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INDIA 

A REFERENCE ANKHAl 

1959 


Compiled hy 

THE RESEARCH AND REFERENCE DIVISION 
MINISTRY OP mPORMATION AND BROADCASTING 
GOVERNME5NT OP INDIA 



, THE PUBLICATIONS DIVISION 

ministry op INFORMATION AND BROADCASTINa 
GOVERNMENT OP INDIA 

ItHS USHA BOniC AGEMC? 

, 5«AURA KASTAp JAIPUR 



May 2959 {Vawafcha 1882; 


© The Publtcafions Dzvision, 1959 


^ nmrciom fubucatioks division, old 



PREFACE 


IJ^DlAi A Rejerenct Annual was first brought out by the 
Publications Division of the Ministry of Information and Broadcast- 
ing in 1953, with the object of providing authentic information on 
the diverse aspects of our national life and activities The response 
both within the country and abroad encouraged the publishers to 
widen the scope of the Annual in successive issues. 

Every effort is made to mdude the latest available information 
relating to each subject covered in the Anmial. The present volume 
incorporates the Annual Financial Statements of the Union and 
State Governments for 1959-60 and other information available at 
the time of the presentation of the Budget in Farhament and the 
State Legislatures. 

The Annual contains information compiled from ofiSaal and 
other authoritative sources. It does not, however, claim to be 
exhaustive. Readers requiring additional information are referred 
to the Government reports and pubhcations, reference worlcs and 
other books which are listed in the Select Btbhogrcphy at the 
end of the volume 




CONTENTS 


Chapin ftff 

t THE LAND AND THE PEOPLE 1— 

THE PHYSICAL BACKGROUND «-«) 

Physical Features — Geological Structure— River S>s*cms — Climiie 
POWER RESOURCES (13) 

Coal — Lignite — Oil — Water Power 
LflNERAL RESOURCES (13-14) 

Iron Ore — Manganece — Chromite — Rcrractoni.i— Gold — Copper — 

PaiL'utc — Mica — Ilmcnitc — Salt — Afisccllincous Non-rerrour 
Minerals 

THE DEJIOGRAFHIC BACKGROUND (14-44) 

Alid-Ycar Estimates and Growth of PopuHtion — \rc'iand Population 
of Slates, Union Territories, Dislncts, T'tJuJ,«/TLh*il^“-Birili ard 
Death Rates — Matcrmlv Pattern — ^^\gc Structure and Sej? Raiin — ■ 

Dcnsit) 

THE SOCIAL PATTERN (44-47) 

Religions — Languages — Rural and Urban Population 
PEOPLE OF INDIAN ORIGIN ABROAD (47'4S> 

(f. NATIONAL EMBLEM, FLAG, ANTHEM, SONG AND CMKVDSR 49—31 
NATIONAL EMBLEM «&> 

NATIONAL FLAG (49-50) 

NATIONAL ANTHEM (50) 
national song (50-51) 
national CALENDAR (51) 

UF. CONSTITLiTIOK 52-r,4 

THE UMON AND ITS TERRITORY 1521 

crrizENsniP and franchise ( 52 - 53 ) 

FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS (53) 

DIRECTTV'E PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY (5^^ 

THE UNION EXTCUTi-VE (54-55) 

President — ^\’«x-PrCMdcnl — Cnurcil of Mint •m — 

Attornrv-Gercnl 

THE XRaON PARLIAMENT (55-JC) 

Council ofState^ — Home of the PropV 



STATE LEGISLATURES (78-81) 

Strengtli of State Lt^aturcs— Officers of Lcgislature^Funcbonsr— 
Pfoc^ure— Reservation ofBills—Coatrol over Executive 

V. EXECUTIVE 

UNION (82-85) 

Personnel of the Union Govcnuaent—Administrative Organisation 

Sccrctancs to the Government of India — Organisation and 

Methods Division — ^Pay Commission 
STATES (85-86) 

Organisational Patteiii--Conduct of Govenimcnt Busmess — 
Administrative Units 
liOCIAL GOVEBNUEHT (87-89) 

Corporations — Muniapal Boards and Gomnutte^ — ^District Boards 
— Village Panchayats— Pmanccs 
FOBLIC SERVICES (89-93) 

Personnel and Functions of the Union Public Service Commission — 
— ^All-India Services and their TVaining — Central ScCTetanat 
Service—Central Administrative Pool-— Industrial Alanagcmeni 
Pool — State Servtocs 


VI JUDICIARY 

SUPREME COURT OF INDIA (93-85) 

Personnel of the Court — Law Officers — ^Powers of Interpretation — 
Junsdicuon — ^Working of the Court 
LAW COMMISSION (85-85) 

HIGH COURTS (B8«) 

Year of Establishment, Temtonal Jurisdiction and Seat— Towers 
and PunctiODs 

SUBORDINATE COURTS (97-83) 

Structure and Functions — Cnmmal Justice— Separation of 
Judicinry from Exwutive 


VII DEFENCE 99- 

ORCANISATION (88-100) 

Army — ^Navy — Air Force 
TRAININO INBTITUTIONS (100-102) 

National Defence Academy — Defence Services Staff Collie— 

Armed Forces Medical Collie— Anny Colleges and Schools — 

Na val Training Ontres — ^Air Force Colleges and Schools 
defence PSODUenoN (102-101) 

D^acc Production Board— Research and Development OiganisatioD — 
Ordnance Factones— Machine-tool Proto-type Factory — Hindustan 
Aircraft Ltd — Bharat Electronics LttL 
S PECIA L ASSIGNMENTS (101) 
defence finance (lot) 
territorial ABKT (KB) 
lOK EABUVYAK SENA (105) 

national cadet corps (105-106) 

AUNH^ARY cadet corps (IDS) 
welfare of ex-servicemen (106-107) 


VIII EDUCATION 

BTATlsncS (108-112) 

Enrolment, hfenagement and Expenditure 
Targets under the two Plans 
EDUCATION (112-113) 
ffiCOOTABY education (113-114) 

HIG^ and university education (U4-UB) 

UmTSl Institutions-Gcncral Educatmn- 

E^CATION OF THE HANDICAPPED 1151^ 

YOUYii welfare (122) * 

PIIVBICAL EDDCaTION AND SPORTS (122-123) 


108—123 



124— 12d 


IX CULTURAL ACTIVITIES 

ART (124-125) 

Lalit Kala Akadenu — Publications — ^National Gallery of Art 
dance and drama (125) 

Sangect Natak Akadenu — ^Radio Drama 
MUSIC (125-12S) 

Music Festival — ^Library of Music — Seminar on Indian Music — 
Radio Sangect Sammdan— National Programme of Music — ^Light 
Music — ^Folk Music — Vadya Vnnda 
LFTEHATUBE (125-128) 

Sahitya Akadenu — Gandhian Literature — ^Literary Broadcasts — ■ 
National Book Trust — ^Development of Modem Indian Languages 
CULTURAL RELATIONS WITH OTHER COUNTRIES (128-129) 

External Relabons Division — ^Delegations — Ckiltural Agreements — 
Grants — Indian Council for Cultural Relations 


X SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH 130—137 

COUNCIL OF S CIEN T IFIC AND INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH {1S{)-133) 

Finance — National Laboratones-^ponsored Research — ^Pdot 
Plant — Liaison — ^Vigyan Mandirs 
NUCLEAR RESEARCH AND ATOMIC ENERGY (131 and 134) 

OTHER DEPARTMENTAL RESEARCH ACTIVITIES (135) 

OTHER INSTITUTIONS (135) 
medical RESEARCH (135-136) 

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH (136-137) 

XI HEALTH 140— 149 

VITAL STATISTICS (140) 

PREVENTION AND CONTROL OP DISEASES (140-142) 

1 Malaria — ^Filana — ^Tuberculosis— Leprosy — Venereal Diseases — 

Influenza — Cancer 

nutrition and PREVENTION OF FOOD ADULTERATION (143-144) 

Nutrition Policy— Nutrition Research— Prevention of Food 
Adulteration 

T7ATER SUPPLY AND SANITATIOH (144) 

National Water Supply and Sanitation Scheme 
medical RELIEF AND SERVICE (144-145) 

Hospitals and Dispensaries — ^Health Personnel — Contributory 
Health Service Scheme— Health Insurance— Pnmary Health Centres 
INDIGENOUS AND HOMOEOPATHIC SYSTEMS OP MEDICINE (14S-147) 

Dave Committee— Central Insbtute of Research m Indigenous 
Systems of Medicmc— Uniform Standards m Educabon— Regulabon 
of Pracbee— Homoeopathy 
DRUG MANUFACTURE AND CONTROL (147-148) 

Drug (Control— Drugs and Magic Remedies (Objecbonable 
Advertisements) Act — Drug Manufacture— Medical Depots and 
Factories 

education and TRAININO (148-149) 

Medical Colleges— All-India Insbtute of Medical Snences— 

Specmlised Trammg— Training of Auxiliary Medical Workers 
family planning (149) 

Objects — ^Progress durmg the Plans — Research 


XII SOCIAL WELFARE 

PROHIBniON (152-153) 

Area and Population under Prohibibon-— Programme ^Progress 
•WETJARE measures fob MALADJUSTED GROUPS (154-155) 
Immoral Traffic m Women and Girls— Juvenile Delinquents- 
Beggars 

central social welfare board (165-157) 

Wdfare Extension Projects — ^Urban Family Welfare Scheme 
Other Programmes 

XIII RELIEF AND REHABILITATION 

expenditure on displaced persons (15S) 


J 52— 157 


I5S— I6I 



DKTBIBUTIOIT OF DISPLACED PERSOKS (159) 

Rchabflitauon — ^Daiidaiaran>a Scheme — ^RcbabiUtaDon Industncs 
CorporatiDn 

DISPLACED FEB50NS EROSiI EAST FA]£1STAX (159^160) 

OTHER KDJDS OF RELIEF (16&-161) 

Emeigenn Hehef OrgaaisaUom— Prime Munster’s National Relief 
Fund 


Xr\’ SCHEDULED CASTES, SCHEDULED TRIBES AKD OTHER 

backward classes 162—170 

CQNSrmmoNAL PROVISIOKS 062) 

FOPT7LATIOK OF SCHEDULED CASTES AND TRIBES (163) 

MEASURES TO ERADICATE tWTOUCHABILrry (163-164) 

The UntouchabiUty ^Offences) Act, ISSS—Campaiga against 
Untouchabilitv 

REPRESENTATION IN LEGISLATURES (1BI-165> 

REPRESENTATION IN THE SERVICES (154-166) 

AD'MSNISTRA’noN OF SCHEDULED AND TRIBAL AREAS (166) 

Autonomous Tnbal Areas of Assam — Tnbes Advison m 

Other States 

■WELFARE AND ADVISOKF AGENCIES (165) 

ComimssiDner for the Scheduled Castes and Sdieduled Tnbes — 

Central Advjsorj Boards — IVel&rc Dcpartmtaits m the States 

WELFARE SCHEMES (166-170) 

Educational Fadbties — ^Economic Opportumties —Other Wellarc 
Schemes — Tnbal Research Institutes — RiqpciiditviTc on WdiaTc 
Schemes — Targets under Second Flan 


XV MASS COMMUmCATION I 

broadcasting (171-176) 

Radio Stations — ProgTanunc Compoatioii — Vividh BbaraU — 

Special Auchence Programmes— Fi\ c-Year Plan Pubbent) — 
Ptogramme Exchange — Transcnption Service — Advisory Committees 
““Programmcjoimials— JJeivs Services — External Services — Growth 
of Usienmg— Import and Ptoductiott of Radio Sets— Television 
THE PRESS (176-179) 

DistnbuUoa of Kcvvspapeis accordirg to State, Pcnodiatv and 
Language — Chrculauon of New^apeiB — ^Newsprint — Press 
Inloiinatioii Bureau — ^Freedom of the Press 
FILMS (179-185) 

Output and Themauc Classification of Feature Films— FAm 

Bureau— Film Finance (3oipoiation— 
^dren s Film Socict>— Fflm Fcstn-als— State Avvards for Fdxns— 
■documentaries and Newsreels — ^Film Ccnsoiship — ^Import of 
Uincmatographic FJm and Equrpment— Esmort oflndiM Film* 
PUBLICATIONS (IBS-lsG) 

ADVERTISING AND "VISUAL FUBLICITT (186) 

XVT ECO:(OMIG STRUCTURE j; 

CAPITA INCOMES (187-1601 
LrVELIHOOD patter:; ((109) 

^ORKTVG FORCE (190) 

PRINCIPAL CROPS (190) 
raiNCIPAL INDUSTRIES 1191) 

^'OID.IATION (192) 

ECONOMT (193-193) 

Of Ownership— Pattern of 

and CiUcs Expenditure Patterns tn IHUagcS, Towns 

Prices ( 193-199) 

'^‘^*11 PLWNIXg 

<200) 

OmUv (2WW05, 



XI 

SECOND ITVE-YEAR PLAN (203^13) 

Objectives — Outlay and Allocations — Targets — Changes in 
Ecotiomic Structure — Financial Resources — Investment in the 
Private Sector — Foreign Exchange Position --Core Projects — 

Reappraisal— Outlav during first three years— Resources dunng 
next two years — Deficit Financing 

XVIII. COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT 214— 217 

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES (214) 

FINANCE (214-215) 

Resources — People’s C3ontribution — Expenditure under the Plans 
— ^Expenditure m Blocks — ^External Assistance 
ORGANISATION (215-216) 

At the Centre — In the States — At the Block— Extension 
Organisation — Community Organisations — ^Block Development 
Committee 
TRAINING (216) 

ACHIEVEMENTS (217) 

XIX FINANCE 2 18—249 

PUBLIC FINAKCE (21B-220) 

Gonstitufaonal Provisions— Allocation ofRcicnuc — Second Finance 
Commission — ^Budget — Audi t 
BUDGET ESTIMATES (220-223) 

BUDGETARY POSITION (223-236) 

Revenue Receipts, Revenue Expenditure, Capital Expenditure, Loan 
Account, Overall Budgetary Position of the Centre — Combined 
Revenue Receipts, Revenue Expenditure, Capital Receipts, Capital 
Expenditure and Overall Budgetary Position of the Centre and the 
States 

PUBLIC DEBT (223 and 237-239) 

Interest-Bcanng Obhgauons and Interest-Yielding Assets of the 
Government of India — Debt Position of the Goiemment of India — 

Debt Position of the States 
MONEY SUPPLY AND CURRENCY (240-241) 

Money Supply with the Public — Currency — ^Decimal Coins — 

Dcmonctisauon of Certain Denominations of Coins — Comcrsion 
Hyderabad Currency into India Go\ eminent Currency 
BANKING (241-243) 

Scheduled Banks — Monetary and Credit Policy of (he Resene Bank 
CORPORATE FINANCE (243-245) 

Companies at Work during 1947-58 — ^Ncss Rcgisiraiions — 

Government Companies — Sate-wisc Distnbution of Companies — 

Foreign Companies 
INSURANCE (245-246) 

Public and Pnvate Insurance — State-run Insurincc Schemr^ — 

Insurance Association of India 
GENERAL INSURANCE (246-240) 

Insurance Companies — eBusiness SlalKtics — Premium inrer*’'* — 

Assets and Im estments 
LIFE INSURANCE (24Q-249) 

Life Insurance Corporation — Nevv Bu*jnr«— L I C IrM-’ii-n 

XX AGRICULTURE 251— 

LAND UXILTSATTON (251-255) 

Irrigated Area — A.rca of Principal Crrp' — — Prodccti'c of 
Principal Crop« — ^Imports orFoodcrains — D.nnbu'i'jn v 

DEt'ELOPMENT PROCRAMMIS (236-235) 

Minor Imgation — Land Rcclt'r'itirrr— Mnltlpi cat r** ""-d 
Distribution of impmved Seeds — Mam 'ca frr iij—i — F ’rt 

Protection and Locust Con*ro’— Crop 0*^pT i:ri 
AGRICULTURAL 'LaRKETINC (T-t 

Grading and Stardanlisati'-a — t 
of the Innt Pre-r-vat on trdv.s.’a— M-* S * 7 ’ j—C '• 
operate c Ma-l curr ut d Pxo'xr "g 
FOrESTRV (:-?-233» 

Area Under Fe-cst*— Pnv* c'r'- a e‘‘ a” Fi**^ \ - 

of Minor Fc’-nt pT«ducr — Drv-'’ ^ -r b: G- - 



XXI 


ANHUAIi HDSBANDBY and fisheries (263*2B5) 

Census of Livestock, Poultry and Agricultural Machinery— Key 
Village Schemi^-Gosadan Schemi^a^ala Pev dopment 
Scheme— Poultty Devdopment— Dairy Schemes— Dewopment of 
Fisheries 

AGRlCDLTDBAIi WOEKEHS (265-266) 

First Agncultural Labour Enqiap^l^mmum 

Agricultural Labour Enquiry — Rural Consumer Pnee Index bcncmc 


land reform 

ABOErnOM OF INTERMEDIABIES (266'a70) 

Progress— Area under Intermediaries — Compensation Payable and 
Paid 

TENAHCT HEFOBII (27(«73) 

AndhraPradcsh—Bibai^Bombay— Jammu and Kashm^ 
Kerala— Madh> a Pradesh— Madras— Mysore— Onssa— Punjab— 
Rajasthan— Uttar Pradeshr-West Bengal— Umon Temtoncs 
CEIUKG ON HOLDINGS (213-274) 

CONSOUDATION OP HOLDINGS (274-275) 

SHB-DIVISION AND FEAGMENTATION (276-276) 

CENSUS OP LAND HOLDtNGS (276) 

CO-OPERATtVE FARMING (276) 

BHOODAN (276-278) 

Anns and Objects— Assistance to Bhoodan — Bboodan Donations 
and Distribution — Gramdan Donations 


268— 27B 


XXU CO-OPERATIVE MOVEMENT 279— 28ft 

BACKGROUND (276-281) 

CO-OPERATIVE STRUCTURE (231-262) 

Co^ipeiaave Operations — ^Profits Earned 
PR1MAR7 SOCIETIES (282-265) 

Agricultural Credit Societies — ^Agricultural Non-Credit Societies— 
Non-Agncultural Credit Soaeties — ^Non-Agncultural Non-Gredn 
Societies — Pnmaiy Land Mortgage Banks 
CENTRAL SOCIETIES (285^6) 

Central Banks and Bankmg Unions — Central Non-Credit Soaeties 
APEX SOCIETIES <286-267) 

State (k>-operative Banks — State Non-Credit Soaeaea — Centra 
Land Mortgage Banks 
OTHER ASPECTS ((288) 

Supervismg Umons — State Umons and State Institutes — Insurance 
Soaeties^^ocietics Under Liquidation 


XXlll 


IRRIGATION AND POWER 

TRRIGATION (289) 

FLOOD CONTHOL (290) 
in land navigation (290) 
POWER (290-297) 


Resources— Progress of Electnaty Supply —Organisation for Power 
Dcunoj^cnt — Ownership — Consumption — Rural Hccinfication— 
rower Schemes under the Plans 
river VALLEV PROJECTS (297-301) 

Bhakra N^gal ^ject — ^Hirakud Dam Project — ^Rajasthan Canal 
Project— Damodar Valley Project— Tungahhadra Project— Koa 
^ Project— Nagarjunasagar Project— Koyna 

Placet ^Rihand Dam ^jeet — ^Bhadra Reservoir Project — 
mpara Project — ^Maddmnd Project — Mayurakshi Prqicct 

development programme (301-304) 

Plans— The National Projecti 

— P Ltd — Pnnapal Imgatioh Works 

Prmcspal Imgation Projects under the Second Plan 


289-304- 


XXI\ INDUSTRY 

INDUSTRIAL POLICY (3DS-S06) 
RPGULATIOV op industry (3 
ntODLCTHTn (307) 


305—335 



xui 


> INDUSTBlAli FINANCE (307-308) 

Industnal Finance Gorporation—Induatnal Cr«3it and Investment 
C3orporaUon — ^Refinance Corporation — National Imlustnal 
Development Corporation — ^Foreign Capital 
DEVELOPMENT OF INDUSTRIES (308-318) 

Early Stages— Dunng First Flan— Dunng Second Plan— Industnal 
Projects m the Public Sector — Outlay on Industries— Progress of 
Industry Capacity and Production 
INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION (318) 

PRlNCrPAL INDUSTRIES (320-331) 

Cotton Textiles— Jute — Sugar — Cement — ^Paper — ^Iron and 

Steel — Engmeenng — ^Locomotives and Coaches — Ship-building 

Aircraft — Chemics^ and Drugs — Fertilizeis — Oil — Coal arH 
Ligmte — Other Minerals 
PLANTATION INDUSTKIES (331-332) 

, Tea, Coffee and Rubber Area and Production 
SMALL-SCALE AND COTTAGE INDUSTRIES (333-336) 

Background — ^Eiqienditure and Outlay— Khadi Industry — 

Amb» Charkha 

XXV. TRADE 341-354 

EXTERNAL TRADE (341-344) 

Foreign TVadc of India— Balance of Payments — ^Imports — 

Imports on Government Account — ^Developmental Imports — 

Exports 

TRADE POLICY (344-346) 

TRADE AGREEMENTS (346) 

TARIFF (346) 

DIRECTION OF TRADE (346-347) 

Exports to Frmcipal Countnes — Imports from Principal Coimtries 
PATTERN OP TRADE (348-350) 

Imports and Exports of Principal Commodities 
TERMS OF TRADE (350-352) 

Index Numbers of Eiqiorts and Imports — ^Net Terms of Trade 
STATE TRADING CORPORATION (352) 

INTERNAL TRADE (352-354) 

Coastal Trade— Inland Trade— Metric Wdghts and Measures 

XXVI. TRANSPORT 35S— 377 

RAILWAYS (356-368) 

Progress smcc 1853 — Railivay Zones — Railway Finances 
Dewlopment under Plans New Construction and Worls — RoUmg 

Stock— Workshops, Plant and Madunery- ElectnficaUon — 

Dicselisation— Bridges — ^Amemties for R^way Users — Staff 
Welfare 

Operatmg Statistics Passenger Traffic and Earnings — Tickctless 
Travel — ^Accidents and Safety of Passenger Trams — Goods Traffic 
and Earmngs — ^Punctuality Ratio — Export Traffic — ^Locomotive 
Utdisation — Wagon Usage 
Fares and Freight 
Administration 
ROADS (368-370) 

Progress — National Hi^waya — Other Roads — ^Roads m the 
States’ Sector 

ROAD TRANSPORT (370-371) 

Motor Vehicles — Import of Motor Vehicles and Sparc Parts— 

Adimnistratxon 
INLAND WATERWAYS (371) 

SHIFPINa (371-373) 

Progress under Plans— Merchant Shippmg Act— Shipping CorporaUons 
— Hindustan Shipyard— Second Shipyard— Training Imutubons 
PORTS (373-374) 

Major Ports — Mmor Ports— National Harbour Board 
TOURIST TRAFFIC (374-376) 

Administmto c Set-up — Hotd Standards and Rate Structure 
Committee— Relaxation in Tounst Regulauons— Information— 

Number ofTounsts— Tourist Rc\-emic — ^Development Ptans 



XIV 


CIVIL AVIATION (S76-317) 

"Progress since 1947 — Air Corporations — ^Traming — ^Flying Qubi^ 
Aerodromes— Aircraft — Air Transport Agreements 

XXVII COMMUNICATIONS 381—386 

POSTAL SERVICES (381-333) 

Postal Statistifs — ^Urban Mobile Post Offices — ^Air Mad and All- 
up Sebmea — Air Faxed Service mth Foreign ^untnes— Postal 
Savings Bank — ^Postal Insurance 
TELEGRAPH SERVICES (383-SS4) 

Telegraph Statistics — ^Telegraph Service m Hindi and Other Indian 
Lanaguages 

TELEPHONE SERVICES (384-385) 


Telephone Statistics — Own Your Telephone Scheme — ^Message Rate 
System — Tdephone Industry 
OVERSEAS COZaMDNICATIDHS (3SS-38B) 

Radio Tclcphore Sen ice — Radio Tdicgrapb Service— Radio 
Photo Service — Other Services 

KXVIII LABOUR 3 

EaiPUlVMENT STATISTICS (387-388) 

Employment in Factories, Qjal Mines, Cotton " Mill Industry 
PRODUCTIVITY (338-389) 
national BUPLOYMEHT service (389-390) 

Employment Exchange Statistics — CraRsmen Traming 
WAGES AND EARNINGS (390-393) 

^nual Earnings— Real Eammgs— IVorlongfaass Consumer Pnee 
Rcgulauon of "Wages— AVage Census Scheme — Steering 
Group On Wagev — Coal Mines Bonus Schemes 
INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS t3S3-3ffi> 

Indust^ Disputes— Industnal Employment Standing Orders— 
Di^pline m Industry— Works Comnuttccs— Tnpartite Machmen— 
^ciliauon Machinery— Atijudicatioa Sladimen—Wortcra’ 
Participauon m Management— Workers’ EducaUon 
trade unions (395J 

SOCIAL SECDHTTY (338) 

Employ’ Insurance Scheme— Employ ces' Provident Fund — 

toiriSS™ W. Comp^aaon- 

labour welfare (398-337) 

Fund— Mica Mmes Labour Welfare 
St;? Phmtation Uhmin-Ubour Wdfare Funds m 

gntrd Government Industrial Undcrtaking»-Lahour Wdfare 

industrial housing (397-398) 

HSln?'sS 

and UNION TERRITORIES 4 

ASSAM ttWM03) 

diuar 

DOMDAV H1S-<k> 

^•■irorE tcD-tui 
OT-isrA M(tmn) 

PL' ^An 
PJUAS'T' 



XV 


UTTAR PRADESH (455-461) 

WEST BENGAL (462-467) 

DELHI (468) 

HIMACHAL PRADESH (469-470) 

MANIPUR (471-472) 

TRIPURA (473-474) 

ANDAMAN AND IHCOBAR ISLANDS (475) 

LACCADIVE, MINICOY AND AMINDIVI ISLANDS (476) 

NORTH-EAST FRONTIER AGENCY (476) 

NAGA HILLS— TUENSANG AREA (476) 

PONDICHERRY (476-477) 

XXX INDIA AND INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONS 478—485 

UNITED NATIONS ORGANISATION (478-484) 

Political Algcna- — Cyprus — Lebaron — Atomic Energy Agency — 

— ^Tnist and Non-Sclf-Goveming Temtonct — People oJ Indian 
Ongin in South Africa — Kashimr — Cii-eMstencc — Dirarmament— 

Election to UN Bodies — ^UN Conference on the Law of the Sea — 

International Iaw C!!ommission ’ 

Economic and Social Economic Commission for Asia and 
the Far East — Food and Agriculture Organisation — International 
Labour Organisation — Uruted Nations Educational, Scientifc and 
Cultural Organisation — EWorld Health Organisation — United 
Nations Intemational Children’s Emergency Fund— General 

’ Agreement on Tariffs and Trade— United Nations Technical Assistance 

Programme — ^International Bank for Reconstruction and Develop- 
ment — International Finance Corporation — International ^ 

Monetary Fund — Umted Nations Special Fund — Other Specialised 
Agenaes of the United Nations 
OTHER INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONS (484-485) 

Commonwealth — Ci^Iombo Plan — Ckimmonwcallh Farhamcntary 
Assocation — International Conference of Agricultural 
Economists — ^International Commission cljunsts^ — Inter- 
national Air Transport Assoaation 

XXXI LAWS OF PARLIAMENT DURING 1958 

XXXII IMPORTANT EVENTS OF 1958 

XXXIII GENERAL INFORMATION 

WARRANT OF PRECEDENCE (608-609) 

REPUBLIC DAY AWARDS (509-511) 

Bharat Rama — ^dma Vibhushan — Fadma Bhushan — Fadma Sbn 
GALLANTRY AWARDS (511-5131 

Param Vir Chakra — Maha Vir Chakra — Vir Chakra — ^Ashoka 
Chakra Classes I, II and III 
AWARDS TO SCHOU^ (513) 

DIPLOMATIC REPRESENTATIVES OF INDIA (514-521) 

FOREIGN DIPLOMATIC REPRESENTATIVES IN INDIA (522-524) 


485—490 

491—507 

508—524 


APPENDICES 525—551 

Chapter III Recommendations of the Official Language Commivion (325) 

Chapter VI Supreme Court Decisions (525-528) 

Recommendations of the Law Commission (528-529) 


Chapter VIII Scholarship Schemes Tor Studies Abroad and in India (529-532) 
Engineering and Technological Instituuons (532-533) 

Chapter IX Organisations Recognised by the Sahiti-a A1 adcmi (533-535) 

Institutions Recognised by the Sangcct Natak Akadcmi (535-538) 
Instirutions Recognised hi the Lain Kala Akadcmi (538-539) 
A'aards for Outstandmg Books (539) 

Awards for hlusic, Dance and Dt-«ma (539-5 iQ) 
ijiht Kala Akadcmi Awards (540) 


Chapter XI Medical (Colleges (a40-341) 
Dentil College (541) 
Awrvcdic Colleges (341-542) 
Tibbiya Colleges (542) 



XVI 


Chapter ^TF Film Awards (542^3) 

Chapter XIX Tax Pawble on Income or Incomra (544-545) 
Entes of Estate Duty (546) 

Rates of Wealth Tax (546-547) 

Rates of R^cndituce Tax (547) 

CkapterXXVI Aerodromes (547) 

Chapter XXVIl'N.ztiasial Savings CertiEcates (548) 

Current Postal ^tes (548) 

Foreign Post (549) 

Miscellaneous (549) 

Air Fee Foreign (550-551) 

Air Parcels (551) 


SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY 


552—562 



CHAPTER 1 


THE LAND AND THE PEOPLE 

India, also knowTi as Bharat, is well marked off from the rest of Asia by 
moimtains and the sea, which give the country an unmistakable geographi- 
cal umty Bounded by the Himalayas m the north, the country stretches 
southivards and, at the Tropic of Camcer, tapers off into the Indian Ocean 
between the Bay of Bengal on the cast and the Arabian Sea on the west. 
Lying entirely to the north of the Equator between latitudes 8® and 37 “J 0' 
north and longitudes 68® and 97®25' cast, il measures about 2,000 miles from 
north to south and about 1,850 miles from cast to west and covers an area 
of 12.59,765 sq miles Measured by the extent of its temtory, India is 
the seventh largest countiy in the world It has a land frontier 9,425 
miles long and a coastline of about 3,535 miles 

THE PHYSICAL BACKGROUND 

The formidable Himalayas form Indians northern boundary, along 
which he Smkiang, Tibet and Nepal Sikkim and Bhutan are two 
States in this region -which arc attadicd to India by speaal 
treaties -A senes of mountain ranges in the cast separate India from 
Burma, To the north-cast lies East Pakistan between the States of West 
Bengal and Assam In the north-west, West Pakistan borders on India 
In the south, the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait separate India from 
Ceylon The Andamairand Nicobar Islands m the Bay of Bengal and the 
Laccadive, Minicoy and Axmndivi Islands in the Arabian Sea form part 
of the Indian Union. 

Physical Features 

The mainland comprises three wdl-defined regions: (i) the great 
mountain zone of the Himalayas, (u) the Indo-Gangedc Plain and (lu) 
the southern Pemnsula 

The Himalayas comprise three almost parallel ranges mtermersed 
with large plateaus and valleys some of which, like the Kashmir and Kulu 
valleys, are fertile, extensive and of great scemc beauty Some of the 
highest peaks in the world are to be found in these ranges The 
high altitudes limit travel only to a few passes, notably the Jelep La and 
Natu La on the mam Indo-Tibet trade route through the Cbambi -valley, 
north-east of Darjeeling The mountain wall extends o-ver a distance of 
about 1,500 miles wth a varying depth of 150 to 200 miles In the east, 
between India and Burma and India and Pakistan, the hill ranges 
are much lower. The Garo, Khasi, Jaintia and Naga hills ninmng 
almost east-west jom the ebam of the Lushai and Arslan hills running 
north-south 

The Indo-Gangetic plain, 1,500 miles long and 150 to 200 miles broad, 
is formed by the basins of three disunct nver systems, the Indus, the Ganga 
and the Brahmaputra It is one of the -world’s greatest stretches of fiat 
alluvium and also one of the roost densely populated areas on earth There 
is hardly any variation in relief Between the Yamuna nver at Delhi and the 
Bay of Bengal, nearly 1,000 miles away, there is a drop of only 700 feet 
in elevation 


* Area figure excludes the State of PondicherTy (186 sq miles). 



2 


The Peninsular plateau is niarl.ed ofi* irom the Inda>Gangetic plain 
by a mass of mountain and hill ranges, varjong from 1,500 to 4,000 ft. 
in height The more promment among these are the Aravalh, Vmdhya, 
Sntpum, Maihal and Ajanta The Femnsula is flanked on one side by the 
Tasicm Ghats, where the average elevation is about 2,000 ft , and on the 
other b>' the Western Ghats where it is from 3,000 ft to 4,000 ft , nsmg in 
places to 8,840 feet Between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea lies a 
narrow coastal stnp, while beh^ een the Eastern Ghats and the Bay of Bengal 
there IS a broader coastal area The southern point of the plateau is 
fonned by the Nilgin hills where the Eastern and 'IVestem Ghats meet 
The Cardamom l^mg beyond may be regarded as a continuation of 
the Western Ghats 


Ctoh^ical Structure 

Geologically also, India consists of the same three distmct units, 
naraetj, the anaent block of the Peninsula, the Himalayas and their 
assoaaicd group of \oung fold-mountmns and the Indo-GanRctic plamlvmff 
between these two or /a 

The Peninsula js a region of great geological stabihty and is re- 
markably immune from seismic disturbances of any intensity. The 

5 Peninsula consists of highly metamorphosed 

^ The pological sequence in the Himalayas has been almost entirely 
^ne and there is hlUc doubt that the area now* occupied by the great 
of the STM \ sea till a late penod in the geological hbtory 
of the area Much of the area is suU very imperfectly known geologically, 

tSc's?\ ahk (Introversiai 

ftm derived from the erosion of 

m fmZr he ^^deep that formed 

fron. 0f,h«c? 

W '? “ have^t 

fe I urdred, of mta ranurkab!} homogamas rath httla rdlrf 



3 


The Ganga basin is the largest, receiving waters from an area which 
comprises about one-quarter of the total area of India. Its boundaries are 
well defined by the Ihinialayas in the north and the Vmdhya mountains in 
the south. The Ganga has two mam headwaters in the Himalayas — ^thc 
Bhagirathi and the Alakananda, the former rising from the Gangotri glacier 
at Gaumukh. The Ganga is joined by a number of Himalayan nvers 
including the Yamima, Ghagra, Gandak and the Kosi The westernmost 
river of the Ganga system is tihe Yamuna, which nses m the Yamnotn glacier 
and joins the Ganga at Allahabad Of the nvers flowmg north from 
centrm India into the Yamuna or the Ganga, mention may be made of 
the Chambal, the Bctwa and the Sone. 

The second largest nver basm m India is that of the Godavari. It 
covers an area which comprises about 10 per cent of the total area of India 
The basin of the Brahmaputra m the east and diat of the Indus in the 
west are of about the same size The Krishna basin is the second largest 
m Peninsular India. The Mahanadi fiows through the third largest basm 
in the Peninsula. The basin of the Narmada m the uplands of the Deccan 
and that of the Kaven in the fer south are of about the same size, though 
of 'different character and shape. 

The two other nver systems, which are small but nevertheless agri- 
culturally very important, are those of the Tapti m the north and the Pennar 
in the south 
Chmate 

The climate of India is essentially monsoon-tropical and this descnpdon 
IS vahd notwithstandmg local variations such as the wmter r ains m the north- 
west, which are cntirdy subsidiary to the main summer rainfall regime. 
The seasonal rhythm can be broadly classified as follo^vs (i) the Gold 
Weather from October to the end of February , (u) the Hot Weather from 
the begmmng of March to the beginning or mid^e of June , and (ui) the 
Ramy Season from the begmnmg or midcUe of June to the end of September. 
The Indian Meteorological Department recognises four seasons (i) The 
Gold Weather Season (December-March) , (u) The Hot Weather Season 
(Apni-May) ; (m) the Ramy Se^on (June-September) ; and (iv) the 
season of the retreatmg south-west monsoon (October-November) 
Tables 1 and 2 show the normal monthly and annual maximum and 
TniniTTiiini temperatures m degrees Fahrenheit m shade at nearly 50 selected 
stations m Indm. 

The south-west monsoon usually breaks about the beginning of June 
in the West Coast and arrives elsewhere later. With the exception of the 
Madias Goast^ India receives the major share of its rainfall between June 
and September from south-west monsoon As it retreats there is a 
spell of dry weather in north India and widespread rainfall in the coastal 
chstnets of Madras and Onssa where October and November are often 
the raimest months of the year The South-east Coast of India receives 
most of Its rain during November and December. 

The climatic regions of In^a, based on the dommant factor of rain- 
fall, may be arranged thus (i) regions wth more than 80 mches of annual 
rainfall such as the West Coast (%vith a long dry season in the north and a 
short dry season in the south), Bengal and Abam ; (u) regions iMth 40 to 80 
mches of rainfall such as the north-east plateau and the middle Ganga 
valley ; (m) regions with 20 to 40 inches of rainfall, such as Madras (m 
which the wettest months are November and December), southern and 
north-^vestem Deccan (%vith mean January temperatures of F) and 

the upper Ganga Plam (w-ith lower January temperatures and higher July 
ones). To these may be added the Hunalayan regions vciy heav>' 
rainfall. Table 3 shoivs nonnal monthly and annual rainfalls in about 
50 selected places in the country. 



























T<\BLE 


5 




TAnn !—(<«;:/) 


6 



86 6 87 2 88.7 88 4 87 0 84 2 82 7 83 4 84 5 84 4 84 5 86 2 8B 7 

74 2 79 4 91 6 101 8 105 4 100 9 92 2 89 6 91 0 90 5 83 0 75 2 89 6 



NORMAI. MOMTHLV AND ANNUAl. MINIMUM TEMPERATURES (°F} IN SHADE AT SEIXCTTED STATIONS IN INDIA 


7 




TABLE 2— ) 


























TABLE 3 

normal monthly and annual RAINFAIX (« 


10 



/ 


TABLE 


11 










rADfX 3— (fpw/rf ) 


12 

















POWER RESOURCES 


Coal 

In India coal occurs mainly in the Gondwana system of Indian 
Geology, minor depoats occuring in Tertiary rocks of India The reserves 
of all types of coeil occuring in seams of one foot or more in thickness within 
a depth of 1,000 ft arc estimated at 6,000 crore tons. 

Lignite 

Lignite occurs in Madras, Kajasthan, Saurasthra, Kutch and 
Kashmir Of these, the deposits covenng an area of 100 sq miles in and 
around Neyveh in the South Arcot distnet of Madras State are estimated 
at 20,000 lakh tons. 

Oil 

A tentative estimate places the potential oil-bearing areas in India at 
4,00,000 sq miles However, the country’s oil reserves can be estimated 
only in the light of the extensive programme of oil exploration which is 
now in progress 

Water Power 

The country’s estimated firm hydro-electric potential capable of 
economic development is 410 lakb kw 

MINERAL RESOURCES 

Iron Ore 

The iron ore reserves in India, assessed at one-fourth of the total world 
reserves, arc estimated at 2,100 crore tons India’s deposits are the largest 
as compared lo any other country m the world Large deposits of hematite 
ores arc known m Bihar, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Mysore and Bombay, 
magnetite ores occurring m Madras, Mysore, Bihar, Onssa and Himachal 
Pradesh. Extensive reserves of limomtc ores assoaated with spathic ores 
arc present m West Bengal. The proved and mdicated reserves of all types 
of ores amount to about 679 crore tons 

Manganese 

India ranks third in her manganese depcKits About 10 crore tons 
of a total estimated reserve of 1 1 2 crore tons arc in h&dhya Pradesh and 
Bombay. 

Chromite 

Chromite comes mainly from Bihar, Orissa and Mysore. The 
total reserves have been estimated at 13.2 lakh tons. 

R^racioues 

Occurrences of magnesite have been reported from a number of places 
in Andhra Pradesh, Madras, Mysore, Rajasfoan and Uttar Pradesh The 
total reserves have been estimated at 1,000 lakh tons Fire-clays occur in 
almost all States, those of Bihar and Bengal being the most important 
The largest deposits of kyanite in the \\orld occur in Bihar, smaller 
occurrences being knotvn to exist m Onssa Other States where kyanite 
occurs are Bombay, Andhra Pradesh, Mysore and Rajasthan Deposits of 
siUimamte of potential commercial importance occur in Assam, Madhva 
Pradesh, Mysore, and Kerala * Corundum is found in Assam, Madhya 
Pradesh, Rajasthan and Mysore, the reserv’cs in Madhya Pradesh alone 
being of the order of 4 lakh tons including 1 lakh tons of high grade mineral 

Gold 

The Kolar Gold Fields m the Mysore State hold probable reserves of 
about 1^.6 lakh tons of ore. 



14 


Copper 

Copper ore is available in a 80-milc belt in Bihar 
Bauxite ^ 

The occurrence of bauMte is wdespread in India. Tlic chief areas 
are Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Bombay, Madras, and Jammu which togctlicr 
hold probable reserves of about 2,500 lakh tons According to a recent 
estimate, high grade bauMte reserves arc placed at 280 lakh tons, of which 
roughly one-third is m Bihar. 

Mm 

Mica IS available in three mica belts of about 1,500 sq. miles in 
Bihar, 1,200 sq miles m Rajasthan and 600 sq miles in Andhra Pradesh 
The best quahty of mica, perhaps the best in the ivorld, comes from Bihar 

Ilmemle 

Workable deposits occur m the beach sands of the eastern and iscstcm 
coasts of India, those on the Kerala coast being knoivn for their extensive 
occurrence India’s reserves of ilmcmtc m beach sands hat c been reckoned 
at 3,500 lakh tom. 

Salt 

The main sources of supply of salt arc the marine salt works along the 
coas^ region, lake or pit brme salt in Rajasthan and Bombay, and rock 
salt deposits in Himachsd Pradesh 

Miscellaneous J{on~Femus Minerals 

and monazite — ^two strategic minerals used in atomic fission — 
arc available m Rajasthan and Kerala respectively. Bihar has sites which 
may prove a workable source of uramum Minor minerals like alum, 
apatite, anemc, asbestos, barytes, feldspar, fuller’s earth, garnet, graphite, 
quartz, saltpetre and steatite, are available on a small scale Reserves of 
^ and 80 lakh tons 

in Mac^, of which 20 lakh tons are economically recoverable Gypsum 
IS lound m Rajasthan, Madras and Bombay The probable reserves of 
gypsum have been estimated at about 881 lakh tons 


THE DEMOGRAPHIC BACKGROUND 

19M second most populous country According to the 

but did not cover the State of Jammu 
35 68 79^^ tnbal^eas of Assam, the country’s population is 

f foUowmg table shotva the mid-year estimate of nonula- 

1941-50 die mean growth rate obtamed^d^g 

^hSr the pyulation of Sikkim and Jammu^f 

The f t955-58 figures mclude also the population of Pondicherrv 

tHe growth of population since 1901 is mdicatcS m Table 5 

TABLE 4 

mid-year estimates of population 


Tear 


Crons of ptrsoiu j 

Tear 

1952 

1953 


36 75 

1956 

I9M 


57 23 

1957 

1955 


37 71 

38 24 

1958 


Cma t>f paiDTu 

38 74 

39 24 
39 75 



15 


kA 


a 





u 

B 


li 







16 


The foUowing tabic sbcfws the area, population and density of popu* 
lation in India and the component States and Union Tcrntorics^ 


AREA, POPULATION AND DENSITY OY INDIA AND THE COMTONTNT 
STATES AND UNION TERRITORIES 


Area in ^ Populmmn Dcn-ily of 

miles popiil iiion 


12^9, 7Wi 30,11,51,009 


Andbia Piadesli 


Rombsy 

5^mmu & KBshau[(6) 
Kerala 

MadbyaPiadeth 


Ptn^ab 
Rijasdian 
Uttar Pradesh 


Uftini Territories 

AndamaQ sad Nreobar Idaads 

DtUu 

^nnaebal Ptodesh 

Mmicoy and Ammdivi 


J.03.677 3,12,60,133 | 

85.062 90,43,707 ' 

07,071 3,87,83,770 ^ 

1,90,668 4,82,05,221 

85.861 44,10,003 

15,006 1,35,49,118 

1,71,250 2,60,71,637 

50,128 2,99,74,936 

74.861 1,94,01,193 

60,250 1,46,45,946 

47.062 1,61,34,890 

1,32,148 1,59,70,774 

1,13,422 6,32,15,742 

33,927 2,63,02,386 


^ popuUtion of SiUamlmc 

'SdSS’ifftSl ® Areas of Assam were nor 

»«• was 40 2 laiy Ijopulation of Jammu and Kasb. 

« 5 6 of Rirt B THbal Areas 







Tabic 7 ^vcs the area and population of districts, tehsils and taluks 

TABLE 7 

ABEA AND POFUIATION OF DISTRICTS, TALUKS/TEHSILS * 

ANDHRA PRADESH 


Unit 


Adilabnd Dist. .. 

Adilibad 

Asifabod 

Boath 

Chinoor 

Kbanapur 

LaUisliatUpct 

Nirmal 

Sirpur 

Utnoor 

Anantapor DIst* 

Anantapur 

Dharmavaram 

Gooty 

Hindpur 

Kadin 

Kalyandurg 

Madakasira 

Penukonda . 

Rayadurg 

Tadpatn . . 

Chittoor Dist. 

Ghandragtn 

Ghiltoor 

l^ahasti 

Madanapalle 

Palmancr 

Punganur 

Pultur 

Tiruttam 

Vayalpad 

Gnddapalt Dist* 

Badvcl 

Cuddapah 

Jammalainadugu . 

Kamalapuram 

Prodattur 

Pulivendla 

Rajampet 

Rayac^U 

Sidiiavattam 


Area in Fopula- Unit 

aq miles tion 


G,501 8, 3 1, 600(a) East Godavari Dist. 


580 1,01,611 

834 92,245 

708 72,372{i) 

689 86,117 

313 43,366 

734 98,812 

566 1,21,029 

856 1,04,091 

726 34,404 

7,384 14,83,591 

926 1,64,703 

736 1,14,812 

896 2,14,851 

430 1,53,332 

1,157 2,19,112 

821 1,18,394 

417 1,20,209 

682 1,23,349 

682 1,22,035 

641 1,32,794 


Agency 

Bhadrachalam 

Nugur 

Rampachodavaram 

Ycllavaram 

Plains 

Amalapuram ■ . 

Kakinada 

Feddapuram 

Pithapuram 

Rajal^undry 

R^nachandiapuiam 

Razolc 

Turn 

Guntur Dist. 

Bapatla 

Guntur 

Narasaraopet 

Ongole 

Palnad 


548 

778 

615 

836 

720 

648 

564 

379 


18,10,377 

1,65,198 

3,40,717 

1,36,910 

1,97,289 

1,69,739 

1,47,398 

2,30,088 

2,32,941 

1,90,097 


'Rqjalle 

Sattenapalle 

Tenali 

Vmukonda 

Hyderabad Dist. 
Hyderabad East 
Hyderabad West . . 
Ibrahimpatnam 
Medcbal 
Shahabad 


5,923 


11,61,731 


Tandur 


757 

510 

613 

303 

430 

569 


1,038 

1,103 

606 


1,08,711 

1,47,389 

1,22,277 

75,588 

1,45,154 

1,10,794 

1,85,942 

1,90,172 

75,704 


Eaximnagar Dist. 

Huzurabad 

Jagtiyal 

Kanmnagar 

Mantham 

Metpalli 

Far!^ 

Sirsilla 

Sultanabad 


Area in Popular 
sq miles tion 


5,329 

24,14,808 

911 

77,620 

593 

35,366 

710 

40,273 

850 

54,525 

353 

3,16,767 

384 

3,55,502 

602 

2,87,764 

138 

1,47,070 

378 

3,21,984 

289 

3,46,056 

291 

3,14,910 

183 

1,16,971 

5,795 

25,49,996 

670 

4,03,509 

541 

4,42,073 

7l6 

2,66,400 

820 

3,33,995 

1,041 

1,92,776 

297 

1,91,010 

718 

2,46,029 

324 

3,57,839 

644 

1,16,365 

1,825 

15,96,750 

269 

83,775 

277 

11,66,860 

525 

1,04,075 

307 

78,851 

342 

77,775 

371 

85,414 

NA 

15,81,667 

560 

2,42,001 

678 

2,03.865 

720 

3,02,172 

835 

86,346 

368 

1,20,635 

556 

1,53,499 

722 

2,28,847 

707 

2,43,802 


• Figures are on the basis of the 1951 census Changes in district boundanw bchvocn 
March 1, 1951 and November 1, 1956 other than those<»vercd by the ^dhra State Act, 
1953 ChLidemagorc (M™) Act, 1954, States Reorgani^tion Ac^ 1956, and Bihar 
wS fen3 (Tilnsfcr of TerAtones) Act, 1956, have not been takm mto acwimt. The 
eeures oPai^ of distncts are as supphed by ftc Survqror 7”^ The 

S^teluks/tchsils are as supplied by the State autotitt for the 19M cen^ 
district boundancs earned out m Kerala and Madhya Pradesh since Nm ember 


area 
Changes 


!s“intoc^^ circles which have been included in foe distnct and 

cjcdusive of one arcle transferred to Bombay . r. « 

(ft) This IS inclusive of Islapur circle which has been transferred to Bombaj. 

N A —Not avmlable 






18 


Unit 


Krlalua Dlst, 
Bandar 

(Masidipatnam) 

Dm 

Ganuavaram 

Gudjvada 

Kailolur 

Nandigama 

Nuzvid 

Tinivur 

Vijayawada 

Knrnool Dist. 

Alur 

Adorn 

Banganapalle 

Cux^bum 

Dhonc 

Koilkuutla 

Kumool 

Markapur 

Nandikotkur 

Nandyal 

PathlrnnHa 

SjtvcI 

Abhbulmagar Diet. 

Achampet 

Alampur 

Atamakur 

Gadwal 

Kalvakurti 

Kodangal 

KoUapur 

Mabbubnagar 

Makhtal ^ 

Nagafkumool T 

Pargi 

Shadnagar 

Wanparti 

Medalc Dlst. 

Andol 

G;ywd 

M^ai. 

NarayanVbcd *. 

Nanapur * 

Sangarcddy 
Sid^pet 
Vikarabad 

Zahirabml 

KalgondaDist. 

Bbongir 

De\-irkonda 

Huzurnagar 


Area in 
sq. miles 


3,391 

343 


465 

295 

230 

286 

679 

335 

430 

436 


9,277 


613 

766 

256 

1,048 

836 

573 

641 


1,092 

664 


747 

613 


Popula- 


Unit 


bon 


17,79,484 

2,18,982 

2,18,089 

1,98,579 

1.98,940 

1,19,596 

2,39,639 

1,07,227 

1,21,860 

3,56,572 


Jangaon 

Nln^guda 

Nalgonda 

Rainannapct 

Suryapet 

NcUore Dlst. 

Atmakur 

Darsi 

Gudur 

Kandukur 


16,18,621 


Kanigua 

Kavali 


1,22,558 

2,25,220 

43,447 

1,63,845 

1,27,234 

93,132 

1,98488 

1,38,120 

1,49,738 

1,25,393 

1,26,922 

1,04,724 


Kovur 

NcUore 

PodUi 

Rapur 

Suluipct 

Uda>'agin 

Venkatagin 


Nizonmbad Dlst. 
Aimoor 
Banswada 
Bodban 


7,201 

1,126 

435 

447 

518 

785 

461 

661 

460 

532 

561 

390 

459 

536 


15,36,337 
71.664 

81.330 

98.330 
1,17,017 
1,52,159 
1,51,494 
1,01,759 
1.52,751 
1,34,769 
1,37,377 

98,458 
1,17,733 
1,21,496 

4,093 12,47, 066(a) 


520 

378 

426 

474 

619 

506 


1,39,253 

1,52,501 

84,687 

1,03,961 

1,46,2^ 

2,09,473 

1,22,826 


505 13,285(6) 
NA, 


614 

1,041 

532 


15,4335 

1,86,464 

1,63,442 

1,25,814 


Kamareddy . 

Nizamabod 

Yellarcddy 

Agency 

Parvattpuram 

Palakonda 

Salur , * 

Plains 

Bobbib 

Cheepura paTIi 

Ichapu ram 

Narasannapeta 

Palakonda 

Parvatipn ram ^ ^ 

Patbapatnam , , 

Salur 

Sompeta 

Snkakulam 

Tdkali ** 

y^saMiapatnam Dist. 
Agency 

Goli^nda ,, 

Gudem 

Srungavarapiikota 

Vecravalh 

Plains 


Area in Popula- 
sq miles bon 


872 

2,91,165 

751 

1,28,224 

954 

2,56,153 

684 

1,70,909 

803 

2,21,804 

7,955 

173, G32 

639 

1,31,845 

591 

1,18,826 

463 

1,12,337 

801 

2,01,316 

1,000 

1,63,958 

548 

1,36,362 

385 

1,88.835 

504 

2,61,258 

564 

96,000 

594 

88,512 

573 

95,718 

871 

1,18,685 

427 

81,980 

2,954 8,33,61 1(e) 

748 

1,82,907 

315 

86,801 

291 

1,26,096 

483 

1,36,293 

506 

1,69,717 

438 

71,339 

3,904 

21,23,136 

294 

32,071 

146 

17,714 

69 

4,349 

391 

2,62,748 

462 

2,92,605 

87 

78,761 

200 

1,51,634 

348 

2,81,278 

296 

1,60,183 

463 

2.03342 

422 

1,52332 

212 

1.30,444 

227 

1.89389 

272 

1,66,186 

5,200 

20,72,698 

188 

24395 

1,869 

1,09,521 

282 

38,649 

361 

7,340 


/ of Nima Circle 

NJV— Not avsulable. 


AnakapaBi 


Golugonda 

Sarvasidhi 


304 2,29,835 
337 2,32.619 

328 13,132 

347 1,4133 


1 , "^““^^oaveortuoardeswhieK 
have been included m the distnoT * 


19 


Unit 

Area in 

Popula- 


sq miles 

tion 

Snmgavarapukota 

375 

1,87,108 

Vceravalli 

.. 233 

2,80,654 

Visakbapatoam 

.. 196 

2,31,907 

Vizianagaram 

.. 359 

2,91,405 

Waxangal Dlst. 

.. NJ^ 

15,81,326 

Burgampabad 

.. 569 

43,590 

KhamTnaTTi 

591 

2,35,078 

Madbira 

.. 772 

1,70,661 

Mahbubabad 

799 

2',35,968 

Mulug 

.. 1,347 

66;292 

Pakbal 

743 

1,06,753 

Falvancba 

1,295 

i;3r,3io 

Warangal 

.. 786 

4,72;307 

Yellandu 

755 

1,19,367 

West Godavari Dlst. 2,988 

16,97,727 

Agency 



Polavaram 

55! 

97,245 

Plains 



Bhimavaram 

292 

2,36,092 

Chintalapudi 

418 

1,00,187 

Eluru 

.. 510 

2,60,599 

Etowur 

.. 391 

2,14,522 

Narasapur 

279 

2,93,773 

Tadepalbgudem 

.. 360 

2,17,123 

Tanidni 

214 

2,78,186 

ASSAM 

Unit (c). 

Aream 

Popula- 


sq miles 

tion 


Umt 

Area m 
sq. miles 

Popula- 

bon 

Lakhimpnr Dist.^) 

Dibn^arh .. 

North Lakhunpur .. 

4,927 

4,153 

2,808 

1,345 

10,78,157 

8,31,968 

2,46,189 

MizoDist. (a) .. 

ih .. 

8,134 

8,143 

1,96,202 

Aijal ,, 

Lun^ch 

4,861 

3,282 

1,35,985 

60,217 

Nowgons Dist.(s] 
(4).. 

2,167 

2,200 

8,86,955 

Sibsagar D2st.(al . . 

Gola^t 

Jorhat 

Sibasagar , , 

3,456 

3,476 

1,363 

1,094 

1,019 

12,12,224 

3,33,553 

4,34,660 

4,44,011 

United Khasi(a) . , 
and Jalntia (4) , . 
HniB Dlst. 

5,546 

5,554 

3,63,599 

Jovvai 

Shillong . ^ 

United MjEIdr and*. 
North Caebarfs) 
Hills Dist. (b) 

1,513 

4,041 

5,895 

5,883 

67,631 

2,95,968 

1,65,440 

Mikir Hills 

North ^ ^ 

3,995 

1,888 

1,25,777 

39,663 

BIHAR 

Unit (e) 

Area in 
sq miles 

Fopula- 

bon. 


Gadiar Dist< (s) 

(*) 

Hailakandi 

Kanmgaiy 

Silchar 

Darrang Dist.(a) 

(i) 

Mangaldai 

Tczpur 

Goto HiUs Dist*(a) 

(i) 

Goalpam DiBt.fd) 

W 

Dbubn 

Goalpara .. 

Eammp Dist.((]} 

T> ** 

Barpeta 

Gauhaii 


2,687 

2,680 

512 

709 

1,459 

3,361 

2,806 

1,272 

1,534 

3,149 

3,152 

3,983 

3,979 

2,881 

1,098 

3,837 

3,844 

1,254 

2,590 


11,15,865 

1,95,650 

3,78,324 

5,41,891 

9,13,841 

4,02,501 

5,11,340 

2,42,075 


11,08,124 

7,79,835 

3,28,289 

14,90,392 

5,39,423 

9,50,969 


(a) Figures p\en by Survc>’or.Gcneral. 
(A) Figures given bySuteauthonues, 


Bhagalpor Dlst. 

Banka 

Sadar 

Gbampftran Dlst., . 

Bcmah 

Sadar 

Darbhanga Dlst. 
Madhubani , , 

Sadar 
Samastipur 

Dhanbad Dlst. 
Gaya Dlst. 
Aurangabad 
Jahanabad \\ 

Nawada ** 

Sadar 


2,179 14,29,069 

1,194 5,87,760 

929 8,41,309 

3*553 25,15,343 

1,997 10,71,382 

1,528 14,43,961 

3,345 37,69,534 

1,504 13,61.699 

880 10,78,089 

1,216 13,a,746 

U14 9,05,783 

4,766 30,70,459 

.6^6,115 
607 5,82,567 

, 6.13,724 

1,911 11,78,093 


(c) Units are districts and subKlivisjo] 




20 


Umt(o) 


Area in Popula- 
sq miles bon 


Area m Popula- 
sg miles tion 


Hazanbagh Dlst, 

Ghatra 

Gindih 

Sadar 

Mon^yr Diat. 


Jamui 
Kbagana 
Sadar 

MnzafEaipnr Ditsti 
Hajpur 


Falamaa IHst 

latdiar 

Sadar 

Faina Dist. 
Barb 
Bibar 
Xbnapur 
Patna City 
Patna Sa^ 

Fnrnea Dlst* 
Anna 
Kjsbanganj 
Sadar 

Rani^ Dist* 
Guinla 
Khunb 
Sadar 


7,010 
1,544 
2,046 
3,404 

3,975 
715 
1,303 
757 
1,168 

3,018 
786 
1,222 
1,007 

4,930 9,85,767 

1,671 2,01,560 

3,250 7,84,207 


19,37,210 

2,63,514 

7,00,202 

9,74,494 

28,49,127 

7,93,942 

5,33,079 

5,84,902 

9,37,204 

35;20,739 

9,42,472 

13,77,181 

12,01,086 


Sbaliabftd Dist* 

Bbabua 

Buxar 

Sadar 

Saaanun 

Singhbum Dist. 


4,404 26,88,440 

1,237 4,40,130 

683 5,36,754 

920 8,85,270 

1,483 8,26,278 

5,123 16,85,ig5(d) 


2,164 

572 

782 

437 

30 

295 


25,28,272 

5,32,010 

8,34,390 

5,33,552 

1,61,870 


Ssbarsa Dut. 
Madhepura 
Supaul 

Sandial Fargsnas 
Dist. 

Dcoghar 

DumLa , 

Godda , 

Jamtara 

Paktxr 

Rajmahal 

Sunn Plat , 

Gopnlganj , 

Saaar 


991 5,37,600 

1,332 5,60,503r 
2,562 14,27,1281 

7,015 18,61,2 

2,056 4,21,9 

1,545 4,12,9 

2,069 7,44,4 

1,247 2,81,9 

2,088 13,08,1 

1,156 8,76,e 

987 4Jl* 


5,461 

951 

1,474 


1,043 

849 


Bengal 

Bengal 


Dbalbhum 

Sadar 

1 Scradela 

1,167 

2,718 

590 

6,13,504 

6,67,390 

1,99,922 

BOMBAY 


Unit 

Area in 

Popula- 


sq miles 

tion. 

Ahmcdabad Dist* 

3,521 

16,85,630 

Abmcdabad City 

108 

9,22,060 

Dasktoj 

327 

1,47,740 

Debgam 

334 

1,30,928 

Dbandhuka 

1,077 

1,27,265 

Dbolka 

610 

1,33,036 

Sanand . 

295 

65,493 

Viraingani . . 

650 

1,59,108 

Ahmednagnr Dist. 

6,612 

14,10,873 

Ahmcdnagar 

585 

2,06,153 

Akola 

575 

96,074 

JamLbed 

337 

59,397 

Karjat 

560 

74,653 

> Kopaigaoii 

403 

1,42,858 

Nev^asa 

480 

92,037 

Famer , 

690 

1,06,078 

Fathatdi * 

425 

97,575 

Rabun 

419 

88,360 

Sangamner 

625 

1,29,331 

^ Sbeogaon 

436 

88,096 

Shn^da 

618 

95,007 

Shnramptir 

319 

1,35,254 

^ Aiola Dist. 

4,095 

9,50.994 

o Akola 

739 

2,26,856 

5 

550 

1,47,004 

lg Balapur 

530 

1,19,079 

Mangrulpir 

616 

1,10,036 

1,44,233 

is Mtirmjapur 

610 

Washun 

14 , 

1,046 

2,03,706 

^ Amravati Dist. 

. 4,723 

10,31,160 

05 Achalapur 

490 

1,78,312 

54 Amravati 

, 833 

3,15,410 

Chandur . 

, 694 

1,78,329 

Daryapur , 

. 505 

1,45,890 

as Melghat 

1,546 

52,356 

Mom 

623 

1,60,863 


(d) Includes fTbatiilil 
police station induded 


thana and Patamda 
in fbe dubict 




21 


Umt 

Area m 
sq miles 

Popula- 

tion 

Amreli Dist, * . 

1,543 

3,17,203 

Amrdi .. 

259 

82,549 

Damnagar.. 

146 

20,748 

Dhari 

287 

44,433 

Ghogho 

225 

41,218 

Khambha 

142 

19,216 

Koduiar 

203 

58,615 

OLhamandal 

274 

42,424 

Aurangabad Dzst* 

6,314 

11,79,404 

Ambad 

874 

1,54,216 

Aurangabad 

666 

1,65,080 

Bboba^an 

490 

86,333 

Gangapur 

511 

85,784 

jafferabad 

321 

45,685 

Jalna 

771 

1,81,316 

Kannad 

712 

1,06,803 

Khuldabad 

175 

33,247 

Paithan 

576 

96,921 

SiUod 

737 

1,19,194 

Vaijapur 

623 

1,04,825 

Banaslomtha PIst* 

4,041 

6,96,367 

Danta 

342 

40,669 

Seesa 

621 

1,10,701 

Deodar 

323 

65,003 

Dhancra 

433 

65,028 

Kankrej 

304 

66,422 

Palanpur 

531 

1 , 39,994 

Tharad 

421 

66,371 

Wadgam 

215 

73,413 

Wav 

493 

68,766 

Baroda Dist. . . 

2,980 

11,94,746 

Baroda 

263 

3,48,928 

Chhoia Udepur 

434 

1,09,426 

Dabhoi 

249 

99,819 

Jabugam 

319 

83,613 

Karjan 

232 

72,838 

Naswadi 

212 

72,393 

Padra 

209 

1,16,472 

SmUicda , 

254 

90,441 

Sa\li . 

315 

1,08,363 

Sinor 

114 

41,387 

^Vaghodla . 

186 

51,066 

Bhnndara Dist. 

3,582 

10,71,657 

Rhandira 

967 

3,41,318 

Gondii 

1,105 

4,31,970 

Saloh . 

1,551 

2,93,369 

Blur Diet. . 

4,261 

8,26,0^6 

Aditi 

581 

86 222 

Bhir 

582 

1,30,380 

Georai 

618 

1,13,794 

Kaij 

692 

1,29,920 

Manjlegaon . 

595 

1,17,020 

Mominibad 

639 

1,G5 174 

Paloda 

510 

03,536 

Broich Dist. 

2,8S9 

7,05,035 

An*od 

179 

44,934 

AnU«his“ir 

ICO 

62,949 


Unit 


Broach 

Dcdiapada 

Hansot 

Jambusar 


Sagbara 

Vagra 

VaJia 


Baldasia Disti 

Ghikhali 

Jalgaoii 

Kbamgaon 

Malkapur 

MehLar 


Chanda IHst* 

Brahmapuri 

Chanda 

Gadhchiroh 

Sironcha 

Warora 

X>azigs dst. 


East Khondesh 
Diet. 

Amalncr 

Bhadgaon 

Bhusawal 

Chalisgaon 

Chopda 

Edlabad 

Erandol 

Jalgaon 

Jamncr 

Pachora 

Parola 

Raver 

Ya^val 

Gohil'n'ad Dist. 

Bhavnagar 

Botad 

Gadhada 

JaTrabad 

Kundla 

lathi 

Lilia 

Mahm’a 

Pahtana 

Rajula 

Sihor 

Talaja 

Umrala 

Vallabhipur „ 


Greater Bombar 
Diat. ' 

\nd!cn 
Eonlnv C1I5 
Bon dll 


Area in Popula- 
sq miles tion 


252 1,50,678 

392 30,051 

154 31,950 

386 92,320 

314 81,201 

436 1,00,170 

128 16,884 

348 44,717 

185 , 50,131 

3,746 8,70,168 

924 2,04,572 

474 91,547 

710 1,73,732 

651 2,06,153 

1,007 1,94,164 

9,200 9,77,618 

897 1,95,486 

1,174 2,47,042 

2,870 2,31,236 

3,089 93,726 

1,282 2,10,128 

670 47,282 


4,575 14,71,351 

325 1,44,672 

197 56,230 

329 1,49,055 

460 1,46,444 

368 1,08,291 

250 45,766 

369 1,27,262 

320 1,64,532 

521 1,22,999 

309 1,05,158 

282 68,077 

361 1,17,674 

368 1,15,191 


4,785 10,20,130 


307 

259 

255 

149 

481 

215 

152 

328 

368 

292 

214 

324 

160 

179 


1,81,614 
59,985 
45,163 
29,842 
1,12,088 
55,311 
34,365 
1,13,677 
1,15,745 
59,768 
67.347 
77,735 
38,356 
29 214 


189 29,93,267 


C6 

25 

98 


5,10,250 
23 29.020 
1,55,937 



Arest in l*opuln« 
sq. miles tion 


Arra fn 

tf\ t lilrS lift*! 



Pradesh 

(c) This u melusive orMudhol, Bhiansa and 
Kuber circles transfeired to Andhta 
Pradesh 
















23 


Unit Area m 

iq miles 


Nanded 

395 

Kajura » 

776 

Nasik Diet* • • 

6,021 

Baglan 

629 

Chandor 

370 

Pindon • • 

496 

Icatpvin 

377 

italwan ^ . 

431 

Malegaon 

754 

Nandgaon 

431 

Nasik 

525 

Nipbad 

417 

Pemt 

342 

Sinoar •• 

517 

Surgana . 

316 

Yeola • • 

409 

Osniaiialiad IHst. 

5,559 

Ahmedpur 

609 

Bboom . . 

339 

Kalam 

474 

Latur 

420 

Nilaaga 

536 

Omerga 

576 

Osmanabad 

445 

Owsa .. 

468 

Parenda 

406 

Tuliapur 

605 

Udgir 

632 

Panch kkdiala Dist. 

3,497 

Bana 

420 

Dohab 

335 

Godhra 

381 

Halol 

246 

Jambugboda 

37 

Jbalod 

382 

Kalol 

178 

Limkhcda , , 

409 

Lunaivada 

360 

Snntrampur 

525 

Shchcra 

226 

Parbhani DIst< . . 

4,850 

Basmath 

482 

Gangakhed . . 

630 

Hmgoh « 

730 

Jintur 

669 

Kalamnun 

583 

P'lrbh'uii . . 

547 

Partur . • 

588 

Pathn . . 

618 

Poona Dlst* .. 

6,029 

Ambt^on , . 

402 

Biramati . . 

540 

Bhor .* 

325 

Phond . . 

516 

Hiveli .* 

513 

Indapur . . 

586 

Junnar , . 

533 

Khed 

539 

Maval .. 

414 


Popula- 

tion 

Umt 

Area m 
sq nules 

Popula- 

tion 

1,63,198 

Mulsbi .. 

353 

68,884 

75,357 

Poona City . . 

68 

5,94,083 


Purandbar 

426 

1,03,399 

14,29,916 

Sirur 

611 

1,03,108 

1,19,979 

Vde 

196 

27,391 

75,798 

87,405 

Batm^lri Dist. . . 

5,021 

17,11,964 

96,162 

Cbiplun 

434 

1,53,102 

75,005 

Da^li 

327 

159,103 

2,10,347 

Deogad 

284 

97,918 

95,133 

Gubagar 

242 

87,886 

2,54,076 

Kankavb 

299 

1,03,101 

1,24,727 

Khcd 

386 

1,24,861 

51,815 

Kudal 

317 

1,01,545 

1,07,267 

Lanja 

283 

77,921 

43,823 

Malvan 

256 

159,814 

88,379 

Mandangad 

160 

48,956 


Rajapur 

496 

1,46,541 

12,10,041 

Ratnagni 

358 

1,59,377 

1,33,846 

59,619 

1,05,869 

Sangameshwai 

499 

1,48,333 

Sawantwadi 

516 

154,291 

Vengurla 

127 

79,215 

1,19,021 

1,32,835 

Sabarlmiitlia IHst. 

2,831 

6,84,017 

1,34,283 

Bayad 

264 

83,383 

1,15,654 

Bhiloda 

187 

61,696 

98,087 

Himatnagar 

298 

80,142 

71,529 

Idar 

422 

1,19,138 

1,03,390 

Khedbiahma 

143 

52,166 

1,35,908 

Malpur 

132 

28,129 

Me^raj 

J38 

35,718 

11,48,432 

Modasa 

410 

89,924 

1,28,072 

Frantij 

301 

1,12,345 

1,43,383 

Vyayanagar 

153 

21,376 

1,68,991 

96,305 

Sataxa North DSst. 

4,034 

11,75509 

12,650 

Jaoli 

345 

71,086 

93,445 

Karad 

406 

2,07,913 

89,052 

Khandaila 

^03 

48,095 

93,278 

Khatav 

509 

1,31,360 

1,14,083 

Koregaon 

365 

1,15,689 

1,40,204 

Mababaledtwar 

S7 

20,448 

68,969 

Man 

556 

83,478 


Patan 

514 

1,46,691 

10,10,864 

Fhaltan 

456 

99,781 

1,20,883 

Satnm 

353 

1,62529 

1,45,684 

Wm 

229 

88,239 

1,27,279 

1,08,497 

Satara Sonth Dlst. 

3,434 

10,00,141 

1,08,839 

1^0,023 

Jalh 

874 

1,08570 

Khanapiir 

846 

1.83,441 

1,07,387 

Miraj 

611 

2,85,616 

1,42,272 

Shirala 

546 

79,416 

19,50,976 

Tasgaon 

446 

1,69,325 

\Val»va 

300 

1,74,073 

98,880 

1,34,271 

Sbolapttr Dlst, 

5,692 

15,05,316 

73,711 

AUILot 

537 

1,49,647 

89,162 

Bara 

628 

1,86,777 

1,80,653 
1,12 304 

Knimala 

622 

1,00,089 

Mndlia 

597 

152,174 

1,40,287 

Makiras 

588 

152,830 

70,009 

1,26, t5? 

Maacnlwedba 

441 

93,ses 

Mobol 

550 

1,02,114 


24 


Umt 

Area m 

Popula- 


sq miles 

tion 

ALiam 

. 232 

22,517 

Dhulia 

, 751 

2,30,609 

Nandurbar 

507 

1,46,413 

Na-vs-apur 

422 

99,360 

Sakn 

926 

1,31,510 

Shabada 

447 

1,34,552 

Shirpur 

Sindlheda 

756 

494 

1,00,347 

1,42,469 

Taloda 

198 

79,686 

Yeotzual Diat 

5,245 

9,31*982 

Dan\ha 

Kelapur 

1,078 

1,086 

2,11,259 

1,66,720 

Pusad 

Warn 

Yeotmal 

1,285 

862 

908 

2,21,577 

1,54,969 

1,77,457 

Zala-ivad Dist. 

.. 4,230 

4,95,928 

Chobla 

Dasada 

Dhrangadhra 

Halvad 

Labbtar 

Limbdi 

Mull 

Sa^Ia 

Wadhwan 

157 

543 

399 

. 585 

274 
663 
317 
291 
281 

40,497 

57,888 

67,310 

40,649 

33,053 

1,00,485 

30,502 

30,979 

94,565 


Area, in Popnla- 
sq miles tion 


North Sbolapur 
Fandharpur 
Sangola 
South Sholapur 

Sorath Distf 

Bhesan 

Junagadh 

Keshod 

Kuti\3iia 

Malta 

Mana\'adar 

Mangrol 

Mendarada 

Fatan 

Porbandar 

Ranavav 

Tilala 

Uoa 

\ anthali 
Visaradar 

Surat Dist. 

Bansda 

Bardoli 

Bulsar 

Chikhh 

Ghorasi 

Dharampur 

OandcM 

Kamrq 

Mabmva 

Maodii 

Mangrol 

Na«an 

Olpad 

Palsana 

Pardi 

Songadh 

Vvira 

Thana Dist 

B'lssein 

Bluvandi 

Dahanu 

laubar 

MoUiada 

Miirbad 

Pdghv 

ShniiDur 

Tliini 

Umb-irgaon 

''■■da 

"«rdha Dttt 
A-m 

H'*'Tinghat 

Khandnh 

Di^t 

A' 


284 

498 

610 

462 

3,966 

175 

182 

223 

239 

216 

201 

227 

65 

261 

395 

206 

185 

383 

170 


4,509 

234 

157 

202 

238 

221 

575 

125 

147 

138 

277 

294 

283 
265 

58 

162 

299 

78 

317 

3,653 

203 

264 

372 

310 

279 

242 

347 

422 

635 

84 

229 

284 

2,429 

890 

729 

815 


2.25.632 
1,28,552 
1,03,990 

93,503 

10,01,154 

31,423 

1,21,079 

63,724 

50,466 

52,480 

70,888 

66,029 

17,329 

1,12,978 

1,27,001 

38,246 

37,782 

96,026 

58,156 

57,547 

18,27,842 

63,965 

78,283 

1,37,958 

1,23,872 

3,49,032 

1,12,109 

1,09,371 

51,918 

54,151 

75,205 

74,202 

1,99,165 

64,568 

35,374 

1,10,636 

61,905 

36,179 

89,949 

13.61,053 

1,33,523 

1.13.632 
1,31,287 

67,400 

2,73,261 

39,140 

69,563 

1,48,504 

99,019 

1,28,862 

1,13,462 

55,184 

5,38,903 

1,44,390 

1,43,658 

2,50.855 


5,331 

672 


11,46,024 

58,561 


JAMMU AND KASHMIR 

• 

Umt 

Area in 
sq tmlcs 

Popula- 

tion 

Anantnag Dist. 
Anantn^ 

Khas (mdudmg Sn- 
n^iar City) 

Kulqam 

Pulwama 

(Awantipura) 

2,814 

1,034 

743 

588 

449 

8 51,606 
2,03,827 

3,33.881 

1,57,372 

1,56,526 

AatoreDIst 

Asiore ^ . 

1,632 

1,632 

17,026 

17,026 

Gilgit leased Area 

1,480 

22,495 

Gilgit Agenej 

Chtlas , 

Ghizar 

Hunza 

IshLuman 

Kuh ]* 

Nagar 

Punial 

Yasin 

• t . - . 

14,680 

2,800 

1,500 

3,900 

1,600 

480 

1,600 

1,600 

1,200 

76,526 

15,364 

15,341 

4,282 

8,512 

14,874 

8,164 

9,989 







25 


Umt 

Area m 
sq. miles 

Popula- 

bon 

'Baramnlla Dist. . 

3,317 

6,12,428 

Bsnmiulla . . 

590 

1,62,903 

Sn Pratapsmglipura 

(Badgam) 

488 

1,74,583 

Uttannadupura 

(Handwara) 

2,239 

2,74,942 

<TliiiTinn4 Jagir , . 

95 

11,796 

Ghenam 

95 

11,796 

Cities , , 1 

Jammu 

2 

50,379 

Srmagar 

11 

2,00,787 

Jammu Dist. 

1,147 

4,31,362 

AUinur 

317 

88,821 I 

Jammu (mcluding 

Jammu City) 

346 

1,56,556 

Samba 

327 

89,464 

Sn Ranbirsmgpura 

157 

96,521 

Katlina Dist. . 

1,023 

1,77,672 

Basohli . 

614 

70,624 

jfesmergarh 

185 

59,670 

Katbua 

224 

47,378 

todakh Dist. 

45,762 

1,95,431 

Kargil . 

7,392 

52,853 

Ladakh 

29,848 

36,307 

Skardu . , 

8,522 

1,06,271 

Mirpar Dist. . . 

1,627 

3,86,655 

Bhimbar 

698 

1,62,503 

Kotli 

574 

1,11,037 

Mirpur 

355 

1,13,115 

Mnzaffiirabad Dist* 

2,408 

2,64,671 

Kamah 

1,342 

58,863 

MuzaSarabad . . 

546 

1,25,585 

Vn 

520 

80,223 

7oonch Jagir 

1,627 

4,21,828 

B^h 

321 

1,01,091 

Haveli 

479 

1,10,733 

Mendhar 

479 

1,01,704 

Sadhunti . . 

348 

1,08,300 

Reasi Dist . . 

1,789 

2,57,903 

Rampur Raioun . . 

806 

1,40,844 

Kcasi 

983 

1,17,059 

tldhampur Dist. .. 

5,070 

2,94,217 

Bhadrawah , , 

553 

44,518 

Ki5htv\i'ar . < 

, 3,021 

60,893 

Ramban 

588 

75,793 

Ramnagar 

525 

60,076 

Udhampur 

. 383 

52,937 


KERALA 


Unit Area in 

sq. miles 


AUeppey Dist. . . 

705 

Ambalapuzba . . 

68 

Chenganour 

78 

KarOugappally 

74 

Kuttanad . . 

II7 

Mavelikara 

111 

Shertalia ., 

123 

Thinivalla 

133 

Gannanore Dist. 

2,096 

Catmanore 

I8I 

Hosdrug 

374 

Kasargode 

183 

Kottayam . 

594 

North Wynad 

276 

Takparamba 

509 

Kottayam Dist. . . 

2,595 

Changanacberry 

102 

Dcvicolam . . 

380 

Kaiyirapally 

134 

Kottayam 

211 

Meenacbil 

279 

Muvattupuzba 

255 

Peermade . 

328 

Thodupuzha 

Udumbanchola 

362 

413 

Vaikom 

131 

Kozhikode Dist. , . 

2,349 

Badagaza 

214 

Broad 

863 

Kozhikode 

373 

Quitamdy 

292 

South Wynad 

387 

Tiror 

220 

Palghat Dist. 

1,840 

Alatbur , . 

219 

Chittur 

389 

Ottapalam 

257 

Palghat . , 

205 

Peimtbalmamia 

609 

Ponnam . . 

162 

QaBos Dist. . 

1,995 

Kanmagapally 

88 

Kottaraklmza .. 

212 

Kunnathur 

150 

Pathanamthltta 

926 

Pathanapuiam . . 

473 

Quilon , . 

147 

Trichur Dist. , . 

1,683 

Alwavo 

151 

Chow ghat 

98 

Cochm . , 

53 

Crangaoore . , 

29 

Kanayannur . , 

125 


Propula- 

bon 


14,75,772 

2,20,954 

1.77.579 
1,82,910 
1,33,038 
2,31,632 
1,54,774 
2,74,885 

15,60,119 

3,18,411 

1,71,561 

4,11,031 

3.69.580 

59,580 

2,29,956 

17,56,623 
2,02,441 
95,152 
1,13,463 
3,43 584 
2.79,087 
2,53,007 

96.000 
1,59,892 

31,160 

1,82,837 

20,36,779 

2,62,208 

4,06,215 

5.16,372 

2,91,883 

79,551 

4,80,550 

15,94,393 

2,12,704 

2,42,658 

2,93,536 

3,01,556 

2,81,968 

2,61,971 

15,22,592 

2,56,578 

2,50,202 

1,85,072 

2,51,779 

1,81,201 

3,97,760 

22,12,383 

1,28,866 

2,61,103 

26.000 
73,847 

3,19367 





26 


Umt 

Atcam 

Popula- 


sq TnilFS 

tum 

Kunnathunad 

162 

1,87,196 

Mukiindapiuam . 

487 

3,84,936 

ParuT 

74 

1,78,866 

Talapally 

258 

2,76',262 

Tnchur , 

246 

3,75,741 

TnTandmm Dast. 

716 

13,56,249 

Ciurayiakil 

147 

1,95,182 i 

Nedtunangad . 

228 

2,52,312 

Neyyattmkant 

219 

3,69,116 

imandrum .. 

121 

4,39,639 

MADHYA PRADESH 

Umt 

Area m 

Popula- 


sq miles 

turn 

Balagbat Dlat. 

3,573 

6,93,379 

Baihar 

Balaghat , , 

Watascom 

1,556 

1,085 

916 

1,24,772 

2,45,756 

342,851 

Bastar Dlst, , , 

15,132 

9,13,746 


Area m Popular 
sq miles tiou 


Antagarh 
Narayanapur 
Bbanupratapptir 
Bijapur 
Dantewara 
Jagdalpur 
linker 
KondagaoQ 
Konta 

BetnlDlst. 

Bctul 

Bhauudclu 

Muluu 

BhlUa Dat. 
Basodi 

Kurwai 
S *tnj~Lalcti 

BbladDut. 


2,885 

489 

339 

1,036 

1,935 

941 

1,921 

1,986 


73,258 

46,706 

72,912 

1,04,329 

2,79,965 

1,15,283 

1,44,563 

76,730 


1,598 

1,340 

972 



3*889 4,51,655 

1,57,670 
1,07,316 
1,86,669 

2,894 3,89,161 

1,28,497 
1,11,149 

53377 
96,138 

**'23 5,27,978 


Gfaliataxpur DIst* • 
Bijawar 
Chhataipur 
Tjinndl 

Clihindvrata ITist 
Amanvara 
Chhmd^vara 
Sausar 

Damoli Dist. 

Damob 

Hatta 

DatlaDlst. 

Datia 

Seondha 

DewasDist. 

Dnvas 

Kannod 

Kbat^gaon 

Sanaikatch 

Dhar DIst. 

Badnawar 

Dhar 

KijLslu 

Manawar 

Saidajpur 

BnrglKst. 

Bemetara 

Chhikhadaii 

Dongaigarh 

Ding 

Kav^ardha 
Khair^arh 
Khamanj-a 


912 

721 

341 

850 


537 

386 

418 

367 

7,562 
2 203 
1,325 
2,553 
1.452 
106 


1,91.240 

1,06,407 

13,947 

95,384 

17.37.660 
5,57,875 
5,78 522 
2,75,899 
2,67341 
58,023 


Saniaii 

Gxrd Dist. 

Bbander 

Ghabgaon . . 

Gml 

Bidihoie . . 

Goona Dlst. . . 

Ghachaura , , 

Goona ,, 

MungaoU 
Pachhar 

Raghogarh . 

Hoshangabad Dist. 
Haida 

Hoshangahad . , 

Pachmarht . , 

Seoni Malwa . • 

Sohagpur , , 


S,380 

1,378 

1,316 


4 , 81 , 14 a 

1,36,697 

2,41,694 


695 1,02,479 


4,565 

1,483 

1,981 

1,114 

2,827 

1,248 

774 

782 

414 

319 


551 

393 

522 

413 

497 

3,154 

425 

748 

664 

844 

489 

7,576 

1,567 

137 

302 

1,134 

339 

310 

16 

742 

2,015 

2,014 

252 

600 

518 

620 

4,271 

447 

1,126 

879 

929 

751 

3,867 

1,127 

776 

23 

521 

1,265 


6,46,430 

1,40,592 

3,31,354 

1,74,484 

3,57,463‘ 

2,34,427 

1,23,038 

1,64,314 

97,105 

67,211 

3,45,306 

56,194 

97,558 

55,425 

42,874 

93,255 

5,05,268 

66,008 

1,12,139 

1,13,682 

1,53,478 

59,961 

14,81,756 

2,99,235 

33,757 

78,055 

3,38,033 

89,830 

65,214 

37,127 

2,18,844 

3,21,661 

5,30,299 

51,964 

59,659 

3,05,657 

1,13,019 

4,78,810 

71,550 

1,05,654 

97,489 

1,20,793 

83.324 

5,03,788 

1,46,513 

1,56,226 

5,242 

62,850 

1,37.957 




27 


Umt 

Area in 

Popida- 


sq miles 

tion 

Indore Dist* . . 

1,473 

5,96,622 

Depalpur • . 

Indore • . 

396 

360 

69,315 

3,78,334 

Mhow 

298 

96,705 

Sawer 

271 

52,268 

Jabalpur Dlst. . . 

3,918 

10,45,596 

Jabalpur , . 

Munvara .« 

999 

1,057 

4,30,381 

2,67,915 

Patau .. 

542 

1,08,548 

Sihora 

1,181 

2,38,752 

Jhaboa Dist* • . 

2,616 

3,82,673 

Alirajpur . . 

N A 

92,766 

jbabua 

495 

88,588 

Jobat . . 

284 

90,672 

Petlawad . * 

383 

47,129 

Thaudla . . 

403 

63,518 

Mandla DIst* 

5,127 

5,47,620 

Dindon . . 

1,561 

1,42,472 

l^ndla 

2,108 

2,55,367 

Niwas ' 

1,388 

1,49,781 

Mandsaor Dlst. . . 

3,961 

6,06,601 

Bbanpura 

453 

72,a66(a) 

Garoth 

437 

70,193 

Jawad .. 

578 

72,409 , 

Malhaiigarh 

311 

61,035 ' 

Manasa 

552 

81,746 

Mandsaur , . 

511 

1,19,340 

'Heemuch . . 

315 

78,691 

Sitamau 

499 

80,635 

MorcaaDist. 

4,476 

6,33,581 

Ambah . . 

417 

1,44 034 

Bijeypur 

1,080 

55,646 

Joura .. 

596 

1,17,151 

Morena 

S97 

1,12,121 

Sabalgarh 

497 

1,00,153 

Sbeopur 

1,461 

95,461 

NarabnltapTir IHst. 

1,979 

3,39,110 

Gadarv/ara 

909 

1,74,292 

Naisimbapur .. 

1,069 

1,64,818 

bRnsar (Khandna) 



Dxst. . . 

4,132 

5,23,496 

Burhanpur 

1,138 

1,76,410 

Harsud 

. 1,218 

1,02,775 

Khandwa ,, 

1,871 

2,44,311 

Nlmar (Khargone) 



Dist, 

, 5,200 

7,58,694 

Banvaha 

, 450 

86,534 

Banvam 

253 

82,833 


Umt 

Area in 

Fopula* 


sq. miles 

Qon 

fihilcangaon 

.. 617 

68,770 

Kasrawad 

388 

64,281 

Khargone 

.. 679 

1,52,760 

Mah^war 

.. 281 

60,007 

Ktypur 

512 

1,16,365 

Sendliwa 

518 

1,27,144 

PannaDist. 

2,716 

2,58,703 

Ajaigarb 

.. 264 

' 45,410 

Fanna 

1,219 

1,12,920 

Pawai 

1,306 

1,00,373 

Raigarb XHst. 

.. 5,150 

8,61,497 

Ghargboda 

.. 519 

1,08,007 

Jasbpur 

1,764 

2,55,328 

Kharaa 

.. 219 

86,815 

Raigarh 

324 

1,34,473 

Sarangarb 

341 

1,42,856 

Udaipur 

677 

1,34,018 

Raipor IHst* 

8,214 

16,40,006 

Baloda Bazar 

1,780 

4,26,289 

Uhamatan 

1,628 

2,84,932 

Mabasamuud 

3,762 

5,44,516 

Raipur 

.. 1,115 

3,84,269 

,Itaisen IHst* 

3,272 

3,15,358 

' Baraily 

520 

70,401 

B^^umgunj 

.. 351 

41,390 

Ghairatguty 

.. 361 

28,260 

Goharguuj 

.. 672 

45,824 

Rai<ien 

.. 526 

43,721 

Silwani 

.. 499 

35,584 

Udaipur 

322 

50,178 

Rajgarb Dlst. 

. . 2,383 

4,27,523 

Biaora 

440 

75,962 

Khilchipur 

625 

1,19,106 

Narsin^h 

.. 517 

93,588 

Rajgarb 

.. 423 

67,149 

Sarangpur 

349 

71,718 

Ratlam Dlst. 

.. 1,736 

3,83,894 

Alot 

369 

72.077 

Jaora 

793 

1,19,004 

Ratlam 

SOI 

1,38,313 

Sailana 

475 

54,500 

1 Rewa Dlst. 

.. 2,509 

6,33,706 

Hazur 

.. 707 

1,86,056 

Mauganj 

694 

1,70,465 

Sinnour 

526 

1,57,977 

Teonthas 

586 

1,19,208 

Sagar Dlst. 

.. 3,961 

6,36,191 

_ Banda 

Khmai 

.. 512 

940 

92,391 

1,52.163 

Rebli 

1,234 

li51,644 

Ss^r 

1,064 

2,39,993 


Rajasthan 

N A — ^Nol available 



Unit 


Area in Fopula- 
sq miles tion 


MADRAS 


Amar Patan 

Maihar 

Xogod 

Raghuraj Nagor 

Sdtore Dlst 

Ashta 

Berasia 

Budm 

Huzur 

Ichhavs’ar 

NisruUahgunj 

Sehore 


Lalhandon 

Scorn 


Bondhogarh 

Beohan 

Puihprajgarii 

Sohagpur 

Sliajapnr Dist. 

Agar 

Shajamir 

ShujaJpur 

Susncr 

Shivpnti Dial. 

I^rcra 

Kolaras 

Ptchhore 

Pohn 

SUiv-pim 

Stdhi Dxst> 

Dcovir 

Gopadbanai 

Smgniuli 

SargnJ-t Dist 

Amhifcapur 

IVulomiipur 

B^ntpur 

Minerdragarh 

Til 
''Wn 
Surajn ir 

TiLamga,!, D«t. 
Jalam 

:3n 

I jjain Dm. 

KH 1 

Mi‘ 


Area in Popula- 
sq miles tmn 


Ghlngl^nt Dist. 

Chingleput 

Kani^eqiuram 

^laduranthaiam 

PoTincn 

Saidapct 

Snpemmbudur 

Timvallur , 

Coimbatore Dist. 

Avanashi 

Bhavam 

Coimbatore 

Dharapuiam 

Erode 

Gobichettipalayam 

Falladam 

Fallachi , , 

Kanyalmmarl Dist* 
Agasthmvaram , 

Kalktilam 
Thovala 
Vilavanoode 


Madurai Dist 

Dmdigul 

KodailaQal 

bladurai 

Melur 

Nilaitottai 

Palm 

Pcnyafciilam 


NilgirisDist 

Coonoor 

Gudalur 

Ootacamund 

North Arcot Dist 

Arkooani 

Arm 


Chey^ar 

Gudivatham 

Polur 

^ruppattur 
T iniir'an namalai 
Vellore 
Walajapet 
AVan^viTuh 

Ratnana^iapnn 

Dist 

^ppukoltai 

Mudufcalathur 


4,849 20,80,519 

615 2 42,777 

647 1,58.125 





29 


Unit 

Area in 
sq. miles 

Popular 

uon 

Unit 

Area in 
sq miles 

Popula- 

tion 

Paramakudi 

410 

1,81,593 

Shcncottah 

.. 128 

65, 457(a) 

Ram’uiatlinpuram 

. 334 

1,63,979 

Snv'oikuntam 

. 362 

3,01,859 

SaUur 

. 580 

2,14,944 

Tcnkxsi 

403 

3,22,351 

Sixaganga 

. 657 

2,32,952 

Tirudicndur 

.. 323 

2,74,084 

Smilhputiur 

437 

3,03,662 

TinincKdi 

.. 325 

2,94,402 

Tirupatiur 

. 567 

2,96,863 




Tiruvadanani 

540 

1,05,624 




Snlcm Dist. 

7,063 

33,71,769 

MVSOBE 


Attur 

651 

2,65,471 




Dbannapun 

9*16 

3,13,113 




Hanir 

915 

2,21,227 

Unit 

Area m 

Popula- 

Hosur 

. 1,168 

2,70,687 


sq miles 

tion 

Krishnagin 

KamJA^ 

. 688 
682 

2,87,359 

4.23.834 





Omnlur 
Rasipurain 
Salem ^ 
Tiruchengode 
Ycrcaud 


557 

316 

377 

603 

148 


3,87,926 

1,85,906 

5,21,220 

4,75,207 

19,739 


South Arcot Dlst. . 

4,204 

27,76,767 

Chidambaram , . 

404 

3,89,002 

Cuddalorc . . 

448 

4,39,082 

Gingcc 

410 

2,44,851 

Kallakuncbi 

873 

3,69,049 

Tindivanam. 

561 

3,18,106 

Tinikoilur 

584 

3,82,221 

Villupuram 

352 

3,16,989 

Vnddacbalam 

576 

3,17,467 

Tonjorc Dist» . . 

3,740 

29,82,670 

Arantangi . . 

398 

1,41,387 

Kumbalmnam 

212 

3,48,104 

Mannargudi 

301 

2,48,830 

Mayuram 

282 

3.21,493 

Nagapatbnam 

240 

2,61,236 

Naiuulam . . 

291 

2,48,487 

Papanasam . . 

228 

2,16,498 

Paitukkottoi 

698 

4,01,813 

Sirkali . . 

171 

1,63,891 

Tanjorc 

421 

3,81,984 

Tiruthuraipundi 

496 

2,48,942 

Tmu^rapallx DSsti 

5,514 

29,43,882 

Alangudi 

347 

1,76,070 

Karur 

610 

3,24,801 

ICulathur 

465 

1,47,155 

Kuhttalai 

913 

4,05,847 

Laigudi 

Musm 

373 

675 

2,38,931 

3,63,680 

Perambalur . . 

678 

2,66,569 

Tinichirapalli . . 

328 

4,69,145 

Tirumayam .. 

367 

1,53,453 

Udayarpalayam . . 

749 

3,98,231 

Tixundlveli DJst* 

4,344 

25,06, 275(a) 

Ambasamudram . . 

498 

2,65,046 

Kovilpatb 

1,086 

3,66,261 

Nangunen 

SaaWanaymarkoil 

703 

635 

3,02,819 

3,19,145 

(«) Exdudes porbons of Shcncottah taluk 
retained m Kerala 


Bangalore Dist. 

,, 

3,084 

Anckal 


203 

Bangalore Corporauon 

26 

Bangalore North 


163 

Bangalore South 


229 

Channapatna 


206 

Dcvanhalli 


226 

Dodballapur 


312 

Hoskotc 


260 

Kankanalialli 


589 

Magadi 


358 

Ndamangala 


256 

Ramanagaram 


244 

Bclganm Diet, 


5,380 

Atham 


744 

Bdgaum 


394 

Chikodi 


479 

Gokak 


596 

Huken 


382 

Khanapur 


675 

Pantsgad 


611 

Ratbag 


372 

Ramduig 


470 

Sampgaon 


435 

Bellary Dlst. 


3,825 

Bdlary 


652 

Hadagalli 


587 

Harpanahalli 


611 

Hospet 


384 

Kudligi 


703 

Sandur 


481 

Siruguppa 


403 

Bidar Dist. 


2,209 

Bhalki 


589 

Bidar 


445 

Humnabad 


592 

Santpm 


456 


21.27,061 

98,271 

7,78,977 

1,60,408 

1,41,222 

1,31,403 

90,302 

1,09,754 

1,12,130 

1,68,789 

1,36,442 

1,06,514 

92,769 

16,46,395 

1,85,609 

2,81,087 

2,69,834 

1,74,650 

1,74,414 

99,872 

1,24,935 

91,449 

90,051 

1,54,494 

7,73,712 

1,84,929 

1,01,961 

1,17,633' 

1,33,238' 

1,08,462 

52,523 

74,966 

5,51,857(i) 

1,40,454 

1,52,045 (c) 
1.68,285 
91,357 


(a) Includes poitions retained m Kerala 
(i) Exdudes Nyalkal arde ofBidar taluk' 
tonsfened to Pradesh and mdudcs 
Nima arde of Zahirabad taluk mduded m 
the district 

to 








30 


Area m Popuh* 
iq niilcs Uon 


Afra in 

iq 


I’opuU* 

Uon 


Bi|apnr Dist. 


DagalLot * » 

Bagcwadi «. 

Bijapur 
Bilgi 

Hungund 

Indi . 

Jamkhandi 
Muddcbihal 
Mudbol . 

Sindgi , 

Clukanagalar Dist. 
Chikmagalur , . 

Kadur . 

Kappa 
Mudgere 

l^arafflmhan^apiira 
■Snngcn . 

TanJccre . 

Cbitaldmg Dist . . 
CSballakcic . 

Ghitaldmg .. 

Davangcre . 

Hftnhnr 

Hinyur 

HoluLcie , 

Hosadurga . 

Jagalur 
Molakalmuni 

Goorg Dist. 

Horih Coorg , 

South Goorg , 

Dharwar Dist. , , 

Byadgi , 

Dhamar 

Gadag 

Has^ 

Haven 

Hirekenir 

Hubh 

Kal^iatgi . 

Kundgol 

Mundarp 

NargimJ 

Navalgiind 

Kaoebeonur 

Ron 

Shiggaon 
* Shirhatu 

Gnibarga Diet. 

Aizaipur 

Aland 

Ghinchoh 

Chitapur 

Gulbuga ] 

Jevaigi (Andola) , 

Seiata 

Shahpur 

Sliorapur 

'Vadgir 


6,601 

13,96,105 

527 

1,36,396 

352 

1,03,501 

764 

1,37,029 

1,028 

2,09,283 

327 

59,187 j 

512 

1,35,526 

854 

1,41,279 

450 

1,43,274 

570 

1,12,419 

349 

83,268 

830 

1,35,023 

2,787 

4,17,538 

644 

96,314 

5W 

1,18,715 

335 

41,406 

365 

49,026 

314 

19,750 

45 

10,282 

4G6 

82,015 

4,185 

8,68,370 

854 

1,24,990 

477 

1,38,334 

366 

1, 46,151 

184 

63,483 

647 

96,845 

419 

91,964 

517 

87,328 

377 

70,237 

295 

49,016 

1,591 

2,29,405 

609 

97,732 

986 

1,31,673 

5,296 

15,75,366 

168 

58,853 

430 

1,61,020 

413 

1,44,260 

299 

89,627 

402 

1,24,198 

310 

96,568 

290 

1,93,532 

259 

50,860 

235 

68,817 

336 

48,963 

176 

33,313 

418 

75,237 

362 

1,20,813 

476 

1,27,874 

344 

98,004 

S67 

81.447 

6,574 

12,12,036 


Ilassna Dist. 

Ahir 

Arltltpid 

Arufccrc 

Ilclur 

CIicnnnn> ipitna 

Hole tNantpur 
Minjirabtd 

Knn'im Dist. 

AnI oil 

llliiticnt 

Hili>nl 

llonit.’ir 

Karw nr 

Kiirota 

Mundgnd 

Stddnpur 

Stm 

Supa 

\ dlapur 


Kolar Dist. 

Btgcpallt 
Bingnipet 
Chikbnllapur 
Ciiinuuitani 
Gonbtdnur 
Gudibanda 
Kolar 
Kolar Cold Ticlds Cil> 
Malur 
Mutbngal 
Stdlagbatta 
Snnnnsapur 

Maodya Dist. 
Knshnarajpet 
MolvalU 
Maddur 
Mandya 
Nagamangala 
Pandavapura 
Snrangapatna 

Mysore DUt. 


514 

676 

609 

691 

664 

746 

365 

627 

7H 

666 


72,152 

1,34,534 

92,440 

1.45,058 

1,86,446 

91,214 

82,988 

1.23.830 
1,23,554 

1.59.830 


Gundlupet 
Heggadcvanalote 
Humur 
Kollegal 

Knshmarajnagar 

Mysore City 

Mysore 

Nanjangud 

Penapatna 

T Nanipur 

Velandtir 

Dist. 

Deodnig 

G^gavatt 

Koppal 


2,630 

m 

205 

479 

310 

401 
357 

407 

5.061 

31Q 

129 

315 
270 
20} 
235 
257 
333 
556 
732 
500 

5,180 

561 

237 

2-19 

513 
339 

07 

505 

30 

210 

316 
265 
321 

1,917 

352 

307 

23B 

277 

402 
214 
143 

4,622 

479 

355 

706 

542 

1,076 

231 

14 

303 

372 

333 

223 

104 

5,591 

595 

514 
542 


7,15,135 
SS.O'jO 
85.739 
J.10.<,07 
70,407 
1, 19.675 
1,32 417 
79.322 
53,393 

5 , 17 , 7 r 0 

40,101 

50.053 

5',.516 

74.4*>0 

78.725 

77,457 

15.615 

H,777 

57.695 

10,159 

19,112 

11,29,075 
70,012 
91.354 
78 005 
1,05,200 
1,27,021 
22,907 
1,32,162 
1,59,034 
89,774 
03,891 
75,005 
84,542 

7,17,545 
1,08,151 
1,31,616 
1,16,9 >8 
1,21,572 
1,01,166 
70,395 
64,697 

14,23,679 
1,72,082 
98,320 
75,399 
73,689 
1,38,908 
1,07,895 
2.44,323 
95,039 
1,70,145 
72 725 
1,35,016 
40,138 

9,53,640 

89,815 

86,921 

1,30,855 





31 


Umt 


K.iidLU^ 

liiogsiJgur 

Manvj 

Sifldhtioor 

ydbitfsa 

5 blinoga SIdt< 


Bhadravati 

<}heimag]n 

Honnali 



Sbtkanpur 

Sbimoga 

Sorab 


Tlurthahslb 
fiontib EanamDlst 
Coondapur 
Karkal • 

Man^ore 
Puttur 
^ Udipi 


Area m Popula- 

sq. nules tion 


536 1,00,601 

739 1,11,658 

749 1,04,724 

588 1,49,593 

628 75,750 

545 1,03,723 

4,066 6,63,315 

257 80,494 

458 1,01,922 

338 84,394 

539 37,514 ; 

749 71,580 

342 64,320 

409 96,620 

412 65,388 

4B3 60,083 

3,250 13,30,917 
600 1,74,415 

629 1,71,919 

406 4,51,055 

1,246 2,42,969 

357 2,90,559 


Umt (a) 


Dbenbaoal Dist* • 
Angul 
Achmalik 
Hindol 

Khamakhyanagar 
Pal-Lahara > • 

Sadar 
Talcher 

Ganjam IHst. 

Agency 

Berhampur 

Gbumsur 

Plains •• 

Berbatnpitf 
Clmtrapur . . 

Gbumsur 

Kalalutndi Dlsi. . 

Dbaramgaib 
Nawapara , . 

Sadar • . 


Tonalcar XKst> 

f^iTmnil’nutniOl 

Gubbi 

Koratagere 

Kunigm 

^Madbu^ 

Pavagaoa 

Sira 

Tiptur 

Tumkur 

Turuvdeere 


4,093 

413 

466 

256 

383 

422 

523 

584 

303 

403 

305 


11,51,362 

91,889 

1,25,699 

78,710 

1,35,433 

1,31,042 

95,579 

1,25,932 

94,142 

1,86,469 

86,467 


Keonjliar Dist, 

Anandapur 

Champua 

Sadar 


Koiapnt IMst. 

Koraput Sadar 
Nowrangpur 
Rayaghada . i 

Mayurblian] Dist, 

Bamanghaty 

Kaptipada 

Panchpir 

Sadar 


Umt(a) Area m FopulaUon 
sq miles 


Salasore Dist. 

2,495 

11,06.012 

Bhadrak ,, 

1,076 

4,47^70 

Nilgin 

Sadar 

263 

78,730 

1,168 

5,80,012 

PoUmgir Dist. ,, 

3,443 

9,17,875 

Bnlangir . . 

868 

2,61.724 

Fatangarb .. 

727 

1,57,415 

Sonepur . . 

882 

2,41,413 

Titlagarb 

935 

2,57,323 

Cuttack Dist. 

4,237 

25,29,244 

Athgarh . . 

556 

2,04,483 

Jajpur .. 

1,115 

6 22 530 

Kendrapara >. 

977 

5,26,472 

Sadar .. 

1,562 

11,73,759 


(a) Umts are districts and nib*divisions 


Pbolbanl Dist, . 
Balliguda 
Baudh 
Khondinals 

Pdxi Dist, 

Kburda 


Sambalpnr Bist. 

Baigarh 

Deogarb 

Ktichmda 

Rairakhol 

Sadar 

SimdargarR Dlat, 
Bonai 
Panposb 
Sundargaih 


Area in Popula' 

sq, miles non 


4,181 

8,39,241 

902 

1,90,432 

711 

84,040 

312 

67,926 

1,76,563 

865 

450 

40,799 

598 

1,86,711 

388 

92,770 

4,828 

16,24,829 

1,410 

1,59,296 

1,308 

1,55,990 

102 

3,306 

3,418 

14,65,533 

899 

4,76,440 

827 

4,71,528 

1,569 

5,17,565 

5,093 

8,58,781 

2,177 

4,14,904 

1,312 

2,19,850 

1,568 

2,24,027 

3,028 

5,88,441 

539 

1,63,719 

612 

1,36,355 

2,065 

2,88,367 

9,864 

12,69,534 

2,100 

2,95,009 

5,572 

6,86,390 

2,203 

2,68,135 

4,022 

10,28,825 

737 

2,60,220 

418 

1,45,142 

761 

1,83,444 

2,105 

4,40,019 

4,279 

4,56,895 

2,173 

2,03,639 

1,330 

1,67,713 

779 

85,543 

4,001 

15,72,262 

971 

4,44,671 

1,551 

4,01,109 

1,521 

7,26,482 

6,769 

13,01,804 

2552 

6,12,037 

1,044 

944 

96,875 

1,01,447 

833 

42,624 

1,692 

4,48,821 

'i 

3,830 

5,52,203 

1,296 

1.05.491 

711 

1,61,451 

1,781 

2,85,261 


32 


PUNJAB 


Arta m Popul?i- 
sq miles uon 


Ambala Distt 
Ambala 


Naiaingarh 

Rupar 

Amritsar Plst. 


Penzepnr USst* 

Fazilla 

Ferozepup 

Moga 

Mi^ar 

Ziza 

Gurdaspor DJst. 
Batala 
Gurdaspur 
Patbankot 

OurgBon I>ist. 

PoUab Gaih 

Fefotcpurjbrla 

GuTgaan 

Nub 

Polvi^ 

Rewan 

KiSs&r 

Bbiwiiiu 

Patebsbad 

Haim 


1^67 9,43,734 

38B 2,97,847 

489 2,10,372 

355 1,73,407 

442 1,22,906 

286 1,39,202 

1,940 13,67,040to)i 


Area in Populfl* 

gq, itulca tion 


Ajnala .. 

418 

1,56,197 

/Gnntsar . 

545 

6,76,308 

Pam 

525 

2,42,305 

TamTaran 

474 

2,69,617 

Bantala Dist. 

NA 

5,36,728 

Barnala .. 

449 

1,59,276 

Dhun .. 

276 

1,11,539 

1,39,383 

Malakoda 

240 

Phul 

359 

1,26,530 

Bhatmda Dlst. 

2,257 

6,66,809 

Bhatinda .. 

846 

2,44,245 

Pandkit 

562 

1,80,625 

Mansa 

864 

2,41,939 

Fatebgarli Sahib 

Dist. 

NA 

2,37,397 1 

Amloh 

93 

38,953 I 

Fayal 

134 

75,270 

Sirhiad 

295 

1,23,174 


Hissar •< 

Sina < • 

Hoshiorpor Dlst, 
Uasuya • 

G’irhshanlar 
HoAiarpur » 

Una * 

Jnllniidixr Dist. . 

Jullundur 

Nakodar 

Naivansliah&r • 

Fbillaur 

Ejingra Dist, 

Ucra Gopipur . 

Hamirpur • 

Kangra 
Kulu 

Nurpur i 

Palampur 

Knpvrtliala Uisti 

Kapurtbala 

Fimgv^ara 

Kamo] IMst. 

Kaitbal 

Kamal 


Thaaesar 

Koltlstim Dlst* 
DcraBassi 
Kandaghat 
Nalagarh 

Lttdbiana Dlst. 
J^raon 
Ludhiana 
Samrals 


4,107 13,26,520 

1,339 3,65,058 
680 2,55,342 

646 3,05,502 

926 2,49,434 

494 1,51,184 

1,363 8,51,294 

477 3,40,018 

497 3,14,133 

366 1,97,143 

2,368 9,67,664 

287 1,28,703 

312 1,11,496 

411 1,69,506 , piaoiw 

401 a, 37, 626 pS 
L84,760 Rajpuja 
555 2,55,573 1 

I Rohtak Dist 
5,391 10,45,645 cSohsua 
977 2,09,369 Thanar 

919 1,45,634 1 Rohtak 

803 2,36,792 Sompat 


Mohlndefgarh Dlst. 
Dadn 

Mohmdetgarh 
Namaul .. 

Patiala Dlst. . 
Nabba 


1,019 2,32,560 

1,639 2,21,282 

2,235 lO,91,9aG(a) 
500 1,14,538 

509 2,73.560 

572 2,74,126 

681 2,96,258 

1,334 10,55,600 
389 4,59,069 

364 1,62,335 

300 2,24,401 

200 2,09,795 

9,569 9,3G,012(fl> 
495 1,42,008 

590 2,11,119 

422 1,56,317 

6.225 1,45,680 

519 97,480 

724 1,74,451 

630 2,95,071 

525 2,08,475 

I IB 86,596 

3,073 1079,379 
1,221 3,41,296 

861 3,25,9115 

461 2,26.638 

554 1,85,530 

NA 1,47,403 

46 IS,8H 
274 79,507 

272 52,042 

1,323 8,08,105 

420 2,08,646 

S66 4,22,734 

344 -1,76,725 

1,343 4,43,074 

571 1,60,718 

401 1,24,087 

368 1,57,469 

2,605(i) 5,24,269 

240 92,587 

700 2,76,294 

381 1,55,380 

2,329 11,22,046 
553 2,31,749 

814 3,24,431 

517 3,12,058 

447 2,53,808 


(«J The dutnet population includes figures for burnt dips whereas the talult-wise 
popuiauon does not 

(i) Includa area figures of Kohistan and Fatchgarh Sahib districts for which, 
separate figures are not available 
K A —Not available. 


33 


Unit 

Area in 

Popula- 


sq mdcs 

tion 

Sangror Dist, 

3, 220(e) 

6,42,934 

Jmd 

471 

1,69,644 

Nanvana 

576 

1,69,985 

Sanam 

543 

1,76,094 

Sangnir 

* 346 

1,27,211 

Simla Dist. 

B 

46,150 

RAJASTHAN 

Umt 

Area in 

Popula- 


sq miles 

tion 

Ajmer Dist 

2,384 

6,93,372 

Ajmer 

889 

3,82,227 

Beawar 

611 

1,77,411 

Kckn 

938 

1,33,734 

Alwar Dist 

3,241 

8,61,993 

Alwar 

705 

1,82,128 

Bansur 

256 

62,539 

Behror 

282 

1,08,602 

Kot Kasim 

69 

19,661 

Lachmangarh 

449 

1,37,964 

Mandwar 

225 

68,890 

Rajgarh 

474 

1,08,723 < 

Thana Ghazi 

347 

57,066 

Tijara 

319 

1,16,420 

Banswara Dist 

1,948 

3,56,559 

Bagidora 

332 

70,073 

Banst^‘a^a 

443 

82,160 

Gadln 

280 

67,369 

Ghalol 

805 

70,870 

Kushalgnrh 

406 

66,087 

Banner Dist 

10,178 

4,41,368 

B-irmcr 

5 670 

2,86,018 

Paclipidri 

856 

49,197 

Slico 

2 448 

45,045 

Siw ina 

760 

61,103 

Bhamtpnr Dist 

3,127 

9,07,399 

Ban 

397 

1 10 737 

Btvrn 

380 

63 324 

Ba^“u^ 

310 

72 232 

Bharntpvir 

371 

1,40,012 

Decs 

193 

62 883 

Dholpiir 

232 

82,61-1 

Kamau 

2G3 

83,958 

Xadbai 

173 

54 895 

Nasar 

181 

5^,833 

Raja Kill n 

131 

15.148 

Rupbas 

213 

C3,4S4 

Uctr 

237 

74 009 


(f) Inctudp! 'TCa 
Uivinct for which 
Wihh'c. 


(icurrt of part of Banala 
S'-onntr r^i-cs -rn not 


Umt 


Anvar 

Asind 

Badnor 

Banera 

Bhilwara 

Hurda 

Jahazpur 

Karcda 

Kotri 

Mandal 

Mandalgarh 

Phulia 

Raipur 

Sahadan 

Shahapura 


Bil^ner 

Kolayat (Magra) 

Lunlsacansar 

Nokha 

JBimdi Dist. 

Bundi 

Hindoli 

Namtva 

Patau 

Talera 

Chittorgarli Dist. 

Achnara 

Ban Sadn 

Begun 

Bl^csar 

Bhensrorgarh 

Cliittorgarh 

Ghhoti Sadn 

Dungla 

Gangrar 

Kantra 

Kapasin 

Nimbahcn 

Partabgarh 

Rashmi 


Churu 

Dungargarh 

Rijgarh 

Ratangarh 

Sardar^hilir 

Siijongarh 

Tann'igar 

Dongarpur Dist. 
•Vspur 
Dunga’pur 
Sa3\’iara 

;Ganganagar Dist. 
Vnupg^rh 
Bhadra 


Area in 
sq miles 

Po] 'Illa- 
tion 

4,034 

7,27,356 

142 

21,155 

243 

48,069 

195 

33,802 

268 

50,390 

302 

1,06,142 

237 

39,994 

405 

74,226 

221 

34,730 

340 

60,442 

211 

46,014 

556 

74,598 

no 

17,215 

180 

39,682 

222 

51,611 

154 

29,286 

10,319 

3,30,329 

3,912 

1,94,864 

1,281 

23,541 

3,135 

39,813 

1,822 

72,111 

2,158 

2,80,518 

316 

61,448 

452 

51,484 

438 

55,712 

457 

71,770 

510 

40,104 

4,040 

5,87,724 

225 

31,270 

162 

42,702 

360 

45,507 

233 

47,006 

347 

28,020 

204 

60,464 

264 

38,772 

153 

42,194 

224 

46,928 

80 

7,152 

153 

46,128 

219 

44,339 

394 

69,445 

161 

37,797 

6,445 

5,23,276 

GOO 

83,007 

1 156 

51,743 

845 

87 198 

655 

76 211 

i,551 

76,720 

1,092 

1 03,525 

682 

44,831 

I,4GG 

3,08,213 

318 

63,871 

706 

144569 

^36 

99,803 

8,134 

6,30,130 

832 

27,673 

-69 

66,287 



34 


Area in Popular 

sq nulu tioQ 


janganagar 

I'uiumangarh 

i^ranpur 

Sohar 

Fadampur 

Ratsinghnagar 

Suralgarh 

Jnipnr Diat 


U Jhnlawr Diflt, 
\U^ri 
lUiw-im 
Da- 

r.ansa'llnr 

Iln!n Finn 
Klianpur 
MamhvTliim 
Vi'“lipalnr 

I'lrMii 

n Jlianjhunn Dwt 
i 

^ ‘ ^ '1 Vnea-h 
Ih 

Kl ’•ITi 

Udaipur \,\\att) 

Jodhpur DjNt. 
r.ta-a 
?-rJVr 
IV-v>h 


539 

1,147 

317 

232 

324 

510 

788 

6,293 


1,32,567 

1,04,406 

68,635 

83,562 

58,629 

43,574 

44,797 


Amber 

456 

1,29,546 

Amn 

337 

24,392 

Biimlh 

504 

1,28,974 

Bann 

243 

92,061 

Cliaksu 

371 

76,589 

Daiua 

400 

1,05,236 

Jaipur 

553 

4,25,216 

F'unwnrmgarh 

514 

1,07,716 

Kirhciigarh 

382 

52,428 

Kotpuui 

I.alw 

176 

336 

65,410 
86,754 ' 

Flngi 

586 

76,253“ 

I’hulcra 

Riiprugar 

763 

J15 

1,42,264 

27,065 

Simbhur 

Samir 

SAm 

no 

314 

194 

22,371 

28,694 

65,128 

Jaisalmcr D^st 

15,041 

1,02,743* 

IWp 

Jmwlmcr 

Ramgarh 

SimUiabi 

3.920 

3,620 

2,800 

4,100 

32,886 

27,897 

10,760 

13,482 

\ mjoni 

1,622 

17,718 

' Jnlorc Dist 
lalorc 

Imnnlpura 

Sanchorc 

4,911 

1.552 

1,360 

1,818 

4,59,467 , 
1,87.362' 
1,51,024 
1,21,081 


2.104 4,04,124(fl) 
239 41,106 


220 

251 

188 

259 

317 

237 

181 

251 


36,941 

35,747 

32,544 

54,040 

56,094 

42,336 

33,907 

41,067 


{ Ir'l.i 


2,282 5,88,621' 

31,175 
, 21,870 

1.3/3 3,62,896 

M nU244 

91,490 

0.637 6,91,786' 

„ 1.06,609' 

2 870 3,81,937 

1,1 89 92,922 


^9KotaIt Diet 
Antah 
Atru 
Baran 
Barod 
CUiechat 
CUiabra 
Qihipa Barod 
Digod 
Itawa 
Kan^vas 
Kishanganj 
Ladpur 
Mangrol 
Fipalda 

Kamganj bfandi 

Sangw 

Shahabad 

‘Nagaur Zhst 
Did\sana 
Merta 
Nagaui 
Nawa 
Parbalsar 


[(Foh Dist 
BaU 
Desuri 
Jaitaran 
Pidi 
Sendra 
Sojat 

I^Sawaxmodliopru 

Bamanvias 

Ganmpur 

Hmdaun 

Karaub 

Khandar 

blahutt-a 

blalama 

Mandrai] 

Nadoti 

Sapoin 

Sa%v aimadliopur 
Toda Bhim 

j^j^Silcar Dist 
Danta Ramgarh 
Patchpur 
Lachmangarh 
Xcem-Ua Thana 
Rumcarh 
Sjkur 


r-’ 


l^irolu Diet 
Abu Roid 
Blnwan 
Pindi'.nn 
Reotlhar 
Sheogmj 
biro hi 


Area in Popula- 

sq miles tion 


4,746 6,70,060 

201 31,581 

330 47,198 

204 60,638 

158 24,311 

145 20,928 

310 40,727 

327 45,621 

159 25,581 

148 21,271 

289 25,311 

600 35,601 

563 1,20,068 

179 32,531 

300 42,739 

157 28,130 

197 34,464 

590 33,360 

6,883 7,63,829 

1,159 1,56,570 

1,600 1,69,756 

2,608 2,06,572 

560 97,397 

840 1,33,534 

4,797 6,60,856 

834 1,54,294 

710 1,09,660 

860 1,22,476 

1,024 92,873 

73 10,843 

1,172 1,70,710 


4,070 7,65,172 

267 48,809 

258 73,713 

236 90,918 

482 84,824 

416 37,213 

186 63,546 

418 67,942 

208 20,105 

240 44,533 

501 55,742 

637 1,01,871 

208 75,956 

3,027 6 77,782 

500 1,03,392 

260 58,411 

465 92,130 

1,031 2,37,950 

156 28,583 

609 1,57,310 


1,973 

304 

225 

209 

173 

315 

153 


2 89,791 
52,429 
28,768 
33,535 
57,531 
50,170 
67,347 




35 


Unit 


j' Tonh Dist. 

Ali^h 

Mdpura 

Nm'ai 

Todarai Smgh 

Tonk 

Uniari 

Udaipur Dist 

Amct 

Bhim 

Bhopalsagar 

Deogirh 

Khamnor 

Khms'ara 

Kotra 

Kumbhalgarh 

I^sadia 

Mavli 

Phalasia 

Rajasmand 

Rciunagra 

Saira 

Saltunbar 

Saiada 

Udaipur 

Vallabhnagar 


Area in Popula- 

sq miles tion 


2,754 

4,00,947 

158 

20,875 

638 

75,490 

413 

59,580 

542 

71,036 

576 

1,25,586 

358 

48,380 

6,806 

11,91,232 

176 

40,418 

223 

54,561 

263 

32,703 

175 

37,362 

316 

95,091 

448 

67.758 

764 

44,133 

320 

59,756 

333 

55,632 

301 

75,584 

300 

44,260 

212 

62,586 

212 

48,913 

257 

52,432 

350 

69,767 

308 

68,256 

464 

1,88,661 

792 

93,359 


Unit 


Pliulpur 

Sira^u 

Soraon 

Almora Dxst. 
Almora 
Champaivat 
Pithoragarh 
Ranikhct v 

Azamgarb Dist, 

Azamgarh 

Ghosi 

Lalganj 

Mobammadabad 

Phulpur 

Sagn 

Baliraicli Dist. 
Bahraich 
Kaiiarganj 
Nanpara 

Ballia Dist, 

BalUa 

Bansdib 

Rasra 


Area m Popula- 

sq miles tion 


289 2,27,128 

233 1,59,780 

264 2,44,306 

5,501 7,72,896 

4,136 2,80,928 

600 64,737 

653 2,04,973 

2,22,258 

2,213 21,02,423 
313 3,47,726 

364 3,58,923 

384 3,14,815 

358 3,69,240 

441 4,00,170 

350 3,11,549 

2,641 13,46,335 
931 5,23,101 

683 4,20,910 

1.022 4,02,324 

1,182 11,94,657 
446 4,70,419 

374 3,53,187 

421 3,71,051 


UTTAR PRADESH 


Unit Area m 

sq miles 


Agra Dist. 

1,861 

Agra 

219 

Bah 

338 

Etmadpur 

278 

Fatebaliad 

241 

Pirozabad 

203 

Kheragarh 

303 

Kiraob 

273 

Aligarh Dist 

1,941 

Atrauh 

351 

Hatbras 

291 

Iglas 

214 

IGiair 

402 

Koil (Aligarh) 

355 

Si(>andaia Rao 

337 

Allahabad Dist 

2,800 

Chad 

303 

Handia 

297 

Karchliana 

521 

Manjhanpur 

274 

Meja 

658 


Banda Dist. 


Popula- 

tion 


15,01,391 

5,11,609 

1,51,863 

2,05,156 

1,39,566 

1,99,211 

1,44,677 

1,49,309 

15,43,506 

2,69,697 

2,76,813 

1,43,086 

2,87,331 

3,88,621 

2,27,958 

20,48,250 


Baberu 

Banda 

Karwi 

Mau 

Naraini (Girvian) 

Bara Banld Dist. 

Fatehpur 

Haidarganj 

Nawabganj 

Ramsanehigbat 

Bareilly Dist. 

Aonla 

Bahen 

Bareilly 

Fandpur 

Nal^^ganJ 

Bast! Dist 

Bansi 

Basti 

Domanaganj 

Harraiya 

Khablabad 


5,48,403 

2,43,177 

2,54,983 

1,64,022 

2,06,446 


Bijnor Dist. 

j&ijnor 

Dbampur 

Nagma 

Kajibabad 


2,950 7,90,247 

610 1,85,668 

614 1,89,285 

822 1,82,093 

317 77,439 

523 1,55.762 


1,724 12,64,204 
500 3,32,955 

290 2,27,567 

360 3,05,778 

584 3,97,904 


1,591 12,69,233 


317 

869 

441 

244 

221 


2,39,591 

2,03,990 

5,36,190 

1,49,538 

1,39,924 


2,82J 23,87,603 
614 5,20,490 

553 5,06,309 

586 4,37,483 

500 3,94,376 

5G5 5,28,945 


1,866 9,84,196 


482 

458 

457 


2,73,492 

3,41,434 

1,67,468 

2,01,802 





Area m Popula- 

sq miles tion 


Unit 


Area in Popula- 

sq miles tion 


Badann. Dist 
r ai’i 
r •dnin 
r>i»a::arj 
Gt^nai ' 

Balasdslialir Dist 
•p<h‘'hr 
r> U-*-* ’ alir 
KFjv 
S li-Vabad 


1 J98 !2, 51,152 Gonda Dist. 

360 2 60,675 Gonda 

45i 3,20,302 Tarabganj 
419 ’,41 350 Utraula 

359 1,90,122 ^ ^ 

422 2 38 703 GoraKhpor Dist. 

Bansgaon 

1,887 14,99,884 Gorakhpur 
4^6 3.86.746 Mahamjganj 

476 4 53,701 Pflarwoa 

439 3,40,199 „ . __ 

52 1 3,17,238 Hamirpiir Dist 

Charkhan 

1 201 3,62,005 Hamnpur 

447 59,752 

7,2 3.02^53 

2,037 21,02,627 


D-^na 

493 

5,30,605 

liin 

546 

4,84,685 

P’ ’ra jna 

559 

5,48,667 


495 

5,38,669 

Enh Dtst. 

1,715 

n 24,351 

V T-J 

517 

239.015 

r'ah 

482 

3,09.881 


227 

1,45,068 


487 

3,70,387 

Fiau’sh Djst. 

1.669 

9 70,695 

\i a 

415 

2.41,093 1 

1 _* ’ 'M 

417 

233,881 


429 

2,16^93 

* 

427 

2 78,728 

ranaW*.’ But 

1.710 

14,81,756 

W - - 

539 

VI, 190 


4eo 

3,19,437 

’ 1 ' 

355 

3 66,577 

( *1 

330 

3 24 592 

r-j-mkhaFad D«t 


10 92 641 


t 

*■ .** Vful 


41c 234 251 I Ranipj’" 
'‘f’j 3 74, COG 1 'lo’h 

f>l 2.14,100 „ 

3j5 2J-i,424 Kanpiir Disi 

' iMb^rpur 
l,G2j ^^03 9''5 Bhriifripur 
^42 3,5'’, ni I KOhsu- 

^"7 2 74 027 

SU 2,"-'2C7 Gnatat-pu- 

j KanFu' 

C, 37625 , 

- t Irw \ 

1 ’ 11 ‘ LneI,„o^ 

’« ' 4 r ri 1 'i- r 

Hit' 

*.'* 3»7 , , w '-j.V’a-, 


2,830 18,77,484 
619 4,94,032 

663 4,43,032 

1,560 9,40,420 

2,439 22,38,588 
531 5,52,188 
655 8,23,664 

682 4 81,652 

569 3,81 084 

2,776 6,65,429 

159 33,461 

416 1,09,316 

591 1,32,982 

354 90,034 

604 1,44816 

655 1,54,820 

2,320 13,61,562 
588 3 24,319 

632 3,87,734 

555 3,34,654 

539 3,14 853 

1,762 5,55,239 

514 2,13,388 

480 1,19 202 

409 1,30,604 

358 92 015 

1 554 15,17,173 
288 3,43 370 

246 2,58.283 

344 2,79,986 

320 3,07,0j8 

361 3.28,460 

3,888 877,607 

5P4 1 03 688 

482 2,32,&42 

L059 I 87,061 
887 1 27 293 

A’A 1 19,260 
438 1,02,663 

2 357 19,39,867 
368 1,88,897 

380 1,87,396 

387 2 10,605 

403 2,08,-*80 

423 2,12 32G 

418 9,32,163 

2372 10,58 343 
1,053 4.37,556 

GG3 3 04,325 
i;i51 3,16,462 

977 11 23,101 
337 7, -*5.758 

327 2 687 

275 1,67,656 


Umt 


Area in Popula- 

sq miles tion 


Unit 


Area in Popiila- 

sq miles tion 


JVfeunpnrl Dist. 
Bhongaon 

Jasrana (Mustafabad) 

Karhal 

Mainpun 

Shikohabad 


Mathura Dlst> 


B^hpat 

Ghaziabad 

Hapur 

Mawana 

Meerut 

Sardbana 


Mirzapnr Dist. 

Chunar 

Dudhi 

Mirzapur 

Robcrtsganj 


Moradahad Dist. 

Amroha 

Bilari 

Hasanpur 

Moradabad 

Sambhal 

Tbakurdwara 


1,680 9,93,890 Rae Bareh Dist. 


459 2,83,778 

317 1,71,813 

218 1,16,767 

386 2,12,611 

294 2,08,921 

1,467 9,12,264 

407 1,78,240 

331 2,00,876 

410 3,15,047 

308 2,18,101 

2,322 22,81,217 

400 4,17,317 

445 4,25,187 

407 3,70,854 

421 2,78,163 

286 4,85,235 

341 3,04,461 


Dalmau 
Mahar^ganj 
Rae Bareli 
Salon 


4,372 10,17,289 

562 2,54,021 

988 1,18,856 

1,186 4,32,098 

1,633 2,12,314 

2,289 16,60,955 

383 2,93,198 

333 2,94,951 

569 2,38,678 

316 3,68,476 

475 3,41,521 

240 1,24,131 j 


Saharanpttr Dist. 

Dooband 

Nakur 

Roorkee 

Saharanpur 

Shahjahanpor 01st. 

Jalalabad 

Pa^vayan 

Shahjabanpur 

Tilhar 

Sitapar Dist. 


Mnzaffarnagar Dist. 1,683 12,21,768 


Budhana 

Jansatli 

Kairana 

Muzaflamagar 

Nninitnl Dist. 


Pxlibhlt Dist. 
Bralpiif 
Pilibbit 
Puranpur 

Pratapsnrh Dist 

KundT 

Pmu 

IVaiapgarn 


2B8 2,64,962 

440 2,80,264 

438 3,13,748 

468 3,62,794 

2,635 3,35,414 

1,279 97,572 

189 51,205 

820 91,978 

433 94,659 

1,352 5,04,428 

365 2,10,384 

466 2,66,817 

512 87,227 

1,439 11,10,734 
543 3,85,522 

-*67 3,38,907 

437 3,86,305 


Snltanpnr Dist. 

Amethi 

Kadipur 

Musafirkhana 

Sultanpur 

Tdirl Garh^val Dist. 

Deo Pfayag 
Pratap Nagar 
Rawain 
Tchri 


I Hansanganj 
Punra 
SaOpur 
Unnao 

Varanasi Dist. 

Bh*idoht 

Chilaa 

Cbandauli 

Varanaii 


1,758 11,56,704 

472 3,28,804 

464 2,92,608 

375 2,50,065 

444 2,85,227 

895 5,43,324 

205 38,230 

180 2,39,711 

156 93,251 

167 91,803 

130 50,176 

61 30,153 


2,132 13,53,636 

385 2,66,960 

430 2,27,913 

706 4,10,787 

626 4,47,976 



38 


^VEST BENGAL 


Umt(c) 


Area in 
sq miles 


Popula- 

tioii 


Bankmu Dist. (a) 

{b) 

Sadar 

Vishnupnr 


(«) 

(ft) 




BirbbimiDt&ti 

Rampurhat 

Sadat 

Bnnlwan Distt 

Asansol 

Kalna 

Katwa 

Sadar 


Calcntta Dist (a| 

Calcutta Muniapal 
Area 


Coodi Behat Dist. 

a 

Dmliata 

Matbabhanga 

Mekliganj 

Sadar 

Ttilanganj 


Darjeding Dist. 


Kalimpong 

Kimcong 

Sadar 

Siligun 

Hoogbly Dist 

Anunb^ 

Chandemagore 

Sadar 

Scrampur 

Howrali Diet. 

Sadar 

Ulubena 


2,653 13,19,259 
2,646 9 

9,65,363 
3,53,896 


1,933 4 
713 5 


1,754 
1,742 9 
606 0 
1,136 9 

2,717 2 

2,705 4 
624 1 
385 1 
409 3 
1,286 g 

10 2 
?2 32 


(Acres) 


10,66,889 

4,28,730 

6,38,159 




W 

(ft) 


1,291 
1,322 6 
271 9 
343 0 
198 9 
284 8 
224 0 


1,854 7, 
1,199 7 
407 9 
164 2 
361 2 
266 4 

1,217 
1,208 4 
412 5 
4 0 
446 1 
349 8 

575 
560 I 
174 1 
386 0 


6,71,158 


16,04,229 


7,29,331 

16,11,373 


9,28,456 

6,82,917 


Umt(c) 

Aren m 
sq miles 

Popula- 

tion 

Jnlpnisnri Dist. (a) 

2,407 

9,14,538 

(ft) 

2,374 4 


Alipur Duals 

Sadar 

1,078 5 

3,68,396 

1,295 9 

5,46,142 


1,429 

9,37,580 


1,392 0 


Sadar 

1,392 0 

9,37,580 

Midnapnr Dist. (a) 

5,264 

33,59,022 

(ft) 

5,253 1 



911 6 

7,39,841 

Ghatal 

368 5 

3,11,382 

Jhargram 

1,185 9 

4,61,703 

Sadar 

2,038 0 

10,57,658 

' Tamluk 

749 1 

7,88,438 

i 1 Mnrslildntiad Dist 

(«) 

2,095 

17,15,759 

f (ft) 

2,072 1 

JangipuT 

437 I 

4.31,979 

Kandi 

454 3 

3,45,681 

Lalbagb. 

521 9 

3,93,871 

1 Sadar 

638 8 

5,44,228 

Nadia Dist. (a) 

1,527 

11,44,924 

(ft) 

1,509 0 


8 Rani^hat 

540 2 

4,42,053 

Sadar 

968 8 

7,02,871 

4 

1 Fnntlia Dist. 

2,408 

11,69,097 

L*i 1 24 Pareanns Dist. 

3 

5,306 

46,09,309 

(ft) 

5,639 9 

Bangaon 

319 8 

2,08,742 

n Bara^t 

384 0 

3,93,980 

Barrackpur 

119 1 

8,77,900 

Basirhat 

817 9 

7,13,619 

Diamond Harbour 

1,262 4 

9,01,120 

>3 Sadar 

1,106 7 

15,13,948 

1 West Dlnajpnr Dist 



1,378 

7,20,573 

19 W 

1,385 5 

Baluigbat 

585 6 

3,28,114 

16 Raigaq] 

09 

73 

799 9 

3,92,459 


Area 

Fbpulahon 


573 sq miles 
17,44,072 


(a) Figures given by Suneyor-Gcncral (A) Figures given by State authonties 

(c) Units are districts and sub-divinons 

(rf) Indudes portions transferred tom Pumea district of Tttbar 


39 



20 





40 


The following table shoA\s the birth, death and infant mortabty rates 
since 19 r7 based on the r^istration data 

T^LL 9 

BIRTH, DEATH AND INFANT MORTALITY RATES 


Per thousand of population | Per thousand 
\car j j h\e births 


1 Birth rate | 

Death 

rate j Infant mortalit) 

1517 1 

26 

4 

19 

7 

146 

1948 

i 25 

2 ^ 

17 

0 1 

130 

1919 

1 26 

4 1 

15 

8 

; 123 

1950 

1 24 

5 

16 

1 

127 

1951 

' 24 

9 

14 

4 ! 

1 124 

1952 

25 

4 

13 

8 i 

1 116 

1953 

i 24 

8 

14 

4 

118 

1954 

24 

4 

12 

5 

' 113 

1955 

1 27 

0 

11 

7 

i 100 

1955(c) 

1 ” 

4 

11 

4 

1 lOS 


(«) ProMSional 


Between 1941 and 1951, births had occurred at an a\eragc rate of 40 
per thousand per annum, deaths at an average rate of 27 per thousand per 
annum and the natural increase of population at an average rate of 13 per 
thousand per annum The highest birth rate tvas in Central India (44) 
tfic lowest in South India (36 or 37) The highest death rate was in 
Licntral India (34) and the lowest in South India (21 or 22) The highest 
natunl increase rate was in North-West India (16-17) and West India (16) 
and the lowest in Central India (10). 

Ue/frri/) PaUcr/j 

^ic following tabic shows the indices of child birth, child survival 
»nu child loss in respect of completed maternity experience for the former 
*^*'^'^acore-Cochin and Madhva Pradesh based on information 
^■olitcitd by the two Governments during the 1951 census 


T\BLE 10 

CHnJ> BIRTH, SURYIV^a AND LOSS INDEX 


, Child bmh ! Child ! Child loss 




42 



1 

o 

> 

•5 

t> 

i 

134 

827 

2,129 

3,879 

5,412 

5,201 

2.847 

1,367 

15 

j 9,034 j 21,811 

O ‘ "■ 

•0 

6 

tj 

u 

IS 

‘°isss§”° 

1 [ ^ j: ^ ^ ^ 

•a 

I- 

fH 

u 

E 

2 = SS2S|g?! 

^ 1 to bJ lo CO eft ^ 

' * CM >-• 

CO 

ta 

eft 

CM 

to 

eft 

»n 

CM_ 

PM 

CD 


e<50CMeftr».^««2 

BOlOOMCMiir'MCO^ 

OD eo eft O r\ *0, " 

1 [ CM Cft Oft m tp CM 

•B 

1 

o 

•a 

E 

os\ot^'j'eft'^eftc»i^o0<3 
(o'oefteor^pe^cSeft^'o 
,o ^ r» S >-• 1 

uj in ifT 

— to 

lO 

o 

3 

pS 

-^o^eo»-o^ei^eS"^ 

eMcftOcMOinocMO'<<>o 

cooj^eoot^^ocM" 

«o ^ Of? wT 

5 

s 


u 

•E 

E 

tH 

«c3meMeftCi«'4*eoPe^ 

g g. 3^ 3 H S 3 & S « 

ini«^-i'o«£?crefted'eft'.^ 

-■ 'f eft CM •-• — • 

§ 

o' 

u 

2 

5,821 

17,939 

14,703 

30,672 

27,875 

22,032 

15,719 

9,065 

3,867 

1,630 

111 

Cl 

a 

5 

M 

' 

* s 1 

^ ^ c rt 

1 1 1 1 1 ! 1 1 1 ? = 

Q "* «ft m »« m Lft fcft «o tft b 

i;^ 


•Excluding duplacLtl persons. Figures hive been rounded off to nearest thousand. 



imales per thousand males 


43 













44 


India’s high juvenile proportion (38 3 per cent) is exceeded only by 
the countnes of Afnca (39 1 per cent), South and Central America (40 1 
per cent), South-West Asia (40 6 per cent) and South East Asia (40*9 
per cent), while the proportion for European and North American countries 
ranges between 21 8 and 27 6 per cent The proportion of people aged 
55 and above is only 8 3 per cent in India as compared to 21 4 per cent m 
France and 21 1 per cent in the U K 

Density 

The density of population m India and its component States and 
Union Temtones has already been given in Table 6 The variation and 
density of population between 1921 and 1951 -were as follows — 

TABLE 16 

variation ANO density or population (1921-1951) 


Increase (+) 

Percentage 

Decrease ( — ) 


1921—31 

1931-41 

1941—51 


1921 

1931 

1941 

1951 


+ II 0 
+ 14 3 
+ 13 4 
Density 
193 
213 
246 
- 287 


THE SOCIAL PATTERN 


Heltgtons 

The number of persons in 1951 professing the different religions m 
Inula are shown in the table below — 


TABLE 17 


POPULATION ACCORDING TO RELIGION* 


Religion 

Number 

Percentage to 

- . 

(inlaihs) 

total popidauon 

Hindu 

Muihm 

3,032 

84 99 

Chnstiaa 

354 

9 93 

SiLh 

1 82 

2 30 

Tain 

1 62 

I 74 

Buddhist 

i 

0 45 

SJoroastnan 

2 

0 06 

Olher religions (tnbal)' 

Other rehpoiis (non-tnbal) 

1 

17 

1 

0 03 

0 47 

0 03 

ALL RELIGIONS 

3,567 

! 100 00 


i^ngua^es 


including 720 ^ languages or dialects 

; ^SV^ges or di alects spoken by less than a lalch 

and Pa,, B 



45 


persons each and 63 non-Indian, languages. Some 32 *4 crore persons or 91 
per cent of the population speak one or the other of the fourteen languages* 
specified in the Constitution. About 1’2 crore persons (3*2 per cent) 
speak one or the other of the 23 tribal langu^es or dialects and nearly I 8 
crore persons (5 0 per cent) speak one or die other of the other Indian lan- 
guages or dialects spoken by a lakh or more persons each. No all-India 
totals were available in the 1951 census separately for persons speakmg 
Hindi, Urdu, Hindustani or Punjabi The number of persons speal^g the 
various languages spedfied in the Constitution and the percentage of 
each language-group to the total population arc sho\ni in Table 18. 

