Full text of "Soccer"
By SAMUEL FRALICK
A. S. BARNES & COMPANY : NEW YORK
COPYBIGHT, 1945, BY A. S. BABNES AND COMPANY, INCOBPOBATED
This book is fully protected by copyright and nothing that
appears in it may be reprinted or reproduced in any man-
ner, either wholly or in part, for any use whatever, with-
out special written permission of the copyright owner.
This book has been manufactured in
accordance with the regulations of
the War Production Board.
I. Soccer— Its Origin and Basic Principles 5
Soccer— A Team Game
Individual Play— Defense
Individual Play— Offense
The Center Forward
Inside Right and Inside Left
Outside Right and Outside Left
General Rules Summary
This book has been made possible by the teachings
of Joseph Cermak, retired soccer coach, mhose efforts
instilled in the writer a desire to learn the game as well
as a desire to study and teach the game to others,
Mr. Cermak influenced the lives of thousands of boys
when he taught physical education at Medill High
School and during thirty-seven years of active partici-
pation in the game.
Now eighty-five years old, Mr. Cermak is known as
soccers ''Grand Old Man'*
A CKNO WLEDGMENT
My appreciation and sincere thanks to Leo Fischer
and the Chicago Herald American and Scholastic
Coach Magazine for their thrilling action pictures. Also
thanks to Joseph Cermak without whose advice and
good counsel there would be no book.
1. SOCCER— ITS ORIGIN AND BASIC PRINCIPLES
T here are several versions of the origin of soccer. One soccer historian
reports the game began around the time the Vikings were trying to
invade Saxony and the capture of a Viking occasioned a game of football
with the prisoner serving as the football. Later the game was accelerated,
according to this historian, by beheading the victim and using only his
head as the object of the booting.^ From then on the sport progressed from
rolling heads to the present-day inflated round leather ball.
Another historian reports soccer originated in ancient Greece where the
game was called Harpaston. Here the ball was propelled by any possible
means over lines which were usually at opposi^^e ends of a town and were
defended by the opposing teams." The Romans soon began playing the
game and used it for military training. As the Romans conquered other
lands, the sport was introduced there.
Regardless of its origin, soccer is the one truly international sport. It is
the national sport in most countries of the world. This may be attributed
to the Romans who introduced the game (called football in most of the
nations ) , but much of the credit should go to the game itself.
It is perhaps the simplest sport for participant and spectator alike to
understand. It is one which most athletes can master with ease if the proper
procedure is used in teaching the fundamentals.
Soccer appeals to the novice because the fundamental movements are
such that the beginner finds himself equipped to play the game the first
time he tries it. It is not limited to any special age group because the prime
requisite is condition and stamina.
It is one of the safest conditioning sports because of the restrictions on
the use of hands and the limited body contact. Co-ordination and self-
control are developed.
What makes the game more acceptable to schools, colleges and organiza-
tions is the fact that little special equipment is required and, if necessary,
the game may be played in ordinary gym clothes. Equipment includes a
pair of soccer shoes, shin guards, short pants, long-sleeved shirt and woolen
1 Bill Jeffrey, 1943, NCAA Soccer Guide.
* Soccer, U.S. Naval Institute.
SOCCER—ITS ORIGIN AND BASIC PRINCIPLES
Since the postwar athletic program will find soccer being played more
and more at all levels of education, this book tries to give the coach, the
player and newcomers to the game of soccer a basis for learning the game
and for improving to that stage where its basic movements and intricate
play situations may be mastered.
This book covers the fundamental movements of the game and also pro-
vides definite practice schedules arranged for coaches. It defines and ex-
plains the type of positions, and the type of players who best fit into these
Physical education students, teachers, playground directors, boys’ club
and camp directors will find it a useful volume in their library of sports
Soccer is a game played by two teams of 11 men each. An inflated round
leather covered ball, slightly smaller than a basketball, is used. The ball is
propelled with any part of the body except the hands or arms. Only the
goalkeeper may handle the ball with his hands or dribble it vdthin the
penalty area. (See the Ofiicial NCAA Soccer Guide for complete rules and
definitions of the various areas and game features. )
The positions on a team are: goalkeeper, left fullback, right fullback, left
halfback, center halfback, right halfback, outside left, inside left, center
forward, inside right, and outside right. Here’s the way two teams should
line up at the start of a game.
The field of play is a rectangular area and is generally called the pitch.
Each governing soccer body may decide on the exact length and width of
the fields in its particular sphere of influence. However, the United States
Soccer Football Association, chief governing body of soccer in the United
States, designates that fields should be not less than 100 yards or more than
120 yards in length and not less than 50 yards or more than 75 yards in
width. In any event, the length should exceed the width. The marking of
the field is shown ia the above diagram.
The goals, situated in the center of each goal line, are eight yards wide
and eight feet high with the goal nets attached to the uprights and crossbar
and extending back at a 45-degree angle from the crossbar to the ground.
The purpose of the game is to kick the ball into the opponents goal. A
goal counts for one point and the team scoring the most goals during the two
45-minute halves (colleges play four 22-minute quarters and high schools
two 35-minute halves) is the winner.
Diagram of Field
And Line-Up of Team for Kick-OflF
Field—lOO to 120 yards long, 50 to 75 yards wide.
Goal~8 yards wide and 8 feet high.
Goal Area— 6 yards long and 20 yards wide.
Penalty Area— 18 yards long and 44 yards wide.
Halfway Line— Drawn across the field at center mark.
Center Circle-lO-yard radius from center of field of play.
Penalty Kick Mark— Midway between goal and penalty area lines.
Corner Flag— Flag on post with nonpointed top should be placed at each
corner. It should be of some bright color.
Corner Area— Quarter circle of 1-yard radius from comer.
II. SOCCER— A TEAM GAME
S OCCER is a team game but it also gives an individual player ample op-
portunity to display his talents. Properly organized team play does not
oppose the individual i;ple. Instead it makes use of it by fitting the indi-
vidual and his particular ability into the general scheme of play for the
entire team. It should be remembered that individual play and team play
must be co-ordinated.
All offensive systems are primarily concerned with freeing a player for
an opportunity to score. A clever performer, once he has reached the scor-
ing area, rarely moves aimlessly in seeking a scoring opportunity.
Winning soccer requires a scoring combination, but victory depends also
OR preventing opponents from outscoring you. Any system of play requires
an airtight defense as strong as its attack.
It is diflScult, in discussing and describing team tactics in soccer, to draw
a decisive line between a system and individual action. The sum of the
individual player’s movements makes up the team system. We cannot
divorce one from the other. The important thing to bear in mind is that
there is a definite, mechanical way of advancing the ball into the scoring
A planned attack calls for long training in the fundamentals of kicking,
passing, dribbling, trapping and heading. It requires diligent practice of
oflFensive plays, passing maneuvers and constant alertness.
A well-coached team should be aware of each step in the attack and
the reason for it.
Speed and deception in movement and passing, coupled with a feint or
slight break in direction, will often free a man for a shot at the goal. For
example, an outside right coming in from the sidelines may bluflF or feint
a pass to the center forward, then break away sharply for a shot at the goal.
The center forward may use the same maneuver in outwitting the fullbacks
by blufiBng a pass to an inside man, breaking rapidly away for the goal and
shooting on the run.
To develop a polished attacking technique, the soccer coach will find it
necessary to have his players in good physical condition. He also must teach
them the intricate dribbling movements necessary to outwit the defenders
in the various parts of the forward line.
SOCCER— A TEAM GAME
The beginning coach should not become discouraged when he finds that
his team, in the first year of competition, is not kicking the ball as well as
its opposition or enduring so well in the second half or keeping to their
proper positions in the attack. As the team goes through its schedule, the
members will become better players, stronger and aware of their early
Soccer ability will show up stronger in the second season of play. Several
players will have picked up the game in the first season. They will carry
the rest of the squad and cover up for them in most of their games. For
example, a coach having only five good athletes to build his team around
the first year will help the team considerably if he concentrates his strength
in the defensive positions. This will give the players a chance to hold the
opposition to few scoring chances.
Every sport played on a varsity basis has a definite pattei^n of play
planned by the coaches in charge of the particular sport. Soccer also should
be played with a planned attack, the players being given definite assign-
ments in their various positions.
Where does the attack begin in a soccer game? It can be started from
any position on the field; an intercepted pass in the halfback line, a
throw-in, a free kick or a corner kick.
Two types of offensive play are in general use. The professional or highly
developed type of attack is based on a short passing game.
The second type of attacking play concentrates on the long pass from
the halfbacks to the outside left or right, or to the center forward. Two
inside forwards also may start a long passing attack by cross-passing from
the right side of the field to the outside left, or from the left to the right
side of the field.
