul, which originate either from desire 
or fear, according to the conditions of his body, depend- 
ing upon the emptiness or fulness of his stomach, and 
according to various accidents disturbing the kind of 
hnvior which is considered the most desirable.” 

It is all the same whether we deteraiine the^mi?m 
according to this rule (one nycbthemeron = 21,600 
pnhia), or if we divide each ghnit into 360 ]iarls 
(60 X 360 ■> 21,600), or each degree of the sphere into 
sixty parts (360 x 60 “ 21,600), 

As far ns this all Hindus agree with each other in vmiii. 
the matter, though they use different terms, So, for 
instance, Brahmagupta calls the cashaka or seconds 
vindrU. likewise Aryabhata of Kiisuraapnra, Besides 
the latter calls the minutes tuldt. Both, however, did 
not use particles of time smaller than the p'dija, which 
correspond to the minutes of the siihere (60 x 360). 

For Pulisa says : “ The minutes of the sphere, which are 
21,600, resemble tbe normal breaths of man at the time 
of the ecpiinoxes, and when man is in perfect health. 
During one breathing of man tbe sphere revolves as far 
as one minute.” 

Other people insert between minute and second a K«iiau«. 
third measure, called kshana, which is equal to one- 
fourth of a minute (or fifteen seconds). Each kskana 
is divided into fifteen kald, each of which is ecjual to 
one-sixtieth of a minute, and this is the cashaka, only 
called by another name. 

Among the lower orders of these fractions of time 
there occur three names which are always mentioned 
in the same setjiience. The largest is the nivicshn, i.e. 
the time during which I lie eye, in the normal state of 
things, is open between two consecutive looks. The 
lava is the mean, aud the triifi the smallest part of 
time, the latter word meaning the cracking of the fore- 
finger against the inside of the thumb, which is with 
them A gesture expressive of astonishment or admira- 




tion. The relation between these three measnres varies 
veiy mnoh. According to maoj of the Hindus — 

a tntfi= I lava. 

a lava^ l nivtxtha. 

Further, they differ as to the relation between the 
nimeaha and the nest higher order of fractions of time, 
for according to some the latter {hdahthd) contains 
fifteen, according to others thirty •nimeaha. Others, 
again, divide each of these three measures into eighths, 
so that — 

8 (rust’s I lava. 

8 lava= I nimeiAo. 

8 nimaha = i kdthfM {?). 

The latter system is used in the book SrUdhava, and 
has also been lidopted by ilf F" (?), one of their learned 
astronomers. He makes this division still more subtle 
by adding a further measure, smaller than the frufi, 
which is called aifu, and eight of which are one trvpi. 

The next higher orders, parts of time larger than the 
ni'mesha, m’e kdskfhd and kaJd. We have said already 
(p. 335) that with some Hindus kald is only another 
name for cashaka, and is considered as equal to thirty 
kdahthd. Further — 

I lAtK(IUl=t$ nimeiha, 

I nimaKa = i lava. 

I lava=2 trafi. 

Others reckon thus — 

I ninnte of the n^ohtheineronKjo kdihtM, 

t kiUhlhd=ionimeiha. 

And the farther fractions such as those just men- 

Lastly, others reckon thus — 

I ta»ha3ea = 6 nimeaha. 

1 nimMaas3 toco. 

Here ends the tradition of Utpala, 



According to the Vdy\i~Pwdna — 

1 mvhlirta = 30 hdA. 

I itoU = 30 ledthihd. 

I idththd s 15 ninetha. 

The Btnaller fractions are disregarded by the Vdyv>- 

We have no means of settling the qaestion as to which 
of these systems is the most authentic one. Therefore 
it is the best for ns to adhere to the theory of Utpala 
and S M Y (?), i.e. to divide all measnres of time smaller 
than B,prdna by eight — 

I prina = 8 nimetka. 1 lava = 8 tru^t. 

I mmeaAa = 8 2 ata. I trufi = 8 aim. 

The whole system is represented in the following 
table : — 

How maay timea the 

Tho namofl Af the roca* 

F^rnAllor one ia cou- 

How iDMi; (if it aro cob- 

sureti oi time, 

tAlned in tbe Urger 

tained in one dej. 


Ghatt, N 4 dt - 
Rsbaoa . ' . 





Casb^a, Vio&ilt, } 

Kala . . ' ( 














r 1,0^0,200 

Ann . 



The Hindus have also a popular kind of division of 
the nychthemeron into eight praJuira, t.e. changes of 
the watch, and in some parts of their oonntry they 
have clepsydne regulated according to the ghitt, by 
which the times of the eight watches are determined. 
After a watch which lasts seven and a half ghafi has 
elapsed, they beat the drum and blow a winding shell 
VOL. I. Y 

Pag* 171. 





called iaiikha, in Persian apM-mxihra. I have seen this 
in the town of Pursh-Ar. Pioas people have bequeathed 
for these olepsydr®, and for their administration, lega- 
cies and fixed incomes. 

Further, the day is divided into thirty muMrta, 
hnt this division is not free from a certain obscurity ; 
for sometimes yon think that the muJiihriaa have 
always the same length, sinoe they compare them either 
with the ghati, and say that two gha^ are one mvMrta-, 
or with the watches, and say that one watch is three and 
three-quarters muhUrta. Here the mu}i‘(trtas are treated 
as if they were harm cequiTwctidles (i.e. so and so many 
egual parts of the nychthemeron). However, the nnm- 
her of such hours of a day or of a night differs on every 
degree of latitude, and this makes ns think that the 
length of a muhUria during the day is different from 
its lejigth during the night (for if four watches or fifteen 
muhUrta represent a day or a night, the muhUrtas 
cannot be of the same length in the day and in the 
night, except at the times of the equinoxes). 

On the other hand, the way in which the Hindus 
count the dominants of the muhUrtas makes us more 
inclined to the opposite opinion, that, in fact, the 
muhUrlaiS are of different length, for in the case of day 
and night they simply attribute to each of them fifteen 
dominants. Here the muh'Arlas are treated like the 
horm ohliqum temporales {i.e. twelve equal parts of the 
day and twelve equal parts of the night, which differ 
as day and night differ). 

The latter opinion is confirmed by a calenlation of 
the Hindus which enables them to find the number of 
the muh'&a'tas (which have elapsed of the day) by 
means of the digits which the shadow of a person 
at the time measnres. From the latter number yon 
subtract the digits of the shadow of the person at 
noon, and the remaining number yon look out in the 



middle column of the following diagram, which we have 
taken from some of their metrical compositions. The 
corresponding field of the upper or lower columns- 
shows the number of muhiirtas which you wanted to 

The nuftiirfoj wblobl 
have elapsed before > 
noon. . .) 









How tnanf dif!;it8 tbet 
shadow in question is 1 
larger than the noon- f 
shadow . . .] 






1 1 







The m'uh4rlaa whichl 
bare elapsed nftcr 1 
noon . ,) 





II 1 



' 8 

The commentator of the Siddhdnta, Pnlisa, comments wheiharthc 
on the latter opinion, and blames those who in general mllflii'wi* 
declare one ninh.-O.rta to be equal to tvx> ghati, saying loTariublo. 
that the number of the gha(i of the nychthemeron 
varies in the different parts of the year, whilst the 
number of its inuliArtas does not vary. But in another 
place he contradicts himself, where he reasons about 
the measure of the muMirta. He fixes one vudvArta as 
equal to 720 prdna or hreaths, one breath being com- 
posed of two things : the apdna or the inhaling, and 
the prAtj.a or the exhaling of breath. Two other terms 
of the same meaning are nifiMsa and avaivdsa. How- 
ever, if one thing is mentioned, the other is tacitly 
included and understood ; as, for instance, if you speak 
bf days, you include the nights, meaning to express 
days and nights. Accordingly a mvJi'drta is 360 apdna 
and 36oprd?ia!. 

In the same manner, when speaking of the measure 



of a ghafi, he only mentions the one species of breath, 
connoting the other, for he explains it in general as 
equal to 360 breaths (instead of 180 apdna and 180 

If now the muMrta is measured bj breaths, it is 
dependent apon the ghafi and the koree tequinoctiales as 
the gauges of its measure. But this is exactly the con- 
trary of what Pulisa intends, for he argues against his 
opponents who maintain that a day has fifteen muk'drtas 
only, if he who counts them dwells on the equator or 
somewhere else, but at the time of the equinoxes. 
Pnlisa observes that the abhijit coincides with noon 
and the beginning of the second half of the day 5 
that, therefore, if the number of the mvJvArtas of the 
day varied, the number of the miih'Arta called dbhijit 
and denoting noon would vary too (i.e. it would 
not always be called the eighth muhUrta of the 

VySsa says that the birth of Tudhishtbiratook place 
in the white half, at noon, at the eighth mvk-O.rta. If an 
opponent means to infer from this that it was the day 
of an equinox, we answer by referring him to the state- 
ment of Markandeya, viz. that the birth took place at 
full moon in the month Jyaishtha, a time of the year 
which is far distant from an equinox. 

Further, Vy^sa says that the birth of Yudhishthira 
took place at the ahliijit, when the yojithofthe night was 
gone, at midnight, at the eighth (muhilrta) of the Uack 
half, in the month of Bh^drapada. This date, too, is 
far distant from an equinox. 

siuryof Vasiah^ha relates that Vflsudeva killed J^ilupilla, the 

Siftipii*. q£ daughter of Kariisa, at the abhijit. The 
Hindus tell the following story of f§Uupi\lo. He had 
been born with four hands, and one day his mother 
heard a voice from above saying, “ When that person 
who will kill him touches him, his two superfluous 


34 * 

hands will fall off. Thereapon they put the child to 
the bosom of each of those who were present, and when 
it came to bo touched by V2,8ndeva, the two hands fell 
off, as had been prophesied. Now the aunt spoke 
to him, " Assuredly you will one day kill my child j " 
whereupon V&sudeva, who was still a child, answered, 
“ I shall not do that except he deserve it for some 
crime committed intentionally, and 1 shall not call him 
to account until his misdeeds exceed ten." 

Some time afterwards Yudhisbthira was occupied 
with preparing a sacrifice to the fire in the presence of 
the most famous personages. He consulted Yyfisa as 
to the rank of the guests present and the honours due 
to the president of such an assembly, consisting in the 
presentation of water and roses in a cup, and Vy^sa 
advised him to make Vasudeva the president. In this 
assembly also Si^upala, his cousin, was present, and 
now he began to rage, maintaining that he had a better 
claim to such an honour than Vasudeva. He boasted 
much and went even so far as to abuse the parent of 
Vasudeva. The latter called the present company to 
witness as to his bad behaviour, and let him do as he 
liked. However, when the affair lasted too long, and 
passed beyond the number of ten {muhUrtas), Vfisudeva 
took the cup and threw it at him, as people throw with 
the cakra, and cut off his head. This is the story of 

He who wants to prove the above-mentioned theory 
(like Polisa, viz. that the muMrtas are thirty equal 
parts of the nyebthemeron), will not succeed unless 
be provb that the c^hijit falls together with noon and 
with the middle of the eighth muh'&rta (so that the 
day consists of twice seven and a half equal muMrtas, 
and likewise the night). As long as he does not prove 
this, the muh'&rtas differ in length as days and nights, 
though just in India only very little, and it is possible 

CH tieraroa 
oil PdUm. 



that in times distant from the equinoxes noon falls 
either at the beginning or at the end of the eighth 
muJiii/rta, or within it. 

How little exact is the learning of the author (Pulisa) 
who meant to prove this, is evident from the fact that 
among his arguments he prodnces a tradition from 
Garga to this effect, that at the ahhijit of the equator 

Fag* 173 there is no shadow ; for, in the first instance, it is not 
true save at the two days of the equinoxes ; and, 
secondly, if it were true, it would not have anything 
to do with the subieot he tries to prove (as the ques- 
tion of the different length of day and night and their 
divisions does not refer to the equator, where day and 
night always equal each other, but only to southern or 
northern latitudes of the earth). 

Domiiunta We represent the dominants of the single muhUrtas 
in the following table : — 

1 ^ 

The doDipanta of the UubQrtoe 
U) the duy. 

The doml&a&td of tho MutibrtaA in th6 


Siva, i.e. Uaba^eva. 

Rndra, i.e. Kahadeva. 


Bhujaga, i.e. the snake. 

Aja, i.e. the lord of all cloven- 
footed animalB. 



Abirbadboya, the lord of Uttara- 



F&shan, the lord of Bevatt. 


Daara, the lord of Aivict, 


Apaa, i.e. the water. 


Antai^ i.«. the angel of death. 


Agoli i.e, the fire. 

DhStrl, i.e. Brahma the weserver. 
Soma, the lord of MrisaSlnha. 

8 . 

Viriflova, i.(. Brabman. 


Keivara (ij, i.e. Mahadeva. 

10 . 


Onru, i.e. Jaulter. 


Ihdra. the prinoe. 

Had, i.e. HatHyana, 


NiMkara, i.e. the moon. 

Ravi, ie. the no. 

Vatuqa, i.e, the lord of the 

Tama, the angel of death. 

14 . 


Tvashtd, the lord of OltrA 

Anila.'ie. the wind. 


Bhttgeja (1). 



Nobody in India uses the hours except the astrologers, 
for they speak of the domiruxyUs of the hours, and, in 
consequence, also of dominants of the nychtheniera. The 
dominant of the nychthemeron is at the same time 
the dominant of the night, for they do not separately 
establish a dominant for the day, and the night is, 
in this connection, never mentioned. They arrange 
the order of the dominants occoiding to the hm-oi 

They call the hour hord, and this name seems to indi- 
cate that in reality they use the ho-rce dbliquo! tentpo- 
mles; for the Hindus call the media siynomm (the 
centres of the signs of the zodiac) hord, which we Mus- 
lims call nimbahr (cf. chap. Ixxz.). The reason is this, 
that in each day and each night always six signs rise 
above the horizon. If, therefore, the hour is called by the 
name of the centre of a sign, each day and each night has 
twelve hours, and in consequence the hours used in the 
theory of the dominants of the hours are ho^'ce obliquce 
temqwales, as they are used in our country and are 
inscribed on the astrolabes on account of these domi- 

This opinion is confirmed by the following sentence 
of Vijayanandin in the Karaiia-tilaka, i.e. the first of 
th£ canons. After having explained the rule how to 
find the dominant of the year and of the month, he 
says : “ To find the hcrrddhipati, add the signs which have 
risen since the morning to the degree of the horoscope, 
the whole being reckoned in minutes, and divide the 
sum by 900. The quotient you get count off from the 
dominant of the nychthemeron, counting the planetary 
spheres from above to below. The dominant of a day 
you arrive at, is at the same time the dominant of the 
hour." He ought to have said, “ To the quotient yon 
get add one, and coujit off the sum from the dominant 
of the nychthemeron.” If he had said, “Reckon the 

On iho 
bours In 
Hiriibi 08* 

Page J74. 



Nftmea of 
th» twenty* 
four bonU. 

Wbat tliM 
lA under th« 
lofluetioe of 
the serpent 


equatorial degrees which have risen,” &c., the calcula- 
tion would have resulted in horcB aquinoctiales. 

The Hindus give certain names to the hora obliquce, 
which we have united in the following table. We think 
they are taken from the book SrAdhava. 



N.ou of the 
Horta In tlw <U;. 

at unluokr, 

Their nuuu In tlia 

or uiiluoky. 














Vairahnia (7). 










OUbaalya (7). 






7 - 



Danartya (7). 







9 - 













DAbariya (7). 

The most 
of all.' 




CAntinia (7). 


The book Viski^u-Dhaima mentions, among the Tidgas 
or seipents, a serpent called Ifdga Kulika. Certain por- 
tions of the hours of the planets stand under its in- 
fluence. They are unlucky, and everything which is 
eaten during them hurts and is of no use for anything. 
Sick people who treat themselves with poisonous medi- 
cines do not recover, but die and perish. During these 
times no incantation is of any avail against the bite of 
a snake, for the incantation consists in the mention of 
the Garu^, and in those inauspicious times the stork 
himself cannot help in any way, much less the mention 
of his name. 

These times are represented in the following table 


34 S 

where the planetar; hour is reckoned as consisting of 
1 50 parts. 

Th« Domlnnnts of 
Uie tioura. 

Number o{ tbo 

K arCs ol 
our be- 
fore tbo be- 
ginniDg of 
the time of 
Eulika . . 

Number of the 
parte during 
which them- 
fluenoe of 
Knlika lasts. 


























( 346 ) 


tao iQDftr 

Effects of 



The natural month is the period of the moon’s syno- 
dical revolation. We call it physical because it de- 
velops in the same way as all natural phenomena, 
rising out of a certain beginning like non-existence, 
increasing by degrees, and growing, standing still when 
the climax is attained, then descending, waning away 
and decreasing, till at last they return to the non- 
existence whence they came. In the same manner the 
light develops on the body of the moon, since she 
appears after the moonless nights as a crescent, then 
as a young moon (after the third night), and as full 
moon, and thereafter returns through the same stages 
to the last night, which is like non-existence, at all 
events with reference to human senses. It is well 
known to everybody why the moon continues for some 
length of time in the moonless nights, but it is not 
equally known, not even to educated people, why she 
continues some time as full moon. They must learn 
how small the body of the moon is in comparison with 
that of the sun, that in consequence the enlightened 
portion by far exceeds the dark one, and that this 
is one of the causes why the moon must necessarily 
appear as foil moon for some length of time. 

That the moon has certain effects on moist substances, 
that they are apparently subject to her influences, that, 
for instance, increase and decrease in ebb and flow 



develop periodically and parallel with the moon’s 
phases, all this is well known to the inhabitants of sea- 
shores and seafaring people. Likewise physicians are 
well aware that she affects the humores of sick people, 
and that the fever-days revolve parallel with the moon’s 
course. Physical scholars know that the life of animals 
and plants depends upon the moon, and experimen- 
talists know that she influences marrow and brain, 
eggs and the sediments of wine in casks and jugs, that 
she excites the minds of people who sleej) in full moon- 
light, and that she affects (?) linen clothes which are 
exposed to it. Peasants know how the moon acts upon 
fields of cucumbers, melons, cotton, &o., and even make 
the times for the various kinds of sowing, planting, and 
grafting, and for the covering of the cattle depend upon 
^e coarse of the moon. Lastly, astronomers know that 
meteorologic occarrences depend upon the various phases 
tiirough which the moon passes in her revolutions. 

This is the month, and twelve of them are in tech- 
nical langnage called a lunar year. 

The natural year is the period of a revolution of the 
sun in the ecliptic. We call it the natural, because it 
comprehends all the stages in the process of generation 
which revolve through the four seasons of the year. 
In the course of it, the rays of the sun as passing 
tbrongh a window-glass and the shadows of the sun- 
dials reassume the same size, position, and direction in 
which, or from which, they commenced. This is the 
year, and is called the solar one, in antithesis to the 
IvnoT year. As the lunar month is the twelfth pai-t of 
the lonar year, the twelfth part of the solar year is a 
solar month in theory, the calculation being hosed on 
the mean rotation of the sun. If, however, the calcula- 
tion is based on his varying rotation, a solar month is 
the period of his staying in one sign of the zodiac. 

'Hiese are the well-known two kinds of months and 

Pa^ 17& 

TOi oth. 



Oq lunl* 


or the luuar 

The month 
eouBtad M 
two halTM. 

The Hindus call the conjunction amdvdsyd, the 
opposition pAr^imd, and the two quarters ATVH (?). 
Some of them use the lunar year with lunar months 
and days, whilst others use the lunar year but solar 
months, beginning with o degree of each zodiacal sign. 
The sun’s entering a sign is called swifkrdnti. This 
luni-Bolar calculation is, however, only an approxima- 
tive one. If they constantly used it, they would soon 
feel induced to adopt the solar year itself and solar 
months. In using this mixed system they had only 
this advantage, that they could dispense with inter- 

Those who use lunar months begin the month with 
conjunction or new moon, and this method is the canofii* 
cal one, whilst the others begin it with the opposition or 
full moon. I have heard people say that Var^hamihira 
does the latter, bnt I have not yet been able to ascer- 
tain this from his books. The latter method is for- 
bidden. Still it seems as if it were rather old, because 
the Veda says : “ Men say the moon has become com- 
plete, and by her becoming complete also the month 
has become complete. Thus they speak because they 
do not know me nor the interpretation of me, for the 
Creator of the world commenced creating with the white 
half, not with the black half.” Bnt possibly these words 
are only a saying of men (not really a sentence taken 
from the Veda). 

The numeration of the days of the month begins with 
the new moon and the first lunar day is called BRBA, 
and again enumeration begins with full moon (t.e. they 
count twice fifteen days, beginning with new moon and 
full moou). Each two days which are equidistant from 
new moon or full moon have the same name (or num- 
ber). In them, light and darkness on the body of the 
moon are in corresponding phases of increasing and 
waning, and the hours of the rising of the moon in one 
day correspond to the hoars of her setting in the other. 



For the purpose of finding these times they use the 
following calcnlation : — 

Multiply the elapsed lunar days of the mouth, if 
they are less than 15, or, in case they are more, the 
difference between them and 15, by the number of the 
ghafis of the night in question. Add 2 to the product, 
and divide the sum by 15. Then the quotient repre> 

Bents the number of ghafis and minor fractions of time 
between the first night, and either the setting of the 
moon in the night in question, one of the nights of t?t 4 
white half, or the rising of the moon in the night in 
question, one of the nights of the Mack half. 

This calcnlation is based on the fact that the space 
of time between the first night and the rising or setting 
of the moon in some following night of the same luna- 
tion varies by two minutes (^ghatij, and that the nights 
vary, lasting either a little longer or a little shorter 
than thirty minutes. If, therefore, you count thirty 
minutes for each nychthemeron, and you divide the 
product by half the number of the minutes, yon get 
two minutes for each nychthemeron. As these two 
minutes, however, agree with the difference of the 
nights, they multiplied the number of nychthamera 
by the measure of the night, i.e. the number of its 
ghafts (see above, 11. 6, 7), whilst it would have been 
more accurate to multiply by the half of the sum of 
the ghails of the night in question and of the first night 
of the lunation. It is useless to add the two minutes, p»go \n- 
for they represent the moment when the crescent of 
the moon first becomes visible, but if this moment were 
adopted as the beginning of the month, the two minutes 
would be transferred to the conjunction. 

As nonths are composed of days, there are as many Vuiidns 
kinds of months as there are kinds of days. Each muittu. 
month has thirty days. We shall here use the cavil day 
(iSfvana, v. chap, xzxiii.) as a standard. 

In agreement with the Hindu calculation of the re- 

kinds of 

TJie dsy of 


volutions of sun and moon in a kedpa, a lunar month 
= nyohthemera. Yon find this number by 

dividing the snm of the days of the kalpa by the 
nnmber of its lunar months. The number of the lunar 
months of a kalpa represents the difference between the 
revolutions of sun and moon in it, v». 53,433,300,000. 

A month has 30 lunar days, for ibis number is 
canonical, as the number of 360 is canonical for the 
nnmber of days of a year. The solar month has 30 
solar days and civil days. 

The month of the fathers is equal to 30 of our months, 
and has civil days. 

The month of the angels is equal to 30 years, and has 
io,957s 4^ civil days. 

The month of Brahman is equal to 60 kalpas, and 
has 94,674,987,000,000 civil days. 

The month of Purudia is equal to 2,160,000 kalpas, 
and has 3,408.299,532,000,000,000 civil days. 

The month of Kha has 

9.497498.700.000. civil days. 
By multiplying each of these months by twelve, we 

get the nnmber of days of the corresponding year. 

The lunar year has 354 T^.Wr days. 

The solar year has 365^,^ civil days. 

The year of the fathers has 360 lunar months, or 
10,631,^*^^ civil days. 

The year of the a/ngels has 360 of onr years, or 

The year of Brahman has 720 kalpas, or 000 civil days. 

The year of Purusha has 25,920,000 kalpas, or 

40.899.594.384.000. 000.000 civil days. 

I'he year of Kha has 

1 1 3. 609. 984. 400. 000. 000. 000civil days. 
The latter nnmber is mentioned by the Hindus, 

although it is written in their books that there is no 
combination of numbers beyond the day of Purusha, for 


35 ' 

it 18 the first and the last, and is without a beginning in 
the past and without an end in the future. The other 
kinds of days, of which months and years (those of the 
fathers, the angels, and Brahman) are composed, refer 
to beings who stand under Puruaha in the order of 
beings, and whose duration is defined by certain limits 
of time. The day of Pumeka is simply an abstraction 
of the Hindu mind to denote that which is above the 

soul {dtman), for they make no distinction between 
puruaha and dtman except in the order or Eer|uenc 6 in 
which they enumerate them. They speak of Purusha 
in terms resembling those of the Sftfis, viz. the he is not 
the first, and is not something else. It is quite possible Pib« > 73 - 
in imagination to extend the idea of duration from the 
existing present moment towards both sides, t.e. towards 
the past which no longer exists, and towards the future 
which possibly will exist, and to measure duration j 
and if some part of it admits of being determined by 
days, imagination also admits reduplications of it in the 
guise of months and years. In all this it is the inten- 
tion of the Hindus that we should refer the years 
invented by them to certain periods of life, beginning 
with the coming into existence, and ending with de- 
struction and death. However, God the Creator is 
sublime beyond either, and also the simple substances 
(air, fire, earth, water) do not know coming into exist- 
ence nor destruction (in periodical returns). Therefore 
we stop with the day of Puruaha, and do not think it 
necessary to use still larger periods of time. 

Things which do not rest on intrinsic necessity offer a tmaitioii 
a wide field for difference of opinion and arbitrary tha m!n uf 
systematising, so as easily to become the source of ^Iraod 
nnmerouB theories. Some of them may be developed 

according to a certain order and rule, whilst others are 

devoid of such. In the latter class I reckon the follow- 

ing theory, but unfortunately I have forgotten from 
what source it has come to me: “33,cxx) human 



years are one year of the Great Bear ; 36,000 human 
years are one year of Brahman, and 99,000 human 
years are one year of the pole." However, as regards 
the year of Brahman, we remember that Vilsudeva 
speaks to Aijuna on the battlefield between the two 
ranks: “The day of Brahman is two ” and in 

BTohmatiddhd'nia there is a tradition fromVydsa, the 
son of Par&iara, and from the book Smriii, that halpa 
is a day of -Devaka, t.«. Brahman, and also a night of 
his. In consequence the there-mentioned theory is 
evidently wrong (one year of Brahman being infinitely 
longer than 36,000 years). Further, 36,000 years are 
the period of one revolution of the fixed stars in the 
ecliptic, since they pass one degree in too years, and 
the Great Bear belongs to them. However, in their 
traditional literature the Hindus separate the Great 
Bear from the fixed stars, and attribute to it a distance 
from the earth which differs from the real distance, 
and therefore they describe it by qualities and con- 
ditions which in reality do not belong to it. If the 
author of that theory meant by the year of the Great 
Bear one revolution of it, we do not see why it should 
revolve so much more rapidly than the other fixed 
stars (for, in that ease, the diameter of its course would 
be much larger than that of the others), nor why 
it should form an exception to the laws of nature 
(according to which all fixed stars revolve at the same 
distance from the earth and in the same time) 5 and 
the pole has no revolution which might be considered 
as a year of it. From all this I conclude that the 
author of the theory was a man entirely devoid of 
scientific education, and one of the foremost in the 
series of fools who simply invented those years for the 
benefit of people who worship the Great Bear and the 
pole. He had to invent a vast number of years, for 
the more outrageous it was, the more impression it 
would make. 

( 353 ) 



MAha and pravidna mean measure. The four kinds 
of measures are mentioned by Ya'kftb Ibn Tariic in his 
book Com,positio Sphcerai-um, but he did not know them 
thoroughly, and, besides, the names are misspelled, if 
this is not the fault of the copyists. 

They are — 

i^ra-nutna, i.t, tLo solar cueaaure. 

Sdvana-mdm, i.e. the measure depending npon tke riiinff (eiW/ 

Candra-mdna, i.e. the lunar measure. 

Nakihalra-Tndiut, i.e. the lunar-station neasore [eitUrtal mea- 

There are days of all four kinds of measure, days of 
an individual nature, which, when compared with other 
days, show a certain difference of measure. However, 
the number 360 is common to all of them (360 days of 
each class being a year). The civil days are used as a 
gauge to determine thereby the other days, 

As regards the saura-mAna, it is known that the solar 
year has 3653*!^ civil days. Dividing this sum by 
360, or multiplying it by lO seconds (= •yJ.Q. day), you 
get as the measure of the solar day civil day. 

According to the Vishi^u-Dharma, this is the time of 
the sun’s passing his Ihukti. 

The oivil day, based on the sdvaTia-mdna, is here used 
as the unit of a day, for the purpose of measuring 
thereby the other kinds of days. 

VOL. I. Z 

iriiiiit of tha 
four iliffbr. 
vat kin ■* of 
yann und 




mAcl« of tho 

mdKa, And 

The lunar day, based on the candra mdna, is called 
tithi. Dividing the lunar year by 360 or the lunar 
month by 30, you get as the measure of the lunar 
"^ays {vn-owj: read civil 


According to the Viih'ij.u-Dharma, this is the time 
during which the moon, is visible when she is far dis* 
tant from the sun, 

Ndk^atrarmAna is the period of the moon’s passiug 
through her twenty-seven stations, vie. days. 

This number is the quotient which you get by dividing 
the days of a kalpa by the number of the revolutions 
of the moon in a kalpa. Dividing it by 27, you get as 
the time of the moon’s passing one station 1^,7^ civil 
days. Multiplying the same number by 1 2, as we have 
done with the lunar month, we get civil days 

as the time of the moon’s passing twelve times through 
all her stations. Dividing the first number by 30, we get 
as the measure of the sidereal day otvil days. 

According to the Vishnu-Dharma, the sidereal month 
has only twenty-seven days, whilst the months of the 
other measures have thirty days ; and if a year is com- 
posed of these days, it has days (see above). 

Evidently there is a fault in the text of Vishnu^Dharma, 
as the month is reckoned too short. 

The saurOf-rndna is used in the computation of the 
yearn which compose the kalpa and the fonr yugas in 
the catw'gugas, of the years of the nativities, of the 
equinoxes and solstices, of the sixth parts of the year 
or the seasons, and of the difference between day and 
night in the nychthemeron. All these things are com- 
puted in solar years, months, and days. 

