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Table of Contents 

Constitution and By-Laws 5 

Calendar of Meetings S 

Special Groups: Educational Council, State Advisory Comnuttees, Standing Com- 
mittees 10 

Officers 16 

Program Philadelpliia Meeting. . ■ 17 

PIRST DAY, MONDAY: School Music in Philadelpliia: The Opening Reception, with 
addresses by J. F. Cooke, E. W. Pearson, J. P. Garber, and "Vrai Eaih^ 25 

SECOND DAY, TUESDAY: President’s Address by Hollis Dann; Addresses by G. H. 
Gartlan, and Frank Damrosch, 31 


A, Monjfcg, I. Music Appreciation in tie Elementary Grades (44), Sudie L. 

Williams, Mary J. Annitage, E. G.Hesser, Mabelle Gkon, Agnes M. Frey- 
berger. n (a). The School Band (60) H. 0. Ferguson, W. R. Scott, M. 
Eckenroth, (b) The School Orchestra (63) W. Butterfield, A. J. Dann, F. E. 
Perdval, and general discussion. III. I^o Classes (68). W. H. Aiken, 
Inez F. Damon, G. J. Abbott, Mrs. G. M. Haake. IV. High School 
Courses (75). Will Earhart, E. Jane Wisenall, Lillian B. Held, EL W. 
Gehrkens, E. B, Birge, and gener^ discussion. V. Musical Training for the 
Grade Teacher (85). D. R. Gebhart, E. N. C. Barnes, Blanche Woody, 
Alice Bivins, and general discussion. 

B. Afternoon, I. Music Appreciation in the High School (94). Marie F. 

MacConndl, W. P. Rent, G. M. Tindall. H. Instrumental Classes in 
the Public Schools (102). T.W. Beattie, A. G. Mitchell, Theo. Winkler, 
J. W. Fay. m. Working Plan for Crediting Outside Study of Music (116). 
Osbourne McConathy, J. V. Bergquist, Timlin Cogswdtt, BL D. Tovey, 
J.P. Marshall IV, Speafic Voice Trmning in the EQ^ School (126). Wnn 
Breach, Fred Haywood, Duncan McKenzie, G. C. Stock. V. Singing in 
the Kindergarten (135). Selma Konold, Ethel M. Robinson, Irene Mc- 
Gurrin, A. D. Zamag, EDa R. Boyce. 

POTOXH DAY, THUESDAY. Rural life Betterment Thru Music. Addresses by Mrs. 
H. B. liw, P. E, Beck, Mrs. M. T. Harvqr, F. A. Beach, Max Schoen, H.N. 

Morse, L. L. Driver 143 

PIPTH DAY, PsiDAY. Addrcss by R. El Conwdl 156 

Bu^essSesaon on Thursday... 161 

Business Sesaon on Friday 173 


Past Presidents (176); Educational Council (177) ; National Wedr of Song (181) ; 
Resolutions (182); State Advisory Chairmen (184); Treasurer (210); 
Editor Supervisors’ Journal (211); [Commnnity Song Book Committee 


Contrffiuting Ezhibitms at Philaddphia 212 

list of Members 213 

Constitution and By-Laws 

Article L — ^Name 

This organization shall be known as the Music Supervisors’ National Conference. 

Article II. — Object 

Its object shall be mutual helpfulness and the promotion of good music through the 
instrumentality of the Public Schools. 

Article III. — ^Membership 

Sec. 1. Membership shall be Active, Associate and Honorary. 

Sec. 2. Any person actively interested in Public School Music may become an 
Active Member of the Conference, upon the payment of the prescribed dues. Active 
members whose dues are fully paid shall have the privilege of voting and of holding 

Sec. 3. Any person interested in Public School Music may become an Associate 
Member of the Conference upon payment of the prescribed dues. Associate members 
shall have the privilege of attending all meetings and of taking part in discussions, but 
they shall have no vote nor hold office, and they are not entitled to a printed copy of 
the Proceedings. 

Sec. 4. Honorary membership shall consist of persons of distinguished positions, or 
of unusual attainment, who manifest a friendly interest in Public School Music work. The 
names of such persons shall be presented by an active member at the Annu al Business 
Meeting, and upon a majority vote of the Conference shall be enrolled as honorary mem- 
bers. Honorary members shall enjoy all the privileges of the Conference, except voting 
and holding office, and shall not be required to pay dues. 

Article IV. — ^Dues 

Sec. 1. The dues for Active Members shall be $3.00 for the first year and $2.00 
annually thereafter. Dues are paj^able, for the current year, on and after January 1st; 
if the dues for the current year are not paid by December 31st, active membership lapses, 
and such a person desiring to be re-instated, may exercise the option of renewing member- 
ship by paying all arrears and receiving the published Proceedings of the interv enin g jrears, 
or of becoming an active member, on the same terms as new members. 

Sec. 2. The dues for Associate Members shall be $1.00 annually. 

Sec, 3. No person shall be entitled to the privileges of active or associate membership 
until dues for the current year shall have been paid. 

Article V. — Oiticers 

Sec. 1. The officers of this Conference shall consist of a President, 1st Vice-President, 
2nd Vice-President, Secretary, Treasurer, Auditor and Board of Directors, and these 
officers together with the retiring President, shall constitute the Executive Committee 
the Conference. 

Sec. 2. The term of office for President, 1st Vice-President, 2nd Vice-President, 
Secretary, Treasurer and Auditor shall be one year, or until their successors arc duly 




elected. With the exception of the 2nd 'S^ce-President and Treasurer, none of the above 
mentioned ojB&cers shall hold the same office for more than two consecutive years. 

In the event of the President’s re-election for a second year the Ex-President member 
of the Executive Committee shall remain a member of that Committee for two years. 

Sec. 3. The Board of Directors shall consist of 5 members elected for the jSxst time 
for a period of 5, 4, 3, 2 and 1 year respectively; at each annual meeting thereafter, one 
Director shall be elected for a term of 5 years to fill the place made vacant by the retiring 
member. The member whose term of office next expires shall be the Chairman of the 
Board of Directors for that year. 

Sec. 4. The Educational Council shall consist of Active Members, who have made 
some significant contribution to the literature or practice of Public School Music. The 
Active Members shall elect by ballot the ten (10) charter members of the Educational 
Council and this number shall be further increased by the election, by the members of 
the council, of additional members to their body. The term of office in the council shall 
not be fixed. A member of the council who has allowed his or her membership in the 
Conference to lapse shall cease to be a member of the council until he or she has been 
re-installed as an Active Member and re-elected as a member of the cotmcil. The council 
shaU elect annually out of their own body a chairman and a secretary. The President 
shall be a member, ex-officio, of the Educational Council. 

Sec. 5. The State Advisory Committee shall be composed of active members of the 
Conference, selected by the Executive Committee, from each State and territorial posses- 
sion of tie United States of America. The number of members composing this Committee 
shall not be fixed. 

Article VI. — ^Eiection 

Sec. 1. The President, 1st Vice-President, 2nd Vice-President, Secretary, Treasurer, 
Auditor and one member of the Board of Directors shall be nominated by a committee 
consisting of seven (7). The members of the nominating committee shall be elected by 
an informal ballot of the active members of the conference. The ballots are to be deposited 
with the Treasurer of the Conference before noon the second day of the Annual Meeting. 
Each voter shall write not more than seven names on his ballot. The Executive Committee 
shaU count the baUots and announce the result, not later than 10 o’clock of the foUowing 
morning. The seven persons receiving the highest number of votes shaU be declared the 
nominating committee. In case of a tie vote for any two or more persons, the Executive 
Committee shaU decide the tie vote. 

The nominating committee shaU nominate two members of the Conference for each 
selective office of the Conference. 

Sec. 2. The election of officers shall take place at the Annual Business Meeting of 
the Conference. A majority of aU votes cast is required to elect. 

Article VII.— -Meeting 

Sec. 1. The Conference shaU meet annuaUy, between the dates of February 15th and 
May 15th at the discretion of the Executive Committee. The Annual Business Meeting 
shaU be held on the day preceding the dosing day of the conference. Twenty active 
members shaU constitute a quorum for the transaction of business at the Annual Business 

Sec. 2. The Executive Committee shaU meet at the call of the President, or at the 
caU of the Secretary when the Secretary is requested to do so by not less than three (3) of 
the members of the Executive Committee. A quorum of five (5) members of the Executive 
Committee is required for the transaction of business. 



Article VUE.— Amendments 

The Constitution and By-Laws may be altered or amended by a two^thirds vote 
at the A nn ual Business Meeting, providing formal notice of such contemplated action 
shall have been given the Active Members at least 60 days before it is acted upon; further, 
the Constitution and By-Laws may be altered or amended by a two-thirds vote, at the 
Annual Business Meeting, providing the proposed amendment receives the unanimous 
approval of the Executive Committee, and formal notice of the contemplated action shall 
have been given the Active Members at least 24 hours before it is acted upon. 


Article I. — Duties op Officers 

Sec. 1. The President shall preside at all meetings of the Conference and of the 
Executive Committee, shall appoint committees with the exception of the Advisory Com- 
mittee from the States and the Nominating Committee (which Committees are provided 
for in the Constitution), and shall in consultation with the Executive Committee prepare 
the program for the Annual Meeting of the Conference. 

Sec, 2. It shall be the duty of the first Vice-President to assume the duties of the 
President in case of disability or absence of the President. 

Sec. 3. The 2nd Vice-President shall be the Chairman of a Standing Committee on 

Sec. 4. The Secretary shall keep due record of the proceedings of the Annual Meeting 
of the Conference, and of all meetings of the Executive Committee: shall take full notes 
of the principal discussions and secure copies of papers read at all the sessions of the con- 
ference: shall keep a list of members and their addresses and sh a l l prepare within 90 
days after the Annual Meeting of the conference the material for publication in the printed 
copy of the Proceedings. 

Sec. 5. The Treasurer shall receive and collect all dues, shall pay all bills approved 
by the Board of Directors and signed by the President, and shall report aU receipts and 
disbursements at the Annual Business Meeting. 

Sec. 6. The Auditor shall audit all bills and the accounts of the Treasurer, and shall 
report his findings in writing at the Annual Business Meeting. 

Sec. 7. The Board of Directors shall have charge of the printing, advertising, and 
railway rates: shall attend to the local arrangements and all business matters relating to 
the Annual Meeting of the Conference and shall approve through its Chairman all bills 
before they are signed by the President or paid by the Treasurer. 

Sec. 8. To the Executive Committee shall be entrusted the general mana gement of 
the Conference, including place and time of meeting, oversight of programs, and in case of 
vacancies, the appointment of substitutes pending the election of officers at the next 
Annual Meeting of the Conference; further, this Committee shall form, from year to year, 
the State Advisory Committoe. 

Sec. 9. It shall be the duty of the Advisory Committee from the States to co-operate 
with the Executive Committee and the Educational Coundl in such activities as may be 
delegated to it by the Executive Committee or by the Educational Council with the 
approval of the Executive Committee. 



Calendar of Meetings 

1907 — ^Keokuk, Iowa. (Oiganized) 

Frances E. Clark, Chairman, 

P. C. Hayden, Secretary. 

1909 — Indianapolis, Indiana, 

P. C. Hayden, President. 

Stella R. Root, Secretary. 

1910 — Cincinnati, Ohio. 

E. E, Cobum, President, 

Stella R. Root, Secretary. 

1911 — ^Detroit, Michigan. 

E. B. Birge, President. 

Clyde E, Foster, Secretary. 

1912 — St. Louis, Missouri. 

Chas. A. Fullerton, President. 

M. Ethel Hudson, Secretary. 

1913 — ^Rochester, New York. 

Henrietta G. Baker, President. 

Helen Cook, Secretary. 

1914 — Minneapolis, Minnesota. 

Mrs. Elizabeth Casterton, President. 
Miss May E. Kimberly, Secretary. 

1915 — ^Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Arthur W. Mason, President. 

Chas. H. Miller, Secretary. 

1916 — ^Lincoln, Nebraska. 

Will Earhart, President. 

Agnes Benson, Secretary. 

1917 — Grand Rapids, Michigan. 

Peter W. Hykema, Presidep-t. 

Julia E. Crane, Secretary, 

1918 — ^Evansville, Indiana. 

C. H. MiUer, President. 

Ella M. Brownell, Secretary. 

1919 — St. Louis, Missouri. 

Osbourne McConathy, President. 
Mabelle Glenn, Secretary. 

PHILADEI-PHIA, PA-, MARCH 22-26, 1920 


1920 — Philadelpliia, Pexinsylvaziia. 
Hcdlis rxann. President. 
Rlizabetli Pxatt, Secretary. 

1921 — St. Joseph, Missouri. 

John W. Beattie, PreMdent. 
E. Jane Wisenall, Secretary. 

special Groups 


Mr. Will Earhart, Chairman 

Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Mr. Elarl W. Gehrkens, Secretary 

Oberlin, Ohio 

Mr. Hollis Dann Ithaca, N. Y. 

Mr. Peter W. Dykema Madison, Wis. 

Mr. Charles H. Farnsworth. 

.New York City 

Mr. T. P. Giddings Minneapolis 

Miss Alice C. Inskeep 

Cedar Rapids, Iowa 

Mr. Osbourne McConathy. 

Evanston, lU. 

Mr. W. Otto Miessner. 

Milwaukee, Wis. 

Mr. C. H. Miller Rochester, N. Y. 



Margaret Clarkson (Chainnan) 401 Sherman St., Albany 

Martha Gusman Supervisor of Music, Mobile 

C. R. nflllriTis Montevallo 

Marie Whitman 400 S. McDonough St., Montgomery 


Sallie J. McCall (Chairman) Box 1938, Bisbee 


Homer Hess (Chairman), State Normal SchooL Conway 

Bess Dodd, Supervisor of Music Russellville 

Helen Poole North Little Rock 

Fred G. Smith, High School Fort Smith* 

Henry D. Tovey, Director of Music Fayetteville 


Mrs. G. B. Parsons (Chairman) 110 West Washington St., Los Angeles 

Estelle Carpenter, Supervisor of Music San Francisco 

Herman E. Owen, Lowell High SchooL San Francisco 

Dordthy Snavley, State Normal School San Diego 

Mrs. L. V. Sweezy, Music Director Mills College 


Lillian McCracken (Chairman) 2231 13th St., Boulder 

Georgia Gardner Durango 

J. C. Kendall, State Teachers College.. Greeley 

Esther Sweeny Colorado Springs 


W. D. Monnier (Chai r man) 1 Charter Oak PL, Hartford 

Keith C. Brown, Supervisor of Music West Hartford 

Ruth Pease, Supervisor of Music. Meriden 

Cora Purviance, Supervisor of Music Bridgeport 

Jennie E. Raymond 65 Pleasant St., Danbury 


Mrs. Nelle K. Anderson (Chairman), Supervisor of Music .Wilmington 

Grace Evans, Tower Hill School Wilmington 




Ruth Storms, Assistant Supervisor of Muac. 

Dora Wilcox, Woman^s College 

District of Columbia 

Hamlin, E, Cogswell (Chairman) 

Clara Burroughs 

Mrs. C. V. Byram 

Eunice Ensor 

Rose Sliney 


Mrs. Helene Saxby (Chairman) 

Marguerite Porter, Supervisor of Music 

Olive Slingluff 

Mrs. May Paine Wheeler 

Mrs. Grace F. Woodman 


Jeanie Craig (Chairman) 


Mrs. Pearl B. Allen (Chairman) 

Martha Kendrick 

Ceceal Kuntz 

Fowler Smith. 

J. B. Tuller 


MabeUe Glenn (Chairman) 

Amelia Deneweth 

Mrs. Agnes C. Heath 

E. L. Philbrook 

O. E. Robinson 



Wilson Normal School 

2633 Adams MiU Rd. 

3413 Holmand PL 

Continental Hotel 

The Lousdale 

..212 Hyde Park PL, Tampa 


..1304 S. River Dr., Miami 

Crescent City 

1027 Oak St., Jacksonville 







,.318 Locust St., Bloomington 
.519 Indian Terrace, Rockford 

Tribune Bldg., Chicago 

....1506 28th St., Rock Island 
..300 S. Wabash Ave., Chicago 


E. B. Birge (Chai r ma n ) ,.1914 N. PennsylvaniaSt., Indianapolis 

Ada Bicking .406 Grant St., Evansville 

R. G. McCutchan, Dean De Pauw University, Greencastle 

Ralph Sloane, Director of Music Richmond 

Blanche Woody 1103 Jadcson St., Anderson 


C. A. Fullerton (Chairman), Iowa State Teachers College Cedar Falls 

Mrs. Elizabeth Carmicheal, Butler Bldg Fort Dodge 

P. C. Hayden, Editor School Music Keokuk 

F. C. Percival, High School .Sioux City 

A. H. Smith 1430 Beaver Ave., Des Moines 


Bessie Miller (Chairman) 

Minerva C. Hall 

W, B. Kinnear, Supervisor of Music. 

Blanche Rumbley 

Minnie Taylor 


Caroline Bourgard (Chairman) 

Mary J. Armitage 

Mildred S. Lewis 

..249 A. N. 18th St., Kansas City 

1205 Oread Ave., Lawrence 


212 S. Evergreen, Chanute 

515 Walnut St., Leavenworth 

1324 Hepburn Ave., Louisville 

Bowling Green 

218 Arlington Ave., Lexington 



Mrs. J. D. Shelby 352 E. Lexington Ave,, Danville 

F. J. Strahm, State Normal School Bowling Green 


H. W. Stopher (Chairman) Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge 

Mary M. Conway, Municipal Office New Orleans 

Margaret Frazee 1220 Park PL, Shreveport 

Alice Mailhes 4115 Dumaine St., New Orleans 

Anna Van Denberg 62 Morgan Blvd., New Orleans 


George T. Goldthwaite (Chairman), Director of Music Portland 

H. W. Pierce - Pittsfield 

E. S. Pitcher 146 Auburn St, Auburn 


JohnDenues (Chairman) 3910 Cottage Ave., Baltimore 

Thomas L. Gibson, State Supervisor of Music 3004 Clifton Ave., Baltimore 

Mrs. Henrietta Baker Low, Prince George Hotel New York City 

Marion J. Woodford 16 West 24th St, Baltimore 


F. W. Archibald (Chairman) 

C. C. Birchard 

Clarence Hamilton 

Mildred Martin 

Rosa Searle 


Thomas Chilvers (Chairman) 

Miss Clyde Foster 

Harper C. Maybee 

Harry Quayle, Director of Music. 

Edith Stone 


Stella R. Root (Chairman) 

Mrs. Ann Dixon 

Mrs. Agnes Fryberger 

T, P. Giddings 

Elsie M. Shawe 

...,24 Greenwood Lane, Waltham 

*221 Columbus Ave., Boston 

15 Cottage St, Wellesley 


Normal School, North Adams 

365 Lincoln Ave., Detroit 

518 EUis St, Ypsilanti 

,1423 S. Grand Ave., Kalamazoo 


510 N. Main St, Jackson 

.State Normal School, St. Cloud 

1224 E. First St, Duluth 

1939 Bryant Ave., Minneapolis 

City HaH, Minneapolis 

402 E. 9th St, St Paul 


Lorena Tomson (Chairman) 

Julia Edwards 

Mrs. J. N. Willoughby 


Clara Sanford (Chairman), Director of Music..., 

E, L. Colburn, Board of Education 

C. P. Kinsey, State Normal School 

R. R. Robertson, Supervisor of Music 

Mrs. B. M. Whittley 


Minerva Bennett (Chairman) 

Emma Acker, Supervisor of Music 

Mabdl Palmer. 

Florence Naylor 

Pauline Van De Walker, University of Montana. 

Station A, Hattiesburg 

123 Elm St, Clarksdale 


St. Joseph 

St. Louis 



....608 E. 9th St, Kansas City 

.504 Muller Apts., Butte, Mont. 


426 S. 3rd St, Missoula 






H. O. Feiguson (Chairman) 

C. M. Crandell, Supervisor of Music. 

Cora F. Conaway 


Angie Middleton 

1441 G. St., Lincoln 


648 E. 6tihi St., York 

719 S. i6tliSt.,Lmcob 

.1127 S. 31st St., Omaha 


Wdtha J. Beecher (Chairman), Supervisor of Muac Reno 

New Hampshire 

George H. Dockham (Chairman) 848 Beech St., Manchester 

E. G. Hood, Director of Music J^ashua 

New Jersey 

Catharine M. Zisgen (Chairman) Administration Bldg., Trenton 

Mrs. Frances E. Clark Victor Talking Machine Co., Camden 

Josephine Duke La Tourette Hotel, Bayonne 

Powell G. Fithian .West Collingswood, N. J. 

John V. Pearsall .....181 Argyle PL, Arlington 

New Mexico 

Marie Senecal (Chairman) 

.Las Vegas 

New York 

Julia E. Crane (Chairman), Crane Normal Institute..... Potsdam 

A. J. Abbott 28 Clarendon PL, Buffalo 

Laura Bryant 403 E. Seneca St., Ithaca 

Inez Field Damon 834 Union St., Schenectady 

Mrs. Bertha D. Hughes, Board of Education Utica 

North Carolina 

Alice Bivins (Chairman), State Normal College Greenboro 

Eva Minor 616 Chapel Hill St., Durham 

Paul J. Weaver, University of North Carolina Chapel Hill 

North Dakota 

E. H. Wilcox (Chairman), University of North Dakota.. 

Alice Gilbert 

Julia M. Slack 


Ernest Hesser (Chairman), State Normal SchooL 

E. E. Halstead 

....Grand Forks 
....Devil’s Lake 
.Box 224, Anita 

Bowling Green 

.1001 Mahoning Rd., Warroi 

J. Powell Jones C/o Board of Education, Qevdand 

Mrs. Marie B. Parr 1854 Beersford PL, Qeveland 

R. W. Roberts 14 W. 9th St., Columbus 


Minnie E. Starr (Chairman) 502 N. G. St., Muskogee 

RniTna KeUer 901 E. 9th St., Ada 

Harriet C. Vdnnatta 1226 S. Cincinnati St., Tulsa 


C. A, Davidson (Chairman), Supervisor of Music Salem 

Sophie Messenger -The Dalles 

Marie Schuette, State Normal School. Monmouth 

Ali(^ C. Vander Sluis 32 Ross Court, Medford 


Paul E. Beck (Chairman), State Supervisor of Music. Harrisburg 

Warren Acker 27J4 S. St. Cloud St., All^towii 



Robert Braun 

Will Earhart 

Mrs. Carrie E. Stoughton 

Rhode Island 

Edwin N. C. Barnes (Chairman) 

Walter Butterfield 

South Carolina 

Carrie P. McMaldn (Chairman) 

Souik Dakota 

Mrs. Theresa Day (Chairman) 

Bertha D. Cosgrove, Supervisor of Music. 

Mrs. Lydia Graham 

Myra R. Peters 

Alice Van Ostrand 

....223 S. Center St., Pottsville 
...725 Fulton Bldg., Pittsburgh 
514 Holland St., Erie 

.475 Elmwood Ave., Providence 
30 Congdon St., Providence 

114 Baufain St., Charleston 

Hot Springs 


..411 8th Ave., S. E., Aberdeen 

.......506 Prospect Ave., Lead 

405 Locust St, Yankton 


D. R. Gebhart (Chairman) 

L. C. Austin, State Normal School. 

Milton Cook 

Emily E. Relfe 

E. May Saunders 

..Peabody College, Nashville 


1917 Adelicia St, Nashville 

.116 E. Terrace St., Chattanooga 


Elfleda Littlejohn (Chairman), State Supervisor of Music Austin 

Birdie Alexander 401 Grandview, El Paso 

Sudie L. Williams 211 S. Lancaster Ave., Dallas 

Nellie Wray, Supervisor of Music Orange 


Valentine Preston (Chairman) Ogden 

A. R- Overlade Pleasant Grove 


Walter Mercer (Chairman), Supervisor of Music Richmond 

F. Eugenia Adams Moran Apts., Norfolk 

Florence Baird East Radford 

Elizabeth Williams, State Normal School : Fredericksburg 

Daisy Wingfield 217 Mountain Ave., Roanoke 


Beryl M. Harrington (Chairman) 

Emma G. Elliott 

Alice H. Jackson 

A. W. Smith 


Letha L. McClure (Chairman), Director of Music. 

Frances M. Dickey 

Ruth Durheim 

Grace Barber Hulscher. 

Eulalie Wylie, Supervisor of Music 

West Virginia 

Lucy Robinson (Chairman) 

Mrs. M- Wardner Davis, Supervisor of Muac 

Ldia Stillman, Supervisor of Music 

Amy M. Young, Broaddus College 

....36 Lafayette PL, Burlington 


.69 Atkinson St., Bellows Falls 
St. Johnsbury 


1408 E. 42nd St., Seattle 




500 S. Front St., Wheeling • 




PHnADELPHIA, PA., MARCH 22 - 26 , 1920 



W. Otto Miessner (Chaimiaii), State Normal School.... .Mflwaiikee 

Grace Gail Giberson 912 S. River St. 

Russell V. Morgan, State Normal School La Crosse 

Lillian Watts 1304 Park Ave., Racine 

Theo. Winkler, Supervisor of Music. Sheboygan 


Helen S. Lord (Chairman) Box 274^ Sheridan 

Harriet Little Casper 

Anna P. Rice Jtawlins 

Porio Rico 

AUena Luce Rio Piedras 

Philippine Islands 

Mrs. Cora Tovmsend .Manila 


Bruce A. Carey 219 Charlton St., W., Hamilton, Ont. 

Norman Eagleson. .9244 92nd Ave., Edmonton, Alberta 

Duncan McKenzie .323 W. Sherbrooke St., Montreal 

E. W. Goethe Quanta .London, Ont. 


Committee on School Music Credits^ 
Mr. Osbourne McConathy, Ch. 

' Mr. Edward B. Birge, 

Mr. Elarl W. Gehrkens 

CommiUee on National Week of 

Mr. H. O. Ferguson, Chairman 
Mr. Arnold J. Gantvoort 
Miss Clara F. Sanford 
Mr. Norman H. Hall 
Committee on Community Song Book, 

Mr. Peter W. Dykema, Chairman 
Mr. Will Earhart 
Mr. Osbourne McConathy 
Mr. Hollis Dann 


OFFICERS FOR 1919-1920 

President — Mx. Hollis Damn, Ithaca, Kew York. 

FirsUVice-President — Frank A. Beach, Emporia, Ransas. 

Second Vicer-President — Mr. Peter W. Dykema, Madison, Wisconsin. 
Secretary — Miss Elizabeth Pratt, St. Louis, Missouri. 

Treasurer — ^Mr. James McIlroy, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 
Auditor — ^Mr. Walter Btjtterpield, Providence, R. I. 


Miss Alice C. Inskeep, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, ChEdnnan. 

Mr. Karl W. Geerkens, Oberlin, Ohio. 

Mr. John W. Beattie, Grand Rapids, Michigan. 

Mr. Glenn H. Woods, Oakland, California. 

Mi ss Eexie E. Harmon, South Bend, Indiana. 

Mr. Osbourne McConathy, Evanston, Illinois, ex-ofificio. 

OFFICERS FOR 1920-1921 

President — Mr. John W- Beattie, Grand Rapids, Mich. 

First Vice-President — Miss Julia E. Crane, Potsdam, N. Y. 

Second Vice-President — ^Mr. Peter W. Dykema, Madison, Wis. 
Secretary — Miss E. Jane Wisenall, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Treasurer — ^Mr. Karl W. Gherkens, Oberlin, Ohio. 

Auditor — ^Mr. Phillip C. Hayden, Keokuk, Iowa, 


Mr. Charles H. Farnsworth, New York City. 

Mr. Ernest Hesser, Albany, N. Y. 

Mr. Glen H. Woods, Oakland, Cal. 

Miss Efeie Harmon, South Bend, Ihd. 

Miss Mabelle Glenn, Bloomington, HI. 

Mr. Hollis E. Dann, Ithaca, N. Y., ex-o£5cio. 


Program— Thirteenth Meeting 

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 


8HX) a. m. — ^Registration at Bellevue-Stratford Hotel (second door, opposite main eleva- 
te tors) 

7 KX) p, m. 

9:00 a. m. — ^Visiting Philadelphia Schools, 
to ' 

3KX) p. m. 

3:15 p.m. — ^Recital by Fritz Kreisler, Violinist, for members of the Conference only. 
University Hall. Free to members. 


1. Sonata B Major Bach 

Prelude — Gavotte — ^Minuet — Gigue 

2. a. Prelude and Allegro Pugnani 

b. Chanson Louis Xm AND Pavane Couperin 

c. Variations - Tartini 

d. LaChase (Caprice) Cartier 

e. Rondo Mozart 

3. a. Hymn TO THE Sun Rimsky-Korsakov 

b. Rondino on a Theme by Beethoven Kreisler 

c. Valse Bra hm s 

(Arranged by David Hochstein) 

d. Slavonic Dance ....x J>vorik-Kreisler 

e. Tambourin Chinois Kreisler 

f. Caprice ViENNOis Kreisler 

4:30 p. m. — Chorus rehearsal under the direction of Professor Peter C. Lutkin, Dean of 

the College of Music, Northwestern University, Evanston, HI. University 
Hall, WanamakePs, 8th Floor. 

8:15 p. m. — ^Reception and Concert tendered to the members of the Conference by the 
combined Musical Clubs of Philadelphia — Grand Ball Room, Bdlevue- 

Reception Committee 

Mrs. F. W. Abbott Mrs. Frances E. Clark 
Mr. James Francis Cooke, Chairm a n 


Welcome — ^D r. Enoch W, Pearson, 

Director of Music 

Philadelphia Public Schools 




Mixed Chorus, a cappella 

Belgiaa Folk Songs, arranged by Gevaert 

a. Musette 

b. Chanson Joyeuse 

Palestrina Choir 

Nicola A. Montani, Conductor 

Welcome — ^A Word of FeUowship 

Dr. John G. Garber 

Baritone Solo — 

a. The Breath of Allah 

b. Where Go the Boats? 

c. EriTu 

Horatio Connell 

Welcome — ^Mme. Olga Samaroff-Stokowski 

J. F. Cooke 

.Stanley Muschamp 

Soprano Solo — 

a. AUeluia. Mozart 

b. By the Window : Tchaikovsky 

c. The Little Fishes* Song Arensky 

Mae Ebery Hotz 

Welcome — Hon. William C. Sproul 

Governor of Pennsylvania 

Male Chorus — 

a. Venetian Love Song Nevin 

b. Nottingham Hunt Frederic Field Bullard 

Fortnightly Club 

^ Henry Gordon Thunder, Conductor 

Welcome— Edward W. Box 
W oMEN*s Chorus — 

a. Great is Thy Love C. Bohm 

b. Dance of the Snow Flakes Chaminade 

c. June Rhapsody Mabel Daniels 

Mating Musical Qub Chorus 
Helen Pulaski Innes, Conductor 

Response— Will Earhart, 

Director of Music, 

Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Reading — The Seven Ages of Man ,.Shakespeare-Huss 

David Bispham 

Accompanied at the Pianoforte by 
Mary Miller Mount 

Chorus, a cappella: 

Adoramus Te Palestrina 

Palestrina Choir, 

Nicola A. Montani, Conductor 
Accompanists — 

Agnes Clune Guinlan 
Mary Miller Mount 



8:45 a. m. — ^Meeting of Ezecutive Com., Princeton TTalT 

9:15 a. m. Singing of Star-Spangled Banner, led by Osbourne McConathy, Northwest- 
ern University, Evanston, HI. 

9:20 a. m. — ^Presidents Address — ^The Music Supervisors’ National Conference — ^Past, 
Present, Future. 

Hollis E. Dann, Ithaca, N. Y. 

9:45 a. m. — ^Address — ^The Supervisor of the Future 

George H. Gartlan, Director of Music, Greater New York. 

10:15 a. m. — Address — The Mental and Musical Equipment of the Supervisor 
Dr. Frank Damrosch, 

Director Institute of Musical Art, New York. 

10:45 a. m. — ^Demonstration of first, second, and third year work with classes from the 
to Philadelphia Schools. 

12:15 Conducted by Dr, Enoch W. Pearson. 

1 :30 p, m. — ^Demonstrations by Junior and Senior Hi g h School Classes from the Phila- 
delphia Schools. 

Arranged by Dr. Enoch W. Pearson. 

3:00 p. m. 

3:15 p. m. — Chorus rehearsal under the direction of Dean Lutkin. 

4:45 p. m. 

5.-00 p. m. — Informal Dinner, Crystal Tea Room, Wanamaker’s, Eighth Floor, $2 per 

Singing led by Kenneth Clark, War Camp Community Service, New York, 
and Bruce A. Carey, Conductor Elgar Choir, Hamilton, Ont. General get- 
acquainted and jollification meeting. Surprise Program. 

8. -00 p. m. — Opera — ^The Barber of Seville Rossini 

The Metropolitan Opera House. 


9:15 a. m. — Section Meetings. , 


12 .-00 

I. Music Appreciation in the Grades — (Assembly Room, Chamber of 
Commerce, Widener Bldg., Chestnut St.) 

Sudie L. Williams, Supervisor of Music, Dallas, Tezas, Chairman. 
Alice Inskeep, Supervisor of Music, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, Secretary. 
How to Introduce Music Appreciation in Schools which have had no 

Mary J. Armitage, Supervisor of Music, Bowling Green, Ky. 
Relation of Music Appredation to other Phases of Music Work, and 
Correlation with other subjects in Curriculum 
Ernest Hesser, Head of Dept, of Music, State Normal College, 
Bowling Green, Ohio. 

The Supervisor’s Part in Making the Grade Teacher efficient in the 
, Teaching of Music Appreciation 
Mabdle Glenn, Supervisor of Music, Bloomington, BL 
Music Appreciation as related to the Curriculum 
Agnes Moore Fiyberger, Assistant Supervisor of Music, Minne- 
apolis, Minn. 



II. a. The School Band — (University Hall) 

H. 0. Ferguson, Director of Music, Lincoln, Neb., Chairmaiu 
W. M. Harderode, Director of Music, Harrisburg, Pa., Secretary. 
Demonstration by the Wanamaker Store Band 
The Development of our Store Band 
Colonel William R. Scott, 

Chief of Cadet Staff, 

John Wanamaker Commercial Institute. 

b. The School Orchestra — (University Hall) 

Walter Butterfield, Supervisor of Music, Providence, R. I., Chair- * 

S. Minerva HiH, Supervisor of Music, Warwick, R. I., Secretary. 
The Organization and Development of the School Orchestra 

A. J. Dann, Director of Music, Uniontown, Pa. 

Europe or America for Players in our Symphony Orchestras of Tomor- 
row — ^Which? 

F. E. Perdval, Director of Music, High School, Sioux City, la. 

in. Piano Classes — (Gimbel Bros. Auditorium, 9th and Market Streets) 
Walter H. Aiken, Director of Music, Cincinnati, Ohio, Chairman. 

W. Ethelbert Fisher, Supervisor of Music, Cincinnati, Ohio, 

A Piano Class Lesson (a practical demonstration) 

T. P. Giddings, Supervisor of Music, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Public School Piano Classes as 1 Have Known Them 

Inez Field Damon, Director of Music, Schenectady, N, Y. 

The Relation of the Private Teacher to the Class Idea in Piano Instruc- 

George J. Abbott, Supervisor of Music, Chdsea, Mass. 

Essential Difference Between Class and Private Piano Instruction for 
' Children 

Mrs. Gail Martin Haake, Public Schools, Evanston, lU. 

rV. High School Courses — (Witherspoon Building, comer of Walnut and 
Juniper Streets) 

Will Earhart, Director of Music^ Pittsburgh, Pa., Chairman. 

Jacob Kwalwasser, Teacher of Vocational Courses, Latemer Junior 
High School, Pittsburgh, Pa., Secretary. 

a. Harmony in the High School 
Harmony in the Senior High School 

E. Jane WisenaU, Teacher of Harmony and Choral Singing, Wood- 
ward High School, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Harmony in the Jimior High School 
Lillian B. Hdd, Teacher of Music, Latemer High School, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa. 

b. School Courses in Music to be required of high school sPudents receiving 
credit for outside study of music 

Requirements from the Standpoint of the School 
Karl W. Gehrkens, Professor of School Music, Oberlin College, 
Oberlin, Ohio. 

The Attitude of the Outside Teacher of Music 
E. B. Birge, Director of Music, Indianapolis, Ind- 



V. Musical Training far the Grade North Garden, Bellevue- 

Stratford Hotel 

Julia E. Crane, Director Crane Normal Institute of Music, Pots- 
dam, N. Y., Chairman. 

Bertha Linnell, Director of Music, Southwestern State Normal School, 
California, Pa., Secretary. 

a. Courses in Normal and Training Schools 

Professional Courses in Music in Normal Schools and Teachers* 

D. R. Gebhart, Director of Music, George Peabody College for 
Teachers, Nashville, Tenn. 

The Making of the First Assistant 
Edwin N. C. Barnes, Supervisor of Music, Central Falls, R. I. 

b. Teach&rs^ Meetings conducted by the Supervisor 

Teachers* Meetings with the Supervisor — ^Their Importance and Value 
Blanche Woody, Supervisor of Music, Anderson, Ind. 

Teachers* Meetings. When? Why? How? 

Laura Bryant, Supervisor of Music, Ithaca, N. Y. 

c. Summer Session Classes in Normal Schools and Colleges 

What the Normal Schools and Colleges can do in Summer Session for 
the Grade Teacher 

Alice Bivins, Head Dept, of Public School Music, North Carolina 
College, Greensboro,. N. C. 

1:30 p. m. — Section Meetings (continued) 

3:45 p. m. 

I, Music Appreciation in the High School — (Assembly Room, Chamber of 

Marie F. McConnell, New York City, Chairman. 

Florence E. Baird, Director of Music, State Normal School, East 
Radford, Va., Secretary. 

Music as seen through Literature and Art 
W- P. Kent, Ethical Culture School, New York. 

Music appreciation in the High School 

Glenn Tindall, Assistant Supervisor of Music, St. Louis, Mo. 

II. Classes in Orchestral Instruments — (University Hall) 

John W. Beattie, Director of Music, Grand Rapids, Mich., Chair- 

Mrs. Bertha D. Hughes, Supervisor of Music. Utica, N. Y., Secre- 

Class Demonstration conducted by Dr, Albert G. Mitchell, Director 
Instrumental Music, Public Schools, Boston, Mass. 

To enable the audience to participate in this demonstration, one 
hundred dummy violins and bows will be provided. 

Ways and Means of Procuring Instruments and of Arousing Com- 
munity Interest 

W. Otto Miessner, Director of Music, State Normal School, Milwau- 
kee, Wis. 

My First Experience with Violin Classes in the Public Schools 
Theo. Winkler, Supervisor of Music, Sheboygan, Wis. 

The Horn and the More Unusual Instruments in Relation to Class 



J. W. Fay, Instructor in Instnunental Music, Public Schools, 
Rochester, N. Y. 

ni. Working Plan for Credidng Outside Study of Music — (Gimbel Bros. 
Auditorium, 9th and Market Streets) 

Osbourne McConathy, Northwestern University, Evanston, HI., 

Elizabeth Van Fleet Vosseller, Supervisor of Music, Flemington, 
N. J-, Secretary. 

Music Credits for Outside Study — Why, and How? 

J. Victor Bergquist, Director of Music Credits, Minneapolis TTi grb 
Schools, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Conditions Concerning Credits in the Public Schools of Washington, 
D. C. 

Hamlin E. Cogswell, Director of Music, District of Columbia. 
Working Plan for Crediting Outside Study of Music in High Schools 
as Worked out by the State Music Teachers’ Association in Ar- 

Henry Doughty Tovey, Director School of Music, University of 
Arkansas, Fayetteville, Ark. 

Status of Outside Credit in Boston and other Massachusetts Cities 
John P, Marshall, Professor of Music, Boston University, Boston, 

IV. Specific Vocal Instruction in the High School (Witherspoon Bldg., 
comer Walnut and Juniper Streets) 

Wm. Breach, Supervisor of High School Music, Rochester, N. Y., 

Robert A. Bartholomew, Supervisor of Music, Lockport, N. Y., 

Demonstration with Class of Girls 
Frederick Haywood, New York. 

The Problems of Voice Production in Bo}^’ High Schools 
Duncan A. McKenzie, M. A., (Edinburgh), McGill University 
Conservatory of Music, Montreal, Canada. 

The Value of the Class Form of Vocal Instruction 
George Chadwick Stock, Teacher of Voice, New Haven, Conn. 

V, Singing in the Kindergarten 

North Garden Room, Bellevue-Stratford Hotel Patty Hill, Director 
Department of Lower Primary Education, Teachers’ College, Co- 
lumbia University, Chairman. 

Lucy Robinson, Supervisor of Music, Wheeling, W. Va., Secretary, 
Class Demonstration conducted by Selma Konold, Supervisor of 
Music, Ridgewood, N. J. 

Beginnings of Music in the Kindergarten 
Ethel M. Robinson, B.S., Instructor in Kindergarten Education, 
Teachers’ College, Columbia Univ. 

Singing in the Kindergarten 

Irene McGxirrin, Supervisor of Kindergarten Music, Grand Rapids, 

Song and the Child 

Augustus D. Zanrig, Instructor in Music, Ethical Culture School, 
New York. 



The Supervisor of Music and the Kinder^gaitner 
Ella Ruth Boyce, Director of Kindergartens, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
4:15 p. m. — Chorus rehearsal under the direction of Dean Lutkin — ^University TTalb 
8:00 p. m. — Concert, Wanamaker Auditorium. 


PiETXO Yon Concerto Gregoriano for Organ and Orchestra 

Wagner Entrance of the Gods into Walhalla 

Organ Solo 

Bach Brandenburg Concerto No. 2, in F, for Violin, Flute, Oboe, 

Trumpet, Organ and Orchestra « 


Wagner ! Prelude to ^^Lohengrin” 

Organ and Orchestra: 

(a) Franck Piece heroique 

(b) Saint-Saens Largo from the Third Symphony 

(c) Saint-Saens Marche heroique 

Twelve himdred seats in the first gallery facing the Organ, have been reserved 

for members of the Conference 


8:45 a. m. — ;Meeting of Board of Directors, Princeton Hall 
9:15 a. m, — ^Rural Life Betterment Through Music 
to Henrietta Baker-Low, Chairman 


Mrs. Marie Turner Harvey, Porter School, KirksviHe, Mo. 
Suggestions for Music in Rural Schools 
Paul E. Beck, State Supervisor of Music, Harrisburg, Pa. 

A Nation-Wide Challenge 

Frank A. Beach, Kansas State Normal School, Emporia, Kansas 

Solo — ^The Swallows Eva DdAqua Dexter Kimball, 

Ithaca, N. Y. 

Some Obstacles to the Progress of Music in Rural Sections 
Max Schoen, Director Dept, of School Music, East Tennessee State 
Normal School, Johnson City, Tenn. 

Coimtiy Life as a Basis of Music Teadiing 
Hermann N. Morse, Board of Home Missions of the Presbyterian 
Church in the United States 

Music in Rural Schools as Seen from Thirty Years’ Experience 
Lee L, Driver, Director Bureau of Rural Education, Commonwealth 
of Pennsylvania 

General Discussion 

1:30 p. m. — ^Future Policy of the Conference concerning Sectional Branches 
Report of Committee of Past Presidents, 

Peter W. Dykema, Chairman. 

2:30 p. m. — EBusiness Session 

to Reports of Standing Committees, Election of OfiScers, Invitations for 

4K)0 p. m. 1921 Meeting, etc. 

4:30 p. m. — Chorus rehearsal with Orchestra at the Academy of Music under the direc- 
tion of Dean Lutkin. 



8:15 p. m.— Supervisors’ Concert at the Academy of Music 

The Philadelphia Orchestra, 94 players, Leopold Stokowski, Conductor 
The Supervisors’ Chorus, 500 voices. (Organized, Monday Afternoon, March 22, 1920). 

Peter C. Lutkin, Conductor 

1. Beethoven ...Overture, “Lenore” No. 3 

2. Bach “Christians, be joyful!” 

From the Christmas Oratorio 

3. ScHUBEET Excerpts from “Rosamunde” 

a. En’tract^ 

b. Ballet 

4. Paeker Ballad “Harold Harfagar” 


5. Unaccompanied Group— 

a. Dett Listen to the Lambs 

(Negro Spiritual) 

b. MacDoweix Slumber Song 

c. GRETCHANiNorF The Cherubin Song 

d. Lutkin Choral Blessing 

In Memoriam— Horatio Parker 

6. Wagner Ride of the Valk 3 Ties 

7, Elgar March and Choral Epilogue from “Caractacus* 

Americanization Day 

8:45 a. m— Meeting of Executive Committee, Princeton Hall. 

9:15 a. m.— Singing by the Conference. 

9 *.30 a. m. — Symposium. 

Roll Call by States* 

11*30 a. m.— Singings led by Clara F. Sanford, Supervisor of Music, St. Joseph, Mo. 
11:45 a. m.— Address— James Francis Cooke, Editor, The Ekde, Philadelphia, Pa. 

12 :00 Address— Dr. Russell Conwell 

Fifteen minutes with Kenneth S. Clark 
A Model Community Singing Program. 

3:00 p. m— Philadelphia Orchestra Concert— (Academy of Music) 

Members of the Conference attend the concert as guests of Mr. 
Edward Bok. 

7. *00 p. m,— Formal Banquet, Grand Ball Room— (Bellevue-Stratford Hotel) 
Compliments of the Victor Talking Machine Company 
Looking Backward and Forward, Mrs. Frances E. Clark, Educa- 
tional Department, Victor Tal^g Machine Co., Camden, N. J. 
Group of Indian Songs, Princess Wahtahwassa 
Address — ^Dr. John H. Finley, President of the University and 
Commissioner of Education of the State of New York, Albany, 
N. Y. 

First Day, Monday, March 22, 1920 

School Music in Philadelphia 

On Monday, the Philadelphia Public Schools were open to visiting supervisors of 
music as follows; — 

1. In schools marked with a star the eighteen Assistants to the Director and the four 
special teachers of Music — ^Mrs. Anna W. Cheston, Miss Sara B, C allaha n, Mr. 
Ernest Bates and Miss Ida Pyrah — ^might be observed doing routine class-room 

2. In all other elementary schools prinapals and teachers were requested to “ke^ 
open house” and turn aU classes over to the visiting supervisors to handle them- 
sdves as might be desired. 

3. On Tuesday, the Director demonstrated first, second and third j^ear work with 
first, second and third year classes in University Hall, at 11 o’clock. On the same 
day at 1..30 P. M., there was interpretative work in University Hall by a Normal 
Sch<x>l Chorus, Mrs. Cheston conducting; a Junior HBgh School Chorus, Mr. Bates 
conducting; Negro Spirituals by pupils of the Durham Scdiool, in charge of Miss 
Mary A. Smith; and an illustration by the Campbell School Orchestra of “The Ends 
and Aims of Orchestral Work in the Schools,” Mr. Alvah J. Emrey, Principal, 

Visiting supervisors, therefore, had the opportunity to (1) observe the Director’s 
Assistants’ work; (2) work themselves; or (3) observe the Director work; as migh t be 
individually desired. 

Time devoted to music in the elementary schools — 12 minutes daily. In the hi^ 
schools, one period a wedr. 

Number of pupils, 250,000. Number of teachers, 6,000. 

Average number of supervisory visits made by the Director’s Assistants to each 
elementary teacher per year — 4. 

First, second and third year work is done from the blackboard. Textbooks in fourth, 
fifth, sixth, seventh and eighth grades and in the girls’ high schools embrace the following: 

Hollis Dann Music Course 

Laurel Songs 

New Educational Music Course 

New Normal Music Course 

New Public School Music Course , 

Director of Musk. 

Monday Morning at Girard College 

8:30 — ^High School Assembly, Auditorium. Music on the organ, singing by the 700 
bo 3 rs and by the Senior and Junior Glee Clubs. 

9:00 — Choir rehearsal in the ChapeL 




9:45-11:45 — Class work in singing. 

Grades 4, 5 and 6, Building No; 10. 

Grades 1, 2 and 3, Building No. 7. 

11:00 — Junior Higli School class, High School, Room 308. Study of orchestral 
instruments with records. 

4KX) p. m. Band rehearsal and drill of the Battalion of Cadets. 

Girard College 

is not a college in the accepted use of that term, but a home and school for 1550 boys from 
six to eighteen years of age, comprising a primary school of three years, a grammar school 
of three years, and a high school of five years. 

Burton Scales, Director of Vocal Music. 

The Opening Reception 

The Reception tendered to the Supervisors at their Conference by the musical inter- 
ests of Philadelphia was brought about thru the active interest of Mrs. Frances E. Clark, 
of the Victor Talking Machine Company. 

The Matinee Musical Qub of Philaddphia, Mrs. Edward B. Garrigues, President, 
tendered the use of the magnificent ball room of the BeUevue-Stratford Hotel, accommo- 
dating fifteen htmdred people. 

AU of the Music Clubs of the city participated including the Art Alliance, George 
Woodward, President; The New Century Club, Mrs. T. Prentiss Nichols, President; 
Philadelphia Music Club, Maud Melville Holton, President; Choral Union, Anne Mc- 
Donnough, President; Strawbridge & Clothier Chorus, Herbert J. Tily, President, and 
other organizations. 

The artists of the evening were: Mrs. May Ebrey Holtz, soprano; Horatio Coimell, 
baritone; David Bispham, baritone; the women’s chorus of the Mating Musical Club, 
conducted by Helen Pulaski Lmes; the Fortnightly Club, conducted by Henry Gordon 
Thunder; Palestrina Choir, Nicola A. Montanf, conductor, also fiumished important parts 
of the program, all choral numbers. 

All of the numbers were received with enthusiastic applause by the audience, which 
literally jammed the ball room. 

Mr. Bispham’s rendering of the Seven Ages of Man, with the musical setting of 
Henry Holden Huss, was made the occasion of a tremendous ovation of a kind seldom heard 
in these days. After many encores the audi^ce arose to greet him. 


James Francis Cooee, President of the Presser Foundation and the Editor of The Etude 

'^Ladies and gentlemen, as chairman of the Reception Committee, it is my privilege 
to be a kind of amiable figurehead, but that in itself is an honor which I most sincerely 
appreciate. The music ians of Philadelphia have endeavored to leave nothing undone to 
make their welcome to this conference cordial and enthusiastic. We are proud of this 
opportunity to have you become acquainted with some of the accomplishments of thig 
dty, which in the earliest days was admittedly the music centre of America, and which in 
recent years has attracted wide attention thru its music activities. 

“In Colonial times music was a matter of great significance here. Benjamin Franklin, 
who represented the spirit of Philadelphia probably more than any other man, was film- 
self concerned in the invention of musical instruments. He devised an instrument consist- 
ing of glass bowls centering upon a long rod and made to revolve upon a spindle. The 
bowls were graduated in size, from s mal l to large, and there was a keyboard arrangement 



whicli made it possible to play upon these revolving bowls. The effect was said to be veiy 
beautiful. Mozart wrote for this mstrumeut. You may see an example of it in the Metro- 
politan Museum of Art in New York City. It ought really to be in Independence TTalT in 
this dty as a monument to the music initiative of Philadelphia at that time. 

“It would give me very great pleasure to tell you something, in detail, of Philadel- ' 
phials splendid Orchestra; its accomplishments in musical education; our highly successful 
music clubs; our music philanthropies—such as Musical Fund Hall and the Presser Foun- 
dation. But you have, as I said to-night, the finest program ever prepared in thig city and 
I am very sure you will be glad to proceed with the more instructive parts.’* 


Enoch W. Peasson, Director of Music, PhUaddphia Public Schools 

Ruskin says there are three things every man ought to know: 1, where he is; 2, where 
he is going; 3, what he is going to do about it. 

There are to-day twenty million pupils in the public schools of the United States. 
These pupils of to-day will be the citizens of the next generation. If the next generation 
is to love good music and have a due appreciation of that which is truly excellent therein, 
that love and appreciation must be developed in them to-day while they are pupils in the 

You, as supervisors of music, make the courses of study in music in the schools, and 
it is you who select the songs to be sung. Upon you, therefore, largely rests the responsi- 
bility of the musical future of the country. 

Knowing where you are — ^in charge of the twenty million boys and girls in the schools 
to-day; and knowing where you are going — to the next generation — you are now gathered 
to determine what you are going to do about it. 

In behalf of ofBcers, supervisors, teachers and pupils of music in the Philadelphia 
public schools, I extend to you the glad hand of welcome and the warmest possible greeting. 


John P. Gaeber, Superintendent of Philadelphia Schools 

Philadelphia has been the scene of many important conventions, but I regard this as 
one of the most remarkable gatherings of recent years. This is true not so much because 
of the importance of music in our individual and social life, but because of the large place 
that music has come to fill in our National life. And when we remember that the delegates 
to this convention represent the public school’s interest in music, we cannot fail to realize 
the fundamental place it has won for itself in the training for e£&cient citizenship in our 
great democracy. 

What a contrast is presented by this evening’s program and this evening’s gathering 
of representative people to the conditions in the early days of our dty — the days when 
music was classed with lotteries and theater-going and dancing and horse-radng, as things 
to be tabooed. Those were the days when pipe-organs were derisively called ‘Vhistling 
boxes” and when a violin was called a “fiddle” and regarded as a special instrument of the 
Devfl- But Philadelphia, in common with Puritanical New England, has gotten bravely 
over these early prejudices. And Philadelphia began to mend, so far as music is concerned, 
quite early. The first opera, or “musical drama” as they called it, was given as early as 
1759. The organization which led to the buildmg of Musical Fund Hall in 1824 was 
formed in 1820. In 1857 the Academy of Music was erected. It was at that time by far 
the finest building devoted to musical entertainments in the United States. 

Philadelphia for many yjears gave the first hearing in the country to such noted artists 
as Mrs. John Oldmixon, Ole Bull, Jenny Lind, and Addina Patti. It also has the honor of 
building the first piano in the United States. Concerning this its builder, John Behrent, 



advertised in 1775 that he had “just finished an extraordinary instrument by the name of 
the piano-forte, made of mahogany, being of the nature of a harpsichord, with hammers 
and several changes." “Hail Columbia," which was written by the noted Philadelphian, 
Joseph Hopkinson, was first simg in the old Chestnut Street Theatre, the scene of both 
Ole Bull's and Jenny Lind’s first efforts in this country. 

Time will not permit the mentioning of all the great musical composers and musicians 
of Philadelphia, nor will it enable me to do more than refer to the fact that the great 
metropolitan district represented by our city is one of the greatest producers of musical 
instruments and musical publications in the country. The value of the latter represents 
approximately ninety million dollars a year. As an indication of Philadelphia’s interest 
in music, permit me to call attention to the fact that there is spent annually on instruction 
in music and on the maintenance of music in connection with public and private amuse- 
ments approximately thirteen million dollars. As this is nearly as much as the city spends 
on public education, it shows that we are not laggards, at least in so far as music is con- 

Ill conclusion, permit me to add my word of welcome to you and to say that we 
appreciate what your interest in music can do for us as well as what we can offer you in 
this great city. Music has great power over the emotions of men and there certainly has 
never been a time in our history when its beneficent influence in this respect was more 
needed. Such a meeting as this with the exceptional array of talent for the evening’s 
program will imdoubtedly stimulate interest in music and help to augment its influence in 
these days of world turmoil and world unrest. 

Will Eaxhart, Supervisor of Music, Pittsburgh, Pa, 

We who have assembled here would need no assurance, had we been transported on a 
magic carpet and landed while in deepest sleep, that we have arrived at our goal. The 
welcome that eveiywhere greets us, the arrangements made for our comfort and pleasure, 
inform us in no uncertain way that we are in the City of Brotherly Love. Nor does the 
welcome accorded us rest upon a general fraternal impulse alone. We are greeted cordially 
in our capacity of teachers of music. Though this may delight us it should not surprise us. 
Nothing else could be expected from a dty that has recently given a fund of $1,000,000 
for the maintenance of one of the best orchestras in the world, directed by one of the best 
orchestra conductors in the world; a dty that at a date when music was slightly regarded 
in this country, and preceded only by Boston and Cincinnati, integrated music into its 
course of study in public schools. Such a dty would naturally extend a hand of cordial 
greeting to Supervisors of Music in Public Schools who have come here from every comer 
of the Union bent upon further advancing the cause of musical education. It is true that 
before the dty rose to these accomplishments it was obliged to forget its ancient traditions. 
The Quakers have not always been such redoubtable allies of music. But if there were 
shortcomings in the beginning you have nobly forgotten them; and if there was delay 
in the beg inning , let us offer our congratulations that you have so effidently made up for 
lost time. 

We are gathered together, then, in the name of music, and in that name you greet us. 
What charm has that name that it can so move us all to this presmt accomplishment? 
What values do we all discern, what vision holds our faith, that we respond so readily to 
this call? 

If you will bear with me for a moment or two, I should like to essay an answer to 
these questions. If in this answer I seem, for a moment, to doubt the righteousness of our 
c l aims , it is not because I hold in light est^m the values of music, but because, on the 
contrary, I prize them so highly that I would protect them against misrepresentation or 



counterfeit* Base metal must not be circulated for gold, lest gold lose its standard of 
woitb. Values must not be claimed for any and all phases of Tnnsiral practice lest the 
priceless values that do inhere in certain of its phases I^ome discredited. 

We are likely to speak as though we believed that if music were pr^ent in sufficient 
quantity the vexing problems of human life would all be solved, and a redeemed world 
would move forward, singing, to its salvation. I, too, have joinai in tTiia paean of praise; 
and, allowing for aU the exaggeration charactenstic of our enthusiastic race, I acknowledge 
behef now in a sound basis of truth under the vision. But the unenthusiastic lay public 
does not so readily concede our claims; and certain embarrassing facts often confront us 
that must be explained before our own faith be untroubled and secure. Where music 
has been present in richest measure we do not always find the most complete redemption. 
The nation that>has been most devoted to mi^ic is Grennany, but the whole world 
seen how she has lost her own soul instead of finding it. The individual musician, as we 
find him, may be no better than his fdlows; often, indeed, the layman suspects that some 
taint of Bohe m ia n laxity prevails among artists that makes them worse; and musicians, 
and even school music supervisors, may at times hardly dare to point to themselves in 
illustration when they would assert the beneficent infiuences exerted by music upon 
humanity, I modestly confess this, for one. 

Yet will our andent faith, that Goodness, Truth, and Beauty are somehow allied, not 
down; and yet, I believe, is that faith justified. The fault is not in the true nature and 
possibilities of art, but in the false interpretations that man places upon it, and the human 
shortcomings that hamper him in following its high call. I believe that if we could clarify 
our vision and dearly distinguish between the natural trend of art and some natural 
tendendes of the human soul that are prone to become associated with it, we would be 
prepared to gather new vision, new sense of direction, and increased power for good. 

Art, then consists of two elements: one the earthly thought, interest, circumstance, 
emotion, that clings in the mind at the moment, and that may be taken as the avowed 
subject of the composition, and the other a form of expression, quite detached from the 
earthly circumstance, that seeks to attain grace, beauty, divine fitness and proportion of a 
quite idealistic kind. How much of the labor of man has been spent in obedience to this 
impulse to work, like the omnipotent Creator himself, toward the creation of ideal beauty. 
How patiently, how cunningly, how unceasingly he has wrou^t to pose line with line, 
mass with mass, color with color, tone with tone, word with word, that diapes, forms, 
designs would result that would meet this haunting demand of our souls for ideal beauty! 
The impulse is present in every-day life to-day, but how little we notice it. Yet in the 
placing of the furniture in every room, the fashioning of every garment, the p l anting of 
every flower garden, we are selecting, rejecting, choosing, in obedience to this craving for 
fitness, rightness in the relations of things to one another, quite beyond thtir relation 
directly to our utilitarian needs. 

Both of these elements, that which would speak of our worldly experiences, and that 
which would strive for the creation of ideal beauty, are likely to be present in almost any 
musical composition — but how greatly do the proportions vary! 

Beauty of tone to enchant the ear, symmetry and grace of tonal line to ddig^t the 
mind, purity and nobility of mood to exalt the spirit, may all be well-nigh absent from the 
song of a cheap, vaudeville '^artist.” He may be merely relating, in vulgar tone and vulgar 
language, some commonplace experience in human life; and how greatly we m if we imag- 
ine that the interest of almost any circumstance he could use wOl atone for the absence 
of sheer beauty.. On the other hand, an organ fugue of Bach’s or a string quartette of 
Beethoven’s may lift its feet from earth and wing its way serendy and ^oriously in an 
ecstasy of contenqilation of pure beauty. And in a tone-poem of Debussy we may find an 
almost even balancing of proportions. 



There is no intention to suggest that we should choose between two styles of composi- 
tion, and become either devotees of Bach alone or worshippers at the shrine of the musical 
futurists. Both elements exist in some proportioning in the greater part of all music, 
and they are not incompatible. The question is, which is the essential and characteristic 
element in musical composition, and which holds the greater promise of exaltation for the 
spirit of man. Upon that element we should fix our attention, and to bring about greater 
appreciation of it should be our endeavor. 

Now I believe that a large part of the failure of music is due to the fact that its emo- 
tional and worldly aspects have been stressed much too greatly in comparison with its 
idealistic aspects. To intensify the emotions of human life may tend to energize life, but 
not to uplift and purify it. On the other hand, to enlist the spirit of man in a quest for a 
beauty that is above the earth, that is purely ideal, is to create moods of aspiration and 
lofty striving that tend to ennoble and dignii^ human lif e. 

We who deal with your children in the public schools are faced by some difficulties 
and by some advantages that are peculiar to the situation. We deal alwa)^ with the song 
and the words of the song are likely to fetter it to earth. Because of these words we are 
likely to come to the conclusion that we are teaching love of nature, the domestic and 
social virtues, patriotism, and so forth; and I earnestly hope we are teaching aU of these, 
but I hope w€ are teaching something more. Our work is carried on by grade teachers 
who know more about the normal reactions of human beings to the circumstances of 
life than they know about tonal processes, and who therefore are likely to accentuate the 
literary and emotional aspects of songs more than they accentuate the purely musical facts 
— sometimes even to the point of ignoring musical demands entirely. On the other hand 
we are dealing with children who have no uneasy background of dramatic emotional 
experience in life. They love tone and rhythm and melody as they love the simshine, a 
flower or the rainbow — ^because it is lovely. They sing as the boy-choir soprano sings, 
for pure joy in the beauty of it, and not as the dramatic soprano sings a sacred ballad in 
church — ^to bring her sentimental, earth-laden cares to the attention of Omnipotence. 
Their ears are keen and unspoiled, their receptivity to aU we have to bring them almost 
infinite. If we build on the foimdation they bring to us, and do not endeavor to lead 
them into a conception of art that is based upon our greater worldly experience, they are in 
a fair way to reap a rich and beautiful harvest from their musical instruction. 

And after we have come to love the true aesthetic element, rather than revel in worldly 
experience, there is another love we must learn. That is love for the best that is in the 
souls of men and in the souls of little children. If we can discern the beautiful soul of 
Music, through all her disguises, and discern the beautiful thing that is the soul of Child- 
hood, under aU its complex appearances, and if we can then unite the two, we will have 
performed what we believe is a worthy task, and one that is full of promise for man and 
for music as a valuable element in the life of man. 

Second Day, March 23, 1920 



Hollis Dann, Professor of Mustc^ ComeU UnioersUy, Ithacoy N, F. 

The Past 

The Music Supervisors’ National Conference was conceived in the minds of a s m al l 
group of enthusiasts, was bom in Keokuk, Iowa, in 1907 and nurtured and reared in the 
middle west. Six times the Conference has met west of Indianapolis, the distances to the 
six cities averaging approximately 280 miles from that dty. Six times the meetings have 
been held east of Indianapolis, the distances from the Hoosier capital averaging about 
266 miles. Philadelphia, approximateh^ 550 miles east, and Lincoln, about the same 
distance west of Indianapolis, marft the longest joume}^. 

The first meeting was held in Keokuk, Iowa, the home of the first secretary, Mr. Philip 
C. Hayden. Sixty-nine members attended in response to a “call for a National Confer- 
^ce” sent out by Mr. Hayden in his capadty as secretary of the Music Section of the 
N. E, A. The “Call” was signed by twenty-nine supervisors. Seventeen of the ori gin a l 
twenty-nine axe still active members. It was intended that the of5.cers of the Music 
Section of the N. E. A. should act as the officers of the Keokuk meeting, there bdng no 
session of the N. E. A. that year on account of the earthquake at San Francisco where the 
meeting was to be held. The illness of Mr. Hainlin E. Cogswell, President of the Music 
Section of the N. E. A., prevented his attendance; consequently the Vice-President, Mrs. 
Frances E. Clark, then supovisor of music at Des Moines, Iowa, was made cha i rm a n of the 
Keokuk Meeting. Mrs. Clark was the leading spirit in the actual organization of the 
National Conference. 

Twenty-four of the sixty-nine charter members, and all the officers who served during 
the first three years, are active members today. The second meeting was held in Indian- 
apolis in 1909 where there were ninety-five in attendance, with P. C. Hayden, President, 
and Stella Root, Secretary. The membership at the third rneeting in Cincinnati nximbered 
one hundred forty-nine. The officers were E. L. Cobum, President, WiU Earhart, Vice- 
President, Stella Root, Secretary, and Wm. B. Kinnear, Treasurer. 

All honor to the first sixty-nine, to the twenty-four who are still active members, and 
especially to Philip C. Hayden, the first Preadent, who initiated the movement which 
brought the Conference into existence and whose reports of the first meetings make pos- 
sible a complete history. From the first Mr. Hayden had faith that the Conference would 
live. After the second meeting he said editorially in School Music — ^'The Supervisors’ 
Conference will be permanent because it meets the needs of the American Supervisor.” 

Unfortunately there is no record of the actual attendance at the subsequent meetings. 
The entire active membership has been as follows: At Detroit in 1911, 145 members; at 
St Louis in 1912, 114 members; at Rochester in 1913, 136 members; at Minneapolis in 
1914, 182 members; at Pittsburgh in 1915, 317 members; at Lincoln in 1916, 486 members; 
at Grand Rapids in 1917, 498 members; at Evansville in 1918, 495 members; at St Louis 




in 1919, 646 members; at Philadelphia in 1920, 1,242 members. Judging from these figures 
the farther the Conference goes away from‘^Home” the greater the percentage of gain in 
membership. At Lincoln the increase over the previous year was 53%, The present 
membership exceeds that of last year by 596 members, a gain of 88%, 

Beginning with 1910 but omitting 1911, the Conference has published annually The 
Volume of Proceedings, the maximum edition being 900 copies. The Supervisors* Journal, 
published four times a year, reaches 6,000 to 9,000 readers. 

If time permitted, a r&um6 of the work already performed would surprise even those 
who have been most active in its accomplishment. A recent re-reading of the several 
Volumes of Proceedings reveals a consistently progressive and virile attitude toward all 
questions affecting music in the Schools. Today it is sufficient to say that the Conference 
has amply justified its existence. It has become the largest and most influential body 
having to do with music in the schools. It has already rendered valuable service to its 
membership and to the Cause to which it is dedicated. 

The Present 

We are assembled here to learn wisdom and to gain strength and inspiration. North, 
South, East, and West are well represented. Maine shall listen to California and the 
sunny South shall take counsel of the rugged North. The presence here today of members 
coming from every state and Canada is in itself a fine and significant tribute to the 
American Supervisor. 

The program of the week has two main obj'ectives: 

1. To stimulate and inculcate the highest ideals of the Art which we essay to teach. 

2. To afford practical and valuable aid in the solution of every-day problems. 

In the belief that the teacher of an art subject needs first of all to have and to hold the 
highest ideals of that art, every effort has been made to provide opportunity to hear great 
music rendered by great artists. However, high ideals and lofty purposes without practical 
knowledge and skill are like an engine without a driver. Therefore the Conference program 
must always feature the every-day problems. 

Tor fourteen years this body has demonstrated that musicians can dwell together In 
peace and good-fellowship, can discuss any and all questions where differences of opirdon 
exist, with dignity, courtesy, and mutual good will, thus disproving the false but unfor- 
tunately prevalent notion that musicians cannot live and work together in harmony. The 
delightful informality which always pervades the annual meeting encourages all to frater- 
nize with both friends and strangers. The broad, tolerant spirit which has characterized 
this body from its inception is its most precious heritage. Let us highly resolve that no 
matter what provocation may arise, all the affairs of this Conference shall be conducted on 
a high plane — above petty, selfish interests; that mutual kindness and respect shall ring 
true in every emergency, and that this, the traditional Conference spirit, shall prevail 
throughout the week. In all our deliberations, let us not for one moment forget the 
childreii at home. We are the musical pilots of the twenty millions of American school 
children. To guide them along the beautiful pathways in the land of song is at once our 
responsibility and our opportunity. 

The man and woman whose mission is to bring the divine art into the daily life of all 
the children, all the homes, all the churches, all the industries, and all the public gatherings 
of his co mmuni ty, must be imbued with love for his fellow men and with a burning desire 
to ennch the lives of all through music. The nature and power of his leadership will be 
determined by the quality of his inner spirit. In the words of Paul, that spirit is kind, 
envieth not, vaunteth not itself, is not puffed up, doth not behave itself unseemly, seeketh 
not its own, is not easily provoked. 



What each member shall take home from this week’s experience depends upon his 
capacity for absorption. In this shower of nectar you may function like a sponge or a 
duck’s back. You may gain strength, knowledge, and inspiration to cany back to your 
children, your teachers and your community, after an intensive week of personal associa- 
tion with your peers, prompt and regular attendance at the sessions, and intensive listen- 
ing to the great music which the week ofFers; or, you may succumb to the lure of a great 
dty, gaze at the latest creations in the shop windows and regale yourself at the movies. 
Some members of our executive committee consistently oppose meeting in a large dty 
because of its many distractions. The record of attendance this week will prove whether 
or not any considerable number of our members are lacking in seriousness of purpose, in 
devotion to a great profession. Would that we all might realize the wonderful possibilities 
of our high calling, could sense the joy that comes from real success following singleness 
of purpose, lofty ideals, thoroughness of preparation, and intense application. Let us have 
a good time, see all we can of this great dty, but first and foremost let us attend strictly 
and consdentioudy to the business which called us here. 

One of the great task s of this Conference is to assist in bringing about a radical change 
in the grossly inequitable and suiddal policy concerning salaries, which is driving thmigandg 
of the best teachers out of the profession. Think for a moment of the supervisor who 
crossed the continent to attend this meeting, giving up one-fifth of the year’s meager 
salary in order to cany back a new message, a new inspiration to the boys and girls at 

This teacher spent ten years in preparation for her life work; four years in hi^ sdiool, 
four years at the University, two years in a school for supervisors. Four years’ successful 
e3q)erience as a supervisor of music followed. Now she receives less for her services thaji 
the untrained tmeducated worker in a score of industries; less than the train tnan who 
punches her railroad tickets. It has been well said that ‘%wer salaries are paid to those 
who train the minds than to those who mind the trains.^ Unless the supervisor of music 
recdves an adequate salary commensurate with the importance of his position and with his 
necessarily long and expendve preparation, the profession caxmot hold or attract the super- 
ior type of men and women which is absolntdy necessary to its progress. 

The Pukire 

The future of this organization, its aims, scope and activity, is bound to be vitally 
affected by the action taken concerning two subjects which are to be considered this wedr. 
One, “The Future Policy of the Conference Concerning Sectional Branches,” the other — 
“The National Relations, Duties, and Opportunities of the Conference, how it can wmk 
with and through its State Advisory Committees, and with other National Organizations.” 

With regard to Sectional Conferences there is an insistent deoiand for action and also 
a wide divergence of opinion. Certain prominent members in the middle west would hold 
aU meetings of the National body in that section, the Eastern, Southern, and Western 
Branches sending delegates to the parent organization. Other equally staunch friends 
would locate the annual meeting in the middle west biennially, holding a joint meeting 
with one of the branch conferences every altenate year. Still others wpuld practicaHy 
abolish the National organization and organize a Middle West Conference in addition 
to the Eastern, Southern, and Western, making the National body a skdeton biganization 
in the nature of a holding corporation. 

The question of nationalizing the activities through intensive co-operatkm with our 
Advisory Committees and with other National Organizations will be considered at the 
Symposium on Friday morning. This session will furnish ample evidence of the willing- 
ness and ability of leading supervisors in every state to co-operate with the National 

1 Pretident Sdmrman, Camdl IJniveisity. 



Conference. In states where the chairman has been efiSdently active, a splendid start has 
been made during the limited time available. Up-to-date lists of Supervisors have been 
compiled, valuable information gathered, nfew members enrolled, and* wide publicity given 
to this meeting. These capable, energetic and enthusiastic chairmen have proven con- 
clusively that the Advisory Committee plan has very great potential power and useful- 
ness. With a re-organization of the Committees next year in the light of this year’s 
experience, with more time and more complete and accurate lists, the Advisory Committee 
can do invaluable service to each state and to the Conference. 

Never before has the Conference considered simultaneously questions of so far- 
reaching importance fraught with such great possibilities. While they are pressing for 
solution, we stand midway between peril and opportunity, facing a critical period in the 
life of our organization and of the Nation. How shall we meet the emergency? Shall we 
not go forth with courage and faith, undertaldng the things hoped for and testing out the 
things not seen? 

Wherever the annual meeting may be held, whatever changes may be made in its 
organization, there are certain fundamental elements which are essential. This Confer- 
ence must function as a natidnal body if its potential power and influence is to be utilized. 
Any limitation of its field of activity inevitably neutralizes the value of all general sirrveys 
and investigations — automatically stamps them as incomplete. As yet the Conference 
is national only in name — ^not in Vision or Achievement. 

We have all felt that the stage has been set for big things in music as a result of the 
unique and wonderful part which music played in the great war. The marvelous develop- 
ment of the community music movement and the intense and wide-spread interest in 
all things musical are t3rpical of the many unmistakable evidences of the dawn of a new 
era in Music. What is this body going to do to serve the nation at this critical time? What 
steps will it take to help the far west, the south, and the east? 

This Conference is no longer in its infancy, but its latent strength is yet dormant and 
undeveloped. Is it not imperative that this body shall put off its swaddling clothes and 
proceed forthwith to play a larger part in a wider field? 

Three thousand supervisors can be enrolled and their active interest and co-operation 
enlisted if the Conference will help them as it can help them. Two thousand instead of 
nine hundred copies of the Volume of Proceedings should be printed this year. This book 
is a necessity for every progressive supervisor; it should be in the reference library of every 
high school and of every normal and training school 

The Supervisors^ Journal should go to every supervisor, every teacher of music in 
normal and training school, and if possible to every Federated Music Club. An edition of 
fifteen thousand rather than nine thousand is needed. 

There are six thousand, seven thousand, ten thousand — ^nobody knows how many 
supervisors of music in the United States, A complete, up-to-date list has never been 

The Conference is unknown to the average superintendent of schools. President 
McConathy made a brave start with the superintendents last year; sending to a large num- 
ber a letter concerning the St. Louis meeting. This year a similar letter was mailed to 
several thousand superintendents, again calling attention to the advantages accruing to 
the schools drom the Supervisor’s attendance at the Conference meeting, to the large and 
increasing number of Boards of Education who are sending their supervisors to the Con- 
ference with full salary and paying all or a part of their travelling expenses. Gratifying 
results from these efforts are already apparent. The superintendent, in most school 
systems, holds the key which opens or locks the door of opportunity to the supervisor of 
music. Time, material, salary, recognition — are increased or withheld in proportion to the 
Superintendent’s evaluation of music in general and of the brand of school music produced 



by bis Supervisor, in particular. The K^ational Conference and the individual supervisor 
would do well to give greatly increased attention to the musical enlightment— the musical 
education, if you please, of the superintendent of schools. 

The,future of the National Conference and of Music in the schools depends upon the 
new type of supervisor. He has broad academic, musical, and special education, a wide 
vision, which includes instrumental as wdl as vocal music, and appredation along with 
participation, EQs field of responsibility and activity includes the home and the com- 
mumty as well as the school. His perspective of music teaching emphasizes the artistic 
and minimizes the mechanical. He strive for a realization of the beautiful from the 
Kindergarten to the high school and is emancipated from the noisy deadening grind which 
usurps the place of music and dulls the sense of refinement. He constantly demonstrates 
that school music may be real music, not an imlovely thing divorced from art and a 
stranger to beauty. 

One ^orious mission of this Conference is to make known to the entire nation the 
wonderful possibilities which music in the schools offers to the child and to the community 
when under efl&cient supervision. Progress in our profession, as in all lines of human 
endeavor, is advanced or retarded according to the quality of leadership. Leaders are 
always men and women with native ability for leadership. Whether they are to play the 
part of a Lenin or of a Roosevelt depends largely upon their education. No branch of the 
teaching profession is so vitally dependent upon educated leadership as the supervision of 
music in the schools, and there has never been a time when trained leaders, great numbers 
of them, are so sorely needed. Exceptionally gifted boys and girls possessing unusual 
musical talent combined with teaching abihty are to be found in every system of schools 
where music is well taught. Individual assistance and encouragement should be given 
to these talented pupils. Th^ should be the supervisors of the future. 

Upon this Conference, more than upon any other agency, rests the responsibility of 
making clear to the Educational leaders in every state — 

1 . That music shall be required in all the sdiools; 

2. That a reasonable standard of musical qualification shall be required for the super- 
visor and grade teacher; 

3. That the Normal Schools and State Universities shall make adequate provision 
for the musical and pedagogical traioing of the teacher and supervisor. 

The people everywhere are willing to support music in the schools but they do not 
know what is needed. The National Conference is the one organization in existence whose 
logical destiny and whose manifest duly is to organize and carry on a campaign of educa- 
tion in every State. 

The members of the Educational Coundl are ready and wfiling to give their time 
and their talents to this work, but they are prevented from so doing because there are no 
funds available to pay necessary expenses* M^bers of the Council cannot assume the 
yearly burden of paying hundreds of dollars for postage, stationery, and clerical assistance. 
Early in February a letter was received from a member of the Council outlining a com- 
prehensive plan for gathering vitally important information from supervisors and superin- 
tendents, information which would be of great practical value to all concerned. “Send me 
Conference stationery and authorization to purchase postage and I will go ahead,” said 
the writer. There being no funds or authorization for such expenditure, tbis and other 
si mi la r enterprises could not proceed. 

Most of the chai r men of the Advisory Committees have generoudy paid their Con- 
ference postage bDls, some of which have been large and burdensome. The Ti«v>fnlTiPgg of 
the Advisory Committees and the value of the chairman^s report have been neutralized 
because there has been no money to pay necessary expenses. 



Lack of executive machinery limits our activity and usefulness in other ways. A 
conspicuous illustration is the failure to establish closer relations with the National Federa- 
tion of Musical Clubs. The Federation officers are intensely interested in the Conference 
and in the cause it represents. They are ready to co-operate in any feasible work for the 
uplift df music in the schools. The columns of the Musical Monitor^ the official paper of 
the organization, are open to the Conference. There is a Federated Musical Club in 
, nearly every community. Its whole-hearted support of music in the schools is a valuable 
asset. The wise supervisor will enlist this support. The National Conference should 
pave the way. 

The necessary work of this Conference demands a budget of several thousand dollars; 
services of a permanent Field Secretary and of a capable stenographer. One year of 
such service under the general direction and with the aid of the President, Executive 
Committee and Educational Council, would double the membership of this body, increase 
its usefulness tenfold, and promote vital and far-reaching improvement in the conditions 
affecting music in the schools of every state. 

Have we faith, courage, and devotion sufficient to enter upon so great an adventure? 
I firmly believe that there is business ability in this body to finance such an undertaking. 
I believe that a drive for one hundred per cent enrollment of the supervisors in this coun- 
try, together with an appeal for outside help, could be made to bring sufficient returns to 
defray expenses. 

We must either go forward with bold strides or fail to fulfill our manifest duty. The 
need for action is urgent; the opportunity for service is unique. If there is no better way, 
we can establish a guarantee fund of $2,500, each of one hundred members pledging $25 
or any part thereof necessary to cover the year’s deficit. 

Somewhere in this, the richest of all nations in material wealth, a man or woman is 
waiting to endow this organization— waiting to aid those who are laying the foundations of 
a temple beautiful. Ten thousand dollars a year expended judiciously by this Conference 
on the cause of community #mtisic and music in the public schools would do more to make 
America musical and to make America contented, than all the hundreds of thousands spent 
annually upon the great orchestras and upon the opera. The Symphony Orchestra and 
the Opera, inspiring and indispensable as they axe, form the crown and superstructure of 
the Temple of Music, which can become the people’s temple only after the foundation of 
appreciation and participation has been laid in the head, the hand and the heart of the 
American child, rich and poor alike. 


Geoege H. Gartlan, Director of Music in the Public Schools of New York CUy 

Music is the strongest co-ordinating influence in education. Through it the educa- 
tional inheritances are brought into closer relation, and the spiritual and ethical influences 
axe enriched by a warmer inspiration. Nature has endowed us with rare mental and 
ph3^cal gifts. It is our duty to develop these gifts to the highest point of efficiency, and 
through association with the best in music we escape the commonplace. 

In the past, school music fought for its educational existence against the narrow 
sighted policy of educators who believed that it was either a fad or a luxury. Today the 
supervisor of school music is an important member of the educational faculty. Whether 
he s h al l re m a in so depends upon the power of the individual to cany conviction with his 
work. The man who can not impress the community with the importance of his mijaginTi 
soon ceases to have that mission. 

To appreciate the position of a supervisor it is necessaiy to review the past and anti- 
cipate the future of school music. The first stages were, naturally, epochs of devotion to 
an ideal, surrounded by a natural prejudice and limited to the practice of tftnrTii-ng rbilHr^Ti 



to read music. The material chosen for their use was generally lacking in musicianship. 
Today the finest in music is offered, first, for appreciation through hearing, and second, 
for personal performance up to the limit of the child^s ability. Compared with the eariy 
da3rs of reading music by means of syllables and numbers, how glorious it seems to have 
yoxmg children familiar with the works of the great masters to the point where they can 
name the composition and play or sing the leading motives. 

For many years musicians throughout this coxmtiy looked upon school music as a 
waste of time, and upon the supervisor of school music as a poor representative of the 
profession. They were not in sympathy with the work because they failed to understand 
education in its broadest sense. They did not believe that music was a part of everyone’s 
life, and they held to the ancient standard that only those who were specially ^fted by 
God could ever hope to understand the real meaning of music. Mechanically they devel- 
oped great virtuosi, whose sole mission in life was to interpret music that was practically 
unintelligible to millions of their auditors. The more advanced teachers of today axe will- 
ing to abandon this archaic belief, and realize that the problem is not with the special stu- 
dent, but to train the vast majority of people to appreciate what they are hearing. Too 
3nany supervisors confined themsdves to teaching the reading of muric and elements of 
notation, losing sight of the bigger motives in education. The result of this teach in g was a 
mechanical perfonnance in sight reading, and failed entirely to create an atmosphere of real 
music. They could not say with the poet, *T love music for what it makes me forget, 
and for what it makes me remember.” The formalist is fast disappearing, and in his 
place has come the real music teacher, who having first equipped himself for his profession, 
has specialized in the great mission of teaching little children. 

The difficulties of formulating a scheme of standardization have been many. Teach- 
ers of school music are licensed by the State or Municipality in which they teach. The 
so-called ‘‘private teachers” are not required to qualify before any court of authority. 
There seems to be no real reason why these private teachers should not be held to the 
same standards maintained for the supervisors of school music. Such a scheme would 
obviate all difficulties in connection with granting credits to school pupils for outside 
instruction in music. 

America afford to be proud of the progress which has been made in the education 
of her children. Great teachers have sought refuge in this country because of the hand- 
some remuneration which they knew would be theirs. But the real reason seems to have 
been that they foimd a fertile field. America leads the world in commer cialism . Let 
us strive toward the day when she may lead it in culture. We must recognize the fact 
that the jpopular musical taste in America is at a low ebb, notwithstanding the multitude 
of musical activities, such as opera, symphony, recital and teaching. The number of 
people really influenced by these activities is in the thousands; while the number whose 
real appreciation is confined to inferior music of all kinds in the home, theatre and the 
churches, is in the millions. The reason for this is that one half a century of school music, 
dedicated to the formal side of the subject, has killed real musical appreciation and real 
musical initiative. Contrast with this the conditions of popular musical education in 
Eniropean nations. If America is to gain this position, school music must shift this empha- 
sis from the purely formal side of teaching music to the development of the emotional 
and cultural values utilizing formal training merely to strengthen and make definite the 
really essential power inherent in music. 

No system is a good system which is bound by limitations, and the old barriers 
which barred school music from co-operalion with outside musical activities have been 
broken down. This demands of the supervisor that he be first a musician; he must under- 
stand fully the difficulties of a professional life. His judgment must be keen and unbiased. 
He must come into his school work fully equipped in the technique and interpretation of 



his art. For many years School Boards were satisfied with teachers who were w illin g to 
work for a small compensation. The financial remuneration was so meagre that it offered 
no attraction to musicians who could earn five times the amount in private teaching. The 
qualifications for this position appear to have been merely a knowledge of sight reading 
and the ability to teach certain series of music readers. Today the effort is being made to 
attract musicians who have specialized in some other branch of the art, and having made 
a success are encouraged to specialize in school music. 

It may be interesting to review some of the earlier salary schedules which existed a 
generation ago. In RTnall towns teachers of school music received from $20 to $50 per 
month. In New York City music teachers were paid on a per diem basis. It is obvious 
that little could be expected from such management. Teachers came into this work with 
practically no equipment, beyond a natural enthusiasm. Today colleges and universities 
offer regular courses of instruction for supervisors of school music, and the certificates 
which they receive as a result of this instruction are now recognized by City and State 
Boards of Education. 

It is unfortunate that some teachers who have gone into school work have allowed 
themselves to become very narrow. They have lost communication with the big world 
of music and have ceased to be influenced by musical environment. The successful 
supervisor must be in touch with every musical activity in his community. He must be 
suf&ciently trained to be a leader in these activities in order to command the respect of 
his fellow workers. Local Boards of Education are dem a nding that teachers of music, 
drawing, physical training and alhed subjects have at least a high school education. Some 
of our most clever virtuosi were denied a general education due to the fact that intensive 
study of their instrument occupied so much of their time that they were unable to obtain 
this education. It is true that by association they absorbed a great deal of general infonna- 
tion, but when it came to a final test they were not able to show that they had the full 
advantages of academic training. 

Although this is an age of specialists, general education is absolutely essential before 
specialization can be effective. Let us review the training which a supervisor of school 
music should receive. Before the student specializes in school music he should certify to 
his high school education. Then he should be required to specialize on some instrument. 
When this course is settled he should be instructed in in psychology and the science of 
education. He then undertakes the study of musical theory, including harmony, counter- 
point, composition and instrumentation. It would not be to his advantage to specialize 
at this point, because he is aiming for general culture. Courses in musical appreciation 
and history naturally follow. Collaterally with this training he must be brought into 
association with what is going on in music. He must be a student of opera and the sym- 
phony. By such association he naturally absorbs musical atmosphere, and with this equip- 
ment he enters upon his work, able to compete with the leaders of his profession. Compare 
this training with that of the conservatory graduate who has specialized in piano teaching 
or vocal teaching. The former gives a broader vision to the student, and the latter, a 
narrow outlook which compels him to judge aU things in terms of his own specialized 

Any discussion of the music supervisor of the future would be incomplete without 
some reference to the part played in school music education by the great publishing houses. 
It is not overstating the facts to say that the activities of these publishers have been the 
controlling influence in school music as taught in this country. Nor can it be denied 
that this influence has been productive of much good. The competition of the publishers 
for business is responsible for< the fact that the succession of music series has, with some 
exceptions, been marked by a steady advance in the quality of the music made available 
for school use. The progress that has been made in psychology and pedagogy is largdy 



due to tMs S 2 une cause. *It is tlie publishers who have organized and embodied in their 
books the best thought of our profession. In by-gone years when the demand for trained 
supervisors was large and agencies for training them were practically non-existent, the 
publishing houses established schools where methods of presenting school music were 
taught to prospective candidates. Many of our veteran leaders owe a large measure of 
their success to the knowledge and inspiration gained from the devoted teachers in these 
schook and have in turn passed on tie torch to successive generations of supervisors. 
School music owes much to the publishers of text books, and the debt is hereby acknowl- 
edged and paid in the only currency possible, namely, grateful appreciation. 

Butl The picture has another side. The interests of the publishing houses bdng 
primarily selfish — and the word is used with no invidious connotations — and human 
nature being what it is, inevitable abuses and questionable practices have accompanied 
this system of publishing activities. Instead of inculcating sound musicianship and its 
application to the teaching of school music, these schools have devoted themselves to 
the preparation of their students to teach only the books of the publishing house promot- 
ing the school, and the methods involved therein. Too often the agents of the publishing 
house have directly or indirectly paid the tiution and other expenses of the students. 
The result has been that these students on graduating from these schools and entering 
positions, in many cases procured for them by these same publishers, became in reality 
agents of the publishers, instead of keenly open-minded unbiased teachers having as their 
first thou^t the wdfare of the children committed to their charge. It is only fair to say 
that most of the supervisors drifted into this condition unwittingly owing to their inexperi- 
ence, and impeljed by the laudable sentiment of gratitude for concrete benefits recmved. 
They were often deceived by the altruistic attitude of their benefactors, who, in order to 
quiet any scruples that might have arisen in their minds, informed them that they were 
under no obligations. Reassured by this, perhaps they ventured to recommend to thdr 
superintendents the purchase of some book not bearing the sacred imprint. And then 
came the awakening. Apparently by chance the pubhsher’s representative drops in for a 
friendly calL The proposed change of books is mentioned. Surprise and grief are mani- 
fested that a teacher so promising could make such a blunder. Attention is called to the 
unfortunate failure of poor Miss Jones-Smith who made a similar mistake. Assurances of 
future support and the exercise of powerful influence in the neophyte’s behalf are extended. 
Instances are cited of the rapid advancement of the friends of the company. 

Let us suppose that our supervisor remains recalcitrant and persists in his heresy. 
His work, which has hitherto been acclaimed, falls under criticism. His request for the 
new books is denied on the ground that funds are lacking. His application for an increase 
in salary is denied. In despair he applies for another position. EBs application is received 
with favor. But suddently he finds that some subtle influence has been exercised against 
him, and another receives the position. He will then do one of two things, depending on 
his character — either quit the profession in disgust, or climb back on the band-wagon. 

Let me assure those of you who have never had such experiences that this is no f anc^ul 
picture. And while conditions have somewhat improved of late years, and agency methods 
have been much refined, the velvet glove still hides the iron hand. Normal Schools openly 
conducted or indirectly controlled by the publishing houses have raised their stan d a r ds 
of general musicianship, but their fundamental purpose stands unchanged. 

It is undeniable that this state of affairs has had a very deleterious effect not only on 
the training of the supervisor and the success of his work, but on his status in the educa- 
tional world. It has had a direct bearing on the low scale of salaries generally prevailing. 
The Normal School of the future will raise stiU further the standards of musicianship and it 
will train the teacher to handle successfully any series of music books, with a keen appre- 
ciation of the highest values in each. Then, and then only, will the supervision of school 



music become a profession, and not a trade — every supervisor Vill be able to maintam 
his self respect, and his success will be conditioned only by his ability, without the extra- 
neous influence of selfish interest. 

On the assumption that the supervisor has been sufl5ciently trained let us see how he 
will work in the community. In the elementary grades he will devote his attention to 
proper voice production, to teaching his pupils the art of reading their music language, 
and finally to appreciate what is beautiful and wholesome in music. In secondary educa- 
tion he win teach them something of the theory of music. He will develop choral singing 
with a view to supplementing the adult choruses of his community by graduates from his 
high school choral societies. He will train his orchestral players with a view perhaps toward 
vocational guidance for the few, and personal accomplishment for the many. America has 
lost a great opportunity in not following these high school students who have shown a 
certain degree of proficiency and developing local orchestras. It is unfortunate that the 
authority of the school ends with the graduation of the pupil, otherwise a follow-up S 3 rstem 
would produce incomparable results. 

Leaders in the outside musical world were indined to look upon the supervisor of 
school music as one who perhaps might not qualify in their sphere, but the great deeds 
accomplished by the leaders in school music have fortunately dissipated this notion. To 
sum up, the supervisor of the future must qualify academically in order to luaint^iTi his 
position in the educational world. He must be thoroughly familiar with the complete 
literature of music. He must understand tihe psychology of the child mind as it develops, 
and have the ability to nourish that mind in the various stages of its development with tihe 
highest types of music suitable to each stage. He must have an adequate knowledge of the 
theory of music, and must be able to play the piano sufi&ciently well to fulfil the necessary 
demands of school work. His work should not end with the class room. He must be 
more than a producer of results, he must be an influence in the community. 

There is a new light coming over the hiUs. It is the dawn of a new era in public 
school music. It is within your power, as teachers, to open the flood gates of culture to 
the coming generation, and to this service you must dedicate your years. Against ignor- 
ance and prejudice, you must bear the burden and heat of the day, that the youth of Amer- 
ica may know a mellow development, enriched by art, inspired by tenderness, and ele- 
vated above the cold realities of every day existence. It is your great privilege to carry 
the message of the ideal down through the ages of human struggle and sacrifice. Surely, 
music is the language of the soul—it is more than that— it is food for the soul. Teachers of 
children, do you realize that the seeds of knowledge that you sow may flower into rich ^ 7 * 4 
beautiful living, and that the spiritual influence of education through music may bring 
the child into closer communion with his Creator, and help him to bask in the sunshine 
of exquisite beauty? 



Fxanx Damrosch, Director InstiPute of Mimeal Art, New York City 

The Supervisor of School Music is a comparatively recent development in the evolu- 
tion of the human species from the ape to the aviator, or, to put it more seriously, from 
the rote-song teacher to the educator in music as a life asset. For is not the primary 
object in placing music in the curriculum of the Public Schools to make music a part of 
the life of the people? We cannot and do not wish to make professional TmiririanQ out of 
all children, but we do want all of them to come under the refining influence of music, 



to leaxn to appreciate good music, to respond to its emotional impulses, to rise on its 
wings to higher spiritual levels. 

In a land which, like ours, is rich with material resources, and in which a thousand 
opportunities to gain wealth beckon from every side, the mind is easily led to the belief 
that money is the only goal worth striving for, instead of looking upon it only as a means 
to a higher development of our and our nation’s spiritual qualities. Fanny Kemble once 
said to the late Major Henry Lee Higginson, “Life in the United States is hard and dry. 
Your country is a great cornfield. See that you plant flowers in it.” And Major Higginson 
later amplified the same thought in saying, “This beautiful land is our workshop, our 
playgroimd, our garden, our home; and we can have no more urgent or pleasant task than 
to keep our workshop busy and content, our playground bright and gay, our garden well 
tilled and full of flowers and fruits, our home happy and pure,” It was precisely for these 
objects that he established the Boston Symphony Orchestra in 1881. (Quoted from “A 
Great Private Citizen” by M, A, DeWolfe Howe in AihnUc Monthly, March 1920.) 

From this point of view, the old idea that schoolmusic need consist only of a small 
repertory of vigorously shouted patriotic songs appears not only inadequate but thoroughly 

It is nearly a century since Lowell Mason made his first efforts in Boston to introduce 
a different idea and a higher aim in music teaching in the schools. As part of his system, 
he introduced singing from notes in place of the rote-singing as practiced till then and under 
his guidance, the leadership of genius, fair results were achieved. Unfortunately, most of 
his successors and imitators mistook the husis for the kernel and, not recognizing that the 
study of sight-singing was but a means to a higher end, they bent their energies towards 
devising ever more and more minutely worked out “methods” of teaching sight-singing 
in which the mechanics of this valuable accomplishment often obscured the purpose which 
it was to serve. 

We are, I am happy to say, fast growing out of this era of “methods” and, whereas the 
Supervisor of Music of thirty years ago, frequently grew from an ambitious, but not espe- 
cially musical grade-teacher by way of a two or three weeks “Summer School,” generally 
conducted by the authors and publishers of a series of music text-books, he is now expected 
to achieve far better and finer results and his equipment must be more in accordance with 
his new task. This brings me to the topic under discussion. 

I have just received a copy of Mr. Karl Wilson Gehrkens’ An Introduction to School 
Music Teaching in which, besides other most valuable observations, I find the following 
description of the minimum qualifications of a modem Supervisor of Music. 

1. At least fairly good native musical talent. 

2. A good general education, this implying graduation from a standard four-year 
high school course as a minimum. 

3. A thorough musical education, this including at least fair ability in playing the 
piano and in singing, an accurate knowledge of music, theory and history, expert 
ability in sight-singing and ear-training and at least the beginning of a thorou^ 
acquaintance with the orchestral instruments. 

4. As broad a knowledge as possible of general principles of education, together with 
a comprehensive and practical acquaintance with the special problems involved 
in music teaching. 

5. Desirable personal traits to at least a fair degree those especially necessary being 
initiative, leadership, organizing ability, tact, imagination, humor, friendliness, 
sincerity and common sense. 

It is said of old Oliver Ditson that, when getting into bed worn out by a hard da3^s 
work, he would piously say his prayers by pointing to a placard above the foot of his bed 
on which a prayer was printed and saying “Oh, Lord! them’s my sentiments.” 



If I were equally tired or if I were lazy I could point to Mr. Gehrkens’ list of qualifica- 
tions and to his amplifications which follow, with a good conscience and gladly acquiesce 
in everything he sa>"s. But as I have no such excuse, I would wish to go a step further in 
the consideration of the Supervisor’s equipment. 

First, mentally: In addition to the usual academic and pedagogic training, I feel that 
he needs a special training in those subjects which are the sources from which poets, paint- 
ers, sculptors and musicians, have drawn their chief inspiration, namely mythology, 
folklore and romance. 

These were evolved in the human mind when the world was young and they still 
carry their message to the young world: the child, the youth and to all whose heart has 
been kept young by love of beauty, goodness and truth. They contain all the wisdom of 
the ages and the beauty of the human soul seeking the light. Also, they give expression 
to every emotion of which the soul is capable. 

Equipped with such knowledge, the Supervisor could accomplish wonderful things in 
stimulating the child’s imagination, broadening his vision, awakening him to a realization 
of a world beyond the narrow confines of his home. Much good and beautiful music has 
been written on the inspiration of such themes and it is desirable that our children be 
brought under its- influence. 

I wish it were possible to describe more satisfactorily the term “a good general 
education” than*by sa)dng that it implied, as a minimum, graduation from a standard 
four year high school course. Some of our high school product would scarcely meet even 
our minimum requirement for a Supervisor and, for that matter, much of the material 
that graduates from our colleges would be found equally deficient. In other words, educa- 
tion is not knowledge, book-learning, but the power to use our faculties to best advantage. 
And where do we find such education today? It is rare — so rare that only an infinitesimal- 
ly small percentage of children receive its benefits. But that is another story. I say it 
here because the ordinary so-called education of the average high school or college is not 
sufficient to equip the Music Supervisor, whose purpose is, to quote Thomas Tapper, “to 
make fine types of citizens out of all classes of children.” Therefore, the ideal Supervisor 
will, recognizing the broad scope and wide possibilities of his field and the noble and 
beautiful objects to be pursued, equip himself far beyond the requirements of the schools 
and, as new vistas open to him in his work, continue to prepare himself for their explora- 
tion and development. 

We will now consider briefly the Supervisor’s musical equipment. ,Here again, Mr. 
Gehrkens covers the fundamentals very thoroughly, but, in my opinion, omits a prime 
essential. The subjects ennumerated are necessary, so necessary that they should be 
taken for granted as matters of course; but the principal musical equipment of the Super- 
visor ihust be a thorough knowledge of all the standard classics from Palestrina to Beetho- 
ven, beside the best music which has been created since then; of the folksongs of all races, 
the national songs, of everything in fact which is finest in musical art. Not that he can 
use more than a moiety of all this wealth in his teaching, but in order to build up himself, 
to make himself fit to teach the Battle H3min of the Republic or the Last Rose of Summer. 

In other words, we need as Supervisors, men and women who choose this kind of work, 
not because there is a little more money or a little more prestige in it than in grade teaching 
or in giving piano lessons, but because they look upon it as a vocation, a divine call, a holy 
missi on for which they must fit themselves by fasting and prayer and days and nights of 
travail in order to make themselves worthy. 

It takes fine men and fine women to make true teachers. A Normal School cannot 
make a teacher out of material lacking in character, nobility and idealism. To teach any 
subject requires a background of the history of the whole world. To quote from “A 



Teacher of History*’ by Edward Yeomans: “Even music must be taught — ^if it is to be 
adequately taught — ^by those and those only, who are much more than mu si c i ans. Noth- 
ing is deadlier than the effect produced on a child by a music-teacher who knows of little 
but music — ^who is incapable of connecting music with all art and all experience.*’ 

With such an equipment and such a task is there a nobler profession than that of 
Supervisor of Music? 

Third Day, March 24, 1920 



SimiE L. Williams, Supervisor of Music f Dallas^ Texas 

I believe it was a boy who said after going through the British Museum that he 
preferred the statuary to the paintings because he could walk around it. That boy spoke 
more wisely than he knew. It is distinctly advantageous to view an3d:hing from many 
different angles. 

There was a time when school music meant singing. It was used principally for 
recreational purposes and for the entertainment of parents and friends at commencement 
and on other public occasions. 

Next came the “Tonic Sol Fa Epoch” which placed a premium on proficiency in 
reading music at sight with syllables — the intellectual aspect of music, taught in a most 
formal manner oftentimes through the use of sterilized material— unpalatable and indi- 
gestible to the average boy or girl; so isolated from life itself that if possible he would 
dhnb down the fire escape in order to avoid the music lesson. Success was measured by 
school room tests and not in terms of life and effective living. 

Now we have entered the “Era of Music Appreciation”— yea, even in this mechanical, 
scientific and mercenary age. The promoters of this form of education believe in reading 
at sight, in ear training and in all that goes with the development of the vocal side of 
public school music, but at the same time they feel that this alone is not sufficient. If 
we would create genuine music lovers by the score, to whom music is as essential as air 
or water — ^the doctrine Plato taught ages ago — ^there must be added to these a defimte ♦ 
course in music appreciation. 

So fast is the pendulum of public opinion swinging toward the appreciative aspect 
that sticklers for technique cry that public school music is going backward. It is so hard 
to break away from traditional methods. Emerson realized the truth of this when he 
spoke of “the opium of custom, of which all drink and many go mad.” 

In their rductance to forsake the beaten path, some supervisors are not unlike the 
Irishman who was assisting in. the construction of a large building- During the building 
operations it was necessary for the workmen to walk across a single plank some distance 
from the ground. The foreman noticed that whenever it came to Pat’s turn he always 
walked across on all fours. So he walked up to Pat and asked contemptuously, “Are you 
afraid of walking on the plank, my man?” “No, begorra,” said Pat, “But I’m afraid of 
walking off of it.” 

Doubtless there are many who would like to add this course in appreciation but are 
seemingly unable to secure the necessary time and equipment for it. There may be othere 
who are uncertain about how to begin. These are problems but they may be solved, if 
one has pluck and determination. 

If you are unfortunate enough to have only sixty or seventy-five minutes weekly for 
music the question of time is a serious one. However, if you were to produce a sufficiently 
logical course of study in this work and potait reasons why it should be given, mi^t not 




this be the means of secuiing a more generous allotment of time? Could not authorities 
be made to feel that an additional period each week might be set aside for the 
of music appreciation? There is no gain saying the fact that often timpct phase of 
music study appeals to the layman when other phases do not, and after all it is usually the 
layman who makes out the time allotment. It saved the day for us once during my short 
experience as supervisor. Several years ago during a spell of revising and readjusting the 
course of study, it was decided that the essentials ’^ — arithmetic and English — ^must each 
have ninety minutes daily and that history must be given sixty minutes. The school day 
lasted from nine to three and it did not require an expert mathematician to 6gure out 
that something must be cut. There were many odds and ends, such as music, drawing, 
writing, etc., to be fitted into the bit of time remaining. It was distributed among them, 
the usual seventy-five minutes weekly being the apportionment for singing and its accom- 
panjdng activities. However, because of the fact that three years work in the appreciation 
work had made itself felt until it was considered as important as the petted subjects of 
arithmetic, English and history, eahh of these had to take turns in giving up one period each 
week for the appreciation lesson. One year of this served to convince the authorities that 
it was a case “of robbing Peter to pay Paul’’ and the next year music went back on the old 
schedule — one hundred fifty minutes weekly, with thirty minutes of it for a lesson in 
appreciation. What it accomplished for us, it might do for some one else to telL 

If music is recognized as a required subject by the Board of Education should it not 
be fostered and supported by it? And everything necessary, whether books, phonographs 
or records, be furnished by it? Sewing machines, t 3 T>ewriters, manual training outfits are 
thus provided, why not machines, records and books for music? Our entire equipment has 
been purchased each year for seven years by the Board — out of the library fund, I believe. 
If the Board can not or will not provide what you need than get it by giving entertain- 
ments. Put on a music memory contest that will awaken not only school authorities but 
the public at large to the possibilities of this phase of music and you will create a demand 
for it on the part of the children and their parents. What public opinion demands of its 
board is usually forthcoming. 

And as for a course of study. Necessity is the mother of invention. Owing to the 
newness of the subject, such a course must be largely experimental, but should this deter 
us from making a beginning? I think not. When one considers that it has taken over 
eighty years for the making of anything like a standard course of study for elementary 
grades and that high school music courses are still in the formative state, it seems to me 
that we should not hesitate to venture forth, tho we frequently change our opinions and 
methods as we shall surely do. 

In the very outset, please let it be distinctly understood that it is not my belief that 
the course in appreciation should supplant the regular course in music. On the other hand 
it is designed to supplement it and it is such an interesting way of broadening and clarify-* 
ing the other. Pliny teUs us that in ancient days warriors used the petals of the rose with 
which to garnish their choicest meats. In like manner let us use the appreciation phase of 
music to adorn and glorify the technical side, so dear to many hearts. 

There are many reasons why a course in appreciation justifies itsdf . First and fore- 
most it interests the children and tends to quicken real musical growth. With our pupils, 
it is the most eagerly looked for event in the week’s work. Each child knows the day and 
hour scheduled for appreciation and many instances are on record where children have 
been known to come to school because it was the day for this and they did not wish to 
miss it. 

It pleases the parents. Through the drildren they know the day set apart for appre- 
ciation and frequently drop in to hear the lesson. 

It broadens the teachers. A teacher can not do this work satisfactorily without giving 
a great deal of time and study to the preparation of her lessons. The more she studies. 



the more she grows; the more she loves music, the greater the mspiration she passes 
on to her pupils. Indirectly it will be the means of giving us better prepared and more 
musical teachers. 

Inok at it for a moment from another point of view. No matter how we reason we 
cannot but realize that the very conditions under which we labor render it impossible 
for us to make finished musicians out of the pupils under our charge. The musical crudity 
of many of our teachers, the lack of suitable material for study, the short allotment of 
time, the half hearted support of those in authority and other reasons make it easy to 
thwart the very end for which we are striving — the love and appreciation of music. Stak- 
ing all on technique we may discover in the end that our roses have turned to ashes as we 
observe that many of our pupils on leaving us are in the condition of the small child who 
during an epidemic of small pox and compulsory vaccination was asked ‘‘Were you ever 
vaccinated?” replied “Yes, tbe doctor put it on but it never did come up.” By adding 
the course in appreciation, we have not only materially strengthened the musical pupil, 
who has also developed an ability to sing at sight and in parts, and who has had an oppor- 
tunity of discovering any latent talent he may possess and which he may have specially 
trained elsewhere, but we have done even more. We have prepared the less gifted child 
who can take in more than he can express, to become an intelligent listener — a lover of 
music tho unskilled as a performer. Observation has shown that this type of music lover 
far outnumbers the other. Have we any right then to withhold such preparation from 
this large per cent of our pupils? 

The Meaning and Value of Music Ap^eciaUon 

What is meant by this much used and much abused term — “Music Appreciation?’* 
Generally speaking we are teaching appreciation whenever we teach any music properly, 
but in this section meeting today we are concerned with music appreciation as an entity. 
There are many definitions of the term, but Stewart MacPherson, the Englishman, gives 
one that is very comprehensive and pertinent. He says, “Music is a human activity and 
is not to be approached in a spirit of mental idleness as a soporific; it is not a species of 
vapor bath in which our senses may wallow, but it is an ART to be understood and ap- 
preciated (i.e., valued) by the alert use of our mind and the exercise of our intelligence. 
Let us see to it that the foundations of this true appreciation are laid when the mind and 
heart are responsive to pure and healthy impressions — ^I mean in childhood.” 

This is the keynote. True appreciation comes from a balance of feeling and intelligent 
perception. It is not all knowledge nor all emotion. Music is both an art and a science, 
hence it must be approached from both angles. Appreciation does not involve exhaustive 
tec hni cal study neither does it mean over emphasis of the aesthetic element. It does mean, 
however, knowing something of the composer’s meaning and something of his mode of 
e2q>ression.^ Some one sa3rs: “All things are made of thought. The poem is stored up 
thought expressed in words; the cathedral is stored up thought expressed in stone. So it 
is with canvas and marble. Even a smile on one’s face results from stored up thought. 
Music is stored up thought told in beautiful tones.” Hence, if we have not some concep- 
tion of the thought the composer meant to express, can we really appreciate his message? 
It has been said that “he who sees nothing in the painted picture but the canvass has not 
seen the picture.” It is the same in music. We may derive a certain amount of pleasxire 
from reading a poem rhyt h mica lly but how much deeper the enjo3nnent if we go back of 
this sensuous feeling and find the thought the poet meant to express. It is not sufiSdent 
to say with Cheerful Cherub: 

“I heard the most beautiful music today^ 

I like it so much that I cried; 

I cannot express my emotions, 

But, oh, I felt so important inside.” 



True appreciation goes farther than this. In order to develop intelligent listeners, and 
real appreciation we must impress on the minds of pupils the fact that music is a form of 
human expression — one of the ways in which thought is conveyed from one person to 
another. Listeners are not bom — they must be trained. Dr. Johnson once said that a 
traveller brings from his joume}^ that which he brings to them. Carlyle sa 3 rs: “In every 
object there is inexhaustible meaning; the eye sees what the eye brings means of seeing.*' 
May we not paraphrase this? “In every piece of music there is inexhaustible meaning; 
the ear hears what the ear brings means of hearing.” Teaching appreciation means then 
training the pupil to bring ears that listen for the beauties of music, not merely to go into 
ecstasies over a composition because it is pleasing from a melodic or rhythmic standpoint 
Sometimes the way seems long and the pathway stony but struggle onward for when least 
expecting it your efforts may be crowned with success. A concrete example of this kind 
happened during our recent music memory contest, and this one case alone warranted 
all the labor and worry attendant upon such an event. 

In a high seventh grade where I had asked for prompt expressions regarding the good 
resulting from the contest, many answers showing real appreciation of the value of the 
contest were given and brought tears of joy to my eyes as I realized more than they the 
deep import of what they were sa 3 dng. A dignified boy of Darwinian type — coldly intel- 
lectual but utterly lacking in emotion — arose and said with all the seriousness of a senator: 
“I want you to know that this contest has made me love music. We have music in our 
home, not this kind, but music; we study music in school but it was not until after we had 
heard these contest numbers day after day that I ever cared anything about music. For 
the first time it dawned on me that it had a meaning — ^that it was not merely a jumble of 
soimds. In studying the motives and themes and how they were used to express the com- 
poser's thought, it flashed upon me as it had never done before that it all meant something. 
Now I love music and I want to hear all of it that I can.” Just his boyish way of saying: 
“You have awakened my soul to the beauties and meaning of music and I thank you as I 
rejoice over it.” Many times not only on the round of my daily duties but often times in 
the stm watches of the night when sleep refuses to visit my eyelids, these words come back 
to me and arouse me anew to the responsibilities of my chosen task and make me tremble 
when I think what a tragedy it would have been if we had not wakened this boy's soul 
before he passed on to high school as he wiU do in June. He certainly would not have 
elected to study music there and it might have henceforth remained an hermetically sealed 
door to him. 

Importance of Beginning Music Appreciation in the Elementary Grades 

Josef Hoffman, the pianist and musician, says in a recent article; “Too much can not 
be said about the advantages of an early drill. The impressions made during youth seem 
to be the most lasting. I am certain that the pieces I learned before I was ten years of age 
remain more persistently in my memory than the compositions I learned after I was thirty. 
The child's powers of absorption in music study between the ages of eight and twelve is 
simply enormous; it is less between twenty and thirty and often lamentably small between 
thirty and forty. In other words, the period between the years of eight and twelve is the 
period of greatest receptivity and accomplishment” 

Max:pherson saj^s: “If the child's latent aural and rh 3 rthmic faculties are not wisdy 
and zealously cultivated at an early age the difficulties in the way of real musical percep- 
tion increase in geometrical progression as he passes thru adolescence to adult life.” 

We all realize that a child's and rhythmic senses are most keen and alert in his 
early youth and that if we would develop these to the best purpose we must not limit him 
to those things only which he ging must supplement his own feeble powers of 
accomplishment with the hearing of much music far beyond his power to perform. We 



must begin the sowing of the seeds of the appreciation of beauty in the child’s soul at the 
earliest possible moment. We do not postpone giving him beautiful stories far beyond his 
powers to interpret. Is there any reason why we should make such a postponement with 
reference to music? Indeed no. An experience of seven years has shown me not only that 
it can be done but that in justice to the child it should be done. We should take him by the 
hand when he enters school and lead him lovingly toward the Promised Land of Music 

What Shall We Teach? Why? How? 

Ah, there’s the rub. Mythologists tell us that Minerva sprang full-orbed and full 
grown from Jupiter’s brain, but alas, courses of study do not happen in any such manner. 
They must go throu^ long processes of evolution. 

Before we can say what we shall teach we must decide as to the underlying principles 
and then make our teaching points and methods conform to these principles. In my 
opinion there are four general principles to be kept constantly in mind: 

1. All teaching must be done from the amateur’s point of view. 

2. Observation and not analysis is the basis of the work. 

3. The principle of contrast must be utilized whenever possible. 

4. Listening must be active and not passive. There must be Expression as weU as 


To elaborate: 

1. Amaieuf Listeners 

It is obvious that ojir pupils are amateurs and must be trained accordingly. In no 
sense can they be expected to receive instruction with the same quality of understanding as 
the person who has studied music for years and is a performer of some kind. The back- 
groimd of the musician is certainly lacking and this important fact must always be taken 
into account. At best, the amateur must view music from afar off. We can train him to 
become an intelligent listener and a true lover of music, but we must do it from his point 
of view and from his level. In my judgment, thi| is the principal reason why some courses 
of study in appreciation fail — simply because there is no real point of contact with any- 
thing else in the child’s experience. A piece of music may be a wonderful creation and yet 
absolutely worthless as an instrument for teaching music appreciation to a child because 
there is nothing in his experience with which it may be linked. I do not say that he will 
not sit up, listen and look wise but I do not know that he is taking it in, in the sense of 
understanding it or appreciating it. Schumann’s songs are beautiful; so are numbers of 
Brahm’s comi>ositions; those of Beethoven and others — ^but they are too coldly classical, 
too intellectually emotional, too expressive of feelings of which a child can have no ade- 
quate conception for them to make any definite appeal to him. Such compositions are not 
for the child nor even for the shallow adult; only for the mature and thoughtful and yet 
we often find them in courses of study for the young. There are many classics, however, 
which may be used if the right approach is made; many of lighter vein may be given to 
very youthful children, provided they are properly presented. 

2. OhservaUon and Not Analysis 

In the strictest sense, in the study of form and other musical facts, the child observes 
rather than analyzes what he hears. He makes use of this faculty of observation long 
before he does that of analysis. He observes that part of the time it is dark and part of the 
time it is light, part of the time it is cold and part of the time it is hot long before he is 
able to analyze the reasons therefor. So in music he observes that some tones are long, 
some short; that some phrases are alike and that others are different long before he knows 
or has any desire to know why these things are true. 


3. Conirast 

The principle of contrast figures largely in all phases of life. Eveiything is relative, 
nothing is absolute. There would be no evil without good, no beauty without its opp)osite, 
ugliness. Music as indeed every art takes its life in contrasts. Contrast means variety. 
Unity is also involved. If we would successfully teach the appreciation of any art these 
principles must be observed and considered. 

4. Active and Not Passive Listening 

If the teaching of music appreciation is to be of any lasting value the listening on 
the part of the pupil must be active — not passive. He must listen for something definite. 
It is not enough to place him in a room, expose him to beautiful music and tell him interest- 
ing things about it. He must be given opportunity to listen for certain things and to indi- 
cate in some tangible manner that he has heard. 

These, it seems to me, are the basic principles. Teaching points and methods may 
easily be made to conform to them. However, in all of our teaching we must keep upper- 
most in our minds the ultimate aim — a love for music and an appreciation of its beauties 
and meaning. We must never confuse the means with the end to be attained, else we 
gain the shadow and lose the substance. We reach our goal in two specific ways: 

1. By bringing the child into communion with music which is mainly for cultural 
purposes and for enjoyment — the literature of music. 

2. By providing music which makes technical points more definite by showing them 
in their broader application — ^the language of music. 

Grouping of Grades 

It is impossible to draw a strict line of demarcation between grades but there should 
exist an intelligent relationship between the various stages of development in the process 
of teaching music appreciation just as there should in any other subject. For convenience 
we classify the work into three periods: 

First period: grades one, two and three; 

Second period: grades four and five; 

Third period: grades six, seven and eight. 

(Then followed a statement of various activities that might be followed and the 
grade in which they had been found to appeal to the interest and inteUigence of the pupilsO 

These are some of the things that experience has proved to me may be done along this 
line of music teaching. There are many others but lack of time forbids any further discus- 
sion. Before leaving the subject, it might be wise to point out some of the most common 
causes of failure in this work so that some may be spared making them. There are five 
errors which may easily be made and which certainly lead to failure. 

1. First and foremost: Lack of organized plan with no definite goal in view. The 
work is done in a desultory sort of way instead of being cumulative. 

2. The second, which is quite as fatal, is the injudicious selection of material. Nei^ 
sis will surely follow unless the music selected is within the child’s powers of comprehension 
and in some way related to his former experiences. 

I cannot refrain from mentioning just here the all too prev^ent practice of using 
opera as a basis for a course in appreciation in the upper grades and in high sckocL It is an 
easy way of up time for one may tell the story, then play the record with some 
such introductory remark as: *^The heroine sings this just after she has gone mad.” The 
average boy is not listening to the music and if thinking at all is wondering how such a f^t 
is possible. Do not fancy that piq)ils are making any progress toward music appreciation 



Just because they seem to be listening intently to this kind of teaching, for they are not. 
Only so far as opera represents a form of composition or has its period of development 
should it have a place in a course in appreciation. Even then selections should represent 
types of opera and individual characteristics of composers. 

3 . A third very common mistake is too much talking on the part of teacher which 
permits of nothing but passive listening by the pupils. The teacher teUs the class many 
things about music but allows little opportunity for the actual hearing of it. Telling is 
not teaching. A thing is not taught until the learner can give it back to the teacher. 
Passive listening begets rambling attention and produces only vague results. The child 
must be given opportunity to hear and to indicate that he has heard. He should be 
allowed and encouraged to ask questions. The right kind of teaching will stimulate this. 

4. The fourth error made is in attempting to cover too many details. ^^Thegrey- 
hoxmd that starts many hares generally kills none” is a sa 3 dng as true as it is trite. Kmowl- 
edge organizes itself around ideas. There should be a central thought in each lesson around 
which all points are grouped. Later these leading ideas may be taught incidentally in 
connection with larger ones. It is much more desirable to play the same selection a 
number of times, each time with a different purpose in view, than it is to give a greater 
number of records pla 3 dng them only once. The truest appreciation comes throu^ 
familiarity — a love gained through repeated association. 

5. The fifth error and one which is frequently made is that of beginning at the wrong 
end. Taking music as it developed and coming up to the present time instead of 
doing just the opposite. Emphasis should be laid upon music as it is heard in concert 
programs of today performed under present day conditions. This will allow great scope 
for these programs contain music of every type, performed in almost every conceivable 
manner. Hence we may study “form” of various kinds — sonatas, symphonies, etc., and 
also the different media of performance by individuals or groups of individuals. This will 
include every variety of voice and instrument and every combination of these. Thoughts 
will be expressed in the idiom of today and the child will be most hkely to understand this. 
He is naturally more interested in the moving world around him than he is in what hap- 
pened centuries ago. Artist first, composer afterwards; the present day and its exponents 
and ancient history later on. 

And now for the conclusion. I have outlined in skeleton fashion some of the leading 
issues of this important phase of music teaching. We realize that only the smallest begin- 
ning has been made. This youngest child of the public school music family, not yet 
admitted into some homes, needs the kindliest nurturing and encouragement on our part. 
The responsibility is ours. A few evenings ago when Mr. Bok suddenly became serious 
amidst all his fun and narration and pleaded that if it lay within our province we do some- 
thing for the musical cultivation and uplift of the tired business man, the thought oc- 
curred to me that while it was not within our power to do much for the present generation, 
woe be unto us if we cheated the business man of tomorrow out of his rightful heritage. 
It is not only an urgent duty but a glorious privilege to prepare these growing youths 
under our care to become intelligent listeners and lovers of music at the same time that we 
are training them to sing and thus be able to fill the ranks of musical organizations such as 
entertained us so charmingly on Monday evening. Perhaps the most encouraging thought 
connected with teaching the appreciation of music is that its influen ce goes far beyond the 
confines of the school room and inspires our pupils to build and add to what they have 
learned herein, for the person who once enters the Temple of Music is not satisfied until 
he penetrates into the inner shrine. With this thought uppermost my fina.1 word is this: 
If you are not giving a course in appreciation with your other music work, delay no longer. 
Consecrate yourselves anew to your noble calliTig and resolve that 3 ^u will attend to 



important pliase of music, then with the devotion and fervor of the priesthood set about 
accomplishing your sacred undertaking. As you watch its growth year after year you will 
secretly wonder how you ever managed to get along without it- 


Mary J. Armitage, Supervisor of Music, Bowling Green, Ky. 

In the few minutes allotted me I can deal with this phase of the subject only in a very 
general way, but would like to discuss it briefly from the three standpoints from which 
all Public School Music must naturally be viewed — that of the Supervisor, the child, and 
the subject itself. In time gone by a working knowledge of the tonic sol fa system and 
the ability to teach a few songs in the different grades was all that seemed to be required 
of the Supervisor of Music in our public schools; but that day is long past, and in the 
brighter light of this good year of 1920 we have come to realize that no subject in our 
entire school system requires more fitness and adaptability on' the part of its exponent, 
or for more rigorous training, more lofty thinking, more breadth of vision, or more 
earnest consecration to the task. As Dr. Winship once said: “Surely the teaching of 
music should be the biggest, broadest, brainiest, and noblest of all teaching” — and if the 
Supervisor who is called upon to introduce muac into a school which has never had it 
mgi'ntaiTic; that attitudc toward the work— if his is the missionary spirit which deems it 
an inestimable privilege to bring into the lives of these children — many of whom come 
from homes utterly lacking in the finer things — ^the joy and spiritual uplift, the bigness, 
the brightness, and beauty of the thing which he believes has come to the world straight 
from the heart of God Himself— then the foundation of music appreciation in that school 
is firmly laid. 

Such being the case, the Supervisor will naturally instil into the child a feeling of 
deepest love and respect for this thing so God-given and infinitely worthwhile — day by 
day leading >»^Tn to realize that music is not merely a means of social entert ai n m ent, to 
be lightly regarded or indifferently treated, but that it is a living thing with a message all 
its own; that it comes to us in Spring-time in the first call of the robin and sings of babbling 
brooks and yeUow daffodils— while even in the chill blast of Winter's icy winds, we may 
recognize the Pipes of Pan; that music touches our lives at every point with its helpfulness 
and beauty— telling of love, of hope, of happiness, or singing of brave deeds and heroic 
sacrifice — and only ashing in return that we cultivate a quiet attitude and a listening ear. 
In schools which Have never had music, the children should be carefully trained to know 
that no idle whispering or restless shuffling of feet can be tolerated during any musical 
performance, but that good manners and common decency require absolute silence and 
perfect attention. 

Musical appreciation, as introduced into the grades, must be considered from two 
standpoints — ^the singing or performing side, and the listening side of the subject. In 
discussing the former, we are most largely concerned as to the land of song material we 
should use. The average child prefers rag-time and the cheap song of the street to the 
classics, just as naturally as he prefers candy to soup, or Charlie Chaplin to Forbes- 
Robertson, and it devolves upon the Super^r to offset that taste and give him a liking 
ioT something infinitely better. There is such a wealth of material at hand — songs truly 
good, yet none the less charming, that there should be no excuse whatever for the use of 
the so-called popular music in our school rooms. What could be more attractive than ^e 
many beautiful Folk Songs of all nations, the stirring patriotic hymns of different countries, 
the lovely Art Songs of which our music books are full, the rolli ckin g Collie Songs which 



helped to make merry our own young lives! In the study of a song, the children should be 
taught to appreciate not only its musical, but its literary content as well. We should lead 
them to understand what the song is talking about, and to sense the fact that a good song 
is, after all, only an attractive story or a beautiful poem appropriately set to music. We 
should teach them to appreciate the dainty bit of poetic fancy, the stirring appeal of some 
martial verse, the real beauty of sentiment, expressed in such songs as Juanita and Annie 
Laurie^ as compared with the common vulgarity of language heard in the popular songs of 
today. We should take advantage of every opportunity for telling some story or bit of his- 
tory connected with the song, or something of the life of its composer. I am sure the older 
pupils would be moved to a greater appreciation of the noble strains of The MarseiUaise for 
instance, if they could be carried back in imagination to the strenuous days of the French 
Revolution, and hear those stout-hearted Girondists, as they are carted through the streets 
of Paris to the guillotine, lustily singing their beloved song until not a man is left to voice 
its melody. But the great majority of our children will never be either singers or players; 
they are to go through life as listeners, and upon the Supervisor rests the responsibility of 
teaching them to listen intelligently, and of leading them to enjoy the right land of music. 
In our s ma ller towns we seldom have the opportunity of hearing orchestra or opera — 
even a good brass band, except upon minstrel or circus occasions, being practically un- 
known; and yet shall we let these children go through life without the pleasure or gaining 
the culture these larger and more beautiful forms of music can give? That was the question 
confronting me in my own school some years ago, and I very largely solved the problem by 
introducing the talking machine as a feature of our music work, and giving regular listening 
lessons as a means of cultivating musical appreciation. When we make a thorough study of 
this branch of the work, we find its scope practically limitless. The talking machine makes 
it possible for us to give the child an opportunity to hear the very best there is in music from 
the beginning of his school life till its completion — each lesson, of course, being carefully 
graded to meet the measure of his comprehension. With the primary children we would 
naturally use the music appealing most largely to the imaginative and rhythmic stage of 
their development — ^the story-telling, descriptive numbers — ^folk dances, marches, with 
many simple Art Songs and standard instrumental numbers for the cultivation of taste. 
With the development of the child in intermediate and grammar grades, the field broadens, 
and our pupils may be made to know something of the Folk Music of all countries— making 
a more intensive study of that of their own, by historical periods; may acquire considerable 
knowledge of the various musical instruments and their origin; may learn to discriminate 
between the different qualities of the human voice; may be taught something of opera 
and symphony, with a bit of the history of our great artists and composers; in fact, may 
be given a broader conception of the real scope and meaning of music than they could 
ever obtain through any performance of their own. Then surely we Supervisors should 
umte in a fervent **God bless the inventor of the talking machine!” — and realize more 
and more as the days go by that listening lessons, carefully graded and regularly given, 
are richly worth while and wholly deserving of a very important place in any school curri- 


Ernest G, Hesser, State Normal College^ Bowling Green^ Ohio 

‘^The qualities of thought and feeling out of which good music springs are highly 
desirable. They reflect a desire for beauty; they reveal the spirit of man in its more 
profound and universal relations and impulses. In common with other arts and 



liteiatiM, and perhaps in higher degree, music tends to develop finer subjective life 
in the individual. This is not only true while the muac is sounding. The quality of 
thought and fee^g out of which it springs remains after the music In 

spools, where instruction in music is not primarily vocational or professional, the 
aim,^ conscious or unconscious, is obviously such subjective influence. A course in 
music that in due season and proper degree does not promise to adjust the learner 
in sympathetic response to the best music of the world is lacking in its proper quaKly 
whatever marks of eflSciency it may show.”^ 

The relation of music appreciation to other phases of musk work? It should be one— 
not a subject set apart from the daily music lesson. Every rote song, folk song, patriotic 
song, art song, excerpts from opera or oratorio that the pupils leam should have in it the 
inherent values of appreciation and if the song is properly studied the aesthetic, technical 
and interpretative points will be brought out. 

The great value of music and the prime reason for it is to reconstruct experiences, 
“to make the .children feel nature, reli^on, country, home, duty and all the rest and to 
guarantee sanity of the heart, out of which are the issues of life. To this, technique and 
everything should be subordinated.” (Hall.) While at present most of our courses of 
study deal largiely with the mechanics of music, we should constantly keep in mind the fact 
that Music itself should receive major consideration. Appreciation cannot be separated 
from the regular music lesson — it must be one. Its relationship is so close that they 
cannot be separated. I am not a psychologist and shall not pr^ume to give you a “brief 
course in the Teaching Process.” But what I would like to say is, that I believe many of 
our teachers and supervisors do not have the proper perspective as far as appreciative 
teaching is concerned. Let me quote from Educational Values by Bagley. 

“What materials of education are available for the purpose of fulfilling apprecia- 
tive and recreative functions? Literature, art, and music naturally come first to 
mind. If tastes can be developed that will be satisfied by the best (and only by the 
best) that art in any of its forms can provide, a long step has been taken in the right 

direction. . . . For the time, energy, and money expended in the teaching of music in 

American schools, there has been a very small return in musical appreciation. The 
technique of teaching has hitherto concerned itself almost exclusively with that 
phase of educative process that we have termed ‘instruction^ rather than with the 
phase of ‘appreciation.’ The orthodox methods of presentation are didactic and 
‘intellectual’; their essence lies in the very fact that the emotional factors are placed 
in the background. When the demand came for the teaching of literature and art, 
the first recourse was to apply the methods with which teachers were already familiar 
and which they had used successfully in other fields. The recreative functions of 
music, literature and art can never be adequately fulfilled until teachers havie mas- 
tered the tedmique of teaching appreciation.” 

And now as to the second part of my subject “the corxdlation of Music Appreciation with 
other subjects in the curriculum. 

How can music appreciation be correlated with other subjects in the school program? 
Music Appreciation lends itsdf very materially to certain subjects — ^take for instance in 
the ph3rsical training department — ^folk dancing. The beautiful records that have been 
made of various countries of Europe, such as the Tarantelle (Italy), Ace of Diamonds 
(Denmark), Highland Fling (Scotland), Kamarinskaia (Russia), Minuet (France), May 
Pole (England), St. Patrick’s Day (Ireland), Reap the Flax (Sweden), etc., etc. Good 
use can be made of these same records in the geography and history classes. Take for 
example in the study of geography. Suppo^ the pupils are studying Italy — it would 

t “Reorganization of Secondary Education,” U. S. Bulletin 1913, No. 41. 



greatly stimulate the interest in that country to hear Garibaldi’s Hymn, or several beauti- 
ful Italian folk songs, Santa Lucia, Maria Mari, Funiculi Funicula, or if time permitted, 
an aria from an Italian opera. The same can be carried on in the geography lesson. The 
intimacy of the music itself brings them in doser touch with the people and conditions 
of that country and thus the child is brought more nearly into the atmosphere of the land 
which he is studying. I have mentioned three subjects in our school program (Physical 
Training, History, Geography) with which we have combined musical appreciation — there 
are other subjects and I should be glad to hear about them in the discussion. 


Mabeux Gienn, Supervisor of Music, Bloomingfon, IIU 

“The supervisor’s part in making the grade teacher efficient in the teaching of music 
appredation” seems to me to be a subject of keenest interest to us who are responsible 
for the musical development of the boys and girls of our communities. 

We supervisors have spent much energy in working out plans for making the grade 
teacher efficient in the teaching of the regular music lesson, and as a result of our efforts, 
most regular music work is quite satisfactorily carried on, though for the most part, it is in 
the hands of u nmu sical persons who have had little or no technical training in music. 
To know how to teach is as important as to know what to teach. If our results have been 
good, it is due to the facts that the grade teacher knew how to teach children, and the 
supervisor knew how and what to teach the teacher. 

In the last ten years, music appreciation has been much talked about, and I truly 
t hink most music supervisors have been honestly searching for the best methods for Tnaking 
it effectual in their school S3rstems. 

When we started, I t hink perhaps we imderestimated, not the importance of the 
subject, but the amount of skill required in making the thing truly function. I, for one, 
must plead guilty to having bought phonographs, hurriedly-selected records, and what 
books were on the market. These I placed in the hands of the teachers, with a few printed 
suggestions as to what I hoped would be accomplished by the grade teacher in her room, 
and I went about my business with rather a (dear conscience as to music appreciation. 

A supervisor who has to train a corps of grade teachers into successful handling of 
regular music work, who must organize instrumental classes, bands, orchestras, high school 
courses, and co mmuni ty music, can be forgiven if she has tried to carry on music apprecia- 
tion work before she has had time to think the thing out. After several years of sporadic 
and disjointed results, I came to the conclusion that I was not willing to give up one music 
lesson out of every five to music appreciation, unless something more definite could be 

Next I was given an assistant, who was to take my message to the ciiildren. This was 
^tisfaotory, as far as it went, but this special teacher gave a lesson in every room just once 
in three weeks, and that we all know is not often enough to accomplish a great de^ 

^Kiis year, I have tried to study the problem from aU sides. I have asked m3rself such 
questions as these: Would music appreciation lessons, in the hands of the grade teachers, 
be as effectual as regular music lessons in their hands, if the supervisor planned, outlined 
and supervised the work as carefully as she does her regular music work? Why should 
this subject be handled by a special teacbfer? Is teaching children to listen to music a 
harder task than teaching chfidren to make music? I have come to the conclusion that if 
the supervisor outlines de^tely and prepares the proper material for the grade teacher, 
there is no need of a special teacher. It is true that model les^ns should be given now 

PHILADELPHIA, PA., MARCH 22-26, 1920 55 

and then by the supervisor or by one whom she delegates, model lessons always being a 
source of inspiration. 

I am not underestimating the grade teachers’ intelligence when I say that appreciation 
lessons must be dejBnitely planned by the supervisor. All the facts and stories to be 
introduced into the listening lessons must be selected and arranged in the language of the 
pupils to whom they are to be presented. Grade teachers are too busy to get the material 
in shape. Even if they are told on what page of what book they will find help, the outside 
preparation is too much to demand, and most of them have not had a wide enough musical 
experience for proper discrimination. 

So I am throwing the whole responsibility on the supervisor. She must first decide 
what work must be covered in each grade. I have examined every outline in music appre- 
ciation on which I could get my hands this year, and after so doing, I have decided that 
there is a variety of opinions as to what should be accomplished, and also as to the proper 
time and place to present the various subjects. Making an outline for music appreda- 
ciation through the elementary grades is a tr^endous task, and calls for an understanding 
of child nature in the several stages of its development, a definite knowledge of the other 
subjects in the school curriculum, and an extensive acquaintance with music. 

I started on this task by searching for the material which should reach the children 
of each grade. Then I began to work that material over so that it would be interesting 
to the grade where I had placed it. 

One does not mahe the same appeal to the fourth grade class as one makes to the 
eighth grade class. Though the same music may be interesting to both classes, the method 
of presentation must be very different. A child in the middle grades likes facts, while to 
an upper grade pupil, sentiment makes a stronger appeal, and fact is less important than 
feeling. I went to the library, got books that fourth grade children like to read, studied 
the style, and accordingly wrote out in story form the things that would arouse the interest 
in the music to be presented. This plan I have followed throughout the grades. 

It is the music, and not the facts, that is important. But we are aware that just 
playing records, without finding some point of contact for the children, will not make for 
interest, or growth in appreda-don. 

Most of the program notes for children’s concerts that I have examined are written 
from the adult’s point of view instead of from the child’s. Many words are used that are 
not in the child’s vocabulary, and the style is often stilted. Not that I should not add to 
the child’s vocabulary of musical terms. I think this is a definite part of the work, but I 
should be very careful to recognize the new term as one which is unfamiliar, and should 
carefully explain it, and then repeat it often enough in the lessons immediately succeeding, 
that it would not be a new word for long. 

Ri^t along this line, I should say that the grade teacher untrained m music, is often 
a better teacher than the special teacher, because she takes nothing for granted, but seems 
to more easOy follow the workings of the child’s untrained mind. 

I shall never forget the first time I was shown through the railroad machine shops 
during our first community “sings” in industrial centers. The fore ma n was my escort, 
and he, not realizing how little a music teacher knew about machinery, spilled out one 
tedbnical term after another, until my head was buzzing with the machines, and I came 
away with a very confused impression of what was really going on in those shops. When 
I went down for my second “sing,” I took another trip throu^ the drops, but this time 
the Tnan who showed me through appreciated my ignorance of me cha n ic s, and he talked 
to me in a familiar language, and I came away somewhat eulightoied. I am taking all this 
time to impress you with my conviction that music appreciation work often goes over 
the heads of the pupils because the teacher uses the wrong vocabulary. I have seen a dass 
perfectly quiet in a listening lesson, but their espressions bespoke inactive minds, and 



their minds were inactive because the teacher had been talking in high-sounding terms 
unintelligible to them. The passivity of the ordinary concert audience in America must 
never be allowed to creep into our music classes. 

If I have satisfactorily disposed of my first requirement, that the supervisor, in mak- 
ing out her outlines and bulletins, must know children at every stage of their development, 
and must know their vocabularies, I Rhall proceed to my second point, that she should 
know the school curriculum. 

When should folk music of Europe be taken up? Of course, when the geography of 
Europe is being studied, the folk music will be infinitely more interesting then than at any 
other time. In music appreciation courses, we have a splendid chance to correlate with 
several subjects. The literature course aU through the grades should be studied very 
carefully by the supervisor. Here she will find numberless opportunities for correlation. 

My third rlalm was to the effect that the supervisor must know music literature. But, 
in my opinion, many mistakes may be made by the supervisor, who knows music so well 
that she wants to start at the top instead of at the bottom of the ladder with her classes. 
I have a friend, who has had every opportunity for hearing music all her life, and now only 
the imusual compositions interest her. 

We must keep in mind that the child has a long road to travel before he reaches 
Rimsky-Korsakoff and Debussy, and must be willing to travel along slowly at his side. 

After the supervisor has outlined the work carefully, she should prepare bulletins 
which contain the information she desires to have reach the child with the music. She 
must dress that information in a style and vocabulary suited to the class for which it is 
prepared. I recommend that this material be sent in well-typed copy to the grade teacher, 
and unless one is sure one’s teachers can add by personal remarks, I should suggest that 
they be read plainly to the classes. A list of questions should accompany each bulletin, 
these questions to be asked after the selection has been played once or several times, 
according to directions. AU the time we must impress our teachers that it is the music 
we are studying, and not the facts about the music. 

We owe a tremendous debt to the phonograph companies for the possibilities in this 
field which they have opened. But music appreciation must not depend on phonographs 
alone. With the advent of the little movable piano, every class may hear some piano 
music first-hand. The supervisor stands between the musical persons of the city and her 
schools. She should ever be planning concerts for the classroom, given by artists of the 

Why should we depend upon phonograph records for all our folk music, when the 
fourth and fifth grades can give a folk song concert out of their regular music work? Our 
eighth grade material contains many art songs of Schubert, Schumann, Brahms, Rubin- 
stein, Franz and Debussy, so instead of dep^ding wholly on phonograph records for art 
songs, our wghth grades gave an art song concert to the children of the upper grades. Of 
course, hearing a great artist through a phonograph record in the same song gave the work 
an added charm. 

In Bloomington, we are fortunate in having movie orchestras who are willing from 
time to time to use the selections, which we are studying in the schools. Frequently 
hearing the same selection makes that sdection familiar, and someone has said that 
“popular music is after all only f amili a r muac.” The same selection should be heard in 
the school room many times, each time considered from a different standpoint. .For 
example, the Rondino of Beethoven might first be studied from the medium, the violin, 
next it might be studied as to form. Again, it might be considered from the standpoint of 
the composer, while later, the artist who pla^ the selection might be brought into promi- 

Our children in the five upper grades keep notebooks, which are notebooks and 
scrap-books combmed. The bulletins presmted by the supervisor tell just what should 



be placed in the notebook in the way of facts about the composer and composition. 
Program clippings, pictures of orchestral instruments, themes from the different selections 
studied, etc., are put into the notebooks. 

After we had spent some time studying the modem orchestra, we arranged a chiMren^s 
concert with the St. Louis Symphony Orchestra of 85 pieces, that our study might more 
definitely function. Only children of the four upper grades were admitted to the concert, 
there being no room for others. The children became very familiar with the program 
before the concert. They heard the records many times. We wrote very simple program 
notes. These were printed in the morning papers and the children were instructed to cut 
the notes out and paste them in their notebooks. In most of the schools, these notes were 
used as regular reading lessons in the week preceding the concerL Needless to say, that 
was the most intelligent audience that had listened to an orchestral concert in our dty 
in many a day, for every person present knew what was going on. The week following the 
concert, language lessons consisted of the writing of compositions on the Orchestra, and 
prizes were given for the best compositions in each grade. If we correlate thus with othor 
subjects, we may find time for much that would otherwise have to be left out. 

Music appreciation is just coming to its own in my city as it is in many cities. Of 
course, I do not include Minneapolis when I make this statement. Mrs. Frybeiger has 
not made music appreciation play second fiddle, as most of us have. She has given it her 
undivided attention, and her remarkable results speak for themselves. May we all 
realize that learning to love and understand good music should be a prime factor in every 
child’s education, and whether this subject truly functions depdids on the brains and 
energy we supervisors are willing to put into our plans. 


Agnes Moose Frybesger, Assistant Supervisor of Music, Minneapolis, Minn, 

Every teacher has two interests in his profession: the children and the subject. 
Concerning these he has a double aim. First, to make the children independent thinkers; 
secondly, to make his subject function throu^out life. As for the children, he does all he 
can to encourage mental effort knowing that there will not be growth without ^ort 
He knows also that unless interest is first created the children will not make an effort 
The process would be unnatural ‘*Make a boy or girl feel the worth of a tHng and the 
path of duty becomes the pathway to the skies,” says an old teacher. 

Childrea love to think. In the beginning they ply innumerable questions and show 
much mental energy. After a few years in school this indinatkm is not as maik^; one 
reason being, perhaps, that a curriculum hss been imposed upon them and administered 
in such a way as to rob them of their bi rthnght to think. 

Educators have been slow in placing music among standard subjects in the curriculum 
because they could not see that the methods of teaching music in the schools made that 
subject function in life; it produced nether mus idan s nor evoi lovers of muac. 

In a general way educators know that muac, per se, has an important influence upon 
life and that it catinot be ignored nor lightly regarded. Th^ have noticed, perhaps, that 
the mere fact of going through music text hocks and sin^g notes under ccanpuldon does 
not aw^en a love for music. They know that music is more than notes and chords. That 
it is not an appeal to the ear alone nor to the eye alone, but to the mind through the ear 
in its universal sense, and to the mind through the ear in its technical and restricted sense. 

The appreciation music is the response of the mind to the emotional and intdlectaial 
values in music. There is no appredation without mental activity. If educators realized 
the thought process involved in its teadiing, Music Appreciation would head the list of all 



subjects in the curriculum. Inasmuch as every piece of music may induce either a distinct 
emotion or a definite thought, this is the only subject in which we may ask “How do you 
feel?” as well as “What do you think?” In passing, one may say also that there is no 
other subject which stimulates so well the imaginative sense. 

Since the technical and scientific consideration of music has in the school program 
so long usurped the rights of the big and universal appeal of the subject, it is time the 
educators were informed that the course in public school music today must be broad in its 
scope. ’Every one knows that appreciation will not take care of itself, and that the mere 
reading of notes will not make one think of what he hears, nor in the majority of cases 
even think of what he sees. 

Comment should be made upon every piece of music which the children sing. Merely 
singing is not an end in itself. The process is too formal, and one knows the danger of 
formalism. In all early work with children the order of presentation is: impression 
expression, formal instruction. Deviation from this sequence is deadening. 

Through the grammar grades there is need of drill upon the time and tone problems; 
therefore it seems necessary to place in every series of text books songs which present 
certain technical difficulties. Alas» that so often they have nothing else to commend them I 
As early as the fourth grade, it would be wdl to explain to the children that there are two 
kinds of songs in the school books, one of which is intended to teach some technical point, 
the other to present beautiful song literature. At the dose of each song one might ask 
such questions as: 

"What interest has the song, John? Mary? (referring to rhythm, melody or words). 

What can you say about it? 

Is it worth learning? 

Does the music bring out the meaning of the words? 

Do you think it is placed in the book merely to illustrate the divided beat, or chromat- 
ics, or some other difficult point in reading? 

Perhaps you can make it sound more beautifuL Try it again. 

By this progress the driving power comes from the child rather than the teacher. And 
after all there is no reason why we should not treat the child as an inteUigent being when 
he opens his music book. A child has ideas about music but is seldom given an oppor- 
tunity to express them. I believe that most children in the elementary schools tliinlr there 
are two distinct kinds of music in the world: that which is outside of school, and that 
which is in the music books. The first kind they like; it makes easy and natural appeal; 
it is emotional; it requires no thought; it is theirs without effort — of course they like it. 
Why do they not like the kind in school books? It is hard to get. It may not appeal to 
the emotions, and also they do not understand the higher kind of appeal. 

The teacher must have a method which will make them see the oneness of it aU. In 
my humble opinion, there should be a syllabus for every music text book which would 
make dear to the grade teacher the simple points which determine song values. No 
music lesson, let me reiterate, is complete without comment from the rhildr ^n upon what 
has c omman ded their time. It should be proof also to the teacher that they are thintring 
of what they do. 

Reference has been made to the motive principle of education, and one is concerned 
over arguments either in favor of efori or of interest Says Dr. Dewey: “The ideal subject 
is that which makes natural and easy appeal, which has an interest suffident to compel 
effort from the child.” Nothing approaches this ideal more dosely tViaTi the esthetic 
side of music when presented with sound pedagogy. Every child likes music of some sort 
and if the teacher starts with that which the child understands, and skillfully leads to new 
and better material, there will be growth and mental activitv. 



Tliere is much, which masquerades under the name of music appreciation, that is 
vague, impracticable and false. An array of facts from history and biography, for instance, 
fails to equip one with power to sense musical values. 

What is there about music to appreciate and that may be talked about with dehnite- 

There is the character of its motion (or rhythm) ; the appeal of its melody; the distinc- 
tive force of its harmony; the noticeable features in its structure and form. 

One may always ask after hearing music: What emotion does it stir? What lines of 
thought are aroused? What imagination does it provoke? In short, what did the piece 
mean to you? As teachers, we should endeavor to have children show more ability in 
making intelligent comments upon music than do their elders today. The casual listener 
gets only vague impressions of what he hears, at least one seldom hears a person who makes 
intelligent criticism of any point in the music. 

The mind can sense music values as well as poetic values and in much less time. 
The subject can also be introduced into the child’s life much easier. Children have felt . 
the influence of music long before coming to school. They will talk alx)ut the music if 
given the opportunity and if encouraged. 

Whole every composition has certain definite points which determine its character 
and which may be recognized and commented upon, there are also indefinite and vague 
features which belong to the imagination and which mean something different to each 
individual. A method which I have found successful in stimulating the imagination, when 
music of romantic character is presented, is to provide each one in the class with paper 
and pencil that he may record his individual ideas as the music is pla3md. No one is per- 
mitted to read his impression imtil every one has written something. There may be as 
many ideas as there are members in the class, and none may accord with what the teacher 
has in mind; but there was honest effort back of every expression and after all that is what 
the teacher is after. Who shall say what the composer had in mind when he created a cer- 
tain piece of muac? — ^unless perhaps he has given his program notes or the source of his 
inspiration, and in such event these should be ^ven to the pupil before the composition has 
been played. 

There are certain standard masterpieces in music which form part of one’s general edu- 
cation. The only way to stamp them upon the mind is to demand the same intelligent 
attitude and thoughtful consideration while listening to them that one gives to the read ing 
of literature. 

Unless we have provided this opportunity for the seventh and eighth grades and high 
school students, we have robbed them of thdr birthright, and there will be no functioning 
of the subject in after years, since a comparatively small percent of really great music is to 
be found in the music text* book, or can be sung by school classes. The great wealth of 
music, the masterpieces of the art, is scarcely ever provided for in the course of public 
school music. The majority of those who leave the school are ignorant therefore of that 
which makes music great and universaL 

The use of reproducing instruments in the school room is essentiaL The ideal course — 
which let us hope will become real before long, will have as much time given for the discus- 
sion of music as for its note reading. Before the dawn of that happy day, however, the 
superintendents and the principals of our schools must know more about lessons in appre- 
ciation themselves. There is a sort of pathos in the fact that so many of our makers of 
curricula do not know that the laws of appreciation are quite different from the laws of 
technical performance. One may become an intelligent critic of music without having 
the ability to “play” or to “sing.” 

The majority of distinguished educators whom I have met, admit that they know 
little or, nothing about music and seem to think it can be understood only by those who 



have knowledge of its technique. Would that the superintendents and the boards oJ 
education might have an occasional lesson on the appreciative side of music! 

It is impossible to make children understand what great music is like unless it h 
heard by them. It is impossible to value the masterpieces in painting without the smal) 
reproductions to study. Blessings on the head of John Ruskin for starting the movement 
which gave us the penny pictures! Blessings on those who have given us educational 
records for the phonograph and perforated rolls for the piano ! May the time come and 
soon, when supervisors of school music will make out the course of study for listening 
lessons relating them closely to the general course of study, and then demand the required 
material. Teachers of appreciation are now hampered by the lack of suitable material. 
In addition to the use of reproducing instruments, real performers should be heard when- 
ever possible. In every town are those who play or sing. It should be part of their 
missionary service to help the children to understand the beautiful side of their art. But 
every such offering should be accompanied by dear explanation and followed by dis- 
cussion with the children. 

In condusion, use every means possible to relate the music heard outside the school 
room with that of the text book. This will convince the class that music is a broad 
subject with many phases and that discrimination is called for in sdecting that which has 
permanent value. Occasionally ask a dass, ‘‘What are the most popular songs just 
now?" Manifest an interest in them and ask the probable reason for their popularity, 
“Is the tune of more interest tha.Ti the words?” “Recite the words.” “Have they a 
value in themselves?” “How many think the song will live a year?” “Name a song 
that was popular last year and that is not sung today.” “What was the matter with it?” 
There is no doubt that young people would like better songs if they had the opportunity 
to hear them as often as the commonplace. 

That we learn to “think by thinking** is perhaps as much a truism as that oft heard 
expression “we learn to do by doing.** Certain it is that unless we think and talk about 
music, we shall get little out of the music we “do** oursdves or which we hear “done** by 

H. O. Ferguson, Lincoln, Neb. 

It is a very great pleasure to speak of the band on the stage. This is what Mr. Scott 
calls a school room product The people in the band are not hired because they are 
musidans. They come into the Wanamaker Store to fill business places, and then are 
gradually instructed and assigned to the band. Of course sometimes a young man comes 
who can play an instrument, and he is immediately utilized. But most of the musicians 
of this band are instructed in the Store. For instance, Mr. Scott tells me that in the 
Girls* Band, only one girl ever played an instrument before she came here. 

It is a great pleasure to introduce to you Colonel WiUiam R. Scott, who is chief of the 
Cadet Staff, of the John Wanamaker Commercial Institute. He will tell you how this 
fine organization was gotten up and how it is maintained. 

Cdond ScoU: It is certainly very embarrassing for a dry goods man to talk to a 
technical audience of this kind. This band that you see before you is the product of the 
girls and boys themselves. 

We started in 1902 in a very modest way. Two or three boys got together, formed 
a little orchestra, and one thing led to another, until we had a pretty good band. We 



were tlien recognized by the firm. We bought some instruments and began to work more 
as a united body. Later we were equipped with Holton instruments. 

The program says that I am to speak about the Development of a Store Band. It 
seems to me that the proper term in this case would be the Difliculty of Developing a 
Store Band. We have had many difficulties to overcome, and I am glad to say we have 
overcome them all. The first difficulty that we met was the qu^tion of the teachers. 
We had a few teachers and formed eight or ten da^es, but we more difficulty with 
the teachers than with the pupils. 

It seemed to me that there should be a better way of doing it. I thought that if 
we could work on the ambitioii and enthusiasm of the boys, we would gain greater results. 
It occurred to me that if we could get every boy and girl trying, really trying, we could 
accomplish what we wanted. 

So we announced one day that we would give lessons during the lunch hour to all 
those who were qualified according to our school rating — of course you know we have a 
school here. We didn’t want to give l^sons to anybody at all, we wanted to give them 
only to the good people. Immediately we had a great number of applicants, who 
every day during their lunch hour. In some cases they were allowed fifteen minutes 
extra, but as a rule they came up on their own titwi*. 

Mr, Eckenrolk (Band-leader) : It is true, what Colonel Scott has said. This l^rid 
that you see here is of our own make. Of course we have some boys copie in that can play. 
But at least eighty per cent of it is of our own make. 

First of all, the hoys and girls are recruited from the Regiment. The Adjutant in the 
morning usually comes out in front of the battalion and asks for recruits for the band 
classes. Boys and girls that volunteer report to the band-leader. He in turn designates 
some time of their lunch period which is between 11 and 2:30 every day when they are to 
come up. They are required to give fifteen minutes of their lunch hour to the class. 

We have it so arranged in the class rooms, that every fifteen minutes there are new 
people coming in. We must do that because we have about eighty bo3rs and girls coming 
up every day to take lessons. That is pretty heavy, but we do it. Of course we can’t go 
into the very fine points of technique, we leave that to them to work out 

In that fifteen minutes we instruct them in the rudiments of music first, then ^ve 
them an instrument. The instrument is not decided by themselves. If it were we daould 
have a band composed of saxaphones only. I lead them on to a tenor horn or an alto and 
finally I lead them on to a baritone and occaaonally I get a bass out of them. Of course 
it also depends upon the lips. Thin lips are adapted to a small mouthpiece; and thicker 
lips to a large mouthpiece. 

So we decide the instrument that they are going to play, and then we give them scale 
exercises. After th^ have mastered the scales, we put them into a unison c l ass. This 
meets a half hour before store opening in the morning. They are very ^ad to come to that. 
We don’t have any trouble at all in making them come — they are all enthused wilii it. 
Here we teach them scales in unison and then we drift on to exercises in harmony. I am 
going to try to demonstrate a little bit of the woik of this unison dass—which we call the 
second band. (Exercises in whole, half, quarter and eighth notes were i^yed.) 

I should have said before we took these exercises, the boys and ^ils before they are 
put intd the second band, are ^ven an instrument to take home. Before this they just 
have an instrument for fifteen minutes. The instrument is issued under condition that 
they must take proper care of it Every six months they are inspected by the Quarter- 
master and the Adjutant of the Battalion. 

When we think that they are advanced enou^ thqr are preanoted into the first 
band. Of course we can’t trust them on the solos as soon as they get in; we let them play 
second and third parts. Now I will give you a demonstration of the wmk of the first 



band. (The entire band played the Stars and Stripes Forever. Solos were played by the 
piccolo, comets, and trombones.) 

Now, I will demonstrate the Field Music. Drum Major Cassidy is in charge of the 
Field Music. He will now demonstrate his Field Music. (Several calls were suggested 
by the audience and played by the buglers.) 

When the drummers came forward to play, Col. Scott said: We find the drum the 
most difficult thing to develop. They can't practise at home. 

Col. Scott: We shall now hear the American Bag-pipes. That is the uniform of the 
42nd Highlanders, with just a few changes. There was a time when the ukuleles were 
fearfully popular. So we have a few of our big organization left; they kept together merely 
for a social purpose. They happened to rehearse this morning. I thought you would like 
to hear them too. 

Someone asked how often the hand rehearsed. 

Col. Scott: The First Band rehearses a half hour every morning. They play in the 
organ loft every Monday and Saturday morning — that’s sort of a public rehearsal. Now 
for instance, Friday, the twenty-sixth, is the twenty-ninth anniversary of the John Wana- 
maker Commercial Institute — ^you notice whenever we speak of this organization, we 
never speak of the John Wanamaker Store, we speak of the John Wanamaker Commercial 
Institute, which means the body of the younger employees of the Store organized for 
educational purposes. That organization is chartered under the American University of 
Trade and Applied Commerce. This organization was formed and chartered to perpetuate 
the John Wanamaker Commercial Institute, So every member of the John Wanamaker 
Commercial Institute is also a member of the University. 

The twenty-sixth of this month is the twenty-ninth anniversary of the John Wana- 
maker Commercial Institute. The program will be as follows: 

9 a. m. Store Opening Fanfare Boys’ and Girls’ Field Music 

9. *02 a. m. Anniversary March Combined Bands and Organ 

9:10 a. m. The J. W. C. I. Boys’ and Girls’ Regiments march through the Store saluting 
the Golden Star in the Grand Court, (that is the star for the 17 men who were 
killed during the war) out Market Street Entrance, north on Juniper to 
Broad, to Race, countermarch south on Broad, to Union League. 

9:40 a. m. Regimental Parade and Exercises in front of the Union League before His 
Honor J. Hampton Moore, Mayor of Philadelphia, and Cabinet 
2:30 p. m. Anniversary Presentation of J. W. C. I. activities in University Hall, eighth 
floor, Wa n a ma ker Store. (I would advise anybody, who wants to come, to 
come early.) 

7:30 p. m. Reception and Review tendered to His Excellency, Governor William C. 

Sproul. Reception in the Grand Court and the Military Exercises in the 
Armory, ninth floor, followed by a collation in the Tea Room. 

(That of course, is by special invitations, as there is very little space.) 

I am telling you this because you might happen to be around the Union League at that 
time, and I know you would be interested in seeing the combined organization of 800 

Mr. Ferguson: In behalt of the conference — or rather in behalf of the people who are 
present-— I want to thank Colonel Scott, the Band-Leader, the Band and the Ukuleles for 
this very delightful demonstration. I don’t suppose you enjoyed yourselves as much 
as you would have down in your depaitm^ts, so I want to t.ha.Ti1r you very much. 




Waiter Btjtterpieid, Superoisor of Music, Providence, R. I. 

The subject for our consideration, The School Orchestra, is one that is T*eith<T new 
nor novel. It has long since passed the experimental stage and is now firmly established- 
I doubt if any one really knows where the school orchestra idea originated, but it has taTri»n 
firm hold in our schools and has proved that when wdl oiganized and conducted it con- 
tributes vitally to the life of a school as well as to the educational advancement of its in- 
dividual members. 

No supervisor is now fuUy equipped for general supervision unless he or she has some 
practical knowledge of org anizing and training orchestras formed hnm such material as 
is generally found in upper grammar giad^ and high schools. 

It matters not from what an^e we view The Schod Orchestra, it has everything in its 
favor and nothing against it. 

A J. Dann, Unioniown, Pa. 

It is indeed a great pleasure to come before you as the first speaker of the morning, 
representing an organization which sells its goods to the consumer at wholesale price, 
pays the largest dividends to its stockholders, and the lowest salaries to its ofl&cers of any 
great nation-wide organization operating in the United States of America today. 

This movement was started by Lowell Mason in 1836 and the major product for half 
a century was some form of vocal music. This had a very small part in the lives of the 
masses; but the few willing to take up the burden of trying to prove its worth as an essen- 
tial part of one’s education for life have given to us a very workable course of vocal music 
for the public schools. 

It was not, however, until the dawn of the twentieth century that a flame was kindled 
to attempt instrumental music in the public schools; and this was tried only in a very few 
cities. This new fields of education where successfully teted was found most profitable; 
but I believe I am correct in saying that only in the last decade has any definite course 
of procedure for the carrying on of this work been given to the public. 

That the school orchestra is an essential part of our whole scheme of education is 
obvious. It is becoming more and more under proper direction a real educational asset 
rather than a mere social organization for ^tertainment. 

The first essential factor in the organization of the school orchestra is the organizer. 
He must be an educated musician, one who has a thorough knowledge of boys and girls. 
He must have a thorough knowledge of orchestral instruments (1) as to thdr mechanian 
(2) their range, possibilities, etc. should also have some knowledge of harmony and 

If we as supervisors in our borough or dty have supervision of the music of the hi^ 
school as well as the grades and no orchestra exists, the high school is the logical place to go 
to form the orchestra. 

We first through the Principal should call a meeting of all students playing orchestral 
instruments who are desirous of forming a school orchestra. Th^ should be requested to 
bring their instruments to this meeting. In this way we can readily see the kind and 
condition of instruments, and test the advancement of each candidate. If any instru- 
ments are not in condition it will afford us the opportunity of hdping each candidate to set 



these things right before the first rehearsal is called. Now that we have the proper data, 
we can select our music for the first rehearsal. 

At the first rehearsal we should plan to ha-ve our first selection tuneful and not too 
diflScult. Be sure all instruments are in tune. Then play the selection through if possible. 

Now we know pretty well actual conditions. Make this rehearsal period and every 
rehearsal a valuable lesson period. If we have several violins we have a chance to teach a 
lesson in bowing. From the very start we should insist on our violins bowing together. 
Do this in a kind but firm way. We shall have, undoubtedly, boys trying to play horns 
or woodwind instruments who have had no instruction in proper methods of procedure. 
We must have helpful suggestions to make to them; such as how to breathe and control 
the breath, exercises for developing an embouchure and to acquire technic. 

The interpretation of music should be a part of this first rehearsal. If not more than a 
fragment of this first selection is well interpreted at this rehearsal, the student will leave 
feeling that a real lesson has been taught. 

A regular rehearsal period must be fixed and regularity, promj)tness, accuracy, and 
good deportment must be demanded. These can be pretty well taken care of through the 
avenue of interest if we have the ability to arouse it. 

Now that we have enough material to start an orchestra we shoidd begin in some way 
to interest other students in taking instruments. If possible, instruments that are lacking 
in the present orchestra which would make a valuable addition. Maintain classes in 
instruments if posrible and if this can be done at public expense so much the better. Let 
our aim be the Public School Symphony Orchestra. 

It is quite necessary to have certain incentives to help continue interest in orchestral 
work when once it is aroused. It is wise if we have assembly exercises to have the orches- 
tra play, as soon as it can do so well, while the students are marching to and from the 
assembly room. In the elementary school the orchestra can be used to a good advantage 
occasionally at dismissal. As soon as the orchestra can play a few selections well, plan to 
use this as a part of a public program. Other incentives are the City Symphony if one 
exists, the Community Orchestra, Sunday School Orchestra, etc. If these organizations 
do not exist it is a part of our task to see to it that interest in the community is aroused 
so that these organizations do exist. 

The school orchestra can be made a real community asset. The boys and girls of the 
orchestra are not only trained to play their respective instruments well, but are developing 
self-confidence, poise, etc. This training gives them an opportunity to utilize their spare 
time— a most desirable part of one’s preparation for life, when so many bo3rs are found loaf- 
ing on the streets or in questionable places. 

Why so much care taken? Does it pay? 

What benefit does the student derive? (1) A skillfully trained hand the equal of 
which can be derived from no other form of manual training. (2) An accurately trained 
mind. The ability to read accurately, execute and interpret music at sight is equal in 
mental training to the translation accurately at sight of any foreign language. AU of the 
mind activities are brought into play in this process. (3) Heart training, through the 
avenue of soul or self-expression. Who can thoughtfully study a beautiful piece of music 
as a fine bit of literature and then give it self-expression without being morally and spirit- 
ually benefited. (4) The individual is better fitted to take his place in the community 
in which he lives. He can enter more fully into the life of the community and be of more 
service to his fellow men, (5) The playing in the orchestra of ten assists in arousing inter- 
est in other school work. I Ijiave known of instances where students were weak in school 
work and because of their desire to play with the orchestra became better students in all 
their school work. (6) Music often keeps boys and girls in school who without it would 
leave schooL 



How does the orchestra benefit the school? (1) If the orchestra plays at the morning 
assembly it helps to start the day right. (2) It stimulates athletic activities playing at 
mass meetings and for indoor games. (3) Playing at the different entertainments of the 
school, social functions, etc. (4) It helps to maintain school spirit and pride in one’s 

How is the community benefited by a good school orchestra? (1) Playing for com- 
munity meetings. (2) Developing material for church orchestras, community orchestras 
etc. (3) During the recent Liberty Loan Drives, War Chest campaigns and rallies of aU 
sorts, the school orchestra played a very important part. 

If these things are true is it not important that the children in the public schools be 
given an opportunity to pursue courses in instrumental music at public expense? I believe 
it will function in their lives as no other subject in the school curriculum. 


Frank E. Peroval, High School^ Sioux CUy^ Iowa 

My theme concerns the orchestra of tomorrow, by practically considering the school 
orchestras of today xmder our supervision. America has bought — ^not produced — ^the great- 
est orchestras in the world. Look at the list of names of the players in our American 
S 3 miphony Orchestras and you will find such names as these: Schmidt, Shoemfield, Barce- 
lone, Zybyska, etc. Go through the list of English Symphony Orchestras in any English 
city and you will find such names as these: Weston, Ross, Jones, Henderson, etc., names 
that you can pronounce — ^names you are familiar with — ^names that seem like home. Why 
is it that cities other than the great cities such as: New York, Chicago, Philadelphia, 
Boston, Pittsburgh, San Francisco, Cincinnati and Detroit — why is it, that cities other 
than these have not symphony orchestras? It is because th^r have been unable to produce 
their own players and they have not the money to buy them. All of our American dries 
need orchestras, all American dries from 20,000 up ought to produce their own j^yers. 
Most any dty could have a symphony orchestra if they had the players for thrao. That 
brings us down to school orchestras- That brings the matter direct to our own door. It 
brings us to the subject of my paper, “Eurqpe or America for Players in Our Symphony 
Orchestras of Tomorrow — ^Which?” 

I say each one of us is a committee for members for our own dvic orchestras, and the 
place to b^in for players is in the grades. Train the seventh for the eighth; the eighth for 
the ninth; the ninth for the high school, the high sdiool for the symphony orchestra. 
To get the pupil to function for the symphony orchestra first have him function with his 
music in the home or the Sunday School Orchestra or in the Social Center Orchestra. 

Doubtless all here have school Orchestras. If yon haven’t, my plea to you is to organ- 
ize them; organize them in every building if possible. Begin to organize orchestras when 
you get home. A good bo(A to help in this is “School O^estras and Bands” by Glenn 
H. Woods published by The Oliver Ditson Co. AU you need to start an orchestra is a 
piano and a violin. There is the nudeus, from that you can build it up to any number of 
pla 3 ^rs. If you already have the ground prepared and the harvest in, increase the Golden 
Harvest by vajying the instrumentation. M<^t school ordiestras will have out of twdve 
players, one piano, six violins, and five comets. If possible, do not aUow this to continue. 

Here is a good opportunity to function for the Symphony Orchestra. Introduce the 
players to the Clarinet, the CeUo, French Horn, Oboe or Bassoon. Solidt players from 
your orchestras for these instruments by i^rsonal interviews. Show pictures and cuts of 
these instruments. Get some one persuadi^ to play one and then furnish him the instra- 



ment if you need to. There axe many wa 3 rs to provide the means to procure an instrument 
which means will be suggested to the enterprising supervisor as he goes along. I do not say 
that the ultimate object of school orchestras is the symphony orchestra, nor do I say that 
every player in a school orchestra should work to become a professional musician; but I 
do say, hitch your wagon to a star, for it is your opportunity to try to make symphony 
orchestra players of your pupils and the result will be most satisfactory. Your player will 
at least be a better citizen for he will function in more wa 3 rs than one. He is able to pro- 
duce good music; he will be a more successful business man. I am happy to say that my 
High School Orchestra has rendered real service to the Sioux City Municipal Symphony 

Since the organization of the Sioux City Symphony Orchestra three years ago they 
have taken into the organization eight boys and girls from our High School Orchestra. 
Among them were three first violins, three second violins, one clarinet and one bass viol 
pla 3 ^r. The first violin players were girls and all are now studying violin in Chicago, 
The Clarinet, a boy, the Bass Viol, a boy, are just plain citizens. For two years I have 
been in Chautauqua work in the middle west with a concert orchestra and out of 1 1 players 
in my orchestra, 5 of the players I selected from my High School orchestra. 

My idea in this paper is to suggest to school orchestras one thing; help Americanize 
our Symphony Orchestras. We must Americanize our Operas but that, as Kipling says, 
‘^is another story.” To make America 100% American, Music can help. Let us start 
on the S 3 anphony Orchestras of the country. Let us start now and start at home. 


Mr. Moffatt, High School orchestra. Grand Rapids, Michigan: *^What kind of 
music do you use?” 

Mr. Dann: “It depends upon the orchestra. I get all the music I can on trial from 
Pepper Co., Willis & Co., etc., and select that which fits the material I have at hand. If 
I have violins and comets I use Emil Ascher’s (New York City) book for there you have 
double violin work, not monotonous second violin work, and the comet is of about the 
same grade.” 

'Die question of the Union attitude towards school orchestras was discussed and the 
general experience of the older members was, that wherever and whenever friction had 
occurred it had come through misimderstandings either on one or both sides, and that 
when each understood the position of the other, all differences vanished and both sides 
found they could really work for their mutual advantage. 

Mrs. Troost, Vineland, N. J.: “What would you do if you were to give an operetta 
on Friday and on Wednesday the president of the Union called up and said the operetta 
could not come off unless the city orchestra should play; that electricians, stage hands, 
scrub women, etc., would not work unless union men were employed; that the High 
School orchestra must not play outside the High School? *11113 orchestra is made possible 
by the tax-payers who support instrumental classes and furnish instruments. The orches- 
tra is a community affair and should give its services to the community, but it cannot do 

Mr. A. J. Gantvoort, College of Music, Cincinnati, Ohio: '^e have the same trouble 
to a degree. Our orchestra has to go to the Symphony Orchestra for oboes, etc., when we 
wish to give a concert: We said we would take the Union men for those things if they 
would let us play, otherwise we would not play when we needed Union men. They passed 
a law that it could be done. These men made their living in this way and the young 
people do not. This can be adjusted by the High School orchestra not taHngr jobs which 
belong to the Union.” 



Mr. Fay, Rochester, N. Y.: “We belong to the Union and are interested in the prin- 
ciples for which it stands, and we are also interested m having our orchestra play on every 
possible occasion. We had a talk with the Board of Directors and conadered every 
phase of the case. We agreed that if anything doubtful came up we would present the 
case to the Board of Directors. In the case of Mrs. Troost, they could have telegraphed 
the National President for decision.” 

Mrs. Troost: “That is just what happened and we recdved permission to play at the 

Mr. Butterfield: “I have been up against this problem from all angles, I think, and 
I have worked it out this way. I had no trouble with the Union; I am not a Union man 
as I see no reason why I should be. At one time there was trouble brewing and the High 
School principal and m 3 ^self asked to meet the Union. They thought we were forming a 
EBgh School orchestra for commerdal purposes. We explained that it was for educational 
purposes only. When they were convinced, they were in favor of it and stood back of us. 
It was proper that we should have our High School orchestra play for BBgh School assem- 
blies and State Teachers’ Meetings. The Union said they had always had the High School 
dances; it was going to take from them a port of their income. I took this stand: that 
my time was too valuable, that it was undignified for those working for credits toward 
graduation, for the orchestra to play jazz music at the High School dances; that we would 
not play for an 3 dhing except High School assemblies or educational meetings or school 
festivals in town. 

I had four boys who were members of the Union. At High School concerts where the 
orchestra played gratis, the Union agreed that these bo 3 rs should play gratis as long as we 
kept it strictly educational. The Union agreed also to send men to fill up my instrumenta- 
tion at the lowest figure possible and still allow the bo 3 rs to play gratis. It was some job 
but it was most satisfactory. The president of the Union had a son who was a player and 
he was most anxious for him to get into the High School orchestra.” 

Mr. Soper, Div. Music, Louisiana State University and Preadent of the Local Union: 
“We have never had any difficulty. We furnish a band for the parade for the Maidi Gras. 
There was no trouble as long as the Union understood that the appearances of the band 
were for educational purposes only. The University band leads the parade and the 
Musicians’ band follows behind. The boys go for the fun they get out of it. The question 
of the Musicians’ Union is simply one of making an honest livelihood. These people 
should be approached fairly. Let’s not apologize and say we axe not makin g professional 
musicians. It is just as good to make professional musicians as to make professional 
architects (applause). Let’s co-opeiate.” 

Mr. Carr, State Teachers’ College, Missouri: “As soon as my boys can play the scale 
they begin to talk Union. I tell them: ‘While you axe in the High School orchestra stay 
out of the Union. When you graduate, join it. If you are good enough to be in the Union 
you do not need this orchestra. If you need this orchestra you axe not good enou^ for 
the Union.’ ” 

Mr. Moffatt: “Referring to foreign musicians: when we put into our work the same 
inspiration and work as they do over there we are going to get the same results.” 

Mrs. Vida St. C. Cleveland, Chester, Pa.: “Am I very un-American and undemo- 
cratic? I do not thinTr I could for long direct an orchestra of six violins and four comets. 
We have a school of 2,300 pupils including Junior High School. Tlie program of the 
Junior High School pupil will be changed so she can come to rdieaxsal if she can qualify 
The surplus instruments are put into the band. Before we had a band we let all play at 
rehearsal but not at a perfonnance. 

The Musicians’ Union sends men to help teach instruments every we^ Boys are 
excused from militaiy drill to play in the band. , This is their mili ta r y service. 



In Jewish schools the pupils who play instruments for the most part follow DaVid 
and play on strings. There are lovely things for just violins and piano: Poldini, Fischer; 
three violins and piano; 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th violin and piano.” 

D. E. Mattem, Ithaca, N. Y.: “A violin choir has great possibilities. Mr. Cogswell 
has done some very fine things for three and four violins, and there are many other pub- 
lications. The Americanization of the orchestra is to come thru the Public Schools. If 
we are going to have a weU balanced orchestra we must have classes for different instru- 
ments. We are very fortunate in our place in being able to have the president of the 
Musicians’ Union instructing in the schools. We have a Board of Commerce which is 
paying the president of the Union for ten weeks instruction to a Community Band in 
which he has enlisted the Union men to come in and play with them. We have a fine 
spirit of co-operation.” 

Mr. H. E. Cogswell: 'Tf you have an over production of brass, have brass quartets.” 

Mr. Perdval: “Referring to the twelve piece orchestra of six violins and six comets, 
that sort of an organization is just a nucleus for a symphony orchestra. If I might be so 
bold, I should like to make a suggestion to composers: make the second violin part more 
interesting. The hom part is rather monotonous also.” 


Walter H. Aiken, Director Music, Cincinnati, 0., Chairman 

In order that a boy may find himself in the city which I have the honor to represent, 
the following courses are offered: Classical, General, Domestic Science (Household Arts), 
Manual Training, Agricultural, Art, Commercial, Music, Bo)rs’ technical-cooperative 
and Girls’ technical-cooperative. 

The Music course, which is of direct interest to us, is planned for those who desire 
to make a careful study of music, with a view to performance or composition. The pupils 
must be students of either vocal or instrumental music at a college or with private teachers 
approved by the Director of Music, and must devote not less than an hour and a half each 
day, outside of High School to practice. Upon this work they are from time to time 
examined under High School authority. 

The required subjects are English (four years), a foreign language (three years) 
mathematics (one year), harmony (three years) and Music Anal 3 rsis and History (one 
year). Those who desire to enter this course must have the approval of the Director of 
Music. AU instrumental or vocal study pursued outside of the school must be at the 
expense of the student. Graduates of this course are admitted to the University of Cin- 
dnnati, provided all requirements are met and they have earned twelve out of fifteen 
credits. We have been carrying forward this credit course for the specially ^fted children 
in music ever since the construction of our new High Schools some ten years ago. 


In order that every child might have an equal opportunity “in the finding” of himself 
we formed — some six 3 ^ears ago — a class on the inside of school plan. 

< For the 'inside-of’-school'' piano pupil, the subject of this mbming^s discussion, we in 
Cincinnati allow two credits for four years of work, when conducted under school dis- 
cipline, out of the fifteen demanded for University entrance and one credit for two years 
of piano study if pursued under private teachers previous to the pupil’s entering theHig^ 

PHILADELPHIA, PA., MARCH 22-26, 1920 69 

School, provided of course upon our examination that the instruction be considered worthy 
of credit. 

Our school men in Cincinnati were not inclined to approve or conader playing as 
playing, pure and simple. They did not see how it would jSnd a place in our educational 
system. Their thought seemed to be that pla3dng as a means of study, and Education thru 
Music as Mr. Farnsworth has put it, was quite another thing and rather the end to which 
we should work, and if that were our policy with the ^‘inside of school” piano work as 
well as that conducted by private teachers ‘‘out of school” the University would be per- 
fectly willing to recognize our credit claims. When the piano was first vmder discussion 
by the Superintendent of Schools as a feature for the betterment of our High School service, 
he put forward the suggestion that a standard be formulated and put into operation under 
the direction of the schools that was based upon the exercise of musical knowledge, that 
would beget a musical mentality and develop an indestructible musical culture. He 
desired that there be no break, if it could be avoided, from the time the child would begin 
his music study in the grades until he might become an artist. The goal being the chance 
of studying with the higher up, a piano teacher in the schools to establish a m inimum 

requirement, the establishment of a standard of materials allowing for freedom of equiva- 
lents which would be accepted by the Univertity and could be presented for exa m in ation, 
were some of the problems to be thought out and acted upon. 


Inez Field Damon, Supervisor of Music, Schenectady, N, Y, 

The following observations concerning Public School Piano Classes are solely the 
result of the writer’s own experience with such classes, for a period of four years in a city 
of 100,000 people. I would not fail at the outset, to give all due credit to my assistant 
Miss Annie M. Johnston who so faithfully worked with me in this undert akin g. 

First, Why Piano Classes? Because for a number of years, the writer has been in- 
creasingly impressed with the fact that the School Music Supervisor is logically the Com- 
munity Musician and that Public School Music is the natural root from which Community 
Music grows. Everything is favorable to this point of view. The Supervisor is working 
in that medium which is the “universal language” and in that which the foreign-bom 
can contribute most richly to that amalgam known as the “New Americanism,” and he 
has open before him that avenue which leads directly to the heart of every home— the 
children. It should be definitdy understood that by “Community Music,” is not meant 
“Community Singing*^ in the sense in which that term has come to be used. The question 
is often asked of late, “What is the future of Community Singing?” My answer would be 
“Community Music.” The latter may possibly include the former, but it means much 
more. It means bringing Music’s blessing and joy and spiritual values to all the people 
in all ways possible. The work of the class-room, it must be kept in mind, is the heart of 
Community Music and must be kept sound, but it is the center ^nd not the circumference 
of the Supervisor’s job. In this spirit, then, our Piano Classes were undertakai ^ a 
practice contribution to the cultural life of the co mmuni ty. The children were as k i ng , 
“We have Violin Classes in school, why can’t we have Piano Classes, too?” To the 
inward glee of the Mu^ Supervisor, the “Superior officers” who had previoudy vetoed 
such a scheme, when prc^wsed, now found themselves without an answer, when the 
question was asked by the children thonsdives. 



The question then became, **How to start?” There was no comfortable precedent to 
follow, but imagination plus common sense, was found to be an excellent lubricant in 
starting the wheels. A plan was drawn up to which the Board of Education readily gave 
consent. The scheme was to be self-supporting, asking no city money for itself, other 
tTiayi that for the printing of a few practice and report blanks. A number of prominent 
Piano teachers in the city were consulted. They approved the plan. Possibly the fact 
that at the beginning of the second year of our Violin Classes, it was found that these 
classes had sent 123 pupils to private teachers, helped the Piano teachers in seeing the 
wisdom of our folly on this occasion. Children were taken in classes of not fewer than four 
and not more than six, each child paying 25 cents. 

A few rules sufficed at first. All lessons were paid for one month in advance, and a 
receipt was given; no teacher could take as a private pupil, a pupil whom she had had in 
class; and no lessons could be given in other than a school building; aU music must be 
bought by children direct from local dealers. Needless to say, at this point, that it is 
necessary for the Supervisor to ‘‘keep ahead of the game,” by arranging with local dealers 
to provide specified material at a given time, for a uniform price. 

As the number of children in the classes increased, it was found necessary to issue 
the following sheet of regulations, governing the Piano classes: 

Regtilations Governing Aeter-School Piano Classes 

1. There shall be two types of Piano Classes, A and B. Piano Class A shall be for 
beginners only, from 6 to 20 pupils in a class; 15 cents per lesson. 

Piano Class B may be for beginners, but in most cases shall be for more advanced 
pupils, not fewer than 4 and not more than 6 pupils in a dass; 25 cents per lesson. 

In all cases a month’s tuition shall be paid in advance, and all tmtion money, less 
incidental charges, shall go to the teacher teaching the class. 

2. All lessons shall be given weekly for the duration of the school year, and shall be 
one hour in length, closing before 5 p.m. 

3. Children of 7 years and over may be accepted for class instruction. 

4. In choosing teadkers for the Piano Classes, members of the regular teaching staff 
of the dty shall be given preference. Teachers shall be graduates of Normal or Training 
Schools and shall satisfy fiie Supervisor of Music as to pianistic qualifications and ability 
to interest children. 

5. All teachers shall attend such meetings as the Supervisor of Music may call, shall 
keep such reports as requested and shall perform their duties under the rules and regula- 
tions of the Board of, Education. 

6. No teacher shall admit to her dass a pupil who has studied with a private teachet 
within a year. 

7. No teacher shall accept as a private pupil, a pupil whom she has had in a Public 
School After School Piano Class. 

8. No teacher shall give Public School After School Class instruction in other than a 
school building. 

9. No teacher shall buy or seU to her pupils at personal profit, any music or accesso- 
ries. It is recommended that all music be bought tmrough the locm music dealers. 

Two problems inevitably appear in the forefront of the Piano Class situation: 
teachers and texts. As to the first, there are no spedaHy trained Piano Class teachers. 
Therefore, in choosing his teachers the Supervisor has his choice of either of two types, 
the private Piano teacher who is “long” on Piano Pedagogy but “short” on School-room 
Psychology— that is, she knows nothing about handling children in groups — or the Grade 
School teacher, who does know how to handle children in groups, and does not know 
Piano Pedagogy, altho she may be able to play with a considerable degree of musicianship. 
Of these two, I unhesitatingly dioose the latter. (Of course, if the Piano dass is to make 
for itself a permanent place, this condition will disappear, for especially trained teachers 
will arise to meet the demand.) My teachers meet together with me about every four 
weeks for a “Normal” class. The work is gone Over, teaching methods discussed, prob- 



lems thrashed out and advice given. Printed cards are given out, which thf* teacher is 
to punch as a receipt of the month’s tuition. This card the child keeps in an envelope 
pasted into the mside of the back cover of his book. There is also a practice record sheet, 
whic h the child brings to his lesson, properly filled out for eac h day’s pra c ti ce ^ and whi^ 
provides the teacher with a place to enter tiie child’s mark for every lesson. This sheet 
is pasted into the inside of the front cover of his music book. There is, besides, a card <m 
which the teacher makes out her report, to be sent on the first day of every month to the 
Music Supervisor. 

As to texts: After a thorough examination of a large number of possible texts, a few 
were chosen, the teachers, in their interest in the experiment, being willing to try them 
out. The School Credit Piano Course has been a boon to us. We have this year tried 
**the Giddings way,” and it is now being adapted to the needs of our large number of 

The last word in Piano Classes has not been said, but the first word undoubtedly has, 
for already the fruitage begins to appear. From time to tiTTift during the year, the Piano 
Classes give little recital programs in their respective schools, and at the end of the year, 
a “big one” in the High School Auditorium, On th^e occarions the diminutive players 
come to the front stage and announce the names of the pieces which they are a^ut to 
play, the name of the composer, the meaning of terms of expression and tempo, the key — 
or keys — in which the con^iosition is written, and proceed to play the scale of that key 
with both hands, four octaves up and down the key-board, before playing the piece. All 
this in accord with our belief, that MUSICIANSHIP should be taught instead of mere k^- 
board dexterity. Duets and two-piano numbers are considered “in good form,” particu- 
larly when the pla 3 rers all bdong to the same family. If a brother or sister of the pianist 
pla 3 rs some other instrument or sings, the pianistic member of the family may appear 
in the r6le of accompanist. The reason for everything done in this work may be found in 
the affirmative answer to the question, “Can the child use it in the home?” 

In one school forty children are studying Piano in classes. In this group, nine nation- 
alities are represented. (Who said “Americanization work”?) To six of the homes 
represented, Santa brought pianos at Christmas time, as rewards for work wdd done 
in the classes. Three children from one Hungarian family have been in dass from the 
be^nning. All their practice is done tinder the close supervision of their father. A little 
Italia n girl with many brothers and sisters was wont to have washing the floors as her 
Saturday morning’s task. In order that she may now take her Piano lesson on Saturday 
morning, she washes the floors after the family has retired on Friday ni^t. (She had no 
Piano but begged so hard that she was taken into the dass.) It was found that her father 
had tom a strip off a red checked table doth, and tacked it onto the edge of the table, for 
a practice key-board. 

The Piano classes have seemed to exist for two classes of people, those who are too 
poor to pay the private teacher’s fee — especially does this apply where there are several 
children from the same family all studying at the same time — and those who are unwilling 
to do so, until they “find out whether Mary is going to do anything with it or not.” In 
the majority of cases, Mary does “do something with it” and goes on to a private teacher. 
This coming and going lends a lack of stability to the classes, which is amply compensated 
for in the knowledge that one more youngster has been hdped to find himself, and that the 
children of lesser financial resources are, to some extent at least, having their “chance.” 

By way of summary, it might be well to point to certain aspects of the matter, men- 
tioned in a recent letter from your Chairman, Mr. Aiken: The attitude of the Piano 
teacher, I have found to be one of approval; that of the parents, gratitude; a blind man 
could read it in their kind faces when they come to our little recital programs to hear their 
children play. The grade teacher who has nothing to do with it, is, of course, indifferent. 



The grade teacher who does the teaching is, in most cases, intensely interested in it and is 
grateful for the opportunity to earn something “on the side.” The making of courses of 
study is in process of evolution, but it is “evoluting” satisfactorily.. The music dealers and 
publishers are with us, of course. As to “the great educational view-point,” frankly, I am 
not yet come to the point where I see class work usurping individual work all along the line. 
In the majority of cases, my observation has caused me to believe that the function of 
class work ceases at the end of the second year or soon thereafter, and that the progressing 
pupil then needs more individual attention than the class can offer. In passing it might 
be of interest to note, that in comparing the condition of the children who have studied in 
the classes for the last four years with that of those whose work has been all, or largely, 
with a private teacher, it is evident that the former have less key-board technique and 
much more musicianship. 

To prophesy about the future of Public School Piano Classes — 'twere a valorous thing 
to do ! But Piano Class teaching does teach children to play ! And in so far as this is true, 
and in so far as the Community Musician — alias Music Supervisor — ^is willing to do his 
all to keep the service light burning in his community, so far will the Public School Piano 
Class movement grow brighter unto a more perfect day. 


George J. Abbott, Director of Music, Chdsea, Mass. 

At first thought it may seem that the comparatively new idea of public school piano 
classes is encroaching upon the legitimate field of the private teacher. But upon further 
investigation I think it will be found that each has its sphere of usefulness in the com- 
munity, and with a proper mutual understanding the private teacher and the public 
school piano class may both function with great benefit to the younger generation. 

Before enlarging upon the previous statement and without the intention of making 
any unjust criticism of the private teacher, I wish to point out a few defects which are, 
unfortunately, altogether too common. We all experience difficulty in finding good 
pianists among our pupils who are able to accompany the various school organizations. 
A pupil studies the piano privately a number of years, but usually upon being asked to 
perform is not prepared to play anything. It seems as though too rduch time is spent in 
getting ready to play. Finger exercises and technical studies being in the majority and 
transposition and sight reading, which is at least of equal importance, in the minority. 
Psychology and pedagogy are not always well understood by the average piano teacher. 
In the adoption of piano teaching by the public schools many known educational truths 
are being applied, and the pupil’s development, therefore, is more rapid and at the same 
time comprehensive. This application of school methods to piano instruction will no 
doubt contain many new ideas of value to the private teacher. 

The support of the private teacher is necessary in the working out of these classes, 
and a teacher who has proved her ability to instruct in classes may well associale herself 
with this branc h of the school department and gain thereby both financially and profes- 
sionally. It is the idea in some school systems to carry on a complete graded course 
of piano instruction, but I think the majority will find it more practical to Tnflinfflm a 
course for beginners only. After a few yeara in the school piano classes the pupils will 
naturally gravitate to the private teacher in constantly increasing numbers. I have found 
this to be true in the case of our violin classes in Chelsea. The installation of public 
school piano classes should increase the number of pupils who \H11 eventually study 





Mrs. Gail Martin Haaze, Public Schools, Boansion, III. 

For classification I shall speak of these differences under three heads, as follo^Ts: 
Those relating to materials; those relating to methods of teaching; those rdating to mat- 
ters of administration, with which the private teacher need not concern hims elf. 

RdaUng to Choice of MaUHals 

Materials may be selected and assigned for their intrinsic musical and pedagogic 
value to a greater degree in class than in private teaching. There are several reasons for 
this — first, a composition that will not particulariy appeal to one individual pupil will be 
liked by the class as a whole, and the pupil whose interest is slight will fall in hue because 
of the interest of his mates; second, the authority of the school, the recognized educational 
force, is back of the teadiers, and because of this, standard material may be used, and the 
Interests and tastes of pupils and parents, espedaHy when such tastes are for inferior 
music, need not be considered in so great a degree as by the private teacher; third, because 
the necessity for careful grading will make such selection indispensable. 

In class teaching freer use may be made of folk songs and other material the children 
have sung in their regular singing classes. The reasons for this will be considered under 
“methods of teaching.” 

Definite and systematic grading is more essential to the class than to the private 
teacher. The private teacher assigns music largely on a basis of individual differences and 
needs. The class teacher will consider group differences which will never show as great 
variation as will individual differences. Therefore a definite, graded plan of woA can 
and must be held to. 

Rdating to M^Ttods of Teaching 

Class attitude and love of approbation may be rdied upon by the teacher to make 
pupils work more diligently in class than in private lessons and may be used as a means 
to gain results. 



In class lessons pupils will become accustomed to perform uninterruptedly before 
other members of the class as well as before chance visitors, thus helping to eliminate fear 
of public performance. 

pbildren wiU learn by imitation more naturally and safely in class than in private les- 
sons. Imitation in the private lesson means imitation of one person, the pupil’s teacher. 
This, as may be frequently noted in the performance of pupils, is likely to be too exact, 
both as to musical effects and movements made. Imitation in class work will be more 
compoate. The pupil does not imitate his teacher only but imitates, to a limited degree, 
the more desirable features in the playing of a number of classmates, and also must be 
taught to avoid the rmdesirable features in the playing of others. 

The interest of pupils will be more easily aroused in class work because of group 
interest, but wiU be held with greater dijEculty unless the teacher is clever in making 
changes in the work and in jfinding new points for the pupils to study in the compositions 
they are pla 3 dng. 

More effective use of singing can be made in class work than in private as this can be 
applied as group activity. Points in interpretation may frequently be taught more 
effectivdy by vocal than by keyboard illustration. By this I mean both illustration 
by the teacher and response by the class. 

The pupil’s previous musical experience can be made of great importance in class 
lessons by making use, in early piano work, of class room songs. The children usually show 
a keen desire to learn to play such melodies on the piano and strong initial interest is 

The same technical work and etudes may be used to some extent by the entire class. 
This makes for economy as the pupils learn while listening to others. The pupils should 
study different pieces, however, thus developing individuality in performance and adding 

The private pupil listens only occasionally to the playing of others. Every 
lesson should be a “listening” lesson. This means that the pupils must be taught how to 
listen and what to listen for. 

The class teacher will have better opportunity for holding performance classes than 
the private teacher as the pupils all meet in the same building. In the Evanston schools 
several different classes come together as a performance class once each week. These 
clas^ arouse more interest than any others among the older pupils. 


Piano classes must not be too large, and the pupils should be regrouped to form new 
classes several times each year, at regular intervals. In the Evanston schools the size of 
the classes varies according to the enrollment and the grading of the pupils. Some classes 
have as few as nine members. One class began last fall with an enrollment of forty. This 
was too large and was soon divided into two sections. From fifteen to twenty children 
would seem to be a happy number to have in each class in the earlier grades. 

Discipline should be observed in piano classes as strictly as in regular school classes. 
We must have roll call, quiet, order and regular places for the children to sit. In the Evan- 
ston sdiools we have but one piano in each class room. This is not a matter of choice; 
we should prefer to have several pianos in each room. 

In the lesson two children perform on the piano at a time (this refers to beginners’ 
classes) , the others using paper keyboards at the tables. The children who go to the tables 
are made to proceed to thrir regular places in orderly manner, each child going directly to 
his side of the table, thus avoiding confusion and loss of time. When the children nt the 
piano have.reached a certain phrase in the muric the two*who are to perform next in or4er 



Wliile classes should be conducted so as to economize in time, the pupils should not 
be hurried to and rushed away from the instrument. If music is to be taught as an art we 
must remember that ease and poise are very necessary factors in performance. We must 
not become so interested in points of administration that we lose sight of muacal values 
and of the fact that soxmd, sane musical performance is the thing we are working for. 

Aade from the somewhat academic differences dwelt on above there must be men- 
tioned that of economy. AU children who wish to avail themselves may have piano lessons 
at very nominal cost if not absolutely free. Thus the music educational work the public 
schools have been cairjnhg on throu^ chorus and glee dub, band and orchestra woik, 
may be furthered and intensified and brought directly into each and every home by means 
of the most universal musical instrument of our day. 


1. Harmony in the High SchooL 

2. School Courses in Music to be required of High School Students Reedving Credit 
for Outside Study of Music. 

Will Earhart, Supervisor of Music, FiUshttrgh, Pa^ 

The program of this section meeting does not represent, as you will doubtiess observe, 
a full program of music courses for high schools, but is limited to two important phases of 
hi^ school music. 

* The introduction of the study of harmony into hi^ schools has been slow. It was 
bdng taught in a RTtiatl number of schools twenty or twenty-five years ago, but the number 
of new schools which to<^ it up from year to year was, for along time, very small . Reoe3xt]^< 
the pace has acederated and it has been introduced into new schools to an extent that 
is very gratifjdng. The report soon to be published by the Bureau of Education, which 
was pr^)ared by Messrs. McConathy, Gdmkens, and Birge, will g^lve information as to 
the present standing of the subject throu^bout the United States. 

Another of the more recent problems of hi^ school muac is hpw to take care, of the 
g ptiftr al musical education of the pupil who is studying ^>ecialized m usin il tec hni c outside 
of school, and who is probably getting from hk teaicber very little except tec h n ic al instmp* 
tion. Since we are now giving sdiool credit for outsidfi study the nature of this study, 
becomes a concern of ours; and most of us do not t hink that the school should put its 
stamp of approval, upon digital dexterity ak>ne. The private teacher is quite likdLy to 
agree with us, but fe^ that he has no time to attend to the general musical education of 
the pupil, and rather espects us to do it. As a consequence we have a partn e rship of two 
teachers administering what is virtually one good, w’dl rounded, mutical coqxse. To 
its proportions and keq) it complete and symmetrical is the task that cemfironts 

Those who are to speak to us on both, these subjects are experienced teachers. Their 
hearers are aim experienced teachers. As the papers are short there will be ample tune for 
discustibn, and if out of the ^^)enences of all those who are assem bl ed some^ good <h>es 
not come, it can only be beeaxise you are reluctant to ixi^)axt it when the hour of discussSon 



E. Jake Wisenall, CincinnaU, Ohio 

The objects of teaching harmony in high school we all agree are twofold: (1) To give 
a deeper appreciation of music through an understanding of its constructive principles: 
(2) To enable the gifted pupil to secure at an early age the principles of music constructioi 
so that as a direct result he may be led to continue a specialized study of counterpoint 
canon, fugue, composition and orchestration. 

Briefly I shall try to show how the music course in the Cincinnati High Schools ful- 
fills these purposes. 

The course was planned for those who desired to make a careful study of music eithei 
from the amateur or the professional standpoint. Those expecting to teach in the grades, 
the kindergartens, privately, or in public school music, find this course of inestimable 

Pupils electing this course must have had music lessons for at least two years and 
must co^^tinue to be students of vocal or instrumental music at a college or with a private 
teacher approved by the Director of Music. Such pupils are required to take at least 
forty lessons during the school year and to devote not less than one and one-half hours 
daily to practice. 

Pupils studsdng any instrument other than the piano are required to study the piano 
for at least two years so that their work in constructive music will not be retarded by a 
lack of familiarity with both the treble and the bass staves. 

One who wishes to specialize in vocal music may do so at the beginning of the third 

Progress in work done out^e of school is tested twice each year by a teadher of music 
in the public schools — an artist whose years of experience as a teach of voice and piano 
[Qualify him to examine and grade each pupil fairly and wisely. In January and again in 
trnoe a card is sent to parent and private mode teacher asking if progress is satisfactory 
and requesting their signature. The private mude teacher records on the card the titles 
of material studied during each half year,, mnnber of lessons taken, missed, made up, etc., 
and nrast state whether yvoxk is poor, hiir, good, or exodknt. The parent most certify 
to the length of daily practice period. 

These cards are kept on file, and pupils are iiot pramoted until this record is complete. 

'The following vocational subjects are dMcbutedl throng the four years, two periods 
each week, with due regard for the pupil’s sBeedsandi mudcal experience: Ear Tiainmg, 
Dictation, Harmony, Melody Writing, Husical Feum, Anafyds, and Music History. 
The required academic subjects include En^di, one other language (French, Latia, or 
j^ranish) Algebra and History (Andent, Mediaeval and Modeni, or American) . Oprional 
academic subjects must be selected from the fidBowing: Geaoietiy, Botany or Zoology, 
Phydes, Chemistry, and Physiology. Two periods each week of Pbydeal Educatiem and 
(me of Choral singing are required in all courses. The vocational subjects of this course 
are open to pupils of other courses also, if the individual program can be arranged, and 
provided the sdbolarsbip of the pupQ justifies an additional subject. 

The outline of the four-year music course in Cmcinnati is as follows: 

Hcermmy I 

Two Periods each Week 

Symbols (notes, rests, staves, defs); ear traming, mudcal dictation; meter, accent, 
ilqpthm; tetiachord. (Btdlding of major scale) ; scale tone tendendes; major key dignatures; 
intervals and their inversions: major, minor, perfect, augmented, diminished, consoqant, 
dissonant, harmonic, melodic; triads in major: major, minor, diminished, location cri triads 



in major keys; chord progressions in major, dose harmony; harmonizing bass or given 
upper parts in major; cadences (authentic, plagal) perfect or imperfect; minor scales and 
key signatures (tonic minor, relative minor) comparison of tetrachords of major and minor 
scales; triads in minor: major, minor, augmented, diminished, location of triads in minor 
keys; chord progressions in minor; exceptional progressions 11- V, V-VI and VI-V ; intervals 
in harmonic minor not foimd in major; cadences in minor. 

Harmony 11 

Review of Harmony I; musical dictation in phrase and period form emphasizing 
motive, sequence and cadence; melody writing, phrase form, diatonic and chord; triad 
inversion (six and six four chords) ; analysis of dmple form part harmony; cadences (six 
four cadence — extended six-four cadence) in major and minor k^. Deceptive; seventh 
chords in major and minor. Interval structure; dominant seventh chord (its resolution in 
major and minor) complete and incomplete; inversions of dominant seventh chord; 
supertonic seventh chord and its inversions in major and minor; passing tones; suspensiwi; 
mdody writing, period form in major and minor. 

Harmony III 

Review of Dominant seventh chord and inversions; review of Supertonic seventh 
chord and inversions; review of Cadences (authentic, plagal deceptive); secondary seventh 
chords and their resolutions; authentic cadence formula; deceptive cadence fmmula; 
chord progressions with given bass or soprano; chromatically altered chords; chords of the 
augmented sixth; review of suspension; suspension in bass; open harmony; harmonizing 
given soprano in dose and open harmony; dominant ninth chord; modulation. 

Harmony IV 

Musical form and analysis (one lesson each we^); music history (one lesson each 
week); review of cadences: a. motive, phrase, period; b. (authentic, plagal, deceptive, 
semi) open and dose harmony; song forms and amstructive work (unitary, binary, 
ternary); simple or compound; analysis; sonatina; sonata and sonata form; rondo. 

Music appreciation is given throughout this course. Talking-machine records furnish 
the illustrations. We utilize pupils whenever posdble, including members of the school 
orchestra to demonstrate the use of thdlr instruments, and pupils studying piano to play 
and ftx plaiTi Sonatina, Sonata and Rondo forms. It might also be added that the more 
advan<^ pianists play the accompaniments for the chorus classes and for orchestra 
rehearsals, and that the orchestra is trained to accompany the chorus numbers of the 
auditorium sessions of the schodL 

The Cincinna ti coU^es and conservatories give credit to our pupils after e x a min a t icHi 
and dassify them accoidin^y. We also ^ve credit for harmony wgA done elsewhere, 
prorided the pupil is able to pass our examinations. 

The following text-hooks arc used : Tapper's First Year Harmony; Second Year Har- 
mony; First Year Anal 3 ?sis; Musical Form (Siq>idcmentaiy material); Tapper & Goet- 
sdiius’ Essentials in Music BSstoiy. 

Not every pupil who takes the muric course is especially gifted. Some fail to make 
the required grade just as there are many failures in first year Latin or Algd>ra. S(nneare 
not very musical when they are graduated. It is also true that some take four years of 
Rnglkh but care nothing for literature. Smne of the less promiring students drop out, 
others complete the course. One of the most mark^ of these so hur as constructive or 
creative work in music was concerned, is no# makmg quite a reputation as a coloiataie 

Of the number who have taken the muric course, several are now private teadieis, 
mudi better equii^>ed because of this training to inspire thrir young papOs With a hm 



for the sonata, its themes, development, and recapitulation. Others are continuing their 
musical studies at the colleges or conservatories. Some are now in the University of 
Cincinnati taking a prominent part in its musical activities. Still others are soloists in 
church choirs. One at nineteen years of age became a member of the first violin section 
in the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra. Another, at twenty-one, is an organist in a large 
church in Pittsburgh where he is continuing his organ study with a master teacher in that 
dty. Another, a young colored girl, is now teaching music in the two Cincinnati public 
schools for colored children. She is a splendid pianist, has continued her study of counter- 
point, fugue, canon, etc., is now studying voice and has recently harmonized several negro 
spirituals in a very interesting way. 

One of our present senior boys is a clarinet player of considerable ability. He traveled 
with a band last summer making seventy towns in ten weeks, his contract calling for 
playing the clarinet and “doubling up” on the piano. 

One senior girl, who is so nearly blind that she is tutored in all her work, reads all her 
piano work in Braille, works out her harmony and analysis at the keyboard, plays the 
piano in a very delightful way, and is preparing herself to teach the blind. 

In the junior year, a blind boy keeps up with his classes (his Cicero is in Braille), 
reads all his harmony exercises in Braille, and dictates to his tutor what to write on the 
staff. He can detect an augmented interval, tell chord progressions and modulations by 
ear, and he plays the piano fairly well. This boy is much more apt at harmony than the 
blind girl. Her keyboard work far surpasses her aptitude for hannony or melody writing. 
The piano teacher of these two blind pupils has made a special study of teaching the blind 
and deserves great credit for the splendid results in both of these cases. 

Some of the most gifted do not continue, but leave school in order to devote them- 
selves exclusively to music, not realizing the value of a well-rounded education. 

We have had several cases where talented pupils were urged to devote so many hours 
each day to practice that attendance at school was impossible. 

In the great majority of cases, however, the private music teacher has been very 
appreciative of what we are trying to do. Many times the discipline of the school secured 
regular hours of practice when all else failed. 

In comparison with other courses the music course pupils are not numerous; neverthe- 
less, as a means of expression, a method of communication, an instrument in the develop- 
ment of reasoning power and judgment, an aid in interpreting the great composers, this 
course offers possibilities which may lead to untold realms of delight and beauty. 


Lillian B. Held, Latimer Jr. High School^ Pittshurght Pa, 

The Junior High School is a new and rather recent educational developmait. Instead 
of attempting to adopt or revise the course of study used in the elementary or the secondary 
schools, the Junior High School has chosen rather to formulate a new course which will be 
better suited to meet the needs of the pupils, and to satisfy the diversity of interest and 
endowment f oimd at this stage in school life. Educators realize that the Junior High School 
is still in the formative period of its development. Its schedule is a flexible one, and affords 
excellent opportunity for experimentation in educational problems. This fact has been 
taken advantage of by music educators. They have introduced broader music courses so 
plann^ as to touch every individual in the Junior High SchooL 

Those of us who have had opportunity for observation have realized ithat boys and 
girls of Junior High School age have a keener interest in music and are more susceptible 
to its influence at this time than at any other period in their lives. This is demonstrated 



repeatedly by the enthusiasm shown in orch^tral work, by the ardent desire of pupils to 
take up the study of orchestral instruments, by the general excellence of the chorus work 
which may be accomplished, and by the interest manifested by large groups of students 
in music appreciation and harmony courses. My discussion will be limited to that of a 
course in harmony, based upon the course now in use in the Latimer Junior High School 
of Pittsburgh. This school has an enrollment of 1500 divided as follows: Seventh Year 
550, Eighth Year 350, Ninth Year 600. The course about to be presented might, with 
proper modification or expansion, be suitably applied to any other school of a similar type. 

Two years ago in the formation of a muac curriculum for this school, a three year 
course in harmony was planned. This course was intended for seventh, eighth, and ninth 
year pupils. Its content, as outlined by semesters is as follows; Semester I. Acoustic 
foundations, a thoro study of elementary theory, intervab, and intervalic relations, and 
the principal and subordinate triads. Semester II. First and second inversions of triads, 
and their use. Semester HI. The dominant seventh chord, its inversions and one or more 
of the secondary seventh chords. Semester IV. Completion of secondary sevenths and 
the study of altered chords. Semester V. Modulations. Semester VI. Inharmonic 
elements. If offered as a two 3 rear course, elective in the eighth and ninth years only, two 
thirds of the work outlined in the above course might be done, and the remainder, equiva- 
lent to the last two semesters, would be left for completion to the Senior BSgh School. 

In the specific case which I am citing, it has been impossible so far to make use of the 
courses planned for the 7th and 8th years, on account of crowded schedules, but whenever 
the subject of harmony is presented for discussion in eighth year classes, we find that it 
obtains a very favorable reception, and great interest is made manifest in the bare possi- 
bility of the offering of such a course. It is also a significant fact, in this connection, to 
make the observation that the present harmony class is made up largdy of pupils, now 
in their ninth year, who would gladly have elected harmony to a place in their schedules 
in an earlier grade had the opportunity but been offered. From these and a number of like 
conditions it may be said that there is great promise for the introduction of elective 
dghth year harmony in the near future. 

However, the course offered as an dective in the ninth year only, as in use at the 
present time, is intended to lead to completion in the first year’s work in harmony of the 
four year high school. This course includes a presentation of acoustic foundation, the 
study of elementary theory, of intervals, of principal and subordinate triads and th^ 
first inversions, the work of the first semester, followed in the second semester by the 
study and use of second inversions of the triads, the dominant seventh chord and its 
inversions, and one or more of the secondary sevenths. Thru this bare woof of rather 
colorless formal ritual, there runs a warp of live and interesting training of a lighter nature- 
It consists of two basic principles, namely: that of the continuation of ear tra in i n g begun 
in the grades, and that of oiigmal musical expression, or composition. The first of these 
two, ear training, is emplo 3 ?ed in the distinguishing of chords and chord progresrions, and 
also with valuable effect in the taking of musical dictation from the piano. In this way an 
increase in the musical sensibilities of the pupU is brought about, both in relation to thdr 
cognizance of the sound of murical combinations, and as to the ultimate appearance of 
these combinations in a written form. The second of the principles, that of o ngn al com- 
position, provides a natural outlet for the pupil’s wishes for expression of his own ideas in 
music, and at the same time gives splendid opportunity for the employment of the theoreti- 
cal knowledge gained from the routine work. It has been demonstrated that students can 
produce original works which are not only of value in their direct appUcation to the theory 
which has been learned, but have a charming freshness which rivals that of the work done 
by far older students in the fidd of comporition. 



Just a word of comparison between the work of the Junior and Senior High Schools. 
While there may be little difference in the material presented there is likely to be some 
difference in the method of presentation, for example, we use a very simple presentation of 
the theory of acoustics, a thoro teaching of elementary theory, that perhaps would only 
need reviewing in the Senior High, and a presentation of all chord material at a little 
slower speed. The loss of time in presentation, if there be any, is by far overshadowed 
by the enthusiasm of the classes in receiving it. Just to mention the fact that next week we 
will be writing an original exerdse causes an outburst of joy, and before next week comes 
half the class will have written two or three originals instead of one. This, too, seems to be 
a happy period for research work. For example, after a new chord has been introduced, 
all of us search for good examples of its use. There is no limit to the amount of material 
that a class of twenty will collect. Instead of enough for one lesson they are likely to 
bring in enough for ten. There need never be the cry of small classes in Harmony in the 
Junior High School. The present members of the classes do their own advertising, not 
only to their brothers, sisters and friends, who are in the grade schools, but also to those in 
the Junior High who have not yet elected Harmony. So each semester finds a larger class 
than the preceding one, and an ever increasing percentage continuing their work in the 
Senior High School or anxious to begin it there. 

One more phase, perhaps one of the most promising in the entire Junior High School 
situation, is the value of the work in harmony as a socializing influence both in the lives 
of the pupils and in the community at large. Outside teachers of music have awakened 
to the fact that pupils who take harmony in school have a broader outlook in their music 
work, and have a finer perception of the true meaning of music than they have ever had 
before. The teachers themselves are eager to visit the harmony classes and urge their 
pupils to enter them. Students as well as teachers ''catch the fever” and some of our best 
orchestra members who are only in the eighth year are clamoring for admission to the 
harmony class. 

Once a week the entire student body ass^bles for chapel exercises at which student 
programs are often presented. A short time ago at one of these assemblies a music program 
was given. A group of original compositions in harmony was presented by members of 
the harmony class and consisted of a soprano solo, a four part song, a piano solo and several 
smaller numbers. The interest shown by the pupils participating, their parents and friends 
and by the entire student body was very gratifying and the influence for beauty and uplift 
in their lives far greater perhaps than we can measure. 

In conclusion harmony should have a place in the Junior High School Music Program 
first, because of the pupils’ keen susceptibility to music; second, because of the importance 
of the r^tionship that harmony bears to all music; third, because of the value harmony Ha g 
in itself ih mental training and character buildmg;/oMri/t, because of the opportunity given 
thru harmony for self-expression in music; finally, for the social influence that is dis- 
seminated by music thru both the school and the community. 


Karl W. GehrkenS) Oberlin, Ohio: — "A very small amount of music credit is accepted 
by colleges generally. Harmony is the only music credit accepted by two hundred colleges 
in this country. Most colleges allow but one music credit for entrance.” 

E. B. Birge, Indianapolis, Indiana: — ^"Colleges in Indiana accept two music credits 
for entrance, but no applied music is credited. Theoretical work only is credit^.” 

Peter W. Dykema, Madison, Wisconsin: — "Harmony is static. Counterpoint is 
dy n amic. We should teach Harmony as elementary counterpoint. Begin with the writing 
of a single melody, then add another melody, then another. Harmony should not be begun 
as a four-part harmonization of a melody.” 


Victor J. Bergquist, Minneapolis, Minnesota: — ‘‘Harmony should not be taught in the 
High Schools, The High School should teach composition only. The college should 
teach Hannony. The High School age is the age of expression and ccmipo^tion. The joy 
of creation is the incentive for composition in the High SchooL The High School should 
prepare the boy and girl for theory and should encoiuage self-expression.” 

Karl W. Gehrkens, Oherlin Conservatory of Music 

In the old days, studying music usually meant practicing the technique of playing or 
si ng i ng. “Taking music lessons” implied an attempt at learning to play the piano. We 
all know that such attempts frequently resulted in failure, either because of the unen- 
lightened methods used by the teacher or because of lack of practice on the part of the 
pupil. But even when the results were successful and the pupil attained some measure of 
proficiency, he was practically always extremely intelligent, both in his attitude toward 
the music that he performed and toward the art in general The result was that muac 
acquired the reputation of being a mere aca>mplishment, a sort of unintelligent facility 
in doing acrobatic stunts for the amusement of a crowd: “digital dexterity^' unaccom- 
panied by rational thought. 

Our present idea of musical education implies the training of the intellect and of the 
emotions as well as the fingers, the aim being to cause the person who is learning to play or 
sing to become as intelligent as possible: (1) about muac in general; (2) about the partic- 
ular composition being studied. For this reason, a body of facts, known as Music Theory, 
has been gathered together, organized, and arranged, and these facts, together with the 
study of notation as ordinarily included in such activities as sight-singing and ear-training 
and involving also both melodic and harmonic construction, it is now agreed ought to be 
studied, practiced, and absorbed by all music students. Such work would, of course, 
include learning to build and combine chords (Harmony), to construct and combine 
melodies (Counterpoint), and so to combine smaller units as to build up effectively 
arranged larger wholes (Composition) . This implies analysis, both of harmonic effects and 
of design; and both harmonic analysis and a study of form are therefore included in the 
more elaborate theory courses. In advanced work, orchestration is also taught. 

In the high school, both the method of approach and the actual content of theoretical 
courses are extremely non-unified. This is accounted for by the fact that such courses 
have been offered for only a comparatively few years, and there has not been time to 
thrftsh things out and to settle upon even our fundamental principles. Each teacher offers 
a course which is planned in accordance with his own ideas, and no two courses are alike. 
After a period of years, there will doubtless eventuate certain general principles of proce- 
dure; and in the course of ten years or so, theory courses will probably be better tau^t 
and more uniform in content than they now are. 

This much is clear, however: more and more high schools are going to offer courses in 
theory, not only because both music teachers and music students d em and them, but 
because the school authorities favor theoretical instruction, and are suspicious of music 
study which does not include it. Indeed, in most cases, th^ go so far now as to refuse to 
allow credit for practical music but usually grant it freely for theory. This is palpably a 
wrong attitude and as we are able to demonstrate that the values attached to the study of 
practical music are such as to warrant its inclusion among the courses for which credit is 
given, such recognition is bound to come. But it will come in most cases only with the 
proviso that practical music, if credited, must be accompanied by theoretical courses ol 
some kind. Pressure for the O'lganization of sudi classes is thus seen to be exerted feom 



two directions: from the musician on the one hand and from the school man on the other; 
and the result is bound to be as stated above — that many more schools wiU, in the near 
future, offer courses in music theoiy. 

This immediately brings up the question of the administration of theoretical instruc- 
tion: ideally, that is, from the standpoint of perfect correlation and co-ordination the best 
plan would be to have the pupil study theory under his instructor in practical music. 
Practically this is, in most cases, not feasible, not only because the teacher in practical 
mu^c is often not q uali fied to give appropriate theoretical instruction, but even more 
because of the large expense involved in giving instruction to a single pupil compared with 
the teaching of twenty or twenty-five at the same time, as is done in class work. It will 
be a long time before the public schools in general recognize their responsibility in giving 
free instruction in practical music because of the very large expense involved. But 
organizing a theoiy class is no very formidable matter and entails no very large e:!q)ense 
for either equipment or salary. Since the work is thus seen to be both desirable and prac- 
ticable, the introduction of theoretical instruction will doubtless go forward much more 
rapidly than certain other projects dear to the heart of the Music Supervisor which, 
although highly desirable, are not always immediately feasible. 

In conclusion, let me add a word about the content of the high school theory course. 
I am well aware that my opinion is worth no more than that of anyone else, and I give it 
merely because it is only by considering various opinions that we shall finally hit upon 
truth. My feeling is that in many cases the high school theory courses have taken up 
Harmony too early, and that if the student were required to go through a semester of 
preliminary work, he would do veiy much better in the long run. The content of such a 
prdiminaiy course would, of course, be deteimined largely by the quantity and quality of 
the music instruction in the grades. But in general, it ought, in my opinion, to include the 

1. A thorough review of sight-singing and ear-training, with interval and rhythm drill 
as might be found necessary, and with particular attention to the minor mode. 

2. A course in terminology ^ or ‘^General Theory,” as it is often termed,, this covering 
not only the Italian expressions commonly encountered in music but at least the 
rudiments of acoustics, of design or form, etc. It might also include some ele- 
mentary study of the orchestral instruments. 

3. A certain amount of practice in writing melodies of the “tune variety,” this leading 
to a feeling for balance and structure, a knowledge of how to fit melodies to text, 

The work in Harmony proper, should, in my opinion, emphasize original construction 
from almost the first lesson on. It is fax betto to have the pupil make music that is crude 
and full of blunders arid be interested in going on with the process until he gets to the point 
where he can construct music that is less crude, than it is to have hirn restrained from 
expressing his constructive instinct until he has acquired sufficient knowledge of the rules 
so as not to make any blunders. What often happens in the latter case is that the pupil, 
not being allowed or encouraged to express himself, becomes discouraged and drops out 
long before he has acquired the ability to write music of refinement. 

A second and final principle of Harmony teaching that I should like to express my 
faith in is this : every harmonic effect taken up in the theory class should be studied from 
the three-fold standpoint of ear, eye, and piano keyboard. Conservatory courses in 
Harmony have too often built up a paper technique exclusively, and there hag been little'^ 
correlation between the theory of music and its practice. This condition of affairs is bad 
anywhere, but in the high school it is intolerable, and at least one result of this method of 
procure wiU be an empty class room in the Mutic Department; for high school students 
will not continue to elect a course that has no practldal application. The remedy is, of 


^ PHILADELPHIA, PA-, MARCH 22-26, 1920 

course, (1) to include harmonic ear-training as an integral part of the work; (2) to insist 
upon keyboard training, this including the free harmonization of melodies; aTid (3) to 
encourage the pupil to find examples of the progressions being studied in the theory 
in his piano music. These p>oints might well be elaborated further but I have already 
taken too much time, so will close without discussing them. 

Edwakd B. Birg£, Indianapolis^ Ind, 

We have to go back only about twelve years to find the beginnings of crediting music 
as a regular study when done outside of school under private teachers. Today plans for 
giving credit for outside study are being administered by probably two hundred TTigTi 
Schools in the United States. These twelve years which correspond almost exactly to the 
age of our Conference are important years of larger ideals for music, attended by 
much discussion, expansion and administrative adjustment. Before the present wave of 
progress has spent itself, it may sweep the educational world to the point where applied 
music study will be carried on within the schools by teachers employed by the Bo^ of 

I am to present briefly some conclusions drawn from my experience in fl dTniTiigfi»riTtg 
plans for granting credit for outside music, and I am addressing more directly those who are 
confronting the problem for the first time than those who are already launched upon the 

Note first the new and vital relation between professional musician and music super- 
visor when pupils are enrolled for outside credit. This relationship is stimulating and, 
in my experience at least, is cordial and heartening to the ^irit The private teacher is 
seldom imwilling to meet the conditions which must be laid down to govern the pupils’ 
standing. Teachers tell me that their pupils give them a better grade of work when trying 
for credit, and that they can more successfully keep them to a steady pull than fonneily. 

To those who are planning to begin this woii, but who are postponing it for one reason 
or another, let me suggest as a temporaiy plan that you ask your high school principal to 
give credit, upon your recommendations, to such pupils as by common consent and 
knowledge are making strides in music study outside of school. Every town has its 
musically talented children who practice thdr three or four hours daily, and whose ddUful 
p^formances in public give them the equivalent of credit in public este^, whether they 
actually receive it in school or not. It is not difficult to persuade higji school principals 
that sudx excellence is worthy of credit. In my own dty, before our present plan went 
into effect, several such pupils were given credit, sometimes to enable them to stay in 
school and finish their general High School education, and sometiines merdy as a tribute 
to their talent and industry, but the credit was always given as a recognition of merit. 
This, for us, was our preparatory stage of giving credit. It estabMied the prind^ and 
habit of giving credit for work done outside of school, and this is the first great step. 

The i>amph]et which has been handed you contains the plan which has been in use 
in Indianapolis for five years. Generally speaking, it has proved very satisfactory, and it 
has the approval of the Board of Education. 

You will notice at once that there is no mention of certification of teachers When 
we have legal provision for certificfatiotfc ip our state, and there are signs that this inay be 
coming, our plan will es^dude all but certified teachqrs. Doubtless certifijoition dfiteachers 
is desirable for many reasons, but it is not absoluteljr necessary. After all,' we are crecfiting 
•the pupils, not the teachers, or, to put it ahpther way, pupils who receive credit reflect 
credit upon their teachers, and prove oondudvdy. that they can teadSt, even more ocm- 
dusively than certification can do. 



You will notice also that the final examination of pupils is done by our own music 
department. This places the responsibility where it belongs, upon our own shoulders, 
and avoids the cumbersome machinery of a committee of judges who sit behind screens 
while the examinations are being held, and who must be paid by the pupUs. 

Those who intend to start outside credit work in their High Schools should outline 
carefully such courses as they intend to offer for credit, and have them printed, distributing 
copies to the pupils who are taking private lessons, to be handed by them to their teachers. 
When you are making up your courses, you wiU, of course confer with some of the leading 
teachers. It may be well also at first to offer a course in one subject only, in piano, for 
instance, adding other instruments later. It will not be necessary or desirable to give the 
details of technical exercises for each grade. This is the business of the private teacher. 
All that is necessary is a well graded list from standard music literature, of as attractive 
content as possible. 

Teachers who examine the list and read the conditions will decide for themselves 
whether they can prepare their pupils successfully ox not, and you wiU probably have few 
pupils trying for outside credit who fail, or have to do the work over agin. 

The question has frequently been raised, whether pupils should be allowed to receive 
credit for first grade work, or whether no credit should be allowed below the third grade. 
As a matter of equity and public policy, I believe beginners as well as more advanced stu- 
dents should receive the benefit of outside credit. 

Every pupil enrolling for credit for outside music must present a written request 
signed by himself, his parent, and his teacher. The pupil promises to take at least one 
lesson per week and to practice at least one hour a day, six days in the week. The parent 
promises to see that the pupil does this, and the private teacher binds himself to make regu- 
lar reports of the pupil’s work on the same marking scale as that of the High School. Such 
marks are placed upon the pupils’ report card and become a part of the permanent record 
of the school. The final or passing mark is given by the music department as a result of the 
final examination. 

Another important feature of the plan is that the pupil is obliged to play, at the final 
examination, at least one composition selected from the school list. 

May I offer one or two cautions based upon my experience and observation? Never 
comment at the examination upon the work done by the pupil, unless you have occasion 
to especially commend the work. Above all do not allow yourself to criticize the teacher. 
You are a judge in this case, and not a critic. And do not discuss the teacher’s work with 
the pupil. You arc not the teacher, nor a re you supervising the work of the teacher. 

I have not yet mentioned one of the important and indispensable features of the plan: 
viz: that all pupils trying for outside credit must take Harmony either in school or its 
equivalent outside. For this they of course receive a Harmony credit. We strongly urge 
our pupils to take Harmony in the school, because we can come into closer touch with the 
pupil, and because his work will probably be more thoroughly done. Harmony is a daily 
subject requiring outside preparation, and it is difficult indeed for a student taking Har- 
mony out of school to equal in thoroughness the worir of our regular Harmony students. 

This plan gives the pupil two semester credits, one for Harmony and one for his applied 
music subject. Our High Schools allow eight music credits out of thirty-two toward 
graduation, and the ceffieges of our state accept four credits toward college entrance. 

When I say that this plan has work^ well, I do not mean that we have always 
accepted the work of pupils, though we seldom have- to refuse pupils’ work, and the private 
teachers know that poor work will not be credited. In fact we urge the teachers to recom- 
mend credit work only to their strong, hard working pupils, those who have the character 
and ability to hold their own in English and Matho^tics as wdl as in Music. We have 
had differences with one or two teachers, not because the pupil failed to receive credit, but 



because sometimes teachers grow careless in keeping to the conditions to which they 
assented when the pupQ was entered for outside credit. They sometimes feel that they 
are unduly hampered by the fact that the pupH must prepare one composition from the 
printed Ust, in spite of the fact that the teacher has unlimited choice in what other com- 
positions the pupil offers for examination. 

The reason for publishing your own outside credit courses is the same as for publishing 
inside credit courses, whether in music, languages or mathematics. It makes the work 
authoritative, in that it is really offered by your Board of Education, whom you repr^ent. 
If you wish to accept any other published course as the equivalent of your own, that is for 
you and the Superintendent of Schools to decide, but you should never waive the responsi- 
bility of exami nin g the pupil before giving bim his credit. 


Will Earbart, Pittsburgh, Pa.: **I believe with Mr. Birge that the plan of crediting 
outside music study can best be started by giving credit to one who is the musical pride of 
the school, one who is unquestionably deserving of credit” 

In reply to the question — ^who should judge the outside music study for credit — ^Karl 
W. Gehrkens, Oberlin, Ohio, suggested that outside judges were preferable. 

E. B. Birge, In di a n apolis, Indiana: **The school music teacher should be the judge, 
but not the critic.” 

Peter W. Dykema, Madi^n, 'Wisconsin: “A combination of outside music teacher 
and inside music teacher is a better plan tha-n either group, exclusively.” 

Edna A. Marlatt, Richmond, Indiana: “We have nmre than one examiner in Rich- 
mond. A grade is recorded for the hours practiced by the pupil, another grade is recorded 
by the private teacher for quality of work done. The ^ades are recorded by each ex- 
aminer. We have discovered that this satisfies all parties concerned.” 

Mildred Kammerer, Allentown, Pa.: “Schott music teachers only are capable of 
grading the pupils applying for credit. I give the players (rf rare instruments no special 
examination, but grade and credit them on the merit of their ordiestra work.” 

Will Earhart, Pittsburgh, Pa. : “Examinations work well either way. If you fed that 
the pupil has put loyalty, fidelity and interest in the study of his instrument and that he 
has profited by such study as much as he would have dcMie in some academic study, credit 
should be given,** 

Edna A. Marlatt, Richmond, Indiana: “If effort alone is graded, a pupil who is not 
musically gifted but who is consdentious, will receive a high grade. It may encourage 
him to pursue music pofessionally, which would be unfortunate for him.” 

Will Earhart, Pittsburg, Pa.: “Such pupils should be gently dissuaded from going 
into the fidd professionally.” 

It was learned that outside music could not be credited in the schods of New Jersey, 
unless the music instruction was g^ven by teachers paid by the school boards of the state. 
After some discusdmi of the situatscHi, Victor J. Beigquist, Minneapolis, Minney>ta, 
suggested that the boards in New Jersey eiiq>loy the private mode teachers at the nominal 
annual sum of one dollar ($1 .00). 



D. R. Gebhakt, George Peabody CeUege for Teachers^ NaskviUe^ Tennessee 

The supervisor must have good general -mnsidandnp; be able to sing, play, direct 
and teach; have good personally, be polite, odtuied, firm; be a good “mixer.” 



Of no one in musical life is as much expected as of the Supervisor of Music. His 
general musicianship must include the broadest knowledge of his subject. He must know 
opera, oratorio, cantata and orchestra music. These forms of music should be known from 
actual participation in them — ^not only a theoretical knowledge, if he expects to be a force 
in his community. He should be able to sing acceptably and play the piano, violin or some 
other orchestral instrument to a useful degree. He must be a teacher. History of Music, 
Biography, Harmony, Counterpoint are practical subjects to him in his teaching and 
arranging music for orchestra. Orchestration is essential. 

His personality must be of the kind that attracts men, women and children and holds 
them as friends, and retains their respect. 

The social life of the Supervisor requires that he be polite. Without it he cannot last 
long in any place. People will overlook rud^ess in a genius but not in an ordinary mortal. 
His culture must be founded on general education, travel, literature, art, music. If he 
knows music and music only he will bore most people. 

If he has all of these things plus sociability, he will be a good mixer. The last is very 
important for the duties of the Supervisor require that he meet and mingle with people 
of all walks of life. Particularly if he does community work. 

Material from Which Supervisors Are to be Made 

From years of experience in the middle west and south the writer knows that the 
average student in the Normal School and Teachers’ College has the preceding attributes 
only in a latent state, if at all. 

Personality is strangely lacking in schools for teachers. Perhaps it is because so 
many of the students are young. 

Culture is not to be expected, nor is it found, in students who have never had an 
opportunity to acquire it. Their teachers have lacked this, through no fault of theirs, 
they too lacked the opp6rtunity and got nothing from the college or normal school except 
what was in the text book. 

Task of Normal School and Teachers^ College 

In Music all courses should be based first, last and always on Music and be associated 
with actual music. By this is meant that performance of music be an essential part of 
every course. AH theoretical subjects should be considered as of secondary importance. 
No man should be graduated to teach or supervise who cannot read music at sight, who has 
not studied Harmony, Counterpoint, Instrumentation, and can apply them in Orchestra- 
tion. History of Music and Biography of Musicians should be known as adjuncts to 
world’s history and not as isolated subjects. The Pedagogy of Music and School Room 
Methods should be thoroughly understood and should have been illustrated and tried out 
in a practice school. The Supervisor must have had experience in all kinds of choral work 
including actual participation in opera as wdl as oratorio and cantata. He should be 
experienced in conducting choral and orchestral works separately or combined. As 
correlated subjects his curriculum should indude at least two foreign languages, English, 
History of Education, Principles of Education, Psychology, Ph 3 rsics (Theory of Sound), 
Medieval History (also General and American History), Art, Manual Training, Folk 
D a n cin g and Costume Designing. Of these subjects. Conducting, Orchestration and 
Chorus work are the most important. These give a reason in themselves for the study of 
the otherwise purely theoretical subjects. Harmony, Counterpoint, Form, etc. Besides 
they are of inestimable value in devdoping musicianship and culture. v 

Colleges that do not offer courses in opera and oratorio production are falling short of 
thdr purpose. Through tihiese agencies musidanship can be devdoped. These courses 
should be fully credited as are coui^ in the Modern Drama. Also, accredited courses 



should be offered in individual instruction both vocal and instrumental. Too many Super- 
visors at the present day can not sing, play nor direct. They can talk music, but that is all. 

Personality, politeness, good manners, firmness and culture are more difiScult of attain- 
ment than musicianship. Personality is almost indescribable. It must embrace a good 
disposition, magnetism, broadmindedness, whole-heartedness, aggressiveness and sympa- 
thetic possibilities. It is often obtained through hard knocks and suffering. Any school 
should be able to furnish the hard knocks, it generally does. Let us hope it alleviates the 

Politeness is due to environment and example. The faculty members are the ones 
who should set the example, which they seldom do. Military discipline does inculcate this. 
It is to be hoped that universal military training be placed in even the loftiest universities 
if for no other reason than this. Proper social affairs, with good chaperons, selected from 
without the school, would be helpful in teaching politeness and good manners. The 
schools of the Episcopal Church are about the only ones that pay any attention to this 
form of education. Firmness in dealing with students, just firmness, will instill the same 
in the student towards others. Vacillating, kindly teachers who pamper students and 
permit students to work on their sympathies to the extent of raising grades, etc., are a 

Culture is generally gained by being associated with people of good breeding, by 
travel, study of good literature, art and music. The schools usually furnish the literajy 
work and some exanaples of good breeding. The other essentials are lacking and will be 
till teachers so organize themselves that men of wealth will contribute the means to the 
other essentials, travel, art and music. 

No city, town, community or country is above the level of its amusements and sports. 
Our National sports, base-ball and foot-baU are far above our amusements. This is due 
to the colleges and universities having established these sports on a dean basis that has 
extended its influence even to professional base-ball. Our amusements, except Shake- 
speare, have never been nurtured by our institutions of learning. Shakespeare, being now 
buried, there is no connecting link whatsoever between the school and the theater. The 
theater has fallen into the hands of money grabbers who have degraded the taste of the 
whole country. Unless the sdiools, colleges and universities re-educate a set of people who 
prefer ^l^ n amusements we are bound to become an immoral nation. The burden is to fall 
on the Supervisor of Music. Music, thanks to the war, has a broader following, vocally, 
than ever before. The efforts of the schools must be turned to use this throu^ opera, 
oratorio and cmnmunity music before the hold is lost. Normal schools and teachers* 
colleges are the ones from which these men are to come. The courses of studies mentioned 
in this artide are the channels of production. Theory, pedagogy and ability to talk music 
will not do. The Supervisor must be able to sing, play and direct Let the theoretical 
subjects be made concrete by giving them a definite purpose in m aking an intelligent, able 

Too many students study sight reading, harmony, history, etc., merdy to teach them 
in a high school. The high school curriculum has little room for any of these but sight 
singing. Course should be planned with a maximum of singing and playing with the 
theoretical subjects as inddentaJs. Three music periods per week throu^out the years of 
high school life are about all that can reasonably be demanded of the hi^ school Special 
hours after school must be utilized for the chorus and orchestra work. 

To sum up, the college that prepares teachers who emphasize theoretical things to the 
exdusion of practical ties a mill stone around the neck of music. 

The college that prepares teachers throu^ actual music, to teach rnudc, aids in 
bringing musk into its birth-right, which birth-ri^t is to devate and refine the peoi^ 
of the world. 



Edwin N, C. Barnes, Supervisor of Music, Central Falls, R, L 

The quality of the work we receive from the grade teacher lies to some considerable 
extent in our own hands. The teacher musically, as otherwise, is quite largely what she 
has been made in the grades, the high and the normal school. 

If an incompetent supervisor, inadequately trained, and using antiquated and unpeda- 
go^c methods, has charge of the training in the grades and high school, the blame for poor 
musical training certainly cannot rest upon the pupil. 

The same is true in the case of the normal school. Back of all the training of the grade 
teacher, is not the question of the ability and equipment of the supervisor of fundamental 

I have in mind a supervisor, not a thousand miles from my own city, who came out 
of a shop and commenced supervision with practically no training. 

Then there was another, a Frenchman, unable to speak good English, who had risen 
from a sewing machine agent to the conductorship of a local choral society in a city of over 
100,000. He knew so little about Public School Music in the United States that it took 
three solid days of observation work, immediately following his election to the directorship 
of music in the city schools, to impress upon his dull brain the fact that we use the movable 
“do” on this side of the Atlantic. 

Yet he was elected by a supposedly sane and intelligent school board, one member of 
which was a well known woman physician, winning out against two college trained, 
experienced and successful supervisors. 

We all know the supervisor who knows little music, less pedagogy and still less of the 
history, thought and trend of modem education. It should be impossible for people of 
such equipment, or lack of it, to teach in any state, to say nothing of supervising the work 
of efficient and highly trained teachers of ripe experience. 

These are the people who bring the music supervisor into disrepute. And imfortu- 
nately, if music courses were offered them, at their very doors, many of them would turn 
the opportunity down. 

The old program of School Music meant the indifferent and irregular study of a few 
rote songs; a very moderate ability in music-reading, the learning of a few son^ by note 
and some crude efforts in the matter of orchestral training and music appreciation. 

What does the new program demand? The slogan of last year’s conference is the 
answer. “Every child should be educated in music, according to his natural capacities, 
at public expense and his studies should function in the life of the community.” Some 
program ! — one that needs a specialist to “put it over.” 

If we are to get this program across, we must have two things and the need is impera- 
tive and immediate. 

These two things are, more and better courses for supervisors in our colleges and tell- 
ing pressure brought to bear upon superficially trained supervisors to make use of the 
opportunities offered and dig deeper. 

After all, are we not solidly up against the very real need of stiff state requirements 
in the matter of music supervision? Such requirements should be of national uniformity. 
The decision as to what should enter into these requirements is a task well worthy of our 
Educational Council, just as the pushing of the adoption of the same would naturally fall 
to the lot of the National Conference. 

Where would medicine, law and similar professions be without the state board exam- 
inations instituted to e limina te the quacks, fakers and shysters and to protect the public 
and the professions? Is it going too far to claim that supervision has its quacks and shy- 
sters and that their e limina tion at our hands is one of the crying needs of Music Education? 

PHILADELPHIA, PA., MARCH 22-26, 1920 89 

Such e l i mina tion can be done successfully only in the way used by the doctors and 

What should the supervisor's training include? Briefly, a good fundamental knowledge 
of music, vocally and if possible, instrumentally, a working equipment in harmony, coun- 
terpoint and appreciation, a considerable acquaintance with the folk song, orchestra, S 3 rm- 
phony, opera, oratorio, community music and activities, and thorough courses in pedagogy, 
school management, and the history and aims of education. 

The supervisor, should be, above all, possessed of executive ability in a marked 
degree. There are other qualifications necessary but the above will sufl&ce for the purposes 
of this paper. 

Granting, for the sake of argument, that the supervisors of the state possess such 
fitting qualifications as are set forth above and that the girls and bo 5 rs have enjoyed 
adequate courses in the grades— what next? 

We cannot demand that the grade teacher be a specialist in all the different lines she is 
called upon to teach but we must insist that she, at least, have some semblance of native 
ability musically and that she supplement such ability by serious study. 

Emphatically, no pupil should be allowed to enter the normal school without a 
thorough course in fundamental theory and appreciation in the high school The music 
supervisor should see to it that those planning to attend the normal school take such 

Pupils without average ability in singingj music-reading and ea/r-iraining should be 
discouraged from entering the teaching profession. 

I cannot conceive a more important function of supervision than that of turning poor 
maierialf hound to come bach all too soon upon the supervisor's hands, away from the work of 
the elementary schools. 

Going from the high school to the normal, the teacher-to-be should find another bar. 
No student should be admitted to the normal school who cannot sing in tune, read simple 
melodies at sight or whose ear is defective. Once in the normal school, it is hard to bar 
the pupils from graduation and the normal music director has to stretch the supervising 
conscience to graduate them. How much time and effort lost which an entrance examina- 
tion would have saved. 

I am wholly convinced that the solution lies largely in the hands of the superinten- 
dents. Every superintendent, worthy of the name, wants his schools to excel whether in 
music or number. Likewise every worthwhile superintendent recognizes music, not only 
as a serious study, but as one of the best, if not the best means of cultivating practical 
intensive concentration. President Emeritus Eliot of Harvard University made the state- 
ment in my presence only a few years ago that music-reading was an exact science and one 
of the best exercises in concentration to betound in a school curriculum. 

If superintendents do desire excellence in thdh schools and do believe in music as a 
serious study, they and the supervisors have some strong points of contact in the matter 
of the musical training of the future teacher. 

Could not this whole matter be threshed out at joint meetings of superintendents and 

If we cotdd get together, talk this over and stand together in the matter of high school 
fitting and normal entrance pressure could be used upon state officials and a long stride in 
music education would result 

Supervisors, does this all seem extreme? Are we discussing a school music mil le n n i u m 
which will never dawn? Is this a narrow conception because music is not of enou^ impor- 
tance in education and the world to justify such a stand? It may be in the distance, possi- 
bly not in your generation or mine. Does that mean, however, that this is an imposable 



If we are tempted to feel thus, think of the part the music supervisor is playing in the 
new education — think of the bigness of our job, and with all this bigness in our hearts, let 
us go — our heads high, our hearts singing, our vision large and constantly expanding — 
our courage and faith big enough to remove mountains of apathy and let us make it our 
business to give to each child his true birthright in music. 

As our fine old dean of school music teachers, Mr. Samuel Cole, of Brookline, says; 
“Ours is a great work — there is none greater except the preaching of the Grospel.” Mr. 
Cole’s statement is not extreme. It simply sets a high but not impossible standard. Ours 
is an important task as are all tasks that deal with child life, future manhood and citizen- 

Life is a S3rmphony. The writing of the themes and motives of the child life is largely 
in our hands. It is our great, our high privilege to see that the melody is ryth mi c and 
sweet, the harmony full and complete, ready for use in the world by the great Master 
Musician, Whose voice and hand compel the mdlody, harmony and rhythm of the music 
of the spheres. 


Miss Crane: ‘*I do not believe that we should shut out from Normal Schools all pupils 
who cannot sing in tune, in this day of shortage of teachers. Normal schools would be 
depleted one half. It would mean that some of the best teachers who had been sent 
out would have been shut out of the schools.” 

Mr. Barnes : ‘ ‘This statement was made in order to stimulate discussion. This may be 
far in the future, but is a possibility.” 

Mr. Archibald, Waltham, Mass.: “In attempting to separate Normal School Classes, 
monotones from others and give them special training — ^how should you carry on that 

Miss Crane; “We give an examination when students enter and all monotones are 
put into a preparatory class. They have five lessons per week for twenty weeks.” 

Mrs. Parr, Qeveland: “If the Seashore tests are to be used in testing Normal School 
classes, what becomes of the teachers who fall short in these tests but are good teachers?” 

Mr. Gebhart: “Dr. Seashore does not advocate eliminating any one who falls short. 
He simply tells them that they have so much more to work for. In answer to questions 
relative to dividing of normal, classes; we frequently have to have classes for men who 
cannot sing. In twelve weeks’ time out of a class of thirty, twenty-seven or twenty-eight 
can sing quite well. When there are a few who cannot sing, I give them five minutes a day 
outside of class time in individual help, using the same methods we use for children.” 

Question; “Are there any standard tests in music to see if grades are up to standard?” 

Miss Strouse, Emporia, Kansas: “There is a set of tests being compiled in elementary 
sight singing for the first four grades. As soon as they have been tried in demonstration 
classes, they will be printed. Information concerning these tests may be had from Mr. 
F. A, Beach, State Normal School, Emporia.” 


Blanche Woody, Supervisor of MusiCy Anderson, Ind. 

I believe that the question of meetings with the teachers, with the many difficulties 
involved, depends largely if not wholly upon the attitude of the supervisor himself. 

The ardor, zeal and sincerity with which any leader upholds his principles attracts 
others to them. They become his believers and followers, desirous of the knowledge 
which he possesses, and bending time and energy to procure it. They wish to become 
masters of his ideas and to impart the same to others. 



Now the Supervisor of Music by virtue of his position is a leader. It only remains 
for him to maintain that portion. 

Enthusiasm and ardor must characterize him, but these in themselves are not suffi- 
cient for they are simply an effervescence if they are not coupled with the ability to organ- 
ize. Every leader must also be an organizer. Our public school systems are complicated 
and intricate and are becoming more so every year. 

It is then important that there be between supervisors and those under their super- 
vision a definite and positive understanding of the aims and purposes of the work in each 
department and definite plans for carrying them out- 

I can see no way by which this may be done effectually except through meetings held 
by the supervisor. I am sure that every supervisor is convinced of this, but I am also sure 
that in many, many places such meetings are not held. There are many Superintendents 
who, strange to say, are not convinced that th^ meetings are necessities and who make 
no plan for them in the year’s school calendar. 

Now under such a condition as this, the teachers are unaccustomed to meetings 
and consequently the supervisor feels a hesitancy, a real timidity about calling them. But 
I have known instances where a demand for meetings was made by the teachers themsdves. 
This demand grew out of the deep interest which was aroused by the class room demonstra- 
tions of the supervisor. "When these are conducted in a really pedagogical manner, they 
are a source of instruction to teacher and pupil. Only a few such demonstrations make the 
teacher realize his own limitations and the necessity of a greater knowledge on his part 
to become a real instructor in the subject. Every teacher is anxious to succeed, and in 
school systems where music is a regular part of the daily program, it is necessary that the 
teacher’s ability to present it be sufficiently great to make him a success. The judge of his 
success is his supervisor. Not only is he the judge but he is also the source of that success — 
for whatever difficulties there may be in the teacher’s ability it is the supervisor’s duty to 
understand and to correct. Many of these may be reached in the class room; many may 
be avoided or corrected entirely if a preliimnary meeting is held which provides instruction 
covering the point. 

Through teachers’ meetings, scheduled to be held at a definite time and a definite 
place, announcement of which is made at the beginning of the school year, organization 
of the work in the school system as a whole is obtained and organization of work in each 
grade. Each teacher is made to feel that she is one of a group who are receiving the same 
instruction and who should obtain the same or nearly the same results. At once a bond of 
sympathy and understanding is established and the group becomes a unit in spirit, in 
thought and action. 

A teacher should leave a supervisor’s meeting with the comfortable and assuring 
feeling that she has received definite instruction upon definite points which are to be 
taught to her pupils in a definite time. As a token of this she is carrying from the meeting 
an outline which prescribes the amount of work which is to be covered in the following 
month. She knows the amount of oral tonal dictation, of written tonal dictation, of si^t 
reading, the number of rote songs, which are to be covered and has received instructions 
concerning the method of presenting the new rhythmic problem which is to be given. She 
realizes that the supervisor has conscientiously striven to make her a successful instmctoi 
in music and feels that with some effort on her part, she can accomplish what is expected 
of her. She has been encouraged, not criticized, stimulated, not depressed; and althou^ 
the duties of her day are numerous, she has the feeling that she can vitalize the music 
lesson because she knows what she is to do and how she is to do it. 

For these reasons as supervisors we should be soimd teachers, real pedago^ns, for ii 
is our position to teach teaciers to teach this special subject. They thanselves are sounc 
IQ pedagogy and are capaHe of presenting other subjects and are therefore keen to detec 



flaws in the teaching of any one over them and furthermore look for the reason why and 
are apt to resent the whole situation. 

It is a great comfort to the supervisor, too, to feel that the work for the month is 
definitely planned and that as a result the class room lessons will have a greater value 
and force and that the work in music is really functioning in the school S5i^tem as a vitaliz- 
ing and stimulating force. 

It gives direction to his movements and the assurance that whatever unexpected 
demands are made upon his time and energy, the work in music is proceeding according 
to plan. 

The very best advertisement that any supervisor can have in the community which 
he serves, is the S 3 nnpathetic, intelligent cooperation of the teachers under him. 


Miss Jones, Reading, Pa.: “The head of our Department has made these meetings 
voluntary. Our attendance is about thirty per cent. How do you handle this?” 

Miss Woody: “The fihst thing is to stimulate a real desire for the meetings so that 
the demand comes from them. We have a State Law in Indiana authorizing the pa3unent 
of a certain amount for Teachers' Institutes on Saturday. This covers teachers' meet- 

Question: “What is your opinion of the so-called meeting of teachers to take up the 
study of some book?” 

Miss Laura Bryant, Ithaca, N. Y.: “The teachers are so poorly prepared that we feel 
the work should be the training of the teachers themselves. The teachers who have been 
in the system a great while should be in these other activities.” 

Miss McCracken, Boulder, Colorado: “Would you consider it better that a grade 
teacher take her own class than to have another teacher take it for her?” 

Miss Br3rant: “The work is much better if done by the grade teacher even though 
less musical. She has much more time and knows her children and can do so many little 

Mr. Schoen: “Don't you think a special teacher is at a great disadvantage? If you 
insist upon a special teacher, will not the School Board look upon music as a special 

Miss Woody: “Music has been regarded as a mere frill on Education. A few are 
getting away from this idea. A grade teacher said to me, T use music in my school-room 
for getting concentration in all other subjects.' She saw its correlation with other sub- 


Alice Bivins, North Carolina College, Greensboro, N, C. 

I have chosen to open the discussion under four points, which for convenience I 
have called, “The Why,” “The Must,” “The What,” and “The How.” 

In my experience in summer session classes I have found that those classes have in 
them students who want to know how to teach music, who realize usually their inadequate 
preparation. In other words, the taking of the work has been motivated by the realization 
of lack of preparation not periiaps so much in how to teach, but in the subject material 

These people do not realize always, in fact, almost never unless shown, “The Why.” 
Thty little realize the educational value. 



They ought to feel that it is their moral responsibility to give to the children that 
means of expression which satisfies them perhaps better than any other m e ans. 

Some of these students will say, I see the reason but I have no talent I wish I could 
but I just cannot teach music because I just cannot sing. We do not have to wait until 
summer session classes to hear that. It is a common cry but coming loudest, perhaps, from 
our summer school students. We must show those people they can. Usually it is due to 
growing up with no opportunity to sing. We must help those students to discover the 
latent talent, often a good voice and give to them thru tactful encouragement, confidence 
in their own ability so they will feel their responability of giving to the children that which 
will mate a repetition of their experience impossible. 

We come now to the third point — ^“The What.” And it is perhaps closest to my 
heart because I believe it is the place wher^ our schools fail in their responsibility toward 
the grade teacher. We wouldn’t expect to send teachers out to teach Greek who never 
had had Greek. That is exactly w]^t we do in music. We expect them to teach that 
which they know not We try to teach them advanced work with no foundation on which 
to build. We must teach to these grade teachers the simplest fundamental work that they 
may be started in the right way to continue by themselves when thty leave us. 

The last point I want to throw open to discussion is ‘‘The How.” I believe that 
much of “The How” for the grade teacher may be accomplished by doing “The What,” 
as you would with children. Teach them how to teach a rote song by teaching them theirs 
as they should teach songs to children. Teach them sight reading as you would children. 
In other words, let me dose by sa3nng, come out of the douds and be practical so that the 
grade teachers may go away with some very definite knowledge that they may use the 
next year, thus makmg the work of the next year easier and better. If what we ^ve them 
does not do that, I should be inclined to say our course was a failure. 



Makie F. Mac Connell, New York City 

It is a source of intense gratification tliat what we call Appreciation of Music has 
grown in the estimation of the musical public to a degree far surpassing the most sanguine 
expectations of its ardent advocates. 

Appreciation of music is perhaps the most important of all phases of music. Within 
its possibilities lies the power that will go through life with these students to enjoy, per- 
haps to appraise adequately an art whose influence is the highest, the most spiritual, 
even if the most intangible. 

I have attempted to tea,ch the subject for several years, and to teach it to classes of 
varying musical acquirements and intelligence. Several points have impressed me and 
several problems have arisen in my mind which I confess encourage me and often quite as 
definitely depress me. 

My first question is: What is Appreciation of Music? 

According to some, it is a recognition of a certain style or form of music. 

Will you assure me that he who recognizes the difference between a fugue and a sonata 
.is appreciating music? 

Others say it is the identification of certain musical instruments in an orchestral per- 
formance. Then the boy who plays an instrument and always recognizes the timbre of his 
own instrument is appredating music? 

Or, another illustration, in a Wagner performance, there are those who have learned 
the names of every motive and can say with glee, “Ah I the sleep motive, the sword motive, 
the fire motive — Are they appredating Wagner? 

Is appredation a mental or physical response to certain rhythmic or melodic phrases? 
Children respond to rhythm and savages also, but would you say they appredate music? 

Do you take it for granted that a dass, apparently in perfect order, is acquiring the 
power of appreciation when they all sit quietly, and at the end say: “Please play another 
selection.*' Inddentally I may say here that this passive attitude is one to which I object 
most strenuously. I am far more assured and comforted when a student sa3rs frankly, 
“I don't like it,” and gives some reason for his dislike. He is thinking and judging^ and has 
the right to his opinion. 

But when students tell me they like a sdection because it is sweet or smooth (and 
sorhetimes they do) then mentally I flagellate m3rself for failure in presentation, and I 
dedde that they have been thinking day dreams, the music just tickling their ears. 

Isappredationof music the enjoyment of music? If so, the problem offers no diffi- 
culty. Each one of us can select some music that high school students will enjoy. Does 
that give us the right to claim that we have taken a step toward creating the appreciation 
of music? Or, must we differentiate between enjoyment and appreciation? 

And, ag^ain, how do we know what students are enjoying when they are list^iing to 

Finally, we have the really appreciative listener to music, whose imagination rim be 
roused by the beauty of the work, whose mentality can be quickened by contact with tb ^ 
tonal workmanship of the composition, whose spirit is awakened by the message conveyed. 



From the first of these steps to the last is a long road. It ascends many planes. On which 
do we succeed in placing ourselves, our students? 

Just as an example of the indefiniteness of the general ideas on appreciation of music 
I have selected at random six answers of adult students to the question: “What in your 
opinion is Musical Appreciation?*^ 

1. “Appreciation of music means the understanding of music as to fonn, construc- 
tion, etc., the essential of music, its beauty always to be present** 

2. “I know I have appreciated a musical selection when I want to hear more of it, 
when my emotions have been aroused, and I do not even wish to do a mean act** 

3. “In order to appreciate music we must grasp the spirit of the music. One must be 
able to 2 Ji 2 lyzt the composition that is being played. One must understand the form of 
the composition.** 

4. “Musical Appreciation means bringing a previous knowledge of music to bear upon 
the interpretation of any composition. People without any previous knowledge of music 
may enjoy it, but cannot appreciate it.** 

5. “It is the ability to listen intelligently to music, discerning style, theme, instru- 
ments, etc.** 

6. “Appreciation means .listening intellig^tly to good music with a real desire of 

Answers of this type make one believe that instead of trying to foster appredation of 
music, we are perhaps teaching musical discrimination — but you cannot believe that real 
appreciation of music is yet within the ability of these students, serious and earnest as they 

Compare what I have just read with the following expressions from High School 
students, and the simplicity and sincerity of these replies will appeal to you: 

1. “The only way that I seem to appreciate music is when the cold chills are nmning 
down tny back and I can*t keep back real tears.** 

2. “Appreciation of music is the ability to listen to music intelligently, recognizing 
the style, form and instruments; feeling the beauty of the composition, and understanding 
the purpose or idea which the composer had in mind.** 

3. “To fully appreciate music, we must get out of a composition all that was put into 
it by the composer. By all, I mean music as it appeals to the ear, as it appeals to the mind 
and as the structure is xmderstood.** 

4. ^^Appreciation of music is to know the diflFermioe between good and bad music, 
and to be able to hear and enjoy a good piece of music over and over again.** 

Now possibly I hear you think, **Weil, and what is 3rour definition of Appredation of 

Appreciation of Music is always to me a personal evaluation. Stated concisely, I 
consider it the value one places'upon music eqjressed in terms of one’s own musical experi- 

The basic appeal of music is to the emotions, and is experience or the result of a series 
of experiences. 

The next appeal is mental and is the result of knowledge. 

The physical or sensuous appeal is the lowest in the scale that bdongs to music. 

Even the sensuous appeal of music is never gross. But we want more than that, and 
we must insure more, if we as teachers attempt to direct the young. 

We have nd easy task. Music must be worthily taught and appreciation of this art 
must be built on a foundation of sincerity and truth. It must not be made a playground 
for moods, nor a background for story-telling, nor a pleasant pastime. 

The fact that music is an art does not prevent us from treating its teaching in a sden- 
tific maimer. We know that an art is a sdence raised to the nth power requiring detach- 



ment and idealism, but there must be a foundation of practical knowledge, of fixed pur- 
pose, of specific aim; and finally, a relentless determination to accomplish one’s plan. 

And for a practical suggestion: Never allow children to listen to music without 
exacting some form of reaction. A live return for our art investment. 

Courses in appreciation have been simplified, and also, if I may be allowed a paradox, 
made more complicated by the so-called talking machines. These courses have been 
simplified by having material made available in quantities and in quality that offer a 
liberal amount of material for presentation. The teachers’ indebtedness to the various 
companies is large. Material which represents the best in musical performance has been 
made available for us all. 

The complications are those we furnish when we shirk all personal responsibility and 
let the machines do all the work, with the result that with thousands of people today 
talking machines and appreciation of music have become synonymous. 

So I urge that we realize our possibilities and our responsibilities in musical apprecia- 
tion. Even the simplest song, a piano solo, a violin solo, properly presented, may prove 
invaluable, and these are not to be overlooked or neglected. And I urge a critical attitude 
in selection, judging rigorously on the good points, and avoiding records that do not 
represent merit. We must know music as well as know about music. 

Let us keep in mind that it is not the amount we eat, but what we assimilate that 
provides our nourishment and growth and vitality; not the number of books that we read, 
but the quality that provides our mental development. The famous bookshelf which 
holds the best is only a few feet long. 

W. P. Kent, Ethical Culture School, New York City 

Probably all of us here present can express ourselves in music more easily than in any 
other way, and those masters of the past who have given us their message through music 
are more intelligible to us than are the great writers and artists; we prefer Beethoven to 
Browning, and we understand Mozart better than we do Sir Joshua Reynolds. Yet we 
can aH frequently see a dose relationship between these various men who speak such 
different languages; we can imagine Mendelssohn being fond of pictures by Raphael and 
Fra Angelico, and we feel sure that Beethoven would prefer the sturdier figures of 
Michad Angelo. Shakespeare has moods in common with both of them, but Mendelssohn 
chooses the Midsummer Night’s Dream, while it is the story of Coriolanus that appeals 
to Beethoven. By these very different methods Beethoven, Shakespeare and Michael 
Angelo are all able to arouse in us the same types of emotion. We may go still farther 
t han this; not only are the emotions the same, but the very forms in which they are pre- 
sented are strikingly similar. In fact, the underlying prindples of beauty have so much 
in common, regardless of the medium in which that beauty is expressed, that it is practi- 
cally impossible to develop appreciation of one art without frequent reference to other arts. 

The following diagram will help to indicate where these different modes of expression 
are alike and where they differ; and the differences are quite as valuable to the student 
as are the similarities. 

The caption “Painting, Drawing, etc.” is used here to apply to any combination of 
luxes, colors and masses. * ‘Literature” refers mther loosely to any idea expressed in words. 

In most photographs and all maps, accuracy of description is the object; any beauty 
is purely accidental. The same is true of history and statistics; a littie artistic touch will 
turn good statistics into poor fiction. Music occasionally flounders around in thig fidd 
but it is decidedly out of its element; we get some very good thunder which is very poor 



music, and some bird caJis that are very pretty, but woefully inadequate as imitations. 
Accurate description is emphatically not the business of music. 

Beauty OF 

Beauty op 
Foem With- 









Drawing, paint- 
ing, etc 




Any good 

Fig. 3 







Nursery | 
College Ydls 

The Ring and 
The Book. 







Theme and 
Op. 26 

Any typical 

When we look for Beauty of Form without definite meaning, it is literature that must 
keep in the background. Occasionally, when the emotion is too intense for mere wozds, 
the poet will mount up with wings, like as a hen, and the immortal “Hickory, Dickoiy 
Dock” springs into being; but a poet may not linger too long in these etherial regions; 
“The mouse ran up the dock” announces his return to earth. But all joking aside, the 
college yell is a witness to the utter inadequacy of words in the superheated atmosphere 
of the football game. But here where literary effort is so hampered, the other two arts 
are quite at home, one being represented by all conventional design, wall paper, textiles, 
rugs, etc., and the other by most fugues, and many sonatas and qunphonies. Figures 1 
and 2 are perhaps as aimplft examples as can be found; many a rug has little in it except 
this little design; note that the white spaces are an exact inversion of the black hooks. 
In like manner, the two-part Invention in B flat is made up almost entirdy of the nine- 
tone theme and its inversion. 

In all these arts there is much which falls between the two extremes which we have 
been discussing. The greater part of painting and literature and a large part of music 
ke^ both and beauty of form constantly in mind. A picture must have not 

only interesting subject matter, but a proper balance of line and mass. Poetry must have 
something to say, plus beauty of rhythm, and prose, too, must look out for its structure. 
Program Music has themes which suggest some character or event, but these themes are 
used largdy as mere themes- In Tschaikowsky^s Overture to 1812, the themes of priiK:q)al 
interest are the national songs of France and Russia; the musical treatment of these 
themes suggests a battle; hut it is not in the least a chronological record of the episodes of 
the Russian victory, and has not the slightest intention of so being, except that it tdls 
us that Rusda had the last word. 

Parenthetically, it is well to note here that among music lovers the word “m e a nin g*^ 
has no fixed meaning; Schubert’s Unfinished Symphony is a more m eaningf ul compodrion 
thflTi a Mendelssohn Barcarolle; but its meaning is far less definite. It is not possible 
to draw a fixed line between Program Mnsic and Symphonic Poems, on one side, and 
Sonatas and Symphonies on the other. 

There wfll occur to all of us many compositions dosdy rdated to poems and pictures, 
cither in content or form; two of the more striking examines will be sufBciaxt for us to-day, 

their simila rity lies in the form. 



Composers great and small have made use of the Theme and Variations. In Bee- 
thoven's 12th Sonata, Op. 16, we find a strai^t-forward theme; it is by no means cobrless, 
but it could not be described in any superlative terms; as we go on with the five variations 
we find flowery eloquence, agitation, pessimism, and optimism almost trivial, and quiet 
serenity; as if five people should show us their own natures by their versions of an incident 
which all had witnessed. Robert Browning has used exactly this form in “The Ring and 
the Book”; half of Rome, the other half of Rome, lawyers, priests — all give us their varia- 
tions on the original stoiy. Fig. 3 suggests how almost identical lines and masses may be 
made to give totally different ideas. 

The Sonata form, roughly speaking, consists of two themes, their development, and 
their restatement, with occasional episodes; almost all stories follow that general plan; in 
Longfellow's Evangeline our two themes are Gabriel and Evangeline; th^r are presented 
in their home environment. Most of the remainder of the poem is taken up with the 
development, as the two themes wander about in search of each other; at the dose they 
are brought together again, and we have the restatement, 

A picture is not likdy to have precisdy this arrangement of material, because we 
see it all at once, as it stands before us; it does not move forward during a period of time 
as do music and poetry. However Millet's paintings of peasant life give us excellent 
examples of repetition and development of themes. Millet seems as fond of this treat- 
ment as Bach does of the fugue form. The Sower and the Milk-maid require no comment. 
In the Angelus the main themes, the man and the woman, are ignored in the development; 
such episodes as the basket and the fork furnish the material. The Gleaners carries its 
development a little farther, and recognizes both the main themes and the episodes. We 
have three women, three haystacks and three houses, A, B, C; and also the two curved 
lines E, and the parallel lines F. At G we find on a dark background, a white line, having 
a dark spot below it. 

But it is in The Woman Churning, one of Millet's latest paintings, that he abandons 
himself to a perfect riot of theme repetition; he carries it almost as far as Beethoven does 
with the four-note theme of the 5th Symphony. The chum we may call the first theme, 
and the bust of the woman the second. The broom is nearly an exact miniature of the 
chum, and the pile of pans, B, has the lines of the bust, all reversed. The jug at the 
woman's right shoulder combines elements in both A and B. Episodes C and D are 
particularly striking. The white cloth hanging on the wall above the three stones is also 
a dose relative of the white handle of the chum, and its three-part base. There is even a 
repetition of ideas where the form is different; we look through a door and see a hen; we 
look through the bam window beyond and see sheep. 

This thematic treatment is not to be found in all of Millet’s paintings, but it is so 
frequent as to predude the possibility of its being acddental. 

Allow me to dose with an old, old story. A backwoods preacher was asked how he 
niflHio his sermons so effective. **Well,” he said, “First I tells 'em what I'se goin' to say; 
then I says it; and then I tells 'em what I has jest said.” There you have the sonata for- 
mula: statement, devdopment, and restatmaent. 

Gijenn M. Tindall, AssistatU Supervisor of Music, St Louis, Mo. 

Music haA now become an established part of the high school, and its need is pretty 
definitdy f dt, first for all students of the school and secondly for those especially interested 
in music whether taken for vocational purposes or for culture as music lovers. Music can 
not be successfully taught, in any of its branches, without the use of appreciation as a tooL 
Whether we call it appredation of music, orchestra practice, chorus rehearsal, theory, or 
history of music, we are dealing with Music Appreciation extehsivdy, in fact all the time. 



The chorus rehearsal which is an uninterrupted drill, without understanding; the orchestra 
practice which is a constant repetition of attempted performance, without explanation; 
and the theory and harmony courses which are technical exploits into scientific realms, 
without practical application — all of these things lack that final two per cent which it 
takes to lift music from the mechanical to the art level, and from the material realm to the 

But what is Music Appreciation? What elements go together to develop an apprecia- 
tion of the universal art-language? And what point predominates in the consideration 
of essentials? Is it the joy of performance, or is it the satisfaction of a trained analytical 
mind which can revel in the intellectual intricacies of contrapuntal weaving? And who 
really appreciates the art most readily? Is it the person whose sense perception can re- 
ceive a pleasant emotional effect, or is it the individual whose motor skill permits to 
produce emotional enjoyment from performance? Is Music Appreciation attained by the 
enjoyment of dynamic effects and recognition of tone quality and color, and is appreciation 
strengthened by accompanying facts, whether incidental (such as stories) or related (as in 
case of pertinent remarks on musical form)? Does the person who can both receive and 
transmit a musical message receive a double pleasure? 

Past experiences along the line of the subject^ lead us to believe that the more an 
individual knows about any subject, the more will he appreciate that subject, but we 
likewise realize that any attempt to exceed his capacity will not only saturate his mind, 
but will be just as apt to deteriorate the powers of appreciation formerly present. We 
can no more say what elements go to make up the category of musical appreciation gener- 
ally than we can say what poems should be studied in a literature course for students 
picked at random from the four years of the high school course. 

If we are to make the subject one of value, where advancement is to result, we will 
have to consider the previous musical training of the students both in vocal school music 
and in listening to musical performances. In a high school where music appreciation 
not been presented in the grades, an entirely different course must be pursued than in a 
sdiool where the students have been trained to listen. For instance, a course in Opera 
might well fit into one school; but in another situation it might be of no more benefit thap 
an entertainment course, serving to give the student a few plots and many mdodies which 
are actually beyond his capacity. We must, fiirst of all, have a definite purpose in tninH 
before we outline any course of study, and we must evaluate each step in our proposed 
process before we grant it a place in the general scheme. 

In courses where Music Appreciation is taught exclusively, we have many possibili- 
ties — ^many means to present musical material. A few type courses, from which we may 
choose, are: 

I. Musical Form. First semester — Types of Vocal Music. A development from the 
folk song to the opera and oratorio. 

Second semester — ^Types of Xastnimental Music. A similar treatment of instru- 
mental forms. 

n. Musical Instruments. First semester — ^the human voice and instruments not 
usually found in the symphony orchestra. 

Second semester — orchestra instruments individually and collectively treated, 
in. National Tendencies in Music. (One or two semesters) — Characteristics of nations, 
races, and tribes contrasted and compared. Various type “schools of music” 

IV. BGstory of Music. (One or two semesters) — Including ample illustrations by indi- 
vidual performance, records, and roUs. 

V. Musical Critici sm . (One semester) — Points to be considered in judging music; 
current events in music (reading musical magazines), attendance at concerts, 



VI. Relation of Music to the Liberal Arts. (One semester) — A rather advanced course 
dealing with the relationship existing between Music and various arts and 
sciences, but it may be made an extremely valuable and interesting subject 
(This material may well be treated in conjunction with other departments, 
where possible.) 

Vn. Higher Forms of Vocal Music- First semester— The Opera. An advanced course. 
Prerequisite, Course I. 

Second semester — ^The Oratorio. 

All of these courses can not be given at one time in any TiigTi school, under present 
conditions, and it is probably not desirable to give all of them at any time in most schools. 
They have all worked out successfully in certain instances, however. It seems reasonable 
to believe that the first step in appreciation might well be the presentation of certain 
elementary musical forms. In this, and in all courses in the high school, we must bear in 
mind that the subject is to be placed on the level of the student and that he is not expected 
to rise to the plane of even a conservatory student to find himself in the subject. 
form in the high school and in the conservatory should be as different as En glish Literature 
in the high school and the collie. The essential forms may be treated in two courses — 
vocal and instrumental — but where the time is limited, both phases might be tfl.kgn in 
combination to advantage. 

After the essentials of form have been presented, it does not seem improper to discuss 
and illustrate the variotis tone producing mediums. The human voice is logically in this 
category, and experience teaches us that time can be spent on this subject to good advan- 
tage. The time devoted to this, and to instruments proper, can only be apportioned after 
the time for the entire course is known. While the symphonic instruments are of primary 
importance, there are certain other instruments which should be discussed. Two semesters 
can easily be devoted to the subject of instruments. 

After a study of the above topics, the material of music itself would be the logical 
order of affairs. National tendencies, both similarities and differences, and “schools of 
music,” deserve considerable attention. Not only national types, but universal styles 
of writing, are meant to be a part of the mateiial presented. Most of the courses men- 
tioned are so well known to the profession that it is useless to go into detail at the present 

A knowledge of the history of music, like history in any other field, adds zest to its 
study and enjoyment It is undoubtedly true that associated facts, presented at the 
proper time and in the right manner, make any impression more interesting and more 
lasting. Two semesters can be devoted to history of music when working under desirable 
conditions, or the field may be covered hastily, but in a fairly thorough manner, in two 

To teach appredation properly we must devote some time to “musical criticism.” 
We are not attempting to produce profesrional newspaper critics, but we are striving to 
create the right kind of critics among the Ia3mien who listen to music. We must ^low our 
students what things are to be considered in receiving a musical impression. It is a’fine 
thing to be able to devote an entire semester to this work. It is almost imperative to use 
some phases of this course as a conclusion to any study of appreciation, and probably as 
an underlying basis for the term’s woik. 

The above mentioned courses would undoubtedly be an excellent foundation for the 
devdopment of a music loving pubHc. In most in.sta.nces, however, time is too limited to 
go into the subject so extensively. Shall we thai eliminate sevearal courses and concentrate 
upon one narrow phase of our subject, or shall we combine the necessary essentials into 
one or two semesters and make the course a survey of the general field? While it would 
take two or three years to complete the suggested topics in an ideal way, we can, and 



probably should, ehminate all but the essential subject matter and illustrations and cover 
the general held. 

If we are fortunate enough to have ample time for appreciation, there are other topics 
which fit well into the high school course of study. Students are always interested in 
knowing the relation of music to other subjects, and a semester can be devoted to that 
theme with unusual results. Some students will elect a course based upon the higher 
forms of vocal music — the Oratorio and the Mass; and many more will choose a course 
devoted to the Opera. 

As an accompanying factor in musical organizations, music appreciation plays an 
important part. In chorus groups, the types of vocal music should be studied in a rather 
complete way. Illustrations of the uses of the human voice, classification of voice quali- 
ties, etc., are pertinent to the subject. And a certain amount of history, opera, and 
nationality is not irrelevant. Likewise, in instrumental organizations, these things are 
to the point if a discussion of orchestral instruments is substituted for the treatment of 
vocal qualities. 

Throughout the school, music can function to great advantage. This advantage is not 
to music alone. Primarily it is to the child. Secondly it is to the other department. Refer- 
ence is made to the use of correlation between music and the other departments in the 
school. We are all familiar with the possibilities along this line, but we are not familiar 
enough with the subject matter of the academic curricula to be of as much help as we 
should be. As a rule, high school teachers are not only willing but anxious to take over 
any suggestions from the music department when they realize that there is a sympathetic 
— ^not a selfish — ^feeling as a motive. 

Music Appreciation, we see, is a vast subject. It has been treated in almost as many 
different ways as there are schools, and with apparent success in most instances. When 
we analyze the results, we do not always find that they function in future, out-of-school, 
life. Unless our efforts are more than entertaining, unless our influence reaches farther 
than the class room, and unless we give the child something definite which he may take 
with him — ^we have failed in our purpose. What we must do, then, is to evaluate the 
possibilities within the scope of the subject. We have been doing this, each one to himself; 
but we need, more than anything else, to come to some definite understanding, one with 
another. We need this, not so much for the members of the profession who have given 
serious thought to the matter, but for those who are depending upon others to give them 
something definite; but we need it for ourselves, too. We need to come to an agreement 
as to what things lead us to the desired end: not what specific material shall we use, but 
what general method of procedure shall we follow, and what types of courses are the most 
desirable for use in the secondary schools. 

When we have agreed upon our conclusions, and when we begin to see the results of our 
efforts, we will find that music appreciation is one of the essential factors in the study of 
music, and that through the teaching of appreciation, both by performance and listening, 
we will undoubtedly see surprising results in the general life of the community in which 
we live. If we cannot benefit those members of the community who pass through the 
schools, and give them something which will make their hours of recreation satisfying and 
pleasurable, we have missed our mark in the teaching of Music Appreciation. 


John W, Beattie, Supervisor of Mtisic, Grand Rapids^ Mich, 

School bands and orchestras have existed for many years, and it was a desire to build 
them up and secure more balanced instrumentation that started people to thinking about 



the necessity for offering instruction on the various instruments. As a result, what have 
been called after school violin classes sprang up the country over. In most cases, in the 
beginning, the pupils paid for the instruction, the $2 . 00 or $3 .00 fee being divided among 
them. This noade it possible for a large number of children to receive violin instruction 
for fifteen or twenty cents a lesson. The plan of taking ten or fifteen children and ^ving 
them lessons in a class rather than as individuals quickly proved its merits. It has been 
almost universally successful. But soon, music supervisors and educators with imagina- 
tion began to ask themsdves, why charge a fee for lessons which should be given at pubUc 
expense? Boards of Education are willing to pay a professional athlete several himdred 
dollars for coaching a foot-ball team a few weeks in the Fall; in the Spring, they think it 
necessary to spend some of the public funds in employing a professional elocutionist to 
stage the Senior play; through the year they pay good salaries to science teachers who 
instruct fewer than a himdred pupils in an expenavdy equipped laboratory; why not 
employ a professional musician to give music lessons to such children as may present them- 
selves for instruction? Despite the reasonableness of such an argument, it must be con- 
fessed that school ofl&dals have not been any too ready to grant it. I am sure that this 
reluctance was the result of our own inability to prove the value of music, because in 
dries where a broad music program has been actively carried on, music lessons at public 
expense have been introduced with little opposition. In many cases also, the public has 
been unwilling to believe that class lessons on instruments could be worth anything. If 
there are persons present who have had a struggle on the score of the latter objection, I 
am sure that they can find ample testimony in behalf of class lessons at this Conference. 
If however, your Board of Education objects to spending some money for instrumental 
music on the grounds that music is not a fundamental part of education, it is up to you to 
prove the contrary. 

There has never been a time in the history of American Public Schools, when music 
could more easily assume its proper place in the curriculum than the present. The pendu- 
lum is beginning to swing away from the vocational idea and the leaders in education are 
proclaiming that too early spedalizarion is very apt to result in one-sidedness. There have 
been musicians who might safely be accused of knowing about nothing which did not 
pertain to music. We are going to require that all students take certain courses calculated 
to enable them to properly enjoy life. Any mudc supervisor who does not recogmse that 
music will play an important part in the revised courses of study should read more educa- 
tional journals and attend more educational meetings of a general nature. Our day is here 
if we will only believe it and adopt an aggressive policy in the schools where we happen to 
be teaching. 

Granting then that instrumental instruction should be a part of school work in every 
dty and town and that the school administrators concede this, how can the work best be 
undertaken and carried on? It is difficult to answer such a question because conditiims 
differ in various cities and the work is srill in its infancy. Several plans axe in use and 
perhaps it is best to say that a supervisor who wishes to introduce the work should get 
information from a number of cities and thai adapt the methods to the needs and condi- 
tions as he finds them in his schools. We have been domg this instrumental work in 
Grand Rapids for several years, always experimenting and seeking for the best material 
and methods. Perhaps some presentation of our experience will prove useful in the discus- 
sion this morning. 

1 have prepared data on both the high school and grade school work and will present 
it separately because the nature of the work in grade and high schools necessarily differs. 
In the grade schools we take absolute b^'nners and teach them how to play some instru- 
ment. In the high schools we take the productsrof this instruction and also the pupils of 
the private teachers and try to weld them into groups which perform, in bands and orchesr 



no cellos is attended by children from more hnmble homes and who cannot afford e]q)ensive 
instruments. We should be able to furnish four cellos to that school. We haye always been 
handicapped by the difficulty in securing competent ceUo teachers. But no ensemble group 
can do the best kind of work without violas and cellos. At this point, I wish to register a 
protest against arrangers who do not make viola parts but tran^>ose them and create 
third violin parts. One of the joys which will be open for the child whom you induce to take 
up viola will be the great amount of quartet literature which is to be found in the works of 
all the great Masters. If you are unable to get violas, a device which is satisfactory is to 
string a violin as a viola. You will not get the viola tone but you will develop the ability 
to read in the viola def. 

We have no difficulty in getting double bass players. Here again the trouble is in 
getting the instruments. There is always some piano player who wants to play in the 
orchestra who will take the bass violin. Most of our bass players in recent years have 
been girls. 

To get back to our high school list, it will be noted that the proportion of wind players 
is fairly good, for the orchestras. For the band work, we have not suffident baritones and 
altos. We do have comet players in abundance and out of proportion to the darinets 
and to the woods in general. One reason for this is the fact that for the past few years, 
it has been almost impossible to secure good wood instruments. The clarinets and flutes 
marketed today are apt to be poorly constracted of green material. It is absolutely 
impossible to buy oboes and bassoons at the present time. Anyone who starts the orchestra 
or band work should consult an expert judge of instruments before permitting children 
to invest money in them. But a good choir of woods is essential for either band or orches- 
tra. It is almost impossible to get too many of them. Our bands are not so much concert 
organi^tions as the orchestras. Their chief function is to develop competent wind players 
for the orchestras and to hdp create enthusiasm at athletic contests. , 

The cost for instruction is trifling when one considers the amount spent for instruction 
in other branches. 

I have gone somewhat into detail r^arding the high school organizations because I 
fed that the whole matter of instrumental instructron must be considered as a whole. The 
high school dasses cannot exist and thrive without the work in the grades and I now invite 
your attention to the list of grade school classes.^ 


















: 26 






i 0 



Flute or Kcoolo 





















0 ! 






1 ! 



1 23 








3 ' 






2 1 














78 i 









657 ^ 




Here again you will note the larger number of boys in the work. This is true of the 
violin students as well as the wind. The only instrument which the boys do not seem to 
take to is the piano. A fact which I am unable to account for in this connection is that 
the boj's stick to the piano cbsses more faithfully than the girls. That the percentage 
of shimkage is less among boys than girls on other instruments is not surprising. There 
is a time in the life of every normal boy when to play in a band is his chief ambition. We 
try to catch the boys at an age when we can make the most of this human trait. Girls are 
more interested in musk from the purely cultural side. When they find that they are not 
getting anywhere with the instrument they drop it and take up something else. Not so 
the b<^. The gang spirit keeps him at his “horn or fiddle,” many times when he has little 
natural ability. There is less than ten percent falling ofif on violin among the bo3rs. There 
is almost no falling off on the wind instruments and drums. I beKeve the answer is that 
the boy wants to “play in the band.” 

Every supervisor who has had any experience with the work knows that there is 
bound to be a falling off in attendance after the first few weeks. A child who has entered 
mtbusias t i c aHy into the acquiring of an instrument and the fibrst lessons soon learns that 
he must work a long time before he can really do much with it. The glamor then begins 
to wear off. Encouragement will keep most of the b^inners at it but no one should expect 
to finish the year with the same class he started with. The percentage of shrinkage depends 
upon a number of factors, not the least of which is the skill with which a teacher can handle 
class lessons. It is quite another thing from giving individual lessons. 

We used to worry about this falling off in attendance. Then we b^an to find out some 
of the reasons for it. In the first place, in a school system which provides free instruction, 
I do not beHeve we have a right to permit some applicants for instruction to have it and 
deny it to others cm the grounds that they are not musical. How can we tell whether they 
are musical or not? Certainly if we measure musical ability by a child’s interest or ability 
in school room singing, we may go far wrong. Patience, stick*to-it-iveness, and willing- 
ness to work count more than innate musical ability at the start at least So we have taken 
all comers <m the theory that public education in any sphere must be open to all alike. 
Now woarking on such a theory it is natural that some will fall out We have the satisfac- 
tioo of knowing that they have at least had their chance. 

Aside from those who soon lost interest because of lack of the qualities necessary for 
success, some pupils will drop from the classes and go to private teachers as soon as they 
have den^trated to their parents that they are going to make progress. We have not 
tried to discourage tte so long as they go to qualified instructors. We get them aiterwards 
in the playing organizations and have the satkfaction of knowing that we gave them their 

. No exact ^iies on the school enrollment in grades five to eight, in vdiich instrumental 

mstrn^^ IS offer^,OT available. The approxiinate number is 5000 which means that 
or one chad out of eight receives free instrumental instruction during the year. 
^^TnismuBober, ^7, mdudes only those chfidren who receive the class lessons. A 

2500. In other words, to give 
public sli^tly less than $4.00. 

and few saxophones are listed, 
as th^ have no place in a real 

^ Masses are caperimental and have not been ofifered generally. 

Note~B. means begmning; D. O. rneans 

TJe actual cost for teaching these 655 childien is $: 

a pops musk lessons throughout the schoed year 

Few snb>ects m the school corrioiluni are tiight at so liti 
^ noted that no mandolins, guitai% or banjos 
Wediyom age diildren from taking up those instruments 



Tlien there comes the time in the child’s playing career when he seems to have reached 
a dead level of proficiency. He does not seem to progress any. The first few weeks, he 
could see that he was getting somewhere. But along about the holiday season, he is apt 
to think he has gone as far as he can. This is a most critical period and is where the of 
the teacher will be seriously taxed. I have always been of the opinion that the best way to 
keep pupils interested was to get them to doing ensemble work at the earliest possible 
moment. I realize that pupils must be given certain fundamentals before they cap play 
“pieces” but a “piece” can be made from five tones which will be very satisfactory to the 
budding musician. 

Let the comets, clarinets, trombones and drums play even the simplest tune together 
and they all feel sxijQ&dently gratified to stay at it till they can play a tune which uses more 
notes. They are not ‘*pla 3 ring in the band.” One of the satisfactory features of the book 
prepared by Dr. Mitchell is in its holding the interest of children through the early intro- 
duction of something which may be really an exercise but which is given a nAm** and is 
looked upon as a “piece” by the child. 

We have often combined our banning students on strings and wind instruments 
as early as February of their first year. This is good for the players and inspires other 
children to want to study. It also pleases the parents. One of our instructors often has 
taken a small group of players before a group of parents. They are alwa}^ delighted with 
the results. 

But the greatest step we have taken toward securing one hundred percent attendance 
through the year came when we were able to schedule classes as part of school work carried 
on during the school day. Nearly all of our instruction is carried on within school hours. 
The lessons are one hour in length and so the music pupils miss one hour of some other 
subject. Most of our Principals were rather staggered when it was suggested that this be 
done. Some of them had to adopt the plan or go without an instructor since a pers<m 
can give many lessons if distributed through the school day whereas, only a few schools can 
be taken care of before and after school. Let me say for your encouragement, that not one 
Principal who has permitted the instructor to come in during the regular hours has ever 
been willing to give it up. And are we not willing to bdieve that there is just as much 
educational value in a music lesson as there is in any other thing taught in school? Person- 
ally, I believe there is more and am prepared to argue the question if necessary. And if 
there is real educational value in music, why not give it a place? 

Every city which takes up instrumental work will have to provide some instruments. 
Referring to our survey again, it will be noted that there is a very marked lack of horns, 
baritones and tubas. We can always get childrm to buy wood instruments. Our present 
lack of those is due to conditions in the instrummt market. But we cannot induce many 
children to get alto or French boms. They are not as apparently solo instruments as 
comets or daxinets although once mastered, nothing is more beautiful than a French hom. 
So we ghall have to find some way of furnishing an adequate number of horns. The bari- 
tones are nice instruments, but they are comparatively cumbersome and moreover are 
expensive. We must have a few of thenu The situation in regard to tubas is the same as 
it is with bass violins in the orchestra. No parent wants to buy one. It is heavy and to 
the parent nTimnriral- But since tubas in proportion are necessary in bands, we shall have 
to have a few. These instruments should be provided by Boards of Education. They 
are not except in a few cities. We bdieve that instruments to play upon may be as logi- 
cally purchased with public funds as instruments to draw with or saw with but the idea 
is so new that it has not entirely gotten over yet. It will come within the next few 3 rears. 

Our classes are conducted in sections. The violins number about ten in a dass and 
e ac h meets for an hour. This makes it possible for the instractor to divide the group 
into grnallfir units after work has progressed to the point where the varying abilities of the 



pupils become apparent. With the wind classes, it is necessary to do much individual 
work at fbrst In a class of tea, there may be four comets, two clarinets, one trombone, 
flute, and drum. Most of the instruction will have to be ^ven individually until the point 
is reached when it is possible for the class to play as a whole. There is no effort to separate 
the boys from the girls. They work together just as they do in any class. We hope in 
tlzoe to have a laiger percentage of girls in the classes. It is largely a matter of education. 
Parents have not thought of buying a ffute or clarinet for the girl. It has always seemed to 
nte that the flute is a beautiful instrument for a girl and the clarinet only slightly less so. 
The wood winds appeal to me more strongly than brasses for girls. This may be a matter 
of c^union however. We have one eleven year old girl playing trombone but it cannot 
be said that she does as well with it as the boys usually do. 

"We have never allowed more than six pupils in a cello class. We have developed 
several excellent cellists through the class method. We urge girls to take up cello and 
now have more girls than boys playing that instrument In families where several 
children want to learn to play, we advise that th^r each take a different instrument. 
I have in mind one family of four childim. The oldest girl plays piano and violin; 
the next piano and cello; the youngest girl plays violin and will take up viola after 
she has progressed a little further; the boy, a lad of ten, has taken up ffute and is doing well 
with it Since the mother is a good pianist and the father knows a little about the comet, 
it is easy to predict pleasant and unusual life for that family group. The “movies” will 
not be their only means of diversion. 

Let me say in dosing that the aim in instrumental work should not be to prepare 
piofessional mmidans but rather to stimulate interest in music as the finest means of 
ocxxtpying leisure time. I could name a number of my former boys who are earning a good 
Imng with an instrument, several of them in symphony orchestras. But it gives me far 
more satis&ctioQ to mention the family group which I have just spoken of. That is worth 
infinitely mtore than a number of psiofesdonals. There will be many fine instrumentalists 
devdoped thxot^ the public schools in the next decade. But that result should be only 
i add cn tal to the lazgier one of stimukting a healthy interest in one of the fine arts. Supt, 
Withey of St Louis, in a paper read before the lincob Conference in 1916 closed by 
saying: ^‘The aim therefore, shoirld not be to train great composers or great performers 
hut to paodnee a co r ii mi i ni ty with refined musical tastes and discriminations and a disposi- 
tion to appreciate and use the best music. If we are given a community of this sort, the 
pcoblcsn of developing great oomposezs and great performers will very largely find its own 
Aointkoi.” Supt Withey was q>eaking of music in its broadest sense. Instrumental 
dasBcs are only one phase oi school music and therefore should be considered along with 
the other t hin g s wc are attcnq>ting. It is my opinion that to argue for instrumental 
training from a vocational standpoint would be entirely out of keeping with the spirit of 


Albes:t G. MncHEit, Assistant Dtredor of Music, Boston Puilic Schools 

About fifteen years ago the curate of the Parish Church of Maidstone, England, 
fanned the first class in vioKapkying from anmng the children the village s<iooL The 
mnnber of pnpQs grew, and in a year or two the organization visited London giving a series 
of amcerts of an imambitious character. Having originated in Maidstone it was called the 
“ M aidstone Movement.” Afterwards, its name was cdianged and headquarters were 
removed to London where annual concerts were given by an orchestra of 2,000, then 3,000, 
and then 5,000 jdayers, all taught in the Board Schools, out of school hours, each pvpjl 



paying twelve cents a lesson. The movement was introduced into the Boston Pul^ 
schools in 1909. For two years, the lessons were given out of school hours, but in 1912 
they were incorporated into the school course. 

Aims in Class Violin TeacMng 

The aim of Class Violin Teaching is to increase the interest of the pupil in music and to 
educate the sense of touch, sight and hearing. The devdopment of these faculties, espe- 
cially that of pitch perception, is greatly help^ by the study of the violin. It is a matter 
of record that many pupils who at the commencement of their lessons were sadly deficient 
in pitch perception afterwards developed a more correct ear. 

Starting with the knowledge gained through Vocal Music, and also, in a few cases 
some acquaintance with the piano, the Violin teaching supplements and increases the musi- 
cal education. The Violin class teacher does not attempt to turn out finished violin players, 
he simply opens the door; and the pupil who has ability and inclination gets the start which 
he would otherwise miss. From this impetus he often goes to a private teacher for ad- 
vanced instruction. The class teacher should not commit the error of drafting pupils into 
an orchestra before they are grounded in the elementary technique of their instruments. 
Is it not too often the case that such enrolment rignalizes the end of the technique-acquiriiig 
period? Would it not be better to go sbwly, but surely, putting in a foundation up<m 
which a future building can be safely erected? Foundation bufiding is not spectacular nor 
is it the darling of the camera-man. As time flies by, the writer finds himsdf turning more 
frequently to that part of the text-book headed “Major and minor scales in various 
rh3rthms.” The class Violin teacher should always aim to develop the faculties and to 
create a taste for music. He should not be satisfied with superficial results nor work for 
show, but he should base all his efforts on the fundamental principles of education. 

Appliances to Supply Needs 

During the first two years of Violin rlasg teaching in Boston mechanical difficulties 
were encountered of which the private teadier has no conoeption. Some of these hin- 
drances and handicaps have been overcome by devices and hei^ suitable for group teach- 

One of the first troubles was the tuning of the vicflin. As the pupils were unable to 
turn and set the 01-fitted p^ of their instruments, a third of the time of the lesson hour 
was consumed by the teacher in doing this necessary work. In addition to the loss of 
fimft the pupil was not learning to tune his viddn. To overcome this, patent non-sIipping 
friction p^gs were tested and adopted. It is not too much to say that these pegs are invalu- 

The matter, too, of distressingiy faidty finger placing caused serious concern. The 
disturbing discovery was made that the ear did not readily guide the fingers to their 
places on the fingerboard. Therefore, a fingerboard chart was engraved and placed in 
position. It was now an ea^ matter for the children to finger alike and to play better in 

With a view to supplement the book material two large charts were made. One, a 
replica of the fingerboard chart, was used for interval drill, and a second, containing notes, 
was used for rhythmic purposes. Both were placed by the side of the piano; a pointer was 
employed; the piano accompaniment funushed the harmonic background and e mph asized 
the rhythm and soon matters became more hopeful and progress was evident. 

From the use of charts grew visual drill in finger placing, and from correct finger 
plitriTig and a properly tuned instrument it became possible to make large excuisaons 
into the hi^y important field of car traimng. It was fdit to be useless to attempt to cul- 
tivate the ear on false tones such as were in evidence before the advent of the patent pegs 
and the finger board chart. 



From the start, the holding up of the violin was a pressing question. The children, in 

of every admonition, persbted in grasping the neck and holding the instrument low. 
Evidently, the chin rest was not sufficient for their needs, therefore a shoulder-rest highly 
recommended by Symphony players was ^ven a trial, approved and adopted. 

Nor was this all; the first string whether made of silk or of gut was perpetually break- 
ing, causing a halt in the lesson while it was replaced, stretched and tuned. By employing 
a metal first string the loss of time caused by breakage has been reduced 99%. It is 
common, now, for a pupil to keep the same first string for a year or more, and not, as 
heretofore, when gut E strings were used for a week or less. 

But other questions arose: How should the pupil be trained to play with the tips 
and not with the broad cushions of his fingers? And how should he be forced to draw the 
bow strai^t across the strings and not to oscillate between the fingerboard and the bridge? 
These two questions were largely answered by the invention of the so-called Dummy 
(Slent) Violin and Bow. 

This device was made of a narrow piece of wood the length of a violin. At its upper 
end upholsterers’ conical headed nails were driven into the wood to correspond with the 
position of the letters on the fingerboard chart. A slot was cut in imitation of a bridge. A 
dowd the length and thickness of a bow was fitted with places for the fingers and thumb. 

In practice the dummy is played like a violin, the tips of the fingers striking the points 
of the nails. The dowd fits dosely in the narrow slot where it is moved up and down. If 
the imitation bow is drawn other than in a straight line it becomes immovable. Dummy 
practice from a chart both in fingering and in riming the length of the bow stroke became 
the first step in the method and its aid is invoked whenever carelessness in fingering or in 
note l e n g ths devdops. The dummy proved to be particularly useful when there were 
ddays, and there always have been such, in securing standardized outfits, or when an old 
instrument was bring repaired or being fitted out with the new pegs, etc. They were 
loaned, also, to children for the purpose of home practice. During the early lessons they 
vrene hung upon the music stands for instant use should a pupil persist in making errors, 
in this way they acted as a corrective force. 

While in various parts of Europe investigating school music activities, the writer 
eo Bimined violin books of every kind. Some proved to be severdy technical, while others 
contained merdy tunes and unrdated material. One was chosen, however, and in due 
tunc copies were imported, but, ere long, its pedagogical faults became so apparent that 
the writer decided to prepare a spedsl book to meet the needs of our American children. 
As a result of further t ea c hin g experience and closer observation, improvements have been 
embodied m revised editions. Later, a Teachers’ Manual and Book of Accompaniments 
was published. In this work the whole subject of Class Violin Teaching, from b^inning 
to end, is set forth. 

Another icquiitmaent in Oass Violm Teaching is the piano which furnishes the prime 

necessity of a harmonic background. A firm piano accompaniment should alwa3rs be 
present The player should suggest intervals, the resolutions of discords and should 
e auphasiz e the writtoi rhythms and invent others. 

What a hdp it would be if the pupil came with even a very dementary knowledge of 
the oonstructioa and the sound of Major and Minor common chords and their inversions, 
as well as the chord of the do m i nan t seventh and its inversions. Considering the rdle that 
hanaony plays in sigjit rea din g, is it a matter of surprise that every European Conserva- 
tory of Music demands this study of harmony; and, in addition, the study of the piano 
from every student? It would be wril if the single-subject violinist pondered seriously 
upaa. the above infon[iati<m and strengthened his powers in this direction. 

To sum iq>: As a result of much laboratory work; of endless experimentation with 
c hfi d r en of various nationalities, even Chinese; of many distressing and sobering failures. 

PHILADELPHIA, PA., MARCH 22-26, 1920 111 

it has become the writer’s conviction that the helps and devices aforementkmed are part 
and parcel of Class Violin Teaching. Indeed, they are indi^>ensable. A fitting motto for 
the teacher would be: Don’t fire until your gun is loaded! 

The nmterial used at the Philadelphia Conference consisted of a grand piano, the 
shape of which permits the teacher to note the work of the class; an enlarged copy of a 
fingerboard chart with a blank staff for the purpose of connecting finger position with 
staff position; a second chart for rhythmic purposes; one hundred dummies for use of the 
audience; and twelve Standardized Class VioUns played by Supervisors. 

Owing to the necessarily limited time allotted, forty-five minutes, it was only possible 
to show hurriedly the earlier steps in the method. These were: Drills in holding the 
dummy; shaping the left hand and fingers; percussion by the fingers; finger-stretching and 
placing; small intervals and a few scales; holding the dummy bow; the action of the right 
arm; long and short strokes of the bow; exercises in rhythm; a few chromatic changes: 
and a melody “Au clair de la lune” with a simple variation. The twelve violins played 
with the one hundred dummies, the demonstrator dictating from the chart and playing 
an accompaniment. 

From a simple beginning, Class Violin Teaching has now become a profession, calling 
for a sound knowledge of pedagogy; for skiE not only in playing upon the violin but also 
upon the piano; for the ability to make simple repairs and to attach accessories; for a 
facile knowledge of harmony and counterpoint. In addition it calls for inexhaustible pa- 
tience and abundant enthusiasm. It has truly became a specialized profession. 

Theodore WiiraES, Superoisor of Music^ Sheboygany Wis, 

Some time ago, when I first heard of dass instruction on the violin in our schools, 
I diook my head skeptically, and serioudy doubted the practicability of such a plan. Not 
only had my own instrumental training been acquired in private lessons, but I have given 
such lessons for a long period myself, and could not unmediatdy bring myself to see the 
possibilities and advantages of class instruction. And I must here acknowledge my debt to 
the Music Supervisors’ National Conference, where I first saw this plan carried out in 
practice, and quickly recognized the advantages it offered. If I had not received anything 
else from the meetings of this conference, I consider my time and money well spent, by 
becoming a convert to dass instruction in instrumental music throug^x these meetings. It 
was at Lincoln, Nebradta, where I first saw the plan in operation and working so success- 
fully, that any doubting Thomas could not help but be converted. 

Our dty, Sheboygan, Wisconsin, is a ^ical smaller American dty, attaining a large 
laboring population, and a considerable nmnber of foreign born inhabitants. The charac- 
ter of the population alone presents thfs problem in a musical education under private 
teachers; The greatest number of the children of our city will either never enjoy an 
opportunity to leam an instrument, no matter how talented they may be, or they will by 
necessity be driven to cheap and, consequently, in most cases, inferior teachers, who will 
in a short time Hll the divine spark, that may be burning in the bosom of the child. 

We all agree that a child is entitled to, and has a right to deman d , an oj^rtunity 
to develop all of his capacities and talents, and that, in a true demDcra<y, this ri^t should 

be granted to ev^ one. The purpose of our public sdiools is to ^ve to the children of our 

country these (^q>ortunities at public expense, so that all of them may enjoy them equally. 
And it is very lik^ that just among our poorer classes we may discover and devdqp 
many a talent; our great musicians, with very few exceptKms, ^rang from families, who 
must be considered among the less to do, and only under great privatkms and fre- 



qucntly actual suffering were they able to reach the goal, toward which their natural 
capacity and inclinations drove them. 

There are two thin gs to be gained through a musical education in our schools, and 
these are: first, equal opportunity for all; second, better instruction for all. From these 
fdlows a third point; better results for all. 

Last fall our school board decided to introduce violin instruction into the curriculum 
of our schools, for which I have pleaded for several years, and which had been delayed only 
for the want of a proper teacher. For a long time I had been looking for the proper person, 
for I fdt, that with the personality and skill of the teacher this new phase of our work 
would stand or falL I wanted a person, who, in the first place, was a good violinist, with 
the best of training, so that all of his teaching would be correct to the last detail, from the 
intonation and bowing to the correct positions of the hand and fingers, and their proper 
contzol SBd movements, so that no private teacher would find an excuse for condemning 
our work, by discovering flaws in our instruction. This part of the work, I decided, must 
be perfect, as good as the best private teachers could do. But, secondly, I wanted a person 
in sympathy with childhood, full of enthusiasm, patient, decisive, understanding the 
psychc^ogy of the juvenile mind. I was fortunate to at last find a person, who seemed 
to meet these requirements, and I considered my battle more than half won. 

I had recommended, to introduce this work, that the children pay a proportionate 
amount per lesson to pay the instructors salary, but my school board exceeded my 
request, and granted our teacher a r^ular salary, the pupils being asked to pay the 
nominal sum of ten cents a lesson, for which we furnish all the music they require. And, 
so as not to be compelled to bar any one, we even furnish instruments to pupils too poor 
to buy them. 

So as not to antagonize the private teachers, by enticing their pupils away from 
them, we decided to take be^nners only at this time, with this provision for more advanced 
students, that they will be allowed to join our classes as soon as these classes have reached 
the stage of the individual's advancement. And, as experience has shown that it is unwise 
to b^iin violin instruction too eariy, except in individual cases, we took no pupils below the 
fifth grades. Our classes were organized to average ten pupils and were scheduled to meet 
partly during school time, but mostly before or after the regular sessions. I applied to our 
man u al training teachers for muric stands, and the pupils of the grammar grades, under 
their direction, made about a dozen very seiweable stands for each building. 

As soon as we had made our plans public by sending a circular letter er plfl-iTimg them 
to all the parents ooncemed, the applications began to come in and exce^ed our most 
expectations. Over two hundred pupils, about 15% of the enrollment in the re- 
spective grades, jedned these dasses, and a great majority of thpm have since worked 
laithfuEy and enthusiastical]^, so that the progress has been very satisfactory, 3res, 
indeed, at least as good as it would have been under private instruction. I am fully con- 
vinced that of these two hundred children no more than twenty-five would have ta Vffl 
fes a on s with private teach e rs, and most probably most of them would have gone to teachers 
gzeatfy inferior to the one who does this woik in our schools. This suzdly proves that 
there is a great demand for this work in our schools, and I know that the ultimate results 
w3! justify our faith in this new plan of teaching instrumental music. As soon as my 
com mu nity has become accustomed to this plan, I will introduce other instruments, 
espedally the piano. 

Our fnend, Glenn Woods, recently said, that the public schools should becenne the 
jumor conservatories of our country. I fully and heartily endorse that idea and hope, 
that everywhere in our broad land our chUdien may soon have the c^portunity for a 
thorou^ muscal education, on any instrument or the voice, as they may prefer, at public 
expense, so that even the poorest may wijoy the blesrings of this divinest of aH arts, so 



that America may in truth become a musical nation, with a population not only able to 
intelligently appreciate the best in music, but skilled enough to carry its bluings into the 
home, where, as Mr. Tapper says, the foundations for a musical nation are laid. May 
God speed this day, and may our public schools be the instrument to bring this about. 


Jay W. Fay, Instructor in Instrumcnial Music, Rochester, N. F* 

The whole subject of class instruction in instrumental music in the public schools 
has developed such an interest of late and has proved so successful where It has been put 
to the test that an elaborate introduction is unnecessary. We have had in the Wana- 
maker Band an exposition of the excellent results of the s>’Btem, and we were prevented 
only by a regrettable circumstance from hearing the Oakland band about which so much 
has been written and which we looked forward to hearing with great expectations. 

Information concerning the various instruments may be gleaned from a variety of 
sources. Berlioz’ classic work on instrumentation and a more recent and much more 
complete treatise by Xling are accessible to all. Glenn Woods has just published an excel- 
lent book on School Bands and Orchestras in which much that is of value may be found. 
Orchestras should be heard often. The players themselves, professional and amateur, 
wiU be found very approachable, and are always ready and enthusiastic in discussing 
their own instruments. Private teachers have much to offer that can be appropriated 
by the alert supervisor who should cultivate thdr acquaintance and discuss with them 
the problems of playing and teaching their respective instruments. 

Flute and clarinet classes have proved successful to the highest degree. The instru- 
ments lend themselves to ensemble teaching in classes of almost any size. A competent 
instructor should be secured, and especially in the case of the clarinet, he should be a per- 
former and practical musician of no mean ability, because he has to do with the problem 
of fitting the reed and lay of the mouthpiece to each pupil individually. This is a task 
that should be performed by an expert and not attempted by a book-read theorist. In 
the former case success will crown the effort, from the latter will ensue only vexation and 
lack of progress. 

Little need be said about the comet and the trombone, except what applies in general 
to all mouthpiece instruments. It must be realized that there is more to developing an 
embouchure thaTi merely instructing a boy to set the mouthpiece on his lips and spit off an 
imaginary hair. The register of sobists on brass instruments has in late years increased 
enormously with added ease in playing hi^ notes and with much greater comfort and 
endurance. All this is largely due to a studied and intdligent treatment of the use of the 
mouthpiece. In days gone by the regular method was to arrive by dint of long and arduous 
practice and main force. Today the playm: uses little or no pressure, ke^ the lips at all 
times flexible and relaxed and avoids straining, pinching and unduly extending them. Put 
the mouthpiece gently in the lips, without any previous lateral extension, as in smi l i n g . 
Then, and not before, moisten the lips within the mouthpiece, and contract the cheek 
muscles »T>d play, avoiding strain and pressure. Great attention to these details which 
apply equally to cmnet and trombone, to alto, French hom and tuba, will aid in devebp- 
ing a rdiabb embouchure and endurance, and in producing a sweet and fiexibb tone. 
Long sustained notes and much practice of intervals, both detached and legato, should be 
a part of the daily routine. The tongue shoiild strike against the roof of the mouth 
just back of the teeth, and should not be thrust between the lips as is often done. 



In passing, a word might be said about the trombone, and some application made to 
that much maligned instrument the ubiquitous saxophone. Those who decry both instru- 
ments fail to discriininate between jazz and the means by which it is produced. About 
jazz itself, with its ^rihcation of noise, its intentional distortions of rhythm and its other 
features pcrvcrdvc of the gentle art of music, every complaint is justified, but none is 
needed. We are unanimous in condemnation. But how unfair to banish the saxophone, 
which is an instrument of great resources and great utility and the trombone, because 
forsooth, they happai to be the principal media by which those execrable effects are pro- 
dt^ced. As well ignore statesmanship because it is perverted to ward politics, or ennobling 
love because of its prostitution. The trombone is a wonderful instrument, having many 
voices. It may express calm, tranquil beauty, as in the 5th Symphony of Tschaikowsky, a 
paan of victory, as in the finale of Beethoven’s Fifth, the noise and blatant terror of 
battle, as in 1812, or unearthly awe, as in the last act of Don Giovanni. No one who has 
heard Arthur Pryor in his best days will ever forget the velvety smoothness of his tones. 
Why then fail to develop these riches because at the same time the trombone may go 
throng the antics of the exaggerated gjissando in the clownish jazz? 

May I say a word about the oboe and bassoon before discussing the more imusual 
instrument in relation to class instruction? In all probability neither instrument will be 
taught to any extent in dass, though there is no real reason except their rarity for failure 
of such teaching. The problem of each is the reed, complicated in the case of the bassoon 
by the fingering. Both instruments should be taught by experts who can fit the reed to the 
piq>3 and supervise very closely the use of it. At the high school age it is unusual to find 
the cheek muscles sufficiently developed to control an ordinary oboe reed, and great care 
should be taken to see that it is soft enough and adapted to the boy so that he will not do 
himself a positive injury. All this applies to a great extent to En^sh horn and bassoon 
as wdDL 

The more unusual instruments include the viola, cello and string bass in orchestra, 
and the alto, French horn, baritone and tuba in band. There are definite problems 
connected with each. 

Tlie viola, in my opinion, should be played by a good vioHnist transferred for the 
purpose. Great difficulties would attend the formation of a class to teach viola it 
could be held on a Saturday and be recuited from all the schools in each of which there 
would be need of CMoly viola. On the other hand, for a violinist, it is only a matter of learn- 
ing to read the def and acomnmodating the hand to the longer stretch, and tViis is readily 
acccmp^ished in a few weeks. 

The string bass is another instrument best taken care of by transfer from the violins 
or from the pianists, of whom there are generally many more tha.T> can be used. It offers 
d^culty o£ transportatkm and its great size and dum^ appearance deter many from 
up its study. Still it is greatly needed, and there is a satisfacticai in playing it and 
in feding <mesd[f the foun d a t ion of the orchestra that is known only by one who 
scfeually pla3red it. The parts range from a single note in each measure in ea^ music to 
p a ssag es of formidable difficulty in symphonic compositions. 

The cello is well adapted to dass teaching. One finds the problem of making the ptch 
and securing a good intonation as in Violin class teaching, and there is the added necessity 
of teadmig the hi^er positions quite eaiiy m the course, I teach the fourth position 
wid the octave harmonic on the A string with all possible shifts between 1st and 4th posi- 
tfons as soon as possible, and find it feasiNe by this means to use begimiers in orchestra 
after a short tune. Later, of course, the 4th and other positions should be tau^t across all 
4 strings. The beauty of the part and the utility of the instrument should attract many 
po|^ to the cdlo, though of course, the instrument is not so easy to procure. 



With the alto, we have the problem of securing and retaining interest In band, 
the alto part is monotonous beyond description. Imagine a pianist playing notiung but 
one note of a chord in the second and third beats of a waltz, for eTampfa, while some <me 
dse plays the melody, the bass and the other notes of the chord! I suggest that the alto 
be the bepi^g instrument of the brass series, and that from it be recruited the comets 
and the baritones or basses. A boy who has the perseverance to master the alto and play 
his umpto’s may look ahead to the time when, if he shows ability, he may have a comet 
or a baritone and furnish the melody or countermelody, or carry the lordly bass and peal 
forth majestic bla's. 

The baritone should be a favorite instrument. It is the cello of the band, cairying 
melody and countermelody in turn, possessed of a full sonorous tone, and capable of noble 
solo parts. It may be provided for by transfer of cometists, if these are abundant, or may 
be the goal of ambitious alto players. 

The bass is the envy of the small boy. I recall, as a youth marching miTp< beside a 
bass player in the front row of the band and having many hair breadth escapes, lapt as I 
was in admiration of the instrument and the giant who had the rare privilege (rf playing it 
It still has for me a lurking fascination that I cannot escape. Perhaps this may be the 
avenue of approach to secure players for the tuba. The instrument presents no special 
problems in class instruction. 

Alto, baritone and bass may be grouped in duet, trio, quartette or sextette, and fur- 
nish much interest and profitable instruction in classes. A quartette of altos, well arranged, 
is a pleasing combination, and a brass sextette is noble and imposing. 

Coming at last to the French horn, we find ourselves in the presence of complications 
peculiar to that instrument. That it can be tau^t in has been proven at Rochester, 

where there is, even now, a progressive dass of eight French horns. To b^;m with, the 
formation of each boy’s lips should decide whether the mouth piece should be set upon 
them with a comet (Ansatz) or set into the lower lip (Einsatz). All that has been 
above about embouchure and sustained notes and intervals apjdies to the French horn. 
Players of high parts and those to whom the low notes come ea^y should be coached frwn 
the first and trained to play first and third (the high parts) and 2nd and 4th parts (low) 
respectively. The hand should be hdd in the bell like a cup to modify the quality and 
pitch of the tone. If the hand is not properly used, we get the cheap tcaie of the alto and 
have all the difl5culties of the French horn without its compensating qualities. 

Now comes the question of transposition which is the b^te noire of the horn. I use 
the f horn exdusively, transposing all the other horns. This is both possible with the now 
perfected chromatic horn, and it uses the most resonant and satisfactory crook. Most 
methods begin with many pages of exercises for natural horn, that is open bom without 
any valve notes. These may be easily transposed to E, Eb, and D by using the 2nd, 1st 
and 3rd valves respcctivdy in turn, the pupil learning thereby at the outset to accommo- 
date his pitch to the changing horn. The part should alwa 3 rs be sung first, because many 
of the difficulties of the playing, due to the uncertainty of producing the prc^>er note, <Cs- 
zppeax a the passage is heard in advance. 

As a base for transposituHi, I teach each note with two names. Alwa 3 ^ using the I 
horn, we read C and sound F. Consequently we learn by one process that the third ^pace, 
trdjie def is "C sounds F.” Similarly G sounds C, E sounds A, etc. In a few weeks, by 
reva:sing the process we effect the transposition for C horn (very useful) saying 
want to sound C. What sounds C?” Answel^— “G sounds C.” "Very well then, to 
sound C, iday "G sounds C.” Later comes the Eb tran^positi<Mi for alto parts in band. 
In this case we add two flats (or subtract 2 sharps) to the signature, visualize the note 
to be played as an object, slight^ watosoaked, floating just below the note on the staff, 
and fot E, we play D, for C, Bb etc. The thougjit process is: Look at C,play Bb. Bb 



acronds Eb. So we have C giving Eb (instead of F), which is the new transposition. Thus 
txeated, but more diffusely and at length, some of the greatest horn diflSculties disappear, 
and the study of the horn proves an interesting mental discipline as well as a means of 
achieving oil the other aims of instrumental instruction. 

To conclude, mstrumental class instruction has succeeded in the case of the violin, 
the most difficult and refractory instrument to treat in group teaching. All the other 
instruments are practicable and in truth much easier to handle than the violin. I should 
like to add only a fond hope that sometime in the near future, we may invite you all to 
Rochester to judge for youisdves how we are canning on, and to convince yourselves that 
all the instruments, usual and unusual, can be successfully taught by the class method. 



OsBODBNE McCo??athv, Director, Department Public School and Community 
Music, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 

The idea of granting high-school credit for the outside study of music had been aca- 
demically discussed for several years before a fortunate combination of circumstances made 
It possible to undertake the practical operation of the plan in the Chelsea, Massachusetts, 
BBgh School In the Music Teachers* National Association, the New England Education 
League, and the Eastern Educational Conference, the desirability of such credits had 
been thoroughly thradxed out, but no one seemed to have the opportunity to apply the 
principle until the fall of 1905. In the fall of 1006 the credit plan was included as a regular 
part of the school curriculum, 

A number of prominent members of the organizations named above contributed 
invaluably to the drafting of the first plans for granting credits, Leo R. Lewis in particular 
giving suggestions of the most helpful nature. Within a short rime other places followed 
the lead of Chelsea, notably Mr. Miller in Lincdn, Nebraska, Mr. Cogswell in Washington, 
D. C., Mr. Cole in Broc^line, Mass., and Mr. Earhart in Pittsburgh. When these promi- 
nent men accq>ted the plan its success was assured, and it rapidly spread over the country 
until today a fairly representative percent of the high schools are granting credit in one 
way or another to who are studying music under private teachers. 

The first plans fw granting credit were based on the idea that the school must check 
work d<me by ezainiznng the pupiL In the course of afewyearsanother plan was tried 
in some of the schools of the country, nanudy, granting credit to pupils of certified teachers. 
In the last few years two other have been added; first, ^peofjdng ccstain definite 
outhnes of work that the fuivate teacher must follow if credit is to be granted the pupil; 
and second, granting credit to pupils who are following a standard course of instruction. 

Today, therefore, four different plans for crediting outskle study are in operarion, 
not to men t ion a probabhs number of combinations of various features of these four plans, 
Tim fiondamental thought underlying the four plans is the same, namdy, the pupil 
umst follow a systematized plan of worik involving not less than equal time and effort than 
would be required for the same amount of credit in another subject, and the school must 
have scune w^-oiganized machTnery for dete rmining that such is the case. 

Let us briefly study the four ][^ans outlined above. 

^ In the first plan an effort is made to leave the private teacher perfect freedom in the 
choice of method and material Throu^ monthly reports the school is given a cxunplete 
record of the work done by the pupil and a marik indica ring the private teacheris ^timate 
of the (|uafity of the work. The examiner studies the reports and from them arranges his 
tests with the chief aim of determining whether or not the standards set by the private 



teacher may be recognized by the school. It is not the examiner^s function to criticise the 
methods employed by the teacher if the results are sufficiently good to merit high school 
credit. The advantages of this plan lie in the freedom given the private teacher to conduct 
his work according to his own judgment and experience, in the elasticity of the examination 
and in the simplicity of organiring, introducing, and conducting the credit plan. The dis- 
advantages lie in the lack of organization required on the p)art of the private teacher, and 
in the uncertainty that good results will follow until the pupil has had at least six months 
or a year of work . 

The second plan involves the determining of some central authoritative body which 
shall p)ass up>on the qualifications of the private teacher and grant certificates to those 
teachers deemed comp)etent. In a few instances such a certifying board has received its 
authority from the State, and in other cases from the school boards. When the scope of 
the certifying body is state-wide the authority is usually vested either in the music depart- 
ment of the State University (as for instance in Or^n) or in the State Music Teachers' 
Association (as in Arkansas). When the certification of teachers is done by the city one 
of three plans has usually been followed; first, an examining board has determined the 
successful candidates; second, the choice has been made by some local music oiganization; 
or third, the school music supervisor has been vested with this dangerous respionsibility. 
Of course, it is pleasant to feel that the private teachers are certified and that the responsi- 
bilities of the school are thereby ended. Doubtless in most instances the chosen teachers 
are entirely adequate. Nevertheless, there are two grave defects in this plan; first, it is 
quite p>ossible for a teacher to p>ass a perfect examinarion and yet have so little personal 
influence upon the pupil and be so weak in powers of discrimination and organization as 
utterly to fail as a teacher; and second, chances for favoritism and porsonal *‘pnill,” real 
or imag ined, may easily pass suspicion upon the whole procedure. Sometimes the exam- 
inations for teachers’ certificates indude questicms very far from the real points under 
ocmsideration, and it is quite possible that an eiodlent teacher may fail in the examination 
and a pxor teacher poss it. After all, is not the work done by the pupil the vital question 
to be determined? 

The third plan has been adopted in a number of peaces. The school committee 
authorizes a group of |>eople to draw up a standard course, or a group of peop^ draw up 
such a course and ask for its adoption by the school board. Pupils of any private teacher 
who follows this course may receive hi^ schod credit. In most instances the pdan indudes 
examination of the pupils, thou^ not always. In smne cases the plan indudes certifica- 
tion of the puivateteadier. Of course, there is a great advantage in this procedure over the 
pdanwhidipdaces no standards before the teadieis and jnipils. The great drawback to the 
plflTi lies in the fact that it compds all teachers to follow one procedure, and that procedure 
the product of a limited drde of p>eopIe. As a rule the needs of the individual pupil are 
not suffidentfy considered, nor is suffident latitude allowed the private teacher. When a 
certain few p>eople outline a course it is almost inevitable that it will represent the thou^ts 
of one or two strong jiersonalities, and consequently may be too nanow in its conception 
to meet the approval of other equally capable teachers who were not consulted inits 
TwaVnig This is espiedaily apt to be true in subjects which are not standardized, sudi 
as piano teadrmg, etc. 

The adoptKHi of certain standard courses of instruction whidi have been available 
inthelastfcw3rearshasgreatlyaidedm the spread of the credit pdan. These courses have 
the advantage of the careful ffiougSit and long, serious study of cap)able and exp)erienced 
teachers, consequaitly represaat a broader plan of work than most of the ontimes 
referred to under pl^ 3. The publidied courses also make it much earier to grade and 
dassify pupils as to attainmMit and prepress and j^ve the younger private teachers safe 
guidance throng the eaiiier years of thdr expieriaice. On the oiher hand, such courses 



are open to tbe same objections as the outlines under plan 3, and to some even graver 
objections. They are too rigid, too exact and reacting. The experience of the private teacher 
is discounted, the various individual needs of the pupils are not sufiSdently considered. 
The private teacher is too often required to follow this one plan or to bear the penalty 
of having his pupils exduded from opportunities for credit. The art of teaching is made 
too static, it loses its d3mainic power and inventive stimulation. 

What then, is the ideal plan? Of course, I cannot presume to do more than express 
an opinion, but I shall gladly do that. Also I am happy to state that the committee of 
which I am chairman is now endeavoring to untangle the mesh described in this paper. 

The ideal plan, it seems, is one that bases the credit granted upon the progress made 
by the pup2L It gives the teacher certain clearly defined land marks upon which to plan 
the development of the pupil’s outline of work, and yet it leaves teacher and pupil free to 
grow, to think, to create, and to exercise the vitalizing force of individual initiative. I 
sincerdy hope that when next our conference gathers to discuss this question, our commit- 
tee may have definitely formulated its working plan for crediting outside study of music 
and that our plan may appeal to thoughtful teachers as a practical solution of the problems 
discussed in this paper. ^ 

J. Victor Bergquist, Supervisor Music Credits, Minneapolis High Schools 

Why: Music is a solid. Music gives the training that mathematics, history, litera- 
ture and other subjects give, if not in as large a measure, nevertheless in a measure large 
enough to make Dr, Elliot’s remark “The best mind trainer on the list” a pertinent one. 
Music is an art, a histoiy, a literature, a science in itself, and, if we follow Dr. Elliot’s 
remark to its conclusion, we realize the compreheosiveness of the same. 

Music is a sohd! This fact is too often granted and not understood by the parents, 
the principals, the teachers, the fellow students and the community at large. Every 
music teacher, music supervisor, music stud^t should get this fact thoroughly in mind 
and drive it home. We have a problem of education along H-np; and every music 
teacher should be alive to the same. 

A principal in one of our high schools was asked, “How many students in your school 
are taking music outside of school?” “HaH of them” was her reply. If only 30% are 
studying, and I bdieve this is a conservative estimate, throughout the country, should 
not the school authorities know and' give than credit for the sa-mf*. How many high 
schools have a recozd of outside study, whether it be music, elocution or any other subject? 
In many schools a record is kept of other work done by the student, manual, deiical, etc,, 
wity not a leocnd of outside study. If 30% of the students in the hi gh schools of this coun- 
try are studying musi c outside of scbo<d, a real efifort should be made by aH educators 
to get a record of the same, check up carefully and corrdLate it with other subjects. The 
day wiS come when mnsi . c in all its branches will go into the grades and high schools of 
this country the same as the three R’s, Private tutorship was the means of education in 
oth^ subjects a century ago, music still dings to private tutorship; it will eventually fall 
in line with the three essenti als ; it will some day be four essentials— the three R’s and 

Music is at present in our High Schools because 

It is a solid. 

It is a pleasant, profitable vxication. 

It is the richest, fullest, most inherently pleasurable and dominatiDg avocatioiia] 




How: The one big problem for the schools is how shall music be accredited? The 
teaching at present must be done outside. The first and large proWan is the teacher. 
Special training, ability, personality, experience, aptitude and attitude towards thdr 
work is required of the English teacher, mathematics teacher and of all other teachers. 
How much of this can and should we require of the muac teacher in the High Schools, for 
every piano, voice and violin teacher is a member of the faculty extension list What 
should the standard of the teacher be? Are we ripe for a fixed high standard? Can we 
require a diploma from a local conservatory, do the state examinations such as we are 
^en in many of the states solve the problem? Are the Universities of the different states 
equipped to pass on the teacher of muinc? Can we recognize the efforts made towards 
standardization by some of the publishing houses and national societies? What should 
be the training and ability of the music teacher? Should it equal the teaching in 
English? Yes, emphatically so, but are we ripe for it at present? 

The private teacher represented in the High School faculty should be required to 
apply for that position, answer any questionnaire which the supervisor may see fit to give, 
and submit to all rules governing the other teachers, such as attending teachers’ meetings, 
educational conventions, etc. Failure to do so would mean loss of position on the faculty 
extension list. 

How can we measure the personality of the teacher? Do more years of teachingmean 
experience? Personality can be measured by contact A meeting two or three times a 
year, called by the supervisor, of all the teachers to discuss problems of musk, pedagogy, 
administration etc., will bring the supervisor in touch with his outside teachers. Teachers 
should be obliged to attend these. The aptitude and attitude of the teachers are hard to 
measure, how many music teachers are real teachers, how many are inddentaJly or acci- 
dentally in the work? A demonstration of their work at a recital of their pupils at the 
teachers’ meetings can give a wide awake supervisor a pretty good idea of the teadiers’ 
ability. As supervisors, we are interested in the musicians not as pianists, vocalists, violin- 
ists etc., but as teachers. The outside teadier should be selected with care and held 
responsible for the progress of the pupil. The teacher’s reports should not be questioned 
except for cause and should be submitted at the end of each term. 

Examination within the school by the supervisor clutters up the work, is unsatis- 
factory, and relieves the private teacher of all responsibility. Make the private teachers 
a part of the system and make them fed their lesponsibflity. No principal would go back 
of his English teacher’s markings, if he should need to do so he had better drop that 
teacher. The supervisor’s position is paraUd. 

The school system should have some definite hold on students doing outside work. 
Some organization within the scbocA. theory, history, or composition classes should be 
organized in which every student getting credit for outside work must enroll. TTiese 
classes should act as a dealing house within the system for outside work. They could be 
of valuable assistance and would give the student something musically which the private 
teacher does not have the time to give. The teacher of these dasses is a part of the schod 
system, engaged by the school board, and he should be the final arbiter in giving of all 
credits. Meeting these students CHice or twice a week, a report of the practiang done 
from the parents, a report of the progress and lessons taken from the private teacher, from 
these the supervisor is in as good a position to judge the student’s work as is the 
teacher of the work done in En^ish. 

The second, and equally as large a problem, is the studout. Should the study d 
piano, organ, voice and violin that is done entirely outride of school be one of progress or 
aooomplishment? • 

How shall the authorities get at the student’s progress: Krst by dasses in sdioo^ 
seooDidly by the amount of practicing the student has done, thirdly by the number of 



lessons, and lastly by a report from the private teacher. The value of organized classes 
within the school has been spoken of, but the question of the validity of the practice cards 
has been raised. If 75% of the hours reported are true, we have a very good average and 
an average equal to the preparation given to any other subject, which is more than 25% 
camouflage and the recitation often guess work. Furthermore, if parents are required 
to sign these cards more than 75% will make an effort to teU the truth. A parent may be 
dishonest, but he doesn’t want his children to be. 

A check on the practicing can be made a strong incentive to work and a help to the 
private teacher. If an average of one hour a day is required, that is the minimum, mark 
the student a “C” for the same, if the student practices an average of an hour and a half, 
give him a “B,” if an average of two hours a day, an “A.” Since working that way I have 
found that the amount of practicing in our schools has increased 50%. Permit me to cite 

instance in my own work. Last fall, a term of fourteen weeks we required ninety-eight 
hours practicing, an average of seven a week. We had one girl in one of our schools 
reporting 343 hours. 

With the supervisor of credits, meeting these students once or twice a week, thereby 
getting an idea of the intelligence of the student, checking carefully their practicing and 
the lessons taken, meeting the private teachers and getting from them a report of the 
pupils’ progress, I believe the work done in music should command and demand the 
respect of every educator; it is a solid. It takes just as much effort and more time, is of 
equal intellectual value, and greater emotional value, not to forget the social and profes- 
sional advantages in studying of music. Music a vocation — ^yes, but primarily the richest, 
fullest and best avocational subject. 


Hamlin Cogswell, Dhrector of Music in Public Schools of the District of 

From the time our Mr. McConathy started the “credit business” at Chelsea, Mass., 
until the present I have watched with close interest its growth and now I may rejoice in 
the fact that Schools all over the U. S. are giving credit for outside study in music 
or agitating the question and trying to get down to a definite working plan. 

Washington was one of the first cities to adopt a plan based largely upon the outline 
published by “The New England League.” 

As many of you are aware, conditions in the Capital City are quite unlike those of 
any other dty in the country. 

Each High School is a law unto itself, the Principal has the say as to whether a sub- 
ject may or may not be taught in his school. I refer to special subjects. 

The diioctors of special subjects, excepting Manual Training are supposed to act 
only in the capadty of advisors. 

Washington has five Senior Hi^ Schools, one Business and one Junior High SchocL 
In four of the Senior EGgfa Schools, music is compulsory. In the Technical it is elective. 
“Tech” exods in two features. A fine orchestra of fifty pieces is maintained and an opera 
is given annually in a really professional manner, to raise funds for the Athletics. 

The Manual Training teacher who is experienced in orchestral and operatic work 
ooflaborates with the legoiax music teacher. 

Business School is a two year schooL The Principal argues, that owing to 
lack of time ooy^fled with the idea that he believes the student body would not be inters 
ested therefore music is not included in the curriculum. 

Jmflor recently established, gives credit for outside study and both principal 
and x i msic teacher are enthusiastic in the venture and axe working to a plan. 



Violin classes can not be held if a charge is made, except under the auspices of com- 
munity or Parent-Teacher associations. 

Entertainments are not permitted with an admission charge unless the proceeds are 
used for playground or athletic purposes and more instances mig^t be redted if pertinent 
to the subject 

As I have indicated, the unusual conditions make it inevitable that a working (dan 
for credit in Wadiington will not fit other cities. 

The theoretical courses, music appreciation, etc., are tau^t Pupils taking credit 
are examined by the school authorities and two of the four full credits required for gradua- 
tion are given for the theoretical courses, and the other two for the technical work under 
private teachers. 

The examinations for technical work are conducted by two representative mu sicians 
with the regular high school music teacher as an assistant. 

We are undertaking a systematic gradation, requiring each student to pass to a 
higher grade at the end of the year. 

Only about five per cent of the entire student body are taking credit. Ninety per 
cent of this number take music as a fifth subject, thus canying thdr full course of r^ular 

These students are found to be for the most part honor students and are a great 
credit to the schools. 

A prominent piano teacher, lepr^^ting her own school of music is conspicuous 
in her efforts to convince the school authorities that the only way to carry this work 
as it should be, is to require all private teachers to produce a certificate from some univer- 
sity or prominent conservatory, or rise be examined by a committee of representative 

She refuses to allow her pupils to be examined. She has persisted in presenting the 
matter to the Board of Education. This body has referred it to the Director of Music and 
the Tlig b School authorities who have decided that until the government makes a require- 
ment the present p lan wDl be adhered to. If a student fails he has a choice of teachers. 

The school authorities propose to ccmtrtd the matter by having the student measure 
up to their standard. 

This discusrion should bring out many valuable ideas from those interested in this 
problem and I hope that no one will be a&aid to ^^speak ont in meeting” who has given 
the subject any thou^t. 

Let us keep in mind tlx* fact that the musical educatioii of the masses rests with the 
public school and regardless of "credits” “woridng plans” etc., there is work to do in the 
line of educating the private teachers^ giving them enlig^termrent regarding its aims and 
methods. This education may wdi extend to our legislators ^'on the ±lilL” 

Hekky Doucmry Tovey 

When the Aikansas State Music Teachers Association was founded in 1915 a Board 
erf ExamiBCis was appointed. The members of this Board were to examine other teache r s 
in the State. This Board knew that there would be a great many teachers in the state 
who would ask *Just who IS thiR Board and what right have they to examine ME?’ To 
get aiound tKia difficulty each member of the Board took the licentiate Examinatiem in 
their chosen Htw of Music together with Harmony and BQstoiy, from the Natl. A s s n * of 
Presidents and Past Presidents. Some eff the Board also topk the Associate Examinatioai. 
Our aiTn was to get in the schedule of every BSgh School in the state, Music outside, inside 



or both, but with credit towards graduation. We knew that nine times out of ten a child 
dre^ music upon entering the High School because there is no time for it. When a parent 
sends a child to school they are assured by state laws that the teacher is competent, is 
licensed. But most anyone can hang out a sign announcing that they teach Music, and 
get pupOs- That day is passing in Arkansas. WTiy shouldn’t we be as careful that the 
child is started correctly in Music as in English? At the end of 1915 we had our Board 
and a few members. Luckily the founders and JSust members were the strongest musicians 
in the state. Then the question arose from the High School Principals. They said ‘We 
want Music and are willing to put it in but what good does it do our pupils when the 
University docs not recognize these credits as entrance credits?’ In our state there is the 
one school, the University, by far the bluest thing in the state. The University did 
grant three entrance credits for Music BUT they were only for a pupil who is classed as a 
Special and no one can be classed as a Special over one year. So these credits didn’t 
amount to much. For two years I lobbied at the University and one day the Faculty of 
the College of Arts and Sciences passed without a dissenting vote the following rule — 

Resdtcdj That the Univeraty grant a mazi m uTn of two entrance credits to students 
from ffigh Schodb offering courses in Music under the following restrictions: 

1. The course must be the one laid down by the Arkansas State Music Teachers 

2. The teacher must be a member of this Association and must have passed its 


3. The pupa must be examined periodically at the same time as other High School 
examinations, and this examination be conducted by a Member of the State 
Examining Board of the State Assn. 

This admits to any College of the Univeraty and not just to the Music Dept. I 
oonsidcrthisaveiy great stride forward for Music in this state. The rule looks rigid. But 
the Umvmity Senate pointed out that they do not let down the bars for entrance in 
Sdences, Mathematics, etc. Also that we musicians are always saying ‘Why don’t you 
let Music stand on the same basrs as Mathematics, En^ish, etc?’ So now, in this state, 
Music is dassed ri^t along with everything dse. Later the College of Education of the 
University of Arkansas passed a law that their students could take just as much Music 
as the Department of Musk offers and get credit for it hour for hour towards their gradua- 
tkn. This is our biggest step forward. Pupils in Schools have to take Harmony 
and History along with thrir other subjects. Everything is credited with the excq)tion 
of Voice, I w3i read later why this exception was made. 

Our motto is ‘Elevation not Elimination.’ We did not set about maliciously to 
ehminate an 3 none but the result of the University’s action is this — bmn teachers, those not 
prepared and charlatans will be automatically eliminated. Already parents write me 
^ there is an Accredited teacher in thrir town. One town has fourteen Music 
teachers. The St^>erintendent sent them word that they must get in line immediately or 
lose ti» business, 75% of the High Schools in the state are in line right now. Of course it 
means lots of work for us. The Board of Examiners must be large and ready to act at any 
call from a High SchooL So far, there has not been the slightest trouble. This year 
there have been so many Musk teachers wanting in and wanting to take the Examinations 
that I have had to hold four examinations in the one year instead of one, as we originally 
planned. F or the first two exams we allowed the apj^cant to take either the State 
or the (me offered by the Presidents’ Assn., but realizing how bu^ these men are we de- 
cided in Nov. 1919 that hereafter we couM offer only State FTamg For two years a 
Coomttee which I appointed worked on a Course. We did not pick out any one of the 
published courses whkh we all know so well, because while they are very good it sf***^^ 
to us that they did not meet the lequiremfints of this particular section of the country. 



No one knows what is needed as well as the people who are right on the ground. But we 
did do this. We advised teachers thru our publications that these courses could be used 
as equivalents if the teacher wished, but that this did not excuse the pupil or teacher from 
taking our examinations. I get almost daily letters as follows — *I studM 37ears and years 
with so and so, have diplomas as follows, certificates, etc. Surely you would not ask me 
to take this exami nation?^ I reply the same thing to everyone as follows. ‘The Director 
of Music of the University of Arkansas and all his assistants, the Directors of every school 
in the state but one, all the strongest teachers in Little Rock, Fort Smith and the larger 
towns of the state have taken these examinations. All of these people were COVERED 
with diplomas and certificates. But they took our examinatioixs and welcomed them as a 
test. The passing of the Licentiate Examination with ease is a foregone conclusicm to 
any teacher who is competent to teach the children, and who has proper preparation.’ 

Here followed the “Courses of Study in Music for Credits in High Schools and the 
University of Arkansas.” 

Because of its length, it is not possible here to reproduce the Course of Study. Those 
interested may communicate with Mr. Tovey at FayetteviHe, Arkansas. 


John P. Marshall, Professor of Music^ Boston Umoersity^ Boston^ Mass. 

Fortunately, it is no longer necessary in discussing the subject of high school credit 
for outside music study to begin with arguments in its favor. It appears that the experi- 
mental stage has been passed, and it seems to be generally agreed that the giving of credit 
for outside music study has resulted in stimulating the study of the piano, the violin, 
and other instruments among high school pupils, in raising the standard of teaching, in 
malcmg the position of music teachers more secure by reqmring r^ularity of lessons and 
practice. So instead of disooifeing the merits of the general plan, it is now for us to look at 
the results, and consider ways and means for remedying defects, and extending the useful- 
ness of the best plans already in operation. In sosm cities puUidied courses of study are 
officially adopted by the school authorities, and the student who works for credit is limited 
to work along the lines laid down in these courses. In other cities a general plan of work is 
laid out, which prescribes work of a certain ^ade of difficulty in each group with the 
choice of material left largdy in the hands of the teacher. In some dries credit is grv^ 
for apjffied music alone. In other dries the pupil is not only required to show results in 
playing, but in addition, must take a certain amount of theory in connection with his 
lessons to obtain credit, the instruction in theory bdng given in some cases by the private 
teacher, and in other cases by one of the high school faculty. The plans adopted and in 
operation in Boston and smne of the other Massachusetts dries may be of interest to the 
Convention, and may furnish some data of use in improving atad extending the movement 

In the dty of Boston, credit for outside music study was first given in 1917. Tl^ 
Advisory Committee on Music was asked by the Schod Committee to draw up a working 
plan. Conferences were hdd with music teachers and representatives of prominent music 
schools, a;nd the fdlowing jdan was drawn up. A pamphlet called “Plan for Giving Credit 
for Outside Study in Applied Musk; Preliminaiy Statement” was printed, and giv^ by 
the schools to musk teachers. This pamphlet ^ves directions for eniolhnent and addi- 
tional informarion r^ajding the esaminatkais, and the keeping of records by the 

teacher and parents. A second pamphlet called “Course of Study icr Outside Chedit in 
Af^ffied Musk” was also printed dealing with the course in pia^ music only. (It is 
t^ intention of the School Committee to issue snnilar pamphlets for other instiuments 



as soon as practicable.) The course of study is simply an outline divided into seven 
groups, graded from the rudiments of music and piano playing to advanced work, such as 
the more di&cult compositions of Bach, Beethoven, Schumann, and Liszt. I will quote 
from this pamphlet as an example the outline of Group III. 

“Study of scales and chords continued. Analysis of music studied with regard to key 
changes and formal design. 

Studies of the grade and style of the eight measure studied, Op. 821, Czerny; TriU 
Studies, Op. 2, Krause; Studies, Op. 121, Vogt. 

Bagatelles, Op. 33, Beethoven; Lyric Pieces, Op. 12, Grieg; the simpler sonata move- 
ments of Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven; Home Music, Reinecke; the simpler works of 
Bach; miscellaneous piano pieces of Grade III.” 

You will observe from this outline that it is more in the nature of a suggestion of the 
grade and quality of material than a compulsory program to be followed by the teacher, 
and I would say that it was the aim in preparing this whole working plan to provide a 
scheme which, while it would not limit the teacher in prescribing the kind of work which 
he considered necessary for the particular needs of the pupil, would, nevertheless, indicate 
a certain standard consistent with the work of any other high school study. You will 
also note in the first paragraph under Group 3, “Study of scales and chords continued. 
Analysis of music studied with regard to key changes and formal design.” In this way 
the study oi musical theory was insisted upon in connection with the strictly instrumental 
work, and a part of the annual examinations in each group is devoted to a test on this part 
of the work. 

The third and remaming pamphlet issued in connection with this working plan is a 
statement of the preparation required for the annual examination given in May each year. 
Taking Grade HI again as an illustzation; under this group the pamphlet states that the 
pupil win be examined on the following tc^ics: 

Dommant seventh chords with their inversions. Key abd form sqialysis of pieces 

Twenty-four numbers for Eight Measure Studies, Op. 821, Czerny; numbers in each 
k^r requirecL 

Two sonata movements selected from Haydn, Mozart, or Beethoven- 

A brief sight reading test. 

The examinations are gpven by a Board of Examiners paid by the city, at the rate of 
twenty-five dollars per day. Fifteen minutes are allowed for the examinatioa of each 
pupiL The figures for the three years during which the plan has been in operation in 
Boston ^ as follows: 

Vieiin Cdlo Corned Drum and Beils Trombone Trumpet Total 
61 2 S 4 0 0 313 

101 1 7 3 2 1 396 

(Also Viola 1) 

83 2 8 3 2 0 480 

(Also Clarinet 1) 

The admiiiistrative work of this plan in Boston has been most effidently carried out 
by the Siq)ervisor of Music of the Boston schools, and a recent canvass of sdiool authoiir 
ties, examiners^ and teachers shows that this plan is entirely satisfactory. The credit 
obtained for outside m u si c study is as follows: two diplmna points are given 3 ^ear, 
making a total ci ei^t out of the d^ty points required for a diploma. My own bdief 
is that the work in theory and music appreciation could be more effidently tau^t if the 
wmk was done at the hi^ sdmol in classes under the supervision of the high school faculty. 
Tlas would not only result in a better standardization of this work, which varies greatly 
among music teacheis, but wxmld in additiem allow the music teacher to eoncentrateon the 
performance of music. 


1917 238 

1918 280 

1919 381 



In addition to the Boston plan for out^de credit, I have had scmie eiperience in other 
Massachusetts cities, including Gloucester, Waltham, and Newton. In these cities the 
e xam i n ations are given sani-annuaUy, and the teachers are required to submit to the 
e xami ner a month in advance the names of the pieces to be presented at the examination. 
Ill Gloucester, and in Walt ham , the instruction in theoiy is separated from the it:^tnmien> 
tal lessons. The plans in operation in these other cities seem to me an improvement 
on the Boston plan in these particulars. First, two examinations per 3^ear are better tha-n 
one on account of the fact that the examiner is brought more closely in touch with the 
pupil’s work, and can estimate the pupil’s progre^ more accurately by the additional 
opportunities for comparison thus ajOforded. Second, by requiring the teacher to subimt 
in advance the optional material to be presmted at the examination, (^iportunity is givea 
to the exa min er or the examining board to reject bad mTisif; mamtai’n a necessary 
standard. It prevents the situation from arising in which the examiner is confronted by 
a pupil who has wasted much time in preparing bad music, or trinsir too difficult or too 
simple for his grade. 

From my experience with the outside credit work in Boston and viciiiity, I have come 
to these definite conclusions: 

First, the working plan for outside credit should be as simple as possible. 

Second, the teacher must not be restricted to the point where the particular needs of 
the pupil must be n^ected. 

Third, the standard of teaching material must be maintained at a high leveL 

Fourth and fi n al l y , provision must be made for the training of the pupfi’s mind as 
well as his fingers. 


William Bseach, Supervisor cf School Music, Rochester, JV. F. 

These are the days of varied and jMugresrive work in music in the Public Schools. 
Never before have so many activities been attempted. The average Supervisor of Musk 
is overburdened with work attempting to take care of Grammar School musk. High School 
choruses and ^ee dubs, classes in appreciation, history, harmony and theoiy, direct 
orchestras and bands, take charge of instrumental classes, piano classes, community singing 
and what-not. It would seem Hke adding the proverHal straw to suggest cla.sses in ^ledal 
voice training. And yet, some of us who have been e x per i mentmg along these lines have 
been so amply repaid for the extra effort involved and have found the results so wdl worth 
while, we feel justified in pdntmg out the posribilities of this weak and peihaps suggesting 
sernre methods that have proved sucoessfuL 

It would seem presumptuous to claim any particular novdty for the idea of presenting 
vocal instruction in dasses. Many teachers have experimented along these lines but I 
bdieve have hitherto confined their efforts to dasses of adults. Surdy no extensive work 
has been done in the High School 

I trust I may be pardemed if this paper assumes somewhat the nature of an adcount 
of my personal experiences, for in fact practically all the ideas I have to offer are the result 
of my eaperiments started some five or dx years ago. At that tinie my attention was forci- 
bly drawn to the need of such work in the High SchooL 1 had often Qr connnoo. witii 
other supervisors) been approached by parents who asked my advice about the advisabiHty 
of giving thdbr children vocal mstruction. in many cases it involved a real hardship to 
assume this expense. They were willing to provide such instiuctimi, if the voices seemed 
to warrant it. As a rule the voices were so young and undeveloped that I did not fed 
warranted in expressing any opinion as to future possibilities. Nor was there ai^ guaran- 
tee that the pupil had the other qualities necessary for success. 



It seoned to me that if class instrudion in voice training could be offered it would 
take caie of just such cases as I have mentioned. They would be kept interested and an 
<^portunity would be afforded to test their ability so that when the time was ripe th^ 
could continue their study under private teachers. It might also attract others who had 
never given any thought to the possibility of learning to sing and for whom private lessons 
were out of the question. 

It so happened at this particular time I planned to present an opera. In looking 
stonnd for pupils to take principal parts I found almost a dearth of solo voices. In self 
defence I decided to start classes in vocal instruction. Somewhat to my surprise these 
classes proved quite successful from the start in spite of much bungling on my part. I 
soon found myself confronted by many problems. 

First of all, there must be a meth^ or course of study and this method must be 
strictly adhered to in order to keep the interest of the pupil and to obtain results. If a 
definite course is not followed the tendency will be to go too far afield. This was one of 
the greatest mistakes I made with my early classes. 

There are as many methods of singing and theories regarding the technique of singing 
as there are teachers of voice. It seems to be the tendency of all writers on the subject 
of voice culture to exjness themselves in such a manner that the principles xmderlying 
technique, which th^ wish to set forth are lost in a multiplicity of detail and the very 
purpose of thdr books is defeated by the vagueness of their style. Saint Saens very truly 
said '‘Too much of that whkh men say of voice culture, is indefinite.” All of us who have 
studied know that these tendencies are shared by many teachers of voice, some of whose 
puf^ sing in spite of the method of instruction. 

After reading a large number of books on the subject of voice training and having 
studied with a number of teachers and talked with a great many singers who haVe studied 
with other teachers, I hive come to the conclusion that underneath the multiplicity of 
detail and vagueiiess of expression, the majority are striving for practically the same 
fundamental piinc^cs and if all the “folderol” be eliminated and the art of singing in 
all its simplidty be set before the pupils, a great service will have been rendered. 

Tltt method, if you care to derignate it as such, to be used in the High School classes, 
sliould omsist of a few, all embracing laws that the pupils may srize upon and cany 
around with them. Three such laws cover pretty much the whole subject of vocal tech- 


There must be the ability to breathe deeply and to control the outgoing ringingr 


There must be a freedom ci the vocal instrument and a non-rigid body (made 
possible by the proper breath contrdL). 


The voice must be “i^ku:ed” so that use is made of all the sources of resonance, to 
give neoessazy color to the tones, and increase the range and volume. 

The tendency to allow lessons in voice training to slip into a routine of vocal exercises 
should be avoided. Too often pupOs are tau^t to do everything but SING. The techni- 
cal side of although highly essential, should not be overemphasized. It is a m^ 

take to kam the “HOW” and forget the “WHAT.” Too often this makps the inirial 
study mnateresting. 

Pupfls should be made to realize that singing is an ^q>ressioii of something in the 
heart and that the vmioe is the connectiDg Hnk betwe^ the singer’s soul and tha aairiipfnrf , 
Tfiat it is poeB3)ie for the singer to readi out and touch an audience with the voice as 
tnfi^ as they may be touched with the hand. A voice that does not have a soul bade of 
it affects an authence as unpleasantly as a limp and lif dess haTuighfllrA 

PHILABELPHU, PA., MARCH 22-26, 1920 


The dose relationship between song and speech diouM not be lost sight of. The 
definition “Singing is sustained speech” or as Mr. Davies puts it (Singing of the Future) 
“Singing is t alking on a tune” is a good one to impress on the TWTnHs of pupils. Too often 
young singexs have the idea that when th^ sing they axe doing something very 
something entirdy fordgn to speaking. This accounts for their very wniiatiTry l 
manner of producing tones and indistinct amndation. When once they gra^ the idea 
that song is merely speech sustained, many of thdr bad vocal habits disappear. 

Having established in the minds of the pupDs a COTrect idea of gmgittg it ig safe to 
proceed to take up a few fundamental ideas of technique. First of aU comes the of 

breath controL H^re afflm we find ourselves in a maze pf t/yhniraiTitVs when we consult 
the average treatise on si n g in g. Recently I picked up a book siqjposed to deal with the 
development of breath contrd for singing and was amazed to find the fdlowing exercises 
advocated by the author: 

shoulder respiration 
upper front chest respiration 
upper side chest 
abdominal respiration 
deep respiration 
light abdominal 
single nostril 
nasal expandon 
drop movement 
rapid nostril breathing 
full abdbmin^ 

instantaneous mouth inhalation 

I may add that these were only part of the exercises suggested. 

It seems to be difficult to find a clear, ooncise explanation of the act of breathing in 
anging. Young pupils should be made to realize that breathing during singing is but the 
amplification of normal breathing. The breath must be deep and deeply controlled. 

First of aH, the position must be right. They should stand erect, the weight of the 
body on the ball of either foot, beds dose tc^ether, shoulders down and back, top of the 
chest out. This positkm must be maintained whether inhaling or exhaling. When the 
correct position has been taken let the pupils dgh a contented sigh and take a breath as 
deep as the dgh. They should have the feeling that the breath is talring them, instead of 
them taking the breath. The mental activily during breathing should center itsdf on 
the lower part of the trunk. Deeply controlied breath ensuxesfree activity of thelaiynx 
and pronoundng apparatus. 

After the pupils have realized the sensaiimi of a deep breath let them turn thdr 
attention iimnediatdy to producing tones. Have them sustain a teme in the middle voice, 
ndng the vowds “oo,” “oh” or “ah.” Suggest the thou^t of a soft flow of voice rather 
♦hftTi have them attempt to sing a soft tone. Impress upon them the idea that they must 
hear the tone mentally before uttering it and that th^ must have a fine ideal of tone 
before they can produce beantifol times. Let them realize that back of all vocal tone is a 
mental ajetivity and that fine minds produce fine tones. 

A xoutme of simple vocal exercises, employing the broad vowd sounds first and later 
the short sounds, may be used to equalize vowd qualities and to induce flexibility. It 
must be dearly understood, however, that merely the use of any set of exercises cannot be 
dq>ended upon to change in smne miraculous manner bad vocal l^its into good ones. 
Pupils must be tau^ to listen to themsdves and to others. A set routine of exercises 
has the danger €i becoming deadening and pupOs singing in unison are apt to become 
cardess. Fii^nlsshoiMbeasked to sing indiv^ually as much as possible. 

attenuated inhalation 
attenuated exhalation 
dizzy cxerdse 
pipe stem pairing 
pipe stem exhaustion 
pipe stem inhalation 
pipe stem exhalation 
pipe stem fordUe exhalaticHi 
extreme natural exhalation 
breathing on full hmgs 
breathing on empty lungs 



It is a mistake to work for tone at first When proper breath control is secured and a 
consequent freedom of the vocal apparatus is obtained quality and volume of tone wDl 
follow. There is a vital danger of securing resonance at all costs by an unnatural and 
distorted raising of the palates and foicifaie downward pressure of the root of the tongue. 

A judickwis use of easy songs should be made along with the vocal exercises. A few 
vital points in song interpretation should be tau^t Irequireallpupflsinmy voice train- 
ing to memorize one song each month, which means five songs a semester or ten 

ftningc for the yernr. They are tau^t to walk from their seats to the platform and to stand 
in an easy position. The value of poise is emphasized and all unnecessary move- 

ment of iht body during gin g in g 13 discouraged. Suggestions are given as to ways of creat- 
ing the proper atmosphere for their songs. They soon learn that the effectiveness of their 
songs is debesmined in a very vital manner the way they walk on and off the stage and 
the way they stand during ic song and even by the way th^ acknowledge the applause. 
Th^ are taught to phrase their scmgs correct^ and to work for a refined and distinct 
consonantal articulation. Spedajl effmrt is made to secure pure pronunciation for when this 
is adhieved it invariably insures zi^^t production and consequently right tone. 

It does not seem practical to offer more than a two yesj course in Hi^ School By 
that time the pupils should have more individual attention than can be given them in 
wock. Tv^ty-four seems about the largest number that it is possible to handle 
saccessfally in one class. Twelve to sixteen Is the ideal number. The classes should meet 
twice eac h week although very good work can be accomplished with one lesson each weeL 
Jm out Hatasfta m the Rochester EGgh Schools we require at least fifteen minutes of 
pnurtice edch day from the pupOs and are giving credit for the work on the basis of apre- 
pazed lesson for each reditatiocL In other words if a pupil ha^ two voice training lessons 
each week daring the school year he would receive two-fifths of the amount of credit given 
for any full subject, such a;^ English, Latin, etc. 

To stimulate interest in the voice training classes we are having a contest at the end 
of the year. Prizes are offered for the best singing and any member of the voice dasses 
may enter the contest. We hope eventually to secure the means wherdby we may offer a 
cash prize of money to permit the winners to study prhratdy with any yoke teacher 

that they may choose. 

In coD d n s loDy 1 vroukl say that any class of pupils with ordinary ^)eaking voices 
having a sense ol pitch ixud. rir^rthm (both improve with practice) can be tau^t to sing 
wdL These predlqx)6uig causes are the gift of God, cultivate these and voice follows. 

Hie teacher must have a good, sane, working knowledge of the vmce, a keen ear, 
enthiisiasDi and an endless amount of patience. The vmces should never be overtaxed at 
anytun^ We imistremembex that ^'the texture of the voice is woven in the locan of time.’’ 
Slowly the student wiB discover he can get the forces of his soul and hody to bear upcm his 
vocal diordsand gradually his yoke win deveh^. 

It would be a mktake to think these dasses in voice training wiB solve aH the prob- 
leoB to found ia sto^yiDg vocal technic^ It k possilie, however, to lay a f ouzidation 
rqwn which the superstmcture may be baEt in later years. And as a result of 
dasses we win have a group of young people who win not only sing acceptahiy tbemsdves, 
but who win have a keener appreciation (ri the art of sfuging. 

Roderick Haywood, Nm York CHy 

it seems fitting tiiat you should kisow something of the brief history of my efforts to 
make Voice Culture a UNIVERSAL subject, itod my reascms for putting down the neces- 



sary teaching material to constitute a regular course suitable for use in J 

believe especially adaptable for use in the high schools of the countiy. 

The chief reason for teaching voice culture in classes was of an nature. 

As a private teacher of the subject, each season I tunied from my doors many students 
who could not study with me because they could not afford to pay me my fee, necessary to 
me, but prohibitive to them. Students that were worthy of my attention and conadera- 
tion. The fact that they could not arrange for lessons with me or any other repatal:^ 
teacher did not discourage them. They left to find a teacher that was teafhmg at the 
price possible to them, and I know that sudi teachers in the big cities have little to offer 
for the small fee that they do accept and that while the large fee does not the teacher 
a good one, expert teachers are not able to teach for rttijlII fees. 

The answer to the problem of the student seemed to be solved only by putting enou^ 
of them in a class to permit of lowering the price to the individual and malringr the gross 
amount right to the teacher. Having solved the material question of comrxiercxal arrange- 
ment I discovered that my first requirement was a student’s manual or textbodk for eadi 
individual in the dass. Some material that the students could take away with them for 
study at home. A text book simple and definite with the theory of voice culture on the 
same page with the vocal exerdse. The results of my first twenty lessons grven to a 
of five girls is volume one of Uimersal Smg which we have in hand this afternoon 
for the purpose of conducting this demonstration. The printed reproductions of the 
first three lessons with the examinations on the last page will enable each of you to pot 
yourselves in the position of the members of the class which I will demonstrate with, from 
the local High School 

The fundamental object of a course of this nature is not alone to train the voices of 
the youth of the country but to give them a rational viewpoint upon which they can place 
some faith and establish some opinion for use in future years when they will go to the 
private teacher in search of more instruction whether it be their purpose to follow the 
subject as an art study or as profestional singers. 'With the information on the principles 
of correct voice culture which students will get from a course conducted in the school 
along the lines which I am about to demonstrate will be a protection to the youth of the 
country and thdr voices. There are classes in piano and violin; why iiot vt»ce culture? 

At this point Mr. Haywiood requested every other girl to rise and stand at attention 
while he read the lesson one from the instruction manual Utmersal Song, explaining 
that it had been his experience, to get the story of the lesson more quickly and lastin^y 
to the student if they were watching as well as listening than if they were only listenmg. 
His arm action for the purpose of teaching breathing was then shown by the high school 
^ils and the lesson proceeded along the lines that are used by the author in his studio. 
One point important to the teadieis, in the arm action given to the students lies in the fact 
that each student will display his psychological capacity to the teacher by his capacity 
to do exactly as he is told regarding the position of the arms and the activity which makes 
the breathing exercise. 

Following lesson one, lesson two was given in like manner and the students were then 
informed that the two essentials of voice culture, namdy breath taking and breath control 
together with articulation were so important that the entire first twenty kssems would be 
spent upon the devdopment of correct ideas in these important pinciples. 

After the two lessons had been given to the untrained voices Mr. Haywood a^bed the 
thirteen girls whom he had brought fz<^ the N. Y. C. to show the remainmg lesso n s in 
Volume one which they did to the edification of the audience. Their tone was exedfen t 
and they showed facility in fiexible control the voice and in range and some of the hig^ 
sustained work that was done evoked many complimentaiy rentaiks from the interested 
audience. These gills had be^ trained entirdy in class, and had nevo' been able to take 
more thfln one lesson each week. At the dose of the session and open discusskn whkh 



foKoimi one of the supervisors suggested that the audience give the New York girls 
three cheers for their interested and valuable assistance. The audience rose to the occa- 
sion with enthusiasm. 

The course that Mr. Haywood has prepared covers a period of two or three years. 
One of the <* ffyT**^*^ features of the work being the written eyaminations which occur at 
cveary fifth lesson. These examinations also embrace solo singing tests from lesson fifteen 
in Volume one thxou^ the entire course. The purpose of the course is to train the students 
for solo work. Tfaty are marked for rhythm, phrasing, diction and voice. 


Duncan McKenzie, MjV., Edinburgh: McGiU University Conservatory of Music, 


What Is meant by ^)edfic Vocal Instruction? I am taking it to mean a well thou^t 
course of work, embracing the principles and fundamentals of Voice Culture in its various 
branches of Breathing, T<mc, Resonance and Diction — as opposed to a haphazard course 
used to meet the of the mom^t of the dass lessoiL Its value consists in the fact 

something definite is bdng arrived at, on which as time goes on one knows it is possi- 
ble to attempt certain vocal work. 

I have analyzed and read Mr. Haywood’s course, Universal Song; and its virtue 
liiMt in the fact that it fulfills these conditions. He aims at something definite each lesson, 
a new tjopic at each lesson, methodises the work so that as time goes on, there is 
something to budd on. The chief branches of Voice Culture all receive attention. 

Such a course as this, I omsider it possible and practical to use with High School 
gills and to give good results both from the dass point of view and from the individual 
point of view. With boys I wish to conader ‘Ts it as practical and workable, and how can 
it be carried out?” 

Before the boy’s voice changes, a wdl ordered course of music in the elementary 
school should emluaoe Speci&: Vocal Instruction as defined above. In the case of the 
this wmk can be carried on in the Hi gh School without a break in the continuity, but 
the rhaingtTig cd the boy’s voice causes problems and difficulties, so that the work done in 
the dbnentaiy school seems to stop. What are these problems and difficulties? They are; 
(i) the varying age at which the boy’s voice changes, (2) the length of time that elapses 
tin the embryo adult voice appears, (3) the problem of working in classes, which is the 
cmly way possibie to attempt the teaching of musk in schooL 

The question as to whether boys should sing during this period should be considered, 
Many authorities consider it better to rest the voice, while others oonsid^ it possible 
to keep sin ging "through the break.” These authorities however speak more frona 
the p(^ of view of the choir boy of the Ipisccpal Chuidi type than of the school bo> 
who uses hksingiDg voice much kss. My view is that it lies with the discretion and ezpeii' 
esace of the teacher as to whether he stops or not. 

What I do in my work is as follows. The High Schcx)l course lasts four years. Hu 
boys are tau^t separatdy. The classes vary in size from 70 in the First Year to 30 in the 
Fourth. At the beginning of the first Year, I hear each voice, and classify him as 
voice” or “changed,” and seat accordin^y. The changed voices are then taken mon 
particulaiiy, and classified as the usual male voices are — t^or, bass, baritone. Thii 
classification usually has few numbers iri the first year. Ifind mostly a voice, which I labe 
'‘youth’^’ voice (range DC’ approxinLatdy) not a boy’s voice, and not the male adull 
voace, but a voke peculiar to the young man at this stage. Also I classify as ^^doubh 



voice” (that is the boy’s voice remains in the upper part of his voice but the adult voice 
is present too, in its medium and lower range), “voice changing” and “no voice.” I seat 

I keep a register of this examination and the date, and cany on with this testing 
work right through the four years. I do the work in class so that the boy gets to know 
something of the history of the boy’s voice at this stage. He can compare what is heard 
etc., and get a common sense practical knowledge of what the voice is capable of during 
this period. 

Thus in every class I have quite a considerable classification of voices. As the boy 
gets older, the classification thins down to the usual male voices, youth’s voice, and a few 
boys’ voices. My work is directed mainly to the changing voices, using the boys’ voices 
for illustrative work in the ordinary lesson. 

What Specific Vocal Instruction can be done with these unchanged classes? The 
amount of time spent in actual singing is very small, but I consider I am beginning specific 
work here, such as outlined in Mr. Haywood’s Course, by giving lessons on Breathing, 
Tone, Resonance by means of work on vowels. I restrict myself approximately to a 
medium range F to B or C’, and I can call on almost aH to sing, except the “changing 
voice,” and the “no voice.” No show work can be done, but excerpts fiom songs can be 
used for interest’s sake to show one is aiming to get at real music in the long run; also the 
taste for singing in harmony can be created, by getting a suitable bass to a melody sung 
by the boys’ voices. 

This work carried out up to the Third and Fourth Years means that I have quite the 
majority of a class able to use a developing and in some cases quite a mature adult voice 
so that part songs can be done along with the gills, and unison songs (boys only) with this 
restriction that the music is chosen with a range to suit the bo3Fs’ voices. I do not believe 
that show work should be attempted, such as oratorio choruses, and part songs with a 
range for the mature voice, but the question all depends on the material on hand. 

Having considered especially the problem of the boy’s voice at the breaking stage, 
which occurs any time up to Third Year asarule, we can direct our Specific Vocal Instruc- 
tion to those who are over this stage. I fail to see how anything but good can result from 
such work just as in the case with gills. The trouble is that with the various classifications 
of voices, it is necessary for the teacher to try and keep all groups working activdy and 
passively, so that devdc^nnent is going on all the time in all the groups. Those who are 
doing the actual singing are devdoping vocally, those who are not diould be trained to 
listen so that their aural, their mental and their critical faculties are being devdbped. 

Class work is the only method possible in Hi^ SchobL Thoo^ it can never be so 
thorough as individual work it has its advantages. One great disadvantage of dass work 
is, the student doesn’t have the same chance to hearhimsdf as others hear him, that is, his 
power of self analyris and criticism of his own voice is not developed as it would be with 
individual instruction. Yet this can be overcome partly in dass work by a judidoiis 
mingling of individual work. One great advantage of dass work is the hearing of many 
voices by all, and the experience thus gained; and I find from this that boys axe interested 
enough to use their vdces individually for the benefit of others. This gets rid of any 
question as to whether individual work can be done. Tactful teaching won’t have refusak 
of boys singing individua]ly. 

Another drawback to dass work, especially at this stage, is the devdopment ci vocal 
faults, for example throatiness. This I think it possible to check in time. The fault can’t 
be mudi developed as yet due to the limited amount ^f singing done. It can be rectified 
in the individual work, and by the attainment of correct aural ideas. 

I have said nothing about the teacher, but he (or she) ou^t to be al^ to use his 
voice to its advantage to give correct patterns. A course in Voice Culture under an expert 
teadber is necessary, along with the study of the voice in its more mature state. Also 



spedal study of the particular stage with which he is dealing is necessary. This can only 
be got by actual experience in the act^ work, by extensive and intensive examination of 
voices at frequent intervak and following the history and development of the boy’s voice 
throughout his High School life. 


George Chadwick Stock, Teacher of Singing, New Haven, Conn. 

SPEaFIC VOCAL INSTRUCTION IN CLASS FORM is an exceedingly valuable 
educational measure. That is my judgment and it is the outcome of personal experience 
in teaching this subject in this way. The widespread adoption of this fonn of vocal 
instruction in High Schools and other institutions of learning is bound to come because 
it is practical and because of the inherent value of the idea. 

There is much to be said in favor of voice culture being taught in this way in our 
Schools. Other things being equal I f^ to discover any reasonable objection to 
such a course bong included in the curriculum of every High School in the land. Clarity 
of speech and muac of speech are among the by-products of such a course. That in itself 
is of incalculable individual benefit 

Before this movement, however, receives the general recognition to which it is en- 
titled and becomes universally adc^ted as a required course in High Schools, a condition 
must exist which, as 3^t, is not mu<i in evidence— a livelier interest and a more intelligent 
view on the part of public educators in regard to the need of specific vocal instruction for 
young voices together with a realization of the value and significance of trained voices and 
good singiug in the betterment of sodal life. 

The principal things to be accomplished in such a course are: 

Development of breathing, Correct production of the singing voice, Development of 
n nisacal temes, Scale practice and vocalises, Correct enunciation, The study and artistic 
sin g in g of suitable songs. The singing of songs is a feature of utmost importance. Early 
opportunity should be given these young students to listen to songs as well as to sitig 
them. Music is a language and language is a method of expressing what we feeL In 
the work therefore of training young voices, songs are necessary in order to devdop an 
appreciation of this unique language. The scMigs should be of intrinsic merit as to text 
and ia^>dy; simple and within the ea^ range of performance. 

Proper s<mgs^ improve the musical quality fljyi strength of 3mung voices, devd.op 
musical imagination, appreciation and judgment. Youth is the period for the laying of 
good foundations, for the arousing of Tnitsiral instincts, for the unfolding of talent and 
m a kin g pzepamtion for after yeaxs^ A yeax or two of voice tmining r such as a course iilrft 
this would g^ve, would be of great and lasting heaas&t to every student tAlcmg it. Those 
e^iedaliy gifted would not only have a valuable preliminary training but having tested 
their talent, would feel no doubt as to the advisability of pursuing further vocal study if 
they so desiredL 

Class form vocal instruction arouses a healthy competitive spirit. The entire 
gets the benefit of listening to songs and the interchange of many and diSerent g The 

fesh e s of inspirational thought of a teacher benefit many rather than a s^nglp. individual 
as in private t e aching . Clas s form vocal instruction democratizes tajd-p^^ inrlinafira-vg aru^ 
viewpoints. It has a wholcscmie broadening influence. 

Thk f(Km of vocal instruction is also an economic rneasure. It provides a way for the 
young student to try out his taknt without expense and to prove pretly condxtsivdLy 
whether further vocal study is worth while. In any event he will have received subsitantial 

PHILADELPHIA, PA., MARCH 22-26, 1920 133 

benefit in the way of an improved speaking voice, apart from the training of his 

A course based upon such a procedure as indicated will ^ve young students a 
working knowledge of the art of singing. They learn something of the meaning of song 
interpretation which, briefly, is the end and aim of culture of the singmg voice; they Wm 
that they cannot leave personality out of the artistic count and still have a remainder 
worthy of consideration; they leam that interpretation conq>rehends or includes within 
itself style, finish, individual touch, correct phraang, pause, accent, color and shading; 
they gain some appreciation of dramatic demands and are able to include some of its 
elements in their singmg. They leam to realize that in singing, time and rhythm are 
veritable corner-stones and that their absence in song destroys the strength and charm of 
melody. They leam the importance of an intelligible utterance of their mother-tongue 
in song and furthermore that dear pronouncement of words is a great aid in iHuminating 
tone, because an indistinct enunciation blurs a singmg performance of any kind. 

The breathing exercises are limited to a very few. They should be practiced daily 
for a few moments to increase lung capadty and command of breathing. Breath devdop- 
ment for control in singing should always be acquired through a system of exerdses, whi^ 
takes its cue from normal breathing or respiration— that is, natural breathing, whkh acts 
wholly independently of the will. Breathing, then for singing, is an extension to a con- 
siderable degree of the natural way of taking breath. We should b^in breathing exercises 
with respiratory movements that are slightly deeper than we ordinarily take and from 
month to month they should grow deeper and fuller until full devdopmcnt is reached. 

The problem of how to get the right kind of teaching talent obviously is a vitally 
important one. The two most available sources from which to secure teaching talent 
would be from the ranks of private vocal teachers and music supervisors. 1 believe there 
are many men and womenin the ranks of these workers who are ready and willing to enter 
this field of vocal work. They could easily quickly familiarize themselves with the details 
of a plan for teaching voice culture in class form. 

The success of this or any other educational movement depends upon teachers. In 
instituting a new educational movement of such importance as the one under discusskm 
too great care cannot be exercised in making sure that instmetors know their buriness. 
Private vocal teachers, at least some of the wide-awake ones, would be attracted to this 
method of teaching because it offers opportunity to do splendid pioneer service of inestima- 
ble value to young humanity, it would bring to them the chance to earn a stipulated salary 
for services without too greatly encroaching upon their private teaching. 

An approved plan of ^>ecific vocal instruction, universally adopted in High Schoefc 
I feel sure will do more towards standardizing vocal instruction thiou^out the country 
than any other means. Why? Because thousands of young singers are bound to show 
the good results of such a course in vocal training. They will become informed on what 
constitutes correct training of the voice and so patronize only those teachers who measure 
up to an approved and recognized standard. 

Let me say further that a safe and systematic way of training voices in class form does 
• an infinite amount of good. Can this be said of the many un^tematic, so-called sdentific 
and throat-cracking individual methods of teaching that are masquerading in the guise of 
vocal culture? 

I believe this course should be confined to stu(^ts of the junior and senior desses, 
all girls of these two dasses to be admitted, boys to be taught if their voices are suflidently 


It should be a required course and being danentaiy in character all vocalises, eiex- 
cises and songs must be simj^ and in evay way adaptable to young voices. It must be 
remembered that these vdees are immature, undevdoped and lacking in full strength. 



They shoM never he subieded to severe traming in any way whatsoever; never he driven, hvi 
led, into correct habits of singing. 

Such ft course fts tliig is ft preparatory one for 3ro^uiig voices. It is preparatory in this 
sense; it is intended to devdop a musical quality of tone and strengthen the ea^ range of 
every individuftl snger in thft cla^>. It aItos sunply to mahe sweet singers* This is not the 
period of life to burden the mind with pretentious vocal aspirations. 

This leads me to say that loud singing or the injudidous exercising of high notes 
should not be permitted under any circumstances. I cannot dwell with too much emphas is 
rt p QTi the necessity of proceeding with infinite care with these tender voices. The king of 
evils in the training of voices, young or old, is the too co mm on practice of forcing them 
beyond their sden^ and natural limitations as to range and power. Ambitious instruc- 
tors and pr eco c io us young students must leam to be careful and remember not to overdo 
thmgg The only safe and secure foundation for fuller, richer and finer poised tones and 
also greater vocal range in future years is the one of proper training of the easy range of the 
voice in youth. Fortunate the singer who falls into the hands of a teacher who thus trains 

It no difference how gifted a student may be vocally or how ambitious he may 
be to advance, for Ins immediate as well as future good and also for the benefit of the others 
of the less gifted, adherence to tie idea, of ‘^safety first’* should be strictly enforced. 

AH recitations should be characterized by: simplicity, attractiveness, practicability 
and brevity, sympathetic interest on the part of the instructor in the work of the dass. 

It is of vital importance to impress upon the minds of these btiginners the true under- 
lying causes that make for correct use of the voice in singing; not, however, by calling 
thrar attention specifically to the complex mechanism and the bewildering action of the 
throat in aan^ng, nor by use of charts and illustrations visualizing the vocal processes of 
tongue, itmgfi larynx, nor by mechanical contrivances of any sort or kind whatsoever. 

Suii tormenting methods simpHy confuse and hinder progress, rather should their atten- 
tion be called to the fact that the voice, by means of artistic use, to a great extent automat- 
ically trains and cultivates itself. By this I mean that through expressive singing a 
beautiful quality of tone is engendered; through dear pronouncement of words thdr 
Tnggtning is more dearly brou^t out in the voice; through intelligible utterance of language 
in song, the articulating mechanism is unconsdously developed to utmost efficacy of action. 
By Tneans of correct phrasing, accent and pause, the breathing is ultimately properly 
timed, taken care of and managed. 

Nature’s way of unfolding a bud into beauty of form, color and fragrance, contains a 
world of meaningfor the singer who is unconsciously conscious of the deeper significanc e of 

I to my own personal eaqperience in teaching dass form vocal culture. In 

1916 1 gave vocal instruction to a dass of twenty-three juniors and seniors of the hi^ 
school at New Haven. Hie members of this dass knew nothing about silking as an art. 
Tbeir knovdedge and taste for songs was limited principally to those of a cheap popular 
variety. Attheend(^fourznonthsof dass training they had in^yroved in all the essential 
points named in this paper. The taste for inferior songs had changed to a liking and keen 
apfmedation for songs of a wholesome type. Multiply this one infiuence by hundreds of 
thousands and it will be easy to imagine the great good that would accrue. Alive interest 
had been ftioused. The members of my dass woiked wiUmgly and enthusiastically. The 
course was made adthtionally attractive by ^ving short programs of good songs artistically 
song by capable singers. Songs that had be^ given to the dass were induded in these 
programs, which were given periodically and proved to be a practical and illuminating 
{eatuiedl the extremely interesting work. 

I wish to emphasize the need fora real .singer to demonstrate song before High School 
students. Theyarewisebesrondtheiryearsandthey resent artificiality, insincerily or the 


PHILADELPfflA, PA., MARCH 22-26, 1920 

slightest air of condescension. The need is for a singer of rare personality achievement, 
who has specialized in this particular field. She must appear before these young students 
as the actual living embodiment of the idea of each song. She must so sing as to reflect in 
voice and gesture the minutest detail of shade and meaning of the text and melody. 
Every song in the hands of such a singer becomes a living reality. She pla3rs upon these 
alert, receptive and responsive souls and keen imaginations with such deftness of touch as 
to bring them into complete unison with her viewpoint and feeling abandonment to 
the inspiration of the moment Such a singer is necessary to the full measure of apprecia- 
tion and realization of song in the hearts and voices of young singers. Singers who can 
thus achieve are dfficult to find. In the absence of such a singer what is to be done? The 
answer comes from American mechanical gemus. Place phonograph records of such 
singers’ songs before High School students. It is very much better to place records of this 
kind before the class than to bring in a singer who does not measure fuHy up to require- 
ments. This field of song study and instruction is scarcely touched upon. It is a field of 
great importance and awaits develc^ment. 

The songs of American composers should have the place of honor on all programs at 
all times everywhere in the United States, and all songs should be in our native language. 
It is just as much the business of singers to foster and encourage American feeling in 
the field of song as it is for other workers in other fidds to stimulate the American spirit. 
Think of the tremendous influ^ice for national good that would accrue if tens of thousands 
of teachers and singers concentrated their eflorts on our native language nnH our native 

I am quite sure that the approval of a plan for teaching specific voice culture in 
form by such a body as this would go far towards getting many hi g h schools of the country 
started in this important measure. In this conference of music supervisors are many 
weU-informed men and women whose opinions and judgment would have weight qti/? 
influence. Any action therefore taken by this body would give a very positive and desir- 
able momentum to specific vocal instruction in high schools. No branch of music has 
done more real and la s ti n g good in its ministrations to mankind the world over, particu- 
larly during the past five years than Singing. The great and wonderful improvement in 
group, chorus and community singing is the direct outcome of the splendid nation-wide 
work of music supervisors in the public schools. In the years to come, music, vocal music 
especklly, is destined to enter increasingly into the processes that are being set in motion 
for the restoration of every phase of human equilibrium. 

Selma Konold, Supervisor of Music, Ksdgewood, N. J. 

The demonstration lesson in the Kind^garten Section brought about two different 
types of work. 

The chfldren of Philadelphia were trained along the educational basis thui the story 
represented in a song is the most important part of the song. The story is corrdated 
with the r^ular features of the daily program, told in a most attractive manner, repeated 
by the c h il d ren to bring out oral expresrion of the English language and then the mdody, 
brought out stron^y by the piano, is introduced and the class as a whole sing the song. 

The second type school was then introduced to the same children. Single tones, 
using the pitch C third ^>ace of the treble staff, were matched with individual children 
through the device “Playing Engine,” using the neutral gdlaHe ‘%o.” Every child with 



tlie esceptioB of one could tna trli tlie sin^e tone. Words were then given the pitch C. 
*‘Do you like school” was answered individually by the children in the same pitch — “Yes 
I like school.” Some of the children continued to talk the sentence “Yes I like school” 
were asked to run to a given place in the r<K)m. I afterwards used these children in the 
inside circle with the children able to sing a short melody in the outside circle, so I shall 
refer to them in the future as “Inside Circle” and “Outside Circle.” A short phrase to 
be matched by “Outside Cirde” was then taken individually. Pitch A second space — do, 
re, mi, dp, with the words * Who’s a (blue) bird”— coloring referring to the predominating 
color in the child’s costume and the child answered, using the same melody “I’m a (blue) 
bird.” Some were unable to do this and were placed in the “Inside Circle.” 

height cluldrmi out of twenty-five who remained in the outside circle were taught a 
simple four measure melody “Knock at the Door.” The song was sung through three or 
four tiniftR and then taken phrase by phrase xmtil the song was learned. In order to con- 
tinue the interest of the “Inside Circle” during the teaching of the song to the “Outside 
Cirde” they were asked as a whole to sing a part of the song which uses two tones mi-do. 
“Kmock at the door.” The call “Yu-hoo” using the same pitch mi-do. B to g was used 
first, then followed the words “Elnock at the door.” About eight of the “Inside Cirde” 
Tnatrbwl the tones but could not match the tones of the last part of the song. With daily 
individiial attention th^ could join the “Outside Cirde” in a few weeks. 

The OEHe child who could not match the single tone came from a family of non-singers, 
but from the quality of tones she gave, I bdieve the child will be able to sing. There was 
no evident physical trouMe. 


Ethel M. Robinson, Instructor in Kindergarten Education, Teachers^ 

College, New York City 

The aim we try to keep in mind in the Beginnings of Children’s Music is to develop 
their power of appreciation. By appreciation we mean the ability to listen to music as 
wdl as to interpret it- Interpretation may be telling what the music means, either by 
words or by movements. 

Music is a common language and has been the means of egression of all races not 
by songs abne but by dances and pantomime. It is as natural for the normal child to sing 
and dance as it is for him to breathe. Therefore the early music education of children 
should not be confined to singing alone but should indude all forms of music interprets-, 
tioii. Every opportunity should be given them to express themselves thru songs and 
rhythmic work. 

If tastes are being fixed and standards being formed— according to Dr. Dewe/s 
theory of the function of Fine Arts education^-^eai the sdections given the children 
should be of the highest type. 

The difieient forms of music work may be classed under the following headings — 

1. Orl^nal songs (by chHdren). 

2. Songs for the children to ring. 

3. Songs song to the children. 

4. Music played to them to listen to without thot of interpretaticiL 

a. PiiLQo sdections. 

b. Wolin sdecdoas. 

c. Flute sdections, etc. 

5. Musk idayed to them for interpretation. 

a. Floor work. 

b. Band work. 

PHILADELPHU, PA., MARCH 22-26, 1920 


Originality is sought for in all phases of the music work as we believe this to be one of 
the ways of developing the individual's power of appreciation. The children are encour- 
aged to compo^ songs of their own and take great delict in d<^ so. As a help, and by 
way of variation the words are sometimes ^ven and the children compose the tune. 
Again the tune is supplied and the words are thou^t of 1^ the children. The results 
produced may be the work of one child or of the whole group. 

The songs taught to the children should be beautiful ones but simple enmigii sq 
drill is not necessary. When drill is nece^aiy the real joy of gingi-ng has been sacrificed 
and our aim of early music education lost sight of. The first songs taught should be 
merely sentence songs, then later on longer ones may be taught but still rim pli* as to musical 
phrasing and words. The harmonization of the songs and the piano accompaniment should 
be simple and as little in evidence as possible. The children should be encouraged to sing 
without the piano and the teacher's voice. One cannot be sure the tunc is re^y known 
until it is sung unaccompanied. The use of the piano should be made a minor and not a 
major need. Opportunity should be given for the children to sing solos as it is a 
of guidance for the teacher and often a great source of pleasure to the rhil/lTyn. Songs 
sung to the chDdxen should be as beautiful as possible but within the child's comprehen- 
sion. Nature songs, songs about children, humorous songs and some of the old lullabies 
are very suitable for this purpose. Snatches of beautifal musk should be played to the 
children for them to listen to only. These bits are played so that the childrra become 

acquainted with good music and so that th^r may come to really know the different 
selections and recognize them whenever they hear them. 

The rhythm work takes in the floor work and the band work. The floor work may 
be simple rhythms such as walking, skipping or running or it may suggest a dance. The 
dance may be a simple interpretation to the rhythm or if the music is suggestive of a 
story it may be more complicated. Originality is sought for in this work al». The aim 
is to develop the individual's power of appreciation to as great an extent as possible. 
The children are told to listen to the musk and then encouraged to interpret it Variatiem 
and contrast are two things to be brought out in this work. For example a skip may be a 
quick, short movement or it may be a sbw, wdl controlled movement. Tlie run may be 
qukk, short running steps or hi^, leaping steps. The walk may be fast, alert steps or slow 
dignified ones, etc. A selection suggestive of high stepping horses and then galloping 
horses brings out this idea of contrast In the dance work contrast may be brought 
out also either in the same sdection or in the different ones used during a work period. 
The rhythms with plot may be illustrated fay the use of the Pizzicato from the Ballet 
Sjdvia. The story as worked out by our chSdren is that a fairy comes into a toy sh<^, 
dances around waving her wand and brining the toys to life. They move around a:^ 
then the fairy turns them badt to toys again. The children are always very enthusiastic 
about this work and it brings out both variety and contrast. 

The band work is very p<^)ular with the children and affords great opportunity few 
self expression. The instrtimmts used are the drum-tambourine, trian^ bells, rattles, 
sandpaper blocks, cymbals and dappers. As with the other rhjrthmk work the children 
are tdd to listen to the music played by the |Hanist and then at a given signal to play on 
their instruments. At first all play at the same time, later on contrast in the musk sug- 
gests that certain parts are for the lighter instruments and other parts for the heavier 
instruments. The musk sdected for this work should be at first simple rhythms with an 
even beat, then gradually woik up to more difficult ones with the uneven beat. The 
leaderisof great importance if the band is to be successful. The only difficulty in chooshag 
a leader is that every one wants to be the one to stand up and use the baton. ThechEdren 
like to march while playmg the instruments and this th^ can do rather wdL if the musk 
played is smndhing the diildien know very wdL It is impossible for them to play while 
dancing but th^ frequent^ play, whfle singing s<mresimpkwdl known song. 



In all this work technique may be brought out by example rather than talking about it. 
As the teacher sees a child performing in a way to illustrate some needed point she may call 
on him to do it alone, directing the children’s attention to the thing she wishes them to 

Therefore we see that in all this beginning work of music education the stress is 
put on devdoping the child’s appreciation, in fixing tastes and in forming standards. 
Quality and not quantity may well be our watchword. 


IttEJTE McGttkrin, Supervisor of Kindergarten Music, Grand Rapids, Michigan 

Until very recently, little attention was given as regards singing in the kindergarten. 
Supervision began with the first grade, ignoring entirely the kindergarten, the very founda- 
tion upon which a child’s sense of musical appreciation is built, outside of his own home. 

Formerly, the kindergarten director went merrily upon her way, choosing a song 
either because of its tuneful melody or because its text expressed some idea she was then 
presenting to her clask. No thought was given as to whether the song was within the 
singing ability of the children. She sang the song, playing the accompaniment, the chil- 
dren following as best they could, often resulting in mere “monotoning” rather than in real 
a ii gi ng and in the inability of the director to discover those children who needed individual 
help. To correct these habits of poor tone production, to give the monotones and non- 
singers more individual help and to make each child more independent, singing in the 
kindergartens of Grand Rapids was placed under the same supervision as the music in the 
other grades. 

The following are a few examples of songs formerly used in our kindergarten: “3fy 
Pigeon House’*; ^^Skine Out, Ok Blessed Star,** from “Songs and Games for Little Ones,” 
Walker & Jenks; **TheLitUe Shoemaker*" from “Songs of the Child’s World,” Jessie Gaynor; 

the Birds Have Come Again,** from “Songs for Little Children for Kindergarten and 
Primary Schools,” Eleanor Smith. 

Such songs a^ excellent to sing to the children for the mere pleasure th^ may gain 
from listening to them, but as songs to be sung by the children, they prove most futile 
because they are too long, too difficult as to melody and words, the compass goes beyond 
that of the child voice and the children become too dependent upon the director, for in 
reality, she is the onty one who is able to sing them, all of which results in the disastrous 
habits of poor tone production and faulty enunciation. What is the type of song best 
suited to a child of kindergarten age? A song of the very simplest character. Its content 
as to its story should arouse the child’s immediate interest because it interprets some 
eapmence in his own wmM, it must be short containing simple words; its melody not 
onfy easy to sing, but tuneful and it should begin in the middle or upper compass of the 
duid voice— E-first line to F-fifth line. 

Because the cMd leams to speak a language thru imitation so he learns to sing by 
the same method, and the very simplest sounds which he hears in his daily life are given 
to him to imitate. These tone calls, such as the sound of the engine, bells, whistles, bird 
calls, the call oi the huckster and newsboy, the calling of the child by his name and any 
other calls with ^lich he is familiar^HJiese all arouse his interest and thru imitating 
them, he is t ak i n g his first steps in producing a singing tone. As spontaneity can and 
sho^ by all means be retained, many little games using these rails as a basis can be 
onginated which wili embody the correct method of teaching sin^ng. By using «aTf‘h 
calls, the director is able to discover that child who needs im^Uvidual hdp — the monotone 
or the one, who for one reason or another, is unable to match tones correctly. 



A great deal of tone matching is done banning with sin gle tones and gradually 
working up to groups of tones before the children attempt to sing a song. The is 
divided into three groups: those who match tones correctly, those who are not monotones 
but whose pitch is not true and those who are monotones or ‘listeners” as we caU them. 
The monotones and those not able to imitate correctly are placed in front of the whole 
group. When the class is ready to take up a song for the fimt time, the director sings it 
unaccompanied several times, the class simply listening. The use of the piano as an 
accompaniment when learning a song is discouraged because the quality of the human 
voice is to be desired rather than the mechanical tone of the piano, because in listening 
to the piano, the attention of the children is distracted from the melody and words result- 
ing in an unintelligible combination of tones and words; because no independence in 
singing is gained and because the director herself is unable to listen as attentively as she 
should to the quality of tone production, to the rhythm, to the enunciation and to the 
pronunciation and consequently many little habits of poor singing are formed which are 
dif&cult to overcome in the future. The monotones and other listeners do not sing when 
a new song is being learned, but listen as the others sing the song phrase by phrase imtil 
the whole song is well learned. Neither does the director sing with the children, but for 
them, using a li^t, head voice leading the children to obtain the same quality. A great 
deal of individual singing is done by aU groups. As a child who is in the listening group 
learns to imitate a phrase or phrases of the song correctly, he is then allowed to sing with 
the others. Some classes do not show the d^ire to sing songs as soon as other classes — 
rather being content with the tone calls or listening to songs sung to them. If that is true 
the director sings songs to them with or without a piano accom|>animent or uses the 
victrola until such time as they show the desire to sing the songs themselves. We are 
content with a few songs well chosen, well learned and well sung- We have a list of wghty 
songs from which the director makes her own choice and these are correlated with the 
subjects taken up in the daily program. The songs are selected from Primary Melodies — 
Newton; First Year Music — Hollis Dann: Songs of a Little Child^s Day — E milie Poul- 
sson & Eleanor Smith: L 3 mc Primer — ^Scott, Foresman & Co.: Small Songs for Small 
Singers — Nddiinger. 

The type of songs as found in the kindergarten section of First Year Music have 
proven most helpful and appealing to the chfldren. In addition to the songs found in this 
section, there are many excellent suggestions on how to present and use the materiaL 

In conclusion, I may say that aH our efforts are directed first to awaken a desire in the 
child to sing, and after such a desire has been awakened to hdp him produce pure tcmes, 
to help him to become independent in his efforts, to hdp the unmuacal child and to awaken 
a love for singing in all children. 


Augustus D, Zanzig, Ethical Ctdktre School^ New York City 

That warm and intimate le^nse to musk which we caU appreciation, and ^dikh 
cannot be gained throu^ any studies of technique or form or history alone, is the first 
essential, the necessary foundation, for the artistic achievements of performer and creator 
as wdl as of the mere listener. Therefore, in the kindergarten — the place for first essen- 
tials — X have been interested in tone-production and the learning of songs only insofar 
as they oonstitated for the child direct, wlK>Ie-hearted experiences with real musk. 

First of all, singing is a play activity. We aU know that the untiled life of a little 
child is an almost constant flow of activity. This activity we call play. Singing is a 
channel for that love of rh 3 ^th]nk sound and the i^y with the voice that is chaxact^ktk 



of chlidrai from thar earliest months. The kindergarten age, usually considered relatively 
unimportant so far as music-development is concerned, is probably the most important 
period for this development. It is the time when, through the child’s craving for sensory 
experiences, music may become for him a constantly growing source of joy in tonal beauty. 
It is also the time when the child’s interest in imaginative tales and play is at its height, 
when music may hnd in his mind most fruitful associations with the kind of fancies and 
dramatic play that have been the inspiration of the great composers. 

What is the method? The test of any method is in the quality of the children's re- 
sponses to it. No two teachers, though they employ exactly the same method, get the same 
results- What a teacher is, her atritude toward the subject in hand and toward each of 
the children, is more important than what she does. Add to the diversity in teachers the 
infinite differences in children, and the futility of devising or following a certain method 
is obvious. There are common difficulties such as getting and holding attention to the 
mitsic, and making co-operation within the group of children possible which are very 
important but cannot be discussed in this brief report A few suggestions and illustrations 
must suffice. 

We can associate music with the child's spontaneous activities by joyously si-ng nrtg 
and playing good music whose rhythm and character intensify for him the meaning of his 
play. The ideal situation is one in which the music comes, or seems to the child to come 
out of his play- Think of the many work-songs in the folk-lore of the world. But we 
must not encourage singng during any violent activity. Many of the old singing-games 
are harmful to the voice. And we must provide many opportunities for pure sing ing 
without any other activity, and without accompaniment. 

The children have not always sung well, and some of them do not yet sing all their 
songs wefl. Three of them tend to merely speak or chant rhythmically, and one little girl 
sings, but without any perristent rh3rthm or melodic consistency. But I have never tried 
to hdp them by presenting a modd for them to consciously copy- The practice by little 
childien of conscious imitation establishes in them an attitude of dependence on notodels 
in aH their future singing, and focuses thdr attention on the mere manner of doing to the 
detriment of their appreciation of the music itself. I believe it is quite possible for little 
dxSdien, excellent mimics as they are, to perform with accuracy of pitch and rhyrthm, 
and with good tODe-production, without really ringing, in the true sense, at aJL This is a 
bud attitude that is only too easy to estal^ish. It accounts for the endless stream of 
“dead" performances in the world with only here and there a real ringprig or playing. It is 
better to have a very crude expresrion that is the child's own tbaii to have a perfect expre s- 
sion that is ntexdy a copy, or is the result of mere technical training, and not education. 

But what can be done to develop good tone-production and accuracy of pitch? First 
of all, the cbildreii hear nothing but good quality of tone in the ^>eaking, gin giTig anH 
playing of the teadaer. The unconscious inffuence of the enviromnent is often more 
effective th^ our canscious teaching. It is a well known fact that children who come 
from homes in which good singing and playing are freely participated in sing well thou^ 
^ley have never been taught — in the ordinary sense. Little nhilrfir pn probably attain more 
in sudi things as art, music and manners through the influence of the real life of their 
hollies than they ever attain in the artifldal enviromnent of the schooL This is not always 
fortunate; some homes are harmful But it is therefore espedaUy important to provide 
sitnatKms in the kindergarten which are as much as possible lie the real Kf e in a good home. 
Indeed, it m^ well be that the assodatksi of music with an entiidy artificial environmeiiit 
K tike main cause of the lack of good singing in so many homesw Stngliig good 
becomes a t hing to do in school; a teacher is needed. In other- words, ringing does not 
become a channel for the rich ^ay-iife of the chfid., It been imposed from without. 
'Wbxsk he is free from the impositions of the schodl, he rushes back to those activities which 
are hfe very own; he avoids those of the schooL So let there be many oocaslicms for lei- 



surely, intimate singing, playn^, dandng and dramatic play, and mere listening, for no 
other end— for the child— than the joy of it alL Have just enough of it; never too m uch 
Avoid yielding to the strong temptation to force the child’s growth. We are ah very 
anxious to serve the child, and in order to be more consdous of our service to him, we 
quite consdentiously direct him in all his activities. But teach less, and let the cWM 
learn more. 

When the qualify of sin^ is faulty, lead the duld to correct it by intensify- 

ing for Mm the meaning of the song. 

Finally, both tone-quality and pitch perception can be improved through “tone- 
plays.” Some of those described in a pamphlet by Miss Aly^ Bentley are especially 
valuable. The “Wind in the Trees” is a lovely means of gettii^ what some specialists 
call “voice-placement,” and it may be a pure musical eaqperience for the child. I have 
started many music periods by softly playing “Ding, Dong” which means to the children 
the bells that call them to singing. They one by one come away from whatever the>’ are 
doing, s inging Ding, Dong” on the different pairs of tones — rhj^thniically arranged — 
wMch I play. Not one of them is unable to sing the ‘TSells” with correct pitch and good 

In the constant flow of new life into the world lies the hope of humanity. It is 
the blessed task of the music-teacher to enrich tMs life with the pure joy of his art, to 
save it from the soul-kiUing grip of the material 

Eixa Ruth Boyce, Director of Kindergartens, Pa. 

“Singing in the Kindergarten” is a much to be desired beginning of the child's values 
in life. Our first consideration must be method. We must not teach, we must devdop 
and the various phases of this process in any field are first to see to it that such an environ- 
ment is provided as will stimulate the child’s natural interest; second that opportunity 
be given him to reach to this stimulus, yes, even more he be definitely required to partici- 
pate; and third that he be helped to appredation and joy in what he is doing now, as to 
the actual si ngin g in the kindergarten. It seems to me that singing in the kindergarten 
ought to be a matter of rejoicing to all who are concerned with it At least for my own 
dty I am sure it is. 

I take it that the chief concern of the supervisor of music is to see that the little 
finds his singing tone and uses it with joy on melodies that are of hi gh standard. The 
kindeigartner possesses also this same desire, but she has in the past felt that in addition 
to this the songs might be made to cany also a number of thfngs which she was interested 
to have reach the child, of which perhaps we might put first group activity, that is to say 
she has been many times willing and will perhaps always be and even anxious that ah 
should enter into the activity rather than that it should be of higher quality with 
fewer paxtiidpants. Then again she has been much concerned with general ideas and 
therefore the content of the songs has been of more importance fhAn the mdody. It is 
natural that rather unmusical persons should be more concerned with the words of a song 
than with its musical idea. In fact I am certain that to many kindergartneis it has 
never occurred that there is such a thing as a musical idea. The wisest and sanest pro- 
cedure would seem to be to have, as we have done, collaboration on the choice of songs. 
That is in any new book which we desire to use, we have found this practice helpful 
The Director of kindergartens goes over the book sdecting songs from the point of view 
of content and the Director of Music then marks these chosen songs from the musical 
point of view. 'While this may diminate some songs desirable musically, it gives a wealth 



of material for every day use. I have been much struck with the f dlure of kindergartners 
to recognize the intimate critkdsnis of specialists, particularly in the musical field. Now 
every kindezgartner everywhere is intelligent enough to know and to accept the judgment 
of the English expert that she should not say “I have went” nor use similar expressions. 
But she is cheerfully willing to make quite as grave offences against standards in music, 
and even is serenely unconscious of these standards, regarding the critidring supervisor 
as very fus^’ about little details. 

Some years ago a Kindergarten Convention was addressed by an expert in music, 
who told us all the wrong things we do. At the dose, a prominent kindeigartner rose 
and said that in common with all experts he had told us many “don’ts” butnot what we 
should do nor how. Now in my judgment the what and the how are the problem of the 
kindergartner hersdf. All any of the specialists can do is to direct her to the path; she 
must walk it alone. Here we touch a most important contact between special supervisor 
and kindergarten teacher. Few special supervisors can, and indeed none should be ex- 
pected to be able to do anything with little children as successfully as can the one who 
makes them her special study. But a special supervisor can observe, criticize, and offer 
helpful suggestions, by which the kindeigartner can amend her efforts. 

Another thing we must keep in mind is the lesson of Emerson’s essay on Compensa- 
tion. We may so easily over-develop one thing and sacrifice something of more worth. 
Thus we may have the children sing with lovely tone, but have killed spontaneity, or we 
may so over-empharize quality of singing that those who are unable to attain it are thus 
early made aware of themselves as failures, as lacking power. 

The great factor in differences of opinion which may arise between music supervisors 
and kindergartners is laxk of intelligent knowledge, each of the other’s fl-ims and purposes 
and lack of sympathetic appreciation of the desires and interest each of the other. The 
only way in which we can secure this is to find our common ground and on it decide to- 
gether what things are essential; from this point mutual consideration of another’s point 
of view wiE give us field for mutually helpful activities. We shall go forward most 
effective^ when the slogan we adopt is that old summing up of a wonderful picture 
of the attainment of the h(^>es of mankind which closes with these pregnant words, ''and 
a little child shall lead them.” 

Fourth Day, Thursday, March 25, 1920 


Mrs. Henrietta Baker-Low, Supenisor of Music, Baltimore County, Md. 

In 1913, in Rochester Mr. Beach (who is on our program today) read a paper, which, 
if I remember correctly, was primarily concerned with the work of normal schools. He 
begged them to enlarge their programs so as to include planning and teaching for the 
country schools. One sentence, especially, stood out; “Of the 18 million cHldien in our 
schools only 5 mi l lion (and they chiefly in dries and large towns) have music included in 
the curriculum; the other 13 million are mainly in the country districts where music has 
no place in the school” 

The president of that year was so stirred by this one sentence and the musical isola- 
tion portrayed that she put aside a written president’s address and instead, made an 
impromptu appeal for a memory list of 10 songs which we would agree to teach not only 
to our own schools but to outlying districts; in short, it was an appeal for missionary effort 
to bring town and country into S3rmpathy by means of a common repertoire of ten songs. 
Many of you, present in Rochester, will remember that upon motion of Mr. Farnsworth 
immediately following a committee was appointed to prepare and submit such a list to 
the conference. Unfortunatdy it was the last day and the last sesdon; unable to com- 
promise on ten we started out with a list of 18 which rather defeated the memory reper- 
toire for town and country but which made the beginning of organized Community 
Singing by this Conference. So you see we started out to help the rural situation but 
ended with a Cominmiity Singing Program. 

Today after a lapse of seven 3^ears, muac for country life comes to the fore and we 
have a morning’s session devoted to it. Those who have looked at the program will 
notice no special large topic and this is intentional, I believe, on the part of Mr. Dann and 
myself. Our one aim is to give you a view of country life and country conditions from as 
many angles as possible. 

Paul E. Beck, State Superoisor of Music, Pennsylvania 

There axe two serious drawbacks to the successful advancement of music in the rural 
scho(^ First, rural school teachers are not prepared to teach the subject of music. 
Seocmd, there is a pitiful lack of suitable teaching materiaL 

Normal schools do not plan courses in mirsic that will meet the needs of rural teachers. 
A normal scho<d graduate is expected to teach all of the common school subjects. But 
she cannot teach it. 

There is no reason why the gradnate of a normal school should not be able to teach 
eleiiientary tTm<ar.. She need not be a muskian to do sow It is not wgyattial that she 




possess a fine s i ngin g voice nor that she be a trained vocalist in order to present the subject 
of music inteiestin^y to her school Normal school students should be furnished with 
plans and outlines that will fit rural conditions. Not only should practical outlines be 
formulated in the normal schools, but students should be drilled in the proper use of them. 
This would be no difficult matter. The students should study and should demonstraie 
in class every phase of the elementary music which they would be expected to present to 
a school of combined grades. If graduates, so prepared, should later teach in graded 
schools, they will find enough published texts (perhaps more than enough) for their use. 

Let us now consider the second phase of our subject 

It happens not infrequently that a rural teacher is well qualified to conduct a coxirse 
of music study in her school. Her plans for doing so are thwarted in their very inception. 
She is confronted by a lack of suitable music books from which to teach. Her enthusiasm 
wanes. She is forced to abandon her enterprise. 

An entirely new line of music material must be created for our rural schools. What 
is needed is a one- or two-book course, very carefully graded. It must be simple, strong 
and practicaL It must contain thoroughly good and interesting music. All of its music 
and text, however elementary they may be, must be of such nature that it will be of interest 
to the older as well as to the younger pupils in the room. The matter of mature content 
combined with primary technical rimplidty has never yet received proper treatment 
We need songs that are good in literary and musical quality yet are interesting to human 
beings reg a rdless of age. The songs should have texts composed of words of one pliable. 
So far as possible, the melodies should be written in quarter notes. 

Many Indian songs have been composed by persons who were not Indians. Great 
quantities of children’s songs have been produced by persons who were not children. 
Numerous song books for use in rural schools have been compiled and published by persons 
who never t a u gh t in rural schools. The Indian songs have been successful, — with the 
white man- The children’s songs have been successful, — with the music teachers. The 
rural school music for which we are waiting should come from the inside, so to speak. 
Such persons should collaborate in its production as have lived in the country and taught 
and tried to present the subject of music in rural schools. 

My hope for such a course is that in it music shall be taught, first of all, as music. 
There must not be a lengthy preliminaiy period of lines and spaces and other technical 
matter. We have tried to teach music from books and charts and blackboards imtil it 
has almost become an *‘eye-subject.” Let us (ietermine to make of it what it really is, 
an ‘‘ear-subject” 

I have in mind a rural schoed in Pennsylvania. A competent man is employed to 
teach instrumental music. He gives both class and individual instruction. The school 

three orchestras of which the first and most proficient is the smallest It comprises 
eight members. The second consists of femrteen players. On special occasions these 
pu^are coached to unite with the first orchestra. The third is the begiimers’ orchestra. 
It Is dement^ in character. It numbers from six to twelve players. The school also 
has a mandolin dub of nine members. The faculty contains a capable teacher of piano. 
The piano is placed in a small room adjacoit to the main school room- Through an 

admirable airangement, pupils leave the school room at any time for a piano lesson. The 

schedule is woiking smoothly. Students in the main room hear the tones of the ffiano 
all day. They are no more distracted by it than are their dly cousins by the jangling 
gongs erf passing trolfcy cars. 

The report of the Music Section of the Educational Congress recently held in 
burg begins with ttostatcmmt of its cardinal prind^^^ The End of Public Education in 
Music is AppieciatiotL Any course in schod music which permits its students to go forth 
af^ gi^uation without a distinct and wdl-defined appreciation of music has totally 
missed its mark. Many supervisors and teachers of nmsk in the puHic schools of our 



cities and txTwns are lost in a hopeless maze of technicalities. Their ambition seems to 
be to get pupils to “read music at Such teachers arc without real purpose. Ob- 

servation has shown me that the teacher of the modest country school is sometimes 
acco mplishing more that is of real worth in mudc thAn is her “graded course” gjg tn* in 
the city. All that the rural teach e r needs for her happy purpose is enthusiasm a 

The Penn^lvania Department of Public Instruction ha.^ prepared a list of educa- 
tional phonograph records. The Department has also undertaken a project to estabHsh 
a circulati ng library of talking machine records. Parcels of ten or a dozen records, to- 
gether with analytical and fully descriptive literature on the phases of music covered by 
them, will presently be available to teachers in rural schools. 

Mas. Maxie TuBNEa HaavEY, Porter School, KirksvilU, Mo* 

It is inconceivable that there could have been such isolation and such extreme individ- 
ualism so near a good town. The Porter school district lay contiguous with Kirtsville, 
a town of 10,000 and an educational center, but Porter district might have been in the 
heart of Siberia, so little was it affected. 

For obvious reasons, this type of school — some 50,000 in the com and wheat belt 
of the nation — ^is the only school which many thousands may attend- In February, 1913, 
an all-day session of patrons was called by the County Superintendent of Schools to meet 
in the Porter school house. A representative from the State University, one from the 
near-by Normal School and several teachers were to furnish the program of addresses. 
But the day before, a boy shyly asked me if I “would let the McDowell boys play for us.” 
Of course invitation was promptly extended thiou^ the boy. When they |Jayed, the 
intense interest on the part of the audience, their eagerness for more “music (?),” the 
change in their faces showed a hunger for music that pointed my duty to satisfy. 

To gain the confidence of that community, we had to proceed on an economical 
basis, yet to socialize that ccanmunity, they and their children must have musical appre- 
ciation, must have this means of enriching character and life. And how did we begin? 
By choosing nature poems set to gocxl tuneful melodies for the little children, the words 
written on the black-board and mtered in a music note-book by all who could write. 
These, old and young sang together “to help the little ones,” and good time quality was 
quickly secured. Good folk songs and our best patriotic scmgs came next, and were utilized 
in every informal night gathering. The parents came to regard this opening feature of 
group singing, the duldTen massed in front, always with a new song — as the best number 
of the evening. 

This procedure went on until in 1915, 1 saw the need of competing with near-by town 
attradaons. The music ability of the McDowell children, made me think of a “band,” 
because I saw such an organization serving a larger area at picnics and other out-door 

Through personal effort both the boys and their parents became interested in forming 
a “Boys* Band.” The Municipal Band Director of Kirksville, a man with feae vision and 
qrmpathy, agreed to direct such band at the nominal price of $3.75 an evening if trans- 
portation were furnished. Mr. Frank Holtim, Qiicago, agreed to rent us the instruments 
at a very reasonable price. 

On April 19th, 1915, the Poster Community Band was organized with the united 
support of the parents^ its preamble reading, “It shall be the object of this Band to 
promote the musical and social interests of its members, and the amiimmity in general” 



At another night meeting, May 22nd, the girls and younger boys were provided for by 
^ngaiging a competent piano teacher to come to the school house twice a week, where a 
good piano had been installed by the Mothers’ Club- 

She would spend the day there, and each pupil appeared for his lesson as per schedule 
which had been worked out carefully for this group. Thus thirty-three boys and girls 
were going along together with their music studies during the vacation, the accustomed 
round of farm duties was bri^tened by a new hope, and old and young were learning how 
to go fa town for th^ better things for which all secretly longed. 

On the night of July 14th, the Band made its d6but before the community at its night 
cddiration (they had to be in the harvest field by day) and no sweeter music was ever 
heard by the parents and teacher than their first public rendition of “America,” “The Red, 
White and Blue,” and the “Star-Spangled Banner,” aU of which were recognizable. 
But it must be remembered they had to master the reading of music and the use of instru- 
ments with the little leisure that comes to the fzLim boy during planting season. 

When America entered the War, there were twenty-two young men and women 
happily associated in their twice-a-week band meetings; it now ranked second to the 
excellent EaiksvOle Municipal Band, and played for Grange picnics and other rural affairs 
in the county, thus paying their way and arousing ambitions in many other country 
young folks. 

One boy, a volunteer, became sergeant-trumpeter at Virginia Beach, Va.; another 
played the sHde-trombone in Great Lakes Naval Training Station Band. One plays the 
comet in the band in Griimdl, Iowa; one, the tuba in the Missouri University Band. 
Three play darincts in the Kirksville High School orchestra, etc. 

In May, 1918, a group of young children influenced by the example of their relatives 
and nei^abors in the Band, on their own initiative proposed the organization of a “Junior 
Band.” This was quickly done, and these children who could read music fairly well — 
who had handled the instruments of their relatives — ^made surprising progress. Their 
preamble states their purpose tersely, “to keq> music alive in their community.” 

The Junior Band, fifteen in number, range in age from nine to sixteen years. They 
meet with the same Band director, in the little school house, Saturday afternoon. It is 
arranged to give them 30 minutes’ daily practice at school, a fourteen-year-old boy leading 
with bis comet. 

This young group appeared before the Missouri State Teachers’ Association, St. Louis, 
last November; before some 2,000 farmers at their annual meeting, January 20th, and 
they have “set the state on fire” with hope for Missouri through her country children. 
This band will assist in a country life campaign in South Missouri, the first week in May 
and has had to refuse a number of similar invitations. 

Musical appreciation is developed by means of a Victrola Special in the school house 
and caxefu% chosen records that are being slowly collected, a choice number of sacred 
music being a regular feature of the inter-denominational Sxmday School which is also 
cmidiicted in this buildiog. 

When it is understood that since last July 4th, the occasion of the Junior Band’s 
initial public appearance, every grade school in KiifcsviHe has undertaken a school orches- 
tra; that the Teachers’ College has introduced orchestra work in the grades of its Practice 
Scho(^; that the Sunday Schools are doing the same, the value of ‘'demonstration” must 
be admowkdged; and among other things, the capacity of rural folk in a musical way, — 
that music, not more pigs and poultry, keeps the intelligent young people on the farms, — 
and that ultimatdy, it will mean a rural population that the nation needs sozdy to 
steady it 



Frank A Beach, Staie Norrtuti School, Emporia, Kansas 

A few years ago Walter Savage Landor remaAed that a singer had the brains of a 
nigh tingale. Mr. Herbert Witherspoon recently made the assertion that “the musk 
student is the worst educated individual in the world,” h-Ir. Henry T. Finck of the 
N ew York Evening Post inclines to the opinion that the mature singer is not so much better 
off mentally than in his student days when he writes “stupidity is the trademark of most 
singers.” All of this would be merdy amusing were it not for the fact that thi<i organiza- 
tion is composed of teachers of singing and of persons very closely related to the general 
education of the masses from which the Witherspoons and the pupils of Witherspoon 
must come. These statements are not wholly without foundation. But we must bear 
in mind that one must speak in a loud voice and write in large letters if he would catch 
the eye and ear in these days. 

There is crucial need and urgent importance of rural life betterment. 

There is great migration from the rural districts to the cities. WTiy? 

Students of sociology are agreed that in the unrelieved routine, the isolation, the 
monotony of a life unvaried by social or community activities worthy of the name, may 
l>e found the causes that lead the farmer to move his family to the city for education and 
enjo 3 nnent. 

WHY NEED THIS LACK EXIST? "While in the city the community life is almost 
wholly independent of the school exactly the reverse is true in rural districts. In the 
country the school with the exception of the church (too often no stronger than the school) 
is absolutely the only sotirce of community Hfe. "What the rural school of today is, we 
already know. Teachers b^in at the average age of eighteen. The term of service is 
less than two years of one hundred forty* school days. More than one-third of the 
rural teachers have had no professional training; four-fifths are their own janitors and 
after building the fire and swe^ing out, listen to — one can hardly say teach — thirty class 
recitations from a student body numbering in total from five to ten pupils. Wliat ability 
or time has such a rural teacher to develop a community life that will hold the farmer 
and his children on the farm! 

"Why do not the Normal Schools attack the prot^km and properly equip teachers for 
these rural communities? 

If all the students now enrolled in the Normal schools, puHic and private, were to 
go into the rural schools next September th^ would not be numerous enough to fill the 
vacancies. As bng as the organization and conduct of the rural school makes impossiUe 
social life and community recreation so long will this migration of many of the best of 
our rural families to the cities continue. The more an individual fanner realizes the 
importance of rural betterment the more likdy is he to migrate to the city. 

For a generation educational experts and students of sociology and political econon^ 
have been endeavoring to solve the pioNem of rural educatiorL An exhaustive review 
would be out of place here. Two fundamental prindi^es, however, seem to have been 
agreed upon, first, that the onenroom school with its box car type of architecture must 
go and t^t its successor is to be a consolidated school which shall serve a larger territory 
by rtyfiSL-n^ of adequate plant, proper equipment and wdl-paid capable teachers. Of sudi 
sdhools there are already in existence more than ten thousand. The second princqde 
upon which all students of the rural problem seem to agree is that no system can be legis- 
lated or superimposed upon the rural community. They must result &om an evolution 
fnnn within. 

As one who is interested in musk studies the situatum he is strudc by an additkoal 
fact that neither students of rural educatkm nor people in rural districts seem to take into 
account the possibility that musk might play a large part in this reconstruction. An 



eiammation of thirty of the most recent books dealing with rural life, not thirty lines 
referring to music can be discovered. Many consolidated schools do not include music. 
Norwithstanding the fact that we have not been called into council it is essential that we 
be alive to this question for two reasons; first, because we understand as no other group 
of people in the land, to a degree at least, the socializing power and community value 
of music; second, we know further that if we make no concerted effort one-half of the 
children of the present generation will grow to manhood and womanhood with little or 
no music in their lives. Since the evolution leading to rural betterment must come from 
within the rural communities the formulation of a long elaborate program is a mere waste 
of time. One thing we may do. It is simple but none the less important, viz.: CREATE 
MENT. To this end I should like to offer suggestions. First, in your aminfll program 
and in mine let us make definite plans to come into personal touch with at least one of 
two rural schools in our o’.v’n counties. Second, I ouici suggest the passage of a resolution 
urging upon the Adw'isory Committee of each state the importance of securing similar 
action on the part of every supervisor of mude in the United States. Third, through the 
Music Supervisor's Journal let there be outlined a nation-wide campaign with the definite 
object of training and enlisting at least five students from every Hi gh School in the land. 
These students to make at least one visit into neighboring one-room schools and ch 
some simple commumty songs. Fourth, to arouse and enlist the private teachers in 
similar service I would recommend the active participation of supervisors in their State 
Music Teachers^ Associations where such Associations exist. Incidentally such co- 
operation on the part of the supervisors will gjell an undreamed-of efiSdency in the 
average state association. Finally in every state the co-operation of the State Federation 
of Music Qubs should be secured in carrying out this program of service to adjacent rural 
communitks. These suggestiems demand no elaborate organization or expeiiditure of 
money. A great deal of work of this sort was done during the various war drives. The 
pleasure and in^nratmn which a trio of girls, a boys' quartet, a young violinist or a saxa- 
phone player may carry to the little group in the nei^boring country school cannot be 
over-estimated. I have known of four young people with a small harmonium in the 
tonneau of a car visiting five schools in the time of an afternoon. And think of the training 
in service these young Hi^ School people will receive! 

Mr. Wither^xx)n may be ri^t in his diagnosis of the students of singing in his and 
in other stud^ of New^ York City. In my humble judgment the greatest need in the 
lives of American muadans, teachers and music students whether in the public schools 
or private schools and conservatories, is a realization of the joy of unrewarded, service. 

The that music shall play in the next decade in the program for rural life better- 

ment constitette a natiem-wide challenge to members of this National Conference. No 
otto organization is aware of the need for music in rural life. No other organization 
leaK^ the porprer of music for socialization. Furthermore I venture to assert that if the 
Music Supcrvfeors’ National Conference does not do this it will not be done. 

Max Schoen, Staie Normal School^ Johnson City, Term. 

I ^certain that you are on famito terms with the general problem, and I wish 

therefore to orapy my allotted time in outilining for your consideration what, judging 
from my experience, are the big obstructions hindering the prepress of miisaV in the schools 
and communities of the open country. 

PHILADELPHIA, PA., 3^IARCH 22-26, 1920 


The Status of the Rural School Teacher 

I am convinced that music will never find a safe and pennanent home in the rural 
schools without the active aid of the rural school teacher. It will not cx^en reach the 
status of the step-child in the family of rural school subjects unless adopted by this pereon. 
Furthermore, the teaching of music, or let me rather say, the having of music, in a one- or 
two-teacher school is by far a more complex and difficult matter than that presented by 
the well-ordered and graded city or town schools. The rural school teacher then, in 
order to give the children some music, must be a better trained, and a differently trained 
person from her city associate. The fact is that these teachers arc the youngest and the 
least well-trained part of the teaching profession. Most of them arc below the voting 
age, and more than one hundred thousand of them are from sixteen to eighteen years old. 
Some of them have had as much as a high school education, while a large number lack ex’en 
this minimum traiiiing. It is estimated that about one million children in the United 
States are being taught by teachers who themselves have had but an eighth grade educa- 

Now what chance does a subject like music have against such preposterous conditions? 

The Status of Musical Interests — General 

There are several ver>' potent reasons w^hy the great majority of the parents and 
teachers of country children fail to see any connection between music, education, and the 
welfare of the country home, church, school, and community in general. First of all, 
they have never been called upon to think of the subject, and naturally enough, what 
they know nothing about they don’t miss- In fact, in many communities atiH locali- 
ties where the more intelligent and ambitious teachers have introduced music in the form 
of singing of familiar songs protests have been made by some of the parents on the ground 
that their offspring were sent to school to learn something and not to waste time. It is 
purely and simply a case of ignorance, and surely ignorance is no crime on the part of the 
sufferer. Rather does the blame rest on the shoulders of those who are employed to dispel 
such ignorance. I need not tell you who the responsible parties in the matter of music 
are: a great many of them are listening to me ri^t now. 

Furthermore, the kind of argument usually advanced on behalf of music in education 
hardly has much effect on the little country schoolmarm, with little training and little 
pay, teaching her little children a few little things for a few little weeks, in a little school- 
house with its little equipment. Neither does the usual argument for muric appeal 
strongly to Farmer and Farmeress Jones. What that usual argument is you wdOi know. 
I heard a prominent music pedagogue address an assembly of school teachers, the great 
majority of whom struggled daily against the dements of nature and ignorance in tiny 
dilapidated shacks on mountain side and valley. He was urging these people to put music 
into their schools, trying to convince them of its importance by quoting voluminously 
and learnedly from ancient and moddn philosophers. Now Mr. Music Pedagogue would 
have made a much stronger point for muac had he urged it upon them from the point 
of view of more and better hogs, com and cattle, and how to make Johnny and Mary 
stay on the farm or keep them in the district schooL And I bdieve that the chariot of 
music rides just as smoothly and comfortably when hitched to these very practical commod- 
ities as when drawn by the airy team of culture and refinement. 

The Status of the Music Departments 

The foregoing brings me directly to the third obstraction: the comparative indif- 
ference of the mu^ departments in our normal schods and teachers^ colleges to the state 
of bdng of mu^ in rural sections, as wdl as theii failnre to provide prospective rural 
school teachors with the musiGal training fitted to meet rural sdiool needs and conditions. 
I consM^r fij^ work on the part of the music departments smeh. more important and 



valuable tl-m-n even class room work, and for a very sound reason. As mentioned^pit- 
viously, but few rural school teachers ever reach the normal school stage, and conse- 
quently but a small fraction of country schools can be reached by the music department 
thru its students. Thru extension work, on the other hand, not only could more teachers 
be reached, but also the parents and school authorities, and it is with these that the 
beginning for music must ^ made. If the parents in a community, or the school officers, 
can be arorised to the point of wanting music for the children the problem is all solved. 
And this will never be accomplished until our music d^artments are willing to leave their 
comfortable class rooms and offices and betake themselves into the byways of the open 
country'. It is also but sound reason to expect that every music department wotdd make 
a close study of rural school conditions in the vicinity it serves and plan its courses in 
compliance with these conditions as well as the time at its disposal for imparting musical 
instruction to the prospective teacher. The most useless of all useless occupations to 
my mind, is our habit of complaining that we are not given sufficient time in which to 
train our students for work in music. I do believe that if w e were to let fly a few bricks 
in our own direction instead of always directing them at the other fellow, we w'ould accom- 
plish better results all around. This habit of complaining strikes one too much like 
seeking an excuse for our owm shortcomings and inability to cope with a situation that is 
ours to solve. 

Furthermore, when I speak of extension work I do not mean sending a few records 
occasionally to a school or community, or giving an occasional concert in a rural section. 
Personal and collective work with teachers in the schools, periodic attendance at monthly 
teachers’ meetings, addresses at rural community meetings, urging teachers to obtain 
music equipment and helping do so financially, work with county superintendents and 
other school officers, etc., such activities wfll bear permanent results. 

The Status of Our Knowledge of Conditions 

I have had some flluininating experiences with this phase of our problem, of which 
I’ll mention but one instance. After a brief presentation of 'the situation in my state, 
and in the rural south generally, before the M. T. N. A., a prominent ‘music educator from 
Ulinois expressed to me his surprise at such a state of affairs and assured me that thingg 
were quite different in his state. But a few minutes later another well-known musician 
from the same state remarked to me, and I am quoting his own words, “If you’d go ten 
miles beyond my university you would find conditions predsdy as you have pictured 
them in your state,” Now whose statement would you have accepted? I accepted 
neither, but investi^ted. So let me quote for you a passage or two from the Illinois 
School Survey, and you can decide for yovuself . The survey was made by members of the 
faculties of the University of Illinois and the normal schools of that state. Mr. Packard 
virited fifty-three schools in eleven counties. He refers to music but once in his repoit 
and this one reference states that “many schools have organs but very few of these are in 
condition to be played. One sdbool had a good piano of its own.” I could give a better 
report than this for any one county in Tainessee. Mr. ffill visited forty-two schools in 
eij^t counties. He makes no mention of music in his report excepting to say incidentally 
that in three schools chfldrea marched to musk on the ni g aji, and he gives a detailed 
descr^tion of the curriculum. Evidently musical activities ^ not impress him to the 
point of mention. Another investigator visited seventy-eight schools, and she states 
that in these seventy-ei^t schools she femnd seventy-one song books, aod these were of 
iniecknr grade and material, with one esmeption only. Forty had sm giTigr in opening 
exercises. Agam I oould give a much better report of the schools in my vicinity. 

I also asked the state authorities of the foJlowiBg states, New Jers^, Massadmsetts, 
Florida, Wiscoi^iii, for information as to corniitions in thehriual schools and the aiiswers 



contained invaxiably the words “we don’t know,” “possibly,” **perhaps,” ^‘no data,” etc. 
Only one superintendent seemed certain, he of Florida, and that because he was sure he 
had nothing to report. I give you their answers in the following tabulated form: 



New Jersey 


Per cent of rural population... 
Per cent of diildren in rural 


no data 



Per cent of schools giving music 
instruction asre^arpart of 



in one teacher 

no data 



Per cent teachers in rural 
schools that had preparation 

no data 

very general 


about 1 % 

for music 

Per cent rural schools having 

no data 




daily singing 

Per cent rural schoob having 
some form of musical instru- 

no data 


practically att 



no data 

no data 

few without , 


What shall be done in view of these obstacles? I would suggest the following action 
to the conference: 

L That this conference, thru a committee, make an investigation, or request the 
national department of education that an investigation be conducted with the e:nd in 
view of determining and ascertaining the exact status of music in rural schools and com- 
munities over the land. 

2. That with this information as an instrument the normal schools and other institu- 
tions for teacher training take up the matter with the state educational authorities and 
institute a campaign for better prepared rural teachers, musically, as well as to create a 
sentiment for more and for better music in rural sections thru extension work. 

3. That this conference appoint a committee to outline a course of study for teachers 
adequate to meet the primary needs and peculiar conditions of coimtry schools, this 
course to serve as a guide to those who are preparing teachers for work in country schools. 


Hermann N. Morse, Board of Some Missions of the Presbyterian Church in the 

United States 

I approach thiR question from the point of view of one whose primary concern is 
with the development of rural community life and speak from that an^ of interest, 
rather as one who has any technical qualifications in the of music. If there is 
anything special and peculiar to the process of adapting music to the rural envutHnnent, 
we must bei^ by con^ering the characteristics of that environment Our easy speaking 
of the “outlying rural districts” shows in itsdf the focus of our thinking in these matters. 
It has always been our procedure to work out plans for the city and then sec if we could 
adapt them to these outlying districts. But the rural community, from its own point of 
view, is not outlying — it is the center of life and requires to be considered and treated in 
its own terms. 

Tti the background of the question is the rural community that cmce was. Its place 
in the devdopment of American life is a familiar story. It was a snug little place, that 
old rural oomxnunity — a faiiiy complete social entity, a little local wodd. It had a rich 
sodal life, centering around the hoosdiidd, and many common social activities. 



Wbat lias been happening to this community is likewise a familiar story. Character- 
istically, and with few exceptions, the rural neighborhood has lost its homogeneous 
character. Its sodal ties do not bind it so securdy. 

Essentially this line of development has made our problem a community rather than 
an individual problem. 

Musk is an example of this change. In the old community they did sing. I do not 
know how well they sang, but I know that they sang. Singing societies and neighborhood 
sings were common. In how many neighborhoods did the young people regularly gather 
about the organ in some hospitable farm house parlor on a Sxinday night to sing h3nnns 
and old-fashioned songs? Most of what is worth while in native American music came 
out of this period. Now there are still places in the country where they sing but what 
they smg is a diEerent story. There are happy ezcqitions. There are Welsh, Danish 
and Moravian communities that have a magnificent musical tradition. There are places 
in the Southern Mountains where the old ballads persist. But it is not too much to say 
that in the average rural community if they sing at all as a community, they sing on a 
very low level of taste. At the same time, there are undoubtedly more individuals with 
a higher appreciation of good music. The South is a good illustration of what has hap- 
pened. This is the only section in my knowledge where the singing school survives. 
There are large areas where one still finds the singing master coming out in the summer 
to hold a school, or where an advertised nrighborhood sing of a Sunday will bring out the 
whole country-side for miles around. But the rural districts of the South are afflicted 
^th shaped notes. They have been taught to sing only from the shaped notes and, as 
most every one knows, there is practically no good music obtainable in shaped notes. 
On the other hand, there are muric publishing houses which specialize in each year brin g in g 
out a volume of songs, usually of the revival hymn type, with the apparent ambition to 
make each successive volume worse than any of its predecessors — and there are houses 
which have been known over a long period of years never to have failed in realizing tbig 

Music is, I take it, primarily an exerdse of the spirit. When a community or a 
people sings, it is because of spiritual paeons or yearnings which are only to be so ex- 
pressed. What we call folk music is merely the expression in rhythm and melody of such 
passions and y earning s. We have never gotten a great body of folk music except from 
the peasantry which remained on the land and lived its life deeply. Consequently, our 
only distinctively folk music in this country has been originated by the American N^ro 
and the only other body of folk music which ba-g been preserved bag been preserved in the 
Southern Mountains, liming the war it was not hard to make communities sing. There 
was plenty of passkm and enthusiasm. But those who have tried to keep alive the habit 
of community singing have found that it was difficult to keep the e:q>ression when the 
pasrion had subsided. 

Now this is the way I see the question at tbig time. I believe there are many signg 
an impendmg revival d idealism. As steps along the way, I would TnaVe these simple 
and cx>iKuete proposals. 

Hrst, that such a body as this should d efini tely undertake to create or to render 
accessible a 23 Dd populaiize a body of fdCk music, that is music which refiects fundamental 
social experiences, which expresses abiding rural ideals and which is dmple, melodious 
and singable and is capable of arousing a-nd sustaining emotions of a bigb order. There 
are such songs — plenty of them: — but they are not easily obtainable, at least in any coHeo* 
tion. Then, second, we should begin to find and train those who, in rural commuidties, 
can provide the necessary leadership. I tbtnk we cannot lefy on a professional leader- 
ship. W^e must for the time being find and appeal to those choice spirits, wherever they 
aie^ who can lead in this t hin g and then make the necessary materials accessible to them. 
Theoreticallf , I siqspose, the two institutions to train the individual are the church and 



the school. Actually, neither of them is equipped to do it and it would be difficult to 
equip them. I have no faith in the feasibility at this time of any plan to make the rural 
school that we know the agent in this thing. The rural school that is still characteristic 
of the country is a passing institution. When we have completed the process of consolida- 
tion and the building up of strong centralized school centers, we will have a different situa- 
tion. I fear the effects of any formal plan projected on too wide a scale. The desire for 
it is not yet sufficiently present. Therefore, we must build around those individuals — 
and there are many of them if we could but find them — who now have the interest and the 
abilily to make the beginnings. Then we can utilize the phonograph, increasingly more 
common in school and home, particularly by furmshing sdected lists of records which 
will lead toward the things that we want. 

AS SEEN FROM THIRTY YEARS^ EXPERIENCE L. Driver, Director Bureau of Rural Education, Commemwealth of Pennsylvama 

No nation can be greater than its individuals, and no individual is greater than his 
developed intelligence will permit him to be. Education has, of course, its various prob- 
lems of applicatfon, and we believe that one of the greatest problems of education, if not 
the greatest, is that commcmly known as rural education. There are many reasons fmr 
this. The rural schools have rectived so little attention that they have become woefully 
lacking in efficiency. It is generally conceded that they have suffered because of a lack of 
spcdfic interest on the part of educators. More than 50% of aH of the school children of 
^erica are to be found in the rural and village schools. AlmosthaJf the people of America 
live in what might be termed rural environment. Hence, anything that contributes to 
the advancement of the rural community is contributing to at least a majority of the 
people who make up America. 

The rural community life must be enriched, and this can never be done by the “pour- 
ing-in” process. It must come throu^ the emmnunity itself. It must be through the 
channel of education. It is dearly the problem of the school, for the school stands between 
the home and the church, or in short is the center of the hub of institutional activities. 

In all this education, and the means that is to contribute to the enriching of com- 
munity life, there is nothing that citn mean more timn music appreciation. This must 
come to the children thmu gh t3ie public school and the public school can get it only 
through the teacher. We have aH seen striking examples of this. The individual teacher 
frequently becomes the one great factor in crystalizang a community to a certain standard. 

For many years I lived in near a dty known ever3rwhere for its music and 

musical appreciation, as shown by chorus^ orchestras big and little, and all forms of 
music otganizatiems. That dty stood for these ideals because it had a real muric teacher 
and director in its public schods. Only last Saturday in Pittsibaii^ I heard Stokowski 
present two gold watches to children who had won these prizes by writing essays on their 
appredatiem of former symphony ocmcerts. He remarked that that dty was -one of the 
first, if not the first, to take up a certain character of community chorus work. That dty 
is no doubt proud of the work that its children axe doing, but it is due to the injSuence of 
the ssomR man who did SO much for the Iitdiana dty. 

I have seen a whole comimmity with seemin^y no unusual musical talent transformed 
into a music appreciating people. A consdidated school of more than 300 c hil d r en has 
two orchestras and they have a community band and chorus. It was no trick to put over 
the Liberty Loan, Red Cross, Thrift Stan^, or any war activity in that community, for 
all you had to do was to get the people together to sing. 



The great seed to get musk into our public schools is that of the teacher. A working 
knowledge of music should be required of every teacher and until our schools are required 
to teach thU subject the same as arithmetic, history, and geography, teachers will not be 
developed. Our rural schools are woefully lacking in this opportunity when so much 
could be done by only a little effort Every school should be taught to sing and this is 
not a difficult thing to do at alL 

I recall my own experience as a child that we had no music whatever in the public 
school until a band of so-called musk teachers struck the little town, after a week’s adver- 
tising that for the small fee of one dollar per pupil they would teach the community how 
to read musk and sing in the short space of one week. They came. They organized a 
class of something like 200 people. We had one lesson before school in the morning, one 
before school in the afternoon, one at the close of school in the afternoon, and then an 
extra long lesson after supper. A part of the program also was to give a grand concert 
at the dose of the week’s training, and what a concert it was! Everybody was there, 
enthusiasm ran high, and the people sang. Those music teachers did exactly what they 
said they would do. They taught the pe<^le of that community how to sing, and the 
influence of that one week’s singing school is still felt in that community. 

Where it is possible schools should have a musk supervisor that w^ould go from school 
to school, even in rural communities, giving probably one lesson per week and supervising 
the work of the teacher the other four. This can be and is done. In the larger type of 
rural school the special teacher is a pos^ility, and in the consolidated school the music 
teadber and director is a certainty. 

But we believe that under present conditions music will go into the rural school by 
the aid of the phonograph more than any other way. Every school room should have 
its machine upon which nothing but the best well-selected records should be permitted. 
A little trouble may be experienced at flrst in creating a standard of this kind, but once 
fixed, no other would be thought of by the school. To those who have not seen this worked 
out in the rural school it is almost unbelievable the amount of good that can be done. 

This is not an extensive pr(^)oation. A working library of records may be installed 
in the county and kept in the office of the county superintendent as a distributing point. 
These records may be sent to' various parts of the county when they are needed for a 
particular purpose, always, of course, imder the direction of the counsel and advice of 
some one familiar with good musk. If the records are the property of the school they 
can be exchanged with other schools, and many valuable records are had at the cost of 
but few. 

I want to tell you of one example that came under my observation showing the in- 
fluence of the phoiM^raph in a publk school. I asked the childr^ in an Orphans’ Home, 
how many of them had a selection they wanted the teacher to play. Every hand, of 
oottise, went up. I then asked this little boy what he desired, and his reply was ^'Please, 
Jtfr* Driver, have her play the Sextette from Luda.” 

Musk sq:preciation and application so to speak be ha>l alsn in the same way. 
lilusk in the school in this way becomes a part of the life of the chiV l- It gives Iiitti a new 
sense of the fitness of things. The rural child is entitled to it and will take to it if only 
given the (Opportunity. Put the music into the school, make it a requirement of the 
(p i a Jffic a t kns of every teacher, and in a short time you will soon have a musk-kving rural 

Let me give the following incident as an example of muac appreciation. I read 
Guest’s little poem ^*It Can Be Done*^ to a school one day last year and fljgfcftd the childroti 
to interpret it for me. The poem, as you will rememher, is — 

Somebody said that it couldn’t be done 
But he, with a chuckle, relied 



That ‘‘maybe it couldn’t,” but he would be one 
Who wouldn’t say so till he tried. 

So he buckled in, with a trace of a grin 
On his face. If he worried he hid it. 

He started to sing as he tackled the thing 
That couldn’t be done — and he did it. 

Somebody scoffed: “Oh, you’ll never do that; 

At least no one ever has done it.” 

But he took off his coat and he took off bis hat, 

And the first thing we knew he’d begun it; 

With the lift of his chin, and a bit of a grin, 

Without any doubting or quiddit. 

He started to sing as he tackled the thing, 

That couldn’t be done — and he did it, 

There are thousands to tell you it cannot be done; 

There are thousands to prc^hesy failure; 

There are thousands to point out to you, one by one, 

The dangers that wait to assail you. 

But just buckle in with a bit of a grin. 

Then take off your coat and go to it; 

Just start in to sing as you tackle the thing 
That “cannot be done” — and you’ll do it. 

I asked the school for the secret of success in the selection, or what they thought was the 
real reason for it. One boy inunediatdy championed the fact that “He started to sing” 
when he tackled the thing and defended his position splendidly. He was opposed some- 
what by another boy who thought it was the grin that did it. After this boy had g^ven 
his reasons for thinking that it was because of the grin, the other boy showed his keen 
sense, I think, of music appreciation when he said, “Mr. Driver, that’s all right, but a 
grin ain’t nothin’ but a song bustin’ out on your face cross-wise.” * 

Let me say in conclusion that I believe that we should have music in every rural 
school r^ardless of its size. This muric should be of such a character as to meet the 
needs of the music requirements of the community, Teadbers should be required to have 
in mtisic the same as other subjects. Whenever it is impossible to have a special 
teacher, the work should be outlined by a supervisor and carried out by the regular teacher. 
Music should be a part the r^ular course of the normal schodls. The music of the 
sdiool should be such as to inspire better music in the home and church. 



ganir back I do not tTiink He ever recovered his mind, and he is not living now, 

but that temporary influence upon that mind is an illustration to you of the great power 
of music upon the health of people, upon the health of your children, upon your own 
health and upon the health of the community, and that is only a suggestion. 

The suggestion is that we want a great American art of music. I saw advertised in 
a paper, I within a day or two, that Miss Rosa Ponselle is to sing with Caruso here 
in the Grand C^pera House next Tu^day ni^t. Before the war that could not have been 
done with any success. Before the war the ideas of the American people concerning 
music were so misdirected that they thought no person could really be a musician unless 
he went over axKi stayed at least four we^s in Paris or Rome or some part of Europe. 
I have known many a young lady and young man to sing so acceptably as to bring tears 
to a great audience, and then have known them to go over to Europe, stay a couple of 
years and come back finished. (Laughter.) Yes, they were finished, no success after 
that at all. There are two reasons why the education of our mu si ci a n s in foreign lands 
is a mistake. The first reason is that it is rather unpatriotic so long as we can give just 
as good instruction on thk side of the sea. There is a lack of patriotism about that which 
you ftmphaAizftfl here and I need not repeat, but the other thought is that we need a 
National American mu^ something fitted to this continent. We went over and secured 
German musicians, and the war has kept us out of Germany. It seems as though Con- 
gress is going to keep us out of Germany for some time to come. Consequently we 
cannot get German music again as we did have it. Our tide has turned against it It is 
a good thing that it has, not that I am prejudiced against German music or German 
musicians, but it is a good thing it has because German music in Germany is the highest 
and grandest thing you can hear when you are over there, and II Trovaiore in Rome is 
something worth going across the sea to hear, but when you bring that national music, 
beautiful as it is, honored as it is, over to America it is not in harmony with the natural 
sounds, the sounds American winds and waters make, and certainly not with the natural 
voices of the American people. You go to a concert, you who are trained in music. A 
man comes out. His pronundation may be dearly English or clearly American, and you 
can teH instantly whether he is a Frenchman or German or whether he comes from Russia 
or England. You can tdl by the tone, the peculiar tremor in his voice, or something that 
I cannot scientifically describe, which you may know, but I can do it with all my lack of 
musical training, I had to teach music to work my way thxou^ college, but that is so 
long ago I have forgotten even what I did know, and you did not have to know much to 
teach music then. But I say that there is an American ideal of music that must be in- 
astcd upon, and we want an American music. We want an American Opera, a real 
Anaezican Opera, not something borrowed from Germany, from France or from Italy, as 
grand as their music is in other places. We ought to study their music just as a cultivated 
man studies forei^ l a n g ua ges, but the real music that we need is from some genius that 
may be sitting in this hall at this moment, who will be so filled with the American sounds 
and oomhinations of sound along the great orchestra of the winds, the sounds of America, 
as to build up a real home American roude, and that will be real axt in music in America. 
(A|^>iause.) That will advance this great idea of patriotisaii in America. It will build 
up iDstitxiitions that are American, that are worth the respect of the whole country, and 
have a character in Amedca that other nations will respect, and a moral influence whidi 
wiB keep them at peace when armies and navies coxild not do it is a greater thing for 
America than to have an army or navy ever so great. It would be one of the greatest 
mflnences upon the world for us to have a great national s(flKK^ of music. (Applause.) 
It should be definitely recognised. It can be found. You can find it. I have retired 
to Rosa Ponselle who sings at the Grand Opera House, th^ tell me, next Tuesday ni^t, 
she and her sster. They were little waiter girls, and they sang in Sunday Sdiool on 



Sundays, and their voices were known and people recognized thdr Sunday School work 
and their churches were proud of them, but every one said to them, **you cannot expect 
to go ahead of an 3 dhmg more than mere concert work if you stay in America- You must 
go over there,” Rosa and her sister said, “Why, we have to earn and take care of our 
father and mother. We cannot leave. We cannot fail to get our ten dollars a week. If 
we did we would starve. Father and mother would starve and we too.” So Rosa and 
her sister had to work for ten dollars a week, but Mr, Caruso one day said to Rosa, “I 
don’t believe it is necessary for you to spend all your money to go over to Europe in order 
to be a Grand Opera Singer. I believe if you put your mind ri^t down to it >^u would 
be acceptable.” So they had this idea that Rosa and her ^tcr would go to a teacher in 
New York, and that they would not let anybody know but that they had been to Europe, 
and then appear on the platform, but it could not be concealed. As Rosa PonscUe came 
upon the platform all knew she was an American and had never been in Europe and had 
no chance to get over there, no money to for those teachers that lead people alto- 
gether astray. She was singing the ri^t kind of music, dnging in the ri^t way, and it 
is a matter of pride to me, though I have no time to go to operas or theatres, that she is 
coming to Philadelphia next Tuesday evening because she is an American (Applause), a 
real downright prima donna American, all American, not a thing in it that belongs to 
other countries. 

So I say that all our music must be that very, very soon, and I want to insist, as a 
preacher of the Gospel, that you as teachers also in your future gatherings or before 
you go there think of the art of music, more of its art. Music that is adapted to the baE 
room is not adapted to Church, and mudc you would dug at a funeral is not appropriate 
to a dance. There is an art in music of aK>ropriateness which seems to be so generally 
broken up, I cannot understand it. I go around through the country. I speak in almost 
every State every year and have done so for many years, and muac often precedes my 
address or my sermon, and I hear most absurd things in music in churches. I intend 
mentioning in a moment, though I should not speak more than five minutes more, how I 
went to Church in New Yoik to exchange with one of my ministerial brethren, and as I 
walked up the aisle of that beautiful Church an ofl&cer of the Church came across to me 
and said, “Sir, the choir will open the services.” Wdl, they did. (Laughter.) They 
opened the service. I had heard the Soprano was paid $4,200 a year. That is one of 
the things. In order to get any good music in this country teadiers have got to be paid 
more salary right off. (Applause.) I had heard that this Soprano had $4,200, whkh is 
not more than ougjit to have but it was an unusual salary for a Soprano, and so I 
wanted to hear her sing. I went up and sat down on a sofa on the platform of the pulpit, 
and the choir were perched on a sh^ rq) over my head. They began the muse. I waited 
an embarrassingly long time for something to happen up there. Finally I heard the rustle 
of skirts and then one or two little giggles. Then I heard the S<q^rano b^in. She 
struck the lowest possible note that her cultivated vdee could reach. Then she began 
and went or rather cork-screwed her way up and up and up and out of si^t and she 
stayed up there. Then the Second Bass began and wound his way down, down, down, 
down, away down to the hades of sound and he stayed down there. (Laughter). I have 
often asked myself why they did such an absurd thing as that in a Church when there 
should be an art of music that should sing the right thing in the right time. Church 
musk is a special art by itself as Opera muac is by itself, and we ought to be able to divide 
up this great art and get specialists in these different divisions. Do you think that squeal- 
ing up in high C and roaring down to low B was real music? I do not think it was worship. 
Worship? Why, if I had stood on that sacred desk and positively sworn at the people 
it would not have been greater sacril^ than that exhibition up on that shdf . (Laughter.) 
Thcfre was no music about it. There was no worship about it. 'V^Txat is music? Music 



b such a combination of sound as moves the whole man on to noble deeds and deeds that 
are remembered in hbtory have been often those that have been wrought out under the 
powerful inspiration of the right kind of music. Music for the battlefield wins many a 
victory, and music in the right place of the right kind v/ins all kinds of moral victories 
among all classes of men. 

I thank you for coming to Philadelphia. I feel proud of your vbit and I want to 
impress upon you that I am extravagant but speak wdth studied care when I say that the 
sesrions of those that are now laying the foundations of American music are really of 
more consequence every day than any single day of the American Congress in Washing- 
ton. (Applause.) 

Mr, Cooke: I want to tell ycra something that none of you or very few of you are 
willing to believe. Doctor Conwell recently celebrated hb 78th anniversary in Phila- 

The PEESmENT: No word of mine b needed to make dear to Doctor Conwell our 
very hearty appreciation for hb address. You have been fine in your attention and in 
your interest thb week. 

Business Sessions 


President Dank: The subject to be consdered is the future policy of the CoDfereuoe^ 
conceming sectional branches, as stated on the programme. A committee of past presi- 
dents of this organisation was appointed by the President. The committee has given 
very careful consideration to the subject, and its report will now be made by the chairman. 
Professor Peter \V. Dykema. 

Mr. Bvreica: I^adies and Gentlemen and Members of the Conference: what will 
be said is the result of conferences, and by no means merely my own individual expression. 
This committee was ^pointed by President Dann and included the past presidents of 
the groups that were concerned. Two communications went to all these presidents. 
The material of the second was based upon the replies to the first. The replies of the 
second formed the basis of the first conference that was held after we reached PhUadeij^btia. 
There were three conferences held by the committee present. This entire matter, as 
formulated, was submitted to the Board of Directors and the ofBcers forming the entxie 
Executive Committee, and each word that I shall read has been approved by thi«i Com- 
mittee of Past Presidents and the Executive Committee of our Conference. I shall now 
read this through exactly as they have given it, word by word- If there are any questions 
after that I shall be glad in so far as I can to answer them, and if I cannot answer them 
to ask other members of the Committee or Executive Committee to answer them for nae. 

(Report read. See page 176.) 

This completes the report. We now stand ready to answer questions that may come 
up if there is any disoission. 

Mr. Hayden: It occurs to me that this last sentence suggested by the Executive 
Committee, raises a question which might better not be raised. I do not see why this 
body should take a stand that it would not be expected to take on the first step towards 
a union meeting. Even if it is not expected, I do not see why we should make a statement 
of that kind. 

Mr. Dyeeua: I may answer that the point of view of the Cdnumttee in all its 
discussion was this: the first or paramount duty before us is to mamtain a strong central 
body, in which we can focus the thoughts of the Nation, as far as our subject is concerned; 
that in order to do this we must have a dbse relationship to every part of the country. 
For that purpose the second part of our plan was suggested, that of continuing the work, 
which has been so well b^^un, of dev^oping the state organizations. Now, it seemed to 
your committee that if those two phases of the matter were taken care of, that there 
could be well left to individuaJ initiative any further organization. "We saw no objectioii 
rather, as was stated in this report, we look with favor upon any combination which 
would forward this cause, but we thou^t we had all we could do to take care of the great 
national organization and of the state organizations. There is going to be no distant 
policy, no policy of aloofness by any means, but there is alwa3rs a possibility (hat in the 
endeavor to branch into other lines there may be some misunderstanding. It Is merely 
a question of who shall say the first word. Whenever the national organization receives 
an invitation from any group of people — and yxm remember that the}' are in constant 




touch with all the people through the state oi^anizationSj and all that a state organization 
or an organization of two or three states has to do if they are desirous of forming a sectional 
conference, is to sa3^ “We should like to establi^ some definite relationship between the 
DytmnaJ the other,” then the National Conference stands ready to give an ear, 
and in so far as its purpose as a great national organization can be carried on, to make 
such connection. It is merely I think a question as to who shall give the first word, and 
we have felt in tlds case that the initiative must rest with the group rather than with the 
central ozganizatiozL But I am sure there is no spirit of controversy, no spirit of o ffishn ess 
in the national organization on that matter. 

The P:kesident: Are there any further remarks? A motion will be in order for the 
conference to endorse the report of this Committee. The chair is of the opinion that the 
Committee would like an expression from the Conference. A motion to accept the 
r^rt of this Committee and approve it will be in order. 

xfp- Donneixy: I move that the report of the Committee be accepted, and that it 
cliaTI serve as a guiding policy of the Music Supervisors* National Association. 

Mv- Cox: I second that motion. 

The President: It is moved and seconded that the report of this Committee be 
accepted and approved, and that it form the baas of the policy of this Conference con- 
cerning the matter under discussion. 

The question being on the motion of Mr. Donnelly it was unanimously carried. 

The Pbesident: The next order is the r^ular business session of the Conference. 
Is there any iinfinifAftfl business to be att^ded to? The chair has an impression that 
an amendment was offered at the last meeting looking to a change in the method of 
nominating the nominating committee. 

u-o- Millee: The mover of that motion is not present, and to bring the matter 
before the house I should like to call for the reading of the amendment. 

‘*The officers of the Conference shall be nominated by a committee of five, the mem- 
bers of this committee to be elected in the opeiing business session of the Conference by a 
majority of members of the Conference in open meeting. This nominating committee 
dial] nominate two memb^ of the Conference for each selective office of the Conference.” 

Ms. Muxes: I should like to offer an amendment to the amendment in the way of 
a substitution. By way of preface I would like to say that there has been some feel ing 
anmng members of the national conference that the powers and duties of the Ccmference 
were exercised rather too laigdy by a RmaJl group. When we met at Evansville an 
amendment was adopted that was a move towards democratizing our method of choosing 
officers. Before that time all the nominating committees had been appointed soldy by 
the president. That year we b^an a custom which was then embodied in an amendment, 
to divide the leqwnribOity of naming the nominating committee among seven different 
ofiikials, namely, the Executive Committee, the president and first vice-president, each 
one appointing one member of the committee. It still seems to be unsatisfactory to quite 
a number of people. The amendment that you have heard read, to my mind, is very 
nnsarisfajctozy and would be productive of confusion and not produce good results. If 
there is a desire on your part for a change in the method of selecting the nominating 
cotomittee I should like to <^er this in substitution for Article 6, Section 1: 

‘The officers of the Conference shall be nominated by a committee of seven. 
The members of the nominating committee shall be dected by an informal ballot of the 
active members of the Conference. The bahots shall be deposited with the treasurer 
of the Conference before noon of the second day of the Annual Meeting. Each 
voter shall write not more than seven names on his baEot. The Executive Com- 
mittee shall count the ballots and annoimce the result not later than ten o’dodr of the 
following morning. The seven persons receiving the highest number of votes shall 



be declared the nominating committee. In case of a tie vote for any two or more 
persons, the Executive Committee shall decide the tie vote. No person shall be 
conMdered for president or vice-president who has not attended at l^t five annual 
meetings of the Conference.” 

I move the adoption of the amendment. 

The Peesident: The question immediately arises whether the substitution is 
germane to the amendment. From a first reading it would seem to me that it is entirdy 
correct as an amendment to the amendment, vdth the exception of the last clause, which 
gives new material concerning eligibility. That would seem to me hardly material for 
amending this amendment In case it is not germane it could not be accepted as an amend- 
ment but would have to be taken as a new amendment and lie over for a year. 

Ms. Milles: As the amendment has not been seconded, I will omit the last clause 
from the amendment, that referring to the digibDity of the president and vice-president 
Ms. Hayden: I rise to a point of order which I will put in the form of a questicm. 
Has either one of these amendments been presented by a majority of the board of directors? 

The Psesident: As the chair understands it, the amendment was regularly pro- 
posed and brought before the meeting in 1919, and was by constitutional provision left 
over for action until this meeting. 

Ms. Hayden: Is the motion just proposed a substitute or an amendment to this 
amendment? If it is a substitute it cannot be acted upon unless the mover of the other 
motion consents. 

The Psesident: The chair understands that the substitution is an amendment by 
form of substitution to the amendment, and therefore in order. 

Ms. Thompson, of Joliet: I to second the amendment to the amendment as 
given by Mr. Miller. 

The President: The question now is on the amendment to the proposed amend- 
ment, which has been made and seconded and is open for discussion, 

Mv. Gehrkens: I am thorou^y in sympathy with the various moves to democra- 
tize the election of cheers. I was very much interested in the amendment proposed last 
year because I have been concocting in my own mind an amendment which a group of us 
thought mi gh t be proposed, to the same end. As I think of the amendment to the amend- 
ment which we are discussing just now, it seems to me that my scheme goes a little further 
in the direction of democratiring the whole matter, and before you vote affirmatively on 
thiR amendment, which I think is a very great inqiroveinent over the present praetke, 
I would like to o€er as part of the discusskm, if I may, the idea which some of us enter- 
tained last year. If it is not out of order as part of this discussion, I would like to say, 
that, in brief, the idea conristed in not having a nominating committee at all, but to have, 
in the first i^ace, a ballot whidi should be in itsdf a nominating ballot, the first day or two 
of the conv^rion, giving every one an absolutdly open chance to nominate his own 
candidate; then taking two names of those who have the hipest number of votes on that 
nominatmg ballot, «nd hallnring finally on those two names on the last day or next to the 
last day of the convention, giving anqde time for counting the primary ballots received 
in betwe^ I will not take the time to read that. I do not ^)eak in opposition to this 
amendment to the amendment. I am simply sa 3 dng I am agreeing mth the general plan 
but am wondering whether we do not want to go a little further while we are at it. 

Ms. McCoNArEBY: I a^^redate, of course, what Brother Gehrkens has said. He 
has voiced the sentiments we all feel, that everybody diould have a share in the n omm a- 
tion of the officers of this association, but just as our United States is a government by 
representation because it k f dt that the representatives can better discuss the afiaixs oi 
our Nation and arrive at a wkercondusioE than some of us (perhaps you wish to question 
that) so I fed that a wiser condurion might be reached by a group selected by us to can- 
vass thoTou^y the entire situation before making nominations for us to act upon. The 



matter of officers of this association is a serious matter. We must consider geography 
and a great many other matters in our nomination of officers, and I feel that a representa- 
tive group of our people, selected in the most democratic way, would be better qualified 
to discuss the problems involved than would our association as an entire body. That I 
think would be most particularly true if, as is very likely, we move from one part of the 
country to another and naturally bring into our association people who are not conversant 
with all its history and the development by which that history was made. I therefore 
argue in favor of the amendment to the amendment, which I think is quite in conformity 
to our American institutions of representative government. 

Mn. MduLSk: I should like to say that originally and in fact for three years I have 
been considering the advisability of the very thing Mr. Gehiiens has mentioned, of 
having the entire list of nominations voted for by the entire body, but while seriously 
conadering it, we know the absolute impo^bility and impracticability of discussing here 
in this body the merits or fitness of any candidate in a public meeting. A small group 
like seven people can discuss all sides of the question in every relation. You will have 
the same privilege of electing your representative as we have in any other kind of repre- 
sentative government. It is a republican form of administration rather than a pure 
democracy. I should be willing to go as far as any one in the matter of making the whole 
thing democratic if such a thing were practicable. 

(Article 6, Section 1 was read.) 

The Pbesidekt: Mr. Miller, the chair would like to ask what became of the rest 
of this amendment which reads ^'The nominating committee shall nominate two persons,” 

Me. Miller: It was the intention it should take the place of the other entire amend- 

Mk- DYKEica: That is singly a new method of obtaining a nominating committee 
and has nothing to do with the nomination of offiicers. 

Mil You will see by the section it certainly takes the place of the whole 


Mr. Dykeka: The question is whether you want to substitute the first part of it 
or take it ail in. 

Mr. Muxer: The whole thing. 

Mr. Weaver: This last remark has interested me personally. Does Mr. MtIIpt 
wish to substitute his amendment for the entire amendment as pres^ted last year? If 
so, I personally object to it. I approve of Mr. Miller’s method of getting a nominatiiig 
GQmmittee, but I personally want that nmninating committee to nominate two nanruyt 
for each office, as Mr. Gebhart’s amendment was presented last year. If Mr. Miller’s 
amendment or substitution is for the first half of Mr. Gebhart’s suggested amendment, 
I am heart% in favor of it. 

The President: The chair understands that the amendment to the amendment 
presented by Mr. Miller, is a substitute for the entire amendment offered last year. 

Mr. Giebrksns: I t h in k a good many of us fed that the plan of presenting two Tiarr^ft 
to be nominated is a great improvement oves the present plan, under which all we do 
we come to vote is to vote as the committee dictates. I thinV that is what Mr. 
Weaver has in mind. I think a good many of us feel the same way. 

Mr. Weaver: It se^ns to me that Mr. Miller’s suggestion here is so entirdy different 
from the original that unless he wishes to qualify it and make it refer simply to the part 
of the amoidmeait which was presented last year, it is not capal^ of being acted u pon 
at this time. If Mr. Miller’s substitutnmsn^^idates to that section of the amendment 
offered last year, it seems to me it is a substitution truly. 

Tee President: The Chair rules that the point is wdl takpri. Unless the second 
part of the original amendment is left in, the substitution becomes new matter, because 

PHILADELPHIA, PA,, ^lARCH 22-26, 1920 


it very materially and vitally changes the intent of the original amendment. If Mr. 
Miller is willing to allow his substitution to substitute for the first section and leave in it 
the last section, which reads: 

*‘The Nominating Committee shall nominate tv*o members for each selective 

office of the Conference,” 

then we can go ahead and vote upon the substitute. 

Ma. IVIiller: Since you have made that ruling, in order not to lose the amendment 
this year, I will accept the qualification with the consent of my second. 

Mr. Thompson: I consent 

Mr. J^Iiluer: We will include the latter part of the amendment 

The President: The proposed amendment will be voted upon now. Would the 
Conference care to hear it again? 

Voices: Read the whole. 

(Amendment read.) 

Mr. Breach: Does this mean if a person does not attend the Conference he loses any 
chance to vote on the officers? 

The President: The Chair understands that that question is not brought up in 
this amendment. 

Mr. Breach; It seems to me it eliminates the possibility of anybody voting for an 
officer unless he is able to come to the Conference. If prevented by illness or some other 
cause he has no chance to express his wish regarding the officers. 

The President: There is no provision made for voting by mail? 

Mr. Breach: What would prevent a person sending his vote by mail if he sent it in 

The President: That is a new question which has not been considered as far as 
the chair is aware. 

Mr. Breach : There is nothing to prevent it that I can see in the amendment. 

The President: As the Chdr remembers, the Constitution provides that voting 
shall be done by members present, and in order for members to vote by mail an amend- 
ment to the Constitution would be essential. 

A Meioer : What is the question the gentleman has asked? 

The President: The question is asked whether this method of nominating the 
n<Mnmatmg committee would allow members to send in their votes by mail when not 
attending the meeting. The answer has been made that there is no proviaon for non- 
resident voting. Is the Conference ready for the question? 

The question bang on the adoption of the amendment as amended, it was unani- 
mously adopted. 

The Prestoent: The next business will be the reports of standing committees. 
Committee on School Music Credits by Mr. McCOnathy. 

Mr. McConathy: I take pleasure in reporting that the Committee on Credits has 
complete its present labors and the result is a pamphlet which is now in the bands of 
the United States Commissioner of Education, and will shortly be published. We 
earnestly hoped that this pamphlet would be issued before this meeting but unfortunatdy 
great wheels grind slowly, and we are still awaiting its appearance. The pamphlet will 
give this information. It win teSl the status of muac as regards entrance credits and as 
r^aids credits towards a degree in practically every college and university in the United 
States. That will make it possible for any high school principal or teacher of music to 
inform students accuratdy as to just what they may expect in regard to entrance credits 
m music and in regard to graduation in mude in any cdlege or university in which the 
high school students may be interested and towards which they are looking. In the 
second place, the pamphlet will give a r6siim6 of present conditions in the high schools 



of the United States, telling what is being done in the way of music work in various high 
schools of the United States. In this latter part of our report there is not an attempt to 
tell what each individual high school is doing. Obviously that would make the report 
too bulky. We are attempting merely to give statistics regarding the present music 
practices in the high schools of the Country and with regard to the colleges, and not only 
are we giving general statistics but specific statements regarding the work of each college. 

I sincerely hope that this pamphlet may be issued by the Government for our use before 
the dose of schools this spring, but I cannot promise that. 

Tbe President: Evidently the Comnuttee has made important progress. Wm 
some member of the Conference move that the report of the Committee be accepted and 
the Committee be continued for the coming year? 

Me. Feeguson: I so move. 

The motion was seconded and unanimously adopted. 

The Peesident: Committee on National Week of Song, Mr. H, 0. Ferguson, Chair- 

Me. Feeguson : I shall not take the time of the Conference to read the report as given 
by Mr. HaU who is the National Secretary. The Committee was composed of Mr. A. J. 
Gantvoort of Cincinnati, Miss Clara Sanford of St. Joseph, Missouri, and myself. I want 
to report greater activity in the Week of Song this year than ever before. I received many 
letters and turned those over to Mr. Hall, in Chicago- I want to thank Mr. Dykema for his 
fine notice in the Supervisors’ Journal because that notice is what started most of the 
queii^ that came to my desk. Mr, Hall said that the cooperation of the Conference in 
the committee increased the National Week of Song idea over one hxmdred per 
cent this year. He would like to have us continue this committee to work in conjunction 
with him in this work. 

Pshould likft to tell you of Mr. Hall and his work. This is a hobby with Mr. Halt, 
the Nadonal We^ of Song, and he is not finding any fault, but the work in issuing these 
directions fenr the National Wedk of Song cost him personally over $1000 this year alone, 
and his office help were taken from their r^ular work with his company to do this work 
for him. I think it is a fine movement. I should like to ask if X may for funds to aid in 
promoting the National Week of Song. It seems to me fairly representative. With 
your consent, I will not read the report but will hand it to the secretary for publication. 
I sincerely hope you will appoint a new committee. (For ccanplete report see page 181.) 

The Peesibent: What is the pleasure of the Conference? Shall the Cmnmittee be 
continued or a new committee appointed? 

Me. Havden: I move the report be adopted and the Committee continued for 
another year. 

The motion was duly seconded and unanimously cairiedL 

The Peeseoekt: Committee on Schod Survey. Mr. Charles BL Farnsworth. 

Me. Faekswosxs: Mr. President, the Omamittee’s report will be brief. We have 
been going on with the work we started last year. That was a continuation of work 
started the year before. It is well to bear in mind that we first tried to get the drift of 
(pinion on a few formulated facts, and a survey was sent out last year and tabulated. 
While people express opinions very readily in ordinary conversation they are very reticait 
about expressing an opiniem based upon a per cent grade. For instance, where shall 
we look for the result of school music, in school or out of school? The question was asked 
to be answered fay per cent, say fifty-fifty, half the result in school and half out of school, 
cw one way or the other. This was, of course, merely to get the drift of opinion and not 
facts. But while we had a good many replies, nearly one hundred, it was not large enou^ 
to give results that were satisfactory. The Committee went cm to take up a new form of 
questJonnaire where the fact itself would be investigated by questions to be answered by 



yes or no. That questionnaire has been prepared but unfortunately the chairman did 
not feel able to put in either the time or the money to carry on so extensive a piece of work. 

The Committee asks to be excused from further work, for this reason, that the 
organization of the Educational Council, of this body, which has taken place at this 
meeting, is to consider this very question of investigation and gathering of facts. It 
seems hardly proper to keep on doing the same thing when the Council is to do that work, 
so that 1 wish that the Committee’s report might be accepted and the Committee dis- 
charged, and that the unfinished work of this Committee be turned over to the Council to 
do what seems best with it. 

The Pbesident: You have heard the suggestion of the Chairman of the Committee 
on School Surv'ey. He requests that the Committee’s report be accepted and the Com- 
mittee discharged, and that the duties of this Committee shall devolve upon the Educa- 
tional Council, Is there a motion to that effect? 

Ha. Birge: I will make the motion. 

The motion was duly seconded and tinanimously carried. 

The PKESn>ENr: Committee on Community Song Books. Peter W. Dykcma. 

Mr. Dyheica: Ladies and Gentlemen, the work of the past year of the Committee 
has been probably the most strenuous of any period, and it seemed to us that while every 
period has been important, posably there is no time in which the importance of the work 
of this Committee, especially of its publication, is going to be of such weight in the history 
of the music of this coimtry. In our opinion the great weight of the responsibility of 
carrying on that movement for Community Singing, which was so greatly accentuated 
by the Great War, not instigated, not begun, as was well pointed out by Mrs. Low this 
morning, because we must remember it was in 1913 that this Conference got its work 
under way regarding Community Singing, is going to rest upon the public schools. I 
thinlr if this Committee ever been weighed down with a sense of its resporudbilify 
and duty it is at presait. War with all its power has brought with it an enormous interest 
in singing. On the other hand it threatens absolutely to do away with all the standards 
in regard to material we sing that we have been trying so hard to set up. It is a diflScult 
to retain this enthusiasm for singiTig and not allow ourselves to be carried away by 
inferior Tngt<*ria 1 Just to note an instance, at our banquet the other night we were in 
a care-free mood. There is no reason at all I suppose why we should not have scane of 
the same liberty and freedom that comes to ordinary folks, but certainly if anybody 
were to record the singing which was used by the supervisors when they were in a free 
and care-free mood he would not have an exalted opinion of the quality we beheve in for 
recreation. (Applause.) I am not sa3dng this in a ^irit of criticism because I am sure 
at I sing popular songs with some vigor mysdf , but I believe we must not allow 
the impression to go out that when it comes to recreation the only thing that there is in 
the world is the popular song. We haVe other standards, we have other ideals. 

I bdieve we have aii immensely more difficult task upon our hands now than we had 
some years ago because this whole pressure of the movement is upon us and we are threat- 
ened with being engulfed in it the same as most people are. I do not need to tell )?ou 
that during the year the Committee has got out the latest edition of the Community 
Song Book and we hope that for a Icmg time it will be the latest edition. We appreciate 
the difliculty the Committee has been placed in by the changes we have had to make. 
Remember that our Song Book came out just before the war and that during and ^oe 
the war there have been aU kinds of readjustment. We have tried to keep pace with these 
readjustments. If we have ddhyed a long time, and I know many have been greatly 
disappointed at the late date of the appearance of this Community Song Book, it is 
because we wanted, as far as we could, brfore publication, to adjust ourselves to later 
ocmditions. I assure you that the four men who have been on this Committee have given 
thought and in the midst of extremdly busy days, in order to do this. I am sure 



tliey are glad to do it, but I must say that there have been busy days. We have this 
thing before us and we trust it is going to stay for two, three or four years. You may be 
certain that we arc not planning another «iition now, as we were almost as soon as we 
got the others out. We now have an idea this is going to be quite a permanent institution. 
We may also say that the complete edition is under way, and we hope that it will soon 
be available for you, containing accompaniments of all these standard songs. One other 
thing I should like to bring up for your advice. It is a matter that has been suggested 
by one of the members of the Committee. You will recall that the four members of that 
committee are Mr. Dann, our President, Mr. Earhart, Mr. McConathy and myself. 
One of the members of the Committee has suggested that there is need for a song sheet, 
a sheet of texts only, and that the present available song sheets are only those that are 
largely filled with popular song material One of the members of the committee brings 
up the si^g^tion as to whether there is not a place for a sheet containing a number of more 
singable songs. It would duplicate in other words a portion of our song book. I should 
like to put a series of questions to you. How many of you would find use for a song sheet 
which is not met at present by this book? Will you put up your hands? The song 
sheet will contain only words, you understand. Let us say for the sake of argument that 
the song sheet would contain the words of 65 or 55 of the songs, approximately h^f 
of those in the book. Would that meet a need? Evidently in places, it would. May I 
ask about prices? If this goes out we want to get it out in good sized type on a good 
kind of paper. Both paper and printing are expensive. I should like go know the limit 
of price you think would be most available. That to a certain extent will decide how many 
songs we can have. We have these three prices in mind, $5 a hundred, $3.50 a 
hundred and $2 a hundred. I do not believe we can get any thing out that will contain 
sufficient material to be valuable and in good enough shape, that can be sold for less 
than $2 a hundred. How many of you would approve of $5 a hundred providing you 
got more material in it? How many would approve of $3.50 a hundred? How many 
would approve of $2 a hundred and all we can get for it? Evidently most of you. 

Miu M roxa : I mi^t suggest that in nearly all the schools represented here there 
is probably a printing press where they print their own songs. If you think a moment, 
in neariy all cases the schools would be very glad to do that free of charge. 

Mr. Dykema: How many, in spite of the presence of printing presses in schools, 
stfll would want a song sheet selling for $2 a hundred? A goodly number. 

A Member: How about copyrights? 

Mr. Dyeeica: We shall use the same material that is in the song book of which we 
have the rights. 

A Member: Does that prevent school printing presses from printing those songs? 

Mr. Dykeka; It is contrary to law unless you obtain permissbn from the publisher 
in the case of each individual song. Of course, a large amount of the material in our book 
is non-copyright material, so you have a perfect right to reprint a large share of the 
material that is in the song book. The Committee has absolutely no objection to its 
being done. There certainly will be no money made upon this gong sheet. In concluding 
the report I wpl say the Committee will further investigate the question of the song sheet. 
It feds it will have as its future duries only the question of studying material to be used, 
the sering through of the complete editon and the question of getting out band and 
orchestra parts which are still ahead of it. 

The FREsmENT: The Chairman of the Committee desires to have his wish authorized. 
What shall be done with this Committee? Obviously the Committee might be authorized 
to continue its work. Is there a motion to that effect? 

It was 50 moved, seconded, and imaiiiniously carried. 

Th= President: The next business is the report of the Nominating Committee for 
officers for 1921. 

PHIL.\DELPHIA, PA., MARCH 22-26, 1920 


The report was presented. President, Mr. John W. Beattie, Grand Rapids, Mich., 
First Vice-President, Miss Julia E. Crane, Potsdam, N. Y., Second Vice-President (Editor 
of Music Supervisors’ Journal), Peter W. Dykema, Madison, Wis., Secretary, E. Jane 
Wisenall, Cindnnati, O., Treasurer, Frank A. Beech, Emporia, Kans., Auditor, Phillip C. 
Hayden, Keokuk, la., Member Board of Directors, Mabelle Glenn, Bloomington, IIL 

The President: What shall be done with the report of the Committee? 

Me. McConathy: I move the report be accepted and the Secretary instructed to 
cast one ballot for the officers named. 

The motion was duly seconded and unanimously carried. 

Mr. Dykema: I should like to ask one question. How many people did you nomi- 
nate for the Executive Committee? 

Mr. Birge: One. 

Mr. Dykema: Does not the election of Mr. Beattie as President create a vacancy? 

Mr. Berge: Mr. President, it does create a vacancy, and if it is the wish of the Con- 
ference the Nominating Committee will make a nomination for that vacancy, though we 
could not make it until after the election. 

Mr. Dykema: That woidd be actually essential if the president-elect resigned from 
the Board of Directors, would it not? Would it not be necessary for the President-elect 
to resign from the Board of Directors, since he has now been elected to the office of Presi- 

The President: Will the President-elect please come to the platform? 

President-elect Beattie: Ladies and (Gentlemen, I find myself in a somewhat 
embarrassing position. I have been saying rather publicly for several days to several of 
my friends that whoever followed Doctor Dann wcwld have a very unenviable job and a 
very difficult task. (Applause.) Now I find m3^1f in a position where I literally will 
have to swalbw my own words. I must confess to a rather humble feeling when I con- 
sider the illustrious people who have preceded me in this position, I can only say that 
if my lack of years and experience in handling affairs of this size can be somewhat made 
up for by earnestness of purpose, enthusiasm and willingness to co-operate with you all, 
and a desire to secure co-operation from you all, then I shall do the best I can with those 
difficulties I have mentioned, because I will try to bring to the work all the enthusiasm 
that is in me. I certainly appreciate the iumor for I consider it a great one, and can do 
nothing less t>ia.n offer my reagnation as a member of the board of directors. 

On motion of Mr. Birge the leagnation was accepted. 

THE President: The next business will be to hear nominations for the vacancy 
in the Board of Directors, 

Mr. Birge: We ncanlnate Mr. Ernest G. Hessex to fill the unexpired term of Mr. 

Mr. Perceval: I move the secretary be instructed to cast the unanimous ballot for 
Mr- Hesser. 

The motkm was duly seconded and unanimously carried. 

Mg. Ferguson: May I say a word that Mr. Birge has omitted? Mr. Hesser is a 
member of the Nominating Committee. We did not know of this vacancy and did not 
take up the matter of filling it. Mr. Hesser to-day is called to New York City. The 
other six members of the Cenmnittee unanimously agreed upem Mr. Hesser. I want to 
say he bad nothing to do with it. 

Mjl BL\.yden: Last yt^x in St. Louis an amendment was offered to the OmstitutiQn 
that the active mraabership fee be increased to $2.00. 

Mg, DyeejcA: This would come in as an amendment to Article 4, Section 1, whidi 
would then read: 

^^Dues for active members be $2.50 for the first year and $2.00 annually 




The Presidekt: Then the amendment would be to substitute the words “Two 
dollars” for “One dollar fifty cents” in this Article. 

Mr. D\*eesla: I should like to amend the amendment to make dues for active mem- 
bers $3.00 for the first year and $2.00 annually thereafter. It is certainly a very slight 
increase considering the enormous increase that is going on in the cost of everything and 
the very commendable increase that is happening with the salaries of many people. 

The President: That seems to be in line with the amendment made by Mr. Hayden 
last year. Does any one second the amendment? 

Mr. Percivax.: I wonder if the Committee would be willing to increase the associate 
memb^lup fee? 

The President: Hie chair may be allowed to call attention to the fact that associate 
membeish^ carries only attendance at the meetings. The volume of Proceedings and 
the Supervisors’ Journal are not included. Are there any remarks? 

]VIr, Fithian: While the reason for this motion is quite apparent, yet it seems to me 
my recollection is a mere increase of funds in the treasury may be a mistake, so I would 
like to talk along that line. 

The President: The Chair is very stron^y of the opinion that the object of this 
amendment is to increase the fimds in the treasury. 

Mr. FmHAN: It is a question in my mind if we are going at it in the right way. I 
noticed this morning we had a Committee on Necrology. It seemed a!s though that 
was a very appropriate committee in the condition of this organization as it already 
exists. It looked to me as though you were something like an old colored fellow who 
sdd there were three classes of membership, active, honorary and transient, and spoke of 
transient members as those who were very much in a trance. You will pardon me if I 
put myself into this thing. Some years ago I was appointed a member of a committee on 
l^islation in the New jers^ State Teachers’ Association, of which I am a member, to 
interview the Le^siature with reference to some legidative business that was very im- 
portant for the betterment of our condition. The Governor asked me who was behind a 
certain program, and I told him the State Assodation. He said “How many members 
have you in the State Assodation?” "We said to him have about two thousand.” 
He said “How many teachers have you in the State of New Jersey?” We said to him 
“About nine thousand.” He said “You come here and ask us to l^islate for the minority. 
What docs the majority want?’' To make the application there I would say this, that he 
gave me some inspiration to go out and get to work. I was forthwith appointed chai pnaTi 
of a Committee on EnroDment. Every county in the State had its member or two mem- 
bers, according to the size of it We determined we would stop with nothing short of 
personal violence to enroil every teacher in the State of New Jersey under the banner of 
the New Jersty State Teachers’ Association. I got busy as did the Committee. I wish to 
report, while it may not be of any importance to you, that at owe last meeting 14,730 
teachers were enrolled as members of that Assodation out of a possible 16,000. vhi&t 
I am arguing for is this. I bdieve what you need, rather than a good committee on 
necrology, is a good committee on enroflment I believe that the ^endid reports that 
come here and axe printed in that Annual Report are worth their weight in g^ to any 
man or woman who is not fortunate enough to attend these meetings. It has been my 
fizst attendance at one of these meetings. I have a school board, like some of the rest of 
vou, who are generous in everything you want provided you do not want any fhhig 
They are all good fdlows with whom I associate freely, but I belierve if you wili get a 
live Enrollment Coxmmttee, get out into the States with members of that Enrollment 
Committee from the various states, with a little gingier and p^ back of those fellows 
to go after every supervisor of musk in that state with this Annual Report bdiind you, 
which is worth its weight in gold, as I said before, and thm understand this, the 
(me thing that th^ must have to keep them abreast of the changes constant^ oeciixixng, 

PHrL\DELPHIA, PA., MARCH 22-26, 1920 


that when you are going to have something that is going to build up your Organization, 

I do not believe that increase in dues will be the means of getting vei>^ much more in 
your treasury, because I am of opinion you would lose a sufficient number of members 
who would quit because they had to pay an extra amount for this thing. They are not 
yet impressed with the usefulness of this Association to them, which can only come through 
a good, husky committee of which I have spoken. I believe unless you do something 
of that kind you really are going to lose rather than gain. I have no objection to paying 
$2 .50 or $3 .00. I think it is well worth it. I know and see what is going on, but tell 
the other fellow that, who has perhaps not less than I have and is further away from that 
which you are doing, and I fear you will suffer the consequences. 

A vote being taken on the motion it was announced as 82 Aye*s and 78 No’s. 

Mr. Dykema: Mr, Chairman, it would be extremely unfortunate to take a decision 
on any such vote as this. I am sure if we cannot come much more nearly to concurring 
I should be most desirous of withdrawing the motion even at this late hour. May I say 
one or two words in regard to what moved me in making this suggestion? The amount 
of work this organi 2 ation is doing is constantly increasing in its scope and in the cost of 
endeavor. It is by no means limited to those people who come to this group. Doctor 
Dann in that paper which he read as the President’s Address, you remember, for instance, 
said he thought we ought to increase the number of printed copies of our Proceedings 
from 800 to 2000, that we ought to endeavor to put our Proceedings into all libraries and 
all normal schools and universities in this Country, that we are keeping our light under a 
bushel by getting out this material and not causing it to be circulated. Conrider also 
his remarks with regard to the Supervisors’ Journal, with which I am in hearty accord — 
that instead of issuing 9,000 copies to which we have slowly grown in five or rix years, 
we should immediately issue 20,000 copies, and by that means reach not only a great 
number of supervisors but also other people interested in music. It is getting now very 
hard to determine where the line is to be drawn between supervisors and people interested 
in music. We are teaching so many people and we want to teach more people who are 
engaged in private musical instruction. We want to give them ideals of public school 
music worit. We are trying to teach superintendents and trying to teach boards of edu- 
cation. Doctor Dann has announced the greatness of the federation of women’s clubs and 
all these organizations of women who want to know what the schools are doing. It would 
be very fine if we could so increase our circulation as to put them in touch with all these 
things. We have an educational council which is endeavoring to cany on the investi- 
gation of conditions in schools througjiout the country. One of the investigations that has 
beenaskedof that council is that of ascertaining the laws that exist in various states of the 
Um<Hi, with the idea of corrdadng them. The question was brou^t up in one state that 
they could not possibly have outside mode because the laws of the state forbade giving 
money to anybody Tinless he was employed by a school board. We have to make investi- 
gati<ms of that kind. We have to help people throughout the country. The individual 
supervisors are not in a poatiou to do these things. It rests oa the National Body to go 
iihpstA with such thing s as that. We have many things on our bands. Take the ques- 
tion of state organization. We have an eaaormous bOl for stationery this year but it has 
been one of the best things we ever did, constantly making people feel the relationship 
of all these groups. These are only samples of the expenses we are imdertaking. All 
of them are derirable. We have gone along on this small fee. You all know what fees 
are for other organizations. You know that we have had no increase that is comparalde 
at all with the increase of ev«ything. For instance, the prices of the Music Supervisors’ 
Journal have almost doubled. Fortunatdy I think it is gmng to take care of itsdf by 
advertising. Advertisers have shown a splendid ^irit, but we cannot go on forever 
ftjdnng advertisements. There are other matters we have got to do if we want to make 
oursdves increasm^y usefuL It seems to me, after I beard the report from Mr. Dann, 



that the Music Supervisors of this Countiy are aiuious to be of service and to give their 
money in order to carry on this cause. I believe we are taking an extremely foolish 
attitude when we deny this increase. Here we have the greatest expense we ever had 
for a Conference. People came greater distances this year; nevertheless they are here 
for this Conference, The growth, if compared to the small amount of money we put in, 
is as nothing compared to the result we can have if we get a good, vigorous organization 
behind us. I hope we will settle the matter one way or the other. If we cannot get 
within more than three or four votes of settling it, let us leave the thing exactly where it is. 

Ma. Brown, of New Jersey; I might say while I voted against the suggestion, 
it was only because there was doubt in my mind as to whether the additional amount 
charged would not offset the number we might lose on account of the increased cost. If 
that is eliminated I shall be perfectly willing to vote for an increase. 

Mr. Weaver; I call for a recount of the vote. 

A Mesiber: I want to explain the stand I took against the motion. It was for my 
assistants more than myself. I had to advance them money to get them to join in one 
or two cases and they have not paid their dues. 

Mr, McConathv: I talked about this last year, and I hate to say this, but the last 
two preadcnts we have had have suffered financially because we could not get enough 
money to pay postage bills and other things. I said last year I did not want to see that 
thing happen again. I do not want to call on Mr. Beattie to pay any bills for this Con- 
ference. I think we certainly ought to give him enough money. I, as State Chairman, 
sent a letter to every supervisor in my State and paid the postage m 3 rself and do not care. 
We ought to have money for those things. That is the way to get your members. 

Mr. Stock: It seems to me it is a question of what the organization wants to do and 
thm how much it is going to cost to do that. It is a questkm as to what this is worth to 
this Association. It is putting a price on it, and I believe that it will be just as easy to 
coUect $2.00 as $1.50. I am in entire S 3 rmpathy with what the gentleman said about an 
effort bdng made to increase the membership. I think this Organization is doing wonder- 
ful work. I do not know when I have been so much impressed as I have at this Conven- 
tion. I want to see that work go on. I believe it will be a very simple matter to enroll 
2000 members within a year at $2.00. I think we ought to put that price on our own 
valuation of our Assodatian. 

Mr. Berkowtez: If the increase in price wiH carry the Supervisors’ Journal into 
the home of every private teacher, as representing the high schools of this Country, I 
think it is well worth the price. 

Mr. Strauss: I think we have two things to consider. My vote was against this 
propodtioa. I have a feeling that $3.00 for enrolled membership would bar out many 
young supervisors. For the rest of us who have been members of the Association for a 
loiig time the qfuestion is a different one. I have not the least objectioii to $2.00, or more 
if it is necessary. 

The President: Perhaps it is not dear to the Conference that they are at liberty 
to put the two questions sepaiatdy. The first part suggested by Professor Dykema was 
to increase the active membership for new members frenn $2.50 to $3.00. That is what 
we are talking about. Another part of it is to increase renewals from $1.50 to $2.00. 
If it is the wish of the Conference to let this vote stand and go on considering the increase 
for renewals, that can be done, or we can reconsider. 

Mr. Conudok: The teachers of this whole Nation are makiTig a heroic and successful 
fi^t for higher salaries and it does not look just right to quibble over fifty cents. 

The President: We will consider the vote has not been announced. Those in favor 
the motion increasing the membership fee for new membm from $2.50 to $3 JK) will 
please rise^ 

llse morion was cairiedL 



The President: The question is regarding renewals, the proportion being to increase 
the renewal from $1,^ to $2.00. 

A Member: I move we unanimously endorse the value which this conference is to us 
by volunteering to give fifty cents more each year, making it $2 .00. 

The President: We appreciate the spirit of the motion but a motion is already before 
the house. 

The original motion was unanimously carried. 

Invitations for next yearns Conference were then presented from New Orleans, 
Minneapolis, St. Joseph, Mo., Cinciimati, and Columbus, Ohio. 

The informal ballot resulted as follows: 

New Orleans 50 

Minneapolis 38 

St. Joseph ,35 

Cohimbus .35 

The President: According to the Constitution the entire responsibility of deciding 
upon the place of meeting rests with the Board of Directors who must consider it from 
all angles, but they desired and have always asked for an informal vote of the Conference. 

FRIDAY, MARCH 26, 1920 

The President: Report of the Educational Council by its Chairman, Mr. Eaxhart, 
of Pittd)urgh- (See page 177.) 

The report was unanimouly adopted. 

The President: Will every chairman of a State advisory committee present kindly 
come to the stage? While we are assembling, the vice-president, who was yesterday 
elected treasurer of the Association, has a word to say to the Conference. 

Mr. Beach; I appreciate very much the honor conferred upon me. Some of my 
friends asked me to thj^nk it over during the night. I have come to the condusion that 
it would be very unwise for me to attempt next year to fill the office of treasurer. I 
thjtnV you very much, but in Kansas we do things in a rather large way, a good many of 
those things centre in Emporia, and if I undertone this work which you have been so kind 
as to invite me to undertake, it would simply mean that I would have to neglect some 
things that have been mapped out for the next year, which I fed are very essential There- 
fore will you {dease undor^and: it is not through any unwillingness on my part to do any- 
thing towards buiidjng up the Conference, but merely because I bdieve, in view of e xis t in g 
conditions and conditions for the next year as already planned, that this wOl be impossU^ 

The President: It will be necessary to make another no m i na tion for the office of 
treasurer. The chair that the ccHnmittee on nominations has this in charge. 

Mr. Birge: I nominate Mr. Karl W. Gehikens of Oberiin, Ohio, for treasurer. 

The President: Mr. Karl W. Gehikens, of Obciiin, Ohio, has be^ nominated for 
treasurer to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Mr. Beach. The nomination 
has been seconded. 

The motion being to elect Mr. Oehrkens as treasurer it was im a mm oosly earned. 

The President: The chair dedres to ask, before we begin wbat perhaps should 
be the most interesting part of our proceedings for the week, what shall be deme with the 
vacancy in the board of directors caused by the election of Mr. Gehikens as treasurer? 

the committee on nominatioaas any recornmeaodation to make? 

xCt?- Birge: We have nominated Mir. Charles H. Farnsworth, of New York Ci^, 
to fin the vacancy^ for the unexpired term. 

The nomination was seconded. The motion being to elect Mr. Farnsworth, it was 
unanimously carried. 



Mr. Miixer; I believe we have le^slated Mr. Gehrkens out of office this morning 
as a member of the board of directors without his consent. Projpably the proper pro- 
cedure would be to have his resignation. I believe Mr Gehrkens ought to be consulted 
about this because I believe it is not usual to legislate a man out of office without his 

The Presidekt: The chair understands that Mr. Gehrkens has been consulted. 

Mr. Miller: All right. Let it stand. 

Tffv. President: There is no one to whom the president is so grateful and in whom 
he feels so much pride as this group of people that are on the stage this morning. They 
represent much that hai; been done this year for the success of this meeting. While 
representatives of the whole forty-eight States are not here, practically every State 
hi made a report or is ready to make one. Those whose representatives are not present 
have sent their reports by mail and have sent a large amount of infoimation and printed 
matter done an enormous amount of work. The Conference should understand that, 
and when th^ do understand they will surely appreciate what it means to have the 
benefit of the work of those committees which are represented here by their chairmen, a 
large prx^rtioii of whom are on the stage. If we had sufficient time and room we would 
like to (il all members of the committees to the stage and hear from each one. The 
rKoTi-maTi pioposcs to Call the loU of States. The original plan was to read such reports 
as had bei sent in beforehand but that is obviously impossible owing to lack of time. 
The suggests to the chairmen present that it will perhaps be necessary to make only 
very brief reports this morning. We have the great privilege of having these reports 
printed in the volume of proceedings, so that when we get that volume we can have a 
r6smn6 of the condition of school music presented by a, live committee in practically 
every State in the Union. Let it he understood that the report is in the hands of the 
present in nearly every case where the chairman is not present. 

The States were then called in alphabetical order. (See page 184.) 

The Treasurer’s report was read. 

The Treasurer’s complete report is printed on page 210. 

The President: You have heard the report of the treasurer. What shall be done 
with it? 

On motKHi the report was accepted. 

The President: We wiH now hear the report of the Committee on Necrology. 

Mp. Miller: BefcHre this report is submitted may I move a resolution in regard to 
Mr. McElroy? I move that this Conference express to Mr. McElroy its sincere apprecia- 
ation for bis efficieait work as treasurer during the years he served this Conference, and 
that the Executive Committee be instructed to present him with an honorarium of $75 in 
eipiesaon of our esteem for his services. 

The motion was seconded by Mr. Ferguson and unanimously carried. 

Docior Lutkin: I am sure you all fed there are certain things music does that 
nothing dse in the world can do so wdL It is a community act. We do the same things, 
actuated by the same fedisg. That is an extraordinary thing about music. It is not 
Hstening to music, it is singing and taking part in music that does great things for us. I 
want to thjLnk you most heartily because it was one of the hig^ points of my very long 
career as a choral conductor. I thank you very sincerdy. 

The President: We shall now have a few minutes with Mr. Kenneth Clark, of 
Community Service, Incorporated, New York City. 

Mr. Clare; There are three reasons a supervisor should be tied up with community 
music. First, he will have an opportunity of carrying out his ideals that he may have 
with regard to making good dtizesiship further than we can in schooL In the second 
place he may be able to draw attention to his school work, to draw the commendation of 
the public to that school work, thus strengthening his own position. In the third place. 

PHILADELPfflA, PA., MARCH 22-26, 1920 


lie may thiou^ affiliation with music associations fill up his own financial resources, so 
we win be able to draw all the while a bigger class of people into school music, that men 
will have part of the time devoted to school and part of the time devoted to community 
music work, with a salary to be paid jointly by civic assodations and boaxxls of education. 
Mr. Bowen of Michigan is an excellent example of that. 1 would like to put those three 
things in your mind. 

(A number of slides were displayed for singing.) 

One of the things we are trying to do in Americanization woiir is to use folk songs 
both in the original and translated forms. We pick out an Italian song here because 
th^ probably are more familiar to our general population. We go among Italian people 
and say to them “We Americans generally want to sing your songs in En^ish. Will you 
help us?” Then we throw the words on the screen, first in the original and then in English. 

The Peesedent: We will now listai to the rqx)rt of the Committee on Resolutions 
by its Chairman, Mr. Wfll Earhart (See page 182.) 

The report was unanimously approved. 

The Peesident: It gives me the greatest pleasure to dose my labors for the year 
hy introducing <aie who needs no introduction, Mr- Beattie, the new President, and Miss 
Sanford, the supervisor of music in the place to which it has been unanimously decided to 
go, St- Joseph, MissourL 

Mtss Saneoed: We are ^ad you are comingl 

'M'-p. Beattie: If we ran make you as happy a year from now, that is aJl we can ask. 

Reports of Committees and Officers 

{NoU: Fcr a number of shorter and less formal reports see preceding pages of business 
sessions. Also consult index at back of book.) 

The Relation of the National Organisation to Sectional Conferences 

The purpose of the Music Supervisoj^’ National Conference, formulated in the 
Constitution of 1908, reads as follows: “Its object shall be mutual helpfulness and the 
promotion of good music through the instrumentality of the public schools.” Since 
that time, the scope of our work has been greatly enlarged and its value enhanced by the 
results of our own labors and by improved conditions brought about by many influences. 

We bdieve that the strenuous labors of the faithful supervisors who created and 
have maintained the conference have been crowned by an unprecedented success in 
the development of the organization, which has already come to be a great national force 
for the recognition of school music. 

In carrying out our purpose, this organization has moved cautiously but steadily 
and has endeavored by breadth of outlook, wide geographical distribution of members, 
0 (£cers, and meeting places, to give significance to its national character. 

In the opinion of your committee the need for strengthening the national character 
of our endeavors has lately become of transcendent importance for the following reasons. 

(1) It is increasin^y evident that mutic organizations of the country frequently 
duplkate efforts, divide their strength, and still at times leave certain fields uncovered. 
We fed, for instance, that the cause of school music would be greatly benefi.ted by closer 
co-operation between the department of music of the National Education Association 
and our conference. In these days of efficiency and dose oiganization, we must study 
carefully the mea ns by which other organizations have covered the entire Add and have 
avoided duplication of effort. 

(2) Experiences of the last four presidents of our Conference in devdoping the state 
advisory cotmcil (especially the remarkable growth which hft«; taken place under Dr. Dann, 
who has added to the state representative a state committee and has provided each group 
with stationeary, indi c ating the connections with our conference) can be interpreted only 
as a sign of the valuable rdationship which can be established between the central arirt 
state organizations. Tire whole present trend of educational work is toward state organi- 

(3) The movement to create a federal secretary of educatiem with a seat in the 
{nesidentis cal^et must inevitably include a bureau devoted to music education 
the commisdoner of the bureau would natually sedr and constantly need the assistance 
of our national organization. Only by maintaini ng such national strength we hope 
to be effectively heard in Congress among other national organizations. There must be 
ma i nta i ne d a ojheave, efficient, closely co-ordinated working body of supervisors repre- 
senting every state and section of the entire country if we would secure for ova subject 
the rights, recognition and emoluments which it so richly deserves. Any adverse action or 


?HIL/iDEL?HIA, PA., J^IARCH 22-26, 1920 177 

division or relaxation of our efforts must result in hampering and restricting, if not nullify- 
ing the great work that has already be«a done. 

Your committee, Mr. President, therefore recommends: 

(1) That every endeavor should be made to exj^uad the national aspects of our 
organization by such means as have already been found valuable and such new ones as 
have been used by other organizations or we may develop. We suggest the desirability 
of emulating the example of the teachers of English, Physdal Culture, Art, Industrial Arts 
and the kindergarten. These all have strong national organnations meeting annually; 
but they also under the same officers maintain sections in the National Education Associa- 
tion and the superintendents’ meeting. Those groups also maintain strong state sections, 
which function as parts of the state educational organizations. The National Federation 
of Music Qubs and the General Federation of Wcanen^s Clubs have siTrirkr plans of 

(2) That the conference in its membership, officers, and place of meeting shall take 
care that all parts and sections of the country are considered. 

(3) That we urge our state advisory committees to f oml and strengthen state organi- 
zations of those interested in school music. 

(4) If any group of such state organizations or any group of supervisors from states 
not organized shall deem it expedient to organize a sectional group that any and all such 
organizations shall have the hearty support and good will of the national body. 

Any relationship that may be estabKshed between the national and the sectional 
conferences shall come only on the initiative of the latter. 

In conclusion, we wish to reaffirm our behef that the best policy of the Music Super- 
visors’ National Conference is to continue in the future, as it has in the past, its national 
work for higher standards, better co-ordination, and stronger oiganizaticm for effective 
service to the 23,000,000 children in our public schools. 

Frances E. Clare 

P. C. Hayden 

E. B, Berge 

C. A. Fuxuerton 

Will Eaehart 

C. H. Miller 

Osbourne McConaihy 

Peter W. Dyeema, Chairman 


Your Educational Council wishes aD memb«s of the Conference to feel that the 
CouncR is but carrying out work which they and all interested in musical education wish 
to have done. As the Council is a con^Miratively recent addition to our organization, 
and as the Conference has lately added largdy to its membership, we think it advisable 
that the original articles under which the Coundl was formed and has been operating 
should be read at this time, as a matter of general mfonnati<Mi. Th^ were adapted in 
Evansville, Ind., in our meeting of 1918. They appear in the form of a motion 

and discussion, which were as follows: 

“Motion by Alice C. Inskeep, Cedar Rapids, Iowa; I move, Mr. President, that we 
inaugurate a plan to incorporate a permanent Educational Council, as an integral part 
of the Music Siqiervisors’^ National Conference. This Council would serve the Confereaioe 
in the capacity of an advisory body. Its function would be to deliberate upon those larger 
problems of vital importance relating to music in the public schools and other allied organ- 



izations^ wiiidi cannot always be adequately discussed in the regular meetings of tbe 

“It is understood that only such persons as have made some significant contribution 
to the literature or practice of music in the public schools and who shall have been in active 
service for at least five years, shall be elipble to membership in this Council. The number 
composing the council shall not be fixed at this time. 

“That the plan may be operative as soon as possible, I move further that the active 
members of this conference be asked to ballot on ten members. The ten persons receiving 
the highest number of votes shall constitute the initial membership of the council. Addi- 
tional members whose qualifications make them desirable may be chosen by the council 

“I move further that the ballot for the Council be taken at this meeting and that all 
active absent members of the Conference shall also be given the opportunity to ballot 
by mail as soon as practicable after the dose of this meeting. 

“The secretary shall be instructed to mail blank ballots to absent members, such 
ballots to be returned to the secretary and induded in the final count. 

Mr. Karl W, Gehrkens, Oberlin, Ohio: This motion is a long one and in order to 
e:q)lain the main purpose, I said when the proposition was made a day or two ago, 
to some of us, that we have an educational coundl not to have charge, in any way, of the 
budness affairs of the association, not to be a temporary body, which gets together for a 
year and then disperses, but to deal with educational problems, to be permanent so it 
may go on working at certain things throu^ a period of several years. When this propo- 
sitkm came up it struck a good many of us as being an extraordinarily good thing to do 
as a means of increasing the efficiency and scope of the work of this Conference. I second 
the motion of Miss laskeep.” 

In 1919, in St. Louis, the Conference further adopted two amendments to the con- 
stitution, Together the two paragraphs are as follows: “In each and every State and 
territorial possession of the United States of America there shall be a State Advisory 
Committee composed of active members of the Conference. The number and method of 
sdeetkm of the members of each Committee shall be determined by the Executive Com- 

It shall be the duty of each State Advisory Committee to co-operate with the Execu- 
tive Committee and the Educational Coundl in such activities as may be ddegated to 
them by the Executive Committee or by the Educational Coundl with the approval of 
the Executive Committee.^* 

We wish to call the attention of the members generally to the relation of the State 
Advisory Committees to the Coundl; and moreover to point out that just as the Coundl 
needs the support of the State Advisory Committees, so do those Advisory Committees 
need the su|]port of eadr and every member of the Conference in thdr respective States. 
WiH you please get the jneture that is in our minds of an army of supervisors distributed 
all over the United States and her possessions, ready on call to co-operate quickly and 
dedshrdy in oollectihg information and partidpating in actions that wOl be of 
inralnilafob benefit to ns all? 

As reported in St. Lods last year, ei^t inquiries have been undertaken by the CoundL 
The Coundl was divided into committees, one committee for each subject. Again as a 
matter of information we wish to bring these subjects before the Conference, and add the 
names of the oommittee membeis. They are as follows: 

L Mude Credits in Colleges and Uiiiversities and Propaganda for more advanced 
Study of Musk in Hi^ Schools. Messrs. McConathy, G^ikens and Birge (Mr. Birge 
as additional member outside the Coundl) . 

n. Courses for Training Supervisors of Mude and the Grade Teadter in Mude. 
Messrs. Gehikens and Bann. 

PHIIADELPHIA, PA., 2bIARCH 22-26, 1920 179 

ni. Extension of Music to all Schools not at present including it. Messrs. Mcssner 
and Bann. 

IV. Inquiry into salaries, living conditions and expenses of Supervisors of Musk. 
Mr. Giddings and Miss Inskeep. 

V. Preparation of suggestions for Standard Courses in Music for (a) Excdlent 
Schools; (b) Good or Ordinary Schools; (c) Fair or Sub-Average Schools. Messrs. 
Earhart and Dykema. 

VI. Definition of Attainments Specified in Courses of Study as an aid toward defining 
Standards of Measurement for Use in Survey Wort. Messrs. Farnsworth and Micssncr. 

Vn. The Development of Vocational Musk Study in Grammar Schools and EGgh 
Schools. Messrs. Miller and McConathy. 

Vm. Articulation of School and Community Musk. Mr. Dykema, Miss Inskeep. 

The Council has made progress in these investigations. This will be referred to 
later. It has held meetings in connection with the present annual meeting. These 
Council meetings b^n at ten o'dock Saturday morning, 3^Ia^ch 20, and were almost 
continuous throughout Saturday and Sunday. All ten members of the Council were 
present in the greater number of the meetings. 

Reports of the committees named above were received, and the continuation of their 
work was a prominent feature of discusaon. Some points in these discussions are of 
immediate interest to the Conference. 

The work of Committee No. 1, on Music Credits in Colleges and Universities and 
Propaganda for more advanced Study of Music in High Schools, was progressing toward 
completion when the Educatbnal Council was organized, this Committee being already 
appointed by concurrent action of the Musk Supervisors’ National Conference, the 
Department of Music of the National Education Association and the Musk Teachers’ 
National Association, It has now been completed and a report is submitted for publica- 
tion to the United States Bureau of Educati<m. Before this Conference meets again it 
will probably be published. Every member of this Conference ^ould anticipate its publi- 
cation, write to the U. S. Bureau of Educatiem, Washington, D. C., for copies, and aid in 
seeing that copies are placed not only in the hands of every supervisor of muac, but also in 
the oflice of the prindpal of every high school, where students may refer to them and ascei^ 
tain the practices of colleges whkh they mi^t possibly enter, with respect to accepting 
high school mude credits as college entrance credits. Good mude courses in high schools, 
and proper encourageanent of collies and univerdties that give proper recognitkm to 
mude, win both be prompted by such action. 

Discusdons relative to the prosecution of the inquiries named soon developed that 
two problems oemfronted the Coundl, both connected with framing, preparing and 
diculating questkomaiies. If the committees of the Council that are working on the 
various topks were independently of one another to frame and circulate questionnaires, 
there would be danger of duplicating one another’s questions to some extent, danger that 
State Advismy Committee members and other Conference members would be irritated 
by a long continued succesdon of questionnaires, and certainly an unnecessary^ increase in 
expense, caused by dividing printing or mimeographing costs and by mailmg piecemeal 
matter that might all go forward under one envek^ It was decided, therefore, that a 
committee of the Coundl should be formed to deal with all of these problems, and the 
Chairman was directed to appoint such a Committee on Questionnaiies. As there is no 
fund to defray, the expenses of printing and mailing questionnaires, even after the cost is 
reduced to a minimum, there was much discusdon of ways and means of obtaining the 
necessary funds, and a {dan of action was agreed upon that the Coundl hopes wiQ permit 
of unrestricted prosecutioin of this important Conference weak. There was also an 
action authorizing members of the Coundl to inquire directly d the Conference members 
assembled in Fhiladd^ldua whether they would be wHImg to oontribute something indi- 



vidually toward the prosecution of the woik; but after the Conference authorized increas- 
ing the annual dues it was felt that no further cost or expense should be proposed at this 
time, especially as it is possible that funds may be secured in another way. 

The Committee on Constitution appointed at St. Louis, submitted the following 
constitution as its report: 

National Conference 

Article 1. The object of this Council is to investigate and deliberate upon the larger 
problems relating to music education; to make reports and recommendations to the 
National Conference; and in general to assist the Conference in carrying on propaganda in 
music education. 

Article 2. Section 1. Membership in this Council shall include the ten members 
originally elected by the National Conference and such other members of the National 
Conference as the Council shall name from time to time. 

Section 2. All new members must be elected by a tWo-thirds vote of the Council 
and be confirmed by the National Conference before taking up their duties. 

Section 3. Tenure of ofice shall continue as long as the Council member retains his 
membership in the National Conference, attends regular meetings of the Council, and 
performs the duties assigned to him. Withdrawal from membership in the Conference 
or unexcused absence from two regular annual meetings shall be considered equivalent to 

Article 3. The Council shall formulate its own organization and rules of action, but 
its work shall be limited to problems connected with the promotion of music and of music 
education and shall not include any problems relating to Conference business or organiza- 

Article 4. A two-thirds vote of the Council shall be required to amend the Constitu- 

The report of the Committee was unanimously accepted and it was voted to preface 
this Constitution in the Volume of Proceedings with the entire original resolution and 
explanation as made in Evansrille. 

The Council wishes to emphasize Article B, Section 3 of this constitution. It is the 
spirit and fixed determination of the Coundl to restrict its attention to educational 
matters:. It wishes to take no part by discussion or action, o£5dally or unofficially, in 
the buriness and administrative affairs of the Conference. 

The sentiment of the Council is in favor of increasing its membership this coming 
3^ear, as provided by the Conference and in accordance with its adopted constitution, as 
per AitkJe^, Sections 1 and 2, above. 

In oonchisioii the Council invites members of the Conference to suggest at any time 
subjects gTmHftr to those already accepted, which the members may desire the Council to 
investigate or in cminection with which the Council may possibly be able to render some 
service to the cause of public school music. 

Educational Coundl 
Wnx Earhart, Chairman 

Original Members 

Bolus Dank Thadbeus P. Giddings 

Peter W. Alice C, Inskeep 

Will Earhart Osbotjrne McConathy 

Chas. H. Farnsworth W. Otto Meessner 

tta-pt. w. Gehrrens Chas. fi. Miller 

PHILADELPHL\, PA., MARCH 22-26, 1920 



The 1920 observance of the National Week of Song was a big success in every way. 
That it was a big national success is indicated by reports received from all parts of the 
country. Letters, messages and newspaper clippings rec«ved indicate that the Natkmai 
Week of Song was observed in thousands of communities throughout the nation, and it 
is estimated that millions of our people participated in its observance. It was successful 
from the standpoint of the enthusiasm manifested, which was even greater than during 
any previous year. It was a succ^ from the standpoint of the prominent leaders who 
identified themselves with the movement. By no means least among these were the 
Music Supervisors of the country, who took it upon themselves to see that the event 
was observed in a fitting manner. The list of those actively engaged in promoting the 
movement included, in addition to the leaders of music in the schools, state superintendents 
of schools and others prominent in educational work, the presidents and other officials 
of the federated music clubs, the federated women*s dubs and other similar organizations. 
In a number of instances, the state superintendents of schools of their own accord sent 
bulletins to their schools, calling upon them to participate in the event The state 
presidents of the women’s dubs and the federate women’s dubs sent letters to the 
various dubs imder their jurisdiction, calling upon them to observe the event The 
governors in at least three states issued prodamations, calling for the observance of the 
National Week of Song, aaad in a nianber of dries and towns the mayors issued bulletins, 
at the suggestion of the local music supervisor. In a number of instances the Association 
of Commerce or similar organizations of business men, lent a hand by giving rings in the 
department stores, factories and offices, and <rid what they could in other ways to help 
the movement along. The newspapers helped very materially by giving a generous amount 
of space to news regarding the event. The Normal Instructor Primary Plans gave it a 
generous amount of space in several issues. The music journals, such as School Music, 
The Music Supervisors’ Journal, Musical Monitor, Community Music and others 
devoted more or less space to it. The National Bureau for the Advancement of Muric 

gave very matpri fl.! assistance, and jfeom correspondence we have had with this 
organization, we believe that it will be a very effective means of promoting the movement 
next yeax. In fact, taking everything into consideration, it now seems that there is no 
question about the National Week of Song being an assured success and a permanent 
na tiirma] institution. 

So much for the 1920 observance of the National Week of Song. Now what of the 
event for 1921? 

The history of the movement indicates in every way that the event next year should 
be a greater success than it was this year. Further, the things for which the National 
Week of Song stand are worthy the sa^rt of everyone, espedaliy those interested in the 
devdopment of good muric. It is a movement that should have the hearty support of 
every member of the Muric Supervisors’ National Conference and not only should it have 
the support of every individual of this organization, but we believe it to be worthy of the 
support of the organization as a whole, and it is hoped that the conference will recognize 
the movement officially as one which should be observed by all of its members, and th at 
as opportunity may offer, it will do what it can to promote the movement. Further, 
it is urged that each and every member of the conference become an active misdonaty 
for the National Week of Song, that they inform themselves regarding its historj^ the 
tbingR it wishes to achieve, and the means for achieving them. Full information regard- 
ing these may be had by addressir^The National Week of Song, 430 South Wabash 

Avenue, Chicago. Any member of this organization who has not been receiving the 
literature sent out from headquarters is requested to send his name and address to 



Chicago o&e, so that his name may be placed on the mailing list and he may thus be 
assured of getting such literature as is sent out next year. 

In doang this report, we wish to emphaaze the fact that it is our belief that the 
National Week of Song promises to be the greatest musical event of the nation. It is the 
one in which all of our people can take part, and because it is a national event it will 
receive more publicity locally than a local ang which is held without any relation to the 
rest of the country. Because this is true and because it will be to the honor and credit 
of everyone who has a hand in promoting the movement, we earnestly urge everyone to 
follow the recommendation that has been given in this report 

H. 0. Ferguson, Chairman 
Clara H. Sanpord 
A. J. Gantvoort 
Norman H. Hall, Secretary 



Resolved: That the Conference recognize with full gratitude and appreciation, the 
most generous provisions which our hosts in the City of Brotherly Love have extended 
for our comfort, our pleasure, and our musical delight and inspiration. These meetings 
have been characterized by a wealth of good music never before equalled in our meetings 
and impossible of provision in any but a city of such extraordinary musical resources. 
These resources have been most lavishly drawn upon, and we have greatly profited thereby. 


That the Conference extends its sincere and heartfelt thanks to the Hon. J. Hampton 
Moore, Mayor of Philadelphia, Dr. John P. Garber, Superintendent of Education of the 
City of Philadelphia; and Dr. Enoch Pearson, Superintendent of Music of the City of 
Philadelphia, for their splendid ofl5cial reception of the Conference. 


That the Conference extends its unboimded thanks to the Conductor of the Phila- 
de^hia Orchestra, Doctor Leopold Stokowski; the President of the Orchestra, Mr. 
Ale xand er van Rennsalaer; to the officers of the orchestra, the members of the orchestra; 
.and Mr. Arthur Judson, its business director, for their great generosity toward the Con- 


That the Conference desires to attempt to express its appreciation of the unf oigetable 
hospitality of Mr. Edward Bok who added so much to the delict of all the members. 


That the Conference owes especial tha.Tiks to the following artists whose services 
added high artistic distinction to the entire Conference: Mr. David Bispham, Mme. C^ga 
SamarofiE-Stokowski, Mr. Fritz Ereisler, Mr. Horatio Connell, Mrs. Mae Ebrey Hotz, 
Miss Agnes Dime Quinlan, Mr. Arthur Russell, Mary Miller Mount, Helen Boothro 3 rd 
Buckley, Mr. Charles Couilxnn, and Mr. Pietro Yon. 


That the Conference particularly desires to tbank with special gratitude the f dQowing 
oigan i z at io a s, t hfar Officers and members, for the unlimited courtesies extended: The 
Matinee Music Qub, Mrs. E. W. Garrigues, President, whkh provided the Ball Rrxmi 
of the BelbvQe-Stratf<Md for the Reception Concert on Monday Eveniiig of the Conference; 
The Philad^phia Mu^ dub, Mrs. J. S. W. Holton, Present; the New Century Club, 
Mrs. H. S. Prentiss Nidiols, President; The Musical Art Club, Mr. Crosby Brown, 


PHILADELPHU, PA., MARCH 22-26, 1920 

President; The Fortnightly Qub, Henry Gordon Thunder, Pieadent; the Matinee Musical 
dub Chorus, Mrs. H. P. Innes, Conductor; & the Palestrina Choir, Mr. N. A. Montani, 


The Conference desires to give thanis to the following individtials for their tmtiring 
efforts in providing for the comfort, convenience and entertainment of the members which 
have led to the great success of the Conference: Mrs. Frederick W. Abbott, Mr. Philip 
Goepp, Mr. Horatio Connefl, Dr. H. J. Tily, Mr. Theo. Presscr, Mr, John Braun, Miss 
Mary Vogt and Mr. August von Bemauth of Stdnway & Sons. 


That our earnest gratitude is given to Mr, John Wanaxnaker for his extraordinaxy 
generosity and to his corps of manag ers and as^tants for their unfailing courte^ and 


The Conference is especially grateful to The Victor Talking Machine Company 
for its fine spirit of co-operation and its signal generosity in a-sswt ing the Conference 
through the invaluable services of Mrs. Frances E. Clark and for the delightful banquet 
tendered the Conference on the evening of March 26th at the Belkvue-Stratford. 


That we ezpre^ our deep appreciation of the efficient service of Mr, Janies Francis 
Cooke, Editor of The Etude and President of the Presser Foundation, in organizing anH 
presenting the splendid Concert-Reception on Monday evening, and for the valuable 
assi s tance given by him to our officers in preparing for our meetings. 


That the Conference exqiresses its great debt to Strawbridge & Clothier, Gimbel 
Bros., the Hotel Bellevue-Stratford and other bodies and individuals who left nothing 
undone to make the visit of the members to the City of Philaddphia memorable in every 


That the thanks of the Conference are herdby formally tendered to Mr. Canx^ 
Fownes of the Conventions and Exhibitions Committee of the Philadelphia Chamber of 
Commerce and Manager of the Commercial Service Dqpartment of the Philadelphia 
National Bank, for his invalual^ service in seeming from the railzDads the reduced rates 
granted for the Conference. 


That again we recognize the faithful and effident service of our Treasurer, James 
MdOzoy and the valne of his continued devotion to the interests of the Conference. 


That the sincere thanks of the Omfereoace are due Miss Serbia Bliven and others who 
have so ably assisted the President and the Treasurer in conducting the busmess matters 
of the Conference. 


That we commend the remaikable efforts for ^reading musk appreciation thru the 
schools, but that we wish to emphasize the responsibility of the makers of phonograiffi 
records. Any adequate devdopment in knowledge and love of fine music rests upon the 
opportunities for hearing adequate presentation of the classics. We therefore urge these 
companies to aid in providing a larger suppfy and greater variety of the records of the 
mnsk of the masters in order that our efforts shall not be lost in the enormous flood which 
is distributed of the ephemeral music of the day. 




That in face of the fact that over 50% of the children of this country are in rural 
schools where music is not taught, the Music Supervisors pledge themselves to do every- 
thing p<»sibie to encourage and establish good music in the rural schools in their county or 
district, and that these ^orts be extended to the recognition of Rural School Music in 
the programs of the State Teachers* Associations, 


That we recognize the g^eat responsibility laid upon the members of the Conference 
as preservers and promoters of the enormous wave of community music so greatly accel- 
erated by the war, and pledge ourselves to do our utmost to maintain the standards of 
material used in our communities in order that our endeavors in the schools shall be 
reinforced and not be nullified by the work done outside. 


In conclusion that the Conference recognize its indebtedness to our President Dr. 
Hollis Dann, for his monumental labors throughout the year in directing the affairs of 
the Conference and bringing them to the successful conclusion represented by this week 
of meetings. 

Mrs. Frances E. Clark 
Mr. James Francis Cooke 
Mr. Thomas Wilson 
Mr. P. W. Hykema 
Mr. Wnx Earhart, Chairman 


Margaret Clarkson 

Qaestiortnaires indicate that Pul^dc School Music in Alabama is unorganized. The 
Alabama Federation of Music Clubs, as a member of the National Federation of Music 
Qubs, has endeavored each year to broaden its scope. It numbers thirty clubs with a 
membership of nearly three thousand. A state-wide conference was held at Montevallo 
and those present were given an opportunity to hear Frieda Hempel. An able address by 
Mr. A HeDnerman on Music Credits was a feature of the twenty-fourth convention of 
the Alabama Fed«ation of Women’s Qubs at Huntsville, November 18, 19, 20, 21, 1919. 
Both federations favor music as an elective study in public schools, giving credit for music 
studied under outside teachers, and standardizing of such teachers. 

Observance of ^^National Wedt of Song” in Albany — Decatur was enthusiastic and 
resulted in several ocgairizatioais, among which was a Junior Music Study Club. MiS^ 
Joseph Brevard Jmies of Montgomery, president of Alabama Federated Women’s Oubs, is 
following up the work of the convention. Our plea is publicly supported, socially function*' 
ii^ adequate musical training for all 

Gertrude B. Parsons 

a. General coiufftwm of Sd^l Music in CaIffornk---Good. 

b. Music required in aH Elementary School^ Hecdve or required in High Schools, 

according to regulations of City or District Boards of Education. Required in 

PHILADELPHL\, PA., MARCH 22-26, 1920 


c. State requirements for Certification of all Teachers of Music and Supervisors: 

1. To teach or supervise in Hcmentary Schools, four years of High School or woA 
equivalent to that, plus three years of College or University work in Music, or 
private study equivalent to same. 

2. For High School teacher or Head of Department, four years of High School or 
work equivalent, plus four years of College or University in one’s speckl line, 
or private study equivalent to same. 

3. Mills College, Oakland, offers a Course for Public School Mu^ Teachers, also 
University of California and University of Southern Califomk. Three Nonnal 
Schools in the state offer courses for supervisors. 

<L Grade and rural school teachers are expected to have the training offered in Normal 

Schools of the state, or equivalent of same. 

e. Salaries of Music Teachers and Supervisors should be raised in order to hold the 

best teachers and attract others to join the profession. At present, because d 

low rate, it is extreoKly difficult to secure first-dass teach e rs. 

f. Steps shoidd be taken to bring about a unification of the woik throughout the 

state, in so far as it tnight be made possible with varying conditions. 

Lillian M. Ceacken 

The condition of school Tu ^i si c in Colorado is vtty promiring. There is an increasing 
demand for Supervisors in the gnriallftr towns and consolidated schods of the state. There 
is, however, no state requirement for music in the schools nor for the certification of the 
Supervisor. Schools offering courses for Supervisors: 

State Teachers’ College, Greel^, 

State Nonnal School, Gunnismi, 

Colorado Collie, Colorado Springs 

State Agricultural School, Ft Collins 

A summer course in the State University at Boulder. 

There is a great need for standardized course through the orgainization and co-opera- 
tion of the Supervisors of the State. We need State reqtdrements for music in the regular 
curriculum, and provision made for the preparation of the grade teacher. A Conference 
would give an inestimable impetus to the cause, also, to work for an increase in salaries 
that would bring educated, highly qualified musicians into the field. 

W. D. Monneee 

Of all questionnaires sent out by Doctor Dann thirtecii were returned to me. In 
the four normal schools of the State there is no equal course of study. My recommenda- 
tion is that the Conference adopt some standard course of requirements for nonnal 
schools of aR States, and so far as our State is concerned, recommend to our Boards of 
Education the adoption of that for our normal schools. 

There has been great agjltation in regard to increase of salaries in our State. It has 
been decided by eminent legal talent in the State that a bonus cannot be paid to teachers, 
neither there be an increase of compensation or increase of salary during thesr term. 
That has been got around in some places and in some it has not, la our own Oty the 
board of ffiaance has added two mills to the city’s tax. The money from that is to be 
given to the different district committees in August to pay to the teachers. Tbetefoie 
the bonus (we call it an increase of compensation to get around the law) to each teacher 
in city special teacher, will take the shape of a dieck for $300 to be received 

sometime between now and August. In our own district the district meetmg has aSowed 



tbc district committee to borrow money on short term notes and I expect that my two 
assistants and mysdf will find $500 checks when we return next week. 

Nell EL Akderson 

The public schools of Wilmington have had a systematic training in music for a 
number of years. A Supervisor has been in charge with special teachers in the higher 
dementaiy schools and the teacher training school The Hollis Dann music course has 
been in use for the past three years and most excellent results have been and are bdng 

Our private schools namely: Tower Hill School, Friend’s School and du Pont District 
School, each have a spcdal teacher of muric , which brings Wilmington among the fore- 
most systems of progressive educational thought. 

This idea is spwreadmg, and many of the smaller towns are enthusiastic to have music 
taugiht to their children. The Woman’s College at Newark was the leader. They 
have installed a special musical course under the direction of a special teacher in the 
teacher trai ning departmenL This teacher is also employed as supervisor of Music in 
the public schools of Newark. Throughout the State there is a general movement to 
introduce music as a part of the curriculum in all schools. Ways and means are being 
considered whereby this may be done in even the smallest, rural school Systematic 
courses- 'of instruction in music will be givm in the summer schools for teachers held in 
the WcMnan’s College at Newark, also in the summer school for colored teachers to be held 
at Dover. 

Hamlin Cogswell 

Thirteen mu^ teachers attended the National Conference in Philadelphia and more 
would have gone if they were not prevented. We are closing the year on a higher level 
than any precedii^ year and I believe with the greater respect of the public for this 
branch in the curriculum. 

The music in the colored schools is superior and it would repay a visitor to Washington 
to visit the assemblies and classes. I am planning for a great event in 1922 when I am 
expecting the Music Supervisors’ Conference to r^nip here for a we^. 

Mrs. BDelene Saxby 

(a) The general condition of music in the larger centers shows improvement, but 
zmich is lacking in the rural districts. 

(b) Musk is supposed to be taught in practically nearty all the schools, but in many 

places has been omitted, or discontinued. 

^(c) To pass a written and oral e xaminat ion in harmony, theory, time rhythm, scales, 
to give a lesson, answer commonsense questions, be able to conduct chorus, know 
the hand signs, be able to sing. 

(d) The grade teachers have to know the hand signs, be able to teach singing (much 
rote), some sight singing and theory, and sing the songs for the children. 

(e) Co-ordination and standardization. The teachers are very imequal in their 
qualifications- No credits in the state. 

(f) Tiy to fix a certain standard, and give credit for outside work, especially with 
regard to talented pupils, who are often compelled to leave off their music study, as the 

PHILADELPHIA, PA., ilARCH 22-26, 1920 


(g) Would be advantageous, as opinions and experiences could be exchanged, but 
this state is very large and the distances to be travelled very great, so that some central 
position would be a necessity. 

(i) Should make provision for proper training in the state. There is a summer normal 
course at Madison, but nearly all students go north. If a suitable center could be estab- 
lished here in Florida, with experienced teachers, it would be of the greatest possible 


Jeania Csaig 

Public school music is coming more and more into its own in Georgia. We are 
steadily on the up-grade. Music is taught mainly in the larger cities, but this year we 
have had it spread more into the smaller villages. We feel very much encouraged. I 
want to say that next year we think we shall have a greater representation from Georgia. 
We should have had more people attend this year had it not been for the flu. !Mis5 
Howsen from Atlanta is present I am from Macon. We had our expenses paid by the 
Boards of Education, leave of absence given us with pay. I think that is rather unusual 
because it is the first time it has ever happened in our State. I sent out letters to all 
different superintendents asking them to answer the questionnaire sent out by the advisory 
committee and did not receive any answers. We hope you will come nearer to us in the 
South; you can reach our teachers and be an inspiration to them and help us a great deal 
by coming within reach. 


Mxs. Pearl B. Allen 

(a) The general condition of School Music is unsatisfactory, especially so in the 7th 
and 8th grades as well as the rural schools. Under the Junior-Senior plan in Lewiston 
the 7th and 8th grades have one thirty minute period a week in large desses. They 
also sing a little at opening exercises. 

(b) Music is a required subject in the first 8 grades. There are exceptions in the 
rural schools where music is not given at alL 

(c) Requirements for certification of the supervisor are a hi g h school diploma and 
two years ^)edal preparation. There are no training schools for supervisors. 

(d) Music is not required in the Normal or Training schoob for grade and rural 
teachers. Courses of 9 weeks are offered, consbting of Methods and Sight Singing. 

(e) The committee considers the greatest need of music to be: 1. Qualified grade 
teachers; 2. Music <m schedule in hi^ schools. 

(f) The Conference may be able to hdp; viz., 1. Make resolution stating the need 

of on the schedule; 2. dbtiibute these among the supervisors; 3. send printed 

to superintendents with the request that they furnish the high school with a music 
teacher as well as a grade supervisor. 

Two teachers^ woii: b often expected of one supervisor. Thbbmanagedbynmning 
in the hi^ school woiki after school and after dinner. 

(g) In case you establish Sectimial Branches of the Conference I think you shouM 
have a National Conference every two or three years. Otherwise Sectional Btandses 
would not seem advisable. But why not hold one Natilonal Conference in some of the 
Western cities? 

(h) An effort has been made to get a oomidete Ibt of the Idaho Mutic Supervisors; 
also to find out gena:al conditions in the state. 

(i) The exunnuttee shouH/xuitinue such effort. 

(j) Because of unsatisf actory conditions in the school I called the music teadieis ol 
Lewbton together and we formed a local assodatkm. This hnrnediatdy led up to the 
Idaho State Music Teadiers^ Association. 



The time was ripe for it here as many superintendents and principals had recently 
written to the State Superintendent of Education asking for a deffnite plan of Applied 
Music credits in the hi^ school. 

(k) Our plan is the most satisfactory one I know of and it has been adopted by the 
State Board of Education. We especially endeavored to protect the Music teacher 
already established and also make it rigid enough to assure us of the proper qualification 
of the new Music Teacher. 

Mabelle Glenn 

Music is not required in public schools of Illinois by school laws. Ver>^ few cities 
and villages are without music in the public schools. Many small villages and rural 
communities have no definite musical instruction. The Conference could interest County 
Superintendents in having music supervised in villages and rural schools, and this would 
be of the greatest p>ossible benefit to the entire state. All the music teachers in township 
high schools fed that this move is imperative to their success. 

The requirements by law for teaching and supervising in the public schools Eire 
graduation from a recognized four year high school, and at least two years’ work in music 
at a recognized school of music. 

Fifteen of the recognized colleges of Illinois have music departments that have been 
inspected by the state office and have been recognized for the purpose of training state 
teachers for public school music work. Eight of the music schools in Chicago not con- 
nected with a recognized college have public school music courses which have been fashioned 
according to the requirements of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction. These 
requirements are: Two years’ training in piano, voice, theory, history, ear training and 
sight reading and two yars training in methods of teaching (two lessons per week.) The 
State University has a four years’ supervisors’ course which leads to the degree of Bachelor 
of Muric. Northwestern University has a three years’ supervisors’ course. The five 
Normals in Illinois have well organized music departments. The Normals at DeKalb 
and Normal, Illinois, have a two years’ supervisors’ course. At Normal, Illinois the 
supervisors in training get six terms (twdve weeks each) in methods, three terms of practice 
teaching. The grade teachers in training get one term of twelve weeks; primary teachers 
get one tenn in sight reading and one term in primary methods. In the Illinois schools, 
we most need: (1) more uniform fundamental system in the grades, (2) more careful 
selection of supervisors of music, (3) our music supervisors must have more knowledge 
of pedagogy, (4) we need a uniform system for the giving of high school credit for outside 
study, (5) Superintendents and Normal presidents need to be educated as to the impor- 
tance of music. 

E. B. Birge 

Public School Music Education in Indiana is in a health^’ and progressive condition. 
High ideals prevaiL The state does not run to fads but our supervisors tend to talrf> wide 
views. There is little tendency to mark time. There is keen professional interest among 
supervisors. A good balance between aesthetic singing and the inteiiectuai exercise of 
reading is maintained with thoroughn^ of work along both lines. 

Orchestras are general in the Schools. Bands are numerous. Harmony and 
Music Appreciation, are neaz^ 9 ls general as Orchestras, though Harmony is not quite as 
commonly taugjit as A^recaation. 

About half the blanks returned state that outside credit for music is given. 

There is a strong movement in the state along the line of Music Appreciation mfllri-ngr 
use of Phonograph records in the form of tiavdiing libraries which go from school to school. 
School concerts and festivals are taken as a matter of course as part of the year work. 



Music is obligatory in the schools of Indiana- For the 491 towns and cities listed 
in the Indiana Year Book there are 548 supervisors to special teachers of music. 

The minimum requirement for preparation of music supervisors in Indiana offered 
by Normal Schools and Colleges is 54 term hours of work divided up as folbws: 


1. Elementary Training (including Ear Training, Dictation, Sight Singing 15 

2. Harmony 6 

3. History and Appreciation 6 

4. Methods (including 5 hours practice teaching and observation) 15 

5. Applied Music (voice, piano, violin, and other symphonic instruments 12 

Total 54 

Ten colleges and normal schools of the state are offering these courses under the 
approval of the state Board of Education. 

There is no requirement of preparation in music of grade and rural school teachers in 
Indiana. Abundant oM>ortunity to study music is given in the Normal and Tra inin g 
Schools but it is not obligatory except in the City Training Schools. Though not required 
a large and increasing number of Normal students take such courses. 

Perhaps the greatest need of music in the state is a ruling of the State Board m a k ing 
some preparation in music obhgatory for students working for a certificate to teach. 

The Conference should use all its influence by letter and other means upon the State 
Board to make music preparation obligatory upon Normal Students. 

The advisory Committee’s activities to date have consisted in sending personal 
letters to 200 or more sui>erv5sois in the state urging attendance at the Philadelphia meet- 
ing and membership in the Conference. 


C- A. Fullerton 

(1) Music in the schools of the state is improving at a moderate p>ace and pregress 
made is substantiaL Class work in instrumental music, high school credit for applied 
miTjgir and motivating and ^ music in the rural schools by means of t al k ing 

madiines are all being emphasized. 

2. The teaching of muac in the public schools has been required by law for more than 
twenty 3 ^ears. 

3. Two special certificates are issued for musk teache r s — a state certificate and 
a uniform county certificate, but as musk teachers in the small towns often assist in some 
other subjects also, a teacher is pennitted to teach musk on a general certificate. 

4. Seven ooHe^ in the state offer courses for the training of music supervisors. 

5. In the Teachers’ College, primary and kindergarten students take two terms of 
Music of twelve weeks each, five hours a week. Upper grade students and rural students 

but one term. A three hour course in lecreationai musk is open as a substitute for 
one term of phy^cal training and is required of those taking the rural course. 

6. The greatest need has been better salaries for the supervisors. Judging from 
spiring dections, there w3i be an improvement in this respect. 

7. The Committee bdieves that a drive for membership in the national conference 
next 3 ^ear, especially if the oocference meets in the middle west, will induce a large number 
of the supervisors to join. 

8. The Comndttee looks with favor upon the plan to associate the state organizations 
with the national conference. 

9. The Committee are aB in attendance at the Philadeilphia conference and at 
thear Tttiftp^ffng they discussed the needs of school znizdc in the state, how to secure an 
accurate ffst of the Iowa supervisors, how to develop the music department of the State 
Teachers’ Association and of the sectional meetings within the state. 



10. In 1920 a membership campaign for the national conference and also for the 
State Association should be waged and a policy urged by which all supervisors will be 
perman^t members. The Committee might serve the state more effectively by main- 
taining a music column in the Educational Magazine, published by the State Teachers’ 

Bessie Miller 

The condition of Music in Kansls is promising. One encouraging indication is the 
^endid co-operative spirit that now exists between the studio teachers and Music Super- 
visors, At thJe annual State Music Teachers’ Convention to be held in a few weeks they 
have given over an entire day to the discussion of subjects relative to the Supervisor and 
Public School Music. Every topic on the program is of vital importance to the Supervisor 
and a large attendance of supervisors is anticipated. 

This year there are to be at least five contests in Music for High School students 
over the state. Each contest is to be held in connection with a Music Festival in the 
following places: State Normal, Emporia; State Manual Training Normal, Pittsburg; 
Fort Hays Normal, Hays; Bethany College, lindsborg; and State Agricultural College, 
ManhattaxL Each year these contests are finding a better system of classification and 
grading whkh is resulting in a very marked improvement in all forms of Public School 
Music work. 

The rural districts are suffering most from lack of systematic study and supervisioiL 
However, many County Superintendents are alive to benefits of music and include the 
subject on their Institute programs. Consequently many rural schools own phonographs 
and murical instruments and do work in muac otherwise. One county (Hhrvey) a 
rural supervisor and other counties are planning for same next year. 

Some years ago. Prof. Arthur Nevin of the State University, inaugurated the “Uni- 
versity of Kans a s Choral Association.” Just before we entered the war there were 
thirty choruses throu^out the state, but the wax upset conditions. Prof. Nevin enlisted 
as a song leader. Last year and this, influenza and fuel shortage have interfered with 
several arrangements. However, things are again being organized and Prof. Nevin says, 
“There is no ‘let up* to the conti nu al growth of musical interest in Kfl.Tis?,s and people are 
developing a higher taste toward the style of music they enjoy working on.” 

(b) There is no law requiring the teaching of music in the schools of the State. 

(c) The Supervisor mdst have two years* college work which includes approximately 

twelve hours educational subjects, thirty hours music and the remainder and 

Academic subjects differing according to the school offering the course. Cities of the 
first dass may issue ^>edal certificates to Supervisors^ provided th^r ^ve evidence of 
pcoper trai n i ng . The following schools offer courses in Public School Music; State 
University, Lawrence; State Normal, Emporia; Fort Hays Normal, Bays; ‘K'gng^ic state 
Agricultural CbBege, M anhat tan; Bethany College, Lindsborg; Ottawa University, 
Ottawa; Washburn College, Top^; Bak^ University, Baldwin City, and State Manual 
Training Normal, Pittsburg. 

The three State Normals may grant life cerrificates to teachers of Musk, Drawing, 
etc, upon the completion of such course of study as may be prescribed by the faculty of 
said institutions and approved by State Board of Administration. 

The State Normal at Emporia offers a four-year course WHing to a B.S. in Musk, 
with the aim of equipping Director of Music, which ha-g thf* samift value as a B. A, 

(d) Tbe gcade and nml teacieis aie required to pass written eataminations in 
Musk for first and second grade certificates. 

Tie State Normals require at least two hours in Pubik School Musk from students 
woxidng for life certificates. 



(e) The greatest need of music in the schools of onr state is: first, broader musician- 
ship among the supervisors and grade teachers and more special teachers in grades; 
second, a definite well-planned Course of Study that may be used by a rural teacher of 
ordinary ability; third, rural supervision of mnac and fourth, better co-operation between 
patrons and the supervisors and mmic teachers. 

(f) We believe the conference can help in formulating the rural course of study; urge 
more special teachers in elementaiy schools; help to improve conditions for the supervisor 
and continue distribution of Journal 

(g) Sectional branches should not take place of the National Conference, but they 
should supplement and extend the work of Conference. 

(h) The Committee has sent out nearly one hundred letters urging supervisors to 
join Conference and attaid Phiiaddphia meeting. We have also succeeded in gathering 
some information for members of the Educational Counefi. 

(i) The work of the Committee for 1920 should be to work along constructive lines 
at the suggestion of the Executive Board and Educational Council, promote fellowship, 
secure information regarding a£^irs in the state, a mailing list of supervisors and secure 
new members for Natiimal Conference. 

H. W. Stopher 

Ten years ago the general assembly attempted to l^slate music into aH the hig^ 
schools of the state. This was a failure. There were then only a few qualified to teach 
the subject. These few came forward, but more than three fourths of the positions had 
to be filled frenn out^de the state. The act was passed in late ^ring,. It was to beccane 
operative for the very next sessiem. Frantic scrambling for teachers of mu^ followed. 
Many were imported from north, east, and west who had had insufiSdeat preparation, 
or who had actually failed in their own state, to some extent. Worst of all, the state 
flooded with a class of teachers who were not in sympathy with conditions as they found 
them, imable to adapt themsdves to the situation, and who were failures. 

Music is now taught in a very few of the schools, including New Orleans, Shreveport, 
Alexandria, Monroe, and Mansfidd. The outlook fo^ improvement and coK>rdination, 
be^ns to be better. 

Music is not required law and we hope that it '^11 not be until we can produce 
well trained teachers with correct point of view. 

Requirements for the supervisor in this state are the same as those for the teacher 
of any subject in higji schools. Beginning in 1917 each teacher in any hi^ school had to 
have a nnnimum of forty college hours credit. This minimum is to he raised automatically 
by four college hours each year until 1924, when every one teaching in high schools must 
be a college or university graduate. Those institutions offering courses for preparation 
of supervisors are: 

The Louiaana State University, Baton Rouge 

The Newcomb CoH^ of Music, Tulane University, New Orleans 

The Louisiana State Hormal School, Natchitoches 

The Mansfield Female College, Mansfidd 

SOliman College for Womm, (Hinton 

There are no requirements for the training of the grade and rural teachers for the 
teaching of music. The normal sdiool tried for many years to require every student to 
take courses in music in the hope that each would teach the subject in her own schooL 
This had hmited success. 



Our greatest need a live organization of teachers of music. The Louisiana Music 
Teachers" Association, composed of all the teachers of music in the public schools and 
the private teachers, is doing something and hopes to do more. 

We have too much sectionalism as it is. 


George T. Goidthwaite 

(a) The condition of School Music in Maine has been improving fast during the last 
three years. 

Since the introduction of a Union system of supervision in the rural districts, 
has had a place in many schools where it was not taught before. 

(b) Mu^ is not required in the schools of the State. It is recommended by the 
State Superintendent but is optional with each Board of Education. 

(c) The applicant for a certificate to teach music is required to state the amount of 
teachin g experience and general muacal education he has received. If this is satisfactory 
to the State Superintendent, the application is granted. No examination is required. 

One School, the University of Maine, offers a course of training for Supervisors of 

(d) There is a compulsory course in the Maine Normal Schools for rural and grade 

(c) We bdievc greatest need of music in the state is, that it should be required in 
every district and every school, under competent supervision directed by the State Board 
ci Education. 

(f) The Conference officers could help by taking the matter up with the State Super- 
ntendent and by sending all literature posdble to the Union and City Superintendents. 

(g) We believe that Sectional Branches of the Conference would be a good change, 
if the several sections were properly organized and directed by the officers of the General 

John Dennes 

Outside of the City of Baltimore, school music is not established in the public schools 
of the State of Maryland. 

In several insta nc es, r^^ular teachers are carr 3 nng on some sort of musical activity 
and in one County a consulting supervisor of muric is en^lo}^ for port time. 

Last September a State Supervisor of nmsic was appointed, and strenuous efforts are 
now b«mg made to put music in the State schools <m a systematic baris. In Baltimore 
City, the work is being carried on by a supervisor and ten assistants. These positions 
are filled by appointment of the Board of School Onnissioners after cmnpetitive examina- 
tion, which is conducted under their direction. The Peabody Conservatory of Music, 
Baltimore, offers a course in PubEc School Musk. Regular courses are giv^ in methods 
of pablk schod music (theory and practice) in the training schools, and students are 
required to pass in tMs study before graduating. 

In Baltimore City a modem course of school music was introduced in September, 1919, 
in addition to vocal musk; orchestras have been formed in the elementary, Junior TTigli 
and secondary schools. An orchestra of sixty-five members, together with a chorus of 
40a vote (High School students) are under the direction of a Supervisor of Musk and 
appear in pubik concerts each year. 

Music is a major study in the secondary school; ten credits per year are allowed for 
acceptable accomplishment in music under outside instruction. 

School musk in Maryland is at its beginmngl We are hop^ul for the future. 



Fred W. Archibald 

Hist— In general, school music is in good condition and on the upgrade. Between 
90 and 95% of the school children reedve instruction in musk in spite of the fact that the 
subject is not obligatory. Instruction is rapidly reaching into instrumental work. Credit- 
aUe performances of orchestral work, light c^ras, and cantatas are steadily on the i nn yy se 
Music appreciation and credit for outside work are now hrmly fixed in a number of our 
high schools. 

Secondly — ^The relation of music life in the school and that of the community 
is becoming stronger to a marked degree. This has been made manifest in the form 
co-operation of the school children in patriotic exercises of ail descriptions, community 
sings, and Christmas Carol siiagmg. 

Third— Investigation into the training of supervisors and teachers of grade nmac 
discloses the following facts: 

(a) No requireinents are iiecessary for supervisors. 

(b) Seven institutions offer courses for training supervisors, (see detailed report) 

(c) No entrance requirement in music at Normal Schools. 

(d) From 6-10% of time at Normal is given to muak 

(e) Student must pass nm^ before receiving certificate from Music Department- 

On the above the ccKnmittee would like to strike out the **no” on articles (a) and (c). 

Fourth — ^In summing up the needs of music in the Massachusetts Schools thecom- 

mittee recommends that stress be laid on raising the standard of supervisors, empharis 
I^aced upon the need of more time for musk in our curricula, and due credit given outside 
work on this subject to encourage rather than hinder its utmost development. Sap- 
pression of anything does not he^ to raise its standard. 

Fifth and last — The committee fedb ths^ sectional meetings should all be subordinate 
to, yet ha rm oniousiy working with the Natkmal Conference; and that both should do all 
in their power to set before the schools of the country the ideas and ideals establi^ed her 
and conceived of inspirations afforded us at these larger gatherings 

If the committee from Massachusetts can convey even a few of the important mes- 
sages of these meetings to the school children of the Commonwealth, and exerdse its 
greatest inffuence on her legislators toward a greater recognition of the value of musk, 
we s hall indeed fed that our mission is partly fulfilled and that our efforts have not been 
^>entm vain. 

Thoicas H. Chxlvsrs 

In Detroit next year the minimum salary for muric or grade teachers will be $1500. 
We have almost e^tynnzsk teachers in our schods. I tried to cover the State and get 
as many names of teachers as I could and wrote to at least 150 people and got about 
thirty replies. 

Stella R. Root 

The state report of 1919, supplemented by questionnaires, shows only about sixty 
dtks and towns empkymg a supeiviBor aiKi twmity towns ein{doyi]]^ ^>edal musk teachers. 
1 think that this number is below the present number. 


It appears that most school boards expect or want teachers to teach a few songs 
and to be able to prepare nmak for programs in school, but there is no very great feding 
of a need for musk in the school curriculum. 



Showing for the three largest cities of Minnesota: 

Supervisor Assistants EQgh Schools Orchestras 
Minneapolis 13 10 6 

SL Paul 13 4 2 

Duluth 12 6 1 


Requirementsforthe.certificationof supervisorsare; A four year high school course 
follovred by a two year course in an academic, technical school or training school. 


The foBowing schools offer courses for supervisors: 

The ^>ecial music course of the Winona State Normal SchooL 
State Normal Schocd, St. Cloud — ^Prepares Supervisors and Teachers for the Public 

University of Minnesota — Two year's cotirse in Public School music, under the 
direction of the Supervisor of Music in hliimeapolis. 

McPhail School of Mirsic — ^Sonae public school work. 


Normal School requirements are: 

High school graduates are required to take twelve weeks of Music Methods, 
regardless of the fact that the majority of students have never had elementary 
music training before entenng Normal SchooL 
Elementary graduates are required to take twelve weeks of elementary sig^t 

Students applying for a first grade certificate are oWiged to have twelve we^ 
of dementary si^ reading. 


The greatest need of Music in the Schools of Minnesota is: — Better training in music 
for grade teacher. 

What the Conference can do, to help the co mmit tee; — 

Standardize the teaching of mude, standardize Normal Training in Mude, and 
himish data to hdp the State Committee in its effort to get state legislation. 


The Cmnmittee has drculated a questionnaire for Mr. Dykema concerning communily 
and school co-operation in Minnesota and has tabulated the result. The committee has 
prepared this report as it now reads and the committee has prepared a 1920 list of super- 
iors and ^>eciaL teachers of Musk in Minnesota. 


It seems to the committee that the legitimate worit for the Advisory Conmuttee 
for the year 1920 is to follow up the work already b^;un and to assist the committee 
appointed in November by the Musk Section of the Minnesota Educational Assodatkm 
to woik for legislation which will bring about better conditions of Music in the state. 

Los£na Thomson 

(a) The genera! cmidition of School Musk in the state of Mississippi is deploraHe. 

(b) School Mus k is not a required subject in the state. There is a IhU pending in 

Le^dature now asking to have Music made one of the required subjects, and much interest 
is being aroused in fevor of it. If it is not passed thk year it most surely wiH be passed 
in two years he nce. There are a few progresrive superintendents school boards that 

already have trained supervisors as: Jackson, HattiesbiHg, Clark.sdale, Greenwood, 



and Yazoo City and thei« are a few others that have them, but are not enthusiastic enough 
to send in reports, there are also a few ambitious grade and rural teachers who have had 
some training at normal or summer schools and are tiying to create an interest in muaac 
in their respective grades. 

(c) The State requires that a supervisor who draws public mon^ must pass an 
examination in School Music, the questions to be made out by the J^Iisaassippi Normal 
College. There is no school in the state that offers a course for supervisors. 

(d) No musical training is required by the state for the grade or rural teacher. The 
Normal College requires that a course of twelve weeks be taken before a certificate is 
granted; for this work three credits are given. For a diploma, five credits must be made. 
Most of the students are interested in these courses and would like more music wozk 
if the state would only permit 

(e) The greatest need is for more interest in mu^ and for a law making it a required 
study. We need more trained supervisors and trained grade and rural teachers. 

(f) If we could have some one vmt us and speak to us at our State Teachers A^oda- 

tion and point out the great benefit of School Music and its influence upon lives of the 
pupils and the commumty at large we could cmtainly create more interest in the subject 
We haven’t a fund sufficient to employ a lecturer, but a i^an be worked out throu^ 

the Chairman of the Music Department of the National Federation of Clubs and throng 
the Club Wcunen of the state. 

(g) I t-hmk sectional branches of Mude Stq>ervisors Conference, where there is a 
great interest shown might be very helpful as the problems of each section might be a 
little different from the problems of other sections. Then Iwing the big proUezns to the 
National Conference which would meet perhaps every one or two years. 

(h) I wrote fifty personal letters besides sending out twenty-five quesdonnalres, I 
received seven replies. 

(i) If the members of the Advisory Committee in Missisdppi could viat different 
schools, superintendents, schod boards, womans clubs, rotary dubs and all dvic dubs 
and t?nr and demonstrate in the interest of School Music they would create and arouse 
an enthusiasm that would be a benefit. Many are not interested in School Music 
because they do not know what it is and what it would really mean to the lives of the 
children and the moral of the community. 

Clara F. Santoku 

One hundred and ten na-mes have been placed on the list of supervisors and teachers 
of music in our state by the advisory committee. Five letters were sent to each one of 
these people urgbig thdr enrolhnent in this Conference and their attendance if possible 
and addng necessary infoiination. , All we have received is in the hands of the Educational 
CoundL We have very interesting rqxuts particubiiy from the smaller towns ax^ 
cities which are doing part tijne music. We also have an investing report from every 
teadiers’ college in the State, advising us that new courses of study are being made and 
is bdng done toward raising the standard. We need hdp to make sapexintoidieats 
of schools ftTiH state superintendents see that the things we need most are standanfizatiem, 
strong stq>ervisois, and great community leaders. 

Mqterva Bekkett 

The larger places in Mmitana have had music teachers or supervisors for ten or 
fifteenyears, T!m new towns luwe them just as soon as th^ grow large eiK«#E to afford 
tb er Ttr In s<mie towns where there are only dght or ten teachers in all one of them is a 



teacher. This teadier frequentty has to combine dra^ping with mu^c* As a 
x nn gy she is aHe, especiaily in the small communities, to exert a wonderful influence. 

What she contzibutes to the community can hardly be estimated. 

Salaries in Montana compare favorably with those in other states. Thou^, at pres- 
ent, th^ are far from adequate. Th^ ^ve promise of increasing immediately. 

Credit for Tmwhr study outside the schools is given in the Butte High Schools. Other 
dties have already adopted or are arranging to adopt this musk credit plan. 

School mudc has kept pace with the state’s splendid progress in other educational 

and it gives promise of becoming more and more a factor in the life of the state, 
educationally, socially and morally. 

H. 0. Ferguson 

Each year our state meeting of siq>erv 2 Sors increases perceptibly in size and in enthu- 
siasm. We know that music is on the upgrade in Nebraska. 

Music is not required in all of the sdwols in the state but any town or city who does 
not have it is considered a *‘back number.” 

Before a supervisor is certified to teach musk he must be a graduate of a first grade 
High School and must have had at least one year’s training in a recognized school for the 
preparation of musk supervisor’s. So far as I know, such courses are offered in seven 
schoc^: Wedyan University, Uoane CoB^, The University School of Musk and the four 
State Normal Schools located at Peru, Chadron, Kearney and Wayne. 

Last year all appHcants for first grade county or state certificates were required 
to pass an examination in musk instead of in physics. I should favor that at least half 
of the grade be obtained by a written test and the other half in acUud singing, I hope 
that in the near future no person will be certified to teach in the first, second or third grades 
oi a dty school who cannot '‘cany a tune.” 

The greatest need is for the superintendents who are located in many of our smaller 
schods to bend together and hire a trained supervisor to do the music work in their 
several schools. 

Through a thorou^ canvass of the state 3^our committee has inceased the member- 
ship in the conference 150% over that of last year. We promise to double that record 
and mm if you will bring the Conference into our “neck of the woods” again next year. 

George H. Dockham 

Musk in the Put^ Schools in New Hampshire is for the most part quite well taken 
care of. 

in Manchester, Concord, Nashua and the larger dties, experienced and capable 
supervisors are employed and a high standard is acquired. 

While no state examination is required of a musk supervisor, the superintendents 
are quite careful to employ only teachers of experience and efficiency. 

In the High Schools there are the usual choruses which give very good concerts 
sevdal rimes each ytax, gjee dubs, and orchestras. 

In Nashua the EBgh School Concert in May of each year is a vay notaWe event. 
The chorus is assisted by the Boston Festival Orchestra and noted singers of natkiiftl 

In Conemri and Manchester the schod work is under very efficient men and good 
results are obtained. 

AU in all School Musk in New Hampshire is successful, the standard is Tiig'H ahH the 
teachers are efficient and pains-taking. 

PHILADELPHIA, PA., MARCH 22-26, 1920 197 

I am sure that every supervisor is trjung to obtain better and better results each 

Julia E. Crane 

There b no absolute requirement of muac in the public schools of New York State. 

New York State demands a high school diploma (or its equivalent) and a two 3 nears 
professional course in music of all music supervisors and special music teachers. The 
Normal School course of study gives 120 lessons in music. The Training Schools have 
no absolute requirem e nt 

Every Normal School student must complete the 120 lessons required unless excused 
because of total inability to hear musical sounds dberiminatingiy. 

Two of the Normal Schoob give courses for Supervisors and Special Teachers. 

The State Education Department b in sympathy with the Music Supervisors. 

There b already a sylbbus for high school music, and one for the grades, sent out by 
the D^artment of Education. The High School Syllabus provides for credit for outside 
study of piano, voice, violin and other instruments of the Symphony Orchestra as well 
as for courses in notation, harmemy, mdody, writing and ear training, music hbtory and 

Some of the high schoob of the State offer a music course, in which music b accqyted 
for all electives. Thb means that in a four year course receiving 72 counts, S2 of those 
counts may be earned in music. 

Some members of the Committee want hist a law requiring music to be tau^t in all 
dementaiy schods. Others feel that until more and better trained teachers are available 
thb would be a mbtake. 

There b no cpiestion but that great work might be done through the Advisory Commit- 
tees, and throu^ State Teachers Associations, whose musk sections might be afSKated 
with the National Conference. 

Alice E. Bivins 

In North Carohna, while the individualistk idea of music still exbts and ccanpaxa- 
tivdy few peaces teach music in the grades as a regular part of the daily program, there b 
so perceptible a and desire among the teadiers and superintendents for it that 

the situation b enoouiagng. 

Musk b not required by the State Board, but there b a tentative new oirriculum 
befoie the board m whkdi musk b required of all those taking primary and grammar grade 
Thb mftans that all schoob in the state which prepare teachers will have 
to <^fer courses in puhik schoc^ musk. At present only one of our Normal Schoob makes 
that requirement. 

The greatest needs are; 

1. Unity in woik, secured by co-operatiem of afiTeacher'Daining Schoob in the State. 

2. Securing the hearty co-operation of all dty and county Seperintendents with 

those tr 3 nng to do the musk wenk. 

3. Making the value of musk felt by the pul^ thru co-eperation with a! community 


The Conference can help by propaganda work which will reach all CdSege Presidents, 
Superintodents, Principals, Grade Teachers, musk Chibs, Women’s Qubs and the 
tremendouriy large numbers of private piano teachers. 

Up to the present time, the committee worked largely to stir up more peop^ in the 
State to the realization of the value of the Conference to them and to the state. Tbrou^ 



its efforts there were at the Conference eleven from the state. Up to this year, there 
had never been mcare than two or three in attendance. 

The committee hopes to carry on an active campaign for larger membership and for 
the introduction of mudc into as many schools as possible, with special effort to have all 
jer Vmlft training teachers require courses in music which will prepare teachers to do the 
music work in their grades with the help of a supervisor. 

Fannie C. Amidon 

The superintendent asked the man at the head of the music in the University of 
North Dakota and the one at the head of music work in the state normal to go to every 
county seat in the State. All of the teachers of the county and ojEcers and superintendents 
were required to attend. We were there two days and were conducting community singing, 
showing how the phonograph could be used in schools, and working with the teachers. 
Results have been very satisfactory indeed. The normal school, of which I am a member, 
made a surv^ of the state of North Dakota seven years ago and one year after this cam- 
paign we made another survey, and we found that the number of schools having a super- 
visor had increased sixty per cent. Our State is also co-operating with the Federated 
Muac Dubs and we are having state contests and high school contests, and they have been 
very satisfactory indeed. There are about nine cities in the State which have their 
May Festival with municipal orchestras. There is a general awakening for better music 
everywhere, in rural and dty schools, and all over the state. 


E. G. Hesser 

The general condition of School Music. 

While conditions in some parts of the state are not ideal, yet the general condition is 
above the average. 

Mudc is not a required subject in Ohio. It is taught in all the City Schools and 
may be tau^t anywhere. The law provides that city Boards of Examiners may at their 
discretion require teachers in Elementary schools to be examined in music if the subject 
is a part of the regular work of such teachers. 

A graduate from any normal school, teachers’ college, college or university, who has 
completed a special two year course, with training school experience, in music, drawing, 
penmanship, manual training, physical culture, domestic science, agriculture, kind^- 
gaztening, any modem language, or such other studies as are required to be taught by 
^>edal teachers or supervisees, and who also possess a first grade high school diploma or its 
equivalent, shall iq>on a{^]licatk>n to the superintendent of public instmetion and the 
payment of a fee of one doflar, be granted without further examination a provirional 
special certificate in such subject or subjects, valid for four years in any schod district 
within the state; provided that such instruction has been approved by the superintendent 
of public instnictiou. 

list oi school giving music courses. 

Miami Universily (Teachers’ Cdlege) Oxford, Ohio. 

Bowling Green State Normal College, 38owimg Green, Ohio 1 State 
Ohio University (State Normal C^Be^), Athens, Ohio. ) Schools 
Ohio Wesleyan University, D^ware, Duo. 

Cincinnati Conservatory of Music, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Oberiin CoB^ Oberiin, Ohio. 

AH persons taking the regular teacheris training course at the State Normal Schools 
are required to take public school music and provision is made for such instmetion. 



The Committee considers the greatest need of music in the schools of the state to be: 

Mu^ Supervisors of broad musical training and experience, as well as thoiou^ 
pedagogical training; a uniform course of study in muac for HSgb Schools; that 
somethin g may be done to help the music in the rural scho<^ of the state, and that 
music be made a required subject 

Sectional conferences would lessen the financial question of the individual super- 
visor for attendance and could be made more practical But in Ohio we have a North 
Eastern, a Northwestern, a Central — etc. Teasers* Associations which meets for two or 
three days twice a year and the State Assodation which meets the last of June. of 

these have a livdy music section, which have helpful programs. We fed that we have 
enough sectional meetings and should prefer having the great Natumal Conference left 

lilie committee’s activities have consisted in trying to interest erveiy supervisor in 
joining the National Confezence. 

1* Before next Sqvtember, the committee diould hold a and ways 

and means of bettering muac conditions throughout the state; make an up-to-date roster 
of the supervisors of the state and fiind out what assodatiems, dubs, actidties, etc. they are 
identified with; and see if they axe ‘‘passing it on.” 


Members of Supervisors’ National Conference 90% 

Non-members of Supervisors’ National Cmifenence 10% 


Do you receive the Supervisors’ Journal? 82% 18% 

Will your Board grant leave of absence and full pay for attendance 

at State A. ot Supervisors’ Gkmference 67 33 

Will your Board pay any part of your expenses to the S.N.C? 8 92 

What Music Courses are oSexed in your hi gh school? Choruses, 

Glee Clubs, etc 75 25 

Is credit toward graduatioB given for outride studies of music?. . . 3 97 

What Instnunental Classes are maintained? Orchestras, violin 

dasses, etc 56 44 

Are these classes free? 36 64 

Minnie E. Stasr 

The Educationai ideals are high, but there is much experiment; the general trend is 
progressive; but as yetf tmstable. Sudi a condition reflects quickly upon the music in 
the schools. The subject is induded and gjven a jJace in the schools of the towns and 
dties. Outside activities — Band, Orchestra, Boys’ and Giris’ Glee Clubs, are demanded 
inmost of the towns. Annual County Contests in music, and the State Contest, held each 
year, at the State University, do much to pimnote interest in high school TnnsV-, 

(a) A i^an for crediting outride study of music, and for certification of private 
teachers has been adopted by the State Board of Education, to take effect Sept, 1, 1920. 

(b) The State course of study provides fewr music in the schools; there is no state 
requirement that it be taught 

(c) Certification of music supervisors: certificates are accepted fiom other states; 
from the Normal Schoeb of the State, and fixwn the State University. 

(d) The grade or rural school teacher must pass an examinatio& in which Tnrwar is 
i n c luded; ot must present a diploma frmn a State Normal School The required for 
graduarion is a twelve weeks course, with no pre-requisite.^ Advance courses are c^Sered. 
The State Normal Courses are to be revved and extended soon. 



(e) The University has a course for PuHic School Music Teachers. The greatest 
needs of musdc in the schools of the state are, firsts better training for supervisors and 
special teachers of music. Second, more extended courses in required music for candidates 
for graduation from the State Normal Schools. 

L Letters were sent to thirty-five supervisors of the state urging membership 
in the National Conference. 

2. Letters were sent to seventy-eight of the local school superintendents of the 
state njdrrng for of music supervisors, to make a complete list of the supervisors 

the state. 

5. An in^iiational meeting having for its theme, “Why belong to the Natumal 
Conference'' was a part of the program of the music section at the State Teachers' 

(h) The activities planned for 1920 are, first, completion of list of music supervisors 
of the state, second, a plan to unite the music supervisors and teachers of music in the 
Nonnai Schools, (a) in an appeal to the State Board of Education to make adequate pro- 
vision for training in music of grade and rural school teachers, in the revised course of 
study; to provide a course for music supervisors; and to make (b) a state requirement for 
teaching music in all the schools, inaugurate a movement to make the music of the schools 
function to the greatest possible extent in the life of the community. 

Third, To carry out any plan, accede to any request made by the President or Educa- 
tional Council of the National Conference to the State Advisory Committees, 

C. Ai Davidson 

A great interest is manifest in public school music. In 1914-15 only some sixteen 
schools of the state employed music teachers, and now there are some thirty-five or forty. 

It was in 1913 that high school credits were first allowed in this state for outside 
private study. A very practical plan has been perfected for certificating both public 
schoc^ and accredited private teachers and for standardiamg their work. It is time much 
was done along this line all over the country, and we feel that our state is in the van guard. 

Music is not required to be taught in all schools of the state, but is left wholly to the 
local boards of education or superintendents. 

Those who wkh to teach musk in the grades or high school, and who are not graduates 
of standard colleges or normals or conservatories ^ a school music course), must pass an 
examination for aq>ecial music certificate, which includes American literature, Geography, 
History, Theory and Fractioe, and Music. 

For fitting teachem to teach sdmol music, the normal school offers a general course 
and the state university a thorou^ two years course. 

The greatest need for our state is more thorough preparation on the part of supervisors 
to more systematic music courses in grades and high school The M.S.N.C. can help 
by conferring with dty superintendents and iirging better pay for those qualified. 

A western branch of M.S.N.C. meeting in some coast town, would enable a great man^ 
to attend who could not otherwise. 

PAut E. Beck 

(a) The pstsast conditioii of music in the ptibhc schools of Pennsylvania is good. 
Three hundred seventy-two supervisors are listed in the office of the State Supervisor of 
Music. There are more than this mimb^. Not all names have been reported. The 
outlook for improvement and co-ordination is good. 



(b) Music is not a required subject in the schools of the State. This committee 
urges the organization of our nearly 400 supervisors in an endeavor to have music lecog* 
nized as a required subject in all the public schools of the State. 

(c) The State reqmrements for supervisors of music arc as follows: (The number 
of hours required will increase at end of present year.) 

“No person shall be licensed to teach and supervise Music in the put^c schools 
of the Commonwealth unless he presents evidence of the satisfactoiy completimi of a 
st and a r d four year high school course, and, in addition thereto, not less than forty 
(4) semester hours (640 recitation Imurs) of further training, which shall include 
twenty (20) semester hours (320 recitation hours) divided equally among the fdh>wing 

1. Sigjit Reading and Ear Training. — 64 redtation hours. 

n. Theory of Music, induding Rudiments, Mdody and Harmony.— 64 rcdtatioii 

m. Methods of Teaching Music In the Public Schools, Induding Practice Teaching. 
— 64 redtation hours. 

IV. Voice Training and Choral Omducting, Music Ap^nedatimi, Induding Music 
BGstoiy.— 64 redtation hours. 

V, Instrumental Musk, including School Orchestra.— 64 redtation hours. 

Note: In addition, the ^>p]icant must file a wiittea statement from the super- 
intendent of the school system in vdikh he (or she) has taught, stating that his (or her) 
work has been satisfactory for at least one year. 

Following is an incomplete list of schools offering courses: 

Univorsity of Pittsburg 

IJnivqcdty of Peonsyivania (Sommer Sesskm) 

State CoQ^ (Summer Sesdon) 

Bloomsburg State Normal School 
Indiana State Normal Conservatory 
Lock Haven State Normal School 
Mansfidd State Normal Conservatmy 
West Chester State Normal School 
Affentown CoQege for Wmnen 
Beaver College for Wogooen 
Beechwood Schod for Women 
Irving CoBege for Women 
Moravian Semmazy and College for Women 
WQson College lor Women 
Coiidx’s Conservatory 
PIttladitIphia Musical Academy 

(d) The xmidctzainkg of grade and filial teacliers has been ananged lor by the intso* 
duetkn mto the Nbzmd Scimob of the fc^owmg inqum^ 

Music, all groups, 4th semester, 4 periods, 2 hours credit. 

(e) A standard oouise m school music and better trained teachers constitute the 
greatest need of music in our schools. 

(1) The Confeience can do nothingat present A standard course is in prqpazatkm. 

(g) Tlie Nationai Ccmference dboiM renam intact 

(h) The pinsent report epltximbes the Comnuttedsactivi 

(i) During 1920 the Ccamnittee wiU endeavor to devdop the projects and recommen- 
dations herdn set forth. 



Edwin N. C. Barnes 

From tHe standpoint of singing, School Music seems to be flourishing in Rhode 
Island, there beix^ only a few ftTnall towns without supervision. In the light of the 
advance of School Music in the past, however, the state is not fully awake. We have 
had a state association for five years, which meets monthly. 

Two school departments grant outside credit, two have courses in theory, three in 
appreciation, and one has had violin classes for three years and plans for piano classes 
next season. Orchestras quite largely strings, are fairly common; no bands reported, 

Mu^ is not required by the State Board of Education, so that matter is left to the 
local school boards. 

Supervisors entering the state are required to satisfy the Teachers' Committee 
of the State Board as to preparation. 

There are no schools for the training of supervisors in the state, although Brown 
University does offer a limited number of music courses. 

At the State Normal School there are no entrance examinations, but students 
are required to pass a course in music to graduate. 

The Need 

(1) Certification of supervisors and stringent requirements as to normal entrance 
and graduation for grade teachers. 

2. The winning of the school superintendent IBs name should be sent, with the 
supervisor's, as a part of every state list 

3. Definite, educative and impelling influence brought to bear upon every superin- 
tendent and school board, where School Music is not in the curriculum. 

Saw Can the National Conference Help? 

1. With propaganda along the lines just enumerated. 

2. By broadening and vitalizing stxfl further the idea of the Advisory CoundL 

3. By appointing and placing in the field a live wire, full time National representative, 

who can over" a |Mt)grain that will win boosters for school Music and the Conference. 

Such a representative should be the ofiSdal mouthpiece of the conference, should 
lead in constructive planning and execution, diould be available for addresses at con- 
ferences, associations, institutes and meetings of superintendents, and should be the 
cxnmsdor of the music supervisor. 

4. By getting publicity in the music and educational and local journals, espedally 
the latter. 

JP20 Tasks for the State Committee 

That body should provide the educatUmal oouncii with authentic data for successful 
propagan d a, should woi^ for certification of music supervisors; for high musical and peda- 
go^cal standards £or the grade teacher; should win and use the local superintendent; 
should seize or create oi^rtunitles for sane and educative publicity; should a 
d efini t e statewiefe campaign for music as a part of every school curriculum. 

Carrie P. McMadn 

In the larger cities of the State, Charleston, Cokanbia, and Spartanburg, where 
tra ined Supexvisoxs are en^loyed, the work is above the average. Eadi a 

Ohihfir e&'s Chortics "wtSch is yearly supplying more and better quality of voice 
to the Choral Sodetks, Church choirs, Glee Clubs, etc. 



During the war, the Charleston Children’s Chorus was active in leadership of Com- 
munity Sings and he^ful to the Entertainment Service at Army and Navy Ho^itals. 

There is no State requiieznent of certification of nxu^ teadieis; and until this year, 
the salaries have not been sufficient to induce further training for PuHic School music. 

Now the outlook is most encouraging. Everything points toward Progress. 

The entire expense of the Chairman’s trip to the Cofolerence was paid by the Board 
of Commissioners of the Charleston Public Schools. 


Thesesa M. Day 

Generally speaking, Public School Mrisic in South Dakota can scaicdy be called 
fair but there are towns and cities which axe offering very good courses. 

The following School Laws cover the subject of Muric: 

Article 2— Musk 

The dtements of vocal music indoding, when practicable, the singing of simple musk 
by note, shall be taught in all the public schods of the state. 

Music shall be tau£^t in aQ of the state normal schools, and the minimum require- 
meiXt of graduates from such schools must be at least two hours per week for one schod 

In all schools having two or more grades, instruction in music shall be given by an 
instructor qualified to teach the rudiments of music, vdio may be a teacher of one of the 
departments, if qualified to teach this subject. 

In the ccFuntiy schools conducted by a single teacher, the elements of music notation 
by vocal and blackboard drill, in connection with shz^ile songs, shall be taught. But no 
teacher shall be refused a certificate, nor shall the grade of his certificate be lowered, on 
account of his lack of abOity to instruct or ring. 

It shall be the duty of the county Superintendent to have tau^t annually in the 
normal institutes the elements of vocal mi^c, by some competent person, for at least 
twenty minutes of each day. 

However, Music in the schools is largdy a local matter- Muric should be included 
in the requirements to obtain a teadier’s certificate in South Dakota. Another refonn 
is the abdkfammt of the idea that any “mnric teacher” can go into a schod and handle 

There is a great need for the wdl-trained amcrng the profession in South Dakota. A 
sectional brandi of the Goof ezenoe would be most wdeome. Close xdatioxiship with the 
State Educadonal departments would mean better school laws; with normal schods and 
ooQeges would mean better and more thmou^ courses of training for Musk Supervisors. 

The Advisory Committee sent out 12 urgmt letters enclosing blanks to be filled out; 
33 replies were received from various supervisors, teachers of Muric and superintendents; 
2A of these certified to both grade and high schod musk; two to music in the grades; two 
reported that the re^>ective grade teachars tau^it their mnric and five reported no musk 
dany IoikL 

The foQowmg schools offer courses for the training of Music Supervisors and Teadiem 
of M nrir ; State Normal, Spearfish; State Normal, Aberdeen; State Agrkoltuial CoBega, 
Brookings; Yankton CoQege, Yankton; Dakota Wesleyan Univeirity, Mitr h efl; State 
Univerrity, Vemnlion; Huron College, Huron. 

1 wirii to call attendoia to a law in tins state with regard to text books to be used in 
the graded schools: 

Any schod board, teacher, or trustee, who shall use or provide for use in the puhfic 
schools in the state text books other than those adopted except as hereia otherwise pro- 



vided, or that faOs to furnish bo(fc free for the use of the pupils shall be deemed guilty 
of a TTWftdwTiwt nrt r and bc punished by SL fine of not less t han twenty-five dollars 
($25.00) nor more than one hundred dollars ($100.00). 

Note: The provision applies only to high schools. 

Ibis law dqjiivcs the Muiac Supervisor of the ri^t to use the books she cwisidexs best 
and ptmishes her if she uses any other than those the law prescribes. 


There are only twenty-five high schools in the State. Most of those Have one year 
of music only. Outside of Nashville, Memphis and Knoxville there are not over eleven 
supervisors in the State. Come down and help us by putting the next meeting of the 
Conference in the South. You can stir us up. 


Eleleda LrmEjoHN 

At present, the general condition of School Music in Texas is encouraging. The 
Committee feels that the outlook for music in our schools is more promising than it has 
ever been before. 

In March 1919 the State Committee on the Inspection, Classification, and AfiBliation 
of Schools made the following recommendation: 

'Tt was recommended that music be recognized as a suitable subject for high school 
credit; that affiliation of music be authorized in hi^ schools on the same basis as other 
studies, and that the State Superintendent should cause to be prepared a course of study 
for high school music. The State Superintendent was urged to employ a competent music 
sttpervisor for the State.” 

Acting on this lecotnmendation, State Superintendent Annie Webb Blanton appointed 
last faE, a State Supervisor of Mu^. Miss Blanton has also appointed a Committee on 
a State Course of Study in Music, with the State Sup^visor as chairman. This committee 
is composed of the director of Public School Music of the State University; the Director 
of PqI& School Mu^ in the College of Industrial Arts, which is the State college for 
women; the SupCTvisor <rf Music in the Training School of one of the State Normals; tpro 
Siq)ervKors of Music from two of the larger dties; and the president of the Texas State 
Music Teachers* Association. The Committee has already held a week’s conference at the 
ofiioe of the State Superintendent, during which time they formulated the outline for a 
course of study in music for the elementary and the high schods of the State. 

There is a strong demand for information about school music, and the rural schools 
are showing great interest in music, chiefly in the purdiase of talHng machines and 

Valuable service to the cause of school music has been rendered by the Texas Federa- 
tion of Music Clubs. The FedersStion maintains a Public School Music Committee whose 
duty it is to stimulate interest m this subject aiid to work for its introduction into the 
public schools. 

The State Music Teadieis* Assodation, a newer organization, has also done some 
good work for school music in Texas. 

At present, music is not required in the schoob of Texas, except in the larger school 
systems, where the boards of trustees have made it a required subject. 

Texas has no requirements for the certification of the supervisor. Thb question b 
left entirety in the hands of the local school boards and superintendents. There are two 
sc hools in the State offering courses for the training of supervisors — the Univ^ratv nf 
Texas, and the College of Industrial Arts for Women. 

PHILADELPHIA, PA., iL^RCH 22-26, 1920 


There are no State requirements for the musical trainizig of grade rural jiyhopJI 
teachers, but most of the State Normals offer a few elective courses in public school music. 

It is the Committee’s opinion that School Mnsir. in Teaas needs stimizlating throfx^^ 
every possible agency'; that the State needs more adequate and emnpetent supervisors; 
that more attention should be given the subject of in our normal to t he wtd 

of educating our teachers in the subject, both as to its value and its admdslstmtion. 

The Committee is against the establishment of Sectional Branches of the Confecmce. 
It bdheves that **one central body will attract a better attendance and radiate a more 
stimulating inffuence than sectional meetings.” 

The activities of the Committee to date have been very HmiffH 

During 1920 the Committee should endeavor to stimulate the interest already 
mani fested in school music in our state; should have definite plan of campaign for 
work; and ^ould be the distributing agents for infoimaticn and educatioDal Bterature 
sent out by the Conference. 

Beryl M. Harrington 

The general condition of music in Vermont is not ideal We need a complete re<»gani- 
zation , with a new central training school as a basis. 

In Vermont, if a teacher has not a certificate from some schoeff of mu^ she can get a 
special certificate on the basis of at least one year of ^>ecial training in the methods of 
teaching music. There are no requirements for the training (in music) of grade and rural 
teachers. Each of the state normal schools has a course in mu^ to offer its students. 
Our college summer schools also have courses, but these are eketive. 

The National Conference can help through its committee bj' urging teachers as 'well 
as supervisors to join and get in touch with the Conference throu^ the bo(* of Proceed- 
ings and the journal In sending out varib^is questionnaires, I made a point of the Pro- 
ceedings, and the h^ that it Is to me, personally as an up-to-date reference book. Several 
supervisors in the smaller towns wrote to me that they were joining, chiefly, to obtain the 
book. We have a state music teachers' Assodatioa which meets twice a year and indudes 
both supervisors and private teachers. 

Dur women's dubs are doing a wonderful work in helping to bring good music to our 
country chiidzem I know of cases where a supervisor is being paid by dub women; where 
talented women are themselves teaching cbildreii and bringing the world’s best music 
into their lives. 

Dor State Board of Education is <k£ng great work with travding libraries of records 
for oar junmr hl^ schools. 

I believe in Eastern az^ Western brandies of the Ccmfereace provided that all 
are puBixig together hannonioudy for the same general object, and provided that the 
Inandiea am genesaHy recognised as such, and not as rival organizations. 

F. Euqenia Aoaiis 

General coikditioD of school music in the State is fair as compared with other states, 
bat most promising; marked and steady improvement in last few years. Two dtzes 
introduced music this year. Music is taught In sixteen cities or towns m the state. 
Twenty-seven public school niasic teachers in the state. 

There axe IK) State requirements as to the teaching of musk, and no state reqxdremients 
kr supervisors. There is provisioQ in Normal and Training Schools for this training. 
Ail teachers are required to study music in the training schools and proviskm is made in 
aH of the State Normals for this traming, but many of these teachers have no musical 
ability whatever, and have to be graduated and accepted as teachers notwithstanding this. 



Hie committee considers the greatest needs of music in the schools to be: 

1. State leqmiements for grade teachers and music supervisors. 

2. Appoint supervisors for rural schools. 

3. Credits in grammar and High Schools. 

What the Conference can do to help: 

Get the matter before the Legislators. 

Summary of the committees activities: 

Urging supervisors of state to fill out and return questionnaires, and to join the 
N.C.M.S., and to attend the Convention. Endeavoring to get complete and accurate 
list of supendsors. 

What the Committee should do in 1920. 

Tborou^y organize State Supervisors to affiliate vdth National body. 

There were nine teachers in attendance at the Conference, four out of the five on the 
State Advisory Committee being present. Most of these had their expences paid entirely 
or in part by their local boards. 

A State Music Teachers Association was organized this fall with fifty-two voting 

Public schocA. music and private teachers (vocal and instrumental) go hand in hand. 

Four places in the state maintain “After School Violin Classes'' and Piano Classes 
axe to follow. 

Leiha L. McClube 

There is a strong State Educational Association with an active music section. There 
is also a flourishing State Music Teachers’ Association which includes the school music 
profesdon. A cordial and helpful relationship exists. 

Music in school is not a required subject, but a course of study for all grades is 

Credit for the outside study of muac under private instruction is allowed and a 
tentative fonr-year oouxse for piano is published in the State Bulletin No. 33. All regular^ 
ly qualified teachers may teach music without special certification. Supervisors of music 
may be certified by special certificate. This is issued by county or city superintendent, 
iqKWi examination or otherwise satisfactory evidence of fitness to teach this subject. 
Such certificate is yaBd so long as holder continues to teach where issued. 

Three Colleges and Universities and three Normal Schools offer more or less limited 
courses in mu sic. The Universities and State College offer excellent Supervisors' courses 

The stiuiy and perfozma'nce of music should have a larg^ place in the program of 
htgh sdioois and Normal Schools. Extension courses in music, choral and orchestral, 
should be siq^rted by the h^her institutions, in order to stimulate greater interest in 
music in hi^ scfatool and to provide opportunity for continued sdi expression to those who 
do not enjoy private instructiML 

The Conference should come to the Pacific Coast once to enlist the interest and 
support of those who do not know what it means and have not found it possible to attend. 
The result of thk would, I bdieve, establish a Western or Coast Branch of the Conference. 
This wonld be a great boon to school music in the West. 

Lucy Robinson 

At the P hiUdelpliia meeting we had four rimes as many members as we had previous 
to the drive for menahetship; all of these active members with the esoepticm of one wrae 
in attendanc e at the meeting. Of the questionnaires sent out, I received fifteen replies. 



A few years ago music was only taught in a few of the city schools. At the present 
time if music is not included in the course of study in viDage and rural schools, they are 
behind the times. 

An institute is held for one week in every county once a year. A music instructor is 
appointed to take charge of the music at the meetings. Chorus sin^g and primary 
rote songs are taught, rudiments of music as well as folk dandng and suigho^ games. 

Music is not required in all of the schools of W. Va. A supervisor is required to take 
an examination for a certificate, in music, in educatUm and required to be a graduate of a 
recognized High Schod or its equivalent- In Normal Schods, grade teachers are required 
to study 500 minutes per week for one semester. Rural school teachers are given an 
opportunity to take an equal amount, but they need only take the course for one-half a 

Recently, the state board of education has recognized musk studied under private 
teachers and gives crecht for same. 

The greatest need is for trained teachers — ^thosc who can carry on the woik presented 
by the supervisor. 

During the coming year the Conference should endeavewr to awake superintendents 
and grade principals to the importazice emplo 3 ring grade teachers trained in music 
teadring; should try to wake those supervisors who failed to reply to the questkxuiaire 
sent out by Dr- Dann, to a sense of the magnitude of the M-S.N.C. and what a privilege 
it is to be a member and permitted to attend its meetings. 

HeuemS. Losd 

For a number of years thcre3^were only three supervisors in the state; but more have 
been added. Some teachers devote all their time to music; others only a part of thor 
time, as they are required to teach some other subject. So as compared to other more 
mature and thickly populated states, muse is, as we may say, in its infancy in Wyoming. 

The State kw prescribes the teeing of music, but it is not taught as a ^stematic 
subject in all the rural schools. It is taught to a certain degree in all the city schools. 

special certificates are issued to supervisors on a two-basis plan; by examination 

credentials. The Iftgt year or two we have been able to secure ‘*Kfe certificates” in 
The Univorsity of Wyoming has a course for superrisOTS. 

The grade teachers must be Normal graduates, and the Nonnal course indades 
The rural teacher^s certificate includes musk as one of the requi re ments. The 
law provides for courses given by aociedited high schools, in which music Is required. 
The following towns have this’course oSered at the high school; W h e at l and, Sheridan, 
Ca^>er, Dougks, Cheye^^ 

T^ of the great iieeds of music are: 

1. That we hdp the public to realize that muac is a nccesrity in the inoral^rdigious, 
and social education of the child; 

2. That TTiTiCTr^ in some phases, is given a regular period in the daily prograrnnke of 


Porto Rico is an island about ninety-five miles long and thirty-five males wide, with 
a population of one and a quarter nuUions. Of this number these are 434,381 children 
<rf school age, and 273,587 of them are not in school because there are no schcxals for them. 
That the number attending school 20 years ago, when Amezka acquired Porto Rko, was 
but 21,873 shows how great has been the improvement during the last two decades. It 

20 $ 


also explains the fact that the aduU illiteracy is estimated at 54%. I mention this illiteracy 
problem because it has a direct bearing on the state of public school music. 

Nearly all native muac is written in minor mode. 

Music instruction is given by the Spanish method, employing the “fixed do,” which 
is always f(»md on C, regardless of key signature. This also has a direct bearing on the 
sedux)! music problem, since, in my opinion (I may safely say it, I suppose, with fourteen 
hundred miles of ocean between us) the immovable do never did—and never will— produce 
general sight-singing. It does seem, however, to produce instrumentalists. The young 
peojde hm play more and better than those at home; the school bands are more general 
and do more serious work. 

The general condition of music is unsatisfactory because of the lack of a sufi5cient 
numb^ of trained teachers and supervise. There is no general supervisor of music for 
the island. There was a supervisor, but superviaon of Physical Education, Music and 
Drawing was discontinued, as a measure of economy( !). Graduates of the insular Normal 
School at Rio Piedias have a course in Methods and Subject-matter in Music, but these 
form a small percentage of the teaching force. There should be a General Supervisor of 

In a few cases, the district supervisors are competent to teach and to supervise the 
musk in thdbr districts, and hdre the musk is better taught; such caises are not common. 

Muric is required in the graded but not in the rural schools. This is not a legal 
requirement The Commissioner of Education formulates the course of study. 

There are no requirements for the certification of Music Supervisors and no school 
offering course? preparing for supervisbn. The University of Porto Rico is offering a 
short course for the training of Special Teachers of Music. 

There are no legal requirements as to musical training of graded or rural teachers. 
Provision is made in the course offered by the Normal Department of the University of 
Porto Rko for tr ainin g both graded and rural teachers, but the number of trained teachers 
is IhmtecL The University of Porto Rko offers: 

1. Methods and subject matter (5 hours a week, one year). Required of all students 

in the regular Normal Course. 

2. Methods and subject matter— for rural teachers (2 hours a week, one semester). 

Covets the work of the first three grades and is required of all students in 
mzal teadKm’ course. 

5. Genezal singmg and mask appreciatian. (hie hour a week throu^out course. 
Required of all save prof e^nal students. 

4 Kle m ea t ai y theory. Designed for those who enter with no prenous knowledge 
of musk. One hour a week, one semester. Elective for all students. 

5. Advancedmnsk— lor those preparing to be ^ledal teachers of musk. Continues 
and presupposes course 1. Three hours a we^ for the year. Includes 
doaentaxy harmosy, advanced work in appreciation, practise teaching in 
all grades and some practise in conducting chorus groups. 

4 Problems in High School Music. Required for a.b. in Education. Two hours a 
week, one semester. 

7. C^tocai Society, Gfris’ C3iee Qnb, Band, Orchestra and Mandolin, (^ubs are 
elcdive for properly qoahffed students. These cany no credit. 

The greatest needs of smsk are: 

1. Provisimi by the Legiriature for a competent supervisor of musk. 

2. Premsaon for a mnnh a: of spedal teachers of musk sufficient to supply the larger 
towns and dtks. 

3. Provision for training r^ular teachers already in the servke^ by special meetinM 
with supervisars, institutes, etc. 

4 The leqnirenMnt of de m cntaiy knowledge of muf»c for securing a liomise. 



The Conference may help music: 

1. By convincing the Legislature of the need of a Supervisor of Music. 

2. By convincing the Legislature of the need of providing in the budget for special 
teachers of music in the larger towns and cities. 

3. By assisting in educating the general public towards appreciation of public school 
music — as distinguished from musk rendered by local bands and or^estras. 

4. By educating the public to appredate the importance of improving vocal music 
and especially of improving the voices. 

The following steps have been taken: 

1. The provision, in the budget, for eleven qyecial teachers of music, drawing and 
physical education. 

2. The introduction, in the Univerdty Normal School, of a course for the training 
of teachers to occupy these positions. 

3. The introduction at the University of a course for rural teachers. 

4. Conqmlsoiy chorus singing, for all save professional students. 

5. The additkmal course in BQgh School Problems. 

6. Special attention to music, at a series of Institutes, held at different points. 

7. Articles on musical subjects in the Porto Rico School Review, the organ of the 
Department of Education. 

8. A series of weU-attended community sings hdd in San Juan and in Rio Fiedzas. 

9. Definite plans for the celebration c£ the National Week of Song, 

10. A community song hock (of Spanish songs) soon to be pubHsbed. 

Bruce Carev 

Our ’wOtk is progressing. I shall summarize in a few sentences what I have to 
say. Ontario, my own province, is the only one to my knowledge that has music in 
the high scho^ We take great pride in our educaticniai system in Ontario. Music 
is compulsoiy in our schools. We have in other provinces obligatory music, music classes 
for in^e and outside study. In the western provinces they have rural supervises. 
Th^ also credit to the sdvxff teacher, upon the oertificate of the supervisor in terms 
laid down by the departmeit, $S0 aalaiy granted her each year hy the Crovernmeat 
for her extra aMlity to serve. BBgh school mottezs in our province are on the make 
iMwr. I am woddng with the cemunittee and hope to get this nattier in form. S^xper* 
visors are xequhed to have a second or firstda^ cert ifi ca t e. They must qualify by 
tttlriTvg a certifiGate froen our own schools as laid down by the depa rtmen t, requiring 
andnimxxmoftwosiiixmiers^woz^ With the teachemtlminatter of xnxiskh» also obiigar 
tozy. Ihey are pezmkted to take certain work and also oompdled to take written weak, 
and where they are not so certified as teachtoxs of arngfug tliat must be noted on their 
ocmtzact for employment. 





July 5 — Casli on liaad $ 249.89 


Mar. 26— Recdpts fiom Concert 911.50 

June 21 — MembersHp Dues: 

838 Active new at $2.50 
475 Active renewal at $1.50 
104 Associate at $1.00 

1,417 Total 2,911.50 

Sale of Books and lapsed dues 113.50 

Total Receipts. $4,186.39 

Expenditures 3,447.14 

June 21, 1920 — ^Balance on liand $ 739.25 



F^. 17— Blied Printing Co $ 682.46 

June 2 — American Printing Co 20.00 

19 — ^Materials for 1920 Book 300.00 

Presidents Expense Account 


Nov. 26 — ^Trip to Philadelpiiia. 29.93 


Mar. 23 — ^Expense of Ccmference 864.78 

Apr. 20— TdeplwHie and tdegraph bOl 15.13 

Treasurers Expense Account 

June 21— Postage, telegrams, freight, etc 90.00 

Honoraiiuin to Treasurer 75.00 

Expense of Concert 

Mar. 26— ^Printing tickets and programs 138.77 

Advertising 160.80 

IMrector's Expenses 143.54 

Music purdia^ (for sale) 88.15 

Rmt and bdp. Academy of Music 542.00 


Mar. 34r— Wm. Bank signs for Headquarters 10.50 

W3Iiaid Scott, after dinner speaker 90.00 

Apr. 10 — Sophia W. Bliven, expenses. 32.08 

20 — P. C. Hayden, Printing 7.00 

20— Wm. M. Clift, stenograi^ifir 43.50 

20— John H. Finley, expenses 13.50 

20— D. K DaHom, agent, rent 20.00 

ISzf 1— J. H. ^law, badges 80.00 


Examined and found correct Jaues MdxsOY, Js. 

Phiup C. Hayden, Auditor Treasurer 






I. Rec eip ts 

( 1 ) Advertisejnents — 

Back Payments $ 65.00 

September 1919 (18 ads) 428.98 

November 1919 (19 ads) 454 . 30 

Januaiy 1920 (23 ads) 490 .44 

March, 1920 (24 ads). 538.51 

April, 1920 (29 ads) 759.64 

( 2 ) Contributions 

As recoiried m March Jounial 51.00 

As recorded in April Journal 21.00 

Received since last issue 7,50 

$ 79.50 $ 79.50 

(3) Miscellaneous 

Reprints, subscriptions, bound volumes, and interest on last 
last 3 rear’s balance 9.89 9.89 

Total receipts for the year $2,826.26 

n. Expekdxtuses 

(1) Printing and Mailing 

Sq)tember (8,000) copies $ 374.07 

November (8,000) 371.78 

January (8,000) 404.94 

March (8, 500) 472.97 

April (9,000) 500.80 

$2,124.56 $2,124.56 

( 2 ) Office Expenditures 

Postage, telegrams, express, supplies $ 194 . 76 

Hdp 379.65 

$ 574.41 $ 574.41 

Total Expenditures for tie year. $2,698.97 

in. Balaitcx 

Total ieceq>ts $2,826.26 

Total Expenditures 2,698.97 

Profit on year’s issue $ 127.29 

Balance from Aug. 15, 1919 $ 166.30 

Cash on hand August 7, 1920 $ 293.59 

Peter W. DroocA, 
liadison, Wis. 

Examined and found conect 

P. C. Hatdbk, Atdiior. 



Contributing Exhibitors at Philadelphia 

The following firms exhibited at the Philadelphia meeting and contributed 

to a fund for defraying the general expenses of the Conference: 

Art PublicaticM! Society St Louis, Missouri 

"Graded Piano Lessons and MatemF' 

Emil Ascher New York City 

“Band and Orchestra Music^ 

Cctonbia Gr^hophone Manufacturing Co New York Cily 

"Phonographs and Record^ 

Educational Music Bureau Chicago, Illinois 

"School Musk Supplies of aU publisher^’ 

Eldridge Entertainment Company Franklin, Ohio 

“Helps for Programs and Entertainment^' 

Victor Talking Machine Co Camden, New Jersey 

"Phonographs and Record f 

Wniis Musk Conqiany Cincinnati, Ohio 

"School Music SuppJksP 

M. Witmaric & Sons New York Gty 

"School Music Supplied 

List of Members 


Nake Abdsess 

Abair, Isabelle 1461 Logan St, Denver, CcA>- 

Abbott, Arthur J .28 Clarendon PL, Buffalo, N. Y. 

Abbott, Mrs. Frederick W 201 BeHcvue-Stiatford, Philadclplua, Pa- 

Abbott, George J 236 Bay State Rd, Boston, Mass. 

Abernathy, Hortense S.N.S., Commerce, Texas 

Ackjer, Emma P Manhattan, Mont 

Acker, Warren F 27 S. St Cbud St, Allentown, Pa. 

Ackerman, Minnie M 738 IdRtm Avc., Easton, Pa. 

Adams, F. Eugenia .Horan Apts., Norfdk, Va. 

Adams, Frances E Box 628, St Joseph, Mo. 

Adams, Minerva L State Normal Sdwx^ Shippcnsbuig, Pa. 

Agard, Katherine 29 E. Higb St, Union City, Pa. 

A^, Matirine 914 N. Main St, Bloomington, DL 

Agle, Myrtle F : 914 N. Main St, Blo<Mnmgton, DL 

Aiken, Anna Mae 5304th St, San Bernardino, California 

Aiken, Walter H Pul^ Schods, 7th & Race, Cmdnnati, O. 

Alexander, Birdie 401 Grandview Ave., El Paso, Texas 

Alexander, Jane P .310 McKee PL, Pittsburg, Pa* 

Alhambra City Schools Albamtaa, CsL 

Allen, Lou M 727 Oakland Ave., Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Allen, Mrs. Pearl B 711 Margaret St, Pasco, Wash. 

Amidon, Fanny C .VaE^ Gty, N* D., 3Box 444 

Anders, Gertrude M 12 W. Sth St, Pa. 

Anderson, Charlotte R Box 2383, Bisbec, Ari& 

Anderson, Maud — Box 4, Coffinsvile, DL 

Anderson, Ndl Knimme 309 Ddaware Ave., WSnnngton, DeL 

Andree, Annida 73 Poplar St, Manistee, Midbu 

Andrus, May P. 0. Box 96, Whitnesrrifle, Conn. 

Anthony, Mrs. Cora S Mahanoy Qty, Pa. 

Anthony, David S 30 Prince St, Alden Station, Pa. 

Archibald, Fred W 24 Greenwx)od Lane, Waltham, Mass. 

Aimitage, Maiy J Bowling Green, Ky. 

Armitage, M. Teresa 5 West 63rd St, New York, N. Y. 

Armstrong, Frank L 2018 Penysville Ave., N. S. Pittsburg Pa. 

AimstwHig, Jes^ L 112 S. Gflmor St, Baltimore, Md. 

A^baacher, Hiennine 416 Adams St, Gary, Indiana 

Athey, Edith B 1331 Bdnmt St, N. W., Washington, D. C. 

Austin, L. C W. Teon. State Normal School, Memphis, Tenn. 

Aylesworth, Victoria L Clarence, Iowa 

Bachman, Ora B Main St, Middletown, Pa. 

Bacon, Dorothy L. 18 Hull St, Coldwater, Mich. 




Badger, Katharine 119 Giles St., Ithaca, N. Y. 

Baier, Alma High School, Muskegon Heights, Mch. 

Bailey, Mildred L. Prospect St, So. Dartmouth, Mass. 

Baixd, Florence C State Normal School, East Radford, Va. 

Baker, Gertie A Brown and Hudson Sts., Gloucester City, N. J. 

Baker, Gola T 616 Third Ave., Hibbing, Minn. 

Baker, Mrs. Grace 1417 Main St, Houston, Texas 

Baker, Hattie B 445 N. Upper St, Lexington, Ky. 

Baker, Lucy A State Normal School, Whitewater, Wis. 

Baker, Mrs. Ndlc Baer 710 W. 11th St, Chester, Pa. 

Baldwin, Ralph L 81 Tremont St, Hartford, Conn. 

Bale, Gertrude Normal Dormitory, Valley City, N. D. 

Barker, Ethel C .6712 N- 7th St, Oak Lane, Pa. 

Barnard, Mrs. C. H .5616 Forbes St, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Bamdt, Hester H 91 Broadway, Mauch Chunk, Pa. 

Barnes, Edwin N. C 475 Elmwood Ave., Providence, R. I. 

Barnhill, Martha O 501 A. Washington St, CrawfordsviHe, Ind. 

Barr, Grace * Boston, Majss. 

Barry, Rose M 1433 Bolton St, Baltimore, Md. 

Bartels, Leo F 906 Central Ave., Hamilton, 0. 

Bartholomew, Leila 616 N. Cayuga St, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Bartholomew, Robert A 3 Bewley Parkway, Lockport, N. Y. 

Bartholomew, Zoe 126 Fifth Ave., New York, N. Y. 

Bartley, Bertha A 724 Itaska St, Bethlehem, Pa. 

Barton, W. W Chrisney, 

Batdorf, Axabdile E Maine St, Annville, Pa. 

Bates, Edna 5020 Walton Ave., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Baxter, Kathryn H 351 Jefferson Ave-, Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Baxter, Mrs. Thomas A 351 Jefferson Ave., Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Beach, Elizabeth V 195 Second St, Dion, N. Y. 

Beach, Frank A 1403 Rural St, Emporia, TTsma 

Beach, Harrison A Y.M.C.A., Rochester, N. Y. 

Beam, James B 1459 Washington St, Easton, Pa. 

Bea man , Mild r ed F 155 Pongee Ave., Detroit, Mich. 

Bean, Mary E 1528 N. 13th St, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Bean, Wilmer M 511 Hamilton St, Norristown, Pa. 

Beattie, John W 555 Avalon Terrace S. E., Grand Rapids, Mkh. 

Beck, Mrs- Sizabeth 1015 N. 17th St, Harrisbuig, Pa. 

Bede, Hildegaide 212 Dawson St, Kane, Pa. 

®cck»MiBie .1404 Third Ave., Rock Island, HL 

Beck, Paul E D^artment of Public Instruction, Harrisburg, Pa. 

Becker, Edna V Stevens Point, Wis. 

Becker, EthdL M Box 205, Milan, O. 

Becfcwhii, mad R 900 South 14th St, lincoln, Neb. 

Beecher, Wdtiha Reno, Nevada. 

Lola A Noblesville, Ind. 

Clara 83 Front St, Salamanca, N. Y. 

Leon F 4419 Magann Ave., East Chicago, Ind. 

Bdser, Bertha 429 Penna Ave., Morrisville, Pa. 

Bcnkert, Kathryn O .2200 S. College Ave., Kiiladdphia, Pa. 

Benners, MBdred S 116 E. Maple Ave., Moorestown, N. J. 

Bennett, Mmerva M 504 Mudler Apts., Granite St, Butte, Mont 

' - O. J. 

Berg, Grace E 3857 N. 16th St, Pluladelphia, P». 

Bergquist, J. Victor 2654 Fremont Ave., S., Minniapnii., vr^n 

Bicking, Ada 406 Grant St, Evansville, Ind. 

Bmdiff, Grace C 11 Rock Terrace, Dorchester, Maas. 

Baiington, Anna ABncm, Pa. 

BaBngttm, Mrs. Estelle 305 3id Ave., Asbury Park, N. J. 

Birdiard, C. C 221 Cohmibus Ave., Brotoo, Maas. 

Bitge, E. B 1914 N. Pennsyfvarua St, Indianapc^, Ind. 

Bivins, Alice E N. C. Cdikge for Women, Greensbero, N. C. 

Bliss, Paul 137 w. 4t]i St, GinrinT..ri, o. 

BKss, Sadie 230 S. Pearl St, Albert Le*, 

Bliven, Sophia W «)2 Stewart Ave., Ithaca, N. Y. 

Block, Frieda E Boot 573, Sioux Falla, S. Dak. 

Bkragh, Frank L hTiddlebutg, Lad. 

Bly, Leon Schroeder Bldg., CarlxHidale, Pa. 

Bohn, Violet L 1830 Green St, Philsdelphia, Pa. 

Boland, Rose R 103 laurd St, Aichbald, Pa. 

Bond, Jennie S 41 N. Paion St, West KiiladeJphia, Pa. 

B(Miner, Louise F 1408 Park Avt, Baldmoie, Md. 

Boaaey, Louise M 630 Harbangh St, Sewkklry, 

Booth, Mrs. John B Ill IX^lIiamsIxno St, Oxfmd, N. C. 

Borge, Aagot, M. K 29 Stevens St, Gettysburg, Pa. 

Bottomly, James J 106 Coboorg St, Stratford, Ontario, 

Bourgard, Caroline B 1151 K Broadway, Lomsvilie, Ky. 

Bourne, Madge M Sontheastcm BEgh Sdiooi, Detrxnt, Mirt 

Bower, Hden 53 Che^nat St, Newark, O. 

Brainerd, Mrs. Clifton C 850 Tower Ave., Hartfoni, Conn. 

Brandt, Elizabeth Mcrntgomery, Mo, 

Brann, Robert 223 S. Center St, Pottsville, Pa. 

Bray, Mabel State Normal School, Trenton, N. J. 

Breach, WilBam Munidpal Bldg., Rochester, N. Y. 

Brecht, Chariot L 907 Court St, Pu^, Ccdo. 

Brenaa, Mrs. 0. J 1532 CaHic^ St, New Orleans, La. 

Brereton, Mary F l ien Alexandna, Twt 

Biigd, May K 5926 Walnut St, Fittsburi^ Ps. 

Blindly Dorothy 112 S. Potomac St, Waynesboro, Pa. 

Brock, Rahy McVille, N. D. 

Brockett, Aik* W 185 Prospect St, East Orange, N. J. 

Brown, Elizabeth S 1230 Amsterdam Ave., New York, N. Y. 

Brown, Mae E 508 4th St, Towanda, Pa. 

Brown, Mande E 2510 Elm St, Manchester, N. H. 

Brown, R.S 4035 Agnes Ave., Tfansas Cify, Mo. 

Brown, SacHe £ Box 155, Carlinville, EL 

Brown, Sarah T. M South River, N. J. 

Browndl, Ella M 350 Nmrth St, Burlington, Vt 

Bruner, Wilaiina 3739 Walnut St, Fhilade^hia, Pa. 

Bryam, Carrie V 3413 EUraead FL, Washington, D. C. 

Biyan, G. A 555 Washington Ave., Cames^ Pk- 

Bryant, Grace A Twin Falls, 

Bryant, Laura 403 E. Seneca St, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Buchanan, Lenore C 1710 N. Shartel St, Oklahoma City, Okla. 



Burkart, Hden E *2021 First St, N. W., Washington, D. C. 

Biukhaid, Julia L 16 Griswold St, Delaware, O. 

Baikal, Joseph 449 Hanover St, Nanticoke, Pa. 

Burnett, Cassandra C 230 Homewood Ave., Warren, 0. 

Bums, Hden C 510 W. Seneca St, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Bums, Susan R 342 Harrison Ave., Scranton, Pa. 

Burroughs, Clara H 2633 Adams Mill Rd., Washington, D. C. 

Buiwash, Elvira 1228 East First St, Duluth, Minn. 

Bushong, Melvin S 219 N. Kansas Ave., Olathe, Ka-ns 

Butler, Dr. Will George State Normal School, Mansfield, Pa. 

Butterfield, Walter H 32 Summer St, Providence, R. L 

Butts, Louise M .247 Farragut Terrace, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Buzsa, Bdtte 1226 Vance Ave., Coraopolis, Pa. 

Cade, Harriette L - . .326 West 2nd North St, Centralia, 111, 

Calk^, Charles R 302 Middle St, MontevaJlo, Ala. 

Cameron, Edna. E 570 West St, Kenosha, Wis. 

Campbdl, Bcmioe K 302 Cummings St., Henryetta, Okla. 

Campbdl, Gabridla F 109 S. Maple St., Carthage, Mo. 

Campbell, Georgena L .811 Woodward Ave., McKees Rocks, Pa. 

Campbell, Susie Gcuy 604 N. Bois d’Arc Ave., Tyler, Texas 

Campe, Henri F 163 Park Ave., New Philadelphia, O. 

Canfield, Susan T Uni verity of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Cannon, EEzalwth Box 188, Concordia, Kans. 

Carey, Bn&ce 219 Carlton Ave,, W., Hamilton, Ont 

Carey, Grace 104 Guy St, Elkins, W. Va. 

Caritem, Mabel 132 N. Columbia St, GalioDi, O. 

Carmack, Ruth E 10 S. 18th St, Philadelphia, Pa. 

38 Scott St, Youngstown, O. 

Carmichaci, Mrs. Elizabeth Fort Dodge, la. 

Cazpei^er, Estdle Victoria Hbtd, Burk & Stockton St, San Francisco, CaL 

Carpentser, N. Maud State Normal School, Peru, Neb. 

Carr, Ang^ L 690 Islay St, San Luis Obispo, CaL 

Ca4?r, Flora, B Du Quoin, HL 

Caxr, Raynxmd N 416 S. Halliburton St, Kirksville, Mo. 

Csaeaosif Qeva J Tabor, la. 

Cass, ESeaaor L 500 S. Lansdowne, Lansdowne, Pa. 

Cas^y, Norma 819 Jefferson St, Paducah, Ky. 

Cavanaughs Jessie M 211 Eatcm Road, Hamfitati, Ohio 

Chadwick, Mis. Flc^rd F Ardmore, . Pa. 

Chaffee, Frank E 321 N. Chdsea St, Kansas Ma 

Chalfonte, Edith Haddon Hri^ts, New Jetsi^ 

Chambazd, MazgureUe VaR^ City, N. IX 

Chapman, Clifford C 178 Trcmrait St, Bostern, Mass. 

Cha^nan, Louise G 232 Paikwood Blvd., Schenectady, N. Y. 

Chatbuzn, M. Frances 2850 P. St, I^kxjId, Nd)r. 

Chester, Dessblee 336 N. Elm St, Wanen, O. 

Chew, Geoigia 519 N. 2nd St, Camdrai, N. J. 

Chads, Carries S. Main St, North Wales, Pa. 

Chavezs, Thomas H 365 Lincoln Ave., Detroit, Mkh. 

Christenaen, Alma. Litchvaie, N. D. 

Qaniy, Nan. 130g CoUege Ave., Radne, Wis. 

Claik, Amy E New Paltz, N. Y. 



Clark, Frances E 

Clark, Gladys M 

Clark, Jessie L 

Clark, Kenneth S 

Clark, Mrs. L. C 

Clark, Marguerite E 

Clarke, Helena L 

Clarkson, Margaret 

Clement, Bertha B 

Cleveland, Vida St. C. (Mrs.) 

Coan, Charles V. H 

Cobum, E. L 

Cochran, Lois D 

Cockey, Ndlie M 

Cogswell, Hamlin E 

Coleman, George L 

Coleman, Jesse J 

Coleman, Robert J 

Colley, Helen 

Collins, M|try M 

Collins, Violet V 

CoUyer, Margaret 

Ccanbe, Elizabeth M 

Conant, Charles S 

Conaway, Cora F 

Cone, P. D 

Condon, C. H 

Conger, Dorothy L 

Conklin, F. Colwell 

Conkling, Mildred H 

Cornier, Lillian L 

Conover, Hubert S 

Conway, Mary M 

Cook, J<An G 

Cook, hdton 

Cook, Rosalind 

Cook, Ruth 

Cooke, Mrs. Irene 

Co<*e, James F 

Comnbs, Cedle C 

Coopa:, Wm. F 

Coover, Margaret H 

Copp, Evdyn Fletcher 

Cory, Olive L 

Cosgrove, Mrs. Bertha D . . . 

Cosgrove, Martha C 

Costenbader, Frances 

Cotterall, Nora M 

Cousins, J. H 

Cover, Sylvia B 

Covey, Grace 

Coyt, Nina B 

c/o Victor Talking Machine Co., Camden, N. J. 

Glen Beulah, Wis. 

- . .1203 N. Market St., Wichita, 

150 K 37th St, New York, N. Y. 

616 S. 3rd St, Muskogee, CMkla. 

Egg Harbor City, N. J. 

25 Pine St, Binghamton, N. Y. 

401 Sherman St, Albany, Ala. 

38 South Burnett St, East Orange, N. J. 

1108 Highland Avc., Chester, Pa. 

82 Church St, Rutland, Vt 

Board of Education, St Louis, Ma 

Board of Education, Bethany, Mo. 

106 East 1st St, Hutchinson, Kans. 

Director of Muse, Washington, D. C. 

614 K State St, Ithaca, N. Y. 

— Wayne, Nd>r. 

518 N. Elm St, Greensboro, N. C. 

406 Grant St, Evansville, Ind. 

700 E. Mahoning St, Punxsutawncy, Pa. 

.623 S. Wabash Ave., Chicago, HL 

E. 45 Jacques Ave., Rahway, N. J. 

85 First St, Muskegon, Mich, 

61 School St, ConccKd, N. H. 

648 E. Sixth St, York, Neb. 

632 Witherspoon Bldg., Fhikddphia, Pa. 

.200 Fifth Ave., New York, N. Y. 

510 E. Seneca St, Ithaca, N. Y. 

268 S. 4th St, Mt Vernon, N. Y. 

1926 Sixth St, Harrisburg, Pa. 

422 W. 2nd St, Dayton, O. 

...4259 fifth Ave., Pittsborig^i, Pa. 

Munidpei QflSce, New Orleans, La. 

3964 Regent Ave., Norwood, O. 

1917 Addkaa St, Nadivine, Tnm. 

Webster CSfy, la. 

.11154 Third Ave., Warren, Pa, 

San Ansdbno, CaL 

Editor '^The IStode,” Philadelphia, Pa. 

545 Washingtoai PL, East St Louis, HL 

119 Elliott St, Eva&svfSe, lad. 

.Box 556, Norwood, Pa. 

Stan Hywet HaB, Akron, O. 

Hardm, Mont 

721 North Broadway, Watertown, S. D, 

85 Fulton Ave., Rochester, N. Y. 

446 Main St, Slatmgton, Pa. 

.1105 £. Race St, Shaunaddb, Pa. 

2141 North Mara Ave., Scranton, Pa. 

Swan Hdtd, E. Bowiagtown, Pa. 

811 Adams St, Wilaxixigtoii, Dd. 

20 Rochester Cocert, Grand Ra|nds, hOdi. 



Craig, Jeank c/o Ellisonian, Macon, Ga. 

Cramer, Edgar M * Rainier, Ore. 

Ciance, Edna 123 Atlantic St, Warren, 0. 

Crane, Julia E Institute of Muac, Potsdam, N. Y. 

Crass, L June Narberth, Pa. 

Crawford, Caroline H Sweet Briar College, Sweet Briar, Va. 

Crocker, Ellen Hotel Berkley, 170 W. 74tli St, New York, N. Y. 

Crowley, Mrs. Forrest G .253 12tli Ave., Columbus, O. 

CuDey, LudQe M 42 Eagle St, Geneva, O. 

Culpepper, A. M 410 S. Front St, Wilmington, N. C. 

Currier, Helen Balboa, Canal Zone, Box 6 

Curtis, Rutb 2813 Holmes St, Dallas, Texas 

Custer, Mae 123 Gilbert St, Danville, HL 

Dadmun, Alice 823 Redgate Ave., Norfolk, Va. 

Daly, Chaiiotte 210 Hollow Ave., Jerse 3 rville, III, 

Damon, Inez F 834 Union St., Schenectady, N. Y. 

Daxm, Arthnr J 350 E. Main St, Uniontown, Pa. 

Dazm, Mrs. HoQls 507 E. Seneca St, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Dann, Hollis 507 E. Seneca St, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Dare, Florence C 70 Pitman Ave., Pitman, N. J. 

Darihig, Eizabeth 136 Griggs St, S. W., Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Darnell, Grace 237 W. 11th St, New York, N. Y. 

Danow, Helen 139 Marshall St, Conneaut, O. 

Davidson, C. A 1007 Forest Court, Palo Alto, Cal. 

Davidson, Susan M 306 S. Madison St, Carthage, Til 

Davies, Gwilym 57 Poplar St, Kingston Sta., Wilkes-Barre, Pa. 

Davis, Alberta I Salem, W. Va. 

Davis, Arthur 3926 Humphrey St, St Louis, Mo. 

Davis, Clara A. M 245 Lark St, Rochester, N. Y. 

Davis, Herbert 2455 Hollywood Ave., Toledo, Ohio 

Davis, Howard C Yonkers, N. Y. 

Davis, Sarah B 17th & Pine Sts., Philadelpliia, Pa. 

Davis, Mrs. Wardner Salem Collie, Salem, W. Va. 

Day, Caiofyn N. Chester Rd., Swarthmore, Pa. 

Day, Mrsw Theresa M Hot Springs, S. D. 

Dayton, CyieacB. 37 Academy Ave., Middletown, N. Y. 

Deal, Blanche E. E 314 Elm Ave. S. W., Roanoke, Va. 

Dean, Helen J 608 N. Aurora St, Ithaca, N. Y. 

De Hart, Gladys V. Canaan, Conn. 

Demaiee, Claire R 52 S. 2nd St, Newport, Pa. 

Demmler, Oscar W 1522 Chateau St, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Dennis, C. M 799 Morse Ave., San Jose, Cal 

Dcneke, Hermine L 529 W. Market St, Philadelphja, Pa. 

Deneweth, Amelia E 519 Indian Terrace, Rockford, HL 

Denues, John 3910 Cottage Ave., Baltimore, Md. 

Devoidorf , Emma E 62 Union St, Gloversville, N. Y. 

Devine, Regina E Cumbola, Pa. 

DeVore, JTicholas. $43 Carnegie Hall, New York, N. Y. 

Dexter, Mrs. Carrie B Box 292, Modesto, CaL 

Dexter, G«±cade W 30 Prospect St, Beverly, Mass. 

D«ter, Margaret R Spooner, Wis. 

Dickey, Frances M University of Washington, Seattle, Wash. 

PHILADELPHIA, PA., MARCH 22-26 , 1920 


Dickinson, Besae Ratnngft, N. Y. 

Diehm, Emma C .747 W. 7tli Sl, Reno, Nev. 

Dilgard, Bertiia E 6 Rhea Terrace, Fairmont, W. Va, 

Dillard, Helen L Tajior, Texas 

Dillard, V. E Washington, TnH 

Disay, Ethel M 241 N. Dithrldge St., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Dixon, Mrs. Ann Board of Education, Dulnth, Minn. 

Dockham, G. H 848 Beech St., Manchester, N. H. 

Dodd, Bess West Side Junior High School, Little Ro^, Ark. 

Dodge, Rosamond 311 Hudson St, BuBaio, N. Y. 

Doolittle, Lula 1 9 Prospect Park W., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Donelson, Margaret J Wymoie, Neb. 

Dorey, J. M Colunibia Graphophone Co., New Yorifc, N. Y. 

Dorsey, May E 443 South llth St, Newcastle, Ind. 

Doud, Nettie C 617 East Jackson St, Springfidd, HL 

Dougan, R. E 1374 Gcal Ave., Lakewood, O. 

Dou^as, Mrs. M. F 4629 Carrol St, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Dowd, Marion L 7 W. Union St, Burlington, N. J. 

Drury, Grace F .326 Michigan Ave., South Haven, hfich. 

Dudgeon, Venita R 511 Fairmount Ave., Fainnount, W. Va. 

Dudley, Ethd B 14 West Main St, Moorestown, N. J. 

Dufi&dd, Edith M Main St, Stroudsburg, Pa. 

Duke, Josephine Hotd La Tourette, Bayonne, N. J. 

Dumas, O. E Oxford St, Auburn, Mass. 

Dunagan, Verna L Cor. Arch & Baltimore Sts., Carlisle, Pa. 

X)nnlap, Ina. 629 18th St, Moline, HL 

Duim, Clara B 1719 Chestnut St, Philadelphia, Pa« 

Dunn, Ethd G Box 365, Tckamah, Neb. 

Dunn, Isabdla V 9 Elm St, Tidioute, Warren Co., 3E*a. 

Dunning, Sara 260 Convent Ave., New York 

Durfadm, Ruth 2250 37th St, S, W., Seattle, Wash. 

Durkee, Ekanora Martvifle, N. Y. 

Dykeina, Peter W University of Wxsconsiii, Madison, Wis. 

Dykes, Elma .808 Commerdal St, Superior, Neb. 

Eachus, MaTiaTi F. 219 Ave. A., Bayonne, N. J. 

Ea^eston, Norman J 9844 92nd Ave., Edmonton, Alberta, Canada 

Earhart, Will 225 Fcdtoii Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Eariy, Gertrude A 811 Pettus St, Sdma, Alabama 

Ead^, Joan .State Nonnal School, aiK>ery Ro<k, Pa. 

Bernice L 211 S. Stafford Ave., Huntington Park, CaL 

Eaton, Mrs. Elizabeth G 29 James St, Bangor, Me. 

Edwards, Ethd M 226 Sebattus St, Lewiston, Me. 

Edwards, JuEa 123 Elm St, Claiksdalc, Miss. 

Eidridge, Hany C Franklin, O. 

Elder, Mary 319 Third St, Conemau^, Pa. 

EHiott, Emma G Great Barrington, Mass. 

EiHott, Mrs. Mary Warner Memonal HaE, Saxtons River, Vt 

EHiott, Vli^nia M Barnet, Vt 

Elting, Grace H Navasota, Texas 

Embs, Anton H Hbtd Whitecotton, Shattuck Ave., Berkd^, CaL 

Emery, SataM 169 liberty St, Newburgh, N. Y. 

Emery, Seth G Pleasant St, Milo, Me. 


F^pcs, Eva T 916 W. Grace St, Richmond, Va. 

Eri>, J. Lainroce University of Dl*, Uri)ana, DL 

Ericsson, Mis. Aurelia M 712 Elhs St, Ypsilanti, Mich. 

Eizberger, Albertine 194 Van Horn St, Jersey City, N. J. 

Europe, Mary L 1008 S. St, N, W., Washington, D. C. 

Evans, Mrs. Blanche E. K 180 Woolper Ave., Clifton, Cincinnati, 0. 

Evans, Grace E .903 Tatuall St, Wilmington, Del 

Evans, Mark 559 W. Market St, Lima, O. 

Eves, Mrs. J. Emery Millville, Pa. 

Farnsworth, Chas. H Teachers Coll^, Columbia University, New York, N. Y. 

Farr, Frank D 623 S. Wabash Ave., Chicago, HL 

Faalluzer, Enaraa M Salisbury, Md. 

Faulkner, Marie B High School, Northampton, Pa. 

Fay, Jay W 56 Chestnut St, Rochester, N. Y. 

Ferguson, H. O 1441 G. St, Lincoln, Neb. 

Ferris, IsabeR 1913 Arch St, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Ferron, Gertrude 3718 Spring Garden St, Philadelphia, Pa, 

Fetterhof, Flo J 410 W. 15th St, Tyrone, Pa. 

FihSgar, Martha A 507 4th St, Bemidji, Minn. 

Fidd, Chaiiotte 123 E. Philadelphia St , Detroit, Mich. 

Fiddhoose, Alfred A 42 Gould Ave., Paterson, N. J. 

Fink, EUa L. Apt 31, 229 Oneida St, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Fmn, Teresa M. 1224 Goodfellow Ave., St Louis, Mo. 

Fish, Stdla Elise 1302 Sloane Ave., Lakewood, O. 

Fisher, Mis. Gertrude 302 E. 13th St, Wichita, Kans. 

Fisher, Wm. Aims 179 Tremont St, Boston, Mass. 

Fisher, W- Ethelbert 3944 S. Madison St, Station H, Cincinnati, O. 

Fitfnan, Powell G Grant and Franklin Aves., W. CoUingswood, N. J. 

Flagg, Marion E 216 E. Long Ave., DuBoise, Pa, 

Fleaiing, Ada M 2301 Prairie Ave., Chicago, HI. 

Fkssh^ Ethd M 225 Cherry St, Columbia, Pa. 

Ffitcraft, Atknta M Bowen Ave., Woodstown, N. J. 

Foray, Hekn Beech Cre^ Pa. 

Ford, Cora W North Canton, O. 

Fmranan, Robert 103 Park Ave., New Yorik, N. Y. 

Foster, Miss Clyde E 318 Ellis St, Ypsilanti, Mirh , 

Foster, Mrs. Cora W 901 17th Ave., Tuscaloosa, Ala. 

Fonts, Zoe Long 1919 E. 93rd St, Oevdand, 0. 

Foxgrover, Helen C MBwautee, Wis. 

Fraser, Edna 804 Court St, Port Huron, Mkh. 

Fraser, Marie Trinity Schod, Athens, Ala. 

Fiazec, Margaret 1023 Murphy St, Shreveport, La. 

Frederick, Walter H 1489 Wyandotte Ave., Oevdand, O. 

French, Arthur E 58 Beach St, Revere (51), Mass. 

French, M. Francelia 619 Elmore St, Escanabo, Midi. 

Fnyberg, Margaret 80 McMaster St, Owego, N. Y. 

Frodilidi, Frederick Wm 817 Franklin St, Reading, Pa. 

Frances, Irvin T 57 Gould Ave., Caldwdl, N. J, 

Fuller, Mis. Eiattie S 406 Mariners Lane, Albert Lea, Minn. 

FuUerton, C. A Iowa State Teachers’ College, Cedar Falls, la. 

Gall, Ruby E 1828 Knowles St, East Cleveland, O. 



Galloway, Helen Normal Dormitory, Valley City, N. D. 

Gantvoort, A. J Cofiege of Music, Cmcmnati, O. 

Garber, EKzabcth Bo* 215, Athens, O- 

Gardner, Chas. R S. Teachers College, Warrcgaribcirg, Mo. 

Gardner, Clara E 687 Ave. E,, Bayonne, N. J. 

Gardner, Geor^ 1261 5rd Ave., Duiaago, Colo. 

Gardner, Ula Edison, O. 

Garrigues, Miriam .Matm6e Muocal Dub, Phfladriphia, Pa, 

Garten, M. Ethel 614 N. Hastings St, Hastings, Nd>. 

Garthe, Alice L 6754 Nonnal Blvd, Oncago, DL 

Gartlan, George H 170 Pajdade Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Garvin, Helen M 333 Barrington St, Rochester, H. Y. 

Garwood, Marie A TeHuridc, Colo. 

Gastfield, Harriet 402 Ccdlege Ave., De£a&, EL 

Gatwood, E. J Angola, Ind. 

Gaylord, Phoebe L. 609 Gansevort St, Little Falls, N. Y. 

GdDhart, D. R 2001 N. 20th Ave. S., NashvBk, Term. 

Geier, Kathryn ...204 Second St, Wai»au, Wia. 

Gehriens, Kari 333 S. Professor St, Oberfin, O. 

Geller, M. Ellen 521 Cdumbia Ave., Lansdak, Pa. 

GOib, Robert W 192 Oakdak Ave., East Dedham, Maas. 

Giberson, Grace G 1011 State St, Eau Claice, Wis. 

Gibson, Ruth A. Manual Training High Schocd, Kans a s Dty, Mo. 

Gibson, Thoinas L. 3004 Clifton Ave., Baltiinoie, Md- 

Giddin^ T. P Girls’ Vocational High School, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Gabert, Alice M Devil’s Lake, N. D, 

Gai, E. H. Viigbia 958 Pine St, Camden, N- J. 

Gaiegne, Mrs. Lillian B 3626 Lafayette Ave., St Louis, Mo. 

Glasoe, Esther Cooperstown, N. D. 

Gkascai, Elizabeth 9 White Ave., Wakefidd, Mass. 

Gledhin, Anne H 1209 Louden St, Philaddphia, Pa- 

Gleed, Laurel E Banners Ferry, Idaho 

Gienn, Efizabcth A 190 N. Cburtlaad St, East Stroudsburg, Pa. 

Glenn, Mabelle 318 E. Locust St, BkxmingtDn, EL 

Glockzin, Albert A 526 Indiana Ave., Ccnncrsville, Ind. 

Glover, Nellie 203 E. MSI St, Akron, O. 

Gfynn, Maude E Kewatin, Mmn. 

Godfrey, Clare M 108 E. 60th St, Portia]^, Oregon 

Goldthwaitc, George T : 48 Dty Bldg., Portland, Me. 

Goodrick, AUde E 944 Park View, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Gorsmh, Edyth 3028 St Paul St, Balthnore Md. 

Gofls, NcBie 351 Pleasant St, E., Grand Rapids, Midi. 

Goudy, Mrs. Laura N 4216 Pine St, Philadelphia, Pa. 

GohItL Bes^ E - Ill State St, Seneca Falls, N. Y. 

GonM, May E 26 Washington St, Brewer, Me. 

Grant, Ethel Sharookin St, Trevorton, Pa. 

Grant, Letha E 414 School St, Oconto, Wis. 

Greene, Neva L 105 Ellis St, YpsOanti, Mich. 

Grcenawalt, Metta E 11 Magee Ave., Jeannette, Pa. 

Giiesenbeck, Mrs. Lulu 502 Madison St., San Antonio, Texas 

GriflSth, Charles E .221 Columbus Ave., Boston, Mass. 

Grif&th, Ella R 705 West 2nd St., Madison, Ind. 


Griffitli, Ted R ^ SLorl Ave., Edwardsville, Pa. 

Grim, Walter B 225 South St., Havelock, Neb. 

Grimes, Ethel C Peterborough, N. H. 

Grimm, Walther 219 W. Franklin St., Shelbyville, Ind. 

Guiney, Lulu M 1121 Grandview Blvd., Sioux City, la. 

Guion, Miss Neil c/o Board of Education, El Paso, Texas 

Gusman, Martha * 52 Chat h a m St., Mobile, Ala. 

Gutelius, Samuel J 44 E. 23rd St., New York, N. Y. 

Guy, Ruth C 426 N. Oak St., Danville, HI. 

Haake, Chas. J.. 1831 Greenleaf Ave., Chicago, DL 

Haake, Mrs. Gail Martin 1831 Greenleaf Ave., Chicago, HI. 

Haas, Mae E 33 N. Franklin St., Allentown, Pa. 

Haight, Lee Belle 1901 E. 66th St., Cleveland, 0. 

Haight, Maiy E 588 E. Gansevoort St., Little Falls, N. Y. 

Haines, Florence 287 Montclair Ave., Newark, N. J. 

Hall, Charles E 47 West 42nd St., New York, N. Y. 

Hall, Minerva C 1205 Oread Ave., Lawrence, Kans. 

Hall, Norman H 430 S. Wabash Ave., Chicago, HI. 

Halstead, E. E BeUaire, 0. (now supervising music in Warren, 0.) 

Hamann, Elizabeth R Geneva, Neb. 

Hamilton, Carrie E 756 Chartiers Ave., McKees Rocks, Pa. 

Hamilton, Clarence G 16 Cottage St., Wellesley, Mass. 

Hamlin, Edith W 1600 Master St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Hannan, Louise 3855 Gladys Ave., Chicago, HI, 

Hannen, Helen M Manhattan, Kans. 

Hanson, Leslie D 500 Stuart Ave., Kalamazoo, Mich. 

Harclerode, W. M 732 S. 27th St, Harrisburg, Pa. 

Harford, Vera 3654 Midvale Ave., Oakland, Cal. 

Hannan, Effie E 863 Forest Ave., South Bend, Ind. 

Harman, Rev. W. S East New Castle St., Zelienople, Pa. 

Hamish, Louise 1223 Market St, Parkersburg, W. Va. 

Haiialson, Kate L 28 West 5th St, Atlanta, Ga. 

Harrington, Beryl M 36 Lafayette PL, Burlington, Vt 

Harshman, Estella Apt. 7 Braden Block, Warren, O. 

Hart, Eleanor 602 N. Mahoning Ave., Warren, O. 

Hart, Jesrie M Philadelphia, N. Y. 

Hartwell, George 70 Fifth Ave., New York, N. Y. 

Harvty, Faye F Maudh Chunk Twp., Nesqudioning, Pa. 

Haskell, Vena 227 W. Miner St., West Chester, Pa. 

Hatch, W, M 221 Columbus Ave., Boston, Mass. 

Hauer, Florence 643 Walnut St., Lebanon, Pa. 

Hausknecht, C. E 424 Oak St., Hazleton, Pa. 

Haviland, Earle W .Belleview R. D. No. 1, Coimellsville, Pa, 

Hawkins, Mrs. A 270 E. Main St, North Adams, Mass. 

Hawkins, May 270 E. Main St, North Adams, Mass. 

Hawes, Maude M Coddington Chambers, Quincy, Mass. 

Hay, Ruth A Fanwood, N. J. 

Hayden, P. C Editor, “School Music,” Keokuk, la. 

Hayes, Ella M 130 34th St, Newport News, Va. 

Hayne, Elise 26 New St, Charleston, S. C. 

Haywood, Frederick H 810 Carnegie Hall, New York, N. Y. 



Haywood, Lucy M 

Hazlctt, Florence E 

Head, Myrtle 

Heald, Mrs. Alberta P 

Healey, Kate L 

Heath, Mrs. Agnes C 

Heidt, Florence L 

Heddles, Catherine V 

Heinemann, Marie M 

Held, Lillie B 

Helgeson, Elsie O 

Hellennan, Sallie E 

Henderson, Elizabeth B 

Henderson, Eva P 

Henderson, Virginia 

Hendericks, Mrs. Arrabel. . 

Hengy, Eva 

Henneman, Alexander H. . . . 

Henneman, Gertrude 

Heraty, Edna 

Herpel, M. Elizabeth (Mrs.) 

Herr, Georgette 

Herzog, Ottilie 

Hess, Homer F 

Hesser, Ernest G 

Heybum, Lillian C 

Heyl, Lucia A 

Hiatt, Florence 

Hibbard, Ruth 

Hibbeid, Emily L 

Hieber, Olga E 

Higbee, Juva 

Hill, S, Minerva 

mnckle, Mrs. W. A 

Hinkel, Lydia 

H^p, Kathleen B 

Hixon, Helen G 

Hoban, Chas. F 

Hobbs, Theodosia J 

Hoch, Frances F 

Hodge, M. Myrtle 

Hodges, Minnie M 

Hodson, Earl L 

Hoffman, Edith M 

Hogan, Katharine F 

Holl, Cyrilla M 

Holland, Carol M 

Hollenbeck, Mrs. O. D 

Holroyd, Ella L 

Holton, Alma D 

Holzbauer, Emily 

440 S. 15th St., Lincoln, Neb. 

107 E. Poplar St,, Taylorviile, 111. 

c/o Board of Education, Cleveland, 0. 

..109 North College St, Ottumwa, la. 

12 Schubert St., Binghamton, N. Y. 

Tribune Bldg., Chicago, HI. 

.318 East 25th St., Erie, Pa. 

Paonia, Colo, 

1225 12th St., Moline, lU. 

1453 Wightman St., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

720 Main St., Marinette, Wls. 

1127 N. Sixth St, Harrisburg, Pa. 

.4660 Hudson Blvd., Weebawkcn, N. J. 

25 North 7 th Ave., Mt. Vernon, N. Y. 

1612 Arch St, Philadelphia, Pa. 

. .Alpha Apts., 1308 8th Ave., Beaver Falls, Pa. 

California, Mo. 

1300 Quincy St, N. E., Washington, D, C. 

1300 Quincy St, N. E., Washington, D. C. 

Bayonne, N. J. 

217 Greenwood Ave., Punxsutawncy, Pa. 

403 N. Meridian St., Brazil, Ind. 

3219 Bailey Ave., St Louis, Mo. 

Conway, Ark. 

c/o Bc^xd of Education, City Hall, Albany, N. Y. 

.4114 Paikside Ave., Philaddphia, Pa. 

4052 Asken St, W. Philadelphia, Pa. 

221 Farrand Park, Detroit, Mich. 

Hollins Colhge, Hollins, Va. 

Lansdowne, Pa. 

623 S. Wabash Ave., Chicago, HI. 

Pioneer Apts., No. 8, Valparaiso, Ind. 

576 Public St, Providence, R. I. 

212 Parkside Dr., Peoria, HL 

Mary Lyon School, Swarthmore, Pa. 

1016 E. Main St, Massillon, Ohio 

.318 E. Clark St, Crown Point, