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PLANNING 

FOR 

THE FUTURE 

OF 

BOMBAY’S COUNTRYSIDE 





PLANNING FOR THE FUTURE OF 
BOMBAY’S COUNTRYSIDE 

A fifteen-year plan for post-war development of the Province is 
being prepared by the Government of Bombay. No plan can be 
altogether hard and fast. Circumstances change, Governments 
come and go, but, unless the Government of today looks ahead and 
prepares a scheme for development in the immediate post-war 
years, valuable time will be wasted and great opportunities lost. 

The objective is to raise the economic level of the country-side, 
to increase the well-being of the people, while, 
at the same time, arranging for the resettlement The Objective 
of returned soldiers. The plan covers every aspect 
of non-industrial rural development. It embraces the fostering 
of home and village crafts hut does not deal with large-scale industry. 
Indu^ial reconstruction is dependent on planning by the Govern- 
ment of India : for it India must be regarded as a whole and 
industries located where they can be worked most economically. 

Bombay’s comprehensive scheme is intended' to touch rural life 
at every facet, and, for its efficient execution, is to be divided into 
three five-year periods. The first of these alone will cost in the 
neighbourhood of fifty crores of rupees.* 

Even so, no attempt is to be made to start all the improvement 
projects in all parts of the Province simultaneously. Some of the 
schemes, catering for the more urgent and basic 
needs and preparing the way for more intensive Four Parts 
improvement later, will be spread over all districts. 

Others will be confined by their own nature to limited tracts. Only 
in selected “ concentrated areas ” will all practicable Improvements 
be effected in one economic drive duiing the first five years. 
Classified, the plan falls into four categories : 

(0 Special Priority Schemes — ^to be put into effect as quickly 
as possible to meet, to some extent, existing and post-war demands 
for staff. 

(ft) All-Province Schemes — to be spread over all districts, to 
cater for more urgent and basic needs and to prepare the way for 
more intensive development. 

* All figures of cost in this pamphlet are based op present prices and not op 
pre-war prices. 

Mo-i Bk H 378 



2 


(m) Particular Area Schemes — ^by their nature suitable for 
introduction only in certain areas. 

{iv) Concentrated Area Schemes — for all-round improvement 
of selected areas. 

There are several reasons for this classification. There are the 
limiting factors of available staff and finance. There is the need 
of guarding against wastage in the actual, expenditure of the tax- 
payers’ money — an object best achieved by having works in compact 
areas where they can be easily supervised by senior (departmental 
officers. Above all, there is the wish to achieve quick and satisfying 
results in raising the general standard of life and so create a popular 
demand for the extension of the schemes to other areas. 

A ** concentrated area, ” once it has emerged from the workmen’s 
hands, should be a place of envy for its neighbours. All its district 
and village roads will have been built and repaired. 
Water supplies will have been provided in villages 
and towns and the larger towns will have proper 
sanitation. Malaria-breeding areas will have disappeared, proper 
health and medical services will be functioning and there will be 
a veterinary dispensary In every taluka. Schools will have been 
built and staffed by trained teachers and there will be agricultural 
and technical high schools for those youths who wish to carry their 
studies further. Local Industries and co-operative work will be 
encouraged. ' Irrigation will have been provided, land improved and 
protection given to areas liable to erosion. 

Nine districts have been taken as the target for the “concentrated 
areas ’’ for the first five years. They are : — 

Satara . . All talukas. 

Poona . . Indapur taluka and Dhond and Sirur petas. 

Sholapur . . Karmala, Sangola, Malsiras and Pandharpur 

talukas. 

Ahmednagar . . Newasa, Kopergaon, Rahuri, Ahmednagar, 

Pamer and Shrigonda talukas and Karjat 
peta; 

Kolaba . . Mahad, Mangaon and Roh^ talukas. 

Ratnagiri . . Whole district except Vengurla peta. 

' Belgaum .. All talukas. 

Bijapur .. All talukas, 

Surat .. All talukas. 




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KMANDESH 


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BOMBAYf 


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BELGAUM 


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KANARA 






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MAHALS 


IRRIGATION WORKS. 


> WEST 
KHANDESH 




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BELGAUH 

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Existin c! Major Works. 
I Nira R.B. Canal. 

U Nira L.B. Canal. 

HI Mutha Canals, 
ffi Pravara Canals. 

Y Godavari Canals.. 

YI Girna Canal. 


oHARWar 


KANARA 




^vfSORE Ter.. 


Proposed Works. 

I Meshwa Canal. 

Z Mahl Canal. 

3 Walrak Canal. 
4Tap}-! River. 

5 Vardala Tank. 

6 PaladungriTank. 

' 7 Vir Dam. 

2, 8 Khadakwasla. 

^ 9 Gangapur Dam. 

10 Girna. ; 

^ II Mula. 

“ 12 TisangiTank. 

^ 13 Bhamburdi Tank. 

14 Chankapur Dam. 

; 15 Khamgaon Tank. 

16 Victoria Tank. 

17 MangiTank. 

18 Sapatna Tank. 

19 GaddikeriTonk. 

ZO Pickup weir otShivafjog 

Handle. 

21 Asoga Scheme. 

22 Gokak L.B. Canal. 
23Don Irrigation Scheme 


O.P Z.P.POOKA,l9«*. 




3 


In making this selection, the Government was influenced by 
three factors : 

First, the “ concentrated areas ” must be distributed over 
various parts of the Province. At any rate it is necessary to 
experiment everywhere. 

Secondly, it is necessary to pay special attention to the needs of 
certain areas in the Province — ^areas particularly liable to famine, 
areas where the soil is particularly unproductive and areas generally 
in need of development. 

Thirdly, the “ concentrated areas ” should, as far as possible, 
correspond with the best recruiting areas. It must be remembered 
that the soldier is a member of the family, that anything done for 
his benefit helps his family and, in turn, his own village. 

SPECIAL PRIORITY SCHEMES 

For this development a great number of skilled workers will be 
required — to guide the agriculturists in better farming methods, to 
supervise the erection of buildings and the construction of roads, to lay 
out bunds and irrigation channels and to do all the other jobs entailed 
by nation-building activity of such magnitude. For the Agricultural 
Department alone, it is estimated, more than 3,000 recruits to the 
superior staff will be needed. Some of these men will be obtained 
from the Army, from among soldiers released either before or 
during general demobilisation. But the Army’s contribution of 
such specialised workers cannot be large. The vast majority of the 
thousands of men needed will have to be found elsey/here — ^and they 
cannot be found unless they have previously been trained. 

That is why Bombay is concentrating now on providing 
‘ instructional stafl. The training of specialised staff takes anything 
from twelve months to five jears and, unless a beginning is made at 
once to supplement it, the outturn of instructors and superior staff 
will be hopelessly short of the demand. In the forefront of the 
fifteen-year plan, therefore, are eleven special priority schemes, 
ten of them to do with training 6f staff. 

The Agricultural Gallege at Poona is being expanded to enable 
it to admit 150 students in place of 100 annually. 

This will mean that, after three years, there will be 
some 70 to 80 agricultural graduates available each 
year instead of the present 40. The Manjri Training Centre at 
Mou Bk H 378 



4 


Poona is lo conduct 12-month diploma courses in agriculture and 
allied sciences on an essentially practical basis for 75 students to 
(qualify them for posts as agricultural assistants and will 
simultaneously give similar training to 75 fieldmcn. 

In the Bijapur District a centre has already been established 
to train 200 students annually in land development, including the 
laj^-out and construction of field contour bunds and trenches. Here 
there will be particular scope for returned soldiers with engineering 
and survey experience. At Sholapur arrangements are being 
made to start a course in scientific dry-farming methods, in which 
100 students will be trained each year. Another scheme is under 
consideration for the vocational training of military instructors, who 
in turn will pass on their knowledge to soldier colleagues. 

The G)-operatlve Department is to have a staff training centre 
at Poona with, possibly, sub-centres at Dharwar 
Co^oper^H v^e Surat. The medical authorities are arranging 
Trcining foi" ^-he training of subsidised practitioners in 

sanitary and public health w'ork to make them of 
greater assistance in combating epidemics and will expand facilities 
for leaching health officers and sanitary inspectors. 

To meet the post-war need of many more engineers, the College 
of Engineering at Poona is lo admit 50 more students 
Engineering' to each of its degree and diploma courses. At 
the same time the Government Avill consider 
whether expansion of the Victoria Jubilee Technical Institute in 
Bombay will contribute towards producing other technical personnel 
so badly needed, especially electricians for the proposed electrical 
grid scheme. 

As education will be an important feature in the “ concentrated 
areas,” the number of trained primary teachers 
School Teachers has lo be increased. This will be done by opening 
three training colleges, each of which will provide 
a two-year course to some 150 students. These should all be 
functioning by the middle of 1946 at latest. To ensure proper 
supervision by at. least one inspecting officer for each 50 schools in 
the “concentrated areas,” 105 additional posts of assistant deputy 
educational Inspectors are being created — 18 men and three women 
each year for , five years. 



5 


The Bombay Veterinary College is to be expanded by the admission 
of 50 more students every year. Of allied- interest 
.is the only “ special priority ” scheme not solely , ^^ifivest^k 
concerned with staff — that of livestock Improvement. 

The cattle required for post-war years must be bred and reared 
now, so each year for five years 12 supplementary breeding centres 
are to be organised for the production of breeding stock and the 
improvement of the Khillar, Amrit Mahal and Kankrej breeds. 
Each centre will embrace five villages, in which 50 cows and five 
bulls will be placed with cultivators on the condition that the prbgeny 
is used for further distribution. The distribution of “ premium 
bulls ” and “ premium cows ” is to be increased — from 200 and 300 
respectively a year now to 400 and 1,200 a year at the end of five 
years. Schemes for the Improved production and storage of 
nutritious fodder in the main cattle-breeding areas are also being 
prepared. 

ALL-PROVINCE SCHEMES 

After the training plans come those schemes which are to be 
introduced throughout the Province, projects which meet pressing and 
basic needs and pave the Way for further development. Agricultural 
pursuits, as the foundation of the Province’s economy, naturally 
bulk large among them. But there is also emphasis on medical 
and public health measures, to which are devoted 1 1 out of the 27 
schemes in this section, and on through communications by means 
of National and Provincial highways. 

Since it is clear that no kind of Improvement can be fully or 
successfully introduced until there is proper access to all parts 
of the Province, particularly the outlying villages, 
the Government will put the development of good Roads 

communications in the forefront of its scheme. 

.A comprehensive scheme of building and improving roads, 
based on what is knowm as the “ Nagpur Scheme,” is to cost, 
about Rs. 14^ crores during the first five-year period and Rs.- 44 
crores for the whole fifteen-year Plan. This scheme will also 
comprise a substantial Increase in the width of all roads, involving 
considerable acquisition of land. When completed, it will have 
given 2,700 miles of national highways, 5,600 miles, of provincial 
highways, 6,000 miles of major district roads, 10,000 miles of 



6 


minor district roads and 14,400 miles of village roads. Existing 


and proposed new mileages are : — 


Existing 

New 

National Higltways 

• • 

2,700 

• • • • 

Provincial Highways 

• • 

2,500 

3,100 

Major District Roads 

• 4 . 

3,000 

3.000 

Minor District Roads 

• • 

2,250 

7,750 

Village Roads 

• • 


14,400 


*Thc existing mileage of village roads is not kiiowTi and the figure of 14,400 includes 
existing ns well ns new roads. 

Intensified research work is the principal feature of the agricultural 


Agricultural 

Research 


programme, for it is only by scientific investigation 
that the yield and quality of the more important 
crops can be improved. Nineteen research stations 
to be established in the cereal-growing tracts will devote their 
attention to the breeding and improvement of the principal types 
of such food crops — wheat, hajri, rice, jowar and the like. Nine 
sub-stations elsewhere will deal with pulse and oil-seed crops ; 
and the Agri-Sllvicultural Research Station at Slrsl will investigate 
problems connected with agricultural and garden crops in the 
up-ghat tracts of Kanara and forest growth in the same district. 
Experimental work will be conducted on tlie technique and economics 
of improved tillage methods, manurial and Irrigational treatments 
and on more profitable crop rotations. Scientific investigations 
will be concentrated upon soil problems, including the reclamation 
of damaged and alkaline lands in Gujarat and the Kamatak. 


Two more stations — one in the Northern Division and one in 
the Southern — will carry out research on crop diseases and serve 
as headquarters for a plant disease control staff. At other centres 
rin the districts arrangements are being provided for entomological 
research work on the prevention arid control of insect pests on crops 
and fruit trees and on the reduction of damage by insects to stored 
grain. 

To enable the benefits of this research to he passed on to the 
farmer and to ensure that all knowledge possible is widely disseminated 
and applied, it is intended to strengthen the agricultural staff in 
the districts so that, at the end of five years, there will be one 
graduate agricultural officer in each prant and an agricultural assistant 



1 


in eacK taluka.'^ As the major part of its duties this increased 
staff will carry out comprehensive schemes for the multiplication 
and distribution of seed of improved crop varieties and for the 
introduction and extension of better farming methods. 

In stages the Agricultural Debtors' Relief Act will be extended 
from the 16 talukas and petas where it is now in 
force to the whole Province and 42 new boards are Deb^^'^ReUef 
proposed to be established very shortly. These ' Act 
will be located in the “ concentrated areas ” to 
some extent as well as in one or two talukas in every other 
district. 

An immediate result of this extension will be expansion of the 
co-operative movement in those areas. The 
Government has agreed that co-operative societies ° ^odetles 
should as far as possible be the agency to supply 
crop finance to the agriculturists, so the number and membership 
of societies will both have to be substantially increased and the 
supervising machinery strengthened. To link crop farming 
activities with marketing, it is intended to set up a net-work of 
co-operative sales organisations. 

For the care of the agriculturists’ animals the Government 
intends to increase the departmental veterinary 
staff and to assume full control of veterinary Husb^d^ 
dispensaries. At present District Local Boards 
maintain dispensaries with financial assistance from the Government 
but, as the running of dispensaries is not obligatory on them and is 
dependent on local factors, more progress will be made possible 
by the Government assuming full responsibility. Besides this, it 
is proposed to establish an Animal Husbandly Research Station 
and to manufacture within the Province the sera and vaccines 
required for the treatment of animal diseases. 

To the people’s own health services great attention will be paid. 
But, here again, progress is dependent on doctors 
being available. Even though many medical men Medical Semces 
will return to civil practice from the Army, there 
will not be enough. The first two medical development schemes, 

* Prant means sub-division of the district. Taluka means sub-division of the prant. 



8 


therefore, are designed to produce more qualified doctors by 
converting the B. J. Medical Schools at Poona and Ahmedabad into 
medical colleges. Laboratory work generally will be stepped up 
by the creation of a cadre of laboratory and X-ray technicians who 
will all be graduates in science. 

District hospitals are to be Improved so that people In the mofussil 
will be able to secure all ordinary treatment near 
home and pressure on the big hospitals In Bombay 
and Poona will be reduced. Every mofussil 
hospital is to have at least 75 beds and, to augment their staff, medical 
men with higher qualifications will be encouraged to settle in district 
towns by the offer of posts of honorary surgeons or honoraiy physicians 
carrying appropriate honoraria. Elnch hospital will be given 
a motor ambulance. 


DiDtrict 

Hospitals 


Cottage 

Hospital 


Smaller hospitals away from the district headquarters will be 
provided by converting dispensaries Into cottage 
hospitals. Such institutions have already been 
opened in the Poona, Ahmedabad, Ahmednagar, 
Ratnagirl and Kanara Districts and it is Intended to have at least 
two in every district. Local dispensaries themselves will be improved 
so that full advantage can be taken of their beds for in-patients: 
the Government will give them all a grant towards the pay of staff 
and the cost of patients’ food. 

General medical attention in rural areas will be Increased 
■by appointing 100 more subsidised medical 
Doctors^*^^ practitioners, for tlie 330 subsidised centres 
previously sanctioned have been a boon to the 
country people. Fifty more nurse-midwives will be added to the 
81 whose appointments at District Local Board Dispensaries, have 
already been approved. 

In Bombay city attention will be given to industrial diseases 
j ^ ^ ^ and hazardous occupations by the setting up of 

Diseases 3 Department of Industrial Medicine in the J. J. 

- Hospital. The officer in charge will be expected 
gradually to develop machinery to deal with problems of industrial 
psychology and fatigue. 



Motor 

Transport 


Another development in the city will be in the field of industrial 
education — the inauguration at the Victoria I du tri 1 

Jubilee Technical Institute at Matunga of degree Education 

courses ' in such subjects as textiles and sanitary 
engineering. Ordinary education under this section of the develop- 
ment plan calls for the appointment of 85 more assistant deputy 
inspectors — 70 men and 15 women. 

-With the prospect of extensive road development it is expected 
that motor transport will grow considerably in 
volume in the post-war years and it is, therefore, 
proposed to rationalise the organisation of motor 
transport vdth a view to greater public convenience and the co- 
ordination of road transport with other means of communications. 
The formation of larger units of operation in the passenger trans- 
port services will be encouraged in place of single owner-drivers 
or smaller units, and efforts will also be made to develop transport 
in neglected areas. An attempt will be made to absorb in the • 
transport services as many returned soldiers as possible. 

An integral part of the Government’s plan will be an electrical 
grid system, which alms at linking up and amplify- 
ing all sources of electricity so as to Increase the Electric Grid 
use of electricity throughout the Province, cheapen- 
ing the rates and, in particular, making it available to, rural areas, 
agriculture and small industries. • As an off-shoot this scheme 
may have a synthetic ammonium sulphate factory providing cheap 
manure for the Province’s farmers. 

PARUCULAR AREA SCHEMES 

, f 

The wider and more efficient use of manure is one objective 
among the Agricultural Department’s schemes to be applied in 
particular areas — the third section of the complete development plan. 
Three main lines of work are proposed.' One is the introduction and 
expansion of organic manuring by better conservation of farmyard 
manure, by the scientific preparation of compost and by the increased 
cultivation of green manure crops. The second is the extended 
use of cake manures with rice, vegetables and other suitable crops ; 



10 


and the third the increased and economical use o{ inorganic fertilisers 
in selected areas. Another scheme provides for the extension of 
improved agricultural implements; and the Department has also' 
(prepared large-scale plans for, the construction of new wells and 
tanks and for the Improvement of such existing sources of crop 
irrigation on a subsidy basis, as has been done during the “ Grow 
More Food ” campaign. 


Fruit and vegetable growing is to be encouraged wherever 
conditions are suitable. District nurseries will 
Nur^ries provide the young plants and give training to 200 

cultivators and malis every year while two district 
sub-stations undertake research. For full utilisation of the crops, 
experiments will be made into the possibility of manufacturing 
preserves and other fruit products. 


Localised livestock improvement projects include the establish- 
ment of a breeding farm for the Glr breed of cattle 
Poona district and two for the Dangi breed in- 
the Ratnagiri and Nasik districts t At present there 
are no Government farms for these useful types of animals. Sheep- 
breeding sub-stations will be opened in Khandesh and Surat, whose 
important breeds deserve attention. Nasik, Satara and Surat 

will be given poultry-breeding stations. 

' » 

Co-operative advancement includes the organisation of district 
industrial associations for handloom weaving and 
AdvMce^ent other cottage and subsidiary industaes and of a 
Provincial Industrial Federation to co-ordinate 
their activities. Co-operative creameries will be established in 
the Belgaum, Satara, East and West Khandesh and Dharwar 
Districts, each with an attendant ring of five to ten cream-separating 
units to collect milk from the villages. Milk supply unions will 
be established in urban areas where there is a keen consumer demand 
and will have their feeder societies in the surrounding countryside. 
The first of these will be in Ahmedabad and subsequent ones in 
Belgaum, Deolall, Nasik, Hubli and Sholapur. Plans for the 
reorganisation and rationalising of the Bombay City milk supply 
will also be undertaken. 



u 


In forest areas rehabilitation work will be undertaken to repair 
tire situation caused by excess felling of timber for > • 

war needs. Roads damaged by the heavy war "time Rehabilitation 

traffic will be reconstructed and new ones built ; 
and better water supplies and other amenities will be arranged for 
the forest staffs. 

Public health schemes for the “ particular area ” section are not 
numerous but, naturally, are of great importance. 

A district health organisation, with a health officer Public Health 
in charge, will be introduced into every district 
then still without one, and in malarious talukas special parties of 
trained workers will investigate the conditions responsible for the 
disease and institute control measures. A permanent anti-plague 
organisation will be set up to deal with endemic centres and areas 
susceptible to infection from outside the Province. 


Industry, urban and cottage, will benefit by a supply of graduates 
from industrial schools to be founded in Satara, 

Hubli and Bljapur and from the R. C. Technical Gradu^w 
Institute in Ahmedabad, which is to be reorganised 
to make it of greater use to the textile trade. Altogether, these 
four institutions will train 618 pupils a year. 


The existing apprentice scheme will be Introduced and expanded 
in towns wherever there are facilities until 750 men a year are being 
trained.' Away at sea, coastal fisheries will be developed with motor 
craft and modern nets. 


in the field of labour, machinery will be set up for the extension 
to factories of the Payment of Wages Act, including 
the appointment of trade boards to regulate minimum Labour 

wages. Operation of the Bombay Industrial 
Disputes Act for the settlement of trade disputes will be extended 
to cover more industries. 

Amenities for the working classes in industrial areas will be 
increased and improved. Broach, Bars!, Amalner, Vlramgam,, 
Surat, Jalgaon, Dhulia, Nadiad, Ahmedabad, Sholapu:^ Hubli 
and Bombay City will have new welfare centres, and more reading 
roorns and circulating library posts will be opened. The 
Government Industrial Training Workshop at Ahmedabad will 





double its seating capacity and a similar workshop will be opened 
at Sholapur, 

Irrigation works are estimated to cost Rs. 14 crores during the 
15 years — Rs. 3’5 crores in the first five-year period. 
Irrigation Rs. 4 '7 crores in the second and Rs. 5 ‘8 crores in 

the third. The actual works to be undertaken 
have still to be selected, but among the bigger items in a list prepared 
by the Public Works Department are the Girna project in Khandesh 
(Rs. 4 crores), the Mula project in Ahmednagar (Rs. 3*96 crores), 
the Vir dam project in Poona and Sholapur Districts (Rs. 1 ’67 
crores) and the Gokak Left Bank canal scheme in Belgaum 
(Rs. 30 lakhs). 

Another big responsibility of the Public Works Department will 
be the construction of public health works, on 
Water Supply which Rs. 4*30 crores will be spent in ten years. 

They Include water supply schemes for Dharwar 
and Hubll, Belgaum, Ahmednagar, Badlapur and Bombay Suburbs, 
Surat, Pandharpur, Poona and Kirkee, Nipani, Nadiad and Godhra 
and drainage systems for Surat, Ghatkopar, Jalgaon and the Bombay 
Suburbs. 

“ CONCENTI?ATED AREA ” SCHEMES 

Some of these works will be in the “ concentrated areas ” — the 
fourth component of the plan. Besides these benefits and amenities 
coming from projects applied throughout the Province, these 
“ concentrated areas ” will have many special schemes of their own. 
Those ^selected for development during any five-year period are 
to be completely improved at the end of that time. 

Rural Development Centres will be established, if possible, in 
each district. These will provide demonstrations 
ment Centres improved methods or agriculture, crops, 

cultivation, livestock, etc., and also courses for the 
training of those agriculturists who wish to learn more about modern 
improvements, cottage industries, agricultural machinery, and the 
like. It is proposed that special arrangements should 'be made 
for demobilised soldiers to be trained here, both for the care of 
their own lands and as rural reconstruction agents in villages. 



13 


In particular, the scheme should include instruction of the soldiers 
wives and families in such matters as sanitation, hygiene and 
domestic economy. The details are still under discussion with 
Government of India. 

Many more taluka demonstration centres upon which agricultural 
improvements can be demonstrated on the cultivators own lands 
will -be established, the object being to provide one within easy 
reach of each farmer. Improved agricultural implements and other 
farming equipment will be made readily available on easy terms at 
these centres. It is proposed also to establish a tractor section, which 
will undertake seasonal tillage operations in areas where there is a 
shortage of plough bullocks in order to increase food production. 
The tractors will be equipped for the deep ploughing of lands 
Infested with deep-rooted weeds and for the breaking Up of 
new lands. 


Checking 

Erosion 


Great emphasis is to be placed on the development and improve- 
ment of agricultural, forest and waste lands in 
areas most liable to famine and scarcity. This 
will entail big extension of works designed to check 
soil erosion and to ensure that fullest use is made of the rainfall, 
such as large-scale contour bunding on units of complete Watersheds, 
gulIy-plugglng and, on forest and waste lands, contour trenching 
and re-afforestatlon. In addition scientific methods of dry farming, 
based on the successful experiments at the Dry Farming Research 
Stations at Sholapur and Bljapur, will be put into practice in the 
contour-bunded cultivated areas. There is already in hand work 
for the development of 500,000 acres in the Bijapur, Dharwar, 
Belgaum, Sholapur, Poona, Ahmednagar and Satara Districts' and 
this will be Intensified to cover at least 1 ,000,000 acres a year at the 
end of five years. 


The measures to be taken in developing agricultural, forest and 
vvaste lands in the Konkan will be largely dependent on the results 
of experiments being made this year in the Ratnaglri district. The 
aim is to (ieck the rapid run-off of rain water and so increase* the 
water-holding capacity of the higher lands, prevent erosion and 
facilitate the conversion of the lowe r Darkas^' lands into rice 

' Varkas means land growing grass or crops other than rice in rice growing areas. 



14 


cultivation or, possibly, double-cropping. This work will be 
chiefly in the Ratnaeiri district, while reclamation of coastal 
areas will largely be done in the Kolaba and Bombay Suburban 
Districts. 

As everywhere throughout the Province the scattered nature of 
hbldings is a handicap to the effecting of agricultural improvements 
besides being a drag on the farmer’s prosperity, 
of^Holdfngr" Co-operative Department will organise in the 

“ concentrated areas ” societies for the consolidation 
of holdings. It will also help in the establishment of a network 
of regulated markets for local produce and ancillary co-operative 
sales societies. 


Safeguarding 

Stock 


was 


More attention will be given to the farmers’ livestock. The Royal 
Commission on Agriculture in India estimated that, 
if contagious diseases among cattle were to be 
properly controlled, one veterinary assistant 
needed for every 25,000 head of cattle. In the 
concentrated areas ” there are approximately 3,725,000 cattle 
and buffaloes and only 49 veterinary assistant surgeons. One 
hundred more assistant surgeons, therefore, are required and will 
be appointed at the rate of 20 a year. To make them of more general 
use, at least half . of the veterlnaiy' dispensaries will be made 
mobile. 


surgeon 
<« 


As ticks menace cattle improvement and also damage the' hides, 
the dipping of animals will be extended. This will be mainly in 
the Maval and Konkan areas, v/here it is planned to open live 
new dipping tanks a year. 

For the care of the sick, the “ concentrated areas ” will be given 
16 cottage hospitals, 47 more subsidised medical 
More Nurses practitioners and 24 more nurse- midwives. Child 
welfare and maternity centres will be set up and, to 
provide a bigger supply of nurses, a branch of the College of Nursing 
will be established at Satara to train about 60 Marathi-speaking 
students a year. Village water supply and drainage and sanitation 
systems will be improved ; and two more health units will be formed 
to carry on intensive public health work and give field training to 
the regular Public Health staff and country doctors. 



15 


Education will gradually be made free and compulsory, 
throughout the “concentrated areas.” But, as 
this will depend on an adequate supply of teachers, Education 

eight training colleges' for primary teachers ■ 
five for men and three for women will be opened. These institu- 
tions, which will be additional to the three ” special priority ” 
colleges, will turn out 640 trained teachers a year. 

Primary schools will be opened in some 650 school-less villages 
with a population of 400 and over and, to encourage women’s 
education, 38 hostels for girls will be set up, attached to girls’ full 
grade primary schools. Proper school buildings will be constructed 
and the children given play-grounds. 

Besides those already in existence, 20 agricultural bias schools 
and four agricultural high schools will be opened. Two technical 
high schools will also be provided. To facilitate the education of 
soldiers’ children it is proposed to establish 20 hostels in the main 
recruiting areas by the time the war is over. 

Cottage industries will be encouraged by all possible means. 
Peripatetic teaching parties will give instruction in 
cotton and wool weaving, tanning and other crafts. In:^°sfries 

An industries section, devoted to the making of ■ 
farm implements and articles with a definite marketable value, will 
'be established in two of the “ Rural Development Headquarters,” 
probably at Satara and Ratnagiri. 

In the villages themselves, new or repaired chavdies"^' will serve 
as centres of public life. Villages which have given 
more than 50 recruits will have recreation centres, ^^CenirT 
containing a club house, gymnasium, library and 
reading room : these, it is believed, will be of particular value to 
ex-soldiers. 


BUJ^INGS 

The whole of this reconstruction scheme requires a large number 
of buildings, so that during the fifteen years the Public Works 
Department will have to undertake a building construction programme 
costing anything up to Rs. 7 crores. Among the items are the 
-new Civil Hospital at Ahmedabad, reconstruction of the J. J. Hospital 
and Grant Medical College in Bombay, new Government Offices 

m Poona and 4,000 single-room tenements for industrial Workers in 
Bombay. ' , 

■‘■A “ cliavdli ’’ is a village meeting bll and office. 



CONCLUSION 


On these^v/orks and in all the other schemes many thousands of 
men will be employed. Many will be returned soldiers. Innumerable 
other soldiers' will benefit from the application of improvement plans 
to their ancestral lands. The complete scheme, by focussing the 
initial portion of reconstruction activities in the recruiting areas, 
will go a long way to assisting in the resettlement of soldiers and 
their orderly and rapid re-absorption into civil life. But that is 
only one of its two objects : the other is the improvement of 
every aspect of the Province’s social, economic and cultural life, 
both rural and urban. 

It should be clearly understood that this plan is by no means in the 
nature of an unalterable blue-print. It serves to define the Govern- 
ment’s aims, but no finality is claimed for either outline or details. 
Further consideration or altered circumstances may — and doubtless 
will — necessitate considerable modification in the details of 
individual schemes ; while in respect of the plan as a whole there 
are several limiting factors, e.g., staff, material and, not least, 
finance. 

Regarding the last the Government of Bombay has Instituted 
a Post-war Reconstruction Fund which, at the close of the year 
1944-45 , is expected to amount to Rs. 7 crores. That will, of course, 
need to be considerably supplemented. Recourse may be 
had to either taxation or borrowing, or to both. Financial help 
may be forthcoming from the Central Government. While it is 
emphasized that the figure of about Rs. 50 crores estimated to be 
required for the first five years of the plan must at present be regarded 
as no more than a target, the Government of Bombay has every 
reason to hope that it will be possible to finance a plan of the cost 
contemplated. . 





0.P.Z4*. POONA 1944.