The candra-mdna is need in the computation of the 
eleven karaya (v. chap. Ixxviii.), in the determination 
of the leap month, in the computation of the sum of 
days of the •Anardtra (v. chap, li.), and of new moon and 
full moon for lunar and solar eclipses (v. chap. lix.). 


In all these things the Hindns use Inuar years, months, 
and days, which are culled tit/d. 

The sdvana-7ndna is need in the calculation of the 
vdm, i.e. the days of the week, of the ahargana, i.e. the 
sum of the days of an era (v. chap, ii.) ; in determining 
the days of marriage and fasting (v. chap. Ixxv.) ; the 
$ilUfka, i.e. the days of childbed (v. chap. Ixix.); the 
days of the uucleanneas of the houses and the vessels 
of the dead (v. chap. Ixxii.); the rdkilad, i.e. certain 
months and years in which Hindu medical science pre- 
scribes the taking certain medicines ; further in deter- 
mining the prdyaAciila, i.e. the days of the expiations 
which the Brahmans make obligatory for those who 
have committed some sin, times during which they are 
obliged to fast and to besmear themselves with butter 
and dung (v. chap. Ixxi.). All these things are deter- 
mined according to sdvwna-mdna. 

On the contrary, they do not determine anything 
by the nalcsliatra-rndna, since it is comprehended in the 

Every ineasnre of time which any class T>f people 
may choose by general consent to call a day, may be 
considered as a mdna. Some such days have already 
been mentioned in a preceding chapter (v. chap, xxxiii.). 
However, the four 7ndnas par excellence are those to 
the explanation of which we have limited the present 

( 3S6 ) 

And dab- 

FftgS s8a 

olid <tni«Aa« 



As the year is one revolution of the sun in the ecliptic, 
it is divided in the same way as the ecliptic. The latter 
is divided into two halves, depending upon the two 
solstitial points. Correspondingly the year is divided 
into two halves, each of which is called ayana. 

When the sun leaves the point of the winter solstice, he 
begins to move towards the north pole. Therefore this 
part of the year, which is nearly one half, is referred to 
the north and called uttardyana, i.e. the period of the 
son’s marching through siz zodiacal signs beginning 
with Captr. In consequence, this half of the ecliptic 
is called makarddi, i.o. having Caper as beginning. 

When the sun leaves the point of the summer solstice 
he begins to move towards the south pole ; therefore 
this second half is referred to the south and called 
dakshindyana, i.e. the period of the sun's marching 
through six zodiacal signs beginning with Cancer. In 
consequence, this half of the ecliptio is called kark&di, 
i.6. having Cancer as beginning. 

Uneducated people use only these two divisions or 
year-halves, because the matter of the two solstices is 
clear to them from the observation of their senses. 

Further, the ecliptic is divided Into two halves, ac- 
cording to its declination from the equator, and this 
divisiou is a more scientific one, less known to the 
people at large than the former, because it rests on 
calculation and speculation. Each half is called kAla. 



That which has northern declination is called uUaraktXla 

or mesliddi, i.e. having Aries as beginning ; that which 
has southern declination is called daJcskakila or iulddi, 
i.e. having TAhra as beginning. 

I’urther, the ecliptic is by both these divisions divided 
into four parts, and the periods during which the sun 
traverses them are called the stasons of tin year — spring, 
summer, autumn, and winter. Accordingly, the isodiaeal 
signs are distributed over the seasons. However, the 
Hindus do not divide the year into four, but into six 
parts, and call these six parts filu. Each fitu com- 
prehends two solar months, i.e. the period of the sun’s 
marching through two consecutive zodiacal signs. Their 
names and dominants are represented, according to the 

most widespread theory, in the foUowing diagram. 

I have been told that in the region of Soman9,th people 
divide the year into three parts, each consisting of four 
months, the first being varshaMla, beginning with the 
month Ashlirlha ; the second, iitaJcala, i.e. the winter ; 
and the third, ushnaMla, i.e. the summer. 

Tlie Z<ylirtoiv1 Slgof^ 
of the Ritu. 



1 FiscM and 


THua*u| Rod 

Their name. 


Vaeanta or , 
Kiiijum&kara. 1 

Griahma or 

2 NSrada, A^ni the fire, 

Buorplo and Vlive *»d 
SaglttMTlui, Llbrn. 

35 * 


Plkgt i3r. 

The dotnta* 
enti of Ihe 

of moDtiie. 

I am inclined to think that the Hindns divide the 
ecliptio by such an opening of the circle which divides 
the cirCD^erenoe of a circle into six parts, a measure 
which is eqnal to the radius, be^nning with the two 
solstitial points, and that therefore they use sixth parts 
of the eoUptio. If this is really the case, we must not 
forget that we, too, sometimes divide the ecliptio, be- 
ginning. with the two solstitial points, at other times 
beginning with the equinoctial points, and that we nse 
the division of the ecliptio in twelfth parts side by 
side with that in fourth parts. 

The months are divided into halves from new moon 
to full moon, and from full moon to new moon. The 
Vidiiiv^DluiTma mentions the dominants of the halves 
of the months, as we give them in the following table : — 

The Netutt oi the 

ThD dmoioiuits at tho 

Tbe doiuiuanto of the 

Bright belf of mch 

ftaclr half of oach 


Twashtrl . 






l^akra . 



VisTodevalj . 



, , 




4ja . 



A:teoa (?) . 



Agni . 



PauAa . . 

Sanmja ■ 

Jtva . . 





, . 






( 359 ) 

CHAPTER xxxvnr. 


The day is called dimas {dimasu), in classical langaage 
dimaa, the night rdtri, and the nychthemeron ahordim. 
The month is called mdsa and its half The first 

or white half is called hiklapaksha, becanse the first 
parts of its nights have moonlight at times when people 
do not yet sleep, when the light on the moon’s body 
increases and the dark i^ortion decreases. The other 
or hlack half is called kriahifapaksha, because the first 
parts of its nights are moonless, whilst other parts have 
moonlight, but only then when people sleep. They are 
the nights when the light on the body of the moon 
wanes, whilst the dark part increases. 

The sum of two months is a nUt, but this is only an 
approximative definition, for the month which has two 
padcsha is a lunar month, whilst that one the double 
of which is a ritu is a solar month. 

Six pilu are a year of mankind, a solar year, which 
is called harh or harkh or harsh, the three sounds h, 
kh, and sh being much confounded in tlie mouth of the 
Eindns (Skr. varsha). 

Three hundred and sixty years of mankind are one 
year of the angels, called dihba-barh (divyu-mrsha), and 
12,000 years of the angels are unanimously reckoned as 
one caturyaga. There is a difference of opinion only 
regarding the four parts of the caturyuga and regarding 
the moltiplications of it which form a inanvantara and 

PftfU t$9. 

llo» of tbo 
aSoglo roM- 
eiire* of 


a kalpa. This aabjecb will he fully explained in the 
proper place (7. chaps. xlL and xliv.). 

Two kalpaa are a day of Brahman. It is the same 
if we say two kalpas or 28 manvanlarns, for 360 days 
of Brahman are a year of Brahman, i.e. 720 h’lpas or 
10,080 manm 7 ilarcu. 

Further, they say that the life of Brahman is too of 
hia years, i.e. 72,000 kalpas or 1,008,000 7nanvnnlaiyiJ!. 

In the present book we do not go beyond this limit, 
The book Viahnu-Dkarma has a tradition from Mllr- 
ka^d^yti) '"^ho answers a question of Vajra in these 
words : *' Kalpa is the day of Brahman, and the same 
is a night of his. Therefore 720 kalpaa ore a year of 
his, and his life has 100 such years. These 100 years 
are one day of Purusha, and the same is a night of his. 
How many Brahmans, however, have already preceded 
Pumsho, none knows but he who can conut the sand 
of the Granges or the drops of the rain." 

( 36i ) 



All that is devoid of order or contradicts the rules laid 
down in the preceding parts of this book is repulsive 
to onr nature and disagreeable to our ear. But the 
Hindus are people who mention a number of names, 
all — as they maintain — referring to the One, the First, 
or to some one behind him who is only hinted at. 
"When they come to a chapter like this, they repeat the 
same names as denoting a multitude of beings, measur- 
ing out lives for them and inventing huge numbers, 
The latter is all they want ; they indulge in it most 
freely, and numbers are patient, standing as yon place 
them. Besides, there is not a single subject on which 
the Hindus themselves z^ree among each other, and 
this prevents us on our part adopting the use of it. On 
the contrary, they disagree on these imaginary measures 
of time to the same extent as on the divisions of the 
day which are less than a prdifa (v. chap, xxxiv.). 

The book SrH-dliava by Utpala says that “a iiiart'- 
vant(M-a is the life of Indra the ruler, and 28 nianmii- 
taras are one day of Pitflmaha, i.e. Brahman. His life 
is 100 years, or one day of Ksi^avo. The life of the 
latter is 100 years, or one day of Mnlifideva. ITie life 
of the latter is 100 years, or one day of ISvara, who is 
near to the Supreme Being. His life is 100 years, or 
one day of SadnSiva. The life of the latter is 100 
years, or one day of Virafjcana, the Eternal, who will 

Wanbof ny** 
tem reguM* 
Ing tbe 
mMsurw of 

Pjgfl it}. 
metaiiroi of 

tlmo dotfr* 
mfn»d hf 

l>f <ruli4. 


last for ever, even when the preceding five beings 

We have already mentioned that the life of Brahman 
is as long as 72,000 Icalpas. All numbers which we 
shall here mention are kalpas. 

If the life of Brahman is a day of Kelava, his year-, 
consisting of three hundred and sixty days, has 
25,920,000 hcUpaa, and his life, 2,592,000,000 kalpai. 
Tlie latter is l day of Mahftdeva ; his life, therefore, 

93.3 1 2.000. 000.000 Aafpos. Thelatterisi dayof I^vara; 
therefore his life 3,359,232,000.000,000,000 kalpaa. 
Tlie latter is i day of Sad&liva; therefore his life 

120.932.352.000. knipas. The latter is 
one day of Viraiicana, of which the pardrdliakalpa is 
only relatively a very small part (v. p. 175). 

Whatever may be the nature of these calculations, 
apparently the day and the centennium are the elements 
oat of which the whole from beginning to end has 
been oonstmcted. Others, however, bnild their system 
on the small particles of the day which we have pre- 
viously mentioned (in chap, xxxiv.). In consequence, 
these people differ among themselves regarding that 
which they compose, as they differ regarding the par- 
ticles out of which they compose. We shall here give 
one system of this kind as invented by those who use 
the following metrologio system : — 

I gha(i = 16 kali. 

1 kali s 30 kithihi. 

I kdihihi a 30 aitMiha, 

I nineiha s 2 lava, 

I lava = 3 trufi. 

The reason of this division is, as they maintain, the 
fact that the day of Siva is composed out of similar 
particles ; for the life of Brahman is one ghalt of Hari, 
i.e. Ylsudeva. The life of the latter is lOo years, or 
one kald of Budra, i.e. Mahildeva ; the life of the latter 
is lOO years, or one kdsh{kd of l^vara ; the life of the 



latter is lOO years, or one niviesha of Sadjyiva ; the 
life of the latter is 100 yeara, or one lava of i^kti; the 
life of the latter is lOO years, or one t 7 ~u(i of Siva. 

If, DOW, ibe Ilfu of Bralimun U 

72,000 ixilpan , 

(be life nf KArUjaiis is 

155.520.000. 000 knlfxu / 
tbo life of Rudio, 

i'374>77i>AOO,ooo,ooo,ooo ; 
the life of tAvara, 

5f572>56!i<7&>, 1^,000,000,000,000,000 ; 
the life of SailAjiva, 

t he life of Sakti, 

10.782.449.978.758.523.78 1. 120. 000. 000.000. 000. 000.000. 000. 000.000, 
The Utter Dumber represeDta one (rufi. 

If you compose a day out of it according to the above- 
mentioned system, it has 37,264,147,126,589458,187. 
550,720, 000, 000, 000,000, 000, 000, 000, oc», 000, 000 kal- 

pas. The latter number is one day of 6iva, whom they 
describe as the eternal one, who is exemptfrom being pro- 
created and from procreating, free from all qualities and 
attributes which may be applied to created things. The 
last-mentioned number represents fifty-six orders of 
number {i.e. units, tens, hundreds, thousands, &c. &c.) ; 
but if those dreamershadraore assiduously studied arith- 
metic, they would not have invented such outrageous 
nnmbers. God takes care that their trees do not grow 
into heaven. 

( 364 ) 



Psgeiii. The original samdhi is the interval between day and 
night, i.e. morning-dawn, called samdhi udaya, i.e. the 
KihdAu. iaihdki of the rising, and evening dawn, called «am- 
dhi astamana, i.e. the sadidhi of the setting. The 
Hindus require them for a religious reason, for the 
Brahmans wash themselves during them, and also at 
noon in the midst between them for dinner, whence an 
uninitiated person might infer that there is still a third 
samdki. However, none who knows the subject pro- 
perly will count more than two samdhis. 

The Purlpas relate the following story of King Hiran- 
yakaiipu, of the class of the Daitya : — 
storvoi By practising devotion for a long period, he had 
earned the claim that any prayer of his should be 
granted. He asked for eternal life, but only l&ny life 
was granted to him, for eternity is a quality of the 
Creator alone. Not having obtained the realisation 
of this wish, he desired that his death should not be 
effected by the hand of a human being, angel, or demon, 
and that it should not take place on earth nor in heaven, 
neither in the night nor in the day. By such clauses 
he meant to avoid death, which is unavoidable by man. 
His wish was granted to him. 

This wish reminds one of the wish of the devil that 
he should he allowed to live till the day of resurrection, 



because on that day all beings would rise from death. 
However, he did not attain his object, as it was only 
conceded to him to live till the day of the well-known 
time, of which it has been said that it is the last of the 
days of trouble. 

The king had a son called Prahhida, whom he in- 
trusted to a teacher when be grew up. One day the 
king ordered him into his presence to learn what he 
was studying. Now the buy recited to him a poem, 
the meaning of which was that only Vishnu exists, 
whilst eveiytliing else is illusion. This went much 
against the opinions of his father, who hated Vishnu, 
and therefore he ordered the boy to be intrusted to 
another master, and that he should learn to distin- 
guish a friend from an enemy. Thereupon he waited 
a certain time, and then examined him again, when the 
boy answered, “ I have learned wliat you have ordered, 
but I do not want it, for I am in friendship alike with 
everything, not in enmity with anything.” Now his 
father became angry and ordered him to be poisoned. 
The boy took the poison in the name of God and thought 
of Vishnu, and lo ! it did not hurt him. His father 
said, “Do you know witchcraft and incantations ? ” The 
boy answered, “No, but the God who has created me 
and given me to thee watches over me.” Now the 
wrath of the king increased, and he gave orders to 
throw him into the deep sea. But the sea threw him 
ont again, and he returned to his place. Then' he was 
thrown before the king into a huge blazing fire, but it 
did not hurt him. Standing in the flame, he began to 
converse with his fatlier on God and his power. When 
the boy by chance said that Vishi^u is in every place, 
Ms father said, “ Is he also in this column of the por- 
tico?" The boy said, “ Yes.” Then his father jumped 
gainst the column and beat it, whereupon Narasiriiha 
came forth from it, a human figure with a lion’s head, 
therefore neither a human being, nor an angel, nor a 



UMd in 



hire quoted. 

Page x8s. 

Ob tli6 


and ite com* 
with the pre* 
eatalon of 
tbe equt* 


Other kinds 

demon. Now the king and his people began to 6ght 
with Naraairtiha, who let them do so, for it was day- 
time. But when it was towards evening and they were 
in the saihdJd or twilight, therefore neither in the day 
nor in the night, then Nsrasiihha caught the king, 
raised him into tbe air, and killed him there ; therefore 
not on earth nor in heaven. The prince was taken out 
of the ^re and ruled in his place. 

Hindu astrologers require the two aariidM, because 
then some of the zodiacal signs exercise the most power- 
ful inSnence, as we shall explain hereafter in the proper 
place. They make use of them in a rather superficial 
way, simply reckoning the time of each samdhi as one 
m?tMria=two 5'Aa/i = 48 minutes. However, Varaha- 
mihira, excellent astronomer as he is, always only used 
day and night, and did not allow himself to follow the 
opinion of the crowd regarding the aamdhi. He ex- 
plained the aamdM as that which it really ia, viz. as 
the moment when tbe centre of the body of the sun 
stands exactly over the horizontal circle, and this 
moment he establishes to be the time of the greatest 
power of certain zodiacal signs. 

Besides the two iairidhi of the natural day, astrono- 
mers and other people assume still other saifidhis, 
which do not rest on a law of nature nor on observa- 
tion, but simply on some hypothesis. So they attribute 
a samdhi to each ayana, i.e. to each of tbe year-halves 
in which the snn ascends and descends (v. chap, xxxvii.), 
a snrhdhi of seven days before its real beginning. On 
this subject I have an idea which is certainly possible, 
and even rather likely, viz, that this theory ia of 
recent origin, not of ancient date, and that it has been 
brought forward about 1 300 of Alexander ( « A.D. 989), 
when the Hindus found out that the real solstice 
precedes the solstice of their calculation. For Pufl- 
jala, the author of the Small Mdnasa, says that in the 
year 854 of the Sakak&la the real solstice preceded hie 


calculation by 6° $ 0 % and that this difference will in- 
crease in future by one minute every year. 

These are the words of a man who either was him- 
self a most careful practical observer, or who examined 
the observations of former astronomers which he had 
at bis disposal, and tliereby found out the amount of 
the annual difference. No doubt, also, other people 
have perceived the same or a similar difference by 
means of the calculation of the noon-shadows. There- 
fore (as this observation was already much known) 
Utpala of Kashmir has taken this theory from I’uhjala. 

This conjecture of mine is confirmed by the fact that 
the Hindus prefix the saihdim of the solstices to each 
of the six seasons of the year, in consequence of which 
they begin already with the twenty-third degree of the 
next preceding signs. 

The Hindus assume a samdhi, boo, between the dif- 
ferent yugas and between the manvantaras ; but as the 
bases of this theory are hypothetical, so everything else 
derived from them is hypothetical. We shall ^ve a 
BufficieDt explauation of these things in the proper 

( 368 ) 

On the niM* 
•ure of a 




Twelve thousand Divya-years, the length of which has 
already been explained (v. chap, xxxv.), are one catur- 
yvija, and locxj caturyvgus are one kaljxi, a period at 
the beginning and end of whicji th^re is a conjunction 
of the seven planets and their apsides and nodes in o° 
of Aries. The days of the kalpa are called the ka!.pa- 
akargaiia, for dh means day, and argana means iJui sum. 
Since they are civil days derived from the rising of the 
snn, they are also called days of the earth, for rising 
presupposes an horizon, and an horizon is one of the 
necessary attributes of the eartli. 

By the same name, kaipa-ahargana, people also call 
the sum of days of any era up to a certain date. 

Our Muslim authors call the days of the kalpa the 
days of the Sind-hind or the days of the world, counting 
them as 1 , 577, 916, 450, COO days (sdvana or civil days), 
or 4,320.000,000 solar yeai-s, or 4,452,775,000 lunar 
years. The same sum of days converted into years of 
360 civil days is equal to 4,383, 101,250 of them, and to 
1 2,000,000 divya-years. 

The Aditya-PurlDa “ Kalyama is composed of 
kal, which means the existence of the species in the 
world, and pana, which means their destruction and 
disappearance. The sum of this existing and perish- 
ing is a kalpa.’' 

Brahmagupta says : “ Since the planets and mankind 



in the world came into existence at the beginning of 
the day of Brahman, and since they both perish at 
the end of it, we must adopt this day of their existence 
as a h'oJpa, not another period.” 

In another place he says : " A thousand calwywja are 
one day of t)eval;a, i.e. Ijrahuian, and a night of his is 
of the same length. Therefore his day is ecjual to 2000 

In the same way Yyhsa the sou of Pariaiiara says : “He 
who believes that lOOO caturywjaa are a day and lOOO 
eaturyugas a night, knows Brahman.” 

Within the space of a kalpa 71 calwyugas are equal 
to I manu, i.e. vianvantara, or Manu-period, and 14 
manus are equal to i kcUpa, Multiplying 71 by 14, 
you get 994 catwryugas as the period of 14 manvan- 
taras, and a remainder of 6 catiiryugwi till the end of 
the kalpa. 

If we, however, divide these 6 eaturyugas by 15, in 
order to End the samdhi both at the beginning and end 
of each of the 14 manvartiaras, the number of the 
samdhis being by 1 larger than that of the manvaniaras, 
the quotient is -fths. If we now insert 4 caturyuga 
between each two consecutive manvaritaras, and add the 
same amount both at the beginning of the Ei'St and the 
end of the last viam'anta 7 -as, the fraction of 4 disap- 
pears at the end of 1 5 manvaiUaras (4 X 15=6). The 
fractions at the beginning and end of the kalpa repre- 
sent the mriulhi, i.c. a common link. A ktdpa, includ- 
ing its sailuihi, bas 1000 eaturyugas, as we have said in 
the first part of this chapter. 

The single parts of a kaljm stand in a constant rela- 
tion to each other, one bearing witness regai'ding the 
other. For it commences with the vernal equinox, a 
Sunday, the conjunction of the planets, their apsides 
and nodes, which takes place there where there is neither 
Hevatl nor Aivint, i.e. between them, at the beginning 
of the month Caitra, and in the moment of the sun’s 

VOL. 1. 2 a 

Piigo iSS, 

RoUttnii bc- 
«cirtCa>'o uuJ 

nf tlie bo* 
frltitilnK ul 
» Mjxi. 

IlieoriM of 
ibe older, 
Puli'B, end 
tbe ) (iuiJi(«r, 

E*ag< 1S7. 


rising over Latik 4 . When there occurs an irregularity 
with one of these conditions, all tbe others become con- 
fused aud are no longer valid. 

We have already mentioned tbe number of the days 
and the years of a kalim. Accordingly a mturyuga, os 
of a Ii:al2in, has 1,577, pi 6, 450 days aud 4, 330, 000 
yeare. The numbers show the relation between a kalpa 
and a catunjiiga, and show further how to determine 
the one by the other. 

All we have said in this chapter rests on the theory 
of Brahmagupta and on the arguments by which be 
suppoits it. 

Aryabhata the elder and Pulisa compose the manvan- 
tam from 73 caluryugas, and the kaljm from 14 ma?i- 
ranlaras, without inserting anywhere a saiiidki. There- 
fore, according to them, a kalpa has 1008 eaturyiigas; 
further, 12,096,000 divyayears, or 4,354,560,000 human 

According to Pulisa, a catiiryuga has 1,577,917,800 
dvil days. According to him, therefore, the sum of the 
days of a&olpa would be 1,590,541,142,400. These are 
the numbers which he uses in bis book. 

1 have not been able to find anything of the books 
of Aryabhata. All I know of him I know throngh 
the quotations from him given by Brahmagupta. The 
latter says in a treatise called Critical Retearch on t/te 
Sasis of tht Canons, that according to Aryabhata the 
sum of the days of a eatii/ryuga is 1,577,917,500, i.e. 
300 days less than accoi-dingto Pulisa. Therefore Arya- 
bhata would give to a kalpa 1,590,540,840,000 days. 

According to Aryabhata and Pulisa, the kalya and 
cataryuga begin with midnight which follows after the 
day the beginning of which is the beginning of the 
kal^, according to Brahmagupta. 

Aryabhata of Kusumapnra, who belongs to tbe school 
of the elder Aryabhata, says in a small book of his on 
Al-nt/(f), that “ 1008 caiuryugaa are one day of Brah- 



nan. The first half of 504 catwyugas is called vlmr- 
pit.ii, duviog which the son is ascendiug, aod the second 
half is called acasai-pini, during which tlie sim is de- 
scending. The midst of this period is called sania, i.e. 
equality, for it is the midst of the day, and the two 
ends are called durtama (?).’' 

This is so far correct, as the comparison between day 
and kalpa goes, but the remark about the sun’s ascend- 
ing and descending is not correct. If he meant the 
Bun who makes our day, it was his duty to explain of 
what kind that ascending and descending of the sun is ; 
but if he meant a sun who specially belongs to the day 
of Brahman, it was his duty to show or to describe him 
to ns. I almost think that the author meant by these 
two expressions the progressive, increasing develop- 
ment of things during the first half of this period, and 
the retrograde, decreasing development in the second 

( 37a ) 



The«ingie Trb aathop of the Vi 8 hnu-Dhm-viaza,js: “Twelvehnn- 
dred divya years are one yuya, called tishya. The double 
it' i® ® dvdpara, the triple a tretd, the quadruple a 
^ 225 .““* krita, and all iovayugas together are one caturyuga,i.e. 
the four yugas or suvia. 

“ Seventy-one caturyuyas are one manvantara, and 
14 manvantaras, together with a saihdki of the duration 
of one kritayuga between each two of them, are one 
kalpa. Two kalpas are a nychthemeron of Brahman, 
and his life is a hundred years, or one day of Pnrusha, 
the first man, of whom neither beginning nor end is 

This is what Varnna, the lord of the water, communi- 
cated to Bima, the son of Dalaratha, in primeval times, 
since he knew these things thoroughly. The same 
information has also been given by Bhilrgava, i.e. 
Mfirkap^eya, who had such a perfect knowledge of time 
that he easily mastered every number. He is to the 
Hindus like the angel of death, who kills them with 
Ills seat, being aprati-dlvi-i^ya (irresistible). 

Brahmagupta says : “ The book Smi'Ui mentions that 
4000 dvoaka years are one kritayuga, but together with 
a sa/iMhi of 400 years and a sathdhj&mia of 400 years, 
a kritayuga has 4800 devaka years. 

“Three thousandyears are one tretAyuga, but together 



with a saihdhi and a mmdhydm 4 a, each of 300 years, a 
trtt&yuga has 3600 years. 

“Two thousand years are a dvdpara, but together 
with a sarhdhi and a samdhy&mAa, each of 2O0 years, 
a dvdpara has 2400 years. 

“A thousand years are one kali, but together with a 
satiidhi and a sathdhydThia, each of 100 years, a kali- 
yvya has 1200 years,” 

This is what Brahinagnpta quotes from the book 

“ Divya years are changed into human years by being DtirrtMon uf 
multiplied by 360. Accordingly the four yugas have 
the following sums of human years : — 

A kjitayuga lias 1,440,000 years, 

besides 144,000 „ tarhdhi, 

and 144,000 ., lartidhydihh.. 

Sum total 1,728,000 years = onB ifitoyuja. 

A treldyuga has 1 ,080,000 years, 

besides 108,000 „ latkdhi, 

and 108, ooo ,, tajliiihydihia. Pnge 18S. 

Sum total 1,296,000 years = one tretdyvya. 

A dvdpara has 720,000 years, 

besides 72,000 „ lailulhi, 

and 72,000 „ taihdhydTlkia. 

Sum total 864,000 yBar8 = 0De dvdpara. 

A kali has 360,000 years, 

besides 36.000 ,, sathdhi, 

and 36,000 „ imiidhydihia. 

Sum total 432,000 years = one ikai«yuj7rt. 

“The sum of the hrita and tretd is 3,024,000 years, 
and the' sum of the kfita, tretd, and dvdpara is 
3,888,000 years.” 

Further, Brahmagupta says that “Aryabhata con- ir|abiii^^n 
eiders the four yugas as the four equal parts of a calur- quoted b; 
yuga. Thus he differs from the doctrine of the book gupta. 
Smriti, just mentioned, and he who differs from us is an 



Tlia rule of 



opponent.” On the otlier hand, Brahmagupta praises 
Paulisa for what he does, since he does not differ from 
the book Smriii; for lie subtracts 1200 from the 
4800 years of the h'iifti/uf/a, and diminishes the re- 
mainder still more and inoie, so as to get yxtgne which 
correspond with those of the Smt-Ui, but yuf/ns without 
amhdM and saiiidhydthda. As legards the Greeks, we 
may notice that they haye nothing like the tradition 
of the Smjiti, for they do not measure time by yugas, 
manvantaras, or knlpas. 

So far the quotation from Brahmagupta. 

As is well known, there is no difference of opinion 
on the sum of the years of a complete catwnptga. There- 
fore, according to Aryabhata, the kaliyuga has 3CXX) divya 
years or i,o8o,000 human years. Each two yugas has 
6000 divya years or 2,160,000 human years. Each 
three yugas has 9000 divya years or 3,240,000 huiflan 

There is a tradition that Panlisa in his Siddhdnla 
specifies various new rules for the computation of these 
numbers, some of which may be accepted, whilst others 
are to be rejected. So in the rule for the computation 
of the yugas he puts 48 as the basis and subtracts one- 
fourth of it, so as to get 36. Then he again subtracts 
12, for this number is his basis of subtraction, so as to 
get 24, and subtracting the same number a third time, 
he gets 12. These 12 he multiplies by 100, and the 
product represents the number of divya years of the 

If he had made the number 60 the basis, for most 
things may be determined by it, and had made one-llfth 
of it the basis of subtraction, or if he had subtracted 
from 60 consecutive fractious of the remaining number, 
first f = 12, from the remainder \ » 12, from the re- 
mainder J = 12, and from the remainder ^ = 12, he 
would bare obtained the same result which he has found 
by his method (60- -^=48, - { = 36,- ^ = 24, - J = i2). 



It is possible that Panlisa simply mentions this method 
as one among others, and that it is not that one in pai"- 
ticular which he himself adopted. A translation of his 
whole work into Arabic has not hitherto yet been under- 
taken, because in his mathematical problems there is 
an evident religious and theological tendency. 

PiiHsa deviates from the rule which he himself gives 
when he wants to compute how many of our years have 
elapsed of the life of Brahman before the present knlpa. 
Up to the time of his writing, eight years five months 
and four days of a new kalpa had elapsed. He counts 
6068 halpas. As, according to him, a kalpa has 1008 
caturyugns, he multiplies this number by 1008 and gets 
6, 1 16,544 catiiryiigas. These he changes into yngas by 
multiplying them by 4, and he gets 24,466, 176 
As a ipign, according to him, has 1,080,000 years, he 
mnltiplies the number of yitgas by 1,080,000, and gets 
as the product 26,423,470,080,000, i.e. the number of 
years which have elapsed of the life of Brahman before 
the present kalpa. 

Perhaps it will seem strange to the followers of 
Brahmagupta that he (Pnlisa) has not changed the 
catiiryVAjas into exact ytigas, but simply changed them 
into fourth parts (by dividing them by 4), and mul- 
tiplied these fourth parts by the number of years of a 
single fourth part. 