TABLE 18 

PEOPLE SPEAKING THE LANGUAGES SPEdEEED IN THE CONSTITUTION 







46 


There are 3,018 to^sTis and 5,58,088 villages m the counlry 26 5 
per cent of the total rural population lives in small villages (under 5^ 
persons), 48 8 per cent'in medium-sized villages (between 500 and 2,000 
persons), 19 4 per cent m large villages (between ^000 and 5,000 persons) 
and 5*3 per cent m very large villages (over 5,000 persons). 38 0 per cent 
of the urban population hves m aties (population of one lalh and over), 
30 1 per cent m major toivns (population between 20,000 and one lakh), 
28 6 per cent m minor to\vns population between 5,000 and 20,000) and 
3 3 per cent m to^vIlshlps (population under 5,000), 

The figures of towns and %allages classified according to their popula- 
tion arc gi\‘en below — 

TABLE 20 

TOWS AND VILLAGES 


Ttnnu and \-iilagcs wth a popidaUon of j 

Nuinbcr 

Less than 


500 



3,80,019 

35ctvTren 


500 

and 

1,000 

1 04 268 

Between 


1,000 

and 

2,000 

1 51,769 

Between 


2,000 

and 

5,000 

20 508 

Between 


5,000 

and 

10,000 

3,101 

Between 


10,000 

and 

20,000 ; 

856 

Between 


20,000 

and 

50,000 

401 

Bctwxien 


50,000 

and 

1,00,000 

m 

1,00,000 and abosc 




71 

TOTAL 

5,61,104 


There arc m India 71 distmctivdy urban localities wbidi ha\c a 
population of one lakh and over as shcnMi m the table bdoiv. Of theses 
31 arc town groups (a group of towns winch adjoin one another so dosdy 
as to form a single inhabited urban locality for demographic purposes) and 
40 isolated towms The population of these locahties according to the 1951 
census IS as follows — 

TABLE 21 


CmES 'WIXH POPDLATtON OF OVER A LAKH EACH 


Gt> 

Population 

(1951) 

Qt] 

Population 

(1951) 

Gfcntcr Calcutta (U Bengal) 
fi'-catcf BoTilas (Bonbwl 
M'drv (Madras) 
l>5hi (DeJhi) 
lljd-nb-id (\P) 

(Bombas) 

Fa-galo-e (M\-sore) 

K-»rp„- (UP) 
iV'w (L-iimbav) 

I 

f iP/rttbar j 
'v-i (tP> 

Ml ij'Oi (Madrav 

It' -i-a^ (CIO 
yw'jsbad ^LP, 

\-rt '• (Pun.-ib^ 

l-v« - {\JP^ ! 

45,78,071 
28,39,270 
14,16055 
I3,84^n 
10,85,722 
7^3,813 
7,78,977 
7,05,383 
! 5,83545 
! 4,96861 

1 4,49 099 
! 3,75,655 
! 3,61,781 
3,35,777 
3,32,295 
3,25,747 
3,10,859 

Jaipur (Rajasthan) 

Patna (Bihar) 

Sholapur (Bomba)} 

Jabalpur (AIP) 

Timdurapalh (Jradras) 

Mjaore (Alysore) 

Gw:aIior (AlP) 

Mccnit (UP) 

: Surat (Bomba) ) 

' Jamshedpur (Bihar) 

Baroda (Botnba\) 

BaredIv(U^ 

Salem (Madras) 

Co mbalore (Madras) 

^mcr (Rajasthan) 

Tmandnim (Kerala) 

Jodhpur (Rajasthan) 

2,91,130 

2 83,473 
2,77,087 
2,56,998 
2,55,623 
2,44,523 
2,41,577 
2,33,183 
2,23,182 
2,18,162 
2,11,407 
2,08,083 
2,02,335 
1,97,755 

1 96,633 
1,86,931 
1,00,717 





47 



PEOPLE OF 3NDIAN ORIGIN ABROAD 

Emigralion of persons of Indian parentage out of India is go\crncd bv 
ihc Indian Emigration Act 1922 and the Rules made thereunder and the 
special notifications and executive instructions issued from time to time in 
that bchalE 

The following table* shows the number of outgoing and returning 
emigrants during the > ears 1953*57. 

T\BLE22 


INDIAN EMIGRANTS (1933.57) 






48 


The following table sllo^vs the number of people of Indian origin m 
countnes where they number one thousand and over 

TABLE 23 

NUMBER OF PERSONS OF INDIAN ORIGIN ABROAD 


Name of country 

Number 
of persons 
of Indian 
origin 

Name of country 

Number 
of persons 
of Indian 
ongm 


Gomxnonwealdi Conntries 


Aden (1955) 

15,817 

Ne\% Zdand (1958) ' 

1,800 

Australia (1958) 

2,500 

N>asaland (1954)* 

6,000 

Bntisb Honduras (1946) 

2,000 

Rhodesia (Northern)* 

3,500 

Bntish Gutana (1954) 

2,10,000 

Rhodesia (Southern)* 

4,700 

Br North Borneo (1954)* 

2,000 

Sarawak (1958)* 

2,000 

Branci (1958)* 

2,000 

Singapore (1958)* 

98,267 

Canada (1955) 

3,750 

South ATnca (1951) 

3,65,524 

Ceylon (1958) 

8,29,619 

St Luma (1954) 

3,000 

Fiji Islands (1958) 

1,69,403 

St Vincent (1954) 

2,000 

Grenada 

6,000 

j Tanganyika (1954) ' 

68,000 

Hong Kong (1955) 

2,500 

Tnnidad 

2,67,000 

Jamaica (1954) 

26,000 

Uganda (1954) ' 

50,000 

Kcn^a (1954) 

1,27,000 

United Kingdom* 


rcdcrition of Malaj a (1958) > 

7,40,436 

Zanzibar and Pemba (1948) 

15,812 

Maimiuis (1955) 

3,75,918 

i 


1 

Other Foreign Countries 


Bahrein (1954) 

3,000 

Muscat (1947) 

1,145 

Belgian Congo (1950) 

1,227 

Nepal (1941) 

10,441 

Burma (1958)* 

7,00,000 

Phihppmcs (1958) 

1,675 

Dutch Guiana (1955) 

70,000 

Portuguese East Africa 

12,600 

Ethiopia (1934-55)* 

1,645 

Reunion (1955)* 

2,500 

Indo-China (1950) 

2,300 

Ruanda Urundi (1950) 

1,963 

liidonoia (1930) 

30,000 

Saudi /\rabia (1956) 

5,000 

Italian SomahUnd (1947) 

1,000 

Sudan (1956) 

2 000 

Kuvrtitt (103-1) 

2,500 

Thailand (1958) 

10 000 

MaJar^a^xir (195B) 

" TTrn 

14,000 

US \ (1955) 

5,063 


' Pakutanu » Latest figures not avaiJablc * Estimated 


CHAPTER H 


NATIONAL EMBLEM, FLAG, ANTHEM, SONG AND CALENDAR 


NATIONAL EMBLEM 


The National B^blem of Indi^ is an adaptation from the Samath 
Lion Capital of Asoka as it is preserved in the Sarnath museum In the 
original, raised by the Emperor to mark the hallowed spot where the Buddha 
first preached to his disciples the eight-fold path of salvation, there are four 
lions, standmg back to back, mounted on an abacus with a frieze canymg 
sculptures in high relief of an elephant, a galloping horse, a bull and a Hon, 
separated by intervcmng wheels {Chakras) over a beU-^haped lotus. Carved 
out of a single block of polished sandstone, the Capit^ was crowned by 
the Wheel of the Law {Dharma Chakra). 

In the National Emblem adopts by the Government of India on 
January 26, 1950, only three hons are visible, Ae fourth bemg hidden from 
view. The wheel {Chakra) appears m rehef in the centre of Ac abacus with 
a bull on the right and a horse on the left and the outHues of the o&cr 
wheels {Chakras) on the extreme right and left The bell-shaped lotus has 
been omitted The words, “ Satyameva jayate ”, from Mtmdaka 
Upamshad meaning “ Truth alone triumphs ”, arc insenbed below the 
Emblem in the Devanagan scripti' 

NATIONAL FLAG 

The National Flag is a honzontal tricolour of deep saffiron on the top, 
white in the middle and dark green at the bottom m equal proportions. 
The ratio of the width to the len^ of the Flag is two to three. In the centre 
of the white band there is a wheel m navy blue to represent the Ckarkha. 
Its design is that of the whed {Chakrd) which appears on the abacus of the 
Samath Laon Capital. Its diameter approximates to the width of the white 
band and it has 24 spokes 

The National Flag was adopted by the Constituent' Assembly of 
India on J^uly 22, 1947 and was presented to the nation, on behalf of the 
India, at the midnight session of the Assembly on August 14, 


Use of the Flag 

Rules and regulations to ensure the proper use and display of the FW 
^ Government of India. , These prohibit S 
^ "" any person or thmg The regimental colour, the 

wSot institutional jflag ^vlU be used for this purpose 

M it, National Flag or 

to Its nght All fegs are placed to the left of the National Flag if thev are 

^ ^ National Fla^ust S the 

1 , 1 National Flag on the same 

^yard the latt« should be at the top. The Blag should no? be 

or honzont^y, but always aloft and free. When earned in a ora- 
^lon It must be borne high on the right shoulder of the standard-b^er 
and earned m front of the procession. !>^aara nearer 

an an^ ? display^ from a staff projecting horizontally or at 



50 


Nonnally, the National Flag should be flown on all important Govern- 
ment buildings such as high courts, secretariats, commissioners’ offices, 
coUectorates, jails and the offices of the distnct boards and munidpalities 
The frontier areas may fly the National Flag “at some speaal pomts The 
President of the Indian Repubhc and the Governors of States have their 
personal flags 

The use of the Flag ^vlll, however, be unrestricted on certain special 
occasions such as Indepoidence Day, Mahatma Gandhi’s birthday, durmg 
the National Week and on any other days of national rejoiang 


NATIONAL ANTHEAt 

Rabindranath Tagore’s song Jana-gana-mana was adopted as the 
National Anthem oflndia on January 24, 1950 The song ivas first sung on 
December 27, 1911, during the Indian National Congress session at Cal- 
^tta The song was first published m. January 1912 under the title Bkarul 
Vidhata m the Tattvabodhim Patnka, of which Tagore himseir ivas the editor 
^e poet translated it mto English in 1919 under the title Morning Song of 
India The complete song consists of five stanzas The first stanza, which 
has been adopted by the Defence Forces and is usually sung on ceremonial 
occasions, reads as follows • 

Jana-gana-mana-adhmayaka jaya he 
Bharata-bhagya-vidhata 

Punjaba-Smdhu-Guj arata-Maratha- 
Dravida-Utkala-Banga 
'V^dhya-Himachala-Y amuna-Ganga- 
Uchchhala-j aladhi-taranga 
Tava subha name jage 
Tava Eubha asisa mage 
Gahe tava jaya-^tha 

Jana-gana-mangala-dayaha, jaya he 
Bharata-bhagya-vidhata 

Jaya he, jaya he, jaya he, 

Jaya jaya jaya jaya he. 


The following is an English rendering of tiie stanza quoted above t 

Thou art the ruler of the minds of all people. 

Thou Dispenser of India’s destmy. 

Thy name rouses ffie hearts of the Punjab, Sind, 

Gujarat and h^tha, of Dravid, Onssa and Bengal : 

It “ho« m the hills of the Vmdhyas and Himalayas, 
^nglcs m the music of Jamuna and Ganga 
And IS chanted by the waves of the Indian Sea 
They pray for Thy blcs^gs and smg Thy praise. 

Thou Dispenser of India’s dcstmv 
Victory, Victory, Victory to Thee 


NATIONAL SONG 

Vatic Malaram 5^°®* I'avc an equal 
Chaneqees novel ictatia Mak, pn^hrf 

** j.ne nrst pohtical 








51 


occasion on which it "was sung was the 1896 session of the Indian National 
Congress The following is the text of its first stanza : 

Vande Mataram ! 

Sujalam, suphalam, malayaja-shitalam, 

Shasyashyamalanij Mataram! 
Shubhrajyotsna-pulalcitayaimimn, 
Fhullakusumita-drumadala-shobhinim 
Suhasinim, snmadhura-bhashinim, 

Sukhadam, varadam, Mataram ! 

The following English translation of the stanza is by Sii Anrobindo : 

I bow to tiiee, Mother, 

Richly watered, richly fhnted, 

Cool ^vith the winds of the south, 

Dark with the crops of the harvests, 

^ Ihe Mother > 

Her mghts rejoicing in the glory of the moonhght. 

Her lands closed beautifully mth her trees m flowering bloom, 
Sweet of laughter, sweet of speech, 

The Mother, giver of boons, giver of bliss I 

NATIONAL CALENDAR 

In November 1952, a Committee was appointed to examine the 
difierent calendars in use in the country and to submit proposals ibr an 
accurate and uniform calendar for the whole of India, The Committee sub- 
mitted Its report m 1955. As a result of the decision taken by the Govern- 
ment of India m consultation with the State Governments, the Gregonan 
Calendar continues to be used as hitherto for offiaal and like purposes, the 
uniform National Calendar being adopted with effect from March 22, 
1957 along with the Gregonan Calendar, for the following official purposes : 

(i) The Gazette of India 
(n) News broadcasts by the All India Radio 
' (m) Calendars issued by the Government of India 

(iv) Commumcations issued by the Government of India and 
addressed to members of the pubhc 

The State Governments have also been requested to use progressively 
the uniform National Calendar along with the Gregorian Calendar. 



CHAPTER III 


CONSITTUnON 


The Constituent Assembly of India first met on December 9, 1946 It 
adopted a resolution on objectives on January 22, 1947, and appointed a 
number of committees to report on vanous aspects of the proposed 
Constitution, On the basis of their reports, the Drafung Committee of the 
Assembly prepared a Draft Constitution which tvas published in February 
1948 Tins was presented for general discussion on November 4, 1948 
Meanwhile, the passing of the Indian Independence Act and the transfer 
of power on August 15, 1947, had freed the Constituent Assemblv from all 
the Iinutations under which it had been bom and enabled it to proceed tvith 
the task of framing the Constitution as a sovereign body. The Constitution, 
comprmng 395 Artidles and eight Schedules, -was finalised and adopted by 
die Assembly on November 26, 1949 * It came into force on January 26, 
1950. 

The preamble to the Constitutioa embodies the resolve of the people 
of India to secure for all citizens * **Justicey social, economic and political; 
Liberty of thoi^;;ht, ejtpression, belief, faith and tvorship , Equality of status 
and of opportumty , and to promote among them all assuring the 

dignity of the mdividual and the unity of the Nation”. 

THE UNION AND ITS TEaRTTORT 

India is a Umon of States and its territory comprises the territories 
of the States of Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Bombay, Kerala, Madhya 
Pradesh, Madras, Mysore, Onssa, Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, 
West Bengal and Jammu and Kashmir, the Umon Tcmtorics of Delhi, 
Himachal Pradesh, Manipur, Tnpnra, the Andaman and Nicobar lslan6[s 
and the Laccadive, Mimcoy and Ammdivi Islands; and such other 
temtones as may be acquired ** 


CITIZENSHIP AND FRANCHISE 

i. ^ provident for a single and uniform citizenship for the 

whole of India Birth vnthin the territory of the Indian Union, descent 
from Indan p^nts, or residence for a period of five yeai^ at the commence- 
mtmt of foe Constitution entitles one to be a citizen of India Articles 6 
and 7 enable displaced mgtants from Paldstan who fulfil certam conditions 

ongm residing abroad can also 
become gtaens by registermg themselves as such swth bidian diplomabc 


' Amendment 


"ere tO ‘n Amrotoeat) Art, 1956, there 

B States, 9 M as Part X States, 8 L Part 

mav ^ D I>antoty Chanter XXX m ‘DTOIA 1957* 


+ Ti, reorganisation of States 

atiziV«th'?S“o“^cXS^^ ^canons for 

IcgaUhon This has nnee ^ Parliamentary 

^l^faon of dtncnship after fhe provides for the 

novation, naturahsation and u ‘ ^ ** ComtitxrtKwi by descent. 



53 


or consular representatives ui the countries of their residence. No such 
person vvho voluntarily acquires the citizenship of any foreign State is 
entitled to this right 

Article 326 of the Constitution confers the right of vote on every 
person who is a cidzen of India and who is not less than twenty-one years of 
age on a fixed date and is not otherwise disqualified under the Constitution 
or any law of the appropriate Legislature on the ground of non-residence, 
unsoundness of mind, crime or corrupt or illegal practice. 


FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS 

Part III of the Constitution enumerates seven broad categories of 
“Pundamental Rights”. The right to cquahty (Articles 14 to 18) mcludes 
equahty before the law, prohibition of discnmmation on grounds of religion, 
race, caste, sex or place of birth, and cquahty of opportumty in mattem of 
pubhc employment "Untouchability” has been abolished, and Parlia- 
ment has enacted a law making the practice of untouchabihty a punish- 
able offence. 

A^de 19 guarantees to the dtizen his right to freedom of speech and 
expression, assembly, association or union, movement, residence, acquisition 
holding and disposal of property and the nght to practise any profession or 
to carry on any occupation, trade or business The Constitution does not 
however, bar the State from making laws prescnbmg reasonable restnetions 
on the exercise of these rights m the interest of the security of the State, 
Inendiy relations with foreign States, pubhc order, decency or morality or 
in relation to contempt of coui% defamation or mcitement to an offence or 
in the interest of the general pubhc or for the protection of the interests of 
any Scheduled Tribe. The confennent of these nghts does not affect the 
operation of any existing law or prevent the State from making any new 
law relating to the professional or technical qualifications necessary for 
practising any profession or carrying on any occupation, trade or busmess 
or the carrying on by the State, or by a corporation owned or controlled by 
the State, of any ttade, bi^iness, industry or service whether to the cxdusion 
complete or partial, of citizens or otherwise * 

Three other basic prmaples of common law which the Constitution 
has recognised m Artides 20-21 as fundamental rights are : (i) No person 
shall be prosecuted and punished for the same offence more than once * 
(li) No person accused of any offence shaU be compelled to be a wtness 
apinst himsdf, and (m) No person shall be deprived of his life or personal 
hberty except according to procedure established by law The neht 
OTloHation (Artcles 23 and 24) prohibits aU foni of forced lahoL.^d 
labour and traffic m human bemgs 

Freedom of comcience and free profession, practice and propagation 
ofrchgion for aii (^ticics 25 to 28) and the nght ofminonties to raSsetve 
thOT own^to^ language and senpt and to receive education and estab- 
teh and administer educatioMl institutions of their choice (Articies 29 and 
SO) arc guaranteed by the Constitution 

Ihe nght to property is protected by Article 31 which provides that 
no person sh^ be deprived of his property save by authonty of law ” 
Tto does not, however, depnve the State of Us right to compulsory acqi- 
Bition o^nrate property for a pubhc purpose, after payment of comnSm- 
non The ^ele was ammded m 1955 so as to keep outode the purJ?^of 
law cou^ the question whether the compensation provided bv a snSfic 
law is adequate or not r 7 « apetme 

remedies (Article 32) provides that the 
todament^ rights are justiciable and any citizen can move the Sno^e 
Court for their enforcement supreme 



54 


DiRECnVE PBINGIFLES OF STATE FOUCX* 

The Directive Principles of State Policy, though not enforceable through 
courts of law, are r^arded as fundamental m the governance of the 
country These lay down that the State shall smve to promote the 
welfare of the people by securing and protecting, as eSecUvely as it may, a 
social order m which jusUce-^owal, economic and political — shall inform 
all the institutions of the national life/* These prinaples further require 
the State to direct its pohey m such a manner as to secure the right of all 
men and women to an adequate means of hvelihood, equal pay for equal 
work, and, within the limits of its economic capadty and development, to 
make effective provision for securing the nght to work, education and 
pubUc assistance in the event of imemployment, old age, sickness and dis- 
ablement or other cases of undeserved ivant The State is also reqmred to 
secure to workers humane conditions of work, a decent standard of life, 
and full enjoyment of l^ure and social and ctdtural opportunities. 

In the economic sphere, the State is to direct its policy in a manner 
as to secure the distnbution of oivnership and control of the matenal 
resources of the commumty to subserve the common good and to ensure that 
the operation of the economic system does not result m the concentradon of 
wealth and means of production to common detriment The State is also 
enjoined to guard against the abuse of workers’ health and strength and to 
protect childhood and youth from being forced bv economic necessity to 
cntCT avocations umuited to their age or strength, against exploitation and 
against moral and matenal abandonment 

^ .^ong othCT directives of State PoHcy are the organisation of 
agncuUurc and animal husbandry on modem and scientific lines , promotion 

the levdofnutotoon and improve- 
stodMds of living and pnbhc health , prohibition of intoacat- 
■ I"™™”® and compulsory education for aU 

^ °r ’ organisation of vdlage panehayats ; 

rfS I*™“ executive , promulga^ of a umfonn 

orcL«™ • P“‘«tion of national monumenls , 

sSijSTn^ SH'’''ih aod economic interests of Scheduled Castes. 
7,„r,,i i™. j ^ sections ; and the promotion of intema- 

rcspcc/forintomS^tT honourable relations behvecn nations, 

the UNIONt 
executive 

the Unmn'ivL'.'! contained in Part V of the Constitution, 

President 

rncmlim of ^ of Parhamc consisting of the elected 
(rj:?Ari Sahhes) of the Slates , l^slauve Assembhes 

rcpTesrwaiion b> the smele svslcm of proporUonal 

The President mi«t be a 
* — 1 !!!: age, and eligible for elccUon as a 

** inauguraljan 

*' tc' firaumJnp t} development, labour and otten 

^ ‘W"«»omnE of the Union Govemmeat, i« Chaptew IV 



55 


member of the House of the People {Lok Sabha). His term of office is five 
years and he is ehgiblc for rc-elecbon The President may be removed from 
office by impeachment for any violation of the Constitution, which under 
Article 60 It IS his duty to preserve, protect and defend. In his capaaty 
as the head of the State, the President is empowered to make appomtments; 
summon, prorogue, address, send messages to Parhament and dissolve the 
House of the People , issue ordmances dunng recess of Parhament, make 
recommendations for introduemg or moving money bills and give assent to 
bills, and grant pardons, reprieves, respites or remissions of punishment or 
to suspend, remit or commute sentences in certain cases The executive 
power of the Umon vested m him is exercised by him cither directly or 
through officers of the Government m accordance with the Constitution 

Vwe-President 

The Vice-President is elected by the members of both Houses of 
Parhament assembled at a jomt sitting on the basis of proportional repre- 
sentation by means of the smgle transferable vote. He must be a citizen of 
India, not less than 35 years of age and eligible for election as a member of 
the Council of States {Rajya Sabha) His term of office is also five years 
The Vice-President acts as the ex-officio Chairman of the Council of States 
and acts as President when the latter is unable to discharge his functions due 
to illness, absence or any other cause, or till the election of a new President 
when a vacancy is ‘caused by the death, resignation or removal of the Presi- 
dent While so actii^ he exercises all the powers and discharges all the 
functions vested m the President He, however, ceases to perform the func- 
tions of the Chairman of the Council dunng this penod. 

Council of Ministers 

Article 74 of the Constitution provides for a Council of Ministers 
headed by the Prune Munster to aid and advise the President m the exercise 
of his functions The Prime Munster is appomted by the President who 
also appoints the other Ministers on the suivice of the Prime Mister. 
Although the Council holds office dunng the pleasure of the President, it is 
collectively responsible to the House of the People It is the duty of the 
Prime Mmister to communicate to the President all decisions of the Council 
of Ministers relating to the administration of the affairs of the Umon and 
proposab for legislation and information relatmg to them and, if the Prrai- 
dent so requires, submit for the consideration of the Council of Minister 
any matter on which a decision has been taken by a Mimster but which has 
not been considered by the Goundl, 


Atloney-G^neral 

The Attorney-General, appomted by the President, advises the Govern- 
ment of India on legal matters and performs such other duties of a legal 
character as may be referred or assigned to him by the President He 3so 
discharges the other functions entrusted to him by or under the Constitution 
He holds office at the pleasure of the President and has the right of audience 
in all courts in the country 


PARLTAMENT 

The Legislature of die Union, ivhich is called " Parhament ** con- 
sists of the President and the tno Houses known as the Council of States 
Sabha) and the House of the People {Lok Sabha) 

Council of Stales {Rajya Sabha) 

The Council of States consists of not more than 250 members, of whom 
12 are nommated by the President and the rest elected The Counal of 



56 


Stafts IS not subject to dissolution, onc-third of its members rctinngon the 
expiration of every second year The elections to the Council arc indirect, 
the alloted quota of the representauves of each State, as provided in the 
Fourth Schedule to the Constitution, bemg elected by the elected merobers 
of the Legislative Assembly of that State in accordance with the system of 
representation by means of the smgle transferable vote The representatives 
of &e Union Territones are chosen in such manner as Parliament by laiv 
presenbes The nominated members arc persons havmg special Knowledge 
or practical expenence m hteraturc, science, art and soam service To fill 
a seat in the Council, the candidate must be a citizen of India and not less 
that 30 yearn of age. 

House of the People (Id/. Sabhi) 

The House of the People consists of not more than 500 members directly 
dected from temtonal constituencies m the States (the representatives of 
the State of Jammu and Kflshnmr bemg appointed by the President on the 
recommendation of the Legislature of the State), and not more than 20 
meanbers to represent the Umon Temtones chosen in such manner as Parlia- 
ment by law provides The number of seats to each State is so allotted that 
the ratio between the number and the population of the State is, as far as 
practicable, the same for all States. During a period of ten years from the 
commencement of the Constitutiou, the President can nominate two mem- 
bers to the House of the People to represent the Anglo-Indian community 
if m his opinion it is not adequately represented 

"^e House of the People, unless sooner dissolved, has a maximum dura- 
tion m fiv^ears from the date appointed for its first meeting Tins may be 
extended by a m a xunu m of one year by a Parhamentay law while a Procla- 
mation of Emergency is in operation. 


JUDICIARY* 


The Supreme Court of India consists of a Cbef Tusfree and not more 
f appomted by the Presidentt The Judges hold office tiU the 
^ as a judge of the SuprLe Court, a person 

^ least five a judge 

veL^r V snc^iok for at least ten 

tired judge of the Siip4n? Courtfr^^ Constitution debars a re- 

before a^y other autS^ m Sffia ^ court of law or 

by an o^i^of removed from office except 

ment, supported by a maiontv ofnnf 
present and voting, hi Wn 

T OF INDU 

andAuditor-Gcnerdofln^'hvttt^pl^j^PP’^^^®^^ of ^ Comptroller 
of the Union 

under laiv made by ParKament ^ presenbed by or 

* ST-p.- j . , T — -tns i^orts, submitted to the President 



57 

nnd Ihc Gi)\ trnors of State’s, are laid before cacli House of Parliament and 
i!icL(^datures of States 


THE STATES* 

The system of Government in tlic States, as embodied in Part VI 
of the Constitution, closely resembles that of the Union. 

, EXECUTIVE 

Tlic State Executive consists of tlic Go\crnor and a Council of Minis- 
ters tvith a Chief Minister at its head 

Governor 

The Governor of a State is appointed by the President of India for a 
term of five years and holds oflicc during his pleasure. Only Indian citizens 
above 35 years of age are eligible for appointment to this olEcc. The 
Governor is debarred from being a member of either House of Parliament or 
of a House of Uic State Legislature and from holding any other ofiicc of 
profit 

Council of Mtntsiers 

^ The Constitution provides for a Council of Ministers ivilh a Chief 
Minister at the head to aid and advise the Governor in the exercise of his 
functions except m so far as he is, by or under the Constitution, required to 
exercise his functions in his discretion. The Chief Munster is appointed 
by the Governor who also appoints other Ministers on the advice of the 
Chief Minister. The Council of Ministers, which holds office during the 
pleasure of the Governor, is collectively responsible to the X^slative 
Assembly of the State. 

Adoocate-'General 

The Advocate-General, who advises the Government of the State on 
such legal matters and performs such other legal dudes as are referred or 
assigned to him by the Governor or entrusted to him by the Constitution or 
any other law, is appointed by the Governor and holds office dunne his 
pleasure ^ 


LEGISLATURE 

For every State there is a Legislature which consists of the Governor 
^d the two Howes (except in the case of Assam, Kerala, Orissa and 
Rajasthan which have only one House— the Legislative Assembly). Parha- 

ment (^, by law, provide for the abolition of an existing Legislative 
Loun^ or for the cr^tion of one where one does not exist if the proposal is 
supported by a resolution of the concerned Le^aUve Assembly passed in 
the manner prescribed m the ConsUtution ^ 

Legtslaiwe Cowml {Vidkan Panshad) 

nf Council of a State comprises not more than one-third 

of ffie total numberof m^bers in the Legislative Assembly of that State 
^d m no (^e less than 40 members Nearly one-third of the members of 
^ ^ the members of the Legislative Assembly of the 

Sfi? ? 1 persons who are not members of the AssembL on^ 

by electorates consisting of members of municipalities, district boards 

nal institutions not lower than secondary schools and a further one-twelfth 

• For detaJa about thefunct.omng of the State Govemmtati. See Ghapten IV atid vT 



58 


by registered graduates of more than three years* standmg. The remaining 
members nominated by the Governor are chosen from among diosc who have 
distinguished themselves m the fields of htcrature, science, art, co-operative 
movement and soaal service Like their counterpart at the Centre, the 
L^labve Couneds are permanent, one-dnrd of their members retmng on 
the expiration of every second year 

Legislative Assembly {l^idhan. Sabh^^ 

According to Article 170, the Legislative Assembly ofa State consists 
of not more than 500, and not less than 60 members chosen by direct election 
from tcmtonal constituenaes m the State The demarcation of temtorial 
constituencies is to be done m such a manner that the ratio between the 
population of each constituency and the number of seats allotted to it is, as 
far as practicable, the same throughout die State The normal term of an 
Assembly is five years unless it is dissolved earher. 

JUDICIARY* 

There is a High Court m each State which stands at the head of the 
State’s judiaal administration Each High Court consists ofa Chief Justice 
and such other judges as the President may, from time to time, deem neces- 
sary to appoint The Chief Justice of a Kgh Court is appomted by the 
President m consultation with the Chief Justice of India and the Governor of 
the State, and in the event of appointment of a judge other than the Chief 
Jmtice, the Chief Justice of the High Court concerned. They hold office un&l 
they attam the age of 60 and are removable in the same manner as a judge 
of the Supreme Court of India To be chgible for appointment as a judge, 
one mu^ have held a judicial office in India for ten years or must have 
practise as an advocate of a High Court or of two or more such courts in 
succ^ion for a similar penod The Constitution also provides for the 
establishment of subordinate courts 


THE UNION and THE STATES 

RelaUons-jlcgisHtive and administrative— between the Union and 
the States are described m Part XI of the Constitution The power of 
cstabhshmg new States or altering the area, boundanes or names of any 
^ung Sate .s v«tcd ui the Umon Parliament. It can da so by pSsSg^ 
ppropnate law for the purpose on the recommendation, of the President, 
f to “for the matter to the legislatures of foe 

State concerned for the expression of their views ivithm a penod specified 

pu%o"m o? “f 4c Conshtution for 

Legtslalive Relations 

subjects of al^ndia importanM such^^dSS“f ““"ff Pettammg to 
caUons, currency and comaEc banTvin?a«A ^ foreign aflairs, commum- 
>n regard to which ParhamfunfVa “ msurance, customs duties, etc, 

Legishmrcs hai c The State 

5n the State List entries 

Mvmcin^dcs such subjects as maintenance of law and ord^r. 



59 


admii^tratloa of justice, local government, public health and sanitation, 
education, agriculture, forests and fishenes, trade and industry, etc The 
third or the Ckmeurrent List which consists of 47 entries deals with subjects 
of common mterest to the Union and the States, such as the legal system, 
economic planmng and social sccunty, trade and industry, clectncity, 
newspapers, books, etc , in regard to which both Parhament and the State 
Legislatures can make laws 

Tcmtonally, the legislative jurisdiction of Parhament extends to the 
whole or any pait of the territory of India, while that of the legislature of 
a State to the whole or any part of tliat State Parliament also legislates 
for any part of the territory of India which is not m a State on matters which 
fall under the exclusive purview of State Legislatures. 

The Constitution provides that if any law made by the legislature of a 
State IS repugnant to any provision of a law made by Parhament or to any 
provision of an existing law with respect to any of the matters enumerated m 
the Concurrent List, tiien the law made by Parliament shall prevail and the 
law made by the legislature of that State, shall, to the extent of the repug- 
nancy, be void As regards powers of legislation on subjects which have 
not been enumerated m either of the three Lists, usually known as ‘resi- 
duary powers,’ they have been exclusively vested in ^e Union Parhament 

The Constitution further provides that if the Council of States declares 
by a resolution supported by two-thirds of the members present and voting 
that Parhament should make laws in respect of any matters contained in the 
State List, Parhament can make laws for these also and such laws iviU 
remain in force for a period not exceeding one year unless continued under a 
fresh resolution and shall cease to have effect on the expiration of a period of 
SIX months after the resolution has ceased to be in force Parhament exer- 
cises such a nght if a proclamation of emergency is in operation and a law 
made thereunder shall have effect for six months 


Administrative Relations 

Although the executive authonty of the Umon and the States is co- 
ordmate with their respective legislative powers, the Constitution envisa- 
ges the Umon Government entrusung the administration of some of its func- 
Uons to State Governments or to officers thereof and issumg directions there- 
for To this end, the Constitution places the States under the constitutio- 
nal obhgation of so exercismg their executive power as (i) to secure 
compliance with laws passed by Parhament and earlier Central laws appH- 
cable to them, and (u) not to impede or prejudice the exercise by the Umon 
of its executive power, the (^vemment of India having the piwer to mve 
The President may, witii thi consent 
execuUve functions to the State Government or to 
ofl^rs th^eof The Umon Government has also the nght to construct 
and mamtam highways or other means of commumcation of national or 
importance witto the temtory of a State and may also teat a 

rnn^nf 'f * 1 , of disputes Tegardmg the use, distntetion ot 

control of te \ratere of, or m, any mter-Statc nver or nver valley mav also 
The President can, m the putec^terBt 
Btabl^h mter-State Couneda for enqmrmg and advmmg on mt“S 
disputes, mvesngateg and discnssmg subjects of commSn m erSt and 
makmg recommendations for better eo-ordmation of pohey Lnd atiM 

nNANCE 

Part XII of the Constitution deals with provisions * 

finance, property, contracts and suits It lavs dnu-n k .™^tmg to 
distribution of revenues between the Union scheme for 



60 


The Union Government has powers to raise money by taxes and duties 
moitioned in items 82 to 92A m the Union List and to collect fees m respect 
of any of the matters in the Union last excluding court fees. The State 
Governments have similar powers wth respect to items 45 to 63 in the State 
List and to collect fees in respect of any of the matters in the State List 
excluding court fees Apart fmm dies^ die Constitution mentions the 
foUo^vmg specific categones of taxes m winch the Union and the States have 
a common interest and whose proceeds accrue to them in different propor- 
tions* 

(i) Duties which are levied by tiic Union, but are collected and 
wholly appropriated by the States, viz , non^judicial stamp 
duties ana exase duties on medicinal and tcolet preparations 
(Article 268) 

(u) Taxes which arc levied and collected by the Union but whose 
net proceeds are wholly assigned to the States. These include 
succession and estate duties on property other than agricul- 
tural land, tenmnal taxes on goods and passengers earned by 
rad, sea or sur, taxes on railway fares and fights, taxes other 
than stamp duties on transactions in stock exchanges and 
futures markets, on the sale or purchase of newspapers and on 
advertisements published therem and taxes on the sale and 
purchase of goods m the course of inter-State trade or commerce 
(Artidc 269). 

(m) Taxes which arc levied and collected by tiie Umon but whose 
net proceeds arc shared between the Umon and the States 
Taxes on inixjmc other than agncultural mcomc come under 
this category (Artidc 270). 

(iv) Taxes whidi are levied and collected by the Umon but whose 
proceeds may be shared with the States as provided by Parha- 
ment by law, eg, Union exdsc duties omer than tiiose on 
mcdidnal and toilet preparations (Arbde 272). 

The Constituuon cmpoweis the Union Government to borrow on the 
s^rity of the Consohdated Fund 'within limits prescribed by Parhament. 
The Union can also grant loans to State Governments and guarantee loans 
raised by them. The States have powers to raise their oivn loans on the 
sccuntv of their respective Consolidated Funds 

Ihc Consutution provides for the appointment of a Finance Com- 
mission by the Preidcnt, at stated intervals, to male recommendations to 
him m rcg'vrd to tijc disinbution of the net pnocc^ of taxes which are or 
maybe divided bctaccn the Union and thS States and m rega^ to the 
pnncipics uhich govern the grants-m-aid to the States* 

prowston for an independent authority to audit the 
nrcoimts of both the Union and the States. Exemntmtt 


t'nion rnd the Snt^ ' •bilitics, obhgauons and suits involving the 


- ^ .1 rtpori to tilt Pmidcnt on 



TRADE AND COMMERCE 


Part XIII of the Constitutioii embodies the general principles of 
&eedom of trade, commerce and intercourse throughout the temtoiy of the 
Union Although Article 302 empowers the Union Parhament to impose 
certam restrictions on this freedom in the pubhc interest, neither Parhament 
nor any State Legislature has power to make any law which authorises any 
preference or discriminates between one State and another. Such discn- 
mination is, however, possible under parhamentary law to deal with scardty 
of goods m any part of the country. Subject to these restrictions, the State 
legislatures are empowered to impose reasonable restrictions on the freedom 
of trade, commerce or mtercourse as may be required in the pubhc mterest. 
Parliament also has the power to appomt any authonty it considers appro- 
priate to enforce the foregoing provisions, 

FUBLXG SERVICESt 

Part XIV deals with recruitment, conditions of service, tenure of office 
and dismissal, removal or reduction in rank of persons serving the Union or 
a State It also provides for the appointment of a Pubhc Service Commis- 
sion for the Umon and for each of the States. 


ELECTIONS 

The superintendence and control of all dections to Parliament and to 
the legislatures of the States, and of the President and Vice-President of the 
Union, sne vested m an Election Commission consisting of a Chief Election 
Commissioner and such other Commissioners as necessary appointed by 
the President. The President also appoints Regional Commissionen m 
consultation with the Election Commission The conditions of tenure and 
service of the Commissioners are determined by the President. The pro- 
cedure for the removal from office of the Chief Election Commissioner is the 
same as m the case of a judge of the Supreme Court. 

Parhament, in respect of dections to its two Houses, and the State 
legislatures m respect of dections to the State legislatures are empowered to 
make provisions by law m regard tb aH matters rdatmg to them. Tlie vah- 
dity of any such law cannot be called m question in any court. 


OmClAL LANGUAGE 

fhr. of the Constitution provides that the offidal language of 

Sr Hindi in the Devanagan senpt and the form rf^mncrals 

international form of Indian numerals 
English wU, however, contmue to be the official language for a period of 
not inore than 13 yearn from the commencement of the Constitution The 
Pr«idcnt IS author^ed under Arnde 344 to constitute, after the expiraton 
of five yeaw from the commencement of the Constitution and ther^ter m 
ffic expiration often y^ from such commencement, a speaal Commission 
to examine the grmvth and development of Hindi and make re^^?a“ 
tions as to its progressive use for all or any of the offidal purposes of the 
English completely at the the stipu- 
^ ^Mtitution also provides that the recommendations 

of the Co^ission udi be examined by a Parliamentary Commitorof 

t For details, see Chapter V, ‘ " ~ — 



62 


The Constitution further lays do^vn that the I^lature of a State may 
by law, adopt any one or more of the regional languages t in use in that 
State or Hindi as the language to be used for all or any of the ofBaal pur- 
poses For communication between one State and another and between a 
State and the Union, the language for the time bemg au&onsed for use m 
the Union shall be used. The need for the use of the English language m 
the proceedings of the Supreme Court and the High Courts and in bills, 
enactments and other laws has been recognised Article 348 makes spedal 
provisions on the subject The proviso to Article 343 also empowers the 
President to authorise the use of Hindi m addition to English for any of the 
offidal purposes of the Umon even durmg the stipulated period of 15 years. 


EMERGENCY AND OTHER SPECIAL PROVISIONS 

Accordmg to Article 352, if at any time the Preadent of India is 
satisfied that there has arisen a grave emeigency created by war or mtcrad 
disturbance which threatens the security of India or any part of its terri- 
tory, he can by declaration (a) give directions to the constituent States as 
to hoiv thar authonty is to be e^erclsed and (b) suspend from operation 
sweral Articles (268 to 280) of the Constitution under which it is obligatory 
on the Umon Government to make certam contributions to the States It 
is, however, necessary that the President’s Proclamation is laid before each 
House of Parliament for approval withm a penod of two months During 
the penod of such an emergency, Parliament has the power to legislate with 
respect to any of the matters enumerated in the State lost 

Another occasion on w'hich the President can by proclamation assume 
to himself all or any of the functions of the Government of a State is m the 
event of failure of the State’s constitutional machmery. This he does 
cither on recapt of a report from the Governor or when he is othenvise 
satisfied that a situation has arisen m whirii the government of the State 
cannot be earned on m accordance with the provisions of the Constitution 
(Article 356), 


Scheduled CasUsand Tubes 

Besides the general provirions wHcb guarantee e(|ual civil and 
political nghts to ^ atizcm, the Constitution contains spcaal provisions 
to safeguard the mtercsts of, and assist, xmnonties such as the Anglo* 
Indian community and certain weaker and backward sections like the Sche- 
duled Castes and the Scheduled Tnbes to progress more rapidly These 
provisions include reservation of seats m Parhament and the State l^isla- 
laturcs for an initial penod of ten y ears, preferential treatment m the ma tter 
of public cmploymicnt and extended educational facihues ♦ A special res- 
ponsibility has been placed on the Umon Government to promote the wel- 
fare of the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tnbes and it has been vested 
vv^th adequate powers to cany out its obhgations in this respect Article 
^l(i) rend along vnth the Fifth Schedule details provisions as to the admm- 
istntiDn and control of Scheduled Areas and Scheduled Tribes in the States 
other than Avsam. 


Trihs^ Areas fr Assam 

Another special provirion which the Constitution makes is with reeard 
to the admmstmtion of the tribal areas of Assam Article 244(2) read 
_ til the Sixth Schedule to the Constitution provides for the consti- 

! ?rrV,r]'? Constitution icco^nucs the following fourteen as the 

it' CKsi ts ?*^^**» Htrdi, Kannada, Kathnun, Malas-alam, 

• wV;- CW ard Urdu , 

Ai tf safeguaitti and a nn.4eu of the 



63 


tution of certain autonomous districts and autonomous regions in these 
areas. The Governor of Assam who is specially entrusted ^vlth the task of 
admmistcnng these areas on behalf of the President is empowered to con- 
stitute councils for these distncts and regions These councils me 
empowered to make their own rules for the a dminis tration of thw respective 
areas They have powers of legislation with respect to disposition of land, 
administration of villages, inheritance of property, marriage and social 
customs, etc They can constitute village councils or courts for the trial of 
suits and disputes, administer district and regional funds and establish and 
manage schools, dispensaries, markets and fisheries Certain powers of 
assessment and collection of taxes on land, professions, trades and employ- 
ment, vehicles and boats are also vested m the coun<^ The^ Governor of 
Assam is empowered to appoint a Co mmi ssion to enquire into and 
report on the administration of the autonomous distncts and regions If 
necessary, the Governor may also place one of his Mimsters m sperial 
charge of their ivdfare. The areas specified m Part B of the Sixth 
Schedule (the North East Frontier Agency and the Na^ Hills Distnct- 
Tuensang Area) are administered by the Prerident acting through the 
Governor of Assam as his agent, to these areas the provisions of 
Article 249 (dealmg with the President’s regulation-makmg power for the 
peace, progress and good government of uie Union Temtones of the 
Andaman and Nicobar Islands and the Laccadive, Minicoy and Amindivi 
Islands) apply 

Special Officers 

Article 338 provides for the appointment of a Spedal Officer by the 
President for the Schedidcd Castes and Scheduled Tribes. It is the duty of 
this officer to mvestigatc all matters relating to the safeguards provided for 
these sections under tiie Constitution and to report to the President on their 
working The President is further required to place these reports before 
both the Houses of FarUament. The appontinent of another Special 
Officer is envisaged under Article 350B. He is required to perfbrm similar 
duties with regard to constitutional safeguards provided for Imguistic mino- 
rities. 


AMENDMENT OF THE CONSTITUTION 

Article 368 provides that an amendment to the Constitution may be 
“'initiated only by ffic introduct on of a Bill for the purpose in dther House 
of Parliament ; and when the Bill is passed in each House by a majority of 
not less than tivo-thirds of the members of that House present and voting, 
it shall be presented to the President for his assent and upon such assent bemg 
given to the Bill, the Constitution shall stand amended in accordance with 
the terms of the Bill. The only provisions, for the amendment of which 
ratification by the legislatures of not less than one-half of the States has been 
prescribed in addition, relate to the election of the President, the Supreme 
Court and the High Courts, the distribution of legislative powers between 
the Centre and the States, the representation of the States in Parhament and 
the procedure for amendment of the Constitution. 

Since its inauguration on January 26, 1930, there have been seven 
amendments to the Constitution The Constitution (First Amendment) 
Act, 1951, besides mabng mmor changes in Articles 15, 19, 85, 87, 174, 176 
341, 342, 372 and 375, added two new Articles 31A and 31B and a Ninth 
Schedule after the Eighth Among the more notable features of this Act 
arc (i) the addition of a saving clause to Article 15 (prohibition of discrimi- 
nation) cnablmg the State to make special provisions for the advancement of 
socially and educationally backward classes ; and (u) the substitution of 
clause (2) in Article 19 by a new clause broadening the State’s power to 



64 


impose “reasonable restrictions” on. the citizens* right to freedom of speech 
and expression, in. the interest of “friendly relations \nth foreign. States” 
and m rdadon to “defamation or incitement to an offence,” besides security 
of State, public order, decency and morality, etc , which were included m 
the origmal clause as well The tu'o new Articles added after Article 31 
(right to property) provided for the sanng of Iain's relating to acquisition 
of estates and the vahdadon of certain land reform Acts and Regulations 
passed by the States and specified in the Ninth Schedule 

The Constitution (Second Amendment) Act, 1952, sought to amend 
Article 81 with a view to readjusting the scale of representation m the 
House of the People, necessitated b> the completion of the 1951 census 
The Constitution (Third Amendment) Act passed in 1954 substituted entr} 
33 of the Concurrent List in the Seventh Schedule by a new one, including 
food'^tufis, cattle fodder and raw cotton and jute as additional items whose 
producUon and supply can be controlled by the Centre, if expedient in the 
pubhc interest. 


The Constitution (Fourth Amendment) Act, 1955, amended Artides 
31, 31A, 305 and added a few more entnes to the Nmth Schedule. The 
amendment to Article 31(2) provided that ivhen the State compulsorily 
acquires private property for a pubhc purpose, the scale of compensation pres- 
cribed by the authonsu^ foliation would not be called in question in 
a court of law. Arude 31A ivas amended so as to cixludc Ac temporary 
taldng over of a property by the State either in pubhc interest or to secure 
ite better management from the compensation chuse. The amendment to 
Artide 305 ivas in lie nature of a saving dause for laivs providing for State 
monopolies Seven new entries were also added to the 3>Knth Sch^ule. 

The Constitution (Fifili Amendment) Act, 1955, substituted the proviso 
m Article 3 by a nciv one empowering the President to fix a time hmit for 
State Lectures to express their vieivs on proposed Central la\\'s affecting 
foe ^ and bounces, etc , of their respective States The Constitution 
(Si^ Amenfoaent) Act passed m 1956 added a new entry, i c , 92A, to foe 
Thuon of foe Swenfo Schedule rdatmg to taxes on the sale pur- 
chase of goods in foe ix^e of inter-State transactions and the rde^t 
dauses under Amdes 269 and 286 on the sulgect. 

The Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Ac^ 1956, necessitated 
by foe reorMnisaUon of States, involved not only the establishment of new 
States and alterations m State boundaries but also the abohtion of the three 
rati^ones of testates and the classification of certain areas as “Union 
amendment of Artide 1 and foe Fust Schedule 
to foe institution. Among foe other important Amdes which were affec- 
80 (composition of foe Council of States) 
foe alfecation of seats in foe Qounol to 

* Artide 81^ and 82 which were substituted by neiv ones Article 
fbr ongmal ji^dicUon of the Supreme Court, Amde 168 providing 



CHAPTER IV 
UEGIStATURE 


India IS a Sovereign Democratic Republic with a parliamentary form 
of government based on universal adult fianchise Sovereignty rests with 
the people The executive authority is ultimately accountable for all its 
decisions and acuons to tlic people through their elected rcprcscntauvcs in 
the legislature 

UNION PARLIAMENT 

The total number of members in the Council of States, as constituted 
at present, is 232, of ivliom 220 arc the elected representatives of the States 
and the Umon Tcrritoiics and 12 are nominated by the President The 
present strength of the House of the People is 506, consisting of 500 members 
du-ccUy elected from the fourteen States (including six from Ja mm u and 
Kashmir appointed by the President on tlic recommendation of the 
Legislature of the State) and the four Union Temtones of Delhi, Himachal 
Pradesh, Mampur and Tnpura, and six members nominated by the 
President to represent Anglo-Indians, the Part B Temtones of the Sixth 
Schedule and the Union Temtones of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands 
and the Laccadive, Minicoy and Amindivi Islands 

The State-ivisc allocation of seats m the two Houses and the strength 
of pohtical parties in the House of the People, as on March 1, 1959, is 
shown in the following table 

TABLE 24 


States and Temtona 

No of 
scats m 
Council 
of States 

House of the People 

No of 
seatsf 

Con § 

PSP 


JS 

OPft 

Ind, 

Andhra Pradesh . « 

18 

43 

37 



2 

■ 

2 

2 

Assam 

7 

12 

9 

2 





1 

Bibar 

22 

53 


3 





9 

1 

Bombay 

27 

66 

37 

5 

4 

2 

9 

9 

Kerala 

9 

18 

6 

1 

9 



2 

Madhya Pradesh , 

16 

36 

35 





1 


Madras 

17 

41 

31 


2 

- - 


8 

Mysore 

12 

26 

23 

1 




1 

1 

Onssa 

10 

20 

7 

2 

1 



7 

3 

Punjab 

11 . 

22 

20 


1 



1 

Rajasthan 


22 

19 

- - 






3 

Uttar Pradesh 

' 34 

86 

69 

4 

1 

2 

1 

9 

West Bengal 

16 

36 

23 

2 

6 


2 

3 

Jammu & Kashmir 

4 

6(1} 







5 i 


Ddhi 

3 

5 

5 

, 

^ ■ 




Himachal Pradesh 

2 

4(1) 

3 

— 


_ 

1 


Mampur 

1 

2 

1 

- - 

, 




J 

Tnpura 

1 

2 

1 

— 

1 

— 

-* 


GRAND TOTAL 


5001 

366 

20 

27 

4 j 

37 j 

44 


• Ejccliaive of the 12 nominated scats 


t Figures in brackets indicate the number of vacant seats 

t Exclusive of the sue nominated scats § For abbrcvaations, refer to p 68 

Tt In the column ‘OP’ are included * 

Andftra PnuUsh Peoples’ Democratic Front 2 Bthar Jharkhand 6 , Chhota Nagpur 











66 


The names of the members of the two Houses, as on March 1, 1959, 
arc given below ; 

COUNCIL OF STATES (RAJYA SABHA) 


ANDHRA PRADESH-ia 

t Makkioeni Basavapunnaiah 

2 B Gopala Reddi 

3 Akbar AU Khan 

4 Allun Satpjiarayana Raju 
Vecramaemnem Prasad Rao 


JVK Vallabbarao 
Kaj Bat 


,._j Bahadur Gour 

8 VC Kesava Rao 

9 Addum Balacami Reddy 

10 Narotham Reddy 

U Vdlun Veidsitacamaiia 

12 Siut Yashoda Reddy 

13 A Chahradhar 

14 K L Narasunham 

15 Narla Venkateswara Rao 

16 S Channa Reddy 

17 MuduTnala Henry Sanrad 

18 Suit Sceta Yudhvir 

ASSAMp-7 

19 Smt Bedavatr Burarahain 

20 S C Deb 

21. Lila Dhar Barooah 

22 Smt Pushpalata Das 

23 Puma Chandra Sbaima 

24 Joy Dhadra Hagjcr 

25 M TayyebuBa 

BIHAR-22 

26 Theodore Bodra 

27 Smt Lakshmi N Mcnoa 

28 Kailash Bthan Lall 

29 Nlaheh Sanin 

30 Puma Chandra Mitra 

31 Rajendra Pmtap Sinha 

32 R D Smha Dmkax 

33 R G Agan\ala 

34 M John 

35 Kjshon Ram 

36 Mazhar Imam 

37 . Ganfm Sharan Stnha 

38 Tajamul Husain 

39 Mohammad Uouur 

40 Ahmad Hussain 

41 Smt Jahanara Jaipal Singh 

42 peacmlra Prasad bmgh 

43 Kamia Singh 

« A\\^dh«hvsar Prasad Smha 

45 Braia Kithore Prasad Smha 

46 Rama Baliadur Smha 

47 Shetl Bhadra Yajee 

BOMDAY— 27 

40 Balbhimrao Deshmulh 

4 ^ Kajabhau \ ithalrao Dancre 
50 PN Kajabhoj ^ 


51 WaiDan Sbeodaa Barliogay 

52 Abid Ab 

53 Babubbai M Chuiaj 

54 Venkat Krishna Dbage 

55 MDD Glider 

56 La\ 3 t Lakhamsbi 

57 PremjJ Thobhanbhai Leuva 

58 Deokuiandan Narayan 

59 Jetbalal Hankrisbna Joshi 

60 D H \ anava 

61 T R Dcoginkar 

62 G R Kulkami 

63 Dhairyashdrao Yedtsvantrao Favnr 

64 Raghu Vira 

65 Manila! Chaturbhai Shah 

66 Jadaigi Keshaigi Modi 

67 M D TumpaUiwar 

68 Rohit Manusbanfcar Dave 

69 Khandubbsi I>-sai 

70 Ranirao Madhaorao Deshmukh 

71 Bhaurao Dev^aji Khobaragade 

72 Dahyabbai Valtabhbhai Patel 

73 Sonusmg Dbansing Paul 

74 Lalji Pendse 

KERALA^9 

75 K Madhasu Menoa 

76 P Narayanan Nair 

77 N C Sekhar 

78 P J Thomas 

79 M N Govuidan Nair 

80 K P Madha\an Nair 

81 Smt K Bharatlu 

82 A Subba Rao 

83 FA Solomon 

MADHYA PRADESH~16 

84 R P Dube 

85 Ratanlal Ktihorilal Malviya 

86 Avmdhcsh Pratap Singh 
67 Bhanu Pratap Singb 

88 Gopiknshna Vtiai\argiya 

89 Mohammad Ali 

90 Smt Krishna Ktiman 

91 Raghubir Sinh 

92 Ram Sahai 

93 Smt Rukmant Bat 

94 Banarsi Das Chaiuncdi 

95 Daialdas Kurre 

96 Smt Sccta Pannanand 

97 Tnmbak Damodar Pustake 

98 Vishnu Vmayak Sanvale 

99 Niranjan Singh 

MADRAS-17 

100 Smt Ammu Swaminadhan 



67 


103 N Ramakmhna Iyer I UTTAR PRADESH*~34 


104. T Bfaastara Rao 

105 T S, Pattabiraman ' 

106. Dawood Ah Muza 

107. A- Ramaswami Mudabar 

108 Smt T. Nallamuthu Ramamurthy 
109. Abdul Rahim 

110 S Venkataraman 

111 TS. Avmashihngam Ghettiar 

112. S Chattanatba Karayalar 

113. NM Liagam 

114 B Farameswaraa 

115 G BUyagopalan 

116. HD Rajah 

MYSORE-12 

117. B G. Nanjundaiya 

118 Raghaveudrarao 

119 B Shiva Rao 

120 Smt Violet Alva 

121 Janardhan Rao Dcsai 
122. NS Hardiker 

123 S V Kmhnamooithy Rao 

124 M Govinda RedcW 

125 Smt Annapurna Dcvi Thimmarcddy 

126 Mulka Govmda Reddy 

127 BP Basappa Shetty 

128. Mobammed Vabulia 

OXUSSA-ID 

129. PraTulla Chandra Bhanj Deo* 

130 Buwanath Das 

131 Govmd Chandra Mura 

132 Swapnananda Pamgrabi 

133 Bhagirathi Mahapatra 

134 Maheswar Naik 

135 Abhimanyu Radi 

136 Bibudbendra Mura 

137 Hanhar Patd 

138. Dibakar Patnaifc 

PUNJAB-11 

139. Anup Smgh 

140 Udham Singh Nagohe 

141 MHS Nihal Singh 

142 Raghbir Singh Panjhazari 

143 Ghaman LaU 

144 Jugal Kuhore 

145 Zail Singh 

146 Jagan Nath Kaushal 

147 Smt Amnl Kaur 

148 Darshan Smgh Phenunan 

149 Madho Ram Shanna 

RAJASTHAN— 10 

150 Aditycndra 

151 Jai Narain Vyas 

152 Vijay Smgh 

153 Abdul Slmkoor 

154 Smt Sharda Bbargava 

155 K L Shnmali 

156 Ja<twant Smgh 

157 Ke^hvanand 

15B Tikaram Pahwal 
159 Sadiq Ah 


*Smce died on March 5^ 1959 


160 Amar Nath ACTawal 
161. AmoIaLb Ghana 

162 Jogesb Chandra Chattetji 

163 Mohammad Faruqi 

164 RG Gupta 

165 Ahhtar Husain 

166 Smt Anu Kidwai 

167 Jashaud Smgh Bisht 

168 Smt Cbandmvaii Lakhanpal 

169 Jaspai Roy Kapoor 

170 J^annatb Prasad Agrawal 

171 ZA Ahmad 

172 Fandul Haq Ansan 

173 M F BhaT;gava 

174 Nawab Smgh Chauban 

175 Ahmad Said Khan 

176 Purushottam Das Tandon 

177 Braj Bihan Sharma 

178 Bal Krishna Sharma 

179 Gopinath Singh 

180 Hira Vallabha Tnpathi 

181 Hnday Nath Kunzru 

182 Har Prasad SaKsena 

183 P N Sapru 

184 Smt Savitry Devi Nigam 

185 Ram Knpm Smgh 

186 Mohammad Ibrahim 

187 Dbaram Prakash 

188 A Dharam Das 

189 Sbyam Dhar Mura 

190 Tarkeshwar Pande 

191 Govmd Ballabh Pant 

192 Ajit Pratap Smgh 

193 Sham Sundar Naram Tankha 

WEST ^NGAl^lS 

194 G C Biswas 

195 R^pat Smgh Doogar 

196 Nsdmaksha Dull 

197 Abdur Rczzak Khan 

198 Mnganka Mohan Sur 

199 Nihar Ranjan Ray 

200 P D Himatsingka 

201 Mehr Chand ^anna 

202 Surendra Mohan Chose 

203 Humayun Kabir 

204 Satyendra Prasad Ray 

205 Anwruddm Ahmad 

206 Aundra Nath Bose 

207 Santosh Kumar Basu 

208 Bhupesh Gupta 

209 Smt Maya I^! Chettry 

JAMMU AND KASHMnU-4 

210 Tnlocban Dutta 

211 Mohammad Jalah 

212 Budh Smgh 

213 Fir Mohammed Khan 

DELHI— 3 

214 OnkarNaih 

215 SK Dey 

216 Ahmed Ah 

HIMACRAL PRADESH-2 

217 Smt Lila Drvi 

218 Anand Chand 



68 


MANIPUR-l 

219 I< Lalit Madfaob Sharma 

TRIFURA-^l 

220 AMttl LaUf 

NOMINATED By THE PR£SIDENT<--12 

221 SN Bose 

222 Pntbvi lUj Kapoor 


223 M Satyanarayana 

224 A R Wadm 

225 Tara Chand 

226 B V (]\^ma) Warertar 

227 Smt Kuknum Devi Anindale 

228 NR Mallcani 

229 Kakasahcb I^dlrar 

230 PV Kane 

231 AM Khosla 

232 MaitluUsharaa Gupta 


HOUSE OF THE PEOPLE (LOK SABHA) 

ANDHRA PRADESH (43) 


S No Constitiieocy 


1 Adilabad 

2 Adorn 

3 Anautapur 

4 CiuUOOT 

5 Chiitoor (R) 

6 Cuddapah 

7 Eliuu 

S Golugooda 

9 Goiugonda (R) 

10 Gudivada 

11 Guntur 

12 Hmdvpur 

13 Hyderabad 

14 KaUoada 

13 KaUnada (R) 

IB Kanmnagi' 

17 Kanmaagar (R) 

18 Khantmaxa 

19 Kuniool 

20 Mahabuhabad 

21 Mahbubaagar 

22 Mabhubnagar (RJ 

23 Marluipur 

24 Maadipatnam 

25 Mcdak 

26 Nsdgonda 

27 Nalt^nda. (R) 

28 Nai^pitt ' 

29 Nellotc 

30 Nellotc (R> 

31 Niiaroabad 

32 Ongolc 

33 Pan-atljipurajn 

I 

3G Rajampet 
37 ScciuiQCTabad 
3J Snkalul-uti 
iX Tenaii 
10 Vici-abad 
41 ^Jjajanda 
4. ^i^VJa-ntnani 
*3 >\ara’*::al 


Name of the Member 


Party* 


K Asbanna Con + 

P VcoLatasubbaiah Con ' 

T Nagi Reddy CPI 

M Ananthasayanam Ayyangar Coo 


MV Gangadhara Siva 
V Ramj Reddy 
Smt Mothey Vedakumm 
M SiiryanarayanflTnihtbi 
K. Vccrairaa Fadalu 
D Balarama 
K Rr^hutamaiah 
KV Ramakruhna Reddy 
VinayakRaoK Koratkar 
M Tbimtnala Rao 
B S Murtby 
M SnrangaRao 
MR Krishna 
T B Vittal Rao 
Osman Alt Kban 
K Madhusudan Rao 
J Rameshwar Rao 
Pull Ramaswamy 
C Bab Reddy 
M Venkatamshna Rao 
P Hanumantba Rao 
D Venkateswara Rao 
D R^jiab 
Uddaiaju Ramam 
R Lakshmt Narasa Reddy 
B Anjanappa 
HC Hcda 
R Narapa Reddy 
Dippala SuTi Bora 
B Satyanarayana 
D SatyanatayanaRaju 
TN Viihwjmatha Reddy 
Ahmed Mohiuddin 
B RajagopalaRno 
N G Ranga 

Smt Sangam. LaLshrai Bai 


Con 

Con 

Con. 

Oon. 

Con. 

Con 

Con 

Oon. 

Con. 

Con 

Cod 

Cod. 

Oon 

PDF 

Con 

Con 

Con 

Con 

Con 

Con 

Con 

PDF 

Con 

CPI 

Con 

Oon, 

Con 

Con 

lod 

Con 

Con 

Con 

Con 

Con 

Con 

Con. 


Smt rvonunariyii Atchamamba Con 


Vijajnram Raju 
Sadath Ali Khan 


Ind 

Con 


T .X' 

rre^) , , FBlFonvardBloe) ; NG(NLtiou„ 

f br} -duW Ca member eoastitnenoa) 


Ca / oidccneuw 

(Pnji » Bid (Indcpcndcni 

^Vortw Pany); H 


69 


S No. Conshtucnqr 


Name of the Member Party 


44. Autonomom Districts 

45. Cachar 

46 Cachar (R) 

47. Darrang 

48 Dhubn 

49 Dibnigarh 

50. Gauhati 

51. Goalpara 

52. Goalpara (R) 

53 Jorhat 

54 Nowgong 

55 Sibsagar 

56 — 


57. Aurangabad 

58. Bagaba 

59. Banka 
60 Barb. 

61. Bcgusarai 

62. Bl^alpur 

63. Buxar 

64. Gbampaxan 

65. Champaran (R) 

66 Ghapra 

67 Chatta 

68 Darbhai^a 
69. Darbhanga (R) 

70 Dbanbad 

71. Dumka 

72. DumU(R) 

73 Gaya 

74 Gindih 
75. Gopalganj 
76 Hajipur 
77. Hqipiir(R) 

78 Hazanbagb , 

79 Jauiagar 

80 Jamshedpur 

81 Katihar 

82 Kesana 

83 Khagana 

84 Kishang^j 

85 Lohardaga (R) 

86 Madhubam 

87 Mabarajgao] 

88 Monghyr 

89 Monghyr (R) 

90 Muzafiaipur 

91 Nalanda 

92 Nawada 

93 Nawada (R) 

94 Palamau 

95 Patna 

96 Pupn 

97 Pumca 

98 Rajmahal (R) 

99. Ranchi Bast 

100. Ranchi West (R) 

101 Saharsa 

102 Saharsa (R) 

103 Samastipur 


ASSAM (13) 


Hoover Hyniuewta ^ 

Ind. 

Dwankanath Tewari 

Con 

Nibaran Chandra Laskar 

Con 

B Bhagaivati 

Con 

Amjad All 

PSP 

Jogendra Nath Hazanka 

Con. 

Hem Bania 

PSP 

Smt ManjuIaDcvi 

Con 

Dharamdhar Basumatan 

Con 

Smt Maftda Ahmed 

Con. 

Liladhar Kotoki 

Con. 

ProfuUa Chandra Borooab 

Con 

Chowkhainoon Gohain* 


BIHAR (53) 


Satyendra Narayan Sinha 
Bibhuti Mishra 

Con 

Con 

Smt Shakuntala Devi 

Con 

Smt Tarkeshwan Sinha 

Con 

Mathura Prasad Mishra 

Con 

Banarsi Prasad Jhvmjhuntvala 

Con 

Kamal Singh 

Ind 

Bipm Bihan Vanoa 

Con. 

Bhola Raut 

Con 

Rajendra Sisgh 

PSP 

Smt Vijaya Raje 

Janata 

Shrec Narayan Das 

Con 

Rameshwar Sahu 

Con 

Prabhat Chandra Bose 

Con 

Suresh Chandra Choudhury 

Jharkhand 

Debi Soren 

Jharkhand 

Brajcihwar Prasad 

Con 

S A Matin 

Janata 

Syed Mahmud 

Con 

Rajeshwar Patel 

Con 

Ghandramam Lai Cboudhry 

Con 

Smt I^ita Rajyalakshmi 

Janata 

Shyam Nandan Mishra 

Con 

Monmdra Kumar Ghosh 

Con 

Bholanath Biswas 

Con 

Dwarka Nath Tiwary 

Con 

Jiyalal Mandal 

Con. 

Mohammad Tahir ' 

Con 

Ignacc Beck 

Jharkhand 

Amrudha Sinha 

Con 

Mahendra NaihSingb 

Con 

Banarsi Prasad Sinha 

Con 

Nayantara Das 

Con 

Asoka Mehta 

PSP 

Kailash Pab Sinha 

Con 

Smt Satyabhama Devi 

Con. 

Ramdhani Das 

Con 

Gajendra Prasad Sinha 

Con 

Sarangadhara Smha 

Con 

Digvij^a Naram Smgh 

Pham Gopal Sen 

Con 

Con 

Paika Murmu 

Con 

M R Masam 

Jharkhand 

Jaipal Smgh 

Jharkhand 

Lalit Narayan Mishra 

Con 

Bboli Sardar 

Con 

Sat) a Narayan Sinha 



* Nominated by the President to represent Part B Tribal Areas of Assam 


70 


S No Constituency 


Name of the Member 


Party 


lOl S'lci'am 
103 Saonim (R) 

10 1 Shshabad 
107 Sin^hhhum (R) 
lOl Siiamarhi 
103 Sjuun 


1 10 Ahmedabad 

111 Ahmcdaliad (R) 

112 iVhmridnacar 

113 Akoh 
111 Akoh(R) 

115 Ammati 
IIG Anand 

117 Atirangibad 

116 Oina^kantha 

1 19 B\ranuu 

120 EUroHa 

121 Bhandora 

122 Bhandara (R1 

123 nh:f 

121 B->mbay Cily Central 
125 Bimba> Cit> Central (R1 
12fl IVinnbay City North 

127 Binbiy Qiy South 

128 D'nacb 

129 Biildtna 

130 Biilur {R1 

131 Chanda 

132 Dhuht 

133 I>>ha I (R) 

ISl Caji Khandah 
13> Cimar 

I3‘> Gnhttwad 
137 I talar 
130 jalna 
13*^ 

1 10 Karad 
HI khM 

112 ki'"abt 

113 RnH ap r* 

141 kn’Hpur {R) 

1 1 > knp<"jpuin 


Ram Subhag Singh 
Jagjivan Ram 
Bhagat 

Shambhu Charan Godsora 
J B Knpalam 
Jbulan Smha 


BOMBAY (66) 


lodulal K Yajnik 
Karsaodas Pannar 
RK,Khadilkar 
G B Khcdiar 
L S BbatLar 
F S Deshmukh 
Smt Mamben V Patel 
Ramananda Tutha 
Ahbarbbai Chat da 
K M Jedhe 

Fatesinbarao F Gaelnvad 
R M Hajamavu 
BR Wasmk 
RD Paul 
SA Dangc 
G K Manay 

V K Krishna Mcnoa 
SK Patil 
Chandra Shankar 

S R Ranc 
Naoubhai N Patel 

V N Swanu 
UL Paul 

Jaljibbai K Dindod 
Kaushir Dharucha 
Smt Jaj’aben Vajubbai Shah 
Balianuay G Mehta 
Jai Sukh Lai Hathi 
AV Ghare 
ratesinhj] Ghodasar 
l^^tsaheb Ramrao Chavan 
B D Skunks 
R B Raut 

Bhausoheb R Mahagaonlcar 

S k Dige 

Be Kamblc 

Bha\-anji A Khunji 

bltnuhhai Shah 

^da\ Ntrattin Jadhav 

^ha^anlal \i Kedana 

Pururhoianidas R. Patel 

Batasaheb Paul 

M S Aney 

lianliar Rao Sonule 

p N P Kamblc 

n>'atirao kruhnarao Galkwad 

^ ^ Nalthirlter 

Manelltl Maeanlal Gandhi 

A K PanirirLar 

Mott* nh B ThatQ*ie 

Jt C Co-ay 

^•a h B. pu Pai 

k O l>e?''’n;nKh 
PR Ai-a- 
< ii'ri'i’ d N»-<ia 
Na-u Pat 1 
JC '»c-e 


Con 

Con 

Con. 

Jharkhand 

PSP 

Con. 


Ind 

Ind 

Ind. 

Con 

Con. 

Con 

Cod. 

Con. 

Con 

Con 

Con 

Con 

Con 

Con. 

CPI 

SCF 

Con 

Con. 

Con. 

Con 

Con 

Con 

JS 

Con 

PSP 

Con. 

Con 

Con 

Ind. 

Ind 

PWT 

SCF 

PkVP 

P\4T 

SCF 

Ind 

Con 

Con 

PSP 

Con 

Ind 

PIVP 

Con 

Con 

SCF 

scr 

Con 

Crm. 

Con 

Ind. 

PSP 

PSP 

Coo. 

Cent 

CPI 

IrJ 




71 


S. No Consutuency 


Name of the Member Party 


167. Sholapur (R) 

168 Sorath 

169 Surat 

170 Thana 
171. Thana (R) 

172 VVardha 

173 West Kbandcsh (R) 

174 Yeotmal 
175. Zalawad 


176 Ambalapuzha 
177. Badagaia > 

178 Chirayinkd 

179 Emalmlam 

180 Kasaigod 

181 Kottayam 

182 Kozhwode 

183 Manjen 

184 Mulmndapuram 

185 Muvattupuzba 

186 Palghat 

187 Palghat (R) 

188 Qudon 

189 Q.uUon (R) 

190 TcUicherry 

19 1 Thiruvdla 
192. Tncbur 
193 TnvaDdnim 


194 Balaehat 

195 Balooa Bazar 

196 Baloda Bazar (R) 

197 Bastar(R) 

198 Bhopal 

199 Bilaipur 

200 Cbbindwara 

201 Chhindwara (R) 

202 Durg ' 

203 Guna 

204 Gwalior 

205 Gwalior (R) 

206 Hoshangabad 

207 Indore 

208 Jabalpur 

209 Janjgir 

210 Jhabua(R) 

211 Khajuraho 

212 Khajuraho (R) 

213 Mandla (R) 

214 Mandsaur 

215 Nunar 

216 Nunar (Rhandwa] 

217 Raipur 

218 Raipur (R) 

219 Rci^ 

220 Sagar 

221 Sagar (R) 

222 Sbahdol 

223 Shahdol (R) 

224 Shajapur 
g S^japurCR) 

Shivpun 


TH Sonavane 
Narendrabhai Nathwani 
Moragi Dcsai 
S V ParulcLar 
L M Matcra 
Kamalnayan J. BajEO 
Laxman Vcdu Vsdvi 
DY Gohokar 
Ghanshyamlal Oza 

EERALA (18) 

PT Punnoose 
K B Menon 
M K Kumaran 
A M Thomas 
A K Gopalan 
Mathew MamyaDgadan 
KP KuttiknshnanNaSr 
B Pocker 
TCN Menon 
GT Kottukapally 
V Eacharan 
P Kunhan 
VP Nayar 
PK Komyan 
M K Jmachandian 
P R Vasudevan Nair 
KK Wanor 
S Easwara Iyer 


Con 

Con 


Con. 

CPI 

CPI 

Con. 

PSP 

Con. 

Con. 


CPI 

PSP 

CPI 

Con. 

CPI 

Con 

Con 


Ind 


CPI 


Con 

CPI 

CPI 

CPI 

Con. 

CPI 

CPI 

Ind. 


MADHYA PRADESH (36) 


C D Gautam 

Vidya Charan Sbukla 

Smt Mimmata Agamdas Guru 

Surd Kistaiya 

Smt Maunoona Sultan 

Resham Lai Jangdc 

B L Cbandak 

N M VVadiwa 

Mohanlal Bakliwal 

Smt Vijaya Rsye Sdndia 

Radha Charan Shaima 

Sunya Prashad 

Ra^unath Singh 

K L Rb^wala 

Govmd Das 

Amar Singh Saigal 

Amar Singh Damar 

Ram SahaiTnvan 

Motdal Malviya 

mg Uikcy 

Manakbhai Agcatval 

Ramsii^h Bhai Vaima 

Babulal Tiwan 

Birendra Bahadur Singh 

Smt Kesar Kuroaxi Devi 

Shiva Dutt Uradhyaya 

Jwala Prasad Jyotishi 

Smt Sahodra Bai Ral 

Anand Chandra Joshi 

Kamal Narzan Smgh 

Liladhar Josm 

KB Malvia 

Braj Narayan 


Con 

Con. 

Con. 

Con. 

Con, 

Con 

Con 

Con. 

Con. 

Con. 

Con. 

Con. 

Con. 

Con. 

Con. 

Con 

Con 

Con 

Con 

Con. 

Con 

Con. 

Con, 

Con, 

Con. 

Con 


Con. 

Con 

Con 

Con 

Con 

HM 



72 


S No Coasutucncj' Nnmc of ihc Mcmlicr PAfi) 


227 Surguja 

228 Surguja (R) 

229 Ujjain 


230 Chidambaram 

231 Ghidambram (R) 

232 Chmglcput 

233 Chmglcput (R) 

234 CotmbatoTe 

235 Cuddalorc 

236 Dmdigul 

237 Dmdigul (R) 

238 GobicjicLlipal'iyam 

239 Kanir 

240 Knshoagin 

241 Kumbakonatn 

242 Madras North 

243 Madras South 

244 Maduiai 

245 Kagapattinam 

246 Nagapattinam (R) 

247 Nagercod 

248 NamokLal 

249 Namakkal (R) 

250 Nilgirjs 

251 Fcrambalur 

252 Penyakulam 

253 PoUachi 

254 FuduLottai 

255 Ramanathapunun 

256 Salem 

257 SnvilUputhur 

258 Snvilbputhur (R) 

259 Tanjore 

260 Tenkasi 

261 Tindivanam 

262 Turuvanaamalai 

263 Tirudiendur 

264 Timcheagodc 

265 TiruchirapalU 

266 Tmuiel^eli 

267 Tirupathur 

268 TinivaUur 

269 Vellore 

270 VcUore (R) 


271 

272 

273 

274 

275 

276 

277 

278 

279 

280 
281 
282 

283 

284 


Bangalore (Rural) 
Bangalore City 
Bclgaum 
Bellary 
Byapur South 
Byapur North 
Ghikodi 
Chitaldurg 
Dhanvar North 
Dhanvar South 
Gulbarga 
Gulbatga (R) 
Hassan 
Kanara 
Kolar 
Kolar (R) 


ClnndiVcslmnr Slinrm Singh Con. 

Ihlnmath Siiii,h C>)n 

Rndbflal \>as Con 


MADRAS (41) 


R Kimlatahu rdlil fxin 

L I Ii>n|>cruTml Con 

A Kri\hm«nnu It fl 

N SiM Riij Ind 

Smt Pir%athi M Kridimn CPI 

{ D Miithuluin*ir*i<iini '\a)'UfIii Tnd 
M GuHm MohitVrn Con 

S C Ihlal ndm-in 

K S Rimisi^nm) Om 

K Pcrnswinn Goundcr Con 

C R NnrnMmli‘*n Con 

C R P-utnbhi Ramnn On 

see \nihfujj Pillni Ind 

1 T Kn hn‘*niachan Con 

Kl K rantj-'mani CPI 

K R Sambnndnm Con 

M A> 7 nl Lannii Con 

P Thiinuhni; im Nadir Con 

EVKSampatli Ind. 

S R Aiuinuglnm Con 

C Nnnjapp m Con 

M Palam>and> Con 

R Nam^nnns^ nmi Con 

P R Rnmiknshnin Con 

R Ramathan Clicltior Con 

P Subbtih Ambnlam Con 

S V Ramnswam> Con 

U MuUiurmiltngn Tlicnr Ind 

R S Arumugnm Con. 

A Vairm nn Con 

M SanUirapandi'*n Con 

NP Shinmugi (Sounder Ind 

R Dharmalmgam Ind 

T Ganapathy (^n 

P Subbara%an Con 

M K M Abdul Salam Con 

P T Thanu Pillix Con 

A Doraisi%-ami Goundcr (Son 

R Govindarajulu Naidu (Son 

N R M Suiimj (Son 

M MuthuLnshnan (Son 

MYSORE (26) 

H C Dasappa Cion 

N K«hava Con 

B N Datar Con 

T Sul^manyam CSo„ 

R B Bidan Con 

MS Sugandhi Ind 

D A KatU SOF 

J M Mohamed Imam PSP 

D P Karmarkar Con 

TA 

hiahadevappa Rampure 0 >n 

Soanhar Deo Con 

H Siddananjappa Con 

Joachim Alva Con 

Con 

JJodda Thiininaiah Con 


73 


S. No 

Constituency 

Name of the Member 

Party 

287 

Koppal 

S A Agadi 

Con 

288 

Maxidya 

M K Shivananjappa 


289 

Mangalore 

KR Achar 

Con 

290. 

My«)rc 

M. Shanliarai>'a 

Con 

291 

Mysore (R.) 

S M. Siddtali 

Con. 

292 

Raichur 

G S Mcliwotc 

0>n 

293 

Shimoga 

KG ^^odcyar 

Con. 

294. 

Tiptur 

OR Basappa 

MV Kndmappa 

Con. 

295. 

TutnlTir 

Con 

296 

Udipi 

US Malliah 

ORISSA (20) 

Con 

297 

Angul f 

B PC DcbBirma 

GP 

298 

Ralasore 

Bhagabat Sahu 

Con. 

299 

Bilisorc (R) 

Kanhu Charan Jena 

C>n 

300 

Bhubaneswar 

N C Samanl'isinhar 

Con 

301 

Cuttack 

Nit> inand Kanungo 

Con 

302 

I7hcnkanal 

Surendn 

GP 

303 

Ganjim 

Ulna Charan Patn-ul 

Ind 

301 

Ganjam (1^) 

Mohan Nayak 

C.on. 

305 

KMalnndi 

Pralap Kesliari Deo 

GP 

306 

Kllalimdi (R) 

B G Prodlnn 

GP 

307 

Kcndrapari 

Surcndramlii Dmtcdv 

1»SP 

300 

Kendwpara (R) 

Baishnab Cliaran Mullick 

PSP 

309 

Keonjhar 

Lai slim Xara\ an Bhanja Deo 

Ind 

310. 

Kora put 

laganitha Rao 

Con 

311. 

Korapul (R) 

i Siniranna 

Con 

312 

M'xjnirbh’inj (R) 

R im Chandra Majhi 

Ind 

313 

Puri 

Chmtamani Paaigrahi 

CPI 

311 

Simbalpur 

ShraddhaJ ar Supaljir 

GP 

315 

Sambalpiir (R) 

Batnnnli Kumbhar 

GP 

316 

Suiulirgarh (R) 

Kalo Chandra nan 

GP 





74 


S No Constituency Name of the Member TArty 


344 Bhflwara 

345 Btkaner 
546 Bikaner (R) 

347 Pausa 

Jaipur 
349 Jalore 

Jbunjbunu 
Jodhpur 
Kotah 

353 Kotah (R) 

354 Nagaur 

355 Pah 

356 Savvai Madbopur 

357 Sawai Madbopur (R) 

358 Sikar 

359 Udaipur 

360 Udaipur (R) 


350 

351 

352 


Ramesh Chandra V) as Con. 

Kami Singh Ind 

Panoalal Hirupal Con 

G D Soxnani Con 

Hanih Chandra Shurma Ind 

Suroj Raian Dainani Con 

Radbcsh>'un R Moruka Con 

jTSunntraj Mehta Con. 

Ncmi Cbnndra Kasliwal Con, 

Onkar Lai Con 

Mathundns Mathur Con. 

Hansh Cliandra Mathur Con. 

Hiralal Shastn Con 

J:^;an Nath Prasad Fahadia Con 

RamcshisarTanln Con 

Manik^a Lai Vorroa Con, 

Deco Bandhu Farmar Con 


UTTAR PRADESH (86) 


861 Agra 

362 Allgarb 

363 Ahgarb (R) 

364 Almora 

365 AUababad 

366 Amroha 

367 Aaamgarh 

368 Azamgarh (R) 

369 Bahrsuch 

370 Balrampur 

371 Baba 

372 Banda 

373 Barabanla 

374 Baiabanki (R) 

375 Bareilly 

376 Bam 

377 Bam (R) 

378 Bijnor 

379 Bdhaur 

380 Buauh 

381 Budaim 

382 Bulandsbabr 
883 Bulandsbahr (R) 

384 Chandauli 

385 Dehru Dun 

386 Dcona 

387 Domanagatu 

388 Etah 

389 Etawah 

390 Etaw^ (R) 

391 Eaixabad 

392 Faizabad (R) 

393 Farrukhabad 

394 Fatebpur 

395 Fen».abad 

396 Garbwal 

397 Gbazipur 

» S98 Ghon 

399 Gonda 

400 Gorakhpur 

401 Gorakhpur (R) 

402 Hapur 

403 HamuTpur 

404 Hamirpur (R) 

405 Hardoi 
405 Hardoi (K) 


Achal Smgh 
Jamal Khivaja 
Nordeo Suakde 
Jang Bahadur Smgb But 
Lnl Bahadur Shastn 
HiGnir Rahman 
Kalika Singh 
Viswanath Prasad 
Jogendra Singh 
Al^ Bihan Vajpayee 
Radha Mohan Smgb 
Dmesb Smgb 
Ram Seviuk Yadav 
Ramanand Shastn 
Satish Chandra 
KD Malaviya 
Ram Ganb 
Abdul Lateef 
Jagduh Awastbi 
Kidan Smgb 
R^bubir Sahai 
Ragbubar Dayid Misbra 
Kanhaiya Lai Balmiki 
Prabhu Naiam Smgh 
Mahavir Tyagi 
Ranyi Venna 
Ram Shankar T.gi 
Rohanlal Chatuiaedi 
A^un Smgb Bhadauna 
Tt^ Ram 
Raja Ram Misra 
Panna T-s^l 
Mvilcband Dube 
Ansar Harram 
Braj Raj Singh 
Bb^ Darshan 
Har Prasad Smgh 
Umrao Smgb 
Dmesb Fratap Smgb 
Smbasm Smgb 
Mabadeo Prasad 
Knsbna Chandra ShaTma 
ML Dwivcdi 
lacbhi Ram 
Chhrda Lai Gupta 
Shivadm Drobar 


Con 

^n 

Con 

^n 

Con. 

Con 

Con 

^n 

Con 

JS 

Con. 

Con 

lud 

Can 

Con 

Con 

Ind 

Con. 

Ind. 

Con. 

Con 

Con 

Con 

See 

Con. 

PSP 

Con 

Con 

Ind 

Con 

Con 

Con. 

Con 

Con 

Ind 

Con. 

Con 

Con 

Con 

Con 

Con. 

Can 

Con 

Con 

Con 

JS 


75 


S Ko. Constituency 


407. Hata 

408. Jalesar 

409 Jaunpur 

410 Jaunpur (R) 


Name of the Member 


party 


411. 

jbansi 

412. 

KaisargarJ 

413. 

Kanpur 

114. 

Khou 

415. 

Lucltnow 

416 

Maharajganj 

417. 

Mainpuri 

418 

Mathura 

419 

Meerut 

420. 

Muzapur 

421 

422. 

Mirzapur (R) 
Moradabad 

423 

Musafirkbana 

424 

Muzafiam^ar 

425 

Nauutal 

426 

Fhulpur 

427. 

Phulpur (R) 
PiUhbit 

428 

429 

Pratapgarh 

430 

Rae Ba^ 

431 

Rae Bareh (R) 

432 

Rampur 

433 

Rasra 

434 

Sabaranpur 

435 

Saharanpur (R) 

436 

Salempur 

437 

Sardbana 

438 

Shabjahanpur 


439 Shabjahanpur (R} 

440 Sitapur 

441 Sitapur (R) 

442 Sultanpur 

443 Tebn Garbwal 


Kashi Nath Pandey Con 

Krishna Chandra Con. 

Birbal Singh Con 

Ganpat Ram Con. 

Smt Sushila Nayar Con 

Bhagwan Dm Misiz Con 

S M Banei^ee Ind, 

Khushwaqt Rai PSP 

Fulin Beh^ Banei^ee Con 

Sbibban Lai Saxena Ind 

Banshi Das Dhanagai PSP 

Mabcndra Pratap Ind 

Shah Nawaz Kl^ Con. 

JN Wilson Con 

Rup Naram Con. 

Ram Saran Con 

BV Keskar Con 

Sumat Prasad Con. 

G D Pandc Con 

Jawaharlal Nehru Con. 

Masunya Dm Con. 

Mohan Sivarup PSP 

Munishwar Dutt Upadhyay Con 

Feroze Gandhi Con 

Baij Nath Kurcel Con. 

S Ahmad Mehdi Con. 

Sagoo Pandey CPI 

Ajit Prasad Jam Con. 

Sunder Lai Con. 

Bishwa Nath Roy Con 

Vishnu Sharan Dublish Con. 

Bishanchandar Seth Ind 

Naram Dm Con. 

Smt Uma Nehru Con. 

Farag] 1^ Con. 

Govmd Malaviya Con 

Manabendra S hah Con 


444 

Unnao 

Vishwambbar Dayal Tnpathi 

Con. 

445. 

Unnao (R) 

Smt Ganga Devi 

Con. 

446 

Varanasi 

RagbunaA Sm^ 

Con. 



WEST BENGAL (36) 


447 

Asansol 

Atulya Gbosb 

Con. 

448 

Asansol (R) 

Mono Mohan Das 

Con 

449 

Bankura 

Ram Gob Baneiji 

Con 

450 

Bankura (R) 

Pashupatt Mandal 

Con. 

451 

Barasat 

Arun Chandra Guha 

Con. 

452 

Barradqiore 

Bimkt Comar Ghose 

PSP 

453, 

Basirbat 

Smt Renu Chaloavartty 

CPI 

454 

Basirbat (R) 

Paresb Nath Kayal 

Con. 

455 

Berhampore 

Tndib Kumar Chaudbuii 

Ind 

456 

Birbbum 

And Kumar Chanda 

Con. 

457 

Birbbum (R) 

Kama! Knsbna Das 

Con 

458 

Burdwan 

Subiman Ghose 

FB 

459 

Calcutta Central 

Hirendra Nath Mukegee 

CPI 

460 

Calcutta East 

Sadban Chandra Gupta 

CPI 

461 

Calcutta — ^North-West 

Asoke Kumar Sen 

Con 

462 

Calcutta — &uth-West 

Biren Roy* 

Ind. 

463 

CoutBi 

Framathanatb Banegee 

PSP 

464 

Cooch Behar 

Nalmi Ranjan Ghosh 

Con 

465 

Coocb Behar (R) 

Upendranath Barman 

Con. 

466 

Daijeelmg 

T Manaen 

Con. 

467. 

Diamond Harbour 

Pumendu Sekhar Naskar 

Con. 

468 

Diamond Hkrbour (R) 

Kansan Haider 

CPI 


* Since unseated as a result of an decuon petition 


76 



469 Ghatal 

470 Hooghly 

471 Ho^vrah 

472 Malda 

473 Midnapur 

474 Midnapur (R) 

475 Mmsbidab^ 

476 Kabadwp 
All Purulia 

478 Scrainpore 

479 Tamlut 

480 "Ulubena 

481 West Dmajpur 

482 West Dmajpur (R) 


Nikunja Beharx Maiti Con 

Praljhat Kar CH 

Moharmned Elias CPI 

Smt Renuka Ray Con 

Narasingha Malla Deb Con 

S Hansda Con 

Muhanimed Khuda Bukhsh Con 

Smt Ua Palchoudhun Con 

Bibhuti Bbusan Das Gupta Ind 

Jitendra Nath Lahin Con 

Satis Chandra Sanranta Con 

Aurobindo Ghosal PB 

ChapalaLanta Bhattacharya Oon 

Mardi Seiku Con 


JAMMU & KASHMIR (6)* 

483 — Abdul Ra^d NC 

484 — Vacant NO 

485 . — Smt Knshna Mehta NG 

486 — Abdur Rahman NC 

487 — Mohammad Akbar NC 

488 — am Tanq NG 


489 Chandni Cbowk 

DELEH (5) 

Radha Raman 

Con 

490 Delhi Sadar 

Brahm Perlash 

Con 

491 Nw Delhi 

Smt Sucdieta Rnpalaot 

Con 

492 Outer Delhi 

G KnshnanNair 

Con 

493 Outer Ddhi (R) 

Naval Prabhakar 

Con 

494 Ghamba 

HIMACHAL PRADESH (4) 

Padam Dev 

Con 

495 Mahasu 

Vacant 

— 

496 Mahasu (R) 

Nek Ram Negt 

Con 

497 Mandi 

Joginder Sen — Mandi 

Con 

498 Inner Manipur 

MANIPUR (2) 

I,aisram Achaw Smgh 

lod 

499 Outer Manipur 

Rungsusg Suisa 

Con 

500 Tnpura 

TRIPURA (2) 

Dasaratha Deb 

CPI 

501 Tnpura (R) 

Bangshi TTiakur 

Con 

502 — 

ANDAMAN AND NICOBAR ISLANDS (1)* 
Lachman Singh 


LACCADIVE, MlNICOY AND AMINDIVI ISLANDS (1)* 


503 — 

Koyilat Nallakoya 

— 

501 — 

ANGLO-INDIANS (2)* 

Ttank Anthony 


50j — 

A E T Barrmv 

— 

5<v; _ 

NAGA HILLS TUENSANG AREA (1)* 

Vacant 



cd by the President 


77 


OJJiccTs of Parliament 

The pnncipal officers of Parbament arc the Chairman and the Deputy 
Chairman of the Council of States and the Speaker and the Deputy Sp^er 
of the House of the People Besides presiding over the dehberations of the 
respective Houses, they act as the guardians of their pnvilegcs They 
interpret rules of the Houses and ate the final authority on the procedure to 
be foIloNsed in any matter in their respective Houses or in any of their 
committees The po^vc^ to certifV a Money Bill vests in the Speaker of the 
House of the People, who also presides over joint sittings of the two Houses. 

The incumbents of these offices arc * 

Council of Statfis 

' Chairman . ^ Badkaknshnan 

Deputy Chatman . . S V KrtshnamooTil^ Sao 

House of tfac People 

Speaker . M Anatahascyanam Ay^atigar 

Deputy SpeaUr . Hukam Sitigh 

Functions and Powers of Parliament 

The mam functions of Parliament are to make laws for the country, 
to make finances avsulable for the needs of the Grovemment and appropriate 
funds necessary for the services of the State The two Houses form part 
of the Electoral College for the election of the President and constitute the 
Electoral College for the choice of the Vice-President, The Council of 
Ministers is collectively responsible to the House of the People which also 
votes the salanes and allowances of Ministers and can force the r^gnation 
of the Council of Miiusters by refusmg to pass the budget or any other 
major legislative measure or by adopting a vote of no-confidence 

AU legislation reejmres the consent of both Houses of Parhament 
Delegated legislation is also subject to review and control by Parbament. 
Although aU financial legislation must be recommended by the President, 
the House of the People alone can sanction grante, appropnations and 
proposals for taxation Parhament’s power to debate pubhc questions 
and to rcvieiv the ivork of the different departments of the Government 
is unfettered by any limitations except those imposed by the Constitution 
or by Its otvn rules of procedure In times of emergency, the legislative 
authority of Parhament also extends to the matters enumerated m the 
State List Besides these, amendments of the Constitution, impeachment 
of the President, the removal of judges of the Supreme Court and High 
Courts, and the removal of the Chief Election Commissioner and the 
Comptroller and Auditor-General are among the powers which are 
exclusively vested m the Umon Parliament. 

Procedure 

The proceedmgs of the two Houses are governed by their respective 
rules of procedure and conduct of business, made under Article 1 18 of the 
Constitution 

Subject to the provisions relating to Money and other financial billsj 
a bill may originate in either House of Parliament. All legislation requires 
the consent of both Houses of Parhament which decide every issue by a 
Simple majority of the members present and voting except where a special 
majonty is required by the Constitution Until Parhament by law other- 
wise provides, the quorum to constitute a meeting of either House of 
Parh^ent is one-tenth of its total membership 

The procedure governing the actual passage of bills in the two 
Houses is identical Every bill has to pass through the foUoivmg stages 



78 


ity (0 introduction and publication; {h) general debate 
(iw) clause by clause consideration , and (io) the passing of the bill by the 
House * After its passage in the two Holiscs, the bill is presented to^ the 
President for his assent and becomes law only after the President has giv^ 
such assent In cases of disz^eement between the two Houses, the 
President is empowered to call a joint sitting to dehberate and vote upon the 
measure At joint sittmgs decisions arc t^en by a simple majonty of the 
members present and voting ^ j j 

There is a special procedure for Money Bills which can be introduced 
only in the House of the People When a Money Bill has been passed 
by the House of the People, it is transmitted to the Council of States for its 
recommendations, and the Council, tvithm a period of fourteen days from 
the date of the receipt of the bill, returns it to the House with its recommen- 
dations and the House thereupon cither accepts or rqects all or any of the 
rcoimmendations of the Council t 

Department of Parlumeniary Afairs 

The franung and workmg of the programme of business of Parliament 
is done by the Department of Parliamentary Affairs It chalks out the 
programme for every session, detenmnes the pnorides for different items 
and the amount of time to be alloted to each This is done m close liaison 
wtb the Parhamentary and Legal Affairs Committee of the Gabmct on the 
Government’s side and the Business Advisory Committee for each House 
on Parliament’s side 

The Department also lays on the table of Parliament periodical 
Statements regardmg implementation of undertakings and assurances given 
on behalf of the Government on the floor of the House These are 
scrutinised by the Lok Sabha Gommiltee on Government Assurances. 
Cases of unsatisfactory implementation arc referred back to the Ministries 
concerned by the Department of Parhamentary Affairs and a final report 
is made to the House 


Committees of the Houses 

Paihamcntary Comimttces are appointed either on a motion adopted 
by the House itself or by the Speaker. One-thu'd of the members of a 
Committee censUtute the quorum for a meeting The sittings of the 
Committees arc pnvate and they arc empowered to summon witnesses to 
appear before them and to require production of any papers or records. 
Among the important conmuttcesof each House are the Business Advisory 
Committee and the Commiitce on Privileges. 


Control Over Executive 

Apart from general financial control, the House of the People also 
1 ceps on reviewing the financial administration of the Government through 
Its Committees on Public Accounts and on Estimates The Gonmuttccs 
arc elected by the House from among its members by the smgfo transferable 
vote Mmistcis are debarred from being members of these Committees 
Tile Public Accounts Committee ensures that public money is spent in 
.accordance wiih Parliament’s decisions and calls attention to cases of uaste. 
extravagance, loss nugatory expenditure or lack of finanaal mtceritv m 
public seiviccs The Lstimatcs Committee reports on “what ccoLmies 
improvements m organisation, efficiency and administrative rcfortil 
consistent \ ith the pohev underlying the estunates may be effected ” It 
and provided in the estimates is ucU laid out 

and mg gcsis the form in which esumatc:> shal l be presented to Parliament. 

• ^ SdcciJoinT^omnuticcrorfurth-^. 

1 rc' pajcedure rrfauns to the bud8e^ s« Cbapier XIX. 



79 


Other opportumtics of rassiog debates and elicidng information on the 
poheies of the Government and other public questions and of ventilating 
grievances against the administration include resolutions, ‘questions’ by 
members and *half-an-hour discussions’ on matters arising out of questions ; 
debates on the President’s addresses, and emergency adjournment and 
‘No-Day-Yct-Named’ motions 

The debate on the address of the President to a joint sitting of the 
tivo Houses, outlining the pobey of the Government on matters of vital 
concern to the people and the programme of the Government for the 
session, provides a major occasion for the discussion of governmental pohacs. 

On urgent public questions, any member may bnng forward a motion 
for the adjournment of the House to discuss that matter There is provision 
for short discussion and ‘calhng attention* to less important matters. After 
giving notice of 15 days, a member may move a resolution on any matter of 
general public interest, which if adopted, is communicated by the Speaker 
to the Minbter concerned for necessary action In extreme cases there is 
provision for a motion of want of confidence in the Goundl of Ministers 
which can be moved under a prescribed procedure. 


STATE LEGISLATUBES 

Of the fourteen States of the Indian Umon, ten have a bicameral 
and four a umcameral le^lature.^ The stien^h of the Legislative 
Councils (Vidhan Parishad) and Legislative Assembhes (Vidfaan Sabha) 
in the States and the position of various parties m the latter, as on December 
31, 1958, is given in Table 25 on the next page. 

OJicers of the Legislature 

^ The State Legislatures have their presiding ofBccrs knotvn as the 
^airman and the Deputy Chairman of the Le^rianve Council and the 
^eakcr and the Deputy Speaker of the Legislative Assembly. The 
Chainnan of die Council and the Speaker of the Assembly enjoy powers and 
pnviltgcs and perform functions similar to those of their counterparts in 
the Union Parliament. ^ 


Punettons 

. ^ exclusive powers over subjects enumerated 

in List II of the Seventh Schedule to the Constitution and concurrent 
powers over those enumerated m List HI. Ordmanccs promulratcd bv 
f ^ ^ approval of the Legislature: The finana^ 

of the ^gislature include statutory authorisauon of all expenditure, 
^aon and borro^ by the State Government. The Goundl 5* 
Miniiters is responsible to the Legislative Assembly of the State. 

Procedure 

^ Aiticics 188 to 213 of the Constitution of India describe the more 
important rules for the conduct of busmess, disqualification of membem 
poivera, pavileges and immumties of State Legislatures and their members 
procedure for ordinary and finandal bills In addil^ 
ml « W are^powered by the Constitution to frame th^ 

own rulte of procedure The quorum for a meeting of the Legislature is 
one-tenth of its membership or ten, whichever is higher A simple maiontv 
of the members present amd voting, except where a snenal mamr'ItT ^ 
mqimed by the (^nswutior^ deades aU questions before eithei HotS 3“ 
^e ^^laturc In the discharge of their duties the members and officers 
g ^t^gislatures are immune from the junsdicoop of law ramS 
names of the members of State E^ukuve Ck,unoU and 



80 


TABLE 25 

SXXIENGTH OF STATE LEGISLATUBES 


States 

No 

of 

scats 
in the 
Leg- 
isla- 
tive 
Cou- 
ncil* 

Legislative Assembly 

1 

No of 
Scatsf 

Con 

PSP 

CPI 

JS 

OP 

Ind 

Andhra Fradesh 

m 

301(2) 

213 

9 

■1 



38 

Assam 

H 

1051 

71 

8 

H 


B 

22 

Bihar 

96 

318(3) 

206 

32 

B 


55 

15 

Bombay 

10& 

396 

235 

35 

B 


45 

65 

Kerala 


126 

43 

9 

B 


- 

14 

Madhya Pradesli 


288(3) 

230 

12 

2 

11 

12 

18 

Madras 



151 

2 

4 

— 

B 

47 

Mysore 



148 

18 

1 

- 

B 

36 

Onssa 



! 56 

11 

9 

- 

B 

13 

Punjab 

51 

154(1) 

1 118 

1 

6 

9 

B 

14 

Rajasthan 

1 -- 

176 

120 

1 

1 

7 

16 

31 

Uttar Pradesh 

1 108 

430(2) 

287 

45 

8 

18 


70 

West Bengal 

75 

252(1) 

151 

21 

45 


8 

26 

Jammu &. Kashmir 

3E 

1 75| 

— 

1 

— 

— 

75 

— 

GRAND TOTAL 

78 

>j 3,174(16) 

1 2,029 

1 1 204 

170 

49 

297 

409 


Freedom of speech and discussion in the Legislatures is guaranteed by the 
Constitution Lcg^latures cannot, however, discuss the conduct of any 
judge of the Supreme Court or of any High Court in the discharge of his 
duties In their proceedings, the State Legislatures use cither the official 
language or languages of the State, Hindi or English 

The detailed procedure govermng the passage of ordinary bills and 
finanaal bills is almost the same as for the Umon Parhament Ordinary 
bills ma> onginatc in either House, and in order to become law they must 
be passed b> both the Houses ivithout amendments or wtb only such 
amendments as arc agreed to by both In case of disagreement bettveen 
the two Houses, there is no provision for a joint sitting as in the Umon 
Parliament If a disputed bill is given a second passage by the Ltcgislativc 


^ Legislatrtc CounoU is uj accordance the Legislative Counols 

•trirures m bnckcis indicate the number or\acnnt scats 
J\'idc the Naga llilk Tuensang Area, Act, 1957 


STbu wludcs 25 «cnis for the Palust-n^ccupicd areas of the Stale which are Lept 
in abc>-incc pending the return of those areas to the Indian Union 

















81 


Assembly after an interval of three months from the date of its transmission 
to the Legislative Council, it automatically becomes law after one month 
of sueb passage, irrespective of the action of the Legislative Council. 

The Lc^lauvc Assembly alone has the power to onginatc Money 
Bills The Legislative Council can make only recommendations in respect 
of changes it considers necessary within a period of fourteen days oftlic 
receipt of the bill from the Assembly. This in no way aflccts the freedom 
of the Assembly to accept or reject the recommendations of the Council. 

The Slate Legislatures also have their system of Committees to 
faulitatc proper transaction of business. 

Resemim of Bills 

Besides possessing the power to give or tvithhold his assent to bills 
passed by the Lcgislatuie, the Governor of a State may reserve certain bills 
for the consideration of the Union President. Such bills relate to subjects 
Me compulsory acquisition of property, estates and jagirs, measures aflciing 
the powers and the position of High Courts, and imposiUon of taxes on the 
storage, distribution and sale of water or dcctricity in intcr-Statc river or 
nvtt vall^ de\elopniEnt projects No bill seeking to impose restnctions 
on intcr-Statc trade can be introduced in a State Legislature without the 
previous sanction of the President. 

Control Over Executive 

excreting the usual powers of financial controh the State 
I^latures iBc all the normal parhamentary devices like questions 
no-confidence motions and raolunons 
^o’ W tLw *’’= day^-'o^ay work of the Executive They 

pSts*smeS’^K“?i,“T P“l>hc Accounts to ensure 

grams sanctioned by the Legislature are properly utilised 



I 


CHAPTER V 
EXECUITVE 
UNION 

The head of the Indian Union is the President AH c\ccuUvc 
authonty of the Union, including the supreme command of the Defence 
Forces, formally vests in the President and all cxccuti\c actions of the 
Government are taken in lus name In the exercise of Ins functions, the 
President is aided and advised by a Council of hlmistcrs wth the Prime 
Mmister at the head 

The Council of Ministers, as at present commuted, comprises 
(i) Ministers who are members of the Cabinet, (u) Ministers of State ^vho 
are not members of the Cabinet but hold Cabinet rank, and (ki) Deputy 
Ministers The Cabmet finally detenmnes and la^-s doum the pohev of the 
Government 

The personnel of the Union Government, as on April 1, 1959, 
was as follow 

President Rajendra Prasad 

Viee-President S Radhaknshnan 


Members of the Cabmet 

1 JawabarUl Ndiru 

2 Govind Baliabli Fast 

S Mora^i Ranchodji Dcsai 

4 Jagiivan Ram 

5 Gulzanlal Nanda 

6 Lai Bahadur Shastn 

7 Swaran Smg^ 

8 Kysambally Chengalaraya, Rcdd> 

9 Ant Prasad Jam 

10 Vengalil Kndman Kndma Mcnon 

11 Sadaduv Kanoji Patil 

12 Hafiz Mohammad Ibrxthim 

13 Asote Kumar Sen 


Port/ahos 

l^me Minuter, Extcmnl Afiairz and 
Uqjartaient of Atomic Energy 
Home Affairs 
Fmance 
Railways 

labour and Employment and Planning 

Commerce and Industry 

Sted, hlmcs and Fuel 

Worhs, Housmg and Supply 

Food and Agriculture 

Defence 

Transport and Communications 

Irrigation and Povi'cr 

Law 


14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 
21 
22 

23 

24 

25 

26 
27 


28 

29 

30 

31 


Jtltnuters of giait 

Satya Narayan Sinha 
Balknshna Vishwanalh Kncln»y 
Dattatraya Paiashuram Kannarkar 
PanjabraoS DeshxnuLh 
Kediava Deva Malaviya 
Mchr Chand Khanna 
Nityanand*Kanunco 
Raj Bahadur 
Balwant N^esh Datar 
Manhatlal MansuUdal Sht.x 
Sutendra Kumar Dey 
Kalu Lai Shnmah 
Humayun Kabir 
B Copala Reddy 

^e/mfr Mtiasiers 

^i! Kumar Chanda 
MV Knshnappa 


PoT^obas 

Parliamentary Affiuis 

Information and Broadcastmg 

Health 

Agriculture 

hlmes and Oil 

Rehabilitatioa and Mmonty Affiurs 
Commerce 

Transport and Gommumcadons 

Home Afiaus 

Industry 

Commumty Development and Cooperation 
Educahon 

Saentific Researdi and Cultural Affairs 
Rc\ enu e 2nd Civxl Ea^cnditurc 

Portfojtas 

Defence 

Labour 

Works, Housmg and Supply 
Agncidtuie 



B3 


S2i Jai Sukh Lai Ha&i 
33. Sabsh Chandra 

34 Shyam Nandan Mishra 

35 Bah Ram Bhagat 

36 Mono Mohan Das 

37 Shah Nawaz Khan 

38 Smt LatshmiN M«non 

39 Smt Violet Alva 

40 Kotha Raghuramaiah 

41 am Thomas 

42 RM Hajamavis 

43 S V Ramaswami 
44. Ahmed Mobiuddm 

45 Smt Tarkeshwan Smha 

46 7 S Naskar 
47, BS Murthy 


Imgation and Power 
Commerce and Industry 
Planning 
Finance 

Scienufic Researdi and Cultural Amiis 

Railways 

Eirtemi Affairs 

Home Aflairs 

Defence 

Food and Agnculture 
Law 

Railways 
Civil Aviation 
Finance 
Rehabilitation 

Commumty Development and Cooperation 


Parliamentary Secretaries 

To assist Ministers in the discharge of their parhamentary functions, 
a number of Mimstries have Parhamentary Secretaries On Apnl 1, 


1959, these were: 

1 Sadath Ah Khan 

2 Jogendra Nath Hazanka 

3 G Rajagopalan 

4 Laht Narayan Mishra 

5 Fatcanhrao Pratapsmhtao Gaekwad 

6 Anand Chandra Joshi 

7 Gajendra Prasad Smha 

8 Shyam Dhar Misra 


Eictemal Affairs 

External Affairs 

Inibrmation and Broadcastmg 

Labour and Employment and Planmng 

Defence 

InformatiDn and Broadcastmg 
Steel, Mmes and Fuel 

Conunurnty Development and Cooperatxcm 


administrative ORGANISATION 

In order to regulate the allocation, of Government bu^ess and its 
convenient transaction, Rules of Business have been framed under Article 77 (3) 
of the Constitution ITie allocation is made by the President on the advice 
of the Pnme Mimster by specifying the items of business allotted to each 
Minister and by assigning a Ministry or a part of a Ministry or more than 
one Mimstry to the charge of a Minister The Minister is sometimes 
assisted by a Deputy Minister, who performs such functions as may be 
assigned to him 

A Secretary lo Government is the admmistrative Head of a Ministry 
and the principal adviser of the Minister on all matters of pohey and 
administration wthin his Mmistry When the volume of work in a h^hnistry 
exceeds the manageable charge of a Secretary, one or more wings may be 
established under a Joint Secretary A Ministry is divided into Divisions, 
Branches and Sections funedomng under Deputy Secrctancs, Under 
Secretaries and Section Officers respectively. 

The following is the list of Secretaires to the Government of India, 
as on April 1, 1959, 

1 Cabinet 

2 Commerce and Industry 


3 Community De% dopment and 

Cooperation 

4 Defence 

5 Education 

6 Exicm'il AffiiTS 


7 rwince 


Vishnu Sahav 
S Ranganadian 

D L Mazumdar (Company Law Adminis- 
tration) 

BR Tandon 

O PullaRcddi 
K G S■^>^d•un 

N R Pill'll (Secretary -General) 

S Dult (roragn) 

M J Dcsai (Commonwcallh) 

B A “ Ch:dxa%’art% -(Spcaid) ' 

A K^Rcy (Rcicnutrand Dconojnic Afihirs) 
M V. Rangachan (Speaal) 

N.X Wanchoo '(Expenditure) 



84 


8 Food and Agncoltare 

9 Health 

10 Home A^rs 


1 1 InformatiOQ and Broadcastm^ 

12 Irrigation and Power 

13 Labour and Employment 

14 Law 

15 Railways (Railway Board) 

16, Rchabilitauon 

17 Saenti6c Kxscarch and Cultural AQurs 

18 Steel, Mmes and Pud 

19 Transport and Commumcations 


20, Works, Housing and Supply 

2 1 Atomic Energy (Department) 

22 Parhmcntary Affairs 

(Department] 


HU Ghosh (Pood) 

K R, Dimlc (AgrtCuHure) 

V K B Pdlai 

ShanW Proad (Kashmir A«airt) 

V Vishwannthan (Spccwi) 

RK R'imadh>sni 

T biMsanhar 
P M Mcnon 

K Y Bhmdarkar (Lepal Affiirs) 

GR Rajigopiul (Ijtpslation) 

P G MuUicqcc (Chairman) 

Dharma Vita 
MS Thader 

S S Khcra (Mines and Fuel) 

S Bhoothalmgaot (Iron and Steel) 

R L Gupta ( 1 mnspori) 

M M Pntlip (Communications and Cn d 
Aviation) 

MR Sachdev 
Hj Bhahha 
Kailash Chandra 


Or^tmualtoB end Methods Dimston 

The main task of the Organisation and Mctliods Division, ^vh^ch 
was set up m W^rch 1954 on the recommendations* ofDr Paul H. Applcbj, 
IS to supply leadership and diivc^ and to build up a common fund of 
information, experience and competence m organisation and methods work 
by co-operative effort The three-fold plan with which the Division started 
its activities was ' (:) to create a consciousness of the prevailing meffiacnej 
and of the need and scope for improvement , («) to find out facts and to 
see what actually was wrong and whcie, and to locate causes which 
adveisdy affect the speed and quahty of work , and (:«) to devise and apply 
appropriate temedies The work of the Division is carried on through the 
O and M Cells set up m each Ministry or department under the charge 
of a selected officer generally of the grade of Deputy Secretary Inspections, 
ease studies, arrear statements, Standit^ guard files, recordmg and mdexmg, 
ddegadon of enhanced authority to the Secdon Officers, personal dis- 
cussion among officers, and procedural reibrms are some of ^e methods 
hy which ffie O and M Division tries to achieve speedy and effiaent disposal 
of cases 

A ‘quahty-control* drive to spread effiaency-consaousness, among- 
officers of ^ ranks, ‘level-jumping* to avoid cases passing through too many 
stages, training m the technique of ^vork-study and starting of ‘pdot- 
secUons* manned by Section Officers submitting cases direct to the 
appropriate decision-takmg level, these are some of the reforms attempted 
by the Division m the recent past. 


P<^ Coamtssion 

The Govenunent of India announced the appomtment of a Commission 
of Enqui^ to examme the structure of emoluments and conditions of 
service of Central Government employees on August 21 1957. The 
members of the Commission are * 


Chatman, 

Members 


B Jagannadhadas (Judge, Supreme Court) 
VB Gandhi ;NK Siddhanta, 

ML. Dantw^a , Smt M Cihandrasekhar , 
Singh (Member-Secretary), and 
H F B Pais (Associate Secietar)^) 


•For a bnef stmimary of the lecommendatuiM of Dr Appleby, see ‘INDIA IQ'ift'' 
70 JDr Appleby ^vas invited m 1956 to study .t, 

special reference to Gowererneiit's and ^ 



85 


la an interim report dated December 14, 1957, the Connnission 
recommended and the Government accepted the grant, with effect from 
July 1, 1957, of an increase ot Rs 5 per month m the dearness allowance 
of all Central Government servants (\vith a few specified exceptions) whose 
basic pay does not exceed Rs 250 per month 

STATES 

The States, hke the Centre, have a parhamentary system of responsible 
government The Governor, die constitutional head m each State, is a 
common constituent of both the State Legislature and the Executive All 
executive actions of the State arc expressed to be taken m his name His 
oath of ofiice makes it his solemn duty to “preserve, protect and defend the 
Constitution and the law” to the best of his ability and to devote himself 
to the service and well-bemg of the people 

Among the more important powers of the Governor are the appoint- 
ment of State Ministers, the allocation of Government busmess among them, 
the summomng and proroguing of the State Legislature, dissolution of the 
Legislative Assembly and the grantmg of pardons and remissions, etc , of 
sentences of persons convicted for offmees under the State laws Bills 
passed by the State L^islature, except under certain conditions, require 
the assent of the Governor to become law. The discretionary powers of the 
Governor relate to the making of reports to the XJmon President about 
(t) the admmistration of Scheduled Areas and Tribes, if any, in his Stale 
and («) the breakdown of the constitutional mac^ncry. In the latter 
case he administers the State as an agent of the President In the case of 
Assam, the Governor also enjoys discretionary powers in relation to the 
administration of tribal areas 


ORGANISATIONAL PATTERN 

Although all executive actions of the State are expressed to be taken 
m the name of the Governor, the real Executive of the State is the Council 
of Ministers headed by the Chief Minister It is, however, the duty of the 
Chief Mimster to communicate to the Governor all decisions of the Council 
of Ministers relating to the administration of the affairs of the State 
and proposals for legislaUon, and to furnish all such information to him 
as he might desire The Council works on the pnnaple of collective 
ministcnal rKpomibility and is accountable to the Legislative Assembly of 
the State number of Mmisters, who jn some States are assisted 
and Parliamentary Secretanes, varies from State to 

Conduct of Government Business 

State Ministers also work 
on the portfolio s>«em, each Minister being the Bnal authority m regard to 
the da>-to-dy administration of subjects aUotted to his Mimstrv^ the 
Governor under Aittdc 166(3) of the Constitution Only mat™ s of mhev 
along v«th subject m which more than one Ministry is S^c^ed m S 
which here is d^erence of opimon between them are rtfe“S to tSe 
abmet or the Conned of Mmisters Like the Mmislnes m X 
Government, the State Ministries arc headed by "S ^hMr 

admmistrauve heads In addiuon, the States also have “ 

vho besides acung as Secretencs’to the sStf 

matters connected with public services and such other’ l^eel ^ 
subnets as arc not allotted to odicr depanmcntsriltd 


•for the pmonnd of tht State Oiuicds of .Mminas. chapter XXIV 
tier ih. nanaaor Ch,tf Srcrctanrs to Sane Govemmenn, „ C3.apteixl\ 



the work of all the Government departments The State Secretanats are 
patterned more or less like their counterpart at the Centre 

Besides Secretanes, who advise the Mmisters on all matters of policy, 
there are heads of departments whose number depends on the number of the 
important subjects administered by a State They carry out the pohcy and 
programme of the Government at the headquarters as well as in the 
distncts through a field staff 


ADIktlNISTRATIVE UNTTSt 


The pnuapal umt of administration is the distnct under a Collector 
and District Magistrate As Collector, he is responsible to the Commis- 
sioner who heads a Division or to the Board of Revenue (depending upon 
the practice obtaining m a particular State), and through that agency 
to the Government, for the proper collection, of revenue and for the admints- 
tration of all matters connected with land other than irngation, agriculture 
and forestry in their techmcal aspects and registration As District 
Magistrate, he is responsible for the mamtenance of law and order and the 
CTunmal administration of the Distnct For this purpose, the pohce force 
in the District with the Supermtendent of Police as its immediate head is 
under his control and direction, although for purposes of disaplinary 
control and techmcal supervision, the Supermtendent is responsible to 
the Inspector-General of Pohce Besides a number of Assistant or Deputy 
Collectors and Magistrates who help hint m the discharge of Im duties, the 
Collector has also at his disposal the assistance and professional advice of a 
number of other distnct officers such as the Executive Engineer, the Deputy 
Commissioner of Excise, the Civil Supphes Officer and the Forest Officer, etc 
In some States the Distnct is dmded into a number of Sub-Divisions, 
usually three to five The Sub-Divisional Magistrate, %\ho is m charge of 
the Sub-Division, is the principal assistant of the District Magistrate and 
IS responsible to him for the maintenance of law and order, collection of 
Government dues and other connected matters m the Sub-Division In 
other States, the Distnct is divided mto TaJuks or Tehsils under the diarge 
of a Tahsxldar or a Mamlatdar 


other distnct offiaals are those bebnging to the departments 
01 Mucanon, Medical, Pubhc Health, Agnculture, Vetennary, Cooperative, 
Industnes, Labour, Jails, Local Fund Audit, etc ivho carry out their 
respective duties under the direction and orders of heads of depart- 
ments at the State headquarters 

purposes of development programmes at State 
IS achieved through an mter-departmcntal Committee of 
development departments mth the Chief 
Gcner;ffi\ ch^ge of planning as the Chairman 

talion of of c^o^mation for planning and for the implcmen- 

are Combined m a single officer 
CommittL of Ckmimissioner. As a rule, a 

siuidance and Cabinet imder the Chief Minister provides overall 

non-officials ha\p Planmng Boards ivhich include leading 

non-omaau ha^ c also been consbtuted in most of the States 

is as«iistcd in many Statefbv Sh Officer of the District, 

or Planning Officers Collectors and District Development 

which mctmiers of the Stntr T o** Planmng Committees, on 

rcpr«enta^^.« of D^m^ Parhament from the Distkct, 

worlcn arc and leading non-offiaal 

.•.nd .mpVmcmauon of fadopm^t formulauon 

of each, B peen la TaWe^7*o? the area aad populahoa 



'87 


LOCAL GOVERNMENT* 

Local selLgoverning institutians are broadly classified into two 
catcgonesr-urban and rural In the big cities they are known as 
Corporations, and m medium and small towns as Municipal Committees or 
Boards The civic needs of rural areas arc looked after by District or Taluk 
Boards and Gram Panchayats, their territorial jurisdictions comadmg with 
their administrative boundaries. 

Corporaiions 

The corporations, established under specific Acts of the State 
Legislatures, are headed by elected Mayors The administration of a 
city under a corporation is entrusted to three authorities (i) the General 
Council of the Corporation ; («) the Standmg Committees of the Council : 
anti (tu) the Commissioner or Executive Officer The General Council 
appoints all the officers of the corporation except the Co mm issioner who is 
usually appointed by the State Government The Standing Committees 
elected by the Cotmcil CEirry out the mam work of the admiiustranon 
covenng taxation and finance, engmeermg works, health and education 
The executive power of the corporation vests in the Commissioner, who 
presenbes the duties of the vanous establishments and supervises their work. 
In addition to matters connected with the safety, health, education and 
other convemcnces of the dtizens, the jurisdiction of the corporation also 
extends to the maintenance of streets and bridges, avenues and parks, 
recreation grounds and markets 

Munmpal Boards and Committees 

Muniapahties ivith elected Presidents also function through 
committees All the members of a mumapahty constitute its general 
body ivhich discusses and decides all questions of policy and important 
details of mumcipal administration Tlie powers of passing the budget, 
imposing taxation, votmg expenditure and making rules and regulations 
vest m the general body. The day-to-day ivork of the mumapality is 
carried on by an executive officer, dra^vn cither from the State cadre of 
municipal executive officers or from the State Civil Service. 

In general, the obhgatory functions of a mumcipality are ■ scavenging 
and sanitary measures to keep public streets dean and healthy ; regulation 
of places for the disposal of the dead and reg^tranon of births and deaths ; 
construction, maintenance and improvement of public streets, latnnes, 
drams etc , maintenance of public hospitals and provision of medical rehef , 
primary education , regulation of offensive or dangerous trades and 
practices , lighting ofpubhc streets ; and provision of adequate ■water supply 
At their owm discretion, muniapahties may, however, also take up the 
construction and maintenance of libraries, museums, rest houses and other 
public buildings, and ihelavmg out of public gardens, parks, public streets 
and any other measures likely to promote the w'clfare of citizens 

In recent ^ cars, a number of bigger cities have established Improve- 
ment Trusts and Town Planning bodies to improve the existing conditions 
of cities and to regulate their future expansion. In 1956, the Slum Areas 
(Improvement and Clearance) Act w'as passed b\ Parhament 

Duinct Boards 

The pnnapal function of a distnet board is to provide for pnmar>' and 
secondarv education, to construct and maintain roads other than high- 
wws, and to manage public health and charitable institutions in rural areas 
Like muniapahties, district bo ards arc elected on the basis of adult 

^lf-govermig instituuoas, tec Chapter XJvXII of 


franchise They have th«r Presidents and Vice-Presidents who are elected 
by and from among the members of the board For the day-to-day execu- 
tion of their work, district boards have a permanent Secretary or Oommiss- 
sioner who tvorks under the direction of the elected President. The rest of 
the executive staff of the board consists of engineers, healtli officers and 
inspectors, etc The board also works through committees 

In view of the accepted pohey of covermg the entue rural area 
with village panchayats and the proposed settmg of a second tier of Panch(^at 
Sajmtis at the Sub-Dnasional or Block level, the current trend is toiv'ards the 
abohtion of distnet boards m their present form These have already been 
abolished in Uttar Pradesh and, pending new legislanon on the subject 
have been replaced by interim distnct councils {Z^la Panshads) In Bihar 
and Madras, the State Governments have taken over all the distnct boards 
and placed them under Special Officers 


Village Panchayats 

One of the directive pnnaples of State pohey in the Constitution of 
India IS that the State sh^ take steps to organise village panchayats and 
endow them with such powers and authonty as may be necessary to enable 
them to ivork as umts of self-government (Article 40) In pursuance of 
this directive, most of the States have enacted the requisite legislation so that 
the network of village panchayats now covers more than half the total number 
theviUagesm the country TheirnumberonMarchSl, 1958, ^vas 1,64,358 
Panchaj^ats are elected by gaon sabhas consistmg of the entire adult 
population of the village Elected from among the villagers, they arc 
responsible for providing civic and other amenities to residents Medical 
relief, matermty and child welfare, the management of common grazmg 
grounds, the maintenance of village roads, streets, tanks and m'cUs and pro- 
vision of samtation, drainage, etc , are some of the other functions which 
are usually undertaJicn by them In some placra panchayats also look after 
c^'^caOon, the maintenance of village records and the realisation 
of land revenue. For building up funds they levy taxes on houses and lands, 
fjurs and fouvals, sale of goods and impose octroi duties, etc 
, The National Conference on Commumty Development held at Mt 
Abu m May 195B recommended an oi^mc integration of the panchayat ad- 
^imtrabon with the Development Commissioner’s organisation from the 
^tate headquarters dmvn to die village level It also recommended that at 
cast one panchayat in each Gran SevaK^s circle should be made responsible 
r p annmg and unplementmg the commumty development programme 

administrative and avic functions, panchayats also have a 
tlS Elected from among the members 

Indian competent to try mmor offences under the 

Their powers of 

uitUdVSbon ^ imposition of moderate fines Their civil 

iflncftflViJf ° of Rs 200 The nyqya 

Legal Dractihn^pe simple and summary procedure for the disposal of cases 
pracuhoners arc not permitted to appear before it 

Finances 

levied by local 

menu m thS behS by the State Govern- 

State Go\cmmcnts m the taxes levied and collected by the 

(t)revcnuc from „oV-tM^oira?'“^ 

Enqmry Committee^ appointed in 1949 recom- 
Eca or aw and taxes on goods or passengers earned by the rarhvavs, 

o aw and taxes on railway fares and freights listed under item 89 of ffie 



Union List should be reserved for local bodies. It further recommended 
the reservation of some ten or twelve oihci ta^cs such as iliose on lands .md 
buildings, mineral lights, entry- of poods into local areas, consumption .and 
sale ordcctncUy, advertisements other than those published in newspapers, 
goods and passengers carried by road or inland waterways, vehicles, animnk 
and pets, professions and hi\urics, and lolls and capitation taxes listed in 
the State List of the Seventh Schedule to the Constitution lor utilisation 
by local bodies 

The Taxation Enquiry Commission appointed carlv in 1953 held the 
view iliat a sound svsicm of local finance c.m rest only on local and direct 
taxation. Hicy presen bed a two-fold critcna for the devolution of powers 
of taxation to local bodies * (i) stability of the taxes , and (n) capacity to levy 
and administer the taxes equitably and adequately. Tlic Commission also 
recommended financial assistance by the State Governments in the shape o! 
loans and subsidies 


PXHIUC SERVICES 


UNION PUBLIC SCR.VICC COMMISSION 

The Union Public Service Commission is on independent statutory 
body consututed under Aruclc 315 (1) of the ConsdtuUon of India Tin 
^aiman and members of the Commission arc appointed by the President 
The Qjnstitution provides that as nearly as may be one-half of the member 
must be persons who at the Umc of their appomlmcnis have held ofiicc fo 
at least ten years either under the Government of India or a State Govern 

nul he attains the a^ The Chairman or a member of the Com 

Ehl'hr. .""STT Pteulcnt on the ground of misbehaviout 

adet/TmqniT" ” 


Cftflirman : 
Members * 


Panettons 


V. S Hcjmadi 

J Sivashunmugam PiUai 
C V. Mahajan 
P. L Varma 
S H Zaheer 
G. S Mahajani 
A T. Sen 


Constitution are* pr^ribed in Article 320 of th 

Umon Government by rvnttenexamraati and posts under th 

and (n) advmng the by promotto 

^tment, pnnaples to he followed m maSnl'!” » methods of re 

Md posts and making promotions andwl 

dtsaplmary matters afieennB- rv, ^ anothei 

by or m mspeot of persons wh„ afe “V cS 

Guvermnent of Inia m have served unto ^ 

capaaty for re-imbursement of m 



50 


expenses mtrurred by them m defending legal proceedmgs instituted 
against them m respect of their ofBaal acts and any claims for the award 
of compensations in respect of usuries sustained by Government servants 
while on duty etc , ako fall within its sphere of responsibility It is obli- 
gatory for the Government to consult the Commission on all these matters 
The President can, hoivever, make regulauons specifying the matters in 
which either generally or in any particular circumstances or class of cases 
It shall not be necessary for the Government to consult the Commission 
Such regulations have to be placed before Parliament Article 321 of the 
Constitution lays doivn that an act made by Parliament may provide for the 
exercise of additional functions by the Union Pubhc Service Commission 
in respect of the services of the Umon and also m respect of the services of 
any local authonty or other body-corporate constituted by law or any 
public institution 


The Umon Public Service Commission submits an annual report of its 
work to the President who causes it to be laid before each House of Parha- 
ment If there are any cases where the Government is unable to accept the 
advice of the Commission, a memorandum explaining the reasons for such 
non-acceptance has to be placed before Parliament 

The Standards and syllabi of competitive examinations for 
recruitment to the all-Xndia and Central Services arc laid down by the 
Commission in consultation with the Ministries of the GfOvemment of India 
and educationists of standing In addition to qualifying in the written 
tests, candidates competing for these services have also to appear at a moa 
assessment of their personality The Chairman or a member 
°r k ^nimisson presides over the Board which mcludes one more Member 
of the Commission , the Commission is assisted at these tests by senior 
administrators and others of high academic standing 

The Commission has to make direct rccruitnient to quite a large 
number of specialised posts, which cannot be filled by promotmg persons 
belonging to didy constituted services At interviews for such posts, a 
rcprttcntative m the Ministry concerned invanably joins the selection board 
^he Commission to assess the suitability of the candidates In 
addiimn, it is usual to asoaate ivith the board a specialist or two not con- 
nected with the Ministry concerned V^enever necessary practical or 
imttcn t«ts arc also held The Commission explores possibihues of secur- 
1 g suitable personnel through direct contact with experts ju different fields, 
whenever it is unable to reermt candidates othenvise 

of reermtment to Civd Services has come into being as a 
mission ^ Government m consultation with, the Com- 

Services who have retired recently 

found smtahln bV'th?Co^™m'^ “ 


all iicdxa services 

u\c Services (i e the Indian Admimstra- 

madcb\ the Union Pnhlti'C Service) and other Central Services* is 
— — Service Commission on the b asis of a competitive 

ferce and Accounts Service, Indian De- 
vice, Indian Incumc-Tax Scr\iee Service, Indian Customs and Exase Scr- 

of the Superior Rcienue W CommercialDcpart- 


(OsM 1), Milnan Land* 3 Railways, Indian Pos 

Smicc/ Grarlo llirSiiS I aiS II). Central 

m ^ H), Central 

Vtiartm*At rX thj» t..,. IndiM Rwvr*a> Service of £nffine«^. Riimn 


Scare lanat 
Electncal 


Lnnrr^nrSmicc (aa*iiandn>‘^Tfl«nT^ tuass I and ll), Ceni — 



otammauon ™rocs Sder regulated_by 

peisons app^ed to P““^;j^ Services Act was passed by Parliament 

Xdb^l&d^dMStandregulabons under the Act have since 

IJnfa Artde 311 no member of a avil or an all-India service under 
the uLn or i State cm be d«»issed “ remo^^W Se to- 

S^d “ rtdiceS m r^ th^etoq^t ofiicem W 

IS satisfied that it is not pracUcable to give the oMer an 

defend himself ; and (m) where the Preadent or a Governor w 3 

frointhepbintofviewofthesecurityoftheState,itis in^pedient to alio 

an opportunity for defence to the offender. 


Tratntng of Services 

The tivo aU-India Services have their ovm. training schools (i) the 
Indian Administrative Service Traimng School at Delhi and (u) the Central 
Pohce Traimng College at Abu The cumculum of the IAS Training 
School lays stress on fostering correct attitudes to questions of personal and 
pubhc conduct Among the pnnapal subjects taught are Indian history 
and constitution , elements of cnmmal and civil laws , the theory and 
practice of pubhc adnnmstrationmth spedal reference to the social, cultural 
and economic developments m the country and the language of the State 
to which trainees arc allotted 

Refresher traimng at the Indian Administrative Service Staff College, 
Simla, for officers of the Indian Administrative Service with 6 to 10 years 
service, consists of study of administration in specialised branches, dis- 
cussions on administrative difficulties and pooling of experience gathered by 
officers in the field m different States 

The course at the Central Pohce Training College, Mt Abu, includes 
a period of mihtary traimi^ in addition to thorough instruction in the 
duties and responsibilities of a pohce officer A new feature of the traiiting 
programme, both for IAS and the IPS is an educational and cultural tour 
to Army and Pohce training institutions, development project areas, and 
community project and naponal extension blocks 


L.EWTRAL SECRETARIAT SERVICE 

The Central Secretariat Service, for manning posts m the Central 
Secretariat and ffie attached offices, was created^950 The Service vvas 
Sf rS (Under Secretary or cqui- 

inrt nr Grade III (Assistant Supenntendent) 

Gradt a ncw grade called the Selection 

Sccrcmrv officers of the Service appomted to posts of Deputy 

Aonoi^pnfis Government of India, was added. 

from Grade TT ^ (Under Secretary) to the Selection Grade and 

See ie I the Central Secretariat 

to Grade IT « 'lUn selection on the basis of merit. Recruitment 

Grade III entirely by promotion on the basis of merit from 

m Omde rnlfK the number of vacancies 

coraDetitue on the results of the combined 

Semeo and allird Cent's Administinrive 
— » oervices, and t he remaining half by promotion 

siSre Td(^ph Traffic 



D2 


f' *r, Of IV {Assistant) Half ihc number of vacancies in the grade of 
A '»»'t ^Qndc I\') IS filled b\ direct iccriutmcnt on the results of open 
t , examinations held bv the Union Public Service Commission 

1 ' i‘je Inlf b> promotion from the Clcncal Grades 

C;EVIR\L \DMLMSTIt\TIVE POOL 

An Admmisiratnc Pool for staffing senior posts at the Centre was 
i ’ tu'ed bv the Gov ernment of India m October 1 957 in consultation with 
ai- state Uovernme^nts The purpose is to build up a rcserv c of officers with 
ip" n{ tnintng and experience for economic administration and for main- 
knowledge and experience in ffie field of general 


INDliSTRIAL MAN*\GEMENT POOL 

. nuinagcntU posts in the public enterprises operating 

Vmii-r Voi? the Govemmem of India also consUtuted in 

Mir -n.Tnr ^ Pool For the present, the 

r Iml » Transport and Commumcattons and 

th*-!.’- riu rn^ .""i m thcschcmc, which will be under 

M' -i^-/conrrfn^^k Anyothcr 

the ^^hfme ^ running of industnal undertakings may later 


STATF Simvtnrc 



CHAPTER VI 


JUDICIARY 

The adoption of a federal Constitxition by India in 1950 did not 
disturb the continiuty of existii^ laws and the umfied structure of courts 
evolved through more than a century of British rule. Article 372 provides 
that all laws which were in force immediately before the commencement 
of the Constitution, with the eirccption of the Government of India Act, 
1935, and the Indian Independence Act, 1947, shall continue to be m force 
until altered, repealed or amended by a competent legislature or authority. 
Article 375 provides that “all courts of civil, cnmmal and revenue junsdiction, 
allauthontiesandall officers, judicial, executive and mimstenal, through- 
out the territory of India, shall continue to cxerase their respective functions,” 
subject to the provisions of the Constitution. The unity of the judiaal 
structure was preserved by placing such basic branches of law as criminal 
law and procedure, civil procedure, marriage and divorce, adoptions, wills, 
intestacy and succession, transfer of property, contracts, evidence, etc., on 
the Concurrent List. 


SUPREME COURT OF INDIA 

. Supreme Court of India stands at the apex of a single, unified 

jufficial system for the whole country.* The Constitution has mvested it with 
wde appellate powers over all other courts and tribunals, and its position as 
me highest judicial body m the country has-been strengthened by making 
ttigh Courts, including the appointment and removal of their judges 
a Umon subject As the guardian and interpreter of the Constitution, the 
^urt not only to hold the scales even between the Umon and the 
to act as the custodian of the liberties of the dtizen. 

The membership of the Court, as on April 1, 1959, was as follows : 

Chief Justice : S.R. Das 


Judges i N.H. Bhagwati 
B.F. Sinha 
J. Imam 
S.K. Das 
J.L. Kapur 
P B. Gajcndragadkar 
A.K. Sarkar 
K SubbaRao 
KN.Wanchoo 
M. HidayatuHah 


The follTO ing ere the Law Offieers of the Union Govenunent . 
AUmt^Gtncral of Indie : M.C. Sctalrad 

Sorintor-GmOTi of India-. C K. Daphtaiy 

SohcitoT-G emal of India . H.N. Sanyal 



94 


Powers of Interpretation 

As regards the prease powers of the Supreme Court to interpret the 
Constitution, the Court has defined the position m a number of its own 
judgments given durmg the last eight years The Judiciary in India can- 
not alter or amend the law under the cover of ‘liberal interpretation’ It 
has no powers to review legislative pohey or to nullify the Act of the legis- 
lature wth reference to general pnnciples of jurisprudence To put it in 
the words of the Court itself "TOere Ae fundamental law has not limited, 
Cither m terms or by necessary imphcation, the general powers conferred 
upon the legislature, we cannot deaare a Imitation under the notion of 
havmg discovered somethmg m the spint of the Constitution which is not 
even mentioned m the instrument It is difficult, upon any general pnnci- 
ples, to limit the orampotence of the sovenegn legislative power by judicial 
interposition, except so far as the express words of a wntten Constitution 
give that authonty ”* 

Subject to these hmitatioiis, it is the duty of the Supreme Court to see 
that the laws in the country are fairly administered and no atiaen is demed 
justice by any court or tnbunal Article 140 provides that “the law declared 
by the Supreme Court shall be binding on all courts withm the territory of 
India ” Further, in exercise of its jmisdiction, the Supreme Court is 
authorised to pass such decree or order as is necessary for securmg complete 
justice m any case or matter pendmg before it , and any decree or order 
so passed is enforceable throughout the temtory of TtiHib AIT civil and 
judicial authonties in the country are specifically enjomed by the Constitu- 
tion to act in aid of the Supreme Court 


Jurisdiction 

The Supreme Court has both original and appellate jurisdiction Its ex- 
clusive original jurisdiction extends to all disputes between the Umon and 
one or more States or betiveen two or more States tnierse In addition to 
this, >micle 32 of the Constitution gives an extensive original jurisdiction 
to the Supreme Court m regard to the enforcement of fundamental nghts 
^arantecd under Part III of the Constitution It is empowered to issue 
directions or orders or ivTits including those in the nature of writs of habeas 
corpus, mandamus, prohibition, gao warranto and certiorari, whichever may be 
appropriate, to enforce these nghts Any person who complains of any 
mmngcmcnt of fundamental nghts is at hberty to move the Supreme 
tiourt, whose powers on this subject are not confined only to issuing these 
™teastheyarekno™inthcEnglishlaw It can also improve upon them 
tanccs” technical deficiency or to adapt them to Indian circums- 

IcateSm Supreme Court can be mvoted by 

final ordS 1 ,°°"’^ concerned in respect of any judgment, decree or 

a? to thTime™ involving a substotial quesoon oflaw 

“mount or S '? ,r “1"'= or m civil m-atters where the 

amount or \ alue of the subject matter of the dispute was not less than 20 

r^SncToucrtv'ir decree ^al order mvolves claims 

tw'l « a.' ' High Court concerned 

ml ^ .hi ,?Sf, ® =*PP“1 to the Supreme Court In cnmi- 

“if the I'lich Court Supreme Court has been provided for, 

nrncciS order of acquittal of 

; (b)has withXwn for 
ind hsis in such tn-?! court subordinate to its authonty 

to flrath or ren the accused person and sentenced him 

(c) certifies that the case is a fit one for appeal tq.th c 

•AK CopaTan\ the State of Madras, 1950, 



95 


c.tt,-s.-CS?J4j^ srssr«.'sr4 

of the Constitution 

Working of the Court _ record and has all the ^ 

thepovvertoframt Its own 1950 , which, as ammdc^om 

K tt'r— ,:z‘5 

Uk judges and Division Courts, subject^ 0 ^terpretation of the 

«£SlTrjr^-.f^-stC-.4,^ 

present at the hearing. Ajudge who ooes w. 

give a dissenting judgment ,.t ran he filed by the parti« perso y 

The cases m the Supreme Cour can M on Record ; K 

or through advocates, speciaUy regis of lower courts ulong , 

;:dev“st:::s^^rdrr^^ 

““ 'ihe M of Advocates of the S”^tJ^fthc*SoS thos? of other 
first containing the names of la^wei^ registered wtb 

advocates At the end of 1958, 2,4^0 y 

Supreme Court Bar. „ Court disposed i 

Bunng the Year 1958, the Sup enforcement of .♦ 

■ - " heConstttunonfe the e „ 


Bunng the Year 1958, the oup _ enforcemem ^^Ziinri 

under Arude 32 of the Constitution Oic '"orpretahon 

nghts and 239 appeals involving also dealt with one Special 

of the provisions of the Constituuon- Constitution * 

Reference made to it under Artide 143 

I^W commission inParhament and 

In resoonse to suKRCstions made from Sabha on August 

oahide?S?a^Si™f of India anno.mc^.*=“h C. Se.aKad, 

5, 1955, the appointment of » 

Attomev-Gener& of India, as Chai^“ . „qu„d it (i) to "h™' 

The terms of reference to theComimssion tuH d 

s)-slcm of judicial admimstrauon ' g ^nd less c-vpensitc , 0™ 

means of lmp^o^^ng it and making i ^ npplicauon and inywrlance, 
to c-mmine the Central. Acts of g.m<«l “PP^'^ded, revised eonso’idalcd 

recommend lines on vliich these shou ^ 

or olhcnxisc brought up to date. c.^„a.n,bcr 16, 1955, th e Commission 
After its inaugural mccting^n^^P — — r in tn** 

Sd jr«nt Court, including its opinion Dccu'oni’ . 

su an Appendix, under the he.iding Sup'ora 



96 


commenced working in two sections One Section took up the problem 
of reform of the judiaal administration It first collected statistical and 
other details relating to the judicial set-up in the vanous States and then 
prepared and circulated a comprehensive questionnaire to the High< 
Courts, Bar Assoaations, individual laivycrs, commercial organisations and 
pubhc men interested m judiaal reform The Commission examined the 
rephes and arrived at tentative conclusions which formed the basis for 
local enquiries Thereafter, they toured the headquarters of the High 
Courts for examining witnesses The report of the Commission on the 
Reform of Judicial Adnumstrauon ivas subimUed to the Government on 
September 30, 1958, and presented to the LokSabha on February 25, 1959.* 

During the same period, the other Section of the Law Commission 
concerned with the revision of Statute Law, submitted thirteen 
reports to the Government on • (i) the hability of the State in tort , 
(u) parliamentary legislation relating to sales-tax ; (m) Lmutation Act, 
1908 , (iv) the proposal that High Courts shoidd sit in Benches at 
different places m a State , (v) British Statutes applicable to India , (vi) 
Registratton Act, 1908 ; (vu) Partnership Act, 1932 , (viu) Sale of Goods Act, 
1930 , (ix) Specific Relief Act, 1877 , (x) Land Acquisition Act 1894, 
(xi) Nisotiable Instruments Act, 1881 , (xn) Income-tax Act, 1922 : and 
(xin) Contract Act, 1872 

With the submission of its report on the reform of judiaal 
administration, the Commission as consUtuted in 1955, ceased to funcUon 
It was reconstituted with effect from December 20, 1958, ^nth T. L 
Venkatarama Iver, a retired judge of the Supreme Court, as its 
in order to enable it to continue the work of statute law revision, 

HIGH COURTS 

The judicial administration of every State is headed by a High 
Court As shoivn below, there arc fourteen High Courts India : 

TABLE 26 


Serial 

Name | 

Year | 

Temtonal 

Seat of the Court 

No 


of cstaV 
Ishmcnt 

jurisdiction 


1 

Allahabad 

1919 1 

Uttar Pradesh 

Allahabad (Bench at 

2 

3 

Andhra Bradesh 

Assam 

1954 
1948 ! 

Andhra Kadesh 
Asam, Mampur and 

Luclmow} 

Hyderabad 

Gauhatx 

4 j 

Bombay 

1861 

Tripura 

Bomtay 

Bombay (Benches at 

5 ' 

Calcutta ' 

1861 

West Bengal, Ands. 

Nagpur and Rajkot) 
Calcutta 




man and Nicobar 

6 

7 

8 

Jammu Si 'Kadimir ^ 

Kerala 

Afadhya Pradesh 

1928 

1956 

1956 

Islands 

Jammu S: KaUrmir 
Kerala, Laocadiv'e, 
Mimcoy and Am- 
mdivi ^ands 
hladfaya Pradesh 

Srmagar 

Emakulffli (Bench 
at Trivandrum) 

Jabalpur (Benches at 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

Madras 1 

Mj'soTe 

Onsu 

Patna ' 

Punjab 

Bajasthan 

1861 

1884 

1948 

1916 

1947 

: 1949 

1 l^Iadras 

1 Mysore 
' Onssa 

Bihar 

Punjab, Himachal 
Pradesh and Delhi 

1 Kajasthan 

Indore and Gwalior) 
Madras 

Bangalore 

Cuttack 

Patna 

Chandigarh (Bench 
at Ddhi) 

Jodhpur 


* . . ^ — ■*^~* ~** » joanpur 

reform k Commission on judicial 


97 


For three-quarters of a century, nil the establishment of the Federal 
Court of India in 1937, some of these courts were virtually the highest courts 
in the country The judicial Committee of the Pnvy Council which 
exercised an appellate jurisdiction in certam categones of cases, had no 
admimstrativc control over the High Courts Under the new Constitution, 
however, the power of the High Courts has been affected to the extent that 
the Supreme Court, with a slightly \vider appellate jurisdiction, has now been 
established in the country. The Constitution does not, however, vest the 
Supreme Court wth any administrative control over the High Courts, al- 
though some adinimstraUve link has been provided by Article 217 which 
requu-es the President to consult the Chief Justice of India while appointing 
judges to the High Courts 

Ordinarily, a High Court is identified with the State where it 
exercises its jurisdiction, but the State Legislature has no power to alter the 
consUtution or the organisauon of the High Court, This power vests in the 
Umon Parliament Similarly, the power to remove High Court judges 
also vests m Parhament The special procedure to be follmved in tWs 
matter is the same as prescribed for the removal of Supreme Court judges 
(Article 124, Clauses 4 and 5). 

Fowbts and Functions 

No substantial change in the powers and dudes of the High Courts 
has been made by the Constitution. These are more or less the same as 
those presenbed m the Royal Letters Patent and the subsequent enact- 
ments ivhich vested in them onginal or appellate junsdicUon in certain 
specified matters The Letters Patent constituting the three Presidency 
High Courts in 1861 classified their junsdiction as onginal and appellate, 
the onginal jurisdiction in civil as well as in criminal matters bang confined 
to the city hmits The other High Courts did not ordinarily possess 
onginal jurisdiction but had the power to try cases for spcaal reasons. 
This was a kind of extraordinary origmal j'unsdiction. The High Courts 
were expressly authorised by the Government of India Act, 1 935, to transfer 
suits to themselves when these involved mtcrpretation of the Constitution. 
Article 228 of the new Constitution makes the transfer obhgatory m all such 
cases 

The High Courts have poi\ers of superintendence over all courts and 
tribunals within thar jurisdiction (Article 225) Hiey can call for returns 
from such courts, make and issue general rules and prescribe forms to regulate 
their practices and proceedings and determine the manner and form in wluch 
books, entries and accounts shall be kept. 

Under Aruclc 226, every High Court has the power to issue to any 
person or authont), including any Government within its jurisdicdon, 
dirccuons, orders or wnts, including wnts which arc in the nature of habeas 
corpM, mandamus, prohibition, quo uarranto and certiorari, or any of them for 
the enforcement ofanv of the rights conferred by Part III of the Constitution 
and for any other purpose 


SUBORDINATE COURTS 

. . district judges, who preside o\cr the principal d^il courts of 
originM jurisdiction, arc appointed by the Gotemor of a State in constilta* 
uon with the High Court. Appointments of persons other than disinct 
jiidccs, to the jt’dtcinl sen-icc of a State arc also made b. the Governor in 
comultaurm i\uh the State Public Service Commission and the High Court, 
and the power of posting, promotion and granting leave to persons tclonc- 
in- to the judicial service and .holding po^ts inferior to tho^c ofdistnct judccs 
' csts in the High Court. 



98 


Stracture and Funcltons 

Subject to minor local variations, the structure and functions of the 
subordinate or mofussil courts are more or less uniform througliout the 
country Each State is dmded into a number of districts, each under the 
jurisdiction of the pnncipal avil court presided over by a distnct judge. 
Subordinate to him is a hierarchy of different grades of civil judicial autho- 
rities 

Besides hearmg suits, properly so-called, the civil courts exercise 
jurisdiction over se\eral other matters, such as guardianship, marriage and 
divorce, testamentary and intestate representation and admiralty junsdic- 
tion. In another category of cases, such as those pertaining to the 
Land Acquisition Act and the Forest Act, questions affecting civil nghts are, 
in the first instance, dealt with by administrative officers or tribunals, but 
their decisions arc subject to the appellate authonty of the appropnatc cml 
courts There is a third group of cases aflccting civil rights ^\hich are tried 
by administrative or quasi-judicial tribunals or other statutory bodies In 
such cases, there is no express provision for appeal to civil courts and the 
parties fi[«quently invoke the intervention of the High Court for ^vrlts. 


Cnmtnal Justice 

The Code of Gnmmal Procedure, as amended and revised from tunc 
to tune, regulates the administration of cnmmal justice and the constitution 
of cnmmal courts The officer presidmg o\’cr the distnct court in civil 
suits IS the judge of the Sessions Division for cnminal cases in that distnct. 
The Sessions Judge is sometimes assisted by additional or assistant sessions 
judges These officers are subordmatc only to the High Court and are 
comparatively independent of the executi\e They, however, deal only 
witii the more serious enmes and take cognisance of cases only when the>'^ 
have been committed to them by a magistrate after a prehmmary enquiry 

The exercise of preventive jun^cbon in certam matters and the 
tnal of enmes listed as not triable by a Sessions Court are entrusted to 
magistrates of various classes under the general supervision and control of 
the Distnct Magistrate In respect of nearly all judicial acts, the magis- 
tracy, mcludmg the District Magistrate, is subject to the control of the High 
Court Some categoncs of cases mvolvmg mmor crimes are tried by 
honorary magistrates, generally retired officers or other responsible citizens, 
and by benches of magistrates 


Separation of Judidaiy from F^eculive 

In pursuance of the directive prmciple regardmg the separation of the 
judiciary from the executive (Article 50), the States in which separation 
IS now in force are Madras, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Mysore, Bombay 
excluding Vidarbha, the Madhya Bharat and Vindhya Pradesh areas 
of Madhya Pradesh, the PEPSU region of the Punjab and twdve 
j The reform, as it has come mto operation m 
Restate of Madras has been designed \vithm the frame-work of the 
Cnmmal Procedure Code and has been implemented by an executive 
order. Broadly spea^g, it divides all the powers and ^cUons of a 
raa^tratc undtt tvw heads (i) judicial and (n) non-judicial The officers 
^ch^ng judicial functions have been placed under the High (S 
Anoth^ impor^t feature of the reform is that, for purely jud&^ril 
oijy those q^lifirim law arc ehgible to bewme magistoto 

conditions, ha^een mtroduced 



CHAPTER VII 


defence 

The supreme command of the Armed Forces is vested in the President 
of India, the responsib;ility for their administrative and operational control 
resting ivith the Ministry of Defence and the three Services Headquarters. 
The mam. function of the Ministry is to ensure that (i) the develop- 
ment and activities of the three Services are properly co-ordinated, 
(u) decisions on pohey matters are obtained from the Government, 
transmitted to the three Sendees Headquarters and implemented, and 
(m) necessary financial sanction for defence expenditure is obtained frmn 
Parhament. 


ORGANISATION 


Although the overall control of the three Services vests in the Ministry 
of Defence, ftcy normally function directly under their respective Chiefi 
of Staff llie occupants of these offices, as on April 1, 1959, were : 

Chief of the Amy Steff : General K S Thimayya 
Chief tf the Naaal Staff' : Vice-Admiral R D Katari 
Chief of the Air Staff : Air Marshal S. Mulxgee 


Army 


The Army is organised into three commands — Southern, Eastern and 
Western— each under a General Officer Gommandmg-m-Chief of the rank 
of Lieutenant-General. Each of the Commands is divided into Areas under 
a General Officer" Commandmg of the rank of Major-General The Areas 
are sub-divided into Sub-Areas, each under a Brigadier. 

The Army Headquarters, located in Delhi, functions imder the Chief 
of the Army Staff Its four mam branches, each under a Pnnapal Staff 
Officer of the rank of Lieutenant-General, are. General Staff Branch, 
Adjutant-General’s Branch, Quartermaster-Generars Branch, Master- 
General of Ordnance’s Branch. The other two branches are the Engineer- 
in-Chief’s Branch and the Mihtar>' Secretary’s Branch, each under aMaior- 
Gcncral 


The General Staff Branch consists of the Directorates of Military 
Opemtions, Military Intelhgence, Mihtary Traimng, Staff DuUes, Weapons 
and Equipment, Armoured Corps, Artillery, Infantry, Signals and Territorial 
Army. 

The Adjutan^Gcneral s Branch is divided into three Directorates, 
namely those of Oi^msation, Personal Services and Judge Advocate- 
toeral. The Medical Directorate, though separate under a Major- 
General, IS technically placed under this Branch. ^ 

11 "P® Quarteraaster-Gcneral has two Directorates, one to organise 

all rati, sea and air movements of personnel and stores tri tMn and outside 
w c^ntT)’, and the second to provide accommodation for the personnel 
The Directorates of Supply and Transport and of Remounts, Veterinary 
G^nwd^ the o\^I super^ion of the Q.uartcrmaster- 


? dep^ents under the Master-General of the Ordnance are 
ffie Durctoratc of Ordna^c Services and the Directorate of Electrical and 
Mechanical Engineers The Ordnance Services Dircctomtc is responsible 
for procunng, stocking and suppling all kmds ofdefcnce equipment ^uired 



100 


for the troops The Electrical and Mechamcal Engineers’ Directorate is 
charged wth the responsibility of inspection, repair and maintenance 
of all types of mechanical and eicctncal equipment used by the Army. 

The Engmcer-m-Ghief is the head of die Corps of Ei^mecrs and of the 
hlihtary Engincermg Service He advises the Chiefs of the Staff of the 
three Services on all engmeenng ivorks, mcluding their p lannin g and 
construction 

The Military Secretary maintains personal records of officers and is 
responsible for their postings and transfers, promotions and retirement as 
well as for the grant of honorary ranis 


JVfl^ 

At the Naval Headquarters m Delhi, the Chief of the Naval Staff 
13 assisted by four Rnneap^ Staff OfficCTS, namely the Deputy Chief of the 
Naval Saff, the Chief of Personnd, the Chief of Matenal and the Chief 
of Naval Aviation He fiinctions though four Operational and Adminis- 
trative Commands, one afloat and three ashore. These are (i) Flag 
Officer Commanding, Indian FiMt, (u) Flag Officer, Bombay, (xu) 
Commodore-m-Charge, Cochin, and (iv) Commodore, E^t Coast, Visakha- 
patnam 

The Indian Fleet today consists of the new flagship Mysore — 

an 8,700-ton Colony-dass cruiser, formerly kno\vn as HMS J^igena, /JVS 
Dc/Ai— a 7,030-ton Leander-class cruiser, and a number of destroyers, 
fngates, mine-sweepers and other ships 

The Naval Aviation Wing, started in 1953 with a squadron of 10 
Scaland amphibious aircraft, acqiured some Firefly taiget-toiving aircraft 
m 1955 An au'craft-carricr, HMS HerculeSt was acquired in 1957 and is 
now being refitted in the U K The Hydrographic Office, set up for the 
Marine Survey of India, has started its mam work of surveymg the seas and 
produdng charts. 


Air Force 

The Chief of the Staff is assisted by three Fnndpal Staff Officers 
controlling the three main branches of the Air Headquarters, viz the Deputy 
Chief of the Air Staff, the Air Officer-in-Gharge, Adimnistration and the Air- 
Officer-in-Chargc, Maintenance Each of these three branches controls 
a group of Directorates 

Under the Air Headquarters come three major Air Force formations, 
namely the Operational, Training and Mamtenance Commands, located at 
Palam, Bangalore and Kanpur respectively. 

In pursuance of the Reserve and Auxiliary Air Forces Act, passed by 
Parliament in 1952, five Auxiliary Air Force Squadrons, namelv No SI 
(Delhi), No 52 (Bombay), No 53 (Madras), No 54 (U P.), and No 55 
(Bengal) have been formed ' 


training iNsirnmoNS 

XcUerrl Offeree Acedemy 

.\dmis<iom to the National Defence Academy at Khadaivasla near 

conauctccl c Union Public Service Commission at different centres in 

® Sdcctton Board 

-r Ij-ii fn 13 L'h or an equivalent exanunaUon and 

ili« ‘’“y '‘fO’C nKmih on which 

Aaimy. ^ ^ o'' stay at the 



101 


All the expenses of cadets while at the Academy (except tlic pocket 
expense of Rs 30 per month) arc borne by the Government. Where the 
<Gonthh income of parents is less than Rs 300, c\cn this expense is borne 
bv the Government. 

The course at Khadakvasla is of three >ears* duration, after tvhicli the 
cadets rccci' c specialised training at their respective ^ollt^es or 

establishments 

D^ence Services Stq^ College 

Training is imparted to serving officers on an iatcr*Ser\icc basis at 
the Defence Services Staff College at Wellington in South India. It trains 
officers up to the standard required for second-grade staff appointments 
and also equips them for command and higher staff appointments About 
100 officers of all tlic three Services arc trained every yeai, the duration of 
the course being 10 months 

Armd Forces Medical College 

The Armed Forces Medical College at Poona, besides imparting 
traimng to newly-commissioned medical officers, runs refresher coucs^ for 
medical officers of the Armed Forces to keep them up-to-date in 'their 
profession. Specialist courses are run in hygiene, X-ray, blood-transfusion 
and pathology. 


Army Colleges and Schools 

The MiUtary College at Debra Dun is the prenner centre for trauung 
officers of the Army Tbe main source of entry into the College is the 
National Defence Academy. Cadets passmg out of the Academy receive 
one year’s traimng at D^a Dun before being commissioned. The other 
cat^ories of entrants m lughcr age-groups arc those who Imve qualified m the 
competiuve entrance examination of the Umon Pubhc Sendee Commission 
and the Services Selection Board for two years’ training, graduate cadets of 
the NCGfor a year and a half, other graduates selected for specialised com- 
missions in the techmeal arms for a year and serving Re^ar or Terri- 
tonal Army personnel— JCOs and NGOs— for two years At the Military 
College, cadets undergo strenuous traimng designed mostly to equip them 
with the basic mihtary knowledge necessary for all Army officers what- 
ever their corps, arm or service. 

Armoured Corps Centre and School at Ahmcdnagar undertakes 
the trainmg of rc^ental instructors, squadron commandeis and regimental 
commanders of the Corps The CoUege of Mihtary Engineermg at Kirkee 
imparts training to officers and other ranks m all aspects of military 
OTgincenng linger courses ofover two years’ duration are also conducted 
there to tram officers up to the degree standards 

^ of Signals at Mhow imparts baac and advanced technical 

t^ngmtclecommumc^onandagnaltaGtios. The School of Artillery 
^ti-tank> and anti-aircraft artillery, 

T r at Bombay provides training m coastal artillery The 

iaow conduoacourses-mthe tactical and administrative 
h^dUng of umb and sub-uims for semor officers and junior commanders 
of.dU C 0 |ps m the Aimy . The Ordnance School at JabSpnr imn^ 
speji^ised corps tr^g m the idcpMcation, handhng ftorage, hii, 

Mcemt, the School of Physical Traming,Xna;^W and ^ 
port Support School, Agra, the School of Mechamcal Transport, Faizabad 

34.451 



102 


the Corps of Military Police Centre and School, Faizabad , the Education 
Centre and School, Pachmarlu, the Mihtary School of Muac, Pachmarhi; 
and the Electncal and Mechanical Engineering School, Tninulgherr^'. 

Xaval Training Centres 

Except for specialised technical courses, training of all officers and 
men of the Navy is undertaken at the mam Naval training centres located 
at Cochm, Bombay and Visakhapatnam Advanced courses in subjects 
like gunnery, torpedo and anti'^submanne and communications have already 
been started. 

The prinapal training centres of the Navy are ZMS Vendurufh^ and the 
Naval Ait Station Garuda, both situated at Cochin /A'S Vendurut^ is the 
premier training establisWent, compiising technical schools for gunnerj*, 
nangabon and torpedo and anti-submarme. IJ^'S Gamda has the training 
aircraft of the Navy and some technical schools 

At /JVS Shivajij situated at Lonavla (Bombay State), mechanical 
engineers and artiftaers are tramoi A new Engineering College ^vas 
started there to tram jumor engineer and dectneal officers of the Service 

IJ\'S ValsurCj the Electncal School of the Navy at Jamnagar, trains 
officers and men of the Electrical Branch of the Service. With most of the 
ships now acquired being fitted with compheated electronic equipment 
traimng at this School has been geared to the present requirements of the 
Service. 

New reenuts commg into the Navy are trained at /JVS' Qrcars at 
Visakhapatnam and, on completion, of thdr courses, become ratings. 
Officers and men of the Supply and Secretariat Branch are trained at I^S 
Honda in Bombay INS Kisino is the junior officers* training ship Sea 
(raimng is imparted by the Fleet. 

^ir Force Colleges and Schools 

The basic flying training of a year*s duration for pupil pilots is imparted 
at the Air Force Flying Collie, Jodhpur. Advanced flymg and conversion 
training on jets and multi-engin^ aircraft is conducted for a year at the Air 
Force Station, Hyderabad Pupil narigators also have thdr irutial training 
at Jodhpur and advanced traimng at Hyderabad before graduating as full- 
fledged nircrei\ 

Flying instructors are trained m a separate school at Tambaram 
The .Air Force Administrative College at Coimbatore trdns officers in 
%anous ground duties, and medical officers receive traimng at the School 
of Aviation Medicine recently established at Bangdore 

The Air Force Tcchmcal College at Jalahalh trams officers in 
cnnnccnng, signak, and armament and dectrical en^neenng A school 
J^i^halh trams airmen in accounting, equipment, general office duties, 
medical assalanc^ telephone operating, drill instnictioD, police duties, 
driving and catering. Another school, also located at 
Jalahalli, trams airmen in higher signal trades 


DEFENCE ERODDCnON 

With a vicu to evolving a co-ordinated policy in regard to the nro- 
ducuon or military stores and equipment and the inspection, resetweb 
<1- gn and devclopmwt acuvmes of the three ScrvicesVthc Gover^S 
of Jrd.a ta up a Defend ProducUon Board three ycai ago 
Oeftnee Mitv^ttc' as its Chairman, the Board is rcsoonsiWr fnr 

:K"i- 



103 


The Research and Development OrganisaUon was brought into being 
in January 1958 by the amalgamation of the Techmcal Development 
Establishments of the three Services and the Defence Science Organisation 
to promote and apply saentific research for production. It is closely asso- 
ciated wiUi the Production and Inspection Organisation and includes techm- 
cal establishments deahng with weapons, ammumtion, military explosives, 
metallurgy, dectromcs and optical instruments It has under it research 
installations like the Defence Science Laboratory, New Delhi, the Stores 
Laboratory, Kanpur, the Naval Physical Laboratoncs at Bombay and 
Cochin and rescarch-cum-trainii^ installations like the Institute of Arma- 
ment Studies, Kirkee. 

The principal function of the Production and Inspection Organisation 
IS to achieve self-sufficiency in respect of stores required by tiie three Services. 


Ordnance Factmes 

The ordnance factories, wHch until recently catered pnmanly for the 
Army, have now started produemg stores for tiie Navy and the Air Force 
also The Service items produced by them include artillery guns, heavy 
mortars, naval guns, barrels and recoil system of guns, mountmgs, carna- 
ges and buffers for heavy and medmm-cahbre guns, hght machme-guns and 
other small arms, bombs, shells and various types of ammumtion and high 
explosives, sea mmes, depth-charges, parachutes, Service clothme and moun- 
tainceung equipment. 

^ M part of their peace-time functions, the ordnance factories are also 
using Xhsx utihzable sp^e capaaty to cater to aviliau needs. Their dvil 
trade actiwties cover the five broad categones of ferrous, non-ferrous, 
genial engineering The last category 
linH tm™ mathematical instructs, sporting imu 

^^^unition, metal eastings and foi^gs and 0^ LseeUan^ 


Machtne-iool Proio^type Factory 


Hindustan Aircraji 

has been manufaeSfe ^ Smee’ I95I, 

for the lAF, the Navy and the fiylip dubs 'S ^ scale 



^ -"UIOUI 

- ■wit.viiu ivircrau Compaxiv fo 

Iwcst jet fighter, ihc^Gnk uy the HAL of Brit^^i 



104 


gai 2 ge coaches, with modem amemties for the Railways and hns^bodies for 
State and private transport authorities 

Bharat Electronics 

The Bharat Electronics Ltd , Jalahalh (near Bangalore), >vcnt into 
initial production in December 1955, and started manufacturing tools and 
Jigs required for receivers and transmitters 

The value of electromc cqmpment produced at the BEL during the 
period January 1956 and March 1958 ivas Rs 33 95 lakhs The produc- 
tion programme of the Company for this period included the manufacture 
of general-purpose receivers and medium-power transmitters for the Civil 
Aviation Department and cqmpment for All India Radio, Railways, Meteo- 
rological Department, States PoUcc and Fire Services, etc. 

Some other important items imder production at the BEL arc general- 
purpose c omm u ni cation receivers, m^um-poiver transmitters, mobile 
ftans-receivers and portable nmn-pack sets. 


SPECIAL ASSIGNMENTS 

In addition to their normal duty of defending the country’, the Armed 
Forces, from time to tune, perform certain emergency duties, such as 
(i) rendermg of help in areas Ejected by natural ca lnTnitiey like floods, earth- 
quakes wd fammes, (u) carrying out of photographic surveys which arc of 
use m the plaumng and development of hydro-elcctnc and other schemes and 
(m) reclamation of wasteland Smee independence, India's Defence Forces 
also assisted m impleracntmg the Korean Truce A^eement and the re- 
OTntomdations of the International Commisaons for Supentision and Con- 
Cambodia set up under the Cease-fire Agreement 
included at Geneva uly 20, 1954 Several officers and other ranks, in- 
KT-d fircan the Navy and the Air Force, ^vere deputed in September 

lao-l lor the second assignment which still continues The Army embarked 
on yet anofoer mission of peace when on November 16, 1956, a contingent 
wassenttoE^ttojomfficUmtedNations Emeigency Force In a m?rcy 

ovpr ^reas of Ceylon, the Air Force dropped 

^ pomds of suppUes and medical aids Nearly 70 service 

office recently served tvitli the U N. Observntton Group m the Lebanon 

DEFENCE FINANCE 




defence EJCPENDmjRE* 


1951- 52 (Actuals) 

1952- 53 „ * 

1933-54 * 

1954- 55 

1955- 56 ” 

1956- 57 

1957- 58 ,, 

(Rttised EsUniatcs) 
19 j 9-60 (Budget Estimates) 


(Ai crores ^ rupres) 






105 


TERBITORIAI, AHMY 

The Territorial Army, which was raised in October 1949, is designed 
to give the youth of the country an opportunity of receiving mihtary 
pining m their spare time and to serve the countiy in times of emergency 
hy providing units to the regular Army and taking over the responsibihty 
lor internal security. Membership of the Territonal Army does not involve 
service ^tside India except under a special order of the Union Govern- 
ment The TA is composed of umts of Artillery, Infantry, the Corps 
ot limgmeers (mdudmg Railways, Ports, Docks and Inland Watenvays) 
the Corps of Signals (including Posts and Telegraphs), the Medical Corps 
and the Corps of Electncal and Mechamcal Engineers 
{ 1, ^7 aole-bodied national of India between the ages of 18 and 35 

(mth relpation m the upper age-hmit for entry into certain technical 
pts) pd possessing the requisite qualifications is eUgible to join the Tern- 
tonal Army as an officer or other rank 

The Temtorial Army has two types of umts— provinaal and urban 
irapng for recruits in the provmcial units lasts 30 da>s In the urban 
unite trainmg is given for 32 days, in the evemngs after workmg hours, at 
week-rads or on hohdays Every member of the Territonal Army who 
has undergone recruit training is hable to undergo annual training for two 
calendar months m the provincial units and for a penod varymg from a 
120 hours to a maximum of 240 hours m the urban umts 
j. , under traimng or othenvise employed, officers and other ranks 

I the lemtorial Army are entitled practic^y to the same pay and allow- 
ra^’ medical facihties as are admissible to the correspondmg 

ol the regular Army They are also entitled to terminal gratuity and 
abihty and family pension under certam conditions, 
torn ^ u^ted number of appointments on the permanent staff, with a 
Pro nJSf k ^ years, is offered to all ranks of the Territonal Army 
P^ded they possess the necessary expenence and qualifications Territonal 
> personnel are also enptled to ffie award of decorations and medals 


LOK SAHAYAK SENA 


Auxihary Territonal Army, which ivas reorganised as the 
jjj Volunteer Force m 1954, is now designated as “Lok Saha) ak Sena”, 
ycar^ “ give elementary military traimng to about 5,00,000 men in fi\ c 


^lilc-bodied men, except ex-Servicemen and e\-KGC cadets, 
ship ofth ^ Sahayafc Sena Mcmbcr- 

sclicjjjg carries no liabihty to military scr\'icc. Under the new 

» special attention is given to the training of people m border areas 
for given 30 days’ traimng, which includes a litcrac) course 

illiterate A record of the trainees is maintained and the 
.receive ^luincc in each camp is given a Certificate of Merit- Others 
succcssful]^'^^^^- token of their completing the full period of training 
lh:c acc ^ during the training period every trainee is provided mill 
Es 15 clothing and food and an out-of-pocket allo\%ancc of 

Oh the conclusion of the camp. 


NATIONAL CADET CORPS 

Cadet Corps consists of three Divisions, namclv Senior, 
Seniot ind JuhiOr Di\iSio'rIs arc composed of three 
^ Force The Army ^Ning has uims of the 
IhTantrx Artillery, the Corps of Engineers, Uic Signals Coqps, 

^tps. * * of Electrical and Mcclianica! Engineers and the Medical 



106 


In addition to nonnal basic traiiungj cadets of the technical units re- 
ceive specialised trammg Naval Wing units arej of necessity, raised in the 
coastal tOTiVos where faciliti« for naval training arc available. In the Au* 
Wing units, theoretical and practical training is given in flying and, wth 
the hdp of the flying dubs, cadets obtain ‘A’ flying licences at Government 
expense. Gliding has also been introduced as part of the training of air 
cadets The special needs of girl cadets have been fully kept in view and 
their trammg has also now been made more instructive, interesting and usc- 
flil Aero-modellmg and ghdmg have also been introduced m the Semor 
Wmg of the GirV Division. 

The progressive mcrease in the strength of the Corps since its incqp- 
non is shown m the following table. 

TABIJi 28 

STRENGIH OF NATIONAL CADET COBPS 


Date 

Boys 

Girls 

Total 

Senior 

Division 

Junior 

Division 

Senior 

Wing 

Ba 

1-M94? 

14,960 

20,160 


— 

35,120 

W-I950 

22,184 

36,180 

93 

— 

58,457 

M-I95I 

23,349 

45,105 

279 

- 

63,733 

M4952 

23,570 

45,663 

279 


69,512 

I-I-I95S 

26,103 

53,515 

527 


80,145 

1-1-1954 

28,217 

54,400 I 

620 

— 

83,237 

1-1-1955 

39,085 

56,617 

2,728 

2,914 

1,01,344 

1-1-1956 

46,680 : 

66,307 

3,255 

5,146 

1,21,388 

1-1-1957 

52.147 : 

70,829 

3,999 

6,727 

1,33,702 

I.M9S8 

64,475 

76,530 

5,730 

9,270 

1,56,005 

144959 

73,407 

92,258 

9,246 ! 

17,342 

1,92,253 


AinOLtARY CADET CORPS 

for started to cope with the demand 

at the end of msVi ^ rapid progress, its strength 

country m team 

trained fern schoob are 

VfELFABE OF £X<-S£BVICEMEN 

Goicrnmcnt and^^^rate resettlement of ex-.Servicemen in 

colonies and *«des, land 

facahtatc their hSirpuorin^c agncultoe is given to 

u^rpuoD m me community projects as Gram Seiaks In 








107 


matters of employment^ preference is given to ex-Servicemen in filling up 
appomtments m the police, "watch and ward, excise and other departments 
where nuhtary traimng is a qualification. In addition, relaxation in age- 
linuts to the ectcnt of the nuhtary service rendered has been penmtted 
Through the concerted efforts of the Central and State Governments as well 
as pnvate organisations employment has been found for 1,12,628 ex-Service- 
men including 957 officers durmg the last eight years or so 

One of the most important non-offici^ orgamsations which renders 
useful assistance to ex-Servicemen and their famihes, in close haison with the 
local administrations, is the Soldiers*, Sailors* and Airmens* Board The 
Board, which has its headquarters in New Delhi, co-ordinates the activities 
of State boards. These, in thdr turn, control a network of district boards, 
havmg m some cases tehsil or talnka. committees There are at present 204 
such boards In addition to the funds of the Board which are primarily 
used for payment of special pensions to blinded ex-Service m e n and to meet 
expenditure on other miscellaneous items, there are a number of other Central 
funds like the Flag Day Fund, the Armed Forces Benevolent Fund and the 
Armed Forces Reconstruction Fund, which also render valuable assistance 
for the Welfare of cx-Servicemen. 



CHAPTER VIII 


EDUCATION 

Education is the responsibility of the State Governments, the Union 
Government confimng its actndties to the co-orinauon of faalidw and de- 
termination of standards in respect of higher education (through the Univer- 
sity Grants Commission), research and saentific and techmei education 
Go-ordination m regard to dementary and secondary education is secured 
through All-India Councils The Umon Government is also responsible 
for the running of four umversities (Ahgarh, Banaras, Delhi and Visva- 
Bbarau) and such other institutioDS of national importance as Parliament 
may by law declare It also administers the award of scholarships and 
fellowships in pursuance of the pohey of promotmg cultural relations with 
co-operating with international organisations hke the 

Lileraty 

The state of literacy in the country according to the 1951 census is as 
shoivn below 

TABI;e 29 

UTEHACY in INDIA (1951)* 






109 ' 


TABLE 29 (eontd) 


State/Union 

Tcmtory 

Literates 

; Percentage of Literacy 

Persons 

Males 

Females 

, Persons 

Males 

1 

Females 

Punjab 

24,57,496 

18,25,953 

6,31,543 

1 15 23 

21 03 

8 47 

Kajasthan 

14,29,712 

12,00,282 

2,29,430 

8 95 1 

14 44 


Uttar Pradedi . 

68,25,072 

57,53,580 

10,71,492 

10 80 

17 38 

3 56 

West Bengal 

63,18,603 

48,29,707 

14,88,896 

24 02 ! 

34 23 

12 21 

Uniim Territories 







Andaman and 
Nicobar Idands 

7,980 

i 

6,513 

1,467 

25 77 

34 18 

12 31 

D^hi 

6,69,073 

4,24,118 

2,44,955 

38 36 

42 99 

1 32 34 

Himachri Pradesh 

85,509 

72,972 ! 

12,537 

7 71 

12 59 

' 2 37 

Laccadive, Mini- 
coy & Amindivi 
Islands 

3,204 

2,635 

569 

15 23 1 

25 59 

5 30 

Mampm 

65,895 

58,932 

6,963 

11 41 ' 


2 37 

Tnpiira 

99,197 

74,975 

24,222 

15 52 : 

22 34 

7 98 


InstitutionSi Enrolmentt Managmmt and Expenditure 

The total number of institutions, enrolment therdn and direct 
expenditure incurred on them between 195I>52 and 1956-57 is shown 
bdow: 


TABLE 30 

iNSTirunoNs, students and expenditure 



Number of in- 
stitutions 

Number of stu- 
dents on rolls 
(in lakhs) 

Total expendi- 
ture (in crores 
of rupees) 

1951-52 

I 

2,89,354 ! 

265 72 

124 56 

1952-53 

2,98.759 1 

275 24 

137 64 

1953-54 

3,13,344 

291 39 

147 74 

1954-55 

3.43,071 

312 67 

165 01 

1955-56 

^ 3,66,637 

339 24 

189 66 

1956-57* 

j 3,77,718 

357 75 

202 24 


•Efoviwjnal * 
















no 


The growth of different types of institutions between 1951-52 and 1956- 
57 IS indicated below 

TABLE 31 

TYPES OF INSTITUTIONS 



1951-52 

1952-53 

1953-54 

1954-55 

1955-56 

1956-57* 

Pre-prunary 

Smools 

330 

396 

426 

513 

630 

773 

Fnmary Schools 


2,22,014 

2,39,382 

2,63,626 

2,78,130 

2 87,318 

Secondary Schools 

22,639 

24,059 

25,767 

27,510 

32,568 

35,828 

Vocational Schools 

2,463 

2,616 

2,599 

2,752 


3,283 

Special Education 
Schools 

47,994 

48,706 

44,142 

47 534 

50 987 

49,127 

Arts and Science 
Colleges 

552 

581 

613 

657 

712 

771 

Professioinal Col- 
li^ 

214 

239 

253 

291 

346 

4<H 

Special Education 
Ciollcgcs 


79 

87 ; 

1 106 j 

112 

127 

Research Institu- 
tions 

j 20 

31 

35 

i I 

33 

34 

41 

Boards of Educa- 
cabon 

1 

1 9 

i 9 

10 

10 

11 

12 

UnneniUes 

j 29 

i 29 

30 

31 

32 

34 

TOTAL 

1 2,89,354 

1 2,98,759 

3,13,344 j 3,43,071 

3,66,637 1 

3,77,718 


The distnbution of institutions and students therein according to 
management is as follows 


TABLE 32 

INSTmmONS ACCORDING TO MANAGEMENT 


Management 

Number of Recognised Institutions 

1951-52 

1952-53 1 

1953-54 

1954-55 

1955-56 

1956-57* 

Government 

71,074 

70,681 

70,520 

80,434 • 

' 87,601 

- 89,304 

Distnct Boards - 

; 1.02,945 

1,07,275 

1.17,527 

1,30,636 

1,42,980 

1,53,953 

Municipal Boards 

9,603 

9,919 

10,046 

10,401 

10,497 

11,448 

Fnvatc 







(a) Aided 

95,596 

1,00,450 

1,04,324 

1,10,956 

1,14,204 

1,11,064 

(6) Unaided 

10,136 

10,434 

10,927 

10,644 

11,355 

11,949 

TOTAL 

2,69,354 

2,98,759 

3,13,344 

3,43,071 

3,66,637 

3,77,718 


*Provisional 












Ill 


TABLE 33 

NtIMBER OF PUPILS IN RECOGNISED INSTITUTIONS 


Management 

1951-52 

1952-53 

i 1953-54 

1954-55 

1 1955-56 

1956-57* 

Government 

53,45,523 

54,73,575 

58,40,568! 

64,79,643! 

72,50,735 

74,03,684 

District Boards 

98,28,781 

99,39,163 


1,13,54,736 

1,24,44,863 

1,35,24,164 

^lumcipal Boards 

21,42,124 



24,45,713 

25,95,855 

26,79,632 

Private . 

] 






(a) Aided ,, 


88,39,879 

92,09,324 

98,42,637 

1,03,69,406 

1,01,42,553 

(t) Umuded . 

9,41,639 


10,95,425 

11,44,691 

12,62,734 

13,30,860 

TOTAL .. 

! 1 i 

|2,65,71.575 2,73,23,939j 

[ 

2,91,38,750 

1 1 

3,12,67,420 

3,39,23,593 

:3, 50,80, 893 

1 


The contributions (in percentage) from different soiuces to the total 
direct C3q)enditure are indicated below: 

TABLE 34 


SOURCES OF EXPENDITURE 


Source 

1951-52 

1932-53 

1953-54 

1 1954-55 

1955-56 

1956-57* 

Govenunent Funds 

56 5 j 


57 8 

1 59 9 

61 8 

62 2 

District Board 
Funds 

B 


B 

mm 

B 

5 1 

Mumapal Boards 
Funiu 

iHi 


B 

bW 

B 

3 4 

Fees 

21.6 ; 

21 6 

22 3 

21 4 

20 0 

19 8 

Endowments ^ 

3 8 ' 

3 2 

3.1 

3 0 

3 0 

3 2 

Odicrs M 

6 g ' 

7 I 

7.0 

6 5 

6.6 

6 3 


AcMeDments and Targets Under the Two Plans 

The phyacal targets achieved at the end of the First Plan and those 
•rtoTOsional , I „ ~ 













aimed at under the Second Plan arc indicated below; 

TABLE 35 

AGfflEVEMENTS AND TARGETS 


Activity 

1955-56 

19G0-61 

Percentage of children of age-group 6 — 11 under instruction to 
totd population of age-group 

51 0 

62 7 

Percentage of children of age-group 11 — 14 under instruction 
to total population of age-group 

18 2 

22 5 

Percentage of children ofage-gioup 14-17 under instruction 
to total popuknon of age-group 

8 4 

1 n 7 

Number of Pnmary/Junior Basic Schools* 

^ 2,78,768 

3,26,800 

Number of Junior Banc Schools 

42,971 

64,919 

Number of Middle/Senior Basic Schools 

21,730 

22,725 

Number of Semor Banc Schools 

4,842 

4,571 

Number of High/Highcr Secondary Schools , j 

10,738 

12,125 

Number of High Schools upgraded to Higher Secondary 
Schools 

47 

1,197 

Number of Mulnpuipose Schools 

367 

1,187 

Number of Univemtiea 

32 

38 

Number of Engmeermg InsUtutca at degree levd 

47 

54 

Number of Engmecnng Insututes at diploma Icvd 

88 

104 

Graduates in Eagmeenng 

3,395 

5,480 

Diploma Holders m Engmeermg 

3,511 

8,000 

Number of Tcchndogical Institutes at degree level 

25 

28 

Number of Technological Institutes at diploma level 

36 

37 

Degree Holders m Technology 

700 

800 

Diploma Holders m Technology 

430 

450 


elementary and B^G EDtIOATION 

the sv^c^ ^ accepted pattern of the edu^tional system. 
It Kfle cmentary education is gradually being brought m line ivith 
c^irSed ^ cumculuiS m which learning is 

environment of the children andllso 
Icathw^vnrV Vi« ^ j Spinning and weaving, gardemng, carpentry, 

homp -ma * book craft and domestic crafts induing cooku^, seiving, 
me demS^S'’ Programme for the co^^nT^c 

mtroducbnn ^ opemng of nciv basic schools, the 

■ crafts in non-basic schools, the production of htd'ature 


•InduS^ p„^p^ ^ mUttiMedi:" 






113 


on basic education and training of basic school teachers is progressively 
being carried out The recommendations of the Assessment Comimttce 
appomted in 1955 have generally been accepted and are being imple- 
mented 

An AU-India Council for Elementary Education has been set up to 
advise the Centr^ and State Governments on all matters relating to ele- 
mentary education and to prepare programmes for the early implementation 
of compulsory and free elementary education 

The progress of primary and basic cducaUon is indicated in the fol- 
lowing tabic: 


TABLE 36 

BASIC AND NON-BASIC PRIMARY EDUCATION 


Year 

Number of schools 

Number of students 
on rolls (m 
thousands) 

1 Direct expenditure 

1 (m crores of rupees) 

Primary 

W 

Basic 

Primary 

ic) 

1 Basic 

1 

1 Primary 

i w 

Basic 

1951-52 

2,15,366 

1 33,751 

1,90,23 

29,85 

40 54 

5 18 

1952-53 

2,22,410 

34,223 

1,95,51 

29,60 

44 36 

5 67 

1953-54 

2,39,803 

34,940 

2,08,43 

30,31 

46.43 

6 04 

1954-55 

2,64,139 

37,395 

2,22,43 

31,55 

51 10 

6 50 

1955-56 

2,78,763 

42,971 

2,29,66 

37,30 

53 98 

8 11 

1956-57* 

2,88,091 

46,825 

2,39,67 

41,03 

57 61 

9 06 


SECONDARY EDUCATION 

Significant among the reforms carried out on the recommendations of 
the Secondary Education Commission (which reported in August 1953) 
with the aim of making secondary education a self-contained and complete 
stage up to the age of 17, are - 

(1) SubsutuUon of the present system in which the secondary stage 
serves as a terminal stage entirely subservient to university 
education by a diversified sj’stcm through conversion of existing 
schools into multipurpose types f 

(2) Provision of facilities for improvements m teaching science, 
hbrarics, introduction of craft in middle schools, training of 
teachers and career masters, etc 

(3) The establishment of the All-India Council for Seconday Educa- 
Uon to advise tlie Centra! and State Governments 

(4) Tlic compulsory study of tlirce languages at the secondary 

stage ^ 


(a) IndusiNC of pre-pnmary schools 

t Mulupurposc schools oTcr imtmction m languages, social <tudtc$. gwcral science, 
ard acompulsorjcrafl in addmoi to acounc m cither sasace, techno’ os^.oo^ 
mercc, agnculturc, fine arts, hone saeace or hunanitjes. 













114 


The table bd<nv provides at a glance tbe development and finandng of 
secondary education* 

TABLE 37 

SECONDARY EDUCATION 


1 

^car j 

Number of 
sdiooh 1 

I 

Number of alu- 
daits on rolb 
(m thousands) 

Total direct 
i oipcnditure (in 
crores of rupees) 

(95I.'l2 

1 22,639 

56,80 

34 86 

1952-53 

i 24,059 

\ 60, OQ 

38 07 

1953-54 

1 25,767 

1 64,10 

, 42 17 

1954-55 

' 27,518 

* 68,93 

45 51 

1955-56 

32,568 

, 85,27 

‘ 53 02 

1956-57* 

' 35,B28 

1 93,30 

' 57 47 


HIGHER AND UNIVlSlSrrY EDUCATION 

Post-secondary education m India is imparted through (1) arts and ' 
saence colleges, (2) professional colleges, (3) speaal educations colleges, 
(4) research institutions and (5) universities. In States having Boards of 
Higher Secondary and Intermediate Education, the post-intennediate stage 
IS conducted under the direcUon and control of universities in respect of 
courses of study, CNaminations and award of d^rees and diplomas 

UnivcrsiUes are of three different types AfBhating umversities do 
^ji QL-thpmse l\ ff!s any teaching hut merely prescribe courses of 

^lud}, conduct examinations and award degrees and diplomas in respect of 
colleges affiliated to them The affiliatin g and tparhm g universities, m 
addition to carrying out funebons of the gffliiabri g type, offer teaching 
and research facihbes generally at tlie post-graduate level and m some 
^cs from the posi-intcnncdiate level onwards. The Residential and 
Tcaciung univcrsibes are unitary organisations controlhng all colleges 
under their junsdicbon m all respects and undertakmg teaching at all 
Jc\els A number of the younger universities in India belong to the last 
catcgoiy ^ 

A forum for the discussion of university problems and for the mutual 
Tccognibon of degrees and diplomas at^arded by the umversibcs in India is 
Intcr-Univcrsily Board founded in 1925 The functions 
are advisory in character 

wida the univ ersibcs, there arc a large number of msbtutions which 
impart juphtr learning The Jamia hlillia at Delhi, the Guruloil at Hard- 
Indian Institute of Saence, Bangalore, have the same standmg 
as other universtucs, although they were not offiaally established as umver- 
1 ICS under Central or State Acts Many of the research laboratories and 
chapter on Scunltfit Research, arc recognised by 
^ ^^*'^“^**5* as centres of higher research Some of them 

unocrtiVc teaching as well 

lnT.aye3&as «hown the Siatc/Tcmtor^ -wise distnbuuon of the v anous 




115 


types of institutions catering to higher education in 1956-57 and in Table 
39 relevant data in respect of the Universities is g^ven for 1958. 

TABLE 38 

STATE/TERKirORY-WISE DISTRIBUTION OF JNSTfiUTIONS OF 
HIGHER EDUCATION (195&57) 


Slate/Umon Temtor) 

Umver- 

^Ucs 

Boards 
of Edu- 
cation 

Resear- 
ch hi- 
sbtu- 
boos 

1 

Arts 

and 

Sacnce j 
CSolleges 

1 

Profes- 
sional 1 
Colleges, 

Special 

l^uca- 

tion 

Coll^;es 

Total 

Andhra Pradesh 

3 

1 

— 

53 

.3 ' 

15 

95 

Assam 

1 

1 

- 

23 

1 5 

1 

1 1 

30 

1 

Bihar 


1 ' 

i ^ 

55 

i 

1 1 

! 7 1 

1 

1 96 


Bombay J 

- 1 

2 1 

; 

82 1 

83 

11 

206 

Jammu and Kashmir 

1 

- 

“ 

12 

3 

10 

26 

Kerala* 

1 1 

- ' 

- 

40 

13 

7 

’ 61 

Madhya Pradesh 

1 

2 

- 

61 

33 

8 

105 

Madras 

2 

1 


56 

32 

16 

107 

Mysore ' 

2 

- 

4 

45 

44 

7 

102 

Onssa 

1 

I 

- 

14 

6 

3 

25 

Punjab 

2 

- 

- 

79 

30 

- 

111 

R^astban 

1 

1 

- 

54 

15 

18 

89 

Uttar Pradesh 

6 

I 

5 


44 

9 

134 

West Bengal 

3 

1 

4 


32 

1 


154 

Ddhi 

I 

1 

3 


10 

B 

32 

Hnnadial Pradesh 


- 

— 


I 

B 

B 

Manipur 


- 

— 

H 

B 



Tinpuia 

- 

- 

— 

2 

■ 


H 

Pondicherry 

— 

“ 

- 

2 

H 

H 

H 

India 

34 

12 

41 

771 

404' 

127 

1,389 


General Education in Utdoersiltes 

Two schemes of general education have been drawn up by a study 
team which reported in Janu^ 1957. In the main scheme, general 
education covering basic studies in the fields of natural sciences, soaal 
and the humanities together with training in communication 
tioUs are to be made compulsory for all under-graduate non-professional 
laculbes. In the alternative scheme, six periods a ^veek m the first nnd 
♦Figures rdate^to 19SW6 ^ ' 












116 


second years of the degree course are to be devoted to general education 
The introduction of general education courses has been accepted in princi- 
ple by almost all umversities m India, many of them having actually in- 
troduced them m one form or another. 

University Grants Commission 

In pursuance of the recommendation of the University Education 
Commission appomted by the Government m 1948, the Umversity Grants 
Commission was constituted in 1953 It was given an autonomous statu- 
tory status by an Act of Parhament m 1956 Most of the matters connec- 
ted with umversity education including the determination and co-ordmation 
of standards and facilities for study and research have been committed to the 
care of this body The Commission has the authonty to make appropriate 
grants to different umversities and implement development schemes 

The composition of the Conmussion as on hlarch 1, 1959 ivas as 
follo^vs 

Chairman C D Deshmukh 

Memhers H N Kunzru 

K S Knshnan 
AL Mudahar 
Deivan Anand Kumar 
G 0, Chatte^ce 
N K Siddhanta 
K G Saiyidain 
NN Wanchoo 
SmmdMathai 



117 



♦Informitjon not availnblci 




TABLE 39-(«wW) 


118 






119 

technical education 

The foUo^Ning tabic indicates the expansion of facilitiw for technical 
education (engineering and technology) between 194'7 and 1957. 

Tx\BLL40 

TECHNICAL EDUCATION 


l j 

1 Insutuuons | 

Sanctioned Intake 

Out-tum 

J 

! 

1 

Degree 1 
Engg &. 
Tech 

Diploma 
Engg 6. 
Tcdi 

Degree i 
Engg &, 1 
Tcrh , 

Diploma 
Engg L 
Tech 

Degree 
Engg A. 
Tech 

Diploma 
Engg & 
Teoi. 

i 

1947 

38 ^ 

\ 

S3 

2,9-10 j 

3,670 

1,270 

1,440 

1950 

<19 

86 

4,119 1 

5,903 


2,478 

1951 

53 

, 89 

4,708 

6,216 

2,693 

2,626 

1952 

56 

] 90 

5,184 

6,499 

1 2,936 

2,654 

1953 

58 

02 

5,450 ! 

7,213 

1 2,880 

1 2,747 

1 

1954 

1 59 

1 

5,468 1 

3,313 

1 

‘ 9,207 

1 3,397 

1955 

! » 

1 

1 102 

5,937 ! 

j 9,397 

i 4,070 

. 4,072 

1956 

i 

109 

6,367 

1 9,899 

1 4,293 

1 4,075 

1957 

! 7*1 

1 129 

, 9,778 

1 

1 15,995 

j 1290 

1 5,034 

\ 


By the end of the Second Plan period it is estimated that technical 
institutions will be in a position to admit every yeai about 13 000 students 
for degree courses and 24,000 students for diploma courses. 

The AU-India Ckiundl for Technical Education, \vhich ad\ases Govern- 
ment on technical education, has earned out a study of the position of each 
techmeal institution m the coimtry and has drawn up schemes for their 
improvement and for the establishment of new institutions The total cost 
of schemes approved tdl March 1958 was of the order of Rs 29 1 8 crores of 
which the Central Government ^VlIl provide Rs 18 56 crores 

On the recommendations of a Special Cominittee appointed by it, the 
Council has approved the mtroduction of post-graduate courses in 33 sub- 
jects at 20 selected institutions. 

The Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, the first of four higher 
technological institutes, started funcUomng in 1951. Tlie Indian Institute of 
Technology, Bombay, admitted the first batch of students in 1958 and the 
remaining two institutes, one at Madras and another at Kanpur are m 
the process of estabhshment. Each Institute when completed will provide 
for the education of over 1,500 students at the under-graduate level and 500 
at the post-^duate level. 

Courses in Management Studies have started at the Indian Institute of 
Technology, Kh^agpurj the Delhi School of Economics, Delhi; the Depart- 
ment of Economics, Madras University, Madras, the School of Economics 
and Sodology, Bombay, the Indian Institute of Sdence;, Bangalore * the 
Institute of Social Welfare and Busmess Management, Calcutta, and the 
Victoria Jubilee Technical Institute, Bombay. The Administrative Staff 
College at Hyderabad, which started fimetioningin December 1957, is ajoint 




120 


enterprise of the Central Government, private mdustry and commerce and 
conducts three courses m a year. 

Four Regional Schools of Pnntmg, jointly sponsored by the Central 
and the State Governments at Madras, Bombay, Calcutta and Allahabad, 
each designed to tram 20 candidates every year, have also started functioning 
In addition to grants-m-aid to indmdud research workers, about 680 
scholarships, have been allotted to different science and technological de- 
partments of umversibes and other institutions 

Eighty fello\vship5, each of the value of Rs 400 per mensem and a grant 
of Rs 1,000 per year for apparatus and equipment under the National 
Research Fello^vship Scheme (imtiated in 1955-56) arc av^ablc For 
engmeermg and techmeal students two categoncs of stipends have been 
mtroduced m sdected government establishments and individual concerns 
for post-institutional practical trammg in mdustnal management 


RURAL HIGHER EDUCATION 

On the recommendation of the Rural Higher Education Committee, 
^^cilfor Higher Education m Rxiral Areas has been established 
to ^vise the Government on all matters relating to the development of rural 
higher eduction The Council selected 10 institutions for developinent 
rural ^ntutes and these have started functiomng at Snmkctan, 
Ii^u^, Jamianagar (Neiv Delhi), Udaipur, Sundamagar Birauli (Bihar), 
Agra, banosara (Bombay), Coimbatore, Amravati, Gaigoti (Bombay) 'fhe 

courses as approved by the Council and adopted by the rural institutes are : 

a three-year diploma course m rural sciences, (u) a Uvo-year certificate 
co^e m agricultural science, (m) a three-year certificate course in 

engmee^g and (iv) a one-year preparatory course to imdate 
i^tac^es into the three-year diploma course Recognition of the Dip- 
“ eqmvalent to a first degree of a Umversity has 


SOCIAL EDUCATION 

while the Centre provides euiXk ® schemes, 

A National Cptut/- ^ hnancim^istance and coordmation 
m New Delhi to tram higher Education has been established 

vdop suitable tcchninues^ personnel for soaal education work, de- 

as a clearing hom^f r«i^ch on selected problems and serve 

aturc the Reduction of hter- 

best boohs in a5 “ffemd to nuthom of the 

Audio-Visual Atds 

strips on educa^nal^d^c^S^Mlf ^ 

cducauonal and other imitiS^wS relent free of charge to 

It has 1,045 educanoS °fthe Library, 

^oughout the country as its mernhpra social organisations scattered 
Education* has been started tn fn ^ quarterly journal ‘Audio-Visual 
techniques among“LSS?lnd ^ audio-visual 

Seminar, educadon worker, 

by the Centre as also by the Itates^ organised 

Institute has started ftmebomng. ^ Central Audio-Visual Educadon 



EDUCATION OF THE HANDICAPPED 


A National Advisory Council advises the Government on all problems 
concernmg education, traimng and employment of the physically and men- 
tally han^capped. Scholarships are awarded to bhnd, deaf and orthopae- 
dically handicapped students for higher education or for techmcal or pro- 
fession traimng Grants are provided to institutions and organisations for 
the handicapped chiefly for undertakmg developmental work for the handi- 
capped 

The traimng centre for the Adult Blind at Dehra Dun imparts traimng 
in handicrafts to about 150 bhnd men from all parts of the country. A 
women’s section with a capaaty of 20 has been recently added to the' centre. 
Attached to this centre is a sheltered workshop, set up in 1954 employing 
ten bhnd workers An employment office for the blind has been functioning 
in Madras smee July 1954 and has so far placed 94 adult blmd persons m- 
cluding 2 bhnd women m various mdustnes 

The Central Bradle Press, established at Dehra Dun in October 1950, 
produces braille literature in Indian languages, publishes a Hmch quarterly 
digest and manufactures braille apphances 

A Model School for blmd children established in January 1959 at 
Dehra Dun provides kmdergarten and primary education. Eventually it 
will be a full-fledged secondary school. 


DEVELOPMENT OF HINDI 

Steps so far taken for the propagation and development of Hmdi are 
as follows . 

(i) 1,37,590 technical terms have been evolved by twenty-three expert 
coi^ttees appointed by the Board of Saentific Terminology and hste of 
techmcal terms m 14 subjects have so far been published 

(“) Cmnraents of State Governments and Umversities have been in- 
vitcu on an Enghsh version of the basic grammar of modern Hindi 

(m) A Rmewmg Committee has submitted a report on the recom- 
mendanom ofthe Hindi Exammation Reorganisation Committee and the 
report will be considered by the Hindi Shiksha Samiti. 

(iv) The pubhcation of the report of the Hindi Typewnter and Tele- 
pnnto Comnuttee been withheld pendmg Govermimt deosion on £ 
question of reform of the Devabagan script 

J’'' f standard system of Hindi shorthand has been 

started and is expected to be completed by I960 

5 n ft,. Irl u"‘!j •ratntng colleges are to be orgamsed on a zonal basis 

mthenon-Hmdispealongareasandthe Akhil Bharabya HindiM^wd^ 
laya,A^, ,^beorganisedforresear^in Hindi and^ainuig of tcachL 

with Lidi®booU^^'““ “ non-Hindi speahng States have been provided 
(vm) An exhibition of sdenBfic and technical literature in Ht.,) 

tvas or^msed at Bombay. Indore. Patna and 



222 


(xm) Lecture tours by scholars from Hmdi speaking areas to noU' 
Hmdi speakmg areas and vice versa have been arranged. A seminar of 
Hindi teachers from the non-Hindi speaking States was held at Patna in 
1958 

(xiv) Grants have been given to State Governments in non-Hmdi 
speakmg areas and to voluntary oi^msations for the promotion of Hindi 
and for appomtment of Hmdi teachers. 

(xv) Sug^Cions and comments have been invited from universities 
regardmg seven lists containmg words common to Hmdi and other regional 
languages 


YOtnH WELFABE 

The highhghts of the endeavour in the fidd of youth welfare have 
been as follows . 

(i) Organisation of annual inter-university youth festivals since 
1954 and assistance to universities for the organisation of inter- 
collegiate festivals 

(«) Holdmg of youth leadership training camps, where short-term 
trainmg m imparted to selected teachers in the promotion of 
extra-curxicul^ activities 

(tw) Travd concessions and finanaal as^tance for organising youth 
tours to places of histone, scemc and cultural mterest and to 
development project areas 

{iv) The establishment of the Youth Hostds Association of India 
and the setting up of youth hostds all over the country. 

(») Assistance to umvcmtics and State Govenunents in the promo- 
tion of youth welferc boards and committees for the successful 
implementation and co-ordmation of youth w^are activities 

(n) Pilot surveys of the living condittons of students atsdected um'- 
versity centres 

(dm) The setting up of non-student youth dubs and centres 

( 71 : 1 ) The Labour and Social Service Scheme to incukate the sense of 
dignity of manual labour m students and to bnng them into 
contact with villages 

(uc) Campus Work Projects Scheme to provide amemties such as 
gymnasia, swimmmg pools, open air theatres-cum-auditona, 
etc to umversities and other educational centres 


PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORTS 

Physical Education 

A ‘National Plan of Physical Education and Recreation’ has been 
p^Mcd for strength^g institutions and coUeges of physical education 
Ihe Plan at impl^endng the syllabi of physical education, populans- 

mgno|^ of phj^cal Hmess tests, conducting seminars, awardmg fdloivships 
^d scholan^ps for laghex studies m physical education, granting assistant 
to Vyayamsha^ and Akkedas, holdmg of physical efficient wedi and fesd- 
^ and pr^uemg of documentary and feature films on physical education 
AU these schemes are bang earned out. 

Laksl^\^nr^*^°^ College of Phyacal Education, named after Rani 
H 1957. The coUege 

a three-y^ degree course m physical cducatira 
Education Lid Recreation 
activities ^ Government on co-ordmation of programmes and 




123 


Sports 

Encouragement ofiered to the organisation of sports has been in the 
following directions : 

(*) The establishment of the All-India Council of Sports 
(n) The setting up of State Sports Councils in Andhra Pradesh, 
Assam, Bihar, Bombay, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, 
Madras, M)^ore, Orissa, Rajasdian, Tnpura and U P. 

(m) Under the Rajkuman Sports Coaching Scheme coachmg centres 
have been established under the guidance of expert Inian and 
foreign coaches since 1953 and assistance is given to sports 
federations and universities to modernise sports equipment and 
to enable them to parUapate in international sports tounia- 
ments. 

J^ahonal Discipline Scheme 

In order to bring up the younger generation imder a proper code of 
oisaplme and to instil in them ideals of good citizenship and comradeship, 
a scheme for the physical and general social training of displaced childr^ 
^ introduced in July 1954 A start was made m traming of the chil- 
Mcn in Kasturba Nikctan at Delhi, The scheme has smee been extended 
to a large number of schools m and aroimd Delhi, Punjab, U.P., Bombay, 
^dhya Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir and West Bengal Over 1,00,000 
^dren arc under training in vanous States 



CHAPTER DC 


CULTURAL AGTiVmES 

The National Culture Trust "was set up to promote art and culture and 
foster the consaousness of art among the people These objectives arc 
secured through the agency of the Laht Kala Akademi (Academy of Art), 
Sangcct Natak Akadcuu (Academy of Dance, Drama and Music) and 
Sahit>a Akadenu (Academy of Letters) The facilities for mass communi- 
cation at the disposal of the State have also been utilised to make the 
people consaous of their cultural heritage A number of institutions have 
collaborated in the task of popularising traditional arts and crafts * 

ART 

Labi Kala Akademi 

The Laht Kala Akademi, set up in 1954, promotes the development of 
fine arts and c\'oIvcs a programme of work for the growth and nourishment of 
painting, sculpture and other graphic arts It also co-ordmates the acU- 
\ilics of the rc^onal or State academies, encourages exchange of ideas among 
vanous schools of art, publishes literature and fosters mter-regional and 
intcmauonal contacts through exhibitions, exchange of personnel and oi 
art objects 

The Akadenu holds a National Exhibition of Art every year at New 
Delhi, which also visits different State capitals by rotation Five such 
national evhibittons ha\e been held so far In 1956 the Akademi organised 
in New Delhi an cxhibiuon of Buddhist Art as part of the 2500th Anmversary 
of the Panrarv’ana of Lord Buddha It later visited Banaras, Patna, Cal- 
cutta, Madras and Bombay 

^^hibiuons of Canadian paintings, Hungarian folk arts, Chinese 
handicrafts, Polish arts, contemporary German art and reproductions of 
?? ^ so far been organised An exhibition of Rembrandt’s 

life and ivork ts being shown m different cities An Indian exhibition, 
samples of contemporary art and classical museum pieces, toured 
Gr^hojlovakia, Hungary, Bulgana, Rumama, Russia and Poland About 
a thoupnd representame samples of Indian art arc bemg sent to Villa 
Hucgcl (West Germany) 

Tlic Aladcmi has initiated a survey of the arts and crafts of diffcr- 
cm regions of the country with particular reference to details of v\ork and 
conditions of indigenous craftsmen, painters and sculptors Tlic 
cotcred West Bengal and is to covxr Gujarat next 
mainten'incc of a photographic record of ancient monuments, 


1 e A1 adcmi mikes annual awards to oulstandmg artists t 

If 






* piimungs ana reproduction of works of art that have decayed 
other important acuities A bcgmnmg has been made in 
.'mT Jamu?" paintings m Kulu, Badami, Sittanavasal, Amber 



125 


Ajania and Mewar Paintings. The forthcoming publications will be de- 
voted to Kishangarh paintings, Bundi paintings and Indian painting in 
relation to Indian poetry* The Akademi also ormgs out a bi-annual art 
journal, ''The Lalit Ka[a” 

The Publications Division of the Ministry of Information and Broad- 
casting has also brought out a number of important artpubheations These 
include Kangra Valley Painting, Indian Art Through th£ Ages, Architecture and 
Sculpture of India and The Way of the Buddha 

Katmal Gallery of Art 

The National Gallery of Modem Art, established m 1954, now possesses 
1,748 works of nearly 140 artists, including Rabindranath Tagore, Nandalal 
Bose, Abanindranath Tagore, Jamini Roy, D P. Roy Chaudhury, Amnta 
Shcr GiU, Sudhir Khastagir and many other modem painters and sculptors 


DANCE AND DRAMA 

HatA Akademt 

The main task which the Sangeet Natak Akademi, inaugurated in i 
has set for itself is the survey of and research m the different art forms of the 
country, to record and film them and to encourage publications about them. 

The National Festival of classical, traditional and modern ballet dances, 
excluding folk dances, was organised in Delhi in 1955 A seminar on Dance 
Arts of India was organised m 1958 The Folk Dance Festival ^ become 
an integral part of the annual Republic Day celebrations To keep a 
record of the different styles, folk dances are being filmed and recorded by 
nattonal and regional academics of dance and drama. Similarly, reat^ 
hy leading classic^ dancers are bemg filmed in order to preserve ^ the 
““Portant styles of dancing Books on Indian dance are also being collected. 
5 build up an up-to-date reference hbrary. The Mampw Collie of 
j^^nce at Imphal is to be developed as the main centre of teaming m 
style of dancing , , . ... ’ . .--a 

. A National Drama Festival was sponsored by the .todc^ m 1954, 
plays in all the major Indian languages, as w^ as in Sanskrit, Englwh 
and Maiiipuri were sta^d. The Asian Th^tee totute, sponsored by 
Gov^nment ivith financial assistance from UNESCO, is now run by it A 
seminar on Drama was organised m 1956 _ * 

, A research and reference library, publications and orgamsation of 
cultural dcicgatiom are among other activities of the A^d^ The 
Akademi makes annual awards for mutic, dance, drama and film 

Padu Drama 

The National Programme of Havs, broadcast simultaneously from 
Cerent stations of All India Radio in the languages of the regions, makes 
available to listeners aU over India some of the best knoivn plays m Indian 
dramatic hterature of the past 75 years. 


MUSIC 


Afonc Fesiwal 

The first National Music FestivaJ was held m Delhi in jud the 
in Patna in 1956 under the auspices of the Sangeet Natak Akademi 
These festivals will soon be orgamsed m different parts of the country. 


1‘ihraiy qf Music 

, Select renderings by the leading classical musicians arc to be recorded 
^nd old gramaphonc records co Uected by the Akademi to build up a hbrary 

• For a list of the 1958-59 aisaids see Appcndico. 




126 


of Indian music Classified catalogues of manuscripts on Indian music are 
to be published A library of books on Indian music is b^g built up to 
facilitate research. Folk munc is bdng filmed and recorded by the 
regional academies 

Smtnar on Indian Music 

At a seminar on Indian music held in 1957, leading eiqionents of the 
Kamatak and Hindustam systecos discussed such topics as music education 
and its future groivth and problems of popular music, relationship and affi - 
nity bctw'ccn folk and classical music, problems of orchestration in Indian 
music and group singmg etc. A committee appointed in 1955 has finahsed 
a national system of standardised musical notation. 

Radio Sangut Sammclan 

This r<^ar annual musical event of AU India Rndio aims at stimulat- 
ing apprcaatiott of the pnnapal forms of classical music and presenting 
a \ ancty of ragas and raginis by exponents of Hindustam and Kamatak music 
An annual music competition confined to young artists (which preceeds the 
oammdan) mms at discovermg new talent. Sympoaa to discuss develop- 
ment of music and possibihdes of giving it a new direction arc also a feature 
of the Sammclan 

J^^ctmal Rrogramm of Mime 

Started in 1952, this AIR Programme fcatunng top-rahkmg artists 
aims at fostering a^ better mutual appreciation between die two systems of 
music— Hindustani and Kamatak Folk music and operas arc also broad- 
cast pcriodicallv. 

Ughl Music 

^ Based on dassical and folk mdodics and making use of old and new' 
JjTics, light music is prepared and presented by a number of AIR stations 

foU. Music 

Fully equipped units for ‘on-the-spot* recording of folk mude and for 
mcir editing and presentation are being set up at a number of AIR stations 
oclcctcd folk music now forms an important part of both national and local 
programmes 

X'^rmda 

air Vadja Vrinda (National Orchestra), set up in 1952, has built 
1 1 repertoire of compositions based on traditional ragas and folk 
nc5 It his attempted thematic compositions such as Meskadooiamt 
he Jj^Ums^a and Shafuntalam 


IXTERATURE 


A}cdmt 

inaurarated in I954-. “is a national organi- 
p.,. ‘ d^clopmcnt of Indian letters and to set high 

coKirdmaie hterarj acunucs in aU the 
^ promote through them all the cultural unity of the 

al’ AVw’ai Bthliograpl^ of Initar Uteratm cohering 

published m the tuchueth century in the Kmajor 
Ir ‘ ^ * I m English published 

0 Ak'-l-r ” authors, is one of the important actnitics of 



127 


Under the auspices of the Ahadenu, 

S.K, Dey) hi ieady been published. H.D. Vdankar’s catical edition of 

^'TSry"^ Syalam Hterature by Par^^^h. 
been published; this is under translation in 
history of Bengali literature by Sukumar Sen is m 

and Oriya Utoatures by Binnchi Kumar Barua and Mayadhar Mansmna 

“ !SLTof an in/Wox)’ tote 

and die Puranas, edited by S K Dey ^d R C, IsTalnaksha Dutta, 

volume covering Buddlusthteramc in S^knt,^ted^N^^aUtt^^ 

IS ready for publication Anthologies of Punjabi and 

Bengal, one act plays in Gujarati, sdection of P 

oFRauradc’s prose in Maratfai have been pnblisncu. ^ ^ .achofthe 

Wa(Aaa.<«,1953,ananth<Jogy/po^sdee«dto^^^ 

Iburtem languages along svith their ®ndj translabo , [ 955.57 arc 

The second and third v5liunes covering the years I954-5n and isuo-n/ ar 

Ttoge number of Indian and several Sgta'voSS 

lated and published in severa! Indian lanmaga DjyanLari script) 

l™“^:S^ed£wShasbeenplshed Tbesevolumes 

ftonory and a symposium on ConfempmO: X-itwaf«r«' 

"'’“tSS^t“:^«S&‘ooutstandingboohspublished 

® Indian languages * 

and s®"‘y “ ® "■“ '“Tte'ciflectoSSia^^G^^’s 

^ fcttiTO volumes covering the period 1884 »tm/n 

Broadcasts . ,, joce atR is 

? 5 d“m liTS-d pmblems connected vi.h 
^Qtemporary dramatic literature 

public ... 

^ Trust \riU also publish st^a rd ^vorks on education, scienc^ 

* ?■«“ a list of the 1958 a^-arfs tee Appendices 



128 


culture and the humanities Classica] Indian hteraturc, the translation of 
foreign classics and the translation of Indian classics from one regional 
language to another ivill receive special attention Universities and other 
learned bodies can seek the assistance of the Trust for the publication^ of 
approved books The Publications Division of the Ministry of Information 
and Broadcastmg ivill be the piinapal publisher of the Trust 

Development of Modem Indian Languages 

A scheme costing Rs 20 lakhs has been dra^vn up by the Government 
of India for the development of modem Indian lai^uages dunng the years 
1958-61. It IS mtended to prepare and publish encyclopaediasj books 
knowledge as well as bihngual dictionaries of Indian languages under this 
scheme Publication of old MSS or rare books, of catalogues and bibho- 
graphics, preparation and pubheation of popular books on science and culture 
and books bnnging out similarities amongst the diiferent languages m pomts 
of grammar, syntax etc are also likely to be covered 

CULTURAL RELATIONS ^VIIH OTHER COUNTRIES 
External Relations Division 

An External Kelations Division has been established in the Ministry of 
Saendfic Research and Cultural Afeirs to promote better understandmg and 
goodwill by means of exchange of delegations of artists, students, scholars, 
pubhcations, exhibitions and art objects with other countnes, as also through 
presentation of books, selection of Indian teachers for service abroad, parti- 
apadon m intemadonal congresses and conferences, cultural agreements, 
construedon and mamtenance of mtemadonal students’ houses and hostels, 
creadon of cb^ of Indology abroad and assistance for the publication d* 
foreign transladons of Indian classics. 

Delegations 

Among the Indian delegations sponsored during 1958-59 were a 
womens’ dclegadon and an Indologists’ delegation to USSR, a one-man 
dclegadon to the Congress for the listory of Religions in To^^, a party of 
musicians and dancers to Nepal and a thirty-six-man ddegation of hockey 
and football pla) ers and musiaans to Aighanistan. 

The foreign groups xvhich visited India were : a fifteen-member student 
delegation and U\o batches of journalists. Government servants and others 
from Nepal, an cnimcnt music ende from Canada, dvo Japanese students 
of Hindi and Sansknt, and the Director of the Commonwealth Insdtute, 
London 

CutUral Agreements 

A Cultural Agreement between India and the United Arab Repubhc 
was signed at Cairo in 1958 

Crarts 

finanaal assistance m the form of ad hoc grants was given to more than 
twenty societies and institudons abroad engaged m fostermg closer cultural 
relations wuh foreign countnes 

Ird^n Coinal fcT Cultural Relations 

• Indian Council for Cultural Relations was established in Novem- 

r object of establishing, rcnsing and strengthemng cultural 

b Incia and other countnes Although financed entirely 

) e wo\erninent of India, the Counal functions as an autonomous bod>. 
r aciuitics of the ICCR, the following arc wor^ 

t’ng, fl).IJtchaage of eminent scholars, sarants and students; (2) 



129 


Medntenancc of chairs of Indology in foreign universities ; (3) Appointment 
abroad of lecturer in Indian culture j (4) Presentation of books and films 
about India , (5) Welfare of foreign students m India; (6) Reception and en~ 
tcrtainmcnt of distinguisbed foreigners in India, and (7) Organisation of 
summer camps, seminars and social gathenngs for the ben^t of foreign 
students in India 

The Council pubhshes two quarterly journals, namely, Indo^Asian 
Culture in Enghsh and Tkaqqfat- Ul-Htnd m Arabic. Besides, jt subsidises a 
joumd m Persian and English entitled Indo-Iraiaca, The Council also 
sponsors the publication of rare manuscripts and valuable books on India. It 
undertakes pubhcanbn of books and brochures relating to different aspects 
of India’s culture, and of translation of Indian pubhcations m foreign langu> 
ages. 



CHAPTER X 


SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH 


The pohcy of the Government of India iMth regard to science and 
scientific research announced on March 13, 1958 in a resolution placed 
before both Houses of Parhament 
The aims of tins policy are; 

(t) To foster, promote and sustain, by all appropriate means, the 
cultivation of science^ and saentific research in all its aspects — 
pure, apphed, and educational, 

(«) To ensure an adequate supply, -within the countrj*, of research 
saentists of the highest qu^ty, and to recognise dieir ^>ork 
as an important component of the strength of the nation; 
(m) To encour^e and initiate, -ivith all possible speed, programmes 
for the training of scientific and technical personnel, on a 
scale adequate to fialfil the country’s needs in science 
and education, agriculture and mdustry, and defence; 

{tv) To ensure that the creative talent of men and -women is en- 
couraged and finds fiill scope in scientific actixdtj* ; 

(r) To encourage indi\’idual initiative for the acquisition and 
disse min ation of knowledge, and for the discovery of new* 
knowl^g^ in an atmosphere of academic fieedom; 

(pi) And, in general, to secure for the people of the countrj' all the 
beasts that can accrue from the acquisition and application 
of scientific knoiv ledge 


COUNCIL OF SOENTinc AND INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH 

. , Sci^t^c research imder State auspices in India is carried out maiii- 

Ij through me Coimcil of Saentific and Industrial Research and the various 
national laboratories or research institutes set up -under its control- The 
L.ouncil also awards grants-in-aid to saentists in research institutions and 
umvcisi^ laboratones in the country, grants fellow-ships to qualified persons 
WTsh to pursue saence as a career, and disseminates saentific know- 
, It has also the responsibilitj* of administering the 
or temporaiT placement of well quaMed Indian scientists and 
maintains a National R^tcr of 
Jq Tc(to(^ Personnel m the country-. In general, the^uncil 

ordinarinT^ vchidc of Govo^cnfs policy for the promotion and co- 
ordination of saentific and industrial research in India 

Fmojite 

Counal arc financed mainly by the Umon 
and ^ ^I^comesuch as incomefitimroyalties 

Ipvi ^ processes leased out, sale of publications, fees and charges 

etc, th= Cboncd reedveTg^ of^ 
•^'™™ents and otheis and donations 
“Penditnre of the Ck.nncd stood at 
turc for th- 1958-59 and the cstunated capital expendi- 

ture Jor the same year stood at Rs 1.78 crores 

■At'alionci Laboratones 

Smee the advent of Independeno^ a number of national laboratories 



131 


and institutes have been set up by the Council at various centres in the 
country A list of dicse is given in Table 41 

Sponsored Research 

Through a liberal system of grants-m-aid, scientists in other research 
laboratones and universities are enabled to pursue fundamental and apphed 
research and develop their own special fields There are, at present, more 
than 310 such sdiemes'in progress m over 38 research centres m the country. 
Apart from the practical results achieved, the schemes provide opportunities 
of traimng for young research ivorkers and the development of active 
centres of independent research work I 

Pilot Plant ^ , 

Lately, there has been greater emphasis m the national laboratories 
on pilot plant mvestigations, leading up to actual production Sixteen 
such pilot plants were set up during the first nme months of 1958, 

Liaison 

Close liaison between the national laboratories and mdustries is being 
established on an increasing scale through chambers of commerce, mdustnal 
associations and mdustnalists. Case studies of mdustries have been initiated 
A beginning has been made with the chemical industry. 

Vigyan Mandirs 

Twenty-one rural sdentific centres known as *Vigyan Mandirs’ 
have been set up at sites generally covered by Commumty Development 
projects. Equipped with a laboratory and manned by suitably qualified 
and trained personnel, these centres disseminate scientific knowledge 
among the rural populace and educate them on the potentiahtics of the 
methods of science as apphed to their day-to-day hfe 


NUCLEAR RESEARCH A24D ATOMIC ENERGY 


The Atomic Energy Commission is responsible for formulating and 
implementmg pohdes-In all matters concernmg atomic energy. The sden- 
hfic and technical work of'the Commission is carried out by the Atomic 
Mmerals Division and the Atomic Energy Establishment The mdustnal 
aspects of its work are conducted by the Indian Rare Earths '(Private) Ltd 
and the Travancore Mmerals (Private) Ltd. | . 

Some of the important functions of the Atomic Mm^ls Division 
include * (i) geological survey and development of atomic mmeral^, indu- 
dmg terrestnal, aenal and marine survey, prospecting and planning for 
devdopment, (ii) geophysical survey, mdudmg radiometric isurvey. radio- 
metric loggmg of bore holes, radiometnc assay and mine face survey * (m) 
geochemical survey, (iv) mmeral technology; (v) dnlhng; (w) mining and 
(vu) conservation of 'atomic mmprala I ® 

The Atomic Energy Establishment, Trombay, is India’s ceiltrc for 
research and development work in the field of atomic energy Olrer 950 
saentists and techmeal personnel are' working m this Establishmentland to 
ensure a steady supply of trained pereonnel, a Traimng School has Qenset 


The Trombay Establishment consists of three main groups covering 
physics, chemistry and engpneermg, m addition to the biology Md mediVal 
and health dmsfons Besides the laboratories of the vaiS^^o^ 
each group, the facihties of the Establishment indude “Apsara” India’s first 
reactor which was entudy designed and constructed, with the excentinn 
of fud elements obtained from the UK. Atomic Energy AutEontif hv 

personnel of the Establishment, a radiochenaistrylaboratory whichistr^ing ' 



NATIONAL LABORATORIES /ins: 


132 


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Central Road Research Institute New Delhi Research on road materials, testing of road materials and road surfaces. 

Central ElectrO'Chcmical Research Karaikudi (Madras) Research on difTcrent aspects of clectrO'Chemistry, including electro* 

Institute metallurgy, electro'dcposition and allied problems. 


Fimdamental and apphcd aspects of leather technology 


133 


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134 


chemists in the hapdhng of highly radioactAve substances, especially the 
separation of plutonium from irradiated uramum and radioactive msion 
products, a development and prodi^ction unit which provides many of the 
dectromc instruments needed in atomic energy work ; a film badge and 
health survey service, available to all institutions in India handling radio* 
active matedab, which ensures that personnel handling such matcnals 
do not receive more than the permissible dose, and a plant producing 
nudear-grade manium wbch wall be converted into fuel elements at a 
^edal plant now under construction. Also under construction arc 
“Zerhna,” a zero energy rector for lattice investigations, which wU prove 
useful in the study and design of new reactors, and the CanadaJndia-Ro 
actor, a joint Indo-Canadian project under die Colombo Plan, which v\all 
provide advanced experiments fadhtics in addition to being one of the 
largest isotope producers “Zcrlina” is scheduled to be in operauon during 
1959 and the Canada-lndia-Keactor in early 1960, 

The Commission’s industrial activities indude Travancore Minerals 
(Private) Ltd set up m October 1956 jointly with the Governments of 
Kerala and Madras Its products are ilmcnitc and monazitc; the 
former has proved to be a valnable fordgn exchange earner and the latter 
is ^t to Indian Rare Earths (Private) Ltd, plant at Alv\'ayc, 
which is owned jointly by the Commission and the Government 
of K^ala At Alwaye the monazite is processed, producing rare earth 
chlorides and carbonates as mam products and tiisodium phosphate as a 
by-product The icaduc, winch is left after the rare earths have been 
removed, is sent to the Commisaon’s thorium plant at Trombay operated 
on Its behalf by IntSan Rare Earths (Private) Ltd , where the thorium 
mtrate is extracted; the readual uranium fiuonde is sent for processing to 
the uramum metal plant. The Conmiissiott has also a pilot p^nt in operas 
^n at Ghatsila, Bihar, for the ^traction, of uranium from copper taihngs 
Heavy water will be produced in quantity ^ a by-product at thefertihzcr 
plant which is bemg built at Nangal 

The Commisriotfs activities are directed to the development of a 
zmelear power programme to smt India’s reqmremcnts This will involve 
me wsign and development of reactors meeting these special requirements 
In the meantime hov^ever, it vrill be necessary to purchase atomic 
power aatmns and provision for a minimum of 2,50,000 k.w. of nuclear 
power has been induded in the power programme for the Third Eve-Year 


To further ^^e development of nuclear science the Conmusdon pro- 
m^ersitie^ laboratories and research iSsti- 
muons Conaderabic research v\ orb is bring conducted at some 1 5 univeirities 
^ ejection, mention may be made of 
the Tata InsUtute of Emdamental Research, which has done pioneerine 
field m Indm The Institute was established in 19%, before 
m promotion of fundamental iJSrch 

of India as the national centre for advanced stmty^d 
mathematics. TheSStc 
raportant c^tre for cosmic ray and elementary particle phvacs 

^ of Research^ in 

Ray., BMogy and 



133 


OTHER DEPARTMENTAL RESEARCH ACZIVITIES 

There are eleven Hydraulic Research Stations under the Central 
Board of Irrigation and Penver. The Central Water, Power and Irrigation 
Researdi Centre, Kiadakvasla (near Poona), is Ae pioneer hydrauhe 
research station in India. 

A Research and Development Directorate has been set up under the 
h'limstry of Communications (Directorate-General of Civil Aviation). It 
is concerned with type certification, manufacture of aircrafi; and develop- 
ment of specifications for aircraft materials. 

The Forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun, conducts research in 
the utilisation of timber for constructional purposes. 

The All India Radio mamtains a research unit in New Delhi to mvesti- 
gatc* problems relatmg to the propagation and reception of radio waves 
and the design and performance of radio receivers. 

' The Railway Board has established a research centre at Lucknow 
mth sub-stations at Lonavla and Ohittaranjan to investigate problems 
referred to diem by the railivay workshops and the Central Standards 
Ofi^cc (Railways). 

The problems of road development and road materials, highways 
and bridge engineering, poi ts and harbours, etc,, are dealt with by the Roads 
Organisation functiomng under the Ministry of Transport, 

The Indian Standards Institution, functiomng under the Ministry 
of Industries, lays doivn standard specifications for materials and products. 

OTHER INSTIi'UTlONS 

A number of research organisations financed by private endoivments 
and Governmental assistance are engaged in the field of saentific research- 
The more important of these are dealt ^vlth in the following paragraphs. 

The Bose Institute, Calcutta, is enjgaged on research in physics, 
chenustrv, plant physiology, plant breeding, cytogenetics, micro-biology 
and zoology. 

The Birbal Sahni Institute for Palaeobotany, Lucknow, carries on 
research m the fossil fiora of India and related problems 

The Indian Association for the Cultivation of Saence, Calcutta 
one of the oldest research organisations in the country, conducts post- 
graduate research in fundamental and applied a^ects of physics and 
chemistry. 

The Indian Institute of SdenCe, Bangalore, founded in 1909, provides 
for advanced instruction and conducts origmal investigations in all branches 
of scientific knowledge 

The Phytics Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad, is a centre for research 
in atmospheric physics, cosmic rays, electronics and theoretic^ physics 

Co-operative research associations for the investigation of problems 
pertaimng specifically to industry have been brought into existence. Asso- 
ciations of this type have already been formed by the Ahmedabad textile 
industry, tim silk and art silk nulls of Bombay and the jute mms of Calcutta 
An association for the rubber industry is hkdy to be set up soon. 

The Shri Ram Institute for Industrial Research m Delhi renders 
research service to industrial concerns. 

Several colleg^, universities and research institutions provide courses 
of study and research facihties in the various branches of science. 

MEDICAL RESEARCH 

The Indian Council of Medical Research, founded in 1912 has con 
tnblited greatly to the Postering and co-ordination of medical researrli 

Tnrlia. m 



136 


Apart from medical colleges and attached hospitals each speaaltsing 
in some branch of research, the country has a number of specialised institu- 
tions The All-lndta Institute of Hygiene and Fubhc Health, Calcutta, 
provides training m the use of preventive and soaal medicine for diseases 
peculiar to India and ascertains how the results of pure and apphed research 
can be utilised for promoting medical protection and positive health The 
School of Tropical Medicine, Calcutta, carries out research in diseases pecu- 
har to tropical areas 

The King Institute of Preventive Medidne, Giundy, Madras, conducts 
research m and prepares bactenal vacemes, stenlc solutions and therapeu- 
tic sera 

Research in tuberculosis and other chest diseases is in progress at the 
Vallabhbhai Patel Chest Institute, Delhi Studies of the morphology of the 
tubercle baalb and the effect on them of the different drugs consdtute a 
special feature of its mvestigations 

The Lady Willmgdon Leprosy Sanatonum at Chingleput and the Silver 
Jubilee Children’s Clinic at Saidapet have been taken over from the Madras 
Government and converted into the Central Leprosy Research Institute 
The Haffkine Institute, Bombay, undertakes large scale manufacture 
of vaccines, sera and other biological products and carries out investigations 
involved in their manufacture It has been functiomng as the chief^centre 
for investigations connected with the prevention and treatment of plague 
The scope of the Institute’s work has been enlarged to cover, among others, 
the problems of nutntion, malana and virus diseases 

investigauons on cancer are earned out at the Indian Cancer Re- 
search Centre, Bombay Statistical surveys of the incidence of cancer m 
India have also been undertaken by it 

Investigations m the Central Research Institute, Kasauh, relate to 
problems of microbiology, serology and biochcnustry. The Institute mam- 
tains a pathological museum 

The Pasteur Institute located at Coonoor is engaged on research m 
nbics, influenza, anti-venom serum, tropical eosiuophiha and serological 
reactions 

"Hic acUviUes of the Central Drugs Laboratory, Calcutta centre 
round biological and chemical assays of drugs The Laboratory maintains 
a herbarium and tcndcis tcchmcal advice to concerns manufacturing drugs 


agricultuhal research 

The Indian Council of Agncultural Research, established in 1929 
sponsors research m both agriculture and animal husbandry in institutions 

Indian Vcicnnary Research Institute, Izatnagar, deals ulth veten- 

"I"''' devote themselves to 

oil-ed,! TreSIm Ld Sr t|“ J“"=> ‘°'=0“0, 

.ind ttv-irch imtttmiom’ oommmecs have their own laboratones 

Although it does not undertaVe research, the aetiviucs of the Directo- 



137 

fair of Plant Protection and Plant Quarantine under the Mm^trv of Aijn* 
culture, hr Ip research »n rranv tvai.*! 

^^lr Ontrnl Marine ridicnej; Uric.irch Station, Mandaptm. carries 
out b^olor;lC^I imesiipatiorts in edible fub found in tlic coaxial urtersof the 
rouiitr). lbe*r include the maclcrel, tlic sardine and marine p'-ex'-ns 
Rc“C<irch station*: Iiavr been set up m Iloniln>, the Gulf of Kuicb, \ baUia* 
piinani and the Andamans 

'Hie Central Inland Tidiencs Rc'"'arch Station CiVuttn drab xsith 
inland frh — r-stuanne, nxrrinr and larmtnne rnd p^md Mi 'Jhc of 
the 1 nsiitute lias 'O far l)<*cn confined to frli and fnlierirs of tlie Gan*;.! and ih»* 
Milnnadi basins, but Uk scope is to be cnIaTf;cd to inchulc the edible fjh 
of ponds, laics and rrsrrvmn Problems of staler pillulion and their eFcct 
on full are abo to be inx'csinjatcd. 











CHAPTER XI 
HEALTH 


The c\pcctabon of life in India ^vas estimated during the period 
1941-50 at 32 45 years for males and 3 1 66 years for females ThefoUo^vmg 
figures based on data available m registers bf births and deaths, reflect the 
general health of the people smee 1947 ’ 

TABLE 42 

VITAL HEALTH STATISTICS 



I9« 

1956* 

1957* 

General death rate per thousand of population 

||HMi 

■Qn 

12 1 

Infant mortahty rate 



— 

Incidence of deaths per thousand of population on account of 
(f) Fevers 

MM 

MM 

4 8 

(it) Small-pox 



0 16 

(tiH Plague 



0 0 

(re) Choleia 



0 16 

(») Dysentery and diarrhoea 




(ri) Respiratory diseases 

■H 

mH 

M 


Health programmes arc the responsibihty of State Governments, 
but certain programmes relating to maJana control, filaria control, family 
planmng, water supply and sanitation, control of communicable diseases 
and expansion of traimng faahties have been imnated and supported by the 
Centre under the Plans The general aim of health programmes under the 
Second Plan is to expand existing health services, to bnng them wtiun. the 
reach of all people and to promote a progressive improvement in the level of 
national health 


PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF DISEASES 

Malana 

The National Malaria Control Programme, launched in 1953, 
N\as com cried into the National Malana Eradication Programme from April 
1, 1958 The Programme is being implemented iiith the participation of 
the Stale Governments as well as with the assistance of the US Techmcal 
Cooperation Mission and the World Health Organisation 

The hlalana Institute of India, which coordinates the implementation 
of the programme and distributes supplies, is responsible for research and for 
tile training of stalT m methods of malana control. Six regional co-ordi- 
nating organisations arc being established and these vnll work under the 
Director of the Programme in the Institute 

About 16 33 crorcs of people were given protection and 190 malana 
of an allotted 230 units were formed and limctioning by March 31, 

r if era 

f National P tlaria Control Programme, launched in 1954-53, consists 

y/ i^u niinistration of drugs in filanous communities, and (ii) anti- 







141 


mosqmto measures Out of forty-six control units allotted to the States, 
thirty-nine arc functioning Random sample surveys covering a population of 
about 208 lakhs were completed by the end of October 1958 Ihey have 
revealed that population requiring protection is likely to exceed the onginally 
estimated figure of 250 lakh persons. Mass therapy has been administered 
to about 20 04 lakh persons and houses inhabited by about 70 lakh persons 
have been sprayed with Dicldrm A centre for practical demonstration and 
field training h^ been established at Emakulam Seventy medical officers 
and 109 inspectors have so far received traimng. 

Tuherculosis 

It has been estimated that nearly 25 lakhs of people suffer from tuber- 
culosis and about 5 l akhs die of it annually. About 90 to 100 crore man- 
days are lost every year owmg to the inadence of this disease. 

The BCG vaccmation programmci started m 1948 with the help of the 
International Tuberculosis Campaign and later of the WHO and the 
UNICEF, IS meant to extend protection to a susceptible population of 17 
crores, especially those below 20 years of age. One hundred and sixty-two 
techmeal teams, each con^tmg of a doctor and six techmeians, are engaged 
in field work By the end of October 1958, 11 62 crore persons were tested 
and about 4 07 crores of them vaccinated. 

Six demonstration and training centres have been established at 
Hyderabad, Madras, Nagpur, New Delhi, Patna and Trivandrum Tram- 
mgis also imparted at other institutions such as the Vallabhbhai Patel Chest 
Institute at Ddhi. A National Traimng Centre is to be established with the 
asastance of UNICEF and WHO. 

The number of TB hospitals, sanatoria and chmes and of beds therein 
during the period 1950 to 1957 is as shown bdow : / 

TABLE 43 

TB HOSPITALS, SANATORU AND GUNIGS 


V 

1950 

1957 

Sanatona . . 

49 

71 

TB hospitals 

35 

76 

dimes 

no 

' 235 

TB wards 

114 

209 

Beds 

10,371 

18,147 


The number ofhealth personnel working in TB institutions in 1956 was 
1,301 doctors ; 862 nurses , 155 health visitors ; 15 social workers i 142 X- 
Ray techniaans; 98 laboratory technidans ; and 2,966 general personnel. 

There are 15 after-care colonics in India where ex-patients are rehabi- 
litated after they are cured. Nine such colonies will be set up during the 
Second Plan penod. ° 

A countiywidc survey in selected areas on a samplmg bads, started m 
September 1955 under the auspices of the Indian Council of Medical 
Research, was completed in May 1958 The tentative findings based on the 
analysis of data collected nil June 30, 1956 are that (i) there is no marked 
difference in regard to the prevalence of the disease in relation to the size 
of the populanon ; (u) the morbidity rate varies from 7 to 30 per thousand 
persons and is loiver for females than for males , (in) pre^-alencc is higher in 
the age group 35 years and above than in the lower age groups • and 
(iv) the rate of bactcriolo^cally positive cases varies from 1 to 11 ner 
thousand persons. ^ 




142 


The Tuberculosis Assodation of India is the largest voluntary organi- 
sation in the country Since its establishment m 1 939, it has been engaged in 
sumulating anti-tuberculosis activities m a scientific and co-ordinated 
manner It assists the authonties to combat the disease and proddes 
assistance through the Tuberculosis Workers* Conferences, the Secretanes* 
Conferences, the techmcal committees and forums which bnng together 
State officials and voluntary workers It also runs several institutions 
%vhich provide trammg facilities for TB personnel and demonstrate ad- 
\anced methods for the treatment of TB cases 

Lcpro^> 

The number of leprosy cases in India was estimated in 1953 at about 
15 lakhs Andhra ftad«h, Assam, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Madras, 
Kerala and certain parts of Uttar Pradesh and Bombay are areas of high 
incidence 

Under the Leprosy Control Schema started duni^ the First Plan 
penod, four treatment and study centres (one each m Madras, Madhya 
Pradesh, West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh) and 63 subsidiary centres (in ten 
States and 2 Umon Temtones) have been established The subndiary 
centres provide for mass treatment of all cases, detection of cases m the early 
stages of infection and their treatment and health education of the public. 
In addition, the treatment and subadiary centres carry out a detailed 
survey to study its epidemiology and assess the results of sulphone therapy. 
An advisory committee to review the^ working of the scheme and sugg^ 
measures for improvement Mras set up in February 1958 

The Central Leprosy Teaching and Research Institute at Chingleput 
provides treatment to mdoor and outdoor patients at its two hospitals — ^the 
Lad} Wilhngdon Leprosy Sanatorium, Chingleput, and the Silver Jubilee 
Children's Climc at Saidapet 

The Mission to Lepers which vv'as started as early as 1875 is a voluntary 
organisation engaged m anti-leprosy work. The Hind Ku^t Nivaran Sangn 
and the Gandhi Memorial Trust are also doing work in this fidd 

Venereal Diseases 

It has been estimated that five to seven per cent of the population suffer 
from s>phihs m the States of Bombay, Madras and West BengaL The hilly 
tracts cvtcndmg from Kashmir to Assam also show a high incidence Yaws 
IS prevalent in a few districts of Andhra Pradesh, Onssa, Madhya Pradesh 
md Madras 

A scheme which provides for the establishment of 8 VD chmes at State 
headquarters and 75 at the district level and for the training of medical 
and auviliarv personnel has been included in the Second Plan Three head- 
quarters and 35 distnct dimes have been established m Andhra Pradesh, 
As'sam, Biliar, Himachal Pradesh, Madras, M}’sore and Uttar Pradesh 
Vaws terras, operating m Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Onssa, 
tested 6,07,153 cases and treated 8,144 cases by the end of 1957- 

hiflaenza 

An mfiucnza centre was opened in 1950 at the Pasteur Institute, Coo- 
noor A pilot plant for the production of influenza vims vaccine has been 
■•cl up there 

Career 

Problems relating to cancer arc under investigation at the Indian 
^neer Research Centre, Boraba}, and the Chittaranjan National Cancer 
Kt^evTcVk CeniTe, Calcutta Qimcal facihtics arc available at the Tata 
Mcmemd Hospital, Bomba} The establishment of new cancer wards or 
units m the cxxsung hospitals in the countr}' is under consideration 



143 


NimOnON AND PREVENTION OF FOOD ADDL^ERATION 

Surveys conducted in India since 1935 have revealed quantitative as 
well as quahtativc deficiency in the diet of the Indian people. An average 
Indian diet, according to Dr. Aykroyd (formerly Director of the Nutrition 
Research Laboratones, Goonoor) contains only 1,750 calories as against an 
estimated requirement of 2,400 to 3,000 calories for an adult person It also 
lacks essenUm food elements hke proteins, fats, mmerals and vitamins 

The general r^mgofdictary standards IS largelv an economic problem 
and is h;^ed up wth the development of Indian economy In the meantime, 
however, several measures have been taken to meet nutntional defiaency 
of certam vulnerable sections of the Indian population, such as expectant 
and nursing mothers, school children, and industnal workers The measures 
taken include school feeding programmes, distnbution of skimmed milk, 
supply of food yeast as a supplement to the Indian diet and manufacture and 
popularisation of cheap but nutntious food 

Consumer trials to assess acceptability of food yeast as a supplement 
to Indian diets have been conducted in labour colonies in Delhi and certain 
rural and urban areas in the States of Madras, Uttar Pradesh and West 
Bengal The results mdicate that food yeast at the rate of I oz per head 
per day is acceptable to some people and results m maiked improvement in 
their health. The Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore, 
has succeeded in producing a cheap but nutntious multi-purpose food 
Jfutntion Polity ^ 

The Nutrition Advisory Conmuttee*s recommendations for a nutri- 
tion policy during the Second Plan period fall into the followmg ^road 
categories : 

(t) Protection of vulnerable groups of the population : 

(«) Control of spedfic nutntional diseases ; 

(m) Orgamsadon of nutnbon -ivork as an integral part of the work of 
' the State Health Departments; and 

^ (zh) Nutrition education as part of general health education 
A'litntion Research » 


R^onal dietary and nutrition surveys are undertaken by the States 
Research^ undert^en by the Indian Council of Medical Research which 
mm the National Research Laboratones at Goonoor* and promotes snedal 
schemes at tmvmities and other institutions The functioiis of the Labo- 
ratones established in 1929 arc. 

(*) to carry out research in all aspects of human nutntion and aUied 
sciences ; 

(«) to tram work- in nutntion, both for pubhc and clinical nutn- 
/ \ ^ career of research in nutntion , 

(ml to prepare smtoble educative hterature for the pubhc , and 
I . (w) to ad^e public organisations and State and Central Govem- 
to^do “Otters pertaining to nutrition irhenever called upon 

a brochure containing menus for low- 
^st glanced diets and school lunch programmes smtSblefor South India 
Nutntion sections exist in the Medical Directorate at the Gteneral Wnadn 
of Drfence md m the Mnnstty 

the hfcnistry of Health appointed an adviser on nutrition. Nutation centre! 
am ^o in existence in some of the States such as Andhra Pr?d«kB^r 
Se^'"^ Pradcsh,^dras. Mysore, Uttar PrS&h^iS 


♦The Laboratories ivill shift to H>derabad m the Hear future 



^44 


Prevmtton of Food Adulteration , 

The Prc^cntlon of Food AdiiltcralSon Act, 1954, and die Rules made 
thereunder arc in force throughout the country, except Jammu and Kash- 
mir. It provides for deterrent punishment to offenders and prohibits the 
manufacture, import or sale of adulterated food articles The Central Com- 
mittee for Food Standards and the Central Food Laboratory, envisaged 
in the Act, ha\c been set up to advise the Central and State Governments 
on matters arising out of Ac administratiou of Ae Act. 

WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION 

At the beginning of Ae First Plan, 128 tmvns wiA a population of 
50,000 and o\cr, 60 towns with populations between 30,000 and 50,000 and 
210 to\\ns with smaller populations had protected water supply It was 
estimated Aat only about 25 per cent of the urban population 'was served 
b> protected ;\atcr supply About 450 laUis people m to%vns lacked such 
supply and o\cr 500 laUis people were ^viAout se^vage facAUcs 

Xational Water Supply and Sanitation Scheme 

Two hundred and seventy-five water supply and drainage schemes 
for urban areas and tivo hundred and six for rural areas have been 
executed till the end of March 1958 under Ae Scheme launched by Ae 
Union Go\cnnncni on a national basis m 1954 Rs 28 crores have been 
pro\ndcd m Ae States* Second Five-Year Plans for rural schemes For 
the urban areas, Ae Plan provides for an expenditure of Rs 30 crores by AS 
Centre and Rs 23 crores by the States A sum of 6 425 million dollars has 
been made available by the U S Government for Ae execution of Ae 
Scheme 

The Plan also envisages training of pubhc healA engineering person- 
nel for implementing the programme The Central Public HcalA En- 
gineering Organisation has been set up for hcipmg State Governments in 
Ac preparauon and execution of Acir schemes and for givmg technical 
advice and guidance Some foreign experts, provided by Ae TCM, arc 
assoaated wiA the Organisation 

^fEDICAL BELIEF AND SERVICE 

^Icdical rdicf and service is primarily Ae responsibility of Ac States 
Certain charitable institutions also participate in giving medical relief 
Table 44 shows the posiuon in regard to the number of hospitals and dispen- 
saries, ihe number of patients treated by Aem and Ac expen Ature involved 
in Acir maintenance for Ae years 1947 to 1936. 

TABLE 44 


HOSPITALS AND DISPENSARIES* PATIENTS TREATED AND EXPENDITURE 


\tir 

Nu-nber nrhorpitals 
3n<! difpcniaries 

Number of pauentj 
treated 

Expenditure 
(tn rupees) 

1 4.30,J9.772 

j 5,47,68,123 

5,509 1 8,53,53,125 

! 6,66,71,549 

I 8,24,90,434 

V ‘ H.01,«3.783 

1168.69,535 

j-rL 1UI,70,494 1 

? 12.67,60 302 

^ ... { 13.44.03.991 

4,63,04,083 
7,61,41,243 
10,86,08 937 

10 85,39,506 
12.25,71,610 
21,8007423 
21,59,07,595 
22.75,87,833 
30,63.45333 
23.26,72,627 

(«' Irt i-r 





145 


The follo\nng table shoAvs tlic number of registered medical practi- 
tioners and other health personnel at the end of the year 1957 ; 

TABLE 45 

HEALTH PERSONNEL 


Group 

Number (£} 

Regutcred medical practitjoncn 

76,716 

Voids, Htdins aad other unregutcrnl practitioners 

87,768 

Compoundcis 

32,731 

Nurses 

26,740 

Midwsxs ' 

31,412 

Vacdnators 

4,071 

Dentists 

1 

3,676 


Contributor Htalih Stmeo Scheme 

The Contributory Health Service Scheme, tvhich came into opera- 
tion on July 1, 1954, is confined to Delhi and Ncav Delhi and serves over 4 
lakh Central Government employees and their families staffs of cer- 

tain autonomous and scmi-Govcmment organisations and their families 
have also been admitted into the scheme The contributions arc based on 
a gradual scale varying from 50 np to Rs 12 according to emoluments. 
There arc now 181 full-time medical officers including 30 specialists. 
The number of dispensaries is 29, including 3 mobile dispensaries to serve 
bcncfidari(s residing in outlying areas The total attendance during 1958 
was 31,35,444 up to the end of October, 

Health Insurance 

The health insurance scheme which provides infer aha medical benefits 
to industrial workers under the Employees’ State Insurance Act, 1948, now 
covers 13 lakh workers in the count^ Under the scheme, an insured 
worker and his family are entitled to receive medical help at the State dis- 
pensaries, in their residences and in hospitals 

Colliery and mica workers recrive medical hdp at institutions main- 
tained by the Goal Mines Labour Welfare Rund and the Mica Mines Labour 
Welte F^d Private employers as well as the States provides medical 
reuef to their employees 


Ptmojy Health Centres for Jhiral Areas 

Sixty^ght pri^ hedth rentres were established in National 
^f^on Blocks d^g the Fust Plan period under a scheme launched in 
centre serves the BIo^ area Avith an average population of 
€6,000. From the emtre a team of health Avorkers goes round the surround- 
mgarMs and looks after the curative and prevenuve health needs of the area 
About 2,000 ^ch erodes are b^ established under the Second Plan in 
addition to about 1,000 in the Commumty Development Blocks. 284 such 

rr urrs6a“^ to 


INBIGENOns Am HOMOEOPATHIC SYSTEMS OF MEDICINE 
It is the acc^t^ policy of the Government to give all possible m 

couragementtotheindigenousandhomocopathicsystemlofmedi^eandm 

corporate from them contnbutions of approved value in the modem systo 


(i) ProvisioDal 






146 


of medicine Several measures have been taken by the Union and State 
Governments in this matter 

Dccot Committee 

A Committee under the chairmanship of D T Dave, recommended 
m 1956 a uniform five-year degree course in Ayurveda and Unani and a five- 
and-a-half-year degree course in homoeopathy Other recommendations. 
of the Committee related to the upgrading of existing educational institutions,, 
the provision of facihues for post-graduate research, the preparation of text 
boo^ and the creation of separate faculties for Ayurvedic and Unam systemsi 
of mediane 

Regarding regulation of practice, the Committee recommended 
the creation of separate Central Councils for Ayurvedic, Unam and Homoeo- 
pathic systems of medicme on the pattern of the Indian Medical Council 
^e Committee also recommended Ae creation of two separate Directorates 
for Ayurvedic, Unam and Homoeopathic systems of medicme at the Centro 
and as far as practicable m the States The Central Council of Health, 
holdmg the view that under existing conditions it is not possible to lay down 
a uniform pohey, recommended to the State Governments to take such 
steps as arc practicable and desirable for the development of Ayurveda andi 
other mdigenous systems of medicme 

Central Institute of Research m Indigenous Systems of Medicine 

The Central Institute of Research in Indigenous Systems of Mediane 
has been fimctiomng smee August 24, 1953 at Jamnagar There is a 50- 
bed hospital and an outpatient department, besides a pharmacy, a museum 
and a pathological research laboratory m the Institute Research program- 
mes under mvestigation at the Institute, among others, are (1) the study 
of Pandu Roga^ Grakanit Jalodary Amavata, KrimirogOi Tamakshwasa and Kalanja 
Padat and (ii) identification of crude Ayurvedic drugs, plants and herbs • 
cultivation of medicmal herbs, etc A new ‘Siddha’ umt ivas started m the 
year 1956-57. A modem section investigates and studies diagnosis 
treatment m Ayurvedic and Siddha systems from the pomt of view of 
modem medicme 

schemes of research in Ayurveda and Unam are also bemg 
promoted by grants to States, educational mstitunons and non-Govern- 
mental rescar^ organisations 

Uniform Standards m Edwaiton 

There arc more than 50 colleges* and schools for the teachmg of the 
Ayurvedic and Unamsptems of medicme m the country, but the mediods of 
teaching, the courses of studies and the standards of examination differfrom 
n^Utution to institution The i^tral Health Council recommended in 
1954 a five-year degree course and the prescription of minimum standards m 
the matter of admissions and c^cula A post-graduate trainmg cent^ m 

m ““““ ™ ^ at 

Regulation of Practice ' 

Homoeopathy 

.n to™. 

Jch,nV .nsutupon. 

Tor o ta or Ai-unomo ood Uooo, CoUogor, mo 



147 


encourage schemes of research In some States, Boards for the regulation 
of practice m homoeopathy have also been set up 

DRUG MAimPACrUBE AND CONTROL 


Drug Control 

The Drugs Act and the Drugs Rules are operative m all the States except . 
Jammu and Kashmir. The Umon Government have powers to hcep a che^ 
on the quality of imported drugs The State Governments are responsible 
for controUit^ the quahty of drugs which are manufacturedj sold and dis- 
tnbuted m the country The provisions of the Act were made more strm- 
gent by the Drugs (Amendment) Act passed m March 1955 

The Drugs Techmeal Advisory Board to advise on techmeal matters 
arismg out of the administration of the Act and the Drugs Consultative 
Committee to advise the Central and State Governments for securmg uni- 
formitv throughout India m the administration of the Act, have been formed. 

The first Indian Pharmacopoeia was published m 1955 and a Commit- 
tee is engaged m brmgmg out an addendum to it The report of theNation- 
al Formulary Committee is under print. 

The Central Drugs Laboratory, Calcutta, serving as a statutory msd- 
tution under the Drugs Act, analyses and tests samples of drugs as are sent to 
it and performs such other functions as are entrusted to it by the Central 
and State Governments 


Drugs and Magic Remedies {Objectionable Advertisements) Act 

This Act, which came mto force on April I, 1955, prohibits the pubh- 
cation of objectionable advertisements relating to sexu^ stimulants, alleged 
magic cures for venereal diseases and diseases peculiar to women Import 
and export of objectionable advgrUsements are controlled in close liaison 
with the Customs and Postal authonties who can, under Seefion 6 of the 
Act, intercept articles suspected to contain objectionable adverdsements 
Liaison is also maintained with Indian Embassies, High Commissions' 
Legations and Consulates abroad Advertisements of contraceptives are* 
however, permitted m view of the importance of family plannmg Smee the 
enforcement of the Act, 67 piosecutions were instituted for infiingement 

Drug Manufacture 


The BCG Vacane Laboratory was established at Guindv in MaHm® 
in 1948 It supphed 39,02,240 ccs of Tuberculm and 17,42,051 ccs of BCG 
vaceme to mdentors m India till the end of November m 1958. and iq 04 . 

CCS ofTcherculin and 7,01,870 ca of BCG vaccine to Malaya, Sm^pore 
Burma, Ceylon, Pakistan and Afghanistan ^ ° 

The Central Rese^ch Institute at Kasauh (established m 1906) sun. 
plies India s entire needs rf vacane for TAB, cholera, rabies, anti-i^enom 
sera, tetany toxoid, diphtheria anti-toxin and curative and i^uen 2 a 
ernes Influenza vacanes are manufactured at the Influenza Centre 


Hindustan Antibiotics Ltd , Pimpn, and the DDT factory at 
Dellu have already gone into production * 

Mc^i^es have been taken for stabihsing cinchona cultivationin Tnd,. 
such as effecting subs^ual reduction m the import of synthetic anti-m^riS 
di ugs exploring markets for In^an quimne in foreign countnes and 
a uniform price for quimne The Council of Scientific and IndusS 
search and the Indian Council of Medical Research are mvestigaw 
posibihues of usmg quimne produced m India for purposes other 


•Sec Caiaptcr XXIV for details of production 



148 


The Hafilauc Institute at Bombay manufactures sulpha drugs v hich 
rank among the best in the %\orld market The Imperial Chemical Indus- 
tries (India) Ltd and the Tatas manufacture BHC (benzene hcxachloridc). 

Medical Depots and Factories 

The Medical Stores Organisation, having four depots at Madras, 
Bombay, Calcutta and Karnal, is maintamcd pnmanly for ensunng suppl> 
of medical stores of proper quality and approv cd patterns to Gov emmen^ 
semi-Govemment and certain non-Govcmmcntal institutions 10,654 
r^ular and a large number of casual indentors drew supplies from these 
depots during 195%58 of the v^luc of Rs 1 G2 crorcs 

At the fectories of the Organisation, a large number of drugs and dres- 
^gs arc manufactured to meet the requirements of both civil and military 
medical stores depots There is also a repair workshop at the Madras depot 
for repairmg surgical instruments and appliances 


EDUCATION AND TRAINING 


Medical education in general is the responsibility of the States The 
Government of India’s interest is limited to the promotion of higher studies 
and specific schemes of research and specialised traimng. 

There are at present 50 medical colleges,* 9 dental colleges and other 
institutions for traimng m the allopathic sjstcm of medicine. Establishment 
of new medical colleges at Bhop^, Bikaner, Hubli, Jabalpur, Jamnagar, 
Kanpur, Kumool, New Delhi, Pondicherry', Kozhikode and B^nchi v\as 
sanctioned duimg the Second Plan period Expansion of 13 medical col- 
li^ so as to admt 100 additional students was also sanctioned. For pn^ 
vidmg post-graduate traimng to select doctors in different branches of medi- 
<inc and sorgerj', twelve institutions have been upgraded v\ath Central assis- 
tMce. Fmana^ aid has also been provided for the establishment of full- 
time tcachii^ imtts in the clinical anH non-clinical departments of medical 
colleges Departments of Social and Prcv'cntive Medicine were started in 
eight medical collies during the First Plan period; sanction for their es- 
tablishment in SIX other colleges during the Second Plan period has been 
given. 


AllrlMia Institats of Medical Sciences 

^ An AU-India Institute of Medical Sacnccs, which aims at sclf-suffidcncy 

m p^-graduate medical education in India, was set up in 1956 under 
^ Act of ParUament. An under-graduate medical college vrith 170 
smaents and a post-graduate course in Department of Or&opacdics have 

stai^ work Besides the medical college, the Institute v\ill have 
250-^L ^ Jiursing college, a post-graduate teachmg centre and a 


Specialised Training 

^ trmning of nurses erist in practically all maior hos- 
m Ae co^try and m the nursing collies at Vellore and New Delhi. 

^ non-offii^ orgamsations like the Andhra MaMIa 
organised short-term courses vrith the help of giants 
the^m^ r Provision has been made under the Second Pl^ to assist 
t^vemments in the training of 30,000 dms Ther^a^^«i 

^^*?“’°™d^s-orl™gundH-thcschHn=sto 
uiauuia and niana A trainmg scheme for maternity and child 


•Set Appeodwxs for a Im of colleges 



149 


%vcirarc workers is in operation under the auspices of the All-India Insti- 
tute of H^’gienc and Public Health, Calcutta 

Tratmng of Auxiliaiy Medical Workers 

A scheme to tram auxiliary medical workers (approved in 1954) envisa^ 
ges a two-year course in elementary curative and preventive mcdiane, minor 
surgcr>% samtation and hygiene, laboratory techniques, health education 
and, in the case of women workers, ako midivifery Those trained under 
the scheme arc expected to work as aides to doctors and serve the Govern- 
ment for at least five years 


FAMILY PLANNING 

The objects of the family planning programme, as laid down by the 
Planning Commission, are (i) to obtain an accurate knowledge of factors 
contributing to the rapid increase of population m India , (n) to discover 
smtablc techniques of family planmng and devise methods by which know- 
ledge of these techmques can be widdy disscmmated , and (lu) to make 
advice on family planmng an mtegral part of service in Government hos- 
pitals and pubhc health agencies The family plannmg pohey aims at 
redudng birth rates to stabihse the population at “a level consistent with 
requirements of national economy’’ 

During the First Plan period 147 chnics — 21 in rural and 126 in urban 
areas — were opened During the same penod 205 climes were maintained 
by State Governments About 2,500 chmes — 2,000 in rural and 500 m 
urban areas — ^viU be opened during the Second Plan penod Out of Rs. 
497 lakhs (Rs 400 lakhs in the Central sector and Rs 97 lakhs in the States’ 
sector) provided for family planmng in the Second Plan, Rs 373 25 lakhs 
are for family planmng dimes, Rs 15 75 lakhs for trainmg, Rs 50 lakhs for 
education, Rs 50 lakhs for research and Rs. 8 lakhs for Central organisations 

As against the target of 150 urban and 600 rural chnics for 1956-59, 
201 urban and 467 rural dimes have already been opened Of these 580 were 
opened by State Governments, 20 by local bodies and 68 by voluntary 
organisations 

A high-poiver Family Planning Board has been constituted at the 
Centre to formulate family planmng programmes Family Plannmg Boards 
are also functiomng in all the States except J amm u and KashuMr The 
States of Andhra Pradesh, Bombay, Kerda, Madras, Mysore, Punjab, 
Rajasdian, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal have appointed full-time Family 
Planmng Officers Training in the techmque of farmly plaTming is imparted 
at the Family Planmng and Research Centre at Bombay ; the Family Plan- 
ning, Training, Demonstration and Experimental Centre at Ramanagaram 
(Mysore) , and the AU-India InsUtute of Hygiene and Pubhc Health at 
Calcutta Grants to open regional training centres have been given to 
State Governments Efforts are bemg made to educate pubhc opimon with 
die hdp of pamphlets, posters, films, exhibitions, children’s days, etc 

Research 

A demographic, trammg and research centre has been established 
at Bombay Investigations on contraceptives are bemg earned out at the 
Indian Cancer Research Centre, Bombay , the All-India Institute of 
Hygiene and Pubhc Health, Calcutta , Lucknow Umversity, Lucknow • 
Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, Bactenological Institute 
Calcutta , and the Institute of Post-graduate Medical Education and 
Research, Calcutta 




He’s never 
colour blind 
about vitamins ! 


Yes* vifamins do produce col- 
ours' And this expert can tell the 
exact strength of a vitamin by 
the colour reading on his photo- 
I electric equipment 
I Why all this precision^ Because 
Tve know that you expect un\ary~ 
tns high quality when you buy 
Hindustan Lever products 
To ensure that these standards 
arc maintained, we test at every 
stage From the buying of raw 
materials, to the manufacturing 
process, to the performance of 
the finished product experts, 
technicians, scientists are checking and double-checking This 
quality control also helps conserve precious national resources 
and Vital production time 

In this V ay, we are proMdmg you with qmluy products you can 
trust, at economical prices 



HINDUSTAN LEVER SERVES THE HOME 

HLL. 17-30 


SHRI RAMTIRTH 

Yogashram Silver Jubilee Year 1959 

Lectures 

On every Saturday in Ac evening and Sunday in the moming, Lectures by 
Shn Yogiraj Umcslichandr^i and othcr-lcamed dignitanes are delivered on various 
subjects like Yoga, Vedanta, Devotion, Spintual Strength etc at Shn Ramtirth 



(First Part) 

In Four Languages. English, TTmdi, 
Gujarati & Marathi 

(Author. Shn Yoguaj Umcshcbandraji) 

An excdlent and highly readable book vntten 
by SbnYogiraj Umcshcbandraji is one of the 
best known treatise on the true meaning of 
Yoga A best guide to method of intestinal 
exercise and control, the book contains over 
100 descriptive photograpbs of various Asanas 
cxplamed according'to the Age, Season, Country 
& Tune It is one of the excellent volume 
published so iar dcpictmg difierent aspects of 
Yoga, and contaming different photographs of 
Asanas and NeU Dhob Functions It alai 
, - , contains Yoga Ther^, Diet Therapy, Chromo- 

pamy, Fs^o Therapy and many other Therapies llie book is best of its Vm^ 
and useM for ^ men and women, healthy and unhealthy and hence should be 
preserved m all hbranes and homes 

PRICE Rs 15/* Plus Postage Rs 2 extra No V P P sent 


YOGASANA CHART 

A Chart printed on Art glazed paper and 
fully illustrated with attractive pictures is 
also a%ailable from here You can per- 
form the Asanas shoivn thcrem at your 
home, which will keep you fit and 
healthy Price Rs 2/50indudmg Post- 
age to be sent by M O only 


YOGIC CLASSES 

are also regularly conducted m the 
morning and ei’Ciung at Shn Ramtirth 
Yogashram Special classes for T.gitnMi 
arc also conducted Lady teachers 
arc available for Ladies 


\ RAMTIRTH BRAHMI OIL Special No I 

W R^tcred 

3 WR AKVfTOTT^ tonic for the prevenhon of dandruff and falling hau- RAMTIRTH 

I SHRI RAMTIRTH YOGASHRAM, 

i; ^dar. Central Rly., Bombay— 14 Telephone : 62S99 



CHAPTER XII 


SOCIAL 'WEtFABE 

PEOHiBrnoN 

The Constitution enjoins on the State to endeavour to bring about 
prohibition of the consumption of intoxicatiag drinks and drugs throughout 
the country In December 1954, the Prohibidon Enquiry Gomimttee 
appointed to suggest a programme and a machinery for the implementation 
of the directive in the hght of the expenence of the States in implementing 
their prohibitioa pohdes in the past The Comimttee’s main recommenda- 
tion mat schemes of prohibition be integrated tvith the country’s develop- 
mental plans was affirmed by a resolution of the Lot Sabha on March 31, 
1956. The resolution recommended the formulation of a programme to- 
bring about nation-ivide prohibition speedily and effectivdy. 

At the end of 1957-58, the area under prolubition covered 32.3 per 
cent of the total area and 42 3 per cent of the country’s population. The 
foUoiving table gives the State-wise breakdown of the area and population 
under prohibition 


TABI3 46 

AREA AND POPULATION XffIDER PROHIBraON 


States/Tem tones 

Total 

area 

(sq> iQilea) 

Area 

under 

prohibi- 

tum 

(sq nules) 

Percent- 
stge of 

Col 3 to 
Ck)!. 2 

Total 

Popu- 

lation 

(in^olAr) 

Popula- 
tion of 
dry areas 
(uiZolAr} 

Percent- 
age of 

Col 6 
to 5 

(I) 

(21 

(3) 

(4) 

(5) 

(6) 

(7) 

Andhra Pradesh 
Assam 

Bombay 

Kerala 

Madhya Pradedt 
Madras 

Mysore 

Onssa 

Punjab 

Rajasthan 

Uttar Pradesh . 
Hunadud Pradt^ 

1,05,677 

85.062 
1,90,668 

15,006 
1,71,230 1 
50,128 ! 
74,861 
60;150 

47.062 
1,32.148 
1,13,422 

10,922 

56,693 

3,844 

1,69,964 

8,607 

30.127 

50.128 
49,210 

25.350 
2,471 

19.350 
1,648 

53 6 
45 

89 1 

57 6 

17 6 
100 0 

65 7 
42 1 

5 2 

17 6 
IS 1 

326 2 

90 4 
482 7 
136 0 
245 2 
299 7 ! 
194 0 
146 5 
161 3 
359,7 
632 1 

11 1 

204 1 

14 9 
452 S 

99 8 ! 
53 4 
299 7 
156 6 

81 0 

11 2 
0.1 
135 3 

2 0 

62 3 

16 5 

93 7 
73.4 
21.8 

100 0 

80 7 

55 S 

6 9 

^4 

18 0 

Total 

HH 

j 4,17,472 

39 5 

1 2884 9 

1510 6 

52 4 


Programme 

Mi mtenm programme has been formulated by the Planning 
Commusion stressing the importance of evolving a common 

ap^oach, the Commission have left it to each State to fix a target date and 
to formulate its policy m accordance with local conditions and draimstances. 

Commission hate, hmteter, recommended the adoption of certain 
m^urcs like d^continuance of adtertisements and other inducements, 
stoppage ofdnnkmg in pubhc premises, settmg up of technical committecs- 
lo aratv up phased programmes, promotion of the imxluction of 
















153 


cheap and health giving soft dnnks and introduction of prohibition as a 
major item of constructive work in commumty development blocks 

Progress 

All the States of the Indian Union, except Bihar, Jammu and Kashmir 
and West Bengal, have taken steps to enforce a phased programme of 
prohibition, and Prohibition Boards have been constituted in most of 
the States 

In Andhra Pradesh the enforcement of prohibition has been entrusted 
to the police, and prohibition has been included in the work schedules of 
community development oflicers In the Tclangana area toddy and liquor 
shops arc to be shifted from populous areas and all opium addicts arc to be 
licensed Tlic entire district of Kamrup in Assam is now a dry area In. 
other dislncts measures sucli as reduction in the sale of liquor, provision 
of soft dnnks in the heavy consuming areas, removal of country shops outside 
the tea garden areas and restnetion in the grant of licences to clubs have 
been adopted In Bombay the existing uct areas — ^Auiangabad texcepL 
East Khandesh dislnct) and Nagpur Divisions — ^went dry from Apnl I, 
1959 In Kerala, nine taluks of the former Travancore-Cochm State area 
and the entire Malabar district have been declared dry 

Total prohibition has been declared througliout Madras, where a 
considerable fall in the number of prohibition eases has taken place as a 
result of the amendment to the Prohibition Act for enhancing penalties and 
summaiy trial for prohibition crimes In Onssa, ilic districts of Cuttack, 
Balasorc, Pun, Ganjam and Koraput arc under prohibition In other 
areas the number of liquor and drug shops is being progressively reduced 
and dr>» da>s have been increased. The passage of a Prohibition Bill has- 
sircngthcncd the law regarding prohibit! on In the Punjab, total prohibition 
has been declared in the Rohtak district and steps talcn to discourage 
drinking m other distncis In Rajasthan the Legislature is going to tal c 
up the Rajasthan Prohibition Bill for enactment 'fhcrc is total prohibition 
in eleven districts and tlirec pilgnm centres of Uttar Pradesh 

A policy of gradual prohilntion is in operauon in the Union Territories. 
All toddy shops in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands have been closed, 
import of foreign liquor banned and liquor shops dosed for five da\s in a 
s\etk. In Delhi restnetion has been imposed on .ads crtiscmcnts and tlic 
sale of liquor to persons below tvcnl>-fi%c has been banned Numlicr of 
dn da\s has been increased and sen. mg of liquor m clubs has liccn restricted 
7’licic IS total prohibition in certain areas of Himachal Pradesh while 
,a pnhev of gradual prohibition is being followed in other areas of die Pradesh 
as well as in 'Inpur.a. 



154 


WELFARE MEASURES FOR CERTAIN MALADJUSTED GROUPS 

Immoral Traffic vi Women, and Gtrls > 

The Indian Penal Code provides for imprisonment up to 10 years 
and fines (Sec 366 A, 372 and 373) for the procurement, buying and selling 
of girls under 18 years for prostitution Similar penalties have also been 
presenbed for importing into India girls below 21 years for this puipose 
In addition, special measures against immoral traffic are in force in the 
States 

All the provisions of the Suppression of Immoral Traffic in Women and 
Girls Act, 1956, came into force Aroughout India on May 1 , 1958 The Act 
prescribes punishment for brothel-keeping, for hvmg on the earmngs of 
prostitutes, for procunng, mducmg, or taking a ^voman or girl for the purpose 
of prostitution, for detaining a woman or girl in premises where prostitution 
IS earned on, for prostitution m or m the vicimty of pubhc places and for 
seducing or soliating for purpose of prostitution. The setlmg up of an 
adequate number of Protective Homes for the rchabUitation and the edu- 
cational and vocational traimng of women and girls recovered and detained 
under the Act is also envisaged 

Rescue homes and reception centres established under the After- 
cafe Ptogramme can also be utilised as protective homes In addition, there 
are sever^ other institutions m the States, which aim at makiTig good citizens 
out of fallen women 'Ihese are Str^Sadans maintained by the Government 
of Madras, the Shradhanand Anath Mahilashram of Bombay, Good 
Shepherd Home m Madras, Crispin’s Home m Poona, Kushalbagh Mission 
Orphanage at Gorakhpur, Fendall Home and All-Beng^ Women’s Umon 
Home in West Bengal, etc 


Juvenile Delinquents 

Children Acts are m force m the States of Andhra Pradesh, Bombay^ 
Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Madras, Mysore, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh and 
west Bengal and the Territory of Delhi The Borstal Schools Acts, which ’ 
^ shghtly different in scope, are in operation ui the States of Andhra 
ftadtth, Bombay, Kerala, Madras, Mysore, Puiyab, Uttar Pradesh and 
West B^gal The Reformatory Schools Act of 1897 has also been enforced 
in all bigger States and some Umon Temtones 

The probl^ of juvenile delinquency is mainly the concern of State 
emments The Cential Government, however, have sponsored a Care 
the States are given assistance Under this 
2 probation hostels in Bihar, 1 certified 
^ probation hostels m Madhya Pradesh, 1 
^ home in Madras, 3 certifik sdhools, S 

Tnuura hivp probation hostel in Mysore and I children’s home in 
m Pribaoon Offiem are ako fo be 

and Onssa ’ omhay, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Madras, Mysore 


impan^^^ trainmg m a number of trades is 

Some of these institutinmal ^^^ed, reformatory and borstal schools 
wth implements and rdcssn, 

by them m school ritu ^ ^able them to settle down in trades learnt 

iiLat^oShr^ed s?hooW ^ 

cratic Uving and are en^SLed ^^ng in citizenship and demo- 

such as sports, debates, 

Beggars 



155 


hz proceeded against under Section 133 as those committing public nuisance. 
Beggary wthm railway premises was prohibited by law on February 15, 
1941 Special Acts have been passed by some of the States to prohibit 
b^;mg m pubhc places In others, the mumapal and pohee acts provide 
measures against begging. 

There are institutions in the States for the custody, care and assistance 
of be^ars m their rchabihtation Eighteen certified institutions with a 
total capacity for 2,000 b^gars exist in Bombay • West Bengal has 8 beggar 
homes wth accommodation for 2,050 There are 7 similar institutions in 
Madras, 8 includmg 3 rchef settlements in Kerala and 2 in Delhi There 
IS a beggar home each in the States of Uttar Pradesh, .Madhya Pradesh 
and Mysore A novel type of vagrant home^cum-traimng centre is m 
existence m New Delhi in which the inmates take part in the management 
of the home. Under the Central Care Programme assistance is available for 
the settmg up of be^ar homes. 

CENTRAL, SOCIAL WELFARE BOARD 


The Central Social Welfare Board, set up in August 1953, under the 
chzdrmanship of Smt Durgabai Deshmukh, is an autonomous body. Funds 
made available under the Plan by the Government* are distnbuted through 
this body to voluntary social service organisations for “strengthening, im- 
proving and extending’ the existing activities in the field of social welfare 
for developing neiv programmes and carrying out pilot projects It 
is also charged tvitii the task of exploring the need’lbr and the possibility of 
implementing new welfare activities Welfare Boards, consisting mamly of 
women social ivorkers and representatives of the State Governments, have 
also been consututed and are fiinctiomng in all the States Since its inception 
•the Board has sanctioned Rs 136 34 lakhsbywayofyearlygrants-in-mdto 
4,500 insututions and Rs 1 1 1 .63 lakhs as long-term grants to 649 instttutions 


Welfare Exfenston Projects 

A scheme of rural welfare, known as Welfare Extension Projects, was 
launched on August 15, 1954 Each of these projects covers a group of 
■about 25 villages and a population of about 20,000 The programme and 
activities of these projects comprise balwadts (community creches and pre- 
basic schools), matermty and infant health servicei. (including those for the 
handicapped and the dcimquents), literacy and social educaUon for women, 
■arts and crafts centres and recreational activities. The coverage of these 
projects bcti\cen August 1954 and December 1958 is indicated in Table 


The Project Implementing Committee is responsible for the formida- 
tion and execution of the programme in each project area which is generally 
-divided into 4 or 5 centres of 5 \'illagcs each, each centre bang under the 
■charge of a trained gram semka^ who is assisted by a midwife or a dm ‘and a 
craft assistant. 

From April 1, 1957- the Board has undertaken all work rclaling to 
thc A\clfarc ofwomcn and children in the community development blocks 
■and most of the welfare extension projects will be established m communitv 
■daclopmcnt block areas ^ 


^ For ihcc-vccutionof this programme, 2,274 sezV-as, and2I6 mid- 
wives had rwci^cd trmning up to the end of December 1958 and 666 ^am 
jin/'oy and 60 midwiics were under training « 


Urban Femilj Welfare Scherre 

the Urban ramUj IVelfarc Scheme has been sponsored 
for promoting th e t'clfare of ttomen Under this, indtistnal co-opeiitis™ 


* Rs 4 crorea under the First Plaa ard ^ K cores under the SeoJad P.aa. 



156 

TABLE 47 

^VELFARE EXTENSION PROJECTS 


(Ongttict paJlem) 



Number 

or%YcUarc 

Extension 

Projects 

Number 
of centres 

tillages 

covert 

Popula- 

tion 

covered 

(in/a^As) 

1 Total 
, cxpcndi- 
; ture (m 
, takhsef 
niptti)* 

1 CS\S*B’S 
contn- 
t butnm 

cjivpai) 

August 1954 
to December 

1957 

430 

1,978 

9,715 

87 

62 40 

1 

41 60 

Januai> 195B 
to December 

1958 

10 

45 

250 

2 

1 40 

i 

1 

S 94 

TOTAL .. 

440 

2,023 

1 9.965 

S9 

63 SO 

i 42 54 

1 


(tb^j 

rdawiei Pel 

l<Tr) 

1 


Apia 1957 
to December 

1958 

42 

588 i 

4,200 

20 



Januat> 1958 
to December 

1938 

36 

304 

3,600 

17 j 



TOTAL 

78 

1,092 

[ 7,800 

37 : 


I ' 

Aa estimated at 
the end of&e 
Second Plan 
penod| 

960 

9,600 

1 96.000 

576 




analhcde mduaiesin sdected urban aros. 
to about 500 I -rt ” provide cmploi'ment (mainly at their home) 
™ddie das famii.v Accordini 
5^ da? ” thi n-ay earns between Re. 1 and 

gone mto TOduaW ‘’“'^*>8 2.5™ &naie have already 

aim is to se??; Hyderebad. Vijayawada and Poona The 

benefit of 10.(S)0 fanuhe " Second Plan period for the 

OifitT jPngrammes 

After-care Adviso^’ Conmuttee oa 

a comprdiensiNe^^amroe floral Advisory Committei^ 

or 5 fir each W, at the rat^ 

district, has been formulated rate of one in each 

and meet other needs of piusom 

correctional institutions correctionai and non- 

assUtante for 

discharged and rescued Dcrsnntt shelters v^iU receive 

^Ji!!gPg!2gL ^dsend them to th ehomes. Jhe>*nTflasnst 







157 


in tiidr rehabilitation in certain cases The following tabic indicates the 
-progress made in this direction * 

' TABLE 48 

AFTER-CABE HOMES AND SHELTERS 



Number of 
State 
Homes 

Number of 
; Distnct 
Shelters 

[ 

Number of 
Froductaon 
Umts 

Number of 
benefi- 
ciaries 

Erom Apnl 1956 to December 

1958 

41 

122 


13,000 

As estimated at the cod of the 
Second Plan period 

80 ! 

1 

330 

80 

40,000 


Several new programmes of social wellareto be implemented during the 
rest of the Second Plan penod have also been formulated They mclude 
opemng of 100 pilot Welfare Extension Projects m urban areas, provision 
■of fkdhties to enable women m the age group 25 to 30 years to attain the 
mini mum educational qualifications prescnbed for recruitment as welfare 
workers like gram, sevikas^ midwives, primary school teachers etc., finann^ l 
assistance for startmg 100 night-shelters m important industrial towns for 
shelterless workers, runmng hohday homes for poor children, assisting fin- 
ancially the small production units and making provision for basic welfare 
services in villages. All these programmes arc to be worked through 

voluntary wdlare organisations, to which grants-m-aid ivill be given by the 
jBoard. 





CHAPTER XIII 


RELIEF AND REHABILITATION 


Of the 88 57 lakh displaced persons irom Pakistan who had migrated 
to India oil the end of 1958, 47 40 Jakhs cantc from West Pakistan and the 
rest from East Pakistan TIic task of rehabihtating displaced persons from 
West Pakistan will be completed by the end of 1959-60 and that relating to 
displaced persons from East Pakistan ivill be substantially completed by 
frie end of the Second Plan period The assistance provided by Government 
towards the rchef and rehabihtation of these persons till the end of March 
1959 and the StatC’-wise distribution of the displaced population arc shown 
in Tables 49 and 50 

TABLE 49 

EXPENDITURE ON DISPLACED PERSONS* 


(/» erares of rupees) 



On DPs from 
West Fakstan 

On D P^ from 
East Pakistan 

Total 

Giants 

; 85 18t 

69 12 

: 154 30 

Loam 

25 63 

38 10 

63 73 

Housing 

60 98 

34 70 

95 68 

Establisbmcnt 

Loans by Rebabihtation Finance 

2 19 

I .57 

2 76 

Administration (Up to 31-12*158} 

7 93 

4 27 

12 20** 

Miscellaneous 


01 

Dandalaranya Scheme 


1 30 

I 30 

TOTAL 

181 92 

148 OS 

329 98 


DISPLACED PERSONS FROM EAST PAKISTAN 

undated from East Pakistan till 
^ penons wcre-stUl bemg mamtained at the end of 

O^ssaandTnpum 58,000 
beme cared for infirm displaced persons ^vere 

in Bengal will Vi mfirmanes m the eastern zone The camps 

Bihar 4 573 familips famih^ have been dispersed from camps m 

West*Bcnsal to TrliaVwi f camps m Onssa and 931 famihes from camps in 
haShmSd m f 2*959 famihes have so far beeA re- 

PmS id Rnjasthan and Uttar Pradesh Uttar 

gramme About 75 OOft f ^ completed their rehabihtation pro- 

53,000 famihes m Tnpma 
provided aLSce to M 99 SS West Bengal has already 

Till the^fof 1958 h rehabWon. 

as house buiIdinR loans to 143 14 lakhs had been sanctioned 

loam amounting to Rs 46 88 1 P^^ced pereons m urban areas Busmess 

r 







159 


TABLE 50 

DISTRIBUTION OF DISPLACED POPULATION 


Number of Displaced Persons 


State/Tcrntory 

Rural 

Urban 

Total 




4,000 

4,000 


3,33,000 

1,54,000 

4,87,000 


17,000 


67,000 


54,000 

3,61,000 

4,15,000 

Madhya Pradesh 

54,000 

1,59,000 

2,13,000 


1,000 

8,000 

9,000 


2,000 

5,000 

7,000 


10,000 

2,000 

12,000 

Punjab 

16,11,000 

11,26,000 

27,37,000 

Eajasthan 

1,64,000 

2,09,000 

3,73,000 

Uttar Pradc^ 

54,000 

4,32,000 

4,86,000 

West Bengal 

15,91,000 

15,70,000 

31,61,000 

Andaman and Nicobar Islands I 

4,000 

— 

4,000 

Delhi 

30,000 

4,71,000 

5,01,000 

Himachal Pradesh 

1,000 

4,000 

5,000 

Manipur 

1,000 

1,000 

2,000 

Tnpura 

2,36,000 

1,38,000 

3,74,000 

TOTAL 

41,63,000 

46,94,000 

88,57,000 


As many as 140 squatters* coloraes have been selected for regularisa- 
tion, of these colomes accommodating 8,540 families have already been 
regidansed A sum of Rs 315.42 lakhs has been sanctioned for development 
of urban and rural colomes 

Up to the end of June 1958, about 36,000 persons received training 
in various arts and crafts and about 6,000 were undergoing traimng More 
than a hundred training schemes mvolving an expen&ture of jRs 228 lakhs 
were implemented To provide employment to displaced persons in 
development schemes, Contracts Divisions have been set up, the one in 
West Bengal employing about 5,300 displaced persons daily About 2 13 
lakli displaced persons have so far been placed in employment through the 
medium of employment exchanges Twenty-three schemes have been 
sanctioned for the setting up or expansion of medium industncs These 
cost about Rs 296 lakhs and provide employment to about 12,000 persons. 
Up to January 1959, 126 schemes of small-scale or cottage industnes were 
sanctioned These •ivill offer cmplovmcnt to 14,000 displaced persons 

For the education of displaced students in the eastern region, 1,567 
primary schools, 22 secondary schools and 21 colleges have been opened 

Dandakaranya Scheme 

An area of 80,000 sq miles north of nver Godavari and covenng 
parts of Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh and Bombay is being 
developed under the Dandakaranya Scheme for resettling a siaablc dis- 
placed population from East Pakistan The Dandakaranya Dcv’clopmcnt 
Authonty has been established \Vork is in progress on the reclamation of 
about 45,000 acres of land construction of 5,000 village houses, and 
setting up of technical and vocational iraimng centres, co-operative 
societies and multi-purpose farms during 1959-60 About 20,000 famihcs 
from camps in ^Vcst Bengal arc expected to be settled here by July 1959 

iff/.aii/ifoaon Industries CcTporaUon 

A Rehabilitation Industncs Corporation with a Rs 5 crorc assistance 
from the Centre will be set up to establish industnes in the public sector 






160 


in partnership with pnvatc enterprise and to provide loans to private entre- 
preneurs for providing employment to displaced persons from East Pakistan 

DISPLACED PERSONS FROM WEST PAKISTAN 

Evacuee lands in the Pimjab were allotted on a quasi-permanent basis 
to 4 77 lakh famihes and a further 33,000 fanuhes were settled as tenants 
at-iviU Till the end of 1958, permanent nghts were transferred to 2,60,091 
adlottees, covermg an area of 19,11,718 standard acres worth Rs, 85 32 
<xores Propnetary rights m 82,424 houses ivcrc also transferred Of the 
ne\v townships set up m the western region, the Central Government were 
<hrectly associated with the construction and administration of four townships 
ofPandabad, Rajpura, Nilokhcn and Hastmapur. The housing programme 
for displaced persons liom West Pakistan has been nearly completed 

About 2 02 lakh displaced persons were provided wim gainful 
tcmployment in services and trades till the end of 1958, and about 90,000 
were given vocational and techmeal traimng An aggri^tc* of 
Rs 22 85 crores has been advanced as loans through the State Governments 
and the Rehabihtation Finance Administration to enable the urban 
displaced persons to set up trades and mdustrics In addition, 95 
schemes for medium and small-scale industries have been sanctioned, 
mvolvmg an expenditure of Rs 207 lakhs These schemes arc expected to 
open up employment opportumbes for 1 0,000 persons 

A sum of Rs 1 80 crores was advanced to educational, medical and 
cultural msbtubons as grants-m-aid for providmg facihtics to displaced 
students In addibon, a sum of Rs 36 58 lakhs %va 5 paid as grants to the 
State Governments for providmg iinancial assistance to displaced students. 