Soccer players will devise their own scoring plays after they have been
thoroughly taught the basic fundamentals necessary to the game. It is good
strategy to give plays in soccer as they do in basketball, but there are times
when situations change rapidly. Therefore, a player should be ready to
take the initiative for a quick dribble past a defense player or an unex-
pected shot at the goal.
A team playing well together will set up many scoring chances in a soccer
game, but a team, dependent on one or two individuals for scoring will
not go far. Eleven players working as smoothly as a machine and having a
planned attack are worth watching.
The key men in the attack, the center forward and the outside left and
right, should be familiar with each other's pattern of play. The best way to
get acquainted with these is constant practice together.
"III. BASIC RULES
r [ERE are some basic rules which must be learned before one starts
playing soccer. It is easy for even the novice to kick a ball, but before
he starts on the road to participation in a regular game, he should know
something about the rules* governing the sport and that is why we take
time out here to list briefly the elementary regulations.
The basic rule is: when is a ball in play? Once the field has been marked
off, goals erected and the teams take the field, the referee can start the
game. When the referee blows his whistle starting the game, the ball is in
1— He blows the whistle to stop the play for an infraction of the rules
or for any other reason he may deem legal.
2~It goes out of bounds, when it goes outside the marked field of play.
In the latter case, there are several ways in which the ball can be put into
play again. When it goes out of bounds along the sidelines, either on the
ground or in the air, a player of the team opposite to that of the player who
last touched it, makes the throw-in. He does this by taking the ball in both
his hands, having part of both feet either on or outside the sideline, and
tossing in the ball from behind and over his head. The ball goes into play
immediately, but the man who threw in the ball may not play it again
until it has been touched by another player.
When the ball goes out of bounds over the goal line and has been last
played by a member of the attacking team, the ball is brought back into the
penalty area where either one of the fullbacks or goalkeeper kicks it into
When the ball goes out of bounds over the goal line and has been last
played by a member of the defending team, the ball is taken to the nearest
comer mark where a player of the attacking team takes the corner-kick
from which a goal may be scored directly or indirectly.
A goal scored when the ball passes the goal line within the goal upri^ts
and cross bar, either on the ground or in the air, provided it has not been
carried by an attacking player or carried or pushed by hand or arm. It is
possible for a player of the defending team to score a goal against his team
by accidentally kicking or heading the ball into his own goal.
Only one player, the goalkeeper, can use his hands while playing the
ball and then only within his own penalty area. The goalkeeper may use
his hands to stop a ball headed for the goal ( a save ) or he may catch the
ball and then toss or kick it away from the goal area. He also may carry
the ball within the penalty area but cannot take more than four steps while
holding the ball without bouncing it on the ground.
When any other member of the team besides the goalkeeper handles the
ball, unless it is ruled unintentional by the referee, the offending team is
penalized by the grant of a free kick to its opponent.
There are two types of free kicks, the direct and indirect. A direct free
kick is one from which a goal may be scored directly. Before a goal may
be scored after an indirect free kick, the ball must have been played by
another player before going into the goal.
Included among the offenses for which direct free kicks are awarded are;
handling the ball, kicking, tripping, holding, striking, charging, or pushing
an opponent; jumping at an opponent, or a goalkeeper carrying the ball
outside the penalty area.
Indirect free kicks are awarded for: offside, charging the goalkeeper or
attempting to play the ball when it is in the possession of the goalkeeper;
a player kicking the ball a second time before another player touches it
after a free-kick, throw-in, corner kick or penalty kick; faulty substitutions;
the goalkeeper carrying the ball more than four steps within the penalty
area without bouncing it; not kicking the ball forward after a penalty kick.
When a free kick is awarded, players of the opposing team must stand
at least 10 yards away from the ball until it is put into play.
A penalty kick is awarded when the defending team is the offender in
any of the infractions for which direct free kicks are awarded (except in
the case of the goalkeeper) if the action takes place within the penalty
area of the defending team. In such cases the penalty kick by a member
of the attacking team is taken from a point 12 yards directly in front of the
defending team s goal with only the defending goalkeeper permitted to
oppose the kick. The goalkeeper must stand on his own goal line (without
moving his feet) between the uprights until the ball is kicked. The goal can
be scored as a direct result of that kick, or as a rebound, off the goalkeeper,
or as a rebound off the crossbar or uprights. The original kicker may kick
the ball if it rebounds off the goalkeeper, but if the ball rebounds off the
crossbar or uprights a second player may attempt a kick at the loose ball.
The original kicker on the penalty kick may not attempt a scoring kick on
the ball that rebounds from the uprights or crossbar if the goalkeeper has
not touched the originally kicked ball.
I N teaching soccer to the novice, the coach will find that proper kick-
ing should be the first skill taught the player. As he learns to control
the ball, the player will develop a greater interest in the game. Teaching
the kick correctly entails the proper co-ordination of the right and left
feet, and includes the use of a slight hop before the impact of the ball by
the foot. To control the ball and its direction, it should be kicked by the
A good method of teaching the proper kick to a squad of athletes is to
direct them to form a line, standing side by side and let them go through
these motions without the ball. By starting the exercise, and kicking at
imaginary balls, some players can master the proper kick in several sessions.
For the right-foot kicker, the following procedure takes place: From a
standing position with the feet parallel, the squad steps left, then right,
then steps left and hops left, and kicks with the right foot. The squad should
also be taught to kick with the left foot. Here the procedure is reversed,
starting out with the right foot-step right, then left, step right and hop
right, and kick left.
As the squad progresses in learning the kick, the coach may select those
who have mastered these fundamentals and give them a ball with which
to practice their rhythmic kick.
To learn to kick a ball in motion, a player must be close to the ball and
must be able to time the speed at which the ball is traveling so that he may
kick at exactly the proper moment.
A rolling ball coming toward the kicker is the easiest to kick. The begin-
ner should master kicking a ball in motion coming toward him at various
angles. By choosing a good position, the kicker can usually keep himself
in proper position for a boot at a moving ball going at a moderate rate of
speed. The beginner will find things more to his liking if he first traps the
moving ball and then executes the kick. However, most boys of secondary
schools like to kick the moving ball without trapping it first because they
do not have the skill this requires. The coach should caution beginners to
continue to trap the ball before kicking it. ( See section on trapping. )
A bouncing ball or a high ball that is dropping near the kicker may be
trapped with any part of the body closest to the ball, except the hands and
arms, depending on the rate of speed at which the ball is traveling. On
all high balls the forehead should be used. On the low ones, the feet should
A defensive player keeps his head away from the ball as he goes through
the kicking maneuver so that the ball will rise into the air after the kick.
However, the scoring forward should try to keep his head over the ball
so that it does not xxse more than eight feet. It will develop his shot into
a scoring threat in front of the opposition goal.
The instep kick is the most important kick in soccer because it is the
most accurate way of controlling the ball in passing and in shooting at the
The coach, in teaching the instep kick, should remember the following
things: If the kick is made with the right foot, the left foot is even with
the ball, the head is over the ball, the right knee is flexed as the leg, from
the knee down, is swung at the ball in a sharp, short motion. The toe of the
kicking foot is pointed downward, the foot being rotated slightly inward.
This type of kick is the same as the one previously described as the step,
step, hop-kick motion. This is the hardest kick of all to master. After sev-
eral practice sessions, the players will understand what the coach is try-
ing to teach them. They may not become adept at the accurate kick, but
they will realize that there must be a definite rhythm to the instep kick.
The procedure is reversed when the instep kick is taught to the left-foot
It is wise for the squad to practice the instep kick in regulation gym shoes
so that they may get the feel of the ball more accurately. The player who
continues to make the mistake of striking the ball with his toe will soon
learn that it is not so hard on his feet if he hits the ball properly with his
instep. Occasionally it is good practice for the squad to play a complete
game of soccer wearing gym shoes.
KICKING WITH THE
INSIDE OF THE FOOT
The inside of the foot is
employed on short kicks in
passing and dribbling. It also
is successfully used in front of
the goal by the forward line
players shooting at the goal
when passes are coming from
KICKING WITH THE
OUTSIDE OF THE
The outside of the foot is
used when going around an
opponent or in short passes
between players who are on
THE TOE KICK
The toe kick is used by full-
backs kicking off from their
goal. The toe kick elevates the
ball and is made with the
straight swinging leg motion.
The head is not over the ball.
The foot should strike just be-
low the center of the ball so
that it will rise when hit by the
foot. While the kicker uses the
right foot on the toe kick,
the left foot is slightly behind
the ball. For the left-foot
ticker the procedure is re-
versed. Forwards and half-
backs seldom use the toe kick.
They are using their heads properly so they do not injure each other in jump-
ing to secure the ball.
THE HEEL KICK
The heel kick is seldom used because the results of its use are uncertain.
Occasionally a player will be able to back-heel the baU to a teammate, or to
make a fancy kick over his head. Howev^, it is a difficult lack to master.
SHOOTING AT THE GOAL
Shooting at the goal is a very important phase of the game because it
requires definite accuracy. Since the instep kick is the most accurate, it
The five forwards should stand within range of the goal and practice shooting
for a goal at various angles. At the same time the goalkeeper gets good prac-
tice in defending the goal against shots from various angles.
should be the one used in practicing shots at the goal. Players, having mas-
tered the instep kick, must then learn to shoot without looking at the goal.
A player may look up just before he shoots at the goal to analyze the goal-
keeper's position, attempting to place the ball out of his reach for a score.
The player will soon become adept at seeing the ball at the same time he
looks at the goalkeeper, and he will learn to make more rapid decisions
about the timing and placing of his shot at the goal.
There are times during the game when the goalkeeper is out of his goal.
A player who has his back to the goal and the ball in his possession is in
a good position for a fast backheel kick into an open goal.
THE CLEARING KICK
Fullbacks, halfbacks and goalkeepers are entrusted with the defensive
side of the game. They must know exactly which kick to make in order to
clear the ball from the defensive area. The toe kick is used by the fullbacks
when they want to elevate the ball Halfbacks and fullbacks use the inside
and outside of the foot for short passes to their forwards and to wingmen
A kick made at a soccer ball
before it touches the ground is
called a volley. It is a difficult
kick to master but those play-
ers who have learned to kick
a ball in motion should then
devote their time to the vol-
ley. Fullbacks and halfbacks
who learn to volley will be-
come good defensive players.
The volley is often made
with the instep of the foot. It
also can be made with the ex-
tended leg or with the bent
knee, depending on the posi-
tion of the dropping ball. If
the ball is close to the player,
he should make the volley
kick with the instep, the knee
being slightly bent. If he has
to run to meet the ball in vol-
ley, then he can make the kick
with the extended leg. Perfect
timing of the swing of the leg
is necessary for the foot to
meet the ball properly. This
play is a timesaver for the de-
fensive players, especially the
fullbacks. When it is per-
fected, it should have force
and direction as well.
The half-volley is a kick
taken on the run when the ball
is rising from a bounce. A
backward volley is purely a
defensive play used either by
a halfback or fullback when
facing his own goal and at-
tempting to clear a dropping
or bouncing ball near his goal.
At least 50 per cent of the game takes place in the air and it’s only
natural that the uppermost part of the body should play an important role
in soccer. Heading the ball calls for a little courage by the player but if he
learns to butt the ball with the front, side and top of his head, he will be
prepared to play a good game. Heading can be done in all directions. A
team will be far ahead of its opponents if it is adept at the headwork
necessary in clearing a defensive-area kick, or in scoring a goal. Heading
a ball is the fastest way of returning a ball. It is quicker than a kick at
Fullbacks and halfbacks protecting the goal area must be expert in head-
ing to assist their goalkeepers in clearing the corner kick.
Heading the ball can best be taught from a circle formation, the players
facing the center and the coach throwing the ball to the forehead of each
player, who, in turn, heads the ball back to the coach. Here they should
be reminded to keep their eyes on the ball until it has actually been headed
back to the coach. They should, at all times, try to keep their eyes open
when practicing heading.
Heading with the side of the head may be practiced with all the mem-
bers of the circle facing in one direction, the right side of the body toward
the center of the circle. The coach throws the ball to each player who will
head it back to him, using only the side of the head.
The top of the head is used in learning how to lift the ball high into the
air. With his knees slightly bent just before heading the ball, the player
will find that as he straightens his legs, getting a good push-ofl[ from the
ground, he will have more force behind the efforts in heading and the
ball will go higher into the air.
It is essential to make the right contact with the ball. Make sure the ball
is high enough to head. Do not head it if it is so low that an opponent
can kick it.
' C O A C H
The players should form a circle with the
coach in the center. Thus he serves as the
focal point in passing the ball to the play-
ers at varied angles. This drill should be
staged with the players first facing the
center and then standing sideways so they
will head the ball with the side of their
Proper Position of the Body
(during instep kick with the right foot)
The left foot is even with the ball, the right knee is bent, and the body
has good balance. The head is over the ball.
Defense players should be taught to hit the ball with the side and top
of the head. In that way they may clear their territory of the dangerous
shots that cannot be reached by the foot.
Force in heading the ball is gained by the direction of the body move-
ments. When necessary, the player jumps off the ground and throws the
body at the ball. If the ball is at a distance where he can stand on the
ground, he swings his body at the ball.
The head must be swung at the shoulder by vigorous contractions of the
neck muscles. These neck muscles will gradually strengthen to the point
where they can withstand the blows of constant practice in heading the
A player should be sure never to endanger another player by using his
feet in front of him for protection when he is leaping to head a ball. It is
a dangerous play and is a foul.
TRAPPING|^ 2 1
Soccer is a fast game and the speed at which a player can trap a ball
and pass it to a teammate usually means the difference between a successful
pass and one that may be intercepted. Constant practice, from various
angles, in trapping a moving ball with his foot or body will help the booter
to condition himself in speed in controlling the ball, passing it to a team-
mate, or shooting at his opponent’s goal.
The all-around player should learn to stop a ball dropping in front of
him, or one his opponent is trying to clear. He should be able to use either
foot in trapping and kicking. A ball dropping in front of the player may
be trapped by either the right foot or the left foot, depending on which
one is closer to the ball. The right-foot kicker must also learn to trap with
the left foot, leaving the right one free for a fast shot at the goal or a pass
to a teammate.
The player, raising his foot with the toe six or eight inches from the
ground, will have enough of an angle to allow the ball to drop between
his foot and the ground. It is important, too, that the kicker should at all
times follow the flight of the ball until he actually gets control of it.
A rolling ball can be trapped with the side of the foot by raising it off
the ground with the inside of the foot facing the ground. A ball that is
coming toward the right side should be trapped with the right foot; a ball
on the left by the corresponding foot.
Practice also should include the blocking or trapping of an opponents
kick. Many expert players spend much time trapping balls on attempted
kicks by opposing fullbacks. Where two players are racing for a free ball
and the defense is striving to clear the ball from the scoring area, the
forwards should know how to block that type of kick, assuming control
for an easy shot toward the goal.
Courtesy Chicago Herald Amertcan.
Trapping a SocxasR Ball
The ball has been successfully trapped and is being taken away from
Another important maneuver in ball control is the trapping and kicking
of a ball in motion. Trapping with the left foot and then kicking with the
right requires much practice. After that has been mastered it would be well
to add a fake kick to the exercise.
As the player traps the ball with his left foot, he draws the right foot back
as if to kick with it but immediately shifts his weight, stepping back and
kicking with his left instead. The right-foot kicker should feint in the re-
However, the fake kick routine should be taught only to those players
who have mastered the trapping of a ball in motion, whether it is rolling
toward him, dropping in front of him or approaching him from either side.
The defensive player, having to play against this trapping and kicking,
will find that he may be faked out of his position many times during the
game, with his opponents having many chances at the goal or many oppor-
tunities to pass to each other and set up a scoring play.
A team is successful only if its passwork is successful. A team with this
accomplishment will go a long way. There are several ways of passing the
ball in soccer and the player who masters them will develop rapidly.
The coach may teach the short pass, using the middle of the foot, by
dividing the squad into two lines facing each other about 30 yards apart.
The coach then directs the players to pass from a standing position by trap-
ping the ball coming from one line, then kicking it back to the other line.
The right foot should be used first in both trapping and kicking with the
inside of the foot.
When the ball is trapped and in control by each player, he should step
back one stride and hit the ball with force, using the inside of the foot with
sideward motion at the center of the ball. The foot is about two inches off
the ground as he strikes the ball.
Players can best be taught the use of the outside of the foot by having
two lines of players run up and down the field about five yards apart, trap-
ping the ball and passing with the outside of the foot. As they run down
the field the player on the left side may do the kicking with the outside of
his right foot while his partner on the right can use the inside of his right
foot to pass back. On the return down the field, they should reverse the
exercise. After they have mastered the use of the right foot, they should
practice the same exercise using the left foot.
A coach who has left-foot kickers should pair them up with right-foot
kickers, directing them to use the outside of the foot.
The instep is used for all long passes. The squad may be divided into two
lines 40 yards apart for the halfbacks and forwards to practice passing with
the instep. The fullbacks may work by themselves at one side. They should
practice long kicking, volleying and trapping the ball.