Now, we do not a=k him what is the use of repre- 
senting the caiuryu'jaH as fourth parts, inasmucli as 
they have no fraction which, in this manner, must be 
reduced to wholes. The multiplication of the whole 
cotvryngas by the years of one complete eaUirynga, i.e. 
4,320poo, would have been suflSoieiitly lengthy. We, 
however, say that he would be correct in doing so if he 
had not been infiiienced by the wish of bringing the 
elapsed years of the present kalgm into relation with the 
last-mentioned number, and multiplied the complete 
elapsed manvantaras by 72 in agreement with his 

ruiinft ohi* 
culi«tw lltiW 
much tho 


eUpaed bo* 
/oru tbo pK* 
•ODt Laipa. 


oil ihio cftl* 



ta’A liftiBh 
on Ary«« 


Icngthi of 
the iolar 

theoiy ; farther, if he had not multiplied the product 
by the years of a eaiwyuya, which gives the product of 
1,866,240,000 years, and, moreover, had not multiplied 
the number of the complete caturyu<i(ui which have 
elapsed of the current manvanlara by the years of a 
single caturyiiga, which gives the product of 1 1 6,640,000 
years. Of the cuiTent catimjuga there have elapsed 
three y^igas, t.«. according to him, 3,240,000 yeara The 
latter number represents three-fonrths of the years of a 
catui-yuga. He uses the same number when computing 
the week-day of a date by means of the number of the 
days of the here-mentioned number of years. If he 
believed in the above-mentioned rule, he would use it 
where it is required, and he would reckon the three 
yugas as nine-tenths of a ral.iiryiiga. 

Now, it is evident that that which Brahmagupta re- 
lates on his authority, and with which he Iiimself agrees, 
is entirely unfounded ; but he is blind to this from sheer 
hatred of Aryabhata, whom he abuses excessively. And 
in this respect Aryabhato and Pnlisa are the same to 
him. I take for witness the passage of Brahmi^upta 
where he says that Aryabhata has subtracted something 
from the cycles of the Capid Draconis and of the apsis 
of the moon, and thereby rendered confused the com- 
putation of the eclipse. He is rude enough to compare 
Aiyabbata to a worm which, eating the wood, by chance 
describes certain characters in it, without understanding 
them and witliont intending to draw them. “ He, how- 
ever, who knows these things thoroughly stands oppo- 
site to Aryabhata, Srishe];ia, and Yishpucandra like the 
lion against gazelles. They are not capable of letting 
him see their faces." In such offensive terms he attacks 
Aryabhata, and maltreats him. 

We have already mentioned (v. chap, xli.) how many 
civil days (sdvana) a caluryuga has accoi'cling to the 
three scholars. Pnlisa gives it 1350 days more than 
Brahmagupta, but the number of yews of a caluryicga 



is the same according to both. Therefore, evidently 
Polisa gives the solar year more days than Brahma- 
gnpta. To judge from the report of Brahmagupta, 
Aryabhata gives a catwyuga 300 days less than Pulisa, 
and 1050 more than Brahmagupta. Accordingly, Arya- 
bhata must reckon the solar year longer than Brahma- 
gupta and shorter than Pulisa, 

( 378 ) 

On nAtuiul 


Pftffe 190. 



The BDcIent Greeks held regarding the earth varions 
opinions, of which we shall relate one for tlie sake of 
an example. 

The disasters which from time to time befal the earth, 
both from above and from below, differ in quality and 
quantity. Frequently it has experienced one so in- 
commensurable in quality or in quantity, or in both 
together, that there was no remedy gainst it, and that 
no flight or caution was of any avail. The catastrophe 
comes on like a deluge or an earthquake, bringing 
destruction either by the breaking in of the surface, 
or by drowning with water which breaks forth, or by 
burning with hot stones and ashes that are thrown 
ont, by thunderstorms, by landslips, and typhoons ; fur- 
ther, by contagious and other diseases, by pestilence, 
and more of the like. Thereby a large region is stnpped 
of its inhabitants ; but when after a while, after the 
disaster and its consequences have passed away, the 
country begins to recover and to show new signs of life, 
then different people flock there together like wild 
animals, who formerly were dwelling in hiding-holes 
and on the tops of the mountains. They become 
civilised by assisting each other against common foes, 
wild beasts or men, and furthering each other in the 
hope for a life in safety and joy. Thus they increase 



to great numbers ; but then ambition, circling round 
them with the wings of wrath and envy, begins to dis- 
turb the serene bliss of their life. 

Sometimes a nation of such a kind derives its pedi- 
gree from a person who first settled in the place or 
distinguished himself by something or other, so that he 
alone continues to live in the recollection of the suc- 
ceeding generations, whilst all others beside him are 
forgotten. Plato mentions in the Ihok of Laws Zeus, t.«. 
Jupiter, as the forefather of the Greeks, and to Zens is 
traced back the pedigree of Hippocrates, which is men- 
tioned in the last chapters added at the end of the book. 
We must, however, obsei-ve that the pedigree contains 
only very few generations, not more than fourteen. It is 
the following : — Hippokrates — Gnosidikos — Nebrtra — 
Sostratos — Theodoros — Kleomyttades — Krisamis — 
Dardanas — Sostratos — (?) — Ilippolochos — Po- 
daleirios — Machaon — Asclepios — Apollo — Zens — Kro- 
nos, i.e. Saturn. 

The Hindus have similar traditions regarding the 
Caturyuga, for according to them, at the beginning of 
it,f.«. at the beginningof Kritayuga, there was happiness 
and safety, fertility and abundance, health and force, 
ample knowledge and a great number of Brahmans. 
The good is complete in this age, like four-fourths of a 
whole, and life lasted 4000 years alike for all beings 
during this whole space of time. 

Thereupon things began to decrease and to be mixed 
with opposite elements to such a degree, that at the 
beginningof Tretayuga the good was thrice as much ns 
the invading bad, and that bliss was three-quarters of 
the whole. There were a greater number of Kshat- 
riyas than of Mrahmans, and life had the same length 
as in the preceding age. So it is represented by the 
ViAiyii-Dhanui, whilst analogy requires that it should 
be shorter by the same amount than bliss is smaller, i.e. 
by one-fourth. In this age, when offering to the fire, 



the four 
uges or 



they begin to kUI animals and to tear off plants, prac- 
tices which before were unknown. 

Thns the evil increases till, at the beginning of Dvll- 
para, evil and good exist in equal proportions, and like- 
wise bliss and misfortnne. The climates begin to differ, 
there is much killing going on, and the religions become 
different. Life becomes shorter, and lasts only 400 
years, according to the ViahifAi-Dharma, At the begin- 
ning of Tishya, i.«. Kaliynga, evil is thrice as much as 
the remaining good. 

The Hindus have several well-known traditions of 
events which are said to have occurred in the 'Pretfl and 
DrS^para yugas, e.g. the story of E8,ma, who killed Ra- 
p»g« 191. vatja ; that of Para^urfima the Brahman, who killed every 
Kshatriya he laid hold upon, revenging on them the 
death of his father. They think that he lives in heaven, 
that he has already twenty-one times appeared on earth, 
and that he will again appear. Further, the story of 
the war of the children of P&pdn with those of Knru. 

In the Kaliynga evil increases, till at last it results 
in the destruction of all good. At that time the inhabi- 
tants of the earth peiish, and a new race rises out of 
those who are scattered through tlie mountains and hide 
themselves in caves, uniting for the purpose of worship- 
ping and flying from the horrid, demoniac human race. 
Therefore this is called Krilayuga, which means 
“ Being ready for going away after having finished the 

DonCTiptiOTi In the story of ^aunaka which Venus received from 
RiijSrugi. Brahman, God speaks to him in the following words: 

« When the Haliyuga comes, I send Buddhodana, the 
son of buddhodana the pious, to spread the good in the 
creation. But then the Mulpwrmiira, i.e. the red-wear- 
ing ones, who derive their origin from him, will change 
everything that he has brought, and the dignity of the 
Brahmans will be gone to such a degree that a bhdra, 
their servant, will be impudent towards them, and that 



a Sftdra and Candilla will share with them the presents 
and offerings. Men will entirely be occupied with 
gatliering wealth by crimes, with hoarding up, not re- 
fraining from committing horrid and sinful crimes. All 
this will result in a rebellion of the small ones against 
the great ones, of the children against their parents, 
of the servants against their masters. The castes will 
be in uproar against each other, the genealogies will 
become confused, the four castes will be abolished, and 
there will be many religions and sects. Many books 
will be composed, and the communities which formerly 
were united will on account of them be dissolved into 
single individuals. The temples will be destroyed and 
the schools will lie waste. Justice will be gone, and 
the kings will not know anything but oppression and 
spoliation, robbing and destroying, as if they wanted 
to devour the people, foolishly indulging in far-reaching 
hopes, and not considering how short life is in com- 
parison with the sins (for which they have to atone). 
The more the mind of people is depraved, the more will 
pestilential diseases be prevalent. Lastly, people main- 
tain that most of the astrological rules obtained in that 
age are void and false. 

These ideas have been adopted by MS,ni, for he says : 
“ Know ye that the affairs of the world have been 
changed and altered j also priesthood has been chauged 
since the o-t/iaf/Ktt of heaven, i,e. the spheres, have been 
changed, and the priest can no longer aoqiure snch a 
knowledge of the stars in the circle of a sphere as their 
fathers were able to acquire. They lead mankind astray 
by fraud, What they prophesy may by chance happen, 
but frequently it does not happen.’’ 

The description of these things in the Vuhiin-Dharma 
is much more copious than we have given it. People 
will be ignorant of what is reward aud punisliment ; 
they will deny that the angels have absolute know- 
ledge. Their lives will be of different length, and none 



of the Krl- 


acooraiiig to 




of them will know how long it is. The one will die as 
an embryo, the other as a baby or child. The pious 
will be tom away and will not hare a long life, bnt 
he who does evil and denies religion will live longer. 
SCidras will be kings, and will be like rapacious wolves, 
robbing the others of all that ])!ease8 them. The doings 
of the Brahmans wQl be of the same kind, but the 
inujority will be l^Hdras and brigands. The laws of the 
Brahmans will be abolished. People will point with 
their fingers at those who worry themselves with the 
practice of frugality and poverty as a curiosity, will 
despise them, and will wonder at a man worshipping 
Vishnu ; for all of them have become of the same 
(wicked) character. Therefore any wish will soon be 

Pago 19a. granted, little merit receive great reward, and honour 
and dignity be obtained by little worship and service. 

Bnt finally, at the end of the yuga, when the evil 
will have reitched its highest pitch, there will come for- 
ward Garga, the sou of J-S-V (?) the Brahman, i.e. Kali, 
after whom this yuga is called, gifted with an irresis- 
tible force, and more skilled in the use of any weapon 
than any other. Then he draws his sword to make 
good all that has become bad ; he cleans the surface of 
the earth of the impurity of people and clears the earth 
of them. He collects the pure and pious ones for the 
purpose of procreation. Then the Kritayuga lies -far 
behind them, and the time and the world return to 
purity, and to absolute good and to bliss. 

This is the nature of the yugas as they circle round 
through the Caturyuga. 

riioorigin The book Cai-aka, as quoted by 'All Ibn Zain of 

S^inj w Tabaristan, says : “ In primeval times tlie earth was 
always fertile and healthy, and the elements or mdha- 
hMta were equally mixed. Men lived with each other 
in harmony and love, without any lust and ambition, 
hatred and envy, without anything that makes soul 
and body ill. But then came envy, and lust followed. 



Driven by Inst, they strove to hoard up, which was dif- 
ficult to some, easy to others. All kinds of thoughts, 
labours, and cares followed, and resulted in war, deceit, 
and lyiug. The hearts of men were hardeued, the 
natures were altered and became exi)OBed to diseases, 
which sensed hold of men and mode them neglect the 
worship of God and the furtherance of scieuoe. Igno- 
rance became dee])ly rooted, and the calamity became 
great. Then the pious met before their anchorite 
Kfi^a (?) the son of Atreya, and deliberated ; whereupon 
the sage ascended the mountain and threw himself on 
tbe eai-th. Thereafter God taught him the science of 

All this much resembles the traditions of the Greeks, Qiiotfttioa 
which we have related (in another place). For Aratus 
says in bis 4>a(V(S/xci'a, and in his intimations referring 
to the seventh zodiacal sign : “Look under the feet of 
the Ilerdsman, i.e. Al'awwd, among the northern figures, 
and yon see the Virgin coming with a blooming ear of 
com in her hand, i.e. Alsimdk Al’dzal. She belongs 
either to the star-race, which are said to be the fore- 
fathers of the anciezit stars, or she was procreated by 
another race which we do not know. People say that 
in primeval times she lived among mankind, but only 
among women, not visible to men, being called Justice. 

She need to unite the aged men and those who stood 
in the inai’ket-places and in the streets, and exhorted 
them witli a loud voice to adhere to the truth. She 
presented mankind with innumerable wealth and be- 
stowed rights upon them. At that time the earth was 
called goUlcn. None of its inhabitants knew pernicious 
hypocrisy in deed or word, and there was no objection- 
able schism among them. ' They lived a cjiiiet life, and 
did not yebuavigate the sea in ships. The cows afforded 
the necessary sustenance. 

"Afterwards, when the golden race had expired and 
the silver race come on, Virgo mixed with them, but 




A BCholiQU 
on Aratus. 

without being happy, and concealed herself in the 
mountains, having no longer intercourse with the women 
as foiTuerly. Then she went to the large towns, warned 
their inhabitauts, scolded them for their evil doings, 
and blamed them for ruining the race which the 
golden fathers had left behind. Slie foretold them 
that there would come a race still worse than they, 
and that wars, bloodshed, and other great disasters 
would follow. 

' ' After having finished, she disappeared into the moun- 
tains till the silver race expired and a bronze race came 
up. People invented the sword, the doer of evil 5 they 
tasted of the meat of cows, the first who did it. By all 
this their neighbourhood became odious to Justice, and 
she flew away to the sphere.” 

The commentator of the book of Aratus says : “ This 
Virgin is the daughter of Zeus. She spoke to the 
people on the public places and streets, and at that 
time they were obedient to their rnlers, not knowing 
the bad nor discord. Without any altercation or envy 
they lived from agricnlture, and did not travel on sea 
for the sake of commerce nor for the lust of plunder. 
Their nature was as pure as gold. 

“ But when they gave up these manners and no 
longer adhered to troth. Justice no longer had inter- 
course with them, but she observed them, dwelling in 
the mountains. When, however, she came to their 
meetings, though unwillingly, she threatened them, for 
they listened in silence to her words, and therefore she 
no longer appeared to those who called her, as she had 
formerly done. 

“When, then, after the silver race, the bronze race 
came up, when wars followed each other and the evil 
spread in the world, she started oft', for she wanted on 
no account to stay with them, and hated them, and went 
towards the sphere. 

“There are many traditions regarding this Justice. 


According to some, she is Demeter, because she has the 
ear of com ; according to others, she is Tvx>]-” 

This is what Aratos says. 

The following occurs in the third hook of the Laws 
of Plato 

“ The Athenian said : ' There have been deluges, dis- 
eases, disasters on earth, from which none has been 
eared but herdsmen and mountaineers, as the remnants 
of a race not practised in deceit and in the love of 

“The Knossian said : ‘At the beginning men loved 
each other sincerely, feeling lonely in the desert of the 
world, and because the world had sufficient room for 
all of them, and did not compel them to any exertion. 
There was no poverty among them, no possession, no 
contract. There was no greed among them, and neither 
silver nor gold. There were no rich people among 
them and no poor. If we found any of their books, 
tdiey would afford ns nnmerous proofs for all this.’ ” 

from th» 


( 386 ) 

The slnffle 
ivi. tbeir 
loaraa, sod 
the ohlldreu 
ol l&dra» 

piig» 194. 



Ab ^2,000 kalpas are reckoned as the life of Brahman, 
the manvanta/ra, i.e. period of Mann, is reckoned as the 
life of India, whose rule ends with the end of the 
period. His post is occupied by another Indra, who 
then rules the world in the new maiwantara, Brahma- 
gupta says: " If a man maintains that there is no eamdhi 
between two manvantaras, and reckons each manvan- 
tara as 71 caturyugas, he will find that the kalpa is too 
short by six catwryugas, and the minus below 1000 
in 994) is not better than the plus above 1000 ('t.e. in 
1008, according to Aryabhata). Both numbers, how- 
ever, differ from the book Smriti." 

Further he says : “Aryabhata mentions in two hooks 
of his, the one of which is called Daiagltikd, the other 
AryditaSata, that each manvantara is equal to 72 eatuT- 
yugas. Accordingly he reckons a kalpa at 1008 eatur- 
yugas (14 x 72).” 

In the book Vi^ifU’Dharm.a M^kao^sy^ gives to 
Vajra the following answer : “ Purusha is the lord of 
the universe; the lord of the kalpa is Brahman, the 
lord of the world ; but the lord of the manvantara is 
Manu. There are fourteen Manus, from whom the 
kings of the earth, ruling at the beginning of each 
nuinvanta/ra, descended." 

We have united their names in the following table 



Paige 195. The difference which the reader perceives in the enii- 
meration of the fntare manvantaraa beyond the seventh 
one, arises, as I think, from the same canse whence 

PHrana re* ' ' 

utingtotiie the difference in the names of the Dvtvaa is derived 

^ (v. pp. 235, 236), VIZ. from the fact that the people care 

more for th& namea than for the order in which they 
are handed down to posterity. We may here roly on 
the tradition of the Vuh^u-Purdita, for in this book 
their number, their names and descriptions, are given 
in snch a way that renders it necessary to ns to con- 
sider also the order in which it gives them as trust- 
worthy. But we have refrained from communicating 
these things in this place, since they offer only very 
little use. 

The same book relates that King Maitreya, a Ksha- 
triys, asked PsHUara, the father of Yy^, about the 
pastand the future manvantora^. Thereupon the latter 
mentions the name by which each Honu is known, the 
same names which our table exhibits. According to 
the same book, the children of each Mann will rule the 
earth, and it mentions the ffrst of them, the names of 
whom we have given in the table. According to the 
same source, the Manus of the second, third, fourth, 
and fifth TtuinvaTiiaras will be of the race of Priyatn-aia, 
an anchorite, who stood in such favour with Vishnu, 
that he honoured his children by raising them to this 

( 389 ) 



The Great Bear is in the Indian language called Saptar- 
sftayas, i.e. the Seven Riahis. They are said to hare been 
anchorites who nourished themselves only with what it 
is allowable to eat, and with them there was a pious 
woman, Al-suhd (Uraa Major, star 80 by i). They 
plucked off the stalks of the lotus from the ponds to eat 
of them. Meanwhile came The Law {Dharma?) and 
concealed her from them. Every one of them felt 
ashamed of the other, and they swore oaths which were 
approved of by Dharma. In order to honour them, 
Dkarma raised them to that place where they are now 
seen {sic). 

We have already mentioned that the books of the Hin- 
dus are composed in metres, and therefore the authors 
indulge in comparisons and epitheta o^-nantia, such as 
are admired by their countrymen. Of the same kind 
is a description of the Great Bear in the SamivUd of 
Varahamihira, where it occurs before the astrological 
prognostics derived from this constellation. We give 
the passage according to our translation ; ^ — 

“The northem region is adorned with these stars, as 
a beautiful woman is adorned with a collar of pearls 
strung together, and a necklace of white lotus flowers, 
a handsomely arranged one. Thus adorned, they are 
like maidens who dance and revolve round the ^mle as 
the pole orders them. And I say, on the authority of 
‘ 5arfiAi<(J, oliap. xiii. v. 1-6. 

A tradition 
relatin^f lo 
the wlie of 

from Tari* 



(Ml 0Arg>^ 

Pag^ 196 

G-arga, the ancient, the primeval one, that the Great 
Bear stood in Magh&, the tenth lunar station, when 
Yndhishthira ruled the earth, and the ^akak&la was 
2526 years after this. The Great Bear remains in each 
lunar station 600 years, and it rises in the northreast. 
He (of the Seven l^ishis) who then rules the east is 
Marici ; west of him is Vasishtha, then Ah^ras, Atri, 
Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu, and near Vasishtha there is a 
chaste woman called Arundbatt.” 

As these names are sometimes confounded with each 
other, we shall try to identify them with the oorre- 
spouding stars in the Great Bear ; — 

MftTtci is the 27th star of this constellation. 

Vasishtha „ 26th „ „ 

Aigiras asth „ „ ,, 

Atri „ i8th „ „ ,, 

Emtu „ i6th „ ,, „ 

Pulaha „ 17th „ „ „ 

Pulastya „ I9tb „ „ 

These stars oeenpy in our time, i.e. in the 952nd year 
of the ^kakilia, the space between i of Leo and 13^° 
of Spica (Virgo). According to the peculiar motion of the 
fixed stars, as we know it, the same stars occupied at 
the time of Y udbishthira the space between Gemini 
and 20^° of Cancer. 

According to the motion of the fixed stars, as adopted 
by the ancient astronomers and Ptolemy, these stars 
occupied at that time the space between 26^° of Gemini 
and 8|° of Leo, and the here-mentioned lunar station 
(Magh&) occupied the apace between 0-800 minutes 
b Leo. 

Therefore it would be much more suitable in the 
pment time to represent the Seven Rishis as standing 
in M«^h& than iu the time of Yudhishtbira And if 
the Hindus identify Magh& with the Heart of the Lion, 
we can only say that this constellation at that time 
stood in the first degrees of Cancer. 


39 > 

The words of Garga are without any foundation j they 
only show liow little he knew of that which every 
one must know who wants to fix the places of the 
stars, either by eyesight or by means of astronomical 
observation on certain degrees of the signs of the 

Z have read in the almanacs for the year 951 of the 
^kakilla which came from Kashmir the statement 
that the Seven Uishis stand since seventy-seven ypars 
in the lunar station Anur^dhil. 'lliis station occupies 
the space between 3J° and the end of 165^ of Scorpio. 
However, the Seven Rishis precede this place by about 
a whole zodiacal sign and 20 degrees, i.e. by signs 
(v. p. 390). But what man would be able to learn all 
the different theories of the Hindus, if he does not dwell 
among them ! 

Let us now first suppose that Garga is right, that he 
has not stated the precise place in Magha which the 
Seven Rishis occupy, and let us suppose that this place 
was 0° of which would correspond to 0° of Leo 

for our time. Further, between the time of Tudhish- 
thira and the present year, i.e. the year 1340 of Alex- 
ander, there is an interval of 3479 years. And lastly, 
let us suppose that Var&hamibira is right in saying that 
die Seven Rishis dwell 600 years in each lunar station. 
Accordingly, they ought in the present year to stand in 
17° 18' of Libra, which is identical with 10° 38' of SvUtl. 
However, if we suppose that they stood in the midst of 
MaghfL (not in the beginniug), they ought at present 
to stand in 3° 58' of Vi^^khik. And if we suppose that 
they stood in the end of MaglilL, they onght at present 
to stand in 10° 38' of Vi^akhd. 

Hence it is evident that the statement of the Kash- 
mirian calendar does not agree with the statement in the 
S(i/A\}\xt&. Likewise, if we adopt the rule of the said 
calendar regarding the precession of the equinoxes, and 
reckon with this measure backward, we do by no means 

rrom n 

tioii of the 
tho po«>tIon 
<>f tho GroAi 



Ri J« of the 
find the 
poeltlon of 
the Qi-eat 
Ueer et any 

arrire at Magb& aa the lunar station in which the Seven 
Bishis stood in the time of Yudhisbthira. 

Hitherto we used to think that in our <tme the revo- 
lution of the fixed stars is more rapid than in former 
Hme$, and we tried to account for this by peculiarities 
of the shape of the celestial sphere. According to ns, 
they move one degree in 66 solar years. Therefore 
Var&hamihira highly astonishes us, for, according to 
him^ the rate of this motion would be one degree in 
forty-five years, much more rapid than at present, 
whilst his time precedes oure only by 525 years. 

The author of the canon Karanasdra gives the fol- 
lowing rule for the computation of the motion of the 
Great Bear, and of the place which, at any given time, 
it occupies : — 

“Subtract 821 from the ^akakfila. The remainder 
is the i.e. the number of years above 4000 which 
have elapsed since the beginning of the Ealiyuga. 

“Multiply the basis by 47, and add 68,cxx) to the 
product. Divide the sum by 10, 000. The quotient re- 
presents the zodiacal signs and fractions of them, i.t. 
the position of the Great Bear which was sought.” 

The addition of 68,000, prescribed in this rule, must 
be the original position of the Great Bear at the be- 
ginning of the basis, multiplied by 10,000. If we 
divide 68,000 by 10,000, we get the quotient 6^, i.e. 
six zodiacal signs and twenty-four degrees of a seventh 

It is evident that if we divide the 10,000 by 47, the 
Great Bear has wandered through one zodiacal sign in 
2 1 2 years, g months, and 6 days, according to solar time' 
Accordingly it wanders through one degree of a sign 
in 7 years, i month, and 3 days, and through one lunar 
station in 94 years, 6 months, and 20 days. 

Now there is a great difference between the values of 
Varahamihira and those of Vittelvara, if there is not a 
fault in the tradition. If we, by way of an example, 



make STich a compntstion for the present year (1030 
A.D.), we get 9° 17' in the lunar station Anuriidh 4 as 
the position of the Great Bear. 

The people of Kashmir believed that the Great Bear 
wanders through a lunar station in 100 years. There- 
fore the above-mentioned calendar says that of the 
present cmtennium of the motion of the Great Bear 
there is still a remainder of twenty-three years. 

Mistakes and confusion such as we have here laid 
open arise, in the first place, from the want of the neces- 
sary skill in astronomical researches, and secondly, from 
the way of the Hindus of mixing up scientific questions 
with religious traditions. For the theologians believe 
that the Seven Rishls stand higher than the fixed stars, 
and they maintain that in each manvaniara there will 
appear a new Manu, whose children will destroy the 
earth ; hut the rule will be renewed by Indra, as also 
tbe different classes of the angels and the Seven Rishis. 
The angels are necessary, for mankind must offer sacri- 
fices to them and must bring to the fire the shares for 
them ; and the Seven Rishis are necessary, because they 
must renew the Veda, for it perishes at the end of each 

Our information on this subject we take from the 
Vuhntt-I^rdna. From the same source we have taken 
the names of the Seven Rishis in each manvaniara, as 
exhibited by the followuig table : — 

mixed ui> 



Tbe Seven 

III tlie 



( 395 ) 


ON narAyana, nia a?psarance at dikpbrent times, 


Narayana U according to the Hindus a supernatural 
power, which does not on principle try to bring about 
the good by the good, nor the bad by the bad, but to 
prevent the evil and destruction by whatever means 
happen to be available. For this force the good exists 
prior to the bad, but if the good does not properly develop 
nor is available, it uses the bad, this being unavoidable. 
In so doing, it may be compared to a rider who has got 
into the midst of a cornfield. When he then coroes 
back to his senses, and wants to avoid evil-doing and to 
get out of the mischief he has committed, he has no 
other means but that of turning his horse back and 
riding out on the same road on which he has entered 
the field, though in going out be will do as much mis- 
chief as he has done in entering, and even more. But 
there is no other possibility of making amends save 

The Hindus do not distinguish between this force 
and the J^rst Cause of their philosophy. Its dwelling 
in the world is of such a nature that people compare 
it to a material existence, an appearance in body and 
oolonr, since they cannot- conceive any other kind of 

Besides other times, Nfi,r&yana has appeared at the 
and of the first manvantara, to take away the rule of 
the worlds ftom V&lakbilya (?), who had given it the 

PBgS 1$B. 

On tho 
nature ol 


name, and wanted to take it into bis own hands. 
Ndr&yana came and handed it' over to Satakratn, the 
performer of a handred sacrifices, and made him 

sterr at Another time he appeared at the end of the sixth 
manvantara, when he killed the King Bali, the son of 
Viroeana, who ruled the whole world and had Venus 
as his Tozlr. On having heard from his mother that 
the time of his father bad been much better than his 
time, since it was nearer the kriiayuga, when people 
enjoyed more profound bliss and did not know any 
fatigue, he became ambitious and desirous of vying 
with his father. Therefore he commenced doing works 
of piety, giving presents, distributing money, and per- 
forming sacrifices, which earn the rule of paradise and 
earth for him who finishes a hundred of them. When 
he was near this term, or had nearly finished the ninety- 
ninth sacrifice, the angels began to feel uneasy and to 
fear for their dignity, knowing that the tribute which 
men bring them would cease if they stood no longer in 
need of them. Now they united and went to N^rfi- 
yana, asking him to help them. He granted their wish, 
and descended to the earth in the shape of Vamana, 
i.e. a man whose hands and feet are too short in com- 
parison with his body, and in consequence his figure is 
thought to be hideous. 

N&r&yana came to the King Bali whilst he was offer- 
ing, his Brahmans standing round the fiues, and Yenna, 
his vaztr, standing before him. The treasnre-houses 
had been opened and the precious stones had been 
thrown out in heaps, to be given as presents and alms. 
Now Y&raana commenced to recite the Veda like the 
Brahmans from that part which is now called S&maveda, 
in a melancholy, impressive kind of melody, persuading 
the king to grant him liberally what he would wish 
and demand. Upon this Venus spoke stealthily to him : 
“ This is Nar&yana. He has come to rob thee of thy 



rule.” Bnt the king waa sO excited that he did not 
mind the words of Venus, and asked Vamana what 
was his desire. Thereupon Vamana said, “As much 
as four paces of thy realm, that I may live there.” 
The king answered, “ Choose what you wish, and how 
you wish lb;” and according to Hindu custom, he 
ordered water to be brought to pour it over his hands 
as a sign of the confirmation of the older he had giveu. 
Kow Venus, because of her love to the kiug, brought 
in the jug, but bad corked the spout, so that no water 
should flow out of it, whilst she closed the hole in the 
cork with the ktida grass of her ring-finger. But Venus 
bad only one eye ; she missed the hole, and now the 
water flowed out. In consequence, Vilmana made a 
pace towards east, another towards west, and a third 
towards above as far as Svarloka. As for the fourth 
pace, there was no more space in the world ; he made, 
by the fourth pace, the king a slave, putting his foot 
between his shoulders as a sign of making him a slave. 
He made him sink down into the earth as far as Putala, 
the lowest of the low. lie took the worlds away from 
him, and handed the rule over to Puraihdara. 

The following occurs in the Visk^u-Pwdna : — 

“ The King Maitreya asked Para^ara about the yjigas. 
So the latter answered: ‘They exist for the purpose 
that Vishnu should occupy himself with something in 
them. In the Kritayuga he comes in the shape of 
Kapila alone, for the purpose of spreading wisdom ; 
in Tretftyuga, in the shape of Riinia alone, for the pur- 
pose of spreading fortitude, to conquer the bad, and to 
preserve the three worlds by force and the prevalence 
of virtuous action ; in Dviipara, in the shape of Vyilsa, 
to divide the Veda into four parts, and to derive 
many branches from it. In the end of Dv&para he 
appears in the shape of Vftsudeva to destroy the giants ; 
in the Kaliyuga, in the shape of Kali, the son of 
J-sh-v (?) the Brahman, to kill all, and to make the 

p»ee ■«. 





tlgg gl tbt 
ygtm* o( 
tbo MTtntb 






(^ole of the yuffot coiamenee anew. That is his 
(Yish^n's) ocenpation.’ ” 

In aitother passage of the same book we read: 
“ Vishnu, it. another name for Nftr&yana, comes at the 
end of each dvdpara to divide the Veda into four parts, 
because men are feeble and unable to observe the whole 
of it. In his face he resembles Vy&sa.” 

We exhibit his names in the following table, thoogh 
they vary in different sources, ennmemting the Vy&sas 
who have appeared in the eaiwpitgas ot the present or 
seventh manvontora which have elapsed : — 











RinaiTesbUia (?) 








































Vapia (?) 


AlTattbSman the son 



of Drona 

E^shna Bvaip&yana is Vyfisa the son of Par&^ra. 
The twen^-ninth Vyfesa has not yet come, but will 
appear in future. 

The book Vishnu-Dharma says : “ The names of 
Hari, i.6. N^yana, differ in the They are the 

following : V&sndeva, Saihkarsha^a, Pradynmna, and 


I snppose that the anther has not here preserved the 
proper sequence, for Vftsudeva belongs to the end of 
the four yugoA. 

The same book says : " Also bis colours differ in the 
yugas. In the K|itayuga he is white, in the Tretil- 
ynga red, in the Dv&para yellow, the latter is the first 



phase of Ms being embodied in human shape, and in 
tihe Kallyaga he is black.” 

These colours are something like t?ie three primary 
forces of their philosophy, for they maintain that Saiya 
is transparent white, JRajas red, and Tamos black. We 
shall in a later part of this book give a description of 
his last appearance in the world. 

( 400 ) 

AlUUogfM 0 
tba oouna o 
nature to 
tba bJfitoty 



The life of the world depends upon sowing and pro- 
creating. Both processes increase in the conrse of 
time, and this increase is nnlimited, whilst the world 
is limited. 

When a class of plants or animals does not increase 
any more in its structure, and its peculiar kind is estab- 
lished as a qiecies of its own, when each individual of 
it does not simply come into existence once and perish, 
bnt besides procreates a being like itself or several 
together, and not only once bnt several times, then this 
will as a single species of plants or animals occupy the 
earth and spread itself and its kind over as much terri- 
tory as it can find. 

The agrionltnrist selects his corn, letting grow as 
much as he requires, and tearing out the remainder. 
The forester leaves those branches which he perceives 
to be excellent, whilst he outs away all others. The 
bees kill those of their kind who only eat, bnt do not 
work in their beehive. 

Nature proceeds in a similar way ; however, it does 
not distingnish, for its action is under all circumstances 
one and the same. It allows the leaves and fruit of the 
trees to perish, thns preventing them from realising 
that result which they are intended to produce in the 
economy of nature. It removes them so as to make 
room for others. 

Jf thus the earth is ruined, or is near to be ruined, 



by having too many inhabitants, its rnler — for it has a 
ruler, and his all-embracing care is apparent in every 
single particle of it — sends it a messenger for the pur- 
pose of reducing the too great number and of catting 
away all that is evil, 

A messenger of this kind is, according to the belief sb^r; nc tho 
of the Uindas, Visudeva, who was sent the last time in vbudeTa. 
human shape, being called Vftsndeva. It was a time 
when the giants were numerous on earth and the earth 
was full of their oppression ; it tottered, being hardly 
able to bear the whole number of them, and it trembled 
from the vehemence of their treading. Then there was 
bom a child in the city of Mathunl to T&sudeva by the 
sister of Kadisa, at that time ruler of the town. They 
were a Jatt family, cattle-owners, low ^Mra people. 

Kaiiisa had learned, by a voice which he heard at the 
wedding of bis sister, that he would perish at the hands 
of her child; therefore he appointed people who were 
to bring him every child of hers as soon as she gave 
birth to it, and he killed all her children, both male and 
female. Finally, she gave birth to Balabhadra, and 
Yaiodii, the wife of the herdsman Nanda, took the 
child to herself, and managed to keep it concealed from 
the spies of Kaihsa. Thereupon she became pregnant 
an eighth time, and gave birth to Vdsudeva in a rainy 
night of the eighth day of the black half of the month 
Bhildrapada, whilst the moon was ascending in the 
station iiohin!. As the guards had fallen into deep 
sleep and neglected the watch, the father stole the 
child and brought it to Nandakula, i.e. the stable of the 
cows of Nanda, the husband of Yalodfi., near MathurU, 
but separated from this place by the river Yamun&. 

V&sudeva exchanged the child for a daughter of Nanda, 
which happened to be born at the moment when Vasu- 
deva arrived with the boy. He brought this female 
child to the guards instead of his son. Kartiso, the 

TOL. 1 2 a 


rage 901. 

The nemee 
or TisudsTi 
in tbedlffor. 
eot moiitba. 


ruler, wuited to kUl the child, but she dew up intc 
the sir and diaappeared. 

Y^sudera grew up under the care of his foster- 
mother Ya^od& without her knowiog that he had been 
exchanged for her daughter, but Kaihes got some ink- 
ling of the matter. 2^ow he tried to get the child into 
his power by canning plans, but all of them turned out 
against him. Lastly, Kaihsa demanded from his parents 
that they should send him (Vgendeva) to wrestle in bis 
(Kadisa’s) presence. Now V&sndeva began to behave 
overbearingly towards everybody. On the road he had 
already roused the wrath of his aunt by hurting a 
serpent which had been appointed to watch over the 
lotus dowers of a pond, for he had drawn a cord through 
its nostrils like a bridle. Farther, he had killed his 
fuller, because the latter had refused to lend him clothes 
for the wrestling. He had robbed the girl who accom- 
panied him of Ike sandal-wood with which she was 
ordered to anoint the wrestlers. Lastly, he had killed 
the rutting elephant which was provided for the pur- 
pose of killing him before the door of Kamsa. All this 
heightened the wrath of Kaihsa to such a degree, that 
his bile burst, and he died on the spot. Then V4sa- 
deva, his sister’s son, ruled in his stead. 

Yisudeva has a special name in each month. His 
followers begin the months with M&rga^lrsha, and each 
month they begin with the eleventh day, because on 
this day YUsudeva appeared. 

The following table contains the names of Vdsudeva 
in the months 


Tlio Houthd. 

T)iO N'rvmoij of 

Tho Moutl:B. 

Tlt« Kumod of 

























Now the brother-in-law of the deceased Kaiiisa be- 
came angiy, went rapidlj to Matburfl, took possession 
of the realm of Vtlsudera, and banished him to the 
ocean. Then there appeared near the coast a golden 
castle called BarodH, and V&sudeva made it his resi- 

The children of Kanrava (i.e. DhritarAshtra) had the 
charge of their consins (the children of Paod“)- I>hri- 
tar&shtra received them and plajed dice with them, the 
last stake being their whole property. They lost more 
and more, until he laid upon them the obligation of 
expatriation for more than ten years, and of conceal- 
ment in the remotest part of the country, where nobody 
knew them. If they did not keep tMs engagement 
they wonld be bound to return into banishment for a 
like number of years. This engagement was carried 
out, bat finally came the time of their coming forward 
for battle. Now each party began to assemble their 
whole number and to sue for allies, till at last nearly 
innumerable hosts had gathered in the plain of TfLne 
shar. There were eighteen akshauhi/^t. Each party 
tried to gain Vftsudeva as ally, whereupon he offered 
either himself or his brother Balabhodra together with 
an army. But the children of Pan<Jn preferred him. 
They were five men — Yndhish(hira, their leader, Arjnna, 
the bravest of them, Sahadeva, Bhimasena, and Naknla, 
They had seven akaJiauki'^i, whilst their enemies were 

tion of tb4 
ulory of 




Bndof Viiu* 
d«TA and 
o( tho fl'O 

Piiga m. 

much stronger. But for the cunning devices of V&sn- 
dera and his teaching them whereby they might gain 
victory, they would have been in a less favourable 
situation than their enemies. But now they conquered } 
all those hosts were destroyed, and none remained ex<a 
oept the Bve brothers. Thereafter Vilsudevs returned 
to bis residence and died, together with his family, 
who were called Y^dava. Also the five brothers died 
before the year had reached its end, at the end of 
those wars. 

Y&sudeva had concerted with Arjuna the arrangement 
that they would consider the quivering of the left arm 
or left eye as a raysterious intimation that there was 
something happening to him. At that time there lived 
a pious Rishi called Durvftsaa. Now the brothers and 
relations of Tdsudeva were a rather malicious, incon- 
siderate set of people. One of them hid under his coat 
& new frying-pan, went to the anchorite, and asked him 
what would be the result of his pregnancy, jeering at 
the pious man. The latter said, “In thy belly there 
is something which will be the cause of thy death and 
that of thy whole clan.” When V&sndeVa heard this 
he became sorry, because be knew that these words 
would be fulfilled. He gave orders that the pan should 
be filed away and be thrown into the water. This 
was done. There was only a small part of it left, which 
the artisan who had done the filing considered as insig- 
nificant. Therefore he threw it, as it was, into the 
water. A fish devoured it ; the fish was caught, and the 
fisherman found it in its belly. He thought it would 
be a good tip for bU arrow. 

When the predestined time came, Vfiaudeva rested 
on the coast nnder the shadow of a tree, one of his feet 
being crossed over the other ; the fisherman took him 
for a gazelle, shot at him, and hit his right foot. T'his 
wound became the cause of the death of Y&sudeva. At 
the same time the left side of Aijuna began to quiver, 


and then his arm. Now his brother Sahadeva gave 
orders that he should never any more embrace anybody, 
that he might not be bereft of his strength (?). Arjnna 
went to VasudevB, hut could not embrace him on account 
of the state in which he was, ’Vasudeva ordered his 
bow to be brought, and banded it over to Arjnna, who 
tried his strength at it. V&audeva ordered him to burn 
his body and the bodies of his relations when they had 
died, and to bring away his wivea from the castle, and 
then he died. 

Out of the filings or bits of iron which had fallen off 
when the pan was filed a bardi bush had grown. To 
this there came the Y^davas, who tied together some 
bundles of its twigs to sit upon. Whilst they were 
drinking there arose a quarrel between them ; they 
heat each other with the hardt bundles, and killed each 
other. All this happened near the month of the river 
Sarsatt, where it flows into the sea, near the situation of 

Arjuna had done all he had been ordered by Visn- 
deva. When he brought away the women, they were 
suddenly attacked by robbers. When, now, Arjuna was 
no longer able to bend his bow, he felt that his strength 
was going. He whirled the bow in a circle above his 
head, and all who stood under the bow were saved, 
while the others were seized by the robbers. Now 
Arjuna and his brothers saw that life was no more of 
any use to them, therefore they emigrated to the north 
and entered the mountains, the snow of which never 
melts. The cold killed them one after the other, till 
at last only YudhiBbthiia remained. He obtained the 
distinotion of being admitted to paradise, but before 
that he was to pass through hell in consequence of the 
sole lie which he had spoken in his life, at the request 
of his brothers and of Vfisudeva. These were the words 
which he had spoken within hearing of the Bralimsn 
Drona ; “ Alvatth&man, the elephant, has died.” He 



had made a pause between ASvaUhdman and the ele~ 
pAani, which he had led Drona to believe that he 
meant kis eon. Tudhishthira spoke to the angels : “ If 
this mnst be, may my intercession be accepted on be- 
half of the people in hell ; may they be freed from it.” 
After this desire of his had been granted, he went into 

( 407 ) 



Each (>i&<Aai(A>Rf liaa lo anUint. 

„ adfifctni „ 3 oamtf. 

„ ctmH „ 3j!p;tanrl. 

„ priland „ 3 vdAint. 

„ vdhint „ 3 ^ano. 

•I !>“”’* ti 3 gulma. 

„ g^Uma „ 3 

„ ttndmukha „ 3 palli, 

„ palti „ I nUha. 

In chess, the latter is called riikh, whilst the Greeks 
call it chariot 0/ war. It was invented by Mankal%ts 
(Myrtilcffi ?) in Athens, and the Athenians maintain that 
they wore the first who rode on chariots of war. How- 
ever, before that time they had already been invented 
by Aphrodisios (sic) the Hindu, when he ruled over 
Egypt, about 900 years after the deluge. They were 
drawn by two horses. 

The following is a tale of the Greeks ; Hephsestos 
loved Athene and desired to possess her, but she refused 
him, preferring to remain a virgin. Now he concealed 
himself in the country of Athens, and intended to seize 
her by force, but she pierced him with a spear and then 
he let her go. From a drop of his blood, which bad 
dropped to the earth, there grew Eriehthonios. He p»gatej. 
arrived on a chariot Uke the tower of the sun, the 
holder of the reins riding together with him. Similar 
to this are the customs of the hippodrome, as they exist 
in onr time, the running and driving with carriages in 
the race. 


A raika comprehends besides, one elephant, three 
riders, tmd fire footmen. 

All these orders and divisions are necessary for the 
preparation for battle, for pitching camp and breaking 
np camp. 

An akskavhini has 21,870 chariots, 21,870 elephants, 
65,610 riders, 109,350 footmen. 

To each chariot there belong four horses and their 
conductor, the master of the chariot, armed with arrows, 
his two companions armed with spears, a guard who 
protects the master from behind, and a Cartwright 

On each elephant there sits its conductor, and behind 
him the vice-conductor, a man who has to goad the 
elephant behind the chair, the master, armed with 
arrows, in the chair, aud together with him his two 
spear-throwing companions and his jester, kauhava (?), 
who on other occasions mns before him. 

Accordingly the number of people who ride on chariots 
and elephants is 284,323 (sie). The number of those 
who ride on horses is 87,480. The number of elephants 
in an akskaukii^tt is 21,870; the number of chariots, 
too, is 21,870; the number of horses is 153,090; the 
•number of men, 459,283. 

The sum-total of the living beings of one akshauhini, 
elephants, horses, and men, is 634,243 ; the same num- 
ber for eighteen dkshavMvi is 1 1,416,374, viz. *393,660 
elephants, 2,755,620 horses, 8,267,094 men. 

This is an explanation of the akshauhini, and of its 
single parts. 





The eras serve to fix certain moments of time which are 
mentioned in some historical or astronomical connection. 
The Hindas do not consider it wearisome to reckon with 
huge numbers, but rather enjoy it. Still, in practical 
use, they are compelled to replace them by smaller 
(more handy) ones. 

Of their eras we mention — 

1. The beginning of the existence of Brahman. 

2. The beginning of the day of the present nych- 
themeron of Brahman, i.e. the beginning of the kalpa. 

3. The beginning of the seventh manvaviara, in 
which we are now. 

4. The beginning of the twenty-eighth caturyuga, in 
which we are now. 

5. Tlie beginning of the fourth yuga of the present 
caiwyuga, colled Icalikdla, is. the time of Kali. The 
whole yv^a is called after him, thoagh, accurately 
speaking, hit time falls only in the last part of the 
yttga. Notwithstanding, the Hindus mean hykalikdla 
the beginning of the kaliywja. 

6. Pdiidava-kdla, i.e. the time of the life and the wars 
of Bhirata. 

All these eras vie with each other in antiquity, the 



tian df some 
of tha araa 
of ibfi Bin* 



Th« author 
Rdnpti tbe 
yoAr 400 vi 
TuA^lfd (in 
a lHt*7Mr. 

Page 904 . 

Bow much 
of tUo lUe of 
lin» slaiMcd 
HQuurdlitf to 
th« HiAfu- 

one going back to a still more remote beginning than 
the other, and the sums of years which they afford go 
beyond hundreds, thousands, and higher orders of num- 
bers. Therefore not only astronomers, but also other 
people, think it wearisome and unpractical to use them. 

In order to give an idea of these eras, we shall use 
as a first gauge or point of comparison that Hindu 
year the great bulk of which coincides with the year 
400 0/ Yaxdajird. This number consists only of hun- 
dreds, not of units and tens, and by this peculiarity 
it is distinguished from all other years that might 
possibly be chosen. Besides, it is a memorable time ; 
for the breaking of the strongest pillar of tbe religion, 
the decease of the pattern of a prince, MahmOd, the 
lion of the world, the wonder of his time — may God 
have mercy upon him ! — took place only a short time, 
less than a year, before it. The Hindu year precedes 
tbe Nanr6z or new years day of this year only by 
twelve days, and the death of the prince occurred pre- 
cisely ten complete Persian months before it. 

Now, presupposing this our gauge as known, we shall 
compute the years for this point of junction, which is 
the beginning of the corresponding Hindu year, for the 
end of all years which come. into question coincides 
with it, and the Nauroz of the year 400 of Yazdajird 
falls only a little later (viz. twelve days). 

The book VishijiU-Dha/mui says: “ Vajra asked M&r- 
kandeya how much of the life of Brahman had elapsed ; 
whereupon the sage answered ; ‘ That which has elapsed 
is 8 years, 5 months, 4 days, 6 imnmntaraa, 7 mihdM, 
27 caiwryuyoB, and 3 yugas of the twenty-eighth eaiw- 
yuga, and lodwya-ycars up to the time of the aivaviedha 
which thou hast offered.' He who knows the details of 
this statement and comprehends them duly is a sage 
man, and the sage is he who serves the only Jjord and 
strives to reach the neighbourhood of his place, which is 
called Pammapada,” 



Preeupposing this statement to be known, and refer- 
ring the reader to our explanation of the various mea> 
sures of time which we have given in former chapters, 
we offer the following analysis. 

Of the life of Brahman there have elapsed before our 
gouge 26,215,73,2948,133 of our years. Of the nych- 
tbemeron of Brahman, i.e. of the kalpa 0/ the day, there 
have elapsed 1,972,948,132, aud of the seventh 
tarn 120,532,132. 

The latter is also the date of the imprisoning of the 
JCing Bali, for it happened in the first caturyiu/a of the 
seventh manvantara. 

In all chronological dates which we have mentioned 
already and shall still mention) we only reckon with 
complete years, for the Hindus are in the habit of dis- 
regarding fractions of a year. 

Further, the VisKiyii-DhaTma says : “ Mtirkaiuleya 
says, in answer to a question of Vajra: ‘ I have already 
lived as long as 6 halpas and 6 manvantaroji of the 
seventh kalpa, 23 tretdyayas of the seventh manvantara. 
In the twenty-fourth tret&yuya Kftma killed R&vana, 
and Lakshniana, the brother of B^ma, killed Knmbha- 
karna, the brother of Havana. The two subjugated nil 
the Bakshasas. At that time Valmiki, the Rishi, com- 
posed the story of RSma and Raniayana and eternalised 
it in his books. It was 1 who told it to Yudhishthira, 
the son of Pdn^u, in the forest of Kiimyakavana.’ ” 

The author of the Vishiiu-Dhai-ma reckons here with 
tret&yugas, first, because the events which be mentions 
occurred in a certain tretdywja, and secondly, because it 
is more convenient to reckon with a simple unit than 
with such a unit as requires to be explained by reference 
to Its single quarters. Besides, the latter part of the 
tretAyuga is a more suitable time for the events men- 
tioned than its beginniog, because it is so mnch nearer 
to the age of evil-doing (v. i. pp. 379, 380). No doubt, 
tbe date of Rflma aud Mmiiyapa is known among the 

The time of 
EUrtift ac- 





HindoB, bnt I for my part have not been able to ascer- 
tain it. 

Twenty -three calurtpujas are 99,360,000 years, 
and, together with the time from the beginning of a 
cataryiuja till the end of the ireldya^a, 102,384,000 

If wa anbtraot this number of years from the number 
of years of the seventh manvan^am that have elapsed 
before onr gauge-year, viz. 120,532,132 (v. p. 3), we get 
the remainder of 18,148,132 years, i.e. so many years 
before onr gauge-year at the conjectural date of E&ma ; 
&nd this may sulHce, as long as it is not supported 
by a trustworthy tradition. The here-mentioned year 
corresponds to the 3,892,i32d year of the 28th ccdv/r- 

Hav much All these computations rest on the measures adopted 
eL.pMd be- by Brahmsgupta. He and JP ulisa agree in this, that 
getrai ° the number of kalpas which have elapsed of the life of 
corShlg^ti Brahman before the present kalpa is 6068 (equal to 8 
years, 5 months, 4 days of Brahman). But they differ 
from each other in converting this number into catur- 
yugas. According to Pnlisa, it is equal to 6,116,544; 
according to Bralimagupta, only to 6,068,000 catur- 
yugas. Therefore, if we adopt the system of Pulisa, 
reckoning i manvantara as 72 calnryugas without 
saihdhi, i kalpaas 1008 catui'yugeu, and each yugaa& 
the fourth part of a calwyuga, that which has elapsed 
of the life of Brahman before our gauge-year is the 
sum of 26,425456,204,132(1) years, and of the kalpa 
Piueotes- there have elapsed 1,986,124,132 years, of the manvan- 
tara 1 19,884,132 yeai'B, and of the catv/ryuga 3,244,132 

iiewmiicii Regarding the time which has elapsed since the 
beginning of the kaliyuga, there exists no difference 
lo?(yii'sar'* amounting to whole years. According to both Brahma- 
gupta and Pulisa, of the kaliyuga there have elapsed 
before our gauge-year 4132 years, and between the 



wars of Bliarata and our gaoge-year there have elapsed 
3479 years. The year 41 32 before the gauge-year is 
the epoch of the Jcalikdla, and the year 3479 before the 
gauge-year is the epoch of the Pdyi^vakdla. 

The Hindus have an era called Kdlayacana, regard- 
ing which I have not been able to obtain full infor- 
mation. They place its ei)Och in the end of the last 
dvdpamyuga. The here-mentioned Yavana (JMN) 
severely oppressed botli their country and their religion. 

To date by the here-mentioned eras recpiires in any 
case vast numbers, since their epochs go back to a most 
remote antiquity. For this reason people have given 
up using them, and have adopted instead the eras 
of — 

(i.) Harsha. 

(2.) Vikvamddiiya. 

(3.) &aka. 

(4.) Valahha, and 

(5.) Gupta. 

The Hindus believe regai’ding ^rl Harsha that he 
used to examine the soil in order to see what of hidden 
treasures was in its interior, as far down as the seventh 
earth ; that, in fact, he found such treasures •, and that, 
in consequence, he coyld dispense with oppressing his 
snbjects (by taxes, &c.). His era is used in MathurfL and 
the country of Kanoj. Between Sri flarsha and Vikra- 
maditya there is an interval of 400 years, as 1 have been 
told by some of the inhabitants of that region. How- 
ever in the Kashmirian calendar I have read that $rl 
Harsha was 664 years later than Vikramilditya. In 
face of this discrepancy I am in perfect uncertainty, 
which to the present moment has not yet been cleared 
np by any trustworthy inforiimtion. 

Those who use the era of Vikramaditya live in the Et»oivik- 

- T 1. T • 3 • it rwnidttyu. 

southern and western parts of India, it is used m the 

following way ; 342 are multiplied by 3, which gives 



Tba &ka- 


the producst 1026. To this number you add the years 
which have elapsed of the current shash(yahda or seza- 
gesimal samvatsara, and the sum is the coiTesponding 
year of the era of Vikramaditya. In the book SrAd- 
liava by MahMeva I 6nd as bis name Candraltja. 

As regards this method of caloulation, we must first 
say that it is rather awkward and unnatural, for if they 
began with 1026 as the bmis of the calculation, as they 
begin — without any apparent necessity — with 342, this 
would serve the same purpose. And, secondly, admit- 
ting that the method is correct as long as there is only 
one shashtyoMa in the date, how are we to reckon if 
there is a number of gkashfyabdas ? 

The epoch of the era of Saka or Sakakilla falls 135 
years laterthan that of Vikramlditya The here-men- 
tioned Saka tyrannised over their country between the 
river Sindh and the ocean, after he had made Arya- 
varta in the midst of this realm his dwelling-place. 
He inteidicted the Hindus from considering and repre- 
senting themselves as anything but Sakas. Some main- 
tain that he was a Shdra from the city of Alman^ra ; 
others maintain that he was not a Hindu at all, and that 
he had come to India from the west. The Htudns had 
much to suffer from liim, till at last they received help 
from the east, when Vikramaditya marched against him, 
pat him to flight and killed him in the region of Karflr, 
between Multan and the castle of L8nl. Now this date 
became famous, as people rejoiced in the news of tlie 
death of the tyrant, and was need as the epoch of an 
era, especially by the astronomers. They honour the 
conqueror by adding !§rl to his name, so as to say S1I 
Vikraraflditya, Since there is a long interval between 
the era which is called the era of Vikram&ditya (v. 
p. 5) and the killing of ^aka, we think that that Vik- 
ramflditya from whom the era has got its name is not 
identical with that one who killed 6aka, but only a 
namesake of his. 



The era of Valabha is called so from Valabha,the ruler 
of the town Valabhl, nearly 30 yyanas south of Anhil- 
vftra. The epoch of this era falls 241 years later than 
the epoch of the 6aka era People use it in this way. 
They first put down the year of the Sakak&la, and 
then subtract from it the cube of 6 and the square of 
5 (216 25 s 241). The remainder is the year of the 

Valabha ersi The history of Valabha is gi7en in ite 
proper place (cf. chap. xvii.). 

As regards the Guptak^la, people say that the Guptas 
were wicked powerful people, and that when they 
ceased to exist this date was used as the epoch of an 
era. It seems that Valabha was the last of them, be- 
cause the epoch of the era of the Guptas falls, like 
that of the Valabha era, 241 years later than the §aka- 

The era of the asironowwrs begins 587 years later than 
the Sakak^la. On this era is based the canon Khanda- 
by Brahmagupta, which amongMuhamniadans 
is kno^n as Al-arkand. 

Now, the year 400 of Yazdajird, which we have 
chosen as a gauge, corresponds to the following years 
of the Indian eras : — 

(1) To the year 1488 of the era of ^rl Harsha, 

(2) To the year 1088 of the era of Vikram&ditya, 

(3) To the year 953 of the Sakakala, 

{4) To the year 712 of the Valabha era, which is 

identical with the Guptakala, 

(5) To the year 366 of the era of the canon Khai^da- 


(6) To the year 526 of the era of the canon Paflca- 

siddliAntikA by Varuhamihira, 

(7) To the year 132 of the era of the canon Kara- 

TjMsdra; and 

(8) To the year 65 of the era of the canon Karat^a- 


Bm of 

Piige «o6. 


Era of tho 





of ^0 

dlon eras 
with the 



Tlie eras of the here-mentioned canones are snob as 
the authors of them considered the most suitable to be 
used as cardinal points in astronomical and other cal- 
culations, whence calculation may conveniently extend 
forward or backward. Perhaps the epochs of these eras 
fall within the time when the authors in question them- 
selves lived, but it is also possible that they fall within 
a time anterior to their lifetime. 

Os Common people in India date by the years of a ccn- 

of dating b; tBnivium; whtch they call samvatsara. If a eenl.enni 7 iiit 
is finished, they drop it, and simply begin to date by a 
new one. This era is called lokakdla, i.g. the era of 
the nation at large. But of this era people give such 
totally different accounts, that I have no means of 
making out the truth. In a similar manner they 
also differ among themselves regarding the beginning 
of the year. On the latter subject 1 shall communicate 
what I have heal'd myself, hoping meanwhile that one 
day we shall be able to discover a rule in this apparent 

Diffarsnt Those who use the Saka era, the astronomers, begin 
the year with the month Caitra, whilst the inhabitants 
of Kaulr, which is conterminous with Kashmir, begin 
it with the month Bhidrapada. The same people count 
our gauge-year (400 Yozdajird) as the eighty-fourth 
year of an era of theirs. 

All the people who inhabit the country between 
Bardart and Mftrtgala begin the year with the month 
Kdrttika, and they count the gauge-year as the i loth 
year of an era of theirs. The author of the Kasiimirian 
calendar maintains tliat the latter year corresponds to 
the sixth year of a new eentmnimi, aiid tills, indeed, Is 
the usage of the people of Kashmir. 

Tlie people living in the country Nirahara, behind 
Mirigala, as far as the utmost frontiers of TAkeshar and 
Lohfivar, begin the year with the month Milrga^irslia, 
and reckon our gauge-year as the 108th year of their 



era. The people of Lanhuya, i.e. Lamghuu, follow their 
example. I have been told by people of Multan that 
this system is peculiar to the people of Sindh and 
Kano], and that they used to begin the year with the 
new moon of Mili^a^irsha, but that the people of Multan 
only a few years ago had given up this system, and 
had adopted the system of the people of Kashmir, and 
followed their example in beginning the year with the 
new moon of Caitra. 

I have already before excused myself on account of 
the imperfection of the information ^ven in this chap- 
ter. For we cannot offer a strictly scientific account of 
the eras to which it is devoted, simply because in them 
we have to reckon with periods of time far exceeding a 
centennium, (and because all tradition of events farther 
back than a hundred years is confused (v. p. 8).) So 
I have myself seen the roundabout way in which they 
compute the year of the destruction of fromanSth in the 
year of the Hijra 416, or 947 i^akakala. First, they 
write down the number 242, then under it 606, then 
under this 99. The sum of these numbers is 947, or 
the year of the l^akakala. 

Now I am inclined to thiuk that the 242 years have 
elapsed before the beginning of their centennial system, 
and that they have adopted the latter together with 
the Guptakala ; further, lhat the number 606 represents 
complete samrcUsaras or centennials, each of which they 
must reckon as loi years; lastly, that the 99 years 
represent that time which has elapsed of the current 

That this, indeed, is the nature of the calculation is 
confirmed by a leaf of a canon composed by Durlabha 
of Multdn, wliich 1 have fonud by chance. Here the 
author says : “ First write 848 and add to it the htukiha- 
Mia, i.c. the era of the people, and the sum is the 

If we write the first year of the i^akakala correspond- 



daUu^ Id 
use nmonp 
tho Hindus, 
ntid orltS* 
clBDis thorC' 




ing to our gange-year, viz. 953, and snbtract 848 from 
it, the remainder, 105, is the year of the laukika-Jcdla, 
whilst the destruction of Somanflth falls in the ninety- 
eighth year of the ccTitenniuvi or lauJcika-kdla. 