Up to January 31, 1959, a sum of Rs 100 56 crores (Rs. 51.56 crores 
mcash, Rs 32 47 crores by transfer of properbes and Rs 16 53 crores by "way 
of adjustment of pubhc dues) was paid as compensabon to 3 60 lakh 
claimants As many as 51,159 certificates of admissibility of compensation ' 
have also been issued 


OTHER KINDS OF BEUEF 
Bmergetuy RdtcJ OrgamsaUon 

A coimtry-wde organisation hamyn as the Emergency Relief Organisa- 
tion to promde rehrf in times of floods, famines, earthquakes, etc , has been 
^et up in almost all the States and Union Temtons The Orgamsation 
will ensure that. ° 

(i) rehef OT^tiom are conducted accordmg to plans dra^vn up 
ahead ofan emergency and, as far as possibl^ by personnel 
well-tramed m conducting such operatfons ; ^ ^ 

laid on^the ranciple of self-help so that assistance 

^ role to play social welfare agencies is allotted a definite 

*= State Govemmenls and the 
for ororw'i* take upon themselves the rcsponsibihty 

sph^^ ntegration of activities wthm their respective 

state 

emergency rehef nolirv nf organisation will implement the 

coordinate the Sorts of the 
by the Government of India ^ supphes as can be arranged only 

As part of the Central Emergency Rehef Oiganisatioii, a training 



161 


Institute kno\^^l as the Central Emergency Relief Traimi^ Institute has been 
set up at Nagpur The Institute is intended to lay dotvn a basic pattern of 
traimng m emergency rehef operations for the country as a whole and pro- 
vides a source of supply of trained personnel in adequate numbers not only 
for instructional purposes but also for manmng the vanous rehef services 
envisaged under the Scheme 

Pnme Mimstefs J^ational Rehef Fund 

Since November 1947, when the Prime Minister’s National Rehef 
Fund was foxmded, a sum of about Rs 1 82 crores has been used in providmg 
rehef to people affected by national calamities such as earthquakes, floods, 
cyclones, draught, famine and fire Rehef was also given in the early stages 
to displaced persons firom Pakistan 



CHAPTER XIV 


SCHEDULED CASTES, SCHEDULED TRIBES AND OTHER 
BAGK^VARD CLASSES 


The Consdtutiozi prescribes protection and safeguards for Sclieduled 
Castes, Scheduled Trib« and other Badnrard Glasses, dther specificallv 
or by ^\ay of general nghts of citizens -^nth the object of promoting thar 
educational and economic interests and of remo\'mg certain social dis- 
abihnes the Scheduled Castes \\ere subject to. These are . 

(j) the abohtion of “Untouchabihty ’ and the forbidding of its 
practice in any form (Art 17), 

(rf) the promotion of their educational and economic interests and 
ihar protection from social injustice and all frirms of exploita- 
tion (Art 46) ; 


(ni) the throiMng open of Hindu rehgious institutions of a public 
character to all classes and sections of Hmdus (Art. 25) j 
(jp) the rcmoiral of any disability , habiht\’’, restriction or condition 
r^ard to access to shops, pubhc restaurants, hotels and 
places of public entertainment, the use of \\ ells, tanks, bathing 
ghats, roads and places of pubhc resort maintained wholly or 
partlv out of State funds or dedicated to the use of the general 
public (Art. 15) , 

(p) the nght to practise any profession or carry on anv occupation, 
trade or busmess (Art. 19) , 

(pj) the forbidding of any demal of admission to educational institu- 
Uons maintained by the State or receivme aid out of State 
funds (Art. 29) , 


(r») the obligation of the State to consider their rTaiirn; jn the malting 
ol appointments to pubhc ser^-ices and re 5 en.’ation for them m 
case of madequate representation (Arts 16 and 335) ; 

(mi) special representation in Parliament and State L^Iaturcs for 
a penod of ten \ care (Arts 330, 332 and 334) , 

(ix) of adidsorj* councils and separate departments in 

me Mates and the appointment of a Special Officer at the 
(.\r« thdr interests 

admimstration and control of scheduled 
and lr.bal areas (.\rts 244 and Fifth and Sntth Sehedulesl. 



163 

TABLE 51 

POPULATION OF SCHEDULED CASTES AND SCHEDULED TRIBES * 


Statc/Umon Territory 

Scheduled 

Castes 

Scheduled 

Tnbes 

INDIA 

5,53,27,021 

2,25^11,854 

States 

Andhra Fradeh 

44,15,995 

11,49,919 


4,24,044 

17,61,434 


49,13,990 

38,80,097 

Bombay 

52,02,077 

37,43,40e 

Jammu & Kashmir > . 

1,56,135 

* 


12,07,294 

1,34,757 


39,12,205 

48,44,128 

Madras • 

53,81,836 

1,36,376 

Mysore 

Orissa 

25,83,142 

1 80,402 

26,29,250 

30,09,580 

Punjab • • 

34,90,983 

2,661 

Rajasthan • . 

25,02,202 

17,74,278 

Uttar Pradesh 

1,31,00,398 

47,43,713 

— 

West Bengal 

15,66,868 

Territories 

i 


Andaman and Nicobar Islands* 



_ 

Delhi 

2,58,530 


Himachal Pradesh 

3,19,972 

27,928 

Lacca^e, Muucoy and Ammdivi Islands 

13,486 

Mampur 

M,647 

1,94,239 

1,92,293 

Tnpura 

46,608 


MEASURES TO ERADICATE UNTOUCHABIUXT 

The Untottckabihfy (Offences) Act, 1955 

Thns Actj 'which came into force on June 1, 1955j provides penalties 
for preventmg a person, on the ground of untouchabiLty, from entering a 
place of pubhc worship, offering prayers therein or talang water from a 
sacred tank, well or spring Penalties are also provided for enforcmg all 
kmds of social disabilities , such as denymg access to any shop, pubhc rest- 
aurant, pubhc hospital or education^ institution, hot^ or any place of 
public entertainment , the use of any road, nver, wdl, tank, water tap, 
bathmg ghat, cremation ground, sanitary convemence, dharamshala^ sarat 
or musqfirkhma or utensils kept m such institutions and hotels -and restaurants- 
The Act also prescribes penalties for enforcing occupational, professional 
or trade disab^ties or disabilities in the matter of enjoyment ol^y benefit 
under a charitable trust, in the construction or occupation of any residential 
premises in any locahty or the observance of any social or r^gious usage 
or ceremony 

The Act amilarlv lays do\vn penalties for refusing to sell goods or 
render services to a Hanjan becasue he is a Hanjan , for molesting, injuring 
or annoymg a person or organising a boycott of, or talang any part in the 
excommumcation of a person who has exercised the nghts accrumg to him 
as a result of the abolition of untouchabihty 

Higher penalties have been prescribed for subsequent offences. For 
the purposes ofat^’arding pu ni s h ments, matement, orabetinent of the offence 
has been treated in the same manner as the commission of the offence. Tbe 

* President’s order dedanng (he Scheduled Tnbes in the Isbnds » yet to be issued. 



164 


onus of proving innocence has been thrown on the accused The offences 
under this Act are cognisable and compoundable 

Campaign Against Untouchability 

Since 1954 the Government of India have been giving finanaal 
backing to the mo\ement to eradicate untouchability Both ofBaal 
and non-official agencies are being utilised for this purpose The 
Slate Governments have instructed their district officers and othci offiaak, 
t\ho deal Mith the pubhc, to stress the need for and urgency of doing away 
wth this evil “Hanjan Days” and **Hanjau Weeks” arc observed in 
almost all the States to focus public attention and enlist the people’s co- 
operation in the eradication of untouchabihtv Most of the States have 
appointed sm^I committees to enforce, where necessary, the provisions of 
the Untouchabihty (Offences) Act, 1955 Pubhcity media, such as books, 
pamphlets, handbills, and audio-visual aids have also been pressed into 
service 

The assistance and co-operation of voluntary organisations, such as 
the Hanjan SevakSangh, the Bharatiya Depressed Classes League and the 
Harijan Ashram of Allahabad have also been obtained A sum of 
Rs 61,50,746, of which Rs 14,77,200 came from the Centre, was given as 
grants-m-aid to these organisations during the First Plan penod The 
Second Five-Year Plan envisages an expenditure of about Rs 208 lakhs 
as aid to non-offiaal agencies for this programme of which Rs 138 lakhs 
have been provided under the States’ sector and Rs 70 lakhs under the 
Central sector of the Plan 

During the Orst two years of the Second Plan the Central Government 
made a grant of Rs 12,98,300 to the all-India voluntary agencies, workmg 
in the various States for ffie removal of untouchabihty 

REPRESENTATION IN LEGISLATURES 

Under Articles 330, 332 and 334 of the Constitution, scats, proportionate 
as far as possible to their population in the States, have been reserved for 
? 1 Castes and Tnbes in the IjDk Sabha and the State Vidhan 

Sabhas for a penod of ten years after the inauguration of the Constitution 
Tabic 52 gives details of the representation m Parhament and tlie State 
Legislatures 


REPRESENTATION IN THE SERVICES 

The nmtmcr in v%hich the State carries out its obbgation to reserve 
posts for Scheduled Castes and Tnbes in the pubhc sendees in case of 
inadequate rcpnscntaUon and to consider their claims consistent vwth the 
^ Jciency of administration, has been left outside the purview 
orobiigitor. con^^^^^ Commissions [Art 320^ (4)] 

cent oVlhe Union Government decided that 124 per 

on !m recruitment is made by open compeution 

^^^Ilc other ice 1 ^ Vacancies to which recruitment 

• ^ ' ■“c'^edfor thcScheduIcd Caste Tortha Scheduled 

exemption m .V I, limits / representation concessions such as (0 

cunhh/^'jiirnu Vnl %f>]rru ” ^Uaxalion m the standard of suitabilitv and of 
« ^ ^ V \ of effi- 

1 prf>\ Id -d I 'n.- through quahfpng examination, have 

J -c« h, P'on^\;.ntlrou?hro:r^? reservation has been^xtended to services 
f »i ‘ d-i-*, »* -And pc itivi cximmationshmitcd to departmental 
. ’tuio , mid semuautottomous bodies and government limited 



165 

TABLE 52 

SEATS RESERVED TOR SCHEDULED CASTES AND SCHEDULED TEOBES 
IN RARIIAMENT AND STATE LEGISLATURES 



In Parliament 

In the State Lcgidature 

Statc/Union 

Temtory 

Total 
number of 
scats ID 
the House 
of the 
People 

Scheduled 

Castes 

Scheduled 

Tnbes 

Total 
number of 
seats m 
the Legis- 
lative 
Assembly 

Scheduled 

Castes 

Scheduled 

Tnbes 

States 







Andhra Pradesh 

43 

6 

2 


43 

11 

Assam 

12 

1 

2* 


5 

26 

Bihar 

53 

7 

5 

318 

40 

32 

Bombay 

66 

7 

5 

3S6 

43 

31 

Jammu and 
Kashmir 

6 

— 


75t 

“ 

— 

Kerala 

18 

2 

0 

126 

11 

1 

hfedhya Pradesh 


5 

7 

288 

43 

54 

Madras 


7 



37 

1 

Mysore 


3 

; — 


28 

1 

Onssa 

20 

i 4 

i 4 

140 

25 

29 

Punjab 

22 

5 

— 

154 

33 


Rajasthan 


3 

2 

176 

28 

1 20 

Uttar Pradesh 


18 



430 

89 


West Bengal . 


6 

2 

252 

45 

1 15 

Territories 







Delhi 

Himachal 


1 


- 

*- 


Pradesh 


1 







Mampur 








Tnpura 



> 1 


— 



500 

76 i 

31 i 

3,177 

470 

221 


companies If no statable Scheduled Caste candidates aie available for 
the reserved posts, they are to be treated as reserved for Scheduled Tnbes 
and wee vtrsa It is only when suitable candidates are not available from 
cite that a post is treated as unreserved In such cases, an equal number 
of vacanaes are earned forward to two recruitment years 

propCT effect to the reservation deaded upon, model 
rosters of 40 posts each ha^ been prescribed for reenuttoent by open com- 
petinon and otherw^e If the vacanaes m a Service or Cadre are too few 
lor the purpose, all corresponding posts are to be grouped together 
^ual repoTj are required to be submitted bv the employing authorities 
for sCTUtmy by the Govipunent Some of the State Gover^ents have 
^so drawn up rules for the reservation of posts for these classes, and stem 
have ^en takra to maease their representation in State services ^ 
Two I^hs and five thousand persons belonging to the SchednlM 
SmS employed in the Government of India 

Statistics collected thr ough Employment Exchanges reveal that 32,760 such 

* One scat rtstrvcd for the Autonomous Distncu m Ass^ 

r E^Iudes 25 seats for Pakistan«occupjed areas of the State which an- 
abeyance pending the return of those areas to the Indian Union 









166 


persons ■were employed during 1957 by the Central Government, State 
Govcnuncnts and other employers 

ADMINISTRAHON OF SCHEDULED AIW TRIBAL AREAS 
Aulonomous Tnbal Areas of Assam 

In pursuance of the prousions of the Sixth Schedule, one Regional 
Coundl and 5 Distnct Count^ have been set up in the distncls of the United 
Khasi-Jamtia Hills, Garo Ihlls, Mizo Hills, North Gachar Hills and Mikir 
HiUs Each of these District Councils consists of not more than 24 mem- 
ben, three-fourdis of them being elected by adult suflE^ge. The Councils 
possess sride legislative and rule making pmveis as 'sx ell as certam finandal 
and taxation po^vers 

Trtbcs Advmjy Counctls m Other States 

The Fifth Schedule to the Constitution provides for the setting up 
of a Tnbcs Ad\'isorj’’ Council m each of the States having Scheduled Areas 
and, if the President so directs, for constituting such Councils in States 
i\hich have Scheduled Tnbes but no Scheduled Areas Tribes Adrisorj’ 
Councils have been set up so far in the States of Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, 
Bombay, Madh^^ Pradesh, hladras, Orissa, Furyab, R^asthan and ^Vest 
^ngal Tlicse Councils advise the Governors on such matters concerning 
me w’clfare of the Scheduled Tnbes and development of the Scheduled 
Areas as may be referred to them, 


^VELFARE AND ADVISORY AGENCIES 
Commmoncr for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tnbes 

Officer has been appomted by the President under Article 
r ° the Constitution to (j) investigate all matters relating to the s^eguards 
tor the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tnbes provided imder the ConsU- 
tjmon, and (») mport to the President on the uorkmg of these safeguards 
incrc are ten Assistant Commissioners to assist the Commissioner. 
Cailral Admsory Boards 

members of Parhament and public ^vorkers uith matters 
I ^ f ® development of Tnbal areas and the well-bring of the 

''™ Central Ad™oTl.ards- 

TTikI Welfare-have been consU- 

Gwemment of India on aU mattos 

sS7nlS\fd“oS TnbiTeS 


mjare Deparlmtrtls in the Slates 

the Suiies of Bih°r* h^hva of the Consbtution requires that in 

m charge AVclfare Vpaitmcnts 

in thrsc States as iscU w m heen set up 


in these States as \%cll as ui Departments have bei 

M'ldr.TS.Ms-sorc, Punjab Assam, Bombay, 

Pradesh, Manipur and Tnpura ^ Pradesh, 'V^est Bengal, I 


, Kerala, 
Himachal 


on t,i\ 


^ ’tVELFARE SCHEMES 

.iV"diTm[omm^Siat^^^ Constitution the Umon Government 
to biatcsin ihcformulaiion and execution of schemes for 



167 


the \\ clfarc of the Scheduled Triijcs in the Slates. Under At tide 275 (I) the 
Centre is required to give grants-in-aid to the Slates for appi oved schemes 
ori^clfarc and for improving the tone of administration xn Scheduled Areas. 

Educational Facilities 

Measures to provide increased educational facilities have been taken, 
the emphasis being on vocational and technical training. The concessions 
include free luiiion, stipends, scholarships and the provision of books, 
stationery and other equipment Mid-day meals arc also supphed in 

many places. - t i t • 

The Government of India instituted a scheme for grant of scholarships 
to the Scheduled Castes in 1944-45. Tins benefit was extended to the 
Scheduled Tnbes in 1948-49 and other Backward Classes m 1949-50. 
The follovwng table show's the amounts spent on this account. 

TABLi: 53 

SCHOLAltSmP GRANTS 


{In laiks (f Tupets) 


Year 

Sclicdulcd 

Cutes 

Scheduled 

IVibcs 

Ollier Back- 
ward Glasses 

Total 

1951-52 

8 18 

2 82 

4 41 

15 41 

1952-53 

14 36 

5 22 

10 94 

30 52 

1953-54 

26 36 

8 19 

26 51 

61 56 

1954-55 

45 80 

12 38 

49 71 

107 89 

1955-56 

63 78 

13 05 

73 70 

150 53 

1956-57 

87 99 

15 78 

83 52 

187 29 

1957-58 

100 37 

18 97 

82 19 

201 .53 


The Central Government’s scheme to award scholarships to deserving 
students from these classes for studies in foreign countries came into force 
in 1953-54. From 1955-56 the number of such scholarships was increased 
to 12 — 4 for each of the three groups Tounst class sea passages are also given 
to Students who receive foreign scholarships without travel grants. Over- 
seas scholarships to students belonging to backward commumties are also 
awarded by the State Governments of Assam and Bihar. 

Seventeen and a half per cent of the merit scholarships granted by 
the Centre to desciving students of the lower income groups for studies 
in institutioiis which are members of the Indian Pubhc Schools Conference, 
are reserved for backward communities Some of the State Governments 
offer similar scholarships Some pubhc schools also award scholarships 
to deservmg backward class students Reservation of seats, lowering of 
mmunum qualifymg marks and raismg of the maximum age hunt for 
admission of members of these classes m all techmeal and educational insit- 
tuhons arc among other steps recommended by the Umon Government to 
all educational authorities, these have been acted upon by different msti- 
tutions all over the country. 

Economic OpporimiUts 

Of a tnbal population of 225 lakhs, about 26 lakh persons practise 
shi^g culttvation annually over an area of 22,55,816 acres, the total area 
used so far for shifhng cultivation bemg five times this figure The pro- 
blem IS in Its acute form m the States of Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar 
]^dhya Pradesh and Onssa and the Union Temtories of Mampur and 
Tnpura. A scheme to control shifhng culuvahon was started durmg the 
First Plan penod Sixteen pilot project centres have so far been established 
m Assam, 4 colonisation schemes have been started in Andhra 








168 


Pradesh and nearly 460 fenuhes m Bihar, 366 in Madhya Pradesh, 2,496 
in Onssa and 5,339 in Tnpura have been settled under the scheme 

Andhra Pradesh, Bdiar, Bombay, Madras, Onssa and Uttar Pradesh 
have launched schemes to improve irrigation faalilics, to reclaim waste 
laud and to distnbute it among members of the Scheduled Castes and 
Scheduled Tribes In addition, facilities for the purchase of livestock, 
fertilisers, agncultural implements, better seeds, etc , arc also being extended 
to them Some States have set up demonstration farms for training them 
m methods of saentific cultivation Cattle breeding and poultry farming 
are being encouraged among these people 

The Governments of Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Bombay, 
Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal are encouraging the devdopment of cottage 
mdustnes through loans, subsidies and training ctaitres MulU-purpose 
co-operative societies which provide credit in cash and in kind to the 
Scheduled Castes and Tribes have also been established in ^dhra Pradesh, 
Bihar, Madras, M^^oie, Onssa, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal In some 
States, such as Bombay and Andhra Pradesh, contracts for exploiting 
forest produce are being given to the Scheduled Tnbes through labour 
co-operative societies 

Legislation exists in ahnTOt all the States to extend rdief to the mdebted, 
including those belon^g to the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tnbes 
Measures for the abohtion of their debt bondage have been taken m Onssa 
and Bihar Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Onssa 
and West Bengal have enacted tenancy kivs to ensure sccunty of land tenure 
to the Scheduled Tnbes 

Other Welfare Schemes 

OAer welfare schemes include the grant of house sites free or at 
nommm cost, assistance by way of loans, subsidies and grants-in^aid to local 
bodies for the construction of houses for their Harlan employees and mone- 
tary assistance to co-operative building societies speaally started for the 
bmefif of the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tnbes A scheme of legal 
aid to Scheduled Castes is now m operation m many States. 

Tnbal Research Inslituies 


Tnbal research institutes, which undertake intensive studies of tnbal 
culture and cust^, have beenset up m Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Onssa, 
aja^an and West Bengal The Gauhati University has started the study 
^the social and cultural life of the tnbes in Assam In Bombay, tnbal 
conducted by the Anthropological Society of Bombay, 
Rttcarch Society and the Umversity of Bombay In West 
Institute has produced reports on 
GovwiSnt of Department of Anthropology, 

tnbes of completed intensive research studies on important 

of NEFA are^b«»?^ Studira m the culture and languages of the people 

dejartoent of NEFA 

on seve^i undStaken investigation 

has comnlctcS bibal jvoblenjs The Institute m Madhya Pradesh 

d«tricts Bihar 

Bharativa Lok KaL ^ Sznih^l Parganas The 

uhich has conduci<*d ^ w a pioneer non-offiaal organisation 

State S ^ 

Targets Under Second Plan 

and culture schools and hostels and 200 community 

entres in tnbal areas and to give stipends and other 



GiVSTES, TRIBES AND BACKWARD CLASSES 


169 


a -111 

•^2 5 c = s 

,o| £ o§ 8 5 

H j ci.^T 3 w a 


«oon i'>»o£!C 
o«noMt5S®S 

M **• IS 

into — wooo Ci 

in e<i I n flfi in o f* 
O CJ C3_— CO O lO If 

oeoccrN-*^— 


iSn 

lO •*t‘ W 
0)t0 'Jl*'', 


Total c'cp- 
cnditurc 
incurred 
during the 
Tint Plan 
period 

A ^ 

•^c^in pg’in 

ifTeota' ci •*• h* Cl cn Cl !>■”*■ *o -^oi *n 

KSS^ «oj,n^S,?^§£eid wcj, "t, 

pjen-*f cnhTeNittftorC— loeo co« w 

CO o r^ w tn — CO m t>- w 

cTeo eT •» 

d 

t*. 

r* 

S 

d 

t 

§ 

5 

n 

U 

Vi 

H S’2 t> "S 
^•CJ fc-S u 

g-srs?! 

OOO 00C10C3 ooo oo o 

lOom oinomo ooo oo in 

eoine'T co'^coc'icr cfo'eo ooci ,co 

— ea CJ r^o la to cj, o co «> « ‘T. 

cTeooo ineo'^uscT — cfi 0£2 El 

CO 10 CO — — — ,-1 «to o 

CO 

0 

s 

CO 

ccT 

m 

\S 

ca 

6 

3 xc 

tii^l 

r»oo — O'i-eiin o on* o 

coioco n^co^ciin o voc'i w 

lO O CO W — 'v 

coeooT — cTocsco o — »> jn 

oimo wo^ONco w ® 

t*r co eo*^— oi'i' eo'i* 

0 

cn 

0 

0 

S 

*£ 

P> 

£ ots ,, Ti 
BZ 2 

tlir|l 

y 2 o 3 o J2 
U p^’iscoPu 

moo po OO oom mo o 

ooi^ — m mo moo4 r^m o 

m CO m o M 

coo— cTo cTci — cc'ca oo '4* 

— Fjo coco moj^ so -oj^ oi®?. 

iCtTCO' — cT {NO M m— — 

m C3 at 

« 

eo 

to 

0 

CO 

D 

g 

Q 

1 li 
&3 5 c g 

PQ Sufa c. 

coeoo ^*^oc^lOO OOC4 p*** — 

mcMco o — r* — N omr* o 

eoeq^C'i to eo 

meSe^ lifocooeo on* p 

t*. — CO ’’^COCMOlO CO — — oc^ ® 

tooto to— f'T — ^ to* 

— CO — — 

t*. 

s 

8 

3 

U 

•a 

2S-cj„ -a 
I'g § 

lli||« 

S O S U — 
H o»0'dcoPt 

Noo moopo mm oo o 

ojom n.omoo tor*- mo — 

— c>»o tDci^F-oo-s^ mt*. o— in 

oo*J^ -^n* — oeo -fcT oo eo 

CO 0*1^10, eotf^oq^^M^ ® 

totoi*! ^meotoo tpm mto tC 

t*.!*-*!* 00 ^ tom enc>r m 

o ^ e^m 

in 

ifT 

eo 

m 

d 

-o 

*s 

CO 

lig'5-B 

3 S 8 
a 3*0 [Zi CU 

cnmc<i iNoooom cmc^— m^ m 

•$coo entoom estom too r* 

cb-^o^ r*eoeor* opto m 

eococo O'^'*’— — tCed* ^eo op' 

eoiftco CNc^csieo c-jt*. mo ^ 

oopto mesiiN— en 'J-oT 0 “ 

CO — P— C*! CO cs 

CO 

d 

en 

of 

o' 

01 

m 

8 

; "c 

1 H 

1 "S 

is|j "g 

a*a EtS c 

S.g'2 c 8 S 

K E U 3 

M o.A’ocnczi 

^ — 0 cPoommmMmo 00 po 

*j*r.os ^ m in dir* — m 0 0 mo 0 — 

co_u^m_ ‘^oj^co 00 eo — 00 

•ilcoo iNco m — eooi'Tj!'— ptd' 0 — 

e^iNOO 0 pco 0 to in aTto— cTto" 

ooc^eo C5^C'i^t*eoeoo^ ^0 m 

co"mc 4 maTeo — CO— es to — 

3 

CD* 

10 

CO 

CO 

s 

« 

1 i 

I CO 

i 

1 

Hssg 

« K-OP^ p. 

1 

5,10,33,518 

2,65,98,852 

47,43,183 

1,53,52,601 

48,91.024 

4,07,99,531 

49,75,564 

4,57,021 

57,89,432 

11,53,451 

6,62,157 

7,17,748 

18,62,118 

54,57,676 

91,70,688 

ir> 

CD 

CO 

tc 


fc* C 2^ 

fe t^c> a-B t 


lii^lPli^li 


170 


concessions to 3 lakh inbal students during tlic Second Plan pcnod The 
corresponding educanonal fecilities contemplated for tlie Scheduled Castes 
are the establishment of 6,000 schools and hostels and scholarships and 
ircesbips for 30 la kb students For Denotificd Tnbes, the Plan prondcs 
1 16 lakh scholarships and other educational concessions Besides the 
States’ plans to construct 10,200 miles of bndle and hiU paths and 450 
bridges in tnbal areas, there is a Central plan to build 450 miles of motor- 
able roa^ and 720 miles of bndle and hill paths involving an expenditure 
of Rs 4 crores The health schemes comprise the opening of dispensaries, 
mobile health units, the training of health personnel, the construction of 
41,000 wells and 2 reservoirs m the tnbal areas, 23,400 ^vells for the Scheduled 
Castes and over 394 ^^’eIls for Denotified Tribes The housing programme 
comprises the provision of 1,29,300 houses or house sites for the Scheduled 
Castes at a cost of Rs 5 25 crores and 45,800 houses for the tribals 

The Plan includes colonisation schemes for the settlement of 12,000 
tribal famihes in 186 colonies and rehabilitation of 15,246 famihes of 
Denotified Tnbes There is also provision for the conversion of the 350 
existing gram-golas mto full fledged co-operatives and for starting 800 
additional forest multi-purpose co-operative societies Table 54 shows the 
details of expenditure under various heads for the First and Second Plan 
penods 



CHAPTER XV 


MASS COMMUNICATION 
BROADCASTING 

There are today 28 radio stations covenng all the important hnguistic 
areas of the country as against only six in 1947. The stations are grouped 
into four regions as follows ' 

North . Delhi, Lucknow, Allahabad, Patna, JuUundur, 

Jaipur- Ajmer, Simla, Bhop^, Indore and Ranc^. 
West . Bombay, Nagpur, Ahmedabad-Baroda, Poona and 

Rajkot 

South . . Madras, Tiruchirapalh, Vijayawada, Trivandrum, 

Kozhikode, Hyderabad, Bangalore and Dharwar. 
East . Calcutta, Cuttack and Gauhati 

In addition, Radio Kashmir has two stations at Snnagar and Jammu. 
The number of radio centres, transmitters and receivmg centres on March 1, 
1959, was 32, 55 and 28 respectively 

Programme Compostlton 

Music programmes^ comprise nearly a half of all the programmes. 
Talks, features and discussions cover a wide range of subjects A National 
Programme of Talks given by well-known pcrsonahties in arts, saences and 
literatures is broadcast every Wednesday and is rdayed by all stations. 
Documentary features, group discussions, iirtemews, etc , are also broadcast. 

Table 55 shows the composition and the time approximately taken by 
the Home Services and Vividh Bharati programmes durmg 1958 : 

TABLE 55 

COMPOSITION OF HOME PROGRAMMES (1958) 


Type of programme 


Home Services 
Indian Music 

Classical (Vocal and Instrumental) 

Folk (V ocal and Instrumental) 

Light (Vocal, Instrumental and Devotional) 

'Western Music 
Spokcn-woid 

Drama . 

News Bulletins (mcludmg regional news) 

Publicity Items 

Spcaal Btoadcasb (mcludmg programmes for children, 
women, rural and mdustnal areas, schoob, 
music lessons, Hindi lessons and other nuscellaneous 
Items not included under items I to 6 above) 



Vividh Bharati 


Total 


1,00,417 100 


CJ^i^ Music (Vocal, Instrumental), Light Music, 
Folk Music, Deiohonal Music and Film Music 
Spoken-wori (Plays, Features, Vancty Programmes, 
Listeners I«Ucis, Special Announcments) 

Bharati am 



• See Chapter IX for the content and scope of these programmes 








172 


The table below sliow^ the duration of External Services programmes 
broadcast in the vanous languages during 1958 * 

TABLE 56 

COMPOSITION or EXTERNAL PROGRAMMES (1958) 



Hours 1 

Percentage 

Indian Music j 

1 1,869 

' 30 5 

West Asian Music j 

[ 343 

5 6 

Afncan (Sivahili) Music 

1 47 

1 0 7 

■Western Music 

} 23 

1 0 4 

East Asian Music 

275 

4 5 

Talks, Discussions, Interviews, etc 

1 867 j 

14 2 

Dramas, Features, Pla^-s, etc 

1 333 1 

1 5 4 

New'S Bulletuu 

> 1,G3! 1 

! 26 7 

Publiaty Items 

1 360 i 

i 5 9 

Other Broadcasts (including Chddrieti’s and kVomen's Pro- 
grammes, Religious Programmes, etc ) 

1 374 1 

1 ^ ^ 

Total 

1 6,122 1 

1 100 


Vimdk Bharaii 

Tins all-India Variety Programme completed its first year in 
Ortober 1958 With the addition of a Karnataka session of 90 minutes 
a day, the progra^e is now on the air for 6^ hours on ^veek da\s and 
aj hours on Sundavs and hohda^s 

programme, broadcast from two powerful transmitters from 
jJombay and Madras, can be heard all over die country. Some stations 
are relaying parts of the programme Occasional relay of parts of the 
progra^c from Bombay, Madras, and Delhi which can be received on 
single-band cheap receiving sets is under consideration 
inrln/i K entertainment, Vmdh Bharati 

programmes on sanous desclopment 
ana national reconstruction activities ^ 

Special Audience Programmes 

mfon^nra ‘’P™”! life and piovide useful 

dialogues, discussions, plays, neu-s, talks, 

arc dealtswth by experts 

46,642 commum4' rcts were suoubedl^u^ Govffnmcnt Subsidy Scheme, 

Governments for JistaUation in ^ v’anoiis State 

Rural pOTm^^v.^li'^are ™a^be"*l* ^ roheme for setting up Radio 
programmes m which a ttvruwax ^^^ng~C“ni-discussion-cum-acaon 
Lteirr broadcaster and the 
ly discuss the broadcasts a^d sen^d^^^^ viUages which regular- 
to the radio station Such fnM>r«e ^ criticisms and suggestions 

and their inmeduetion m otteTmte LH?™ 
consideration Union tenitorics is under 

21 ”°teangeSSlf'trI”w^^^ at present broadcast from 

broadcasts to four more stauonr ^hS,l P” “‘tendmg school 

to bnng about closer and more conttmirt Clubs are being formed 

the schools concerned The nnmK ^ntact of the radio station iMth. 
August 31, 1958 was 10,741 spools wnth radio lecdversasou 





173 


Special programmes for women and children are broadcast by each 
•station in which information on honsdieeping, child caie, nutrition, mental 
health and their place in the commumty and the nation is given Talks, 
discussions, short stones, choruses, plays, featuies and quiz programmes 
are broadcast in programmes meant for children 

Programmes for mdustnal workers are broadcast from Madras, 
Bombay, Calcutta, Ahmedabad, Lucknow, Allahabad, Tnvandrum and 
Kozl^ode They are meant to provide information and entertainment to 
industrial workers and their timings arc fixed in consultation with the 
Labour Department of each State Government A programme for tea 
garden workers and their famihes in Assam is also bemg broadcast 

Programmes for the armed forces are broadcast from Delhi, Srinagar 
and Jammu 

Ftve-Tear Plan Publicity 

Publicity for the Plan aims at bnnging home to listeners the theme 
of helping themselves to help the Plan In addition to the general pro- 
grammes in which the message of the Plan is earned, spea^ audience 
programmes emphasize the vanous aspects of planned progress Songs 
specially composed on vanous ‘Help the Plan Schemes* are set to popular 
tunes and included in rural programmes The vanous folk parties, which 
come to Delhi for the Repubhc Day Celebrations, are invited to present 
special songs on development activities in a programme called ‘Songs 
»of the National Builders* 

Dunng 1958, 2,017 talks, 485 dialogues, 191 intervieivs, 79 poems, 
33 symposia, 57 plays and skits, 506 feature programmes and 760 discussions 
in vanous languages iverc broadcast 

Programme Exchange 

The Internal Exchange Unit helps stations to exchange their best 
programmes, either directly, as in the case of music, or through translations 
m Hindi Dunng 1958, about 1,500 separate items of programmes 
were thus exchanged between the stations The External Programme 
Exchange Unit receives contnbutions from foreign radio organisations and 
in return sends them contnbutions of Indian items Fifty-three foreign 
broadcasting organisations IS ere the recipients of such items dunng 1958 
A central hbrary of recordmgs on tapes and discs is also maintamcd at 
Delhi It serves both as a reference library and an archives of radio 
programmes 

Transcription Service 

In addition to the processing of speeches of important personalities, 
the Transcription Scn^icc produced over 250 stampers and pnntcd about 
9,000 discs of music and spoken-word items for use by AIR stations 

Advisory CommiUtcs 

The Central Programme Advisors Committee adiiscs AIR on general 
principles to be kept m mcw in planmng and prescrtation of programmes 
and suggests how the% can be made more useful and inicrcsung. The 
Ccntial AdMsori' Board for Music la\s down in general terms the music r 
pohc\ for Uic guidance of AIR At stations, public opinion is associated 
with the planning and presentation of programmes tJirough (r) the 
Programme Advison Committee (attached to all stations) (ii) the Rural 
Adiisori Committee {attached to all stations) and (r«) the ConsuIiaii\c 
Panels for nducational Broadcasts (attached to stations brordcasiin'^ <djoo! 
programmes) and Panels for UnwersM Programmes. * ‘ 



174 


Programme Journals 

The prograimnes planned by the difTerent stations are announced in 
advance in the fono\ving journals 


Name of the Journal 

Published from 

Language 

Pcnodicity 

Alashvani (fomierly Indmn Listener) 

Ddhi 

English 

Weekly 

Ai\az 


Urdu 

Fortnightly 

Sarang 


Hindi 

» 

Betarjagat 

Calcutta 

Bengali 


VanoU 

Madras 

Tamil 

1 

W 

Vam 

» 

Tdugu 


Nabhovam 

Abmcdahad 

Gujarati 



JVfiuiy Semc£s 

News buUettns in the Home Services of -AIR are broadcast in 
English and Hmdi four tunes a day , in Bengali, Onya, Tamil, Telugu, 
Kannada, Malayalam, Punjabi, Marathi, Gujarati, Assamese and Urdu 
three times a day , in Kashmin and Dogn twice a day , and in Gorbhali 
once a day A bulletin is also broadcast for troops in the Armed Forces 
Programme in Hmdi once a day Daily commentanes are also broadcast 
in itashmm, Urdu and Bengah 

Seventy-six bulletins — ^ in the Home Services and 30 in the 
External Services — are broadcast daily The Lucknow and Bhopal 
stations broadcast a regnal news bulletm m Hmdi, Bombay m Marathi 
and Gujarati, Madras m Tamil, Calcutta m Bengah, Hyderabad m Tdugu, 
Bangalore in Kannada, Trivandrum m Malayalam, Gauhah m Assamese, 
Cuttack in Onya and Srmagar in Kashmin, Dogn, Urdu and Pushtu 
Radio newsred programmes— two in Enghsh and one in Hmdi — are 
broadcast every week, besides a senes of special newsreel bulletins on 
important occasions 


Sxifma! Sennas 

The External Services programmes are broadcast m 16 languages 
for over 20 hours a day for Indian and foreign listeners in Austraha, 
A&ica and Europe A third 100 kw short-wave transmitter was installed 
in 1958 at Delhi, which ivould enable wider coverage and the extcnnoxi 
of the duration of some external services programmes The two 10 kiv 
^ort-ivavc transmitters at Bombay and Madras also carry programmes in 
GujamU and Tamil respectively for listeners in Africa and South-East Asia 
Broadcasts for people of Indian ongm abroad are directed to South-East 
^a and East and Central Africa, Aden and hfeuntius and are m four 
languages, oiz , Gujarad, Hiiuh, Konkani and TamiL The broadcasts to 
non-Indian ^tenere abroad are in 12 languages, zm, Arabic, Burmese, 

pSrS™Mf.n’d 

Civit'/fi ^ Listening 

The number of radio set oivncrs has shown a steadv mcrease since the 
maugumlion of broadcasting m 1927, as shmvn m the foUm^g 





175 

TABLE 57 

DOMESTIC RECEIVER SETS 


Year 

Number 

1927 

3,954 

1947 (December) 

1948 „ , 

2,48,274 

2,86,046 

1949 „ 

3,69,728 

1950 „ 

5,07,324 

1951 « 

6,35,026 

1952 „ 

6,94,560 

1953 „ 

7,69,505 

1954 „ 

8,35,246 

1955 „ 

9,47,353 

1956 

10,75,900 

1957 „ 

12,30,814 

1958 (August) 

12,91,812 


table 58 

OTHER E1I4DS OF LZGENGES 

(C Possession, Demonstratloii, Commtmity, School, Crystal, Blind) 


Year 

Number 

1947 (December) 

27,681 

1948 

32,944 , 

1949 „ 

38,332 

1950 

38,995 

1951 

50,482 

1952 

64,060 

1953 

68,244 

1954 „ 

71,948 

1955 „ 

82,463 

1956 * „ 

1,00,611 

1957 „ 

1,16,402 

1958 (August) 

1,09,625 


Import and Production of Radio Sets 

The following tables show the position about the import and manu- 
facture of radio sets m India* 


TABLE 59 

IMPORT OF RADIO SETS 


Year j 

Number ' 

Value (in lakhs of 
rupees) 

Income from Customs 
Duty (m lakhs of rupees) 

I947--48 1 

1,92,172 

288 40 

181 18 

1948>^9 1 

42,202 

76 59 

52 sq 

1949—50 1 

43,335 

71 66 

63 09 

1950—51 

16,012 

25 44 


1951—52 

29,121 

52 64 

92 90 

1952—53 

19,286 

36 09 

68 85 

1953-64 

13,042 

23 45 

45 42 

1954—65 

4,515 

11 20 

58 73 

1955-^6 

6,258 

17 67 

76 35 

1956—57 

4,393* 

12 01* 

80 96 

1957—58 

(not available) 

(not available) 

102 26 


* Figures for January, February and March 1957 not included 










176 


TABLE 60 

PRODUCTION OF RADIO SETS IN INDIA 


\car ‘ 

Number of sets produced 

1947 

3,036 

1948 

24,996 

1949 

, 16,836 

1950 

44,340 

1951 

61,800 

1952 

! 71,800 

1953 

56,300 

1954 

58.203 

1955 

81,200 

1956 ! 

1,50,596 

1957 1 

1,90,690 

1958 (September) I 

1,47,280 


Television 

The Second Five-Year Plan for the development of broadcasting in 
India includes the project of an experimental Television Umt at Delhi for 
assessing the value of this medium for mass commumcation, for carrying 
out certain technical investigations and for training the personnel of AIR 
Though no regular television service is contemplated, experimental 
programmes of an educational and instiucdonal tvpe with an extremely 
limited frequency utII be conducted 

THE PRESS 


According to the second report of the Registrar of Newspapers for 
India, released on April 30, 1958, there were 5,932 newspapers m existence 
-on December 31, 1957 The highest number (1,197) of newspapers was 
published in the State of Bombay, foUoived by West Bengal (829), Uttar 
Pradesh (732), Delhi (617) and Madras (577) 

The penodicUy-ivise distnbution of neivspapers shoivs that there are 
446 dailies, 1,589 weeklies, 517 fortmghtlies and 2,351 Tnn n tblips 

The State-ivise breakdown according to periodicity is given m the 
following table 

TABLE 61 

DISTRIBUTION OF NEWSPAPERS ACCORDING TO STATE AND PERIODICITY 
(As on December 31, 1957) 


'll Ir-i 

Oni ^ 

LijaiU "in 
I ifj* 

ti-r** 1 

't’l-. 

Ir . 

if.r 


27 

5 1 
30 I 
lb ' 
'3 
j3 ' 

2tJ 

3 ’ 

1 I 


! 1 


1 I 


Stite/Tcmtoi^ 

DaiU 1 
■“1 

Tn- 
\\eek‘ 
lies \ 

Bi- 1' 
iscck- 1 
lies 1 

Week- 

lies 

Andhra Pradesh 

1 1 


5 1 

76 

A\\am 

3 



15 

Bthar 

! 10 1 



1 50 

llomliaN 

1 117 ' 

\ 1 

8 I 

327 

KmH 

28 

1 


43 

M'i ’hji Pra 'e<h 

33 

( 

4 

67 


Fort- 

Month- 

Quar- 

Other 


night 

lies 

ter- 

peno- 

Total 

lies 


lies 

dicals 


20 

115 

6 

22 

260 

5 

7 

1 

2 

33 

18 

S3 

13 

27 

181 

143 

492 

58 

51 

1,197 

8 

116 

13 

29 

237 

13 

55 

8 

5 

1B5 

56 

269 

51 

65 

577 

17 

107 

7 

11 

308 

5 

32 

16 

52 ' 

• 123 

27 

157 

51 

t 57 ' 

' 455 

12 

47 

I 1 

7 

159 

54 

277 

23 

41 

732 

74 

: 305 

j 102 

139 

829 

i " 

311 

j 49 

45 

617 

4 

! ^ 

1 ? 

1 1 

15 

23 

12 

1 517 

J 2,351 

1 <00 

568 j 

[ 5,932 



177 


An analysis of the language-Mse distribndon of newspapers shows 
that the largest number of newspapers was published in English (20.0 
per cent), foUowcd by Hindi (19.0 per cent), Urdu (8.7 percent), Bengali 
(6 9 per cent), Guj^ati (6.3 per cent), Marathi (5,4 per cent) and Tamil 
(4.5 percent). The share of newspapers m other languages was below 
4 per cent each The following table shows the language-wise distribution 
of newspapers : 

TABLE 62 

DISTRIBUTION OF NEWSPAPERS ACCORDING TO LANGUAGE 
(As OD December SI, 1957) 


Language 




Number 

Assamese 




11 

Bengali 




415 

English 




1,188 

Gujarati 




374 

Hindi 




1,127 

Kannada 




220 

Malayalam 




139 

Marathi 




321 

Onya 




59 

Funiabi 




112 

Sanskrit 




8 

Tamil 




269 

Tclugu 




196 

Uniu 




513 

Bi-hngua! 




559 

Multt'Iingual 




345 

Other languages 




76 

Total 




5,932 


Ctrcu^afion of Newspapers* 

Out of a total of 5,932 newspapers and periodicals in 1957, full 
paruculars of circulauon were available about 2,843 An analyris of this 
data shows that the daihcs commanded a circulation of 31 49 lakhs or 27.9 
per cent of the total circulation The percentages for monthlies arid 
weeklies were 28 and 27 respectively. The table below shows the arcu- 
iation of newspapers according to penodiaty for 1956 and 1957. 

TABLE 63 

PBRlODIcaTY-WISE CIRCULATION OF NEWSPAPERS 
(1956 and 1957} 


Penodiaty 

1956 

(Revised) 

1957 1 

1956 

(Revised) 

1957 

Daily 

Weekly 

Forlnighlly ' 

Montluy 

Others 

269 

783 

251 

1,314 

433 j 

262 1 
767 1 
224 1 
1,216 1 
374 

29,08 

30,20 

7,85 

34,79 

7,60 

31.49 
30,52 

14.49 
31,62 

4.48 

Total 



3,050 1 

2,843 

1,09,52 

1,12.60 




178 


According to lai^uages, newspapers in English had the largest 
circulation, * e , 24^.97 lakhs or 22.3 per cent of the total. Next in impor- 
tance were: Hindi newspapers with a circulation of 20.25 lakhs or 18.0 
per cent Others in order of importance were Tamil {9.1 per cent) ; 
Urdu (7.0 per cent) ; Gujarati (6.5 per cent) ; Sengah (6.1 per cent) j 
Marathi (5.9 per cent) ; and Tdugu (5.0 per cent). 

The table below gives the lar^age-wdse circulation of newspapers 
of all penodidtics m cadi language : 

* TABLE 6i 


LANGUAGEAVISE CIRCUIATION* OF KEWSPAFERS 
(1956 and 1957) 


Language 

Number ofNewspapecs 

Guculadoii ^ 
thousand^ ^ \ 

1956 

(Revised) 

1957 

1956 

(Revised) 

1957 

English 

591 

570 

24,74 

24,97 

Hindi . , 

608 

553 

22120 

20,25 

Assamese 

8 

8 

37 

43 

Bengali 

224 

19S 

6,55 

6,84 

Gujarati 

203 

193 

8;27 


Kaimada 

85 

126 

2,87 

4,69 

Mala>alani 

88 

74 

4,64 

3,82 

Klaratbi . . i 

171 

155 

7,53 

6,55 

Onya 

23 

20 

71 

76 

Punjabi 

65 

55 

1,12 

94 

SanAnt 

5 

6 

2 

5 

Tamil .. 

124 

116 

11,39 

10,21 

Tdugu 

109 

107 

4,33 

5,58 

Urdu 

296 

'292 

7,79 

7,84 

Bi-hngual 

265 

215 

4,76 

10,53 

MulU-liagual 

148 

124 

1,74 

1,32 

Others 

37 

36 

49 

55 

TOTAL 

3,050 ' 

2,843 

1,09,52 

1,12,60 


J^ewsprint 

For the major part of its rcqmrcments of newsprint, India depends 
on foreign countries. The only Indian concern, the National Newsprint 
and Paper Ltd at Chandani m Madhya Pradesh, wentiuto production 
in January 1935 and has an annual mstaUed capadty of about 30,000 tons 
The rat of India s new*spnnt comes mainly from Canada, Finland, KW-av 

TABLE 65 

nuPORT OF N*EWSPRINT 


'iear 


1952-53 

1953.54 

1951-55 

193>56 

1956-57 

I957t 

IC58 (till N^e-jbe*) 


Quaouty (in cwl ) 


10.85,446 

14.15,951 

15,79.426 

15,79,928 

12,5633 

12.75,183 

10,52,411 


Value (in rupees) 


5,01,63,503 
5,28,63,916 
6,31,45,317 
6.65,77,027 
53.91.217 
5,64 19,510 
4,55,81,746 


1 S.ncr 1557, free 

agu trade are lept according to the calendar j-ear. 














179 


Fress Infomatm Bureau 

InfonnaUan regarding the policy, plansj achievements and other 
activities of the Government of India is made av^able to the Press in 
English and 12 Indian languages by the Press Information Bureau During 
1958-59, tcjrtual services were received by about 3,605 Indian newspapers 
and periodicals, photographic services by 538 and photographs in the form of 
cbonoid blocks by 700 Indian and foreign correspondents accredited to 
the Government of India at headquarters numbered 165 in 1958 

The Bureau’s Informabon Services in Hindi and Urdu are issued 
&om the head office in New Delhi and those in other Indian languages 
from the regional offices at Calcutta (Bengah), Gauhab (Assamese), Cuttack 
(Onya), Bombay (Marathi and Gujarab), Madras (Tamil and Telugu), 
Bangalore (Kannada), Emakulam (Malay^am) and JuUundiir (Punjabi). 
The Bureau’s' regionzil and branch offices are Imked with headquarters by 
teleprinter lines Distnbution offices at Lucknow, Varanasi, Patna and 
Jaipur proidde similar service to Hindi newspapers and another at Nagpur 
to Marathi newspapers 

Informabon Centres have been opened at New Delb, JuUundur, 
Snnagar, Madras, Lucknow, Patna, Hyderabad, Trivandi™, Rajkot, 
Nagpur and Jaipur as part of a scheme to open Information Centres at 
State capitals and other important places For the benefit of the villagers, 
Informabon Centres have been set up at Hirakud -and Bhakra-Nangal. ^ 


Freedom of the Press 

Arfade 19(1) of the Consbtubon guarantees “the right to freedom 
of speech and expression” to all citizens This freedom has been inter- 
preted bv the courts to include freedom of the Press. Under the Gonsb- 
tubon (First Amendment) Act of 1951, Parhament can enact legislabon 
reasonably restricting the exercise of this right “m the mterests of the 
security of the State, friendly relabons wth foreign States, pubhc order 
decency or morahty, or m relabon to contempt of court, defamabon or 
mdtement to an offence”. The words “reasonable restricbons” occurring 
in clause (2) of Arbcle 19 make such legislabon justidable. “ 

There are five mam Central laws relatmg to the Press * (i) The 
Press and Registrabon of Books Act, 1867 j («) The Workmg Journalists 
(Condibons of Service) and Miscellaneous Prorisions Act, 1955 [m) The 
Newspaper (^cc and Page) Act, 1956 ; {tv) The Dehvery of Books and 
Newspapers (Pubhc Libraries) Act^ 1954-; and (») The Parliamentary 
Proceedings (Protection of Pubheation) Act, 1956*. ^ 


The output of feature films for the year 1958 was 295 Table 66 
shovra the nunaber of feature films produced in various languages and 
ll^to exbbition during the years 1931, 1941, 1947and from 

of Film Censors certified a total of 
564 short films for pubhc exbbibon during the calendar year 1958 Thes<» 
consisted of: / - • j.ucsc 

35 mm 

(i) Short films over 2,000 ft in length ~ .. iq 

(«) Short films 2,000 ft and below in length , , 503 

16 mm 

(t) Short fi l m s above 800 ft in length . . , . 14 

(«) Short films 800 ft and below in length . 28 


Total 


•For a bncfaummaiy of these Acts, see ‘INDIA 1958', pp. J76-I78. 


564 



TABLE 66 
or feature 


180 
































181 


The following table shows the classification of Indian films certified 
during the last five years accordmg to the nature of their themes . 

TABLE 67 

thematic GLASSmCATEON OF FILMS 


Nature of theme 

1954 

1955 

1956 

1957 

1958 


204 

188 

160 

170 

150 


4 

5 

11 


28 

Fantasy 

17 

S3 

49 

23 

45 

Histoncal 


4 

4 

7 

5 

Biographical - • • 

Mythological > • 

9 

28 . 

4 

a? 

4 

39 

4 

B7 

Legendary .. , 


17 

25 

19 

17 

Devotionm . . ■ • 


1 

2 

8 

5 

Children • * 

■B 

1 

2 

4 

4 

Total 

273 

286* ; 

1 

294* 

294* 

295 


Film Institute 

The establishment of the Film Institute has been sanctioned by 
Government and it is ecpected to start functioning in 1959. Ibe Institute 
will impart training in vanous aspects of film production such as cinemato- 
graphy, sound engineermg, direction, art direcdon, make-up and costumes, 
audience research etc , besides conductmg research in these fields. It wiU 
co-ordmate the activities of film soaeties in the country. 

Production Code Bureau 

Steps have already been taken to establish the nucleus of a Production 
Code Bureau for the film industry. The Bureau is expected to start 
functioning by the middle of 1959. 


Film Finance Corporation 

The Government have also decided to set up <a FBm Fmance Corpo- 
ration with an initial capital of Rs. 20 to 25 lakhs. It is also expected 
to start functioning m 1959. 

Ckildren*s Film Socteiy 

The Society was registered under the Societies Registration Act in 
May 1955 The pnncipal aim of the Society is to undertake, aid, sponsor 
promote and co-ordmate the production, distribution and exhibition ot 
films specially suited or of special interest to dnldren and adolescents 
The Soaety is in receipt of a grant-in-aid fixim the Central Government 
for the production of films suitable for children The Society has so far 
produced four feature films “Char Dost”, “Jaldeqp”, “Scout Camp”, and 
short films “Ganga Ki Lahren^ ‘*Bachon Sc Baaten” 
and Gulab Ka Phool, besides two adaptations lirom Indian feature filmn 
Nyaya” and “Bal Ramayan”. It has also adapted 
and dubbed some British and Russian films for exhibidon to children 
production of two more films, "Panchatantra” and "Travel”, is on hand 

The Society has been asked to set up and run a National Centre of 
Entertainment Films for Children and Adolescents which will be affihated 
^ Caixrc, already set up at Brussels, under the sponsorahip ' 

of UNESCO ^ 


00*5^^?'*° one documcfllaiy feature flm in 1955, two m 1956 and 


















182 


Film Festivals 

During 1958, Indian fiims participated in a number of international 
film festivals and won riie foUowng aivards : 

Father Panchaliwon the first prize for feature films at the International 
Film Festival hdd in Vancouver (Canada). It ako won the Film Critic*s 
Award as the Best Film of the Year at the Stratford film Festival, Stratford 
(Canada). 

Do Ankhen Borah Haath received a Special Award of Silver Bear at the 
Vin International Film Festival, Berlin, for “its impressive treatment of a 
social problem ” It also tecoved a special prize from the se%en-nation 
jury of the International Catholic Cmematographic Bureau ‘*for its deep 
and poetic symbolism”. 

Mother India was one of the entries at the VIII International Film 
Festival, Karlovy Vary (Czechoslovakia). The chief actress m the film, 
Shmoati Nai^, was awarded a prize “for her stirring and pursuarivc 
performance m the leadu^ role”. 

Aparajito ^vas one of the Indian entnes at the International Film 
Festival in San Fransdsco Its director, Satyajit Ray, ^vas aivarded a 
plaque and a certificate for the best direction of &e film 

Operation Khedda^ a Films Division’s documentary filTti, -was awarded 
a cup “for its artisdc qualities” at the XIV Internationa] Competition 
of Sports Motion Pictures held in Oortma D’Ampezzo (Italy). 

Stars Man Has Madcj another documentary film produced by the 
Films Division, received a cup “for its technical and artistic qualities” at 
the Fifth International Seminar on Electromcs and Nuclear Problems, 
Rome. 

Stale Awards for Films 

State Awards for Films of high aesthetic and technical standard and 
of an educative and cultural value have been a regular annual feature since 
1954r The Awards are given separately for feature, documentary 
and children’s filmc *■ 

, Regional Committees at Bombay, Madras and Calcutta conristing 
of distinguished persons in public life as ivell as persons firom the mdustry 
qualified to judge technical standard of films make a prelimiaary selection 
fihns The final selection is made by the Central 60011 x 11111*0 
'a ^ t n sdects the documentary and children’s films for the Aivards. 
As from 1959, prehmmary selection of documentary films will be made by 
a Documentary Committee. 

Dooumentanes and Hewsreels 


♦ S« AK>cndicej for awards for films produced m 1958. 


films ^d nets-srcels are produced mainly by the Film 
Infonnknon and Broadcitins. Td 
had produced 533 newsreds and rcleiScd 39 
o^biUon. The documentaries are produced in 1 
namely ^ghsh, Hindi, Bengali, Tamil, Tdugu, GujaraU 
Ka^d^ Kashmin, Oriya, MaratH a^Mala4lam 
languages, namely, English, S 

Dnvate'^^R^'iJ^'* of documentaries is produced by the Fdmi Divisiot 

S:cTcd‘^bj^ lo *■= P^o*><®on of films o: 

suDjects. In 1958, Hsucb films nere produced by private pte 



183 


ducers, out of which 9 have been released on commercial drciuts and 
the *reinaimng will be released on mobile circmts. In addition, two 
readymade fihns from the private producers and two from the State 
Governments were purchased by Jhe Films Division. Production of one 
short cartoon film is nearmg completion. The Cartoon Films Umt has 
produced one film m animation on the ‘Metric System* and another such 
film on the ‘Second Five Year Plan’ is under production. 

Interesting events within and outside India are included in the 
newsreels Items from foreign countnes are received from various newsreel 
oi^nisations as part of an arrangement for free exchange of newreels. 
Happemngs within the country are covered by 14 cameramen of the Films 
Division. In addition, events covered by the film units of the State 
Governments are also utilised. 

Every anema is required under the terms of its licence to exhibit at 
each performance not more than 2,000 feet of films approved by the 
authorities specified in the conditions governing the grant of hcence. 
Under contracts with the anemas, the Films Division suppkes them with 
approved filitis on payment of rental not exceeding one per cent of the 
average weekly net collections. One newsreel and one documentary a 
week are released to all cinema houses alternatively Films are supphed 
free of charge to schools, colleges,, charitable institutions, hospitals, senoi- 
Government and non-profit makmg bodies, etc. 

Documentary films approved for external pubheity are supphed to 
68 Missions abroad. A speaal monthly overseas edition of newsreels is 
compiled and supphed to 24 external posts These are utilised by the 
Indian Missions tor exhibition in their premises and outside and are also 
lent to social and educational institutions and to local Indian residents 
etc. Besides, the Films Division has regular arrangements for the commerciai 
distnbution of its documentaries in many foreign countries There are 
arrangements for television of documentanes and newsreels with the B B C 
London, and NHK Television Company, Japan. Similar arrangements 
for the supply of newsreel matenal for television in the USSR, and 
Canada arc ako under consideration Selected documentanes arc ako 
being televised by the Tounst Division of the Ministry of Transnort m the 
U.S A , the UK, Europe and Austraha. 

Ftlm Censorship 


The Central Board of Film Censors was constituted in January 1951 
for certification of films for the whole of India The Board has seven 
members, includmg the Chairman, all of whom are appointed bv the 
Govmimcm of India. Tho head office of the Board £ at Bombay and 
toCTc arc regional offices at Bombay, Calcutta and Madras The Regional 
Officers are assisted m the examination of films by Advisory Panelsf «ho 
arc also appomted by ffie Government of India. They include educationists 
doctors, lawyers, sonal workers, etc. <^uu«iuonisis, 

Every film, in respect of which an applicadon for certification is 
^ Exanuning^mmittcc On the recommendations 
® Committee, the Board may refuse a certificate ofoubhe 
without cuts or modifications in respect of a 
mm iVhcrc this decision is not acceptable to an applicant, he mav ask 
ijj' ™°"™andauon of the fflm by a Revising Committee which is 
presided OVCT by the Cbmrman A fflm may also be referred to a Rwrin? 
Committee by the Chairman on his own imtiatac. The applicant for 
^.Scanon IS gnen an opportumty to put forward his point of view 
both before ffie Hamming and Revising Committees Finffliv, an appSl 
against the decision of the Board may be made to the Gm'iimem 



184 


C3cTtificatcs for unrestricted public exhibition arc called ‘‘Universal” 
certificates and bear a ‘U’ mark Films restneted to adults, i ^ , to persons 
above the age of J8 years, arc given “Adult” certificates and bear an *A* 
mark on them If any portion of a film is excised, a triangular mark is 
put at the left-hand bottom comer of tl/c certificate, and a description of the 
deleted portion is endorsed on the reverse of the certificate The decision 
of the Board in respect of each film exanuned bv it is published in the 
Cattle of India 

A directive has been issued by the Board for the guidance of members 
of the Examining and Revising Committees It contains broad pnnaples 
and detailed rules which aim at discouragmg enme, vice, iramorahty, 
indecency, inatement to disorder, violence, breach of law, (^respectao a 
foreign country or people, etc 

Between 1951 and 1958, the Board certified 6,463 Indian films and 
17,389 foreign films Dunng 1958, the Board examined 3,161 films, of 
which 90*, including fiSf foreign films, were refiiscd certification, and 2,964 
were given 'U* and 133 *A* certificates The certified films consisted of 
2,238 foreign films and 859 Indian films. The excisions irooi the fi lms 
totalled 71,758 feet. 

Import of Cinematographic Film and Equipment > 

The quantity and value of cinemStographic film — raw and /exposed— 
and equipment imported dunng the penod 1947-48 to 1958 are shown 
below: 


TABLE 68 

IMPORT OF CZNEMATOGRAPHIG FILM te EQPIFMENT 


(la lakhs) 


Year 


Raw Film 


Exposed Film 


Footage 


Value (in 
rupees) 


Footage 


Value (in 
nipeei} 


Sound re- 
cording 
equip- 
ment 
(vaule m 
rupees) 


Projec- 

tion 







185 


the Ministries of Commerce and Industry, External Affairs, Information 
and Broadcasting and the film industry. . r u - 4 . 

The table below shows the foreign exchange earnings irom the export 
of Indian films dunng the years 1954-1957 : 

TABLE 69 


FOREIGN EXCJHANGE EARNED BY INDIAN FILMS 


(7n thousands qf rupea) 


Country to which exported 


1954 


1955 


1956 


1957 


Aden . 

Afghanistan 

British East Africa 

Bntuh West Afnca 

Bntish West Indies 

Burma 

Ceylon 

Fiji 

Indonesia 

Indo-Ghina 

Iran 

Japan 

Lebanon 

Malaya . 

Maunlim 

PaJcistan 

Persian Gulf Ports 

Singapore 

Tangier 

Thailand 

United'Kingdom 

USSR 

Others 


38 

130 

146 

153 

1,209 

1,433 

163 

528 

883 

1,581 

2,606 

2,176 

178 

221 

233 

740 

5 

74 

_ 

33 

79 

1 

55 

120 

780 

125 

169 

3 

1,501 

624 

193 

277 

731 

2,383 

355 

2^ 

4 

72 

259 

61 

126 

107 


93 “ 

289 

89 

84 

1,731 

1,940 

324 

147 

333 

367 

1.405 

1,364 

2,733 

2,062 

198 

185 

660 

1,086 

25 

217 

326 

416 



127 

213 

77 

367 

223 

65 

134 

1 191 

217 

i 327 - 

284 

2,567 

2,448 

— 

143 

312 

- 395 

42 1 

190 

565 ! 

50 

356 ! 

327 


Total ' 


9,713 


11,139 


12,922 


12,817 


PUBUGAXION3 

The Publications Division rn the Ministry of Information and 
Broadcasting is responsible for the compilation, production, distribution 
and sale of popular pamphlets, books, journals, silbunu, etc , for providmg 
authentic information alMut the country*s cultural heritage, the activities 
of the Government, the progress of development programmes and places 
of tounst interest It also advises the vanous Ministnes and Departments 
of the Government on the preparation and production of publicity hterature 
relating to their specific activities' Publications are brought out m 
English, Hindi and regional languages A similar role is performed in the 
States by the Departments of Information and Publicity 

The Division pubbshes 18 magazines, includmg general and cultural 
magazmes, such as March qf India and Ajkal (in Hindi and Urdu), a children’s 
magazine Bal Bharah (m Hindi), journals devoted to commumty develop-'' 
ment (.Kunhskttra and Gram Sevak in English and Hindi) and the Plan 
( Tojana in English and Hindi), besides the programme journals of All India 
Radio 

Four journals, namely, Indian Ittformationt Bharatiya SamachoTt Metric 
Mefisures and Metric Maap Tol, were started dunng 1958 Tlie &st two 
journals arc fortmghthes in' English and Hindi respectively providing a 
condensed record of pohey announcements and main activities of the 
Government, includmg development activities m the country Story books 
for children m Hindi and regional languages are being brought out 











186 


During 1958, the Division released a total of 212 boolcs, pamphlets, 
etc, for generd, tourist and Five-Year Plan publiaty in the vanous 
languages Some of the important pubhcations were* Women of //u/ra, 
JfucUar Explosions and their Ejects (Revised), Maulana Azad — A Homage^ 
Indian Birds (Hindi), Jmaharlal Ifehru^s Speechest Volume III, Speeches of 
President Rajendra Prasadt 1952-56 (Second Senes), Community Development 
in India and India — A Souvenir, 

The Photo Unit of the Division helps in gettmg up exhibitions on the 
activities of the various Mimstnes Durmg 1958, the Unit assisted m the 
display of photographic enlargements in vanous pavihons of the Tndia 
1958' Exhibition Black-and-white coloured enlargements on the develop- 
ment activities of the Flan are also supphed to exiubitions in India and 
abroad 


ADVERTISING AND VISUAL FUBUGCTy 


While m the States adverbsmg and visual pubhdty is undertaken by 
the Departments of Information and Pubhaty, at the Centre this responsi- 
bility rests wth the Directorate of Advertismg and Visual Pubhcity in the 
Ministry of Information and Broadcasting The Directorate handles 
campaigns for all the Ministacs (excepting Railways). 

In 1958, the Directorate placed 552 display and 4,552 classified 
advertisements totallmg 39,603 insertions Major press advertising 
campaigns released dunng the year were for the Five Year Plan, the 
Metric System of Weights and Measures, Small Savings Schemes, Tourism, 
Handloom Fabrics, Handicrafts, Food and Agricultural development and 
recruitment to Defence Services The Five Year Plan pubhcity campaign 
aimed at bnngmg about greater pubbe participation through a senes of 
cuioitations to the mdividual citizen with the slogan “Hein the Plan — 
Help Youiseir*. ^ 


With the growmg accent on visual pubhcity more intensive use is 
being made of posters, broadsheets, folders brochures, handbills and 
pictonal calendars as well as out-door media, such as hoardmgs, neon signs, 
disjday pan^, advertisu^ films and emema shdes In 1 958, the Directorate 

produced 24 8 million copies of posters, folders, broadsheets and other 
^mted matOTai for extensive distribution nght down to the village level, 
ilic ^tmal covered campaigns mentioned under Press advertising and 
anti-untouchabihty campaigns 
Du-ectorate and its 7 Rraonal Units 
^ 1958 m the urban and rural are^aU over the 
19^*^Lhibmon° ‘Indian Panorama’ pavihon m the Tndia 


for ExceUence in Printing and Designing of 
mSt m have been instituted ^ These Av^riTare 

desimunp and propc^ made m the tcchmques of prmtmg and 

afmgmng and to encourage higher standards m this fidd. ^ 



CHAPTER XVI 

EGONOMIG STRUCTUBE 

India is a country -with a developing economy, rich in natural 
resources and man-power. Her resources, human as well as material, are 
capable of fuller exploitation and more uitensive utilisation. Despite an 
11 per cent nse since 1948-49, the per capita mcome remains low (Rs. 261 
in 1955-56*). The Indian economy is still predominantly agricultural; 
nearly half of the country’s national income is denved &om agriculture and 
allied activities which absorb nearly three-fourths of its working force 
(about 15 2 crores in 1956 inclusive of earning dependents). Since indepen- 
dence it has been the aim of national planning to accelerate the pace of 
industrial development and at the same time to increase productivity in 
agnculture. Net mvestment m the economy has been rising in recent years. 
Yet in 1954-55 it amounted to only 7 5 per centt of the national income. 

According to the National Sample Survey (Apnl-Septembcr 1952)** 
results, over three-fifths (61 3 per cent) of the consumer expenditure was 
on food articles In the rural areas this percentage was even higher (64 I per 
cent) Other unportant items of expenditure were clothing (7.7 per cent), 
fuel and lighting (5 5 per cent), ceremonials (5 6 per cent) and services 
(5.6 per cent). Education, conveyance, amusements, furniture and footwear 
accounted for only small factions of consumer eiqienditure 

NATIONAL AND TER CAPITA INCOMES 

The national income of India for 1955-56 was computed at Rs 9,990 
crores compared to Rs 8,650 crores in 1948-49. The per capita income in 
1955-56 was reckoned at Rs 260 8 compared to Rs. 246.9 in 1948-49. The 
national mcome in 1955-56 was 15 5 per cent higher than in 1948-49 at 
current pnees, while in real terms, that is, assuming a cpnstanl pnee level, 
the nse m national income during this penod (194^49 to 1955-56) was 21 2 
per cent. The per capita mcome in 1955-56 was nommally 5 6 per cent 
higher than m 1948-49, while, at 1948-49 prices, tiie nse m per capita irromc 
amounted to 10 8 per cent. Table 70 shoivs the national and per capita 
incomes at current and constant pnees between 1948-49 and 1956-57. The 
figures for 1956-57 are preliminary estimates and subject to revision. 


TABLE 70 




m 


The index numbers of national and per capita incomes for 1920-51, 
1955-56 and 1956-57 (preliminary), uuh 1946-49 as base, arc jjivcn bdoiv: 

TaTI\X71 

INDEX NUMBERS OF NATIONAL AND PER CAPITA INCOMES 


fn»- iafW9-I00) 


Year 

NnUonal inctnr j 

I’c* capita infftn'* 

At CUTOll 
pnea 

At I<M1M9 

p^fTJ 

At current j 
p'ie« 1 

At 

p-jca 

1950-51 

no 2 

102 3 i 

107 4 1 

■PS 

1955-56 

II5 5 

121 2 1 

105 6 1 


195S-57 (preliminary) j 

131 9 

127 3 

119 2 

mmaSM 


The following table shows the distnbution of national income by 
occupational categories 


TABLE 72 

NATIONAL INCOME BY OCCUPATIOVAL CATEGORIES 


(In ergres c/ 








1948-49 

1950.51 



Agnculture 





Agnculture, animal hiubandry 





and anoUary acUviua 

4,160 

4,780 

1 4,410 

5,550 

Foreftry 

60 


70 

eo 

Fishery 

SO 

mm 

50 

60 

Total for agnculture . . 

4,250 



5,690 

Mining, manufacturmg and email 





ent^rues 

Mining . » 

60 

70 

100 1 

110 

Faaory establishments 

550 

550 I 


890 

Small enterprises .. .. , 

870 : 

910 


970 

Total for minmg, manufacturing and smnll 





cntciprues 

1,4S0 . 

1,530 

1,850 

1,970 

Commerce, transport and communications 

i 




Commimicaubns (post, tel^raph and 





telephone} .. 

SO 1 

40 i 

50 


Railways 

170 1 

180 1 

250 1 

280 

Organised banking and uuuranoe 

50 ; 

70 i 

90 ; 

100 

Other coiomerce and tiantpoit 

1,350 

1,400 j 

1.490 1 

1,500 

Total for commerce transport and 



i 


oommunicanons *. .* 

1,600 

1,690 : 

1,880 1 

1,930 

Other Services 





Frofesaons and liberal arts .« 

• 430 


fiOi 

5g0 

Goveroraent services (adinmistratlon} 




600 

Domabc service 




150 

House property ,, 


IBSI 


480 

Total for other services . ,, 

1,340 

1,440 

1,730 

1.810 

Net domestic product at fimlor cost 

Net earned mcome from abroad . , 

8,670 

9,550 

—20 

9,990 i 

11,400 

10 

output Bt &ctar cost 





(Natlottal InooiBe) ,, 

8,650 

9,530 

9,990 

11,410 




















































189 


The percentage distribution of the national income according to 
origin is shown below : 

TABLE 73 

SOXJRC3BS OF NATIONAL INCOME 

{Percentagt qf total national titewnc) 

195051 1955-56 195057 

(prelmujiary) 

Agnculture . .. 51 3 45 4 49 8 

Mining, manufactunxig and small enterprises . . 16 1 18 5 17 3 

Commerce, banljng and insurance, trai^iort 

1 and commumcations •• 17 7 18 8 16 9 

Other services . .. . 15 1 17 3 15 9 ' 


LIVELIHOOD PATTERN 

Out of the total population of 3,566 lakhs*, according to the 1951 
Census, 2,143 lakh persons (or 60 1 percent) were dassified as 'non-carmng 
dependents*, consisting mainly of women and children who did not take 
part in procuring their own bvelihood. Of the rest, ‘earning dependents’ 
accounted for 379 lakh persons (10 6 per cent) and the balance of 1,044 
lakh persons (29 3 per cent) were self-supporting persons Of the last category 
of persons, about 710 lakhs (68 1 per cent) were ‘agncultunsts’ and 334 
(31.9 per cent) 'non-agnculturists*. 

Out of every 100 Indians (induding their dependents), 47 were mainly 
peasant-propnetors, 9 mainly tenants, 13 landless labourers, 1 a landlord or 
rentier (agricultural), while 10 were engaged m mdustnes or other non- 
agncultural production, -6 m commerce, 2 in transpon and 12 m the services 
and miscellaneous professions Table 74 shows the non-carmng dependents 
and earning dependents among the two major categories and eight sub- 
categones the hvelihood pattern 

TABLE 74 



DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION BY LIVELIHOOD PATTERN (1951) 






190 


WORKING FORCE 

Of the coimtry^s population estimated in 1950-51 at 35 93 crores, 
14 32 crorcs made up its working force The distribution of the workmg 
force among thcvanous occupations is given in the foUowmg table. 

TABI.B75 

DISTRIBUTION OF WORKING FORCE BY OCCUPATIONS (1950-51)* 



' Number 
(in /o^) 

Percentage 

Agriculture, animal husbandry and ancillary activities 

1,027 

71 8 

Forestry 

1 4 

0 2 

Fishery . ... 

6 

0 4 

Total for agnculture 

1,036 

72 4 

Mining 

8 

0 5 

Factory establuhmenb . ... 

30 

2 1 

Small enterprises 

115 


Total for muung, manuiactunDg and hand-trades . . 

153 

10 6 

Communications (post, telegraph and tdqihone) * . 

2 

12 

0 1 

Railways . . . 

Organi^ banlong and msurance 

1 

0 1 

Other commerce and transport 

95 

6 7 

Total for commerce, transport and communications 

111 

7 7 

Professions and liberal arts 

64 

4 5 

Gov emment services (admuustratiDn) . . 

39 

2 7 

Domestic service . ... 

29 

2 1 

Total for other services 

133 

9 3 

Total worUng force 

1,432 

100 0 

Population . . 

3,593 



frincipai. crops 

In 1950-51, the gross value of all agricultural commodities produced 
in the country was 4,866 crorcs, and the net value Rs 4,1 12 crores The 
values of the pnnapal crops were as follows 


TABLE 76 


VALUE OF OUTPUT OF PRINCIPAL AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES (1950-51) 


Rice 

1.199 

Wheat 

334 

Su“MTane 

305 

Groundnut 

216 


194' 

Gnn 

147 

Cneton 

113 

bmw 

591 


{In entts of rupct£\ 


Arher 

83 

Bejra 

81 

Barley 

80 

Coconut 

76 

Tobacco 

71 

Rape and mustard 

69 

Chillies 

68 


cot >X' Corresponding set of figures for a lat^ jw is 




















191 


PRINCIPAL INDUSTRIES 

The net contribution of the manufactunng industries to the national 
income was computed at Rs, 513.4 crores for 1950. It consisted mainly of 
thefoUo^g: 

NET VALUE OF OUTPUT OF MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES (1950) 

{In ernes of npea) 


Gotten) textiles 
Tea manufacturing 
Jute textiles 
Sugar 

General and electncal engineering 

Iron and steel 

Chemicals 


107 9 
69 3 
46 6 
35 8 
29 4 
26 9 
14 0 


Vegetable ojb 117 

Tobacco products 10 5 

Rubber and rubber manufacturing 10 1 

Cement 8 5 

Automobiles and coach building 7 4 

Paper and paper board 6 6 


Of the sum of Rs 65 12 crores, which represented the income from 
banlong and insurance dunng 1950, Rs 3629 crorcs were from banks, 
Rs 22 85 crorcs from insurance and the remaining Rs 5 98 crores from co- 
operative societies 

PROFESSIONS AND THE LIBERAL ARTS 
Out of Rs. 468 crorcs, which were contributed to the total national 
income in 1950-51 by the professions and hberal arts, Rs 116 crorcs were 
derived from medical and health services, Rs 69 crores from educational 
services, Rs 66 crores from the letters, arts and science, etc , Rs 32 crorcs 
from legal services, Rs 47 crorcs from religious and charitable services, and 
Rs 37 crores from samtary services, etc Of the sum of Rs 130 crores, 
which represented the income from domestic service, Rs 114 crores were 
earned by cooks, gardeners and other domestic servants and Rs. 16 crores 
by motor drivers and cleaners 

Out of the income of Rs 408 3 crores from house property in 1950-51, 
Rs 212 8 crorcs were from houses in urban areas and the remaining Rs. 
J95 5 crores from those in rural areas 

PER CAPITA OtriPUT 

In 1950-51, the net output per employed person was valued at 
Rs 670 for the whole of the national economy. The output per person m 
each sector of the economy was as follows : 


TABLE 78 

NET OUTPUT PER EMPLO/yED PERSON (1950-51) 


' 

Net 

output (in 
ernes of 
rupees) 

Number of 
persons en- 
gaged (in 
erores) 

Net output 
per empoy- 
ed peisob 
(in rt^s) 

Agn culture 

4,890 

10 36 

500" 

^ning and factory establuhioents 

620 

0 37 

1,700 

Small enterprises 

910 

1 15 

800 

Railways and commumcattoiis 

BanldOg. insurance and other commerce and 

220 

0 14 

1 

1,600 

transport 


0 97 

1,500 

Professions and the liberal arts 


0 64 

700 

Government services (administration) 


0 39 

1,100 

Domestic service 

130 

0 29 

400 

Net domestic product at fketer cost 

9,550 

14 32 

' 670 








192 


CAPITAL FOHMAUOK 

According to a pro\idonaI cstiniatc, the amount of fixed capitd 
foTtnadon in India during 1955-56 was Rs 880 crorcs or about 8 8 per cent of 
the national income. Of this, Rs. 416 crorcs tvcrc in the private sector and 
Rs 46^ crorcs in the government sector. The table below gives an analj'sis 
of the domestic fixed capital fbnnadon in India bet^scen 1948-49 and 
1955-56. 


TABLE 79 

ESnMATES OP DOMESme EXXED CAPITAL FORMATION 


(w CTET W ndes) 



194B- 

49 

19i9- 

50 

1950- 

51 

1551- 

52 





1 

Prirate {nrestment 1 

288 

332 

319 

1 

390 

370 

375 

385 ' 

416 

Comnucuon I 

91 

126 

131 

151 

154 

179 

193 

203 

Asnculwrc, tmgadon, land I 
unprm aaest, imaH cattr- ' 
pnsei etc. j 

110 

III 

no 

119 

118 

118 

114 

119 

Mining and ma miia cuTfinq' 
(Istjc scale) ' 

55 

75 1 

52 

77 

63 

60 I 

53 

68 

Tiantpon ' 

32 

■ujW 

26 

43 

33 

18 j 

23 

26 

Government {nrestzxient 

162 

EH 

201 

220 

217 

255 j 

334 

464 

Total investment 

45Q 

|534 j 

523 

610 

587 

634 1 

1 719 

880 

Total imestmcxji as peroecta^ 


1 







ofxuuiODa] moomc 

5 2 ' 

5 9 1 

5 5 

6 1 

6 0 

60 1 

|.5 

8 8 


UNEMPLOYMENT 

A precise estimate of the number of the unemployed in the country 
as a ^\holc is soil to be made Employment exchange statistics cover mainly 
urban areas, and as \ct only a portion of the unemployed actually register 
themselves with the exchanges even vshcre these exist. 

Acrording to a National Sample Survey conduacd in 1953, 7.10 per 
cent of me population of the dty of Calcutta vv ere unemployted According 
la another sample sun e\ conducted in that year, 2 59 per cent of the popula- 
tion or 7 4^ ^ cent of the labour force were unemployed m towns with a 
popiJauon of 50,000 Md above, excluding the four big cities of Calcutta, 
Bombav, Madras and Delhi The latter suney also reveal^ that 848 per 
cent of the populauonin these to\% ns ere underemployed, includuiff 3 17 
per cent ‘'severdv underemployed” The total number of the severely 
underemp'oyed in the urban areas for the country as a whole, on this basi^ 
WD'ks out at 27 4 hkhs According to the Agnculliiral Labour Enquir? 
the number of the rural unemployed in 1950-51 W'as about 28 lakhs 

the Planning Commission 
cstii^icd that early m 19 d 6 there were, roughlv speaking 53 lakh un 

-d Efplo^Ticnt Service of the Ministrv of Labour 

I nr- I i r «nplo^Tnent sed e« 

- 1 ne i r ' '' *''' ^^upational groups of applicants on 

V Ex^^hanges, !hc ‘unskiir^ services* 

° t-rgle gio>.p, coisomung about 50 per cent of the 


r f- - 



















total number, and the ‘clerical services’ group was the second largest The 
other categories, m order of magnitude, were* skilled and semi-skilled 
services, educational services (teaching), domestic services (manual work 
m public institutions such as hospitals), and industnal supervisory 
services Durmg 1953-57, the rate of increase in placements was the greatest 
in re^rd to ^e educational services group, followed by the -clerical group. 
There was practically no increase in the level of placements of skilled 
and serm-skilled personnel There was a shght fall m the number of-- 
unskilled persons placed every month On the other hand, apphcants 
belong!!^ to the industrial supervisory group were absorbed in emplovmcnt 
fairly readily, the percentage of vacancies cancelled due to non-availabihty 
of suitable apphcants m this category in 1957 was as high as 40 as against 
12 in the case of all the other categories together In the same year the 
percentage of vacancies in the skilled and scmi-skilled categories cancelled 
due to shortage was 19 The folloiving table gives the occupational distn- 
bution of apphcants on the Live Register of the Employment Exchanges as 
at the end of December 1958 * 


TABLE 80 

OCCUPATIONAL CATEGORIES AMONG AFPUCANTS ON THE UVE 
REGISTER OF THE EMPLOYMENT EXCHANGES (DECEMBER 1958) 



Number 

Percentara to 
total 

Industrial supervisory services 

8,923 

0 8 

Skilled and senu-skillcd services 

88,665 

7 5 

Clerical services 

3,08,203 

26 1 

Educational services 

56,157 1 

4 8 

Domesbe services 

43,823 

3 7 

Unskilled services 

6,20,249 

52 4 

Others 

57,279 

4 8 

Total 

11,83,299 

100 0 ~ 


A study undertaken by the Manpower Division of the Directorate of 
Employment Exchanges, Ministry of Labour and Employment, of the 
pattern of unemployment among graduates as on May 15, 1957 
showed that graduate unemployment was more widespread m West Bengal, 
U P , Bombay and Delhi than m the other States The highest incidence 
of unemployment among women graduates was m Ktrslsi About 93 per 
cent of the unemployed graduates seeking employment were men and 
about 7 per cent women 48 5 per cent of the unemployed graduates were 
BAs, 22 7 per cent B Sc s and 12 8 per cent B Com s Unemployment 
was relatively higher among the holders of commerce degrees than inong 
the holders of arts and science degrees 

PATTERN OF RURAL ECONOMY 

According to the first round of the National Sample Survey, conducted 
between October 1950 and March 1951, a rural household m India 
consisted, on an average, of 5 21 persons A little over a fourth of 
these (28 1 percent) were came s about a sixth (16.6 per cent) were 
earning dependents and more than half (55 3 per cent) non-caming 
dependents According to the 1951 census, however, the rural household 
was made up, on an aicragc, o f 4 91 persons The annual consumer cx- 

• For ihe number on the Lue Reguter at the end of each \carj please 
chapter on ‘Labour’ 






194 


penditure in the rural areas was, according to the sample survey, about 
Rs 220 per person dunng 1949-50 As against this, the per capita income 
for the country as a whole was computed at Rs 253 9 in the Final Report of 
the Pfatwnal Income Committee The average consumer expenditure per person 
was the highest m North-West India (]^ 314) and the lowest in Central 
India (Rs 198) 

Expenditure Pattern 

Two-thirds (66 3 per cent) of the expenditure of an average household 
in the rural areas, takn^ the country as a whole, was on food, about a tenth 
(9 7 per cent) on clothmg and the remaming one-fourlh (24 0 per cent) was 
distributed under other heads of expenditure The expenditure on edu- 
cation, newspapers and books was Rs 1 6 per person per year (constituting 
0 7 per cent of the per capita expenditure) and that on medical services and 
medicmes Rs 2 8 per person per year (1 27 per cent). Together, education 
and health services accounted for just over 2 per cent of the per capita ex- 
penditure Fuel and hghtmg absorbed 3 25 per cent^ ceremonials 7.21 
per cent and the re maining one-eighth of the total expenditure was on other 
amemties 

The average expenditure on clothing in the rural areas ivas about 
Rs 21 per person for the whole of India Mill-made products accounted for 
as much as 74 per cent of the expenditure on clothing, handloom products 
for 204 per cent, khaddar for 2 81 per cent and ^vooUen and other pro- 
ducts for 2 74 per cent Ej^enditure on ceremomals was Rs 15 8 per 
person per year for the whole of India, and this formed 7.2 per cent of 
the tot^ expenditure 

On the basis of the second round of the National Sample Survey, 
conducted between Apnl and June 1951, households in the rural areas 
were classified according to their monthly expenditure The proportion of 
ea^ class to the total number of householik is indicated in the foUoivmg 


TABLE 81 

PERCENTAGE Dl&'f h lbU nQN OF RURAL HOUSEHOLDS RT SIZE OF 
MONTHLY expenditure (APWLJUNE 1951) 


Expenditure per month 
(ui 


UptoRs 50 
51—100 
101—150 
151—200 
201—300 
301—400 
401.^00 
501—600 
601—800 
801—1,000 
Oier 1,000 


Total 


Bcoportion of total nuniber of 
households (fereenktge) 


20 4 
31 2 

21 1 
10 4 

9 5 
3 6 
1 5 
0 6 
1 0 
0 3 
0 4 


100 0 


May investment for the year June 1950- 

nbn^nt haifor“?fcj^f= n' ^ 27 74 per Whold, 

houses, \\eUs, tanks foe construction or improvement of 

of land 'Se V ^ third on foe "improvement 

at Rs 166 ^ ^ formation m rural areas .vas estimated 



195 


Patient of Land Owncrsinp 

According to the eighth round of tlic NaUonal Sample Survey (July 
1954-March 1955), there were about 6 5 crore households residing in the 
rural areas of India* The estimated area oivncd by rural households was 
about 31 crore acres ^vhich formed about 38 per cent of the geographical 
area and 61 per cent of the topographically usable area of India What 
remained belonged to Government, urban households, and non>household 
bodies 

A little over one-fifth, that is, about one and a half crorcs of households 
did not own any land* About a quarter of all rural households had land 
less than one acre in area A little less than half of the rural households 
had thus either no land or owned less than one acre, their share being only 
a little more than one per cent of the land owned by all rural households 
About three-fourths of all the households had either no land or less than 5 
acres and their share was about one-sixth of the area At the other end, 
about one-eighth of the households had more than 10 acres eachivith a total 
share of about two- thirds of the whole area, and about one per cent of the 
households -owned more than 40 acres each and together accounted for one- 
6fth of the area. 

The estimated average area owned, for all households, was about 
4.7 acres; if those who had no land arc excluded, the average would rise to 
about 6 acres Out of about 6 5 crores of households about one lakh house- 
holds had more than 100 acres each, but the number ownung more than 
250 acres would probably be a fciv thousands only. 

Most of the land was held under propnetary rights with only about 2 
per cent of tenure holders and 14 per cent of occupancy tenants The 
total area leased out was about 14 per cent of the area owned 

Table 82 shoivs the percentage distnbution of total land owned under 
diiferent owmership nghts in the whole of rural India and m rural areas of 
each zone. 

TABIX 82 

PATTERN OF LAND OWNERSHIP (July 195i-March 1955) 


Fercentage of total area owned by 




Tenure holders 

Permanent hentafale 
occupancy tenants 

With 
nght to 
transfer 
btle 

Without 
nght to 
transfer 
title 

With 
nght to 
transfer* 
title 

Without 
nght to 
transfer 
title 

With 
nght to 
transfer 
title 

Without 
nght to 
transfer 
title 

North Indja 

40 4 

56 7 

0 5 

0 2 



East India 

40 5 

2 5 

3 7 

0 1 

51 0 


South India 

95 2 

3 5 


0 1 

0 6 

0 1 

West India 

91 8 

6 5 


0 2 

0 1 


Central India 

92 1 

6 3 

0 01 

0 5 

0 7 

0 02 

North-West India 

M 6 

11 9 

1 1 

4 9 

10 8 

15.9 

AU India' 

71 11 

12 9 

0 9 

0 9 

10 7 

3 0 ~ 


Table 83 shows the average area owned by a rural household in India 
and in each cf the population zones Households owmng land below the 
average size (including those -with no land) are shown as a percentage of the 
total rural households Also, the area owned by such households is shown 
as a percentage of the total area under rural ov/naship 









196 


TABLE 83 

AVERAGE AREA OWNED BY A HOUSEHOLD 
(Figures in brackets bave been obtained by omittisg tbe botxs^olds owning 
no land or owning less than 0 005 acre) 


1 

< 

Average area | 

i Percentage of 

Percentage of 


1 owned (acres) j 

^ households ' 

i area owned by 

2^De 

1 owning land 

households 



below the 

1 owning land 


1 ' 

average 

t bdow the average 

North India 

i 3 5 

68 

19 

East India 

1 (3 8) 

(67) 

(21) 

3 0 

69 

16 

South India 

(3 9) 

(67) 

(22) 

3 4 

74 

13 

West India 

(4 8) 

(72) 

(20) 

7 2 

72 

IS 

Central India 

(10 4) 

(69y 

70 

(23) 

8 2 

15 

North-West India 

(10 6) ! 
7 2 

(68) 



(9 3) 1 

(72) 1 

(21) 

All India j 

4 7 
(6 I) 

73 j 

(72) 1 

16 

(21) 


Among all households in rural India 63 5 per cent did not lease out 
any land, 12 5 per cent leased out partly their ovm land and 2 per cent leased 
out fully their own land. The remaining 22 per cent of households were 
landless 

Ninety per cent of households in rural India were Operating mdiiddually 
and in some population zones the percentage of households operating indm- 
duallv W’as even more than 90 In the whole of India 10 per cent of the 
households possessed land jomtly with others, 6 per cent were operating 
purely jomuy and the rcmainmg 4 per cent were operating both jointly 
and mdividually Only 8 per cent of the total area was under joint 
management For East, South and West India the percentage for joint 
management was about 6, whereas for the remammg zones it was about 10 

PatUm of Land Holding 

In the second round of the National Sample Survev, households in 
the rural areas ^vc^c abo classified accordmg to the size of land under their 
occupation (Sec table below ) Here a holding docs not refer only to 
land actually owned, it stands for the net area of land owned and land 
leased in minui land leased out 

TABLE 84 

PAl:iJiRN OF LAND HOLDING (April-Jime 1951) 


Slit ofholding (acres) ' 

1 

1 

I Percentage of total 

1 number of households 
i for which full record 
' were available 

[ 1 

1 Percentage of total 
cropped area 

1 manned bv the 
! households lor which 
' full Tcoords were 

1 available 

Nd 

0 01 — 2 ■^9 

2 50 — 4 99 

5 00 — 7 49 

7 30 — 9 ^ 

10 01 — 14 99 

1j 00 ^ 24 99 
25 00 ard above 

1 5 9 

49 2 

' 14 3 

9 5 
^ 8 

6 I 

4 9 

5 3 1 

7 6 

11 1 

1 11 4 

7 2 

13 I 

16 2 

1 33 4 









197 


Table 85 shows the pattern of land holding according to the eighth 
round of the National Sample Survey (July 1954>March 1955). 

TABLE 85 

PATTERN OF LAND HOU>ING (July ig54.Marcli 1955) 


Size cf holding (acres) 

Percentage of total 
number of households 

Percentage of total 
area operated 

Nil i 

6 3 


0 01 — 2 49 ; 

48 5 

5 9 

2 50 — 4 99 ! 

15 9 

10 9 

5 00 ~ 7 49 1 

9 3 

10 5 

7 50 — 9 99 ' 

5 6 

9 1 

10 00 — 14 99 ; 

5 5 

12 6 

15 00 — 24 99 

4 9 

17 7 

25 00 and above { 

4 0 

1 33 3 

Total 

100 0 

1 100 0 


According to the eighth round of NSS, the average si 2 e of a household 
operational holding was 5 34 acres in the whole of rural India, and it lay 
between 8 and 10 acres m West India, Central India and North-West 
India, and between 3^ and 3| acres m North India, East Inia and 
South India. More than 65 per cent of households m each of the population 
zones had household operational holdings below the average size and thdr 
total share of the entire operated area ranged from 14 to 21 per cent 


Consumer Expenditure Patterm tn Vtlhges^ Towns and Cities 

According to the third round of the National Sample Survey, the con- 
sumption expenditure per person per month m the villages (induing the 
imputed value of supplies obtained m kmd) was Rs 24 22 during Au^st- 
November 1951, m the towns it was Rs 31 55 and the average for Calcutta 
Bombay, Madras and Delhi Rs 54 82 The average expenditure pe^ 
person for the country as a whole was Rs 25 70 per month. 

The patterns of consumption in the villages, towns and cities were 
also different While about 40 per cent of the expenditure in the viUaEcs 
was on foodgrains, the proportion for the towns was 22 per cent and for the 
cities 1 1 per cent The expenditure on all food items was 66 per cent of the 
Wtal <=tpcnditure m the vUages compared to 53 per cent m die townj and 
46 per cent in the aties The actual expenditure on food in absolute terms 
was, however, higher in the cities than in the towns and villages The pv 
pendrture on fud and lighting was the lowest in the villages ahd the high«t 
in the cities, although their proportion to the total expenditure wasmoreir 
less the same lor all the three categories 

I proportion of expenditure on clothing to total expenditure was 

^ categories, wher^ 

the c\^nditurc on clothing, in absolute terms, was the high^tin the abes 
♦ expen Jture on the rest of the items, particularly on education 
services, land and taxes, shoued a gradual nse as one proceeded from the 
villages through the towns to the cities The pattern of expenditure Sc 
countr> as a whole approximates to that in the villages beSuse of the pre- 
ponderance of villages in the countiy ^ 

. consumption m rural areas wa« 

tmned .n kind and 37 Mr cent purchased in cash’^ The proportion ofthe part 
Ob aincd in kind was high for aruclcs such as foodgrains, pulses. nSk Sd 
radkprodu^and fuel and hght, and \aried bchicen 61 per cem aud78 

percent The proportion for al]fooditcmstakcntogcthcrwasabout56pcr 




198 


cent Against this, only 1 1 per cent of the total value of consumption in 
the urban areas ^\’as obtained m kind, while the remaining 89 per cent was 
against cash Here again, the proportions for non-cash consumption were 
relativdy high in the case of foodgrains, pulses, milk and milk products and 
fuel and hghtmg For the country as a 'whole, dunng August-No\*cmber 
1951, nearly 40 per cent of the \alue of consumption was obtained m kmd 

PRICES 

The mo\ ement of prices an India over recent \ ears may be seen from 
the following table which shows the index numbers of wholesale prices 
compiled by the office of the Economic Ad\’iser, hlinistry of Commerce and 
Industry, Go^ emment of India (revised series; base’ 1952-53=100) The 
index for January 1959 for all commodities stood at 112 3. 

TABLE 86 

INDEX NUMBERS OF ^VHOLESALE PRICES (Base: I952-53>=100} 


Year 

Food 

articles 

Liquor 

and 

tobacco 

Fuel, 

poiver. 

light 

and 

lubri- 

cants 

Indus- 

trial 

raw 

mater- 

ials 


General 

index 

Inter- 

mediate 

Fini- 

shed 

Comb- 

ined 

1953-54 

106 7 

98 7 

99 2 

109 7 

98 5 

99 0 

98 9 

104 6 

1954-55 

94 6 

90 6 

97 1 

101 9 

97 4 

101 1 

■ETl 

97 5 

1955-56 

86 6 

81 0 

95 2 

99 0 


99 6 

99 7 

92.5 

1956-57 

102 2 

84 3 

‘ 104 3 

116 0 1 

110 9 

103 6 

106 3 

105 3 

1957-58 

106 4 

94 0 1 113 6 

116 3 

107 3 

108 2 

103 1 

108.4 

Dec 1956 

103 1 

87 7 

106 8 

119 4 1 

113.9 

108 0 : 

108 8 

108 I 

Dec 1957 

104 0 i 

97 7 

114 9 

115 4 

105 7 

108 2 

107 9 

107 1 

Mar 1958 


94 9 

114.5 

111 3 

106 8 

107 7 

107 6 

105 4 

June 1958 

113 4 

92 1 

115 G 

115 S 

109 9 

107 7 

107 9 

111 7 

Sept 1958 

121.2 

90 9 

116 0 

119 0 

111 6 

108 5 1 

103 9 

116 5 

Dec 1958 

113 3 

964 

115.1 

112 5 

110 3 

108 0 : 

108.3 

111.4 

1 


The Go\'emmcnt continued their efforts during 1957-58 to achieve price 
stabilitv', which is vital to the success of the Plan Fiscal and credit policies 
were fu^er reinforced to restrain demand, particularly of a speculative 
character, from traders WHle the import policj' has been in general 
restrictive, spedal arrangements have been made to obtain from abroad 
supphes of Ibodgrams Arrangements v\erc also made to distribute the 
imported grams through a large number of iair price shops all over the 
countrv Sizeable quantities of imports under P. L 480 and some quantities 
on concessional terms from Canada and under a five-year agreement with 
Burma were received The quantity of foodgrains thus in^orted in 1957 
vvas 35 8 lakh tons as compared to 14.2 lakh tons m 1956. Various other 
meases sut* as the formation of zones for wheat and rice, fixation of 
maximum pn^ procurement in selected areas, issue of identity cards and 
registrauon of wholesalers in some States were undertaken in order to hold 
in check pnees of foodgrains and to prevent their hoardmg. Because of the 
? situation, the import of foodgrains have to be kept down to 

'ncreasc m marietable surpluses, curbs on 
consumption and suitable controls on distribution 
demcnB ofthefoodpobev. A sche&e for the introduc- 
non os state trading m foodgnims is now under consideration 














199 


In the case of certain industrial raw materials like cotton and oilseeds, 
price restramt was also brought about by the Forward Markets Commission. 
In the case of jute goods, however, the problem was one of arrestmg the 
decline m prices and action in this behalf was taken by the trade body, 
namely, the Indian Jute Mills Assoaation, which advised its member mills, 
towards the end of February 1958, not to sell their goods below certain 
specified minimum pnces 

Consumer Prices* 

As a consequence of the nsc in pnces dunng the penod, the all-India 
working class consumer pncemdex rose by 5 3 per cent between December 
1957 and December 1958 The following table shows the workmg class 
consumer pnce indices between 1950-5 1 and 1957-58 as well as for the months 
of December 1957 and March, June, September and December 1958. 

TABLE 87 

WORKING CLASS CONSUMER PRICE INDICES 
(Year 1949-=100} 


Year 

All-India 

Bombay 

Calcutta 

Delhi 

Madras 

1950-51 


101 

103 

101 

102 

101 

1951-52 


104 

108 


108 

104 

1952-53 


104 

112 


107 

103 

1953-54 


106 

118 

99 

107 

109 

1954-55 


99 

117 

94 

103 

104 

1955-56 


96 


93 


100 

1956-57 


107 

116 

102 

112 

113 

1957-58 


112 

122 


112 

117 

December 

1957 

113 

125 

107 

no 

! 121 

March 

1958 

no 

124 

104 

108 

119 

June 

1958 

116 

129 

107 

in 

121 

September 

1958 

121 

132 

116 

117 

127 

December 

1958 

119t 

130 

no 

118 

^ 133 


•’ne term "cost ofln-ing mdcx’* y.^as rtxcntly replaced bv the tom 
index m conformity isith mtcmauonil nomenclature. 
fPromional 


"consumer pnoe 











CHAPTER XVII 


VLANSISQ 


In Im pioneenng Planjud Economy Jot India (1934), M Visvesya- 

raya advocated the necessity for planning and also laid doivn a ten-year 
programme of planned economic development for the nhole of India In 
1938 a National Pianrung Committee was set up by the Indian National 
Congress to mquire mto the possibilities of planned economic development 
in India and to suggest practicable schemes for this purpose The 
Cbminittee issued a questionnaire and, at the end of World War II, produced 
a senes of studies on the subject 

In June 1941, a number of Reconstruction Connmttecs were set up 
by the Government of India to deal with various aspects of post-war re* 
construcboD, and a Department of Planmng and Devdopment was created 
m July 1944 Tlie Provmcial Governments w ere also instructed in the same 
year to prepare their plans for posMvar development 

Among the non-oflRcial plans formulated dunn^ World War II were . 
(i) the Bombay Plan, drafted by a group of economists and mdustnalists, 
mostly from Bombay, (u) the People’s Plan, drafted by M N Roy on 
bdialf of the Post-War Reconstruction Committee of the Indian Federation 
of Labour, and {mj the Gandhian Plan, drafted by S N Agarwal 

After mdcperidencc, the Plannmg Commission ivas set up by the 
Govemmentoflndiain March 1950 to prepare apian for the “most effective 
and balanced util6ation of the country’s resources ” In July 1950, the 
Commission was called upon to prepare a six-year plan for the econonuc 
development of the country, which was later incorporated in the Colombo 
Plan In July 195-1, the Planning Commission issued a draft outhne of 
the First Five-Year Plan covering the penod Apnl 1951 to March 1956 for 
the “widest possible public discussion” In December 1952, the final version 
of India’s Fust Five-Year Plan was submitted to Parliament 


Objectwes 

The central objecUve of planmng was defined as initiating “a process 
of development which ^vlll raise hvmg standards and open out to the people 
new opportunities for a ndier and more vaned life” Economic planmng 
has to be vieivcd as “an mtcgral part of a wider process aiming not merely 
at the development of resources m a narrow techiucal sense, but at the 
development of human faculties and the buildmg up of an institutional 
framework adequate to the needs and aspirations of the people” 

The long-term objeebve is to double the per capita income and to 
raise comsumpbon standards by a little over 70 per cent by 1977 * During 
the First Plan period between 1951 and 1956, the nabonal income \vas to 
go up from about Rs 9,000 crores to about Rs 10,000 crores, a nse of about 
II per cent It was visualised that the rate of saving as a proporbon of the 
nabonal income would have to go up from 5 per cent in 1950-51 to 6| per 
cent in 1955-56 , 1 1 per cent m 1960-6 1 and 20 per cent m 1967-68 


riRST FIVE-YEAR PLAN 
The First Han be ing essenbally one of preparabon or lajing the 


It was later calculated that the national income 
P/lr Maf and the pt^pita income doubled bj 1973-74 {Seeond Fite^Tear 

mratment coeffiaent, it was assumed m this lata- model, would 

1365-06, 16 per cent b> 1970-71 and a numimum level of 17 per cent by 1975-7d ’ 



201 


foundation for more rapid development in the future, its targets of investment 
and of increases in production, were modest compared with, what “sviU have 
to be achieved within the next twenty years or so Initially, an outlay of 
Rs 2,069 crorcs was proposed, it was later raised to Rs 2,356 crores The 
distnbuuon of expenditure proposed for the development programme in 
the public sector dunng the First Plan period is shown in table 90. 

Agncultural development, along wth imgation and the generation 
of electric power, had the highest pnonty during the First Plan penod The 
development of transport and commumcations also received high prionty. 
This inevitably limited the investment by public authonties in industries 
Industnal expansion in the First Plan penod was, therefore, left largely to 
pnvatc initiative and resources 

The distnbution of actual outlay by major heads dunng the First Plan 
period, was as folloivs 

TABLE 88 

ACTUAL OUTLAY (FIRST PLAN) DISTRDBtmON BY MAJOR HEADS 




202 


increaseoflO 8 per cent from Rs 246toRs 274W, whilcpercapitaconsump- 
tion mcreased by about 8 per cent The rate of investment in the economy 
as a percentage of national mcome is estimated to have risen from about 
5 per cent in 1950-51 to over 7 per cent in the last year of the Plan 

The targets and achievements in different sectors of the economy- 
are shown in the foUoiving table. 

TABLE 89 

TARGETS AND ACHIEVEMENTS UNDER HRST PLAN* 
















203 


SECOND flVE-YEAR PLAN 
» » 

Objectives 

The Second Five-Year Plan was submitted to Parliament on May 
15, 1956 The mam, objectives are (i) an increase of 25 per cent in the 
national income , (u) rapid mdustnahsation with particular emphasis on the 
development of basic and heavy mdustnes ; (m) a large eitpansion of em- 
ployment opportiimties , and (h») a reduction of mequalities in income and 
wealth and a more even distnbution of economic power. 

OutU^ and Allocations 

The proposed development outlay of the Central and State Govern- 
ments amounted to Rs 4,800 crores as compared with the target of Rs 2,356 
crores and actual outlay of Rs 1,960 crores under the First Plan (The 
%ures are exclusive of the contnbutioiis m cash or kmd made by the people 
towards the execution of local development works ) The distnbution of the 
outlay by major heads of development is shown m the table below. 

TABLE 90 


DISTRIBUTION OF PLAN OUTLAY BY MAJOR HEADS OF 
DEVELOPMENT 



First Five- Year Plan 

I Second Five-Year 

Percentage 




1 

an 

mcrease ^ 


Total 

Provision 

(Rs 

Per cent 

Total 

provision 

(Rs 

Percent 

a) 


crores) 


crores) 



Agricnltnre tuid Commu- 
n^ty Development 

1 

2 

3 , 

4 

5 

357 

15 1 

568 

11 8 

59 1 

(a) Agnoilture 

241 

10 2 

341 

7 1 


Agncultural pro- 




grauunts 

197 

8 3 

170 

3 S 


Animal Husbatidiy 

22 

1 0 

56 

1 1 


Forests 

10 

0 4 

47 

I 0 


Fishenes 

4 

0 2 

12 

n 


Co-opcratioii 

7 

0 3 

47 



Miscellaneous 

1 


9 

0 2 


(£) National Extension and 






Comniunity'Projects . . ! 

90 

3 8 

200 

4 1 


(e) OAcr Programmes 

26 

1 1 

27 

0 6 


Village Panchayats . 
Local De\clopinent 

11 

1 ^ ^ 

I 12 

0 3 


Works 

15 

0 6 

15 

0 3 


Irrigation and Power 

661 

28 1 


19 0 

38 1 

Imgauon 

Power 

Flood control and other pro- 

384 

260 

16 3 

1 11 1 

i 

381 

427 

7 9 

8 9 


jects, in\eshgations etc 

17 

0 7 

103 

2 2 


Indnstzy and Mimsig 

179 

76 1 

890 

18 5 

~397 2 ^ 

Large and Medium 


\ 




Industnes 

148 

6 3 

617 

12 9 

1.5 

4 1 


Mineral development 

I 

__ 1 

73 


Village and smml Industnes 

30 

.3 1 

200 














204 


TABLE 90 {cenid) 



Fust Five-Year 

Flan 

Second Five-Year 
Plan 

Percentage 
mcreaseof 
(3) oier 
?!) 


Total ) 

pitnision 1 

1 

Per 1 

cent 1 

I 

Total 
pioi ision 
(Rs. 

croics) 

Per 

cent 


1 1 

2 1 

3 ^ 

4 

5 

Transport and CommnnL 

1 

1 




cations 

557 1 

23 6 1 

1,385 

28 9 

148 7 

Rannays 

268 

11 4 

900 

18 8 


Roads 

130 

5 5 

246 

5.1 


Road Transport 

12 

0 5 

1 17 

i 0 4 


Port and Harbouis 

34 

I 4 

45 

0 9 


Shipping 

26 

I 1 

' 48 

1 1 0 


Inland \Vatcr Transport 

— 

— , 

3 1 

i 0 1 


Cnil Air Tran^xirt 

24 

: 1 0 i 

1 

0 9 


Other Transport 

3 

0 1 j 

7 1 

0 1 


Posts and Tdegiapbs 

50 

2 2 i 

63 1 

1 3 


Other Communications . 

5 

0 2 

4 

0 1 


Broadcasting 

5 

I 0 2 

9 

0 2 


Social Services 

533 

1 ^ ^ 

945 

19 7 

77 3 

Education 

164 

7 0 

307 

6 4 


Health 

140 

5 9 

274 

5 7 


Housing 

49 

2 1 

120 

2 5 


WeUare of Backward Classes 

32 

1 3 

91 

1 9 


Soaal Welfare 

5 

0 2 

29 

0 6 


Labour and Labour 'Wdfare 

7 

0 3 

29 

0 6 


RebabilitaUon 

136 

S 8 

90 

1 9 


Special schemes relating to 






educated unemployment 

— 


1 5 

0 I 


Miscetlaneona 

69 

j 3 0 

1 99 

2 1 

1 43 5* 

TOTAL 

2,356 

1 100 0 

) 4,800 

i 100 0 

) 


The distribution of the outlay under major beads of development 
is shotvn for the Centre and the States separately in the follo^^nng table. 


TABLE 91 

DBTRIBiraON OF PLAN OtTELAY 


{/n mm of rupees) 



Centre 

States* 

Total 

Invest- 
ment out- 
lay 

Current 

outlay 

Agnculture and Community 
Development 

65 

502 

568+ 

338 

230 

Imgabon and Power 

105 

808 

913 

863 

50 

Industry and Mining 

747 ; 

143 

890 , 

790 

100 

Transport and Commiimcattoiis ' 

1.203 

182 

' 1,385 ! 

1,335 

50 

Soaal Serv^ices . ^ 

396 

549 

1 945 

455 

4S0 

Miscdlaneous 

43 

56 

j 99 

19 i 

80 

TOTAL 

j 2,559 

1 2,240 

1 4,800t 

3,800 1 

1,000 


Of the to^ outlay, roughly Rs 3,800 crones represent investment^ 
that IS, expenditure on the buildmg up of productive assets, and Rs- 


•Indues Andaman and Nicobar Islands, NEFA and Pondicherry. 

* jbe unaUocaied pomon of Rs 1 crore Car NES and Gotzmumity Projects in 













205 


1,000 crores represent what may broadly be called current developmental 
expenditure 

The likely level of private investment over the Second Plan penod 
was placed at Rs 2,400 crores distnbuted as follows 

TABLE 92 


PRIVATE INVESTMENT (SECOND PLAN) 

(Th crores of rupees) 

Organised industry and mining 

575 

Plantations, electriaty undcrtalungs and transport other than the railways 

125 

Construction 

1,000 

Agriculture, and vills^e and small-scale industries 

300 

Stocks 

400 


In the First Plan, the total investment in the economy was estimated 
roughly at about Rs 3,100 crores, the ratio of public to pnvate investment 
being 50 50 In the Second Plan, the target of investment m the two sectors 
combined i5 Rs 6,200 crores, the ratio of pubhc to pnvate investment bemg 
61 39 

Target!, 

The targets of production and development, in physical terms, in 
respect of some important items are shown below. 

TABLE 93 


MAIN TARGETS OF PRODUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT 



Umt 

1950-51 

1955-56 

1960-61 

Percentage 
mcreasc 
m 1960-61 






over 






1955-56 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

Agncnltore* 





■ 

Foodgrains 

Lakh tons 

540** 

650 

750 

15 

Cotton 

Lakh bales 

29 

42 

55 


Sugarcane (raw gur) 

Lakh tons 

56 

58 

71 

22 

Oilseeds 

Lakh tons 

51 

55 

70 

27 

Jute 

X.akh bales 

33 

40 

50 

Tea 

Lakh pounds 

6,130 

6,440 

7,000 


Nattonal Extension 


Blocks 

Number 

Nil 

500 

' 3,800 


Commnnity Develop* 



obU 

ment Blocks 

Number 

Nil 

622 

1,120 

_ 

Irrigation and Power 


oU 

Area imgated 

El^tricily (installed 

Lakh acres 

510 

670 

880 

31 

capaci^) 

Minerals 

Lakh kw 

23 

I 34 

69 

103 

Iron Ore 

Coalf 

Lakh tons 

Lakh tons 

30 

323 

43 

380 

125 

600 

191 

58 

Large-scale Indnstries 



Finished steel 

Lakh tons 

11 

13 

43 
25 0 

231 

233 

Aluminium I 

Thousand tons 

3 7 

7 5 


production dunng the Second Plan are giveJ the 


•♦Relates to the year 19«.50 tF»Suna relate to calendar 


years 



206 


TABLE 93 


1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

Automobiles 

Kumher 

16,500 

25,000 

57,000 

128 

Railis'ay Locomotives 

Number 

3 

175 

400 

129 

Cement 

Lakh tons 

27 

43 

130 

202 

FerUliseis* 

(fl) Nitrogenous (m 
terms of anmm 
sulphate) 

Thousand mns 

46 

380 

1,450 

282 

(£) ^osphatic (m 
terms of super 
phosphate) 

Thousand tons 

55 

120 

720 

500 

Cotton tcji^es 

lakh yards 

46,180 

: 68,500 

85,000 

24 

Sugar 

TjLTi tons 

11 

17 

23 

35 

Faper and Paper Board 

Thousand tons 

! 114 

200 

350 

75 

Transport and Com* 
mnni cations 
(a) Railw’ays 

Fasengertram 

miles 


930 

1,080 

1,240 

' 15 

Freight earned 

T^lTi tons 

910 

1,200 

1,810 

51 

(&) Roa^ 

National Highways 

Thousand miles 

12.3 ! 

12 9 

13 8 

7 

Suriaced Rc»ds . 

Thousand miles 1 

97 

107 

125 

17 

(c) Shippmg 

Coastal and adja- 
cent (inclunve 
of tankers) 

Lakbgrt. 

2 2 

3 2 

4 3 

34 

Overseas (mdtmve 
of tramp tonnage) 
(<f) Post Offices . . 

Lakh grt 

1 7 

2 8 

4 7 i 

68 

Thousand 

36 

55 

75 

36 

Education and Health 
Elementary/Basic Schools 


2 23 

2.93 

3 50 

19 

Teachers in piunarj , 
middle, seconds^ 
schools 



10 3 

13 4 

30 

Medical insbtutiom . . 

Thousand 


10 0 

12 6 

26 


Since the above targets of agriculttitaLi production tvere conadered 
inadequate for the increasing demand for food and raiv materials 

ccpected to be generated by the implementation of the Second Plan, these 
targets were subsequently revised uptvards (as sbotvn beicnv), although the 
allocation of resources remained unchanged 

TABLE 


revised targets of agricultdkai. production 

(Second Flan) 



Esttmated 
produc* 
uon m 
1955-56 
(as given 
m Sta^ 
Pier) 

1 

Onginal 
targets 
of pro- 
duction 
m Second 
Plan 

Revised 
targets 
for Sec- 
ond Plan 

Percentage increase 
during Second Plan 

Original 

Revised 

Foodgrams (laVh tons) 

Cotton (lakh bales) 

Jute (laUi bales) 

Sugarcane (gur) (lakh tons! * 
Oilseeds (likh tons) 

Other crops 

All commodiues I 

630 

42 

f 40 

58 

55 

' 

750 

55 

50 

! 71 

70 

803 

63 

55 

78 

I 76 

1 

23 8 

54 8 

37 5 

34 5 

38 2 

22 4 

27 1 




















207 


Changes tn Economic Structure 

The expected increases in national income, mvestment, domestic 
savings and, consumption expenditure at the end of" the Second Plan 
period, as compared to the position in 1950-51 and in 1955-56, are indicated 
below .* 

TABLE 95 

NATIONAL INCOME, INVESTMENT, SAVINGS AND CONSUMPTION 


{In crores qf rupees at 1952-53 pnees) 



1950-51 

1955-56 

1960-61 

FercenU^ increase 
during 





1951-56 

1956-61 

Net National Product 
Industrial Origin 

Agriculture and Allied Putsmts 

4,450 

5,230 

6,170 

18 

18 

Mmmg 

80 

95 


19 

58 

Factory Establishments 

590 

840 


43 

64 

Small Enterprises 

740 

840 


14 1 

30 

Construction 

180 

220 

295 

22 

34 

Commerce, Transport and 
Communications 

1,650 

1,875 

2,300 

1 

14 

23 

Professions and Services mclud- 
ing Government Administra- 
tion 

1,420 


2,100 

1 

20 

23 

Total National Product 
(National Income) 

9,110 

10,800 

13,480 

18 

25 

Per Capita Income (rupees) 

253 

281 

331 , 

11 

18 

Investment, Savings and 
Gonsiimption 

Net Investment 

448 

790 

1,440 



Net Inflow of Foreign 

Resources 

—7 

34 

1 

130 ' 



Net Domestic Savmgs 

455 

756 

1,310 , 



Consumption Expenditure 
(National Income lea 

Net Domestic Savings) 

8,655 

10,044 

12,170 



Investment as percentage of 
National Income 

4 94 

7 31 

10 6B 



Domestic Savmgs as percent^e 
ofNabonal Income 

4 98 


9 7 


- 


The full-time employment likely to be created over the Second Plan 
penod m sectors other than agnculture was estimated at 80 TakLg Besides, 
schemes of development such as irrigation and land reclamation ivould 
reduce under-empIoymcnt and also absorb new persons to some esrtent. 
Altogether the Plan envisaged a suflSaent increase m the demand for labour 
to match the mcrease m the labour force estimated at 100 lakhs durmg the 
Second Plan period t 

Financial Resources 

Table 96 mdicates how the Second Plan was to be financed. 


• The figures in thij table arc as given m Second Ftre^Tear Plan (May 1955) 

■TTbc revised target of full-time additional cmpIojTnent m non-agncultural sectors is 
65 laUjs Together with additional employment m ^nculturc estamg t r d at 15 IMttf 
this Mould not be enough to absorb the ^M'th of labour force durmg the Plan penodL ^ 








208 


TABLE 96 

ESTIMATES OF RESOURCES (SECOND PLAN) 

{ftt crores of TUptts) 


Snrplos front current revenues 
(c) At 1955^6 rates of taxation 
\b) AddiUonal taxabon 

350*) 

450 J 

600 

Borrowings from the pubhc 

(a) Market loans 
(2>) Small savings 

700'! 

500 J 

1,200 

Other hudgetasy sources 

(a) Railways’ contnbution to the development programme 
(A) Provident funds and other deposit beads 

1501 

250j 

400 

Resources to be raised externally 


800 

Deficit financing 


1,200 

Gap to be covered by additional measures to raise domestic 
resources 


400 



4,800 


In amvmg at the figure of Rs 450 crores under additional taxation, 
the recommendations of the Taxation Enqinry Commission were taken into 
account and it was assumed that steps would be taken to implement UieSe 
as early as possible after the commencement of the Plan The Central 
and Statfe Governments were expected to raise this amount between them 
m equal amounts 

The estimate of Rs 700 crores of borrowing from the pubhc assumed 
that the annual receipts from this source would, on an average, be con- 
siderably higher than they had been so far Similarly there will have to 
be a substantial stepping up of small savings collections 

The railways were expected to contnbute Rs 150 crores to their Rs 
900“crore programme, both through selective adjustments m rates and 
freights and the growth of traffic In addition, the railways have to make, 
in the Flan penod, a contribution of Rs 225 crores for current depreciation, 
which has not been mcluded in the Plan 

The Plan also took credit for Rs 800 crores of external resources In 
the First Plan penod, external finance amountmg to Rs 298 crores was 
made available to India for programmes of development in the public sector, 
of which less than Rs 200 crores ivas utilised The balance of about 
Rs lOO crores was thus available for utilisation in the Second Plan period 
In addition, arrangements had been made for credits from the USSR and 
UK. Governments and British bankers for a net amount of Rs 76 crores* 
to finance the steel projects As for the pnvate sector, Rs 22 crores were 
already available as the undisbursed portion of the loans made by the 
'World Bank to the Indian Iron and Steel Company, the Tata Hydro- 
clcclnc Company and the Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation 
of India 

Rs |;200 crores represent the outside limit of defiat financing Against 
mis must be set olf the drawing down of sterling balances by Rs 200 crores 
Ihc remaining Rs 1,000 crores represent the net addition to currency in 
response to the Goiemment’s budgetary operations, uhich may be expcc- 
c a so to risuit in a secondary expansion of bank credit Any adverse re- 
percussions of defiat finanang will have to be dealt ivith by an appropriate 

•After allowing Tor repayment of Rs 20 crorej of the USSR»s credit of Rs 63 crores 


209 


central banking policy, through judidous recourse to quantitative and 
quaUtadvc controb on credit induding variation in reservej ratios, by 
the building up of adequate stocks of essential goods lik^fbod and 
dothing, dSrough taxes on excess profits, windfall gains, and^on ^cess 
consumption and physical controls induding allocations and^ rationing 
of sceircc resources, 

InvsstmvH in the Prwafs Sector 

The investment requirements of the private sector were estimated at 
Rs. 2,400 crorcs Of this, a sum of Rs. 720 crores was proposed to be utilised 
for mdustrial development (exdudmg mining, electnaty generation and 
distnbutioa, plantations and small-scale industries), Ks, 570 crores on new 
investments and Rs. 150 crores on replacements and modernisation. 
This, however, includes Rs 55 crorcs provided for the National Industrial 
Devdopment Corporation’s programme. Against the balance of Rs. 665 
crorcs, tile resources of the private sector were estimated at Rs. 620 cr ores iw 
foUofws: 


TABLE 97 

ESTIMATES OF RESOURCES FOR PRIVATE SECTOR (SECOND PLAN) 

{In crores qf rupees) 



1951-36 

1956-61 ^ 

Loaaa ftom Industrial Finance Gorporation and State Finance 
Gorportions and Industrial Credit and Investment 

CoriiorationB 

Ducct and mdircct loans from Governments, Central and State 
participation 

Fpragn capi^, mdudmg suppliers* credit ] ’ 

New issues 

IB 

26 

42.i5 

40 

150 

40 

20 

100 

BO 

300 

^tcmal resources (Irom new investment and replaccmcnb) 

Other sources such as advances ftom Tnanngittg agents, re- 

fimd^ etc. 

61-64 

BO 

TOTAL 

340 

620 





^ pe external payments position of the country has been under strain 
^ce the begmning of the Second Plan,* owing nSLly to T rise m LnSS 
both on pnvate and pubhc account. The inoreasc m Lporte durinn95^ 
‘ ° wS of development projects nnd» tlm 

thefoUowmg other factors were^also responsible* 
fi) incTMBed defence expendrture, (u) larger imports of foodm^r fml 
increased requirements of raw matenals, components etc hr,Tl,#.r 

priL ®To 

of^jecte in the Seec^d^ 

as a result of higher prices abroad of developmental ^SiriS. / 






210 


Core Projects 

To meet the situation, the provision of foreign o^change for various 
uses is being regulated according to a strict order of priority. Besides making 
foreign exchange available for the maintenance of the economy and for 
defence, the first prionty is b«ng accorded to the execution of the ‘core’ 
of the Plan, that is, sted plants, coal, raiUrays, ports and specified poi\er 
projects i Prionty is also bemg given to projects hich ha\ c progressed su^ 
stantially to^\’a^ds completion Outside these, no nciv commitments in 
terms of foreign exchange arc being undertaken except on deferred 
payment terms or on the basis of new foreign investment or loans It \\’as 
calculated to^va^ds the end of 1957 that fixsh external assistance of the order 
of Rs 700 crores ^^ouId he needed on Government and private account 
to see through the ‘core’ projects as ^\dl as the projects in an ad\'anccd stage 
of completion 

Reappraisal 

The substantial rise in commodity prices since the Second Flan 'tvcnl 
into operation would have meant a marked stepping up of the outlay on the 
Plan m finandal terms Hoise\cr, in view of the strain on the resources, 
both external and domestic, imposed by the Plan, the National Development 
Council at its meeting hdd in May 1958 decided that the ceiling for total 
outlay, m financial terms, should remain unaltered at Rs 4,800 crores 
Further, on a reassessment of resources, it was decided to spht the Plan outlay 
into two parts. Part A of the Flan, involving an outlay of Rs 4,500 crores, 
“would represent the levd of outlay up to which, on the present assess- 
ment of rwources, comnutments might be entered into”. It ^rauld com- 
prise, besides projects and programmes directly related to increase in agri- 
cultural production, ‘core projects’ and projects \\hich had reached an ad- 
vance stage The remaining schemes -ttere to be included in Part B of the 
Plan, which iviU be undcruiken to the extent resources became available. But 
even the implementation of Part A would require an mtenrified efibrt to 
mobilise resources by additional taxation and loans 

The revised Plan allocations corresponding to this final ceiling are as 
follows : 


TABLE 98 

REVISED ALLOCATION OF OtITLAY (SECOND FLAN) 

(In ams of TV^>ets) 



Revised 
allocation 
(to acoom- 
modate 
; hi^eroost 
of some pro- 
ject ivithin 
the ceiline 
ofRs 4,800 
crores) 

Percent^ of total 
outlay j 

Fart A 
of Plan 

Percen- 
tage of 
total 
outlay 

Original 

Revised 

^nnculture and Community 
^evidopmait 

Imgation and Fovxr 

Village and small Industries .. 
Industnes and Minerals 
Transport and Communica- 
tions ^ 

Social Sermces 

Miscdlaneooa ' 

568 

860 

200 1 
«BQ 

1,345 
, 863 

84 

11 8 

19.0 

4 2 

14 4 

28 9 

19 7 

2.0 

11 8 

17 9 

4 2 

18 4 

28 0 

18 Q 

1 7 

510 

820 

160 

790 

1,340 

810 

70 

11 3 

18 2 

3.6 

17 5 

29 8 

18 0 

1.6 

Total '' 

1 4.800 1 100 0 1 100 0 - 

4j>nn 1 

1 inn n 

■(HanJng ^ ^ 

tf the See(!rJ-Fiv6.T«tr Pier 







211 


The distribution of Plan outlay corresponding to the total of 
Rs. 4,500 crores (Part A of Plan) was : Centre (including Union temtories) 
Rs 2,512 crores. States Rs. 1,988 crores. 


Outlay During First Three Tears 

The financing of Plan outlay at the Centre over the first three years 
• is shown bdow. 


TABLE 99 


OinXAY AT THE CENTRE (SECOND FLAN}»1956<^9 


{In ernes of rupeu) 



1956.57 

(Actual] 

1957-58 

(Expec- 

ted) 

1958-59 

Total for 
the fint 
three years 
(1956-59) 

Plan onflay 

341 6 

500 0 

582 0 

1,423 6 

Domeslic bndgetary resoforces 

279 1 

137 2 

319 9 

736 2 

External assistance 

37 8 

95 0 

325 0 

457 8 

Total -resonrcea Indndlag external , 
assistance 

316 9 

232 2 

644 9 

1 1,194 0 

Central assistance for State 

157 1 

189 4 ! 

<221 3 

1 567 8 

Resources after allowing for Central 
assistance 

159 8 

42 8 

423 

1 626*2 

Budgetary defidt 

181 8 

457 2 

158 4 

797 4 


The corresponding picture of Plan outlay for the States during the 
first three years is given below ® 


TABLE 100 

OCHAY AT THE STATES (SECOND PLAN]— 195 



1956-57 

(Actual) 

1957-58 

(Expected) 

1958-59 
(Expected) j 

Total 

(1956-59) 

Plan outlay 

297 2 

345 9 j 

399 4 

1,042 5 

States* own normal resources 

82 8 

118 9 1 

188 6 

390 3 

Central assistance . , | 

157 1 

189 4 

221 3 

567 8 

Aggregate resources j 

239 9 

308 3 

409 9 

958 1 

Budgetary gap | 

57 3 

37 6 

—10 5 

844 


Resources During ffext Two Tears' 


Table 101 gy« Mtimatcs of resources for die Centre and the States 
for the penods 19o6-59 and -1959.61 and the total avaUablc resourc^ 
on present csumation, during the Second Plan period. 

Thus, on present cxpcctauons, the Centre and the States are likely to be 
able to provide in the neict tivo years resources of the order of Rs. 1 
crores, tvhereas the requirements for reaching a total of Rs. 4,500 crores 






















213 


over the two yeairc amount to Rs. 2,034 crores. There is thus a shortfall of 
lU. 280 crores — ^Rs 198 crores at the Centre and Rs 82 crores in the States 
After considering the question of the gap in resources in relation to 
wider issues affecting the economy, the National Development Council 
decided in November 1958 (i) that the State should take over the wholesale 
trade in foodgrains; (u) that emphasis should be placed on the organisa- 
tion of village co-operatives in all States to shoulder the task of rebuilding the 
rural economy; (iii) that determmed efforts should be made both at the 
Centre and in the States to achieve economies in construction costs and to 
raise additional resources ; and, finally, (iv) that the conclusion reached 
m May 1958 to work up to a level of outlay of Rs 4,500 crores dunng the 
Second Plan period should be maintained. 

Dejidi Financing 

In the above estimate of resources, the limit for deficit finandng for 
the next two years has been taken at Rs 100 crores a year. With prices at 
the present level and with the growing pressures for increases in wages and 
salanes to compensate for the rise in cost of living, there is not much 
scope for further deficit financing. Hitherto, the inflationary impact of 
deficit financmg has been ofiset by the large balance of payments deficits 
financed by a ^aft on foreign exchange resources Since that "cushion” is 
no longer available, it is now felt that the less deficit financing there is, the 
better. It is only if food production increases substantially and food pnees 
renter a distinctly downward trend that defidt financing on any signifi- 
cant scale could be contemplated. 

The balance of payments deficit over the Flan period was expected to 
be of the order of Rs. 2,000 crores. Roughly, one-h^ of this deficit has 
been incurred so far. With sterling balances hdd by the Reserve Bank at 
about Rs. 200 crores, it is necessary to avoid drawing them down any fur- 
ther. For bndgmg the estimated foreign exchange gap for the period 
October to March 1959, external assistance totalling 8 350 milhon was 
promised. Further assistance required for the rest of the Plan period 
is estimated at $ 650 million. By the end of the Second Plan period, the 
country will also have substantial debt liabihties abroad In estimating 
the aforesaid foreign exchaure gap it was assumed that no food imports 
over and above the ‘normaP purchases and existing commitments would 
be undertaken unless covered 1^ separate aid programmes 



CHAPTER XVIII 
COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT 


The Community Development Programme^ ^vhich aims at the indivi- 
dual and collective ■welfare of India’s vast rural population, "was laundied 
on October 2, 1952, m 55 selected projects, each project covenng an area of 
about 500 sq miles wth about 300 villages and a population of about 2 
lakhs It IS a programme of aided self-help to be planned and implemented 
by the villagers ^emselves, Govenunent offering only techmeal guidance 
and finanaal assistance Its objectives are to develop self-rehance in the 
individual and imtiative m the commumty and to make the '\d21ages 
self-govemmg umts Comm^ty thinkmg and collective action are 
encouraged through people’s institutions the panchayats, co-opera- 
tive soaeties, Vikas Mandals, ete 

Agnculture receives the highest priority in the progiammei being 
the mamstay of about seventy per cent of the rural population Amoiig 
other activities included are provision of better 

m health and sanitation, better housing, wider education, measures for 
women’s and children’s welfare and development of cottage and small-scale 
mdustnes, etc 

The programme is implemented in units of blocks, each compridng 
generally 100 villages "^vith an area of 150 sq miles and a population ranging 
betiveen sixty and seventy tiiousand Until recently, the programme ^vas 
being earned out m three distinct phases Imtially, the blnrlr used to be 
ivorkcd for three years under a supplementary programme of somewhat 
less comprehensive character called the National Extension Service This 
was followed by another period of three years of intensive development. 
Finally, the block reached the post-intensive stage 

In April 1958, this ivas substituted by a two-stage pattern On 
completion of a penod of mtensive development lasting for five years, a 
block enters into the second stage Hnn'ng which development vurk is conti- 
nued with relatively reduced budget provision for another five years 
B^ore It enters ^e first stage every block undergoes a “pre-extension phase” 
of one year during which the programme is exdusrvdy con&cd to agricul- 
tural development Simple norms like keepmg the village dean or dig- 
ging compost pits are laid doivn for a test of the self-rdiance of the people 
before the programme is taken up in an area 

Q programme covered 2,405 blocks compns- 

mg 3,02.947 viUages Md nearly 16 5 crores of people (or about 56 per cent 
of India s rural population) Under the revised pattern of implementation, 
the entire country ivill be covered by Octob^ 1963 


Resources 


HMANCE 


UTces 

by a quabfyinir scale of ISiT sebemes are conditioned 



215 


etc necessary funds arc advanced by the Central Government to State 
Governments m the shape of loans. The Central Government bear 
half of the expenditure on personnel employed by the States m blocks. 

Peoples Contnhution 

People’s contribution till the end of September 1958 amounted to 
Rs 65 98 crores fornung nearly 64 per cent of the total Government expen- 
diture which ^vas Rs 103.4 crores 

Expenditure under the Plans 

Expenditure incurred durmg the First Plan penod was Rs 52 4 crores 
against an allotment of Rs. 96,5 crores. The spiU-over of Rs. 44 1 crores 
has been earned over to the Second Plan penod, the allotment for which is 
Rs. 200 crores. 

Expenditure in Blocks 

Funds are allotted block-wise in the State Plans, the block b^g the 
basic unit of development A schematic budget, however, exists for the 
blocks to serve as nucleus finance which is supplemented by funds from de- 
velopment departments The provision for a stage I block is Rs 12 lakhs for 
a penod of five years. The stage II block, with a similar duration of five 
years, has an location of Rs 5 lakhs The amount available for the pre- 
extension period for agricultural development is Rs 18,000. 

External Assistance 

The programme received 14 24 milli on dollars from the Government 
of the USA under a T C M Operational Agreement for import of 
eqmpment Assistance &om the Ford Foundation was also received for 
traimng of project personnel. 

organisahon 


At the Centre 

The Ministry of Commumty Development (now Ministry of Gommu- 
mly Development and Co-operation) is in overall charge of the pro- 
gramme. Matters of basic policy, however, go before the Central Commit- 
tee consisting of members of the Planning Commission and the Ministers for 
Food and Agriculture and Community Development and Co-operation with 
the Prime Minister as Chairman Co-ordmation with the allied Mi^tnes 
IS secured through special committees 

In the States 

The execution of the programme is the responsibihty of the State 
Governments which act through the State Development Committees consist- 
ing of the Chief Minister (Chairman), the Ministers of Development 
Departments and the Development Commissioner as Secretary The exe- 
cutive head of the programme is the Development Commissioner who 
co-ordinates activities of all development departments The Collector as 
Chairman of the District Planning and Development Committee is respon- 
sible for the implementation of the schemes in the district 

At the Block 

At the block level, the Block Development Officer is assisted by a team 
of eight Extension Officers, ivho arc experts in agriculture, co-operation 
ammal husbandry, cottage industry, etc * 

The Gram Sevak at the village level acts as a multi-purpose extension 
agent having ten villages in his chai^. 



216 


ExUiuion OrganisafioR 

The role of the Extension Organisation at the block and village level 
is two-fold It carries proved kno\vledge or research of practical utility to 
the villagers and also makes available to them facihties — ^financial or other- 
^.^c_pro\^ded by the Government It transmits the problems of die vil- 
lagers back to research organisations for speaal study and solution It is 
also charged wth the task of promoting usefiil corporate life through 
co-operatives, better farming societies, Mahila Alandals, etc. 

Cormmxiy Orgamsaixm 

The responsibility for planning and implementation rests with 
peoplc*s organisations The elected panchayat collects basic data, ascertains 
needs, assesses resources and fixes pnorities of schemes for the village. 
Voluntary organisations hkc the youth club, farmers* forum and Mahila 
Mandal supplement the activities of the panchayat. The primary co- 
operative soacty and the^ village school arc the two other institutions 
dcahng with the economic and educational aspects of nifal life 

Block Development Committee 

The Block Development Committee (above the primary unit) is com- 
posed of the representatives of the pancfaayats, co-operative societies, a 
few progressive farmers, social workers, women M P s and M L.A s repre- 
senting the area. By convention, the Committee enjoys and exercises 
necessary powers and is responsible for planning, imtiation, sancuon 
and cxccuuon of development schemes for the area concerned Action 
has already been initiated in some States to set up a statutory organisation 
railed the “Block Panchayat Samiti** in accordance ivith the recommenda- 
tion of the study team of the Committee on Plan Projects which examined 
the operation of the Community Development Programme and suggested 
improvements 


TRAINING 


^ There arc 75 Extension Training Centres-wherc the Gram Sevaks 
receive two >cars* training. More than 33,000 Gram Sevaks were trained 
b> the end of December 1958 Gram Sevikas arc tramed in 27 training 
centres which have Home ^onomics Wings attached to them There arc 
1 4 training centres for Social Education Oiganiscrs and 6 for Block Develop- 
ment Ofiicers Mokhya Scvikas (Women Social Education Organisers) 
receive training in 10 centres 

The Block Lc^ cl Extension OHicers for Co-operation arc trained 
in 0 nnd those for industnes in 11 training centres For the training 
of liealili personnel, there arc 3 training centres. There arc, in 
addition, over CG institutions for the traimng of auxiliary nurse-midwives, 
9 centres for training of lady health visitors and 6 others for trainmg 
of mldwivct 


A Ccnmil Institute on Community Doclopmcnt was set up in 1958 at 
Muaioonc for providing training, particularly m group methods and the 
^ciological aspects of Uie programme, to ley personnel— both admiimira- 
n\* ana technical. 


to tmln non^ffidalt 



217 


ACHIEVEMENTS 

The following arc the achievements in some of the aspects covered by 
the programme up to September 30, 1958* 


Agnadiure 

Improved seeds distributed (maunds) 

Chemical fertilisers distributed (maunds) 
Improved implements supphed (No ) 

Agncultural demonstrations hdd (No.) 

Area under green manunng (acres) 

Compost pits dug (No ) 

Antmal Husbandry 

Improved animals supplied (No ) 

Improved birds supphed (No ) 

Health and Sanitation 
Rural latrines in use (No ) 

Drams constructed (Yds ) 

Smokeless chullahs constructed (No ) 

Village lanes paved (sq. yds ) . , 

DnnMng water wells constructed (No.) 

Drinking water wells renovated (No.) 

Soaal Education 

Adult htcracy centres lunctiomng (No.) 

Adults made hterate (No ) 

Reading rooms opened (No ) 

Information centres at Block Hd. Qjiarters (No ) 
Community centres started (No ) . 

Community Organisations 

Youth & Farmers* dubs started (No.) 

Mahila Samitis started (No ) • • 

Gram Sahayaks trained (No.) 

Communications 

KLachcha roads constructed (miles) . . 

Existing kachcba roads improved (miles) 

No of culverts constructed (No ) 

Co-operation 

Co-operative SodeUcs established (No.) 
Mexnbers enrolled (No.) 


1.57.98.000 

3.90.39.000 

11.75.000 

48.51.000 

41.50.000 

50.15.000 


45,600 

6,27,000 


5.07.000 
1,86,15,000 

1,97,800 

84,50,000 

1.29.000 

1.95.000 


87,000 

29,68,000 

45,100 

1,669 

1,03,000 


84,700 

19,100 

10,14,000 


78,600 

91,400 

51,100 


1,27,125 
87.8 lakhs 


Tribal Bloch i 

Forty-three midtlj[iurpc»e Tribal Blocks have been established with 
speam prpgrMunes for mtennve devdopment of sdected tribal areas. Ae 
expenditure of about Rs 27 lakhs has been provided for each block for 5 
ysars. ^ 



CHAPTER XIX 


FINANCE 


FUBUG FINANCE 


In India there is no single authority for raising and disbnr^ng 
public funds Under the ConstttutioE, the poi\cr to raise funds has been 
divided between die Centre and die States The sources of revenue for 
the Centre and the States are, by and large, mutually exclusive. There is 
thus more dian one budget and more Aan one public treasury in the 
country. 

The Constitution pro^des that (i) no tax can be levied or collected 
except by the authonty of law, {«) no expenditure can be mcuired from 
pubhc fimds except m the manner providra in the Constitudon, and (in) 
the executive auAoriUes must spend public money only in the manner 
sanctioned by Parhament 

AH receipts and disbursements of the Union Government are kept in 
two separate parts, namdy, the Consolidated Fund and the Pubhc Account, 
All revenues received, loans raised and money received in repayment of 
loans by the Union Government go together to form the Consolidated Fund 
of India No money, except to the extent to tvhich an expenditure is 
charged ^ upon the Consolidated Fund in accordance mth the Constitution, 
can be wiUidraivn from this Fund except imder the authority of an Act 
of Parhament All other receipts and disbursements, such as deposits, 
service funds, remittances, etc , go mto the Pubhc Account which is not 
subject to the vote of Parhament. To meet unforeseen needs, not 
provided m the Annual Appropnation Act^ a Contingency Fund of 
India has also been established under Article 267 of the Constitution 
The Constitution also prowdes for the establishment of a Gonsoh- 
dated Fund and a Pubhc Account for each State* Similarly the States 
also have Gontmgency Funds to meet unforeseen needs pending le^advc 
authorisation 

The Railways, the largest nationalised industry, have thear own funds 
and accounts and their budget is presented separately to Parliament. The 
appropriations and disbursements under the Railway Budget are subject to 
the same forms of parliamentary and audit control as the other appro- 
priations and disbursements. 


AUocalton of Revenue 

The m^n sources of Central revenue are customs duties, excise 
duties IcNUcd by the Umon Government, the corporation and income tax^ 
(excluding taxes on agricultural income), estate and succession duty on 
non-agncultural assets and property and the eanungs of the Mints The 
revenue from the two new taxes— wealth tax and expenditure tax— also 
accniK to the Centre Besides, the railways and posts and tdeirratihs 
contnbute to the general revenue of the Centre. ^ 

The mam heads of revenue in the States are the taxes and duties 
levied by the State Governments, the share of taxes levied by the Central 
Govcmmenl, avil adnums^ation, dvil works and State unditakinas and 
^nts rccaved from the Centre Land revenue, sales m 
dunes, registration and stamp duties and shares of income^ aS cSSS 
cvcise duties consUtute about 84 ncr cent or ^entrai 

than half of the total revenue receipts of the States Prop^ mes"a^d 
oc™ and tcnninnl nrc the ma,mlay of ScS finanfr' 



219 


Second Finance Commission 

The second Finance Commission set up under Article 280 of the Consti- 
tution, in June 1956, subnutted its final Report in September 1957. The 
recommendations of the Commission provide for a devolution of about 
Rs 140 crores per year ( not including the proceeds of the tax on railway 
fares amounting to Rs. 15 crores in a ^ year) as against an average sum 
of Rs 93 crores, reedved by the States under the first Finance Commission’s 
recommendations 

The table bdow shows what each State may expect to receive under 
the recommendations taken together in each of the five years beginnmg on 
April 1, 1957. The figures shown j^amst shares of taxes are only estimates 
and mdicate the order of the sums to be received, the actuals will vary from 
year to year, 

TABLE 102 

STATES* SHARE OF TAXES AND CENTRAL GRANTS 


(In Rj cmes) 


State 

Shares of 
of taxes 

Grant 

under 

Article 

273* 

Grant 

under 

substan- 

tivc por^ 

Uon of 

Article 

275(1) 

Total 

Taxon 

Railway 

fares 

Andhra Pradesh 


8 50 



4 00 

mmm 

I 31 

Assam 


2 75 

0 45 

4 05 

7 25 

0 40 

Bihar 


10 00 

0 43 

3 80 

14 23 

1 39 

Bombay 


14 75 




14 75 

2 41 

Kerala 


3 75 


1 75 

5 SO 

0 27 

Madhya Traded 


7 00 


3 00 

10 00 

1 23 

Madras 


8 25 



8 25 

0 96 

Mysore 


5 50 



11 50 

0 66 

Onssa 


4 00 

0 09 

3 35 

7 44 

0 26 

Punjab 


4 25 


2 25 

6 SO 

1 20 

Rajasthan 

. 

4 25 



2 50 

6 75 

1 00 

Uttar Pradesh 


16 25 




16 25 

2 78 

West Bengal 


9 50 1 

0 91 

3 85 

14 26 

0 94 

Jammu & Kashmir 


1 25 

— 


4.25 


TOTAL 

100 00 

1 88* 

37 55 

1 139 43 

14 81 


Annual Financial Statement or Budget 


n es^mate of all anticipated revenue and expenditure of the Union 
financml year is laid before Parliament towards 
the end of Febru^ every year This is known as the “Annual Financial 
Statement or the Budget ” Apart from giving estimates of revenue 
and eapenditure, this statement also contains(0a review of the finanaal 


State Sbe 1 h“e"JS*mdm|M^^ 31 ^§ 6 ToLt** “ •>“= 

me copay of tea of ™ 

“f «> Idl- tader dame 
kS. MUgJtd A"- State of Bomhaj. 

to Kcnda and Madras wU i 

cci\e sums of the order of Ra R* t may rc- 

Ihrcc }-cars ^ ^ ^ respectively for all the 

















220 


position of the preceding year, (ii) proposals for fresh taxation, if additional 
money is needed to cover a defiat, and («i) proposals for financing 
capitd expenditure. 

The presentation of the Annual Financial Statement is foUotved by 
a general ducussion in both Houses of Parliament The estimates of expen- 
diture, other than that chaiged, are then placed before the House of the 
People m the form of "Demands ,for Grants ” Ordinarily, a separate 
Demand is made for each Ministry AH drawal of money from the Consoli- 
dated Fund 15 thus authorised by an Appropnation Act passed by Parlia- 
ment every year The tax proposals of the Budget are embodied in another 
Bill which 18 passed as tiie “Finance Act” of the year. Estimates of receipts 
and expenditure are similarly presented by State Governments to their 
legislatures before the beginmng of financial^year in Apnl and legislative 
sanction for financial expenditure is secured through similar procedure. 

Audit 

The Constitution requires that the audit authorities, who areindepen<- 
dent of the executive, should scrutinise the expenditure of the Central and 
State Governments and ensure that this is stnctly within the limits of their 
competence It iurther enjoins that an account of the expenditure of each 
Government should be approved by its le^ature* 

budget EST1M4IES (ISSS-^O) 

The budget estimates ibr 1959*60, as presented in the Lok Babha on 
-February 28, 1959, placed expenditure at Rs 839,18 crores as- compared to 
Rs 788 15 crores (revised) in 1958-59 and revenue (at existing level of 
taxation) at Rs 757.51 crores as compared to Rs 728 20 crores (revised) in 
the previous year, leaving a defiat of 3Rs 81,67 crores New taxation 
proposals were expected to yield an additional revenue of Rs 23 35 crores 
This would reduce the defiat on revenue account to Rs 58,32 crores which 
was proposed to be left imcovered 

Apart from readjustments of rates and concessions in some of the 
existing excise duties the new tax proposals mduded the abolition of the 
wealth tax on compames and the excess dividend tax as part of the scheme 
of simplification of company taxation. It was proposed to combme m the 
income-^ and super tax rates of compames the net madence of the current 
toes on income, excess dividends and wealth Important chaises proposed 
in the existing rates and concessions of excise duties were * (a) increase la 


imperial gallon .to 80 naye paise and increase in the duty on low-spced 
diesel oil from Rs 40 per ton to Rs. 50 per ton; (b) increase from 6 pies to 6 
nayc paise per sq. yard in the duty on art silk fabrics and testnetioa of 
the exemption to the products of the first four looms instead of mne* fc) 
m^ase of 60 per c»t in Ac e^tive rates of duty on rayon yam and smple 
*1^ mcr^e from 30 to 40 percent ad valorem In the duty on motor 
duty on vegetable products from Rs. 7 
per cwt. toRs. 8 . 75 per cwt. with corresponding adjustment in the exemotiom 

aU power-dnven units in respect of the duty on vegetable non4^^ 
W w'S-*"?’®'' °I only tie first W tons ofprodSi • 

additi^al duty of 70 nayc paise in replacement of the sales tSw Other 

t^taofiobacro H was also proposed foreadjust the rate of cxdac dtitiei 

thne, the effective 

S"o^^^?J;?S^®i?24nayepa5epcrlb. 

uucy on unexposed cinema films, expected to yield Rs. 5 lakhs a year, was 




221 


1950-59 

1958-59 

1959-60 

Budget j 

Revised 

Budget 


1 , 79,99 
2 , 73,62 


proposed for the benefit of the Film Finance Corporation which tvas bang 

set budget of the Central Govemment for 

1959*60 on revenue and capital accounts. 

TABLE 103 

revenue and EXPENDirURE OF THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA 
(ON REVENUE ACCOUNT) 

(/h laUis of rupea) 


Kovenae 

Customs 

UuOfi excise duties 
Corporation tax 

Taxes on income | 

Estate duty 

Taxes On wealth I 

Taxes on railway lates 

Expenditure tax 

Gift tax 

Opium 

Interest 

Civil administration 
Ounrcncy and mint 
Civil works 

Other murces of rc\cnoc 
Posts & Telegraphs (net 
contribution) 

Ratinnjs (net contribution) 
Dfi/«rf-^:iorc of income tax 
payable to States 
Unftfff— ^harc of estate duty 
payable to States 
/)?/«/— ^hirc of taxes on Rail- 
way fares payable to 
Stales 

Total Resenue 


DeCat on Rc\ enue Account 



UnMmdltnrr 
ihrcct d'-mi 


Direct demands on rcrcrue 
ImpitJon 
Hcbl ten-tees 
Cival adr'iniiifalier 
CuTTacy ard nmi 
C4%nl iirtU 

lV‘'r*vx! I'-n-'c^s 
On'r.l I *'•1 a~d praE»* t»< 
a'* i'S*3»n 
rt*«-'*d'?ar\ ift— t 

Tc‘sl i 'i.'r 


c~ R*nr“* - 


7 , 67,99 

7 , 28,20 

! 7 , 57,51 

j -i- 23 , 35 * 

20,02 j 

1 25,95 1 

i 58,32 

94,45 

99,63 ! 

1 , 01,63 

13 

IG 1 

16 

40.00 

42,05 1 

574 "' 

2 , 00 . 4 1 

l>'i 7,72 , 

24 ! 2,73 

B .50 

9.14 

9/-3 

10.71 

IP .32 

19,33 

ro 2 i 

evi 


2 ,TC ,14 

2 "“'-7 



4 e,ct 

4 V 2 


15 ;: 1 

25 ;:- 

7 e»“ j 

7 .'“MS 

f 













222 

TABLE 104 

CAPITAL BUDGET OF THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA 


{in lakh of rupees) 


Account 

Budget 

Revised j 

Budget 

1957-58 

1958-59 

1958-59 1 

1959-60 


New Loans 

15'YeaT Annuity Ceibficatcs 
Interstate scttlemoit 
Special floating loan 
Net receipts from : 

Treasury Bills ! 

Treasury Savings Deposit 
Certificates 

Post Office Savings Bank 
Deposits 

12-Year National Plan 
Savings Certificates 
Cumulative Tune Deposits 
Post Office Gash Ger^cates 
National Savmgs Gertificatei 
Defence Savings Certificates 
National Plan Certificates- 
Other unfiinrled^debr 



revenue reserve and 
development funds 
Telephone development 

P & T renewals reserve 
fund 

Other miscellaneous 
reserve funds 

Appropriation for reduedon or 
avoidance of debt 
Deposits under Income Tax 
Act (Net) 

Discount Su^Dg Fund (Net) 
Payment by Reserve Bank for 
Rupee Com 
Other loan repayments 
Other deposits and advances 
(Net) 

Refa^ment of loans by States 















223 


TABLE 104— 

, (/b tahh (if rupees) 



Account 

I957-5B 

Budget 

1958-59 

Revised 

1958-59 

Budget 

1959-60 

Mint 

28 

46 

49 

49 

Ddbi Capital outlay 
Multi-purpose nver 

3,85 

6,45 

6,95 

7,39 

scnemcs 

3,28 

4,22 

3,42 

3,23 

Elcctnaty ichemes 

30 

54 

39 

85 

Civil works 

14,17 

15,28 

17,28 

18,38 

Commutation of pensions 

—5 

—33 

—38 

—36 

Sterling pensions 

—9,35 

—24,89 

—38,22 

—3,59 

Defence capital outlay 
Schemes of Government 

22,93 

27,00 

27,90 

32,74 

trading 

46,56 

2,91 

29,03 

32,04 

Development grants 
Compensation to displaced 

7,45 

8,69 

9,20 

12,93 

persons 

Dan^karanya Development 

12,61 

13,33 

6,06 

1 

4,55 

Scheme 

5 

3,00 

1 1.24 

5,72 

Shipping, tankers, etc 
Transfer of development 
assistance from the Govt 

41 

58 

78 

of US A 

12,04 

78,47 

18,78 

57,39 

Other ivorks 

71 

1,50 

1,14 

1,49 

Other civil heads 

22 

35 

29 

41 

Discharge of permanent debt 
Discharge of special Boating 

74,68 

28,15 

29,09 

127,04 

debt 

4,80 

3,43 

3,37 

3,43 

Inter-State settlement 

1,45 

12 

12 

Advances to State Governments 

275,98 

279,32 

300,41 

291,08 

206,36 

Other loans and advances 

58,33 

55,60 

115,91 

Total 

846,80 

857,97 

863,08 

1105,44 

81,88 

Surplus on Capital Account 

32,68 

58,26 


BUDGETARY POSITION 

'^blcB 105 to 110 (pages 234 to 240) show the budgetary position 
of the Central Gkivemment and Tables 111 to 115 (pages 241 to 246) show 
the combined budgetary position of the Centre and the States, on both 
revenue and capital accounts, since 1951-52. 

FUBUG DEBT 

The intoest-beanng obbgationB of the Government of India conti- 
nued to 3,676 crores at the end of 1956-57 to Rs 4,216 crorcs 

These ii^ude pubhc debt,^th internal and external, unfunded debt and 
interest-beanng deposits The internal obligations aggregated Rs 3 
crores at the end on956-57 and Rs. 4,005 Irorcs a/SS on95W8 
and stood at Rs. 4,593 crores at the end of March 1959, 





(/a iaths qf 


224 




TABLE 105— (cwi/A) 


225 




(1951-52 to 1950-59) 


226 


o* _ 

^cQocn-4<»o wom to Ntoene^— to toco too mm s 

CB OT o r^cq^p4 m «o m BO ^ r» m o o e<i r-i ® o 

Cf 

coW 

ss 

AM^9>oic<r mm —< >^c<4 — t* 

S 

r- 

eo^ 

;?w 

gg. 

Pj^eo i-^^ca oo o c^-h irj^oa 
tor^r^^C4t« wr^cj® -ip' — J*eTio‘«?«5eoeo-t*’i!-'J«“meom*'r 
g-^eogcsf *-^<0 — 

§. 

tn 

ei 

to 

tX 

to 

I52S!2S:22''2'£2 meomcowmeo-o-mmSf^***®*^^ 

— oto -J^co^; iC oT^-^opTey-^'® cseoeo — o' 

-^e«i — ~-eM 

e>t 

*■1 

o 

o 

«o 

O) 


m 

1955-56 

S{2!£CJS^SE2'^®!i o^'tj-ococncMofitflCJcooo 

c» to ;o — T<< CO 

gS5§2'*' =^”§8 *" cr«“cfm“-."w'c»^-.wwrCm" 

o 

o 

m 

1954-55 

r^co to C4 CT c< lO v>*^coc>fvc4^KO'e*oitocMCor^ 

O ' 
-p 

o 

s 

A 

in 

tn 

2ffi2iS3^f 5;o-f*«omoo — cioot^r^ooop- 

c^o 03^c^if>_---^i-< eo^to_cs_e^ m ■-’ o t^m Ooocoeomc9o<->o0 , 

22®§12*'* ^ coeoej'-ToftD'^ wtiTgr 

1 

to 

o 

tn 

“? 

1 

O-^Qo^-^^^toeo^ op-oooto t—c3e'r«eo— tMOCJeoo i 
e>omcoocj,Nt3C>r^c^ 

e<f— lOeTeoci PtcvO^ ct cattreo* i 

rs, 

to 

o' 

o 

CO 

e4 

«o 

er^Ofloc4 tn mcsN '^Ptoor'-t-.a® ^otsina 

S -H ® «» to c-i® oi — BO i^rt o^eo toSomSmSs 

^ejggmeo — citi^^ cm ] -^uTt-T 

sf 

CO 

Hoad of Expcndliore 

= i 1 1 1 

*B S *Se*>2‘‘*5 *** S-‘ ••« 

3| i 1 r 1 ■ ■ ■ 1 

18852 c-g^J Pb g.«w 

m 1 ui 11 f r 5 

Edap*s a&o^,d5 oaC£S§ e«0 Ea ■3 

illli^NsIligll il* sflppltl 

|aQQoS3Bao|<e5^d^3||g4=||||gi 

o„- N«^*tfJ<o(Ctae;o-c4«.i.tf,J 

0 

1 

1 

3 
' ^ 

1 

e 

H O 

! 

IQ 


« 2* 
S .S 

£<=■5 

£ g o 


-|oS 

i V7S 


3 S El" 

;« 

}« 

i|i 

c V o. 

si-i 

5e| 

01 

5 ” I 
« ^ 
CiQ-S. 

*; o S 
■5 5 

t? 

6 r rs 

^ 3 Ci 

s 8*S 

lli^: 

l^ii 


3 S 2 § 
■*233 

> a o 0 
3 £•3 > 



TABLE 107 

capital expenditure of the 
(1951-52 to 1958-59) 


227 



*Include outlays on sterling pensions and commuted value of pensions ' 

include agricultural improvement, road and water transport si^emes, broadcastmg, avil aviabon, initial expenditure on New Delhi capital, 
forests, ports and Dandakaranya development schemes 

flnclude transfer of sale proceeds of American Loan Commodities. Rs. 35,02 lalihs m 1958-58 (R.B ) and Rs 78,47 lalchs in 1958-59 (B.E ) 


LOAN ACCOUNT OF THE CENT 
(1951-52 to 1958-59) 


228 



^\ljo include collections under IS-Year Annuity Certificates, 



LOAN ACCOtJNT OF THE 


229 




TABLE no 

BXn>OETARY POSITION OF IBE 
(1951-52 to 1958-59) 


23 ( 



*Tbe opening balances do not agree with tho closing balance of previous years due to certain revtstons of account figures carried out later. 











TABLE 111 

receipts of the centre and the states 

(1951-52 to 1958-59) 


231 



(axes on passengers and goods, tastes on forward contracts, duty on raw jute, an< 




{In lakhs of rupees) 


232 



linary 



233 



•Include audit, territorial and political pensions, prc-parution payments, pnvy purses, famine relief, superannuation allowances and pensions, and 
non-devclopmcntnl misccllnnoua and cxtraorainary items. 

t Include hohtliouscs and Imlitshins. norts and nilotairc. co-ooeration, miscellaneous departments and other developmental items, 




■Include commuted value of pensions, ou|]ay on sterling pensions, contingency and other funds. 
1‘Inciudes tmtwfcr of sale proceeds of American Loan Commodities 

^tneiude road .-ind water transport schemes, improvement of public health, forests, ports, and shipping 














TABLE H4 

CAPITAL RECEIPTS OP THE CENTRE AND THE STATES 
(1951-52 to 1958-59) 


235 




TABLB 115 

budgetahy posmoN of thb centre and the states 

(1951-52 to 1958-59) 


236 



JVert — Tlic discrepancy noticed in opening and closing balances figures for the years 1956-57 and 1957-5B is due to the non-availability of actuals 
for the States for tne year 1956-1957 on account of reorganisation of States. 



237 


As agaii^ these liabilities, interest-yielding assets of the Government 
of India amounted to Rs. 3,396 crores at the end of March 1958, 
representing an increase of Rs 489 crores over the previous year and 
constituting four-fifths of the total interest-bearmg obligations of the Govern- 
ment of India Dunng 1958-59, the interest-yielding assets showed a 
further nse of Rs 603 crores to Rs 3,999 crores 

Table 116 shows the interest-bearing obligations and interest-yielding 
assets of the Central Government. 

TABLE 116 

intsbest-beaiong obugatioms and interest-yieumng assets of 

' THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA 


{In crores oj rupees) 


- 

At the end of 


1938-39 

(Pre-war 

year) 

1958-59 

Revued 

1959-60 

Budget 

INTEREST-BEARING OBLIGATIONS— 




In India 




Foblic De1it~ 




loans 

TVeasury^iUs 

Special noating Loan 

4,37 87 
46 30 

21,83 80 
12,75 12 

22,92 25 
15,35 12 
23 81 

TOTAL PUBLIC DEBT (INDIA) 

4,84 17 

34,58 92 

38,51 18 

Unfunded Debt^ 




Service Funds , 

lO-Year Treasury Savings Deposit 
Certificates 

Post Office Savings Bank Deposits 

12-Year National Plan Savings Certificates 
Cnmnlative Time Deposits 

Post Office Cash and Defence SavinjEs ! 

Certificates 

National Saving^ CertiGcates ] 

10-Year National Plan Certificates ] 

State Provident Funds 

Other Items 

1 03 

si *88 
■■ 

59 57 

72 40 
10 25 

26 

55 67 
3,75 72 
1,51 44 
50 

I 02 
1,89 34 
20 93 
2,12 44 
17 30 

.24 

64 12 
3,77 77 
2,36 94 

2 50 

29 

1,61 07 

17 93 
2,32 ^ 

18 61 

TOTAL UNFUNDED DEBT (INDU) 

2,25 13 

10,06 62 

, 11,12 00 

Deposits 




D^remuon Development and Reserve 
Other deposits 

27 34 

1,13 61 
13 74 

97 07 

13 54 

TOTAL DEPOSITS (INDIA) 

27 34 


1,10 61 

TOTAL OBUGATIONS IN INDIA . 

7,36 64 

45,92 89 

50,73 79 


















238 


TABLE 116— (cwiAf) 

(7n> cTora of rupees) 



/ 

it the end of 

0 

1938-39 

(Pre-war 

Year) 

1958-59 

Retnsed 

195M0 

Budget 

Othw Poblic Delitiv 




In England 




Loam 

UK Syndicate of Banlcs 

Capital portion of Kailw^ 
annuities in purchase of Railways 

3,96 50 

47 82 

22 12 

B 67 

58 11 

13 33 

TOTAL PUBLIC DEBT (ENGLAND) 

4,44 32 

30 79 

71 44 

DOLLAR LOANS (USA) 

DOLLAR LOANS (CANADA) 


! 2,46 60 

1 15 71 

4:i5 16 

15 71 

LOAN FROM US SR 


40 89 

61 34 

LOAN FROM WEST GERMANY 


35 71 

64 66 

LOAN FROM JAPAN 


1 00 

12 79 

NEW LOANS TO BE NEGOTIATED 

IHBi 

. ... . 1 

20 00 

TOTAL INTEREST-BBARING 
OBLIGATIONS 

11,60 96 

49,63 59 

57,34 89 

INTEREST-YIELDING ASSETS-^ 




Capital advanced to Railw^ 

Capital advanced to other Commercial 
Departments (mcludmg Damodar 

Valley Corporation} 

Investment in commercial concerns 
(Industrial Devdopment) 

Capital advanced to States 

Other interest bcanng loons 

Amount recoverable &om the U K and 
the States on account of purchase of 
annuibes for Sterling pensions 

Deist due from Pakistan 

7,25 24 

27 42 

1,23 28 

20 71 

23.43 31 

1,86 49 

4,16 71 
14,32 60 
2,99 21 

20 64 
3,00 00 

14,65 12 

2,09 37 

4,61 00 
16,28 31 
4,90 25 

20 03 
3,00 00 

TOTAL INTEREST-YIELDING ASSETS 

8,96 65 

39,98 96 i 

45,74 08 

Cash and securities held on Tresisury 
Account 

Balance of total interest-bearing obliga- 
tions not cohered by the abotc assets 

SO 30 

2,74 63 

57 61 

9,07 02 1 

1 

55 76 

11,05 05 


JVi'i 1 —The outstandings at the end of each year arc shown m the statement The 
u^^SlJ been worked out on the best mfonna- 

^^e•t 2-~SieTlingobtigauonsha\ebeeneonvcrtcdmtorupec5at Ish 6d totherupec 

Me 3 —The figure entered for debt due from Pakistan u a very tough guess 


































239 


Tables 117 and 118 given below show the position regarding the 
debts of the Government of India and the State C^vemments. 

TABLE 117 

DEBT POSITION OF TBS GOVERNMENT OF INDIA 

(£i trores of rupees) 


End of 
March 

' 

Market- 

able 

Rupee 

Loans 

1 

Small 

Sav- 

ings* 

Other 

Obbga- 

tionsf 

Total 

Percent- 
age in- 
crease 
or de- 
crease 

External Debt 

Total 

Of 

which 

Dollar 

IiOans 

1952 

1,403 51 

332 51** 

372 57 

351 24 ' 

2,459 83 

—0 9 

136 99 

112 04 

1953 

1,403 58 

315 44** 

412 61 1 

361 82 ' 

2,493 45 1 

+1 4 

138 63 

113 74 

1954 

1,364 27 

334 95 

450 SI 

355 44 

2,505 17 


136 44 

111 80 

1955 

1,474 39 1 

471 87 

505 70 1 

391 97 , 

2,843 93 i 

+13 5 


111 91 

1956 

1,508 67 

595 25 

572 96 

390 29 

3,067 17 

+7 8 

138 81 

117 57 

1957 

1,633 6U 

835 70 

631 95 

406 55 

3,507 81 : 

-1-14 4 

160 98 

132 95 

1958 

1,699 501 

295-12 

695 22 

422 37 

4,112 21 

4-17 2 

211 02 

159 85 


Jfote —Figures arc provisional, excepting those of rupee loans and Treasury hills 
♦Inclusive of Indian Union’s share of prc-partition liabilities 
tlnduding (I) undauned balances of old loans which, have ceased to hear interest from 
the date of discharge, (2) balances of special loans, (3) balances of State Provident Funds and 
other accounts such as General Family Postal Insurance and Life Annuity Fund etc and 
<4) the amount of Three-year Interest Free Bonds and Five-Year Interest-Fiec Pmc Bonds. 

•♦Indudmg Treasury Deposit Receipts 

tlndudmg Hyderabad State loans the habdity for whidi was mVen over by the Central 
Government under Scttion 82 (1) of the States Reorganisation Act, 1956 


TABLE 118 

DEBT FOSmON OF THE STATES 


{In lakhs of rupees) 


At the end of 

Public Debt ' 

Unfunded 

Debt 

Gross 

Total 

Debt 

ll 

Floating 

Loans 
from Cen- 
tral Govt 

Other 

Debt* 

1951- 52 

1952- 53 

1953- 54 

1954^5 

1955- 56 (RE) 

1956- 57 {R E ) 

1957- 58 (R E ) 

133.71 

145,00 

179,94 

190.53 
264,48 
270,73 

286.54 

15.66 
42,48 
14,17 
10,32 

8,20 

20,20 

17.66 

238,54 

312,97 

450,36 

638,20 

876,07 

1,089,44 

1,335,27 

1,60 

7,25 

57.37 
62,53 

67.38 
75,91 
83,19 

1 94,36 

1 102,01 

445,28 
562,98 
711,85 
914,96 
1,231,94 
i 1,476,33 
1,748,73 


. "Stircs m th« statement arc based on actual returns furnished bv the States 

phased on the Budget papers The data cxdudc Part C 

tnd 195/-58 relate to reorganised States and cidude Jammu & Kashmir ^ 

OpJu’S) 

sSc "’“'’S' SoS. Em”^; 








240 


MONEY SUPPLY AND CURRENCY 

During 1958, money supply with the public recorded a nse of Rs 
77 2 crores as against Rs 96 2 crores recorded in 1957 TTie annual rate 
of mcrease in money ^pply has fallen progressively from 11 .7 per cent in 
1955 to 6 4 per cent in 1956, 4 4 per cent in 1957 and 3.4 per cent m 
1958 The expansion of Rs 77 2 crores m money supply dunng 1958 was 
the net result of (1) a me of Rs 81 9 crores in currency with the public 
and (2) a decline of Rs 4 7 crores m deposit money 

As m the preceding year, the advances to Government >vere the major 
fector underlymg the expansion in money supply in 1958 The effect of 
this expansion was sightly ofiset by a small nse in Government balances 
wth the Rcser\x Bank. Bank credit to Government amounted to Rs 415 
crores* m 1958 as compared to Rs 478 crores m 1957 while Government 
balances tvith the Reserve Bank rose by Rs 6 3 crores dunng the year. 
The expansionist influence of exten^on of bank credit to the public was 
small, the nse in this item in 1958 bemg only Rs 20.8 crores as compared 
to Rs 78 8 crores in 1957. On the contracbonist side, the impact of the 
balance of payments deficit was also substantially smaller. As measured 
by the dec^e in foreign assets held by the Reserve Banlrj the balance of 
payments deficit amounted to Rs 108.8 crores as against Rs. 327.4 crores 
(net of dollar purchases of Rs 895 . 2 crores from the I A4 F ) in the previous 
year The phenomenal gro\vth m banks* tune liabihties, noticed in 
1957, continued, the rise in this item in 1958 (Rs 215 8 croresj being larger 
than in 1957 198 8 crores) 

In the financial year 1958-59 (up to December 26, 1958), money 
supply With the pubhc dechned by "Rs 36. 7 crores as compared to Rs 
38 crores in the correspondmg period of 1957-58 

The following table shoivs the movements m money supply with the 
public and its components for the years 1951 to 1958 

TABLE 119 


MONEY SUPPLY WITH THE PUBUC** 

{In crores of rupees) 


Year 

Currency 
public (me 
Hall Sicca 

1 

Deposit money 'with 
the public 

Money supply vnth 
the pubhc (indudm? 
ILUi Sicca currencyj 

Amount 

Annual 

variations 

Amount 

Annual 

variations 

Amount 

Annual 

variations 

1951 

1952 

1953 1 

1954 

1955 

1936 

1957 

1958 

1,208 4 
1,155 7 
1,166 4 
1,224 6 
1,385 9 
1,485 3 
1,526 2 
1,608 1 

— 30 1 

— 52 7 
+ 10 7 
+ 58 2 
+ I6I 3 
+ 99 4 
-J* 40 9 
+ 81 9 

592 9 
557 0 
543 1 
607 5 
661 3 
693 3 
748 8 
744 1 

— 22 4 

— 35 9 

— 13 9 

4- 64 4 
+ 53 8 
+ 32 0 

H- 55 5 

— 4 7 

1 

1,801 3 
1.712 7 
1,709 4 
1.832 2 
2,047 2 
2,178 7 
2,274 9 
2,352 2 

— 52 5 

— 88 6 
— 3 3 
4-122 8 
4-215 0 
4-131 5 

4- 96 2 

4- 77 2 


CurrenQ^ 


recorded 

_aj ^crnseofRs 86 2 crores to Rs 1, 661.8 crores, which i\as more than 

Resen ^ investments of die 

and (lu) a decline of Rs lit rmrM ^ bints myestments m Govenunent secunOcs 
^ V o acaine oi Rs n 1 crores in the Rcscr^e Bank’s loans and advances to Govern- 







241 


twice therisein 1957 (Rs 38.2 crores). Since 1953, currency in circulation 
has shown a continuous rise, amounting to as much as Rs 500 crores — arise 
of 43 per cent The nsc in 1958 occurred mainly under notes in circulation 
which rose by Rs 82.6 crores as compared to ^ 40.7 crores in 1957, Rs. 
104 1 crores in 1956 and Rs. 161.5 crores in 1955. Total notes in circu- 
lauon amounted to Rs 1,546.3 crores at the end of 1958. 

Dunng the year, the circulation of rupee com (including one-rupee 
notes) moved up by Rs. 3 5 crores to Rs. 115.6 crores, tins followed a 
decline of Rs 4 crores m the precedmg two years 

Decimal coins 

Considerable progress was made in puttmg into circulation the new 
dedmal coins of the denomination of 10, 5, 2 and 1 naye paise, first introdu- 
ced in April 1957. The aggregate amount of dedm^ coins put into 
drcidation since that date up to October 1958 was Rs 3.91 crores* as shown 
below. 

TABLE 120 

DECIMAL COINS IN GERGULATEON 


Denomination 

Value (m laLhs of rupees) 

1 nP 

64 55 

2 nP 

59 71 

5 nP. 

98 39 

10 nP ! 

1,68 39 

Total 

3,91 04 


DemonettsaUon of Certain Denominations of Cows 

In terms of the Government of India’s Notification No S O. 1437 
dated July 18, 1958, the mckel-biass two anna, half pice and pie piece coins 
ceased to be legal tender with effect from January 1, 1959 However, 
thev Will continue to be legal tender at all the offices of the Reserve Bank 
of India, all agency banks of the Reserve Bank conducting Government 
business and a2 Government treasuries and sub-treasunes up to June 30, 
1959, but, thereafter, only at the offices of the Issue Department of the Bank 
until further notice 

Conversion of Hyderabad cwrr&wy into India Government currency 

The fa^ities offered by the Government of India for the conversion 
^Hydeijabad Currency into Indian Currency which were discontinued on 
December 31, 1956, were revived on a selective basis for a further limited 
penod (December 1, 1958 to June 30, 1959) m response to numerous appli- 
cations received from the pubhc 

BANKING 

A substantial increase in the resources position of scheduled banks in 
1958 on top of a sharp nse m their deposit habilities in the previous year 
and a slackness of demand for credit m the greater part of the year posed 
a problem for banks of the profitable employment of the surfeit of funds 
Deposit liabilities (net) of scheduled banks in 1958 increased by Rs 206 8 
croies through a nse of Rs 214 0 croies m time liabilities less a small 
contraction m demand liabilities of Rs 7 2 crores W'ltMn two years 

♦Provisional 








242 


(1957 and 1958) deposits swelled by 43 per cent, most of it due to a near 
doubling of tunc deposits. The major contributory factors towards the 
expansion of deposits were the same as in the previous year viz , defiat 
financed development expenditure, the placement, by the U S authonties, 
in India of the cost of foodgrains import^ under the US PL 480, ivhich 
-was uutiallv reimbursed to them by the Union Government, and a marked 
increase* in the number of branches of scheduled banks The lugh level 
of call ippney interest rates m the first half of the year (which fell in the 
second half) and a fall in import payments on pnvale account, following 
restnctious on imports imposed last year, also enhanced the deposits 
The upward trend m scheduled bank credit, winch began in 1953, conti- 
nued, though the rise of ^ 8,7 crores in 1958 ivas nominal as compared 
with the years preceding immediatdv The smaller increase in credit 
may be ^enbed to the slowing down of the tempo of economic activity, 
partfy ansmg out of import rcslnctions and partly due to the continuanon 
and intensification of selective credit control measures Consequently, 
banks had to go in for investment in government secunti^ Such invest- 
ments (mcluding Treasury bills), therefore, rose by jRs 204, 1 crores or by 
47 per cent Advantage was t^cn of the comfortable resources position 
of banks to resume sales of Union Government Treasury bills to the 
pubhc m July 1958 'Ihcse had remained suspended since April 1956 
The easy resources position of banks %vas reflected in a reduction in borrow- 
ings from the Reserve Bank and a nse m their cash balances The vananons 
in the pnndpal items of liabilities and assets of scheduled banks during 
1957-58 are given m the following table . 

TABLE 121 

SCHEDUIED BANB:S--IJABI1JT1ES AND ASSETS 


{In laUis of nipus) 




1 


Variation 


End 

End 

End 

During 

Dunng 


1956 

1957 

1958* 

1957 

1958 

Net laab^ues 

1 1,100,73 

1,367,51 

1 

1,574,29 i 

+266,78 

+206,78 

Dcmaad 

643,57 

701,82 

694,66 

+58,25 

—7,16 

Tune 

457,16 

665,69 

879,64 

208,53 1 

+213,95 

Inler-Tjat^ 'borrowings 

11,87 

38,45 

53,71 

+ 26,58 1 

+15,26 

Borrowings froi^ the B^erve 






Bank^of India 

79,06 

23,63 i 

10,95 

— 55,43 

—12,68 

Borrovni^ from the State 
Bank oflndia 


i 




7,76 

6,77 1 

7,35 

—99 

+58 

Cash and balance with the 






RcseneiBank 

90,53 

107,51 

119,15 

+16,98 

+11,64 

Inscstments in Government 






securities 

364,44 

433,43 

637,57 

+68,99 

, +214,14 

Bant Credit (Advances — inland 
and foreign bills purchased 






and discounted) 

788.43 

857,10 

865,78 

+68,67 

+8,68 

• Provisional 












243 


Dunng the year the total number of scheduled banks increased irom 
91 to 93 as a result of the inclusion of five banks m the Second Schedule and 
the exclusion there&om of three banks (two of them due to amalgamation 
and merger). The net increase in the number of their branches (after 
adjustment for the branches of scheduled banks mcluded in the Schedule 
dunng 1958) till October 1958 came to 208, the share of the State Bank of 
India being 69 Consequently, the total number of offices of scheduled 
banks at the end of October stood at 3,570 

A banking landmark durmg the year -was the concluaon of an agree- 
ment among some important scheduled banks on interest rates on deposits 
which came into force on October 1 , 1958 The rapid expansion in deposits 
and lade of avenues for profitable deployment of funds elsewhere weakened 
the scramble among banks for attracting deposits from customers by 
offering higher rates of mterest This fact was pardy responsible for a 
voluntary agreement among the Indian and foreign banks, ^vith deposits 
of 5 crores or more, for placing a ceilmg on interest rates payable on 
various forms of deposits excepting inter-bank transactions. 

An important development m institutional arrangements for tlie 
provision of credit to sectors whose development is retarded in the absence 
of such facilities was the establishment of the Re-finance Corporation 
for Industry Private Ltd. This Corporation ivas established on June 
5, 1958 for providmg re-lendmg facilities, against medium-tenn loans 
given by selected scheduled banks, to medium-sized industrial concerns. 
The facilities of the Corporation are available to mdustnal concerns 
whose psdd-up capital and reserves do not exceed Rs 2 5 crores in any 
particuiar case 


Monetaiy and Credit Pohq^ of the Reserve Baniz 

The overaft credit pohey of the Reserve Bank of India conWued to 
be one of restraint in the face of an underlying inflationary trend in the 
economy as \vitnessed in a continuous nse m the prices of food articles smee 
February. Though the level of bank advances against foodgrains was 
within the permissible limits laid doivn by the Reserve Bank and was 
smaller than a year earher, the decline m food production ivas a major 
factor behind the increase in food prices As a result,'^ it was felt that selective 
credit restnction on advances against foodgrains should be continued 
throughout the year. In fac^ m the second hsdf of the year, when there was 
some evidence of advances against wheat, in particular, tfriHin g to nse m 
certain areas of the country, restrictions were tightened on the advances 
against wheat, particularly in the Punjab The position with regard to 
sugar ^0 disclosed the same trend Consequentiy, advances agaimt sugar 
were Ughtened The restnctive measures were, however, worked out 
in such a fashion as not to hinder the expansion of branch bankmg and the 
increasing we of warehousing faahtics, by exempting from the operation 
of the controls, advances made by newly opened branches, and advances 
against wfarehouses receipts 

Another feature durmg the year w»as the extension of the BUI hlarket 
bcheme so as to include export bUls within its scope This facility was 
mtended to help small exporters by enabling them to obtain finance from 
banks on the surety of e^ort bUls 


eiUia-ORATE FINANCE 


■\jr compames at work in India as on 

28,877 accounUng for a total paid-up capital of Rs 
n number of pubhc and pnvate comnames 

sS paid-up capital of Rs 768 2 crores an§ Rs 

7 crores respectively. The total number of associations (not for profit). 



244 


and companies lumted by guarantee ^vas 1,282. The foUo^vlng table 
shenvs the number and paid>up capital of the compames at ^vork between 
1947-48 and 1957-58. 


TABLE 122 

COMPANIES AT ^VOBK— 1M7-19S8 


(Pduf up cabitel tn ererts ^ Tuptti) 


Year 


Companies with share 

capital 


Companies 
limited by 

Pubbe 



Prirate 

Total 

and Associ- 
ations not 
for profit 

No 

Paid-up 

Capital 

No 

Paid-up 

Capital 

No 

Paid-up 

Capital 

1947-4B 

NA 

NA 

NA. 

NA 

22,675 

5,69 6 

931 

1948-49 

NA 

NA. 

NA- 

NA 

25,340 

6,28 3 

936 

1949-50 

NA 

NA 

NA- 

NA 

27,558 

7,23 9 

1,123 

195(W1 

12,568 

5,66 5 

15,964 

2,08 9 

28,532 

7,75 4 

1,123 

1951-52 

12,413 

6,06 8 

16,810 

2,49 0 

29,223 

8,55 8 

1,240 

1952-53 

12,055 

6,28 8 

17,257 

2,68 8 

29,312 

8,97 6 

1,282 

1953-54 

10,237 

6,25 5 

19,255 

S.I5 7 

29,492 

9.41 2 

1,228 

1954-55 

10,056 

6,61 3 

19,569 

3,08 3 

29,625 

9,69 6 

1,268 

1955-56 

9,575 

6,90 4 

20,299 

3,33 8 

29,874 

10,24 2 

1,315 

1956-57* 

9,640 

7,25 4 

1 20,311 

1 3,61 9 

1 29,951 

10,87 3 

1,290 

1957-58* 

9,096 

7,68 2 

' 19,781 

3,92 7 

28,877 

11,60 9 

1,282 


New Regislraltons 

e; iSC’s'SfsB 

Gouertanent Compames 

OTtW Umon up to the end of 

Of these, 6 tvere registered duni« the penod April to Oetobo 1958 

Dtstnbution 

for Sr” Stete-tvise distnbutioii of eompanies 

a nd the period Apnl to October 1958 

* ProMsioind ^ ' 













245 

TABLE 123 

STAT&^VISE DISTRlBUnON OF COMPANIES 





Companies registered during 




ApnI-October 1958 



Number of 





on March 31, 

Number 

Authorised 



1958* 


Capital (in 
limts of rupees) 

Andhra Pradesh 


550 

8 

19 

Assam 


367 

13 

54 

Bihar 


531 

12 

23 

Bombay 


5,515 

130 

4,928 

Kerala 


1,304 

26 

150 

Madhya Pradesh 

‘ 

434 

9 

32 

Madias 


2,329 

41 

98 

Mysore 


989 

17 

355 

Onssa 


216 

8 

1,017 

Punjab 


902 ' 

16 1 

49 

Rajasthan 


504 

12 

223 

Uttar Pradesh 


1,464 ' 

21 1 

106 

West BengaJ 


12,310 

205 

1,105 

Ddhi 


1,435 

73 

3,278 

Hhnachal Pradesh 


9 





Mampui 


8 

— 

— 

Tnpura 

Andaman & Nicobar Islands 


10 

- 


Total 

28,877 

591 

1,14,42 


Foreign Companies 

Dunng thefirst ten months of the year 1958 (j January to October), 
14 joint sto^ companies incorporated elsewhere than in India (8 in U.K., 
2 in U S A and one each in West Germany, Japan, Sweden and Hongkong) 
established their principal places of business in this country. Of these, 
four each were concerned with wholesale trade and manufacture of 
machin^, two each with commumty and business services and construction 
and utilities and one each with insurance and transport. 


INSURANCE 

Public and Pnoate Insurance 

Smee September 1, 1956, when the life Insurance Corporation 
of In^a ^ established, life insurance business in India is transacted 
by the Goraoration and, m a restneted sphere, by the Posts and 
Telegraphs Department** of the Government of India and by certam State 
Governments 

Fire, Marine and Miscellaneous classes of insurance business are 
transacted both by the Indian insurance compames and by fordgn insurance 
compames operating in India. In addition, certain State ^vemments 
are also transactmg such business. 


•Provisional and corrected upto August 1958 

♦•For inronnation and statisoca rdatmg to Postal Insurance see Chapter XXVH. 












246 


State-run Insurance Schemes 

The Govcnnnents of Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh. 
Mysore, R^asthan and XJttar Pradesh are transactutg lile insurance 
business, the benefits of which arc restricted to thrir employees '\\fith 
efiect £rom September 1, 1956, the Life Isurance Corporation of India 
acquired the exclusive privilege of carrying on life insurance busmess in 
India But, in terms of clause (f) of section 44 of the Life Insurance 
Corporation Act, the State Governments are enabled to carry on compul- 
sory life insurance of their employees The Government of Bombay has 
an Insurance Fund for the msuiance of aU types of Government property 
m ite commercial and mdustnal undertahmgs The Government of 
Kerala is transactmg Fire and Miscellaneous (Motor) insurance burincss 
while the Government of Mysore is transacting Miscellaneous (Motor) 
insurance busmess 


Insurance Association of India 

_ nationalisation of life insurance business in India, the 

Life Insurance Council of the Insurance Association of India and its Execu- 
te Conmmtee have ceased to function The membership of the General 
Insurance Council of the Insurance Assodabon of India js confccd 
insurers rairyi^ on general insurance business The Executive 
t^mmittee of the Ckiunol has evolved a Code of Conduct for observance 
by ^cralmsurm ivith the object of ehminatmg various alleged mal- 
praimces of rebatmg and pa>Tnent of excessive commission. With a vicvi* to 
ughtemng conteol over general insurance busmess, the Executive Committee 
nas reromm^ded inter aha certain standards of aolvencv and minimum 
departoent^ res^es to be m^tained by insurers on a Voluntary basis 
r ^ administrative machmery to administer 

h Controller of Insurance, m his capacity as a 

member of the Committee, is the head of the creation ^ ^ 

and “““bon is entrusted TOth the task of legidarion 

P^se ^ th5 Th“ buthonty^ tins 

O^Ss “ Committee, ^vhlch functions through four R^onal 


general INSURANCE 

Insurance Companies 

various i under the Insurance Act, 1938 for transacting 

vanous classes of general insurance burincss as showm below : 

TABLE 124 

nusiber of insurance companies 


C3aB or da«« of lawnmcc buaacss 
'vhich registered 

Fi-c on!v 
MTm- only 
Mricllaneous onK 
gre a^d Mannc oris “ 

Ktc and Mit«Man«us only 

Fire, .\rann; ard MoaJhncou, 


Total 


Indian 


3 

13* 

13 


Non-Indian 


20 

9 

6 

n 

8 

I 

S8 


Total 


23 

22 

19 

11 

21 

1 

87 


I “I I 93 j ISi 

12 .n-e-rn M«.„c (CWi^vW.) nmnence l.u™=3 ooh 



247 


Besides, the Life Insurance Corporation of India is also registered 
under the Act for the classes of Life and Miscellaneous insurance business 
The following table gives the summary of Fire, Manne and Miscel- 
laneous insurance busmess of Indian insurers m respect of their world 
business and of the non-Indian insurers in respect of then business in 
India for the year 1957 


TABLE 125 

GENERAL JNSURANCE— BUSINESS STAHSTIGS 

{In mres of rupees) 



Ind 

iian Insurers 

Non-Indian Insurers 


Fire 

Manne 

Miscella- 

neous 

Fire 

Manne 

Miscella- 

neous 

Premiums less 
reinsurances . 

10 69 

4 15 

7 69 

i 

3 11 ' 

1 91 

2 14 

Olauns under 
pobacs less 
reinsurances 

4 15 

2 62 

3 93 

0 53 

0 89 

1 0 94 

Net commission 

1 93 


1 30 

0 26 

0 19 

0 28 

Lsepenses of 
management 

3 06 

1 10 

2 00 

1 43 

0 59 

0 72 


The foUowmg table shows the gross premium written direct by, 
and the net premium income of, insurers operating m India for the 
year 1957 

TABLE 126 

GENERAL INSURANGE—FREMIUM INCOME ' ' 


{In erores of rupees)' 


Glass of insurance busmess 

Gross premium written 
direct j 

1 Net premium income 

Indian Insurers 

Non- 

Indian 

insurers 

Indian ! 

Insurers 

' Non- 
Indian 
insurers 



Inside 

India 

Inside 

India 

Outside 

India 

Inside 

India 

Fire 

Manne 

Miscellaneous 

7 17 

4 39 

6 37 1 

2 06 

1 97 

2 34 

4 70 

2 65 

2 51 

1 3 76 
: 2 09 

5 08 

6 93 

2 06 
2.61 

1. 3 31 

1 91 

1 2 14 

Total 

17 93 

6 37 

9 86 

10 93 

11 60 

7 16 

















248 


Assets and InDeslmenls 

The total assets of the general insurance business of Indian insurers as 
on December 31, 1957 amounted to Rs 49 02 crorcs as against Rs 43*00 
crores at the end of 1956, and Rs 41 *65 crorcs at the end of 1955 

The assets as on December 31, 1957 ivcre invested as foUoivs: 

(Per cent) 


Central and State Government securities 15 4 

Indian Muniapal, Port and Improvement Trust 

secuntics 0“5 

Shares and debentures of Indian compames 22 7 

Foreign government secuntics 4 2 

Agents’ balances, outstandmg premiums and amounts 

due from other insurers 17 1 

Deposits, cash and stamps 28 0 

Other assets 12 I 


Total 100 0 


life insurance 

lAfi Insurance Corporatwn 

According to the Life Insurance Corporation Act, the Life Insurance 
Corporation of India consists of not more than 15 members who have the 
authonty to manage die afiaus of the Corporation on business principles 
subject to such directives on matters of policy as the Central Grovemment 
™*ght ^ve firom tune to time The Corporation is charged with the duty 
of ensunr^ that life insurance business is developed to the best advantage 
of the community The Corporation also has an Executive Committee, 
an Investmimt Committee, Managmg Directors and Zonal hlanagers In 
edition to the Central Office to be located at a place to be notified by the 
Central Government, there are zonal offices at Bombay, Calcutta, Delhi, 
Kanp^^d ^dras as also Divisional and Branch offices 

men the Corporation was constituted on September 1, 1956, it took 
ovCT the rontroBed b^ness of 245 different units (both insurance companies 
and provident soaetiM) ^vhich were engaged m the transaction of hfe 

August 31, 

^ ^ number of pobdta®in force 

of more than Rs 1,250 erSes The total 
number or salaned employees was nearly 27,000. 

JV(W Biutness 

Danies^xv^^W.^ ^gbt montfe of the year 1956, when insurance com- 

Mnvntc nn- K ^ umnaged by the Central Government, each unit ivas 
^ except for 

From SeDtember J ^ prenuum rates, agency commission, etc. 

of the VMious nix4 J business became the rcsponsilffiity 

shm« ^ Corporation The foUo^dng table 

1953 to^58 insurance business completed during the years 



249 

table 127 

UFE INSURANCE BIKINESS STAHSTICS 



In India 

Out$ide India 

Total 

. 

Number 

of 

Fobaes 

Sum 

Assured 

Number 

of 

Fobaes 

Sum 

Assured 

Number 

of 

Foluues 

Sum 

Assured 



(itr aara) 


(i2r erores) 


{Rs erores) 

1953 

5,61,336 

155 20 

30,441 

14 66 

5,91,777 

169 86 

1954 

7;24;365 

236 34 

32,682 

17 65 


253 99 

1955 

7,70,681 

238 30 

35,461 

20 33 


> 258 63 

1956 

5,49,652 

187 69 

17,956 

12 59 

5,67,608 


1957 

7,89,530 

276 50 

5,055 

5 40 

7,94,585 


1958* 

8,62,227 

309 04 

4,887 

4 80 

8,67,114 

313 84 


The table below shows the distnbution of the investments of the 

Xofe Insurance Corporation as on Decmber 31, 1957 and October 31, 1958 

Of the total investments 95 5 per cent on December 31, 1957 and 97 3 
per cent on October 31, 1958 were m India 


TABLE 128 

LJ C. INVESTMENTS (AT BOOK VALUE)! 



C3ass of Investment 

December 31, 1957 

October 31, 1958 


Amount 

Percen- 
tage to 
total 

Amount 

Percent- 
age to 
total 

I 

Government of India sceunties 

184 13 

48 3 

196 03 

48 4 

2 

Foreign government secunhes 

12 61 

3 3 

7 29 

1 8 

3 

Indian State Government sccuntacs 

45 63 

11 9 

55 29 

13 7 

4 

Forugn seomties 

0 73 

0 2 

0 63 

0 2 

5 

Government Guaranteed and other ap> 
proved securities 

33 07 

8 7 

36 61 

9 0 

€ 

Debentures of companies 

20 66 

5 4 

21 25 

5 2 

7 

Frcfcrcnce shares of companies 

15 90 

4 2 

16 16 

4.0 

8 

Ordmary shares of companies 

33 63 

8 8 

36 30 

9 0 

9 

(a) Loans on mortgage properties 

13 71 

3 6 

13 03 

3 2 

10 

{b) Other loans . . . 

0 71 

0 2 

1 01 


Land and house properties 

20 68 

5 4 

21 22 

5 2 


Total ,, 

1' 

{ 381 46 

100 0 1 

1 

404 82 

100 0 


* Adjusted up to January 26, 1959 
t Unaudited 



















TABLE 130 

AREA WSDER IRRIGATION 


(/n lakh orm) 


Source 

' 1947-48 

1 

! 1955-56 

1 I 

Increase or De- 
crease 

C^als 

198 

i 232 1 

+34 

Tanks 

80 

109 

+29 

■Wells 

125 

166 1 

+41 

Other sources 

63 

55 

“ 8 , 

Total 

466 

562 1 

+96 


The two outstanding features of agncultural production in India 
are the wide variety of crops and the preponderance of food over non-food 
crops Table 131 shows the area of major crops dunne the six years end- 
ing 1957-58 J ? 

TABLE 131 

area of FBINCIFAL CROPS 


Aousatid acra) 


Crops 

1952-53 

1953-54 

1954-55 

1955-56 

1956-57' 

1957-58 

Ricc 

Jowar 

Bajra 

Maize 

Ragi 

Small Millets 

Wheat 

Barley 

74,056 

43,340 

26,613 

8,908 

5.542 

12,464 

24,286 

8,021 

77,318 

43,882 

30,145 

9,561 

5,767 

14,028 

26,394 

8,719 

76,020 

43,155 

28,087 

9,265 

5,678 

13,912 

27,822 

8.437 

77,891 

43,903 

28,018 

9,132 

5,701 

13,184 

30,559 

8,447 

79,320 

40,367 

27,884 

9,197 

5,831 

12,230 

13,580 

8,726 

79,027 

41,411 

27,453 

9,762 

5,897 

11,979 

29,657 

7,531 

Total Cereals 



2,12,376 

2,15,835 


2,12,717 

Gram 

Tur 

Other Pulses 

17,930 

5,930 

25,179 

19,689 

5,942 

28,064 

22,852 

5,940 

25,359 

24,166 

5,650 

27,552 

24,265 

5,686 

28,264 

22,405 

5,598 

26,652 

Total Foodgratns 

2,52,269 

2,69,509 


2,73,203 

2,75,350 

2,67,372 

Potatoes 

Supircanc 

B'ickPcpncT 

Chillies 

CingcT 

Tobacco 

Groundnut 

Castor seed , . 

Scjamum 

Rspe and Mustard 
Ijn’/'cd 

Colton 

Jife 

Mnia 

Tra 

O/r-e 

IluhW 

C-ooi-u* , . 

629 

4,272 

202 

1,235 

46 

896 

11,848 

1,326 

5,874 

5,201 

3,366 

15,715 

1,813 

184 

1 778 

228 
119 
1.608 

635 

3,485 

208 

1,536 

33 

912 

10,455 

1,346 

6,351 

5.545 

3.426 

17,265 

1,228 

463 

776 

230 

169 

I,C38 

658 

3,999 

212 

1,582 

S7 

856 

13,693 

1,370 

6,490 

6,027 

3,362 

18,646 

1,243 

438 

779 

229 

172 

1,656 

sof 

4,564 
220 
1,493 
40 
1.013 
12,685 
1,418 
5,667 
6,316 
3,777 
19,981 
1,739 
571 
781 
240 
174 
. 1,580 

702 

5,057 

221 

1,476 

39 

1,029 

13,450 

1.415 

5,446 

6,311 

4,156 

19,893 

1,908 

733 

782 

NA 

184 

1,582 

NA 
5,021 
229 
1,534 
39 
926 
14,457 
1,325 
5,268 
6,050 
3,318 
20,158 
1,754 
' 726 

NA 
NA 
NA 
NA 


•1 jn'l r 









253 


Seasons 

There arc two well-defined crop seasons : (t) Mianf and («) rabi. 

The major khanf crops are nee, jowar, hajra, maize, cotton, sugarcane, 
sesamum and groundnut. The major rabi crops are wheat, barley, gram, 
linseed, rape and mustard The seasons and duration of pnncipal crops 
are shown below. 

TABLE 132 
CROP SEASONS 


Crop 

Season 

Durauon* 

Ricet 

Winter 

Autumn 

— 6 montbs 

Fh ” 


Summer 

2—3 „ 


Rabi 

” 

Jowar 

Khanf 

Rabi 



Zatd Khanf 

4 


Khanf 



Khanf 


Ragi 

Barley 

Khanf 

Rabi 

^ j» 

Gram 

Rabi 

® M 

Sugarcane 

Perennial 

10—12 „ 

Sesamum 

Khanf 

Rabi 

;; 

Groundnut 

Khanf 

Early 4 — 44 „ 

Late 44—5 „ 

1—5 

Rape and Mustard 

Rabi 

Zaid Rabi 

4 , „ 

Linseed 

Rabi 

5 — 5j. „ 

Castor 

Khanf 

Early 6 „ 

Others 8 „ 

Cotton 

Khanf 

Early 6 — 7 ,, 

Late 7—8 „ 

Tobacco 

Khanf 1 

7 .. » 

Jute 

Khanf 

6 — 7 ,, 


Production 

Tlic overall production of food-grams in 1956-57 cscccdcd the 
previous gear's outturn by 4 3 per cent and touched the peak level of 687 
lakh tons in 1953-54. But in 1957-58, due to extremely adverse 
climatic conditions c\penenccd in difibrcnt States, it declined by 9 8 


^Denote* the number of montlis the crop is on land 


•fSe-vsons for ncc 
cated below ' 

in diiTcrent States are Lnoim b> 

difiTcrcnt names 

These are indi- 

Assam 

Autumn or Ahu or Aus 
Winter or Sab or Bao 

Spnng or Borro 

Bomba> 

. . EarK 

Middle 

Late 

IVest Bcmril 

. . Autumn or Bliadoi or Aus 
Winter \niM 

Madhva 

Pradesh 

Early 

Into 

Bihar 

. . Autumn or Bhadoi 

Winter or Aghani 

Madras 

.. Tint Crop 
Second drop 

Onssa 

Msaore 

Autumn or Bhadoi 
inter 

W inter or Kl.ar f or Karult 
crop 

Sumner or rabi o** VvaalJu 
crop 

Uiiar Pradesh 

EttIj 

JLale 




254 


per cent and 5 7 per cent compared to 1956-57 and 1955-56 respeedvdy 
Table 133 givra the production of major crops dtinng the six years ending 
1957-58 


TABLE 133 

PRODUemON OF principaj:, crops 


* Crop 

Umt 

1952^53 

1953-54 

1954-55 

1955-56 

1956-57 


Rice (cleaned) 

Jowar 

Ba3Ta 

hlaize 

Ragi 

Small Millets 
^Vheat 

Barley 

000 tons 

22,537 

7,243 

3,142 

2,825 

1,316 

1,895 

7,382 

2,882 

27,769 

7,954 

4,475 

2,991 

1,846 

2,438 

7,890 

2,905 

1 

27,122 

6,619 

3,374 

2,561 

1,817 

2,037 

8,622 

2,771 

28,282 

7,249 

2,885 

3,009 

1,715 

1,964 

9,314 

2,827 

24,821 

8,056 

3,565 

3,064 

1,716 

1,759 

7,654 

2,175 

Total Cereals 

» 

49,222 

58,268 

56,183 

54,923 

57,245 

52,810 

Gram 

Tur 

Other Pulses . 

;; 

4,142 

1,675 

3,227 

4,756 

1,834 

3,860 

5,532 

1,692 

3,553 

5,332 

1,832 

3,707 

6,264 

1,954 

3,285 

4.754 

1,396 

3,066 

Total foodgrains 

» 

58,266 

68,718 

66,960 

65,794 

68,748 

62,026 

Potatoes 1 

Sugarcane (cane) 
Black Pepper . 

Chillies (dry) 

Ginger (dry) 
Tobacco 

Groundnut (nuts in 
shell) 

Castor'seed 

Sesamum 

Rape and Mustard 
Linseed 

Cotton (Lint)f 

Jute (dr> fibrcVir 

Nfa.j( ,...m 

Coffee** 

Rubber** 

Coconut 

000 bales 

laUi lbs 

millions 

1,961 

50,190 

23 

283 

19 

241 

2,883 

102 

464 

844 

366 

3,194 

4,592 

682 

675 

49 

36 

4,498 

1,925 

43,709 

24 

303 

14 

268 

3,391 

103 

554 

858 

379 

3,944 

3,901 

650 

589 

59 

45 

4,649 

1,736 

57,811 

26 

381 

14 

251 

4,178 

122 

593 

1,021 

384 

4,250 

2,929 

901 

646 

59 

43 

4,614 

1,830 
59,587 1 
8 

355 i 
16 
298 

3,801 

123 

460 

846 

413 

3.998 

4,198 

1,153 

637 

68 

50 

4,297 

1,674 

66,998 

27 

342 

15 

294 

4,200 

124 

442 

1,026 

384 

4,735 

4,288 

1,478 

668 

NA 

49 

4,217 

NA 

64,142 

26 

355 

14 

252 

4,271 

97 

363 

905 

271 

4,753 

4,088 

1,211 

NA 

NA 

NA 

NA 


Tlic mdc\ number of agricultural production (all commodities) rose 
from 116 9 in 1955-56 to a new high of 123 8 in 1956-57, thereby registering 
an increase of more than 6 per cent over the previous year The index, 
however, came doivn to 113 4 dunug 1957-58 The all-India index 
numbers of production of thevanous agricultural commodities and groups 
of commodities for the six years ending 1957-58 arc given in table 


to final csuioate 
1352 11)1 c-ich 
ttlOOlhi each 

••Prtxlucuon is Tor each calendar year 







TABLE 134- 


INDEX NtJMBERS OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION 
(Agrlcnltnral Yesar ISiS^^OcslOO) 


Gommodity/Group ^ 

Vci^t 

1952-53 

1953-54 

1954-55 

1955-56 

1956-57 

1957-58 

A FOODGRAIN5 

RiCe 

"Wheat 

Total Cereals (1) 
Gram 

Total Tukes (2) 

35 3 

8 5 
58 3 

3 7 

8 8 

96 8 
112 7 
101 4 
109 2 
98 9 

118 6 
120 0 
120 1 
125 4 
112 0 

105 8 
135 4 
114 5 
145 9 
118 5 

114 2 
131 3 
114 9 
138 9 
118 4 

119 1 
141 6 
119 9 
163 2 
124 5 

104 5 
116 4 
108 3 
123 9 
100 9 

Total foodgrams 


log 

119 1 


115 3 

120 5 

107 3 

B OTHER CROPS 




i 


i 


Oilseeds 

5 7 

85 3 


123 6 

1 112 4 

124 2 

126 3 

Total Oilseeds (3) 

9 9 

91 9 


122 6 


118 9 

112 3 

Fibres 

Cotton 

2 8 

121 0 

151 8 

163 6 ' 

153 9 ' 

182 2 

182 9 

Jute 

1 4 

148 6 


94 8 

135 8 

138 7 

132 3 

Total fibres (4) 

4 5 

128 4 

132 1 

140 4 

149 7 

171 4 ' 

167 2 

Plantation Crops 




IBB 

108 8 

114 1 

115 0* 

Tea 

3 3 

115 4 

100 8 

Coffee 

0 2 

125 9 

146 5 

151 8 

176 3 

216 3^ 

221 1* 

Rubber 

0 1 

106 1 

131 8 

127 6 

146 1 

143 9 

145 9* 

Total Plantation 
Crops 


115 7 

104 0 

113 2 

113 6 

120 6 

121 8 

bGscidlancoas 








Sugarcane 


101 6 

89 5 

115 9 

119 8 

135 3 

127 6 

Tobacco 


91 3 

lOl 5 

95 1 

112 9 

115 9 

108 7* 

Total Miscel- 
laneous (5) 

vBa 

101 5 

97 4 

115 8 

120 1 

128 0 

123 1 

Total Other Crops . . 


DEm 

104 7 

120 9 


130 4 

125 7 

GENERAL INDEX 








(All Commodities) 

100 0 

102 0 

114 3 

117 0 

116 9 

123 8 

113 4 


Imports of Foodgrains 

Dunng 1958, agreements were entered into \%ith the Government 
of the USA for imports of wheat, sorghum and corn and vMth the Govern- 
ment of Canada for imports of wheat only The Government of Burma 
supplied nee under a long-term agreement A shipload of gift wheat 
was rcecncd from Australia under the Colomho Plan. The following 
table shows the imports of cereals into India since 1948 - 


• PtoMStonal 

(1) Includcsjoi\-r,bajra,maizc,rag;,s-iall raillcu and barlej bes dcs nee ard wheat. 

(2) Includes ^n«n, tur and oihcr puha 

(3) Indudes groundnut, sesamuo, rape ard mu^Lvd, linseed and eaiJor-seed 
(4} Includes ncsta. 

(5} CoTjpmcs sus3T:anc, tobacco, potato, pepper, ehtllics aaa pager 




















256 

TABLE 135 

IMPORTS OF FOOBGRAINS 


{ThOttsarJ tons) 


Year 

Rice 

Wheat (m- 
dudmg flour) 

Others 

Tetal 

1948 

867 

1,311 

663 

2,841 

1949 

767 

2,200 

739 

3,706 

1950 

353 

1,407 

465 

2,125 

1951 

749 

3,015 

961 

4,725 

1952 

722 

2,511 

631 

3,864 

1953 

175 

1,684 

144 

2,003 

1954 

603 

197 

8 

808 

1955 

265 

435 


700 

1956 

325 

1,095 



1,420 

1957 1 

736 

2,84€* 



1 3,582 

1958 

390 

2,674t 

109 

! 3,173 


Distribution of Foodgrmns 

lo addition to regulatory measures such, as creation of zones^ restriction 
of movement and direct supply of imported wheat from Government stocks 
to flour miUsj large quantities of foodgrams were released from central 
sto(^ for issue through fair price shops to meet the difficult food supply 
portion during 1958 While unports amounted to about 32 laUi tons. 
Government rdeases throi^h its depots and fair price shops amounted to 
about 39 lalh tons The number of fair price shops during 1958 reached 
the peak figure of about 50,000 


DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES 

The development programmes cover two types of schemes, viz» 
work schemes and supply schemes The former include the construction 
and repair of wells, tanks, small dams, charm pTs and tubeiv cUs, the mstalla- 
^on of \\^ter lifting apphances such as pumps, etc , schemes of contour- 
bimding and the clearance and reclamation of %\'asteland The supply 
s™S^^ distribution of fertilisers, organic manures and unproved 

I^nng 1958-59, a ceiling of Rs 26' 1 crores had been intimated to the 
n Central assistance. An allotment of 

r u crores was also made for sbort-tenn loans to State Governments 
or the purchase and distnbutioQ of fertilisers and improved seeds A 
special prmTsion of Rs 3*4 crores %\as made for the expansion of minor 
imgauon facihnes 


Minor Imgation 

Under the project for the construction of tubetscUs sponsored hy die 
owei-nment of India under die Indo-Amencan Technical Assistance 
tubnveUs ivere drilled, 2,976 completed ^v^th pumping 
nnri ® ^ V commission during 1958 nil the 

350 tubeivclls of the projector 700 tube- 

rcmaimig tub^^elk of tho 19S4 
270 uere d nlled and energised up to November 30, 1958. 

to Pakist^ ~ 








257 


Under the project for the construction of tuhewells with GMF assistance in 
North Gujarat, taken up during the First Plan period, 400 tubeweils were 
drilled, while 358 were energised and put into commission 

Out of the total Second Plan programme for the construction of 1,500 
tubeivells in U P , 587 tubeweils were drilled, 419 completed with pumping 
sets and 320 energised upto November 30, 1958 In Bombay, 31 tubeweils 
were dnlled, ivhde in Assam 9 tubeweUs were drilled and 2 completed 
wth pumpmg sets and 2 energised For technical reasons, 'the target in 
Bombay was reduced from 400 to 270 tubeweils 

Under the Ground-water Fxploration Project, exploratory dnllings 
were completed in Bihar, Kerala, Kutch, Madras, Andhra Pradesh and 
Punjab. Of the exploratory bores dnlled, 6 wells in Bihar, 1 m Kerala, 
4 in Kutch, 27 m Madras, 11m Andhra Pradesh and 1 1 in Punjab yidded 
suffiaent quantities of water and were converted into production tubeweils. 
Similarly, of the exploratory wells drilled, 13 m U P , 16 m "West Bengal 
and 3 m Orissa were converted into production tubeweils. 

Land Reclamation 

' Duni^ 1958, the Central Tractor Organisation (CTO) reclaimed 
39,000 acres olkans land and 3,000 acres of jungle land, besides carrying 
out levelhng and terraemg work over an area of 4,000 aci es, bringing the 
progressive total of area reclaimed by it since its inception to 16.67 lakh 
acres. 

Five Umts of the Central Tractor Organisation were transferred 
to Bandakaranya Administration on October 31, 1958. 

At the Tractor Training Centre, Budni, Madhya Pradesh, set up 
with the assistance of T C M , £0 students completed their training, bringing 
the total number of persons trained at the Centre since its inception in 
July 1956 to 261. 


Multiplication and Distribution of Improved Seeds 

^ In pursuance of the recommendaUons made by the F A O Conference 
at Its 9 th session, an ad hoc Committee was appointed in October 1953, for 
organismg and conducting the NaUonal Seed Campaign, with a view to 
further intensifying the programme for the produenon and distnbution of 
high quality seeds. 

As a part of the Rabi Campaign, supplies of 7.83 lakh maunds of 
^eat seed were ^^ged from surplus areas for the States of Rajasthan, 
Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal Arrangements 
WCTC also made for the supply of paddy seeds from >Sdhra Pradlsh and 

^ Andaman and Nicobar IslancS 

Administration. 1,390 seed farms were expected to be set up dunng 1 958-59. 

Manures and Fertilisers 

22,2 laKh tons of compost manure was prepared 
kS 1958^59 the ta^^eT™ te 40 

a™™ “d 

conunued in order to use about I 530 lakh 
development of locll f 

raourcM, ^ schemes wtre put into operauon with the object of fri law^r 

in N E rBbS- production of manme 
fm'i ^ ' producoon of compost manure in village panchavatt- 

mght-soil composting on pilot basis in smaller villal« and 



258 


adopted measures to propagate green manuring practices hy arranging 
distnbutitm of green manure seeds and organising spedal campaigns. In 
Bihar, a pilot project for composting night soil and village refuse ivas 
taken up m 50 viUages. 

The consumption of nitrogenous fertilisers in terms of ammomum 
sulphate was likely to nse to about 9 lakh tons during 1958-59. The 
availabUity is likely to be of the order of 6 02 lakh tons of ammomum 
sulphate (made up of 3.35 lakh tons from the Smdn Factory, 0 65 lakh tons 
from other mdigenous sources and 2.02 lakh tons from imports) and 2 80 
lakh tons (in terms of ammonium sulphate) of other nitrogenous fertilisers, 
namely, urea, ammonium sulphate nitrate and calcium ammonium mtrate. 

^ The system of granting short-term loans to the States for the purchase 
of nitrogenous fertihsers from the Pool and other fertihsers from the open 
market, and for thdr sale to cultivators on credit basis, as frr as possible, 
tvas contmued. Ammomum sulphate for distnbution to cultivators ivas 
bang made available to States at a uniform rate of Rs 350/- per ton. The 
system of subsidismg the sale of phosphatic manures and fertilisers ivas 
contmued 

The Fertiliser (Control) Order, 1957, which controls quahty and price 
of fertihser materials, was enforced mil States and 3 Union Temtones. 


Planl ProtecUon and Locust Control 

^ The Directorate of Plant Protection, Quarantine and Storage 
continued to assist the States with technical advice, equipment and 
personnel in controlhng crop pests and diseases through its 14 Central 
Plant Protection Stations Assistance was sought to control a serious 
outbreak of gundhybug pests of paddy cropm several States in north 
Incha and some pests of groundnut, jowar and cotton in Andhra Pradesh, 
Madras, Mysore, and Onssa, Assistance ivas given also for fumigating 
15 lakh maunds of wheat in Bihar. Intensive plant protection work m 
selected gram panchayat areas ^vas also earned out by the Central Stations 
Aenal pests control operations ■were undertaken over a total area of about 
19,000 acres 

The Quarantine stations at the sea and air ports continued to carry 
quarantine inspection and treatment of plants and plant matenals imported 
from foragn countries by sea and air. 


Crop Campaigns 

j ^bi Production campa^ was launched m 9 States 

riz , Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Bombay, Madhya Pradesh, Mysore, Puniah, 
RajM^an, Uttar Pradesh and Delln for mobilising and co-ordmatmg J 
available resources and agencies in the task of raising the production of 
tour major foodcrops namely wheat, barley, gram and lowm-. The out- 
standing feature of the campaign was the emplasis on non-offiaal partici- 
pation, the creation of rathusiasm among farmcis, and the mobilisation of 
iarmers efimts— the Government agencies mainly providmg technical 
guidance and roncrete assismnce in managing timely suppbes of the ivhere- 
c^paign, the Statcs^conccntrated theif 
efforts on certmu selected Items of work, such as, timely supply of improved 
treatment of seeds against seed-hoL &es, provision 
of imgation facilities, supply of improved agricultural implement, insecti- 
ades, pesuades agricultural credit. Steps were^en to oSSSe 
m augment the efforts of thc^normal extension ^cy. 

dis^buXTaS ° <^P“gn included the produSi^a/d 
infonnation material, award of community 
accrumg fr^m the mtroSTSf 
improved vanctiw of seeds and of unproved agncultural practices 



259 


AGBIGULTURAL MARKETING 

The development of agricultural marketing aims at securing to the 
farmer his due share of the price paid by the consumer and at subserving 
the needs of planned development. This object is sought to be achieved 
through the regulation of market practices, standardisation and gradmg 
of agnculturd commodities and other allied development activities. 

Grading and Standardisation 

Grading of agncultural commodities is carried out under the 
Agricultural Produce (Gradmg and Marking) Act, 1937. The Act 
cOTCis 38 commodities and grade standards have been prescribed for 117 
varieties. The Act is permissive and over 380 grading centres for gheOf 
vegetable oils, creamery butter, rice, wheat, atta, gar, eggs, fruits, etc., have 
been orgamsed In respect of sunn-hemp fibre, cigarette tobacco leaf, 
wool, bristles, lemon-grass oil and sandalwood oil, there is a provision for 
compulsory gradmg under ‘Agmark’ before export. Demand for these 
commodities m foreign markets is gradually increasing. During 1957-58, 
the export value of Siese commodities amounted to 27 53 crores and 
in 1958-59 (five months) to Rs. 12.65 crores. 

Regulated Markets 

Reguladon of markets aims at elhmnating unhealthy market practices 
and reduang marketing charges with a view to benefiting the producer. 
The regulated markets are managed by market committees comprising 
nommees of growers, traders, local bodies and the State Government. 
Market charges are ^ed, correct weighment is ensured and unauthorised 
deductions are disallowed So far, 550 regulated markets have been set 
up m seven States, ^ 

Development of the Fruit PreservcUion Industry 

Under the Fruit Products Order, 1955, control is being exercised oh 
the fiiut and vegetable preservation industry so as to ensure immmum 
quahty standards m regard to the hygiene and samtation of factories, 
quahty of products, markmg, proper labellmg and packmg of different fruit 
products. In 1957, the production of various fhait products amounted to 
25,000 tons as against 23,000 tons m 1956 , dunng the same period, the 
exports mcreased fiom 13,000 tons to 18,000 tons 

Marketable Surplus 

A pilot survey for determming the marketable jmrplus of majot 
foodgrams, mz , wheat, nee, jowar and bajra is in progress 

Co-operative Marketing and Processing 

An mtegrated programme of cO‘Operative development embracing 
credit, marketing, processing, warehousing and storage was formulated 
on the basis of the recommendations of the Rural Credit Survey Committee 
of the Reserve Bank. In the sphere of marketing, it was envisaged that about 
10 per cent of the marketable surpluses, disposed of by the cultivators, should 
be sold through co-operative marketing institutions by 1960-61 In 1956 
the Agncultural Produce (Development and Warehousmg) Corporation Act 
was enacted for facilitating the implementation of the above programme. 
A National Co-operative Development and Warehousmg Board was set 
up to plan and promote programmes for the production, processing 
marketing, storage, warehousing, etc , of agncultural produce throuch cS 
operative societies. Dunng the first two years of the Second Plan, assutance 
was given to marketing co-operatives and large-sized co-operative soaedes 
for the construction of 1,983 godowns Construction of 1,090 godoivns at 
a total cost of Rs. 1 *59 crores is envisaged by these societies in 1958-59. 



260 


Out of 35 new co-operative sugar factories envisaged in the Second 
Plan, 23 have been licensed. Loans advanced to State Governments to 
enable them to participate in the share capital of co-operative sugaf 
factones amounted to about Rs 3 '08 crorcs The Industrial Fmance 
Corporation also sanctioned loans of the order Rs. 13 54 crorcs to these 
factories for meeting dieir block capital requirements As against 166 
other processmg umts, such as cotton gins, oil mills, jute baling plants, 
etc , envisaged m the Second Plan, 25 co-operative processing units Nvere 
set up in 1956-57 and 37 umts in 1957-58. 

. Central Warehousmg Coiporation has so far started 9 ^varehouscs 

m hned accommodation. State Warehousing Corporations have been 
estabhshed m 12 States, 


r forests cover 2 81 lakh sq miles, that is, about 22*3 per cent 

o c total geograpbical area of the country. The per capita forest area 
^ in me U S S R , 1 8 hectares in the U.S.A., whereas it is 

only 0 2 hec^es in India, Not only is the forest area proportionately 
smaller in India but it is also unevemy distnbuted and the productivity 
armuin IS 2 '5 eft, which is substantially below me average 
r such as. Prance. 56'8 eft , Japan 37 0 

National Forest 

Strf+o proposed that the area under forests be steadily 

at bpinff fin n proportion to be aimed 

mbip ^ Plains* The 

1954-W shows the area under forests in the five years ending 


TABLE 136 


area under forests 


— — (Sn tmUi) 


1950-51 

1951-52 

1952-53 

1953-54 

1954-55 

I. From ont^tora point of 
view 

(a) Mcrdiantable 
tfr) Inaccessible 

TOTAL 

2 By Le^ Statna 

(b) Reserved . . 

l6) Protected , 

(c) Undassed 

TOTAL 

3 By Gompositioa 

(al Coiuferoiu . 1 

(6) Broadleaved ' 

^*1 Sal 1 

(iij Teak 1 

{»i) Muc 

TOTAL 

2,25,714 

51,518 

2,13,132 

70,202 

2,16,385 

63.963 

2,26,269 

54,119 

2,29,949 

50,947 

2,77,232 

2,83,334 

2,80,348 

2,80,388 

2,80,896 

1,32,975 

45,532 

98,725 

1, 33,138 
47,910 
102.286 

1,34,492 

52,685 

93,171 

1,35,801 

61,689 

82,898 

1,38,056 

62,604 

80,236 

2,77,232 

2,83,334 

2,80,348 

2,80,388 

2,80,896 

14,107 

40,747 

16,784 

2,05,684 

13,152 

39,686 

19,818 

2,10,678 

12,183 

42,725 

1 18,962 

2,06,478 

9,377 

43,025 

21,918 

2,06,068 

9,523 

41,018 

22,391 

2,07,964 

2,77,2Sr 

2,63,334 

2,80,348 

2,30,388 

2,80,896 


Pnduetton i 


ptoduMd during 95 ^ 5 ®.°^ timber Md &mood 




















262 


Apart from prowding the raw materials for paper, match^vood and 
ply^vood mdustnes, Jbrests aic also the source of a number of mmor foret 
TOoducts like gum, resins, tannmg matenals, medicinm herbs, etc., 
are essential for certain mdustnes or serve as valuable articles of »port. 
Table 138 shoira the value of minor forest produce during the years lyou-ai 
to 1954-55» 


VALUE OF MINOR FOREST PRODUCE 



nm 

Fibres and 1 

Gums 

Otber 

[ Total 

Year 


and 

minor 



Resms 

products 


1950-51 

i 1,52,00 

52 

4,193 

4,98,03 

6,92,48 

1951-52 

1,24,90 

42 

74,68 

5,05,88 

7,05,88 

1952-53 

88,41 

49 

76,77 

4,28,34 

5,9401 

1953-54 

94,99 

128 

78,97 

4,55,53 

6,30,77 

1954-55 

1,28,77 

55 

90,99 

5,53,56 

7,73,87 


Development Schemes 

Forestry schemes for which Rs, 24 73 crores have been prowdcd 
in the Second Plan aim at the rehabilitatiou of about 3*80 lakh acra ot 
degraded forests and the plantation of 50,000 acres with commerd^ 
important species bte teak, 13,000 acres with watde and blue-gum and 2,^ 
acres wth medicmal plants Another 50,000 acres are to be brought under 
matchwood plantations It is also proposed to undertake plantaoons 
along canal banks^ and roads, on viUagc waste lands and as shelter-belts. 
The programme also provides for the devriopment of forest roads, adoption 
or better techniques umber extraction, establishment of umber treating 
and seasoning plants and oigamsaUon for survey of forest resources Stem 
were initiated to set up a Forest Research Centre for the southern region and 
for that purpose the Mysore Government’s research laboratory at Bangalore 
%vas taken over by the Central Government* 

Extraction of Andamans timber is now being increasingly done to 
meet home demands ; exports to foreign countriesnemg confined only t® 
meeung past comimtments. Nearly 38,410 tons of timber was extracted by 
Government in middle and south islands and 10,072 tons by a pnvate 
company m north islands dunng the first mne months of 1958. Exports 
to mainland during the same period were 22,375 tons by Government and 
10,563 tons by tiie private company. 

Sell Conservatton 


^c^ive de-forestation, over-stocKng of grazing lands and unsuitable 
methods of agriculture have been the mmor causes of erosion* Soil conser- 
TOUon wk on sj-stcmauc lines was started during the First Five Year 
n ^ co-ordinated under the Central Soil Conservation 

regional research-cum-demonstration centres at 
Chandigarh, Jaipur, Beilary, Ootacamimd 
m\esugate the specific soil conservation problems. The 
important programmes of sod conservation mcludea pasture development 
scheme, which envisages the setting up of 100 demonstration blocks of 200 









263 


acres each during the Second Plan period ; training of soil conversation 
officers and assistants ; and an all-India soil and land use survey with 
particular reference to the catchment areas of six major nver valley 
projects, mz.i Kosi, Damodar, Chambal, Bhalua, Hirakud and Machkund 
Dunng the first two years of the Second Plan, an area of 4*9 lakh acres 
was protected through soil conservation measures. Dunng 1958-59, 171 
soil conservation schemes uivolvmg an outlay of about Rs. 4*5 crores were 
approved. 


AKIMAL HUSBA2«DRir AND nSHERlES 

Table 139 shows the number of livestock, poultry and agricultural 
machinery according to the qumquenmal censuses of 1951 and 1956. 

The object of Government pohcy in regard to the development of 
ammal husbandry in the country is to develop the milking capacity of well- 
defined milk breeds by selective breeding and upgrading of the non- 
descript cattl^ and improvement of draught breech in milk yield without 
impainng the quahtyof the bullocks. The above objects are sought to 
be achieved through Key Village Scheme, Gaushala Development Scheme 
and Gosadan Scheme. 


TABLE 139 

CENSUS OF IXVESTOGK, POULTRY AND AGRICULTURAL MACHINERy 


A— LIVESTOCK 

1. Cattle 

(a) Males over 3 yean 
Females over 3 years 
(c) Young stock . , , , 

TOTAL CATTLE 

2. BoRaloes 

tel Males over 3 years 
(&) Females over 3 years , 
(c) Young Stock 
TOTAL BUFFALOES 

3 Sheep 

4 Goats . , 

5 Horses and pomes . . 

6, Other livestock** 

TOTAL LIVESTOCK 
B— POULTRY 

O— AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY 

1 Ploughs 

(0) wooden 

(1) Iron 

2 Cam 

Sugarcane Cnishers 
(fl) Worked by powa 
IbyBuIlot 


M Worl 
Worl 
Engui 


1951 census 


) Worked by bullocks 
d Engines (with pumps for imgation 
purposes) 

5 Llcctnc Pumps (for irrigatloa purposes) i 
7 agricultural purposes only) 


fol Fite seers and more 
[b) Less than fi\e seen 


(lakhs) 


649 

499 

438 

l,587t I 

65 

223 

I6I 

449 

392 

554 

15 

68 

3,065 

947 

(thousands) 

36,615 

1,367 

10,991 

23 

545 

122 

55 

21 

96 

212 


(lakhs) 


618 

499 

435 

1,552 


219 

147 

434 

390 

471 

•15 

64 

2,926 

735 

(thousands) 

31,809 

930 

9,854 

21 

503 

82 

25 

9 

242 

204 


•Figures are subject to revision 
••Compnses mules, donkey's, camds and pigs, 
tindudes 86,200 fbr^uhlch dchulr are not avmlabV. 






264 


Kty Village Scheme 

This scheme represents a comprehensive effort for increasing the 
producbve capacity of the cattle m the countrv — both in regard to 
production and draught capaat) , Intensive development measures arc being 
undertaken m selected suitable centres called the Key Village Blocks through 
controlled breeding, proper feeding and management, disease control and 
nnprovement of marketing arrangements Durmg the First Plan, 555 Key 
Village Umts and 146 artificial inscmmation centres ere established in Ae 
county’. In 1957-58, 72 new Key Village Blocks, each wth artifidal 
inscndnation centres, 23 artifiaal insemination centres m urban areas and 
23 Key ^^llIage Extension Centres w ere set up Development of pastures, 
popuJansatson of the growing of fodder crops, especially the l^ume, 
balanced feedmg of cattle and conservation of fodder are also being 
encouraged m the Key Village areas, 

Gosadan Scheme 

The object of the scheme is to remove old, infirm and unproductive 
cattle from the areas of active development ivork and to maintain them 
economically in gosadans established in the interior forest areas and other 
waste lands which are not fully utilised at present The scheme also 
emnsages the scientific and economic utilisation of the remains of dead 
ammak in rtese centres Dunng the First Plan period, 25 gosadans were 
established in different States The Second Plan envis^cs the establishment 
of 60 go adans. Up to the end of 1957-58, 21 new gosadans and 5 
malfljflrhad been established. 


Go/shala Devebpment Scheme . ^ 

This scheme envisages the utilisation of the resources available ivitii 
the gaushalas and the orgamsation of their \sorking on scientific basis so 
as to supplement governmental efforts for cattle development. Under this 
scheme, financial and technical assistance is pronded to gaushalas Against 
a total target of the development of 350 gaushalas in the Second Plan, 132 
gaushalas were extended assistance up to die cud of 1957-58, 

Poullry Development 


thr poultry is considered important for improving 

the nf countTV’k food supphtt and for improving 

The Second Plan which has made a 
SenTof development envisages the cstablish- 

Sori S'^^^hay (AareyMBk Colony), 

extension centres demonstration and 

distribute imumverJ *^hjcct of the regional farms will be to develop and 

^“«her development ^Tfac 

Dairj Schemes 


milk supply ^ Second Plan include 36 urban 

ment programmes. oi Rs 2 9 croies was made for dairy develop- 

collcction and chdhnp central dairy and three milk 

complctton WoT^f S SchW is nearing 

Snsing Tlic expansion of Calcutta is pro- 

work on the preparation Colony continued and experimental 

assistance atnoununc to R« earned out with UNK^F 

w Ks. K 5 lakhs. Under the Madras Milk Project, 



265 


tenstniction of umts for housing cattle has started. Progress was also 
made in the implementation of milk supply schemes at Chandigarh, Hissar, 
Bangalore, Gaya, Trivandrum, Agait^a and Sholapur. Schemes for the 
supply of milk m Patna, Jaipur, Bhopal, Coimbatore, Cuttack, Hyderabad 
and N^ur were also taken up. A s^eme for supplymg about 400 maunds 
of milk to Ahmedabad was started. It was proposed to expand the scheme 
to a capacity of about 1,500 maunds of milk daily with the assistance of 
Rs. 15 84 lakhs from the UNICEF. 

The Kaira Co-operauve Milk Union, Anand, increased its production 
of butter and skimmed milk powder and also started the production of 
condensed milk Work was ^o started on the establishment of a milk 
powder factory at Madras as also on creamenes at Baraum, Ahgarh and 
jimagadh. 

Development of Fisheries 

Out of the total outlay of about Rs. 12 crores allocated for the 
development of fisheries durmg the Second Plan, about Rs. 3 98 crores 
were set apart for the Central fisheries schemes relating to marine and 
inland fisheries research, technological research, development of fishing 
harbours, exploratory fishing stauons, extension and training. FmanciJil 
and technical assistance to State Governments is being given for the survey, 
production, preservation, storage, marketmg and transport of fish and for 
the organisation of fishermen’s co-operatives 

The total production of fish was about 12 33 lakh tons in 1957, while 
the total manne fish landmgs showed an increase of 22 per cent over the 
1956 figures The foreign experts available under the assistance extended 
by FAO, TCM and Norway for fishery development programmes connnued 
to assist in the development of fishmg harbours, introduction of new types 
of fishing gear and use of mechanised aids by fishermen Under the Colombo 
Plan, the services of four Master Fishermen were obtained from Japan. 
The number of fishenes extension umts, which render technical adwee and 
assistance to State fishenes departments, fishermen and fish farmers, rose 
from 7 to 9 dunng 1957-58 

' The Central Board of Fisheries has been established to co-ordinate 
and integrate the acuvities m the field of fisheries development and research 
throughout India An Expert Committee for lugher fisheries training 
programme has also been set up The research activities of the Central 
Inland Fishenes Research Station, Calcutta, and Central Maime Fisheries 
Research Station, Mandapam, were expanded durmg the year. The latter 
stauon established three additional centres dunng the year. The Deep 
Sea Fishing Station, Bombay, contmued its programme of training Indian 
officers m deep sea fishmg methods. 

AGRICULTURAL WORKERS 

According to the 1951 census, the number of cultivating labourers 
in the country ivas 4 9 crores, consdtutmg about 20 per cent of the total 
agncultural population According to the reports of the &st AU-India 
Agncultural Labour Enquiry conducted dunng 1950-51, about 30’4 
per cent of rural famihes were agncultural labourers, half of them possessing 
no land whatever and the other half owmng some land ^ 

The inquiry further revealed that 85 per cent of the agricultural 
labourers had only casual work, mostly in connecUon with harvesting 
weeding, ploughing, etc. The average annual income per family from 
sources was Rs 447 and the average per capita mcome amounted lo Rs 104 
compared with the national average of Rs 264 in that year. The extent 
of employment varied under different condiuons in diflfcent parts of the 



266 


country, the average being 218 days in the year — 189 days in agricultural 
work and 29 days m non-agricultural work. There ivas “work wth u’agcs 
for about seven months in the year, total unemployment for about three 
months and some kind of self-employment for less than tivo months. 
Nearly 15 per cent of agricultural labourers were “attached” to landotvners 
and worked for them on an average for 326 days while casual labourers 
had work only for 200 days in the year About 16 per cent of agricultural 
workers had no wage-earmr^ employment at all durmg the year. 

The problem of the amdioration of agricultural labourers is intiinately 
rdated to the basic problem of poverty. The solution does not he merely 
m the distribution of land Thus apart &om the general measures of 
economic development, espeaally more mtcnsive and diversified occupa- 
tional structure m rural areas, specific measures such as resettlement 
schemes, fonnation of labour co-operatives, allotment of house-sites and 
enforcement of minimum wages are bemg implemented. 

Minimum Wages 

Durmg the First Plan period, minimum wages were fixed throughout 
the Punjab, Rajasthan, Onssa, Ajmer, Goorg, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, 
Kutch and Tnpura In seven other States, minimum \vages have been 
fixed m certain specified areas The Second Plan has recommended diat 
minimum wages be prescribed m all the States and for all the areas. 

Second Agricultural Labour Enquiry 

The field work of the second All-India Agricultural Labour Enquiry 
integrated with the eleventh and twelfth rounds of the National Sample 
Survey for a period of 12 months from September 1956 to the end of 
August 1957, was completed in about 3,600 villages selected on the prmdple 
of stratified random samplmg Information was collected on ^vages and 
earnings, employment and unemployment, mcome and consumption 
expenditure and mdebtedness for about 28,000 sample agricultural labour 
households The mam tabulauons have been completed by the Indian 
Statistical Institute, Calcutta, and furnished to the Ministry of Labour 
and Employment Before a comprehensive all-India report on agricultural 
labour is prepared, a brochure on the sul^ect will be brought out by the 
Ministry of labour and Employment* 

Eural Consumer Pnee Index Scheme 

Compilation is m progress of consumer price index numbers for 
agricultural labourers on the basis of the current rural retail prices for 
selected commodities supphed by the National Sample Survey Directorate 
and the weights provided by Ac first all-lnAa Agricultural X.abour 
Enquiry (1950-51). 




Tala-Fison are the biggest fonnulators in India of pesticides for use in 
agncuUure and public health pest control measures. Manufactured in 
modern factories which are the largest of their kind in India, these 
products have a nation-wide disinbuiion, backed by a Technical Extension 
Service available to the individual farmer and to Government and 
Municipal authorities. 

Of significance is the increasing awareness of the immense benefits of 
chemical control of pests, commencing with the discovery of DDT in 1942 
in Switzerland by Geigys— and now, as never before, available m India in 
plenty through the splendid achievement of large scale manufacture of 
DDT by Hindusihan Insecticides Private Ltd , a Government of India 
undertaking. 

DDT IS the active ingredient of the majority of the formulated products. 
7lie range o/Tata-Fison products includes: 

HOUSEHOLD PRODUCTS 

Ncocid Powder Ncocid Spray Gcigy Diazinon 20E 
PUBLIC HEALTH PRODUCTS 

Gcigy 3I0“Gcigy Malana Spray-Geigy 16% DDT ES-Gcigy 25% 
DDT ES-Gcigy 357o DDT ES-Gcigy Industnal Spray-Geigy Industnal 
Powdcr-Gcigy Diazinon 20E”Hcxidolc 80S-Hcxidolc 810-Hcxidolc 950. 
AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS 

Gucsarol 405-Gucsarol 550-Gcigy 33-Gcigy 33A-Gcigy 33A‘5-Gcigy 
Mango ES-Hcxidolc 805-Hexidolc 810-Hcxidolc 950-Gcigy 1250 
Bhlox 50-Basudm lOW-Basudin 20E-Akar 338-AKar 2% Dust 
Ultrasulphur-Gcigy Vegetable Dust 
RODENT! CtDES 

Tomonn Tracking Powder-Tomorin Bail Conccniratc-Tomorin 
Water Soluble* 


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United India Life Bldg, 
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FOR EVERY REST 



CHAPTER XXI 


LAND REFORM* 

The framework of a national land policy set out in the First Five- 
Year Plan recognised that the pattern of land ownership and cultivation 
was a ftindamental issue in national development. It made certam 
recommendations for bnngmg about a gradual transition from a land 
system based on the exploitation of the cultivator to one in which the 
actual tdler would receive the maximum return from his labour and have 
the requisite incentive to raise productivity m agriculture The policy 
was restated m the Second Plan \vith certam shifts m emphasis and direction 
necessitated by the expenencc gamed during the First Plan period The 
objectives of fhe land pohcy m Plan are firstly, to remove such impedi- 
ments in the way of agncultural production as arise from the character 
of the agrarian structure and to create conditions for evolvmg as speedily 
as possible an z^ranan economy mth high levels of efficiency and pro- 
ductivity and, secondly, to establish an e^htarian sodety and eliminate 
social mequahties. 


ABOLmON OF INTERMEDIAKIES 

Most of the work relating to the enactment of laivs and the acquisition 
of mtermediary areas has been undertaken and mtermedianes have almost 
entirely been abolished , the occupants have been brought m direct contact 
^vlth the State and uncultivated lands, forests etc have been acquired and 
arc bemg administered directly by the State or through local agencies 
such as the village panchayats 

^ The progress made m the implementation of the programme of 
abolition of mtermedianes in the States is shown below : 


State 


Present position 


Andhra Pradesh 


Assam 


Bihar 


Bomhar 


• Fo- 


Intcrmcdiancs have been abolished in the area covered 
by the former State of AndW In 1958, certam 
categories of warn estates, such as post— 1936 tnam 
estates which had earher been left out of the purview 
of the hladras Bstates (Abolition and Oonversion 
into Ryotwan) Act, as applicable to Andhta area 
were brought wiihin its purview In the Telangana 
area, have been abolished Though legislation 
for abohtion of tnam was enacted m 1954, its 
implementation has been held up 

The rights of the higher dass of mtennedianes 
{ZamtnaaTs} have been acquired throughout Goalpara 
distnct with an area of about 18 2 lalh acra 
second class of intcnncdiancs 
acquired in respect of about 

44,000 acres 

Int^edianes have been abolished Legislation has 
been amended to remove difficulties m Uie man^e- 
ment of vested estates and to eimeditc pasment of 
compensation 

The almhtion of non*ryotwan tenures has been 
completed vnih the exception of certain tnamr 


Ohaptcr*XXIoPlNDS growth of the agrarian problem see 


269 


State 


FfC&CDt poddtsn 


Jammii and Kadunir 

Kerala 

Madhya Fradesb 

Madras 

Mysore 

Onssa 

Punjab 

Rajasthan 


Uttar Pradesh 

West Bengal 


In the area covered by the former Bombay State 
and Marathwada area, legislation was passed m 
1958 for abolition of the uifenor viUa^ tvalans 
Legislation for abobuon of znanir in the Kutch area 
has also been enacted 

Legislation for abobtion of intermediary interests m 
land held by occupancy tenants and mfenor owners 
IS under consideratioa of the State Government. 
A ceilmg has, however^ been imposed and no 
mtermed^y holds more than 22} acres 
The Bills for abolition ofjemni tenure in the Tranvan- 
core^area and for abolition of intermediary rights in 
respect of temple lands are awaibng enactment 
Edavagm tenure has been abolish^ 

Intermcmary tenures have generally been abolished. 
A Bill has been introduced to abolidi muc^ and 
inams m the former Madhya Bharat area 
Intermediaries have been abolished with the exception 
of post-1936 inam and ramor inami. 

In the area of the former Mysore State, legislatian 
for the abohtioii of personal and miscwaneous 
tnams has been enacted In the Kamataka area, 
jttgirs have been resumed Legislation enacted for 
abolition of itums is yet to be implemented 
Superior rights m permanently settled and temporarily 
settled zamndart estates have been abolished Some 
inams and subordinate tenures of intermediary 
nature remam to be abolished. 

Intermediary tenures like supenor owners and 
landlords of lands held by occupancy tenants have 
been abolished and mfenor owners and occupancy 
tenants have been made owners of their lands 
In the former Rajasthan area, ja^n with rental mcome 
of Rs 2 98 crores have been resumed The 
Rjuasthan Land Reforms and Resumption of Jagirs 
Act has been amended so as to provide tor resumption 
01 jagirs held by chantable institutions, or those for 
the performance of rehgious services as well, 
A Bill for abolition of zamindan and hsaedari 
tenures has been enacted In the Ajmer area, 
mtates with a total rental income of Rs 14 69 lakhs 
have been resumed. 

Intermedianes have been abolished except in the 
Kumaon Hills m regard to which a Bilf has been 
for abolition of the 
JtukedttTt system m Government estates has b r m 
enacted 

All intermediary interests were acquued by April 1955. 


The table bdow broadly indicates the position in regard to abobtion 
of mtermediancs for the country as a whole : 


TABLE 140 


AREA UNDER intermediaries 


Percentage 
of total area 


Area in which intermediary tenures existed 
Area m which intermediaries still itmam 


43 

40 

38 



270 


The following table gives the Statc-wse break-up of the estimates 
of the compensation payable and amount already paid to intermediaries, 
at the end of 1957 : 


TABLE 1« 

COMPENSATION PAYABLE AND PAID FOR ABOIXTION OF XNTERMCDlAIOES 


(As before Reorgatnsation of States) 

{In ernes of rupees) 



Compematton 
and rchabih* 
lation grant 
payable (m- 
dudbng 
interest) 

Amount 

Paid 

Andhra Pradesh ,, .. 

g 60 

4 59* 

A^ .. 

5 18 

0 02 

Bihar 


3 70** 

Bombay . 

20 89 

0 14 

Hyderabad 

15 18 

6 64 

Madhya Pradesh . ., ,, 

22 10 

9 78 

Madras .. 

4 81 

3 19 

Mysore .. 

1 80 



10 50 

0*47 

Rajasthan (including Ajmer) 

35 SB 

6 40 

Saurashtra , , ^ 1 

in 9n 

2 62 

Travancorc-Godun . , . [ 



Uttar Pradesh 

179 00 

59 73 

West Bengal . , 

70 00 

1 59 

Total 

625 25 

98 B7 


tenancy reform 

The principal objectives of tenancy reform recommended by the 
rlam^g Commission arc (i) reduction of rents, (») security of tenure 
and (m) oiraership for tenants. The progress made in these directions is 
outlmed beloiv . 

ilndftrc Pradesh 


In the former Andhra area, tenants in possession on Tunc 1, 1956, 
^ve been given a minimum term of four years and tenants admitted after 
this date a mmun u m tenn of six yeaira The rent is not to exceed 50 
ptt cent of the gross produce for lands under Government imgation sources, 
by bSi^r^ ^ irrigation 

♦ Tdangana area, tenants are classified mto (») protected 

tenants (aU tenants of persons owning an area of more than 3 family 
Sat AS contmuous possession for six years on prescribed 

,.fwt ordin^ tenants Protected tenants have fixity of tenure 

cultivation up to 3 
Protected tenants have an optional nght to acquire 
provided the ownerVholdmg i? not 
holdings The purchase price vanes between 
16 The Trot ^ ^ pa^ble m half-yearly instalments not exceedmg 

t Includiag the former Madhya Bharat, Vindhya Pradesh and Bhopal areas. 












271 


Assam 

A landlord may resume land from tenants for personal cultivation 
up to 33 I /3 acres subject to a minimum of 3 1/3 acres until alternative land 
is provided by Government. The nght of resumption is permitted to 
owners whose prinapal source of income for maintenance is from cultivation 
of land. The crop-share rent is not to exceed one-fourth where the cost 
of cultivation is met by the landlord, and one-fifth m other cases. The 
cash rent payable by a tenant in permanently settled areas is not to exceed 
100 per cent of rent payable by his landlord j it is 50 per cent in temporarily 
settied areas. 


Bihar 

Bight of occupancy accrues after 12 years of continuous possession. 
Cash rent is not to exceed by more than 50 per cent of the rental value, 
if the land is held under a registered lease, and 25 per cent in other cases. 
Tl^^roducc rent is not to exceed 7/20^ of the gross produce excluding 


The Bihar Land Commission has set up four teams for visiting various 
States to study the progress of land reforms. Comprehensive land reform 
legislation is expected to be undertaken after these teams have reported* 


Bombay 

In the area of the former State of Bombay a landlord can resume 
one-half of the area provided that together witii the land held under his 
personal cultivation it does not exceed three economic holdmgs (12 to 48 
acres). In the non-resumable area tenants are deemed to have acquired 
ownership except where the landlord has less than an economic holding 
(3 to 12 acres). The maximum rent is not to exceed one-sixth of the gross 
produce or five times the land revenue, whichever is less. In the Marath- 
position IS the same as that obtaining in the Telangana area 
of Andhra Pradesh Legislation has been amended providing for reduction 
of rent to one^^sixth of the produce and conferring nght of purchase on 
ordinary tenants. 


j Bombay Tenancy and Agricultural Lands (Vxdarbha region 
and Kutch area) Act, 1958 provides for fixity of tenure subject to landlord’s 
nght to rpume land up to 3 family holdings for personal cultivation 
Provision has been made for enabling the State Government to transfer 
ownership to tenants with effect from Apnl I, 1961. Tenants have 
^Sng^ purchase provided the landlord is left with 


Jammu and Kashmir 

The limt of rat^ption of land for personal cultivation is 2 acres of 
wet land or 4 ^es of land m Kashmir Province and 4 acres of wet land 
or 6 acres of dry land in Jammu Province The rent payable by tenants 

fo Tand 
Kerala 


In Coc^ area, the tenants have fixity of tenure and the landowners 
have no nght of munmtion. The ejectment of crop sharcra (who arc not 
^ated aa t^ts) has bean stayed In Travancore Trca also, fte qectaSt 
of tenants including crop shares) has been stayed <3ectment 

Ker^a Agranan Relations BiU which includes provisions for 

comprehenstve land reforms has been referred to the Select 



272 


Madhya Pradesh 

In the former Madhya Pradesh area, the law pro^des for conferment 
of occupancy right on tenants of lands which are let out for a penod of 
three years m any consecutive penod of five years In the former Vindhya 
Pradesh area, there is provision for secunty of tenure for a minimum term 
of 7 years for all tenants, resumption bemg penmtted at the end of this 
term for persona] cultivation The 7-year protection will expire in Apid 
1962 In the former Madhya Bharat and Bhopal areas, ejectment of 
tenants has been stayed 

The State Government have published the Land Revenue Code Bill 
which IS modelled largely on the hnes of similar legislation m old Madhya 
Pradesh. It seeks to achieve uniformity m the land revenue system m the 
entire reorganised State and also provides for a further measure of tenancy 
reform and a ceiling on future acquisition. 

Madras 

An interim measure for protection of tenants from eviction has been 
adopted. Landoivners oivning less than 13 1/3 acres of wet land are, 
however, entitled to resume for personal cultivation half the area held by 
a tenant, subject to a maximum of 5 acres of wet land Rent is not to 
exceed 40 per cent of produce for irrigated lands (35 per cent where im- 
gation IS supplemented by lift irrigation) and 33 1 /3 per ceut in other cases 

Mysore 

In the former Mysore State area, 6xity of tenure has been provided 
for tenants in continuous possession for 12 years prior ta April 1, 1951, 
subject to the landlord’s right to resume for personal cultivation an area 
ranging from 50 to 75 per cent of the tenancy, varyiiw accordmg to the extent 
of land held by the tenant from the landlord 

'Tv ^ comprehensive Land Reforms BiU has recently been introduced 
1 his will be appbcable to the entire reorganised State of Mysore Pend- 
ing enactment of this legislation ejectment of tenants has been stayed* 

Orisra 


Ejectment of all tenants has been stayed up to June 30, 1959 A 
landoivner holding less than 33 acres can, hoivever, resume for personal 
cuJtivauon an area up to 7 acres of wet land or 14 acres of diy laud The 
maximum rent has been fixed at one-fourth of the gross produce but not 
Receding 4 to 6 maunds of paddy per acre. The State Government have' 
prepared a draft Land Reforms M. 


Punjab 

i<^cr Punjab area, tenants have been given fixity of tenure 
fomirr unpci 1 resumc up to 30 standard acres. In the 

area, tenants in continuous possession of land for 12 years 
complete sccuntv of tenure in an area' 
irmee j ^ Standard acres The rent is not to exceed one-tlird of the 
STOSs produce or value thereof 

for Laws have been amended to provide safeguards 

flancy ‘o ^vade the proviTns of 


Pojesthan 

incom^or£'’‘|5on",“‘If'li.'° ^ ® “nual' 

produce With u 1 '' onc-sixth of the gross 

Korgunued S 01 ^ T throughout!^ 

Q oiaie, the Rajasthan tenancy and revenue laws have been 



273 


extended to the Ajmer area, Abu area (of former Bombay) and Sund area 
(of former Madh)a Bharat). 

Uilar Fradesh 

All tenants and sub-tenants have been brought into direct relation- 
ship with the State. They will continue to pay rents to the State at the 
casting rates and the State pay compensation to the landlords out of its 
increased rc\cnucs. 

West Bengal 

All ^cnt-rccci^dng interests have been acquired by the State and the 
under-r)o^ and their subordinate tenants have been brought into direct 
relationship ^.'ith the State Crop sharers {Bargadars) do not get tenancy 
status Crop share is not to exceed 50 per cent of the produce if the landlord 
contributes the cost of cultivation, and 40 per cent if he docs not. 

Union Tenttortes 

In Delhi, all tenants ha\c been made oivners of land on payment of 
a price ranging bch\cen 4 to 48 times the land revenue T!lic law has 
been already implemented in 131 out 306 villages and 7,800 tenants have 
been declared o^raers 

In Himachal Pradesh, occupancy tenants have optional rights to 
acquire o\\Ticrship on payment of compensation, 'ivhile m regard to non-, 
occupancy tenancy the landlord can resume for personal cultivation 
one-fourth of his tenancy subject to a maximum limit of 5 acres The 
rent is not to exceed one-fourth of the gross pioduce One thousand 
tenants were granted mraership rights in 1957-58 

In hlanipiir, ejectment of tenants has been stayed while m Tnpura 
fbdty of tenure for ^ots as well as undcr-^otr has been provided 


CEILING ON HOLDINGS 

The pnnriple that there should be a calmg on land holdmgs was 
accepted in the First Flan It was su^ested that a census of land holdings 
and cultivation should be held to m^e available the data relevant to the 
determination of the ceiUng limit The census was held m most of the 
States (see later m the chapter) The Second Plan reiterates the recom- 
mendation that there should be a ceding at three family holdmgs and reco- 
mmends that steps should be taien in each State to impose ceilings at 
existing holihngs during the Second Plan penod 

Criling has ti\ o aspects, namely, (t) ceihng oniuture acquisition, and 
(tj) ceihng on existing holdings Cahng on future acquisition has been 
imposed in the following States * 


Andhra Pradesh Telangana area 
Assam Plain districts 
Bombay Bombay area (ibrmer) 
^larathwada area 
Saarasbtra area . 
Vidarbha and Kutdi areas 


Jammu and Kashmir 

Madhya Fradoh Madhya Bharat area 
Rajasthan area 


Mysore Bombay area 

Hyderabad area 

Punjab 
Rajasthan (indu^g 
Ajmer area) 

Uttar Pradesh 


12 to 180 acres 
50 acres 
12 to 48 acres 
12 to 180 acres 
60 to 120 acres 
3 family holdmgs (area to be 
deteimmed tnbuntd) 
22i acres 
50 acres 

30 to 90 acres (varymg 
accordmg to me cl^ of 
soil). 

12 to 48 acres 
12 to 180 acres 
30 standard acres 
30 amgated acres or 90 dry 
acres 
12} acres. 



274 


West Bengal 
Ddhi 


25 acres 

30 standard acres 


Legislation has been enacted in the roIlo\Mng States on c\isiing 


holdings 

Andhra Pradesh 

Assam 

Bombay 


Jammu and Kashmir 

Mj3ore 

Pim]ab 


Ki^asthan 

West Bengal 
Hifnarbal Pradesh 


Tdangana area 
Flam distncts 
Marathuada area 
^^lda^bha and 
Kutch areas 

H>dcrabad area 
Fqmt area 


Ajmer area 


18 to 270 acres 
jO acres 
18 to 270 acres 

6 ramil) holdings 
22) acres 
18 to 270 acres 
30 standard acres (in ease o. 
displaced persons 40 slan- 
dam acres) 

50 acres (in ease of land held 
b> intcrmcdiana) 

25 acres 

30 acres in Chamba dutnet 
and area assessed at Rs 
125 in other areas 

In the Punjab, Government have been authorised to settle tenants on 
land under personal cultivation by landlords in excess of 30 standard 
acres In Kerala, the Agrarian Relations Bill \vhich is before the Select 
CSonmuttee provides foi fixation of ceiling on future acquisition and existing 
holdings varying firom 15 to 30 acres The Madli>-a Pradesh Land 
Revenue Code Bill, 1958, also provides for a ceiling on future acquisition, 
the limit bemg left to be prescribed by Rules In Ah-sore a Bill has been 
introduced providing ceihng on cxisung holdings ^ veil as on future 
acqi^tKm at an area -judding a net annual income of Rs 3,600 The 
-^dhra Pradesh Ceiling on Agricultural Holdings Bill, 1958, seeks to fix 
the ceitog on e^tmg holding at an area vidding a net annual income 
mKs 5,400 and ceihng on future acquisition at Rs 3,600 income lc^eI 
ui j implanentabon of legislation for imposition of ceiling on existing 
holding has been completed m Jammu and Kashmir In the Pepsu 
ot Punjab and Assam rules have been framed and dedarations bv 
T ^ of land held bj them are being submitted 

n ^ Bengal, fte State Go\ ernment ha\ e come into possession of surplus 
f in respect of Anas lands of the ex-mteixnediaries It is being allotted 
to landless vwkers at present on a ) eai to \ear basis 

CONSOLTOAITON OF HOLDINGS 

Plans ha\e emphasised the need for the 
flip mnw>T f^ u Planning Commission recommended that 

of undertaken t„ Comiuumn Project 

Thev havp nnportance to the agricultural programme 

Of the methods e™h ed to far ua* a vieu 
SS^ Str? in tacklmg the piohlen. 

in Bomba^2Q Inlb ^ about 21 lakh acres vere consohdated 

48 lakh acres in Punjab, 
tchsil each in 21 acres in U P. Work is in progress in one 

include a pimnsion^^^S' fo' tif 

some State for 'ikbipb ^ purpose The target (cxceptuig 

Bombay, legislation not available) is 360 lakh acres In 

consoU^hon^of unification of the lav relating to 

dation of Uttar Pradesh Gonfoli- 

consohdabon opSbons and Si removmg delays in 

shov-s the progress of rnn«5r.lTd^«^ shortcomings _ The foUoving table 
December 31, 1957 boldmgs in different States upto 



275 

TABLE 142 

CONSOLIDATION OF HOLDINGS 


Statc/Umon Temtory 

Provision for 
1956-61 
(Rs 
lakhs) 

Target for 
1956-61 
{Rs 
lakhs) 

Work com- 
pleted upto 
31-12-57* 
(m acres) 

Work in pro- 
gress as on 
31-12-57 
(m acres) 

Andhra Pradesh 

20 53 

5 OO(tf) 

Nil 

1,92,341 

Assam 

14 25 

13 82 

Nil 

m 

Bihar 

18 97 

18 00 

Nil 

2,55,885 

Bombayf 

79 39 

72 81 

12,65,275 

11,79,542 

Madhya Pradesh 

54 25 

16 25(A) 

29,95,435 

2,19,642 

Madras 

11 50 

NF 

Nil 

m 

Mysore 

14 51 

15 04(c) 

3,88,334 

4,51,110 

Onssa 

5 00 j 

NF 

73 

Nil 

Punjab 

172 00 ! 

157 72 

1 85,80,874 

1 56,17,438 

Rajasthan 

32 5 

10 00 

1 21,000 

3,62,119 

Uttar Pradesh 


50 00 

13,98,592 

37,35,129 

West Bengal 

14 25 

NA 

Nil 

Nil 

Delhi 

2 85 

59 

2,01,834 

Nil 

Himachal Pradesh 

9 50 

1 18 

21,762 

26,104 

h'lanipur 

29 

(0 

Nil 

Nil 

Pondicherry 

2 

Nil 

Nil 

Nil 

1 449 99 j 

360 41 

1,48,73,179 

1,20,39,310 


SUB-DIVISION AND FRAGMENTATION 
The operation of the laws of inheritance has resulted in the 
suh-division and fragmentation of holdmgs to the detriment of agricultural 
production The policy is to restram this tendency 

Legislation for the prevention of fragmentation was undertaken in 
Bombay, Delhi, Punjab and PEPSU before the commencement of the 
First Plan Dunng the Plan penod, Bihar, Hyderabad, Onssa, Rajasthan 
and Saurashtra enacted legislation regulating transfers and paititions with 
a view to preventing break up of a holding or dimmution m the size of a 
plot befow a certam minimum In 15 States, legislative measures were 
adopted in order to prevent excessive fragmentation or sub- division In 
Madhya Pradesh, a minimum limit of 15 acres has been fixed m the Madhya 
Bharat area and 5 acres in the Bhopal area In the former Vindhya Pradesh 


•The aroresaon " work completed ” in the above table refers to areas where after 
finalising the consolidation sdiemcs, the possession of neiv holdmgs has actually 
been transferred 

tin the Review of the First Five-Year Plan, the area consolidated in Bombay has been 
shown as 21 2 lakh acres This related to the area reported by the Bomliay Govt 
who have smee informed that completed schemes mean schemes published under 
Section 19 of the Ifcmbay PrevenUon of Fragmentahon & Consoli^Uon of Hold- 
ings Act Out of 21 2 lakh acres under completed schemes possession has ac- 
tuaUy been transferred by December 31, 1957, in respect of 12 46 lakh acres in 
pre-rrorganisation Bombay area and 3 88 lakh acres in the former Bombay areas 
transferred to Mysore State In addition to 12 46 lakh acres, 19,068 acres have 
been consolidated m Vidarbha region now m Bombay State Thus the total area 
y V “ B^bay State where the ivork has been completed comes to 12 65 lakh acres 
fa) for Tclangana area only Old Andhra area— no target fixed 
(A) T^t for Mahakosal region has been fixed For other areas it is under con- 
sideration 

{«) Target for 4- districts of the former Bombay State 

(d) ^nsohdaUon scheme ivas outside the Plan , now it is bemg mcluded in Annual 

Hans ° 

(e) Proposed to be taken up after survey is finalised 
N F — ^rJot fixed 

N A ^Not available 





276 


area, 5 acres have been presenbed as the minimum limit for imgated land 
and 10 acres for dry land The mimmum in the former' Hydrabad State 
area of Andhra Pradesh is 4 to 60 acres, 3|- acres m Uttar Pradesh and 8 
standard acres m Delhi 


CENSUS OF LAND HOLDINGS 

Census of land holdmgs and cultivation has been earned out m the 
former 22 States Except Bihar, the census results for other States are 
available. In Andhra Pradesh, Bombay, Madhya Pradesh and hfedras, it 
^vas a complete enumeration of holding In Punjab, Mysore, Delhi and 
Himachal Pradesh, the census was restricted to holdmgs of 10 acres or above 
In Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Onssa, Rajasthan and Kerala, the census was 
based on sample surveys In Assam, West Bei^al and Jammu and 
Kashmir, no &esh census was taken as decisions relating to ceilings uerc 
taken on the basis of data already available 


GO-OPERAUVE FARMING 

ultimate solution of the land problem, as envisaged in the First 
and Second Plans, is co-operative village management In the First Plan, 
co-operative farming was viewed as a method by ^vhich small and middle 
farmers could bnng into existence sizeable ferm units which would facilitate 
the application on a mder scale of saentific knowledge, increase m capital 
investment md rise m the productivity of land During this period, 
almost all States issued bye-laws for co operative fanmng societies and 
Iramed rules for assisting tliem 

The mam task visuahsed for the Second Plan period is to take such 
essential steps as ivill provide a sound foundation for the development of 
co-operative fanning 

j Standing Committee of the National Development Council 
lof co-operative fanmng at its meeting m 
1.1 1957, and decided that 3,000 co-operative farmmg experiments 

should be cam^ out dunng the rest of the Second Plan penod 

of I^ecember 1938, there were 2,020 co-operative fanmng 
c following table shows the State-wise break-up of the societies 

TABLE 143 


CO-OPERATIVE FARMING SOdETIES 


Statc/Tcmtory j 

No of socicbes 

State/Tcrritory 

No ofsoacUes 

Andhra Pradesh 

31 

170 

27 

402 

22 

Manipur 


Assam 

3 

Bihnr 

Mysore j 

100 

Bombay 

Onssa 

28 

Delhi 

Punjab 

478 

Jammu and Kashmir 

Rajasthan 

105 

Kerala 

55 

140 

37 

Tnpura 

12 

Madh>-a Pradesh 

Uttar Pradesh 

255 

Madras ' 

West Bengal 

i 148 



. 

' Total ^ 

1 2,020 


Pft movemem oi^es Its inspiration to 
Bhave “In a mst aims of the movement, Acharya 

all , Till « ivh\ do not ^ society, land must belong to 

® ^ Pftt but demand a share to wMch the 



277 


poor are rightly entitled.’* The main objective is to "propa^te t he righ t 
thought by which soaal and economic maladjustments can be corrected 

ivithout serious conflicts”. , , , r i r 

In Its practici application, it takes the shape of askmg for volunt^ 
donations of one-sixth of the land for redistnbution among the landless In 
the non-agncultural sector, the movement assumes vanous fon^ such as 
Sampaltidan (donations of money or other resources), Buddhidan and Jivandm 
(dedication of one’s mental abilities and life to the -achievement of the 
Bhoodan ideah)i Sadhandan and Cnhdan i tori 

The movement which began on a modest scale on Apnl ItJ, lim, 
now covers the length and breadth of India The target is to obtain 500 
iflTfh acres of land so that it may be possible to provide some land for 
cultivation to every rural family. The movement has now wdened out 
into Gramdan, * e , donations of entire villages, the ideal bemg that aU land 
should belong to the village commumty as a whole , . j 

The Second Plan recognises that the practical success which is achieved 
m the development of Gramdan villages will have great significance for 
co-operative village development At a conference convened by the 
Akhil Bharat Sarva Seva Sangh m September 1957 at Yelwal (Mysore 
State), the desirabihty of the closest co-operation between the Gom- 
mumty Development Programme and the Gramdan movement was 
emphasised The matter was discussed by a workmg group m the 
Ministry of Commumty Development and after further consideration at 
the Development Commissioners’ conference held at Mt Abu m May 
1958, certain decisions were arrived at for closer co-operation between 
Bhoodan and Gramdan Gramdan villages will now receive preference m 
the matter of opemng Community Development blocks and starting of other 
community development activities 

Legislation has been adopted for facihtating donation and distribution 
of Bhoodan lands in Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Bombay (Saurashtra area), 
Madhya Pradesh, Madras, Onssa, Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Delhi 
and Himachal Pradesh Administrative instructions have been issued m 
Bombay. 

Fmancial assistance given by the State Governments to the 
movement since 1954-55 is shown bdow. 

TABLE 144 

ASSISTANCE TO BHOODAN 


State 

1954-55 

1955-56 

1956-57 

1 

1957-58 

1958-59 

1 (proposed) 

Andhra Pradesh 



1 — 




2 0 

Itihni. 




186 0 


Bombay 

(0 Vidarbha 

t 

t 

t 

20 0 


(u) Saurashtra 

4 9 

25 3 

25 3 

16 9 

25 0 

Madhya Pradesh 






(i) Madhya Frade^ 

50 0 


50 0 


30 0 

(ui Madhya Bharat 

— > 

15 0 1 

30 0 


20 0 

(ui) Bhopal 

— * 

“ ' 

— 

— 

2 5 

Ptmjab 

-- 



5 0 

5 0 

Rajasthan 

1 0 

10 0 

25 0 

30 0 



Uttar Pradesh 


— 

— 


50 0 

BGtnachal Pradesh 



“ 

5 0 



t Included ia former ti^dhya Pradesh area 














278 


Rupees 1 1 92 lakhs m 1956-57 and Rs 10 lakhs m. 1957-58 '\eie 
sanctioned by the Government of India They would also contnbute Rs 68 
lakhs to a scheme draivn up by the All-India Sarva Seva Sangh A 
scheme for resettlement of landless workers in Bhoodan lands on a co-ope- 
rative basis costmg Rs 2 50 lakhs w'as also sanctioned m 1957-58 

The region-wise break-up of land collection and distribution undci 
the Bhoodan movement up to Jime 1958 is as follows 

TABLE 145 

BHOODAN DONATIONS AND DISTRIBUTION 

{In acres) 


State or Ri^on 


Andhra Pradesh 
Assam 
Bihar 
Bombay 

(i) Gujarat 

(ii) Maharashtra 
(ui) Saurashtra 
(i\) Vidarhha 

Ddhi 

Hunachal Pradesh 
Kerala 

Madhya Pradesh 
Mysore 
Madras 
Onssa 
Punjab 
Rajasthan 
Uttar Pradesh 
West Bengal 


Area of 
land donat- 
ted 


Area of 
land distri- 
buted 


2,41,950 

23,196 

21,13,938 


83,090 

225 

2,86,286 


TOTAL 


47,486 

64,360 

31,237 

86,778 

396 

1,568 

29,021 

1,78,616 

19,973 

70,823 

4,24,635 

19,929 

4,26,488 

5,87,630 

12,681 


11.527 
10,561 
8,183 

45,000 

157 

21 

2,126 

62,450 

2.527 
2,349 

1,11,785 

5,653 

69,362 

77,758 

3,463 


44,00,905 


7,82,525 


Since January 1957, the emphasis has shifted to Gramdan The 
fs i of Phages to the movement till December 31, 1958 


Andhn Pndesh 

Assam 

Bihar 

Bombay 

KcriK 

Madhy-i Pmdcih 
Madras 


TABLE 146 

GRAMDAN DONATIONS 


4Bl 

127 

152 

GOO 

543 j 
178 I 
254 ! 


Mysore 
Onssa 
Punjab 
Rajasthan 
Uttar Pradesh 
^Vlst Bengal 


Total 


66 

1,960 

1 

113 

59 

26 


4,570 


19 jG Durmg’ig5B"a7u^of*S V** of December 

59.492 m the 5 A further sum of 

1 cre aho donated ^ another Rs 19,000 as Sadhandan 


CHAPTER XXII 


CO-OPERATIVE MOVEMENT 


The idea of co-operation took concrete shape in India for the first time 
in 1904- when the Co-operative Credit Soaebes Act — a measure designed to 
combat rural indebtedness and provide for credit societies — ^was passed In 
1912 another Act was passed to provide for non-credit forms of coKipcra- 
tion in such activities as production, purchase, sale, insurance, housmg, 
etc , and for the creation of umons of pnmary co-operative soaeties foi 
mutual control and audit and of central and provincial banks to help the 
primary societies with credit The Maclagan Committee, appomted by 
the Government of India in 1914, recommended greater non-offiaal parti- 
cipation in the movement 

Although co-operation became a Provincial subject under the 1919 
Act, the Government of India continued to take interest in the growth of 
the movement and established the Agricultural Credit Department in the 
Reserve Bank of India in 1935 The Co-operative Planmng Committee 
appomted m 1945 recommended that pnmary soaeties should be converted 
into multi-purpose soaeties and that efforts should be made to brmg 50 
per cent of the villages and 30 per cent of the rural population within the 
ambit of the reorganised soaeties within a penod of 10 years It was 
also urged that the Reserve Bank should provide greater assistance to co- 
operatives 

The Comimttec of Direction appointed by the Reserve Bank of India 
in 1951 surveyed the rural credit structure of the country and its report was 
published in December 1954 The survey revealed that co-operatives sup- 
plied only 3 per cent of the total bor^o^vmgs of the agriculturists, and the 
Government an equally insignificant proportion The Committee recom- 
mended an “integrated scheme of rural credit,” the salient features of which 
are (a) State partnership in co-operative institutions at aU levels, (b) 
full co-ordination between credit and other alhed economic activities, 
especially marketing and processing, (c) development, at the base, of 
primary agricultural a edit soaeties, (d) estabbshment ofanehvork of ware- 
housing drgamsations, and (e) facilities for the traimng of co-operative 
personnel at all levels The Comimttee also recommended the nationali- 
sation of the Imperial Bank which through its branches should provide vastly 
extended remittance facilities for co-operaUve and other banks and endea- 
voim to be responsive to the needs of co-operative institutions connected ivith 
credit, marketing and processing Suitable amendment of the Reserve 
Bank of India Act and the establishment at the Centre of a National Go- 
operauve Development and Warehousing Board were also recommended 
While linancial help for the rcorgamsation of the credit structure by such 
means as State partiaptionin the share capital of co-operauve credit institu 
lions lias to be given bv the Reserve Bank, the planned development of 
co-opcrati\ c activities in the spheres of producUon, processing, marketme- 
and stoiagc was to be the responsibility of the Central and State Govern- 


The Nauona Agricultura Credit (Long-term Operauons) Fund set up 
in Februarv 1956 (by an amendment of the Rcscnc Bank of India Act car 
i icd out earlier m May 1955) with an initial contribution of Rs 1 0 crorcs 
augmented b> further annual contnbutions ofRs 5 crorcs each in the 
935-56 1956-57 and 1957-58 THb Fund is to bn used for (n) 
long-term loans to State Goicmmcnts to enable them to contribute to the 



280 


stare capital of co-operauve credit institutions, fb) provision of jncdium* 
term agricultural loans ; (c) grant of long-term loans to central land 
mortgage banks, and (d) purchase of dcljcniurrs of central land mortgage 
banb The National Agncultural Credit (Stabilisation) Fund sctupaitbt 
same time -with an initial allotment ofRs I crorc during 1953-56 received a 
further contnbution ofRs 1 crorc during 1956-57 and 1957-58, The Fund 
caubedravsnupoufor the purpose of giving medium-term loans and 
advances to State Co-operative mnks to enable them to convert short-term 
credit into medium-term credit, wherever ntcessar), because of drought, 
famme or similar calamities Loans amounting to Rs 6 04 crorcs vtcre 
sanctioned from the Long-term Operations Fund of the Reserv c Bmk to the 
fourteen State Governments to enable them to contribute to ilic share capital 
of co-operative credit institutions, of which Rs 5 83 crorcs were availed 
offay thirteen State Governments b) the end ofjunc 1958 No occasion has 
so far arisen for operaung upon the Stabilisation Fund 

A National Co-operative Development and Warehousing Board was 
constituted on September 1, 1956, under the Agncultural Produce (Develop- 
ment and Warehousing) Corporations Act w hich came into force on August 
1, 1956 The Board financed by the Governm' nt of India is intended to 
promote the development of co-operative activities in general and parb- 
progress of warehousing, processing and markcUng 
"pie Agricultural Produce (Development and ^VarchouSlng) Corpora- 
tion Act envisages the setting up of a Central 5Varcliousmg Corporauon 
a State Warehousmg Corporation for each State The Central "Ware- 
housing Corporahon— to erect v\*archouscs in strategic centres such as ports 
and r^v\^ junctions— has already been established waih an issued share 
rapit^ of Rs 10 crorcs and it has set up nine vvarchouscs so far, eleven State 
warehousmg Corporations — to build w archouscs at other important centres— 
have ^ been fomed and these are going to set up warehouses of their ovm 
Ihe btate Bank of India came into existence on July* 1, 1955, 
« the of the taking over, under an Act of Parliament, of the Impcnal 
of a statutory- obligation requiring it to open 

up i ™1M8 

b V Co-operativ c Training, jointly consUhitcd 

comcrehemivp Government of India, has drawm up a 

Poona for the trainmer ? -^Jndia Co-operative Training College at 

co-operative depStmenC and 

intennediateBradenpr«r.»f Centres for the training of the 

level co-operative eight institutions for tlic training of block 

T Co^«nity- Dev'clopm^t Blocb 
training centres anTa^^Jf regional 


up for the has been drawn 

spheres rf" economc acfiwfv movement will now encompass 

^rtoe, etc A. tarcret of Re processing, warehousmg, 

Rs SO crorcs for me^mn.tpryr,*^ short-term co-operative credit 

to be made av^bte to the ^ crorcs for long-term credit 

the end of 1960-61 baabeSm^'^*^^^ through co-operative channels by 
soacties, 1,800 ^^edat The oiganisation of 10.400 larv&sized 


jWdeties, 55 co-operative sugar factories, 
sms and 118 other co-operative processing sodetics 



281 


is also provided for It also emisages the construction of 350 warehouses by 
the Central and State Warehousing Corporations, 1,500 godoivns for markrt- 
ing societies and 4,000 godoi\Tis for large-sized primary agncultural credit 

societiK^^^ the year 1957-58, the credit Inmts sanctioned to State Co-opera- 
tive Banks for seasonal agncultural operations and marketing of crops 
amounted to Rs 48 24 crores, as against the preceding yc^stotal of 
35.25 crores The level of borro^g (i c outstandii^) at the end of 1957- 
58 stood at Rs 40 47 crores as compared to Rs 23 32 crores at the end of 
1956-57 and Rs 12 98 crores at the end of 1955-56 Foi financing the 
production and marketing activities of weavers* co-operatives, additional 
credit aggrqgating Rs 205.78 lakhs at 1^ per cent below bank rate 
were sanctioned during the year to 8 State Co-operative Banks on behalf 
of 102 co-operative institutions A total credit limit of Rs 3 crores was 
sanctioned at the Bank rate for meetmg the working capital requirements of 
co-operative sugar factones Medium-term loans amountmg to Rs 7.72 
crorra were sanctioned to 12 State Co-operative Banks as against Rs 1 67 
crores sanctioned to 6 State Co-operative Banks last year, the outstandmgs 
at the end of the year in this regard amounted to Rs 3 42 crores as compared 
to Rs 1 58 crores at the end of last year 

CO-OPEBATTVE STRUCTUHE 

The structure of the co-operative movement is three-tiered, consisting 
of apex soaeties at the State level, Central sodeties at the distnct level and 
primary sodeties at the village level. 

Taking the average size of an Indian family as five, it may roughly be 
estimated tlmt 9 69 crores or 25 per cent of the population had been brought 
withm the co-operative movement by the end of 1956-57, allowance being 
made for some mdividuals being members of more than one society. In the 
table below the mam operations of the societies in 1951-52 and 195^57 arc 
mdicated. 

TABLE 147 

CO-OPERATIVE OPERATIONS 






282 


The net results of the operations of dilTcicnt tvpcs of co-opcratuc 
societies during 1951“52 and 1956-57 arc shown in the following tabic 

TABLE 148 

PROFITS EARNED BY CO-OPERATIVE SOCIETIES 


Type of Soaety [ 

1951-52 

! 1956-57 

1 

1 

{In lalks of nipefs) 

State and Central banks 

81 60 1 

155 26 

State and Central non-credit societies 1 

126 38 1 

150 33 

Frunary agricultural credit societies i 

91 67 ! 

189 80 

Grain banks 

15 13 

15 61 

primary agricultural non-oredit soaeUcs 1 

39 54 

74 98 

Frunary non-agncultural credit soacties 

112 89 

188 27 

Primary non-agncuUural non-credit societies 

55 89 

65 85 

Land mortgage banks 

6 86 

18 28 

TOTAL 

529 96 

858 38 


PRIMARY SOCIETIES 

Out of a total of 2,44,769 co-operative societies of all types at the end 
of June 1957, primary societies accounted for 2,40,604 or 98 34 per cent 
The position of all types of primary societies and their loan transactions in 
1956-57 as compared ^vlth 1951-52 is shoim in the tables belou 

TABLE 149 

NUMBER AND MEMBERSHIP OF PRIMARY SOCIETIES 


Type 1 

A'ifmfier | 

MmbirshtP 

1951-52 1 

1956-57 1 

1951-52 

1956-57 

Agricnltiural 1 

Credit societies 

Gram banks 1 

Non-credit societies 

Pmnary land mor^gc 
banks 

1 1,07,925 

9,085 
35,290 

1 ! 

289 

, 1 
1,61,510 
8,191 
31,905 

326 

47,76,819 

6,47,502 

28,04,001 

' 2,13,814 

91,16,846 

1 7,62,259 

! 27,57,911 

3,33,586 

Non-Agrioilttiral 





Credit socieOcs 

Non-credit societies 

Insurance sociebcs 

7,962 

21,625 

24 

10,150 i 
28,516 , 
6 ; 

23,36,348 

28,72,569 

1,40,634 

32,38,727 

31,56,153 

7,867 

TOTAL 

1.82,200 

2,40,604 

1,37,91,687 

1,93,73,349 


table 150 


LOAN TRANSACTIONS OF PRIMARY SOCIETIES 


Particulars 

; 1951-52 1 

[ 1956-57 

X-oans advanced 

(In crores i 

of rupees) 

Loans repaid 

97 95 

173 16 

^am outstanding 

84 57 

143 21 

Loans o\ erdue 

97 29 

127 15 

' 

13 10 

24 18 





283 


Agnculfural Credit Societies 

At the end of June 1957 the woiking capital of agncultural credit 
soaeties stood at Rs 98 30 crores, loans advanced amounted to Rs 67 33 
crores, loans outstanding Rs 76 82 crores and loans overdue Rs 16 82 crores 
Loans from central finanang agencies and Government stood at Rs 56 94 
crores, while o^vned funds and deposits stood at Rs 33 31 crores and Rs 
8 05 crores respectively A State-wise analysis of the working capital reveals 
that the ratio of deposits to working capital is less than 6 per cent in the case 
of as many as 1 1 States The following table shows the average membership, 
share capital, deposits and working capital of agncultural credit societies. 

TABLE 151 

AVERAGE MEMBERSHIP, SHARE CAPITAL, DEPOSITS AND WORKING 
CAPITAL OF AGRICULTURAL CREDIT SOdETIES 


Particulars | 

1951-52 

1956-57 

Average membership per society 

44 

i 

56 

{In rupees) 

Average share capital per society 

' 827 

1,228 

Average share capital per member 

i 

22 

Average deposits per society 

408 

498 

Average deposits per member 

9 

9 

Average \vorking capital per society 

4,190 

6,086 

107 

Average workmg capital pei member 

95 


The rates of interest continued to be high, in some cases as high as 
12^ per cent or even 21 per cent as in Mampur In States where the co- 
operative movement was well developed, the rates of interest ranged generally 
beUveen 4 and 12 per cent 

Agricultural JV^on-Credit Societies ^ 

Agricultural non-credit societies are concerned ivith agricultural 
operations such as^ purchase of seed, manure, implements and machmery, 
provision of minor irrigation facihties, consohdation of holdings, co-operative 
farming and co-operative marketing The principal types of such societies 
and their membership are shown below 

TABLE 152 

AGRICULTURAL NON-CREDIT SOdETTES 


Type 


Matter 


Membership 


Purchase and Sale 

Production and Sale 
{«) Marketing 

(£) Others 

Production 

Social Services 

Housing 

(a) Liimtcd Liabilitv 


1951-52 


10,871 (a) 
244(i) 


1956-57 



1951-52 

Ti,42,648 


11 805(a) 
44(6) 


5,889(a) 

1,204(6) 

5,149(c) 


9,731 (a) 


9,69,735 


4, 587(a) 
674(6 
6, 865 (b) 
1,122(6 
5, 243(b) 


5,00,374 

1,89,197 


84(a) 


540(a) 


2,047 


1956-57 

6,66,575 

7,51,329 

6,60,014 

4,64,202 

1,98,746 

17,045 


(6) Unlimited Liabihty 




284 


KoiL-Agnculiural Credit Sodeties 

These societies indude, among others, employee’s credit soaeties and 
urban banks. Deposits which stood at Rs 64 59 crores at the end of 1956- 
57 accounted for 64 31 per cent of the workup capital. Some of these sode- 
tics also did non-credit business Goods worth Rs 3 02 crores -were 
received while sales amounted to Rs 3 56 crores The table below provides 
an analysis of their finanaal transactions in 1951-52 and 1956-57. 

TABLE 153 

FINANCX4L TRANSACHOKS OF NON.AC»aaH<TURAL CREDIT SOCIETIES 


(In lakhs of nifees) 


1951-52 


1956-57 


loans advaoced 
l^>aQS repaid 
Loans due 
Loans overdue 
Investments m 


50,97 

47,01 

44,36 

4,16 


82,07 

74,11 

74,99 

6,14 


Ca) land and buildings 

(&) Trustee secunbes other than land and buddings 
(ff) Other secunbes 
Share capital paid-up 
Reserve Fund 
Gash m hand and m banks 


73 

6.67 

4.68 
13,36 

3,78 

5,65 


1,20 

12,58 

7,92 

20,84 

5,56 

8,24 


Mn-Agncidtural Jfon-credit Soneties 

The difiJaent types of soaeties under this category are shown belotv . 
TABLE 154 

NON-AGRICULTURAL NON-CREDIT SOCIETIES 


Type 

Jrtini6«r 

illfl7i4m4r4 

1951-52 

1956-57 

1951-52 

1956-57 

Purchase and Sale 

Production and Sale 

Pioducbcn 

Social Services 

Housug 

Insurance 

B,627(a) 

26(^ 

6,693(a) 

367(i 

874{a) 

3,326(a) 

I.71lia) 

24(a) 

5,718(a) 

1(4) 

12,169(a) 

184(4) 

4,406(a) 

66(4) 

2,569(a) 

322(4) 

3,079(fl) 

24 

6(a) 

17.43,196 

7,99,012 

51,999 

1,61,724 

1,16,638 

1,40.634 

11,10,660 

12,41,922 

4,44,222 

1,52.427 

2,06,922 

7,867 


Primaiy Lend ULortgege Banks 

57 oflQSS- 

concentrated In Andhra Pradesh, 
ced Their membership stood at 3,33,586 Loans advan- 

stood^a?R. Rs 2 05 crores, whUe the working capital 

borro\\cr interest charged to the ultimate 

loanTfor certahf (eitcept in Bombay where 

^ns lor certain purposes ^vere made at rates as low its 3i per cent). 


(c) Lmuted liabiLty 


(i) Unlinuted habdity- 








285 


TABLE 155 

PRIMARY LAND MORTGAGE BANES 


(In lakhs of rvpees) 


Farhculais 

1951-52 

1956-57 

Loans advanced 

1,30 

2,05 

liOans r^aid 

48 

85 

Loans due 

6,96 

11,51 

Other assets induding investments, cash and bank balances 

73 

1,23 

Share capital paid-np 

58 

99 

Reserve Fund 

13 

19 

Smlnng Fund 

— 

2 

Other Funds 

5 

11 

Borrowings 

6,75 

11,32 

Debentures 

9 

8 

Worlong capital 

7,60 

1 12,70 


CENTRAL SOOLTIES 

Central societies may be classified into two categories (i) central banks 
and banking umons, and (u) central non-credit societies The composition 
and activities of these institutions are shown below 

Central Banks And Banking Umons 

The pnnapal function of central co-operative banks is to act as a 
balancing centre to their afBhates and to channel funds to the pnmary 
societies The foUowng table gives details about the central banks and 
banking unions 

TABLE 156 

CENTRAL BANES AND BANKING UNIONS 



1951-52 

1956-57 

Numbox 

Membeixhtp 

Loans advanced m 1atb< of rupees 

Working capital m lakhs of rupees 

509 

2,31,318 

1,05,64 

60,11 

451 - 
3,10,555 
1,00,80 
1,10,26 

Their paid-up share capital and reserves amounted to Rs 4.62 crores 
and Rs 5 18 crores in 1951-52 and Rs 1111 crores and Rs 7 34 crorcs 
m 1956-57 The composition of the working capital is shoivn in the 
folIoi\’ing table 

TABLE 157 

COMPOSITION OF WORKING CAPITAL OF CENTRAL CO-OPERATIVE BANKS 

ParhculaTS 

Percenfage to loorha^ capital 

1951-52 

1956-57 

Owned funds 

Deposits 

Other borrowings 

16 3 

63 6 

20 I 

16 8 

53 0 

30 2 


^ Tlie outstandings at the end of June 1957, against mdividuals and 
against banks and societies, totalled Rs 3 86 crorcs^nd Rs 68 








285 


respectively The peicentage of overducs to outstandings was 21 3 in 
respect of individuals and 12 5 m respect of banks and societies The total 
investment of central coi^opeiative banks amounted to Rs 29 05 crores at 
the end of 1956-57, of which Rs 15 65 crores represented imestments in 
Government and other trustee securities 

Central Xon'Credit SotneUes 

The pimapal t^'pes of Cential non-credit societies and ihcir mcmbei- 
ship arc given below 

TABLL 158 


CENTRAL NON-CREDIT SOCIETIES 


1 

i 

1 h'maher | Mmhtrshitt 

\ 1951-52 f 1956-57 | 1951-52 

! 1956-57 

1 

1 

i 1 

1 Indin- Socic- | 

, duals tics { 

Indm- 
duals 1 

i Socic* 

1 tics 

Marketing Umons I 
or Pedcrahons { 
tVholesale Stores i 
&. Supply Unions 1 

Industrial Unions 
Housing Socieuca 
Mtlk Unions 

Others i 

1 

i 

1,8B2 1 

209 ' 
95 ' 

55 
80 1 

i 1 ' 1 

1 2,336 1,99,541 34,505 j 19,66,672 

196 13,40,768 9,295 , 28,583 

112 S 11,912 ; 2.194 1 11,914 

69 I 5,420 } 971 1 9,720 

i 232 1 9,781 1 4 232 j 31,989 

40 834 

18,812 

4,657 

140 

1,308 

8,273 


^APEX SOCIETIES 

atthe totartwr °f 'hHr affiliated societies 

(i) State banks categones oifape\soCieues can be distinguished 

K {yij Centi^l^d mort- 

Stale Gj-opcrajfuw BanL-^ 


cal <Sacta.^7uL®4"l9MS “e“? 


table 159 
STATE CO-OPERATIVE BANKS 


Number 

Membership 

Share capital paid-tip 
Resen e and other funds 
Deposits 

Other 'borrowings 

Uorlong capital 
LtJam ndianced 
Loans outstanding 
Loans o\ adue 
Imestment m 

Cashm hand and other bants 


16 23 

23;Z72 i 33,4^ 

(m lalhs of mpees) 


1,90 

2,36 

21,18 

11.27 
36,72 

55.27 

20,01 

3,22 

10,52 

13 

65 

2,81 


5,31 
3,48 
38,39 
32,37 
79 54 
123,71 
49,62 
4,10 

16,29 

21 

3,46 

8,61 



287 


State J{o7i-‘CredH Societies 

The operations of the non-crcdit societies in 1951-52 and 1956-57 
^\ere as showTi in the table below 

TABLE 160 

STATE NON-CREDIT SOCIETIES 



J^umber 


Membership 


Type 



1951-52 1 

1956-57 




Indivi- 
duals 1 

Soae- 
1 ties 



Marketing Unions i 
or Federations 

n i 

13 

1 

1,373 

1 1 

2,951 

1 

2,051 

1 

1,899 

Wholesale Stores 
and Supply Unions 

4 

7 

383 

587 1 

1,503 

340 

Industnm Unions 

9 

22 

2,475 

1,183 1 

1,439 

3735 

Housing Societies 

— 

4 

— 

— i 

60 ' 

313 

Other types 

11 

10 

6,543 : 

8,230 1 

2,816 1 

1,488 


Central Land Mortgage Banks 

The central land mortgage banks, ivhich are the pivot of the structure 
of long-term finance to agncultunsts through the pnmary land mortgage 
banks in the States, raise their funds mainly by the issue of debentures 
These debentures are ^aranteed by the State Goveniment in respect of the 
repayment ofpnnapaland the payment of interest Out of 12 banks only 
3 banks viz (1) Saurashtra Central Co-operative Land Mortgage Bank 
(2) Orissa Provmcial Co-operaUve Land Mortgage Bank and (3) Madras 
Co-operative Central Land Mortgage Bank, floated debentures of the 
value of Rs 150 00 lakhs, Rs 10 00 lakhs and Rs 50 00 lakhs respec- 
tively during 1956-57 The Reserve Bank of India contributed Rs 1 50 
♦lakhs to the debentures floated by the Onssa Provincial Co-operapve Land 
Mortage Bank Debentures of the value of Rs 16 95 crores were in circu- 
lation at the close of 195S-57 The Andhra and Madras Central Land 
Mortage Banks jointly accounted for nearlj^ 54 per cent of the total deben- 
tui es Table below indicates them development betiveen 1 951-52 and 1 956-57 

TABLE 161 

CENTRAL LAND MORTGAGE BANKS 


Particulars 

Number 

Membership 


1951-52 

6 

34,579 


1956-57 


12 

1,16,561 


Loans advanced 
Loans repaid 
Loans due 

Sinking Fund in\ estments 

Other estments including cash and bank balances 

Share capital paid-up 

Reserve Fund 

Other Funds 

Boirovvmgs 

Debentures 

^Vo^klng capital 


(Ifi laJJis of rtipea) 


2,51 

44 

8,03 

1,27 

77 

44 


3,80 

1,79 

14.94 

4.94 
1,46 
1.09 


23 

12 

1,53 

7,83 

10,17 


40 

22 

2,67 

16,95 

21,32 





290 

FLOOD CONTROL 


FoUo^Mng the succession of unprecedented floods during the 1954 
monsoon season, the Government of Incfla formulated a comprehensive 
programme of flood control m September 1954, Divided into three 
phases the programme ^vas devoted during the first t^vo years mainly to 
intensive investigation and collection of data During the second phas^ 
covering the next four or fiv^e years, roughly correspondmg to the Second 
Plan period, flood protecUon measures such as the improvement of embank- 
ments and channels are bdng undertaken Construction of storage 
reservoirs and necessary additional embankments on the tnbutanes of 
certain nv ers is envisaged in the third phase 

Flood Control Boards, assisted in technical matters by Advisor)' 
Committees, have been formed in twelve States in addition to the Central 
Flood Control Board Four River Conunissions (Floods) have also been 
set up by the Centre to assist the Central Flood Control Board in technical 
matters A Flood Wing has been added to the Central Water and Power 
Commission Sixty schemes, each estimated to cost Rs 10 lakhs and above 
and imolvdng a total expenditure of Rs 27 28 crorcs have been approved 
by the Central Board Another 509 schemes, eati costing less than Rs 10 
Itikhs and involving a total outlay of Rs 11 ’27 crores have been approved 
or sanctioned m the different States and Umon Territories, 249 more 
schemes estimated to cost Rs 12 45 crores are under consideration 

The level of over 4,200 villages m the flood zones in the U P. has been 
raised and 2,443 miles of embankments, exclusive of 135 miles of the Kosi 
embankments, ha\ c been completed m the various States since the inception 
of tlic flood control programme m 1954-55. The earthwork done in the 
^bankments is of the order of 390 crore eft , exclusive of 78 crorc eft , in the 
Kosi embankments 


Conunittce on Floods, which was set up by the Govem- 
^ of India in Apnl 1 957 in order to assess the flood problem in the country 
and advise on the measures that should be taken to tacUe it, submitted its 
second and final report in Kovember 1958 The recommendations con- 
tmned m the fir« report mbmitted m December 1957 were accepted by the 
Central Flood Control Board in May 1958 ^ ^ 


inland navigation 

schemes completed or under construction 
navigauon as one of the objecuves The Damodar Valley 
construction of a navigation canal 85 miles long, 
coal-fields with the Hoogly at Tnbcm', 30 
m lw above Gilcuita Mcr the completion of the Hirakud Dam Project, 
T to Cuttack (a distance of 106 miles) will be 

^nvl on ihi- IVojcct includes a navigation-cum-irrigalion 

l aliucson the Rajasthan Canal arc under acuvcconsideraUon 


tventil? was vcr> slow up to the mid- 

15* imtallcd capaaty in 1925 was orjy 1,62,341 kw. 

J w Ih- ^ capacitv had incrrascd more than five-fold to 9,00,402 
1033 w -s' n 1 i ^ ofpower plants in the public utihucs in March 
I'- srin mcn^e of nearly 136 per cent over the past 

cirr i ^ T „ . I »1 3,219 hkh kwh,, showing an increase of 1 78 per 

wains nl Lnd capaai> during the 

. . « VI, 133. Ul and 139 per «m ropccU,el>. TTic prosr«, of deem- 



291 


dty supply in India during the period from 1939 to March 1958 is 
illustrated below in. terms of index numbers 


TABLE 163 

INDEX NUMBERS OF ELECTRICmY SUPPLY 


{Base. 1939=100) 


Item 

1947 

March 

1958 

Installed Generating Capacity 

Steam Plant . 

Oil Plant 

Hydro Plant .... 

142 1 

112 5 

111 3 

' 326 1 

283 4 

274 5 

Index of total generating capaaty 

127 0 

‘ 301 3 

Generation of Electricity 

Steam Plant 

Oil Plant 

Hydro Plant . , , 

167 0 

149 3 

187 8 

582 3 

262 3 

384 3 

Index of total generation 

166 8 

; 463 6 

Coal coniiuinpuon 

Fuel Oil consumpuon . , , 

172.9 

145 8 

479 0 

222 0 

Sale of Electricity 

Domestic or Residential 

Commcfaal, Light & Small Power 

Industnal 

Traction 

Imgation . , . ' 

Public Lighting . , ‘ 

Water Works 

206.5 

236 2 

162 4 

128 9 

194 7 . 

107 0 

164 2 

663 5 
' 691 9 

453 4 

196 3 

844 7 

301 4 

356 6 

Index of total sale 

165 0 

457 4 


Tabic 164 indicates the progress of clcctncity supply during 1939-58 

Hcsources 

The annual per capita gcncrauon of electricity in -India is bnlv 35 
Nor^vay’s 7,250 kwh , Canada’s 5.450 luh -the U K 
6TO h . U.S S R ’s 960 l.^^h and the world average of 

Studies of the wKiJIowmg risers of the Wcstem'Ghats, the cast- 

b\ the Central \\atcr and Power Commission, indicate an.agcrcirate pour/ 
potential of 147 lakh kw* m 115 major schemes outlined m Sc re^ris 
published bv u Similar studies arc m hand for other aibas At present 
tile esUmated total potential of the countr\' « o\cr 410 lakh I w. ^ * 

The pattern of poucr dc\ cloprocnt in India, at present, is as follou-s : 

M^-so-e, Kr-iln. Punjab, OAts, J-r-nu £. Kashmir Mamb l-)-d^o 

Mfldhxn Pndwh, Rnjaiilai,, and \\£f: Ecrsal tbtrmal 

lk>mbav. Ardl *3 Pradcili. Uttar I>nidc-b find Assam PanJ- 

Partli hydro* 

hr risunUsed. povver development in India vrill eventually 

^ one of mter-cnnrcctcd hvdrt>.clccinc ard thermal power rtatmnf « 
v^r:ous rcgmtis It u coaccivnWc that the rcrional s)riarxs %m?] in dS 






TvVDtli Id-t 

progress of ELEcnucrry supply i im to ms 


292 


TJ * ‘ 

„-Sa c- 

“■0 »■ g 2 

53 8 

64 0 

65 7 

63 6 

61 4 

65 2 

68 G 

68 9 

70 7 

fils! “ 

■.i*r-w5MO«0O-^r^ 

Energy sold 
(crorc Lwh ) 

8 

eojoi — oifj-'co-j 

oenr'.ooM:-*c>ef4 
c«(eo'4*»o»ntor-e'Ci 

Energy 
generated 
(etorc kwh ) 

7 

^ r^cocsiocMCiuie^ 
^oco-^r-to*niDm 
cvrv<iot9(o^>coci>-^ 

Aggregate 
ofnuucimum 
dennnd 
during the 
year (thou- 
sand kw ) 

(t 

576 

883 

1,205 

1.311 

1.416 

1,625 

1.850 

1,990 

2.279 

c 

« 

■s, 

ts 

c 

Bt 

€| 

r-’ii 

1 

1 

1 _ 

1 ” 

Ooiociio^tncom 
^(omuooncaer 
t ^ *T. "e;. 

— -Je^eJ'cTwwM 

O 

£ 

* ^»n5?^c25Soe3 

o 

„ Sgse82gs^ 

c 

jn 

N •offg£::g2«g}5 

1 

1 

i 

! t 

1 

• 

CO 

tn 

£ 

oe> 


Tigures arc for the year ending Morcli 1958 



293 


course, be inter-connected so as to form an all-India gridj aloi^de the dey^, 
lopment of some of the large power resources which are capable of prow- 
ding adequate capacity to meet the needs of oiltTying at'eas' ‘ 
Organisation for Power Development , ' . 

The generation and distnbutiou of dectncity in India was for a long 
time governed by the Indian Electnaty Act oi 1910 < The ElectnCity 
(Supply) Act passed m 1948 provided for die setting up of a Central 
Electnaty Authority for the entire country as well as regional organisations 
known as State Electnaty Boards Accordmgly, the Central Electnaty 
Authonty was constituted in 1950 and State Hedridty Boards^ have been 
set up m West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh, Bombay, Kerala, Madras, Rajas- 
than, Mysore, Assam, Bihar and the Punjab 

Omershtp 

Until 1925, the development of electric power was confmed mainly 
to pnvate compames that took out hcenc» under the ^ndian Electnaty 
Act of 1910 It was only in the la c twenties that schemes for the develop- 
ment of power were launched by^sdme of the States , In March 1958,, 
pnvate companies owned 34 4 per cent of the pubhc utility installation 
and 39 9 per cent of the total installed capaaty, as shown in the following' 
tabic. * ^ 

TABLE 165 


OWNERSHIP: PUBLIC UTIUTY INSTALIATIONS (MARCH 19519) 


Ownership 

Number of 
undert&kmgs 

Installed generating 
capacity (in kw ) 

State Governments 

111 

779,866 

State Eieetnoty Boards 

172 

959,756 

I^wer CorporatiODS 

2 

174,000 

Mwudpalitjes 

1 22 

‘ 24,125 ■! 

Pnvate Companies 

161 

, 12,85,364 

TOTAL 

468 

■ 32,23,111 

* \ ' t , j » »> 


The table below shows the demand for electnaty from different 
classes of consumers during 1957-58 , i 

TABLE 166 

CLASSES OP CONSUMERS {195^58) 


Nature of luc 

No ofcoi 

isumers , 

1 Connected load 

j’ Energy sates 


In 

thousands 

Percent' , 
age to 
total 

Total 

(thousands , 
U) 1 

Pweebt- ' 
age to 
total 

. Crtiw 
kivb 

Percent- 
age to 
total 

Domestic* 

Commercial* 

Industnalf 

Pubhc lighting 
Imgabon 

2,474 i 
516 
125 

5 

88 

77 12 

16 08 

3 90 

0 16 

2 74 

1,510 

444 

2,947 

47 

429 

28 08 • 
8 26 
54 81 
j 0 87 

7 98 

'108 61 1 
60 68 
692 97 

14 05 

1 ■ 54 36 

11 67 

6 52 

74 46 

I 51 

1 5 84 

TOTAL . 1 

3,208 

1 100 00 

■ 5,377 

100.00 

: 930 67 

100 DO 


* Light and small po\ter 

t lodudcs dcctnc iracQoa and puhLc wter s^orI!s 



294 


Bural El&AnJtcalibn 

A few large power systems serve the needs of rural areas Rural 
electrification has so far made headway only in Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, 
Bombay, Kerala, Madras, Mysore, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal 
The fehoiV ing table shows the number of electrified totviis and villages at the 
end of M&rch 1958 


TABLE i67 

TOWNS AND VILLAGES WITH ^'ECnUGiry SUPPLY 
(March 1958} 


Population 

Towns and villages 
in this group 

Towns and vdlages 

with pubbe deematy 

supply 

Percentage of towns 
[ & villages with public 

1 elcctaaty supply 

Over I,00,00» 

73 

73 

100 00 

50,000 to 1.00, 000 

112 

112 

100 00 

20,000 to 50,000 

401 

354 

88 28 

Below 20,000 

5,60,522 

10,173 

1 81 

TOTAL 

5,61,108 

10,712 

1 91 


Power Schemes tinder the Platts 

There were 142 power development schemes in the pubhc sector In 
the First Plan Of these, the ms^or multi-puipose nver valley projects were 
Bhalsxa Nang^, Hirafcud, Damodar Valley CJorporation, Chambal, Rihand, 
Koyna and Kosi> 

^ The principal power schemes completed and brought into service 
during the First Flan were 


Installed 


1. 

Nangal (Punjab) 

capacity (kw ) 
48,000 

2 

Bokaro (Bihar) 

1,50,000 

3 

Chola (Kalyan, Bombay) 

54,000 

4. 

Khaperkheda (Madhya Pradesh) 

30,000 

5 

Moyar (Madras) 

36,000 

6 

Madras City Plant Extensions (Madras) 

30,000 

7, 

Machkund [Andhra Pradesh-Orissa) 

34,000 

8 

Pathri (Uttar Pradesh) 

20,000 

9 

Sarda (Utter Pradesh) 

41,400 

10 

Scngulam (Kerala) 

48,000 

11 

Jog (Mysore) 

72,000 














295 


The following table shows the progress of installed capacity and 
generation of electricity during the First Plan and the development 
envisaged^dunng the Second Plan. 

TABLE 168 


POWER GENERATION UNDHl THE TWO PLANS 





Percent- 


1 

Percent- 




age 


i age 




increase 


increase 


1950-51 

1955-56 

during 

1960-61 

during 






Second 




Plan 


Flan 

LsstaRed Capacity 

(/n lakh kw ) 

Public Utility Undertakings 
/a) State-owned 

6 

14 

133 

43 

207 

(A) Company^owned 
Sdf-gcneratmg mdustnal 

11 

13 

18 

16 

23 

establislunents 

6 

7 

17 

10 

43 

TOTAL 

23 

34 

48 S 

69 

103 

Enex^ Generated 


j 




(In enre kw ) 






Public Utility Undertaking 


4,50 

1,14 

13,50 

2,00 

23 

(a) State-owned 

2,10 

[b) Compaiw-awned 
Sdf-generating inaustnal 

3,00 

4,30 

43 

5,30 


es tablisbments 

1,47 

2,20 

50 

3,20 

45 

TOTAL 

6,57 

11,00 

67 

, 22,00 

100 


Tlie prinapal features of the power generation schemes in the Second 
Plan both m the pubhc and private sectors are shown m tables 169 and 170 


TABLE 169 


FR1NC3PAL POWER GENERATION SCHEMES IN SECOND FLAN 
(FUBUG SECTOR) 


Scheme and name of State 

Total 

cost 

(Rs 

lakhs) 

Second 
Plan 
provision 
for power 
(Rs 
lakhs) 

Benefits 

(In thousand kw.) 

On com- 
pletion 

In Second 
Plan 
penod 

Continning Sdbemes 

Tdngabhadra (Andhra Pradesh & Mysore) 
1st stage . . . . 

Bhakra Nangal (Punjab &. Rajasthan) . . 
Hirakud (Stage I) (Onssa) , . ; 

D V C (Ben^ & Bihar) 

Chambal (Stage I) (Madhya Pradesh &. 
Rajasthw) 

Mac^und (Andhra Pradesh & Orissa) . . 
Umtni (Ass^) . . . . , 

60,00* 

1,70,00* 

70,78* 

1,05,38* 

63,60* 
27,32 
2,12 05 

7,95 
27,78 
7.62 8 
10,63 

37,88* 

3,64 

81 97 , 

i 

45 

6.04 

1,23 

2,54 

92 

93 5 

8 4 1 

45 

5,56 

1,23 

1,00 

92 

59 5 

8 4 


• The total cost shovsti includes outlay on imgation portion. 



















296 

TABLE 169~(o»J/^) 


Scheme aod name of State 


Koyna (Bombay) 

Penyaf (Madras) 

Madras Thermal Station extension 
(Madras) 

Riband (UP) 

pqmagiinftam (Andhia Pradesh) 

Thermal Power Station (Rajasthan) 
Ncnamangalam (Kerala) 

ProngaJbuthu (Kerala) 

Kandia Steam Station (Bombay) 

New Schemes 
Puroa (Bombay) 

Silcru (Andhra Pradesh) 

Machkimd Extension (Andhra Pradesh 
& Onssa) 

Tungabhadra-Ncllorc Scheme (Anohra 
& Mysore) 

Umtyngar Steam Stahon (Assam) 

Eaiauni Steam Station (Bmar) 

Sou4 Gujarat Bicetne Gnd (Stage II) 
(Bombay) 

Korba Thermal Station (Madhva 
Pradc^) 

Development of Southern Gnd (Bombay) 
Kundah (Madras) (I & II Stage) 

Hirakud (Stage 11) (Onssa) 

Yamuna Hydcl Scheme (UP) 

Ramganga Hydcl Scheme . 

Harduaganj Steam Station Extension 

(UP)t 

M^tjla Hydcl Scheme (U P ) 

Kanpur Po^vtt Station Extension (UP) 
Jaldhal^ Hydcl Scheme (W Ben^) 
Durgapur Thermal Station (DVC, Bengal 
and Bihar) 

Bolcaro Extenaon (DVC, Bengal & Bihar) 
CSiandiapura (Dugda) Thermal Station 
(DVC, Bengal H Bihar) 

( Tungabbadra Extension (Mysore) 
Ganderhal Power House (Jammu & 
I^ishnur) 

Mohora Power House (Jammu & 
Kashmir) 

Bhadra (M^xore) 

Sharavathy H>drt> Elec Scheme (Mysore) 
Jodhpur (Rajasthan) 


Shnhpur Steam Station (Bombay) 
Panniar (Kerala) 

Sholavar (Kerala) 

Pamba (Kerala) 

Btrshinghpur Thermal Power Station 
(Madhya Pradesh) 


! 

Total j 
cost ! 

(Rs 

lakhs) If 

Second 

Plan 

irovisjon _ 

Benefits 

(In thousand kw ) 

or power “ 
(Rs 
lakhs) 

On com- 
pletion 

n Seomd 
Flan 
penod 

38,28 

10,47 

9,56 

46,05 

4,37 

3,48 

2,90 

3,46 

1,12 

29.00 

7,23 

2,71 

26.00 

1,37 

2,16 

2,74 

75 

63 

2,40 

1,05 

60 

2,50 

37 5 

24 2 

45 

32 

6 

1,05 

30 

1,00 

37 5 

22 4 

45 

32 

6 

‘?,32* 

2,10 

10 


9,27 58 

3,50 

1,20 


2,60 

2,31 

21 25 

21 25 

7,70 

2,13 5 

57 

“ 

1,93 

1,40 

6 

6 

3,09 

2,84 

30 


4,15 

4,00 

45 

45 

12,34 

11,18 

90 

90 

7,77 

3544 

7,38 

22,00 

60 

1,80 

60 

1,80 

14,32 

11,88 

1,09 5 

1,09 5 

19,59 

5,70 

2,01 


10,88 

20 

75 


2,35 

2,50 

30 

SO 

3,74 

3,26 

15 


1,70 

1,70 

15 

15 

4,43 

1,94 

18 

■ 

12,50 

12,50 

1,50 

1,50 

4,77 

4,77 

75 

75 

12,80 

12,00 


— 

50 

47 5 

9 

9 

73 

42 

9 

9 

1,09 

71 

9 

9 

2,42 

82 

33 2 

33 2 

22,97 

13,00 

1,78 


30 

30 

3 


1 34 83 

1 11 3 

3 

3 

) 1>68 

1,50 

15 

15 

95 

95 

8 

8 

1,00 

1,00 

10 

— 

2,95 

2,80 

SO 

— 

3,91 

2,62 

54 


9,65 

2,20 

1,00 


. 10,63 

4,93 

60 

1 - 


t This scheme has been abandoned and instead one more i 
• ^ Harduagpnj 

The total cost shoivn includes outlay on irngatioo portion. 


t MW set wtU be 





297 


table 170 

PKINCIPAL FO^VER GENERATION SCHEMES IN SECOND PLAN 
(PRIVATE SECTOR) 


Name of Undertaking 

Generating 
plant to be 
added 
(Kw) 

Cost of 
generating 
plant 
(Ra lakhs) 

Ahmedab'td EIcctnaty Co Ltd , (Bombay) 

45,000 

2,78 

Tata Power S'jrstcm (Bombay) Trombay Tfacnnal Station 

1,50,000 

20,10 

Sholapur (Bombay) 

3,000 

30 

Agra Elec Supply Co , (U P ) 

4,000 

25 

Banaras Elcctnc Light and Power Co Ltd , (XJ P ) 

4,000 

25 

United Provinces Elcctnc Supply Co Ltd , (U P ) 

! 4,000 

25 

Bbavnagar Elcc Co Ltd , (Bombay) 

8,000 

50 

Minor Schemes 

5,000 

23 

TOTAL 

2,23,000 

23,26 


RIVER VALLEY PROJECTS 


India’s natural waterways arc more or less evenly distnbuted over 
the entire country The ultimate goal of the development of imgation is 
the doubling; of the irrigated area wthm 15 to 20 ycais The additional 
food production resulting from this extension of imgation will not only cover 
the present deficit but ako provide, to some extent, for the future groivth of 
the population 

The First Five-Year Plan provided for the execution of nearly 300 
big and small schemes to extend imgation faahties to nearly 220 lakh 
acres of land on full development 

Particulars of the principal irrigation works in the country and the 
pnncipal imgation schemes included in the Second Plan are given at the 
end of this chapter in tables 171 and 172 The major nver valley projects 
are described briefly m the ibllowing paragraphs 


Bkakra-Jfangal Project 

The Bhakra Nangal project , the largest multi-purpose proiect in India 
ratified to cost Rs 170 crorcs, consists of a 740-ft high dW which is the 
highest s^ght grawty dam m the world, with about 650 miles of canals and 
^ of distnbmanes The Bhakra dam is being constructed 

SS!!! nvCT in a mountain gorge just before the nver enters the 

plmta. The Nangal dam is located 8 miles down-stream and will serve as 
LrTpJf vanations of .vater released 

torn Bhakra and thus emnre Steady supplies The constmction of the 
project was started m 1946 All ivorks, except the Bhakra dam and its 
power housK, w^ch are m progress, have almost been completed 

area of about 15 lakh acres was imgated by the 
Bhakra t^al system m the Punjab and ^jasthan The canal svstem 
commanj a gross area of about 66-7 lakh acres Of thi, the ^Srabk 
immmanded ar^ wiU be 58 lakh acres and 36 lakh acres vk be annuX 
irngated o^uB development In addipon, an area of 37 iakh acres tviB 
get mcreasrf wat» supply It is anudpated that, on full development 
*ere will be M adiPonal outturn of 8-5 lakh tons of wheat and^ other 

tomX^'smanShXs ‘ Slokhtonsofsngareaneand 0-3 lakh 

. evptuaUy be Uvo power houses at Bhakra, one on earh 

lade of the dam In addiPon, there are two other po™ hXes “n the 









298 


Nangal hydd channel The power house at Ganguwal with two units of 

24.000 kw each was commissioned m January 1955 The power house at 
Kotla, having the same capacity, was put into operation in July 1956 It 
IS proposed to instal an addition^ umt of 29,000 k\v. in each of these power 
houses The left bank power house at Bhalcra will have 5 generating sets 
of 90,000 kw. each With the addition of these units and one umt each of 

29.000 kw at Ganguwal and Kotla, there ivill be an installed capacity of 

6.04.000 kw and firm capaaty of 3,32,000 kw 

Partial storage of water above the Bhakra dam started in niid-1958 
when a limited supply of water for percimial irngation was released 

Hirakud Dam Project 

The Project harnesses the nver Mahanadi and will provide imgabon 
to 6 7 lakh acres of land m Sambalpur and Bolangir distncts The powxr 
house at the base of the dam will have an installed capadty of 1,23,000 kw 
The mam dam — the world’s longest mam stream dam — ^is 15,748 feet long , 
It 15 flanked by 13 miles of dykes on both sides and impounds 66 lakh acre> 
feet of water The revised estimated cost of the project is Rs 70 78 
crorcs 

The mam dam and dykes have been completed m all reaches Upto 
the end of October 1958, irrigation faahties had been provided for 2,41,983 
acres of land The entire network of canal distribution system is expected 
to be completed by the end of September 1959. In the power house, all the 
four generating units, with an installed capacity of 1,23,000 kw. have been 
commissioned and power is being supplietl at present to the cement factory 
at Rajgangpur, the steel works at Rourkela, the ferromanganese plant at 
Joda, the paper mills at Brajarajnagar and die textile and other industnes 
m and around Chowdwar The towns of Cuttack, Pun, Sambalpur, 
Sundergarh, Bargarh and several other places are also getting power from 
Hirakud 

A scheme costmg Rs 14 92 crorcs has been sanctioned for delta 
irrigation and when completed m 1960, it will supply perennial irrigation 
to 18 7 lakh acres annually m the Cuttack and Pun ^tnets 

To meet the mcreasmg load demand, the Ghiphma power house pro- 
ject, (with an instaUed capacity of 1,09,000 kw ) costmg Rs 14 32 crores, 
was sanctioned in July 1956 Work on the project is progressing accordmg 
to schedule 


Rajasthan Canal Project 

The ^jasthan (^al project estimated to cost Rs 66 47 crores was 
sanctioned in July 1957 and envisages the construction of a canal taking off 
from the Hankc barrage across the nver Sutlej and has been divided mto 
two parts — ** 

” Rajasthan tern- 

JaisaW SiTsn *!tocts ofBdtaner, 

Damodar Vall^ Project 

Tilaiyl^KS! four storage dams at 

total capaaty of 1 04 000 ^ power houses of a 

thermafpower si^f ^ to aU the dams except Konar , three 

capadty of 5,00 000 Itw Hurgapur and Chandrapura with a total 

tion barrage at Durpamir J power transmission gnd and an imga- 

uurgapur with canals and distnbutaries 



299 


The all-concrete Tilaiya dam on the nver Barakar, with earthen 
extensions, on cither side, was completed in 1955. The Maithon dam on the 
nver Barakar stores 12 lakh acre-feet of water, and the underground hydro- 
clcctnc station near the dam has a capaaty of 60,000 kw. The dam was 
completed in September 1957 ; in the power house two generating units 
of 20,000 kw. each have been commissioned while the third umt of the same 
capaaty has been practically completed. 

Designed pnmanly for flood control, the Panchet Hill dam will 
impound 12 14 lakh acre-feet of \vater. A 40,000-kw. hydro-electnc 
station IS also bemg built near the dam 

The 2,27 1-ft long and 38-ft high barrage at Durgapur in West Bengal 
'ivas opened in August 1955 It will irrigate over 10*44 lakh acres of land 
through a network of canals (to be completed by June 1959) and distn- 
butanes Nearly 85 miles of the main left bank canal will ^ navigable 
and provide an alternative means of commumcation. between Calcutta and 
the coalfldds of Ramganj 

The Bokaro thermal power station with an installed capaaty of 

1.50.000 kw was commissioned in February 1953 An additional umt of 

75.000 kw at this station is expected to be commissioned by the end of 
1959. At about the same time the Durgapur thermal power station with 
an installed capaaty of 1,50,000 kw will be commissioned Work has 
also started on the third thermal station at Chandrapura with an installed 
capacity of 1,25,000 kw. which will mamly supply power for railway 
electnflcation 


Tungabhadra Project 

This joint undertaking of the Governments of Andhra Pradesh and 
Mysore comprises a 7,942-foot long and 162-foot h^h dam on the Tunga- 
bhadra nver and a system of canals and power stations on ather side 

The dam was inaugurated in July 1953. The reservoir, which has a 
waterspread of 146 square miles, will ultimately store 30 lakh acre-feet of 
water The two canals on ather side will irngate nearly 8 23 acres 
in Andhra Pradesh and Mysore States There will be two power stations 
on the nght side, one below the dam and the other at the end of a 15 mile 
long canal at Bukhasagaram Two generating units of 9,000 kw. caeh, 
in the dam power house and two umts of the same capaaty out of three umts 
contemplated in the canal power house have been commissioned. A power 
station will also be constructed below the dam on the left side where three 
generators of 9,000 kw each will be installed m the first instance. 


Kost Project 

Ihe three-utut Kosi scheme, estimated to cost Rs 44 76 crores will 
besidM giving protection from flood, irrigate about 13 97 lakh acres anAuaUy 
in Bihar Umt I of the scheme includes a barrage (scheduled for comple- 
tion by June 1962) acroa the nver Kosi about 3 miles above HanuiMn- 
1 consists of embankments (completed), about 152 

the nver Umt III cmnpnses the 
Eastern Kosi Cand (work m progress) which wiU take off from Hanuman- 
nagar^ Barra^ It have four branches, viz , MurUganj Branch 
Janakmagar Branch, Banmankhi Branch, and Arana BranA 

Chambal Project 

The fct phase of ^e project, which is bemg jointly executed by the 
Madhya and Rajasthan Governments, consists of the cidhi 

aurf^KoT’ Sagar powCT station, transmission Unes, Kotah barrage 

Gandhi Sagar dam will have a gross storage capaaty of 68 5 lakh acre- 



300 


feet The system ■will irnga-te 1 1 laMi Acres in Rajasthan and htadhya. 
Pradesh Besides, 92,000 kw. of power at 60 per cent load factor ivill be 
generated from the four generating sets which are being installed at the 
Gandhi Sagar power station Though the project as a whole is expected to 
be completed by 1962, generation of power and imgation are expected to 
start m 1959-60 

The project (Stage I) is estimated to cost Rs. 63 '59 crorcs 
Nagatjunasagar Project 

The Nagaqunasagar project, which is a scheme of the Andhra 
Pradesh Government, as sanctioned is scheduled to be completed by the 
year 1963-64^ and is expected to yield annually about 18 lakh tons of 
food grains The reservoir ■will have an impounding capacity of 54 4 lakh 
acre-feet 

The project, which is estimated to cost Rs 86 57 crores, envisages the 
construction of a masonry dam on the Krishna nver near Nandikonda 
village, 290 feet high (spillway) above foundation level, ivith 5 feet falhng 
shutters The dam be built of stone masonry and provided with 
8 penstocks of 16 ft dia and 2 of 25 ft dia, for eventual generation of 
power m the second stage of the project 

The Right Bank Canal, 135 miles long, will irrigate an area of 9 70 
lakh acres, while the Left Bank Canal, 108 n^es loi^, ivill irrigate 7 9 lakh 
acres B^des this, an additional 3 lakh acres in the Knshna delta tviU be 
imgated 


Koyna Project 

The first stage of the project estimated to cost Rs 38 28 crorcs and 
inaugurated in January 1954, involves the construction of a 208-ft high 
dam across the nver Koyna and a tunnel which iviU divert the waters of the 
nver to ensure a drop of about 1,570 feet The imderground power house 
will have four umts of 60,000 kw. each About 2 3 lakh kw of power mil 
he supphed to Bombay and Poona and the remammg 10,000 ^v. to the 
adjoining areas in Maharashtra 


Rthaad Dam Project 

The proj ect, estimated to cost Rs 46 05 crores and scheduled for comple- 
non bv 1961, envisages the construction of a concrete gravity dam, 3,254-ft. 
Icmg and 300-ft high, across the nver Riband near viBage Pipn m Distnct 
Mirvapur, about 29 miles sou'th of the confluence of the Rihand and the 
Sonc rivers The reservoir, 180 square miles in area, to be created by the dam 

\vill rtore 86 lakh acre-feet of ivater A power station with an imtial 
installed capaity of 2 5 lakh kw and ultimate installed capacity of 3 lakh 
^ ^Vlll be constructed at the toe of the dam Power from the project wiU 
c used for larg^scale industrial and agricultural development of an. 
economic ly backwwd region of Uttar Pradesh, with a population of over 

cottage industnes as well as for 
to onp'rati- K -1°^ PowcT from the project ^viU also be supplied 

V p^d“ “ 

Bhadra Reservoir Project 

scheduled estimated to cost Rs 24 42 crorcs and 

will irrigate 2 '34 the nver Bhadra m Mysore State 

and Bclllry Districts and Shimoga, Chjckmaglur, Chitaldurg 

of 33,200 kw have a poiver station with an instated capacity 



liahrapara Pmjee! 

Tills project, financed by the Bombay Government, may be regarded 
as the first phase of the development of the Tapi valley. TIic weir, 2,038- 
ft long and ^S-fi high, on the rocky nver-bed near Kakrapara, 50 miles 
upstream of Sural, was completed in June 1953 Canals arc scheduled to 
be completed in 1 963 The scheme iv ill irrigate 6 53 lakh acres m the Surat 
district 

Machhind Project 

A joint \cnturc of the Governments of Andhra Pradesh and Orissa, 
this lndit>-clcctnc project harnesses the river Machkund which forms the 
boundarv between tlic two Slates A dam 176-ft. high above foundations 
and 1,345-ft long has been constructed at Jalaput across the Machkund 
ri\cr to store 6,25,000 acrc-fcctofw'alcr. Three gcncraung units, each with 
a capacity of 17,000 kw , arc already operaung , three more units of 21,250 
fcw each arc under installauon The total installed capacity on completion 
will be 1,1 4,7501 w. 

Majurcdjht Project 

This project of the West Bengal Government is mainly an imgation 
scheme though it also provides for the installations of a 4,000 kw. hydro- 
electric plant Power from the project will be supphed to the Birbhum 
and Murshidabad districts in West Bengal and Santhal Paraganas in Bihar. 
Tbe first stage of the project was completed in 1951 with the construction of 
a diversion barrage at Tilpara near Sun in West Bengal. The 155-ft. 
high and 2,170-ft long Massanjorc dam, now named Canada dam, was 
completed in June 1955 Thccanals willimgatc 7’2 lakh acres annually. 
The Canada dam wall have a capacity of 5 lakh acrc-fcct of water and ivdl 
provide rabt imgaUon for nearly one lakh acres The first 2,000 k%v. 
gcncraung set was commissioned in December 1956 and the second m 
February 1957. 


DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME 

About 30 lakh acres of land were brought under imgaUon by large 
and medium-sized projects in the First Plan During the Second Plan, 
an addiUonal area of 100 lakh acres ivill receive irngaUon benefits, 90 lakh 
acres from projects undertaken during the First Plan and 10 lakh acres from 
new projects These new projects eventually imgate an area of 168 
lakh acres Taking into account 1 00 lakh acres brought under irrigation by 
minor schemes in the First Plan and the taigct of 90 lakh acres from such 
schemes in the Second Plan, the total irrigated area in the country by 1961 
will be 835 lakh acres This will mean about 62 per cent more irrigated 
area than at the commencement of the First Plan (515 lakh acres). 

At the beginnmg of the First Plan, the total installed capaaty of power- 
generating plants amounted only to 23 lakh kw Half of this was in the 
clectncity compames m the bigger towns About a quarter of the installed 
capacity was in the public sector, the balance being in mdustnal establish- 
ments which generated their own power In the First Plan penod, installed 
capaaty increased by about 1 1 lakh kw bnngmg the total mstalled capaaty 
to 34 lakh kw In this, the share of the pubhc sector mcreased firom 6 lakh 
kw to 14 lakh kw 

It has been estimated that over the next 1 0 years, installed capacity will 
need to be expanded by 20 per cent annually Tins means that the target 
for 1966 should be about I *5 crore kw Accordingly, a programme to 
raise the installed capacity to 69 lakhkw has been mduded m the Second 
Plan Of the mcrease of 35 lakh kw. between 1955-56 and 1960-61, 29 Takli 



302 


kw will be m the pubhc sector, 3 lakh kw m clecUicity supply companies and 
3 lakh kw m industnal establishments which generate their own power. 
In the pubhc sector, hydel power -will account for the addition of 21 lakh 
kw and thermal power foi 8 lakh k^v In all, 42 powcr-gcncrating schemes 
(new schemes and extensions to existing power stations) will be undertaken 
dunng the Second Plan These will include 23 hydro-eicctnc and 19 steam- 
power stations Dunng this penod the per capita comsumption of elcctn- 
aty IS expected to double, from 25 to 50 umts 

The National Projects Construction Corporation Private Ltd 

In order to ensure the best utilisation of the available trained personnel 
and eqmpment rendered surplus on projects nearing completion, and to 
assist State Governments which do not possess adequate organisation for 
the execution of large projects, the National Projects Construction Corpora- 
tion Pnvate Ltd , mcorporated under the Compames Act ivas set up on 
January 9, 1957 

The Central Government and the State Governments of Rajasthan, 
Madhya Pradesh, Kerala, Bihar and Jammu and Kashmir have contnbuted 
towards the share capital The Punjab and Assam Governments have also 
agreed to partiapate in the scheme 


TABLE 171 

PRINCIPAL mBIGATlON WORKS 




Total 

Area 

Name of Scheme 

Year of 
completion 

captal 
Outlay 
(Rs lakhs) 

irrigated 

(thousand 

acres) 

Andhra Pradesh 




Rompem Drainage 

Godavan Delta system 

Krishna Delta 

Kallapad 

Nizam Sagar 

Godavan (Stage I) 

1956 

1890 

1898 

1957 

1931 

1958-59 

1,28 

2,20 

2,28 

90 

3,92 

4,41 

30 

11,11 

10,93 

8 

2,75 

67 

Bihar 




Sone Canals 

Tnbcm Canal extension 

1874' 

1958-59 

1 2,68 
1,13 

7,47 ' 
62 

Bombay 



Nira Left Bank Canal 

Nira Right Bank Ganal 

! 1906 

1,06 

83 

Pravara River works 

1938 

6,02 

1,53 

3,96 

81 

Gangapur Reservoir 

Rangola 

1926 

1959 

84 

45 

Brahmani 

1952 

62 

10 

Moj 

1954 

91 

27 

Aji 

1955 

96 

15 

Machhu I 

1957-58 

80 

6 

Jammu & 

1958-59 

1,25 

22 

Sind Valley 

1956 





1.24 

18 








pccdw .. 

Ncy>‘ar 
Malamptuha 
Walayw Rcscnoir 

Madhya Pradesh 

Tandula Canals 
Mahanadi Canals 


Pcrmchani 
Penyar system 
Ka\en Mcitur 
Lower Bhavani 
Avaniar Reservoir 


Knshnarajasagar Canals 
Tunga Anicut 
Nugu . 

Ghataprabha Lch Bank Canal 


Western Jamuna Canab 
tJpper Ban Doab Canal 
Sirfund Canal 
Eastern Canal 
Nangal Barrage 


Tawai Project 

Parbati Project .. t 
Meja Project 

Uttar Pradesh 

Ganga Canal 
Agra Canal 
liowcr Ganga Canal 
Sarda Canal 

Extension of Saida Canal 
Sarda Canal Reservoir (Stage I) 
Mata Tila (Stage I) 


Damodar Canals 
Mayuratshi 


304 


TABLE 172 


PRINCaPAL 


irrigation projects in the second eive-tear plan 


Name of Scheme ami State 


Total 
cost (Rs 
lakhs 
approTi- 
mate) 


Bbakra^Nangal (Ftinjab & RajasOian) 
Damodar Valley (West Bengal & Bihar) 
Hirakud (Stage I) induding Mahanadi 
Delta (Onssa) 

Chambal (Stage I) (Rajasthan & Madhya 
PtadcA) 

Tuagabhadra (Andhra & Mysore) 
Mayurakshi (West Bengal) 

Bhadra (Mysore) 

Kosi (Bihar) . , 

Nagaijunasagar (Stage I) (Andhra Pradesh) 
Kdtrapara (ind (Lower Tapi) Bombay 


170,02* 

105,38* 

85,70* 

63,60* 

60,36* 

I6,U* 

25,22* 

44,76 

86,33 

11,66 


Eiqiendi- 

turcin 
2Dd Flan 
on iriJga- 
bon (Ra 
lakhs) 


28,28 

9,43 

20,84 

20,60 

7,25 

1,90 

17;20 

16,15 

32,30 


Annual Benefits m 
thousand acres 


On com- 
pletion 


36,04 

13,44 

22,67 

11,00 

8,30 

7,20 

2,34 

13,97 

20.60 

6,52 


Dunne 

Second 

Plan 

pcnod 


21,48 

8,49 


3,75 

4,48 

2,70 

1,40 


2,56 

(smglc 

crop) 


New Sdiesnes 

Tungabhadra Levd 
Canal (Andhra & Mysore) . . 

Tlkai (Bombay) 

Tawa (Madhya Pradesh) 

Purna (Bombay) 

Vamasadhara (Andhra) 

Narmada (Bombay) 

Bimas (Bombay) . 
htula (Bombay) 

Girna (Bombay ) 

Kbadakv asla (Bombay) 

New Kattalai (Madras) 

Salandi (Onssa) 

Gurgaon Canal (Punjab) 
Kangsaban (^Vc3t B^gal) , . 
Chandrakeshar (Madhya Pradesh) 
Kabmi (Mysore) . 

Banas (Rajasthim) 

Bhadar (Bombay) 

Boothatbankettu (Kerala) 

Lidder Canal (Jammu &. Kashmir) 
Barna (Madhva Pradesh) 
Laaamnaibittha (^lysorc) 

Upper Ken (Madhya Pradesh) 
Vidur (Pondicherry S. Madras) 


21,90 


3,15 


3,83 














Kjtjuvl 


























































15 


15 


12 

50 

50 

10 


2 


3 


* Includes outlay on power porban 

^ The Second Plan ccpcnditure showa tn the eft himn 3 is according to ongmal 
provisoQs These fibres are under revision hy the Planning Gonunissiom 



CHAPTER XXIV 
INDUSTRY 


According to the 1954 Census of Indian Manufactures,* India had 
7,067 registered factonest Of these 6.637 or 94 per cent of the total, 
M bich submitted returns, employed in aU Es 787 8 erores worth of capital, 
consistme of Ks 355 6 erores fixed capital and Rs 432-6 otores working 

^ . /•TTiT>1nw#»r1 in tlipsp fflrtnnrs was 


added by manufacture amounting to Rs 373 erores Salaries and wages 
(including the money value of other benefits) paid to employees amounted 

to Rs 218*6 erores n • j loct 

The total profits earned by 318 jomt-stock compames during 1955, 
according to another estimate,** amounted to Rs 41 81 a-ores.as against 
Rs 40*13 erores in the previous year The index number of industrial 
nrofits during 1955 for all mdustries, with 1 939^35 the base year, was 
334 3 compared to 320 8, 261 2 and 390 6 during 1954, 1953 and 
1952 lespccuvely The index numbers of industrial profits during 1955 
for certmn important industnes were as follows • jute 277 5 , cotton 
535 0 , tea 183 1 , sugar 413 5 , paper 747*8'; iron and steel 307 9 , 
coal 200 0 , and cement 409 7 The revised indextt'Of-Midustnal profits 
for 1956 (bas5 1950=100) stood at 149 1 The indices for certain indus- 
tncs "was as follows tea 114 5 , coal 103 2 , sugar 17-8 7i, cotton 133 1 , 
jute 55 3 , iron and steel 120*8, engineering 368 2., .cement 128*2 , and 
paper 209 0. „ . > « . 


INDUSTEtlAL POLICY i ' 

1 I ^ f, 

Independent India’s industrial policy was first announpeid in 1948 
This envisaged a mixed economy with an overall responsjhilitv of 
the Government for the planned development of industn^ and their 
regulation m national mterest While it rateraCed.^the right of the 
State to acquire an industrial undertaking in the public intei:^t,',it reserved 
an appropnate sphere for pnvatc enterprise ttt . <■ « * 

A fresh statement of industrial policy, necessitated by, the -acceptance 
of a socialistic pattern of society as the national objective, was announced 
on Apnl 30, 1956. Under this, industries specified in Schedule A (enume- 
rated below) will be the exclusive responsibihty of the State,, .while Schedule 
B mdustnes (also enumerated bdow) wtII be progresdvdy State-owned, 
but at the same time private enterprise will be expected to supplement the' 
efforts of the State m these fields Future development ctf industnes falling 
outside these Schedules will, in general, be left to private, enterprise. 
Notwithstanding this demarcation, it will always be open to the State to 
undertake any type of industrial production . 

Schedule A Industnes Arms and ammunition and pitied . items of 

*Tlie following States and Umon Temtones were not covcied Iw the Census Jammu 
and Kashmir, Madhya Bharat, Hyderabad, Bbopsd,'BaaspuiSr, Mansur, Tnpura 
and the Andaman and Nicobar Idands '' > 

'(Thase employing 20 or more vorkers on any day and usmg paiver i 
♦♦By the Mmistry of Fmance, Department of Company^I^ Adn^unstration 
tfSource Reserve Bank of India in collaboratioo with the Cepartment of Company 
Law Administration . i - . 

ttt Sec ‘INDIA 1957’ p 289 . , < » 



306 


defence equipment , atomic energy , iron and steel , lieavy castings 
and foldings of iron and steel , heavy plant and machinery required 
foriron and steel production, for mining, for machine tool manufaclorc 
and for such otlicr basic industries as may be specified hy the Central 
Government , heavy clcctncal plants, including large hydraulic and 
steam turbmes , coal and lignite ; mineral oils ; mining of iron ore, 
manganese ore, chrome ore. gypsum, sulphur, gold and diamonds ; 
mining and processing of copper, lead, rmc, tin, molybdenum and 
wolfram , minerals specified in the Schedule to the Atomic Encigy 
(Control of Production and Use) Order, 1953 j aircrafl ; air transport ; 
railway transport ; shipbuilding ; telephones and iclcplionc cables; 
tdegraph and wireless apparatus (c^clud!ng radio receiving sets) , 
generation and distnbution of clcctTicily, 

Schedule B Industries' All other minerals except ‘‘minor minerals’* 
as defined m Section 3 of the Minerals Concession Rules, 1949; 
aluminium and other non-ferrous metals not included in Schedule 
A , machuic tools , ferro-alloys and tool steels ; baste and interme- 
diate products required by chemical industries such as the manufac- 
ture of drugs, dyestufls and plastics , antibiotics and other essential 
drugs , fcrtiliscTS , synthetic rubber , carbonisation of co^ , chemical 
pulp j road transport ; sea transport. 


REGULATION OF INDUSTRY 

Consistently wth the policy first announced in 1948, the Constitution 
was amended and the Industries (Development and RcguIaUon) Act, 1951, 
Was enacted Under the Act, all ne:w and c^i 5 tlng undcrtalungs were 
required ^to be licensed. The Government were authorised to examine 
working of any mdustriaL undertaking and to issue such directions as 
they considered necessary. If the undertaking conUuucd to be mismanaged, 
we (wvemment were empowered to take over its management or control 
A Central Advisory Council consisting of the representatives of industry, 
labo^, consumers and primary producers was to be constituted to advise 
the Government on ^ matters concerning the development and regulation 
of mdustnes Development Counals for individual mduslrics were also 
to be set up 

By Bter^mg these powers, the Government aim at securing a proper 
ubhsanon of the eountrv^s resources, a balanced development of lai|e and 
distnbution of the various indwtries 
^“i the scope of the Act Besides the 

SfiJ^nr Development Councils hate been 

Wdm, sew-mg m^hina and tnstL,enls,%)^ugar,‘^l'hgKctri(Sll 
-allied industries, (u) woe )llcn textdes ( ) art allcalisand 

of pands and exn^ ^<^hol and fermentation A number 

appointed Com time to 
554 new licences “‘lustnes During January-September 1958, 
1957) , many against 589 m 

Items concerned the production of machinery and 

capitd ^ important mdustnes for which sufficient 

give Government 

participati^reJm^ by 

^ in equity capital Industries which have received such 





307 


assistance include the manufacture of explosives for civil purposes, inter- 
mediates for certam types of dyestufls, textile machinery and steel. In 
order to promote decentralisation of industry, the Government have 
decided to pool and equate the paces of steel and cement at all railheads 
in India 


PRODUCTIVITY 


Following the recommendations of a Productivity Delegation, which 
visited Japan m October-November 1956, a National Productivity Council 
was set up in February 1958 as an autonomous body with representatives 
of Government, employers, labour and others The object is to inculcate 
productivity consciousness in the country and apply the latest techniques 
of increasmg productivity m industry, by promoting the settmg up of local 
productivity councils in industnal centra and of five Kegional Productivity 
Directorates manned by specialists. 

INDUSTRIAL FINANCE 


The Industnal Fmance Corporation of India, established in July 
1948, has been giving assistance m the form of advances and long-term 
■[oans to industrial concerns Up tp March 1958, the loans sanctioned 
by the Corporation amounted to Rs. 57*42 crores including Rs 9 06 crores 
during 1957-58 Loans worth Rs 32*03 crores were actually disbursed. 
A sum of Rs 13*5 crores was provided in the Second Plan for Central 
Government loans to the Corporation , the amount has now been raised 
to Rs 22*25 crores 

The Industnal Fmance Corporation (Amendment) Act, 1957 seeks 
further to strengthen the resources position of the Corporation and widen 
the scope of its activities A larger number of industries, including new 
concerns, which are not in a position to offer adequate security, but deserve 
encouragement from the pomt^ of view of the national economy, may now 
receive loans from the Corporation if some guarantees are ^ven by the 
Central Government or a State Government, a scheduled bank or a State 
co-operative bank The State Financial Corporations* assist medium 
and small-scale mdustrics which do not fall within the scope of the all- 
India corporation The total amount of their outstanding loans and 
advances stood at Rs 9*51 crores at the end of 1957-58 

end of 1957 the Industnal Credit and Investment Corporation 
of India, set up in January 1955 to assist industnal enteiprises in the private 
sector, approved financial assistance for a total amount of Rs. 1 1 *65 crores 
covenng a wide range of mdustnes * paper, chemicals and pharmaceuticals, 
electrical equipment, textiles, sugar, metal ores, lime and cement works, 
glass manufacture, etc. Actual disbursements amounted to Rs 1*95 
crores 


. T Corporation for Industry Private Ltd. was set up 

rc-lending facilities ag^t loans given by banks 
purpose of increased production primarily in 
‘’'I ^'5”, eligible for rediscount must 

^ ^ medium-sized amount, not 

^ facihties w'dl he available only to those 

mdustnal concerns whose paid-up capital and reserves do not exceed 
xvs. 2. D crores 

The National Industrial Development Corporation, set up in 1954, 


13 to ll.ihTO^h amalgamations foUo^iagthe 
of States in November 1956 The junrficUon of the Ptmjab 
Territory ofDclhi m terms ol^an 

ogreement entered into in October 1957. ► 



308 


also acts as an agency of the Government for the grant of special loans for 
the rehabilitation and modernisation of the cotton textile and jute indus- 
tnes Rs 2 26 crores have so far been advanced to the NIDG for this 
purpose 

The Government assist the private sector by facilitating the import 
of essential raw matenals and basic intermediates, offering tax concessions 
and protectmg new mdustnes m the first few years The statutor>' Tariff 
Commission, established m January 1952 m place of the previous non- 
statutory Tanff Board, have been reviewing the progress of protected 
mdustnes and examining new cases for protection 

Efforts have been made to secure techmcal help from the mdustnally 
advanced countnes either under the mtcrnational techmcal assistance 
schemes or through direct negotiations 

Foreign Capital 

In order to supplement the capital resources for rapid mdustrial 
development, the Government have invited foreign assistance in cases 
where suffiaent capacity for the manufacture of a particular item does not 
exist in the country and where it is desirable to secure the know-how from 
leading foreign firms The pohey m regard to foreign capital v'as enunci- 
ated m the Industnal Policy Resolution of Apnl 1948, and in the Prime 
Minister's statement m the Constituent Assembly in 1949, which laid down' 
that 

(0 the participation of foragn capital and enterprise should be 
carefully regulated in the national mterest by ensunng that' 
major mterest in ownership and effective control should, 
save m exceptional cases, always be m Indian hands and that, 
the trammg of smtable Indian personnel for the purpose of 
eventually replacing foreign experts ivill be insisted upon m 
all such cases , ' 

(tt) there will be no discrimination between foreign and Indian' 
undertakings in the apphcation of the general industrial 
policy , 

(til) rca^nable iacilities ^Vlll be given for the remittance of profits' 
and repatriation of capital consistent with the foreign exchange 
position of the country , 

(ip) in ihc event ofnationahsation, fair and equitable compensation 

Will be paid 


DEVELOPMENT OF INDUSTBIES 

Early Stages 

Il,r ™ 1"'^“ was buUt at Calcutta in 1818, 

tvith nrcd^mnTT^ industry were made jn Bombay in the year 1854, 

enteipnse The founLuons of 
capiiai and larf near Calcutta m 1855, mostly tvid. foreign 

mSor industries ^ong mth coal mmmg, were the only 

The War cave a de\^clopcd substantially before World War L 

of discnmmatmc '^Petus to industnal development The pohey 

the Indian Fiscal adopted m 1922 on the recommendation of 

mdustnes Between 1999 ^°^’ growth of Indian 

mo'c than doubled that nr"'! production of cotton pieccgoods 

2i times Thrn,r.’tfi! ^ ^ increased 8 times and of paper 

1932 and 1936 thit industry progressed so speedily between 

the same time the rem#^ * became self-suffiaent in sugar. About 

It u-ti ahtc to meet *^cgan to grow, and by 1935-36, 

meet about 9,, per cent of the total needs of the country 



309 


The production of matches, glass, vanaspati, soap and several engineering 
industries recorded large increases dunng this penod. An electncal goods 
industry came into being. 

World War II created conditions favourable for the maximum 
utilisation of capacity m Indian mdustnes Several new mdustries came 
into existence such as ferro-alloys, non-ferrous metals, diesel en^nes, 
pumps, bicycles, serving machines, soda ash, caustic soda, chlorine and 
superphosphate. The manufacture of machine tools and simple machmery, 
cutlery and pharmaceuticals also commenced 

In the immediate post-i\ar period a new range of industries greiv 
up ball and roller bearings, cardmg engmes, nng frames and locomotives. 
The fertiliser, cement, sheet glass, caustic soda and sulphuric aad industries 
expanded. 

During First Plan 

The emphasis in the First Five-Year Plan -was on agriculture, irri- 
gation and power , only about 8 per cent of the total investment was 
allocated for mdustnes and mmerab It set comparatively modest targets 
for new investment in the mdustnal field, the emphasis bemg on the fuller 
utihsatjon of existing capaaty. This objective was more or less achieved 
Some idle capacity, hoivever, still existed m the superphosphate, soap, 
vegetable oils, vanaspati and paint mdustnes and in some engmeenng 
industnes, such as the diesel engine and radio, and in the re-rolhng sector 
of steel and non-ferrous metals industries 

New mvestment m mdustnes m the pubhc sector during the First 
Plan was of the order of Rs 60 crores as against the target of Rs 94 crores 
The inv^tment, installed capacity and the level of production of the 
mdustn^ in the pubhc sector under the First Plan are shmvn m Table 174 
Investment in the pnvate sector on new projects and expansion programmes 
dunng the First Plan ivas expected to be about Rs 233 crores and this 
target i\'a5 attamed Expenditure on the replacement and modernisation 
of plant and machinery in the private sector ivas, however, considerably 
lower than antiapated — about Rs 105 crores as against Rs 230 crores. 
In all, new investment on industries (excluding mvestment on replacement 
and modernisation) amounted to about Rs 293 crores as against the projected 
outlay of Rs 327 crores 

Targets of production, as distinct from capacity, ivere more or less 
reached in the case of cotton textiles, sugar, vegetable oils, cement, paper, 
soda ash, caustic soda, rayon, electric transformers, bicvdes, seizing 
machines and petroleum refining The expected levels of production ivere 
not reached in the case of iron and steel, alumimum, machine tools, 
fertilisers, diesel engines and pumps, automobiles, radios, batteries, electric 
motors, electnc lamps, electric fans, jute textiles, paints and varnishes, 
plywood, superphosphate, power alcohol and glass 

Appreciable diversification of producUon was achieved Among 
the new products manufactured for the first tone were: staple fibre and 
cellulose acetate filament, calcium carbide, htdrogen peroxide, rare earth 
. compounds, caustic soda and ammomum chlonde, pemeUlm, DDT, 
newspnnt, carding engines, automatic looms, steel wire ropes, j’ute spinmng 
frames, deep well turbine pumps and motors and transformers of higher 
ratings 

The industrtMiTse break-up of the total outlay of Rs 293 crores on 
industnal expansion in the public and private sectors dunng the First Plan 
compared to the onginal estimate of Rs 327 crores, is shown in Table 173* 
Capadtv and let cl of production in dificrcnt industnes at the end of 
toe First Plan arc given in Table 177 along with the targets for toe Second 



310 

TABLE 173 

OUTLAY ON INDUSTRIES (HRST PLAN) 


(/» erora of njm) 



Estimate under 
First Plan 

1 Imestmentac- 
1 tually incurred 

MetaUmgical industries [iron and sted, dumimum, 
lead, etc.) 

85 0 

61 0 

Petroleum refimng 

64 0 

45 0 

Chemical industries (heavy diemicals and fcrtdisers, 
drugs and phaimaceubcals, dyestufis and plastics) 

26 0 

27,0 

Engineering mdustnes [heavy and light) . 1 

53 0 


Cotton textiles 

9 0 


Sugar mdustry 


5 0 

Ra)on textiles (mdudmg staple fibre and chenucal 
pulp) 


8 0 

Cement . . : 


17 5 

Paper and paperboard mdudmg newsprint 

Electric power generabon and oistnbution 

■M 

12 0 

(m the pnvatc sector) 


32 6 

Others 


18 9 

Total 

327 0 

293 0 


Dmng Second Plan 

New investment in the organised mdustnes during the Second Plan 
(original allocation)** would amount to Rs 1,094- crores, Rs 524 crores in 
the public sector (besides Rs 35 crores to be invested by the National 
Industnal Devdopment Corporation) and Rs 335 crores in the private 
Sector The proposed outlay in the pubhc sector was mainly accounted 
for by iron and steel (Rs 350 crores), fertilisers (Rs. 37 croresf), the heavy 
c^ctncal plant (Rs 20 crores), besides the South Arcot Lignite Project 
(Rs. 52 cr^) and the expansion of the Hmdustan Shipyard (Rs 9’8 
crores) The programme of the National Industrial Development Corpo- 
ration provides for assistance to the cotton and jute textile industries in 
modernisation and includes projects for heavy foundries and forge- 
shops, stroctural fabncation, refractories, chemical pulp for rayon and 
dyestufis and drugs The NIDC viould also 
aluminium and the manufacture 
ofroilM -inrt moving, mimng etc , and also 

SsTndmtric non-fezTOUs 

under the Second Plan in the pubhc 
tionnlm™ estimated produc- 

undertaUnffs ^ details about the Statc-owned industrial 

IndSdlS^.^ h<^ds m the section on ‘Pnncipal 


m inor expansions, replacemcDts and modernisation, u 

p’Ojscis m the public sector, owing to use m pnee- 
^ ertcmal, ore shown in table 174 along w?th tbe onginal 

t^fcr^iser plant under the South Aroot Dgnitc 
V* ih iv». ammonium sulphate lo connection 













312 



(f ) Excludes Rs 3 1 lakhs invested hy the Mysore Government 
N A avnilnblc. 


313 


The mam emphasis in the Second Plan is on the expansion of 
capital and producer goods industries with a view to laying firm 
foundatioxis of mdustnal progress The following order of pnonties was 
laid doivn 

(t) increased production of iron and steel and of heavy chemicals, 
including mtrogenous fertilisers, and development of the 
heavy^ engmeermg and machine-building mdustnes , 

(«) expansion of capacity m respect of other developmental 
commodities ana producer goods such as aluminium, cement, 
cheimcal pulp, dvestuffe and phosphatic fertilisers, and of 
essential drugs ; 

(hi) modernisation and re-equipment of important national 
industries such as jute and cotton textiles and sugar , 

(tp) fiiller ulilisauon of the existing installed capaaty m mdustnes 
where there are wide gaps between capacity and production , 
and 

(p) expansion of capacity for consumer goods industries keeping 
in MCiv the requirements of common production programmes 
and the production targets for the decentralised sector of 
industry 

The mdustry-wise break-up of the total outlay of Rs 1,094 crores m 
the public and pnvate sectors during the Second Plan is shown below 


TABLE 175 

OUTLAY ON DIDUSTRIES (SECOND PLAN) 


Amount 


{In ereres of rupets) 


Metallurgical mdustnes 

Engmcenng mdustnes 

Chemical mdustnes ' 

Cement, dectnc pnrcelain and reTractoncs 

Petroleum refining 

Paper, n(n%spnnt and sccunty paper 

Sugar 

Cotton, jute, ivooUcn and silk yarn and cloth 

Bayon and staple fibre 

Others 


502 5 
150 0 
132 0 
93 0 
10 0 
54 0 
51 0 
36 3 
24 0 
41 5* 


Percentage of 
total investment 


45 9 
13 7 
12 0 
8 5 
0 9 
5 0 
4 7 
3 3 
2 2 
3 8 


•Includes an invcstiment ofRs 29 Ocrorts 
under the South Arcot Lignite Project 


in respect of mining and 


poncT generation 



SI4 


Percentage increases in capadty and production proposed during 
the Second Plan for (i) representative capital and producer goods industries 
and (n) a number of important consumer goods industneSj are shown 
below in Table 176. 

TABLE 176 

PERCENTAGE INCREASE IN INDUSTRIES IN 1S60^ OVER 1955^6 


Capital and Prodttcer Goods IndnatHes 

Pmtsbed sted 
Aliunuuum 
FoTO-manganese 
Nitrogenoiis iutihscrs 
Pbosphatic fcrtibscn 
Soda 

Caustic soda 

Plastic moulding powders 

D}’estu0s 

Povser alcohd 

Cement 

Refractoncs 

Structural fabncatioa 

Locomotnes 

Dcctnc transTormers 

Industti'd machmexy — cotton, 3Utc, cement, ! 

and paper 
Benzol 

Consnmer Goods Indnstrlea 
Sugar 

Rayon and staple fibre 
Cotton textiles 
(«) Yam 
(t) doth 

Woollen totiOci 
(e) '\am 
(t) Cloth 

Gla» ard glasaovare 

B cydi 

S''ip 

Va'^a^pit 

Papr- an 1 paprr hoard 


260 

’ 231 

3DD 

233 

514 

— 

349 

277 

243 

500 

I8I 

188 

241 

275 

986 

1,362 

309 

450 

33 

100 

224 

183 

125 

186 

121 

178 

135 

; 125 

128 

116 

— 

471 

567 

900 

44 

24 

162 

246 


-.rd categoncs of industries, installed 

Din * in ISoo-SS and the targets set under the Second 

/’ ‘'w * is.-,' f I'JSures here arc ai m the rro^rerw tj 




TABLE 177 

PROGRESS OF INDUSTRY i CAPACTTY AND PRODUCTION 


315 


Remarks 

(a) 1955 

(A) 1954 

(r) Of the value of 

Rs 1 0 crore 
(</) Of the value of 
Rs. 3 0 crores 

(tf) Entire Plan 
period 1951-56 

Production 

Target for 

1960<61 

750 

4.300 
25,000 

2 5 

2 0 

2 5 

4 0 

2 0 

w 

400 

25,000 

2.300 

Levels estimated 
to have been 
achieved by 
1955-56 

s ss 

o oo menr-io (oco2'9 o 

COOO ^tD000 10MSj,Eb O'*lDC0 

« eo lo lo CO t'' EPjS lO 0> M 

Rated capaaty 

Target for 
1960-61 

980 

4,680 

30.000 

400 

25.000 
1,700 

Levels estimated 
to have been 
achieved by 
1955-56 

380 

1,300 

7,500 

792 

1,596 

4,980 

170 

15,000 

1,100 

1 

Thousand tons 

Tons 

Number 

Value in crores 
of rupees 

»l 

Number 

5 

6 

H 

1 

1. Iron and Steel 

(tl Pig iron lor foundries 
(it) ruiishcd steel (mam 
producers only) ' 

2. Aluminium 

3. Industrial machinery 
(O Cotton textile 

Carding engines 
Spmmg ring frames . . 
Looms , . . 

(li) Jute textile 

(tti) Cement .. , 

(ml Sugar 
(pj Paper 
(id) Printing 

(vtit) Others {heavy machinery 
including machine tools] 

— ^Machine tools (graded) 

4. Railway rolling stock 

(i) Locomotives . , 

(li) Wagons 

(in) Passenger coaches 



316 





318 




319 


INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION 

Industnal production during 1956 and 1957 and the index numbers 
of industrial production (base 1951^100) for the year 1957 and for l^e 
months of October 1957 and October 1958 are given in Table 178 For 
November 1958 the general index was 137 6 compared to 144 2 m November 
1957. Some new engineering and chemical mdustnes, not included in Ac 
index, have also been rccorAng considerable progress Shortage of foreign 
exchange has been impeding the pace of industrial progress. 

TABLE 178 

INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION 






Index number of pro- 
duction (1931 =B 100} 


Unit 

1956 

1957 






October 

October 








1957 

1957 

1958 





116 8 

111 1 

113 8 


(lakh yards) 

53,065 

53,174 

109 7 

103 0 

105 3 


(lakh lbs) 

16,712 

17,801 

127 5 

122 5 

129 7 

Jute Textiles (o) 

(thousand tons) 

1,093 

1,030 

120 5 

115 6 

115 1 

Sugar (ft) 

(thousand tons) 

1,856 

2,039 

185 5 

47 9 

344 7 

Paper and Paperboard 

(thousand tons) 

194 

210 

159 3 

166 4 

204 4 

Cigarettes 

(crores) 

2,630 

2,BB1 

134 7 

127 6 

132 7 

Goal 

(lakh tons) 

394 

435 

126 8 

124 3 

131 1 

Iron and Sted 



119 3 

117 4 

116 9 

Finished Steel 

Pig Iron and Ferro- 

(thousand tons) 

1,338 

1,346 

125 1 

121 2 

115 4 

alloys 

(thousand tons) ' 

1,958 

1,912 

104 8 

107 9 

120 8 

General Engtneermg 



241 3 

203 5 

234 8 

Hurrtcane Lanterns 

(thousands) 

5,179 

4,345 

109 3 

72 7 

84 9 

Diesd Engines 
Chemicals and Chemi- 

(number) 

12,012 

16,644 

229 6 

287 4 

390 4 

cal Products 

Itoo andtonsi 

110 

112 ' 

181 3 
133 8 

181 1 
136 6 

204 4 

batches (d) 

(thousand cases) c 

616 

578 

100 1 

90 9 ' 

1 w / 

96 5 

Sulphuric Acid 

(thousand tons) 

165 i 

196 

183 3 i 

178 4 

212 5 

Automobiles 

(number) 

32,136 

31,932 

143 4 

132 0 

145 7 

Rubber Products 

165 5 

115 0 

139 0 

Tyres (f) 

(thousands) 

7,259 

8,140 

170 1 

102 7 

136 8 

Electricity Generated (g) 

(lakh kwh) 

96,108 

108,348 

184 9 

186 9 

219 2 

Cement 

(thousand tons) 

4,928 

5,602 

173 3 

191 7 

: 154 4 

Non-Ferrous Metals 

151 7 

, 169 4 

160 9 

Brass 

(thousand tons) 

13 6 

17 8 

158 2 

: 184 9 

166 1 

Iron Ore 

General Index 

(thousand tons) 

4,248 

! 4,620 

126 3 
137 3 

' 130 2 
133 9 

169 5 
142 7 


(a) Figi^ relate to the productxon by nulls which are members of the Indian Jute 
Aliiis Association and also to one non-member ’ 

(ft) Figures ri^te to toe crop year (November to October) and arc m respect of cane 
sugar only tr ^ 

(e) Figures refer to toe production of organised lactones 
(J) Include figures for Jammu Kashmir. 

(e) 50 gross boxes of 60 sticks each 

(f) Figures arc m respect of automobile and cyde ^res only. 

(g) Induda figu^ for Jammu and Kashmir and coven all power stations owned 

by industrial concerns. owucu 


320 


PRINCIPAL INDUSTRIES 


Cotton Textiles 

The growth of the cotton textile industry in the pre-independence 
penod IS shown in table 179. 


TABLE 179 

GROWTH OF COTTON TEXTILE INDUSTRY (I879-1S47) 


Year 

Number of 
nulls 

, Number of 
spindles 
(thousand) 

Number of 
looms 

(thousand) , 

Productron 
(laUi lbs) 


' Yam 

[ ' 

Piccegoods 

1879-80 

58 

1,408 

13 3 j 



1889-90 

114 

2,935 

22 I 1 


— 

1901 i 

178 

4,841 

40 5 

5,730 

1,200 

1911 1 

233 

6,095 

85 8 

6,250 

2,670 

1921 I 

243 

7,278 

133 5 

6,940 

4,030 

1931 

314 


175 2 

9,660 

6,720 

1941 1 

396 i 


200 2 

15,770 

10,930 

1347 ! 

1 

1 

423 ! 

10,354 

203 0 

12,960 

37,620 
(laLh j-ards) 


The production of cotton yam and cloth since i94-7 is shoivn in 
table 180 ^ Output in 1958 fell o^ving to a fall m consumer offtake and 
accumulation of stocks with mills Substantial reduction in excise duties, 
in several instalments since December 1957, was alloived to give 
rehcf to the industry. 

At the begmmng of 1958 there were 470 cotton textile (175 spinning 
and 295 composite) mills m India, with 130 5 lakh spindles and 2 01 
lakh looms The number of mills rose to 482 (188 spinning' and 294 
composite) at the beginning of 1959 Nearly Rs 120 crores were 
invested m the industry which employed about 9 lakh workers. 


TABLE 180 

PRODuenON OF COTTON YARN AND CLOTH 


Year 

Cotton yam 
{lakh lbs) 

Cotton doth 
(l^yds) 

1947 

1950 

12,960 

37,620 

1955 

11,748 

36.670 

1956 

16,308 

50,940 

1957 

16,712 

53,066 

1958* , 

17,801 

53,174 


16,800 

49,270 


f of the 


machmerv The sic« jeqmrements of modem equipment and 

C^oSnt?^the^d,«t"‘'^ ? Ac National Industrial D^elopment 
about Rs 3 ^\ is based on these data Loans amounting to 

an intcmn FoUomng 

the problems facing ^ ^ Committee appointed to enquire into 


•PrpvuionaL 










321 


JuU f . 1. r 11 ’ 

The early development of the jute industry is shown in the foUowing 

table. 


TABLE 181 

GROWTH OF JUTE INDUSTRY (1B79-1947) 


Year 

! Number of { 
mills { 

i i 

Authorised 

capital 

(Ra, 

crores) 

Number of 
looms 
(thousand) 

.... 

Number of 
spindles 
(thousand) 

1879-80 to 1883 84 (average) 
1899-1900 to 1903-04 (average) 

1 

60 

90 

2 71 

6 80 

1 j2 09 

5 5 

16 2 

33 5 

88 

335 

692 

1909-10 to 1913-14 (average) 

1 21 35 

50 5 

1,064 

1925-26 

' 100 

23 61 

61 8 

1,225 

1930-31 

1 105 

1 24 89 

t 

52 4 

1,108 

1937-38 

1946-47 

! 106 

1 

66 0 

1,295 


According to the 1954 Census of Indian Manufactmes, th^ were 
108 jute Tnilli in India which employed tapital worth Rs 65 3 ^orra 
(Rs.'^31*3 crores 6S:ed capital) 271,41^eraons (induing 254,930 
^corkers) were employed in the industry The following table shows the 
production of jute goods nnce 1947. 


TABLE 182 

pRODUcanoN OF jute manufactures 

{In thaitsand tota) 


Year* 

Produetzont 

1947 

1,052 

1950 

836 

1955 

1,027 

1956 

1093 

1957 

1,030 


To encourage modernisation, licences for the import of machinery 
liave been liberally granted to the jute miUs and a start made in the 
manufacture of jute mill maclunery m the country Loans are also being 
offered through the National Industrial Development Corporation for 
modernisation of equipment, loans \vdrth Rs 3 47 a ores have been 
approved so far. Over 50 per cent of the spindles have been 
modernised 

Sugar 

The rapid development of the sugar industry under protection in the 
early thirties and thereafter is shown bdow. 


•The figures relate to the period Jul>-Jwie» which & the jule )ear 
tFigures for 1950 oniv'ards rdate to the produebon of nulls «j the aneoibewhip • 
the Indian Jute MtUs Associabon and one aon-membn cull 




322 

TABLE 183 

GROWTH OF SUGAR INDUSTRY 


Year 

Number of mills 

Production of cane 
sugar (thousand 
tons) 

1931-32 

32 

160 

1938-39 1 

132 1 

642 

1945-46 

138 

923 

1950-51 1 

139 1 

1,116 

1955-56 

143 1 

1,856 

1956-57 

— 

2,039 

1957-58 

“ 1 

2,006 


Cement 

Manufacture of Portland cement started in ^^ad^as in 1904 The 
real beginnmg on a large-scale took place ^vith the formation of three 
compames m 1912-13 The gro'ivth of the mdustiy is sho^m below. 

TABLE 184 

PRODUCTION OF CEMENT "i 


Year 

Production 
(thoipand tons) 

1914 

1 

1918 

84 

1930 

563 

1940 

1947 

1950 

1955 ! 

1956 

1957 

1958 (deven months) j 

1,712 

1,447 

2,612 

4,487 

4,928 

5,602 

5,532 


when “machine-made paper in India dates back to 1870, 

Vt ^ estabhshed near Calcutta During World War 

tons (19441 production reached 103,884 

fo^lb.lS\omri957 * .Production 


TABLE 185 


production of paper and paper boards 


Year 

Production 
{thousand tt»a) 

1950 


1955 

109 

1956 

185 

1957 

193 



210 



323 


The first newsprint null in India went into production in January 
1955. It has an installed capacity of 30,000 tons, while the present internal 
demand is 70,000 tons a year. Output in April-June 1958 amounted to 
77.19 tons per day. 

Iron and SUel 

The earliest attempt at the manufacture of iron and steel by modem 
methods, made m 1830 in South Arcot, failed In 1874 the Barakar Iron 
'Works started work on the Jhana coalfields , the works were acquired by 
the Bengal Iron and Steel Company in 1889. Production amounted to 
35,000 tons in 1900 TheTatalronand Steel Company, established by the 
late Jamscdji Tata in 1907 at Sakchi, Bihar, first produced pig iron in 1911 
and steel in 1913 The two other important mamifecturers were the 
Indian Iron and Sted Company (formed m 1908 at Hirapur near Asansol, 
Bengal) and the Mysore State Iron Works (now Mysore Iron and Steel 
Works), started at Bhadravati m 1923. By 1939, the production of steel 
\vas over 8 lakh tons. World War II gave an impetus to the industry 
By 1957 sted output rose to 13’46 lakh tons Output shghtly dddined to 
12.95 IzSih tons m 1958 owing to labour unrest in the Tata Works and 
dislocation caused by expansion piogrammes Imports of iron and steel 
amounted to 1 1 6 lakh tons m 1958 agamst 17,3 lakh tons in 1957 

Accordmg to the 1954 Census of Indian Manufactures, there were in 
that year 126 large and small iron and sted works in India, in which about 
Rs 35 9 crores of fixed capital and Rs 34 3 crores of workmg capital and 
85,634 persons (including 69,566 workers) were emploved 

The table bdow shows the progress of the mdustry since 1900 * 

TABLE 186 

PRODUCTION OE IRON AND STEEL 


(/fl tkoasand tans) 


Year j 

Pig iron 

Finished 

steel 

1900 { 

33 



1916 

— 

i 99 

0 

1939 

1,835 1 

1 842 

9 

1941 


' ‘ 1,137 

7 

1947 

1,320 

893 

3 

1950 

1,362 4 

1 1,004 

4 

1955 

1 756 8 

s 1,260 

0 

1956 

1,807 2 

! 1,338 

0 

1957 i 

1,789 2 

1,346 

4 

1958 . 


j 1,295 

0 


, To meet the mcreasing demand for steel, the Government have been 
helping tlic existing units to expand their capacity and simultaneously 
setting up jic\v steel plants on their own TJic output of the Tata Iron 
and Steel Company is to be raised during the Second Plan period from 
8 lakh tons (of finished saleable steel) to 15 lakh tons (capital cost Rs. 84*9 
Cl ores) ; and that of the Indian Iron and Steel Company fhim 3 lakh tons 
to 8 lakh tons (capital cost Rs. 42 ’5 crores). 

The Second Plan envisages the construction in the public sector of 
three steel plants each of about 10 lakh tons mgot capacitv and the provi- 
sion of facilities in one of these for the production of 450,000 tons offoundrv* 
grade pig iron The plant at Rourkela which is being set up at a cost 
of about Rs 1 70 crores* is designed to produce 720,000 tons ofsted products 
per annum. The second plant at Bhilai in Madhya Pradesh, estimated 


• Raised eshmate. 





324 


to cost about Rs. 131 crorcs,^ is expected to provide 770,000 tons of saleable 
steel, heavy and medium products, Including 140,000 tons of billets for 
the re-rolbng industry The third plant at Durgapur in West Bengal 
IS expected to cost about Rs 138 crorcs* and to produce light and 
medium sections of steel and billets amounting to 790,000 tons per annum 
Provision has also been made for the expansion of steel production by the 
Mysore Iron and Steel Works to 100,000 tons by 1960-GI, On completion 
of all these projects m the private and public sectors, the annual output 
of steel ingot in the country will nse to 60 lakh tons, to be converted into 
46 8 lakh tons of finished steel Also, 4 lakh tons of saleable pig iron willjbc 
produced at the Indian Iron and Steel Works, 3 . 6 lakh tons at Durgapur 
and 3 5 lakh tons at Bhilai Besides the above expenditure, Rs 120 crores 
will be required for construction of the steel townships, ore mines and 
quames, water and power supply and other ancillary facilities, arid Rs, 6 
crores for the expansion of die Mysore Iron and Steel “Works The first 
blast furnace at Rourkela wris commissioned on February 3, 1959 and 
that at Bhilai the next day The management of all the llircc steel projects 
vests in the Hindustan Steel Ltd (originally set up in 1953 to implement 
^ Rourkela project), now wholly owned by the Central Government 
^e authorised capital of the company amounts to Rs 300 crores 
r oven plant set up by the West Bengal Government, for supply 
of kgh grade metallurgical coal to the Durgapur plant, was inaugurated 
m March 1959 & > s 


Since 1947 the Government have been trying to foster the growth of 
the engineering mdustry j and India has become self-sufficient in a variety 
of articles such as electnc motors, motor car battenes, ceilmg fans, conduit 
ppes and metal sheets for utensils Some of the new items manufactured 
lo^e first time m recent years are: 1955-^Itemators, evde dynamo 
®ols, complete typewntas, self-doffing jute silver spinmng frames, 
^ -dryers, c^ker coolers and duiker breakers, delivery valves and pump 
n niehnjcction equipment, vertical multi-cyhnder diesel engmes, 

Of drilling machmes, all-geared head bcndi lathes 'and 
needles, 1956— Lambretta scooters and scootcrcttcs, auto- 
ncKsftaws, shock absorbers, radiators and brake hmngs : 1957— 
n^oaenme needles used in syringes and sewmg machme needles, 1958— ' 

® comidwable nse m 1957 in the output of heavy and light 
Se tSSe tools In the first 11 months of 1957, 

friimSiri nxlnstry pmduced 883 carding engmes, 1,255 nng 

r^ZvSv compared with 726, 1,110 and 161 

corrrapondmg penod of [956 In these hues indigenous 
SSif mT country’s demand The oii^ut of 

doubled m 1957 Nmeteen netv items in the 
Sou/wS P ^ ““IS in the chemical engmeenng 

Ses t™' “ '951 The output of diesel 

sewing machines rn^ ^"^ofn ^^otne motors, machme tools, bicycles and 

of automobiles, power tmns- 

was maugurated m October 1952 and the 
established m 1872 ««« f control of the Nahan Foundry (ongmally 
1953 It IS now Tnsavvf organisation) to the company in January 

President, who holds ^ directors appointed by the 

Revued esomatcr ■ ■’ — — 



325 


The foundry manufactures agricultural implements such as cane- 
crushers ' O^vmg to competition from pnvate enterprise, the production of 
cane-cnishers was curtaJed after 1952-53 and the manufacture of cast 
iron anchor plates and certam non-ferrous articles for the Railways and 
cast iron saddles for the Posts and Telegraphs Department were taken up 
instead In 1957-58, 2,453 tons of goods were produced compared to 
1,331 tons m 1956 FoUowmg the recopnendation of an Expert 
CSomnnttee, steps are bcmg taken to modernise the foundry and diversify 
production 

Tlic first batch of predominantly Indian lathes were produced in 
May 1956 in the machine tool factory at Jalahali near Bangalore, now 
owned by a Government of India undertaking, the Hmdustan Machme 
Tools (Pnvate) Lunited The factory produced in 1957-58 402 machme& 
(313 lathes and 89 milling machines) thus exceeding the Plan target 
for 1960-61 (400 machines) It is also taking up the production of other 
Tnarhinft tools such as radial dnlls and gnndmg machines as part of a pro- 
gramme to diversify production The aim now is to produce 865 
niachuies per annum by 1960-61. 

To meet the requirements of the Posts and Telegraphs Department 
m telephone cables, the Hindustan Cablw Factory, established at 
Rupnarampur, West Bengal, began production in 1954. It has already 
exceeded its planned annual capacity of 470 miles and manufactured 
591 miles and 538 miles of cables in 1956-57 and 1957-58 respectively. 
The factory is bemg expanded to produce 1,000 miles of cables a year 
It IS also proposed to manufacture 300 miles of coaxial trunk telephone 
cables , ^vork on this is progressmg and production might commence in 
1960 

The history of the National Instruments Factory, Calcutta dates 
from 1830 ' Dunng World War II, it was converted into a full-fledged 
instruments factory. In June 1957, it was converted into a Government 
company called the National Instruments (Pnvate) Ltd It produces 250 
types of scientific and precision instruments, mcludmg hydrometeis, 
mcasunng cylmders, barometers and monometers The factory is shortly 
to undertake the production of optical and ophthalmic glass, as part of a 
programme to produce 50 tons of optical ^lass and 250 'tons of ophthalmic 
glass annually. Rs 30 lakhs worth of instruments were produced m the 
factory m 1957-58 

The development programme of the Chittaranjan Locomotive 
Factory mcludes the establishment of a heavy steel foundry, so that the 
requirements of heavy castings for the railways might be secured entirely 
from w-ithin the country A 7,000 ton capacity foundry is bemg set up 
accordingly. Sumlarly the programme of die NIDC included a provision 
ofjRs 15 crorcs for heavy foundnes and forgeshops and for heavy 
structural shops ^ The heavy machmery indusirics provided m 
the public sector in the Second Plan were - manufacture of electrical 
equipment (Rs 20 crorcs), expansion of Hindustan Machine Tools 
(Rs 2 crorcs) and manufacture of industrial machinery and machine 
tools (NIDC Rs 10 crores) 

For the manufacture of heavy electrical equipment, a Consultant*s 
Agreement was reached \\ith a British firm A wholly Government 
company, the Heavy Electricals (Pnvate) Ltd , was formed in August 1956 
The plant is bcmg erected at Bhopal. Investment in about scv'cn to 
eight years (first phase) is esumated at Rs 21 crorcs, and may eventually 
go up to Rs 45*5 crorcs (excluding the cost of townvhipj. Certain 
sections of the plant, on which work has started, arc expected to 
go into production by 1960 ^VhJle heavy transformers, industrial 
motors, traction motors and switch-gears are likely to be produced 



before the end of die Second Plan, more basic items of equipment like 
hydraulic turbines and generators, and generators for diesd sets wU be 
produced in the early years of the Third Plan 

The production of heavy mdustnal machinery is being spedally 
fostered by the National Industrial Development Corporation (set up m 
October 195^ as a Govemment-oivned company). The Corporation 
has completed prehmmarv examination of a number of projects 
rclatmg to primary intermediates, and basic orgamc chemicals, cinraa and 
X-ray film, newsprint and so on An agreement was reached in 1957 
with the Government of USSR for assistance m estabhshmg a heavy 
machinc-buildmg plant (at Hatia near Ranchi in Bihar), a coal mining 
machinery plant and an optical glass factory (both to be located at 
Durgapur in West Bengal) The project reports are expected durmg 
1959. Adjacent to the heavy machune-building plant will be set up a 
foundry forge plant, to serve as its metallurgical base A body called die 
Heavy Engineering Corporation was formed to admmistCT these projects 


Locomotives and Coaches 

As part of a plan to achieve self-sufficiency m locomotives, the 
Government m the Ministry of Railways have established a locomotive 
factory at Chittaranjan in West Beng^, Onginally designed to produce 
120 locomotives and 50 spare boilers a year, the Chittaranjan Locomotive 
Works have been expanded and now produce 168 W G type locomotives 
a year, which is the equivalent of over 200 standard-t^pe locomotives 
Eventually, the aim is to manufacture 300 standard-size locomodves a 
year. Besides, the Government-assisted Tata Engineering and Locomotive 
Works dehvered 85 locomotives m 1957-58 and about 100 m 1958-59. 

The State-o\vned Integral Coach Factory at Ferambur went into 
production m October 1955 In 1957-58, 222 unfurnished coaches were 
produced and 295 such were expected to be dehvered during 1958-59 
From 1959 onwards 350 coaches will be manufactured annually, with 
smglc shift working. ^ 


Shiphuildmg ^ 

p VisakhMatnam Shipyard was acquued by the Government 

Irom the Scindia Steamship Navigation Company in March 1952. The 
ma^gementwas entnisted to the Hmdustan Shipyard Ltd , with tivo-thirds 
of the capital otvned by ffie Government and the remainder by the Scmdias 
the shares are now held by the Government The 
shipyard «n build four modem diesel-propdled ships a year 
101 ships and 3 siW craft (aggregate gr.t 

ZiwLnf The fct phase of a lU 2 60-mre 

Second Plan pST 000 to 90 000?r ““Plete *= 

be bmli A ^ shipyard is now proposed to 

“nnS,nn,nlw vicited the country in ths 

connecuon ,n 1957 and submtttcd a project report in April 1956. 

Atreraji 

Hmdustan Aircraft (now Private) Ltd , a 
capital of Rs Bangalore with an authorised 

ffiltsfni i company in 

!U 3.2 crorcs ^ ^ crorcs The Government held shares* worth 

and maintenance of I A T. aircraft, the 
ertaken the assembly and manufacture of Vampire jet 



327 


aircraft for Uic I A.F. It also builds a trainer aircraft known as H.T. 2, 
and manufactures all-slccl rail coaches for the Indian Railways and bus 
bodies for vanous State and pnvatc transport authorities* 

Chemicals and Drugs 

^VorId ^Var I gave a considerable stimulus to the chemical industry 
in India Yet India was largely dependent on imports of chemicals on 
the eve of World War II, which gave the industry further impetus. Since 
Independence, steady progress has been made in the development of the 
chemical industry' The establishment of the Sindri Factory in the public 
sector was a significant development in this direction In the private 
scctoi, 60 companies dealing with chemical industries came into existence 
dunng 1946-50 In 1954, 134 items were produced in the country 
Among tlic products manufactured for the first time in India were sheet 
glass, penicillin, DDT, chloromvcctin, glacial acetic acid and acetic 
anhydride, bismuth salts, ammonium chloride and hydrogen peroxide 

Tlic producuon of soda ash, caustic soda, liquid chlonnc, ammonium 
sulphate, sulphuric acid and soap has risen considerably m recent years 
Dunng 1956, the output of caustic soda, super phosphate, soap, bleaching 
powder, chlonnc and salt increased, tvhcrcas that of sulphunc acid, 
ammonium sulphate and matches ivent dowm slightly. 1957 saw a 
considerable nsc in the output of superphosphate, sulphunc acid, caustic 
soda, all drugs and pharmaceuticals, insecticides and so on Production 
of compounded clcctro-plating salt, activated carbon, sodium perborate 
and h^t treatment salts commenced for the first time in 1958 A t^aTn 
of Soviet experts visited India in August 1958 and later submitted a 
report regardmg the development of the drugs and chemicals industry 
The Government of India has set up a DDT factory m Delhi wnth the 
as^tance of UNICEF and WHO (now UNTAA). The factory, which 
is managed by the Hmdustan Inscctiades (Pnvate) I.td (authonsed 
capital Rs. 1 crorc), commenced production iiiApnl 1955 and produced 623 
tons of technical DDT and €47 tons of formulated DDT dunng 1957, Capa- 
city of the plant was doubled m 1958 and now amounts to 1,400 tons per 
annum, A second DDT lactory (capital cost Rs. 79 lakhs), set up at Alwaye 
in Kerala (capacity 1,400 tons techmeal DDT), went mto production in 
April 1958, 

^ The Government has set up a penicillin factory at Pimpn near Poona 
wnth the help of UNICEF and UNTAA. Production began in August 
Pi® management of the factory vests in the Hmdustan Antibiotics 
(Pnvatc) Ltd , a Slate enterpnse, with an authonsed capital of Rs 4 
cror^ During 1957-58, a rate of production of 214 3 lakh mega units of 
pemcilljn (m finished form for climcal use) a year was achieved, induding 
penicilbn processed from imported crystals The capacity of the present 
plant is bemg expanded to produce 400 lakh mega umts per antniTv^ The 
company is planning to produce by 1960-61 40 to 45 thousand kes 
per annum of streptomycin and dihydrostrcptomycm, “ 

Ferttltsers 

The Sindri Fertiliser Factory, built by the state at a cost of about 

Sindn Fertihsera and 
(Pnvate) Ltd It went mto production m October 1951. In 
1957-58, it produced 3,32,031 tons of ammonium sulphate A scheme to 
the output by about 60 per cent by utihsmg more gas from the Coke 
Ovcn^Plm IS mider way The project was expected to be completed in 
1958 and to r&idt m the production of 70 tons of urea and 400 tons of 
ammomum sulphate nitrate (double salt) per dav In 1957-58 9 9Q lotv. 
tons of coke and 96,144 tons of ammomiL were produced ' 

To meet the anticipated demand for nitrogenous fertilisers, additional 



328 


units arc to be set up at NangaI,'NeyveK and Rourkela with annual 
production capaades of 70,000 tons, 70,000 tons and 80,000 tons respec- 
tively The factory at Nangal, under the management of the Nangal 
Fcrtihsers and Chonicals (Pnvate) Ltd,, wall be an integrated umt for &e 
production of 2 lakh tons of ammonium nitrate fertiliser per annum and 
about 14 tons of heavy water for use by the Department of Atomic Energy 
It is expected to go into production in 1960 The factory at Neyv^ 
iviU produce urea and that at Rourkela mtrohmestone. 


Oil 


At the begmmng of the Second Plan, the country’s oil resources were 
still poorly devdoped, about 66 lakh tons out of her total annual require- 
ment of 70 lakh tons being met from imports The only producing oilfield 
IS in Assam, around Digboi Oil has, however, been found m the neighbour- 
ing areas of Naharkatiya and Moran and a number of wdls been drilled 
The latter are expected to provide 25 lakh tons of crude oil annually rising 
to 45 to 50 lakh tons when full production is established "When this 
matenahses, about 40 per cent of the country’s oil requirements iviH be 
met from domestic sources 

An agreement was signed in January 1958 .for the formation of a 
rupee company, the Oil India (Pnvate) Limited (ivith one-third parha- 
pation by the Government of India), for cxploiadon and production of 
petroleum and crude oil (mcluding natural gas) and for the construction of 
pipehnes to the tivo refinenes proposed to be set up in the pubhc sector. 

Test dnlhng is m progress at Jwalamukhi in the Punjab, directly 
under the auspices of the Oil and Natural Gas Commission, and in the 
u cst Bengal basin where the Standard Vacuum Oil Company is executing 
the \vork wth financial partidpation by the Government. Geological and 
gcophvsical surveys are bang earned out m the Punjab, Kashmir, Himachal 
^desh, Rajasthan, Bombay, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh and Assam 
ihe search for oil is being earned out ivith assistance firom certain foreign 
countnes. t 


At the commencement of the First Plan, practically the entire demand 
ot the country for petroleum products was met bv imports, the output of the. 
Assam UU Company s refinery at Digboi having been a little more than 
0 per cent of the total requirements The establishment of three refineries 

Troinbay (near 

^ Standard Vacuum Oil Company of New York and the 
" bhcU Group of London respectively and the third by the Caltex 
annual production capaaty of all the 
^ about 43 lakh tohs in terms 

petroleum. The pattern of production of these 

diesel ^ increase the output of kerosene and 

esc! oils to meet the country s urgent requirements. 

/authi^.M the Indian Refccries Pnvate Ltd, 

to ouemtr^.M.?'’ “ mrorporated in August 1958 

M operate two nciv rcruicncs, one in Assam (rapacity 7i laQi tons of 

laU. torn of crude petro- 
oflcfcd toL-fvf (October 1958), the Rumaman Government has 

oiicrcd to erect the refinery m Assam on long term credit basis. 

Cod erd 

st^cd at Raniganj, Bengal in 1814. The 
nf joiuMtocl gavc thc mdustiy a great impetub and a number 

the field ot\Tied and managed, came into 

WoT * of coal shtnved rapid increase after 1868, as shown 



329 

TABLE 187 

PRODUCSnON OF COAL 



The target for coal output at the end of the Second Plan is 600 lakh 
5 Z 7 S , of the additional output of 220 lakh torts, 100 lakh tons will be in the 
unvate sector The National Coal Development Corporation (Pnvate) 
^td , set up m October 1956 to look after production of com m the 
mblic sector, succeeded in raising 7 lakh tons more froni the existing 1 1 
vtate colhenes (excluding Singarem CoUieries m Andhra Pradesh). Produc- 
lon at Smgarcni rose from 15*3 lakh tons in 1955 to 21*2 lakh tons in 
958 Prirauction has also started at several new coUienes For supply 
)f coking coal for the Bhilai and Rourkela steel plants a coal washery (cost 
ks 2.88 crates, capacity 22 lakh tons of taw coal per yeat) was set up at 
^gah in November 1 958 ivith help from a Japaneseftrm The Durgapur 
x>ke oven plant (costRs 7.5 crorcs; capaaly 1,000 tons of top qujuity 
lard coke per day), set up by the Government of, West Bengal with the 
lelp of a "West German 6iTO and opened in March 1959, ivdl supply cokmg 
^al for the Durgapur steel plant Produedon from pnvate colhenes 
osc by more than 50 lakh tons over 1955 to 395 lakh tons in 1958 

Having regard to the paucity of coal deposits in South India, high 
pnority has been given to the development of the multi-purpose Sou& 
“Ircot Lignite Project at Neyvcli (investment Rs 68 8 crorcs— Rs 52 crores 
iunng the Second Plan) The development progranane envisages the 
xuning of 35 lakh tons per annum of hgmte which is to be used for (i) genera- 
Jon of power (2 5 lakh KW), (n) production of carbonised fanquettes 
'3*8 lakh tons), and (ui) production of 6xed nitrogen (70,000 tons). The 
'^eyveh Lignite Cor^raUon took over die project in December 1956 
Vlimtig work (estimated cost Rs 16*9 crorcs) is progres^g For the power 
tation a credit of 500 million roubles has been obtained under the Indo- 
5oviet Agreement of November 1957. 

Oiher MtneraU 

In 1958, nearly 64-7,000 persons were engaged in mining (including 
'oal immng) and there were more than 3,300 working mines. The more 
mportant mining centres arc m Bihar, Onssa, West Bengal, Rajasthan, 
^ysorc and Andhra and the more extensii^y worked minerals arc coal 
;832 mines), imea (800 mmes), manganese ore (700 mines), iron ore (200 
nines) and limestone (more than 150 mines). The total value of mineral 
jroduction (mcludmg coal) in India since 1901 is given in the following 


330 


TABLE 188 

VALUE OF MINERAL PRODUCnON IN INDIA (1301-1957) 


Year 

1 1 
{ Value 

Year 

Value 


(Rs, lakhs) 


1 (Rs .lakhs) 


1901 

670 

1948* 

} 6,400 

1911 

{ 1 140 

1950 

} 7.160 

1921 

, 3 290 ' 

1955 

} 9.430 

1931 

1 2,390 (I 

1956 

10,870 

1939 

, 2,020 

1957 

j 12.720 

1 


The quantity index in 1956 stood at 116*5 {base 1951 “iOO) 
compared to 112 6 m 1955. Table 191 slim\'s the output and value 
of the prmdpal minerals in 1956 and 1957. 

PLAKTATtON INDUSTRIES 

Ben\een 1834 and 1865 teaw'as cultxratedin Government plantations. 
Smee 1865 tea plantations have been mainly financed and managed by 
European bunness firms Some data regarding in the extent of tea 
plantation are given below. 


TABLE 189 

TEA-AEEA AND PRODUCHON (1885-1936) 


Year | 

1 Area under tea (acres) 

IVodncdon (nuOioiilbs) 

1883 j 

284,000 


1896 

433 133 


1910 

564,000 

263 

1933-36 1 

781.230 

395 


Systematic cultbation of cofiee dates fiom 1830 and the industry* 
Inched Its peal in 1862, Progress was hampered at this stage owing to 
the appearance of a destructive beetle and later by* competition fio m 
BraaiUan coficc. Some %ires of the extent of coffee cultivation are 
given below. 


TABLE 190 

COFFEE-AREA AND PRODUCTION (18961-^39) 


\eir 


1855 

1933 

1913.14 

1935-39 (arcra^) 


Area under cofia (aexts) 


228.000 
104.800 
203 677 
186.000 


tSt ° amounted to 138,000 acres. 

- * ^ rubber plan tations together cov'cr about 0*4 

vali.e of mineral productioa is on the pit^ 










T\DLE 191 

QUANTITY AND VALUE OF MINERALS PRODUCED 


331 



I f t-p'i'i-ni ihf pii*! motnh \ ilue of mine output 


332 


per cent of the cropped area and are concentrated mainly in the north-east 
and along the souA•^\est coast. They provide empJoyment to oxer 12 
lalh persons and India earns a laige amount of foreign exchange irom their 
expo^ tea alone accountmg for oxer Rs 100 crores Coffee and rubber, 
xs hich used to be important export commodities, are now largely consumed 
within the country. The cropped area and the production of each of the 
three plantation industries in recent years are given in the table below. 

TABUl 192 

PLANTATION INDUSTRIES 



™r,w/o industry uhich 

9,93,d 94 pmoM (including 64371 temporarily emplos-cd). 
ThtTC x\erc m 19o5-56, 13,443 cofibr estates emploxnng 222 793 pereons 

At the^eud of 1955 the^ were 
(mdndmg%oT.S.p"o^y'S^;^dJ“ “ 

condudlc^SS^"-^”?^ Commission, appointed in April 1954 to 
“ *e to economic conditions iid problems 

1936 air’ tod? ■Mbmitted their reports in 

SemenfbS 19^r.orIr°“,v"'“”™“‘^“‘’°“* deadedin 

S tea and to fix excise 

setup inAup«<;t different zones An expert committee was 

system of marfctiiiff of coffee. A 
^ an^ subndysAeme was ^tinto operation by the Rubber Board 
cIncLtous for It, '“'io- the scheme in that sear. 

1958. Ar^rw^suSttld hberalisll in 

extension I R“bber Production Commissioner, for 

^ 

fa) ^ term of Clued cDfiee. 

• *p toic 





333 


SMALIi^GALE AND COTTAGE INDUSTRIES 


Although there has been considerable development of lai^e-scale 
industnes, India remains mainly a country of small-scale production. It 
IS estunated that there are about 2 crore persons engaged in cottage indus- 
tries The handloom mdustry alone employs 50 lakh people or nearly as 
many as aic employed in all other oi^amsed industnesj including large- 
scale industnes, mines and plantations. 

The work of orgaiusmg these small industries is primarily the 
responsibility of ihc State Gkivernments To supplement their effort, the 
Central Government has set up the following bodies the All-India Khadi 
and Village Industnes Commission , tlie AU-India Handicrafts Board , 
the All-India Handloom Boaid ; the Small-scale Industnes Board , the 
Coir Boaid , and the Central Silk Board 

Finanaal assistance to small industnes is given both by the Govern- 
ment and banking institutions Recently, measures were taken to make 
tjiis assistance more effective Dunng 1957-58 loans to the extent of Rs 3 3 
crores and grants totalhng Rs 1.1 crores were sanctioned to State Govern- 
ments for the development of small-scale mdustries. Sanction has been 
given so far for the establishment of 72 mdustnal estates, which seek to 
remove small mdustnal units from urban areas and provide them tit the 
new sites with factory space and common facihties for effiaent working 
By September 1958, 17 mdustnal estates had been completed The 
entire cost of starting these estates is advanced as loans by the Centre to 
the State Governments Rs. 3 68 crores had been spent on this till 
September 1958 Two estates, out of the 16 sanctioned in Community 
Development Blocks in the Second Plan penod are under construction. The 
Plan ceiling for mdustnal estates has been increased from Rs. 10 crores 
to Rs 15 crores 

A programme of technical as^tance to small mdustries, known as 
the Industnal Extension Service, has been undertaken dmeedy by the 
Central Government, Four regional institutes at Bombay, Calcutta, 
New Delhi and Madras, twelve major institutes, five branch institutes and 
62 extension centres are also ivorkmg The service was re-organised in 
December 1958 to 'provide each State with an institute. Experts are also 
brought in from abroad to help these mdustnes in technical matters and 
Indian technicians sent for training abroad, both with assistance from the 
Ford Foundation 


Another significant development was the establishment of the 
National Small Industnes Corporation in February 1955 . Its Contract 
Division has established haison with Government purchase departments 
and has evolved a workable arrangehient for giving contracts to smaU 
units. The number of small umts s6 enlisted is 3,160. Central Govern- 
ment purchases of cottage and small-scale mdustnes products in 1955-56 
amounted to Rs 3 4 crores The Corporation has introduced a scheme for 
hire-prchase of iMchin^ and equipment needed by small umts, machinery 
worth Rs 1 43 laldis has aheady been delivered under this scheme 
Dccentrahsanon has been ac^eyed through' four subsidisary corporations 
Bombay, Calcutta, Madras and Delhi The activities 
of the Corporation are financed by loans and grants by the Central 
Government, Rs 1.30 crores have been sanctioned so far. ^ ^ ^ 

For the development of small industnes, the Communitv Protects 
Ad^mstration has appointed block level mdustnal officers in a numlw 
of Community Projects and National Extension Service bloc£ 
intensive development programme has been introduced in 26 selected ar^ 
Special attention has been paid by the AH India Handicrafts RnaM* 
«t up m 1952, to the improvement of production and mirkrto^rS 



334- 


crafts in India and abroad The Indian Handicrafts Ijcvelopmcnt Corp^ 
ration has now been set up to take over some of the functions of the Board 
in respect of export promotion Mobile exhibition units have been 
sent round the country and funds allocated for the exhibition of metal 
\vare, bambooirare, etc ‘Handicrafts weeks* arc frequently held indifferent 
States production of handicrafts has gone up and is now estimated at about 
Rs 100 crores anaually. Exports amount to nearly Rs 7 crores a year 

The coir mdustry is mainly earned on on a cottage industry basis, 
though some factories employ ivoodem looms ^^’orkcd by manual labour. 
Of an esLmatcd annual production of 1,20,000 tons of coir yam, more 
than 90 per cent is produced in Kerala Almost the entire production of 
about 23,000 tons of manufactured articles comes from that State 

On an average, about 50,000 tons of coir yam and 21,000 tons of coir 
products arc exported The Cknr Board is engaged in popularising and 
promoting coir products m India In vieiv of die importance ^ of coir 
products as foreign exchange earner, the overall provision for coir industry 
under the Second Plan has now been raised to Rs 2,3 crores: Rs 2 crores 
for State schemes and Rs 30 lakhs for Central schemes to be implemented 
by the Coir Board (mdudmg research and marketing) A research 
institute at Kalavoor, near Alleppey (Kerala), and a branch lesearch 
institute and model factory, at Ulubena in Hoiviah dislnct (W. Bengal), 
are bemg set up. 

In 1957, the production of raiv sUk in India (mulberry and non*mnI> 
berry) amounted to 31 7 lakh pounds; nearly hadf the amount \vas produced 
m Mysore State followed (m order of importance) by the States of Assam, 
West Beng^ Madras and Jammu and Kashmir. The Central Silk Board, 
first established in 1949 and reconstituted lu April 1958, looks after the 
promotion of sericulture and the silk mdustry The Central Sericulturai 
Research Station, Berhampore (West Bengal), with its sub-station at 
Kahmpong (West Bengal), was established in 1943 Thestationis Centrally 
administer^ and de^ with the problems of research The station wift 
be expanded dirr^ Second Plan The Board has set up an AU-India 
Sencultural Training Institute at Mysore and a Central Foreign Race 
Seed Station at Srinagar. An eminent geneticist from Japan conducted 
a survey of the problems of research in Indian sericulture in 1957 The 
services of two ouier sericulture experts have since been obtained from 
Japan^cr the Colombo Flan for a period of one year. 

Central expenditure on the development of village and small 
mdiistnes incurred through the vanous Boards Himng the First Plan penod 
IS given m Table 193 . 


TABLE 193 

KSPHlMnjRE ON VILLAGE AND SMAIX INDUSTRIES ( First Plan ) 

— — erOTts of Tupets) 


Hand loom 
Khadi 

Indiutnes 

Small-scale lodiutnea 

Handicrafts 

Senculture 

Coir 


I 1951-56 


12 2 
12 3 
2 9 
4 4 
0 8 
0 7 
0 3 


The Second Plan mdm 
devdopment of \illage and sm; 
15 as follows • 


^ a provision of Rs 200 crores for the 
industnes The allocation of this sum 



335 

TABLE 194 

OUTLAY ON VILLAGE AND SMALL INDUSTRIES (Second Wan) 


Industry 

Outlay 
{In crores oj 
rupee^ 

Handloom 


Cotton weaving 

56 0 

Silk weaving 

1 5 

Wool \vcaving 

2 0 

X 

59 5 

KTiacIt 


Wool spinning and ^vcaving 

1 9 

Decentralised cotton spinning and Lhadi 

14 8 


16 7 

Village Industries 


Hand-TOunding of ncc 

5 0 

Vegetable oil (gbani) 

6 7 

Leather footwear and tanning (village} 

5 0 

Gut and khandsan 

7 0 

Cottage match 

1 1 

Other village industnes 

14 0 


38 8 

Handicrafits 

9 0 

Small^eale industries 

55 0 

Other indnstries 


Sericulture 

1 5 0 

Coir spinning and weaving 

1 10 

Genetm schemes (adnunistration, research, etc ) 

1 15 0 

TOTAL 

1 200 0 


E^enditure on village and small industnes during the 6rst hvo 
years of the Second Plan amounted to Rs 59 Crores 

Khadi Industry 

Fmancial assistance to the khadi industry is given by the All-India 
Ediadi ^d Village Industnes Comnussion through co-operatives, registered 
institutions, State Governments and the Boards set up by the State Govern- 
ments To encourage the production of khadi, a subsidy of three annas 
m the rupee is allowed to the consumer, while a subsidy of five annas per 
square yard is given to those who produce khadi for them own use and of 
sue pies a rupee to centres engaged in the production and sale of khadi. 

These measures have led to a significant improvement in the 
production and sale of khadi, as the following figures will indicate 

TABLE 195 


PRODUCTION AND SALE OF KHADI 


Year 


Value of production 


1952- 53 

1953- 54 

1954- 55 

1955- 56 

1956- 57 

1957- 58 


194 

193 

349 

479 

729 

1,015 


{In lakhs of rupees) 


[ ^^aluc of sale 

‘ liT 
108 
268 
426 
595 
772 





3S6 


Amber Charkha 

A decision was taken during 1956-57 to introduce an improved type 
of spinning umt called Ambar charkha* It has four spindles and enables 
a spinner to produce about six hanks a day in eight ivorking hours The 
Kaxve Conmiittec on Village and Small-scale Industncs (1955) recommend- 
ed that the additional requirements of cloth dunng the period of the 
Second Flan should be met from the decentrahsed sector. Some 3,000 lakh 
yards of cloth are to be produced by the handlooms irom hand-spun 
Ambar yarn 

The Ambar Charkha Enquiry Committee, appointed by the 
Government m March 1956, held that the Ambar charkha could be 
recommended as a most smtable spinning unit. The Government 
accordingly sanctioned the introduction of 75,000 Ambar charkhas dunng 
1956-57, mvolvmg about Rs 4 crorcs as grants and loans Production 
of cloth from Ambar yam amounted to 18.8 l^di square yards m 1956-57 
and 1115 lakh square yards m 1957-58 

The mam purpose of decentralised spmnmg on an extensive scale 
is to provide the requirements of handlooms which arc otherwise completely 
dependent upon mill yarn and also to ofier propsects of part-time and full- 
time employment to several lakhs of unemployed and under-employed 
peisons m the country. As many as 57,270 persons during 1956-57, and 
P^^ons durmg 1957-58, obtained employment under the Ambar 
di^kha programme Altogether, during 1956-57, 21-18 lakh full-time 
and part-time jobs were created through the devdopment of khadi and 
village industnes ^ 



© 


The Complete 
Packaging Service 


Open Tap cans tot praeMaed 
foodstuff's 

Plfun and fithographnd General Line 
Tinplate Conteinets 


Coraposhee 

Collapsible and Rl^d Tubes 

Crown Corks, Serev Caps, RS 
Pdfer'proor and oflicr Ctosores 

Indortria! Coopooeati, |«fUcB!arly 
deep stampinfi 


Plam and printed Bags from Dio- 
tliene, other Heat-sealing Films and 
laminates 

Calendars, Advertising Showcards 
and 'Novelties 

Trays, Insecticide Sprayers and other 
Hardware 

Toys and components for Toys ^ 

Can and Bottle closing equipment 

Bottling equipment manufactured by 
The Metal Bo\ Company Limited 
tad Meyer Liquid Limited 


Tho Motol Box Company 
of India Limited 

CflCUTTA . ROMBAY . MADRAS . DELHI . MangALORE 






foundries and Farms, Diesel Engines 
and Hume Pipes, Structural Construction 
and Sugar Confection, Motor cars and 
Madiine^—a more diverse collection of 
Industries can hardly be Imagined And / 
yet they are all pulling together 
as Walchand Group Industries, ulc-^ 

and contributing their ever- /’K# 

growing share to the / 

Nation’s prosperity. / . 



WALCHAKB GROUP INDUSTRIES 
Offus ♦ QJnsln/cUon Hou^ Ballard Estate, Bombay 


wei»t 





ASSISTANCE TO SMALL INDUSTRIES 


THE NATIONAL SMALL INDUSTRIES CORPORATION 
has been set up by the Government of India to provide assistance 
to small mdustnal iimts. The Corporation has undertaken 
vanous schemes for the promotion of Small Scale Industry. 


THE CORPORATION assists the Small Units in securing Central 
Government contracts for supply of Stores. To avail of this 
assistance it is necessary for the small umts to get themselves 
enlisted wth the SMALL INDUSTRIES SERVICE INSTITUTE 
oftheirarea Free supply of Tender Sets issued by the D G S. &D. 
is arranged to such registered umts and the State Bank 
of India advances loans on the security of Raw Material required 
for the contract under a scheme of the Corporation Technical 
assistance is also available from the SMALL INDUSTRIES 
SERVICE INSTITUTES. 

THE CORPORATION also supplies Industnal Machinery and 
machme tools on easy instalment payment basis to exis ting small 
units as well as to new units proposed to he set up. 

THE CORPORATION markets under the Trade Mark ‘JANSEVAK’ 
leather footwear, cotton & woollen hosiery, glass-beads, pamts 
& varnishes etc *JANSEVAK* products are manufactured by 
skilled industrial workers, are fair pneed and Quahty-Marked 
by Technical Ex|)orts 


Issued by ; 


National Small Industries Corporation Ltd. 

RANI JETANSI ROAD, 


NEW DELHI. 


Harnessing 

Nature! 


The intricate plans of the Projects for 
Plenty come from the draughtsman’s 
pen, while the power behind the 
machinery that builds the colossal 
projects, comes from electric motors. « 
the water needed for the work is 
brought in abundance by reliable pumps. 
In many of the gigantic projects of 
new India, Jyoti electric motors and 
pumps have been contnbutmg their best 
m the great tasks of building the 
Nation. Behind all Jyoti products lie « 
years of experience and modem 
technical toiow-how. That is wly the 
name JYOTI is your guarantee 
of the best in motors and pumpsl 



CHAPTER XXV 


TRADE 

external trade 


The total value of India’s foreign trade (imports and exports includmg^ 
re-exports) during 1957-58 amounted to Rs 1,565 crores— imports Rs. 927 
crorcs and exports ^ 637 crores. The value of India’s imports and eicports 
and die tot^ value of her foreign trade since 1951-52 are given helow> 


TABLE 196 


EOREIGN TRADE OF INDIA* 


Year 


Imports** 


Ei:qiortsf 

Total 
value of 
foreign 
trade 

Sea and 
air 

Land 

Total 
(less tran- 
sit trade) 



Total 
(less tran- 
sit trade) 

1951-52 

863 48 

80 45 

943 13 

715 69 

27 14 

732 99 

1,676 12 

1952-53 

644 91 

25 16 

669 88 

559 23 

18 84 

577 37 

1,247 25 

1953-54 

549 12 

22 93 

571 93 


7 46 

530 62 

1.102.55 

1954-55 

633 05 

23 39 

656 26 

588 24 

5 73 

593 54 

mmMEm 

1955-56 

G75 63 

29 35 

704 81 

603 32 

6 21 


1,314 22 

1956-57 



832 45 



612 52 

1,444.97 

1957-58 



927 19 , 



€37 43 

1,564,62 


As ^viU be seen from the above figures, India was having an adverse 
balance of merdiandise trade during Siese years The balance of trade 
since 1951-52 is shown below 


TABLE 197 


BALANCE OF MERCHANDISE TRADE* 

(/n crons of rt^es) 


1951- 52 

1952- 53 

1953- 54 

1954- 55 

1955- 56 

1956- 57 

1957- 58 


—210 14 

— 92 51 

— 41 31 

— 62 72 

— 95 40 
—219 93 
—289 76 


Balimu of Payments 


The following table shows the current balance of payments position 
during 1956-57 (rerised), 1957-58 and 1958-59 (April-September), afto- 
talung into account net inrisible receipts and offi<^ donations ff 


♦Source. Dcpartoeiit of Oommcraal Intelligence and Statistics (See Retort or 
CuTTtiuy and finance, 1956-57 and 1957-58, Reserve Uant of India) ' 

♦♦Ecdude the value of certain speaal imports, of foodgrams and stores of which full 
parbemars were not av^able 
^Figures are mdusne of re-exports and are on f o b basis 
tjrhe figures ofimporte and exports in this and the folloiving sectiom arc based on 
Exdiange Control records and are not comparable with those given by the 
Department of Commercial Intelligence and StatisUcs in The Aeeamts ReUhng to 









342 


TABLE 198 

CUKBENT BALANCE OP PAYMENTS 
(Lt crons of niptti^ 


1 

1956-57 : 

(revised) 

1957-58 

195859 

(Apnl- 

Scptcinbcr) 

Importi c 1 f (Pnvate and Goveniment) 

Exports fob 

Trade Balance 

OScial Douaboas 

Oilier Invisibles (net) 

Current Balance of I^yments 

1,095 6 

635 I 
—460 5 
+ 44 71 
, +109 Oj 
! —306 8 

1,174 8 
594 5* 
—580 3 

+129 2 ] 
-451 r 

■ 

; ^ 1956-57) increased to Rs 

m ia:i7-55, due to nse in imports as well as fall in exports. T 
on balance of payments continued during the first half of 1951 
loUowing table shows the manner m which the current balance o 
aeocit ivas financed. 

TABLE 199 

PZNANCING BAIANCE OF PATMENIS PEPICTr 
(In cr 

451 crorcs 
he pressure 
3-59. The 
f payments 

ora of TVpta) 


1956-57 

(revised) 

1957-58 

^ 195859 
(Aprd- 
Scptcrabcr} 

Oiliaal loans (net) 

Drawings on IMF 

Other capital transactions 

Use offorftgn exchange reserves 
errors and omissions 

60 1 
60 7 

— 24 6 
221 3 

— 10 7 

87 1 
34 5 
65 2 
259 9 
4.4 

95 5 

17 I 

86 3 

11 9 

Current balance of payments dwfirif 

306.8 

451 1 

210 8 


amountS^o consi^e foreign exchange, impore 

the highest on record) The hSf ’ higher than previous year and 

The Urc mS due mainly to ^istconn^ 

Its 201 crores, pnxateimnorf^,^^ g^^enunent imports which rose by 
rose b) about 10 ^ ^22 cr^res Prices of imports 

Imports on pnvate account increase in volume 

pnrticularlj m respect of i vigorous control measures, 

pni.atc account alone rose from imports of machinery on 

imnorts of iron and sted Wl ^ ^ ciores Pnvate 

shohtK high» at imports on pubhc and pm'ate 

fell rh-^rpU d«puc rather hlvmt > crorcs Imports of ran matcnals 

cbcmjcali fell lA R* id __ hccmmgpobcj Imports of oJ, ran cotton 

’ " * J -‘V^ lo crorcs- R«! -^n rr-n,-«r n 








343 


During 1957-5B, there Avas nearly 70 ,per cent increase in imports on 
Government account, from Rs 291 crpres to Rs 493 crores Imports of 
foodgrains accounted for a nsc ofRs 47 crores, the balance of Rs 155 crores 
being shared by machinery and equipment, iron and stcd, defence stora 
and other items In the ^t half of 1958-59 Government imports consti- 
tuted 48 per cent of the total 

Imports on GooemTnent Account 

The following table shows the particulars of Government imports 
smcc 1955-56 

TABLE 200 

IMPORTS ON GOVERNMENT ACCOUNT 


{lit crores <(f n^>ees) 



1955-56 

1956-57 

i 

i 

1957-58 

1958^9 

September) 

o 

28 9 

101 6 

152 6 

53 8 

Capital equipment for Government projects 

30 3 

59 8 

88 0 

85' 9 

Iron and steel 

12,1 

13 4 

51 6 

22 1 

Railway stores 

22,7 

33 1 

49.7 

32 2 

Communication stores, mdudmg ships 

13 4 

25 3 

23 4 

j 5 6 

Other Items (mdudmg fertilisers) 

31 5 

47 4 

127 6 

' 51 2 

TOTAL 

138 9 

280 6* 

492 9 



Developmental Imports 

The impact of development on imports and the effectiveness of the 
restnctive import pohcy followed since 1957 is shown in the following table. 

TABLE 201 

IMPORTS OF DEVELOPMENTAL AND NON-DEV^OPMENTAL 
COMMODITIES 


{In crores qf rtpees) 



1955-56 

1956-57 

1957-58 

1958-59 

(Apnl- 

September) 

Ifm^dsnlopmental commodiUts 

Food 

Other consumer goods 

Other non-dcvelopmental items 

Raw maimals tmd tnirrmeiittle goods 

Cr^ilal goods 

Private 

Government 

203 6 
28 9 
122 7 
52 0 
322 5 
219 8 
153 4 
66 4 

334 4 
101 6 
147 5 
. 85.3 
413 0 
329 2 
211 0 
118 2 1 

445 0 
152 6 
117 e 
174 6 
364 0 
366 0 
204 9 
I6I 1 1 

171 4 

53 8 

38 8 

78 8 

156 7 
197,8 

74 1 

123 7 

TOTAL 

745 9 1 1,076 5** 

1,174 8 , 

526 0 


E^^orts 

Export receipts in 1957-58 totalled Rs 595 crores, Rs 40 crores less 
than m 1956-57. A general weakening of foreign demand as also the bank 
and dock workers strikes in Calcutta adversely affected exports in the firat 
six months of the year The value of exports of staple commodities like tea 
jute manufactures, cotton manufactures, naw cotton and vegetable oils 
recorded appreciable declines Exports of tea decline to Rs 119 crores 

•Revised data show total Govenunent imports at Rs 291 3 cram ~ — 

••Revised total ^ 1,095 6 crores 










344 


fiiom the musually high level of Rs. 149 crores in 1956-57, Exports to the 
dollar area recorded a slight decrease] but those to the sterling area fell sharply 
by Rs 27 croreS] mainly on account of reduced ofllakc by the UK. follotving 
recession m demand for stockpilmg as well as curbs on consumer expendi- 
tures diere. Export of jute manufactures recorded a decline of Rs. 8 crores 
and vi^etable oils exports feU by Rs II crores. Increased utilisation by 
Indian mills of indigenous raw cotton as also the mabihty of Japan and 
France to hft Indian cotton (owing to sterling shortage) resulted in a fall of 
Rs 8 crores m raw cotton exports 


TRADE POLICY 

A rapid depletion of foreign exchange reserves, brought about largely 
by heavy imports of machinery and iron and steel, made it necessary to adopt 
a more restnetive import policy for the first half of 1957 The restrictne 
policy was further intensified and drasne cuts in imports of non-esscntial 
consumer goods were announced lor die hcensing penods July-Scptembcr 


During Apnl-Septcmber 1958, quotas were increased mainly for items 
required for such industries as textile rlimupals and accessories, spare parts 
for machinery, chemicals not otherwise specified, industrial gums and resins 
and certam abrasives Quotas were introduced for printing machmery and 
agricultural tractors, increased for a few essential consumer goods lil^c 
photographic sensitised material and paper items and reduced for items for 
which the indigenous industry -^vas expected to make good the shortage, 
such as coal tar dyes, a few types of motor vehicle parts, steel files, etc 
Qjiotas were drasti^ly reduced for fish, and Tmllr food. Provision 

was made for granting licences on a restricted basis to actual users of studio 
lamps, copra and selenium A somewhat higher ibre^n exchange ccilmg 
'was allocated for raw materials for industries Import hcenccs were to be 
app^'oved cases of capital goods where the import values had been 
covered by long-term overseas investment In other cases it was nccessarj'^ 
for the importer to satisfy Government that the terms of payment were such 
uM,t It would be possible to meet them out of the savings in foreign exchange 
camii« from the project. 

During the penod October 1958-March 1959, it ■was derided to issue 
spea^ hcenccs to exporting textile nulls, up to a certain percentage of their 
«port ew^gs, for import of dyes and chemicals Import of modem machi- 
nery (mdefc^ payments would also be allowed to them, where it w'ould 
be paid for from increased export camings 

rcduccd, o^vlng to greater availability from indigenous 
bearings, electnc motor starteix, certain 
were redupprf Quotas for textile dyes and chemK^ 

mills Thr nimta additional direct licensing to charting 

Sives fS^P? and bctcinuts anS 

for spares of earth-moving 
^ tTOls and ^ ^-conditioning machinery, etc , certain typo 

’UTanDinp naorn: arftfip, I quotas were now allowed for pa cking and 
of iSSk foJ P’®*' Slass, whereas imp^ 

and X-reyhhns" photogrepfaic goods 

Export Promotion 

Eaport “ «cent years estabhshed 

hies, silk and ravon commodities including cotton tff- 

^ texales, p lastics, and Imoleum, enginSmg goods. 

*S«*1NDU 1958*, p 3K 



cashewQut, pepper^ tobacco^ leather and leather goods, shellac, mica, sports 
goock, chemicals and allied products Other measures to encourage e9q}orts 
include * the removal of export control from over 200 commodities , re- 
duction in the number of items subject to quota r^tnctions; liberal licensing 
of commodities stiU under control , reduction or abolition of export duties ; 
and more hberal refund of excise duties on export commodities. 

To promote exports, a scheme was mtroduced for the grant of draw- 
backs ou customs duty on imported goods used for the manufacture of articles 
for export. The procedure for the rehmd of excise duties on certain ex- 
portable commodities has been sought to be simplified To ensure quahty 
control, compulsory grading before export has been introduced undei the 
Agncultural Produce (Grading and Marketing Act) m respect of certain 
agricultural commodities such as tobacco, sam hemp, raw wool and bristles, 
lemon grass oil and sandalwood oil. Special rail and shipping facilities arc 
also provided for the movement of o^port commodities 

FoUowmg the recommendation of an expert committee, a State-owned 
Export Risks Insurance Corporation (authorised capital 5 crores) was 
set up in July 1957 The Corporation offers faahties for jnsuiing risks not 
normally covered by commeraal insurance companies To coordinate 
all work rclatmg to the development of India’s foreign trade, particularly 
^motion of exports, a Foreign Trade Board and a Directorate of Export 
Piximotion (as the Board’s executive agency in the matter of ciqjort pro- 
motion) were created in June 1957. The Directorate of Exhibition looks 
after visual commeraal pubhaty for Indian goods India has been parti- 
cipating in exhibitions and trade fairs abroad A national exhibition called 
“India 1958” was ot^anised in New Delhi in October 1958 which contmued 
till January 1959. 

The Export Promotion Committee, appointed to make a comprdicn- 
sive study of all aspects of export promoUon, in its report (August 1957} 
laid down the following essential prerequisites of pohey • (i) a sustained 
increase in production in all sectors, particularly agnculturc ; (n) main- 
tenance of pnccs at competiUve levels, (m) that export should be encouraged 
even at the cost of domestic consumption ; (iv) diversification of exports and 
of export markets , and (v) research into nctv uses for the tradition^ export 
commodmes and adaptation of mtemal production to such new hues. 
WiA appropnate steps taken, the Committee thinks, India’s exports could 
be increased to Rs. 700 to Rs 750 crores a year inunc^ately as against the 
target of Rs 615 crores at the end of the Second Plan. The Committee 
rcco^cndcd that export duties should not only be kept low but should 
not be chMged too often and that goods for export should be given refund at a 
flat rate of iKcisc duly and sales tax. The other important rccommaidations 
were: canalisation of exports through single agencies, private or public, 
m certain cases, encouraging the entrepot trade of India; provision of bett^ 
^rt credit facilities by the Reserve Bank and the State Bank of India 
through commercial banks , trade agreements with foreign countries inth 
provision for a part of the pajments to be made in rupees : speaaliscd 
traimnem business and commercial practice for India’s trade commissioners 
and other trade ofHaak posted abroad ; better pubbat^* for Indian goods 

abroad (pubheanonby Government of a weekly journal of foreign commerce 

and b) a private agency of an exhaustive and up-to-date directory of Indian 
importers and exporter) ; increasing participation by Indian shrppme 
compam« m carr>nng the trade of India so as to incrcase'the inviablc ex- 
ports ; cfTcctivc quality control of export commodities ; and elimination of 
malpractices on the part of Indian exporters b> introducing a svstem of 
compulsor)' registration for them. ^ oi 

Apart from the dclt^tions sponsored by the Export Rromouon 
Oounals, an industnal-cum-comraeraal goodu^l mission vras sent in Afav 



346 


1956 by the Government of India to S^veden, Finland and Dwnnark A 
trade delegation from India visited the Federal Repubhc of 

1957 A survey team of techmcal experts was sent to Cambodia In 1958, 

three trade del^ations visited Afehamstan, Japan and the USSR (and East 
European countnes) India also received such delegations dun^ me year 
from Ghana, Saudi Arabm, United Arab Repubhc, Zanzibar, Ceylon and 
Uganda 


TRADE AGREEMENTS 


Since April 1957 existing trade agreements \vith ttvelve countnes were 
renewed, while new agreements were signed with Czechoslovakia, Afghanis- 
tan, Ceylon, Japan and Greece Trade agreements were concluded for me 
tune tvith Japan, Greece and Ethiopia The total number of countnes 
with whom India had trade agreements rose to 26 The agreements in 
general were directed at promotmg diversification of exports and obtaining 
required imports ■without causing strain on foreign exchange reserves 
Opportumty was taken ivhile rcvismg the import schedules to omit items in 
which India has reached self-suflBaency, and to mdude in export sdjcdula 
Items in which an export surplus has smee emerged 

The Indo-U S Agreement of August 1956 provided for the import into 
India of surplus U S agncultural commodities under P L 480, valued at 
$360 million, equivalent to Rs 172 crores (mdusive of the payment of half 
the estimated shipping cost, namely, Rs 26 crores), distnbuted as fbUoivs . 
wheat Rs 95 crores, nee 13 crores, cotton Rs 33 crores, tobacco 
Rs 3 crores and dairy products Rs 2 crores Of the sale proceeds, Rs 137 
crores ivould be transferred to the Government of India (Rs 111 4 crores 
as loan and Rs 25 7 crores as grant) and the rest would be left free for use 
in India by the U S Government Of the loan component of Rs llh4 
crores, about Rs 26 crores have been earmarked for rc-lending to the private 
sector The agreement wiU go a long way m meeting possible food shortages 
and w ill assist m conservation of India’s foreign exchange resources 

Under the Tnpartitc Agreement between India, the USA and 
Burma, signed in July 1956, India was to export to Burma cotton textiles 
worth approximately Rs 185 lakhs The payment for these textiles ivould 
be made m raw cotton purchased by Burma from the USA "under the 
PJ- 480 programme 


TAKlir 

During 1957-58, the Tanff Commission conducted twcnty-tivo tanff 
mqmncs and one pnee inquiry rclaUng to steel All the tanff mquines 
re laittl to coniinuancc of protection Tariff protection in respect of the 
p'’cstnrtl Iruiis, oil pressure lamps, non-ferrous metals, and cotton textile 
machinciy industncs was athcr withdrawn or confoed to only a part of die 
ou pm, as the pr^ucts of these mdustnes were no longer at a disadvantage 
ts compared wnh imported products 

ofwhich protccuon and alteration ofthccxisung 
mm. the Comnmsion were anu- 

The Government accepted the 
low— cluiv tm ^ higher dul) on the fonner but rejected that for a 
<lui> on the latter toramodit> 

directiov of trade 

V . rltl’i ill)'* ^ ^ ^ conimucd to be India’s pnncipal buyers 
t'» 1 tK-r cf-iit a” rt their shares m India's export trade were 

t \ o ^ P"" r«pertivcl> The share of the U,K. m Uic 

^hii of the U S A 16 6 percent 

1 ^ *• ♦ 1- Ir , 7*^ to which India exported diinng 1952-57 and 

' * each arc snown ini able 202 



347 


TABLE 202 

E2QPORT5 TO PRINCIPAL COUNTRIK 
(By 'iea, air and land) 

{Value tn lakhs of rupees) 


Coimtnes 

1952 

1953 

1954 

1955 

1956 

1957 

UK 

12,576 

14.819 

17,611 

16,824 

18,699 


USA 

11,649 


8,555 

9,242 

8,980 

13,139 


2,520 


1,626 • 

2,624 

3,071 

2,721 


2,345 

1,597 

2,269 

2,606 

2,228 

2,468 

USSR 




247 

1,219 

1,748 






2,150 

1,674 


1,243 

1,037 

1,465 

1,581 


mmm 

Patiada. 

1,274 

1,392 

1,507 

1,555 

1,572 

1,392 


2,349 

2,045 

1,644 

1,357 

1,018 

1,319 

Egypt 

655 

472 

623 

973 

1,113 


France 

596 

534 

525 

697 

577 

1,018 

Argcntme 






982 

Sudan 






973 

Sin^pore 

1,508 

826 

699 

787 

764 

892 

Ncmerlands 


642 

997 

1,779 

1,197 

837 

Kenya Colony 


561 

695 

628 


768 

Italy 


537 

596 

712 

828 

730 

Nigeria 






690 

Pakistan 

4,735 

754 

994 

872 

' 809 

668 

TOTAL 

61,337 

52,587 

55,796 

60,817 

60,545 

63,774 


The prlnapal countries from which India imported dunng 1952-37 
and the values of the imports from each are shown in Table 203 

TABLE 203 

IMPORTS PROM PRINCIPAL COUNTRIES 
(By sea, air and land) * 

(Value tn lakhs of rupees) 


'Countries 

1952 

1953 

1954 

1955 

1956 

1957 

UK 

14,897 

14,054 

14,607 

16,026 

20,788 

23,850 

USA 

27,266 

8,953 

7,385 

8,876 

9,421 

17,032 

Germany (West) 

Iran 

2,419 

2,878 

3,524 

5,378 

8,182 

12,282 

5,540 

Japan 

1,941 

1,246 

1,665 

KAIEh 

4,327 

5^442 

imy 

1,146 

2,091 

2,127 

1,627 

2,612 

3,039 

France 

U.SSR 

1,303 

1,054 

965 

1,663 

304 

i;954 

1,491 

2,869 

2,268 

Bdgium 


719 

1,125 

917 

2,345 

2,194 

1,781 

1,641 

1,419 

1,402 

1,358 

1,340 

1,319 

1098 

1,267 

Switzerland , 


806 

1,022 

1,099 

1,626 

Australia 

Malaya 

i,5io 

2,656 

1,424 

1,848 

L165 

Saudi Arabia 

1^73 

1,337 

1,745 

887 

' 2,150 

Canada 

2,966 

1,892 

537 

664 

703 

Pakistan 

2.914 

1,944 

1,782 

2,508 

2,093 

Bunna 

3,108 ; 

1,824 


2,236 

571 

Netherlands 

1,236 

1,091 

1,340 

1,358 

1,416 

Singapore 

1,377 

1,456 

1,678 

1,394 

1,435 

Swracn 

Kuwait 

2.011 

625 

601 

669 

1,111 

1,192 

1,140 

1,068 

Egypt 

2,175 

2,504 

1,^ 

1,552 

Kenya Colony 

1,967 


1,7^ 


1,932 

985 

TOTAL 

80,156 

57,015* 

61,577 

64,907 

80,874 

102,580 


•Exdu^^speaal imports of foodgrains for whidi countrywise analysis was not 




























S48 


PATTERN OF TRADE 

* The principal commodities imported into India dunng 1952-56 and the 
the values of the imports are sho^vn m Table 204, Values of the pnnapai 
commodities imported dunng 1957 are sho^vn m Table 205. Owing to 
adoption of the revised trade classification from January 1957, the grouping 
of articles in many cases differ from the earlier pattern. 


TABLE 204 

IMPORTS OF PKINGIPAL GOMMOOITIES (1952.560 
(By sea, air aod land) 

(Vclm tn hkhs of rv^s) 

















349 

TABLE 203 

IMPORTS OF FRINGIPAI. COMMODITIES (1957) 

{Valus tn lakhs of nptes) 


odier than elcctnc . . 

Iron and steel 
Petroleum products 
Transport equipment 
l^ectnc mauunery and appliances 
Raw cotton 
Wheat, unnulled 

Petroleum, crude and partly refined 

Chemical dements and compounds 

Manufactures of metals n c s 

Tactile yam and thread 

Ordnance 

Copper 

Rice 

Medicinal and pharmaceutical products 
Fresh fimts and nuts 
Raw wool and hair 

C^e^, nuts and kemds 
Coal-tar dycstui& and natural indigo 
Alummium . 

Milk and cream, dried or condensed 
Miscdlaneous diemicals and products 
Zme ^ 

Raw jute (and waste) 

Crude minerals (exduding coal, petroleum, fertilizer materials 
V^table oils 

TOTAL (mduding other items) 


and proaous stones) 


17,183 

14,698 

7,776 

7,581 

6,114 

4,862 

3,475 

2,975 

2,916 

2,254 

1,915 

1,853 

1,794 

1,690 

1,639 

1,584 

1,298 

1,259 

1,214 

1,089 

801 

799 

797 

723 

720 

669 

521 


102,582 


The principal commodities eigjorted by India during 1952-56 and 
their values are shown in Table 206 Values of the prmapal commodities 
exported dutmg 1957 arc shown in Table 207 


TABLE 206 

EXPORTS OF PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES (1952-56) 
(By sea, air and land) 


{Value m lakhs qf rupees) 


Commodities 

1952 

1953 

1954 

1955 

1956 

Food, Dxltib and Tobacco 






Tea 

Cashew kemals 

Other fruits and \ ^tables 

8,080 

1,212 

703 

10,303 

1,188 

264 

13,131 

1,038 

254 

11,355 

1,165 

245 

14,316 

1,527 

Pepper 

Other spica 

Tobaoco 

1,800 

650 

1,831 

1,356 

387 

1,231 

1,008 

458 

1 1,190 

483 

573 

1,336 

357 

599 

1,551 

Raw Materlala 






Cotton, raw 

Cotton, waste 
■SVool, ravi 

Lac 

Mica 

Goal 

1,512 

839 , 

959 

1 1,092 


852 i 

1 996 

1 618 1 

1 922 1 

658 , 

632 

I 2,417 1 

I 1,050 

810 

1,254 1 

803 

429 , 

1,755 
766 
, 1,065 

973 
878 
514 






350 

TABUS 206— (awifei) 


Oommodities 

’ 1952 

1953 

1954 

1955 

1956 

Mai^anese ore 

2,163 

2,571 

1,517 

1,437 

2,275. 

Iron ore 




562 

919* 

Hides and shins, raw 

585 

5^ 

^2 

673 ! 

607 

Flrocessed Azliclefi 





404 

Groundnut o3 

975 

247 

385 

2,073 

Linseed oil 

615 

107 

39 , 

762 

744 

Castor oil 

709 

492 

278 i 

434 

610 

Hides and shins, tanned 

1,769 

2,638 

2,241 1 

2,256 

2,306 

Mann&ctures 



i 



Cotton pecegoods 

6,431 

5,639 

6,693 1 

5,778 

5,732 

Other cotton manufactures 

921 

736 

537 i 

601 

557 

Jute yam and manufactures ; 

16,285 

11,060 

12,133 

12,358 

11,249 

\VboUen carpets and 


manu&ctures 

271 

364 

378 

405 

406 

Coir yam and manufactures | 

736 

807 

812 

903 

961 

Other miscellaneous items 

9,125 

7,577 

8,050 

1 10,091 

9,288 

TOTAL (oedudmg 
re-exports) 

61,337 

52,587 1 

55,796 

1 

60,255 

60,666 


TABLE 207 

EXPORTS OF PRINCIPAI. GOMMODmES (1957) 

{Veha tn hkh of n^ea) 


Tea 

Cottoa fabrics 

Textile fiibncs (other than cotton) 

Textile articles (other than Nothing and ibotMear) 

SOver and platinum group metals . , 

Ores of non-ferrous base metals and concentrattf 
Leather 
Rai\ cotton 

Fresh ihuts and nuts (not mduding oilnuts} 

Crude vegetable matenals) mridi Ww n e s . 

Raw vvool 
Sugar 

Iron ore and ooncentrats 
Tobacco, unmanufactured ' , . 

Vegetable oils 

coal, petroleum fertilizer mat^ and p^ous s 

Te^e floor covermg and tapcstacs I. 

Conce ' * * 

Hides and sfam, raw 
Petroleum products 
Coat, cote and bnquettes 


total (indudmg other items), exdudmg re-exports 


12,340 

6,519 

5,938 

5,829 

3,767 

3,538 

2.158 
1,866 
1,604 
1,440 
1,293 
i,2«: 
1,176 

1.159 
1,142 
1,130 

978 

884 

773 

699 

662 

534 


63,774 


TERMS OF TRADE 


ut\ tables shotv (i) the index numbers of the quan- 

pnee of her imnnrt^'^ * index numbers of the quantity and 

Cm!on» Homo thtoush Export Tml= QmBjfen 












351 

TABLE 208 


INDEX NUMBERS OF EXPORTS* 
(Base: I952-53.=100) 


Period 

Food, 
dnnkand 
tobacco ' 

Raw 

materials 

Manufact- 

tured 

articles 

General 



OpANTETY 


1950-51 

98 

I 111 : 

1 121 

I 112 

1951-52 

98 

85 

89 

90 

1952-53 

100 1 




1953-54 

98 

72 

116 

100 

1954-55 

107 1 

82 

117 

1 105 

1955-56 

101 

123 

117 

1 115 

1956-57 




110 

1957** 

i 



! 119 



PRICE 


1950-51 

^ 97 1 

[ 1 

! 101 1 

96 

1951-52 

112 

118 

172 

142 

1952-53 





1953-54 

106 

100 


1 92 

1954-55^ 

129 

99 


1 98 

1955-56 

111 

90 

80 

' 90 

195W7 




94 

1957** 




94 


Period 


1950-51 

195M2 

1952- 53 

1953- 54 

1954- 55 

1955- 56 
1955-57 

1957** 


1950- 51 

1951- 52 

1952- 53 

1953- 54 

1954- 55 

1955- 56 

1956- 57 
1957** 


TABLE 209 

INDEX NUMBERS OF IMPORTS* 
(Base- 1952-53«1Q0) 


1 

1 

Food, 

dnnk 

and 

tobacco 

Raw 

materials 

Manufac- 

tured 

artiries 

General 



QUANTITY 



79 

127 

106 

106 


158 

129 

123 

135 


100 

100 

100 

100 


54 i 

100 

113 

93 


78 

105 

! 130 

no 


SS 

99 

160 

116 




1 

137 





156 



PRICE 



77 

87 

1 87 

1 85 


94 

‘ no 

100 

101 


1 100 

1 100 

100 

100 


101 

96 

87 

92 ~ 


86 

95 

86 

89 


89 

93 

85 

87 





91 





98 


Stausucs In *I^T7lA 1957^ 
















352 

TABLE 210 

NET TERMS OF TRADE* 
(Base* 1952>53»al00) 


1950-51 

195WZ 

195WS 

1953- 54 

1954- 55 

1955- 56 

1956- 57 
1957 


113 

141 

100 

100 

no 

103 . 
103 
96 


STATE TRADING CORPORATION 

In May 1956, the State Trading Corporation, an entirely Statc*otvned 
organisation (authorised capital Rs 1 crore), was established Its aiin Is 
to stimulate tiade, m a in ly exports and also imports, by fillingr up the many 
gaps m India’s foreign trade structure Smee its incepbon, the Corporation 
has been striving to mcrease India’s exports to countries widi control!^ 
ermomies in order to secure from them such items as sted, cement and 
mdustnalOTimment without strainmg the country’s foreign exchange rc- 
scr^^ The Corporation has already purchased at reasonably low prices 
such items as cement, soda ash, caustic soda, raw sillc, fertilisers, gyrmun, 
newsprint. T^e quantum and timing of the imports have 
been so fixed as to avoid recurring disruption m supply and also to create and 
conditions fevourable for a larger production of these commodities 
m India Among the goods for which e^rts have been arranged by the 
Uirporato ^ mmer^ ores, shoes, handicrafts, salt, tea, coffee, and woollen 
^ Corporation’s business transactions, inducmg contracts entered 
inception, amounted to about Rs 126.8 
crores^^rts Rs 52 crorcs and exports Rs 74ciorcs). 