Correct form for the instep pass should come to the novice after several
sessions of kicking. He may not become an expert in two or three lessons
but he will realize that there is a definite way of making the pass and will
strive to master it. If the coach is satisfied merely with the toe kick which
goes a good distance, then the players, too, will be satisfied.
Giving a ball to groups of three to use in the instep kick for the passing
exercise will provide the players with more kicking practice at one session.
Twenty minutes on long kicking with the instep kick is sufBcent time to
spend in each practice session. The players will weary of the same exercise
if it is prolonged. The coach should try to make the practice periods inter-
esting to them by moving from one pass to another, ending the period with
a short game.
After the players have learned to trap the ball and kick it back to the
opposite line, they should learn to kick a ball in motion to the opposite
partner. The ball may not go where the kicker is aiming it at first, but
constant practice will improve the direction of the kick.
Passing the ball with the head also is important. Divide the group so
that every four boys, five yards apart, have a ball to pass around, using the
head to butt. This will develop the strong neck muscles needed for proper
The toe kick is sometimes used to good advantage in sending the ball
over the heads of the opponents. However, the novice should not be en-
couraged to use it. He should concentrate all his eflForts on the instep kick.
The fullbacks and halfbacks should learn the toe kick because they may
have occasion to use it on goal and free kicks. The wings also may have to
use the toe kick when a corner kick has been awarded. If a strong wind is
blowing against the kicker, he may have to resort to the use of the toe kick
Tricky passing may be accomplished by the use of the back of the foot,
providing the action is unexpected. A wingman or inside forward may be
able to outwit a halfback or fullback playing close to him. As the wingman
starts to outrun the opposing fullback, he should step across the ball and
back-heel it to the inside forward who should be close by. Thus the oppos-
ing fullback will find himself out of position with the forward in control
of the ball. This back-heel pass is not to be relied on for accuracy by be-
ginners but it can be used to good advantage by experienced players.
A team knowing how to pass properly and having a few set plays from
the kick-oft formation will have potential scoring power.
Players, having mastered
the principles of the kick and
of heading, are ready for the
dribble. It is one of the bril-
liant maneuvers in soccer, par-
ticularly if the kicker can use
either foot in this exercise.
The right-foot player should
favor the right foot in drib-
bling the ball down the field,
keeping the ball no more than
12 inches from the kicking
foot at all times so that he has
Place objects in the path of the
player and have them criss-cross
the ball around the objects and
return to the original position in
the same manner.
A soccer player must condition himself to run and exercise for almost
90 minutes. Soccer is a game requiring co-ordination of the kicking and
running muscles, in addition to good breathing action. A warm-up of a
half-mile run before the usual practice session prepares the squad for some
strenuous kicking and running. College teams play four 22-minute quarters.
High schools usually play two 35-minute halves while amateur and profes-
sional elevens play two 45-minute halves.
Running after practice also is good because the running and kicking
muscles are then conditioned to game experience and cramped leg muscles
will not appear during a contest.
Merely practicing the fundamentals and playing the game itself is not
enough to condition the squad. Obstacle running is excellent in teaching
players to shift weight from side to side without losing speed or balance.
A quick change of pace and direction will develop strong ankles and there
will be fewer injuries. The use of figure-eight bandages around the ankles,
under the stockings, will help in kicking technique and insure fewer injured
ankles in both practice and game sessions.
Sprints should be a part of the running practice. Each member of the
team must be able to start quickly and stop immediately. Practicing short
20- and 30-yard sprints and gradually increasing them to 50- and 70-yard
sprints will condition players for the speedy running so necessary in soccer.
The goalkeeper, even though he does little running, also should practice
Tackling is applied to any method of obtaining possession of the ball
when it is in the possession of an opponent. Tackling and blocking tech-
nique must be concentrated on the ball, not the player.
The secret of proper tackling is knowing how and when to tackle a drib-
bler. There are three types of tackling used, namely the front tackle, the
side tackle and the hook tackle.
THE FRONT TACKLE
It is wisest to teach the front or block tackle first because it is the simplest
of the three. The coach should divide the squad into two groups, called
A and B, with team A as dribblers and team B as tacklers. The squad should
be spread out over the field with the dribblers in control of the ball, about
six full strides away from the tacklers. The tacklers should try to snare the
The block can be made either by one foot or both feet by the tackier.
Before the squad is given a ball for practice, the coach should demonstrate
the block against one of the players. The latter should be given the ball with
the coach standing about two full strides away from the dribbler. As the
dribbler comes straight forward, the coach extends his right foot toward
the ball, pinning his foot against it, the ground and the foot of the dribbler.
Immediately the ball is pushed to the right side for control by the right foot,
permitting the tackier to place his body between the dribbler and the ball.
The coach also could have two of his more advanced players demonstrate
the tackling motions and the technique of using both feet in a blocking ac-
tion. As the dribbler approaches with the ball, the tackier jumps at the ball
with both feet for the distance of a good stride and traps the ball against the
dribbler s feet. The tackier then pushes the ball to his right side by use of his
strong foot and thus has his body between the dribbler and the ball. As a
result the ball lies on the side of the dribbler s left foot, usually his weak
side. The same block can be demonstrated against the left-foot kickers by
merely reversing the motion.
Players should be encouraged to practice these exercises, alternating as
dribblers and tacklers, so that they v^ll learn the fundamental technique of
tackling and, at the same time, develop the courage and determination of
tackling which is so vital in playing the sport.
THE SIDE TACKLE
The side tackle is used against any player who is in control of the ball and
must be tackled from the side. As the dribbler goes down the sidelines, the
TaCSUNG from the Side Cowttsy Chicago Herald Americam
The halfback is reaching in and across, with the right foot for control of
halfback can run alongside and, at the precise moment, kick the ball out of
bounds, thus halting the attack temporarily.
By stepping in front of the dribbler and using a slight shouldering mo-
tion which is permitted by the rules, a tackier may be able to intercept the
ball, dribbling it away himself or passing it to a teammate.
If the opposing outside right has the ball and is dribbling it along his side
of the field, then the defending left halfback, whose job is to cover the wing
position, might gain possession of the ball with his right foot and then pull
it toward his left foot. Thus he can turn away from the dribbler in control
of the ball.
A tackier coming in from the side can do three things: get control of the
ball himself; reach across the dribbler and kick to a teammate; or, if he is
close to the sidelines, kick the ball out of bounds.
The side tackle may be taught in the same manner as the front tackle. If
the tackier finds his opponent is not coming straight at him and therefore he
cannot execute a front tackle, then a side tackle must be employed to gain
control of the ball.
THE HOOK TACKLE
This is the most difficult of the three to execute. It is made by dropping
to the ground on one knee and extending the other leg to hook the ball
away from an opponent without tripping him. The right-foot kicker should
drop to his left knee and hook the ball away with his right foot. The left-foot
booter does the opposite.
The hook tackle is a play best suited for more experienced players.
V. INDIVIDUAL PLAY-DEFENSE
T he goalkeeper is the last man on defense. His position is one of protect-
ing the goal and he is the only player on the squad who can touch the
ball with his hands or catch it. However, the territory in which he may use
his hands is limited to the Penalty Area.
If he handles the ball outside the Penalty Area, a free kick is awarded
the opposing team from the spot where the infraction occurred.
An excellent prospect for a goalkeeper is one who has had experience in
handling either a basketball or baseball. He should be of average height,
have quick reactions, have no fear of bodily contact and he should be able
to punt fairly well and throw a soccer ball at least 40 yards in any direction.
The goalkeeper's uniform is different from that worn by the other soccer
players. He may wear long baseball pants, peaked or baseball cap for pro-
tection against the sun, long stockings and regulation soccer shoes. He also
should have a pad, either sewed into the pants or tied around his hips under
the pants, to protect his hips in diving for shots. The goalkeeper's shirt
should be a different color from his teammates and in contrast to the op-
posing team’s colors.
The goalkeeper's practice period should stress punting, catching and
diving for shots aimed at the goal from a distance of 20 yards and from all
angles. In addition, he must be able to defend the g6al from, shots like the
penalty kick, corner kick and free kicks from all angles.
A successful goalkeeper is one who can handle the ball well and who pos-
sesses good, quick judgment.
Teaching the player to retrieve a ball rolling toward the goal is quite
simple for that type of ball is the easiest to catch. The player simply bends
one knee to the ground and lowers his hands, with fingers outstretched. His
bent knee and body give additional protection in gaining possession of the
ball and they provide a pocket for the ball if it is missed by the hands. This
position also may be used when the goalkeeper has to run one or two steps
across the goal to snare a low shot. The goalkeeper may either toss the ball
toward a teammate or stand up and punt the ball to the side of the field and
out of danger.
Another shot easy to catch is the one coming toward a goalkeeper at waist
height or between the knee and waist. \^Tien the ball is caught, the hands
Goalkeeper in Action
The goalkeeper (back to photographer) has caught the ball and is about to
kick it out of danger, while his fullback ( in striped shirt ) is running to cut
off the approaching center forward of the other team. The fullbacks must
assist the goalkeeper in helping him to get ofiF a long boot by providing this
sort of protection.
should give to absorb the force of the shot, thus preventing a possible re-
If the shot is coming in chest high, the goalie should draw the ball toward
his chest and hug it close to his body to prevent a fumble. When a shot
comes in head high, he should leap high enough to make possible the use
of the chest and hands to control the ball.
Good judgment is necessary in knowing when to come out of the goal
to outwit the center forward who may have escaped the fullbacks and is
dribbling toward the goal. In coming out of the goal, the goalie narrows the
angle toward the goal and may be able to prevent a score by deflecting the
center forward’s shot. However, a goalkeeper should strive to catch all
shots at the goal and either punting or tossing the ball away from the danger
area. He should deflect those that he cannot catch.
A rolling ball coming toward the goal should never be kicked directly
by the goalie. Instead, he should catch it and either punt or toss it out of
the danger area. If a goalie must leave his defensive post at the goal to
race an opponent to the ball, he may, as a last resort, kick the ball out of
danger. Of course, he should never kick the ball against his opponent for the
ball may rebound into the goal for a score.
In the course of a game the goalkeeper finds shots coming at him from
all angles and at varying speeds. He will find some kickers playing the ball
directly at the goal while others will come at him with various hooks and
The right-foot kicker who hooks the ball will send it to the goalie’s right
side while the left-foot kicker will hook the ball to the goalie s left. It would
be wise for a goalkeeper to observe early in a game on which side the ball
THE GOALKEEPER 3 1
comes most frequently. He should notice which foot each opposing player
prefers in shooting at the goal. Thus he may be prepared for later goalward
A goalkeeper must form the habit of anticipating the opponent's play so
that he can put himself in a defensive position for any shot at his goal. By
standing in the center of the goal, directly under the crossbar, he would be
in a good position to judge a high looping shot or a fast high kick aimed at
the goal. He must decide quickly what method he can best use in clearing
the two shots. A ball dropping in front of the goal may be caught. However,
one coming toward the goal at a fast rate of speed and nearing the crossbar
should be fisted over the bar in volleyball fashion. Although this action gives
the attackers a corner kick it is nevertheless good strategy for the goal-
keeper who is being rushed, as he gets the ball away from the goal im-
mediately with little danger of his opponents scoring on a rebound.
GENERAL HINTS FOR THE GOALKEEPER
Learn the fundamentals of catching, kicking, blocking, diving and fisting
the ball expertly.
You are the last man on defense. Never leave your goal to try to catch a
ball too far in front of the goal.
Support your fullbacks on every occasion. If you anticipate an opponent
is going to outwit your fullback by dribbling around him, then come out
of your goal rapidly to intercept the ball.
Good Diving Technique
The goalkeeper comes out of his goal to smotiier a shot.
32 INDIVIDUAL PLAY— DEFENSE
Do not become discouraged if your opponents score against you. If your
fullbacks make an error and a goal is made against you, you can help your
teammates immensely by encouraging them to try harder the next time.
Practice catching the ball from every angle. Have your teammates fre-
quently shoot to you from at least 15 yards in front of the goal.
Learn to dive at the ball and you will be a hard man to beat on a shot.
A ball too far out of reach to be caught can be deflected by a diving thrust.
An excellent way of making a save on shots that cannot be caught is to
use the fist to deflect a shot. High balls are usually good ones to fist, espe-
cially when the opponents are on the ball with their heads just as you are
trying to make a catch.
Condition yourself to catch the ball instead of trying to kick a rolling ball.
Try to boot to a teammate when punting. One accurate pass is worth two
Be at the farthest post from the kicker on all comer kicks so that the ball
will not go over your head. At the same time you will be in position to go
forward to catch or to fist a ball nearing the goal.
Protect yourself from injuries, wear a pad around your hips.
Run with the rest of the squad for general conditioning so that you can
assume responsibility for most of the goal kicks, thus relieving the fullbacks
of some responsibility.
Always watch an opponent and observe with which foot he prefers to
kick. You can then anticipate the direction from which the ball will come
toward the goal.
Never take more than four steps with the 'ball without bouncing it.
Study the mles so that you know which shots count for goals on direct
kicks and which are indirect free kicks.
Get rid of the ball as fast as you can.
Learn to feint a fast-charging forward out of position after you have con-
trol of the ball. In that way you can kick it to one of your teammates.
As a general rule, the fullbacks should be the most accurate kickers on
the team. They must also be men who can tackle with determination.
Since the fullback is the last defense before the goalkeeper, he should
know how accurately to judge distance and must be adept at the funda-
mentals of heading, kicking, passing, trapping, tackling and dribbling. He
must always protect the goalkeeper and be ready to take the latter s place
whenever the goalie leaves to get a ball away from the goal. However, the
fullback can never use his hands on the ball.
Being a fullback takes courage because much of the work is in defending
against the last stages of an attack. Many balls will be headed by the full-
back. His body is the target for many shots in the game when the opposing
forward is shooting for the goal and the fullback is attempting to block
those scoring thrusts.
A player who can kick with either foot should be placed at the left full-
back position. The player who can use his right foot best should be at right
fullback, the easier of the two positions.
Long kicks are a prerequisite for fullbacks because the long kicks put the
ball into enemy territory where friendly forwards may gain possession of
the ball to set up an attack.
Jockeying for position and for the ball is one of the fullback s principal
duties. Good judgment is essential in determining when to rush an opponent
to intercept the ball and when to force the opposition into making a quick
The fullback must be able to kick the ball while it is in motion and to
kick it from every conceivable angle. There are tinges during a game when
the fullback may stop the ball before he kicks it out of his territory but
Courtesy Ckicago Herald Amerkan. GOALKEEPER GUARDING THE GOAL
The fullback of his team (in light grey shirt) and the opposing center for-
ward (wearing dark shirt) are racing in to head the ball. This picture shows
excellent footwork and body balance while running. The goalkeeper has his
hands set for the ball, knees bent, so that he can go quickly in any direction
INDIVIDUAL PLAY— DEFENSE
usually he must clear the ball in one operation. The novice fullback should
practice stopping the ball and clearing it before he tries for distance kick-
ing. A fullback who can kick from any angle, whether the ball is on the
ground or in the air, will be a tough opponent to score upon.
On the secondary school level, the fullbacks find that many balls come
their way from forwards who are making both hurried and inaccurate
passes. Here, if the fullback finds he is not being rushed clearing the ball,
he may search out a teammate and pass to him.
GENERAL HINTS FOR THE FULLBACKS
Seldom dribble the ball. Kick it out of your territory as quickly as pos-
Practice the goal kick and be ready to relieve the goalkeeper of that duty
Be ready to take his place in the goal if the goalkeeper is caught out of
position. Never handle the ball.
Try to keep out of the goalkeeper’s way so he can have clear vision when
play becomes close around the goal.
Kick the ball out of bounds at the sidelines, if you cannot clear it up the
Learn to head the ball in all directions.
Try to be'in position to defend the goal at all times.
Tackle your opponent with determination, but be cautious not to foul
Always backstep your fullback partner.
It is your job to guard the wingman if he has outmaneuvered your half-
back. The halfback should strive to get back into position and cover another
Practice accuracy first. When you have mastered the kicks necessary to
play the fullback position you can try for distance.
Halfbacks, especially the center half, the key man in defense and attack,
form the strongest part of a team. They start the attack and sustain it. They
are potential scorers as well. Since a greater part of the game takes place
between midfield and the penalty area, the team that has three capable
halfbacks in its lineup will control much of the game.
There are two schools of thought in the defensive assignments of the half-
backs. One group believes that the left and right halfbacks should guard the
Centeb Halfback in Control of the Ball
He is about to kick to a teammate as he is being rushed by an opposing player.
outside left and outside right, with the center half guarding the opposing
center forward. The second group believes that the left and right halfbacks
should guard the inside left and inside right with the center halfback back-
ing up the wing halfbacks.
High school coaches, anxious to establish a good defensive lineup, will
find it easier to assign the opposing wingmen to their halfbacks and the
inside men to the fullbacks.
36 INDIVIDUAL PLAY— DEFENSE
Soccer players on the collegiate level can cover up taster for a teammate
who seems to be going too far out of position. Here the halfbacks can cover
up for the fullbacks out on the side where they may be chasing the outside
right or left. As the right fullback races out to tackle the outside left, the
center halfback should move back to cover the fullback s area, combining
his playing with the other fullback.
In a game where the halfbacks take the inside men, they are ih a far
better position to feed their forward line. Therefore, more potential goals
are in the making.
Most soccer games are won by only one or two goals. Hence a team that
concentrates its strength in the defensive positions of the fullbacks and half-
backs will be the hard team to beat.
Each coach should experiment with his material in the practice sessions
and games against suitable opposition, using the two types of halfback play
assignments. By noting the results he can determine which type of play is
best suited to his team.
If the halfbacks play a better game while guarding the inside men, the
coach should allow them to play that type of game and set up his secondary
A halfback must be aggressive, cool, quick and strong. He does more run-
ning than any other member of the squad and he must make more body
contact than any of the others.
Since the center half is the key man in the halfback line, he should be a
leader, in top physical condition. He should be a good header and a good
Trapping and passing are essential halfback plays. The player with quick
reactions who can kick with either foot will make a good halfback. Height
is not essential for halfbacks because it has been proved that tall halfbacks
often cannot outjump many of their smaller opponents. However, the long-
legged center half who can just reach out in any direction makes it diflScult
for a center forward to dribble around him.
Halfbacks must be in the proper position to get goal kicks from their own
goal as well as those from the opposing team. By watching the goal kicks
taken by the opposition and remembering how far they can kick, the half-
backs can place themselves to the best advantage to intercept.
All free kicks awarded are taken by halfbacks. When comer kicks are
taken, they should be in a position to defend their goal. If a comer kick is
given against their opponents, they can help by lining up along the penalty
area line to help the forwards in trying ior a goal. At die same time they
should be ready to drop back to help Ae fullbacks should the ball be sent
into their own territory by some rapid play of their opponents.
Throw-ins also are made by the halfbacks. They attempt to throw tc a
teammate s head or foot to retain control of the ball. A quick return pass to
a halfback who can send a long kick into the enemy territory is a smart play
when the ball goes out of bounds in ones own area.
The successful method of throwing to a teammate varies according to the
type of defense the opposition is using. If they are covering their men from
behind, a low pass to the foot will be best for control of the ball after the
throw-in. If the opposition is guarding the winger and inside forwards, a
throw-in aimed at the head of a teammate for a quick return to the thrower
or for a fast kick down the field will be good. A throw over the heads of the
defensive players will allow a teammate to race for the ball and get there
ahead of the defensive halfback.
Making accurate passes to the forward line while they are onside is im-
portant work for the halfback.
'38 INDIVIDUAL PLAY— DEFENSE
GENERAL HINTS FOR THE HALFBACKS
Feed the forward line. Strengthen and organize the attack.
Follow about 15 yards behind your forwards when they are in control of
Try to pass the ball to a teammate. One good pass is worth two aimless
Always pass to a player who is not guarded.
Halfbacks must be accurate in placing short and long passes. Utilize both.
Try to aim the ball near a teammate if you are forced to kick it high.
Halfbacks should be quick to sense the constant changes taking place
during the game and to watch for weaknesses in opposing players which
can be used to advantage.
Do not always pass to the same player or in only one direction.
The halfback who can dribble well keeps opposing forwards and half-
A dribble should last only as long as a defensive player has been drawn
out of position, then the ball should be passed to a free teammate.
Learn to receive the ball from any angle, either high or low, and get con-
The halfback must be adept in intercepting passes and turning them into
Good tackling makes hurried passing necessary for opponents.
Play directly in front of your opponent to block his vision and angle of
passing. Impede his progress, but play the ball at all times.
Don't give up if your opponent outwits you. He may fake to the left and
go around on the right. Watch his movements. The next time he tries the
same maneuver, you will be ready for him.
The halfback should cover for a fullback who has left his position to chase
a forward out near the sidelines.
Heading is important for the halfback.
On all throw-ins, a return pass to the halfback who has stepped onto the
playing field presents an excellent chance for a long, hard boot.
At times the center halfback is in position for a shot at the goal. If he can
shoot a low ball, he will be a potential scoring threat.
The halfbacks should place themselves to snare all kicks from opposing
fullbacks and all goal kicks from teammates.
VI. INDIVIDUAL PLAY-~OFFENSE
r [E center forward is the key man in the attack. He should be able to
kick with either foot equally well, pass in any direction to the other
forwards, shoot successfully outside the penalty area and dribble the ball
skillfully. His heading should be accurate and he must constantly consider
himself in relation to the team.
A center forward who can take the ball on the run and pass successfully
to a wingman without looking will find the opposition unable to cope with
his passing. If he can use split-vision tactics, he v/ill allow his wingers to
break quickly into the open and set up potential scoring plays.
The center forward should vary his passes, thus keeping the defense
guessing. If he feeds both the outside right and outside left, the defensive
players will see that they have to cover their men more closely, leaving
them little time to set up scoring plays for their own team.
Once inside the penalty area, the center forward in control of the ball
should shoot for the goal. Sometimes the inside men or the wingmen are in
better scoring position, with fewer defense men in their path. In that case,
a clever center forward should realize this and fake a shot at the goal. Thus
he may draw a defense man out of position and can pass to a teammate
who should have an easier try at the goal
The center forward who is playing heads-up ball will always be in posi-
tion for a pass from a teammate. He will come out to meet the ball instead
of waiting until it comes to him. On free kicks or goal kicks, he should place
himself so that he is receiving the free ball that may come into his area. He
should try to determine the distance the defense fullbacks are getting on
their goal kicks and place himself in that area for a header or to trap a low
ball, thus starting a scoring play out to his wings or inside men.
On defense, the center forward may follow the fullbacks who are con-
trolling most of the plays. He also should watch the opposing center half
who is breaking up his team's scoring plays.
On comer kicks, the center forward should be in front of the goal, five
yards out, so that he is in a position for a rebound or head shot into the
When there is a throw-in, the center forward should place himself to be
INDIVIDUAL PLAY— OFFENSE
in position near his thrower. In that way the halfback tossing the ball has a
Forwards deciding to dribble around a defensive player should start
cutting away from the defensive player at least two good strides before
they reach the man they are going to beat with the ball. Attempting to beat
a player from anything less than two good strides will result in an inter-
ception, and the loss of the ball to the opposition.
The center forward should attempt to draw the fullback over to his own
left side, then go around on the right for a shot at the goal. Should the
defensive player decide not to follow the dribbler over to the left, the
center forward can beat him on the left side, breaking fast for the goal and
shooting with the right foot.
Once the center forward outwits the fullback on defense, he must try to
draw the goalkeeper out of position so that the goalie shows where he is
going. The center forward now knows where to shoot for a sure goal.
If the goalkeeper stands his ground, the center forward can come closer
with the ball and shoot a fast, low shot toward an unprotected corner of
Learning to block the fullback s kicks will prove advantageous for the
center forward. If he can find out the timing of a fullback s kick, he can
block the kick and set up a potential score.
By lifting his foot toward the ball as the fullback is about to kick, the
center forward may partially deflect it to a teammate who may be in a
position for a shot at the goal.
The center forward, if he is the best shot on the team, should be en-
trusted to take all penalty kicks awarded his team. Daily practice on penalty
kicks will sharpen the kick of the center forward, giving him the confidence
needed during a game.
Inside Right and Inside Left
Soccer coaches in secondary schools will discover that the forward line
must be made up of accurate kickers if they are to be a scoring, front-line
The inside right, as well as the inside left, must be the playmakers for
the center forward and the wingmen. They are the players who are always
in position for a ball coming from the defense’s fullbacks and halfbacks. If
they can assume control of these balls, they can set up scoring plays by
passing quickly to teammates in the open.
INSIDE RIGHT AND INSIDE LEFT 41
The inside men must master the fundamentals and should also have had
game experience in one of the defensive positions.
Many of the balls that the inside men receive during the game will come
to them as they face their own goal, on goal kicks from their own defense
or from those kicked for the opponents.
The inside forward should learn to fake a kick in one direction to draw
the defense out of position, then play the ball to the opposite side of the
A simple attack from the inside right is a plan whereby he constantly gets
the ball and feeds the outside right or center forward. Through practice
sessions, the inside right will make these passes a habit. In a game he will
be able to make the play to his teammates without even looking at them.
To ask a high school player to try to mix up his passes will makt. him
believe he has too difficult a task. If he is given the simple assignment of
getting the ball and passing to his winger or center forw^ard, he will come
through with more accurate passes.
Most coaches play their best man in the center half spot. A clever inside
forward can bottle up an attacking team if he concentrates his efforts on the
key man in the center half position, who is feeding the forwards and wing-
men for the attack.
The inside right, sometime during the game, should find himself near the
opponents goal and take a shot at the goal. It is best to draw the defensive
player trying to block his shot to his weak foot, naturally his left, so that he
can get off a hard shot with his stronger right foot.
The forward line, having two experienced inside men to support the rest
of the front wall, will find that every ball partially intercepted by the oppos-
ing fullbacks and halfbacks will come its way.
The forwards will find that they are in position for many free balls during
the game if they play 15 yards behind the center forward and their half-
On all throw-ins from out of bounds, the inside men should place them-
selves in position for a pass from their halfback.
On the defense, when the opponents are throwing the ball into the game,
the inside men should each guard a player.
Several outstanding teams have used roving forwards on both offense and
defense, discovering that their inside men actually scored goals and their
center forwards were halted completely.
An inside forward in good physical condition can take a fast game of
soccer, help his halfbacks on defense, and must find time to get a few shots
at the opponents goal.
INDIVIDUAL PLAY— OFFENSE
Outside Right and Outside Left
Speed and good ball control are requisites of the outside right and the
outside left, also called the wingmen. Both players must be fast runners,
capable of trapping a ball quickly and passing it to an inside man or to the
center forward. They must know how to elude the halfback assigned to
guard them during the game.
The outside left should be a left-foot kicker. Sometimes a coach may find
a player who can use either foot in a speedy getaway. A team having two
speedy wingers on both sides of its field will control the ball for much of the
The main job of the wingmen is to center the ball to the center forward
or the inside men, who are the shooters on the team. However, if a wingman
finds himself in the penalty area in position for a shot at the goal, he should
take it and not pass to a teammate who may be covered.
By playing close to the sidelines, the outside men will find themselves in
a good position to get passes from the halfbacks and will be farther from
the man assigned to guard them. There is always a tendency for the wing-
men to crowd the inside men, but that makes it easier for the opposition
to guard two players close together.
Scoring plays can better be set up when the wingmen play close to the
sidelines and draw the fullback or halfback out of position to make way
for a scoring shot by either the center forward or the inside men.
All corner kicks should be taken by the wingers. If the outside left is
using his right foot for passes to the center forward and is assigned the
corner kick, he will have better success by using the right foot in taking
the kick from across the goal line, instead of the usual sideline position
taken by the outside right on his comer kick.
The outside left may utilize the same maneuver on the wing position to
centering the ball. Racing down the field, he comes to a stop, turns around
toward his own goal, and crosses the ball toward the center of the field,
using the right foot.
An understanding for a successful attacking technique should be estab-
lished between the wingers, their halfbacks, inside men and center forward.
The wingmen, knowing how far they are able to kick the ball and how fast
their center forward can travel, can better gauge their passes to the center
forward for scoring chances.
By co-operating with their halfbacks and inside forwards, the wingmen
will make it diflScult for opposition halfbacks to intercept passes coming
from teammates spread out far from the defenders. A wingman must be a
player who likes to run and chase the ball, for every pass will not be a per-
fect one. He also must guard the defensive half-back.
OUTSIDE RIGHT AND OUTSIDE LEFT
On all throw-ins from out of bounds, the winger plays an important part.
He usually receives the ball from the halfback and starts the attack by
passing it back to the halfback, or to another teammate in the forward line.
GENERAL HINTS FOR THE FORWARDS
Learn the fundamentals of kicking, trapping, passing, heading, dribbling
and accurate shooting.
Be a team player, not an individuahst.
Vary the attack.
Strategy plays an important part in every game. Study your opponents
to find a weak spot in their defensive and then build your scoring plays
around that weakness.
Always make your passes count. Send the ball ahead of your receiver so
that he can get it on the run.
Short, quick passes are hard to intercept. However, a combination of
short and long passes should be used.
Long passes to wingers who are in the clear are potential scoring
Do not hesitate to shoot when near your opponents goal. Dribbling the
ball into the goal is attempting to score the hard way.
VII. PRACTICE SCHEDULE
H ave the squad run a half-mile before and after practice for condi-
Practice the step, step, step and hop-kick first without the ball and then
with the ball.
Practice the kicking and trapping drills in squads.
Practice heading in circle formation and in groups of fours.
Divide the squad into groups and play game of 15-minute halves.
Continue conditioning drill.
Practice kicking and trapping.
Practice heading ball from all angles.
Play game of 15-minute halves.
Conditioning drill is still important.
Practice kicking and trapping.
Practice heading, dribbling, blocking and goal-shooting.
Practice plays from all parts of the field.
Allow squads freedom of choosing teams and notice their position pref-
Practice throw-ins, ofiFense and defense.
Practice penalty kick, the corner kick and its defense.
Continue running for conditioning.
Practice kicking and trapping in groups.
Halfbacks should practice long kicks with fullbacks.
Forwards should practice advancing the ball up and down the field.
Split the group into two fullbacks and a goalkeeper playing against a
center forward and two wingmen, each using a separate goal.
Pick first and second team for scrimmage.
Continue conditioning drill.
First team vs. second team in game of 35-minute halves.
Keep balance of squad busy with various drills.
Continue conditioning drill.
First team vs. second team in game of 35-minute halves.
Balance of squad should be kept working on various fundamentals. Split
them into offensive and defensive units, working out against each other.
Quick Opening Play from Kick-off
Center forward passes to inside right who shoots it back to the right halfback. Hie
latter passes it to the outside right who has gone down the field. The right
halfback takes a pass from the outside right and make a short pass to the center
forward who shoots it to the inside left who tries for a goal.
Scoring Play from Kick-off
Center forward Beks to inside right who passes it back to the right halfback. The
ball then goes to the inside right, now down the field, who shoots it to the outside
right who boots it to the center forward near the goal.
Scoring Flay from Kick-off
Center forward kicks to the inside right who passes to the outside left. The latter
passes to the center forward, now b^ofe the goal, and die center forward shoots
for a score.
ScomNC FROM Goal Kick by the Fullback
Right fullback kicks to outside r^ght who passes to inside right. The outside right
races down the field to take pass from inside right and then shoot it across the pitch
to the outside left who takes shot at the goal.
Play from Throw-in
a t halfback tosses the ball to the outside right who returns it to the ri^t
ack who sends a long pass to the inside left. The latter passes to the inside
right who kicks it to the center forward for a shot at the goal.
Indirect Free Kick
Center half passes to right half who shoots for a goal.
IX. GENERAL RULES SUMMARY
(Complete official soccer rules may be found in the Official NCAA Soccer
Guide, published annually by A. S. Barnes & Company.)
INFRACTIONS OF RULES
M ost infractions of the rules in soccer in game play are the following:
touching the ball with the hands, charging an opponent, tripping,
pushing, playing off side, jumping at an opponent, holding an opponent,
or making a dangerous play by trying to kick the ball which is head high,
being headed by an opponent. Every one of these infractions is penalized
by a free kick awarded against the offending team.
If a defensive player touches the ball in the penalty area, a penalty kick
is awarded against the defensive team from a spot in the center of the
penalty area, 12 yards from the goal. Here the only player who is allowed
to defend the goal on the kick is the goalkeeper; all the other members of
his team stand outside the penalty area until the kick has been taken. After
the kick has been taken by an attacking-player, the other members of the
defending team may run into the penalty area to assist the goalkeeper if he
has succeeded in partially stopping the ball, or if he has caught the ball.
DIRECT FREE KICK
There are two types of free kicks. The direct free kick is one from which
a goal can be scored directly. An indirect free kick is one from which
a goal cannot be scored unless touched by another player before it enters
A direct free kick shall be awarded a team for any infraction occurring
against that team outside the penalty area by any of the following acts:
Kicking, striking or jumping at an opponent; handling the ball; holding
or pushing with hands or arms; using the knee on an opponent; violently or
dangerously charging an opponent; charging an opponent illegally from
GENERAL RULES SUMMARY
behind; charging an opponent while he has both feet oflF the ground; placing
hands or arms on an opponent; carrying by the goalkeeper. A direct free
kick is taken from the spot where the violation occurred.
If any of these occur in the penalty area, a penalty kick is awarded, ex-
cept for carrying by the goalkeeper.
INDIRECT FREE KICK
The goalkeeper who carries the ball for more than four steps in the
penalty area without bouncing it commits a violation. An indirect free kick
is awarded the opposing team in such cases. Other violations are: un-
gen tlemanly conduct on the pitch; entering the game without reporting lo
the referee; showing, by action or words, dissension with the referet/s de-
Usually when a dangerous play has been made, the referee will caution
the oflFender against a repetition. Should the offender be sent out of the
game for his action, he cannot return later.
When the ball passes over the sidelines, the team last touching it loses
possession of the ball. It is put into play by a throw-in from the point where
it went out. The player making the throw-in must hold the ball in both
hands over his head, face the field and have part of each foot either on or
outside the sideline.
When the ball goes out of bounds over the goal line, either in the air or
on the ground, and has last been touched or played by a defending player,
a corner kick is awarded the attacking team. It must be taken from the
corner quarter circle on the side where the ball went out. A goal can be
scored directly on this play.
A goal is scored when the whole ball passes over the goal line, between
the goal posts and under the crossbar, providing it has not been thrown,
carried or propelled by hand or arm or carried by a player of the attacking
A ball kicked into the goal by a defending player is credited as a goal
56 GENERAL RULES SUMMARY
for the opposing team. If the ball bounces off the referee and enters the
goal, it is also a goal.
The team scoring the greater number of goals during the game shall be
the winner. When a tie results in a regular game, both teams can agree to
play extra periods to decide the contest.
A player is offside if he is nearer his opponent’s goal line than the ball at
the moment the ball is played, unless:
1— He is in his own half of the field.
2— There are two opponents nearer their own goal line than he is.
3— The ball was touched or played last by an opponent.
4— -He receives the ball direct from a goal kick, a corner kick, a throw-in
or when it has been dropped by the referee.
(get offside diagrams in guide)
A substitute may enter a game only when the ball is not in play. Two sub-
stitutes are generally permitted but collep^es and high'* schools often have
their own rules about substitutions.
The referee is the only one with the power to stop a game. Play is halted
when a ball goes out of bounds and usually when an injured player requires
first aid or is to be removed from the pitch.
One referee and two linesmen are usually assigned to a game. The lines-
men s duty is to assist the referee in calling balls out of bounds. As the teams
change sides for the second half, the linesmen do also.
X. KEEPING SCORE
S CORING records are important to the players, coaches, oflBcials and news-
papers and radio. The accompanying score sheet, originated by the
author, records the lineup, substitutions, number and position of each
player, names of the officials as well as all the statistics of the game.
The symbols representing the various team positions are those used in
standard newspaper lineups. Their significance are: G— goalkeeper; RB—
right fullback; LB— left fullback; RH— right halfback; CH— center halfback;
LH— left halfback; OR— outside right; IR— inside right; CF— center forward;
IL— inside left; OL-outside left.
Each team should assign a scorer to keep the record for his team as well
as the opponent.
Opposite each position is a square to record each action taking place. For
example, each time a forward kicks for the goal, a suitable mark should
be made in the column, ‘‘Shots at Goal.'" If he scores on the shot, a mark is
made in the “Scorers” column. If he has passed or deflected the ball to the
scorer (of his team), he gets an assist.
In the summary at the bottom of the score sheet, the referee may sign
his name to legalize the record. The statistics are useful in studying the
progress of a team’s play. In the course of a season, a coach knows at a
glance those players scoring goals, committing fouls or tending to play in
For many years soccer teams have exchanged lineups of their respective
teams but they have not kept accurate records so important to the game
if it is to reach the top popularity of other major sports in America.
SOCCER SCORE SHEET
DATE May 6. 1945 (.Sample)
SHOTS AT GOAL
REFEREE : JONES
ScKcer has a score sheet that is a valuable part of the game statistics. The author has
compiled this complete score sheet to cover the game from the time the game starts until
This score sheet is simple to follow and its use during a season of play will give a coach
or manager a definite idea of what his team has accomplished.
The symbols used in the lineup are for the following positions:
Goal— A goal is registered when the ball passes between the goal posts be-
neath the cross bar.
Penalty Kick— A kick taken from the 12-yard spot in front of the goal. It is
awarded the attacking side for intentional handling (goalkeeper ex-
cepted), tripping, charging or holding by the defensive side within the
Offside— A player is oflFside if he is nearer his opponent's goal line than the
ball at the moment the ball is played unless: 1— he is in his own half of
the field; 2— there are two of his opponents nearer to their own goal line
than he is; 3— the ball was last touched or played by an opponent; 4—
he receives the ball direct on the first play from a goal kick, a corner
kick, a throw-in or if it has been dropped by the referee.
Attacking Team— T he team in possession of the ball.
Defending Team— The team trying to gain possession of the ball.
Save— Preventing a score.
Marking— Covering or guarding a player and preventing him from getting
Goal Kick— A kick awarded the defense when the ball is sent out of bounds
over the end line by the attacking side.
Free Kick— A kick awarded a team when an opponent commits a foul.
Kick-Off— The kick-oflF is a place-kick taken from the center of the field at
the start of the game, at the start of the second half and after each
Throw-In— W hen the ball goes out of bounds at the sidelines, an opponent
of the team which sent it out is given the ball to throw back into play.
Charging— I ntentionally pushing an opponent from the ball or throwing
him off balance.
Carrying— W hen the goalkeeper takes more than four steps without bounc-
ing the ball.
Holding— O bstructing a player with the hand or arm.
Tripping— I ntentionally throwing or attempting to throw a player.
Handling— I ntentionally playing the ball with the hand, arm or shoUder.
Tackling— A ttempting to lack the ball away from an opponent.
Area, comer, 7
Attack begin, 9
Attack, planned, 8
Attacking team, 60
Award for penalty kick, 12
Ball in play, 10
Basic principles, 6
Basic rules, 10-12
Block tackle, 26
Center circle, 7
Center forward, 39-40
Center halfback, 35
Charging opponent, 54
Circle, center, 7
Clearing kick, 17
Comer area, 7
Comer flag, 7
Comer kick, 36, 39, 52-53, 55
Deception in movement, 9
Defending team, 60
Defense play, 29-38
defensive side of game, 17
Diagram of field, 7
Direct free kick, 11, 54
Diving technic, 31
Dribbling movements, 8
Fake kick routine, 22
Field diagram, 7
Fighting at the ball, 16
Flag, comer, 7
Forwards, 39-40, 43
Free kick, 11, 60
Free kick, direct, 54
Free kick, indirect, 51, 55
Front tackle, 26-27
Goal, 6-7, 60
Goal area, 7
Goal kick, 60
Goal scored, 10
Goalkeeper, 10, 29-32
Goalkeeper’s uniform, 29
Greece, ancient, 5
Halfway line, 7
Hands, use of, 10-11
Heel kick, 16
Hints for forwards, 43
Hints for fullbacks, 34
Hints for goalkeeper, 31-32
Hints for halfbacks, 38
Holding opponent, 54
Hook tackle, 28
Indirect free kick, 11, 51, 55
Individual play-defense, 29-38
Individual play-offense, 38-43
Individual player, 8
Infractions of rules, 54
Initiative in soccer, 9
Inside left, 40-41
Inside right, 40-41
Instep kick, 14
Instruction in kicking, 13
International game, 5
Jockeying for position, 33
Jumping at opponent, 54
Keeping score, 57
Kicking instruction, 13
Kicking with inside of foot, 15
Kicking with outside of foot, 15
Direct free kick
Indirect free kick
Left-foot kfcker, 30
Limited equipment for game, 5
Long pass, 9
Movement deception, 9
NCAA Soccer guide, 6
Offense play, 38-43
Offenses for direct free kick, 11
Offenses for indirect free kick, 12
Offensive play, 9
Offside, 56, 60
Opening play, 46
Origin of soccer, 5
Out of bounds, 10
Outside left, 42-43
Outside right, 42-43
Passing, 23-24, 9
Pattern of play, 9
Penalty area, 7, 29, 39
Penalty kick, 12, 54, 60
Penalty kick line-up, 11
Penalty kick mark, 7
Physical condition of players, 8
Pitch, the, 6
Planned attack, 8
Play from throw-in, 50
Playing offside, 54
Positions of team, 6
Practice schedule, 44-45
Principles, basic, 6
Purpose of book, 6
Purpose of the game, 6
Referee’s whistle, 10
Right-foot kicker, 30
Rule infractions, 54
Rule infraction penalties, 54
Rules, basic, 10-12
Schedule of practice, 44-45
Scope of book, 6
Score keeping, 57
Score sheet, 58-59
Scoring from goal kick by fullback, 49
Scoring play from kick-off, 47-48
Second season of play, 9
Shooting at the goal, 16
Short passing game, 9
Side tackle, 27
Split-vision tactics, 39
Tackling, 26-28, 60
Tackling from the side, 27-28
Team system, 8
Throw-in, 41, 43, 55, 60
Time out, 56
Toe kick, 15
Touching ball with hands, 54
Tripping, 54, 60
Two players fighting at the ball, 16
Uniform of goalkeeper, 29
Universality of soccer, 5
U. S. Soccer Football Assoc., 6
Wingmen, 35, 39, 42
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HOW TO TIE FLIES
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SOFTBALL FOR GIRLS
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TRACK AND FIELD
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