Dnrlsbha says, besides, that the year begins with the 
month Mftrga^rsha, but that the astronomers of Moltdo 
begin it with Caitra. 

originottbe The Hiodns had kings residing in K&bnl, Turks who 
were said to be of Tibetan origin. The first of them, 
Barhatakin, came into the country and entered a cave 
in KfLbnl, which none conld enter except by creeping 
on hands and knees. The cave had water, and besides 
he deposited their victuals for a certain number of 
days. It is still known in onr time, and is called Var. 
People who consider the name of Barhatakin as a good 
omen enter the cave and bring out some of its water 
with great trouble. 

Certain troops of peasants were working before the 
door of the cave. Tricks of this kind can only be 
carried ont and become notorious, if their author has 
made a secret arrangement with somebody else — in 
fact, with confederates. Now these had induced per- 
sons to work there continually day and night in turns, 
so that the place was never empty of people. 

Some days after he had entered the cave, he began 
to creep out of it in the presence of the people, who 
looked on him as a new-born baby. He wore Turkish 
dress, a short tonic open in front, a high hat, boots and 
arms. Now people hononred him as a being of mira- 
culous origin, who had been destined to be king, and in 
fact he brought those countries under his sway and 
ruled them under the title of a shAhiya of Kdhvl. 
The rule remained among his descendants for gene- 
rations, the number of which is said to be about 

Unfortunately the Hindus do not pay rfluch attention 
to the historical order of things, they are very careless 



in relating the chronological enccession of their tings, 
and when they are pressed for information and are 
at a loss, not knowing what to say, they invariably 
take to tale-telling. Bnt for this, we should com- 
municate to the reader the traditions which we have 
received from some people among them. I have 
been told that the pedigree of this royal family, 
written on silk, exists in the fortress Nagarkot, 
and I much desired to make myself acquainted 
with it, but the thing was impossible for various 

One of this series of kings was Kanik, the same who 
is said to have built the vikdra (Buddhistic monastery) 
of PuruBhi,var. It is called, after him, KanUi-caitya.. 
People relate that the king of Kanoj had presented to 
him, among other gifts, a gorgeous and most singular 
piece of cloth. Now Kanik wanted to have dresses 
made out of it for himself, but his tailor had not the 
courage to make them, for he said, “There is (in the 
embroidery) the figure of a human foot, and whatever 
trouble I may take, the foot will always lie between the 
shoulders.” And that means the same as we have 
already mentioned in the stoi-y of Bali, the son of 
Tirocana (i.e. a sign of subjugation, of. i. p. 397). Now 
Kanik felt convinced that the ruler of Kanoj bad 
thereby intended to vilify and disgrace him, and in 
hot haste he set out with his troops marching {gainst 

When the rdi heard this, he was greatly perplexed, 
for he had 110 power to resist Kanik. Therefore he 
consulted his Yazir, and the latter said: “You have 
ronsed a man who was quiet before, and have done un- 
becoming things. Now cut off my nose and lips, let 
me he mutilated, that I may find a cunning device ; for 
there is no possibility of an open resistance." The rdi 
did with him as he liad proposed, and then he went off 
to the frontiers of the realm. 

Tbe itor; ol 



There he was found by the hostile army, was recog- 
nised and brought before Kanik, who asked what was 
the matter with him. The Vaztr said: “I tried to 
dissuade Mm from opposing you, aud sincerely advised 
him to be obedient to you. He, however, conceived a 
suspicion against me aud ordered me to be mutilated. 
Since then he has gone, of his own accord, to a place 
which a man can only reach by a very long journey 
when he marches on the high road, but which he may 
easily reach by undergoing the ti'ouble of crossing an 
intervening desert, supposing that he can carry with 
himself water for so and so many days.” Thereupon 
Kanik answered: “The latter is easily done.” He 
ordered water to be carried along, and engaged the 
Vazlr to show him the road. The Vazlr marched be- 
fore the king and led him into a boundless desert. 
After the number of days hud elapsed and the road did 
not come to an end, the king asked the TazSr what was 
now to be done. Then the Vazir said: “No blame 
attaches to me that I tried to save my master and to 
destroy bis enemy. The nearest road leading out of 
this desert is that on which you liave come. Now do 
with me as you like, for none will leave tins desert 

Then Kanik got on his horse aud rode round a de- 
pression in the soil. In the centre of it he thrust his 
spear into the earth, and lo ! water poured from it in 
sufBcient quantity for the army to drink from and to 
draw from for the march back. Upon this the Vaztr 
said: ”1 had not directed my cunning scheme against 
powerful angeU, but against feeble men. As things 
stand thus, accept my intercesaiou for the prince, my 
benefactor, and pardon him.” Kanik answered: “I 
Pag* tot. march back from this place. Tliy wish is granted to 
thee, lliy master has already received what is due to 
him.” Kanik retnmed out of the desert, and the Vazlr 
went back to his master, the rdt of Kanoj. There he 



found that on the same day when Kanik had thrust 
his spear into the earth, both the hands and feet had 
fallen off the body of the rdi. 

The last kiug of this race was Zagaidi-rndn, and his 
Vazir was Kallar, a Brahman. The latter had been for- 
tniiate, in so far as he had found by accident bidden 
treasures, which gave him mncb influence and power. 
In consequence, the last king of this Tibetan house, 
after it had held the royal power for so long a period, 
let it by degi'eos slip from his hands. Besides, Laga* 
thnn&n had bad manners and a worse behaviour, on 
account of which people complained of him greatly 
to the Vazir. Now the Vazir put him in chains and 
imprisoned him for correction, bnt then he himself 
found ruling sweet, his riches enabled him to carry out 
his plans, and so he occupied the royal throne. After 
him ruled the Brahman kings SSmand (Sdmanta), 
Kamalil, Bhtm (Bhima), Jaipal (JayapfLia), Ananda- 
pa:la, Tarojanapala (Trilocanapila). The latter was 
killed A. II. 412 (a.d. 1021), and his son Bhtmapala five 
years later {a.d. 1026). 

This Hindu Sh&hiya dynasty is now extinct, and of 
the whole house there is no longer the slightest rem- 
nant in existence. We must say that, in all their 
grandeur, they never slackened in the ardent desire of 
doing that which is good and right, that they were men 
of noble sentiment and noble bearing. I admire the 
following passage in a letter of Anandapala, which he 
wrote to the prince Mal.imfid, when the relations be- 
tween them were already strained to the ntmost: "I 
have learned that the Turks have rebelled against yon 
and are spreading in Khur&siln. If you wish, I shall 
come to you with 5000 horsemen, 10,000 foot- soldiers, 
and lOO elephants, or, if you wish, I shall send you 
my son with double the number. In acting thus, I 
do not speculate on the impression which this will 
make on you. I have been conquered by you, and 

Rnd of tho 

TlbotAD dr- 
DUtr, uil 

oririo of ibo 




therefore I do not wish that another man should 
conquer yon.” 

The same prince cherished the bitterest hatred against 
the Muhammadans from the time when his son was 
made a prisoner, whilst his son Tarojanapdla (Triloca- 
nap&la) was the very opposite of his father. 

( 15 ) 



It is one of the conditions of a kalpa that in it the 
planets, with their apsides and nodes, must unite in 
0° of Aries, i.e. in the point of the vernal equinox. 
Therefore each planet makes within a kalpa a certain 
number of complete revolutions or cycles. 

These star-cycles ob known through the caTUm of 
Alfaz?ln and Ya'kOb Ibn Tarik, were derived from a 
Hindu who came to Bagdad as a member of the politi- 
cal mission which Sindh sent to the Khalif Almansftr, 
A.H. 154 ( = A.D. 771). If we compare these secondary 
statements with the primary statements of the Hindus, 
we discover discrepancies, the cause of which is not 
known to me. Is their origin due to the translation 
of Alfaz^trl and Ya'knb? or to the dictation of that 
Hindu ? or to the fact that afterwards these computa- 
tions have been corrected by Brahmagupta, or some one 
else? For, certainly, any scholar who becomes aware 
of mistakes in astronomical computations and takes an 
interest in the subject, will endeavour to correct them, 
as, 6 .g. Muhammad Ibn Isl^iik of Sarakhs has done. 
For he had discovered in the computation of Saturn a 
falling back behind real time (i.e., that Saturn, accord- 
ing to this computation, revolved slower than it did in 
reality). Now he assiduously studied the subject, till 
at last he was convinced that his fault did not originate 

Tho tnidl. 
taou of Alfa* 
zArt and 
Vn'kati Ibu 

Itiii labAkof 



from the egyuition (i.e. from the correction of the places 
of the stars, the computation of their mean places). 
Then he added to the cycles of Saturn one cycle more, 
and compared his calculation with the actual motion of 
the planet, till at last he found the calculation of the 
cycles completely to agree with astronomical observa- 
tion. In accordance with this correction he states the 


4iidt«d bf 



Xumber of 
the rutn* 
tlona of (h« 

I lftjteti lu ft 

P*{to aoj. 

star-cycles in his canon. 

Br^magnpta relates a different theory regarding the 
cycles of the apsides and nodes of the moon, on the 
authority of Aryabhata. We quote this from Brah- 
magupta, for we could not read it in the or^nal work 
of Aryabhata, but only in a quotation in the work of 

The following table contains all these traditions, whicli 
will facilitate the study of them, if God will ! 


Brahmagupta ■ 
The translation 
of Alfazirl . 
revolution of 
the moon ac- 
cording to 

Mars . . . 

Mercury ■ 

Jupiter ■ 


a The trenalatiOD 
o of AlfazTirl . 
g The correction 
I, of Atsarakbst 

The fixed stars 

Number of their 
rerolatlone la 

Number of the 

XnmlMr of the re* 
TolQtloQe of their 

a Ealpa. 

their apeldee. 





Has no node. 



j- 488,105,858 




The anomalistic 

revolution of the 


moon is here 
treated as if it 
were the apsis, 
being the ditfer- 
enco between the 
motion of the 
moon and that 
of the apsis. (See 
the nctri, } 

3 ,aq 6 , 828 ,;a 2 



« 7 .M< 5 . 998,984 



3 § 4 ,a 36 , 4 SS 




, 653 







120,000 according to tlie translation of 



The computation of these cjclea rests on the mean 
motion of the planets. As a caturyuga is, according to 
Brahmagupta, the one-thousaudth part of a kalpa, we 
have only to divide these cycles by looo, and the 
quotient is the number of the star-cycles in one calw- 

Likewise, if we divide the cycles of the table by 
10,000, the quotient is the number of the Btar-cyoles in 
a kaliguga, for this is one-tenth of a oaluryuga. Tlie 
fractions which may occur in tliose quotients are raised 
to wholes, to caturyugnis or kaliyugas, by being multi- 
plied by a number equal to the denominator of the 

The following table represents the star-cycles speci- 
ally in a caluryuga and kaliyuga, not those in a man- 
vantara. Although the jnanvaniaraa are nothing but 
multiplications of whole caiwyugas, still it is difficult 
to reckon with them on account of the sa^hdhi which 
is attached both to the beginning and to the end of 

The name, ol the p]&neta. 

The!r revolottoci 
In a CaCuryuffA. 

Their rorolutlone 
iQ a KallytigA. 




His apsis .... 






JS-a 1 BrahmsKupta . 

488 ,i 05 tM 

48 , 8 ioKf 5 

Ed g*'! Aryabhata 



Her aDomallstiorevolatioi) 

57,265, jg 4 «^V 

S. 726 .Sl 9 im 

b'SjXha transiailoti oC 
ng 1 AlfozArt 

* 32 . 3 i'iVr 

23 - 23 JWi 

23 , 23 <i}fl 


S 3 a. 3>6 



' 2,296,828ft} 


Uls Bjisis .... 


His ou(ie .... 


Or! He 

Mercury .... 
His apsis .... 

« 7 i 936 . 998 }|| 


«, 793 , 699 I!H 

Os !yr 

His node .... 



Jupiter .... 

nis apsis .... 


36 . 422 iiH 



His node .... 



CydM of 
th« pJaaots 
lij a cafur* 

Pago ato. 

^OL. II. 



ol a Mpa 
and ea^ur- 
jnoa, ac> 
oordtoff to 

tlon of ttio 
word Arjru. 


•OJODg dio 


The oenies of the plaaete. 

Their revoluttoni 

In A CAtnryngA. 

Their revolution! 

In s tCallyngn. 

YeDOB .... 

Her apeis 

Her node 

BatnTD ... 1 

HIb apeii 

HiB node 

- rihe tranBlation of 

1 1 Alfasirt 
-S ilbe correction of 
^ L AlBarakbst . 

The Bzed stars . 















After we have stated how many of the star-cycles of 
a kalpa fall in a catui'yuija and in a kalhfuga, according 
to Brahmagupta, we shall now derive from the number 
of star-cycles of a caturyuga according to Pulisa the 
number of star-cycles of a kalfa, first reckoning a 
kalpa’s^lOOO caturyugaa, and, secondly, reckoning it as 
1008 catv/ryugaa. These numbers are contained in the 
following table- : — 

The Yugae according to Pvlita . 

The DAmet of the 

K umbor of 
their rerolu* 
tioOB lb a 

Number ol their 
revolution! In u 
Kelp* of 

1000 Csturyugai. 

Kamber of their 
revoluUone ia A 
Sal pa of 
iqc 8 Caturyugaa. 

Son . . . 

Mood . . . 

Her apsis . 
Her node . 
Mars - . . 
Mercury . . 

Jupiter . . 
Venus . . 
Saturn . . 

S 7 . 7 S 3 . 33<5 



304 i »20 


I 46 > 5 &( 


S 7 i 753 » 33 ^.«» 




• 7 . 937 ^ 00,000 




2.315.19a, 59 * 


We meet in this context with a curious circumstance. 
Evidently AlfazJlrl and Ta'Jicftb sometimes heard from 
their Hindu master expressions to this effect, that his 
calculation of the star-cycles was that of the greAi Sid- 
dhdiita, whilst Aryabhafa reckoned with one-thousandth 



part of it. They apparently did not andevetand him 
properly, and imagined that dri/ahhaia (Arab, drjdbhad) 
meant a tTwnsavdih part. The Hindus pronounce Ihe 
d of this word something between a d and an r. So 
the conaonant became changed to an r, and people wrote 
drjalhar. Afterwards it was still more mutilated, the 
first r being changed to a 9, and so people wrote dzja- 
lliar. If the word in this garb wanders back to the 
Hindus, they will not recognise it. 

Further, Abd-alhasan of Al’ahwSz mentions the revo- 
lutions of the planets in ilte years of al-arjahJiAr, i.e. in 
caturyugas. I shall represent them in the table snch 
as I have fonnd them, for I gness that they are directly 
derived from the dictation of that Hindu. I’ossibly, 
therefore, they give us the theory of Aryabhata. Some 
of these numbers agree with the star-cycles in a catur- 
yaga, which we have mentioned on the authority of 
Brabmagnpta ; others differ from them, and agree with 
the theory of Puli&a ; and a third class of numbers differs 
from those of both Brahmagupta and Pulisa, as the 
examination of the whole table will show. 

names of the 

Their Yog&a ta parts 
of ft OfttuiTuga 
according to 
Abfi*alhasaQ AI'ahwAx. 

8un .... 

4t 320,000 

Moon .... 


Her ausis . . 


Her node . . 

Mara .... 


Mercury . . , 


Jupiter . . . 


Venue , . , , 


Saturn . . , 

• 46.564 

accoralD|f lo 
of Al’Abw&x. 

Pago 9x«. 

( » ) 



kAtka,” and the “aharqanas,” as bepkesentino 


Onthaioap TiiE moiitbs of the Hiudus are limar, their years solar ; 
month. therefore their new year’s day must in each solar year 
full by so much earlier as the lunar year is shorter than 
the solar (roughly speaking, by eleven days). If this 
precession makes up one complete month, they act in 
the same way as the Jews, who make the year a leap 
year of thirteen months by reckoning the month Adar 
twice, and in a similar way to the heathen Arabs, who 
in a so-called annua procrastinationis postponed the 
new year's day, thereby extending the preceding year 
to the duration of thirteen months. 

The Hindns call the year in which a month is 
repeated in the common langni^e malamdaa. Mala 
means the dirt that clings to the hand. As such dirt 
is thrown away, thus the leap month is thrown away 
out of the calculation, and the number of the months 
of a year remains twelve. However, in the literature 
the leap month is called adhimdsa. 

That month is repeated within which (it being con- 
sidered as a solar month) two lunar months finish. If 
the end of the lunar month coincides with the beginning 
of the solar month, if, in fact, the former ends before 
any part of the latter has elapsed, this month is re- 
peated, because the end of the Innar month, although 



it has not yet rnn into the new solar month, still does 
no longer form part of the preceding month. 

If a month is repeated, the first time it has its 
ordinary name, whilst the second time they 8dd before 
the name the word dw'd to distinguish between them. 
If, e,(j. the month Ashufjha is repeated, the first is called 
Asbiidlia, the second Dui'dskdtfka. The first month is 
that which is disregarded in the calculation. The Hin- 
dus consider it as unlucky, and do not celebrate any of 
the festivals in it which they celebrate in the other 
montha The most unlucky time in this month is that 
day on which the lunation reaches its end. 

The anthor of the Vishnv^Dhai-ma says: “ Candra 
(w.ii}i/i) is smaller than sdvana, i.e. the lunar year is 
smaller than the civil year, by six days, i.e. dnardtra. 
fJna means decrease, deficiency. Saura is greater than 
candra by eleven days, which gives in two years and 
seven months the supernumerary adhimdsa month. 
This whole month is unlucky, and nothing must bo 
done in it.” 

This is a rough description of the matter. We shall 
now describe it accurately. 

The lunar year has 360 lunar days, the solar year has 
lunar days. This difference sums up to the 
thirty days of an ail/rimdsn in the course of 976iWV(r 
lunar days, i.e. in 32 months, or in 2 years, 8 months, 16 
days, pins the fraction: -/jWv lunar day, which is 
nearly = 5 minutes, 1 5 seconds. 

As the religious reason of this theory of intercala- 
tion the Hindus mention a passage of the Veda, which 
they have road to us, to the following tenor; “If the 
day of conjunction, i.e. the first lunar day of the month, 
passes without the sun’s marching from one zodiacal sign 
to the other, and if this takes place on the following 
day, the preceding montli falls out of the calculation.” 

The meaning of this passage is not correct, and the 
fault must have lisen with the man who recited and 

PltgO it}. 

]r«>TU Uie 

frpm thfi 





of tUo Vodlc 


PiigO 914. 

tranalated the passage to me. For a month has thirty 
Iniiar days, and a twelfth part of the solar year has 
lunar days. This fraction, reckoned in day- 
minutes, ft equal to 55' 19“ 22‘“ 30''. If we now, for 
example, suppose a conjunction or new moon to take 
place at 0° of a ssodiacal sign, we add this fraction to 
the time of the conjunction, and thereby we find the 
times of the sun’s entering the signs suooesaively. As 
now the difference between a lunar and a solar month 
is only a fraction of a day, the sun’s entering a uew 
sign may naturally take place on any of the days of the 
month. It may even happen that the sun enters two 
consecutive signs on the same month-day (r.y. on the 
second or third of two consecutive months). This is 
the case if in one month the sun enters a sign before 
4' 40" 37'“ 30” have elapsed of it; for the next follow- 
ing entering a sign falls later by 55' ig" 23'“ 30”, and 
both these fractions (*.«. less than 4’ 40“ 37'" ^0^'' phis 
the last^raentioned fraction) added together are not 
sufficient to make up one complete day. Therefore 
the quotation from the Veda is not correct. 

I suppose, however, that it may have the following 
correct meaning : — -If a month elapses in which the sun 
does not march from one sign to another, this month is 
disregarded in the calculation. For if the sun enters 
a sign on the 29th of a month, when at least 4* 40" 37'“ 
30'' have elapsed of it, this entering takes place before 
the beginning of the succeeding month, and therefore 
the latter month is without an entering of the sun into 
a new sign, because the next following entering falls on 
the first of the next but one or third month. If yon 
compute the consecutive enterings, beginning with a 
conjunction taking place in 0° of a certain sign, you 
Dud tliat in the thirty-third month the sun enters a new 
sign at 30' 20“ of the twenty-ninth day, and that he 
enters the next following sign at 25' 39*' 22'“ 30“’ of the 
first day of the thirty-fifth mouth. 



Hence also becomes evident why this month, which 
is disregarded in the calcnlation, is considered as un- 
lucky. The reason is that the month misses just that 
moment which is particularly adapted to edhn in it a 
heavenly rewai-d, vi*. the moment of the sun’s entering 
a new sign. 

As regards adM'milsa, the word means tht first month, 
for AD means heginniny {i.o. (idi). In the books of 
Ibn Tilril^ and of Alfaz^il this name is written 
padamdsa. Pada (in the orig. P-Dh) means end, and 
it is possible that the Hindus call the leap month by 
both names ; but the reader must be aware that these 
two authors frequently misspell or disfigure the Indian 
words, and that there is no reliance on their tradition. 
I only mention this because Fulisa explains the latter 
of the two months, which are called by the same name, 
as the supernumerary one. 

The month, as the time from one conjunction to the 
following, is one revolution of the moon, which revolves 
through the ecliptic, but in a course distant from that 
of the sun. This is the difference between the motions 
of the two heavenly luminaries, whilst the direction 
in which they move is the same. If we subtract the 
revolutions of the sun, i.e. the solar cycles of a kalpa, 
from its lunar cycles, the remainder shows how many 
more lunar months a kalpn has than solar months. All 
months or days which we reckon as parts of whole 
kalpas we call here smivcrsa!, and aU months or days 
which we reckon as parts of a part of a kalpa, e.g. 
of a catvryuya, we call partial, for the purpose of sim- 
plifying the terminology. 

The year has twelve solar months, and likewise 
twelve lunar months. The lunar year is complete with 
twelve months, whilst the solar year, in consequence of 
the difference of the two year kinds, has, with the 
addition of the odhimAsa, thii'teen months. Now evi- 
dently the difference between the universal solar and 

of i>h« teiTiu 
uftitvrMj or 
DjooUiB and 





How tn&oj’ 
AOd ^vll 
days ars re* 
qiilrod for 
toe forma* 
tfon of aa 


Tlio Qomtiu« 
tstien tif 
to Puliiiti 
Page et£* 

Inilar moDthB is represented by these supernumerary 
months, which a single year is extended to thirteen 
months. These, therefore, are the universal adhimdsa 

The universal solar mouths of a kcdpa are 51,840, 
000,000 the universal lunar months of a Ixilpa are 
53i433i3‘^>^0. The difference between them or the 
adhirndsa months is ti593>300,000. 

Multiplying each of these numbers by 30, we get 
days, viz. solar days of a kalpa, 1,555,300,000,000 ; 
Innardays, 1,602,999,000,000; thedaysof theadAimiffa 
months, 47,799,000,00a 

In order to reduce these numbers to smaller ones 
we divide them by a common divisor, viz. 9,000,000. 
Thus we get as the sum of the days of the solar months 
172,800 ; as the sum of the days of the lunar months, 
178.1 1 1 ; and as the sum of the days of the adhimdsa 
months, 5311. 

If we further divide the universal solar, civil, and 
lunar days of a halpa, each kind of them separately, by 
the universal adkimfisa montlis, the quotient represents 
the number of days within which a whole adhimdsa 
month snms up, viz. in 976^/,*, solar days, in ioo6^5Vt 
lunar days, and in 990]^^% civil days. 

Tins whole computation rests on the measures which 
Brahmagupta adopts regarding a l-alpa and the star- 
cycles in a kal'pa. 

According to the theory of Pulisa regarding the 
cniuryuga, a catwiyuga has 51,840,000 solar months, 
53>433 i 336 Innar months, 1,593,336 months. 

Accordingly a caiury^tga has 1,555,200,000 solar days, 
1,603,000,080 innar days, 47,800,080 days of adhimdia 

If we reduce the numbers of the months by the 
common divisor of 24, we get 2,160,000 solar months. 
2,226,389 lunar mouths, 66,389 adhimdsa months. If 
we divide the numbers of the day by the common 



divisor of 720, we get 2,160,000 solar days, 2,226,389 
lunar days, 66,389 days of the adhimdsa mouths. If 
we, lastly, divide the universal solar, lunar, and civil 
days of a caturyuga, each kind separately, by the tini* 
versal adhim&sa months of a caturyuga, the quotient 
represents the numbers of days within which a wlrole 
adhimdsa mouth sums up, vi?i. in solar days, 

in loo6|,VflV(>' '""ft*’ 990j+Jtv civil days. 

These are the elements of the computation of the 
adhimdsa, which we have worked out for the benefit of 
the following investigatious. 

Begarding the cause which necessitates the •(tnardlra, expIumUod 
lit. the days of the deci'ease, we have to consider the fol- 

If we have one year or a certain number of years, 
and reckon for each of them twelve months, we get the 
corresponding number of solar months, and by multi- 
plying the latter by 30, the corresponding number 
of solar days. It is evident that the number of the 
lunar months or days of the same period is the same, 
pliis an increase which forms one or several adhimdsa 
mouths. If wo reduce this increase to adhimdsa months 
due to the period of time in question, according to the 
relation between the universal solar months and the 
universal adhimdsa months, and add this to the months 
or days of the years in question, the sum represents the 
partial lunar days, i.e. those which correspond to the 
given number of years. 

This, however, is not what is wanted. What we want 
is the number of cicil days of the given number of 
years which are less than tlie lunar days; for one civil 
day is greater than one lunar day. Therefore, in order 
to fiud that which is sought, we must subtract some- 
thing from the number of lunar clays, and this element 
which must be subtracted is called ihinrdtra. 

The dnar&tra of the ‘partial lunar days stands in the 
same relation to the universal lunar days as the nniversal 



tlon ol tiM 

on Tn'kAb 
Ibo Tirik. 

Ptiga 9i6. 

civil days are less than the universal lunar days. The 
universal lunar days of a kalpa are 1,602,999,000,000. 
This number is larger than the number of universal 
civil days by 25,082,550,000, which represents the uni- 
versal Unardira. 

Both these numbers may be diminished by the com- 
mon divisor of 450,000. Thus we get 3,562,220 nni- 
versal lunar days, and 55,739 universal ilnardlm days. 

According to Pulisa, a catv/ryiiga has 1,603,000,080 
lunar days, and 25,082,280 ilncvtAira days. The com- 
mon divisor by whioh both numbers may be reduced 
is 360. Thus we get 4,452,778 lunar days and 69,673 
‘Anardtra days. 

These are the rules for the computation of the Ana- 
rdtra, which we shall hereafter want for the compu- 
tation of the ahargana. The word means sum of days; 
for Ah means day, and organa, sum. 

Ya'kub Ibn has made a mistake in the compu- 
tation of the solar days ; for he maintains that you get 
them by subtracting the solar cycles of a kaipa from 
the civil days of a Icalpa, i.e. the universal civil days. 
But this is not the case. We get the solar days by 
multiplying the solar cycles of a kalpa by 12, in order 
to reduce them to months, and the product by 30, in 
order to reduce them to days, or by multiplying the 
number of cycles by 360. 

In the computation of the lunar days he has first- 
taken the right course, multiplying the lunar months 
of a kalpa by 30, but afterwards he again falls into a 
mistake in the computation of the days of the Anardtra. 
VoT he maintains that you get them by subtracting the 
solar days from the lunar days, whilst the correct thing 
is to subtract the civil days fi-om the lunar days. 

( 37 > 



The general method of resolntion is as follows : — ^The 
complete years are mnltipUed by 1 2 ; to tiie prodnct are 
added the months which have elapsed of the current 
year, [and this snm is multiplied by 30 ;] to this product 
are added the days which have elapsed of the current 
month. The snm represents the saurdharguna, i.e. the 
snm of the partial solar days. 

You write down the nnmber in two places. In the 
one place you multiply it by 5311, i.e. the nnmber 
which represents the universal odAtwufea months. The 
product you divide by 172,800, i.e. the number which 
represents the universal solar months. The quotient you 
get, as far as it contains complete days, is added to the 
nnmber in the second place, and the sum represents the 
candrdhargaiia, i.e. the sum of the partial lunar days. 

The latter number is again written down in two 
different places, In the one place you multiply it by 
55,739, t.e. the nnmber which represents the universal 
Unardlra days, and divide the product by 3,562,220, i.e. 
the number wliich represents the universal lunar days. 
The quotient you get, as far as it represents complete 
days, is subtracted from the nnmber written in the 
second place, and the remainder is the sdvanAhargana, 
i.e. the sum of civil days which we wanted to find. 

0«nora1 rule 
how to find 
the jdvand* 



Uoro do* 
UJIod nilo 
for tho teXDO 

Tbe Utter 
canded out 
for Doka- 
k&U 953. 

However, tbe reader most know tliat this compntap 
tion applies to dates in which there are only complete 
odMmdsa and •Anardtra days, without any fraction. If, 
therefore, a given number of years commences with the 
beginning of a halpa, or a eaturifuga, or a Icaliyi'ya, this 
computation is correct. But if the given years begin 
with some other time, it may by chance happen that 
this computation is correct, but possibly, too, it may 
result in proving the existence of adhimdsa time, and in 
that case the computation would not be correct. Also 
the reverse of these two eventnalities may take place. 
However, if it is known with what particular moment 
in the kalpa, calim/iiga, or hnliijvya a given number 
of years commences, we use a special method of com- 
putation, which we shall hereafter illustrate by some 

We shall carry out this method for the begin- 
ning of tbe Indian year Sakak^a 953, the same year 
which we nse as the gange-year in all these com- 

First we compute tlie time from the beginning of 
the life of Brahman, according to the rules of Bi-ahma- 
gupta. We have already mentioned that 6068 kalpas 
have elapsed before the present one. Multiplying this 
by the well-known number of the days of a kalpa 
(1,577,916,450,000 civil days, nde i. p. 368), we get 
9,574,797.018,600,000 as the snm of the days of 6068 

Dividing this number by 7, we get 5 as a remainder, 
and reckouing five days backwards from the Saturday 
which is the last day of the preceding kal/jn, we get 
Tuesday os the first day of the life of Brahman. 

We have already mentioned the sum of the days of 
a mt,>mjii,ga (1.577.916,450 days, v. i. p. 370), and have 
explained that a kritayvga is equal to four-tenths of it, 
i.c. 631,166,580 days. A manvantara has seventy-one 
times as much, i.e. 1 12,032.067,950 days. The days of 

Fago 917. 



six manvantaras and their samdhi, consisting of seven 
lcritaiju<ia, are 676,610,573,760. If we divide this 
nomber by 7, we get a remainder of 2. Therefore the 
six manvantaras end with a Monday, and the seventh 
begins with a Tnesday. 

Of the seventh manvanlara there have already elapsdd 
twenty •seven caturyvga 8 ,i.e. 42,603,744,150 days. If 
we divide this number by 7, we get a remainder of 2. 
Therefore the twenty-eighth caturyuga begins with a 

The days of the yngas which have elapsed of the 
present atiiiryw/rt are 1,420,124,805. The division by 
7 gives the remainder i , Therefore the kaliyuga begins 
with a Friday. 

Now, returning to onr gauge-year, we remark that 
the years which have elapsed of the kalpa up to that 
year are 1,972,948,132. Multiplying them by 12, we 
get as the number of thek months 23,675,377,584. In 
the date which we have adopted as gauge-year there 
is no month, but only complete years ; therefore we 
have nothing to add to this number. 

By moltiplying this number by 30 we get days, 
viz. 710,261,327,520. As there are no days in the 
normal date, we have no days to odd to thm nnmber. 
If, therefore, we had multiplied the nnmber of years 
by 360, we should have got the same result, viz. the 
■partial solar days. 

Multiply this number by 5311 and divide the pro- 
duct by 172,800. The quotient is the number of the 
adhinnUa days, viz. 2l,829,849,oi8fJf. If, in multi- 
plying and dividing, we had used the months, we 
should have found the odhimAsa months, and, mnlti- 
plied by 30, they would be e<|iial to the here-mentioned 
nnmber of odhimAsa days. 

If we further add the odMmdsa days to the partial 
solar days, we get the sum of 732,091,176,538, i.e. the 
partial lunar days. Multiplying them by 55,739, and 


dividing the product by 3,562,220. we get the partial 
Unardtra days, viz., ii,4S5,224,575-}-;f^;ffJ. 

This sum of days without the fraction is subtracted 
from the partial lunar days, and the remainder, 
720,635,951,963, represents the number of the civil 
days of our gaiige>date. 

Dividing it by 7, we get as remainder 4, which 
means that the lost of these days is a Wednesday. 
Therefore the Indian year commences with a Thursday. 

If we farther want to find the adhiindsa time, we 
divide the adhintdsa days by 30, and the quotient is 
the number of the adhimdsaa which have elapsed, viz. 
727,661,633, plus a remainder of 28 days, 51 minutes, 
30 seconds, for the current year. Tliis is the time 
which has already elapsed of the adhimdsa month of 
the current year. To become a complete month, it 
only wants r day, 8 minutes, 30 seconds more. 

Tbe sajno We have here used the solar and lunar days, the 

adhimdsa and 'dnardira days, to find a certain past 
ac^^to portion of a kalpa. We shall now do the same to find 
the past portion of a caturyuga, and we may use the 
same elements for the computation of a caturyuga 
which we have used for that of a kalpa, for both 
methods lead to tbe same result, as long as we adhere 
to one and the same theory {e.g. that of Brahmagupta), 
and do not TniTt up different chronolo^cal systems, and 
as long as each guy^dra and its Ih&gabhdra, which we 
here mention together, correspond to each other in the 
two computations. 

The former term means a multiplieator in all kinds 
of oaleulationa. In our (Arabic) astronomical hand- 
books, as well as those of the Persians, the word occurs 
in tbe form guncdr. The second term means each 
divisor. It occurs in the astronomical handbooks in 
the form hyhedr. 

It would be useless if we were to exemplify this com- 
putation on a caturyuga according to the theory of Brab- 



magnpta, as according to him a catur^ffa is simply one- 
thousandth of a kalpa. We should only have to shorten 
the above-mentioned numbei's by three ciphers, and in 
every other respect get the same results. Therefore we 
shall now give this computation according to the theory 
of Pulisa, whicli, though applying to the eatury^iga, is 
similar to the method of computation used for a kdlpa. 

According to Fulisa, in the moment of the beginning 
of the gauge-year, there have elapsed of the years of the 
taHrywja. 3,244,132, which are equal to 1,167,887,520 
solar days. If we multiply the number of months 
which corresponds to this number of days with the 
number of the adkinidso. months of a caluryiiga or a 
corresponding multiplicator, and divide the product by 
the number of the solar months of a catwryuga,, or a 
corresponding divisor, we-get as the number of adki- 
nidsa months I,I96,S25|-^JJ. 

Further, the past 3,244,132 years of the caiuryuga 
are 1,203,783,270 lunar days. Multiplying them by 
the number of the ‘dnardtra days of a caiuryuga, and 
dividing the product by the lunar days of a caiuryuga, we 
get as the number of -dnardira days 1 8,83 
Accordingly, the civil days which have elapsed since 
the beginning of the catwryuga are 1,184,947,570, and 
this it was which we wanted to find. 

We shall here communicate a passage from the 
Puliaa-siddkdnta, desciibiug a similar method of com- 
putation, for the purpose of rendering the whole subject 
clearer to the mind of the reader, and fixing it there 
more thoroughly. Pulisa says: “We first mark the 
kalpas which have elapsed of the life of Brahman 
before the present kalpa, ie. 6068. We multiply this 
number by the number of the caturyugas of a kalpa, 
ie. 1008. Thus we get the product 6,116,544. This 
number we multiply by the number of the yugas of a 
eaiwryuga, i.e. 4, and get the product 24,466,176. This 
number we multiply by the number of years of a yuga, 

PitgO 9(d 

A Bimllitr 
muLhod rf 
tnken from 
tho FufUa^ 



Vig» 31 $. 

i.e. 1,080,000, and get the product 26,423470,080.000. 
These are the years which have elapsed before the 
present kalpa. 

We farther multiply the latter number by 12, so as 
to get months, viz. 317,081,640,960,000. We write 
down this number in two different places. 

In the one place, we multiply it by the number of 
the adhimdsa months of a ecUuvijMya, i,e. 1,593,336, or 
a corresponding number which has been mentioned in 
the preceding, and we divide the product by the num- 
ber of the solar months of a catwyuya, i.e. 5 1 ,840,000. 
The quotient is the number of adhimdsa months, viz. 

This number we add to the number written in the 
second place, and get the sum of 326,827,350,710,784. 
Multiplying this number by 30, we get the product 
9,804,820.521,323,520, viz. lunar days. 

This number is again written down in two different 
places. In the one place we multiply it by the 'Anardh-a 
of a GcUuryuga, i.e. the difference between civil and lunar 
days, and divide the proditct by the lunar days of a co^io-- 
yv^a. Thus we get as quotient 153,416,869,240,320, 
i.e. Aitardtra days. 

We subtract this number from that one written 
in the second place, and we get as remainder 
9,651.403,652.083,200, i.e. the days which have elapsed 
of the life of Brahman before the present kalpa, 
or the days of 6068 kalpas, each kalpa having 
1,590,541,142,400 days. Dividing this sum of days 
by 7, we get no remainder. This period of time ends 
with a Saturday, and the present kalpa commences 
with a Smday. This shows that the beginuing of the 
life of Brahman too was a Sunday. 

Of the current kalpa there have elapsed six manvan- 
taras, each of 72 caturyxigas, and each calurytiga of 

4.320.000 years. Therefore six mam-antaras have 

1.866.240.000 years. This number we compute in the 



same way as we have done in the preceding example. 
Thereby we find as the number of days of six complete 
manvantarm, 681,660,489,600. Dividing this number 
by 7. we get as remainder 6 . Therefore the elapsed 
manvaiiianrs end with a Friday, and the seventh man- 
rnnlara begins with a Saturday. 

Of the current 'm.amantara there have elapsed 27 
caLtmjugm, which, according to the preceding method 
of computation, represent the number of 42,603,780,600 
days. The twenty-seventh caivAyuga ends with a 
Monday, and the twenty-eighth begins with a Tues- 

Of the current caluryuga there have elapsed three 
yvyas, or 3,240,000 yeai-s. These represent, according 
to the preceding method of computation, the number 
of 1.183438,350 days. Therefore these three yugas 
end witli a Thursday, and haliyuga commences with a 

Afccordingly, the sum of days which have elapsed 
of the kalpa is 725,447,708,550, and the sum of days 
which have elapsed between the beginning of the life 
of Brahman and the beginning of the present kaliyvga 


To judge from the quotations from Aryabhata, as we 
have not seen a book of his, be seems to reckon in the 
followiftg manner : — 

The sum of days of a caluryuga is r, 577, 917,500. 
The time between the beginning of the halfa- and the 
beginning of the kaliyvga is 725,447,570,625 days, 
The time between the beginning of the kalpa and our 
gauge-date is 725,449,079,845. The number of clays 
which have elapsed of the life of Brahman before the 
present kalpa is 9,651401,817,120,000. 

This is the correct method for the resolution of years 
into days, and all other measures of time are to be 
treated in accordance with this. 

We have already pointed out (on p. 26) a mistake 

VOL. n. c 


of oA'zrjTa'U 
by Aryft. 



Th« oAar* 
gaiui m 
fftviQ hy 
Yn'ktb Ibn 

A BfrGond 
given hy 

of Ya'tab Ibn T&rik in the calculation of the universal 
solar and Cnardtra days. As he translated from the 
Indian language a calculation the reasons of which he 
did not understand, it would have been his duty to 
examine it, and to check the various numbers of it one 
by the other. He mentions in his book also the method 
of ahargaija, i.e. the resolution of years, but bis descrip- 
tion is not correct ; for he says : — 

“ Multiply the months of the given number of years 
by the number of the adkimdsa months which have 
elapsed np to the time in question, according to the 
well-known roles of adhimdaa. Divide the product 
by the solar months. The quotient is the number of 
complete adkimdsa months plus its fractions which 
have elapsed np to the date in question.” 

The mistake is here so evident that even a copyist 
would notice it; how much more a mathematician who 
makes a comp&tation according to this method; for 
he multiplies by the partial adkimdsa instead of the 

Besides, Ya'kdb mentions in bis book another and 
perfectly correct method of resolution, which is this : 
“When yon have fonnd the number of months of 
the years, multiply them by the number of the lunar 
months, and divide the product by the solar months. 
The quotient is the number of adkimdsa months to- 
gether with the number of the months of the years in 

“ This number you multiply by 30, and you add to 
the product the days which have elapsed of the current 
month. The sum represents the lunar days. 

" If, instead of this, the drst number of months were 
multiplied by 30, and the past portion of the month 
were added to the prodi\ct, the sum would represent 
the partial solar days; and if this number were further 
computed according to the preceding method, we should 
get the adkimdsa days together with the solar days,” 


2 $ 

The rationale of thia calculation ia the following : — If 
we multiply, aa we have done, by the number of the 
nniveraal adhimdsa months, and divide the product by 
the universal solar months, the quotient represents the 
portion of adhimdsa time by which we have multiplied. 
As, now, the lunar months are the sum of solar and 
adhimdsa months, we multiply by them (the lunar 
months) and the 'division remains the same, The quo- 
tient is the sum of that number which is multiplied 
and that one which is sought for, i.e. the lunar days. 

We have already mentioned in the preceding part 
that by multiplying the lunar days by the universal 
iXnardtra days, and by dividing the product by the 
nniversal lunar days, we get the portion of iXnardira 
days which belongs to the number of lunar days in 
question. However, the dvil days in a kalpa are less 
than the lunar days by the amount of the ilnardtra 
days. Now the lunar days we have stand in the same 
relation to the lunar days minzis their due portion of 
Umardlra days as the whole number of lunar days (of 
a kalpa) to the whole number of lunar days (of a kalpa) 
minus the complete number of -Anardira days (of a 
kalpa) ; and the latter number are the universal civil 
days. If we, therefore, multiply the number of lunar 
days we have by the universal civil days, and divide 
the product by the universal lunar days, we get as 
quotient the number of civil days of the date in ques- 
tion, and that it was which we wanted to find. In- 
stead of multiplying by the whole sum of civil days 
(of a kalpa), we multiply by 3,506,481, and insteail of 
dividing by the whole number of lunar days (of a 
kalpa), we divide by 3,562,220. 

The Hindus have still another method of calculatlou. 
It is the following : — “ They multiply the elapsed years 
of the kalpa by 12, and add to the product the com- 
plete months which have elapsed of the current year. 
The sum they write down above the number 69,120, 

of inv Jut* 

Png« 330. 

tnolhod of 
(tharofufa of 

tliQ HlAdm. 




and the nnmber they get is subtracted from the num- 
ber written down in the middle place. I'he double of 
the remainder they divide by 65. Then the quotient 
represents the partial adkimdsa months. This number 
they add to that one which is written down in the 
uppermost place. They multiply the sum by 30, and 
add to the product the days which have elapsed of the 
oiirrent month. The sum represents the partial solar 
days. This number is written down in two different 
places, one under the other. They multiply the lower 
number by ri, and write the product under it. Then 
they divide it by 403,963, and add the quotient to the 
middle number. They divide the sum by 703, and 
the quotient represents the partial -dnanUra days. This 
number they subtract from the number written in the 
uppermost place, and the remainder is the number of 
civil days which we want to find.” 

Ejipiic»tion The rationale of this computation is the following : — 

nrth^. If we divide the universal solar months by the uni- 
versal adhimdsa months, we get as the measure of one 
adhinidsa month 32 ,®-j^Vf solar months. The donble 
of this is solar months. If we divide by this 

number the double of the mouths of the given years, the 
quotient is the number of the partial adhimdsaa. How- 
ever, if we divide by wholes pl'us a fraction, and want 
to subtract from the number which is divided a certain 
portion, the remainder being divided by the wholes 
only, and the two subtracted portions being equal por- 
tions of the wholes to which they belong, the whole 
divisor stands in the same relation to its fraction as 
the divided number to the subtracted portion. 

Thoiat'Br If we makethls computation for our gauge-year, we 
g®!- fraction of dividing both num- 

bers by IS, we get 

It would also be possible here to reckon by single 
adhimdsas instead of donble ones, and in that case it 



would not be necessary to double the remainder. But 
the inventor of this method seems to have preferred 
the reduplication in order to get smaller numbers | for 
if we reckon with single adkimdsas, we get the fraction 
of which may be reduced by 96 as a Common 

divisor, Thereby we get S9 as the tnultiplicator, and 
5400 aa the divisor. In this the inventor of the 
method has shown his sagacity, for the reason for his 
computation is the intention of getting partial lunar 
days and smaller mnltiplicators. 

His method (i.e. Brahmagupta’s) for the computation 
of the Unardtra days is the following : — 

If we divide the universal lunar days by the uni- 
versal -Anardtra days, we get as quotient 63 and a 
fraction, which may be reduced by the common divisor 

450.000. Thus we get lunar days as the period 

of time within wliich one Unardlra day sums up. If 
we change this fraction into eleventh parts, we get 
and a remainder of which, if expressed in 

minntes, is equal to o' 59" 54". 

Since this fraction is very near to one whole, people 
have neglected it, and use, in a rough way, instead. 
Therefore, according to the Hindus, one Unardtra day 
sums up in 63^^ or V't hinar days. 

If we now multiply the number of Unardtra days, 
which corresponds to the number of lunar days by 
the product is less than that which we get by 
multiplying by 63I?. If we, therefore, want to divide 
the lunar days by on the supposition that the 
quotient is equal to the first number, a certain portion 
must be added to the lunar days, and this portion he 
(the author of l\il‘isa-Sidd!idnta) had not computed accu- 
rately, but only approximatively. For if we multiply 
the universal ■dnardtra days by 703, we get the product 

17.633.032.650.000, which is more than eleven times the 
universal lunar days. And if we multiply the universal 
lunar days by 1 1, we get the product 17,632,989,000,000. 

Uetliod fut 
the eonpu* 
tatiou of lUo 

da^a aeoord* 
lug to 



Page 221 . 



CrlUoLmiB of 
Ibis Qisibod 

Method for 
tindlntr the 
odAimdM fur 
the yean ol 
ft hxlpa, 

The difference between the two nnmbers is 43,650.000. 
If we divide by this number the product of eleven times 
the aniversal lunar days, we get as quotient 403,963. 

This is the number used by the inventor of the 
method. If there were not a small remainder beyond 
the laBt-meutioned quotient (403,963 ■■ a fraction), his 
method would be perfectly correct. However, there 
remains a fraction of /r> ^nd this is the amount 

which is neglected. If he uses this divisor without the 
fraction, aud divides by it tbe product of eleven times 
the partial lunar days, the quotient would be by so much 
larger as the dividendum has increased. The other 
details of the calculation do not require comment. 

Because the majority of the Hindns, in reckoning 
their years, require the adhimdsa, they give the pre- 
ference to this method, and are particularly painstaking 
in describing the methods for the computation of the 
adhividsa, disregarding the methods for the compu- 
tation of the llTiardtra days and the sum of the days 
(ahar<jai!.a). One of their methods of finding the ad- 
Mmdsa for the years of a halpa or caiuryibga or kediyuga 
is this : — 

They write down the years in three different places. 
They multiply the upper number by 10, the middle by 
2481, aud the lower by 7739. Then they divide the 
middle and tower numbers by 9600, and the quotients 
are days for the middle number and amma for tbe 
lower number. 

The sum of these two quotients is added to the 
number in the upper place. Tbe sum represents the 
number of the complete adhimdm days which have 
elapsed, and the sum of that which remains in tbe 
other two places is the fraction of tbe current adhimdsa. 
Dividing the days by 30, they get months. 

Ya'kiib Ibn Tank states this method quite correctly. 
We shall, as an example, carry out this computation for 
ourgauge-year. Theyeareof theA'.ofpawhiohhaveelapsed 



till the moment of the gauge-date are 1,972,948,132. 
We write down this number in thiee different places. 
The upper number we multiply by ten, by which it 
gets a cipher more at the right side. The middle 
uintibBr we iimltiply by 2481 and get the product 
4,894,884,315,492. The lower number we multiply by 
7739, and got the product 15,268,645,593,548. The 
latter two numbers wo divide by 9600; thereby we get 
for the middle number as quotient 509,883,782 and a 
remainder of 8292, and for the lower number a quo- 
tient of 1,590,483,915 and a remainder of 9548. The 
sum of Ibese two remainders is 17,840. This fraction 
(t.e. reckoned as one whole. Thereby the 

sum of the numbers in all three places is raised to 
21,829,849,018, i.e. adlmidea days, plus day of the 
current adhimdsa day {i.e. which is now in course of 
summing up). 

Reducing these days to months, we get 727,661,633 
TOontliB and a remainder of twenty-eight days, which 
is called Sh-D-D. This is the interval between the 
beginning of the month Caitra, which is not omitted 
in the series of months, and the moment of the vernal 

Farther, adding the quotient which we have got for 
the middle number to the years of the kalpa, we get 
the sum of 2482,831,914. Dividing this number by 7, 
we get the remainder 3. Therefore the sun has, in the 
year in question, entered Aries on a Tuesday. 

TTie two numbers which are used as multipUcators 
for the numbers in the middle and lower places are to 
be explained in the following manner: — 

Dividing the dml days of a kalpa by the solar cycles 
of a kalpn., wo get as quotient the number of days which 
compose a year, i.e. Reducing this 

fraction by the common divisor of 450,000, we get 
Tlie fraction may be further reduced by 
being divided by 3, but people leave it as it is, in order 

TIkO Uttur 
i:iutht>d up* 

phcki to (h« 


PAg6 9H. 

not« ti) the 



that this fraction and the other fractions which occur 
in the further course of this computation should hare 
the same denominator. 

Dividing the universal ^nardtra days by the solar 
years of a kalpa, the quotient is the number of ‘Anm'dlra 
days which belong to a solar year, viz. 
days. Heduoing this fraction by the common divisor 
of 450,000, we get fraction may fur- 

ther be reduced by being divided by 3. 

The measures of solar and Innar years are about 360 
days, as are also the civil years of sun and moon, the 
one being a little larger, the other a little shorter. The 
one of these measures, the lunar year, is used in this 
computation, whilst the other measure, the solar year, 
is sought for. The sum of the two quotients (of the 
middle and lower number) is the difference between the 
two kinds of years. The upper number is multiplied by 
the sum of the complete days, and the middle and lower 
numbers are multiplied by each of the two fractions. 
Simpufics. If we want to abbreviate the computation, and do 
uon^ofthe Hindus, wish to find the mean moticus of 

metbod. moOD, we add the two multiplicators of the 

middle -and lower numbers together. This gives the 
sum of 10,220. 

To tills sum we add, for the upper place, the product 
of the divisor x lO = 96,000, and we get 
Beducing this fraction by the half, we get 

In this chapter (p. 27) we have already explained 
that by multiplying the days by 5311, and dividing 
the product by 172,800, we get the number of the 
adhimdsaa. If we now multiply the number of years 
instead of the days, the product is of the product 
which we should get when multiplying by the number 
of days. If we, therefore, want to have the same quotient 
which we get by the first division, we must divide by 
of the divisor by which we divided in the first case, 
viz. 480 (for .?6o X 480 = 172,800). 

rig« 333 . 



Similar to tbis method ia that one prescribed by Aaeeond 
Pulisa : “ Write down the number of the partial months findiuBt” 
in two different places. In the one place multiply oMoKiingto 
it by nil, and divide the product by 67,51x3. Sub- 
tract the quotient from the number in the other place, 
and divide the remainder by 33. The quotient is the 
number of the adhimdsa months, and the fraction in 
the quotient, if there is one, represents that part of an 
adhimdsa month which is in course of formation. Mul- 
tiplying this amount by 30, and dividing the product 
by 32, the quotient represents the days and day-frac- 
tions of the current adhimdsa mouth.” 

The rationale of this method is the following : — 

If you divide the solar months of a caturyvga by the Bxpu»uon 
adhimdsa months of a calurywja, in accordance with the m«uiad 
theory of Pulisa, you get as quotient 32|4;||-|-. If you 
divide the months by this number, you get the com- 
plete adhimdsa months of the past portion of the caVwr- 
yuga or kalpa. Pulisa, however, wanted to divide by 
wholes alone, without any fractions. Therefore he had 
to subtract something from the dividendum, as has 
already been explaiued in a similar case (p. 36). We 
have found, in applying the computation to our gauge- 
year, as the fraction of the divisor, -j-.Tlif.TUTr, which may 
be reduced by being divided by 32. Thereby we get 

Pulisa has, in this calculation, reckoned by the solar 
days into which a date is resolved, instead of by months. 

For he says: “You write this number of days in two Further 
different places, In the one place you multiply it by Fuller 
27 1 aud divide the product by 4,050,00a The quo- 
tient you subtract from the number in the other 
place and divide the remainder by 976. The quo- 
tient is the number of adhimdsa months, days, and 

Further he says : “ The reason of this is, that by 
dividing the days of a caturynga by the adhimdsa 


months, yon get as quotient 976 days and a remainder 
of 104,064. The common divisor for this nnmber and 
for the divisor is 384. Beducing the fraction thereby, 
we get days.” 

Crltlstnm* Here, however, I suspect either the copyist or the 
translator, for Pulisa was too good a scholar to commit 
similar blunders. The matter is this 

Those days which are divided by the adhimdsa 
months are of necessity sdar days. The quotient con- 
tains wholes and fractions, as has been stated. Both 
denominator and numerator have as common divisor the 
number 24. Redudug the fraction thereby, we get 

If we apply this rule to the months, and reduce 
the nnmber of adhimdsa months to fractions, we get 
47,800,000 as denominator. A divisor common to both 
this denominator and its numerator is 16. Reducing 
the fraction thereby, we get T, a^i , *oop . 

If we now multiply the nnmber which Pulisa adopts 
as divisor by the just-mentioned common divisor, i.e. 
384, we get the product 1,555,200,000, viz. solar days 
in a catwyaga. But it is quite impossible that this 
number should, in this part of the calculation, be 
used as a divisor. If we want to base this method on 
the rules of Brahmagupta, dividing the universal solar 
months by the adhimdsa months, the' result will be, 
according to the method employed by him, double the 
amount of the adhimdsa. 

MsthiKi lor Further, a similar method may be used for the com- 
utiim ohho pntation of tho 'Anardira days. 

Write down the partial lunar days in two different 
places. In the one place, multiply the number by 
50,663, and divide the product by 3,562,220. Sub- 
tract the quotient from the number in the other 
place, and divide the remainder by 63 without any 

In the further very lengthy speculations of the 




Hindus there is no use at all, especially as they require 
the avama, i.e. tlie remainder of the partial 'Aniirdlra, 
for the remainders which we get by the two divisions 
have two different denominators. 

He who is perfectly acquainted with the preceding 
rules of resolution will also be able to carry out the 
opposite function, the composition, if a certain amount 
of past days of a kalpa or caturyuga be given. To 
make sure, however, we shall now repeat the necessary 

n\;tQ how to 
countriiot Ik 

0)L)<Lito Crom 

e ron nuu)* 
rof dtiyv. 
Tho oon- 
veiM nt tbt 

If we want to find the years, the days being given, 
the latter must necessarily be civil days, i.e. the differ- 
ence between the lunar days and tlie iXnardtra, days. 
This difference {i.e. the civil days) stands In the same 
relation to their 4 nardim as the difference between the 
universal lunar days and the universal ‘Ana'rdtra days, 
viz. 1,577,916,450,000, to the universal ■dnardtra days. 
The latter nuEiber(i.e. 1,577, 916,450,000)16 represented 
by 3,506,481. If we multiply the given days by 55,739, 
and divide the product by 3,506,481, the quotient repre- 
sents the partial -dnai-dtra days. Adding hereto the civil 
days, we get the number of lunar days, viz. the sum of 
the partial solar and the partial adhimdsa days. These 
lunar days stand in the same relation to the adkirndsa 
days which belong to them as the sum of the uni- 
versal solar and adhimdsa days, viz. 160,299,900,000, 
to the universal ailMindsa days, which number 
160.299.900,000) is represented by the number 178,11 1. 

If you, further, multiply the partial lunar days by 
5311, and divide the product by 178,111, the quotient 
is the number of the partial adhimdm days. Subtract- 
ing them from the lunar days, the remainder is the 
number of solar days. Thereupon you reduce the days 
to months by dividing them by 30, and the months to 
years by dividing them by 12. This is what we want 
to find. 

S.g. the partial civil days which have elapsed up to 



01 ttie rulo 
to th« 

Rule for 

tho Mme 

Yn'kAb Ibit 

of iheUtwr 
mot bod. 

Page 90 S. 

our gauge-jear are 720,635,951,963. This Dumber is 
given, and what we want to find is, bow man; Indian 
years and months are equal to this sum of days. 

First, we multiply the number by 55,739, and divide 
the productby 3.506,481. The quotient is 1145 5,224,575 
llTiardtra days. 

We add this number to the civil days. The sum is 
732,091,176,538 lunar days. We multiply them by 
5311, and divide the product by 1 78, 1 1 1 . The quotient 
is the number of adhimdaa days, viz. 21,829,849,018. 

We subtract them from the lunar days and get 
the remainder of 710,261,327,520, ie. partial solar 
days. We divide these by 30 and get the quotient of 
23,675,377,584, i.e. solar months. Dividing them by 
12, we get Indian years, viz. 1,972,948,132, the same 
number of years of which our gauge-date consists, as we 
have already mentioned in a previous passage. 

Ya'kfib Ibn T&rik has a note to the same effect : 
" Multiply the given civil days by the universal lunar 
days and divide the product by the universal civil 
days. Write down the quotient in two different places. 
In the one place multijily the number by the universal 
adhimdsa days and divide the product by the universal 
lunar days. The quotient gives the adh/imdsa months. 
Multiply them by 30 aud subtract the product from 
the number in the other place. The remainder is the 
number of partial solar days. You further reduce them 
to months and years." 

The rationale of this calculation is the following 
We have already mentioned that the given number of 
days are the differeace between the lunar days and 
their as the universal civil days are the dif- 

ference between the universal lunar days and their 
universal Unardtra. These two measures stand in a 
constant relation to each other. Therefore we get the 
partial lunar days which are marked in two different 
places. Now, these are equal to the sum of the solar 



and adhimdsa dajB, as the general lunar days are equal 
to the sum of universal solar days and universal adki- 
mdsa days. Therefore the partial and the universal 
adhimd$a days stand in the same relation to each other 
as the two numbers written in two different places, there 
being no difference, whether they both mean months 
or days. 

The following rule of Ya'^Hb for the computation of 
the partial iinar&tra days by means of the partial adhi- 
masa months is found in all the manuscripts of bis 
book : — 

“The past odMmdsa, together with the fractions of the 
current adhimdsa, are multiplied by the universal ■dna- 
rdtra days, and the product is divided by the universal 
solar months. The quotient is added to the adhimdaa. 
The sum is the nutnlwr of the past dTiardlras.” 

This rule does not, as I think, show that its author 
knew the subject thoroughly, nor that he had much 
confidence either in analogy or experiment. For the 
adhimdsa months which have passed of the caturyuga 
up to our gauge-date are, according to the theory of 
Pulisa, I,i96,525|^if^. Multiplying this number by 
the dnardtra of the caiui-yv/ja, we get the product 
30,01 1.600, 068, 426^5*^. Dividing this number by the 
solar months, we get the quotient 578,927. Adding 
this to the adhimdsa, we get the sum 1,775,452. And 
this is not what we wanted to find. On the contrary, 
the nnmber of -Anardtra days is 18,835,700. Nor is 
the product of the multiplication of this number by 30 
that which we wanted to find. On the contrary, it 
is 531263,56a Both numbers are far away from the 

motund for 
tliu conipu- 
lAttoii ef tiM 
p&nlnl fifw. 
rdlra da>«. 

ben os. 

( 46 ) 



Method of Not all the eras which in the calendars are resolved 
into days have epochs falling at snch moments of time 
when just sn adMmdaa or -AiuiTtUra happens to be com- 
plete. Therefore the anthors of the calendars require 
for the calculation of adlwmdta and H/aardUra certain 
numbers which either must be added or subtracted if 
the calculation is to proceed in good order. We shall 
communicate to the reader whatever of these rules we 
happened to learn by the study of their calendars or 
astronomical handbooks. 

First, we mention the mle of the K)bandakhMyaka, 
because this calendar is the best known of all, and pre- 
ferred by the astronomers to all others. 

Hsuiodof Brahmagupta says : '‘Take the year of the 

subtract therefrom 587, multiply the remainder by 12, 
and add to the product the complete mouths whioh have 
elapsed of the year in question. Multiply the sum by 
30, and add to the product the days which have elapsed 
of the current month. The sum represents the partial 
solar days. 

“ Write down this number in three different places. 
Add 5 both to the middle and lower numbers, and 
divide the lowest one by 14,945. Subtract the quotient 


from the middle namber, and disregard the remainder 
which yon have got by the division. Divide the middle 
number by 976. The quotient is the number of com- 
plete adkimdsa months, and the remainder is that which 
has elapsed of the current adhimdsa month. 

" Multiply these months by 30, and add the product 
to the upper number, The sum is the number of the 
partial lunar days. Let them stand in the upper place, 
and write the same number in the middle place. Mul- 
tiply it by n, and add thereto 497. Write this sum 
in the lower place. Then divide the sum by 1 1 1,573. 
Subtract the quotient from the middle number, and dis- 
regard the remainder (which you get by the division). 
Further, divide the middle number by 703, and the 
quotient represents the Unardtra days, the remainder 
iheavamas. Subtractthe tlnard^radaysfrom the upper 
number. The remainder is the number of civil days.” 

This is the ahargana of the Kkandakliddyakn. Divid- 
ing the number by 7, the remainder indicates the week- 
day on which the date in question falls. 

We exemplify this rule in the case of our gauge-year. 
The corresponing year of the ^akakdla is 953. We 
subtract therefrom 587, and get the remainder 366. 
We multiply it by the product of 12 x 30, since the 
date is without months and days. The product is 
131,760, i.e. solar days. 

We write down this number in three different places. 
We add 5 to the middle and lower numbers, whereby 
we get 131,765 in both places. We divide the lower 
number by 14,945. quotient is 8, which we sub- 
tract from the middle number, and here we get the 
remainder 131,757. Then we disregard the remainder 
in which the division has resulted. 

Further, we divide the middle number by 976. The 
cpjotient 134 represents the number of months. There 
is besides a remainder of Multiplying the months 
by 30, we get the product 4020, which we add to the 

Page 836. 

of this 
Enethod to 
the gauge* 



Uathod or 
the ArAtric 
book Al- 

solar days. Thereby we get lunar days, via. 135,780. 
We write down this number below the three numbers, 
multiply it by 1 1, and add 497 to the product. Thus 
we get the sum 1,494.077. We write this number 
below the four numbers, and divide it by 1 1 1,573. The 
quotient is 13, and the remainder, i.t. 43,628, is dis> 
regarded. We subtract the quotient from the middle 
number. Thus we get the remainder, 1,494,064. We 
divide it by 703. The quotient is 2125, and the re- 
mainder, i.e. amma, is We subtract the quotient 
from the lunar days, and get the remainder 133,655. 
These are the civil days which we want to find. Divid- 
ing them by 7, we get 4 as remainder. Therefore the 
isb of the month Caitra of the gauge-year falls on a 

The epoch of the era of Yazdajird precedes the epoch 
of this era (v. era nr. 5, p. 7) by ii ,08 days. There- 
fore the snm of the days of the era of Yazdajird up to 
oar gauge-date is I45,623days. Dividing them by the 
Persian year and months, we get as the corresponding 
Persian date the year of Yazdajird 399, the iHh Isfan- 
dd/rmadh. Before the adhimdsa month becomes com- 
plete with 30 days, there must still elapse five ghati, 
i.e. two hours. In consequence, the year is a leap year, 
and Caitra is the month which is reckoned twice in it. 

The following is the method of the canon or calendar 
Al-arkand, according to a bad translation: “If you 
want to know the Arkand, i.e. ahargaiya, take 90, mul- 
tiply it by 6, add to the product 8, and the years of 
the realm of Bindh, t.«. the time till the month Safar, 
A.H. 1 17, which corresponds to the Caitra of the year 
109. Subtract therefrom 587, aud the remainder re- 
presents the years of the Shalch. 

An easier method is the following : " Take the com- 
plete years of the Aera Tagdagirdi, and subtract there- 
from 33. The remainder represents the years of the 
Shakh- Or yon may also begin with the original ninety 



years of the Arkand. Multiply them by 6, and add 14 
to the product. Add to the sum the years of the Aera 
Taadajirdi, and subtract therefrom 587. 'ITie remainder 
represents the years of the Shakh.” 

1 believe that the here-mentioned Shakh is identical 
with &aka. However, the resnlt of this oalonlation does 
not lead us to the &aka era, bnt to the Onpta em, which 
here is resolved into days. If the author of the Arkand 
began with go, multiplied them by 6, added thereto 8, 
which would give $48, and did not change this number 
by an increase of years, the matter would come to the 
same result, and would be more easy and simple. 

The first of the month Safar, which the author of the 
iattermetbodmentions.Goincides with the eighth DaimHb 
of the year 103 of Yazdajird. Therefore he makes the 
month Caitra depend upon the new moon of Daim&h. 
However, the Persian months have since that time been 
in advance of real time, because the day-quarters (after 
the 365 complete days) have no longer been inter- 
calated. According to the author, the era of the realm 
of Sindh which he mentions must precede the era of 
Yazdajird by six years. Accordingly, the years of 
this era for our gauge-year, would be 405. These 
together with the years of the Arkand, with which the 
author begins, viz. 548, represent the snm of 953 years 
as the year of the Sakakdla. By the snbtraction of 
that amount which the author has mentioned, it is 
changed into the corresponding year of the G'u^ta- 

The other details of this method of resolution or 
ahargana are identical with those of the method of the 
Khariiakhddydka, as we have described it. Sometimes 
you find in a manuscript such a reading as prescribes 
tbe division by lOOO instead of by 976, bnt this is 
simply a mistake of the mannscripts, as such a method 
is without any foundation. 

Next follows the method of Vijayanandin in his 


no(u ODtlie 

Page m. 



Method of canon called Karai^atUaka : “ Take the years of the 
Kar<a\tili- ^akak^la, subtract therefrom 888, multiply the re- 
mainder by 12, and add to the product the complete 
months of the current year. which have elapsed. Write 
down the sum in two different places. Multiply the 
one number by 900, add 661 to the product, and divide 
the sum by 29,282. The quotient represents adhimdsa 
months. Add it to the number in the second place, 
multiply the sum by 30, hnd add to the product the 
days which have elapsed of the current month. The 
eum represents the lunar days. Write down this num- 
ber in two different placea Multiply the one number 
by 3300, add to the product 64,106, divide the sum by 
2 10,902. 'ihe quotient represents the ilnardtra days, 
and the remainder the avamas. Subtract the ilnardlra 
days from the iunar days. The remainder is the ahar- 
gana, being reckoned from midnight as the beginning.” 
A^i^icnUon We exemplify this method in the use of our gauge- 
metiiod to year. We subtract from the corresponding year of the 
yw*'***' Sakakila (953) 888, and there remains 65. This num- 
ber of years is equal to 780 months. We write down 
this number In two different placea In the one place 
we multiply it by 900, add thereto 661, and divide the 
product by 29.282. The quotient gives 23|§i|-| adhi- 
mdsa months. 

The multiplicator is 3a By being multiplied by it, 
the months are changed into days. The product, how- 
ever, is again multiplied by 30. The divisor is the pro- 
duct of the multiplication of 976 plus the following 
fraction by 30, the effect of which is that bot h numbers 
belong to the same kind {i.e. that both represent days). 
Further, we add the resulting number of months to 
those months which we have previously found. By 
mnltiplyiug the sum by 30, we get the product of 
24,060 {read 24,090), i.e. lunar days. 

We write them down in two different places. The 
one number we multiply by 3300 and get the product 


79,398,000 (read 79,497,000). Adding thereto 64,106 
(read 69,601), we get the sum 79,462,104 (read 
79,566,601). By dividing it by 210,902, we get the 
quotient 376 (read 307), i.e. 'Anardtra days, and a re- 
mainder of (read VtVvVt)' avameu. We 

subtract the Anardtra days from the lunar days, 
written in the second place, and the remainder is 
the civil ahargatfa, i.e. the sum of the civil days, viz. 
23,684 (read 23,713). 

The method of the PaMa-SiddhAntikd of Varahami- 
hira is the following : ‘‘ Take the years of the Sdkakdla, 
subtract therefrom 427. Change the remainder into 
months by multiplying it by 12. Write down that 
number in two different places. Multiply the one 
number by 7 and divide the product by 228. The 
quotient is the number of adhimdsa months. Add 
them to the number written down in the second place, 
multiply the sum by 30, and add to the product the 
days which have elapsed of the current mouth. Write 
down the sum in two different places. Multiply the 
lower number by 1 1, add to the product 5 14, and divide 
the sum by 703. Subtract the quotient from the num- 
ber written in the upper place. The remainder you 
get is the number of the civil days.” 

This, Varhhamihira says, is the method of the Sid- 
dh^nta of the Greeks. 

We exemplify this method in oneof our gauge-years. 
From the years of the ^akakilla we subtract 427. The 
remainder, 526 years, is equal to 6312 months. 
The corresponding number of adhimdsa months is 193 
and a remainder of If, The sum of these months 
together with the other months is 6505, which are equal 
to 1951I50 lunar days. 

The additions which occur in this method are required 
on acconnt of the fractions of time which adhere to the 
epoch of the era in question. The multiplication by 7 is 
for the purpose of reducing the number to seventh parts. 

VMhnd of 
the PoitC' 

Page aig. 

mothtxi to 
Uia gnugfi. 

5 * 


Method of 
tbe Arabic 

The diyisor is the number of sevenths of the time of 
one adhimdsa, which be reckons as 32 months, 17 days, 
8 and about 34 cashaka. 

Further, we write down the lunar days in two diffe- 
rent places. The lower number we multiply by ii, 
and add to tbe product 514. Tbe sum is 2,147,164. 
Dividing it by 703, we get the quotient 3054, %.$. the 
4naratra days, and a remainder of We subtract 
the days from the number in the second place, and 
get the remainder 192,096, ie. the civil days of the 
date on which we base the chronolo^cal computations 
of this book. 

The theory of Vanihamihira comes very near that of 
Brahmagupta ; for here the fraction at the end of the 
number of the adhimdsa days of the gauge-date is 
whilst in the calculations which we have made, starting 
from the beginning of the kalpa, we found it to be 
which is nearly'eqnal to 44 (^' P- ^ 9 )- 

In a Muhammadan canon or calendar called i?ie amon 
Al-harkan we find the same method of calculation, but 
applied to and starting from another era, the epoch of 
which must fall 40,081 (days) after that of the era of 
Yazdaiird. According to this book, the beginning of the 
Indian year falls on Sunday the aist of Dairasih of the 
year 1 lO of Yassdajird. The method may be tested in 
the following manner : — 

" Take seventy-two years, change them into months 
by multiplying them by 12, which gives the product 
864. Add thereto the months which have elapsed 
between the ist of Sba'bUn of tbe year 197, and the 
istof the month in which you happen to be. Write 
down the sum in two different places. Multiply the 
lower number by 7 and divide the product by 228. 
Add the quotient to the upper number and mnltiply 
tbe sum by 30. Add to the product the number of 
days which have elapsed of the mouth in which yon 
are. Write down this number in two different places. 


Add 38 to the lower number and multiply the sum by 
II. Divide the product by 703, and subtract the quo* 
tient from the upper number. The remainder in the 
upper place is the number of the civil days, and the 
remainder in the lower place is the number of the 
avamas. Add i to the number of days and divide the 
sum by 7. The remainder shows the day of the week 
on which the date in question falls." 

This method would be correct if the months of the 
seventy-two years with which the calculation begins 
were lunar. However, they are solar months, in which 
nearly twenty-seven months must be intercalated, 
so that these seventy-two years are more than 864 

We shall again exemplify this method in the case of 
our gauge-date, i. 6 . the beginning of Bab!' I., A.B. 422. 
Between the above-mentioned ist of Sba'bdn and the 
latter date there have elapsed 2695 months. Adding 
these to the number of months adopted by the author 
of the method (864), you get the sum of 3559 months. 
Write down this number in two places. Multiply 
the one by 7, and divide the product by 228. The 
quotient represents the adlnmdsa months, viz. 109. 
Add them to the number in the other place, and you 
get the sum 3668. Multiply it by 30, and you get the 
product 110,040. Write down tins number in two 
different places. Add to the lower number 38, and 
yon get 1 10,078. Multiply it by 1 1 and divide the 
product by 703. The quotient is 1722 and a remain- 
der of 292, i.e, the amman. Subtract tbe quotient from 
the up])c>r number, and the remainder, to8,3 1 8, repre* 
Bents the civil days. 

This method is to be amended in the following way : 
Yon must know that between the epoch of tbe era here 
used and the first of Sha'b^n, here adopted as a date, 
there have elapsed 25,958 days, i.e. 876 Arabic months, 
or seventy-three years and two months. If we further 

of the 
mothod to 
tho gaugo- 

Pago 029. 

01 (lis 



DiirUbh* of 

add to this namber the months which hare elapsed 
betwoeo that ist Sha'bEu and the ist Habt' 1. of the 
gaage-year, we get the sum of 3571, and, together with 
the adhimdsa months, 3680 months, i.i. 1 10,400 days. 
The corresponding number of ‘AnarAtra days is 1727, 
and a remainder of 319 avamaa. Subtracting these 
days, we get the remainder 108,673. If we now sub- 
tr^ I and divide the remainder by 7, the eomputation 
is correct, for the remainder is 4, t.s. the day of the 
gange-flate is a Wednesday, as has above (p. 48) been 

The method of Durlabha, a native of Multan, is the 
following : — He takes 848 years and adds thereto the 
Laukika-kdla. The sum is ^akakHla. He subtracts 
therefrom 854, and changes the remainder of years into 
months. He writes them down together with the past 
months of the current year in three different places. 
The lower numlwr he multiplies by 77, and divides 
the product by 69,120. The quotient he subtracts 
from the middle number, doubles the remainder, and 
adds thereto 29. The sum he divides by 65, so as to 
get adhimdsa mouths. He adds them to the np]^)er 
number and multiplies the sum by 30. He writes 
down the product together with the past days of the 
current month in two different places. He multiplies 
the lower number by 1 1 and adds to the product 686. 
The sum he writes underneath. He divides it by 
403,963, and adds the quotient to the middle number. 
He divides the sum by 703. The quotient represents 
the ilnar&tra days. He subtracts them from the upper 
number. The remainder is the civil ahargatf.a, i.e. the 
sum of the civil days of the date in question. 

We have already in a former place mentioned the 
outlines of this method. After the author, Durlabha, 
had adopted it for a particular date, he made some 
additions, whilst the bulk of it is unchanged. How- 
ever, the Kara^aslra forbids introducing any innovations 



which ia the method of ahargana deviate to Bome other 
process. Unfortunately that which we possess of the 
book is badly translated. What we are able to quote 
from it is the following : — 

He subtracts 821 from the years of the ^akakiLla. 

The remainder is the basis. This would be the year 
132 for our gauge-year. He writes down this number 
in three different places. He multiplies the first num- 
ber by 132 degrees. The product gives the number 
17,424 for our gauge-date. He multiplies the second 
number by 46 minutes, and gets the product 6072. 

He multiplies the third number by 34, and gets the 
product 4488. He divides it by 50, and the quotient 
represents minutes, seconds, &c., viz. 89' 46". Then 
he adds to the sum of degrees in the upper place 
1 12, changing the seconds to minutes, the minutes to 
degrees, the degrees to circles. Thus he gets 48 circles 
358° 41' 46". This is the mean place of the moon when 
the sun enters Aries. 

Further, he divides the degrees of the mean place of 
the moon hy 12. The quotient represents days. The 
remainder of the division he mnltiplies by 60, and adds 
thereto the minutes of the mean place of the moon. He 
divides the sum by 12, and the quotient represents Pagvajo. 
ghaiis and minor portions of time. Thus we get 27® 

23^ 29", i.e. adhimdsa days. No doubt this number 
represents the past portion of the adhimdsa month, 
which is at present in the course of formation. 

The author, in regard to the manner in which the 
pleasure of the adMm&sa month is found, makes the 
following remark 

He divides the lunar number which we have men- 
tioned, viz. 132’ 46' 34", by 12, Thereby he gets as 
Hii^porlio anni 1 1® 3' 52' 50"', and as theyjor/io jnwwis 
o® 55' 19" 24"' 10". By means of the latter yjtwito he 
computes the duration of the time in which 30 days 
sum up as 2 years, 8 months, 16 days, 4 gha{i, 45 



cashaka. Then he meltipUeB the basis 29 and gets 
the prodnot 3828. He adds thereto 20, and divides 
the sum 36. The quotient represents the linardira 
days, viz. io6f. 

However, as I have not been able to find the proper 
explanation of this method, 1 simply give it as I find 
it, bat I must remark that the amount of Unardtra 
days which oorresponda to a single adhimdea month is 

( 57 ) 



If we know the namber of cycles of the planets in a 
kaljta or caturyuga, and farther know how many <7cleB 
have elapsed at a certain moment of time, we also 
know that the sam-total of the days of the kalpa or 
catwyuga stands in the same relation to the snm-total 
of the cycles as the paSt days of the kalpa or catmyuga 
to the corresponding amoont of planetary cycles. The 
most generally used method is this : — 

The past days of the kalpa or catv/ryuga are multi- 
plied by the cycles of the planet, or of its apsis, or of its 
node which it describes in a kalpa or caturyuga. The 
product is divided by the sum-total of the days of the 
kalpa or caturyuga accordingly as you reckon by the 
one or the other. The quotient represents complete 
cycles. These, however, because not wanted, are dis- 

The remainder which you get by the division is mul- 
tiplied by 13 , and the product is divided by the sum- 
total of the days of either kalpa or caiwryvga by which 
we have already once divided. The quotient repre- 
sents signs of the ecliptic. The remainder of this divi- 
sion is multiplied by 30, and the product divided by 
the same divisor. The quotient represents degrees. 
The remainder of this division is multiplied by 60, 
and is divided by the same divisor. The quotient 
represents minutes. 

znediod for 
the deter- 
mloatloD of 
tbe mean 
place of a 
planet at 
any given 



PullH (or 
tb» «us« 

tciy notes 

This kind o£ compntatioii may be continued if we 
want to have seconds and minor values. The quotient 
represents the place of that planet according to its 
mean motion, or the place of that apsis or that node 
which we wanted to find. 

The same is also mentioned by Pulisa, but his 
method differs, as follows: — “After having found 
the complete cycles which have elapsed at a cer- 
tain moment of time, he divides the remainder by 

131.493.150. The quotient represents the mean signs 
of the ecliptic. 

“ The remainder is divided by 4,383,105. The quo- 
tient represents degrees. The fourfold of the remainder 
is divided by 292,207. The quotient represents minntes. 
The remainder is multiplied by 60 and the product 
divided by the last-mentioned divisor. The quotient 
represents seconds. 

“This calculation may be continued, so as to give 
third parts, fourth parts, and minor values. The quo- 
tient thus found is the mean place of the planet which 
we want to find.” 

The fact is that Pulisa was obliged to multiply the 
remainder of the cycles by 12, and to divide the pro- 
duct by the days of a eatwyuga, because his whole 
computation is based on the eaiv/ryuga. But instead 
of doing this, he divided by the quotient which yon 
get if you divide the number of days of a caturyuga by 
12. This quotient is the first number he mentions, vik. 


Further, he was obliged to multiply the remainder 
of the signs of the ecliptic by 30, and to divide iho 
ppeduot by the first divisor; but instead of doing tliis, 
he divided by the quotient which you get if you divide 
the first number by 30. This quotient is the second 
number, viz. 4.383,105. 

According to the same analogy, he wanted to divide 
the remainder of the degrees by the quotient which 



yon get if yon divide the second number by 6o. How- 
ever, making this division, he got as quotient 73,051 
and a remainder of Therefore he mnltiplied the 
whole by 4, in order that the fractions should be raised 
to wholes. For the same reason he also multiplies 
the following remainder by 4 ; but when be did not 
get wholes, os has been indicated, he returned to mul- 
tiplying by 60. 

If we apply this method to a kaVpa. according to the 
theory of Brahmagupta, the first number, by which the 
remainder of the cycles is divided, is 131,493,037,500. 
The second number, by which the remainder of the 
signs of the ecliptic is divided, is 4,383,101,250. The 
third number, by which the remainder of the degrees 
is divided, is 73,051,687. In the remainder which we 
get by this division' there is the fraction of There- 
fore we take the double of the number; viz. 146, 103.375, 
and we divide by it the doable of the remainder of 

Brahmagupta, however, does not reckon by the half a 
and caturyuga, on account of the enormous sums of 
their days, but prefers to them the kaliyuga, in order 
to facilitate the calculation. Applying the preceding 
method of ahargaiui to the precise date of the kali^ga, 
we mnltiply its snm of days by the star-cycles of a 
kalpa. To the product we add the basis, i.e. the remain- 
ing cycles which the planet bad at the beginning of 
the kaliyuga. We divide the snm by the civil days 
of the viz. 157.791,645. The quotient repre- 

sents the complete cycles of the planet, which are dis- 

The remainder we compute in the above-described 
manner, and thereby we find the mean place of the 

The here-mentioned bases are the following for the 
single planets : — 

Pkgr >31 




raclbod to 
tix9 taiiffuffo 
Id order to 
gut BiOAller 
LI umbo rs. 



For Mars, 4,308,768.000. 

Fpr Mercury, 4,288,896,000. 

For Jupiter, 4,313,520,000. 

For Venus, 4,304,448,000. 

For Saturn, 4,305,312,000. 

For the Sun’s apsis, 933,120,00a 

For the Moon's apsis, 1,505,952,000. 

For the ascending node, 1,838,592,000 (v. the notes). 

At the same moment, i.t. at the beginning of the hali- 
yuga, sun and moon stood according to their mean 
motion in o® of Aries, and there was neither &plvA nor 
a minus consisting of an adhimdsa month or of Una- 
r&tra days. 

Mothod.(if In the above-mentioned canones or calendars we find 
the following method : — “ The ahargana, i.e. the sum of 
/Sill'ana the days of the date, is, for each planet respectively, 
iajwiaitir# nmitjpijed by a certain number, and the product is 
divided by another number. The quotient represents 
complete cycles and fractions of cycles, according to 
mean motion. Sometimes the computation becomes 
perfect simply by this multiplication and division. 
Sometimes, in order to get a perfect result, yon are 
compelled once more to divide by a certain number 
the days of the date, either such as they are, or multi- 
plied'by some number. The quotient must then be 
combined with the result obtained in the first place. 

Sometimes, too, certain numbers are adopted, as e.g. 
the lasis, which must either be added or subtracted for 
this purpose, in order that the mean motion at the 
beginning of the era should be computed as beginning 
with 0° of Aries. This is tlie method of the books 
Khan^akhddyaha and Karanatilaka. However, the 
author of the Karaijiasdra computes the mean places of 
the planets for the vernal equinox, and reckons the 
ahargav<i from this moment. But these methods are 
very subtle, aud are so numerous, that none of them has 



obtained any particular authority. Therefore we refrain 
from reproducing them, as this would detain ns too long 
and be of no use. 

The other methods of the computation of the mean 
places of the planets and similar calculations have 
nothing to do with the subject of the present book. 

( 6a ) 

Visw OD tho 
jmn I'eliig 
liatov tka 


nntloQH of 
rage 939. 



When speaking of tbe lokas, we have already given a 
qnotatioQ from the Vishnu-Purdna and from the com- 
mentary of Fatafijali, according to which the place of 
the snn is in the order of the planets below that of the 
moon. This is the traditional view of the Hindus. 
Compare in particular the following passage of tbe 
Malsya-Purdtja : — 

“Tbe distance of heaven from the earth is equal to 
the radius of tbe e^th. Tbe sun is the lowest of all 
planets. Above him there is the moon, and above 
tbe moon are the lunar stations and their stars. 
Above them is Mercury, then follow Venns, Mars, 
Jupiter, Saturn, the Great Bear, and above it the pole. 
The pole is connected with the heaven. The stars can- 
not be counted by man. Those who impugn this view 
maintain that the moon at conjnnclion becomes hidden 
by tbe sun, as the light of the lamp becomes invisible 
in the light of the sun, and she becomes more visible 
the more she moves away from the sun.” 

We shall now give some quotations from tbe hooks 
of this school relating to the sou, the moon, and the 
stars, and we shall combine herewith tbe views of tbe 
astronomers, although of the latter we have only a very 
slender knowledge. 

Tbe Vdyu-Pv/rdna says; “The sun has globular 
shape, fiery nature, and locx) rays, by which he attracts 



the water ; 400 of these are for the rain, 300 for the Ououtions 
snow, and 300 for the am Pitniiui. 

In another passage it saja ; “ Some of them (i.e. the 
rajs) are for this pnrpose, that the devas should live in 
bliss ; others for the purpose that men should live in 
comfort, whilst others are destined for the fathers." 

In another passage the author of the Vdyu-Purd^a 
divides the rajs of the sun over the six seasons of the 
jeer, sajlng: “The sun illuminates the earth in that 
third of the jear which commences with o® of Pisces 
by 300 rajs ; he causes rain in the following third by 
400 rays, and he causes cold and snow in the remain- 
ing third by 300 rays.” 

Another passage of the same book runs as follows : 

“ The rays of the' sun and the wind raise the water 
from the sea to the sun. Now, if the water dropped 
down from the sun, it would be hot. Therefore the sun 
bands the water over to the moon, that it should drop 
down from the moon cold, and thus refresh the world.’’ 

Another passage : “ The heat of the snn and his 
light are one-fourth of the heat and the light of the fire. 

In the north, the snn falls into the water during the 
night ; therefore he becomes red.” 

Another passage : “ In the begbning there were the 
earth, water, wind, and heaven. Then Brahman per- 
ceived sparks under the earth. He brought them forth 
and divided them into three parts. One third of them 
is the common fire, which requires wood and is extin- 
guished by water. Another third is the sun, and the 
last third is the lightning. In the animals, too, there is 
fire, which cannot be extinguished by water. The snn 
attracts the water, the lightning shines through the 
rain, hut the fire in the animals is distributed over the 
moist substances by which they nourish themselves.” 

The Hindus seem to believe that the heavenly bodies 
nourish then^Ives by the vapours, which also Aris- 
totle mentions as the theory of certain people. Thus 



Un tho 
nttur* of 

fron the 


the aathor of the Vis/mu-Dkarma explains that “ the 
son nourishes the moon and the stars. If the sun did 
not exist, there would not be a star, nor angel, nor man.” 

The Hindus believe regarding the bodies of all the 
stars that they have a globular shape, a watery essence) 
and that they do not shine, whilst the sun aloft is of fiery 
essence, self-shining, and per aocidem illuminates other 
stars when they stand opposite to him. They reckon, ac- 
cording to eyesight, among the stars also such luminons 
bodies as in reality are not stars, but the lights into 
which those men have been metamorphosed who have 
received eternal reward from God, and reside in the 
height of heaven on thrones of crystal. The Vish'^’Uf 
Dka 7 ' 7 na says : “ The stars are watery, and the rays of 
the sun illuminate them in the night. Those who by 
their pious deeds have obtained a place in the height 
sit there on their thrones, and, when shining, they are 
reckoned among the stars.” 

All the stars are called tdra, which word is derived 
from iaratyi, i.e. the passage. The idea is that those 
saints have passed through the wicked world and have 
reached bliss, and that the stars pass through heaven in 
a circular motion. The word naTcshatra is limited to 
the stars of the lunar stations. As, however, all of 
these are called fixed stars, the word nakshatra also 
applies to all the fixed stars ; for it means not vnereas- 
ing and not decreasing. I for my part am inclined to 
think that this increasing and decreasing refers to their 
number and to the distuices of the one from the other, 
but the aathor of the last-meutioned book {Viskijiic- 
Dharma) combines it with tbeir light. For be adds, 
“as the moon increases and decreases." 

Further, there is a passage in the same hook where 
Mflrkap^eya says : “ The stars which do not perish be- 
fore the end of the kalpa are equal to a nikharva, i.e. 
100,000,000,000. The numberof those which fall down 
before the end of a kalpa is unknown, Only he can 
know it who dwells in the height during a kalpa." 



Vajra spoke : “ 0 Markandeya, thou hast lived during 
six ia/pcis. This is thy seventh ia/pn. Therefore why 
dost thou not know them ? ” 

He answered ; “ If they always remained in the same 
oondition, not changing aa long as they exists I should 
not be ignorant of them. However, they perpetually 
raise some pious man and bring another down to the 
earth. Therefore I do not keep them in my memory.’' 

Recardinff the diameters of sun and moon and their on ih^din- 
shadows the Maffuja^Purdiya says: ‘'The djameter of tiie piiinou. 
the body of the sun is 9000 yojanas ; the diameter of 
the moon is the double of it, and the apsis is as much 
as the two together.” 

The same occurs in the Vdyv^Pui-dna, except that it 
says with regard to the apsis that it is equal to the sun 
when it is with the sun, and that it is equal to the 
moon when it is with the moon. 

Another author says ; “ The apsis is 50,000 yojanas.” 

Regarding the diameters of the planets the Matsya- 
Purd 7 i.a says: “The circamfereuce of Venus is one- 
sixteenth of the circumference of the moon, that of possjjj- 
Jupiter three-fourths of the circumference of Venus, 
that of Saturn or Mars three-fourths of that of Jupiter, 
that of Mercury three-fourths of that of Mars." 

The same statement is also found in the Vdyu~Purdna. 

The same two books fix the circumference of the optb«cir- 


great fixed stars as equal to that of Mefcnry. The next 
smaller class have a circumference of 500 ycr/unas,i\ie 
following classes 400, 300, and 200. But there are no 
fixed stars with a smaller circumference thau i$o yojanas. 

Thus the Vuyu-P 7 ''i'd(ia. But the Matsya-T^rdva 
says : “ The next following classes have a circumference 
of 400, 300, 200, and lOOyofanns. But there is no fixed 
star with less circumference than a half yojana.” 

The latter statement, however, looks suspicious to 
me, and is perhaps a fault in the manuscript, 

The author of Vishiu-Dharma says, relating the 




Views of 
tlio Hindu 
on the siune 

from the 

lllAl CtlAii. 
if. r-j. 

words of Mfi,rkandeya: "Ahhijit, the Falling I'kgle; 
Ardrd, the Sirios Yemenlcus; Rohini, or Aldabaran; 
PunarvasK, i.e. the Two Heads of the Twins; Pushya, 
Rcvall, Agaalya or Canopus, the Gi'eat Bear, the master 
of V&’ifu, tlie master of Ahirhu^hnya, and the master 
of Vasishflui, each of these stars has a oircumfer* 
ence of five fjojanaa. All the other stars have each 
only a cu'cumferenee of four yojanas. I do not know 
those stars, the distance of which- is not measurable. 
They have a circamferenoe between four yojanaa and 
two kwroh, it. two miles. Those which have less cir- 
cumference than two kuroh are not seen by men, bnt 
only by the devas,” 

The Hindus have the following theory regarding the 
magnitude of the stars, which is not traced back to any 
known authority : “ The diameters of the sun and moon 
are each 67 yojanas; that of the apsis is 100 ; that of 
Venus 10, of Jupiter 9, of Saturn 8, of Mars 7, of Mer- 
cury 7.” 

This is all we have been able to learn of the confnsed 
notions of the Hindus regarding these subjects. We 
shall now pass on to the views of the Hindu astro- 
nomers with whom we agree regarding the order of the 
planets and other topics, viz. that the sun is the middle 
of the plauets, Saturn and the moon their two ends, 
and that the fixed stars are above the planets. Some 
of these things have already been mentioned in the 
preceding chapters. 

Var^hamihira says in the book SaihhilA t “ The moon 
is always below the snn, who throws his rays upon her, 
and lits up the one half of her body, whilst the other 
half remains dark and shadowy like a pot which you 
place in the sunshine. The one half which faces the 
sun is lit up, whilst the other half which does not face 
it remains dark. The moon is watery in her essence, 
therefore the rays which fall on her are reilected, as 
they ai-e reflected from the water and the mirror towards 



the wall. If the moon is in conjiiiiclion with the sun, 
the white part of her turns towards the sun, the black 
part towards u». Then the white part sinks downwai-d 
towards us slowly, as the sun marches away from the 

Every educated man among the Hindn theologians, 
and much more so among their astronomers, believes 
indeed that the moon is below the sun, and even below 
ail the planets. 

The only ITindn traditions we have regarding the 
distances of the stars are those mentioned by Ya’kilb 
Ibn Tarik in his hook, The Compodtion of the Spheres, 
and he had drawn his information from the well-known 
Hindu scholar who, a.h. 161, accompanied an embassy 
to BagdSd. First, he gives a metrological statement : 
“ A finger is equal to six barleycorns which are put 
one by the side of the other. An arm (yard) is equal to 
twenty-four fingei's. A /ajw/i-//. is equal to 16,000 yards.” 

Here, however, we must observe that the Hindus do 
not know the farsaJch, that it is, as we have already 
explained, eqnal to one half a yojana. 

Further, Ya'kftb says : “ The diameter of the earth is 
2100 farsakh, its circumference farsakh." 

On this basis he has computed the distances of the 
planets as we exhibit them in the following table. 

However, this statement regarding the size of tlie 
earth is by no means generally agreed to by all the 
Hindus. So, e.y. I’ulisa reckons its diameter as 1600 
yij^anew, and its circumference as 5026}! yojdnaa, whilst 
Brahmagupta reckons the former as 1581 yojanas, and 
the latter as 5000 yojams. 

If we double these numbers, they ought to he equal to 
thenumbereof Ya'kfib; but this is not the case. Now 
the yard and the mile are respectively identical accord- 
ing to the measurement both of us and of the Hindus. 
According to our computation the radius of the earth is 
3 184 miles. Reckoning, according to the custom of our 

V&'WAta Ibii 
T&l’ik oj) UiC 
tbo $U\n. 

tNilIan and 
iTipU un 
tho aamo 



Piigo »3*. 

DlflUooei of 
tioa itio 
contra ertlio 
earth, snil 
tiialr Ju- 
Tuatan, u- 
eortUBir to 

Pngo ajj. 

country, i /arsaJeft=i miics, we get 6728 fwrsakh; and 
reckoning i farsdk}i,= 16,000 yards, as is mentioned by 
Ya'kfib, we get 5046 famakh. Beckoning i yofana~ 
32,000 yards, we get 2523 yojanas. 

The following table is borrowed from the book of 









IlMir dlttansN trom the 
oentro of the earth, and their 

Usdios of the eat th 
The smallest distance . 
The middle distance 
The greatest distance . 
Diameter of the moon 

The smallest distance 
The middle distance 
The greatest distance 
Diameter of Mercury 

The smallest distance 
The middle distance . 
The greatest distance 
Diameter of Venus 
The smallest distance 
The middle distance 
The greatest distence 
Diameter of the Son 
The smallest distance 
The middle distance 
The greatest distance 
Diameter of Mara 

The smallest distance 
The middle distance 
The greatest distance 
Diameter of Jupiter 
The smallest distance 
The middle distance 
The greatest distance 
Diameter of Satnm 

The radios of the outside 
The radios of the inside 
Its circnmfarence from 
the outside 

The convoiitiuiiiil 
meuurM at the 
distances, dltforlDg 
secordlng to time 
end pIaoe,reekoiied 
In/omSft, i/ariaU 
si6,oeo j'aTda. 










1. 150. 000 







. 8,420,000 

1 1.410.000 









Iheir cnnttniit 
meniuiui, hnsed 
ou the radius t,r 
the earths 1. 

35 f 
46, V 







675 f 















i 3 > 733 i 





1.866I (ne) 



This theory differs from that on which Ptolemy has 
baaed his computation of the distances of the planets 
in the Kitdb-alinansh'drdt, and in which he has been 
followed both by the ancient and the modern astrono- 
mers. It is their principle that the greatest distance 
of a planet is eqnal to its smallest distance from the 
next higher planet, and that between the two globes 
there is not a space void of action. 

According to this theory, there is between the two 
globes a space not occu|ned by either of them, in which 
there is something like an axis aronnd which the rota- 
tion takes place. It seems that they attributed to the 
tether a certain gravity, in consequence of which they 
felt the necessity of adopting something which keqa or 
hdda the inner globe (the planet) in the midst of the 
outer globe (the asther). 

It is well known among all astronomers that there 
is no possibility of distinguishing between the higher 
and the lower one of two planets except by means of 
the occultation or the increase of th6^7-af/aa;. However, 
the occultation occnrs only very seldom, and only the 
parallax of a single planet, viz. the moon, can be ob- 
served. Now the Hindus believe that the motions are 
equal, but the distances different. The reason why the 
higher planet moves more slowly than the lower is the 
greater extension of its sphere (or orbit) ; and the reason 
why the lower planet moves more rapidly is that its 
sphere or orbit is less extended. Thus, e.g. one minute 
in the sphere of Saturn is equal to 26a minutes in the 
sphere of the moon. Therefore the times in which 
Saturn and the moon traverse the same space are dif- 
ferent, whilst their motions are equal. 

I have never found a Hindu treatise on this subject, 
but only numbers relating thereto scattered in various 
books — ^numbers which are corrupt. Somebody objected 
to Falisa that he reckoned the circumference of the 
sphere of each planet as 21,600, and its radins as 3438, 

Ptol«in7 on 
the dia- 

toDcoe of 
tho plnnoU, 
Page 936. 

On oceulta* 
tlon attd Lho 



th« oompn* 
tuUon or tbo 
dlactncc* or 
tbo plant to. 

frvTD Raljc- 


whilst YarS^hamibira reckoned the sun’s distance frou) 
the earth as 2,598.900, and the distance of the fixed stars 
as 32 1,362,683. Thereupon Pulisa replied that the for- 
mer numbers were minutes, the latter yojmas ; whilst 
in another passage he says that the distance of the Gxed 
stars from the earth is sixty times larger than the distance 
of the eon, Accordingly he ought to have I'eckoned 
the distance of the fixed stars as 155,934,000. 

The Hindu method of the computation of the dis- 
tances of the planets which we have above mentioned 
is based on a principle which is unknown to me in the 
present stage of my knowledge, and as long as I have 
no facility in translating the books of the The 
principle is this, that the extension of a minute in the 
orbitofthe moon iaequal to fifteen yoyrtiios. The nature 
of this principle is not cleared up by the commentaries 
of Balabhadra, whatsoever trouble he takes. For he 
says: “People have tried to fix by observation the 
time of the moon’s passing through the horizon, i.e. the 
time between the shining of the first part of her body 
and the rising of the whole, or tlio Lime between the 
beginning of her setting and the completion of the 
act of setting. People have found this process to 
last thirty-two minutes of the circumference of the 
sphere.” However, if it is difficult to fix by obser- 
vation the degrees, it is much more so to fix the 

Further, the Hindus have tried to determine by 
observation the yajanas of the diameter of the moon, 
and have found them to be 480. If yon divide them 
by the minutes of her body, the quotient is 15 yojanm, 
as corresponding to one minute. If you multiply it by 
the minutes of the oiroumference, you get the product 
324,000. This is the measure of the sphere of the 
moon which she traverses in each rotation. If you 
multiply this number by the cycles of the moon in a 
halpa or caiv/njuga, the product is the distance which 



the moon traversea in either of them. According to 
Brahmi^apta, this ia in aice/pa i8,7i2,o6g,200,ocx>,ooo 
yojanaa. Brahmagapta ealla thia nomber the yojanas of 
the ecHplie, 

Evidently if yon divide thia number by the cycles 
of each planet in a kalpa, the quotient represents the 
yojanaa of one rotation. However, the motion of the 
planets is, according to the Hindus, os we have 
already mentioned, in every distance one and the 
same. Therefore the quotient represents the measure 
of the path of the apliere of the planet in question. 

As further, according to Brahmagapta, the relation of 
the diameter to the circumference is nearly equal to 
that of 12,959 = 40,980, you multiply the measure of 
the path of the sphere of the planet by 12,959, 
divide the product by 81,960. The quotient is the 
radius, or the distance of the planet from the centre of 
the earth. 

We have made this computation for all the planets 
according to the theory of Brahmagupta, and present 
the results to the reader in the following table : — 

TIio pUneta. 

The Fixed Stare, 
their dlslnnae 
from the earth's 
centre hetng 
sixty times the 
distance of the 
sun from the 

Ths ctreumteroncs of the 
sphere of esch planet, 
reckoned In yoJanM, 

Thdr ttdll, which 
sre Identicsl with 
their dletAnces from 
the earth’s centre, 
reckoned In yojamu. 

3 f 4 . 0 <» 

t, 043 , 2 toiJHI 5 mS 



8 ,I 46 , 9 « 6 rWnii*T 










Tba ndii of 
the pUaetfl, 
or tbeir dia- 
toscos from 
the cantro 
of the earth, 
acconliog to 



Theiame Ab Pulisft reckons bv caiui'vnqas, not by kalvas, he 

comptiUtiDQ t » 

aceorUin^io TnultipueB the distance of the path oi the sphere oi 
oiPutoi 7 the moon by the Innar cycles of a eaCuri/uga, and gets 
the prodact 18,712,080,864,000 7 jojanas, which he calls 
(he yojanas of heavtTi. It is the distance which the 
moon traverses in each caluryuga, 

Pulisa reckons the relation of the diameter to the 
circumference as 1250 : 3927. Now, if you multiply 
the circumference of each planetary sphere by 625 and 
divide the product by 3927, the quotient is the distance 
of the planet from the earth's centre. We have made 
the same computation as the last one according to the 
view of Polisa, and present the results in the follow- 
ing table. In computing the radii we have disre- 
garded the fractions smaller than and have reduced 
larger fractions to wholes. We have, however, not 
taken the same liberty in the calculation of the circum- 
ferences, bnt have calculated with the utmost accuracy, 
because they are required iu the computations of the 
revolutions. For if yon divide the yojanas of heaven in 
Pngejsj. a kalpa or calv/rynga by the civil days of the one or the 
other, yon gat the quotient 11,858 j)bis a remainder, 
which is|-^;-J according to Brahmagupta, and 
according to Pulisa. 'ITiis is the distance which the moon 
every day traverses, and as the motion of all planets is 
the same, it is the distance which every planet in a day 
traverses. It stands in the same relation to the yojanas 
of the circumference of its sphere as its motion, which 
we want to find, to the circumference, the latter being 
divided into 360 equal parts. If you therefore multiply 
the path common to all the planets by 360 and divide 
the product by the yojanas of tlie circumference of the 
planet in question, the quotient represents Its mean 
daily motion. 



Tha plRiiaU. 

The circuniferencet of 
tlic epheroa of the 
planeU, reckoned In 

Tlie dUtanoee of tbe 
plan eta from the 
carih '6 ccotrv, 
reckoned in yi/jarjfM. 

Moon .... 

Mercury . . 

Venue .... 

Sun .... 

Mars .... 

Jitpiter . . , 


Tbs Vised Stare, tbet 
sun’s distance from I 
the earth’s centre i’ 
being ^th of theirs J 


«. 043 . 3 ll,Wlr 

*. 664 .fi 3 *A’AW 

4 > 33 <> 5 <»i 


S«, 37 S. 764 tW'V 

i* 7 . 67 J. 739 lllf 4 




690,295 (at«) 
1,296,624 (1) 
ao, 3 « 9 ,S 4 *«) 

41.417,700 (sifl) 

As, now, the minutes of the diameter of the moon 
stand in the same relation to the minutes of her oir- 
cumfereuce, i.e. 21,600, as the number of yojanaa of the 
diameter, i.e. 480, to the yojanaa of the circumference 
of the whole sphere, exactly the same method of 
calculation has been applied to the minutes of the 
diameter of the sun, which we have found to be equal 
to 6522 yfjanaa according to Brahmagupta, and equal 
to 6480 according to Pnlisa. Since Pulisa reckons the 
minutes of the body of the moon as 32, i.e. a power of 
2, he divides this number in order to get the minutes 
of the bodies of the planets by 2, till he at last gets 
r. Thus he attributes to the body of Venus of 32 
minutes, i.e. 16 ; to that of Jupiter \ of 32 minutes, i.e. 
8 ; to that of Mercury ^ of 32 minutes, i.e. 4 ; to that 
of Saturn iV 32 miuntes, i.e, 2 ; to that of Mars -3^ of 
32 minutes, i.«. i. 

This precise order seems to have taken Iiis fancy, or 
he would not have overlooked the fact that the diameter 
of Venus is, according to observation, not equal to the 
radius of the moon, nor Mars equal to of Venus. 

The following is the method of the computation of 
the bodies of sun and moon at every time, based on 
their distances from the earth, i.e. the true diameter 

Tbo dU* 
iDet«rB of 
tbo jdoncU.! 

Motbod fuv 
tbo cotopn* 
b^ea of 
nun and 
moon at any 
^ven time. 



of its orlsit, which is found in the coinpntations of the 
corrections of sun and moon. AB is the diameter of 
the body of the snn, CD is the diameter of the earth, 
CDH is the cone of the shadow, HL is its elevation. 
Further, draw CE parallel to 1 )B. Then is AR the 
difference between AB and CD, and the normal line 
CT is the middle distance of the sun, i.e. the radius of 
its orbit derived from tlie yojanas qf heaven (v, p. 72). 
From this the true distance of the sun always dilfers, 
sometimes being larger, sometimes smaller. We draw 
OK, which is of course determined by the parts of the 
sine. It Stands in the same relation to CT, this being 
the sinus lotus (^radius), as the ycyanas of OK to the 
yojanas of CT. Hereby the measure of the diameter is 
reduced to yojanas. 

The yojanas of AB stand in the same relation to the 
yqjaTias of TC as the minutes of AB to the minutes 
of TC, the latter being the sinus lotus. Thereby AB 
becomes known and determined by the miiintes of the 
sphere, because the sinus totvs is determined by the 
QiiotatioM measure of the circumference. For this reason Pulisa 
1^1^***’ says : “ Multiply the yejanas of the radius of the sphere 
KLbkad^ of the sun or the moon by the true distance, and 
divide the product by the sinus lotus. By the quotient 
yon get for the sun, divide 22,278,240, and by the 
quotient you get for the moon, divide 1,650,240. The 
quotient then represents the minutes of the diameter of 
the body of either sun or moon.” 

The last-mentioned two numbers are products of the 
multiplication of the yojanas of the diameters of sun 
and moon by 3438, which is the number of the minutes 
of the sinus lotus. 

Likewise Brahmagupta says ; ” ^Multiply the yojanas 
of snn or moon by 3416, t.e. the minutes of the simis 
totus, and divide the product by the yojanas of the 
radius of the sphere of sun or moon.” But the latter 
rule of division is not correct, because, according to it, 



the measure of the body wonld not vary (v. p. 74). 
Therefore the commentator Balabhadra holds the same 
opinion os Pulisa, viz. that the divisor in this division 
should be the true distance reduced (to the measure 
of yojanas). 

Brahmagupta gives the following rule for the com- enhimc 
putation of the diameter of the shadow, which in our mothoj for 
canonea is called ikt nieMun of the Bphen of tho dragoTCo UUmii yif Lhfi 
htad and tail ; " Subtract the yojanan of the diameter 
of the earth, i.e. 1581, from the yo/ams of the diameter 
of the sun, i.e. 6$22, There remains 4941, which is 
kept in memory to be used as divisor. It is represented 
in the figure by AR. Further multiply the diameter 
of the earth, which is the double sinus totus, by the 
yojanas of the true distance of the sun, which is found 
by the correction of the sun. Divide the product by 
the divisor kept in memory. 'The quotient is the true 
distance of the shadow’s end, 

“Evidently the two triangles ARC and CDH are 
similar to each other. However, the normal line CT 
does not vary in size, whilst in consequence of the 
true distance the appearance of AB varies, though its 
size is constantly the same. Now let this distance be 
CK. Draw the lines AJ and RY parallel to each otlier, 
and JXY parallel to AB. Then the latter is equal to 
the divisor kept in memory. 

“ Draw the line JCM. Then M is the head of the cone 
of the shadow for that time. The relation of JV, the 
divisor kept in memory, to KC, the true distance, is 
the same as that of CD, the diameter of the earth, to 
ML, which he (Brahmagupta) calls a true distance (of Fik««94e. 
the shadow's end), and it is determined by the minntes 
of the sine (the earth’s radius being the sinus totus). 

For KO ” 

Now, however, I suspect that in the following some- ijnconain 
thing has fallen out in the manuscript, for the anthor uopr 
continues: “Then multiply it [i.e. the quotient of GE, supu. 



by the divisor kept in memory) by the diameter of the 
earth. The product is the distance between the earth’s 
centre and the end of the shadow. Subtract tliere* 
from the true distance of the moon and multiply the 
remainder by the diameter of the earth. Divide the 
product by the true distance of the shadow’s end. 
The quotient is the diameter of the shadow in the 
sphere of the moon. Further, we suppose the true 
distance of the moon to be LS, and FN is a part of the 
lunar sphere, the radius of which is LS. Since we 
have found LM as determined by the minutes of the 
sine, it stands in the same relation to OD, this being 
the double sinus totus, as MS, measured in minutes of 
the sine, to XZ, measured in minutes of the sine.” 

Here I suppose Brahmagupta. wished to reduce LM, 
the true distance of the shadow’s end, to yojanas, 
which is done by multiplying it by the yojanas of the 
diameter of the earth, and by dividing the product by 
the double sinus tofus. The mentioning of this division 
has fallen out in the manuscript; for without it the 
multiplication of the corrected distance of the shadow’s 
end by the diameter of the earth is perfectly superfluous, 
and in no way required by the computation. 

Further : “ If the number of yojanas of LM is known, 
LS, which is the true distance, must also be reduced to 
yojanas, for the purpose that MS should be determined 
by the same measure. The measure of the diameter of 
te shadow which is thus found represents yojanas. 

Further, Brahmagupta says: "Then multiply the 
shadow wliich has been found by the sinvs totns, and 
divide the product by the true distance of the moon. 
’The quotient represents the minutes of the shadow 
which we wanted to find.” 

Crlilcl‘iiiii However, if the shadow which he has found were 
TO^ntimn- by yojanos, he ought to have multiplied it 

inoiiod. double sinus totus, and to have divided the pro- 

duct by the yojanas of the diameter of the earth, in 



order to find the minutes of the shadow. But as he has 
not done so, this shows that, in his computation, he 
limited himself to determining the true diameter in 
minutes, without reducing it to yojanas. 

The author uses the true (spAw^a) diameter without 
its having been reduced to yojanaa. Thus he finds that 
the shadow in the oli'cle, the radius of which is LS, is 
the true diameter, and this is recjuked for the compu- 
tation of the circle, the radius of whicli is the si/ins 
tol'tm. The relation of ZX, which he has already found, 
to SL, the true distance, is the same as the relation of 
ZX in the measure which is sought to SL, this being 
the aiims tolus. On the basis of this equation the 
reduction (to yojanaa) must be made. 

In another passage Brahmagupta says : “ The dia- 
meter of the earth is 1581, the diameter of the moon 
480, the diameter of the sun 6522, the diameter of the 
shadow 1581. Subtract the yo'janaa of the earth from 
the yojanas of the sun, there remains 4941. Multiply 
this remainder by the yojanaa of the true distance of 
the moon, and divide the product by the yojanas of the 
true distauce of the sun. Subtract the quotient yon 
get from 1581, and the remainder is the measure of the 
shadow in the sphere of the moon. Multiply it by 
34 1 6, and divide the product by the yojanas of the middle 
radiiut of Uie sfhere of the moon. The quotient represents 
the minutes of the diameter of the shadow. 

“ Evidently if the yojanaa of the diameter of the earth 
are subtracted from the yojanas of the diameter of the 
BOD, the remainder is AR, *.«. JV. Draw the line VCF 
and let fall the normal line KC on 0. Then the relation 
of the surplus JV to KC, the true distance of the sun, is 
the same as the relation of ZF to OC, the true distance 
of the moon. It is indifferent whether these two mean 
diameters are reduced (to yojanaa) or not, forZF is, in this 
case, found as determined by the measure of yojanaa, 

“ Draw XN as equal to OF. Then ON is necessarily 

metliod of 
gup We for 
tite uedow, 



equal to the diameter of CD, and its sought-for pait is 
ZX. The number which is thus found must be sub< 
traotedfromtfae diameter of the earth, and the remainder 
will be ZX.” 

Th« autbar For such mistakes as oconr in this computation, the 
author, Brahmagupta, is not to be held responsible, but 
Dtnuuri^ we rather suspect tliat the fault lies with the manu> 
script. We, however, cannot go bejond the text we 
Page (41. have at our disposal, as we do not know how it may be 
in a correct copy. 

J A 


The measure of the shadow adopted by Brahma- 
gupta, from which he orders the reader to subtract, 
cannot be a m«an one, for a mean measure stands in the 
midst, between too little and too much. Further, we 
eaunot imagine that this measure should be the greatest 
of the measures of the shadow, inohtding the (?) ; for 
ZF, which is the minus, is the base of a triangle, of 
which the one side, FO, outs SL in the direction of the 
sun, not in the direction of the end of the shadow. 
Therefore ZP has nothing whatsoever to do with the 
shadow (conjectural rendering). 



Lastly, there is the possibility that the minus belongs 
to the diameter of the moon. In that case the relation 
of ZX, which has been determined in yojanas, to SL, 
the yojanas of the true distance of the moon, is the 
same as the relation of ZX reckoned in minutes to SL, 
this being the sinus lotus (conjectural rendering). 

By this method is found what Brahmagupta wants to 
dud, quite correctly, without the division by the mean 
radius of the sphere of the moon, which is derived from 
the yojanas of the sphere of heaven (v. p. 73). (For the 
last three passages vide Kotes.) 

The methods of the compntation of the diameters of 
sun and moon, as given by the Hindu canones, such as 
the JOiandakiiddyaka and Karanasdra, are the same as 
are found in the canon of Alkhw&rizmi Also the com- 
putation of the diameter of the shadow in the Khanda- 
khddyaka is similar to that one given by AlkhwSrizmi, 
whilst the Karanasara has the following method : — 
“ Multiply the bhulcU of the moon by 4 and the Ihnkti 
of the sun by 13. Divide tlie difference between the 
two products by 30, and the quotient is the diameter of 
the shadow.” 

The Karanatilaka gives the following method for the 
computation of the diameter of the sun: — ‘‘Divide the 
hhukti of the suu by 2, and write down the half in two 
different places. In the one place divide it by 10, aud 
add the quotient to the number in the second place. 
The sum is the number of minutes of the diameter of 
the sun,” 

In the computation of the diameter of the moon, he 
first takes the hhnUi of the moon, adds thereto of 
it, and divides the number by 25. The quotient is tbe 
number of the minutes of the moon’s diameter. 

In the computation of the diameter of the shadow, 
he multiplies the bhiikti of the sun by 3, and from the 
product he subtracts y’^th of it. The remainder he sub- 
tracts from the bhiihti of the moon, and the double of 

Thfl Qampu* 
tntlou of tlie 
of Bull und 
moon ac* 
to other 

Pl&mater of 
tbo Biin aud 
of the stiA' 
dow Hucurd* 
log to the 



the remainder he divides bj 1 5. The quotient is the 
number of the minntes of the dragon’s bead and 

If vre would indulge in further quotations from the 
canonea of the Hindus, we should entirely get away from 
the siibjeot of the present book. Therefore we restrict 
ourselves to qnote from them only subjects more or less 
eonneoted with the special subject of this book, whioh 
either are noteworthy for their strangeness, or which 
are unknown among our people (the Muslims) and in 
our (the Muslim) countriea 

( 8i ) 



Tiik Hindus use the lunar stations exactly in the same 
way as the zodiacal signs. As the ecliptic is, by the 
zodiacal signs, divided into twelve ec|ual parts, so, by 
tlie lunar stations, it is divided into twenty-seven equal 
parts. Each station occupies 13^ degrees, or 800 minutes 
of the ecliptic. The planets enter into them and leave 
them again, and wander to and fro through their nor- 
thern and southern latitudes. The astrologers attribute 
to each station a special nature, the quality of foreboding 
events, and other particular characteristic traits, in the 
same way as they attribute them to the zodiacal signs. 

The number 27 rests on the fact that the moon passes 
through the whole ecliptic in 27J days, in which nnin- 
ber the fraction of ^ may be disregarded. In a similar 
way, the Arabs determine their lunar stations os begin- 
ning with the moon’s first becoming visible in the west 
till her ceasing to be visible in the east. Herein they 
use the following method 

Add to the circumference the amount of the revolu- 
tion of the sun in a lunar month. Subtract from the 
sum the march of the moon for the two days called 
almil^dh (f.r. the 28th and 29th days of a lunation). 
Divide tlie i-emainder by the mni'ch of the moon for one 
day. The quotient is 27 ami a little more than ij, which 
fraction must be counted as a whole day. 

However, the Arabs are illiterate people, who can 
neither write nor reckon. They only rely upon numbers 
and eyesight. They have no other medium of research 
than eyesight, and are not able to determine the lunar 
stations without the fixed stars in them. If the Hindus 


On th« 

MVfin lunnr 

Lunar ata< 
ttoilB of Uic 






Mven or 

•iKht lunar 

A Vodio tra- 
dition rrom 

want to describe the single stations, they agree with 
the Arabs regarding certain stars, whilst regarding 
others they differ from them. On the whole, the Arabs 
keep near to the moon's path, and use, in describing the 
stations, only those fixed stars with which the moon 
either stands in conjunotion at certain times, or through 
the immediate neighbourhood of which she passes. 

The Hindus do not strictly follow the same line, but 
also take into account the various positions of one star 
with reference to the other, e.g. one star’s standing in 
opposition or in the zenith of another. Besides, they 
reckon also the Falling Eagle among the stations, so as 
to get 28. 

It is this which has led onr astronomers and the 
authors of 'anwd books astray ; for they say that the 
Hindus have twenty-eight lunar stations, but that they 
leave out one which is always covered by the rays of the 
snn. Perhaps they may have heard that the Hindus call 
that station in which the moon is, the burning one; 
that station which it has just left, the left one after tlee 
embrace; and that station in which she will enter next, 
the smoking one. ' Some of oar Muslim authors have main- 
tained that the Hindus leave out the station Al-zuldnd, 
and account for it by declaring that the moon's path is 
burning in the end of Libra and the beginning of Scorpio. 

All this is derived from one and the same source, viz. 
their opinion that the Hindus have twenty-eight stations, 
and that under certain circumstances they drop one. 
Whilst just the very opposite is the case; they have 
twenty-seven stations, and under certain circumstances 
add one. 

Brahmagupta Bays that in the book of the Veda there 
is a tradition, derived from the inhabitants of Mount 
Mern, to this effect, that they see two suns, two moons, 
and fifty-four lunar stations, and that they have double 
the amount of days of ours. Then he tries to refute this 
theory by the argument that we do not see the fish (sic) 
of the pole revolve twice in a day, but only once. I for 


my part have no means of arraying this erroneous sen- 
tence in a reasonable shape. 

The proper method for the computation of the place Motuod for 
of a star or of a certain degree of a lunar station is tliis : — 'hU'&MoSt 

Take its distance I'rom o'" Aries in minntes, and divide Uo|ree of 
them by 800. The quotient represents whole stations «tntioif. 
preceding that stationin which the stariu qticstionstands. 

Then remains to be found the particular place within 
the station in question. Now, either star or degree is 
simply determined according to the 800 parts of the 
station, and reduced by a common denominator, or the 
degrees are reduced to minntes, or they are multiplied 
by 60 and the product is divided by 800, in which case 
the quotient represents that part of the station which 
the moon has in that moment already traversed, if the 
station is reckoned as 

These methods of computation suit as well the moon 
as the planets and other stars. The following, however, 
applies exclusively to the moon : — The product of the 
multiplication of the remainder (i.e. the portion of the 
incomplete lunai’ station) by 60 is divided by the bhukii 
of the moon. The quotient shows how much of the 
Inuar nalcshatra day has elapsed. 

The Hindus are very little informed regarding the Table of the 
fixed stars. I never came across any one of them who iioiI« taken 
knew the single stars of the lunar stations frofu eye- xSja* 
sight, and was able to point them out to me with his 
fingers. I have taken the greatest pains to invesl.igate 
this subject, and to settle most of it by all sorts of com- 
parisons, and have recorded the results of my research 
in a treatise on the deUi'mvxation of the lunar stations. 

Of their theories on this subject I shall mention as 
much as I think suitable in the present context. But 
before that I shall give the positions of the stations in 
longitude and latitude and their numbers, according to 
the caaou. Khandakhddijaka, facilitating the study of 
the subject by comprehending all details in the follow- 
ing table : — 








i tM 1 

tS 2 —w 0 j 8 

'Eh i.- ii -5 — 

T! S -8 ®:2 s J3 

MO^we 'S