ITic Government entrusted to the Corporation m July 1956 the task of 
manufarturers, importing it from abroad, and 
^ equahsed pnee at aU railheads in India 
trover FoUow- 
position the Corporation was authorised in 1958 

the Corporation ™ fro™ foe country ivas entrusted to 


internal trade 

COASTAL TRADE 

following has been divided mto the 

dudmg Andhra) tiv) Onssa, (ui) Madras (in^ 

time block IS classed as “in*i-rrS between ports m the same man- 

block and another as “extrrS^L^If between one maritime 

In 195&»*i7 trsde 

consxsung of Rs * 180 trade was valued at Rs 343 crorcs, 

Rs 180 crorcs worth ^ crofes (exports). ^ 

trade as among the blocks^nH ^ crorcs constituted external 
deblocks the:TOclvcs Th ^ 1 0 crores internal trade within 

•^;;r:7:::r ^ ^ of extcmal trad e in the coastal 

Ratio oferport pnee ind« to 


import pnee iWff g K 





353 


sector again consisted of Rs. 158 crorcs worth of Indian merchandise and 
Rs. 11 crores worth of foreign merchandise. Table below shows the values 
of the coast-wise trade of India. 

TABLE 211 
COASTWISE TRADE 


(Fa luetn lakhs of rupees) 


1 

1953-54 

1955-56 

! 

1956-57 

1957-^8 

(April- 

December) 

Imports 

Indian merchandise 

Foreign merchandise 

Treasure 

14,380 

1,131 

5 

16,452 

1,370 

1 

16,687 

1,266 

10,934 

484 

Total Imports 

15,516 

17,823 : 

17,953 

11,418 

Exports 

Indian merchandise 

Foreign merchandise 

Treasure 

13,892 
1,175 ; 
2 

14,383 
1,590 1 
6 

14, <693 
1,621 i 

11,347 

959 

Total Exports * 

15,069 

15,979 

16,314 

12,307 

TOTAL TRADE 

30,585 

33,802 

34,267 

23,725 


mLAm TRADE 

Comidermg the vastness of the countryj its vaned climate and diverse 
natural resources, it is not unnatural that the inland trade of India is many 
times larger than its external trade According to an estimate m the report of 
the National Planning Gomnuttee’s sub-committee on trade, the value of the 
country’s mtemal trade m 1940 was about Rs 7,000 crorcs as compared to 
the figure of Rs 500 crores for external trade. Predse data about the 
mtemal trade are, however, not available It is difiScuIt to keep track of 
the large valume of goods earned by bullock carts and country boats 
Statistics of the trade carried by rad and inland steamer are, however, 
available 

The foUowmg table shows die movement of selected articles by rail 
and nver between the States and the chief port towns (in terms of imports). 

TABLE 212 

INLAND TRADE— SELECTED ARUGLES 


(In thousand mounds) 



1951-52 1 

' 1955-56 

1956-57 

Goal and coke 

5,41,300 

5,80,188 

5,75,222 

cotton 

12,119 

7,769* 


Cotton piecegoods 

6,646 

8,733 

7,026 

^ce (not m busk) 

22,320 

22,119 

45,411 

Wheat 

52,148 

44,006 

29,774 

Raw jute 

12,626 

9,466 

9,120 

Iron and steel products 

46,537 

51,366 

66/)95 

Oilseeds 

22,256 

25,335 

25,057 

Salt 

33,863 

30,245 

29,420 

-Sugar (exdudmg kbandsan sugar) 

17,499 

22,218 

24,459 

1 


^*Tivelve months ending August 1955. 





















354 


For pfurposcs of these statistics, again, India has been divided into 
36 trade blocJcs, roughly representing the former states of the Indian Union 
with Ac addition of Ae chief port towns of Bombay, Madras, Calcutta and 
Cochm The Andhra ports, Ae Saurashtra ports and Ae ports in Madras 
oAer than Madr^ port have also been treated separately. Only Ac figures 
of actual imports into Aese blocks are represented here Thus, Ae in> 
tcmal trade within each of Aese trade blocks is excluded firom Ac scope of 
Aese statistics 

^felnc Wtights and Measures 

The metne system of weights and measures was made permissive 
from October 1958 m selected fields by notifications under Ae Standards 
of Weights and Measures Ac^ 1956 The use of metne weights w’as intro- 
duced in trade m all regulated markets and specified areas m all States and 
Union Temtones in consultation wiA Ae State Governments and re- 
presentative associations of trade and mdustry. Metric wdghts and measures 
may also be used by major industncs like cotton and jute textiles, iron and 
steel, cnginecruig, chemicals and cement in Ae purchase of raw materials 
or s^c of products. Government departments •will adopt Ae metne system 
m purchase of stores, land surveys and maps and techmcal and marketmg 
statistics For two years ending October 1960 Ae continued use of pre- 
\aihng units will be permitted The State Governments are t akmg steps 
to enforce Ac new system by cnactmg legislation and setting up agenaes 
for enforcement The intention is to extend Ae area of Ac apphcation of 
metne weights to Ae "whole of India for general trade purposes by Ac middle 
of 1960 Metne capacity measures and length measures will also be 
troduced gradually. 



Design for Living 


For centimes India's mffsfei' 
craftsmen have created heautifid 
handicrafts, <ira«nn^ inipiradon 
from local tradition and natare, 

hledem necda demand new designs. 

To he^ craftsmen, the Handicrafts JSoard 
has set Design Centres at Delhi, 
Bombi^, Bangalore and Calcutta 
These centres revive old designs and 
constantly evolve new ones — in metal, 
wood, terracotta, horn, ivory, clay and 
fabrics "The creative urge of our 
people thus finds expression m ever 
new forms, best adopted to . 
present needs 


ALL INDIA HANDICRAFTS BOARD 



HANDICRAFTS -FOUND IN ALL GOOD HOM 



CHAPTER XXVI 


TRANSPORT 

RAILWAYS 

The Indian rail^vay system with a route mileage of 34,889 is the 
largest m Asia and the fourth largest in the ivorld. About 40 lakh persons 
and 3 7 lakh tons of goods ^vere earned, on an average by the railivays 
daily m 1958 The capital-at-charge of the railways, the country’s biggest 
nationalised undertaking, at the end of 1957-58, stood at Rs 1,228 crores 
and the gross eariungs Rs 383 crores They employed 1 1,1 1,026 persons 
and paid them Rs 173 crores m ivages and salanes. 

Progress Since 1853 

The first railway bne in India was opened on April 16, 1853. The 
progress made by the rail\vays dunng the past hundred and five years can 
be seen iirom Tables 213 and 214. 

TABLE 213 

PROGRESS OF INDIAN RAILWAYS (1853-1958) 


{/n takJts of rupees) 


Year 

Mileage 

Gapital-at- 

chaige 

Gross 

eammgs 

AVorliog 

expenses 

Net 

canungs 

1853 

1863 

1873 

1B83 

1893 

1903 

1913-14 

1923-24 

1933-34 

1943-44(a) 

I947.48(i) 

1950-51 

1955- 56 

1956- 57 

1957- 58 

20 

2,507 

5,697 

10,447 

18,459 

26,956 

34,656 

38,039 

42,953 

40,512 

33,985 

34,079 

34,736 

34,744 

34,889 

38 
5,300 
9,173 
14,831 
23,318 
34,111 
49,509 
71,793 I 
88,441 i 
85,854 
74,220 
83,818 
97,550 
1,07.823 
1,22,864 

0 90 

220 

723 

1,639 

2,408 

3,601 

6,359 

10,780 

9,958 

19,932 

18,369 

26,462 

31,751 

35,055 

38,299 

0 41 

133 

378 

797 

1,135 

1,711 

3,293 

6,845 

6.954 

11,411 

16,394 

21,439 

26,107 

28,013 

31,116 

0 49 

87 

345 

842 

1,273 

1,890 

3,066 

3,935 

3,004 

8,521 

1,975 

5,023 

5,734 

7.042 

7,184 


Railway Zones 

have been eiosted in India before August I949> 

effiacnev ifadLnistraUM^^TS^^ 7 **^^ ^ effecting economy and 

Ceruin i r Table 215 

and operated bv railways (total length 427 miles), owned 

scheme, although unde/th?^^ f ’ mduded m the reorganisation 

Act, 1951, R^way Compames (Emergency Provisions) 

in the public intcre^^ assumed powers to ensure their efficient operation. 


M Du™ ^ 

Mow»g Ulc PuniMo on Au,u.t 15, 1917. 









357 

TABLE 214 


RAILWAY- TRAITIC (1871-1958) 
(£sr bU Indian Railways) 


Year 

Passenger 

ongmatiDg 

(thousands) 

Passenger 
earnings 
(lakh rupees) 

Goods 

onginaling 

(thousand 

tons) 

Goods 
earnings 
(lakh rupees) 

1871 

19,283 

202 

3,542 

420 

1881 

54,764 

379 

13,214 

956 

1891 

1,22,855 

686 

26,159 

1,561 

1901 

1,94,749 

1,007 

43,392 

2,124 

1911 

3,89,863 

1,849 

71,268 

3,293 

1921-22 

5,69,684 

3,429 

90,142 

4,952 

1931-32 

5,05,836 

3,135 

74,575 

! 5,873 

1941-42 (a) 

6,23,072 

3,969 

96,997 

1 8,963 

1951-52 (A) 

12,32,073 

11,142 

98,025 

15.395 

1955-56- 

12,97,431 

10,875 

I 1,15,283 

17,792 

1956.57_. 

13,82,540 

11,739 

1,25;380 

20,109 

1957-58 

14,31,059 

12,008 

1 1,33,365 

1 22,572 


- , TABLE 215 


RAILWAY ZONES 


Zone 

Date of 
■creabon 

~SoOtbcfn 

1 Apnl 14, 1951 


Central 

Western 

Northern 

•North 

Eastern 

North East 
Frontier 

Eastern 

South 

Emtem 


Nov. 5, 1951 
Nov 5, 1951 


Jan 15,1958 
Ang 1, 1955 
Aug 1, 1955 


April 14, 1952 
April 14, 1952 


Consisting of 


Head- Route nuleage on 

quarters March 31, 1958 ♦ 


Madras and Southern 
Mahracta, South Indian 
and Mysore Railways 

Great Indian Peninsular, 
Nizam’s State, Scindia 
and Dholpur Railways 


Madras 


BG 

MG 

NG 


Bombay 


BG 

MG 


Bombay Baroda and i 
Central India, Saurashtra 
Kutch, Rajas^an, and 
Jaipur Raihvays 
Eastern Punjab, Jodhpur 
Bihaner Railways and the 
three upper divisions of 
the East Indian Railway 
Oudh and Tirhut, As^m 
Railways and Fatehgarh 
Distnet of old Bombay 
Baroda and Central India 
Railway 


Bombay 


Delhi 


Gorali- 

pur 


BG 

MG 

NG 


BG 

MG 

NG 

MG 


6,159 36 
1,858 34 
4,205 32 
95 70 
5,330 52 
3,796 58 
808 96 
724 98 
6,057 61 
1,585 59 
3,713 74 
758 28 
6,368 40 
4,201 52 
2,005 05 
161 83 
3,063 53 


East Indian (minus the 
three upper mvisiom) 


Bengal Nagpur Railway 


Fandu 


Calcutta 


Calcutta 


BG 

MG 

NG 

BG 

MG 

NG 

BG 

MG 

NG 


1,738 00 
2 25 
1,686 00 
49 75 
2,324 68 
2,307 54 


3.419 48 
2,494 65 

924 83 


^ Burma Railways separated in 1937 {b) FoHoiving the Paruuon on August 15 1047^ 

•Track width : B.G. 5 j M.G 3'-3|' ; N G. 2'-6' and 2') » » 









358 


RatUoay Finances 

Railway finances were separated firom general finances in 1925, die 
railways contributing to the general revenues according to a fixed foraula 
In December 1949, it %vas decided tfiat during the qmnquenniujn beginnings 
1950-51, the railways should pay a guaranteed dividend of four 
per cent on the capital-at-charge at the end of each penultimate year. 
The revised Fmancial Convention, which became applicable after 
1955-56, presenbes the same rate of payment except that on new fines a 
moratorium is to be granted dunng construction and for the five ycars^to 
follow 

The followmg table gives an outline of the finanaal results of ivorUng 
Government Rail^vays since 1955-56 

TABLE 216 
KAILWAY flKAKGES 


(7n crorw of 



1955-55 

1956.57 

1957-58 

1958-59 

(Revised) 

1959-60 

(Budget) 

PasscQ^ eammgs 

Upper 

Thxm 

Other coaching earomgs 

Goods eanusgs 

Other sundry eamuigs 

12 85 
94 86 
20 87 
180 28 

6 81 

13 52 
102.81 
21 09 
203 96 
7.51 

13 38 
105 72 
24 23 
229 68 

8 41 

13 47 
102 83 , 
24 45 i 
245 83 1 
8 65 1 

13 52 
104 78 
24 00 
272 58 

8 40 

Total earnings 
Suspense 

315 67 

0 62 

348 89 1 
—1 32 1 

381 42 
~1 64 

395 23 1 
^ 85 1 

423 28 
—1 23 

Gross traffic receipts 

316 29 

347 57 i 

379 78 

394.38 1 

422 03 

Ordinary n'ortmg expenses 

Net MisceUaneout expendUture 
Appropriation to DepreoatiDn 
Reserve Fhnd 

Payment to worked lines 

212 95 

7 73 

45 00 

0 27 

233 94 
9 92 

45 00 
0 33 

264 18 1 
12 56 ‘ 

45 00 ! 
0 26 1 

274 22 
12 03 

45 00 

0 10 

283 71 
17 61 

45 00 

0 11 

Totid working expenses 

258 22 

289 19 

322 00 ; 

331.35 j 

iJeli” 

Net railway revenues 

Dividend to general revenues 
Net surplus 

Operating ratio . 

Capital at charge 

50 34 
35 12 
14 22 
81 6% 
968 98 

58 38 
38 16 
i 20 22 
80 3% 
1,071 71 

57.78 
44.40 i 
13.38 ! 

1,222 44 

63.03 i 
50 03 
13 00 

75 60 
54 41 
21 19 


development untjer plans 

railways in recent years has been that of 
It was later created by the economic depression, 

^23.73 crores were spent on rehabilitation 

the piSuc Second Plan outlay of Rs 4,800 crores in 

they will ihcmsAes been allotted Rs 900 crores, of which 

erodes will 150 crores An addmonal sum of Rs 225 

princioal wemc to the Railway Depredation Fund, 

cores are as follows * *** total Raihvay Plan of Rs 1,125 



































TABLE 217 

EXPENDITURE ON RAILWAYS (SECOND PLAN) 


{In mm ^ 


Rolliiig stock , j 

380 

lime capsuty including expansion of goods ^cds 

186 

Track renewals ! 

100 

Electrification . ^ 

80 

New constructions 1 

66 

Workshops, plant and machinery 

65 

Staff weliare and staff quarteia 

50 

Bndge works including Ganga Bridge 

33 

Signalling and safety works 

25 

RaBway users' amenities 

1 15 

Railways' diare in road transport undertakings 

1 10 

Other projects, stores depots, etc 

i US 


The progress achieved at the end of the First Plan period and the 
targets aimed at under the Second Plan are dealt with in the foUowing 
paragraphs ® 

jVew Construchon and Works 

Four hundred and thirty nulcs of dismantled hnes were restored 
380 miles of new hnes constructed and 46 nulcs of narrow gauge Uncs 
converted mto metre gauge during the First Plan period 454- miles of 
new hnes were also under construcoon» 52 miles were bemg converted Into 
broad gauge and surveys for over 2,000 nulcs of new lines were in oroCTess 
CJw^cnon of 842 miles of new hnes, doubimg of 1,607 miles, conv^on 
ot Z65 miles from metre gauge to broad gauge and renewal of 8,000 miles of 
eiosting track are to be undertaken during the Second Plan penod. 

^e following hnes representing an additton of 168.14 miles uere 
opened during 1957-58. 



TABLE 218 



NEW UNE CONSTRUCTION (1957.38) 


Railway 

New Ijnes 

Mileage 

Central ] 

1 

Northern , 

North Eastern 
Southern 

Western 

Khandwa-Takal 

Khandwa-Ajmer 

UrngoIi'Kanhcigaon-Naka 

(part ofBarhan.Etah) 

Kottayain>^^ilon 

Bhddi.Raniwara 

16 S9 

0 39 

17 69 

23 S3 

5.41 

59 32 

43 61 


Total 

168 14 


JHoUing Stock 


St the First Plan period, 496 locomotives, 4.3 

wagons were produced m die country. 

of development and rebabilitadi 
second Plan penod is as follows • 


coaches and 
during the 



360 

TABLE 219 

ROLLING STOCK (SECOND PLAN) 



Locomotives 

Wagons 

Coaches 

Broad 

gauge 

1 

Alette 

gauge 

1 

Nar- 

row 

gauge 

Broad 

gauge 

Metre 

gauge 

Nar- 

row 

gauge 

Broad: 

gauge 

Metre 

gauge 


Development 

RebabUitatiOD 

TOTAL 

468 

962 

451 1 
402 1 

*81 

66,575 

14,879 

16,820 

4,952 

4,6h 

1,764 

4,392 

3,364 

1,422 

^3 

1,430 

853 1 

’ 81 

81,454 

21,772 

4,021 

6,156 

4,786 

633 


The follo%\ing new rolling stock ^vas placed on line during 1957-58. 
TABLE 220 


ROLLING STOCK PLACED ON LINE (1957-58) 


1 

Broad gauge 

Metre gauge 

Narroiv gauge 

Locomotives 

Coaches ‘ * 

Wagons 1 ^ 

225 

915 

19,894 

378 

424 

9,674 

66 


of att^ed in regard to the normal requirements 

TheStatoou-ned cSttaranjan 
on an averape T ^^oad gauge locomotives per year 

^^an average TiU the end of December 1958, 790 engines ivcri tu/ned 

Engineering & Locomotive 
of the Second Plan T,pn‘nft metre gauge locomotives. By die end 

to be attained. ^ of 100 locomotives is expected 

The multiple unit coaches, has ceased. 

0^Sir.ledK n<ir Madras, 

per annum in smgle shift by ^“ 1 ,°^ production of 350 coaxes 

hundred and nmitv u ^ achieved Five 

end of DecemberMss h" j Produced by the factory tffl the 

another StatiMnvned undertaW Be“Eal°r^ 

Steel body coaches on conventioSai^^°l“^?^ broad gauge fiimished 
end of December 1958 ^ underfinmes supplied to them till the 

entirely privately” mmcd°ros'?^l rison-bmlding industry in India, 
First Plan to 15,«r'n ’itTl^f ®'™7 m the foi year of the 

completed to raise the total •Arrangements have al^dy been 

Second Plan rapacity to 25,000 tragons by the 

17,300 tvagons ^ ^ output during 1957-58 ivas about 

Pl'-nl <md Machmt^ 

raach-building factoiyf^a'ntw "“rbshops, a neiv metre gauge 

F=«or) and etp^iSj ®r"Z ^™“lpng um’t for the Intt^l Ceadi 
^ult* the annual capacity in Locomotive Works. As a 

stock u expected to inarcase bv ^ ^ penodical overhaul of rolling 
y per cent and 71 per cent respectively for 










S61 


broad gauge and metre gauge locomotives, 69 per cent for broad gauge 
and 125 per cent for metre gauge coaches and 89 per cent for broad gauge 
and 92 per cent for metre gauge wagons. 

EUctnJicaUon 

Electric traction, first introduced in 1925, is confined to a few lines 
near Bombay, Madras and Calcutta. Electrification on the Howrah- 
Burdwan Main Line on the Eastern Railway was completed and the first 
tram inaugurated m August 1958 The total electrified route mileage on 
March 31, 1958 was 306.24 — Central Railway 184 85 (BG) miles, Western 
37.25 (BG) miles, Southern 18.14 (MG) miles and Eastern 66 (BG) miles. 
A further 1,442 miles -will be electrified durmg the Second Plan penod — 
730 (BG) miles on the Eastern Railway, 420 (BG) miles on the South- 
Eastern, 192 (BG) miles on the Central and 100 (MG) miles on the 
Southern. 

Dieselisation 

Diesel traction has been adopted on a few selected routes. A route 
mileage of 1,293 will be diesehsed by 1960-61. 


Bridges 

Work on the Ganga Bndge near Mokameh Ghat has been completed. 
Out of Rs. 33 crores provided for bridges under the Second Plan, Rs. 18 
crores are to be devoted to rehabihtation, Rs. 9 crores to the Ganga 
Bndge and Rs. 6 crores to 6 new bndges. 


Ammftes for Railwt^ Users 

Of the improvements earned out during the period 1951-52 to 
1957-58 to offer better travel conditions to passengers, particulzirly third 
class passengers, mention may be made of the following . 

(») safe and relaxed travel — at a cost which is perhaps the lowest 
m the world — all-steel light-weight coaches ; 

(«) reservation of coaches for long distance travel in important 
trains and reservation of accommodation in accordance with 
distances in certain trams ; 

(«0 mtroduction of 903 trains and extension of the runs of 630 
traim up to December 1958 , 

(ip) sleeping accommodation with phofoam in certam trains ; 

(p) all-l^d class ‘Janata’ trains, vestibuled air-conditioned 
trains , 

(«1 improvement of catenng facihties ; 

(p») improvement of drinking water facilities, provision of fans, 
waiting halls, new or improved over-bndges and new or 
unproved platforms. 

Staf Welfare 

As against an annual average of a htde over Rs. 4 crores spent on 
tile c^truenon of new quarters and staff welfare measures dunng the 
Just Plan period, it is proposed to spend, on an average, Rs. 10 crores 
per annum during the Second Plan penod. 

Wtale 40,000 staff quarters were constructed during the First Plan 
64 500 proposed to be built during the Second Plan period. 
About 25,000 of them were built dunng 1957-58. ^ 

At the end of 1957-58, there were 83 hospitals and 440 dispensaries 
A number of chest clinics for domiciUiary and out-door treatment of T B 
patiMts haire been established m addition to expansion of facilities by wav 
of additional beds. It is proposed to open dunng the Second Plan period 



362 


IS new railway hospitals and 75 new dispensancs, add 1,600 beds m existing 
railway hospitals, double the present number of beds for railway stalf in 
vanous T.B, sanatoria, and increase the number of railway schools 
Steps to increase educational facilities for the children of railivaymcn are 
also being taken 

In December 1957, it was deaded to offer the choice of a pension 
scheme to all the 10 lakh or more raihvay employees A scheme oi large- 
scale upivard re-distnbution of posts c^culated eventually^ to benefit 
1,70,000 railwayjnen in non-gazetted cadres wras announced in February 
1957 Steps are also bang taken to explore avenues for quicker promotion 
of class IV staff 

For the benefit of children of railivay ^vorkers studyii^ in places 
away from their parents, 12 subsidised hostels are being set up Mobile 
libranes arc bemg formed for the use of staff posted at wayside statioiw 
The first mobile library was maugurated on the North-Eastern Railway in 
December 1958. 


OPERATING STATISTICS 
fassenger Tra^ and Eamtngs 

The salient features of passenger traffic and earnings there&om on 
all In^an railways during 1955-56, 1956-57 and 1957-58 arc shown below 

TABLE 221 

PASSENGER TRAPFIG AND EARNINGS 



1955-56 

1956-57 

1957-58 

Niunber of passeogcis (in hundredsl 

Pint C3ass 

Second C3ais 

Thinl dasi 

Passenger miles (in thousands) 

AC 

Fust Class 

Second Class 

Thiod 

Eamiags from passengers (m thousand 
pipecs) 

AC 

Fim Class 

Second Class 

Third Class '* 

Average rate charged per pi ssenget 
per n»ic fia pies) ^ 

First Class 

Second Class ** 

Tbjjd Chu 

1,29,73350 

B58 

1,90,301 

1,68,752 

1,26,13,639 

3,90,83,287 

51,279 

7,73,858 

12,43,683 

3,70,14,467 

10,87448 

8,751 

58,801 

61,222 

9,58,744 

534 
32 8 

I 14 6 

1 9 45 

4 97 

1,38,25,430 

1,002 

2,10,677 

I. 81,428 

1,3442423 

44144,469 

154,657 

5,54418 

1245,181 

4,0049,803 

II, 73405 

9,334 

64,445 

61,664 

10,38,462 

5 34 
32 8 

14 5 

9 43 
9 48 

1,43,10,595 

1,040 

2,33,831 

1,40,637 

14945,087 

44342,802 

58,133 

8,97,171 

11,49,907 

4,1247491 

12,00,843 

9,865 

66,111 

58,073 

10,66,794 

5 32 
32 6 

14 1 

9 7 

497 


Tichtless Trawl 


1958 Railw-a^^ Act was btroduced in December 

tra\el, more stringent pumshment for ticketless 

intensifjbg the effort agmnst 
conumuiv checks selected sections and at frequent interv^, 

of booking offices anrf ^ stations, surprise inspections 

ng omccs and the estabhshment of a temjirar^ central ticket- 



363 


checking organisation wth four squads of travelling examiners for 
conducting cross-country and surprise checks The results of the checks 
made by the organisation dunng 1955-56, 1956-57 and 1957-58 are 
summarised below 


TABLE 222 

TICKETLESS TRAVEL 



1955-56 

1956-57 1 

1 1957-58 

Number of passengers detected 
travelling without tickets 

69,02,114 

73,53,340 

62,79,507 

Amount of fare and excess charges 
realised 

Rs 1,40,29,656 

Rs 1,58,02,951 

Rs 1,42,90,595 


Accidents and Safety of Passenger Trains 

The number of fatalities and casualties in tram accidents expressed 
as a ratio of ten lakh passengers earned, excludmg those resulting from 
unlawful tampenng of track, for 1955-56, 1956-57 and 1957-58 were as 
foUoivs . 


TABLE 223 
TRAIN ACCIDENTS 



Fatalities j 

Casu 

alties 

Number 

Per ten lakh 

passengers 

camea 

Number ' 

Per ten lakh 

passengers 

earned 

1955-56 

16 

0 01 

266 

0 20 

1956-57 

276 

0 20 

335 


1957-58 

77 

0 03 

504 

1 0 35 


Goods Traffic and Earnings 

The goods traffic earned and earnings therefrom on all Indian 
railways are shown m the foUoiving table, 

TABLE 224 

GOODS TRAFEIG AND EARNINGS 



1955-56 

1956-57 

1957-58 

Tom of goods earned (m thousands) 
Revenue earning traffic 

Non-revenue earning traffic 

Net ton miles (m thousand) 
Revenue-eaming traffic 

Non-revenue earning traffic 

Average miles a ton of goods was earned i 
Revenue-eaming traffic 

Non-revenue earning traffic 

Earnings irom goods earned (m thnntanH : 
rupees) 

.Average rate charged per ton of goods 
per nule (m pies) j 

1,15,273 

91,963 

23,308 

3,64,71,850 

3,08,81,787 

55,90,063 

316 4 
335 8 
239 8 

17,79,219 

11 1 

1,25,377 

98,284 

27,093 

4,02,24,692 

3,40,79,169 

61,45,523 

320 8 
346 7 
226 8 

20,10,903 

11 3 

1,33,365 

1,02,745 

30,620 

4,48,97,436 

3,79,75,836 

69,21,600 

336 7 
369 6 
226 0 

22,57,152 

11 4 


















364 


The prindpal commodities carried by tihe Government rail^va'W and 
laamings therefrom during 1955-56, 1956-57 and 1957-58 were as follows. 

TABi:.E225 

PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES CARRIED AND EARNINGS 


(iii fiwJred fata erJ rupees) 



1955-56 

1956-57 1 

1937-58 


IVaght 
in tons 

Eamii^ 
m rupees 

IVcight 
in tons 

Earnings | 
m rupees i 

Wdght 
m tons 

Earnings 
m rupees 

Products of 
Agricaltare 

Rice 

Gram and pulses 
IVIheac 

Wheat flour 

Jow'ar and b^ra 
Other grams 

OilsMOs .. 

Raw cotton .. 

Raw jute 
Frmtandirab 
v^tahles 
Tobacco 

45,617 

44,496 

20,052 

2,945 

n,oo7 

10,485 

27,186 

11,514 

6,970 

46,119 

3,184 

5,76,331 
6,44,704 
2,78,263 
54,328 
1,40,567 
1,37,055 
3,95,972 
3,85, W1 
1,41,214 

2,82,575 

1WB9 

47,099 

44,517 

25,552 

3,249 

10,118 

12,565 

26,797 

11,105 

8,696 

48,659 

3,518 

5,86,466 

5,64,561 

4,09,691 

55,469 

1.21.569 
1,41,394 
3,98,030 
3,77,586 
1,73,476 

3,38,552 

1.16.570 

47,797 

54,284 

41,342 

3,685 

11,140 

14,155 

23,774 

11,028 

9,882 

12,674 

2,149 

5,67,892 

7,04,590 

6.00. 837 
59,713 

1,38,905 

1,80,183 

3,68,824 

4.00. 114 
2,06,404 

2,34,417 

77,653 

Total 

2,3035 

31,60,249 

2,41,875 

32,83,364 

2,95,379 

40,07,723 

Products of 
Mines 

Goal, coke and 
patent fitd 
hl^ble and stone 
Salt 

Manganese 

Other ores . j 

Total . i 

Alineral OHs 

03 fuel and 
mmeialoxl 
Kerosene 

Petrol 

Other nuncral oils 

Total 

Maun&ctnres 

Sugar* 

Cotton 

Jute 

Vegetable and 
other edible o3s 
Cement and cemet 
mantilactujed 
goods 

Iron and steel 
tSTOUght 

Pnoiinoiis 

Glassware 

Tea 

Total 

T-* 

3,44,476 

77,519 

29,740 

19,057 

48,416 

21,45,163 

5,l4i768 

3,65,616 

2,24,802 

3,63,908 

3,73,860 

85,729 

28355 

22,178 

52,108 

26,11.652 

6,95,544 

3,58,975 

2,63,047 

4,38,131 

4,14,400 

1,08,546 

33,320 

26,858 

63,428 

30,17,949 
9.13,578 
4,68,292 
- 3,66,930 
6,04,272 

5,19,208 

36,41,237 

5,62,230 

43,67,349 

6,22,924 

49,65,951 

15,371 

17,488 

9,161 

4,03,591 

4,42,486 

4,33,569 

16,343 

19,764 

9,817 

4,12,761 

4,84,831 

3,91,360 

14,390 

20,001 

9,793 

4,808 

3,78,333 

4,89,199 

8;97^65 

1,19,237 

42,020 

12,79,646 

45,924 

12,88,952 

48,992 

13,84,734 

35,979 

832 

4,457 

10,268 

It 

53,080 

51,923 

13,452 

1,38S 

3,886 

SIS 

6;i3,496 

3,80,523 

1,42,701 

3,07,676 

5,89,036 

12,63,609 
3,64,229 
' 43,849 

! 1,05,940 

1 1,45,063 

41,220 

7,576 

4,070 

9,320 

55,032 

60,385 

11,962 

1J616 

4,006 

3.743 

7,12,477 

3,45,325 

1,27,902 

2,72,437 

6,29,778 

15,13.177 

3,34,703 

52,129 

1,12,023 

1,51,190 

43,044 

7,744 

4,697 

11,175 

67,078 

72,419 

11,250 

2,122 

4,880 

4,813 

1 

8,50,354 

3,74,208 

1,56,563 

3,35,071 

7,98,965 

19,19,460 

3,51,865 

73.881 

1,51,159 

2,12,074 

1.86,907 

' 1 39,66,122 

1,98,930 

j 42,51.141 

2,56,755 

55,45,957 


•Susir, Klaodrsn sugar, Gur, Molasses. 








S65 


The traffic and earnings in respect of other commodities during 
1957-58 were* (t) products of animals like livestock, hides, sMds and 
lather (7.08 la^ tons fetching earnings of Rs. 3.0 crores) ; (n) products 
of forests Tike firewood, wood un-wrought, lac (57.8 lakh tons fetchmg 
earnings of Rs 7.90 crores) , («:) miscellaneous items like manure and 
"foddCT (265 .T)' lakh tons fetching eammgs of Rs. 52.0 crores) ; and (ip) 
mihtary traffic (12.86 lakh tons fetching earnings of Rs. 3. 1 crores). 

Punctuality Ratio 

The punctuality ratio* for the years 1955-56, 1956-57 and 1957-58 
on Government railways are shown below : 

TABLE 226 

puNcruAury ratio 



All trams 
mcludiog 
dectnc 
multiple 
uzut trains 

Mail and 
important 
through 
trains 

Mixed trains 

Suburban 

trams 

Other 

passenger 

trams 

Broad Gauge 






' 1955-55 

- 77 99 

70 84 

85 S3 

84 57 

74 66 

1956-57 

77 91 

70 78 

86 88 

79 01 

75 72 

. 1957-58 

. 77 63 ! 

70 81 

86 99 

80 26 

76 29 

Metre Gange 






1955-56 

75 14 

61 96 

75 81 

74 71 

71 70 

-1956-57 - 

74 52 

- 62 74 1 

77 71 

70 10 

69 64 

1957-58 

, 80 00 

75 44 

80 17 

91 81 

76 56 


Effort Tra^c 

Prionties for rail mov^ent of goods to ports for export have been 
upgraded. The balance of iron and manganese ore in the ports awaiting 
shipment at the end of 1955-56, 1956-57 and 1957-58 is shown below : 

TABLE 227 


, EXPORT TRAFFIC 

{Tn toru) 



Manganese Ore j 

j Iron Ore 


1955-56 

1956-57 

1957-58 

1955-56 

1955-57 

1957-58 

Calcutta 

Bombay 

Madras . . 

VuaLhapatmim .. 

33,175 

46,431 

16,791 

1,43,480 

1,05,445 

44,600 

54,926 

1,76,539 

89,903 

83,144 

54,543 

2,53,672 

38,383 

7,210 

58,929 

37,953 

90,017 

7,100 

76,012 

63,950 

73,566 

5,000 

1,17,877 

16,119 


Locomotive Utilisation 

The average mileage obtained per engine per day on Government 
raili\*ays is as shoi\'n bcloiv : ^ 


‘"“S'"”'®*' ">“1 or train. 






The productive service of engines on Government railwajre in freight 
scr\dcc m terms of volume of fre^ht transportation per engine hour for the 
same penod is as indicated below* 

TABLE 229 

NET TON AflLES PER ENGINE HOUR 



Wa^on Usage 

The use of wagons on Government railways dunne 1955-56, 1956-57 
and 1957 -5B is diown bdoiv. 


TABLE 230 

WAGON MILES PER WAGON DAY 



TABLE 231 

NET TON MILES PER WAGON DAY 






















367 


FARES AND FREIGHT 

The fare and freight rates were rationalised in 1948. The following 
rates, involving the introduction of telescopic rates of passenger fares 
(rates dinnnishing with increase in distance travdled), came into force 
from April 1, 1955 


TABLE 232 

RATES OF PASSENGER FARES 


Glass 

Before Apni 1955 
{fiat rates per 
mile) 

Since April 1955 (tele 

scopic rates) 

Distance in miles 

Rates per mile 

AliMMmditioned 

SO pies 

1-^00 

301 and above 

34- pics 

32 „ 

First* ** 

16 „ 

1—150 
i 151—300 

18 „ 

16 „ 



SOI and above 

15 

Msul/Express 

lOj » 

2—150 fMaiI/E«p ) 
(Ordinary) 

H, » 

„ 

Ordinary 


151-300 (Mail/Esp) 

lOj „ 

Third 

Mail/Eaqircss 


(Ordinary) 

302 and above 

(Mail/Eicp ) 
(Ordinary) | 

9 „ 

!t:' 

6 

I — 150 (MadfEatp) 
(Ordinary) 

64 .. 

54 

Ordinary 

5 » 

151—300 (Mail/Exp ) 
(Ordinary) 
301 and above 

(Mad/Exp ) 
(Ordutary) 

5 1 


JPoT vestibuled air-conditioned third-class trains running between 
Dclhi-HowTah, Delhi-Bombay and Delbi-Madras, an additional charge 
of4 pies--per-imieT5 coilectcd^’’^'^’^ 

The Railway Passengers Fares Act came into force on Septeniber 
15, 1957. The rate of tax is 5 per cent ofthe fare for distances between 
16 and'30 miles, 15 per cent for 31 and 500 miles and 10 per cent for over 
500 miles Distances upto 15 miles are exempt from the tax 

Following the recommendations made by the Railway Frdght 
Structure Inquuy Committee, the reused railway freight structure came 
into force with effect from October 1, 1958 The antidpated annngl 
increase in revenue on account of the revised freight structure is expected 
to be of the order of Rs 9.6 crores on frdght and Rs 2 crorcs on parcel 
traffic The Committee recommended an average mcrease of 12.9 per 
cent in freight revenue, amountmg to about Rs 32 crores per ann»tn 

ADMINISTRATION 

The responsibihty for the overall control and administration of the 
railways vests in the Railway Board, which was first set up in J9D5. The 
Board now consists of a Chairman, who is ex-^fficio Secretary-General to the 
Umon Railway Mimstrv, the Fmanad Commissioner and three Members, 
each in charge of Stafi^ Transportation and Engineering, who are of the 
status of Secretanes to the Umon Railway Ministry 


* Was ^iiawa as ‘Second' before April 1955 

** Was Imown as 'latermediate* before April 1955. 







368 


With a view to ensuring constant and close consultation between 
the public and the rail^vay adnunistration, the following committees have 
been created (i) Regional Railway Users* Consultative Committees, 
(h) Zonal Railivay Users’ Consultative Committees at the headquarteiS 
of each railway zone , and (iw) the National Railway Users* Consultative 
Coimcil at the Centre From January 1, 1958, Divisional Consultative 
Committees have been set up for each division of the railways on which 
divisionalisation has already been brought about. 

ROADS 

The Central Government assumed responsibihty for the construction 
and maintenance of the national highway's in 1947 Under the new 
Constitution, the national highways have become a Central subject, while 
other roads, namely, the State lughways and district and village roads 
remain the responsibility of the State Government. 

Progress 

The progress m road devdopment dunng recent years as compared 
to the targets Imd down in the Nagpur Plan (1943), as revised to apply to 
the Indian Uiuon, is shown in the following table. 

TABLE 233 

ROAD DEVELOPMENT 



Suciaced roads 

XJnsurfaced roads 

N^ur Plan targets 

Apnl 1, 1951 

March 31, 1956 

March 31, 1957 

March 31, 1961* 

1.23.000 
98,000 

1.22.000 

1.27.000 

1.44.000 

2,08,000 

1.51.000 

1.98.000 

2.01.000 
2,35,000 


National Highways 

• 1947, when the Centre took over the liability for the 

national highways, approximately 1,600 miles of road and thousands of 
Md teidgcs (mdudmg alpout 150 major bndgos) did not oast and 

^ ^ low-grade surface. In the table 

below IS shown the progress made smcc then 


table 234 

PROGRESS ON NATIONAL mCHWATS 



Missing 
links con- 
structed 
(m miles) 

Major bnd- 
ges con- 
structed 

Improve- 
ment 
of existmg 
links (m 1 

miles) i 

^Wdcnmg 
of carriage- 
way (in 
miles} 

First Plan Penod I 

^*1958* *** December 31, 

748 

33 

5,000 1 

1 

400 

Second Plan Period* 

380 

23 

2,000 i 

700 

700 

. 40 

3,500 

3,000 














369 


The national highway mileage in the States and Terntones of the 
Indian Union after reoig-amsanon of States was as follows 

TABLE 235 


national highways (STATE/TERRITORY-WISE) 


Statc/Unjon Tcmtory 


Miles 


Andhra Pradesh 
Assam 
Bihar 
Bombay 

Jammu and Kashmir 
Kerala 

Madhya Pradesh 

Madras 

Mysore 

Onssa 

Punjab 

Kajasdian 

Uttar Pradesh 

West Bengal 

Delhi 

Himachal Pradesh 
Manipur 


2,395 

796 

J,1I3 

2,170 

328 

248 

1,399 

1,043 

607 

852 

769 

740 


782 

44 

222 

98 


The national highway system is at present about 13,900 miles and 
indudes inter aba the followmg roads 

1 Amritsar to Calcutta 

2 Agra to Bombay 

3 Bombay to Madras via Bangalore 

4 Madras to Calcutta 

5 Calcutta to Bombay via Nagpur 

6 Banaras to Cape Gomorm via Nagpur, Hyderabad, Kumool 
and Bangalore 

7. Delhi to Bombay via Ahmedabad 

8i Ahmedabad to Kandla Port (under construction) with branch 
to Porbandar 

9 Ambala to Tibet border via Simla 

10. Delhi to Lucknoiv via Moradabad 

11 lucltnow to Barauni via Mu7a£rarpur with a branch road to 
the Nepal border 

12 Assam Access Road 

13 Assam Trunk Road tvith a branch tothe Burma border throueb 
Manipur 

Among the important works in progress on national highways, mention 
may be made of the Jawaliar (Bamhal) Tunnel, ivhich is under construction 
at a height of about 7,250 ft across the Pit Panjal range on the Jammu- 
Snnagai^Un national highway. This is one of the longest tunnels in the 
world and, when completed, will provide all-weather communication facih- 
tics bchvccn the Kashmir Valley and the rest of India The tunnel has 
two tubes, one of which has been thrown open to trafllc 

0/A^r Hoads 

The Government of India also finance the development of certain 
other arterial roads m the States These include, inier aba^ the Passi- 
Badaipur Road m Assam, and the West Coast Road in the States of Bombay 
Mysore and Kerala , 

Under a special programme approved in May 1954 for the develop- 
ment of certain selected Sute roads of mter-State or of economic impor- 



370 


tancc, 125 rmles of new roads \vcre constructed and 500 miles of casting 
roads improved during the First Plan penod The programme ^^hlch has 
been earned over to the Second Plan penod provides for the const^^on 
of 1,000 miles of new roads and 9 major bridges and improvement of about 
2,000 miles of CMStmg roads 


Ibads in the Stated Sector 

Under the programmes draisn up by the States and Union 
tones for the Second Plan penod, about 21,000 miles of surfaced roads and 
37,000 miles of unsJirlaced roads rvill be constructed 


ROAD TRANSPORT 

Motor Vehicles 

The number of motor vehicles on the road in India since 1947 is as 
follows . 


TABLE 236 


MOTOR VEHICLES 


Yearenduig Match 31 

Numher of Motor Vehicles 

1947 

2,11,949 

1948 

2,25,227 

1949 

2,69,669 

1950 

2,94,727 

1951 

3,06,313 

1952 i 

3,09,635 

1953 

3,34,805 

1954 

3,38,820 

1955 

3,76,477 

1956 

4,22,041 


1 ^ 


Thevehidea at the end of March 1956 comprised 40,727 motor cydes 

and auto-rickshaws, 1,88,165 pnvate cars and jeeps, 61,018 public service 
vehides and motor cabs, 1,18,144 gooi vehides and 13,987 nuscdlaneous 
vchides 

Import of Molar Vehicles and Spare Paris 

The number of vehides imported since 1947 and the value of such 
vehicles and spare parts i\ere as follows* 

TABLE 237 

IMPORT OF MOTOR VEHICLES 


Year ending Matdi 31 


Number of vehicles 


Value of \ ebiclcs and qiarc 
parts (in laUis of rupees) 


1947 

1948 

1949 

1950 

1951 

1932 

1933 
1954 
1935 
I95C 


33,407 

40,392 

44,205 

21,080 

15,533 

18,287 

11,204 

14,106 

17,850 

25,542 


922 51 
1324 22 
2,220 49 
1,413 31 
1,661 87 
2,322 17 
1,421 91 
1,338 72 
2,122 00 
3,312 49 







371 


Administration 

Passenger road transport has been nationalised in many States and 
Umon Temtones These services aie being operated by statutory Road 
Transport Corporations, joint stock companies and State departments. 
Goods transport, however, is still largely in the hands of pnvate operators 
and Its nationalisatton is not contemplated till the end of the Third Plan 
period. 

An Inter-State Transport Commission has been set up for the purpose 
of development, co-ordination and regulation of road transport services on 
intcr-State routes 

To ensure proper co-ordination beUveen the diifcient modes of 
transport on the one hand and Central and State policies on the other, 
Government of India have set up the Transport Development Council, 
Road and Inland Water Transport Advisory Committee and the Central 
Transport Go-ordination Committee, An Ad-Hoc Committee has been 
set up to advise on the reorganisation of transport administration in the 
States '' 


INLAND WATERWAYS 


The length of navigable watenvays is over 5,000 miles The impor- 
tant ones are the Ganga and the Brahmaputra and their tnbutanes, 
the Godavan and the Krishna, the badnvaters and canals of Kerala, 
the Buckingham Canal m the Madras and Andhra States, the West Coast 
Canals and the Mahanadi Canals in Orissa. 

To co-ordinate the development of water transport on the Ganga, 
the Brahmaputra and their tnbutanes, a body known as the Ganga- 
Brahmaputra Water Transport Board was set up m 1952 by the voluntary 
co-operalion of the Central and State Governments 

At present, 1,557 miles of nvers are navigable bv mechamcally-pro- 
pelled vessels and 3,587 miles by large country boats Navigation can be 
developed on shallow stretches to some extent by deepening the channels, 
by regulation works, dredging and by tlie use of craft specially designed to 
negotiate such stretches Deepenmg by dredging entails heavy outlay. 
Attention has, therefore, been focussed on the use of speaaily designed 
shallow craft. The Ganga-Brahmaputra Board has taken up an eimen- 
mental project for this purpose on the Upper Ganga 

Planned 'development works m the Ganga-Brahmaputra region 
include the dredging of important waterways, provision of aids to navi- 
gation such as radio-tdephone and automatic beacons, and the develop- 
ment of inland port faahties at selected places The Plan also provides for 
Ae dwelopment of the Buckingham Canal and the development of the 


The Inland Water Transport Committee has made interim recom- 
mendations pertaining to immediate improvements to existing watenvays, 
tr^c surveys, hydrograpbc surveys of selected reaches, setting up of tcchml 
cal oi^a^atioM and utihsaPon of miltipurpose nvcrvaHeyprofccts. leser- 
voirs and canals for navigational purposes. ^ ^ 


Progress During the Plans 

- of 20 PBT S’’'"’' recommended a target 

wthm the ne\t five to seven years Though accent- 
g the recommmdation. Government realised that this could be achieved 

o&r'Sff romoames to secure a jap.d expansion 

01 their fleet, a scheme of loan assistance was devised m 1951 ^ 



372 


The progress achieved during the First Plan period and the targets 
aimed at in the Second Plan are shown below 


PROGRESS OF SHEFFING 


(&nxf reguiered toiu) 


At Ac end 
of Ac First 
Plan 

At Ac end 
of Ae 

Second Plan 

3,12,202 

2,83,505 

5,000 

4,12,202 
4,05,505 
60,000 1 

23,000 1 

1,000 ! 

6,00,707 

9,01,707 


Coastal and adjacent 
Overseas 
Tramps 
Tanicrs 
Salvage Tugs 


At the end of November 1958, 141 ships totalling 6,39,708 GRT 
were on the Indian Register— 85 vessels of 2,57,945 GRT on the coastal 
trade and 56 vessels of 3,71,763 GRT on the overseas trade 

Another 1,28,000 GRT is under construction and will be delivered 
progressiv'ely before the end of the Second Plan penod The rcductioii 
from 3,00,000 GRT proposed under the Second Plan is due to scarcity of 
foreign exchange and difficult internal financial position 

Merchant Shipping Act 

Th*^ new Merchant Shipping Act enacted m 1958 provides inter aba 
lor the establishment of the National Shipping Board to advise the Govern- 
ment and a non-lapsable Shippmg Development Fund The Fund will 
be made up of loans and grants fi-om the Centre and wiU provide a 
pcrenmal source of rupee finance for shipping development 
Shipping Corporations 

shipping corporation known as the Eastern 
of Sr 10 up m 1950 with an authonsed capital 

the Governinfni ^nagement of the Corporation was taken over by 
Scindias m August 1956 It has now a fleet of 

autliomcd camtarof registered in June 1956 mth an 

India-Ked S« TnH on the India-Peraan Gulf, 

orderedtj In*n-Sov.et routes The sh.pt 

tions of the Cornoraton t, " "nder eonstmeuon and the opera- 

tgiiS? r " W T»u“''Ttd 

acqirnmon of acquiring a tanker fleet by the 

pms-itc A third public sector and Ac other in Ac 

// a. . ' for Ac public sector soon. 

Shipyard 

'vas purAased from Ac aSdndias by*' 
llmduuan Shipvard I t/ ' v”^ management entrusted to Ac 

the Government The fiAt*” tuo-thirds of Ac capita! is held by 
Hie first vessel to be built at the Yard v\as launched m 












373 


Kfercli 1948, Hie Shipyard has so far delivered 20 ocean-going ships and 
3 small craft of an aggregate gross tonnage of 1,01,372, Nine more 
vessels are expected to be delivered by 1960-61. 

Second Shijryard 

The Government of the United Kingdom provided, under the 
Techmeal Co-operation Scheme of the Colombo Plan, a technical misaon 
to survey possible sites and collect data for the establishment of a second 
shipyard. The mission, which reported m Apnl 1958, reconunended that 
although none of the sites examin^ IS ideally suited. Cochin (Emakulam), 
Mazgaon Pock, Kandla, Trombay and Geonkhah are worthy of further 
consideratian 

Training Inshiutiom 

Sixty-onc cadets passed out of T S Dujerin during 1958 and have all 
been employed on board ships 

Three diousand one hundred and two candidates took advantage 
of the traimng facihties available at the Nautical and Engineering College, 
Bombay, till the end of March 1958, Fiftv cadets representing the sixth 
batch of trainees passed out of the Marine En^eenng CoUege, Calcutta 
dunng 1958. 

The three ratings training establishments—T S. Bhadra^ T S Mekhala 
and T S Nau Lakshi — together tramed 2,485 boys — 1,281 for the deck 
department and 1,204 for the engine room department — ^till the end of 
September 1958 


PORTS 

Major Ports 

India has six major ports, namely, Calcutta, Bombay, Madras, 
Cochin, VisaUiapatnam and Kandla Dunng 1957-58, these ports 
handled 310 lakh tons of cargo 

The ports of Bombay, Calcutta and Madras are administered by 
statutory port authonties, subject to the overall control of the Central 
Government The ports of Cochin, Visakhapatnam and Kandla 'are ad- 
ministered directly by the Central Government 

The traffic handled by, and the financial results of the working of the 
major ports dunng 1957-58 are as foUoivs . 



j Ships entered j 

Imports 
(lakh ! 
tons) 

Exports 
(bkh 1 
tons) 

Surplus (-f) 

Port 

1 

No 

Gross tonn- 
1 age (lakhs) 

or ocdcit ( — ) 
in earning 
(Rs taUis) 

Calcutta . . j 

Bombaj 

Madras 

Cochm 

VuaUiapatnam 

Kandla 

1,593 

2,840 

950 

1,039 

521 

207 

1 101 04 

159 42 

1 60 25 

5! 99 
i 36 24 

12 00 

55 16 
93 02 
20 03 
14 04 
11 46 

6 09 

46 41 
38.08 

6 73 

3 96 
13.47 

2 35 

(+) 155 64 

{+ ) 322 23 
(+) 76 78 

H *-50 

(+) 50 84 

(+) 12 20 


X... uic moacini7auon and augmentaUon of the faciliUcs 

at the major ports already completed are the following* 

(i) four new cargo berths ^nth warehouses and transit sheds, 
eta at ^atdluics, bunder, passenger landing stages, 



374 


(u) two marine oil tem^als, one in Bombay and tbe other in 
Visakhapatnam; 

{uij installation of 34 electric cranes in die Alexandra docks and 
the reconstruction of II out of 12 transit sheds destroyed id 
the explosion of 1944 m Bombay; ^ 

(«;) a mechanical ore berth, a heavy lift yard equipped ivim a 
200-ton crane and a mechanical coal loading plant at Calcutta, 

(o) the tvork designed to coimtcract the sand drift menace and 
a new marshalling yard at Madras; 

(w) two oil tanker berths ivith pipeline connections, a black oil 
berth and a coal berth at Cochm ; and 
{mi) acquisition of several items of port equipment and harbour 
craft at all the ports; 

The important works which are in progress arc: 

(r) tivo additional cargo berths at Kandla; 

(«) the development of ttvo berths at Kmg George’s Dock as general 
cargo berths and dred^ng work at Fulta-Hooghly Point at 
Calcutta; 

{«0 the acquisition of an additional 54 clectnc cranes at Bombav, 
(id) constnictxon of a six-berth w'et dock at Madras; 

(p) four cai^o berths at Cochin; and 

(vi) dredging work preliminary to the construction of additional 
berths at Visakhapatnam 

Mtswr Ports 

The Indian coastline is also served by a large number of minor 
ports (about 223, of which 150 are ivorkmg ports) which together handle 
a coastal and overseas traffic of about 50 lath tons per annum The 
administration of these ports is the responsibility of the State Government^ 
Various works of improvement have been undertaken under the First and 
Second Five-Year Plans The Second Plan mcludes a provision, of Rs 5 
crores for the purpose and includes Rs. 1 crore for the establishment of a 
pool of dredgers required to improve depths m port approaches. 

J^atiotial Harbour Board 

For advising the Central and State Governments on the co-ordmated 
development of ports ivith special attention to mmor ports, ffie National 
Harbour Board was constituted in 1950, consisting of representatives of 
Ooven^ent of India, the maritime States, major port authorities, and 
non-official m^^rs representmg tiade^ industry and labour. A sub- 
Soard meets every year to screen and approve schemes 


XKAttlC 


Admuitslrclive Set-up 

in IQW Traffic Branch was set up under the Mutistry of Transport 

irnnomm It 1 of rcponal tounst offices has since been established m 
informahrvn nf? Ilelhi, Calcutta, Bombay and Madras Tounst 
BancaloTi' UK “P Agra, Aurangabad, Banaras, 

rioi Cochm, Deeding and J^ur. Thesroffiecs work m 

and camrr« ® State Governments, travel agents, hoteliers 

London India has tounst offices in New York, San FranciscOj 

Frankffirt 

Department of Tounsm in the Ministn^ of Transport and 
in'»Ttcrcscnt set up A Tounst Development Gounal, includ- 

presentawv es of the public, the tmv el trade and the State Governments, 



375 


advises the Govcrainent on tourist problems There are regional advisory 
committees for the different regions m the country 

In order to encourage the promotion of tourist traffic on a large scale 
and to exploit this source of foragn exchange to the fullest extent possible, 
a high-level committee consisting of the Secretaries and heads of Depart- 
ments concerned and presided over by the Secretary to the Gabmet, has 
been set up 

Hotel Standards and Rate Structure Committee 

The major recommendations of the Hotel Standards and Kale 
Structure Committee, constituted in 1957 to advise the Government on the 
question of laving doivn the entena for standardisation and gradation of 
hotels in India and the question of presenting a smtable rate structure, arc 
being implemented 

Relaxation in Tourist Regulations 

Regulations relating to police, registration, currency, exchange 
control and customs have been relaxed to promote tourist traffic A special 
inter-departmental committee mahes penodic inspection of the various 
ports of entry tvith a viciv to ascertaimng the possibility of further simph- 
lication of such formalities Concessional tickets are offered by the i aihvays 
for round tnp joumci's and drculai tours Speaal concessions are g^\en 
to students and pilgrnns as ivell as to tounsts visiting hill resorts during 
summer At present, there^ are 26 officially recognised travel ageuaes, 
13 shikat (big game) agencies and 5 recognised excursion agents which 
serve tourists The services of an mcreasing number of educated, specially 
tramed and approved travel guides are also available 

Informalum 

Tounst information matenal in the form of guide books, pamphlets, 
folders, maps, posters and picture cards are being brought out More than 
sixty lakh items of travel hterature an English, Prench, Spanish, German 
and m the Indian languages are being annually produced and widely 
distnbuted An illustrated monthly magazine entitled Traveller tn India is 
issued to attract tounsts Tiavel films are also made for distribution and 
exhibition abroad A cultural programme of fesuvals is being oiganised 

Humber of Toiiinsis 

The number of foreign tounsts visitmg India since 1 951 , is shown below 
TABLE 240 


TOURIST TRAFFIC 


Year 


1951 

1952 

1953 

1954 

1955 

1956 

1957 

1958 


Tomisi Revenue 


Number of Foreign Tounsts 


20 , 000 * 

25, -MS 

28,060 

39,333 

43,645 

68,880t 

80,5St 

92,193+ 


tourist traffic during 1955 i^'as estimated at Rs 10 I 
f dunng 1956 and 1957 as estimated bv the Reserve 

Bank of India are Rs 15.5 crores and Rs 16.0 crores respectivelv. 


•Approaaimtdy. t Eadudaij Pakotsais } Brdodmg PalMann and TibSi^T 



376 


Development Plans 

The Ceatral and sonic of the State Govcrmnents have formulated 
plans to provide for the development of tourism The programme envisages 
additional accommodatiou, transport and recareational facilities at unpoi tant 
tourist centres, espcciallv those situated in out-of-the-way places Broadly, 
these are of three kinds (t) schemes for the development of facihties at a 
limited number of places visited largely bv foreign tounsts, fii) facilities at 
places mainly for home tounsts, and (in) schemes for places of regional and 
local importance which are visited by home tounsts of low and middle- 
income groups The schemes in the first category are being undertaken 
by the Gentral Government Schemes m the second group are being 
implemented by the States with assistance fix>m the Centre and those m the 
third group exclusively by the States 


Ca[VII. AVIATION 

Indian aircraft flew about 290 lakh miles carrymg about 8 lakh 
pa^et^ers and nearly 1,942 lakh pounds of cargo and mail on scheduled 
and non*scheduled services taken together during 1958 Under the ‘all 
Up air mail scheme and night air mail services approximately 48,000 
passengers, 29,86,000 lbs of cargo and 40,18,000 lbs of r nad were carried 
dunng 1958 

Progress Since 1947 

below sho^vs the progress made by civil aviation in India 
since i947 (for scheduled services only) : 

TABLE 241 


CIVIL AVIATION (SCEHEDOLED SERVICES) 


Year 

Miles flown 
(m thousands) 

Passengers 
(in thousands) 

Freight (in 
thousand lbs ) 

Malts (m 
thousand lbs ) 

1947 

1948 

1949 

195Q 

1951 

1952 

1953 

1954 

1955 

1936 

1957 

1958 

9,362 

12,649 

15,098 

18,896 

19,498 

19,562 1 

19,202 ! 

19,798 

21.267 1 

23,481 1 

23,496 1 

24,086 

255 

341 

357 

453 

449 

454 1 
404 

432 

469 i 

559 1 

615 1 

683 

5,648 

11,975 

22,500 

80,007 

87,665 

86,038 

84,820 

86,415 

98,200 

96,231 

85,691 

98,494 

1,405 

1,583 

5,032 

8,356 

7,182 

8,377 

8,846 

10,673 

11,478 

12,686 

13,081 
' 13,180 


loid^r passenger traffic has more than doubled, the cargo 

mififcn loads more than 9 times and 

mucs iiown more than times 

Atr Corporations 

6 SI, consKted of 10 Vbcouhb, 

The Corporauon, ramod sVsVS 

'"'h flat oflO Super- 
Dunnu 1957.58 ii’ reaching out to 19 countnes 

cr^ft passengera on ib l^ccs and lU air- 


377 


Training 

Pilots, Aircraft Maintenance Engineers, Aerodrome Officers, Control 
Operators, Fire Operators, Radio Operators, Radio Technicians and Pilot 
Instructors arc trained in the Traimng Centre of the Civil Aviation Depart- 
ment at Allahabad During 1958, the Centre trained 312 candidates in 
vanous courses, while 177 trainees were undergoing training at the end of 
November 

Flying Clubs 

India has 14 sulisidised clubs with head-quarters at Delhi, 

Bombav, Madras, Patna, Barrackpore, Bhubaneswar, Lucknow, (with 
satellite centres at Kanpur, Allahabad and Banaras) JuIIundur, Hyderabad, 
Nagpur, Jaipur, Indore, Bangalore and Gauhati There arc three Govern- 
ment Gliding Centres at Poona, Bangalore and Allahabad and a subsidised 
Gliding Club at New Delhi Dunng 1958, the flying clubs trained 198 
‘A’ Licence and 3 ‘B* Licence pilots till the end of November. On December 
I, 1958, there were 541 persons undergoing trainmg at these flying clubs 

Aerodromes 

Eighty-four aerodromes* arc controlled and operated by the Civil 
Aviation Department of the Government of India Three of these^ viz , 
Bombay (Santa Cruz), Calcutta (Dura Dura), Delhi (Palam) are inter- 
national airports The aerodromes at Agartala, Ahmedabad, Patna, 
Bombay (Santa Cruz), Calcutta (Dum Dum), Delhi (Palam), Delhi 
(Safdaijung), Madras (St Thomas Mt.), Tiruchirappalh, Jodhpur, Bhuj 
and Amritsar have been declared customs aerodromes 

Six new aerodromes at Haldwani (UP), Kandla (Bomba v),TuIihal 
(Mampur), Raxaul (Bihar), jogbam (Bihar) and Behala (West Bengal) are 
under construction Subject to availabihtv of funds, thice more new 
aerodromes and a gliderdrome are expected to be completed in the remain- 
ing period of the Second Plan The main ninv; ays at the three internation- 
al airports arc being extended and strengthened to meet the needs of jet 
transport aircraft 

The programme for the development of civil aviation during the 
Second Five-Year Plan period aims at meeting the new demands which have 
arisen from recent technical advancements and from India’s obhgations 
under the Convention on International Civil Aviation to provide faalitics 
at aerodromes in conformity with the standards laid down by the Inter- 
national Civil Aviation Organisation 

Aircraft 

On December 1, 1958, 522 aircraft held current certificates of Regis 
tration and 209 aircraft held current certificates of airwoi thmess 

Air Transport Agreements 

During 1958, agreements between the Government of India and the 
Governments of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the Republic of 
Lebanon and the Repubhc of Italy were entered into Air transport 
agreements have already been concluded with Afghanistan, Austraha, 
Ceylon, Egyp^ France, Japan, Netherlands, Pakistan, Philhppmes, Sweden, 
Switzerland, Thailand, Iraq, the Umted States of Amenca and the United 
Kingdom 


•For a list of aerodromes see Appendices 



A Vtht « /B^wn feres 
era heerr datf Urlend chstiiS'- 
i jet tf'eri eV ot r V5 



TVS fl;re pj'tJicse sriieRi Mips 
rwffrenosfjy binuvit mth ccJT 
pcymtiits 



J felly efea$s£s f pem TVS feeeasise 
fl get z\l I need under one roof 


Today, the nsing tempo of pn>duction demanas speedy 
transport of men and matcnals Road transport, therefore, 
offers excellent ORjortumties for expansion and progress 

'ts several units, raeciS the increasing 
demands of the automotive industry in all its aspects in 
South India. 

PRIVATE UrfTEO Mitfurai, T7r«hr 
S~*"&Co.rt.i6re. KAOftAS AUTO SERVICE 
IlMITcn « southern ROADWAYS PRIVATE 

limited. 

® ACCESSORIES PRIVATE UD-. «.dr« . THE 
LIMITED ftUnt • SUNDARAM 
ANCE PRIVATE LTD , Htrfru • SUNDARAMS PRIVATE LTD , l-idorai. 

— V ^LtMDRAM IYENGAR & SONS PRIVATE UMITED. MADURAI. 


TVS 266 


Silver-Winged Super Constellations 
carry you swiftly, luxuriously; 

luxurious Slumbcrettes lull you gently 
to sleep, courteous hostesses wait on you J 
with grace and charm. 

So fly with us— weM like to 
make you feel that, cher nous, 

you are very, very much, chez vous! 


-mofA 




3jttjLAJUl±JjTTLaJ, 




CHAPTER XXVII 
COMMUNICATIONS 


The Posts and Telegraphs services constitute the second largest State 
undertaking in India, next only to the railways The number of persons 
employed on March 31, 1958, was 3,16,617, while the capital outlay was 
Rs 111 crores 

The Department of Posts and Telegraphs funcUons through 15 
temtonal umts — 12 post and telegraph circles and 1 postal arcle for 
Delhi only There are four telephone distncts for the aties of Calcutta, 
Bombay, Madras and Delhi and 21 other administrative umts on^ a 
funcuonal basis The Department works as a commercial-cum-utility 
service and rnat fps over a part of its surplus earmngs as a contnbution to- 
the general revenues, the rest accrues to the credit of the Department. 
The accumulated surplus on April 1, 1938, stood at Rs 23 9 crores. 

POSTAL SERVICES 

The postal traffic and postal revenue smee 1921 are shown below* 
TABLE 242 

POSTAL TRAPEIC AND REVENUE 


Year 

Number of postal articles 

Postal revenue 

Total 
(in erores) 

Aver^ 
per head of 
population 

Total 
(in erores 
of rupees) 

Average 
perheM of 
population 

1 

1921* . . , 

141 0 

454 

5 83 

0 19 

1931* 

117 5 

3 49 

7 37 

0 22 

1941* 

127 2 

3 33 

9 85 

0 26 

1951 

227 0 

6 37 

21 04 

0 59 

1957-58 . 

335 5 

9 4 

34 88 

0 95 


Some statistics rqgardmg the postal services are given below: 
TABLE 243 
POSTAL STATISTICS 



[ 1955-56 

1 1 

1956-57 j 

1957-58 

Number of post offices . 

\ 55,042 

58,871 

61,886 

Mileage of surface mail routes . . 

2,^2,282 

2,53,256 

2,75,719 

Mileage of airmail routes . . 

18,959 

19,416 

18,778 

Number of postal articles handled (crores)^ 

299 7 

326 I 

335 5 

Number of registered articles handled (crores) 

9 4 

, to 1 

9 71 

Number of insured articles (lal^) 

40 0 

40 1 

37 7 

Monc>' Orders (crores) - 

6 SO 

1 6 74 

6 69 

Postal rmenuc (crores of rupees) . . 

29 43 

1 32 75 

34 88 


* Pre^partibon figures. 














382 


The foUo^vmg table sho\vs the number of posft offices and letter 
boxes m the urban and rural areas in India : 

TABLE 244 

T7BBANAMD KURAL POST OFHCES AND LETTER BOSSES 



On MartOi 31, 1957 

On March 31, 1958 


Urban 

1 Rural 

Urban 

Rural 

Fast Offices j 

Pexmaaent . .. i 

5,582 

34,677 

5,766 

36,950 

Temporary 1 

1,112 

17,500 

1,178 

17,972 

Letter Baas 

31,376 

1 

86,205 

32,403 

90,851 


The number of new post offices opened behveen April I, J938j and 
Decanber 31, 1958, was 1,492 19,712 post offices were opened during 
he First Plan period while the opening of 20,000 post offices is aimed at 
during the Second Plan period. 

UThan Mobile Post OJices 

The Urban Mobile Post Office Scheme is in operation at Isagpur, 
Madras, Uellu, Bombay and Calcutta The mobile post office visits 
i^iortant centres of the city at specified hours after the ordmary post 
offices have closed for the day. It ^vorlis on all days of the year, including 
Su^ays and postal holidays Money orders are not accepted at the 
mobue post office, nor is savmgs bank business transacted 


Afatl and All-up Schemes 

An inland mght air mad service links up the principal aties of India, 
namelv, Bombay, C^cutta, Madras, Delhi and Nagpur. Under the All- 
up Scheme aU inland letters, letter cards, postcards and money orders 
are normaliv earned by air without any air surcharge 

Air Parcel Service unth Foragn Counines 

AT u ^ parcel service is m operation from India to Aden. 

Umted Sm^f Umted Ktogdon^ 

Postal Savings Bank 

insTsawngs, “ fte romtrj- for deposit- 

lU 15,000 and for a joint acMuml^ 3000o“^”'*^'^ depoater bang 
sanngs accounts arc 2f ner ccn» The interest rate on these 

10,000 m the case of an exceedmg Rs. 

joint account and 2 per cent n#. ^ and Rs 20,000 m case of a 

Bi-ivccU> withdrawal facthti^^ remamder of the balance, 
arc no^^ a% ailahlc in resnSt ^ maMmum of Rs 1,000, 

sanngs bank work. ^ accounts at aU post offices don^ 















383 


Postal Insurance 

Postal insurance business during the last tivo years was as follows : 
TABLE 245 
POSTAL INSURANCE 



' New business effected 

Total business m force 


No of 
policies 

Sum 
assured 
{in ernes of 
rupees) 

No of 
pobcies 

1 

Sum 
assured 
(i« emres if 
rupees) 

Ctml Wing 

1956-57 

10,360 

1 83 

' 1,33,120 

27 95 

1957-58 . 

7,843 

I 52 

1,36,539 

28 57 

Miltton Wing 

1 

i 




1956-57 

501 { 

0 39 

7,788 

5 08 

1957-58 

602 

0 48 

8,339 

5 49 


TABLE 246 

POSTAL INSURANCE-^EXPENSE RATIO 



1 Civil Wing 

Military Wing 

Year 

1 Total 
j premium 
medme 
(tn 

1 thousand 

1 rupees) 

Total 

expenses 

(in 

thousand 

rupees) 

Expense 

ratio 

(%) 

Total 

prcmiuin 

mcome 

(w 

thousand 
\ rupees) 

Total 

expenses 

(«i 

thousand 

rupees) 

Eiqjcnse 

Ratio 

C%) 

1956-57 

12,135 

1,281 

' 10 55 

1 

2,471 

44 

; 1 78 

1957-58 

12,384 

1,235 

1 9 97 

1 2,681 

39 

1 45 


TEIEGRAPH SERVICES 

Some saUent statistics regarding the telegraph services arc given 


TABLE 247 

TELECMAPH STATISTrCS 



1955-56 

1956-57 

1957-58 

Number of telegraph offices (mcludmjr 
beensed offices) ^ 

Number of tcl^^rams exdudiag P & T 
service telegrams (in lakhs) 

Mileage of oi erhead wires 

Mileage of underground cable conductors 
&mer and \TT Channels 

Tdi^iaph revenue (m crorcs of rupees) [ [ 

9,893 

335 

8,67,199 

10,03,437 

4,79,210 

6 7 

10,052 

345 

9,09,798 

12,36,340 

5,58,363 

7 7 

10,723 

332 
9,53,785 
' 13,65,236 
5,97,604 
a 2 






















384 


Between April 1, 1958, and December 30, 1958, 163 telegraph offices 
were opened The telegraph channel mileage increased from 3,30, 110 
to 3,58,010 during the same penod 

Out of 332 lakh telegrams (excluding the P&T service telegrams) 
transmitted dunng 1957-58, 292 lakhs ^vere inland and 40 lakhs foreign 
telegrams The revenue dcnved from these telegrams amounted to ^ 
6 81 crores (Rs 5 49 crores from inland and Rs 1 32 crores from foreign 
telegrams) Out of 292 lakh inland tdegrams, about 249 lakhs were 
private and the rest State and Press telegrams The number of Press 
telegrams during 1957-58 was 2 27 lakhs Twenty-three stations have 
been connected to a tape relay exchange installed at Bombay through 
which messages are transmitted automaticallv to the destination stations 
connected isith the exchange by push button system. 


Telegraph Service in Hindi and other Indian Lan^ages 

Hmdi telegraph service is now available at about 1,400 offices 
(mcluding 50 Railway telegraph offices) in the country The service is 
available in all the P&T circles Training classes in Hindi Morse have 
been opened at eleven places and about 2,400 operator have hitherto 
been tramed 


Telegrams can be sent in any Indian language provided they are 
written m Devanagan script In addition, the fbllo\ving special facihties 
are available in the Hindi Idegraph system* 

(*) Greetings telegrams on festive occasions, 

(tt) Emergent telegrams to call relatives and friends m case of 
serious illness or death, 

[lit) Local tdegrams, 

(ip) Tendering of tdegrams in Hindi on Phonogram System where 
such a facihty exists; 

[v) Tdegraphic money orders; and 

(w) Registration of tdegraphic abbreviated addresses at conces- 
sional rates 


Tdegraph traffic in Hmdi betiveen 1949-50, when the service was 
introduced, and 1957-58 ivas as shoivn bdow. 


TABLE 248 

TEI^ GRAPH mAFFIG IN HINDI 


Year 

Number of 
telegrams 

1949^0 


1950-51 

2,570 

1951-52 

5,784 

1952-53 

7,801 

1953-54 

18,639 

1954-53 

28,503 

1955-56 

; 45,501 

1956-57 

! 58,522- 

1957-58 

66,927 



1 89,202 


SEKVIGES 

e shows the number of telephones, tdephone 

o 1957-58 ^ ^^unt of telephone revenue during the 


Ane loiioivi 

«changcs, trunk calls and i 
period 1955-56 to 1957-58. 



385 


TABLE 249 

TELEPHONE STATISTICS 



1955-56 

1956-57 

1957-58 

Number of telephones 

Number of telephone exchanges (induding 

2,78,000 

3,09,000 

3,35,000 

PB Xs & P Xs) . 

5,817 - 

6,188 

6,457 

Number of trunk calls (m lakhs) . . 

186 

208 

231 

Telephone revenue (w crores of rupees) 

14 4 

16 3 

18 4 


During the period from April 1, 1958, to December 1958, 151 
long distance public call offices and 29,000 additonal telephones were 
provided The equipped capacity of the exchanges stood at 3,23,600 and 
the telephone channel mileage at 2,61,400 at the end of 1958. 

Oim Tour Telephone Scheme 

The scheme is now in operation at Ahmedabad, Bombay (except 24 
and 26 exchange areas), Calcutta (only in Barrackpore and Serampore 
exchange areas), Madras (except Mount Road, Kilpauk and Mylapore 
exchange areas) and New DelH. Over 33,000 connections have so far 
been given under this scheme It is, however, being gradually ivithdratvn. 
in view of the progress of new telephone exchange inst allations 

Rate System 

Under the message rate system, a subsenber pays for every call that 
he makes plus a fixed monthly rent^ This system is in operation at 40 
exchanges 


Telephone Jndustiy 

In 1957-58 the Indian Telephone Industries (Private) limited. 
Bangalore, manufactured 60,241 telephones, 42,305 exc^ge lines, 
246 small exchanges (totalling 8,005 hnes), 31 single channel carrier systems 
52 three channel carrier systems, 2 twelve channel earner systems apart 
from a large number of smaller eqmpment and components Most of the 
components are manufactured in the country Out of 539 parts, only 3 
are imported, the value of the imported parts being less than 25% of the 
total value of the eqmpment manufactured 


OVERSEAS COMMUNICATIONS 

T Comm^cations Service, which ™ nationalised on 

January 1, 1947, now fifty-seven direct radio services which link India 

handled 

xX. ^’922 lakh words; 1,35,300 

Jn?4 of 7,82,000 paid minutes, 1,400 radio pictures totaU- 

^ multipress words Four 

international radio teleprmter channels have been leased to dvti aviation 
comp^jucs 

Radio Telephone iSVrrre^ 

direct radio telephone service wlh thefollmwng countries : 
Aden, >^tralia, ^hrein, Burma, Chma, East Africa, Ethionia 

Repubhe), Hong Kong, Indon^ 

uIsr' Ih. United Ki„gd4 









386 


Radio telephone service via London is available between In^a 
and Algena, Argentina, Austria, Barbados, Belgium, Bermuda, Brazil, 
Canada, Ceuta, Costa Rica, Cuba, Czcchoslorakia, Denmark, Finland, 
Gibraltar, Greece, Guatemada, Hawau, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, 
Irish Repubhe, Israel, Lebanon, Luxembourg, Mexico, Morocco, Nether- 
lands, New Foundland, Nicaragua, Norway, Panama, Rhodesia, South 
Africa, South-West Africa, Sudan, Spam, Sivcdcn, Tangier, Tunisia, 
the Umted States of Amenca and the Vatican City. 

Radio telephone service is also available for Yugoslavia via Bcme, 
for Doha, Kuwait and Muscat via Bahrein , for Sudan via Cairo, for 
New Ze^and via Austraha, and for Asmara via Ethiopia 35 ships at 
sea make use of the radio tdephonc facilities 

Radio Telegraph Service 

Radio telegraph service is available for Afghanistan, Austraha, 
Burma, China, Egvpt, France, Germany (Federal Repubhe), Indonesia, 
Iran, Italy, Japan, P^oland, Sivitzerland, Ibailand, UKjUSAjUSSR, 
Vietnam (South), Vietnam (North) and Yugoslavia. 

Radio Photo Service 

Direct Radio photo service operates between India and China, 
France, Germany (Federal Repubhe), Japan, Poland, UK, USA, and 
USSR In addition, the service is available via London to Austraha, 
Belgium, Canada, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, Ghana, 
Grc^, Italy, Jamaica, Norway, Portugal South Africa, Sweden, 
Switzerland and Yugoslavia. 

Other Services 

The Service also handles nc^vs transmissions on behalf of the Govern- 
ment of India for the benefit of Indian Consular posts abroad and on behalf 
of certam press agencies to different areas outside India Leased cir- 
cuits have been made available to Bntish Overseas Ainvays Corporation, 
Pan American World Ainvays, Air India IntcmaUonal and Tram World 
Airlmes 



CHAPTER XXVIII 
LABOUR 


In the organised sector of India’s economy, the largest number of 
workers are employed in factones In 1957, the average daily employment 
an factories for wiuch figures arc available stood at 30,87,864*. Plan- 
tations provided (in 1955) average daily employment to 12,12,636 workers, 
while the R^ways employed 11,11,026 ivorkers daily in 1957-58 6,28,587 
workers were employed daily in the mmes in 1956 and 30,626 in major 
ports other than Calcutta and Cochm 

The followmg table gives the State-\vise break-up of average daily 
•employment figures in factories subject to the Factones Act for the penod 
1954 to 1957, on the basis of the returns submitted by them. 

TABLE 250 

EMPLOYMENT XN FACTORIES 
(Covering only those snbject to the Factones Act) 


Average daily number of warkers employed 


Slatc^emtory 

1954 

1955 

1956 

1957 






Second half 

Andhra Pradesh 

Assam 

Bihar 

Bombay 

Kerala 

Madhya Pradesh 

Madr^ 

Mysore 

Onssa . 1 

Punjab 

Rajasthan 

Uttar Pradesh 

■West Bengal , | 

Ddhi 

Himachal PradeA 

1,08,840 

65,290 

1,70,521 

8,09,895 

1,22,204 

3,28,677 

20,174 

54,586 

2,39,874 
6.09,925 i 
42,826 j 

1,17,514 

68,647 

1,72,062 

8,63,029 

1,30,576 
3,27,926 ; 

20*328 

63.712 

2,45,613 

6,16,739 

47,252 

1,66,876 

71,248 

1,73,472 

9,98,251 

97*848 
2,99,719 ; 

21,556 

82,845 

2,67,663 

6,53,272 

47,559 

1,57,713 

35,336 

1,74,156 

9,87,814 

1,16,455 

71,723 

3,10,728 

23,946 

77,754 

35,981 

2,74,371 

6,29,567 

46,601 

1,163 

1,39,732 
63,374 
1,76,901 
9,65,558 
93,543 
99,603 
3,01,355 
1,22,359 
21,797 
89,413 
35,851 
! 2,65,216 
6,54,532 
52,684 
1,181 


The foUmvmg table shows the average dafiy employment in coal mines. 
TABLE 251 

EMPLOYMENT IN GOAL MINES 


Year 

Aver 

age daily number o 

f workers employed 


Undergroimd 

Onen 

vrorkings 

Surface 

Total 

1953 

1954 

1955 

1956 

1957 

1958 August 

1,81,973 

1,81,280 

1,87,593 

1,87,068 

2,05,755 

2,06,796 

28,866 

28,457 

30,161 

29,823 

41,749 

37,405 

1,26,957 

1,22,583 

1,22,861 

1,16,499 

1,22,740 

1,15,760 

3,37,796 

3,32,320 

3,40,615 

3,33,390 

3,70,244 

3,59,961 


•Covermg only States and Temtoncs subject to the Factones Act 









388 


The employment position in the cotton mill industry is as follow : 
TABLT: 252 

EMPLOYMENT IN COTTON MILL INDUSTRY 


Year 

Total 
number of 
orders 
employed 

A\ crag 

c dul) number of workers emp 

ojcd 

Tirsi shift 

Second slnft 

Tlufd shift 

Total 

1953 

1954 

1955 

1956 

1957 

1958 November 

8,01,853 

7,97,483 

8,55,726 

9.32,873 

9,43,417 1 

8,90,443 

4,21,888 

4,16,227 

4,19,236 

4,34,231 

4,39,624 

4,23,735 

2,58,372 

2,58,851 

2,62,226 

2,76,504 

2,77.518 

2,65,214 

63,724 

66,091 

70,582 

96,056 

95,806 

79,527 

7,43,981 

7,41,169 

7,58,044 

8,06,791 

8,124148 

7,68,505 


Producimiy 

Studies on the productivity of labour tvcrc initiated in Indn only 
recently On the basis of the census of manufacturing industries for the 
year 1950, labour productivity figures were compiled in 1952 for different 
industries and also for small, medium and large establishments in each 
industry The following table shows the findings in respect of certain 
sdected mdustries : 


TABLE 253 

PRODUCTTViTY OF LABOUR (1950) 

(Valae added per man>lioiir) 

(/n rvpcts) 


Industries 

All sizes 

Small site 

Medium size 

Large size 

Sugar 

Cement 

Cotton textiles 

WoolleD textdea 

Jute textiles 

Iron and steel , : 

Chemicals 

All industnes , , 

1 5 

1 4 

0 7 

1 2 

0 5 

1 4 

1 9 

0 8 

1 4 

1 3 

0 7 

0 4 

0 5 

0 4 

1 5 

0 6 

I 5 

1 4 

0 8 

1 2 

0 7 

0 8 

1 7 

0 8 

J.4 

1 S 

0 7 

1 4 

0 6 

1 5 

2 6 

1 0 




(«*) 


(«i) 


ip) 


, ^ ^ revcaicQ mat* 

*°*^^^* overall rate of increase in produc- 
1954 was 0^^ loaders during the penod 1951 to 
“ aga.n=t0-26 m the average 

earnmgs of workers increased 
dur^ ^ mcrcase in productivity 

industry, the annual rate of 
2 28 as dunng tiie period 1948 to 1953 was 

* as against 1 14 m earnings 

















389 


In 1955 the relation of the trend in index of productivity of factory 
workers to that of real earnings was studied with the following results. 

TABLE 254r 

PRODUCTtVITV AND REAL EARNINCS OF FACTORY WORKERS 



Index (Base 1939=100) of 

Year 

Real earnings 

Productivity 

1940 

108 6 

104 2 

1941 

103 7 

94 8 

1942 

89 0 

85 3 

1943 

67 0 

84 5 

1944 

75 1 

86 3 

1945 

74 9 

79 5 

1946 

73 2 

74 7 

1947 . . 1 

78 4 

72 5 

1948 

64 4 

79 4 

1949 

91 7 1 

75 6 

1950 

90 1 

78 8 

1951 

92 2 

88 7 

1952 

101 8 

97 4 

1953 

99 9 


1954 

102 7 

113 0 


On the basis of the monthly statistics published by the Chief Inspector 
of Mines in India, the productivity of workers employed in coal mmes ^vas 
as follows 


TABLE 255 

FRODUGTEVnY OF WORKERS IN GOAL MINES 


Period t 

Ou^ut (m tons) per xDan>5bift for 

Miners and 
loaders 

All persons em- 
ploy under- 
ground and in 
Open workings 

All persons em- 
ployed above 
and underground 

1953 (Average) . . . . ' 



mm 

1954 „ 1 




1955 




1956 „ 











■■ 


Thc^ Labour Bureau has taken up a project for compiling interim 
productivity mdiccs based mainly on the annual census of manufactures 
for nme selected industries, viz Jute Textiles, Iron and Steel, Sugar, 
Cotton Textiles, Glass, Cement, Paper, Matches and Woollen Textiles. 
The annual indices are proposed to be compiled firom 1948 with 1947 as 
base. 


♦ NATIONAL EMPLOYMENT SERVICE 

The Employment Service, started in 1945, consists of a network of 
Employment Exchanges, each staffed by personnel trained in a carefully 
devised procedure. The Employment ^change renders employment 








390 


assistance to all employment seekers It also discharges certain spcdal 
rcspousibihties, such as die proviaon of employment assistance to displaced 
persons, discharged Government employees and those belonging to the 
Scheduled Castes and Tribes 

At the end of November 1858 there were 211 Exchanges in the coun- 
try. Table below gives figures relating to the activities of the Exchanges 
durmg the penod 1954-58. 


TABLE 255 

EMPLOYMENT EXCHANGE STATtSTECS 


Fenod 

No of Ex- 
changes 
at the 
end of 
the penod 

No of 
registra- 
tions dur- 
ing the 
penod 

No of 
applicants 
placed 
in enjoy- 
ment dur- 
ir® tlic 
period 

No of 
appbcanls 
on the 
lave Reg- 
ister at 
the Cod 
of the 
penod 

Monthly 

average 

numbCT of 

employers 

using die 

Exdian- 

ges 

No of 

vacandcs 

notified 

dunng 

the 

penod 

No of 
vacancies 
being 
dealt vnth 
at the 
end of 
the penod 

1954 

128 I 

14,65,497 1 

1,62,451 ; 


1 4,751 

2,39.875 

29,295 

1955 

136 ' 


1,69,735 1 

6,91,958 

! 4,880 

i 2,80,523 

42,248 

1956 

143 

16,69.895 

1,89,855 


1 5,346 

1 2,96,618 

42,805 

1957 i 

1958 

181 

17,74,668 

1,92,831 1 

9;Z2,099 

5,632 

2,97,188 

45,156 

(Nov) 

211 

21,35,113 

2,31,985 

11,59,031 

6,471 

i 3,34,294 

! 64,687 


The day-to-day administrative control over the employment exchanges 
transferred to the State Governments ividi effect irom November 1, 
1956 The Central Government now Inmts its responsxbihdcs to pohey- 
makmg, co-ordination of procedure and standards and to nmdenng of 
assistance, whenever needed 

^ Several Rhemes, such as (i) the collection of employment market 
imormation, («) occupational research and analysis, (mj the pubhcation 
ol «rcer pamphlets and handbooks on trammg faohtics, (ir) vocationsd 
piidancc and ^ployment counselling and {v) the development of oral 
testing, arc under wupicmentation to improve the quality of service hemg 
rendered by the exchanges. 


Crqfismm Tmmng 

training centres functioning underthe 
J schemes scheduled for imple- 

TnCntAtlOn dtlTmC^ tK^ ^ XT < « A ^ 


m™u«o„tongthcS«o„dP].„pe;ro7a,;'^^^ 

e for the Training of Industrial Workers 


scheme fo* miu xiauung oi inoustnai workers 
^ Classes)* a vieiv to meeting the increased demand for tram- 
Institute at Kom-Bdaspur (Madhya 

temnnnrv ^ Second centre started funebonmg on a 

temporary basis at Aundh (Bombay), ® 

up to for Tr^g in Vocational Trades has been set 

to co-ordmat^t.^ftr*'»r of India on all questions of training pohey, 

f and to lay doivn uniform stand^Ss It 

also auards naUonal certificates of profiacncy to craftsmen. 


WAGES AND EARNINGS 


Arruat Earnings 

^^OTk^ dvSLg'''’f 954 f 57 .*^ average annual eanungs of factory 













391 


TABLE 257 

AVERAGE ANNUAL EARNINGS OF FACTORY WORKERS DRAWING LESS 
THAN Rs. 200 PER MONTH 

(Esdades, besides railway worbsbops, the food^ beverages, tobacco and] gins 
and presses groups) 


{7n rupees) 










392 


TABLE 259 


GENERAL CONSUMER PRICE INDEX NUMBERS FOR WOIUONG CLASS 
(ErclntfnglaBoiurBnrcaa Scries)— Base sbifted to 1949=100 


Centre 

Original Base 
(=100) 

Conversion 

Factor* 

1954 

1955 

1956 

1957 

Nagpur 

Ai^t 1939 

3 71 

99 

96 

105 

112 

Madras 

July 1935 to 

June 1936 

3 23 


99 

121 

116 

Bangalore 





114 

126 

Mysore 


3 03 


99 

110 

120 

Kolar Gold. Fidds 


3 16 

118 

109 

120 

128 

Bombay 

July 1933 to 

June 1934 

3 07 

117 

110 

115 

120 

Ahmedabad 

August 1926 to 
July 1927 

2 48 

98 

87 

98 

104 

Sholapur 

February 1927 to 
January 1928 

2 99 

98 

82 

105 

113 

Jalgaon 

Hyderabad 

August 1939 
August 1943 to ' 

4 25 

95 

83 

100 

105 

July 1944 

1 54 

108 

97 

116 

124 

ETT>a.Vii1gTTi 

August 1939 

3 65 

107 

107 

111 

111 

IVichur 


3 56 

107 

106 

113 

112 

Kanpur 

» 

4 78 

85 

78 

89 

94 


TABLE 260 

LABOUR BUREAU GENERAL CONSUMER PRICE INDEX NUMBERS FOR 
WORKING CLASS 


(Base shifted to 1949=100) 


Centre 

Original Base 

Conver- 

sion 

Factor* 

1954 

1955 

1956 

1957 

Delhi 

1944^100 

1 32 

i05 

99 

109 

U4 

Ajraer 

Jamshedpur 

» 

1 61 

1 38 

91 

102 

83 

98 

95 

106 

99 

115 

Dehn-on-^one 

Mongbyr 

Cuttack 

Berhampur . 

Gauban 

>• 

1 59 

1 70 

I 71 

1 47 

I 54 

1 28 


77 

82 

79 

99 

97 

87 

87 

95 

88 
106 
108 

86 

99 

108 

99 

110 

108 

103 

Tuuuloa 

Ludhiana 


1 38 

I 10 

1 64 

93 

103 

90 

86 

99 i 
84 ' 

99 

no 

92 

lOS 

118 

96 

Jabalpur 

Kharagpur 

Mercara 

Plantauon Centiest . 

1953=100 
January to June 

1 68 

1 Si 

1 37 


79 i 
88 

92 

94 

94 

100 

102 

104 

1 96 

1 107 

109 

1 

Bhopal 

Beau or 

19«=:100 

1951=100 

August 1951 to 


104 

91 

93 

87 

102 

98 

‘ 108 

1 101 

Satna 

ALL.INDIA. 

♦T^ -Vl ■ 

July 1952=100 
1953=200 


83 

85 

78 ' 
77 

91 

91 

i 95 

1 99 

1949=100 


101 

96 , 

m 

I 


be multiplied by the 

tGudalur, KuUalamby, Vayidun and Valpara* 






















393 


The function of Wage Boards is to fix a wage structure onthcprinaplc 
of fair w^es. As the decisions of the Wage Board for Working Joumal^ts 
were set aside by the Supreme Court as “illegal and void,” a Working 
Journalists Wage Committee ^vas set up to make recommendaoons for enab- 
ling the Central Government to fix rates of wages in respect of working 
journalists Central Wage Boarj^ for the cotton textile, cement and sugar 
mdustnes have also been set up 

fVagf Census Scheme 

The Scheme envisages collection of occupational wage rates and 
earnings data m respect of workers employed in major factories, nnmng 
and plantation industries Approximately 3,000 sampled estabhshments 
m 44 industries would be covered in course of the enquiry now m hand 

Steering Group on Wages 

The Steering Group, consisting of nominees of the Union and State 
Governments and representatives of workers and employers, will study the 
trends m relation to wages, production and pnees, and plan the collection 
of material for drawing up a wage map of India, mdustry-wiseand region- 
wise, for the guidance of wage-fixir^ authorities. 

Coal Mines Bonus Schemes 

The Goal Mmes Bonus Schemes framed under the Coal Mmes 
provident Fund and Bonus Schemes Act, 1948, are m operation in the coal 
mines of West Bengal, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Onssa, Andhra Pradesh, 
Rajasthan, Assam and Bombay Under these schemes, coUiery workers, 
other than those m Assam, are entitled to receive a third of their basic earn- 
ings as bonus by virtue of a minimum qualifying attendance durmg the 
quarter In Assam, bonus is paid on a weekly basis to those employed on 
a weekly wage and on a quarterly basis to those employed on a monthly 
basis 


INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS 

Industrial Disputes 

The table below shows the number of disputes, workers involved and 
man-days lost during 1951-57 : 

TABLE 261 

INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES 


Year 

Ninnher of 
dilutes 

Number of 
^^orLers involved 
(m thousands) 

Total number 
of maii*day3 lost 
durmg the penod 
(in mousands) 

1951 

1952 

1953 

1954 

1955* . 

1956 

1957t 

1958t X 

Upto September J 

1,071 

963 

772 

840 

1,166 

1,203 

1,630 

970 

691 

809 

467 

477 

528 

715 

889 

592 

3,819 

3,337 

3,383 

3,373 

5,698 

6,992 

6,429 

5.361 


Rajasthan «tcc pre- 



Jnduslrtal Employment Standing Orders 

Under the Industnal Employment (Standing Orders) Act, 1946, the 
Central and State Governments have framed model rules for adoption by 
industnal establishments employmg 100 workers or more The measure 
has been extended to all establishments in Bombay and West Bengal 
employmg 50 workers or more Irrespective of the number of workers 
employed, the U P Government have extended the measure to all member 
establishments of the Employers’ Association of Northern India and of the 
Uttar Pradesh Oil MiUoivners’ Assoaation, electnc supply undertakmgs, 
%vater works and glass mdustry In Assam, it apphes to all industrial! 
establishments (except mmes, quarries, oilfields and rail'svays) which 
employ 10 workers or more 


Discipline tn Industry 

A Code of Dismplme has been evolved ivith the approval of the- 
Indian Labour Conference and the Standmg Labour Committee A 
tnpartite Committee will examme breaches of the code and non-imple- 
mentation of awrards and will publish cases of flagrant violation A code- 
of conduct to govern inter-umon relations was adopted at a meeting of the 
representatives of the four central labour organisations held at Namital 
in May 1958 


fi^orks Committees 

Under the Industnal Disputes Act, 1947, 701 Works Committees in 
central undertakings were functioningat Ac end of the third quarter of 1958. 

Tripartite Machinery 

The machmery at the centre mainly consists of the Indian Labour 
Conference, the Standing Labour Committee, the Industrial Committees 
a few others There is also the Labour Mimsters’ Conference which 
is closely associated ivith the machmery though not tnpartite in character. 
The suqects discussed at the annual session of these bodies m 1958' 
included industnal relations, implementation of awards and agreements, 
discipline in industry, social secunty schemes, rationalisatioD and gnevance 
proc^urc Industnal Committees on Mmes, other than Coal Mines, 
and Jute also met for the first tune in 1958 


Conciliation Machinery 

The administration of industnal [relations xn the Central sphere 
undertakings rrats inth the Chief Labour Commissioner. To assist the 
T ^ organisation consisting of 

pimmi^onen. Conciliation Officers and Labour 

m-ichtupriM have their own conciliatioil 

machtnencs, headed by the Labour Commissioners 

Adjudication Machinery 

disnut»~I^al^ur adjudication of industnal 

onS T ’ National Tnbunals-all with 

arc two Indusiml Tni National Tnbunals were set up There 

ihc Inter also ^ctlnrr Dhanbad and the other at Nagpur, 

t\si.“Dcih:^¥h^T, I” “'‘■'e'?"’ 

I.a1>our courts States have their oivn Tnbunals and 


Pcrtinpahcn m Mcna^crrml 


" * in Aicna^errenl 

of KTOUp, ivhich made a first hand 

''c, ung of the scheme in certain Western countnes, were 



395 


considered by the Indian Labour Conference in July 1957 The Conference 
decided to expenment with management coundls on a voluntary basis and 
appointed a tripartite committee to examine and consider furfter details 
of the scheme. The Committee has drawn up"^ list of establishments which 
agreed to co-operate and defined the scope and functions of die councils. 
At a semmar of a representative character organised in January-February 
1958, a model agreement for the settii^ up of these councils was approved 
In 16 undertakmgs the scheme for labour participation in management 
IS in operation, while about twenty more have agreed to give the scheme 
a fair tnal 

Worhrs* Education 

The Central Board for Workers* Education consisting of representa- 
tives of Government, both Central and State, organisations of employers 
and educationists was registered as a society The training of tesicher — 
admmistrators, which forms the first phase of the education programme, was 
completed in November 1958 Forty- three candidates received traimng, 
of which 14 were nominated by three AU-India Workers’ Orgamsations 
The traimng of worker-teachers and through them the traimng of the 
rank and file will begin next About 4 lakh workers are expected to be 
trained by the end of the' Second Plan penod 

TRADE DNIONS 

Tables 262 and 263 show the number and membership of registered 
trade umons in India and of those affihated to each of the four national 
federations : 

TABLE 262 


REGISTERED TRADE UNIONS AND MKMHPPSttrP 


lull 



8B 

Stt 

ite Unions 




1954-55 


1956-57 

Number of Umons 
On registers 
Number of Umons 
subnuttmg 
returns 

Membership of 
Unions submit- 
ting returns 

144 j 
105 : 

1,75,508 

174 

105 

1 

2,12,848 

1 

173 

102 

1,87,295 

6,504 

3,008 

19,94,942 

7,921 

3,901 

20,61,884 

8,180 

4,297 

21,89,467 


TABLE 263 


membership op ALL.INDU ORGANISATIONS 


Number of Umons Affiliated i 


1954 


Indian National Tradej 
Union Congress 
Hmd Mazdoor Sabha 
AB-lndia Trade Union 


United Trade Union 
Congress 

TOTAL . . 


2,031 


1955 


1,470 


1956 


1957 


Membership 


8,86,29 1 i 
4,92,362 


1955 


9,30,968 

2,11,315 


3,06,963 

1,95,242 


16,44,488 


• Verffied iigures arc not available. 


1958 


9,71,740 

2,03,798 


,9,34,385 

;2,33,990 


4,22,851 

1,59.109 


117,57,498 




396 


SOCIAL SECimiTY 


Employees* State Insaranee Scheme 

The provisions of the Employees’ State Insurance Act^ 1948, apply 
to all perenmal factories using power and employing 20 or more persons 
and cover labourers and clencal staff wth monthly earnings up to ^ 400 
Thirteen lakh fifty-six thousand and five hundred persons arc covered 
by the scheme in areas where it has been implemented At the end of 
1957-58, employees’ contnbuUon stood at Rs 3 *52 crores and the employers* 
contribution at Rs 2 83 crores A sum of Rs 2 13 crorcs was given to 
insured persons by ivay of benefits (Rs 1 '73 crorcs towards sickness, 
Rs 5 17 lakhs towards matermty, Rs 29*75 laldis towards 
disablement and Rs 5 '44 lakhs towards dependants). Medical care was 
extended in 1958 to famiUes of insured persons under the scheme in Assam, 
Bihar, Mysore, Punjab, and Rajasthan 

Empbyees* Provident Fund 

The Employees* Provident Funds Act, 1952, apphes to all umts 
employing 50 or more workers and all workers ^^'lth monthly earnings 
of Rs 500 or less are rcqmrcd to make a minimum contnbution of 6 J 
per cent of their income As amended, the Act now applies to the establish- 
ments mvned by Government or a local authority At the end of September, 
1958, it was operative in 7,189 establishments, having about 24*04 laUis 
of subsenbers out of an employment strength of 29 *5 lalchs The amount 
of provident fund contnbutions aggregated Rs, 121 5 crores. 

Coal Mines Provident Fund Schemes 

Workers are required under these schemes to contnbute per 
cent of their basic wage and dearness alloiiance, inclusive of food 
y nccssions in cash or kmd, the employer contnbutmg a Rimilar amount 
The total assets of the Fund amounted to over Rs 14 crores at the end of 
October 1958 


Workmen's Compensation 

The Workmen’s Compensatioii Act, 1923, provides for the payment 
or compensation for injuries received during employment, occupational 
diseases and d^tbs resulting from such injuries and diseases Employees 
carumg up to Rs 400 a month arc covered. 

Matermty Ben^ls 

Legislation concwmng the payment of matermty benefits is m 
aU the States Some of the State Acts apply to all 
wthm^eir jurisdiction, while others apply to non- 
frei st t The quah^ penod and the rato of benefit 

T Central Acts-the Mines Matermty 

Pknmu^ LnWrl. Insurance Act, 1948, and the 

In order to nrescnhe\ * ^°^^Snlate payment of matermty benefits 
legdaUo.cn 4o 


labour welfare 

canteens, creches, rest shelters, 
has been made m ^ the appointment of welfare officers 

Lactones Act 1948 establishments covered by the 

1951 In addS Plantations Labour W 

financing welfare schet^ h'C measures for the constitution of funds for 
b 'cuare schemes have been enacted and are in force 



397 


Coal Mines Labour Welfare Fund 

The Fund maintains 2 central hoqpitals, 6 regional liospitals-cum- 
matennty and clnld welfare centres, 2 dispensaries and 2TB dimes. 
Steps have been taken to increase their number. Anti-malana measures 
and BCG. campaigns are also in operation An Infectious Diseases 
Hospital at Chandkuiya has been sanctioned by the Jhana Mmes Board 
of Health 

The Fund is also running adult education centres, women's welfare 
centres, children’s parks and a family counsellmg service A scheme for 
imparting elementary education to miners’ children is also m operation 

Under the subsidy-cwm-loan scheme 1,759 houses were constructed 
and 394 are under construction Allocation of 10,000 houses amongst 
coUienes was nearly completed and construction work on 2,494 houses 
has started The canungs of the Fund during the year are estimated to 
be Rs 1,64,97,351 The expected expenditure on general welfare 
measures is Rs 96,56,350 and that on housing is Rs 1,56,40,950 


Mxca Mines Labour Welfare Fund 

The Fund provides medical, educational and recreational facihties 
for nnca mine workers. One hospital has been established by the Fund 
at Karma (Bihar) , two are under construction at Tisn (Bihar) and Kahehedu 
(Andhra Pradesh) and another is to be established at Gangapur (Raj- 
asthan) Several dispensancs with maternity and child welfare centres arc 
attending to the medical needs of mica rmners Nine mobile dispensaries 
arc also in operation in certam areas The Fund maintains several 
primary schools, awards scholarships and distributes books and stationery 
free of cost During 1958-59, the sums provided to mica producing States 
were Rs 12 47 lakhs to Bihar, Rs 3*12 lakhs to Andhra Pradesh and 
Rs 2 *43 lakhs to Rajasthan 


Welfare of Flantation Labour 


Under the Plantation Labour Act, 1951, all plantations are required 
to provide housing accommodation to their resident ivorkers and their 
fanoihes and to maintam hospitals or dispensanes Some of them also 
maintain elementary schools for the education of the labourer’s children. 
Recreational facilities and training m useful handicrafts such as tailoring, 
kmtting, weaving and basket-making, are being provided m some of the 
^ «tatc centres with the help of donations from the Tea Board. The 
Coffee and Rubber Boards have also agreed to allocate funds for the welfare 
of ivorkers employed m coffee and rubber plantations 


Labour Welfare Funds in Central Government Industrial Undertakings 

These w^are funds were created on a voluntary basis in 1946 for 
toanang w^are actiwdes among workers Pending the enactment of 
Labour Welfare Fund Act for industnal undertakings, welfare activities 
under the scheme will continue up to the year 1958-59, 

Labour Welfare Centres 


Most of Ae Govwnments of the States and Union Territories are 
runmng a number of welfare centres These centres cater to the rccrcationak 
educational, vocational and cultural needs of the workers and their children 
All private indmtnd establishments of some standing also maintain welfare 
Centres for the benefit of their workers. 


INDtlSTRlAL HOUSING 


The Subsidised Industrial Housing Scheme, which came 
operation in September 1952, enrisages the construction of houses 


into 

for 



39B 


industrial -vvorkers governed by the Factories Ac^ 1948, and mine ^^o^keIS 
covered by the h4mcs Act, 1952, except those employed in coal and nuca 
mines Under the scheme, loans and subsidies are given by the Central 
Government to State Governments, statutory Housing Boards, industrial 
employers and registered co-operative societies of industrial workers. The 
foUovk’ing table indicates the toandal assistance given by the Centre tail 
the end of October 1958. 


TABIiE 264 

HNANCKAL AID FOR INDUSTRIAL HOX7SING 

(In (Tora of rupui) 


Agcac) 

Loan j 

Subsidy 

i 

Total 

Ko of 
bouses 
saQc&oacd 

State Go\ emroents 

14 54 

13 83 

28 37 

86,819 

Employers 

1 13 

I 15 

2 28 

15,279 

\VorJ.crs’ Co-opcmtt\es 

0 27 

0 14 

0 41 

1,862 

TOTAL 

15 94 1 

15.12 

31 06 

1,03,950 


Thcnumbcrofhouscs completed till the end of August 1958, is about 
77,000, the rest being at vanous stages of construction 

Plajiiatwn Labour Housing Scheme 

The P^ntation Labour Act, 1951 makes it obhgatory for every planter 
to pro\'idc housing accommodation for all his i\orkers As most of the 
plantcts, espea^y the smaller ones, were not in a position to fulfil this 
obh^tion, a scheme known as the Plantation Labour Housing Scheme 
^5 formulated m April 1956 and commumcated to the State Governments 
1 he Scheme cmisages the grant of assistance in the form of interest-bearing 

houses) to the planters 
through the State ^o^er^ents There is a provision of Rs 2 crores for 
tenements during the Second Plan. During 
1^36-57, the Kerala Go\cmmcnt wthdrew a sum of Rs 1.50 lakhc for 
d^bursement amonc the planters in the State for constructing hpuscs for 
83?Q?, Go^emme^t of Ma<fr« abo have In7e 

Ks «3,300 for disbursement on this account 



















TheaCbiapproach is forthright 
...but accepable to both parties! 


dCbl has aa objective approach to all problems includ" 
ing those relating to labour-management mediation Our 
findings have been frank, forthright, often cxilicah But we 
have successfully ironed out “bugs",.. have made a 
tangible conmbution to harmonious employer^mployee 
relationships The absolute impartially with which we 
speak out, we have found to our pleasant surprise, has been 
welcome — both to management and labour! 

In our work, we associate all those who may have either 
a direct or an mdirect relation with our assignment and the 
implementation of our recommendations, so that when we 
submit our report, nearly all concerned are for it! 




CHAPTER XXIX 

STATES AND UNION TERRITORIES* 

iWHRA PRADESH 


Area 1,05,677 sq nulcs Populalm 3,12,60,133 Ccpilal Hyderabad 

Pnnetpal language Telugu 


Gfivemr Bfaumca Sachar 


COUNCIL OF MINISTERS 


M.\nisltTs 

N Saapva Reddy 


K. Venkata Ranga Reddi 
J V Narasmga Rao 

D Sanjivaiab 
F ThiWia Reddt 
S B P Fattabhiraina Rao 

Mehdi Na%vaz Jung 
G Venkata Reddi Naidu 
K Brabzoananda Reddy 
M Narasmga Rao 
A Bkagavantha Rao 


FtfrtfbfwJ 

. Chief Munster, General Administration 
induding All-Indta Scmces, Industnes 
and Gonuncrce, Transport, Health and 
Medical 

. Revenue, Rc^tration and Land Reforms 

. Irrigation and Poivcr, Public Works, High- 
ways and Relief and Rehabilitation 
Labour, Local Administration and Exasc ^ 
Agriculture, Forests andAmmalHusbandry 
Education, Social Wdiare, Information 
and Pubhaty 

. Co^peratioii and Housing 

Law, Subordinate Courts and Prisons 
Finance and Fionning 
Home r 

. Religious and Charitable Endowments, 
Small-ecale and Cottage Industries 

Chief Seeraaiy 
M P Pai 


Pumt Judges 


Adeocate-Geti^al 


Quames 

Members 


ANDHRA PRADESH HIGH COURT 
P Chandra Reddy 
R Umamaheswaram, 

K Bbunasankaram, 

P SatyanarayanaRaju, 

N D Krishna Rao, Qamar Hasan, 
Manohar Penhad, M A Ansan, 

A Srcenivasachan, P, J Reddy, 

P Basi Reddy, 

N Kuinarayya, 

M SeshadWapatbi, 

A Ranganadham Chetty, 

G Sanjeeva Rao Nayudu, 

D Munikannieh 
D Narasaraju 

PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION 

M A Venkataramana Naidu 
. G Rami Reddy, Ghulam Hyder, 


8.™. m tta Chapter B as OP 

Chanter bv General Elecaoiu anu shown «n 4is 

« follows Indian National Congrtss (Con ), 
k — ^arabyajan 


Pmja Socialist Pat^ n Indian National Coi 

/rS ^t«sredwation(SC!F), AlHndia Forward 


««»du Mahasabha f 
^=Bpur ind Saathal 


All 1 Panshad (GP) , Akhd 

*'‘=Bpur md Santh«l r Panshad (RRP), Chbota 

Sd WorL^.^“ (CNSJP), Jharkhand ( JP); 

^oluuonary Socialist pfnv Democratic Front ^DP) » 

'mdprijaPaJL /pp, (I^P), Tnpura Ganatantnk. Sangha (GS) 

(t'Pl All others have been shown as Indcpendenu (Ind) 





401 


ANDHRA PRADESH UEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY 


Speaker- A KaleswaraRao 


Deputy Speaker . K Lakshman Bapuji 


1. Addanh N Venfcaiah (CJon) 

2 Adrlabad Ranganatha Rao (PDF) 

3 Adoia G Bussanna (FSF) 

4. Alair Smt Ajutla Kamaladevi 
(PDF) 

5< Alampur Smt Jayalakshmidevamma 
(Goa) 

6 Aim H Ramalinga Reddx (Oon ) 
7. Amalapuram (R) B Appalawamy 
(Con ) 

8 Amalapuram G NaiaTunhamoorthy 

(Ind) 

9 A^apalli Appa, Rao Beesetti (Ind ) 

10 Ammanabrole J Ghandmnouli (Con j 

11 Ardale Baswa Manayya (Ind) 

12 Atumtapur P Anthony Reddi (Con ) 
IS Anabarit T Lakshminarayana Reddi 

(Con) 

14 Armoor T Aiyaiah (Con ) 

15 Asafmgar V^un Basavaraju (Cm ) 

16 Anjfab^ G Narayana Redoi (Con ) 

17 Asxfabad (R) Kashi Ram (Con ) 

18 Atmakur A Sanjiva Reddy (Con ) 

19 Almakur Murhdhar Reddy (Con ) 

20 Atlth Smt G Anunanna Raia 

(Con) 

21 Badvel B Ratnasabhapathi (Ind ) 

22 Balmpeta P Ramaswami Naidu 

(Uon ) 

23 Baikonda Ranga Reddy (Con ) 

24 Bandar K V enlcgtaramanny ya 

25 Sanswada Smt Y Sccta Kuman 
(Con ) 

Bapatla Mantcna Vcnkataraju (Con ) 
Begum Bazar J V Narasmga Rao 
(Con ) 

Bkadrachalam Muhammad Tahsil 
(CPI) 

Bkadradialam (R) Smt P Vam 
Ramana Rao (Con ) 

Bhe^umpatnam G Jagannadharaju 




BhimoDaram N Vehkataranuah 
(Con ) 

Btiogapuram B Admarayana (Ihd ) 
Ravi Narayana Reddi 

(PDF) 

K Sitaramaswanu (Con ) 
Bodkan Snmvasa Rao (Ind) ^ 
Brahmanalarla N Ramulu (Con ) 
Buebreddtpalem Basaiarcddi San- 
lanah (CPI) 

(^) Swrama Vemayya 

Baggaram Baddam Yella Rcddv 
(PDF) ^ 

B:^gnpttdt Smt N Venkataratnam 
(Con) 

Bmvgupudt (R) B Suhba Rao (Cbn ) 
Chamm S V K Prasada Rao (PDF) 

^epjTupallt (R) K Punnayya (Con ) 
Ck^eru N. Ramabbadra Ram 
(Con ) 

Ckdlame^la. M S RajalmEam 

(Urn) 


47 Cktnnahmdur K Laksbinaii Bapuji 

(Con) 

48 Chtraia Pragada Kotayya (Con) 

49 ChiitocT P Chinnama Reddy (Con ) 

50 Chadauatam Jagannadham Reddi 

(Ind) 

51 Choppaaandi Gh Rajeshivar Rao 

^F) 

52 Cuddap^ S Mohd RahmatuUa 

(Con) 

53 Darst D Venkataramana Reddi 

(Con) 

54 Dendubtru M Rangayya (Con ) 

55 Demkofida G Narayana Reddi 

(Con) 

56 DeDorkonda (R) M Laxmiah (Con ) 
57* Dkarmasagar T H^nvacdian (Con ) 

58 Dkarmavaram P Ramacharlu (Con j 

59 Dkarmavaram (R) K San^ppa. 

(Con ) 

60 Dhoae B P Scsh Reddy (Ind ) 

61 Dwt Y Sivarama Prasad (Con) 

62 Dim. (R) M Raje^wara Rao (Con ) 

63 Donmat Annantha Reddy (TOP) 

64 DoTTiakal N Ramachandra Reddi 


P Sreeramulu (Con ) 
Bluru S Brahmayya (Cibn ) 
Gadwal D K Satya Reddy (Ind ) 
Gajapathinagaram Vacant 
Gmapetfmagararn (R) Gantalana 
Suryanarayana (Ind) 

Gaanaoerafn , P Sundarayya (CPI) 
Gaotiel R Narasunha Reddy 
(Con) 

GaztvellR) J B MutyalRao(Con) 
Ghambm B Keshava Reddy iCon } 
Giddafur P Ranga Reddy (Con ) 
Golugertda R Latchapatrudu (Ind.) 
Goofy S Narayanappa (Con ) 

Gooly (R) ' M Rajaram (Con ) 
Gorantia ' P V enlcatftrantap a'npiv 
(Con) 

Gudem .MM Matcharaju (Ind ) 
Gudtvada A V enVji fn.tiibf a'iTian y am 

G^^ala (R) • V Kuimayya (Con ) 
Gudur^ P Gopalaknshna R^di (Con ) 
Gudur (R) * M Munuswamy (Con ) 
Guntur / . T Jalayya (Con ) 

Guntter 7/ * M Nagcshwara Rao 
(Con) 

Curazola M Bapiah Cbawdaiy 

Jitgh Court Gopal Rao Ekbotc (Con ) 

Hindupur. K Suhba Rao (Con) 
Htndupur (R) Smt. B RuJanunj 
Dew (Con) 

Httzvrabttd- p. Namnga Rao (Ind ) 
Hazmabad (R) • G Ramulu (Ind ) 
Huztanagar Dodda Karasiah (PDF) 
jbrahattpalnam . M N Lakshnunara-' 
Slab (Con) 

Ichapmam- U Ranga Babu (Coo ) 
IrJurthtz P Chofcka Rao (PDF) 
Jeggempei^ D Gopala Rao (Ind ) 
Jagttcli D Hanumantha Rao (Con.) 


402 


Jammalamadugu' K. Ranuah (Con) 
Jcngaon- G Gopala Redd)r|PDF) 
jmgam{R)i G.Ramalmgam (Cod ) 
jubilee Hills z Mehdi Naivaz Jung 
(Con) 

Jubilee Hills (R) z Smt SumitraDevi 
(Con ) 

Jttl^tU Madhav'a Rao (lad ) 
JCadinz K V. Verna Reddy- (Con) 
Kasialw K Appa Rao (Con ) 
Kdauada M Pallam Riyu (Con ) 
Kelahasii . N Sanjeeva Redm (Con ) 
KaleJmsfi (R) . P Smgara>^"a (Con ) 
KoUwahisihi Smt Shanta Bai (Con ) 
Kalwakurtht{R) K Naganna (Con ) 
Kamaredd} Vcnlatarama Reddy 
(Con ) ^ 

Kcanareddj (JJ) Smt. T, N Sada 
l>aum (Cra ) 

Kamelttpuram N. Sambbu Reddi 
(Con) 

Kenehihuherla z M. Ramayya (Con ) 
KandtJuar D Kondaiah C^ondaiv 
(Con.) 

Kanhpadu C RamaLotiah (Con) 
Jfojjjgin G, Ydlamanda Reddi 
(CPI) 

Karithi B G M A NaiasinKa Rao 
(Con) 

Kenmnager J ChoUia Rao (Con) 
Kescli : B Ramaknshna Reddi 
(Con) 

Khtuflmm Smt, T. T-atl^^ TniLaT^ t;^ . 
mma (Con ) 

Kkarmam (R) : N Pcddanna (PDF) 
l^d&igel. Achuta Reddy (Con ) 
Kollapm. M. Naiasinga Rao (Con ) 
I^ilf^tla B V Subba Reddy (Ind ) 
Ke^ehnla. Majji Pjdayya Naidu 
(Con ) 

Koudapi N Chencburama Naidu 
(Con) 

. T. G Tunmaiah Sbctty 

J 

Kc’hapete : Kala Vcnbata Rao (Con ) 
A, Bapujrcdu (Con ) 
ro-w (R) T Sr Ragha^•ulu (Con ) 
A Bhaga\-anUn Rao 

I Icon) 

lA\ytTedi pslU K Koti Reddi (Con ( 

c tpia (Cin ) Gopalalrnbnayj^ 

^ ‘'(^n) “ Satyanarayana Rao 

? O ^^’^munhy (Ind ) 

* "tf t.‘w Cltinnappa (PP) 

I » ); /..V ^ r F* (Con ) 

v'( (On ) 

I » II .» * , < ' (Con ) 

Ojula Redd% (Ccr 


150 Mortar* B Vcnkatasivayya (Con) 

151 Medak' Venkatesh-vvara J^o (Con) 

152 MetpaJh J. Ananda Rao (TOn 

153 Mt^algada G VenLat Reddi (PDF) 

154 Mudhok Gopidi Ganga Reddi (Ind ) 

155 Mulug S Rajeshu-ara Rao (PDF) 

156 Mushetrabad* K Seethiah Gupta 

(Com) 

157 Ai^dukur, B Rama Reddy (Ind) 

158 Aijlazoram V. Vis^\ cs\Naia Rao (CPI) 

159 irag(inkoltd.aia T Papa Rao (Ind ) 
160, Hagar Kurrml* K Janardhan Reddy 

(Con) 

161 J{a^Kwnool{R)z F. Mahendianadi 

162 Hoguru A, Laksbmu Naidu (Ind) 

163 A^akariJal, B Dbaimabhiksbani 

(PDF) 

164 Afalgonda L Venkata Reddy (PDIl 

165 AW/a'nadff P Biappa Reddi (Con ) 

166 Aroodtgcma : P. Vcnkatesbivandu 

(CPI) 

167- A'iiiKfiiotf-w E Ayyapu Reddy 
(Con ) 

168 Hndtkolkurim NK Lingam (Con) 

169 ATondtpadz K Venkata Reddy (Ind } 

170 ATaudyal* Vacant 

171 jrarasaxtaapeta. S Jagannadham 

(Con ) 

172 ArarasapidTUsmz R. Sttryanarayana 

Raju (Con) 

173 Kerasapatnaiii (R) - M Fothaniju 

(Con) 

174. H arqyankhed Appa Rao Shetkar (Con ) 

175 JVarAnnAft Smt, KJC. Rataamma 

(Con') 

176 Alaran^ar* G Venkata Roddy (Con) 
177. Jidrasapur G Vecnah (Con ) 

178 Ararasaraopel Nallapati Venkatia- 

mayya (Con) 

179 Afellore A C Subba Reddy (Con ) 

180 A'inaal* Mutbiam Reddy (Ind) 
181. Hizajnabad’ Danar Hussain (Con ) 

182 Huzfftd AI R Appa Rao (Con ) 

183 Ougoh B V L Narayana (Ind ) 

(72) » T, Jtyyar Dass (Con ) 

185 Paleeole . A Samy nnar aYi’ nm^’illi y 

(Con ) 

186 Patacole (72) * D Pcrumallu (Con ) 

187 PaleHnda- P Karasmiha Appa Rao 

(Ind) 


iSft ^kpalem' R Tinipathi Rao (Con ) 

189 Pallipalent (R) Kamajya Reddi 

(Con ) 

!R9 K Sudeishan Rao (Con ) 

-Poieriida E K^ay\a (Con ) 

J^* • Jaganmohan Reddy (Ind ) 

R- Kes^xa Reddy (Con) 
194 Pakal (R) Manda Sadu (Con) 

190 SJJP Pattabhinima Rao 
(Con) 

196 Pcrtalhpjrcn' V C Chudaraam Deo 
(Ind ) 

loJ K Ramiah (Con) 

lya Smt Masooma Begu-n 

} 

onn h Lakshmandai (Con ) 

~00 P^hfe^rer* (R). Pothula Gunnayya 

-Ol, Lalshmi Narayana 

Reddi (CPI) 



403 


202. Pedahikani ; G Bapayya (Con ) 

203 Peddakurapadai G Ramaswanu Reddy 

(Con) 

204 PeHapuram D SuBba Rao (CPI) 

205 Penugonda. J Laxmayya (Con) 

206 PeitHkonda. A. Cbidamabar Reddy 

(Con) 

207 PenlapaJu C S V P Murti R^ 

(Con) 

208 Phtrangiparam- K Bralimananda 

Reddy (Con ) 

209. PtUru' N Venkataranaa Naidu 
(Con) 

210 Pahapuram. V Gopala Knshna 

(Con ) 

211 Padth S Kasi Reddy (GPI) 

212 PotoPttrm V Kodandaramiah (Con J 

213 Portnur G Paiandamayya (Con j 

214 Prathipada Parvatam Gmiaju (Con ) 
215. Proddatur* Ramireddi Chandra Obula 

Reddy (Ind ) 

216 Pultsatila P Basi Reddy (Con) 

217. Pmgimttr Y B Vena Basava Ghikla 

Rayalu (Ind) 

218. Puttgamir (R) A Rathnam (Con ^ 
219 Puttar T Ranxacfaandra Reddy (Con ) 

220. Rajampet P Farfhasarathi (Con) 

221. RmBmpet (R) P Venkatasubbiah 

(Con ) 

222 Rajaknmdiyi AB Nagesbwara Rao 

(Con ) 

223 Ramaehandrttpvram K Ramachandra 

]^ju (Con ) 

224. Ranuknshnafawpet S Rangantba 
^ Mudabar (Ind ) 

223 Ramannapel. K Ramachandra Reddy 
(PDF) 

226 Rmoeftob. Y, Admarayana Roddi 

(Con) 

227 R^adarg N G Seshadn (Con ) 

228’ Razole- A. VenLataiama Raju (GPI) 
^9 Razole (R) G Nageshwaia Rao (CPI) 
230 spoilt Y Checnayya (Con ) 

231. Raidi K V S Faonianabha Raju 

(Ind) 

232. Sdur A Ycruku Naidu (Ind ) 

233 5aliirfR) B Rajayya (Con ) 

234 SemcAot F Sathyanarayana (CPI) 

235 Stmgareddy Kishtamachan (Ind) 

236. Sangareddy (R) K Antiab (SCF) 

237. SantpaUi V. Kothandaiami R^dy 

(Con) 

238 Snltetinhalh * Va'tfTlala Cnnal altnshTimah 

(Ind) 

239 Stcmderalad Cmtonmenlx BV. Guru- 

murthy (Con ) 

240 Seeunderabad Ci^ K. Sathyanarayana 

(Con ) 

241 Snadnagar Smt Shahjehan Begum 

(Con) 

242 Swhabad K V Ranga Reddy (Con ) 

243 Skahabad (R) V Ratna Rao (Con ; 

244 Sb^rmahammadaparam C Satyani^yanal 

(Con ) 

245 Stadipel F.V. Rajesln%ani 

(Con) 

246 Sirpttf K Rajamallu (Ind ) 

247 Sirpur (R) Venkatas^vamy (Con ) 

248 Sirstlla Amntlal ShuU^ (PDF) 

249 SiTSilla (R) K Namsiah (PDF) 

250 Sirvel C P. Thiuima Reddy (Con ) 


251 SonAfla G Latchanna (Con) 

252 Srtkdkidm' P Suryanarayana (Ind ) 
253. Snmgavarapukata: C V Somayajulu 

(Ind) 

254 Srungaoarapukota (R) . G Ramu Naidu 

255 Sallatulad P Ramachandra Rao 

(Con) 

256 Smiarmbad (R) : B R^a Ram (Con ) 
257. Sultan Bazar. Vasudev Kruhnajx 

, Naifc (Con ) 

258 Sanoptt Bhumareddy Narasimha 

Reddy ^F) 

259 Suryapet (R) Uppala Malsoor (PDF) 
260. Tadqpatn G. Subbarayudo (Con) 

261 Tadepalhgudm * S K V Knshnavat- 

aiam (Con ) 

262 Tadepalltgadem (R) . N Snmvasa Rao 

(Con) 

263. Tamballapalle . TN. Venkatasubba 

Reddy (Con } 

264. Tanidai M Hanschandra Prasad 

(Con) 

265. TekkiUt R T alahminarasimha Dora 

(Con) 

266 Tenalt A Venkataramayya (Con ) 
267. Tkanatimpdlt . P Rajagopala Naidu 
(Con ) 

268 Ttn^aii R Nathmuni Reddy (Con) 

269 Txtuuut Feta Bapayya (Con ) 

270 Tmltam. F Gopalu Reddi (Oonj 

271 Ttnttam (R) . M Doraikannu (Con ) 

272 Tant V V Knshnamaraju (Con ) 

273 Udin/agin Sheikh Moula Sabeb (Con ) 

274 Undt G Jagannadharaju (Con ) 

275 Vadamalptl RB Ramaknshna Raja 
(Ind) 

276 Vaydapad F. Tbunma Reddi (Con) 

277 VmsOBT' J Kondal Rao (Con) 

278 Vmar K ChandiamouU (Con ) 

279 Vetikattmn P Vcnkataswaim Reddy 
(Con) 

280. Vonkatagm (R) A Knshnayya (Con ) 

281 Veptn^jan, NP Chengalrara Naidu 

(Con) 

282 Vicardxtd M Chenua Reddi (Con ) 

283 Vieatdjad. (R) * Ange Ramaswamy 

(Con ) 

284 V\}vyauiada (^orik) t MarupiBa Chitti 

(Con) 

285. (SduIA) • A Kalesivaia Rao 

(Con) 

286 Vittukanda • N Goymdarajtilu (Con ) 

287 Vtsakhttpainam' AV Bhiuioji Rao 

(Con ) 

288 Vtzumagaram . Bhattam Snrama- 

murthy (Ind ) 

289 Venukuru. G Srecnmganaikulu (Con ) 

290 Vuyyvr K Vcniatarahiam (Con 1 


292 




Warad' Muza 
(Con) 


293 Wardhaimapet 


Reddy 
Shukoor Bai^ 
Venkataram 


Narsaiah (Con ) 

Tatkatpura Shahabuddin Ahmed 
Khan (Con) 

Tellaman^t CVS Ra,u (Ind ) 
Yellanda. KL Narasimha Rao (PDF) 
YeUaxidu (R) • Dodda Narasayya 
(Con) 



404 


298 

299 


Tctmagarm Vi^aj-zlihaskara Reddy 
(Con) 

Yemtmgaw (R). D Sanjnaiah 
(Con) 


300 


301. 

302 


TerriJgerJcpctem' N. Ventataiab 
(Con) 

ZuhTchcd M. Baga Reddy (Con) 
A'crttncffd. J.T. Fernandez 


ANDHRA PRADESH LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL 


Oiaxtmaxi M Hanumantha Rao 


DtprjJ^ Chtarrtsi'i G SubhaRaju 


1 Abu Yusuf 

2 ALN Reddy 

3 B Kurmanna 

4 BP Reddy 

5 B Reddy 
6. B S Rao 

7 CP Naidu 

8 CS Reddy 

9 Smt D LaLshnubayanuna 

10 DR.R^ 

11. SmU Faizumusa 

12. Smt G Bbarah Devj Ranga 

13 G Bapanajya 

14 G Brahmayya 

15 GRRao 

16 GJBA Rao 

17 I. Sadasivan 

18 J G Na^ Reddy 

19 K.V. Pratap Reddy 
Lmgayya 
ALR Rao 
M Mobiuddm 
M.S Reddy 
M.VSS Raju 
KV Jagaraffldbam 

— N M WnUams 

27 P. Vcnlatanarayana 

28 RJ^ Rao 

29 R. Setbaiam^lali 

30. ShaiLGalib 

31. ys Rao 
32 AJLDoia 

BA Rao 
B G Ram 
C H. Reddy 
DN Reddy 
D P- Rrfdy 
E Sathyanaiayana 

EL Reddy 
- G Redd} 

41. K. Appadu 

42 K, A Naidu 

43 K Sherfuddm 
44. K.R.Redd> 

4S R. Vcnlcaiah 


L^islative 

Aseznbly 


20 

21 . 

22 

23 

24 

25 

26 


S3 

34 

35 

36 

37 


40 


Local 

AnthoriUes 


Local 

Authorities 


Teamera 


MA Khan 
SmL Survavuthi 
K.V.P Reddy 
P.V Ramana 
P.V K. Reddy 
R Ramalingaraju 
R.V Subbaj^dj 
R Reddy 
S Apparao 
S S Redd) 

Subramaii}'am Naidu 
T. Ragha\'adas 
T. Vd^bbadrarao 
VS Murty 
V. Naramhachari 
VS. Rao 
YE Reddy 

D Saiya Sub nAmaw yam 
DV SubbaSastry 
G R R. Kaidu 
K.^LRao 
KN. Rao 
PS Murt^ 

V Purudiotham 
ARamarao 
Ataur Rahman 
Smt. J £lta XTabalftltTirpi „ 

MV Kiisbna Reddy „ 

M Anandam ,, 

M Venlata Sastiy ,, 

NV.Subbaiah „ 

SBPBK SatyanacayanaRao „ 

BN Reddy Konunated 

B V. Ratnazn ,, 

E Gideon „ 

G S R^u •, 

H.K. Sbenvani „ 

SmUlS Bend „ 

Smt. K. Ramasubbamma ,, 

P.V. Rao „ 

S GnvmdaTajtilu „ 

S S. Prasad „ 

V, SaR'anaiayana ^ 

Zam Yar Jung „ 


Gcai^u 


luates 



405 


BUDGET OF THE GOVERNMENT OF ANDHRA PRADESH 


(On Revenue Account) 


(Zn lakhs qf rupees) 



REVENUE RECEIPTS 

Union &Ci5e Duties • » 

Taxes on Income other than Corpocatum 
Tax 

Estate Duty 

Taxes on Railway Fares 
Land Revenue (net) 

State Excise Duties * 

Stamps 
Forests 
Registration 
Taxes on Vehicles 
Sales Tax 

Other Taxes and Duties 
Imgabon, Navigation, Emhanhment and 
Drainage Works (net) . . 

Debt Services 
Civil Admmjstration 
Civil Works 

Electricity Schemes (net) 

Miscellaneous (net) 

Contributions and Miscellaneous 
Adjustments between Central and State 
GoWrnments . . 

Commumty Development Projects, NES, 
and Locm Development Works 

GRAND TOTAL-REVENUE RECEIPTS 


REVENUE EXPENDITURE 
Direct Demands on the Revenue 
Revenue Account of Irrigation, Navigation, 
Embankment and Drainage Works 
Debt Services (net) 

General Administration . . 

Administration of Justice . 

Jails 

Police . 

Scientific Departments 
Education , 

Medical 

Fubhc Health . 

Agnculture , 

Animal Husbandry 

Go-operation , 

Industries and Supphes 
Miscellaneous Dimartments 
Civil Works and Miscdlaneous Public 
Improvements 

EIcctnaty Schemes * . 

Miscellaneous ' 

!&traord»nary, mdudu^ Commumty Projects, 
NES, and Local Devdopment Works , 

GRAND TOTAL-EXPENDITURE ON 
REVENUE ACCOUNT 





























406 

ASSAM 


Area 85,052 (uicludingNEFA and Naga Htlb—Tuensang Area) Pofiulalicn 90,43,707 
Ci^fUit StuUong Prtm^al languages Assamese end Scngili 


Cfererw Swyid Faz) All 
COUNCIL OF MINISTERS 


MmsUrs 

Biinala Frasad Glialiba 


Fakhruddin All Ahmed 

Dcbcsivar Sarma 
Rupnath 

KamaUiya Frasad Tnpaihy 
Hareswar Das 

Mahendra Nath HsaanU , 
Moinul Huq Chaudhury 


Wd jamsoQ A Sangma 

Dtpaff Mvnsters 
Baivadev Sanna 
Ginndra Nath Gogoi 
LaisiDg Khyrtcin 
I^adhila Ram Das 

ParUomaamy Secretmes 
A. Thangluza 
Fu lAlmaivia 
LoUt Kumar Doley 


Petffobes 

Chief Mmister, Appointments, Political, Home, General 
Adinmisiration, Rdicf and Rdiabdit’iticm, Mmontjr 
Commission, Ccyotdination and all subjects not 
expressly mentioned 

Finance, Community Projects, Local Sclf-Govcmmcat, 
Judiaal and Lc^Iativc 

Roads and Buildings under PW’D, Jails and Education 
Medical and Public Health, Pnntmg and Stationery, 
Registration and Stamps 

Planning and DciTlopmcnt, Statistics, t-abour, Towm 
and Country Planning, Industnes and Power, 
Trade and Commerce 
Revenue, Forests and Excise 
Rural Devdopment (Panchayats), Cottage Industnes, 
Kbadt and Village Industries Board 
Agnculture, Puanilture, Veterinary and lasctock, 
Supplj, Parliamentary Afiaits, Flood Control and 
Imration under PVvD and Co-opcrotion 
Tnbal Affiun, Information & Publicity and TVnn^xirt. 


Co-operatwo and Labour 
Public Woria and Load Sdf'Govcnjmeat 
Amculturc, Cottage and Village Industries. 
Education 


^^unity Projects and Transport 

Tnbal Areas, Pnntmg and Stationery and Pubbaty» 

Forests, Pianumg and Development 

Ch^ Secraaty 
S K Dana 


Cfij^ Jiiifw 
Pam Jadga 

Adooeate-Gejufal 


Guttmum 

Menthtr 


ASSAM high court 
V G P Smha 
Hr Deka, 

Gopalji Mehrotra 
S M Lalnri 

PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION 
A N Bbattachatjec 
Smt Boaily Khongmcii 


n , legislative ASSEMBLY 

D^kanta W Cw... 


1 Jtjal Eaji ( 

2 Aijal IPert (, 

3. “ 

(Ind) 

♦ ^aghnara (il) 


Pulalmavna (Coni 
A Thai,riuta(Con) 
h Barbaruah 


(0cm) 


6 F^CT“^^"^aia!ihai 

5 


[c^i 


Depttfy SpeaUr’ E^eadranalh Barua 


8 Bopete Snhan Das (PSP) 

8 Pvpeia (R); Mahadev Das (Con) 
10 Bileapara Jahanuddm Ahmed (PSP) 
11. Biausietk KamaUiya Prasad 
Tnpatby (Con) 

12 Bogdatg Indrcswar Rhound (Con) 

13 Bofo RadhaCbaiaa Gbaudhury (Coo.) 





407 


14. Charatunjt (ii) : J J M Nichols Roy 
(Ind) 

15 Dainadabt (/Z) Nallindra Sangma 

(Ind) 

16 Valgaon Md hlaflcbuddin (Ind.) 

17 Dergam Narendranatb Sanna 

(Con) 

18 Dergtum (R) * Ranmath Das ZC5on 1 

19 Dhtkuijdi Omeo Kvimar Das (Con ) 
20, J)htng Nunil Islam ^Con ) 

21 Dhmi Tamyuddm Pradham 

(Con) 

22 Dibiugisrh. Ndmom Borthakur (CPI) 

23 Dtgboii Dwijcsh Chandra Debsarma 

(Con ) 

24 Dom^Doma hfciha Tati (Con) 

25 Gauhati Gatiri Sankar BbattachaiTa 

(CPI) 

26 Gaunpur . Prakntish CSiaiidia Bama 

(Ind) 

27 Goalpara Khagendranath Nath 

(Con) 

28. Goalpara (R) . Hafeim Chandra 
Rabha (Ckin) 

29 Gohpitr. Bishmdal Upadhyaya (Con 1 
so Gol^hat Rajcndiauath Barua (Con ) 

31 Golakgunj Bfauban Chandra Pra- 

dhani (Con ] 

32 Gossatgaon Mathias Tudu (Ind) 

33 Hatlakandi Abdul Mathb M^umdar 

(Con) 

34 Hajo Mahendra Mohan Choudhury 

(Con) 

35 JamtmamuUi Rahimuddm Ahmed 

(Con) 

3B Jama Faldiniddin Ali Ahmed (Con ) 

37 Jorhttt Debeswar Sanna (Con ) 

38 Jorhat (R) Mobidbar Pegoo (Con ) 

39 Jowm (R) . Larsin^ Khynem 

(Con) 

40 Jaipur* Jug Kanta Barua (Gon ) 

41 Kaltabar Ijla Kanta Borah (Con) 

42 Kamalpur. Sarat Chandra Gosivami 

(Con) 

43 Kartmganf J<Mh Ranendra Moban 

Das (Con) 

44 Kanmganj South Abdul Hamid 

Cbaudhury (Con ) 

45 Katzgora Hon Gbandra Chatra- 

varty (Con ) 

46, Katbehena Goun Shankar Roy 
(Con) 

47 Xatamgam Smt Kamal Kuman 

Bania (Con) 

48 Kt^tghar (i^ Rupnath Brahma 

(Con) 

49 Kokrajhar Knshnananda Brahmacban 


Afabr Htlls Wat (R)* Chatrasmg 
Teron (Con) 

Moran . Smt Padma Kuman Goham 
(Gon) 

Moran (R) : Ltdit Rumar Dolcy 
(Con) 

Xalbari East Prabhat Narayan 
Ghaudfaury (Ind ) 

Jtf'altftn Wat' Tarun Sen Ddta 
(CPI) 

A'oeira. Tankesivar Cheba (Con) 
Pfougpoh (R) * Jormamk Siem (Ind y 
yotigrtom (R) Henry Cotton (Con ) 
Xorth Ca^ar Htlls (R) • Hamdhon 
Mohan Hbpalangbar (Con ) 

Harth Laklumpur Mobananda Bora 

Hortk lahhwipur (R) ' Karka Chandra 
Ddcy (Con) 

HorthSalmtra Hareswar Das (Con) 
Hartk Salmara (R) Ghanasbyam Das 
(Con) 

Jfowgotig DevLanta Barua (Con ) 
J/ouigeng (R) * Mahendra Nath 
Haranka (Cton ) 

Prdasban Radhiira Ram Das (Con ) 
, Panay Hiralal Patwan (Ind ) 
Panerjt (R) ; Pakhirai Deka (Ind) 


50 Lahangkat. Modram Bora (Con) 
51. Lahenghai(K) Dhirsing^Dcun (Con ) 

52 Ijohawal Smt Ldy Sengupta (Con ) 

53 Ldhtpur Ram Prasad Choubav 

(Con) 

54 Ltandmg Ram Nath Sanna (Con ) 

55 lAmglek (R) ■ C Tbuamluaia (Con S 

56 Mangaldat Dandi Ram Datta (Con ; 

57 MarAttckar Kobad Hussain Ahmed 

(Con) 

58 Maraagi Dandesivar Hazanla (Con ) 

59 Mtkir Hills East (R) Soi Soi Tcrang 

(Con) 


Paih^i^t Bi^ivanath Upadhyaya 
(Ind) 

Patharkandi (R) * Goped Namasudra 
(CPI) 

PntaehathKhi Surendra Nath Das 
(Con) 

Pateckarhuht (R) t Birendra Kumar 
Das (PSP) 

PAid^on Williamson A Sangtna 
(Con) 

Rampur- Hareswar Goswsnu (PSP) 
RBfig!>a (R) Baikuntha Nath Das 
(Con) 

Rangiya Siddbi Nath Sarma (Con). 
Rttpahhat Mohammed Idns (Con ) 
SauJiowa Devcndra Nath Hazanla 
(Con) 

RojiH^un . Smt Usha Barthakuz 
(Con) 

ShtUang Brojo Mohon Roy (Ind ) 
SiUhar East Momul Huq ChaU' 
dhury (Con ) 

Stlcbar IVest. Smt Jyotsna Chanda 
(Con) 

Soaat Nanda Kishore Sinha (Con ) 
Sibsagar Giiindranath Gogoi (Con) 
Soitm ■ Pumananda Chetia (Con ) 
Sorbhog Ghanashyam Talukdar 
(Ind) 

South Salmara Sahadat Ali (PSP) 
Tiirafifln Tajuddin Ahmed (PSP) 
Tengahhal Manik Chandra Das 
(Gan) 

Teak Hannarayan Bania (Con.) 
Tezpuri Kamala Prasad Agarwala 
JCon) 

Ttoioro. Durges^var Saikifl (Con) 
Tmsukia . Radha Kishcn Khcnila 
(Con) 

Ttlabar SarbcswarBordoloi (Con ) 
rttfa|(R). ModyK Marak (Ind) 
udarbmd* Tazamulali Barlaskai 
(Con) 



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RexCToe Account of Irnt^aimn, Naw ? mjo i * 
rmbrnkment and Dnnnarr \York\ 

Debt Services (net) , , 

General Admtntitratian , 

Admmuitation orjmtice 
Jail* 

Police 

Forts and Pilots;^ 

Sctentific Departments 

Education 

Medical 

Public Health 

AsncuUurc and Eishtna 

Vetennary 

Ct^pciauon and Rural Dcxclopmcnl 
Indmtncs and Supplies * 

, Mis^laneous Departments 
Ci\d WoTia and MisccU-meom Public 
Improvements .. 

Misccllanoous 

“S»irsES?si™., 


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2,839 18 

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409 

BIHAR 


Area 67,071 sq. miles Population 3,87,83,778 Capital Patna 

Principal language Hmdi 

Gouemor Zalnr Hussain 


COUNCIL OF MINIS-raRS 


Mmsters 


Par^oluts 


Sn Krulina Sinha • 

D N Smha 

Sah Muhammad Ozair Munemi 
Bbola Faswan . 

Bmodanand Jha 

Bircl^nd Patel 
Ganga Nand Singh 
Jagat Naram Lai 

Maqbool Ahmad 

Depufy Ministers 

A A M Noor 
Pandey 

Lalitcswar Prasad Sahi ' 
Hnday Naram Chofudbaxy 

Ambiha Satan Smgh 
Sahdeo Mahto 
Radha Govmd Prasad 
S M. Aquil 

Smt Jyotirmoyee Dcvi . 
Chananka Ram 
Knstoa Kant Smgh 


Chief Minister, Appomtments, Political, Fmance, 
Industries (mcluding Mmes and Mmcral Resources) 
Information, Irrigation and Power. 

Jails, Reli^ and Rehabilitation and Transport 
Excise, Forest and Welfare 

Revenue (minus Mmes and Mineral Resources), Gram 
Fanchayats and Labour. 

Food, Supply, Health and Agnculture. 

Education 

Co-operation, Veterinary, Animal Husbandry and 
Law 

Public Works, Fubbe Health Engmeenng, Housing 
and Local Self-Government 


Food 

General Administration, Pobbcal, Imgation and 
Power 

Industry, Community Projects, Mmes and Information. 
Gram Pancbayats, Go-opcration, Animal Husbandry 
and Vetennary 
Finance 

P W D and Local Sdf-Govemment 
Revenue, Forest and Rdigious Trusti. 

Law and Labour 
Welfiire and Health 
Amculture 
^ucation and Excise 


Ckt^ Seertittsy 
M S Rao 


Chtef Justice 
Pitaiu Judges 


Adtoeatt'Genertd 


PATNA HIGH COURT 


V Ramaswami 
BN Rai, 

K Ahmad, 

S G Misra, R K Choudhury, 

K Sahai, S Naqui Imam, 

R K Prasad, K Singh, 

HK Choudhury, K Dayal, 
UN. Smha, 

N L Untwalia, S C Prasad 
Mahabir Prasad 


PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION 


Chatman KSV Raman 

Menthers , Muhammad Yahya, 

Ram Jiwan Smgh 


BMK Smha, 


BIHAR LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY 


Sped:er. VP. Vanna D^uty 


1. Adapuft Braj Nandan Shanna find ) 

2 Almnagar Vadunandan Jha (Indj 

3 Amarpiar Sital Fntsad Bhagat (Con ) 

4 Antttur Md Ismail (Ind) 

5 Arana Ztaur.. Rahman (Con ) 

6 Arrak Rang Bahadur Prasad (Con } 


Speaker * Prabhunath Smgh 

7 Arrak Mufasstl. AmbikaSingb (Goa ) 

8 Arwal Budhan Mehta (Con ) 

9. Asthaan Nandikishore Prasad S incrf. 
(CNSJP) ® 

10 Atm Shivaratan Smgh (Con) 


410 


1 1 Aura^gai^ Pnyabnt Naraj an Smln 
Baidyanatli Prisad Smfh 


12 


(PSP) 

13 Bagaha Kcdar Pandcy (Con ) 

Bagaha (71) Nirsjngli Butin (Con ) | 

15 Bagodar (71) Kailasli Pan Smgli , 

(CNSJP) : 

16 BahaduTgam LalJian Lai Knnoor 

(PSP) 

17* Bahera East' MihcshLint Slnrnn 
(Con) 

18 Bahtra South' Smt Knshna Dc\i 

(Con) 

19 BahtraU^esl Hannath M«lira (Con ) 

20 Saikmlhpvr TnviLnni Deo 

Narayan Singh (Ind ) 

2] Batsi Abul \had Mohammad Xoo*^ 

(Cbn ) 

22 Balta Brahamdeo Karayan Stneh 

(Con) 

23 BoUtiorAur Mohammad Solahuddm 

Choudbry (Con ) 

24 Bantapw Smt Uma Pandey (Con ) 

25 Bceika Smt, Bindhyabosim Dtti 

(Con) 

26 Barauli Abdul Ghafoor (Con ) 

27 Bark Ram Vatan Smgh (Con ) 

28 Barhmpjf. lalan Prasad Smha 

(Con ) 

29 Barhana Qamrul Haque (Con ) 

30 Barht Rameshuar Pntstd Mahtha 

(CNy^P) 

31 Baraefiafj Sbreerdhar Nanun (PSP) 

32 Bnran* Basudco Prasad Smha 

(Con) 

33 Barhiut {R) Babulal Tudu (JP) 

34 Bawtrpur Hanhar Mahto (Gott ) 

Smt Sashank hianjan 

36 Bmiffl; Ramchandra Prasad R?»V 
(Con ) 

^7- Sabhapau Smha 

(PSP) 

30 Krishna Kant Smgh 

39 Bf^worm Saryn Prasad Smha (Con) 

« Selsoftd Ramanand Smeh VPSP\ 

42 -Earf ShubhdiaodraMishni 

43 Chotcy Prasad Smgh 

^ Prasad Smgh 

47 Bkabua Ah Wane TTt.^ /r, v 

S 

Tewan 

51 B}ukottn*kjntr ^ 

Chamar (Con) ^ Kamdham 

54 Sihpjr^ Bra&^^ 


57. 

58 

59 

eo 

61 

62 

63 

f4. 

65 


99 

100 
101 
102 

103 

104 

105 

106 


Bther South Ginvardlnri Sinch> 
(Con) 

77dT(M Smt M'tftoftm't Devi (Con ) 
Bdrtf'-ca^ Smt Afinomit Pandey 
(Con) 

Birru! Jiiniriin Jhi Vincct (Con) 
B^dh Cm Smt Sinti Devi (Con) 
Bo'taiR)' JriliA Kitku (IP) 

Bphf Knpildfo Smgh f PSP) 

B^titr Shchumar llnkur (Cot) 
Cf-nhttfa {It) ‘ Sukhdim Manjhi (JPj 
Pliibjinuj Onoi 


Shvamil Kumar 


Chatrp^r {it) 

(jr) 

Pxwi (JP) 

Chal rrdher* jr (7?) I Ian Charan 

so> a^) 

Ch‘rAt . Ocotjin Prt'id Smgh (Con ) 
Cha’'Jl Dhimnjoy Maharo (Con) 
CharJ t (7?) Jumdra Nath Rajai 
(IndJ 

Chsn*‘r' e* Smt Ketki Devi (Con) 
O r/rc (B) Jiglal Clri dharv (Con ) 
Cf'cpra Prabhunuh Smgh (Co*i 1 
Cfat llirdaval Shanru (Con) 
Cia*re Shalitrnm Smgh (OSJP) 
Cf-errferea N.nrd Kiiliorc S rgh 
(CNSJP) 

C>’fi.4'Ac-i Chinshvam Smgh (Con) 
Cf'co-g. Sjrd Manbool ^imed 
(Con) 

O'coig (7?) Bhoh Niih Das (Con ) 
DeUingh Seret Muhn Smgh (Con ) 
Dak'''gf' Saret (R) * Balohwar Ram 

Dc!l9*gerj Umcjhwari Charaa 
(PSP) 

Dar^t Rjycndra Prasad Smgh 

(avsjp) ^ ^ 

DeraJt (71) Basavsin Ram (Con) 
Darh^anga Cer*Tcl Savccdul Haque 
(Con) 

Darbhcrga J<Iorth Ilndayanarain 
Ghoudary (CJon ) 

HaTikaaga Soyh (71) • Babuye Lai 
Mahto (Con ) 

Dcrbkanga South Janki Raman 
Prasad Mtsbra (Con ) 

DetAnagar Sayeed .Mimad Quadn 
(Con) 


Daxalh Kruhnaraj Smha (Con } 
Dehn Basavon Smha (PSP) 
Deegher Smt Shailbala Ro> (Con ) 
Deoghor (R) • Mangu Lai Das (Con ) 
Dkaf-a' Masoodur Rahman (Con) 
DhaiuAa Jogendra. Prasad (Ind ) 
Okanbad Ranglal Choudhury 
(Con) 

Dkaindaha T-airmt ^nrain Sudhansu 
(Con) 

■Dkamdaha (71) Bhola Sbastri Pasn'an 
(Con) 

Hhurai^a' Samiuddm (Con ) 
Djitapjrz Jagat Naram Lai (Con) 
Dmara, Ashish Smgh (PSP) 

Danka' Sanath Rout (JP) 

DianI a (71) • Benjamm Kwfisd” (J^ 
Dunirtton Gaaga l^asad Smgh 
(Con) 

Fattra Shjx Mahadn Prasad (PSP) 
Rotas (71) Keshav Prasad (CNSJP) 



411 


107. rwhistianj SiLil rrasnd Gupta 

(Con.) 

103. rorhriKanj (J?)' Dumar Lai BaUha 
(Con.) 

109. GflfAt-fl. Smt Rajcshw.an Saroj Dass 
(Con ) 

no Cart fa Runiajpal Singli Yndav 

(PSP) 

111 G(u.cm Nagcilm-ar Rai (CNSIP) 

1 1 2 Go-van (It) Gopal Rabidas (CNSj P) 

113 C^a Aloliamimd LaUfur ILalimon 

(Con) 

lU Ga,a Mufiaitl Hardco Singh (Con ) 
115 Ghalsila Shislnr Kumar Maliato 

m 

116. Ghatsila (R). Sh)-ain Charan Murmu 

117 CAonotfllflU . Mangal Prasad Vadav 
(Con) 

113 Gmdth KamaUiya Narun Singh 

(CNSJP) 

119 Gindih {R ) : Hcmlal Pragniit 

(CNSJP) 

120 Gobirdcenj * Dhrub Narain Mam 

Tnpithi (Con ) 

121. Godda Manilol Yada^ (JP) 

122 Godda (JZ) Chunla Hcmbrom (JP) 

123 Gopalganj' Komla Rai (Con) 

124 Gopalpar Mam Ram Sinqh (CPI) 

125 Gumla (R) ' Sukra Orion (JP) 

126 Majipur. Dip Naram Stnha (Con ) 

127 Harstdht Smt Parbati Dcvi (Con ) 

128 Hazanbagh Basant Naiam Smgh 

(CNSJP) 

129 Jdtiso . l^ingh T>agi (Con ) 

130 JItsutt Smt Rajkuman De\i (Con } 

131 Imam^anj Ambika * Prasad Singb 

(Ind) 

132. Jahanabad (12). Mababir Cbaudhri 

133 Jcd^aba^. Fida Hussain (Con ) 

134 Jatmgar {R) Ramkxishana Mahto 

(Con) 

135 Jainagar Deonaram Yadav (Con ) 

136 Jale Tahir Hussain (Con ) 

137 Jamalpur Jogmdra Mahto (Con ) 

138 JamshrdpuT Kedar Das (CPI) 

139 Jamtara SatrughanaBc$ra(JP) 

140 Jama Indra Naram Smgh (CNSJP) 

141 Jamia (J2) Bhola Manjhi (CPI) 

142 Jonuu Han Prasad Sharma (Con ) 

143 Jhaja (/2) Bhagwat Murmu (Con ) 

144 Jhaja Chandrashekhar Singh 

(Con) 

145 Jkanijharpur Dcochandra Jha (Con ) 

146 Jugsalai V G Gopal (Gan ) 

147 Kadwa Mohiuddin Mokhtai (Con ) 

148 Kanii Yamima Prasad Tnpathv 

(Con) ^ ^ 

149 (^} Babulal Maiyhi (Con ) 

150 Katihar Sukhdeo Naram Smgh 

(Con) 

151 Katana (72) Piroo Manjhi (Con ) 

152 KaUma Raghavendra Naram Smgh 

(Con) 

153 Kttlra JVbrtA * Rambriksh Bcmnun 

(PSP) ^ 

154 Ka^a South Nituhwar Prasad Smha 

(Con ) 

155 Kesma Smt Prabhawati Gunta 

(Con) ^ 


157 

158. 

159. 

ICO 

16L 

1G2. 

163. 

164. 

165. 
166 

167 

168 

1G9 

170, 

171. 

172 

173 

174 

175 

176 

177. 

178 

179 

180 
181 

182 

183 

184 

185 

186 


190 

191 

192 

193 

194 

195 

196 

197 

198 

199 

200 
201 


203 

204 

205 

206 


Khagttua Kcdarnnraj an Singh Azad 
(Con) 

Kliagana (72) Sadi Mishn (Con ) 
Kl ajauU Satoor Ahrmd (Con ) 
hharat^pw* Narcndra Prasad Smgh 
(Con ) 

Kmti (7?) Bir Smgh Munda (JP) 
TTii/ionirBn; Abdul IlaTyai (Con ) 
Ktthimpvr Biidjn Nath Mchti (Con.) 
Koch Ganaun Pnisad Smgh (Con ) 
Kedama G P Tirpiihy (CNSJP) 
KoUbtra (72) Suslul Bagc (JP) 
Kvchad at VachaspaU Sharma (Con ) 
Kurtha Kcmeshu.ir Sharma (Con ) 
Lalganj Korth Lahtcshwar Prasad 
Sahi (Con ) 

Lalganj Sovth Birchand Paid (Con ) 
Ltttehar Lai Jagdhatn Nath Sab 
Deo (CNSJP) 

LeUhar (72) John Munjni (CNSJP) 
Laufaha Smt Ramdulari Shastri 
(Con) 

Latina Subh Naram Pruad (Con ) 
Ltslteganj (72) Ram Krishna Ram 
(CNSJP) 

Lesltrganj Rajkishorc Smgh (Con ) 
LUtipara (72) Romcharan Kisku 

(JP) 

Lohardaga (72) PHttam Kuiur (JP) 
Modhepur Rndhanandan Jha (Con ) 
Madhtpitra Bhupendra Narayan 
h^ndil (Ind) 

Madhuban Ruplal Rai (Ind) 
Madhubaitt East Agun Prasad Singh 
(Con) 

Madkubani West Ramakant Jha 
(PSP) 

Afahagama Mahcndra Mahto (PSP) 
Maharajganj Smt Anusu^a (Con) 
Alahnar Smt Banarasi Dcvi (Con ) 
Alahua (72) . Sluvanandan Ram 
(Con) 

Mahua Vindcshivari Prasad Verma 

Ma^gaon (72) Saran Balmuch (JP) 
M^kdumpur Mithilcshwar Prasad 
Stnha (Con ) 

Mandar (72) Ignes Kujur (JP) 
Mandar Ramwlas PrasadfJP; 
Mandu MbtiRam (CNSJP) 

Mamr Snbhagwan Smgh (CPI) 
Manthar Smt Parvati Dcvi (Con ) 
Alanjan (ffl Santan Samad (JP) 
Aianjkt Grinsh Tiwari (Con ) 
Manokarpur Subhanath Dcosam 

(JP) 

Marhaura Devi Lalji (PSP) 

MashraUt South Smt Raj Kuman 
Dcvi (Con ) 

Masaurhi (72) Smt Saraswati. 
Chaudhury (Con) 

Masaurht Nawal Kishore Smha 
(Con) 

Mash^^^ Aforth Mrityaiyaya Smgh 

Mtnapur Janak Smgh (Con ) 

Mtrganj Janardan Smha (Con ) 
Mohania Badri Smgh (PSP) 
Mohtuddittnagat Smt Shanti Dcvi 
(Goa) 



412 


207 Mo^<mch Jagdish Naram Singh j 

(Con ) , . i 

208 Moaghp-i Kirapad MuUieqcc j 

(Con) 

209 Mobhan Smt. Shatuntala Devi 

(Con ) 

210 Motihan{R). Bigu Ram (Con ) 

211 Murbgimy Sheonandan Prasaa 

Mondd (Con ) 

212, Muziaffarpar ^^ahaIna■>•a Prasad 
Suai» (PSP) 

213 Mazalarpar Afa/oinl: Ramjanam 

Ojha (PSP) 

214. }\^Bhrtagor (^ * Dcodhaw Ram 

(Co®) . o 1. 

215 Xabtrtagar. Priyabrat P^arain Singn 

(KP) 

216 Xalfa. Umesh'ivar Prasad (JP) 

217. JS'ijllo(Jl> BabiilalMarandi(JP) 

218 Xioihatpur Randdielavi'an Smgb 

(Cod) 

219 Xtuvada Vacant 

220 XB^anagar RsjaRamArya (Con) 
221. Xirsa (R) Lalshnu Naram Mmjhi 

(Con) 

222 Xirsa, Ram Naram Shanna (Con ) 

223 Xokha, Jagduh Prasad (Con ) 

224 Pflibn’ Smt. Shanti Den (Con) 

225 Pahgffiry * Ghandiadeo Pras^ Vcrma 

(PSP) 

226 Pslcur (/Z) Jitu iCstu (Oon ) 

227. Pai'car- Smt J)otiiinojce Den 

(Con ) 

228 PahaWa.’, Smt Laxnu Den (Con ) 

229 ParsB Daroga Prasad Roy (Con ) 

230 Paro. (R) Cnandu Ram (Con ) 

231 Pom Nawal Kishore Smna (Con ) 

232 PBteSn Bibbishan Kumar (Con } 

233 PattpvT' Manzur AhsanAz3zi(Con 

234 Pcwa East^ Smt Zobra Ahmad 

(Con) 

235 PclraSaaA, Badrtna{hVemia(Cbn ) 

236 Patrui irert Ramsaran Sao (Con ) 

237 Phj'paros Rank Lai Yadat (Con j 

238 Ganganath Muhra (CPI) 

239. Pav (in . Nagma Dusadh (Om ) 

240 Pao 5mt Sumitra Den (Con ) 

241 Ptrpeinlt Ramjanam Mahto (Con) 

242 Potf-a (R) Supai Soren (JP) 

243 Pralapgmj Khublal Mahto (Con ) 

244 Papn X(trVi Smt, Sudama Chaudhury 

(Con) 

245 Pi^ SoMh. De% endra Jha (PSP) 

246 Pimua Kamaldeo Naram Smha 

(Con) 

247. - SaijDO Prasad Smha (Con ) ' 

249 Raehobar H^bansh Narain Sinha 

(Con) 

249. Ramdeo Smha (PSP) 

250 R^cuii Vacant 

25! (iZ) Baldeo Prasad (Con) 

252 Shyamsunder Prasad 
(CNSJP) 

253 Reychal Bindodanand Jha (Con ) 

254 Rer'^^erh (Se^sl Pergmos Dislt) (R) . 

SuV.hu Mumu {Con ) 

255 . Tara Prasad Bafabi 
^ (UNSjP) 

256 Dir‘0 (R). 
or-y „ RanahwarManihiCaSSIPj 

2.7 Du-i) iJaiarath 

Tm-an (ISP) 


258 Rsmeh: Jaganath Mahto (JP) 

259. iZafldii (R) ; Ramratan Ram (Con.) 
260 Ranehi Sadan nhmtam a m Saran 
Nadi Sabdeo (Ind). r j i 

261. Ramsay Ram Narayaa Mandal 

262. JhKoS^”kadhaPJmdcy(Con) 

263 Rosera. Aiahabir Raut (Con ) 

264 Rumsaidpar: Tnbem Prasad Smgh 

(Con.) ^ 

265 Rup^tz Braj Bihari Smgh (Con) 
266. SoW; Sheo Pujan Rai (Cou ) 

267 Saharsaz Smt ATdiwtimtvaii Den 

(Con) ^ ^ 

268 SiAra {R)z Ram Gulam Ghaudhiy 

269 SaPm : I^nadeoNar^ Sinha (Con ) 

270 Samashpar Resti Sahdeo Mahto 

(Con) 

271 StBTusshpBT W'ert: Jadunandan Sah^ 

(Con.) 

272. Sanded’ Jhaman Prasad (Om) 

273 SoTBihz Badri Narayan Singh (Con ) 

274 Saicanm (R): Ramadhar Dusadh 

(PSP) 

275. Sarartan. Bijan Bihati Smgh (PSP) 

276 SermLeUa- Aditya Pratap Smgh Deo 

(Ind) 

277 Shnhpir, Ramanand Tcnnry ^SP) 

278 Skergkati Mohammed Shahjdian 

(Con) 

279 Shttkhpitra (R): Smt. Lcda Den 

(Cpn) ^ ^ 

280 Shakl^a, Sn Krishna Smha 

(Con) 

281. •S'Araftar (R ) : Ram Swaroop Ram 

282 Sheohar. Gmjanandan Smgh (Ind) 

283 Shd^para (R) : Supai Murma (JP) 

284 SAifanpw: Smghcshn’ar Prasad Venna 

(PSP) 

285 Stilt. Bfaola Nath Bh^t (Con.) 

286 Sihta Pazlur Rahman (Con } 

287. Simdega (R) : hlatshal Kullu (JP) 

288 Svtgha (R) . Smt. Sh)*ain Kumari 

(Can) 

289 Stngfaa- Biaj Mohan Prasad Smgh 
(Con.) 


290- Stsai (R) Kirpa Oraon (JP) 

291. StUstmht Xorih. Kuldip Katayan 
Yadav (Con.) 

292 Sitcmcrhi South-, Ramsevvak Saran 

(PSP) 

293 Simon Gadadhar Prasad Shnvastava 

(Con) 

294 Stdlaagenj' Smt. Sarara'ati Den 

(Con) 

295 Supatd Lahtan Choudhry (Con } 

296 Sursend. Maheswata Prasad Narain 

Smha (Gan ] 

297. Sta-ojgorf . K^-anand Shanna 
(CPI) 

238 SoT^arsa (Saharsa J)utt)i Upendra 
Narasn Smgh (Oon ) 

299 SofhcTse (R) * Jageshwar Hijra (Oon ) 

300 Soniase {Mu^erpv Dtr/O^ 

Smghcslnvar Bar (Ind ) 

301 SonepjT Ram Binod Smgh (Ind ) 

302 Tajpur. KaipunThakur (PSP) 

j 303 Ter’cr * Dhan Smm ^funda 

GP) 

) 304 Terepjr: Bastiki Nath Rat (Con.) 



413 


S05. 

306 

307 

308 


310 

311. 


Teghra, Ramchantra Sinha (Ind) 
Tkoti Sukhdeo Prasad Verma (Con 1 
Tekan (i?) Rameshwar Manjhi (Con ) 
Topchanda (R) Ram Lai Chainar 

(Con) „ . 

Topckancht Smt. Manorama Smha 
(Con ) 

Torpa (R) Julius Munda (JP) 
Tnlemganj Yogcshwar Jha (Con) 


312. 

313 

314 

315 

316 

317 

318 


Tnhentgatg (R) Tulmoban Ram(Gon ) 
Tbu/i Ramcbandra Prasad Smuzna 
(Con) 

Warsdtganj (-ff) Vacant 
Waisaltganj Deonandan Prasad (CPI) 
Wansnagar £ast Sundar Singh (Con ) 
Wartsnagar West Smt Ram 
Sukuman Devi (Con ) 

Zvradei Zawar Hussam (Con ) 


BIHAR LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL 


Chatman . Vacant 


Deputy Chairman, Brajraj Knshna 


1, Smt AbbiramaDevi Lcgidahvc 1 
AMcmbly 

2 Smt Ahmadi Sattar » I 

3 Bajcndra Narain Yadav « 

4 Banar Hcmbrom „ I 

5 Basant Chandra Ghosh „ 

G Bharat Prasad „ 

I Bud^n Rai Verma „ ' 

8 Cbandesh-war Narain 

Prasad Smha » 

9 Gaun Shankar Dalmia ,> 

10 Ganganand Smgh ,, 

I I Guja Nandan Smgh ,, 

12 Habibul Haque „ 

13 Jafar Imam » 

14 Jitu Lai „ 

15. Joel Lakra „ 

16 Kamta Prasad Smha ,, 

17 Krishna Mohan Pyare Smha „ 

18 Kusheshivar Smha „ 

19 Mukteshivar Smha „ 

20. Nurullah „ 

21 Pashupati Smgh „ 

22 Radha Govind Prasad „ 

23 Ragbubam Prasad Smgh „ 

24 Smt Ram Pyan Devi „ 

25 Ramrai Jajwara ,> 

26 Ram Shaldiar Smha „ 

27. Saved Fazlur Rahman „ 

28 Sah Muhammad Ozair „ 

Muncmi 

29 Shn Knshna Smha „ 

30 Shyaraa Prasad Smha ,, 

31 SitaRam Jagatramka 

32 Sita Ram Y-idav 

33 Yogcndra Shukla „ 

34 Abdur Rajaq Ansan Local 

Authontics 

35 Baburam Hcmbram , 

36 Bhola Mandal ” 

37 Bidysdmr Kam 

38 Bir Ninun Chand 

39. Braj Behan Prasad „ 

40 Brajendm Bahadur Smha „ 

41 Braj Molian Agraiiala ,, 

42 De\’akinandan Prasad ,, 

43 Dev Saran Smha 

44 Han Kruhan Lai „ 

45 Han Shankar Prasad 

46 Jagesliwar hlondal ,, 

47 Jarmma Prasad Smgh 


48 

49 

50 

51 

52 

53 

54 

55 

56 

57 

58 

59 

60 
61 
62 

63 

64 

65 

66 

67 

68 

69 

70 

71 

72 


76 

77 

78 

79 

80 
81 
82 
83. 

84 

85 

86 

87 

88 

89 

90 

91 

92 

93 

94 
93 
96 


Janaki Nandan Smgh Local 

Authorities 

Kalyan La J „ 

Kapildeo Narayan Smgh ,> 

Smt Kishori Devi ,, 

l4akshnu Kant Jha 
Mahadeonand Gin „ 

Mathura Prasad Smgh 
Mayanand Thakur „ 

Smt Parvati Devi j, 

Qpdratalluh ,, 

Radha Knshan Prasad Smgh „ 
Raghunandan Smgh 
Choudhary 

Ram Bdash Sharma „ 

Ram Lakhan Fande ,, 

Bam Prakash Lai „ 

Eidal Prasad Verma „ 


Si^ar Mohan Pathak 
Samu Gharan Tubid 
Saved Nazir Haidar 
Sumdb Kumar Sen 
Vishnu Shankar 
Anil Kumar Sen 


Harendra Prasad Jha „ 

Krishna Bahadur „ 

Lakshmi Nath Jha „ 

Rancndra Nath Roy „ 

Ravancshivar Mishra „ 

Sawalza Behan Lai Verma „ 

Smgheshivan Prasad „ 

Bmda Cbaran Verma Tcajchets 

Bmdcshvvar Mishra „ 

Goloke Behan Choudhary „ 

Jagdish Sharma „ 

Kailash Sinba ,, 

Mahcndra Prasad ,, 

Sasanka Shekhar Ghosh „ 

Tapaswi Nath Jha „ 

Smt Anis Imam Nominated 

Brajnandan Prasad „ 

Brajraj Knshna 
B R Mishra 


Fateh Naram Smgh 
Harendra Bahadur Chandra 
Jagannath Prasad Muhra 
Jaidcva Prasad 
Mohan La] Mahato 
Rameshw-ar Prasad Smgh 
Smt SavitnDaa 
Tndib Nath Banarjce 


414 

BUDGET OF TB£ GOVERNMENT OF RIHAK 


(On Re\enue Account) 

{IttlaUaofjvpees) 



Budget 

Estimates 

1958-59 

Revised 

Estunates 

1958-59 

Budget 

Estunates 

1959-60 

REVENUE RECEIPTS 

Uuoa Ejoase Duties 

Taxes on Income other than Corpo^ 
ration Tax 

Estate Duty 

Taxes on Railway Fares 

Iiand Revenue (net) 

State Excise Duties 

Stamps 

Forest 

Registration 

Taxes on Vehicles 

Other Taxes and Duties 

Imration, Navigation^ Embankment 
and Dramagc Works (net) 

Debt Services 

Civil Administration 

Cnnl Works and hlisocUaneous Public 
Improvements (net) 
hiiscellancous (net) 

Contributions and Miscellaneous 
Adjustments bctucen Central 
and State Gov emments 

Communitj Devdopment Projects, 

NTS, and Local Development 

Works 

Extraordinary 

503 24 

758 96 
35 00 
85 92 
1,220 64 
464 38 
232 39 
114 23 
64 05 

5 02 
615 45 

155 01 

1 48 69 

904 53 

1 

47 36 
198 75 

541 80 

193 21 

1 55 

550 65 

763 53 
30 00 
102 26 
1,145 28 
467 28 
220 96 
II7 97 
; 66 36 

7 00 

1 701 94 

8 19 

1 42 97 

952 52 i 

1 58 53 ' 

156 03 : 

1 

590 86 1 

i 

1 221 08 

1 2 13 1 

544 83 

790 66 
30 00 
102 26 
1,195 78 
484 45 
232 50 
117 50 
69 36 

7 00 
808 94 

206 05 
72 67 
1,257 07 

63 30 
390 55 

594 63 

217 69 

1 43 

GRAND TOTAL-REVENUE 
RECEIPTS 

6.190 18 

6,205 54! 

7,186 67 

revenue EXPENDITURE 

Direct Demands on the Rev enue 
Revenue Account oflmgatioii. Naviga- 
tion, Embankment and Drainage Works 
Debt Scniccs (net) 

General Administration 

Administration of Justice ' 

Jails 

Police * * : 

SuentiSc Dqxirtmcnts 

Educauon 

Medical 

Public Health 

Aipiculturc 

Vetcnnvry 

Co-opcT3iion 

Indusines and Supplies 

Min^Ilancous Departments 

Qvil Works and rsliscdlaneous Public 
improvenents 

Urcncitv Schemes 

Community' 

513 45 

156 87 
455 46 
425 53 
104 78 
92 74 
442 64 

1 40 
917 77 
240 71 
245 98 
293 36 
80 24 
192 83 
148 85 
41 86 

194 30 
78 72 
546 51 

468 01 

i 

540 57 

1 

185 87 
, 609 72 

435 90 
106 66 
106 76 
483 82 

1 38 
945 31 
239 91 
257 30 
311 35 
83 63 
192 05 
173 84 
42 58 

232 44 
4 65 
801 98 

540 84 

609 95 

I7I 40 
622 80 
471 27 
107 77 
104 77 
465 39 

1 85 
1,151 16 
294 15 
299 04 
341 80 
115 76 
326 16 
207 72 

46 13 
i 

324 83 

5 68 
402 02 

563 80 

‘■Vlm ON- 

5,642 01 

6,296 56 

6,633 47 


j 548 17 

(H91 02 

1 

1 {-i.)553 20 















415 

BOMBAY 


Otfnteh Bombn) 


Jim' niil« Vop'thW'n 4,02,05,221 

/Vj--* p-^l ""rt } . M'lr.’vllii mcl GiijariH 


<7e"f^'T: Sn PnJ vi\ 
COUNClI^Ol MIMSTCRS 


Mi-'sUrt 


rcrifoUas 


VD 

MrhtT 
HU Pirilh 
Mnniilnt Shnli 

Sis 

VvijiiraoP N’ul. 
HatubhM Adtni 

Bhit^«‘ui(r,io Gadhe 
M C Shah 
S K AV.'TnkJtwie 

DS Dcsni 
HK Dcsai 
SG Kvi 

TS Bhordc 
N K Tirpudc 

MttinUri 

Bhasl ar n.'imbhai Patel 
P B, Thacker 
Shankarrao Ghauhnn 
Smt Nirmala Hajc Bboiale 
Devjsingh Chnuhan 
Jaswantlal Shih 
bhamrao Patil 

G.D Paul 
Cbhotubhai Patel 
NN Ka>l35 
M O Choudhart 
BahadurbhaiK Patel 

J^arltmenittry Stereiaty 
Homt J H Taleyarkhan 


. Chief Munster, PohUcal, Services and Home 
, . ririaucc. 

» Ho rniie 

Labour anti Lnu. 

, Public Ilcahh, 

. AijnruUurc 

. prohibition, P.incha>ats and Cottage Indus^- 
tries 

, rorcsn 

, X^cal Scir-Go\ ernment excluding Fanchaj-aiSi 

Planning, Development, Dlcciricily and 
Induunw 
. . Public W'orks 
, , Pducation 

. * Ctv ti Supplies, Housing, Printing Presses and 
risltcrics 
Co-opcraiion 

, Soaat Welfare and Hchabilitation 


Prohibition 

Hoads, Buildings and Ports. 

Revenue 

Education 

Agnculturc 

Co-opcration 

Sarvodaya, Forest, Labour Societies and 
Khar X^and Development. 

Planning and Development. 

Tninsport and Jails 
Public Heal til 
Irrigation 
Social XVclfare. 


Attached to the Chief hiinistcr. 
Gi^f Seerttary 
N T. Mone 


‘Chief Justice 
Ptasiu Judges 


^dceeate-Genered 


BOMBAY HIGH COURT 


H K Chainani 

J C Shah, J R , Mudholfcar, S T Desai, Y S. 
Tambe, B N Gokhalc, S P Kotval, K G 
Datar, K T Dcsai, J M Shelat, N A. Mody. 
NM Miabhoy, GB Badkas, VM Tarl^ 
unde, pV Patel, VS Dcsai, KK. Dcsai 
H M Secrvai 


PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION 


• • MS Dulccpsingji, 

. B D Deshmukh, N L 

Ahmad, p S Lawalc. 
S N. Mane. 


‘ChettTTtan 

Members 



416 


BOMBAY LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY 


Spiakai S L Silam 


Vfputy SfitaheT" Dujdayal Gupta 


1 Alinso. Jamiyatray GuIabsbaxAcr 

Vaidya (C3on) 

2 Achalpur Madiiavrao Bbag\vantnio 

Paul (Con } 

3 Ahmadpter Vasant Gangaram Faitar 

(Con) 

4 Akmadpur (J2) Tulsiram Dasbrath 

K^blc ) 

5 Ahmcdabad Bhavanishankar Bapmi 

Mehta (Con) 

6 Akmtdnagar Pfcrlh- Prabhalar Kon- 

daji Bhapkar (Ind ) 

7 Ahmtdnagai South Tnmbak Shxvram 

Bh^e 

B AJjdkot’ Chhanusing Kalyansing 
Chanddc (Con ) 

9 APola. MadhusudanAtmaiamViralc 

(Con) 

10 Akot Niyazi Mabammad Subban 

Saqui (Con) 

11 Allbag Dattatiaya Narayan Pa&l 


12 Arnmsr Madhav Gotu Patil (Con ) 
IS AmUntr (i2) Jalamkhan Sandebaj* 
bhan Tadavi (Con ) 

14 Ambad Nana Jc^c (Con ) 

15 Ambsgaon BaburaoKzubnajiGboIap 

(Ind ) 

16 Amgaon Smt Sushdabai Kesbavrao 
Ingle (Con ) 

AmroDah Smt Maltibax Wamamao 
Joshi (Con ) 

Anwi Jivaraj Narayan Mehta (Con ) 
Amatd Korfb M S Patel (Con ) 
AimdSouth Smt Kamlabcnl^Iaiian- 
bbai Patel (Goo } 

Aiqot Prenyl Bbavanji Thacker (Con ) 
Aid-Uihwar Hansinh Bb^iiaiva 
Mabida (Con.) 

23 Amm KtishnaYya Venkayya 


24 


27 


lan Kruhnayya 
Tadurwar (Gon ) 

Babnrao Marotrao Deshmuth 
(Con) 

Visbwanatb Dagaduji (Con) 

Aurangabad Mir Mahmood Ab 
(Con ) 

dujra: Dcvismgh Veniateingb Chau- 

han (Gan ) 

Badi»a Purshottam Kashirao 
Deshmukb (Con) 
jlan Narayan Mansaram Sona- 
Akane (PSP) 

Balapur Ghr^suddm IfaTi 
Nasmiddm (Con ) ^ 

Bm^a. Purshottam Ganesh Kher 

(Lon ) 

^“Stel Kutbabhai 

^^VP) J»gap 


29 Bagtan 
SO 
31. 

32 

33 


36 


37. Baroia City Cast, N D Cboksbl 

38 IVcjf; Bbailalbhai 
Garbaddas Contractor (Con ) 

39 Barsi Shivaji Pamsharam Atya 

(Con) 

40 Bassm Sadanand Gopal Wait) 

(PSP) 

41 Basmatk Kangrao Farasnunji Desb- 

xnukh (Ind ) 

42 Binad Ldusing Kisborsuig Kaherar 

(Ind) 

43 Bkadrawah NaramHarbajiMathan- 

kar (Con) 

44 Bfuadara. Dada Dajiba Dbote (Con ) 

45 BAafi^<ira {R) Sitaram Jairam 

Bhamborc (Gon) 

46 Bhensad: Hardal Ramji Nalnim 

(Con) 

47. fl^aiTKitfar* Virajlal Gokaldas Vom 
(Con) 

48 BAiWa (E)‘ KR Faiinar (Con) 

49 Bhiloda H M Gandhi (Con ) 

50 Bhtr Smt Sbantabai Koteeba (Con ) 

51 Bktu!andt, Bbaicbandra Shivram 

Patil (PWP) 

52 Bhtwatidt (R) Ycs'atvant Gunaji 

Ambekar (PI\T) 

53 Bhakardhan . Bbagwantrao Gadhe 

(Con) 

54 Shar Jaysmg Parashaiam Mab (Ind ) 

55 Bhadargaa KakaGopalaDcsai (CPI; 

56 Bhtij, Kundanlal Jash'u'antlai 

Obolalaa (Con) 

57. Bhaaval Eattatraya Semi Bhimd 

(Gon) 

58 Bitoh Jaitvantrao More (Con ) 

59. Stloh (h)' Tj-rmnw Jakoji Dange 
(Con) 

6Q Bomlt Isbikarlal Franjivandas 

Pardh (Con ) 

61 Borsad Mtmi Sbjvabbai Asbabbai 

Patd (Gon) 

62 Borsad SotM bladbavsingh Fulnn^ 

Solanki (Con ) 

63 Botad f!h'hag aTi))li ^i Italpbliai 

Gopani (Con) 

64 Brahanpm Murahanrao Snsbnarao 

Nagmob (Con.) 

65 Brdhampnm (iZ) - Gofiind Bijaji 

Meshram (Con) 

66 Broarh Bbupendrr^hai Bapalal 

Modi (^d ) 

67 Buldana . SmC Indirabai Ramrao 

Kotamkar (Con } 

68 Btdsar * Gopalji Dayabhai Desai 

(Con) 

69 Btdsar (R) * Naranbhai Kladbavbbai 

Rathod (Gon ) 

70 Bjadla, Bapurao Dhondiba Jagtap 

71. Palujbbai Hamabbai 

Bondia (SCn 

Cambqf HussemYawar Khan (Con) 
73 CAe/^^on . Rajaram Bhila Sonaivane 




to 

m 


pj 


Sl»vr.“im r.itrl 

0“O . 

75 C**'* ' U*»t^mnnn KnMimji 

7G C- ‘ * Ni-\iiir)i lUjujvif; run 
0-ul ) 

77 f • ’ r PuH ibllhl) nOiin C liorr 
(Cai \ \ 

70 t InVu ftmni M-sm 

II til;- If II 0*T <'tl ) I 

7 ? r ’ V^‘, * llntvinblni Rm* 

c'lh* \ I’url ) 

C* ’• C ‘'} f IJ'njjiblni C»r- 

Iml J id "tv I M ^*11 ) 

C'<' N inulfo rmijiji 

02 C*- ' "» ( '< / "O *''»* b'nnnbfn 

KVuln V-it"! (( Ml ) 

f.i C‘/' SUinlirUniU 1 1 tibjil »r 

(CPI) 

Cl/*- (/?) 11111*171 

K-nbiV (SCIl 

C brut Kil ib'^n Hb lit JC^iri ) 

KihrMi Slini'ir Dlurn 
(Oin } 

G7 J),*' \ Anil dll Chhoinhl Slnh 

{Con > 

S3 rnnbnlrto Rfliiicinndn 

N-’rv *inc (Ind ) 

80 /Ji/fl'**; Slnrnno RnnclnniJn 

Pint (Con ) 

00 Drhrnt{tt). Sinin Dciu 'Jlnl'ini 
(Oin ) 

91 Z?i"ei NtnnbJni LTslnbli*!! P.itcl 

(Ind) 

92 Dsinli Purdinitim V^^udc\ 

(PSP) 

, 93 Dentif'ur ICszip tr > folnnl al Po|ntlal 
N ^Ts (Con ) 

9 1 Darwka Dcono Sliivnm Paul 

(Ind) 

9j D/tj^nfiitr Nis-avin Uttammo 
Dcslimiil h (Con ) 

96 JDarya/Jwr {R) Ktslianrao Narayan 

KJnndirc (Con ) 

97 iJotcroi Clihotalal Narand-is Patel 

(Ind) 

98 Deesa Popatlal Mulslianbcr Joslii 

(Con ) 

99 Deesa (R) Gamanbhai Nanji Parmar 

(Con ) 

100 Deli^am Clinturbhai Mangaldas 

Amm (Ind ) 

101 Deogad Jagannath Rami nshna 

Tawadc (P\VP) 

102 Dkandhula Owarkadas Amratlal 

Patel (Ind) 

103 Dkarampur Ramu Balu Jadav 

(PSP) 

104 Dhamabad ShanLarrao Bhaurao 

Chauhan (Con ) 

105 Dliobt Talao Kadasnarayan Sbiv> 

narayan Narola (Con j 

106 DhoSca Mancklal Chunilal Shah 

(Con) 

107 Dkorajt Bbagwanji Bhanji Patel 

(Con) 

108 Dfiraagadhra Bhupatbhai Vrajial 

Dcsai (Con ) 

109 JD^ie Pforlh Cbudaman Ananda 

Raundale (Con ) 


no. 

m. 

112. 

113 

in 

115 

IlG 

117 

ns 

no 

120 
ui 

122 

123 

121 
123 

12c 

127 

123 

129 

130 

131 

132 

133 

134 

135 

136 

137 

138 

139 
HO 

141 

142 

143 

144 

145 

146 

147 


Dhha Sri‘}i‘ Rarndfls Bliagn-an 
(Jnndlnn (CPI) 

Dtftax iMidhono liibuno Mnltm- 
tlrr (Con ) 

/)<■ J .ikimo Sil b iram D.ioJ Inr 
(CPI) 

X?t;, Wj ( /J) • Rimdftt Pnndu Bagul 

(CPI) 


Df'hid, JuMnff Mnnsing Sohnki 
(Con } 

77(1 j"/; Hafi'^ka Abdul Kadar 

Moluuddin (0*n ) 

DiatJn lllnidirji Do'ibliai Mtsb- 
u mil (Con ) 

Ui s lU f/"f Canpatrnm Goknldn 
PalH (1ml ) 

Ur >’tt Sitarain Ilmrlumd Birla 

(ron) 

Grdh\n»li\ Djandco Saniram Ntr- 
tclar (PWP) 


Ga 'railed Sil hanm Gopahrao 
Naklntc (Con ) 

Coi'-a* hed ( R) Namdeo Dcoji 

Pi" ire (Con) 

Canzf'/jtfT Smt Kinma Clnndra- 

f^npia (Ind ) 

£?<"orfli Limbiji Mtil taji Pinsambal 
(Con ) 

Gtrgainn Pralliad Kesbav Atre 

(Ind) 

Codlrr Pnlnpiingb Motiving (Con ) 
Co'naup'if Slnmprasad Rupshankcr 
Vasavda (Con ) 

CojTtatifiur (7?) Jcsmgji Govmdbbai 
Parmar (Con ) 

Condia Manoharbbai Babarbhai 
PatJ (Con ) 

Gongaoa Puranlat Dbarmabliau 

Rahangdalc (PSP) 

Cahagu Dattatraya Yeshavant 
Vilanlar (JS) 

Hadgaott Smt Aiyanabai Jaiwantrao 
(Con ) 

Idahl Vijaysmliji Bharatsingn 

Clmulian (Con ) 

JJahad Trambaklal Mobanlal Dave 
(Con) 

Hatkanangle Santram Saldiaram. 
Paul (Ind ) 

Uatkanangle ( 72 ) Dadasabcb 
^ Malharrao Shirlc (SCF) 

Haveh Ram Dasbmlh Tupc (PSP) 
Ilaveh (i2) Furshotlam Martandrao 
Ghoivrc (Ind) 

Hmganghat Keshavrao MoUram Zade 
(Con) 

Hingolt BaburaoKondji Patil(Con') 
Hingoli (R) Sur^mal Narayan (Con ) 

. Jdar Vadilal Frcmchand Mehta 
(Con ) 

Jdar {R) Govmdbbai Manabhai 
Bhambhi (Con) 

IgalpUTt Punjaji Laxman Govard- 

hanc (CPI) 

Indapur Sbanbarrao Bajirao Patil 

(Con) 

Jalamb Sadasbiv Vithal Umarkar 

(Con ) 

Jalgtton Sadasbiv Narayan Bbalerao 

(CPI) ^ 

Jalna' Rustumji BezonJi (Con) 



418 


148 Jtdtta (iZ) Dhondiraj Ganpatrao 

(COQ ) 

149 JaxnalpuT Qhippa Kanm Rahmanji 

(Con) 

150 Jamjodhpur NanjtDcv^iSmojia (Con ) 

151 jamusar GhoUublm ‘^Makanbhai 

Patel (Con) 

152 Jamnagar Smt Manjulabcn Jayanti- 

^ ( lal Dave (Con ) 

153 Jamer, Gajananrao Baghunathrao 
p t Garud (PSP) 

154 JttoU . iCnshuarao Haribhau Taradc 

(PWP) 

155 Jordan Akbarali Amuji Jasdanwala 

(Con) 

156 JolA^* Vyavainbrao Ramrao Dafle 

(Ind) 

157 Jamkar B Mukanc (Con ) 

158 Jelpttr Gajanan Bhavamsbankar 

Joihi (Con ) 

159 Jhagadta Dalpatbbai Amarsinh 

Vasavva (Con ) 

160 Jhalod Natsinbliai Kanjibhai 

Hathila (Con) 

161 Jwj/ur. wamanrao Anandrao Nayab 

(Con ) 

162. Jzdia, Kantilal Prcmchand Shah 


163 Jimagedh SmbFushpabenJanardan 

Mehta (Con ) 

164 Jmnar Shivjyt Mahadu Kale (PSP) 

165 Kadt Chhotalal Maganlal Patel 

(Ind) ^ 

166 Kagal^ Smt VimalabaiVasant Banal 

(Ind) 

167 Raij Ramligaswami Mahalingswami 

(Con 1 

168 ir«;(R) Govindrao Keroji Gaikwad 

(Con ) 

169 Kairat Ramanlal Naeiibbai Fatd 

(Ind) 

170 Kalam,^ Smt Tarabai Mansinnh 

jCon) ® 

171 Kalam {R) » Revappa Knshna Mane 

(Con ) 

172 iTalanttfmzffor Sheshrao Krishnarao 

Wankhede (Con ) 

173 TTflloI Shankajji Maganji Tbakarda 

(Ind) 

174 Kttlupur, Jayantdal Ghdabhai Dalai 

(Ind) 

175 KnshnaraoNarayanDhulup 

176 Kamrej Farbhubhai Dhanabhai 

Paid (Con) 

il77 Kiaptlaalt * BhaakarBalkruhnaSawant 
(PWP) 

tl78 Kankrg *’ ShantJal Sanipdiand Shab 
(Con) 

'179 /Tomud* Baburao Manikrao PatU 
(Con) 

tl80 . Nagmdaa Vadilal Gandhi 

181 JTdxoJ Wlk Yasbvantiao Balvantrao 

Ohavan (Con ) 

182 South Ycahwantrao Inaba 
Mobile (Ind) 

IB3 Kjpaa- Smt ^lanibcn Chandubhai 
Jratcl (Con) 


185 

186 

187 

188 

189 

190 

191 

192 

193 

194. 

195 

196 

197 

198 

199 

200 
201 
202 

203 

204 

205 

206 


209 

210 
211 

212 

213 

214 

215 

216 

217 

218 

219 

220 
221 
222 
223 


Katol Shanlarrao Daulatrao Gcdam 
(Con) 

Kelapitr Tnmbak Dattaraya Dab- 
mukli (Con ) 

Khadto Brahmakumar Randibodlal 
Dhatt (Ind) 

Khmgaan Govinddos Ratanlal 
Bhaua (Con ) 

Rhandftar Keshavrao Dhondge (FWF) 
KkalaP Keshav Siuuikar Fadl (PSP) 
Khed {Poona Dt ) Tara^and 
Himcliand Wadgaonkar (PSP) 

Khed {Ratnagin Dt ) Jagannath 
Shnram Fatnc (SGP} 

Kkeralu Natwarlal Maganlal Fatd 
(W) 

KuiwOt Uttam Bahrain Ratbod (Con ) 
Kolhapur Pandurang Bapurao 
Salokhc (PWP) 

Koregoon Visbivasrao Vithaliao 
Mane (Ind ) 

Kumbharmada Bhanusbanker 
Manchharam Yagnik (Con ) 

Kundla Amvdakhrai Knsbaldiaxvd 
Khimani (Con ) 

KunLaeav Dcv^bhai Nanjibbai 
Raiyani (Con ) 

Kwtkaoeo f/f) Tapubhai Pragji 
Vagbda (Con ) 

Kurltt Smt Anjanabai Nazahar 
Magar (Con ) 

Ivtif^uRa Mamuradas Gordbandas 
Bhupta (Con) 

Larga Shashisbckar Kasbinath 
Athalc (Ind) 

Lathi Smt Sumitraben Hanprasad 
Bhatt (Con ) 

Latur Kcshvrao Sonawane (Con ) 
LinUttda Vmmghbhai Kanjibhai 
Nuarta (Con ) 

Lmawada Shmrasad Bapidal Bbatt 
(Ind ) 

Madke Namdeo Mabadco Jogtap 
(Con ) 

Madha (R) Ganpat Laxman Sona- 
wane (Con ) 

hdahad Digambar Vinayak^PuFobit 
(PSP) 

Makedaxm , Horai Jchangir Tale)ar- 
kban (Con ) 

Mahon F M Pmto (PSP) 

Mahuva Jaswantrai Nanubbai Mehta 
(PSP) 

Malegaon Haroon Ahmed Ansan 
(PSP) 

Malta Kanji Kachara Mhon (Con ) 
Mttikapm Bhiku Pakira She! ki (Con ) 

Mdsiros Shankar rao Narayanrao 
Mobile (Ind ) 

Malipan Shndhar Balkruhna Man- 
jarckar (jS) 

Mandoi ( Great fT Bonthai Dl ) SalebhoV 
Abdul Kadar (Con ) 

Man* I ( KiiJeA Dl ) Jumakhlal 
Lakhmichand (Con ) 

Mangean Surendranath Govmd 
Tipni. (PSP) 

Mangtton {/?) Tanoji Ganpat Gaikwad 
(Ind ) 

Mangfol {Saralh Dt ) Ramii Parbat 
Vikani (Con ) 



Z2i. 

223 

219. 

230 

23U 

232. 

233 

23 *f 

235. 

235 

237. 

23Q 

239. 

2i0 

24 L 

242 

243 
24 f. 
245. 
2^6 
247. 

248 

249 

250. 

251. 

252 

253 

254 

255 

256. 

257. 

258 

259. 

260 

261 

262 

263. 


yr^w* t (;;i‘ IKnSlm n«nal>’n» 

llln'VM <<>10 ) 

Mf-'' Ihirofln Knnm* 

\ i’ll Of! 'll ((Vl»l ) 

fi Hfyhl N’lniltil BiMin 

(O't ) 

,\rr-jV; — • .<?if,li- \l» (Cm) 

MJr> Mn^liivlal UlniTilSJnh (Con ) 
Mr Mvlliiv-nci Ctnip'itno 

Min" (rsr/ 

A-j (;j| ‘ )irinnit1t Cnnpvrin 
IV atinlar (SCI*) 

Mu /: Uv 'chindn KvlnniUi 
Mhnlp OM 

\*t—jr l> I* \inTiili* (tnJ ) 

*y ’ihinlvnonnlnmilwli (PWP) 
.Iff’’ *r (B) . luWiitw Kodvi KalKnl 

(^c^ 

Mf^is-s PonilKl GulibOfts P.ilfl 

(Inti ) 

Smt Kolihliii Jipinnith 
G*«intlc (Con ) 

^hr^ 1 J Cundii Dvlirilli Pitil (Con ) 
Metjt S”it, Ilinliii AnindnioSolio 

(Con) 

/fcr-i* Go! iJtlu Donsblni Pirniir 
(Con) 

Murhsii, .MiinLinm Il.illnjhm 
Thibirc (PVVP) 

Mur'nj’ftr- .Smt. Kmum Wnmanwo 
Korpr (Con ) 

Mintejnfto' (/f) • Dig'nju Znngoji 
Pilvpignr (Con ) 

J^ndici hvrth. XJ(!c$inh Virjinli 
Vidodji (Con ) 

yadad Sojih ^flhcndcrb1lnl GopiK 

di5 Dcs-u find ) 

yazpB’ta, vislii.ini(h Raiinm Tulh 
(Ind) 

Jiai;f>ur Ardhendit Bhiisliannemcndnf 
lumarBirdhinfCPl) 

Jtci;pvr (/?) • Punjiilino Ilulam 
ShambbarLar (SCI ) 

Natipitr I Midangopal Jodhry 
Agarwal (Con ) 

Ife^pvt II DindiyalNandram Gupta 
(Con) 

JIamti Vilhalrao Dcvtdasrao 
Dcshpandc (CPI) 

Hand^ann Bliamahcb Sal baram 
Htrav (Con ) 

yanittd Dalpil Bucber Bhil (Con ) 
JVflit/- Vilhalrao Ganpatrao Hande 
(PWP) 

Hoid- (R) S L Kamblc (SCP) 
Meswadt (R) Gordlian Cluppa Bhil 
(Con ) 

Meoian Laloobbai Makaiyi Paid 
(Con ) 

Maiaort (fl) Dhanabhai Dayabhai 
Rathod (Con) 

J/BtiHipur (R) Abhrairyi Donganmer 
Chaudhari (Ind ) 

/fdan^a Shnpatrao Gyanurao (PWP) 
Jitphad Deoram Savaji Wagh (CPI) 
JVcr/A Sholabur Smt Nirmala Rate 
Bhoialc (Con ) ^ 

Omerga vishwambharrao Namdeo 
Haralkar (Con ) 

Osmanahod Udhavrao Sahcbrao Paul 
(PWP) 


2GI 

205. 

205 

207. 

209 

209 

270. 

271 

272. 

273. 
271 

275 

275 

277. 

270 

279 


201 . 

282 

203. 

204. 

285 

286 
287. 

200 

289. 

290. 

291. 

292. 

293. 

294. 

295. 
296 
297. 
208 

299 

300 

301 
302. 
303 


r. Onlar Nira>an 3Vagh 

(Ind ) 

PMr/}' JvwxniHl Soiling) .irbind 
Sbib (0»n ) 

AifAc- Vrnlitno In<lh.n\ fOn) 
fi*,V"/t,T GtlbiWni Nmjihnii Pal I 
(Coii) 

P. //—'’T Dtiiigarblni Dlngivmbhai 
Pirniir {(>in ) 

Niinitni llbonW Sbah 

(PNP) 

P, bf/T-* Smt KTinirbcn Joninbbai 
Indnni (Cnn ) 

P<‘^iht( T N P Pin>,irdlnn (ind ) 
Ilnbijino nninhcb Dcsai 

(Ind ) 

Dinl.ir Btlu Pml (PWP) 
Pcrbl j Anniji Ramclnndra 
Gn\aw: (PWP) 

Prrdi Ultim Ilarji P.itrl (PSP) 
PiJfr/* V> inVitcsh Appi Slienoy (PSP) 
Prtlr A*'dl^ Slnnitlil Ilirijivin 
Slnb (Con ) 

P^TTfr Bbnl.tr Tul tram Auii (CPI) 
Pcrttla Srtnn.’u Chun it'd Miniadi 
(JS) 

Prrcar* Bh.itpvMnrao Diulatrao 
Boride (Con ) 

Pelan Cbiminlal Widilal SInli (Ind ) 
Palcn (/f) ' l.axminbhai Samjibbai 
UhlnUnna (Ind ) 

Prion (5'a/arfl) . Diulatrao Slinpat- 
no Desli (Con ) 

Paihardt Narai in Gmpat A\liad 
(CPI) 

Ptni Vn-unt Rijinm Riut (PINT) 
Ptn ( 71 ) • Gov ind Sonu Katl an < PWT) 
Ptilrd Mini Ini Prabhulal Ponkh 
(Con.) 

PhtJten (^) Sidisliunio Marutirao 
Bindisode (SCT) 

Phalian. Haribiinu ViiJialrao 
Nimbilkar (CPI) 

Poona Canlt Vtthal N Sbivarkar 

Porianhr Maldevii Mindlikii 
' OdLdra (Con ) ^ 

Pranltj Sml Ronjanben MadhU' 
kumif Vora (Con ) 

Purandlm Rngbunathrao Anandrno 
Pavvar (PWP) 

Pmad Vasantrao Phulsing Naik 
(Con ) 

Pmad (R) • Daulat Laxman Khadso 
(Con ) 

Radhanaeari Dnyanadco Santaram 
KhanOLkar (PWP) 

Radhanpur Mancklal Naihalal 
Vakhana (Con ) 

' Rakun Laxmanrao Modhavrao Paul 

(Ind) 

^^^P) Mahadcv Kulkami 

Rajkoi Jaysukhlal Karshanji Shah 

(Con ) 

Raiula Surogbhai Kalubhai Varu 

(Con ) 

Rajwa Ramchandra Ganpati Dhotc 
(Con ) 

Rmttk Narciidca Mahipat Tidke 

(Con) 



420 


30 

305. 

306 

307. 

308 

309 

310 

311 

312 

313 

314 

315 

316 

317. 

318 

319 

320 

321 

322 

323 

324 

325 


327 

328 

329 

330 

331 

332 

333 
33t 

335 

336 

337 
333 
335 
310 
3U 
3t2 


31 -* 


Rafttagtn AtmantmVasudcvModak 
(PSP) 

Jlmer Madhular Dhaaaji Ghou- 
dhan (Con ) 

Razer (il) Kcshavrao Raghav 

Wankhedc (Con) 

Renapur Gangadharappa C Ghau- 
dhary (Con ) 

Roha Pandurang Rarajt Sanap (P\VP) 
Saf oU Adku Sonu Paulza^e (Con ) 
Sakoh (il) NasluLrao Khantadu 

Tirpudc (Con ) 

Saht Sbankarrao dundhuji Bcdse 
(Ind) 

Sakrt (/?) Rama Jirya Padvi (Ind ) 

fanaful Vardbamanbbai L^bhai 
Mehta (lad) 

Sangm^kwar Arjun Bapuji Vichare 
(Ind ) 

oangamnnr* Datta Appaji Deshmukh 
(Ind ) 

Sangamner Narayan Raimi Navali 
(PSP) 

Sangli Vasantrao Banduji PatiI(Gon ) 
Sangola Kcshaviao Shnpatrao Raut 
(Con) 

Satigola {R) ManiU Mahadeo 
Kambalc (Con ) 

iSanlroiH^ur Smt Hirabcn Lalchan- 
-• bhai Ninamn (Con) 

Sat>!i Marotrao Sambshio Kannam- 
war (Con ) 

SGOner Mohammad Abdulla Khan 
Pathan (Con ) 

Satara Vithal Nanisahcb P-itil (Ind ) 
Sa.h f^bhai H-ithihhai Amm (Con ) 
Aik/j (R) Ramchandra Chittabhai 
Solanki (Con ) 

Saj,Mlwadi Smt PanaU Devi 
Swmt Bhomlc (Ind ) 

Srttrte S G Patkar (CPD 

Vyankat Taniji Dhobi (Con ) 
Cijandrasing Dhanka 
niiaitd-iri (Con ) 

Shnhuuadi Tr> ambak Sitaram 
^kirkbinij (PW^P) 

Raijibhai Parmar 
^tind7 ^-‘I'cman Lhagnat 

Ghandm Patd 

W/rrf (A) Arjun Gin Panir (Ind ) 
(PSP) ^^‘Sounda Revagonda Pat.l 

Shirdhar Tilak 

/iV v' (u\ ) ^=«clnndr3 Dcol a^, 
Mihadco 

I' / ' MoiiW p-ci j 

P- 1 ik (C. ^ ^ *m-a*iat»,mo 


345 

346 

347 

348 

349 

350 

351 

352 

353 

354 

355 

356 

357 

358 

359 

360 

361 

362 

363 

364 

365 

366 

367 


370 

371 

372 

373 

374 

375 

376 

377 

378 
379. 

380 

381 
3G2 


Stndkheda Shankar Gorakh Sonawane 
(PSP) 

lyinnar Shankar Kondaji Navale (PSP) 
SironcAa , Narayansinh Sampatsmh 
Weakey (PSP) 

Stroncha (R) VishweshwarRao (Ind ) 
Strur Shyamkant Damodar More 
(PSP) 

Somnath HamirSarman Solanki (Con ) 
Sotigadh Mavjibhai dumabhai 
Chaudhan (Con ) 

Sotiih Shoiapur Shantirappa Basappa 
BasavNanti (Con) 

Surat City East Ishivarlal Gulabhxu 
Dcsai (Con ) 

Sural Ct{y JVest Golandaz Mohd. 

Husein Abdul Samad (Con ) 
Surendranagar Rasiklal Umedeband 
Pankh (Con ) 

Siaendranagar ( R ) Pcdiabhai 
Gancshbhai Parmar (Con ) 

Talaja Joisinh Kasalbhai Indrani 
(Con) 

Toloda (JJ) Gorji Suiji Padavi (PSP) 
Tor^fldn GanpaU Dada Lad (PWP) 
Thtaia Dattatraya Balknshna 
Tamhane (PSP) 

Tharad Dahyalal Manilal Mehta 
(Con) 

TTtasra Kishorcsmeh Chhasusmeh 
Gohil (Ind ) -e 6 

Thasra (a) Khushalbhai Morarbbai 
Dave (Con ) 

Tirora Shabgram Ramratan Dixit 
(Con ) 

Ttttjapvr Sahebrao Dada Hangar- 
gekar (Con) 

7'umsBr Aoo Malku Makade (Con ) 
Ulhasnagttr Nevadram Visbindas 
Gurbani (Con ) / 

Umrer Sadashivrao Rajaramrao 
Samarth (Con ) 

{■^) Anantram Dayal 
Choudh'in (Con ) 

t6ia Rntubhai Mulshankor Adant 
(Con ) 

Vagad Smt Trilochana TJshakant 
Dholakia (Con ) 

Pa^ra Mansinhji Bhasabeb Rana 
(Con) 

Vanapur Machhendranath Ram* 
chandrarao Jadhav (Ind ) 

V^labhtpur Karsanbhai Jerambhai 
Bharodia (Con ) 

Vengurta N-imjan Mabadco 

Chamminkar (PSP) 

Fyo^ar J^ortlt Gangaram ChuniH 
R'lval (Ind ) 

J'tjapur Soiilh Becharhhai Harcovind'' 
das Patel (Ind ) 

Vir^gam Ddipsmghii Pratapsinghji 
Desu (Ind ) 

Vtnadar Parmananddas Jivanbhai 
Kathreclia (Con ) 

Vtsragar Ramnidal Tnlamlal 
ManiiP (Ind } 

Nan-ischcb More 

*Tscn' I’^ajJtaoTayapaMadhfllc 



421 


383 \Va\ Dadasahcb Khashcrao Jagtap 390 Warilia (12) Sliankeirao Vitlialrao 

find) Sonawatic (Con) 

384 WaU^esimari Sayaji Laxman Silam 391 Washm laisingrao Dmkarrao 

(Con) Raiurkar (Con) 

385 IVaha Naglinath Ramchandra 392 Washm {R) Rambhau Chmkaji 

Nayakavadi (PWP) Salwc (Con ) 

386 Warn SbirdharraoNalhobajiJawadc 393 Warlt Ramchandra Dbondiba 

(Con ) Bhandarc (SCF) 

387 Irani (/£) Kirtimantrao Biiujangrao 394 Tawat Smt Rambai Naiayan 

(Con ) Dcshpande (Con ) 

388 Waitkaner Smt Hiralaxnu Kcshavlal 395 2‘cola Dagu Shankar Kanadc (PSP) 

Shcth (Con ) 396 leolmal Ramchandra Jagoba Kadu 

389 Wardha' Mahadco Tukaram Thalrc (Con) 

(Con ) 397 Kommaicd Nonnaa R Fc^uson 

BOMBAY LEGISLATH^E COUNCIL 

Chairman Bhogdal Dhirajlal Lain Deputy Speaker Km Jcthi T Sipahunalani 


1 

Smt AG Shah 

2. 

AGP Rcbdlo 

3 

AN Patil 

4 

AR Bbat 

5 

BD Suryavamhi 

6 

Smt B M FareLh 

7 

BP Badave 

8 

B R Patel 

9 

BV Shende 

10 

CC Mehta 

11 

CK Shah 

12 

G N Bhadlavala 

13 

D Aimn 

14 

Smt D P Sanghavi 

15 

G H W Momm 

16 

G M Nalavade 

17 

HB Bhtde 

18 

HD Awodc 

19 

Smt J B Shukla 

20 

JN Korpe 

21 

KH Thacker 

22 

K M Agarwal 

23 

KM Veer 

24 

L K Mamar 

25 

Smt MA Nagon 

26 

Smt MR Samaik 

27 

MS Alshi 

28' 

Mohamed Taber Habib 

29 

Nemichand Kisandas 

30 

Panditrao 

31 

PV Gadgd 

32 

R P Samarth 

33 

R S Bhatt 

34 

SA Pathan 

35 

S L Bcnadikar 

36 

S M Dahanukar 

37 

S M Thorat 

38 

S S Agrawal 

39 

Tilawant All 

40 

V G Phatak 

41. 

V M Madhavrao 

42 

VS Page 

43 

Abdul Rahmaokhan 


Mohamed Yusufkhan 

44 BA Dalai 

45 BD Lala 

46 B D Shukla 

47 B Nanmgrao 

48 GO Bhatt 

49 CD Barhvala 

50 CM Patel 


51 

52 

53 

54 


CN Bajpai 
G P Meta 


D B Agarwal 
Dcigx ^ttemey 


Legislative 55 D F Shaw Local 

Assembly 56 D K Mehta Authorities 

« 57, DN Tnvedi 

„ 58 GB Melita Z 

„ 59 G D Mali 

„ 60 GN Koh , ” 

„ 61 GR Thete 

„ 62 HV Kotccha ” 

„ 63 I B Deshmukh ” 

„ 64 f H Giramc , 

„ 65 J H Jawadc ! 

„ 66 KR Patil ” 

,> 67 L C Dnvanji 

„ 68 L D Acharya , 

„ 69 MB Gaikwad ” 

„ 70 MB Patel ” 

„ 71 PB Patwan „ 

„ 72 P P Naik " 

„ 73 RN Balbudhe ” 

j „ 74 S K Galwankar / 

„ 75 S M Mehta ” 

„ 76 VB Deshmukh ” 

>1 77 V R Parashar 

„ 78 W G Yardi ” 

»i 79 A S Sthalekar Graduates 

80 B S Vyas 

„ 81 D G Shulda - ” 

„ 82 DD I^rve ' ” 

„ 83 MB Hama ” 

84 MD Patel ” 

85 PN Khosla ” 


Local 

Authontiea 


86 V D Sathaye 

87 V M Subhedar 

88 D H Sahasrabuddhe 

89 D V Dcshpande 

90 L N Chhapekat 

91 MN Kale 

92 MV Donde 

93 R M Dave 

94 S L Ogale 

95 SR Londhe 

96 T S Tbakore 

97 BP Rawat ^ 

98 DS Sodhi 

99 G D Ambekar 
100 H D Tnvedi 


101 

102 


103 


104 


Smt J T Sipahimalani 
K A Hamira 
Leo Rodnguea 
M.P Desai 


105 P S Dhok 


106 Ratanlal Mohanlal 

107 Smt SJ KulLarm 

108 Smt S Paranjpe 




422 


budget of the G0T?ERNMENT of BOMBAY 

(On Revenue Account) 




ElEVENUE RECEIPTS 
Union Excise Duties 
Taxes on Income other than Coipora- 
tion Tax 
Estate Duty 

Taxes on Rall\^'ay Fares 
Land Revenue (net) 

State Excise Dubes 
Stamps 
Forest 
Regutrabon 
Taxes on Vehicles 
Sales Tax 

Other Taxes and Dubes 
Imgabon, Navigabon, Embankment 
and Drainage 'SVorLs (net) 

Debt Semces 
Civil Administration 
Civil Works and Miscellaneous Fubhc 
Improv cments (net) 

Misccllaneom (net) . 

Contnbuboiu and Miscellaneous Ad- 
justments bebveen Central and State 
Governments 

Community Devdomnent Projects, 

NES and Local Devdopment Works 
E xtraordinary 


GRAND TOTAL-RE\^EICUE 
RECEIPTS 


Budget 

Estunates 

1958-59 


1,442 72 

1,229 21 
31 98 
160 36 
1,326 32 
116 83 
556 56 
493 66 
58 22 
369 31 
2,438 96 
881 29 

138 47 
455 48 
1,466 04 

100 21 

320 74 


229 39 
3 78 


12,000 15 


Revised 

Estimates 

1958-59 


1,501 36 

1,210 86 
41 34 
177 29 
1,337.83 
118 00 
552 74 
530 21 
60 06 
503 68 
3,073 14 
991.75 

108 24 
678 71 
1,438 27 

92 70 
377 86 


220 39 
8 05 


13,201 96 


Budget 

Estimates 

1959-60 


1,498 26 

1,255,96 
41 34 
177 29 
1,289 86 
89 80 
568 41 
557 45 
53 49 
580 24 
3,078 89 
1,015 62 

103 84 
641 49 
1,622.35 

385 27 
376 01 


169 20 
3 78 


revenue expenditure 

Direct Demands on the Revenue 
Revenue Vccount of Imgabon, Navi 
gallon. Embankment and 
Drainage Works 
Debt Se^\^ces (net) 

General Admmistrabon 
Administrabon ofjusbce 
Jails 
Police 

Ports and Pilotage 
Dangs District 
Saenbfic Departments 
Education 
Medical 
Public Health 
A[;n culture 
Animal Husbandry 
Co-operation 
In lustries 

MiswIIancous Deparbpcnls 
C.V1I Works and Miscellaneous Rib! 

Imp'ov cnenb 
El«T>ncjtv Schenes 
M««Ha"roas 

Eiiraordinarv irdudirg Co*"'iinunity 
Pror«t, NES and Local Devdop- 
remi W o-ks 


ON lU \ LVUE account 


1,278 22 


315 04 
993 01 
8G0 13 
266 62 
112 21 
1,271 26 
81 36 
76 84 
17 72 
2,296 55 
770 69 
265 10 
446 46 
128 64 
162 24 
223 97 
389 35 

489 50 
35 

1,426 23 


1,541 83 


343 55 
1,109 66 
873 09 
261 03 
117 92 
1,325 00 
89 03 
75 97 
15 10 
2,483 93 
714 80 
263 44 
451 48 
117 32 
156 37 
201 97 
396 77 

529 45 
64 

1,580 23 


_.l 1 M ..N 1 1 \C.COL\T 


12,201 11 


13,158 38 


C— )200 56 i (+) 43 53 


1,568 55 


364 68 
1,132 63 
903 63 
272 66 
119 22 
1,328 50 
79 84 
76 91 
21 36 
2,505 21 
839 09 
325 64 
411 82 
150 16 
226 42 
242 87 
591 31 

862 19 
72 

1,435 14 
313 43 


13,771 98 


(— ) 95 24 














423 

JAMMU, AMD KASHMIR 


Jrea 85,861 sg nailes ^ Pojiulatton 44,10,000 Capti(U Srinagar 

PriTKtpal languages Kashmin, Do gn, Urdu 

Sadar-^^Rtyasat Yuvraj Karan Smgh 
COUNCIL OF MINISTERS 


Ministers 

Batshi Ghulam Mohammad 


SL Saraf 


DK Mahajan 


GM K^pon 
Chum Lai Kotwal 

Shams-ud-Din 

Ministers of State 
Harbam Smgh Azad 

Dbulam Nabi Warn Sogann 

Abdul Gant Trail 

Kusbal: Bakula 
Amar Nath Shama 
Bbagat Chhajuram 


PortfoUes 

Prime Minister, General Administration, Service^ 
Cabmct, Ci^ Secretariat, Finance, Budget, 
Planning;, Statistics, Law and Order, Police, 
Miiitia, Civil Liaison, InFormation, Tubhaty, 
Stationery and Printing 

Industrial Administration, Industries jnduding Cot- 
tage Industries, Senculture and Silk 'Weaving, 
C^venmient Woollen Mills, Empona and Central 
Market, Forest Industries including Joinery Mills, 
Drug Manufacture, Bankmg including Jammu and J 
Kashmir Bank, Labour Administration and Labour 
Organisation, Trade Commissioner, Delbi and 
Trade Agenacs 

Law and Judiciary, Franchise and Legislation, Land 
Revenue and Land Records, Relief, Rehabilitation 
and Evacuee Property, Jurisdictional Ja^, Debt 
Conciliation Boards, ^mpawionatc Fund Board, 
Charitable and Reb^ous Institutions and Endow- 
ments 

Health, Sanatona, Jails, Tounam and General 
Records 

Roads and Buddings, Irrigation, Housmg, Water 
Supply, Jammu and ^shmir Provmces and 
Power 

Agnculture and HorUculture^ Dehat Sudhar (C F 
and N E S ), Ammsd Husbandry, Sheep and ^tde 
breeding mcludmg Dairy Farms, Co-operation and 
Rakbs and Farms* 

Education, Libraries, Research and PubhcatiQua 
and NGC 

Forests, Game Preservation, Fishcnes'and Reccp« 
bon and Taivaza 

Food, Supplies and Pnee Control, Central Purchases 

and Stores and Transport 

Ladakh Afiairs 

Local Sdf-Goveniment 

Social Welfare 


Chief Jusltee 
Puisne Judges 
Admeaie-Geaeral 


Chairman 

Members 


Chxtf Seerdasy 

^ Ghulam Ahmed 

JAMMU AND KASHMIR HIGH COURT 
.. J-N. Waair 
.. M Fari All, K*VG Nair* 

.. Jaswant Smgh 

PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION 
.. Yadunatb Smgh 

• • Ghulam Mohammad, Uday Chand, AH Durrani 


JAMMU AND KASHMIR LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY* 


Speeher' Asadullah Mir Deputy Speeder'. Mohd Ayub Khan 


1 

2 . 

3 


Akknoor Sahdev Smgh (PP) 

M hnoor-Chhamh {R) ‘ Sat Dcv(PP) 
ArrtireKedttl . Sham Lai Saraf (NC) 


4 Anantnag. Shams-ud-Din (NC) 

5 Amos - Alohammad Ayub I^an (NCI 

6 Badgem. SlcdAliShalj(NO 


•The abbreviations used arc. National Confcrcace (NC), Demoaatic Nauon^ 
' Conference (DNC) and Praja Parishad (PP). 


424 


7 Bandipora Gurez Kabir Khan (NC) 

8 Bamtdla Harhan5SiiighAzad(KC) 

9 Basohh MahcshGhand(PP) 

10 Berva : Abdul Q,adoos Azad (NC) 

11 Bha&mak Churn Lai KoUval (NC) 

12 Bhalaa-Btmjwoh Abdul Gam Gom 

(NC) 

13 Bdlawar R C Khajuna (NC) 

14 BishnaSamha * Ram Piara Saraf 

(DNC) 

15 Bishm-^amha (R) Nahcr Singh 

(DNC) 

16 Cfusrai^hanf Abdul Q,ayum (NC) 

17 Dacknbora . Ghulam Ahmw Mir (NC) 

18 Darpal Mohammad Iqbal (NC) 

19 Devsttf Abdul Aziz (NC) 

20 Doda, Ghulam Ahmed Dev (NC) 

21 Doru. Mir Qasira (DNC) 

22 DorApcir Ghulam Mohammad Mir 

(DNC) 

23 Drugvmula Mohammad Sultan (NC) 

24 Gandcrbal : Ghulam Ahmed Sofi iNC) 

25 HabalMdttl D P Dhar (DNC) 

26 Hatnal‘ Ghulam Rasool Kar (NC) 

27 Handwara Ghulam Qadir hlasala 

(NC) ^ 

28 Hazratbal* hlohajnraad Ychyah 

Sidiqi (NC) 

29 jammj Ciir (A'brtfi) . Prem Nath 

Dogra (PP) 

30 Janma City {Saalk} Ram Chand 

Mahajan (NC) 

31 Jammu Teliitl Rajmder Smgh (PP) 

32 Jarmu Trhsil (B) Mdkhi Ram 

(H'lnjan Mandal) 

33 Jasmagarh G L Dogra (DNC) 

3> hangaa' Mian Naiam-ud-Dm (NC) 
33 Aga Syed Ibrahim Shah 

36 Kerrah • Mohammad Yunis (NC) 

37 Krllsai Piar Stngh (NC) 

38 Khanstthib Abdui Rchmau Mu- 

Rahnt (DNC) 

39 Kkanjfor Abdul Rchman Butt (NC) 


40 Khorerpora Koor Dm Dar (NC) 

41 JTijAlioar Mir Badshah (DNG) 

42 Kothar Manohar Nath Kaul (DNC) 

43 Kulgam Abdul Kabir (NC) 

44 Lander Ttkn f Moti Ram Baigra 

(DNG) 

45 Ulab Ghulam Nabi Warn (NC) 

46 Leh KushakBakula(NG) 

47 Magaxa Ghulam Mohammad ^Vanl 

(NC) 

48 Mendkar Fir Jamait Ah Shah (NC) 

49 Hmdi . Ghulam Ahmed (NC) 

50 Karvato Ghulam Hassan Khan (NC) 

51 JVfliofAera Krishcn Dev Sethi (DNC) 

52 Pfowhung Syed Hussam (DNC) 

53 BaTnpore Ghulam Jilani (NC) 

54 Pattan Ghulam Mohammad Butt 

Jahb (NC) 

55 Pwnch Ghulam Ahmed (NC) 

56 Pulu,ttma Sona Ullah Sheihh (NC) 

57 Bamban Kh AsaduUah Mir (NC) 

58 Rajaun Abdul Aziz Shawl (NC) 

59 Rajpora Ghulam Mohammed 
^ pun (NC) 

60 Ramhal Ghulam Mohammed Warn 

(NC) 

61 Ramnagar Hem Raj Jandial (NCI 

62 Riasi Rcshi Kesh (NC) 

63 RS Pura Kulbir Smgh (NC) 

64 RS Pvra (R) Ghajju Ram (NC) 

65 Saja Kadal Bakshi Ghulam hloham- 

mad (NC) 

66 Samba Sagar Singh (NC) 

67 Samwara Abdul Khahq Butt (NC) 

68 Shoptan Abdul ^Isuid Banderv (NC) 

69 S^ore Abdul Gam Malik (NG) 

70 Tangamarg MbfaammadAkbar (NC) 

71 Tanktpora Ghulam hlohammad 

Sadiq (DNG) 

72 Tral Abdul Ghani Trail (NC) 

73 Udfutmpur Amar Natli Sharma (NC) 

74 Un Mohammad ATzal Khan (NC) 

75 ^ttdibal Miri\aiz Ghulam Nabi 

Hamdani (NC) 


JAMMU AND KASHMIR LBGISLATIVE COUNCIL 


1 

2 

3 


6 

n 

n 

10 

11 

12 

n 

ir 


Chtma^ Shiv N-uayan Totedar Dtputy Chairman Ghajas-ud-Din 


Am-vr Chand 

Chela Smgh 
Ginga Ram 
OuKm Hu^^in 
Giilan Moht'ud-din 
Kh^n 

GuKm Mwtafa Tak 
Habib bllah 
H-ilj b-'rdir All 
Min ulh Uai 
Nti'ianTtfl \nuar 
'lohimn'd Moqbool 
'l^hpo 
' lr>* in 

\frhtl 

n ' i'-«d-Din 

e'lfl u h 
] Kri Irn 

I a an Si— u 

'' ■* s \\ a* *-a1 


Legislate c 19 
Assembly 

u 20 

,» 21 

» 22 


SbciUi Ghulam Rasul 

Shi\ Naray an Totedar 
Bdi Ram 
Ahsan Mir 


23 

24 

25 

26 

27 

28 

29 

30 

31 

32 

33 
31 

35 

36 


Buaditomal 
Dma Nath Mahajan 
Ghulam Mohammad 
Pampon 

Mukblar Ahmed 
Sliii Smgh 
S\ cd Nazir Hussain 
Samnani 
Dina Natb Kaul 
GR Azad 
G R Renzu 
Jatinder Dev 
Madan Lai 
Mir Alam 
Mohammad Shafi 
R N Q opra 


Legislative 

Assembly 


Local 

Authontics 


Teachers 

Nominated 



425 


BUDGET Of THE GOVERNMENT OF JAI^IMU & KASHMIR 
(On Reveoue^ccoimt) 


{In lakhs of rupees) 



Budget 

l&stimatcs 

1958-59 

Revised 

Estimates 

1958-59 

Budget 

Estimates 

1959-60 

REVENUE RECEIPTS 

Union Excise Duties 

Taxes on Income other than Corpora-. 

ration Tax 

Land Revenue (net) 

State Excise Duties 

Stamps 

Forest 

Registration 

Taxes On Vehicles 

Sales Tax 

Other Taxes and’Duties * 

Irrigation, Navigation, Embankment 
and Drainage Works (net) 

Debt Services 

Cml Administration 

Civil Works and Miscellaneous Public 
Improvements (net) 

Miscellaneous (net) 

Grant-m-aid from Central Government 
Community Development Projects, 

NES, and Loc^ Development 

Works 



108 42 

88 84 

69 24 

30 00 

12 50 

308 97 

4 17 

7 80 

19 50 

9 50 

16 51 

11 36 

92 33 

133 68 

54 98 
300 05 

31 54 

GRAND total— REVENUE 
RECEIPTS 

1,154 25 

1,118 28 

1,299 39, 

REVENUE EXPENDITURE 

Direct Demands on the Revenue 
^ Revenue Account of Irrigation, Navi- 
gation, Embankment and Drainage 
Works V 

Debt Services (net) 

General Admimstrafaon 

Audit 

AdmnustraUon of Tusticc 

Jads 

Police 

Scientific Departmento 

Education 

Medical 

Public Health 

Agriculture 

Animal Husbandry 

RchabilitnUon 

Co-opcration 

Tndustnes 

Miscellaneous Departments 

Ciiil Works and Miscellaneous Public 
Impro\ cments 

Miscellaneous 

Extraordman, including Community* 
Projects, NES, and Local Dciclop- 
ment IN orks 

99 76 

43 57 

64 56 
48 98 

9 48 

9 93 

4 64 
68 60 

40 
139 39 

58 93 

7 67 

16 63 

18 37 

3 63 

12 19 

5 36 

29 63 

100 49 
123 28 

94 03 

102 34 

49 19 

13 63 

49 50 

2 89 

10 37 

4 64 

70 64 

40 
136 01 

54 89 
. 6 94 

19 15 

15 65 

4 51 

11 23 

7 56 

31 56 

129 19 

130 34 

92 18 

125 98 

46 59 

80 00 

56 65 

1 11 73 

6 51 

77 13 

93 

175 01 

72 28 

9 61 

33 18 

21 71 

14 65 

8 69 

24 79 

73 88 

151 93 

88 97 

GR-\\D total-expenditure i 
ON revenue ACCOUNT . ] 

959 57 

942 81 

1,080 24 

SURPLUS {-{-) DEFICIT {— )'oN 
revenue ACCOUNT . j 

(+)194 68 

(•f)175 47 

(4-}219 15 







426 


nT KH. AT^ A 


Alta 15,006 sq miles 1,35,49,118 Capitd Tmundnim 

Tn^cipd language ^lalayalmn 


Go’seftiar" B amal-rKTina Rao 


COUNCIL OF liUNISTERS 


iltmsUrs 


PcTtfohos 


£ M S Namboodtnpad 

G Adbatha Mentm 

KC George 
K.P Gopalan 

TV Thomas 

PK Cbathan 

Smt KR« Goun 

T\ Majeed 

Joseph ^lundassery 

A R Mcnon 
V R. Krishna l^cr 


General Administration, Int^ratton, Planningr 
Commumty Bevdopment and sulyects not 
expresslj mentioned 

Finance, Insurance;, Commercial Taxes, Agncultuial 
Income Tax, Agriculture and Animal Husbandry 
Food, Cml Suppbes and Forests 
industnes, Mmmg and Geology, Cement^ Iron and 
Steel, and Commerce 

Transport, Labour, hluniapabties, Handlooms and 
Coir, Industrial Housmg, Sports and Sports Asso< 
ciatioiu 

Local Self'Go\ eminent. Advancement of Badnvard 
Commumaes, Fanebayats and District Boards, 
Resettlement and Colomsatioi] 

Revenue, Land Revenue, Excise and Prohitiuon, 
Rr%istiation,Dcv3s\voms and Chantable Endow* 
ments 

Public Works, Buildmgs, Conunumcatioxu, Ports, 
Railvvavs, Inlbrmation, Pubbaty and Tourism. 
Educauon, Fisheries, Xluseums and Zoo, Co-opera- 
tion, Stationery and Printing and Archaeology. 
Health Services and Ayurveda 
Legislation, Elections, Law and Order, Adminis- 
tration ofCivi] and Cmumal Justice, Jails, Imga- 
tion and EIcctnaty. 


Ci-jJ ^uslict 
Piasrx 

Ai o clr-Cmmd 




Ckttf Secrele^ 

N E S Raghav achan 

KEILkLA HIGH COURT 
K. Sankaran 

• ® Mcnon, T K Joscph,N V Ijcngar, 

PT Raman Xair, Cjk Vaidyalmgain. V. 
Filial, Sait A Cbandy. 

KV Suryanarayaaa Iyer 

PUBLIC SERVICE CO^acSSION 
VK Vdayudhan 

N P. Verghese, P T. Bhaskara Panickcr 


KERAL.V LEGISL.Vm^ ASSEMBLY 
R SanlcaranarayanaoTbampi KumanK O Aysha Bai 


\ ^ (CPI) ”” 

2 VUrty T\ Thomas (CPI) 


.d'-p- TO Pwi (Con ) 

^^(CtV ^ Mcnon 

^ ((7'n ^ GopnviUnn Pdlai 


7 A t‘ tT" ^ ^4 Piliv* (CPI) 
Ka a Mario t Ku-'-vimJ 

M '>irya-aKun.,)(PSP; 


tUlT 

t \ 


II Gt^^nare I Kaiman Chalivuth (CPI] 
//• K P Gopalan (CPI) 
Bhargavan (CPI] 

14 Oolchdy C G Janardhanan (PSPl 

15 Gs[dt:tfj{n]- PK Chatban (CPJ; 
10 Cf-s^'-snschfm M Kalv anaJnshnai 

Xair (CPI) 

17. R. Sankaranarayanai 

Thampi(CPI) 

»n ^ Balaqopalm (Con) 

^(Cn) ^'‘^4^4iidra Mcno: 

20 Ott*-r {/i) K Eachamn(Cos) 





427 


21 Cronganore E Gopalatnshna Menon 

(CPI) 

22 Demeolam Smt Rosamma Puimose 
(CPI) 

Demeolam (R) N Ganapathy (Con ) 
Papally AK Ramankutty (CPI) 
Erampurant P Ravindran (CPI) 
Emaktdtttn A L Jacob (Con ) 
Etti^nanoor , George Josqjh (Con ) 
Gvmoayoar P K Koru (Ind ) 

Hanpad V RamknshnaPiUai ^GPI| 
Hosarug K GhandraskcUiaran (PSP) 
Imkicur Narayanan Nambiar (CPI) 
Innjalahida C Achutha Menon (CPI) 
KudtdhuTuUff M C Abraham (Con ) 
Kallooppara M M Mathai (Con ) 
Kamyannur TK Raminslman (CPI) 
Kargurabt^y K T Thomas (Con ) 
Kterdjow Stnt Kusumam Joseph 
(Con) 

38 Karunagapally Kimjutruhnan (Con) 

39 Karihtgapally R Sugathan (CPI) 

40 Kasergad C Kimhiinshnan Nan: 

(Con ) 

41 Kayaatktdam Ku KO Aysha Bai 

(CPI) 

42 Ko^vally M T Gopalankutty Nair 

(Con) 

43. Kotidel^ M P M Ahmmad Kunihal 
(Ind) ' 

44 Kothakidto^era M A Antony (Con ) 

45 Kottarakara E Chandrasekbran Nair 

(CPI) 

46 Koltayam P Bhaskaran Nair (GFI) 

47 Ko^ikode I Smt Sarada Knsbnan 


23 

24 

25 

26 

27 

28 

29 

30 

31 

32 

33 

34 

35 

36 

37 


Koltayam P 
Kozhikode I 
(Con) 
Kozhikode U 
Knshnaparam 
JCunfumdu/om 


61 

62 

63 

64 

65 

66 


70 

71 

72 

73 


K Krishna Menon 


C G Sadasivan (CPI) 
K K Vishwanauan 


F Knmaran (Con ) 

G Karthikcyan (CPI) 
TK Knshnan (CPI) 
Smt Leela Damo- 
dara Menon (Con ) 

52 Kumalhur Pk Madhavan Pillai 

53 Ktima^ur (R) R Govmdan (CPI) 

54 Kuitipuram C Abmedkutty (Ind) 

55 Kttlhttbarandia , P R^unny Kurup 

(PSP) 

56 KttzhalmmTom KV John (CPI) 

57. Modal M F R Gop^an Nambiar 

(CPI) 

58 Malappuram K Hassan Gam (Ind ) 

59 Mon^ttr Joseph Mundassery (CPI) 
Maajert P P Ummer Koya (Con ) 
Manjen (i2) * M Chadayan (Ind ) 
Mtmjeswar M Umesh Rao (Ind) 
Mankeda V Mahammad Kodur 

(Ind) 

Mamarghat 
(CPI) 

Marartkidam * 

Mattatidarry 
(Con) 

67. MatlemiT NE Balanim (CPI) 

68 MttttlikaTa * KG George (CPI) 

69 MazelikaTa (^ * P K- Kunjachan 
(CPI) 

Mtcnachil PM Josroh (Con) 
Maseltupuzha K M G<»rgc (Con ) 
htedaporam C H Kananm Che^oh 
(CPI) 

J^arakkdi K C Abraham (Con ) 


Nattika K S Achuthan (Con ) 
Pfedumamgad N Neelakantani 
Pandarathxl (CPI) 

JVflnom M Sadasivan (CPI) 
Pf^attinkara R JanaiWhanan Nair 

JViIewar E M S Numboodinpad 
(CPI) 

Memar Kallalan (CPI) 

OlluT P R Franas (Con ) 

Ottapdam P V Kunjunm Nayar 

(CPI) 

Pedghat R Raghava Menon (Con ) 
PaUvrulhy Alexander Parambithara 
(Con) 

Parassata Kunjuknshnan Nadar 

(Con ) 

Parli C K Narayanan Kutty (CPI) 
Parwr M Sivau Pillai (CPI) 
Patkanamtkitta T Bhaskaran FiUai 
(CPI) 

PeUianapuram R^^palan Nair 
(CPI) 


Pattambi E P ^opalan 


Peramhra M Kiunaran (CPI) 
Permtatamaima P Govmdan Nam- 
bair (CPI) 

Perumbauoor P Govmda PiUai (CPI) 
Potmam BT Ktmhan(GFI) 

Ponnam (R) Kunhambu Kallayan 
(Con ) " 

Pootgar T A Thomman (Con ) 
Putkididty P C Gheriyan (Con ) 
Pdiyatmur Joseph Chazhikatt (PSP) 
Ptmalur P Gopalan (CPI) 

Qjiilandy F M Kunluraman Nam- 
bair (PSP) 

Qjalon A A Rahim (Con) 
Ramamattgalam E P Poulose (Con ) 
Ratmt Idicula (Con ) 

SherthaUn Smt K R Gonn (GPI) 
Tan«r G H Mohamed Koya (Ind ) 
Tellteheny VR Krishna Iyer (GPI) 
Thakadn Thoman John (Con ) 

Tirw K MoideeiikuttyHajee(lnd ) 
Thirvrangady K Avukkadarlnitty 
Naha (Ind) 

Thmtnalla G Padmanabhan Tbampi 

:SJpuzka A Mathesv (Con ) 
Tknkfadamtr T Knshnan (Con) 
"Tknkkadazur (R) , K Kanmkaran 
(CPI) 

Tnehur A R Menon (CPI) 
TViDflniiram / E P Eapen (PSP) 
Tnvandnm II A Thanu Pillai (PSP) 
UlUtr V Sreedharan (CPI) 
Vadakkekara K A Balan (CPI) 

Fiu^in K R Narayanan (Con ) 
Varkala' T Abdul Majeed (CTl) 
Varkda (R) K "Sivadasan (GPI) 
X'azhur P T Ghacko (Con ) 

Vtlappil Ponnara G Sreedhar (PSP) 
IVadakkanckern . K KochuLuttan 
(Con ) 

124. Wadakkanchary (R) . C C Ayyappan 
(CPI) 

125 JiyTtad N K RunhiLnshnan Nair 
(Con) 

j26 (R) ■ V. Madura (Con ) 

127. A^tnalfd. A D* cruz 


100 

101 

102 

103 

104 

105 

106 

107 

108 

109 

no 

111 

112 

113. 

114 

115 

116 

117 

118 

119 

120 
121 
122 
123 



428 


BXJDGET OF THE GOYERKMENT OF KERALA 
(On Rnxnue Account) 


(Jn IcUis qf izpces) 



Budget 

Estimates 

1958-59 

Resnsed 

Estimates 

1958o9 

Budget 

Estmsates 

1959-60 

RE\*EXUE RECEIPTS 

UiuoT Excise Duties 

Taxes On Income oilier than Corporation Tax 
E*tate Dut% 

T'lxcs On Fares 

Land Res enoe (net) 

Siitc Evcise Duties 

Stamps 

Forest 

Rcf^utraiion 

Taxes on ^ chides 

SdesT-x 

Other Taxes and Duties 

Im nation, Na'igauon, Embanlnnciit and 
Dminagc Works (net) 

Debt Sert ices 

Civil j\dmini‘it’atit>n 

CimI Works and Miscellaneous Pubhc 

Impro cments (ret) 

MiscclHneous (net) 

Contnb Jtiops and Miscellaneous Adjustments 
lieusccn Cenir’l and State Got efnmenls 
Cemmunut Dctclopmtnt Projects, XK, and 
Local Development ^\o■■ks 

Ex'motlmrt 

228 67 
510 17 
H 16 
16 56 
158 32 
219 06 
110 S3 
282 -10 

1 3-i 16 

163 80 
i 420 00 

8 82 

8 56 
163 14 
590 55 

49 90 
130 83 

175 23 

67 01 

0 77 

244 08 
430 91 

8 38 
19 71 
! 163 57 

219 74 
121 85 
321 20 
! 33 57 

165 85 
535 80 
15 33 

5 56 

1 132 37 

590 56 

100 48 
205 82 

175 54 

61 20 

0 80 

241 42 
448 85 

7 44 
19 71 
167 46 
216 87 
127 86 
323 00 
33 57 

174 88 
600 00 

18 61 

9 (H 
125 43 
697 38 

122 18 
227 74 

175 35 

59 18 
50 80 

GILWD TOT kUREA EXUE RECEIPTS 

3,362 44 

3,532 34 

3,846 77 

REk'EVUE EXPENDITURE 

Direct D m-rds on the Revenue 

Rev \ccouri of Irrigation, Xav igntiDn, ’ 

cut 2,j\d DriUnage \\ orVs 

D'b ^nct) 

G kd-imist-ation 

tioiofjusice 

lailv 
iv’ c- 

*»r *"1 i'cD--p^n"rnts 

M-d c 1 

Pt 'icHf! \ 

W cvt k re i Rt e’opmenl 

\r rn'l Hukoaairv 

C'*-< p - 1 ''n 

1“ *1 i' a* tl *>uppb»^ 

D pi-p'r^ts 

V ’vlWr-,. WN'j.ceib." omPubbc 

' — '1 tj 

V ' *t«- ^ 

258 03’ 

57 21 

153 85 

126 03 
77 08 
23 58 i 

186 97 ' 
4 52 

1 084 71 1 
247 24 
167 38 
193 08 
21 22 
23 89 
77 85 

154 59 

I«K) 32 
238 12 

127 53 

273 55 

58 33 
153 16 
137 61 
82 33 
27 57 
193 50 
4 82 
1,247 95 
256 19 
118 44 
455 77 
20 56 
18 12 
58 G2 
168 57 

232 41 
271 17 

102 68 : 

299 51 

75 72 
157 66 
148 40 
87 86 

31 77 
203 43 

4 83 
1,301 66 
298 64 
153 27 
IGI 28 
26 75 
25 36 
75 24 
170 59 

303 03 
275 35 

119 24 


t 

i 5,417 27 

3.581 37 1 

3,924 54 

\iv ly ncj r o\ 

^ u v,„couxr 

j C~) 54 C3 

C— ) 29 03 j 

(-) 77.?7 






429 


MADHVA FBADESH 


Ans l,71j250 sq miles Population 2,60,71,637 Capital Bhop^ 

Pnneipal leakage Hindi • 


Governor H V Fataskar 
COUNCIL OF MINISTERS 


Ministers 
KN Ka^u 

BA Mandlox 

Sbambhunath Shukla 
SD Sbarma 
Misbnlal Gangwal 

Shanlutrlal Tcivan 

VV Dravid 

Nareshchandra Singh 
Ganesh Ram Anant 

Padmavati Devi 
A Q, Siddiqm 

Deputy Ministers 
Narsinghrao DiXit 
Kesbolal Gomasbta 
JagmobanDas 

Mathura Prasad Dube 

Shivbhanu Solanhi 

Sajjan Singh Vishnar 

Dashiathjain 
Shyam Sunder Narain 
Mudiran 


P&r^oliQs 

Chief Minister, General Admimstraboii, Home, 
Publiaty, Gomplamts, Planning and Development, 
Agriculture ana Co-ordmation 

Revenue, Survey and Settlement, Land Records, Land 
Reforms, Local Self-Government ( Urban ) and 
Commerce and Industry 

Forests and Natural Resources 

Education, Law and Tourist TrafSc 

Finance, Separate Revenue, Economics and Statistics 
and Registration 

Public Works, Irrigation (excluding Cbambai Project) 
and Electncity 

labour. Rehabilitation, Housu^ and Chambal Pro- 
ject 

Tnbal Welfare 

Social Welfare, Co-operation and Local SdC-Govcm- 
ment (Rural) 

Pubhc Health 

Jails, Food and Civil Supplies 


Home 

Commerce and Industry 

Revenue, Survey and Settlement, Land Records, 
Land Reforms and liocal Self-Government 
Finance, Separate Revenue, Econonucs and Statistics, 
Registration and Public Health 
Tnfaal Welfare, Labovir, Rehabilitation and Social 
Welfare 

For«ts, Natural Resources, Jails, Food and Civil Sup- 
plies ^ 

Pubhc Works and Elcctnaty 
Agnculture and Co-operation 

Qa^Stcrelaiy 
H S Kamath 


Chief Justice 
Puisne Judges 


Adcocate^General 


Chairman 

Members 


MADHYA PRADESH HIGH COURT 


Naik, PV Dixit, Abdul Hakim Khan. 
VR Ntt\askar, TC Shmastava, PK 
Tare, H R Knshnan, K L Pandey, S P 
SB Sen, P Sbanna, NM 

M Adhtkan 


PUBLIC SER\TGC COMMISSION 
HC Seth 

* S S. Pande, E M Josb, Dhondiraj 



430 


MADHYA PRADESH LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY 

Deputy Speaker t A S Patwardhan f 


Speaker K.L Dubey 


1 Agar MadanLal(JS) 

2 Alirajpw (R) Chatiasmgh Danyab 

Smgh (Con ) 

3 Alet Devi Smgh (Con ) 

4 ii(?/(R) Mian Ram (Con) 

5 Akaltara Bhuivan Bhaslar Smgn 

(Con) 

6 Amarpalaa Ram]ut(JS) 

7 Ambah Ram Nnvas (Cod J ^ ^ , 

8 Ambtkapur Bnjbbusan Prasad Smha 

(Con) 

9 Ambikapur (R) Pnt Ram Rurrcy 

(Con) 

10 Araitg Lakhanlal Gupta (Con ) 

1 1 Arang (R) J^mobandas Guru 

Gosai (Coo ) 

12 Ashoknagar Ramdayal Smgh (Con ) 

13 Ashoknagar (R) Duhchand Sumer- 

chand Abirwar (Con ) 

14 Aler Hargyan Smgh Bauhorc (PSP) 

15 Badnagar Kan^ya Lai Bhuiabbai 

Mehta (Con ) 

16 Badnawar Manohar Smgh Mehta 

(Con) 

17 Bathar Murhdhar Bhatadal Asanh 

(Con) 

IB Balkar (R) Haismgh Bakhatsmgh 
Dike (Con) 

19 Balaghai Nandkuhore Jaisraj 

Sbaima (Coo ) 

20 Balod Kesholal Gomastha (Goa.) 

21 Saloda-Bazar Bnjlal Venna (PSP) 

22 Baloda'Bazar (R) Narayandas (Con ) 

23 Banda Knshnanand Ramchaian 

(Con) 

24 Bandkogark Cbhotelal Patel (Con) 

25 Bargkot Ravmdranath Bhai^va 

(Con) 

26 Bargt CbandnLa Prasad Thpathi 

(Con) 

27 Badwak Virendrasingh Motismgh 

Mandloi (Con ) 

28 Badwani{R) Gulal(JS) 

29 Basna Virendra Bahadur Smgh 

(Ind) 

30 Bmstera Laxman Prasad Vaidya 

(Con) 

31 Bmmra (R) * Shivla] Rurre (Con ) 

32 B^ohan Ram Kishore Shukla (Ind ) 

33 Beohan (R) Smt Jha^ksn 

(Con) 1 

34 Batrona Bhsgwan Sin-di (Cor ) | 

35 Batnmd (R) Ilsnkruhna SintL 

(Con) 

36 Betvl Deepchand Lakdmuchand 

Golht (Con ) 

37 B*tul (R) Mohakamsngh Sabsmgh 

U«kc (Con ) 

33 Bftansdeht (R) Somdatta Deo 
Dhunc (Con 1 

39 Bbairftartt Chakrapani Shukla (Con ) 

40 Bia’jraan Juendra Viiay Bahadur 

Singh (Ind ) 

41 (R) Moolchand Jaagdc 
(Cnn ) 

4- Bhtlet Udairun (Con 1 
4a flW«{R) Gopal Smgh (Coo ) 


44 Bhxnd Narsinghrao Dnat (Con ) 

45 Bhma Manohar Rao Jatar (Con ) 

46 Bkama (R) Dipsingh (Con ) 

47 Bhopal Shalar Ah Khan (CPI) 

48 Btaora Laxman Smgh Yadav (Ind) 

49 Bicckuz (R) Baredi (Con ) 

50 Bijai'Ragho^h Kimjdal Swaniakar 

51 Ryai'Rflg&ngflrA (R) . Smt Chandabai^ 

(Con ) , 

52 Btjawar Smt Gayatn Pumar (Con J 

53 Bijuiwir (R) Hansraj (Con) 

54 Btjapur BR Pambhoi (Con) 

55 Bilaspur Shitdularc (Con ) 

56 Btndranawagark Shyamcharan 

Shukla (Con ) 

57 Bindranawgarh (R) * Smt Sbyam- 

kuman D^ (Con )- 

58 Strendranager Smt PadmavaU Dcvi 

(t^n ) . 

59 Budhm Smt SurajkalaSahayt^Con) 

60 RKrAo^ur Adbul Kadar Sxddiqui 

(Con ) ' rj-, \ 

61 Champa Ramknshna RathoiefCon ) 

62 Ckachaura S^rsmgh Sisodia (Con ) 

63 Cfandrapur Vacant 

64 f7Ad7idr^ur{R) Vedram(Con) 

65 Cbhatarpur Dasrathjam (Con ) 

66 Chhatarpur (R) Govmd Das (Con ) 

67 Ckhindit.<ira Smt Vidyaivati Mdita 

(Con) 

68 Cbkmdwara (R) NoLhelal Dchana 

(Con ) ' ^ 

69 ChitrcdJ>U{R) SuLhadu (Con) 

70 ChitrayMt Kaushalendra Pratap 

Smgh{RRP) 

71 CAaaft (R)- Smt Kanat Kuman 

Devi (Con ) 

72 Damah Hanshchandra Marotbi 

(Con ) 

73 Danteinara (R) Shea Ram Ncgi (Con ) 

74 Daita ShyamSunderdas (Con ) 

75 Deon. Bala Prasad Mishra (Coa) 

76 Deosar- Bhaila! (Ind) 

77 DeoseriR) JagdcoSmgh ^P) 

78 Depalpur Nandlal Joshi (Con ) 

79 Depalpur (R) Sayan Smgh Vishnar 

(Con ) 

80 Dewas Anant S adhaAi v Pahvar- 

dhan (C^'in ) 

I 81. Deteat {R ) : Bapiilal Kishan hlalwys 
(Con ) 

' 8^. Dhamda Ganeshram (Coo ) 

83 Dhamtttn Purshottamdu Patel (Con ) 

84 Dhamlart (R) Jhitakuram (Con ) 

85 Dhar Vasant Sadashiv Pradhao 

(HM) , 

66 Dkttrartgatgarh Chandrachudb Prasad 
Singh Deo (Con ) 

87, Dharemjaigarh (R) Ununed S ingh 

88 ^kamutan Khubchand Baghcl (PS?) 

89 Dtndon . Dwanka Prasad Bilthare 

CCon ) _ ^ 

90 Dtndart (R) Akali Bason Bhoi (CoO ) 

91 Dmdt Lohara (R) Smt Jbatnati 

1 Kunwar Dcvi (Con ) 



431 


92 Vongargaon Dhannalal Jain (Con ) I- 

93 Dongargarh Vijaylal (Con ) 1' 

94 Dongargarh {R) Bhootnath (Con ) 

95 Durg Vishwanath Yadavrao !• 

Tamaskar (PSP) I 

96 Gadarwara Kishonlal Paliwal (Con ) !• 

97 Gadarwara {^) : Narmada Prasad 1 

(Con ) 

98 Caroih Vunal Rumar Chauradiya I 

99 G<^o^ (fl) Smt Saraswati Dcvi 

Shania (Con ) I 

100 Ghargkoda Gaun Sliankar Shastn 

(Con ) „ . ^ 

101. Gharghoda (R) . Lalit Kumar Singh 

(Con ) 1 

102. Gird Murlidhar Vishwanath Dbule 

(Con ) 1 

103. Gohad Smt Sushila Dcvi Bhadauna 

(Con ) ^ 1 

104 Galegaon Shyam Sunder Narain j 

Mushran (Con ) 

105 Gaunlla Mathura Prasad Dubc(Gon ) j 

106 G«na Daulat Ram (Con ) 

107 Gurh Shivnath Prasad (JS) j 

lOB Giooltor RamchandraAnantSarvate i 

(CPI) 

109 Harda Laicmanrao Bbikajee Naik ] 
(Con) ] 

HO Harda {R) Smt Gulabbai Agmbhoj ] 
(Con) 

HI Harsud Kalusmgh Shersingh (Con ) , 

1 12 Harsud (R) Ram Singh Gahba (Con ) 

113 Ha:ta Gaya Prasad Pandey (Con) 

114 Hatfa (R). Kadorclal Ghaudhary ' 

(Con ) 

115 Hoshangabad . Nanhclal Bhurclal 

(Con) 

116 Indore Vyanlatcsh Vishnu Dravid ■ 

(Con) 

H7. Indore City Central i Babulal Fatondi 

118 Bast' Homi Framroj Daji j 
(Ind) 

119 Iridore City West. Mishnial Cangi^al 

(Con) 

120 Jtarsi Han Prasad Chatuncdi (Con ) 

121 Jabalbar I Kunjilal Cube (Con ) 

122 Jabalpur II : Jagdish Narayan 

Awasthi (Con ) 

123 Jabalpur III Jagmohan Das (Con ) 
121 JagdidpjT Pra\irchand Deo (Con ) 
125 JttgdaipuT (R) Dcrha Prasad (Con ) 
12G Jenj^tr LakheshM aria) Pa!i\\*al (Con ) 

127 Ja tHsre Kailash Nath Katju (Con ) 

128 Jai/pur Vijaibhuslian Sttgh Deo 

(Con ) 

129 Jrsf-p..T(R) . Johan (Con) 

130 Jetttta, Kamia Prasad (Con ) 

131 Jatsi \ irendra Kumar Sakhiccha 

(Jb) 

132 ( R) Sursingh Mansingh (Cot ) 

133 Jrbat (R) Smt Gangibai (Con ) 

131 Ju".* Cl ho’clal Kasln Prasad (Ind ) 

135 Ac-fr* Smt Pmtihba Dcm (Con) 

136 Atf-.fr{R) \ifmm(Coi) 

117. AV - 1 SmL \lanjulabai Ikacle 
(Oa) 

138 G^ulam SI ar-na (Con ) 

IS'i /re*, Rmniklal AmnihlTmcdi 
(Con) 


Kaighora Banivanlal (Con ) 

Katghora (J?) Rudra^aran ftatap 
Smgh (Con ) 

Kawardlui Dharamrm Smgh (RRP) 
Ke^l (R) Saradu (Con ) 

Kahehrod Virendra Smgh (HM) 
Khairagarh Rituparan Kishordas 
(Con ) 

iT&nrfl/an/fe* ShankerlalTewan (Con ) 
Kbaiidwa Bhagwantrao Mandloi 
(Con) 

Khandwa (R) Deokaran Balchand 
JGon) 

Kbargone Ramakant Vishwanath 
Khode (Con ) 

KkargotK (R) Sawamngh Mandloi 
(Con) 

Khilcht^ ' Piabhudayal Ghaubc 
(Con) 

RTiarai Rishabh Kumar (Con ) 
Khurm (R) Bhadai Halkc Chaudhan 
(Con) 

Kimapur Tejlal Hansebandra Tcn- 
bhare (Con ) 

Rrma^tir (R) Motuam Udgoo (Con ) 
Keadaras Vaidehicbaran Parashar 
(Con ) ' 

Korda (R) Soyam Jogaya (Ckm ) 
Kota Kashiram Teivan (Con ) 

Kota (R) Smt Sura] Ktmwar Dcvi 
(Con.) 

Kotma Smt Hanraj Kunivar (Con ) 
Koima (R) Ratan Smgh (Con ) 
iTukrAi (R) RatanSin^ Ram Smgh 
(Con) 

Kuru-at TaLbtmal Jam (Con ) 

Rirrud Bhopalrao Bisuji (Con ) 

Labor Smt Prcmkuinari Rajc (Con ) 
Labor (R) Gokul Prasad KatraiUia 
(Con) 

, LeUiamdon (R) : Vasantrao UiLe 

(Con ) 

LasbLar Ram Kiuas Bangad (Con) 
Laundi Smt Vidvawati Chatuncdi 
(Con) 

Lermt Gonga Prasad Upadh^ay 
(RRP) ^ 

■ ^lakasatntaid Namchand (Con ) 
Alahasamund (R) Bajirao Miri (Con ) 
MalMhwttT Ballabhadas Mahatan 
(Con) 

Mahahuar (R}' Sitaram Sadho (Con ) 
Mtthrdpur Rtmeshu-ar Da)al 
Mahadn Toiala (Con ) 

. hlahidpuriR) . Durgadas Suiyas-ansbi 
(Con ) 

IlttihoT Go)ial Sbanm Smgh (Con ) 
hUjhnih AtiimStngh (Ind ) 

Mc-asa Surdctlal I'at\\a (JS) 
Mc'^eaet Lml (R) Ranjit Singh (H.ND 
Mercticr Wrsi (R) * Shnbhanu 
Sol-mla (Con ) 

Meui’a iml N‘’rT\ani Dm (Con) 
Mc'-i trr Sb^-am S.-ndtr P-'tidar 
(Con) 

Itcvd'C'ah. E'ijcrd*aJal Gupta 
(Cot ) 

(R, Rsrhubar S rgh 

(On ) 

S-rgh (Ird ) 



432 


187 Masod Marotrao Lahunx (PSP) 237 

188 ^Xojfwri Bashir Ahmad Kxiresb (Con) 238 

189 Masturi (72) Ganesh Ram Anant 239 

(Con) 

190 Mtaigarj Achutanand (Ind) 240 

191 Maugonj (R) Sahdeo (Con ) 241 

192 MehtdiLarni (72) R amais ingn (Con) 242 

193 Mekgaon Yugul Kishorc (PSP) 243 

194 Mhojj Rusloniji Ka^^■asJI Jal (Con ) 

195 JVfarflr Smt Chandrakala Sahai 244 

(Con ) 245 

196 Morena Yashuant Singh Kushxvah 

(CoQ ) 

197 Mm a (72) Smt ChamdiDai Sagar “n 


(Con ) 

198 MuRat -Inandrao Sonaji LoLhande *49 

(PSP) 250 

199 Mmgelt Khalatsmgh Nandvanshi 

(H-M) ‘Ol 

200 Mungeli Ambika Sao KcshansTmi 

(RRP) 253 

201 Mungeh[R) RamlalGhasiaSatnami 

(RRP) 

202 Munccra Ramdas Agraival (Ind) 

203 jYorcJcnAw (72) Ram^^\’ar Aiiun i 

(Con ) 

204 Ji'animnaptir Smt SarlaDe\iPathak 257 

205 j^'arsmji^h Radha\‘allabb Vija^a- 

\argiva (Con) 

206 ^oTsinghgarh (72) Bhamvarlaljixs’an 

(Con ) 

207 j^aioagarh \'isahoo Das ^iahant (Con ) 

203 Mmudt Sitaram Surajmal Jaju (Con ) 

209 vViJ/on Lakshnu Naram Nail. (PSP) 

210 Md.cn (72) Nathnram Ainn\'ar 

(Con) 260 

211 At.fai(72) Sahjoo (Con ) 287 

212 A ohaia Kunj £th^ Guru 268 

(Con) »jgg 

213 Pagara (72) Udayabhanu Shah (Con ) 

214 Pci KapildeoNara^ an Singh (Con) o^n 

215 Pcl{P) BhandanRam(Con) 071 

216 Pc’isgcr Pannanand ^Ioha^^al 

Patel (Con ) 273 

217 Pcnna Dc\cndra Vijay Smgh (Ind ) 

218 PcTttna Kashi Prasad Varnia (Con ) 

219 Pflrona (72) Phulbhanu Shah (Con ) 

220 Paten Nek Xara>-an Suigh (Con ) , 

221 Pafai(72)^ Smt D«aDevi\con) 

2*— Pej.a Narcndra Smgh (Con ) 

351 J Chaudhari (Con ) 

^4 Pichl-m Gird BrmdraSahay (Con } 

223 PicW-orfCi«7(72). Raja Ram Singh 

(Con ) d/o 

226 Pirhhare (Shrpin) Lasmi Narttvan 
Gupta (HM) 

-27 Pu.M.arejgarl' (72). Lalan Smgh 280 
(Con ) ® 281 

^0 n^t- R->mktinar Aganral (PSP) 282 
2-9 RatpjT SbardaCharan Tehran (Con) 

^9 ^jsa*h Ram Ghatan Dube (Ind ) 283 

-31 P=,anr-Jgcm J P L Francis (PSP) 

^taa^l]al Tejsuigh 284 

233 Lai Go ind Kara* 285 

331 Smgh (Con) 

233 > t * Suman Jam (Con ) 286 

Jaher Bhai Paid 287 

232 JasdnhChacdmJoshi (Ind.) Um 


Sebalgarh Bal Mukund Mudgal (Con ) 
Saba^arh (72) Baboolal Maurj-a (Con ) 
Sagar Mohamed Shafi hlobamad 
Subrati (Con ) 

Satli lalad]^ Singh (PSP) 

Sattchi Khuman Smgh (Con ) 

Sandn (72) Daulat Singh (Con ) 
Saraipali Jaidco Gadadhar 
Satpathi (Con) 

Jcrangnrft Narcshchandra Smgh (Con } 
Saraagark (72) Km Nanhudax 
(Con ) 

Sarderpur Shankar Lai Garg (Con ) 
Satiia Shnanand (Con ) 

£’a(na (72) Vishts esh\\’ar Prasad (Con ) 
Samar Raichand Bhai Shah (Con ) 
S'aarar (72) Ranchusmgh Isvanati 
(Con ) 

Sekorc Dnsanchand Mahajan (JS) 
Sehore (72) Umrao Smgh (Con) 
Setulhau a (72) Barkoo Ghauhan 
(Con ) 

Seondha Kamta FrasadSaxena (Con ) 
Scorn Dadu Mahcndranath Smgh 
(Con) 

SkakpdT KeshatTao Yashti'antrao 
Dedunukh (PSP) 

Shajapur Pratap Bhai (Con ) 

(72) Kishanial Alaltn^-a (JS) 
5Afo^jr Raghunath Smgh (HM) 
Shirpun Mdojirao Narsinghrao 
Sbitole (Ind ) 

>^Ai.j^(72) Ttilaram Sagar (Con) 
Shujalpar Vishnu Chaian Jo'hi (Con ) 
SidJa Chandra Pratap Tc\v an (PSP) 
Sikora Kashi Prasad Pande (Con.) 
Sihara (72) Harbhagat Smgh (Con ) 
Suigfcuh Sh^am K^Qk (Ind) 
SimmiT Smt Champa De\a (Con ) 
Stranj hladan Lai Agaiaval (HM) 
Suarez BhanwarlaJ Rajmal Kahta 
(Con) 

SilBpur (72) - Hanbnajan Sm^ (Con ) 
SakcgpjT Shambhu Nath ShulJa 
(Con) 

Sokagpur Naiayansmgh Dangalsmgb 
Jaiv-ar (Con ) 

Sohagpur (72) Smt Ratan Kuman 
(Con) 

Sonlatcka Bhagirath Smgh (jS) 
^urai^ Dhircnora Nath Sharma 
(Con) 

^ (72) Mahadco Smgh (Con ) 
Sari At B B Rai (Con ) 

Susner Hatibhau Joshi (JS) 

' ’TanoiJiar (72) Smt YMr\'ascni 
Kumiin De^ 1 (Con ) 

I 'Teordnar Banspati Smgh (Con ) 
Tkandia (72) Nathu L^ (Ind ) 

1 Ti^tnn^arA Ram Knshna Alzshra 
(Con) 

1 Udatpara Shankar Daval Shanna 
(Con) 

1 Ujjain AoftA Smt Rajdan Kumvar 
Kishon (Con ) 

) Vjjcin Sotdk Visi-anath Avadut 
(Con ) 

3 Vtdtsha Ajai Smgh (Con ) 

7 Vtdisha (72) Hiralal Fippal (Con ) 
3 TrorBifoRj- Thansmgh Visen (Con) 
3 J^OTtnaUd • P Bernard 



433 


BTJDGET OF 'THE GOVERNMENT OF MADHYA PRADESH 
(On Revenue Account^ 

{Jnla}^ of n^xu) 



Budget 

Estimates 

1958-59 

Revised 

Estimates 

1958-59 

Budget 

Estunates 

1959-60 

REVENUE llEGEIPrS 

Union Excue Duties 

Taxes on Income other than Corpora- 
tion Tax 

Estate Duty 

Taxes on Railway Fares 

Land Revenue (net) 

State Excise Duties 

Stamps 

Forest 

Rcgistradon 

Taxes on Vehides 

Sales Tax 

Other Taxes and Duties 

Irrigation, Naviganon, Embankment 
and Draitu^ Works (net) 

Debt Services 

Civil Administration 

Cml Works and Miscellaneous Public 
Improvements (net) 

Miscellaneous (net) 

Gontnbutioos and Miscdilaneoiis 
Adjustments bctiveen Central and 
State Governments 

Commurnty Development Pro>etts, 
NES, and Local Devdopment 

Works 

Extraordinary 

427 84 

520 24 

12 75 

81 85 . 
902 94 
388 51 
130 13 
643 55 
24 00 
100 16 
456 00 
68 18 

128 72 
115 23 
546 36 

29 07 
154. 19 

385 68 

151 39 
350 00 

539 99 

512 38 
12 75 
90 50 
838 50 
409 90 
131 70 
693 83 
23 50 
115 00 
398 60 

81 06 

65 00 
234 54 
471.74 

34 67 
240 23 

439 20 

193 96 
350 00 

536 19 

531 91 

12 75 

90 50 
1,010.47 
385 68 
133 83 
746 64 

24 00 
115 00 
464 90 

85 10 

65 00 
147 83 
501 62 

34 55 
160 84 

428 63 

211 71 
250.00 

GRAND TOTAL-REVENUE 
RECEIPTS 

5,616 79 

5,877 05 

5,937 15 

REVENUE EXPENDITURE 

Direct Demands on the Revenue 
Revenue Account of Imgation, Navi-* 
^tion. Embankment and Drainage 

Debt Services (net) 

General Administration 

AdministratiQn of jusdee 

Jails 

Police 

Sacntific Departments * . 

EducaUdn 

Medical 

Public Health | ’ 

Agnciilture ' ’ 

Animal Husbandry 

Go-opcration 

Industries and Si^phes 

Miscdlaneous Departments , ’ 

Ci\ il Works and Miscellaneous Pubbe* 
Improvements 

Miscdlaneous 

Extraordinary, indudmg Community 
Projects, NES, and Local Develop 
ment Works 

542 55 

78 11 
276 54 
353 76 
87 00 
39 39 
488 40 ! 
5 46 
1,124 55 

249 28 
168 16 
265 17 
111 00 

55 35 
140 52 

250 33 

392 66 
591 77 

3B6 76 

561 53 

71 62 
323 72 
347 99 
92 71 

38 59 
544 17 

4 66 
1,063 16 
236 76 
146 28 
229 07 
96 37 
51,-49 
119 97 
227.21 

430 81 
j 562.63 

378 36 

653 93 

74 98 

341 76 

356 82 

92 95 

40 14 

553 91 

6 64 
1,162 64 

255 28 
182.52 
238.35 

1 109 48 

58 70 

130 OL 

251 49^ 

436 43 

496 26. 

402 05 

grand TOTAL-EXPENDITURE 1 
ONREVENUE ACCOUNT . ; 

5,506 76 

5,527 30 

5,844 29 


(4)110 03 

(40349 75 

OO DC 

— — j — ^ 













434 


Ana. 50,128 sq^ nuJo 
PruKtpal Imgtioge Tamil 


Population 2,99,74,936 


Capital Madras 


Gorenw Bishnuram Mcdhi 
C0UNC3IL OF MINISTERS 


Mvttsters 

K Katnaraj Nadar 

M Bhaktav&tsalam 

p Subiamaniam. 
MA Mamdaielu 
R. Venkataraman 


W Ramaiab 

Smt lAurdanunal Simon 


Portfolios 

, Chief Minister, Planmng and Conununity 
Development 

Heme indudirg Courts end Prisons, 
Prohibition, Fw)d and Agriculture 

. Finance, Education, Infoitiiaticn and Law, 
Revenue ard Public Health 

. Industries, Labour, Co-opcraticn, Corcmer* 
cial Ta^cs, Housing and Nationalised 
Transport 

. Public \VQrlws Gcduding EIcctnaty and 
Hanjan Wdfare 

. EIcctnaty, Transport and Registration 
Local Administration and Fishcncs 


Chief Justice 
Plasm Judges 


Admaste-General 


Afesnier 


SpeiAer 


Oaf Secretai^ 

W R.S Satlhianadhan 
MADRAS HIGH COURT 
P V R^amannar 

* P Rajagopalan, N Somasundaram, 

V B Ayvar, Bashcer Ahmed, P N Ramaswami, 

N R Ay)|-angar, S R Ay\-ar, 

V S Nadar, S G PiUai 

• V K Thiruvcnkatachan 

PUBLIC SER\TCE COMMISSION 
VR Mudahar 

V R Nagarajan 

MADRAS LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY 
U Knshna Rao Deputy Spealjr B Bhaktavatsalu Naidu 


A R Mannmthu 

A&tOsurat T R_ Ramamirta 
Tbondaman (Con) 

Almgudi “ Aninachrfa (Con ) 
AUmgudi^ (R) V ChiTiTi.at, (Con \ 
Almgul^ A. Veluchamy Thevar 
llnd ) 

At^ttsumiTom Pomathisankara 
Deckahitar (Con) 

Anbw Knshnamoorthy fC3on 

SR^Miinm^ (lid) 
G A nnamaTai Muthuraja 

S Ramasatm Thevar 

find ) 

AramfainA S Sadaavam (Con \ 
Areot S Khadir Sheriff 

S Ramalmga Padayachi 


Sadayappa Mudaliar 


14 Arkanam 

(Con) 

15 Ana B Doraisami Rcddiar 

(Ind) 

16 Aruppukkollas M D Ramasami 

(Ind) 

17 Altur M P Subramaniam (Ind ) 

18 Attur (R) T Inisappan (Ind ) 

19 Authaor A Arumugasaniy (jCon ) 

20 Atanasfa It. Marappa Goundar 

(Con ) 

21 SasinSndge Km AnanHnnavati 

(Con ) 

22 Bharam G G Gurumurthi (Con ) 

23 Bhacttju (R) , P G Mamckam (Con ) 

24 Bbinenagtn • Samikannu Padavachi 

(Con ) 

25 Bodinqyakka/ioor . AS Subbarai 

(Con) 

26 Chengam . T Kana Goundar (Con ) 





435 


Chtmmdai K R Nallasivam 
(Ind) > 

Ch^OT P Ramachandran (Con ) 
Chidambaram G Vagheesam Pdlai 
(Con ) 

Ckjdambarom (R) Sami Sahajananda 
(Con) 

Chingltpui Mutbmwaim Nayagar 
(Con) 

Cknglepui (iZ) P Appavu (Con ) 
Coimbatore I Smt Savitn 
Shamnugham (Con) 

Combalore 11 Falaniswami (Con ) 
Coimbatore 11 (i?) Marudacbalam 

Smt Lourdammal Simon | 

(Con) 

Coanoor J Matha Gowdcr (Con ) 
Cuddalore Sreenivasa Padayachi 
(Con) 

Dharaptiram, A Scnapathi Goimdar 
(Con) 

Dhamabun M Kandasami Kandar 
(Con^ 

Dindtgul MJ Jamal Moidccn 
(Con) 

E^m K Anbazhagan (Ind ) 

. Erode V S Manicliasundaram 
(Con) 

Candarvakoliai Knshnasami Gopalar 
(Con.) 

Gmgee M Jangal Rcddiar (Ind ) 
Gopiclulltpali^am P G Karuthiru- 
min (Con ) 

Gudnattam V K Kothandaraman 
(CPI) 

GudijaUam (A) T Mana^alan 
(Con) 

Gummadtpimdi ^ Smt KamalambU' 
jammal (Con) 

Harbour U Kruhna Rao (Con) 
Harm PM Munisamy Goundar 
(Con) 

Harur (iZ) M K Manappan (Con ) 
Hosur K Appavoo Pitlai (Ind) 
Ja^anktmdan K. R Viswanalhan (Con ) 
JCttJambur K Ramasubbu (Con ) 
Kadambur {^?) S Sangiti (Con ) 

. JCadaran 0S Auiltimoolam (Ind) 
Kcllakur ehi . C Natarajan (Ind ) 
iTal/alunJi) (JJ) bl Anandan (Ind ) 
Kanehtcpjram C N. Annadunu (Ind ) 
Rrmgi^am K G Palmmuny 
Goundar (Con ) 

liiatnafimm TS Ramasami PiUai 
(Ind) 

KareStdt M Mutbiah Chcttiar 
(Con ) 

Error NaJlaniam^ (Con ) 

A Xcsamom (Con ) 

(c-af M Alaginsamy (Con ) 

, Aif tpalcjS'^ C Subramaruam 
(Con ) 

Kotta^ti V SubbJih (Ind) 

n Nacaryi Moni^^r (Con ) 
A«/t'c^n M Karunamthi (Ind ) 

AV- Jsf-ar* T. S^mpath (Con ) 

. S Lazar (Con ) 

Crdrei' \ SanLaraa (Con ) 


74 Madurai East Smt P.KR Laluhini* 
kantam (Con ) 

75> Madurantalam O Vcnlcatasubba 
Reddi (Con) 

76. Madwrantakam (iZ) F S EUappan 

(Ind) 

77. Manomadunn R Chidambara 

Bbaratbi (Co^ 

78. Manapparart Cminnaya Kavundar 

(Con) 

79 Marmargudi T S S'li'amuiatha 

Odayar (Con ) 

80 Mayuram G mrayanasajm Naidu 

(Con) 

81 JWttjmrom (R)* P Jayaraj (Con) 

82 Melvr M Penak^pnan Ambalam 

(Con ) 

83 Melw (R) F Kakfcan (Con) 

84 Mellupacyaat Smt D Raghupathi 

Devi (Con ) 

85 Mtltur Atthacarecswara Goundar 

(Con ) 

86. Mudukidaihitr . T L Sasivama Tbevar 
(Ind) 

87 Muduhtlathur (R) A Pcrumal (Ind ) 

88 Afium V A Mutbiah (Con ) 

89 Afann (R) T V Sannasi (Con ) 

90 Mylapore C R Ramasamy (Con ) 

91 N S Ramabngam 

92 Pftt^coil Chidambaianatha Nadar 


93 Halittr P Vcdamamckam (Ind ) 

94 Pfamakkal P Kolanda Goundar (Con ) 

95 PfamaKKal{R) MP Pcnasaim (Con ) 

96 Hambtyur K L Ramasivamy (Con ) 
97. Aiangitnen M G Sanbar (Con ) 

98 M D THnagaraja Pillai 

(Cob ) 

99. Hattmlam (R) M C Muthukumara- 
s\sam> (Con ) 

100 JHclltkupppam S Ramasiiamy 
Padayachi (Con ) 


-w- ijuanara- 

sckharan (Con ) 

103 E'MloUat (R) Smt A S Ponnamal 

(Con) 

104 Ootttcamtmd BK Lmca Gowdcr 

(Con ) 

105 Oltanchatram Kaiuthappa Goundcr 

(Con ) 

106 Padmanahhapuram Thompson Tharma- 

ny Danid (Con ) 

107 Pclant Lakshmipathiraj (Con) 

108 Pellodam- PS Chmna Durai (PSP) 
109. Pa^jrpaHi Kanmacin Muibmh (Con ) 

1 10 Papanasetr \ enJ itachala Nattar 

(Con) 


111 Pc^aan (R) R Subrarianiam 
(Con ) 


112 Pc^cjJi.it K. Ramachandran 
(Ind ) 

^(Con)'^* ^ Sn'nn-aia A>->ar 

IH Smt Hcinalatha Dtn 

(Con ) 

1 15 Perer^^sItT . Kruhnacar'* (Con ) 



436 


116 Permbalur (J?) K Penannan (Con ) 

117 Peramiur S Pailansanu PJlai 

(Ind) 

118 Permburtll] Smt Sathiavammutbu 

(Ind) 

119 Pmmdma NK Palamsami (CPI) 

120 PcHlaeht N Mahabngam (Con) 

121 Pollachi (/Z) K Fomuan (Con) 

122 Polur 5 M Annamalai (Ind ) 

123 Pmnm Govmdaswami Naidu (Con ) 

124 Potmen (A) T P ElumaUu {Con ) 

125 Pad/tapuram AV Thomas (Con) 

126 RamanaUiaparam R Shanmuga 

RaJes^vara Sethupati (Ind } 

127 Rampei AE CbandrasekharaNayagar 

(Con) 

128 Rasipuram A Raia Goundar 

(Con) 

129 Saidapet Duramvanu Reddiar 

(Con ) 

130 Sdm / A \ianappan (Con ) 

131 SoUm H A Rathnavcl Goundcr 

(Con) 

132 Satkaranknl AR Subhiah Mudal- 

lar (Con) 

133 Sa%Karaitkotl (ft) P Urkavalan (Con) 

134 lyonton KS Subramania Goundar 

(Con) 

135 Salhiamaagalam K Gopala Konndar 

(Ind) 

136 Sattanktltttn S B Adityan (Ind } 

137 Satttir K Kamaraj Nadar (Con ) 

138 Sendamansalam T Sivajmanam Pdlai 

(Con ) 

139 Shobngtmr* B Bhai.tavatsalu Naidu 

(Con) 


146 

141 

142 


Sfriah G 
SiTfttlt (B) 
Sieagansa 
(Ind) 


Muthiob Filial (Con ) 
KBS Man) (Con } 

D Subramania R^kuroar 


143 •S'l^an s Ramasami Naid' 

(Oon ) 

144 SnpfrumbuAff M Bhaktavatsalar 

(Con ) 

145 Snnmi’am K Vasudtvan (Con) 

146 Smai/TmUint A P G Vccrabab 

(Cbn ) 

147 Sn nllipunuT R Kmbnasami Naid 

(Con ) 

148 Snnlltpttltir {R) A Chinnasan 

(Con ) 

149. Sa!m Smt K O KulanAai Amnu 
(uon ) 

150 AYS Pansutha Nad: 

JGon ) 

* Sundararajn 

^ Sattanatha Kara^-ab 

IM ThwSinijan (Con) 

U ' NM Vd,pp,„(o,„] 

V-. Hnld. (Ind) ^ ' 

V.U^nUa, (Con) 


158 

159 

160 
161. 
162 

163 

164 

165 

166 

167 

168 

169 

170 

171 

172 

173 

174 

175 

176 

177 

I 178 

179 

180 
181 
182 

183 

184 

185 

186 

187 

188 

189 

190 

191 

192 

193. 

194. 


7%tn(^^ea^</ra7n S Chuma' 
karuppa Thevar (Con) 

TTarulhuraiptmdt A Vedaratnam 

Pdlai (Con ) 

ThirutkuraipuiuJi (R) V. Vcdayyan 
(Con ) 

TRouiana Lights A V P. Asaitbambi 
(Ind) 

Tkwntgapuram M A Mamcka^'du 
(Con) 

Tvtdivantm F Veerappa Kounder 
(Ind) 

Tindtoantm (R) • M Jagannafltan 

(Ind ) 

Tirvehertdvr M S Selvarajan (Con ) 


TM 


Kaliannan 


Tiruchetigode 
(Con ) 

Ttruchei^ode (R) • 

(Con ) 

Ttrvehrapolli I E P 
(Ind) 

TiwcAiro^Rt XT M 
sundaram (CPI) 

TijvkoilttT SAM 
Odayar (Ind ) 

Ttmkoilur (R) P Kuppusanu (Con) 
TtTvhsskUyw N V Chbokahngam 

Smt R^adu Kuryitba- 


Kandasasu 


]>tlathuram 


Kalyana* 

Annamalsu 


Tirmelvch 


patham (Con ) 

7;runf/t«Zi (R) M K Somasundaram 
(Con) 

Tttvppcdur R.C Samanna Goundar 
(Con) 

Ttnippur KN Palamsami Goundar 
(Con) 

TimerffliMj S Ramatnshna Thevar 
(Con) 

7miz>aZ/to- ELambara Mudali (Con ) 

Tirmeltur (R) V S Arunachalaxn 
(Con) 


Ttnaatmomalat P U Sbanmusam 
(Ind) 

Ttrusonwtniusi (R) F S Santhanam 
JInd) 

Tiniu^ar R Swanunatha Mcr- 
kondar (Con ) 

T Pcdtir' TK Subbiah (Con ) 
TnpUcane K S G Haia Sbarcef 
(Con) 

Tuiicortn A Samuel Nadar (Con ) 
Udamalpet S T Subbayya Goundar 
(Ind ) 

UddanapdU M Muni Rcddt (Ind ) 
Ultmditrptl Kandasami Padayachi 

(ConT 

Vstlampalh PK. Mookiah Thevar 

(Ind^ 

UutanapBltQcm K Pandiaraj 
(Con) 

Uturamenir V K Ramaswamy 
Mudaliar (Ind ) 

VcdemdaTei‘ T. Thirmcnkadasamy 
Naicter (Ind ) 

Velaremtr A Govindasamy Nay ngar 
(Ind ) 

r<Myflfn3flA AJi Rashced (Con) 



437 


195. Vcdastmdiir. Smt TS Soundaram 

Ramacbandran (Con ) 

196. VeerttPandy MR Kandasamy Muda- 

Iiar (don ) 

197. VeUne M P. Sarathi (Ind ) 

198 VflaDaukode . M William (Con) 

199. Vxllupuram V P. Sarangapani (Con ) 
200 Vrtdd/uukalam‘ M Selvaraj (Ind) 


201. Wandtvmh M. Ramacbandra Reddy 
(Con ) 

202 Waxidmash (R) D Dasarathan (Con } 

203 Waskemanpet . M Mayandi Nadar 

(Con) 

20i Tefcaud S. Lakshmana Gounder 
(Con) 

205 Tereaud (R) Ktilandaisami Goundcf 
(Con) 


MADRAS LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL 


Cbmman* F V. Cbenan Deputy C^irmffn; AM AUapicbai 


1. AM AUapichai 


2 N Annatnalai FiUai 

3 A.J Arunacbalam 

4 TS Arunacbalam 
5. V S Batasundaram 
6 M Ethir^alu 

7. AG Nayagar 
8 L S Kara^ar 
9, T G Knshnamoortby 
10 PS Knshnaswamy 
Ay^gar 

11. A Krts^aswamy Vandayar 

12 Mobamcd Raza ^an 

13 T Muthukannappan 

14 B Kf Nallaswamy 

15 N Sarkarai Manradiar 

16 FT Rajan 

17, K V. R^aswamy 
18 V V Ramaswami 
19. A Subramanyam 
20 V M Surendram 
21. R V ftnlfgfaraTngn 
22 ST Adityan 


I, Legislative 
A^embly 


Loc^ 

Authorities 


23 A Cbidambara Mudaliar 

24 KM Desikar 

25 TV Devaraja Mudaliar 

26 T Dunuraj 

27 T JogheeGowder 

28 S V. Kalyanaraman 

29 K T Kosalram 

30 F Madmai FiUai 

31 A K Masilamam Cbettiar 

32 V K. Falaniswamy Gounder 


33 


34 

35 

36 

37 

38 

39 

40 

41 

42 

43 
44. 

45 

46 

47 

48 

49 

so 

51. 

52 

53. 

54 

55 

56 

57 

58 

59 

60 
61 

62. 

63. 


£ Janakirama Mudaliar Local 
Authorities 


S R P Ponnuswamy GhctUar 
T Purushotham 
T S Sankaranarayana PiUai 
M Seshachanar 
S P Sivasubramanya Nadar 
A Somasundara Reddiar 


M Subramania Kaiayalar ,, 

M V Sudarsanam Naidu „ 

PBK Thiagaraja Reddiar „ 

K Balasubrainanya Ayyar Graduates 
PV Chenan „ 

Vacant „ 

A Laksbmanaswaim Mudaliar ,, 

T V Sivanandam „ 

A Sreemvasaji , 

A Chidambaranathan Teachers 

GR Damodaran „ 

John Asirvatbam ,, 

G Knshnanioorthy „ 

K M Ramasamy Gounder „ 

T P SnnivBsavTuadan „ 

Smt Mary C Clubvnala 
Jadhav Nommated 


Smt Jotbi Vencatachellum 
Mobamed Usman 
Smt S. Manjubhashini 
V Ramalingam PiUai 
O P Ramaswami Reddiar 
Smt Saraswathy 
Pandurangam 
Smt KB Sundarambal 
M Fatanjali Sastn 




438 


BUDGET OF THE GOVERNMENT OF MADRAS 
(On Revenue Account) 


(In iakh of rtipea) 


Budget 

Estimates 

1958-59 


Revised 

Dtimaics 

1958-59 


Budget 

Estimates 

1959-60 


REVENUE REGEIFTS 
Union Excise Dubes 

Taxes on Income other than Corporabon Tax 

Taxes on AgncuJtural Income 

Estate Duty 

Taxes on Railw'ay Fares 

Land Revenue (net) , 

State Excise Dubes 
Stamps « 

Forest 
R^trabon 
Taxes on Vehicles 
Sales Tax 

Other Taxes and Dubes 
Imgabon, Nav^oon, Embanhment and 
Orain^ Worls (net) 

Debt Seniccs , 

Civil Adimoutrabon 
Civil Works and Miscellaneous Public 
Improvements (net) 

Miscellaneous (net) 

Gontnbubons and Miscellaneous Adjustments 
between Central and State (^vemments 


. t Projects, NES, and Local 
Devcli^mcnt Works 


215 00 
604 00 
107 00 
22 00 
63 63 
486 93 
27 85 
352 81 
92 35 
68 77 
450 00 
880 00 
626 15 

155 37 
498 55 
1,101 53 

86 32 
235 09 

7 39 


308 54* 


GRAND TOTAL-REVENUE RECEIPTS 


6,390 28 


REVENUE EXPENDITURE 
Direct Demands on the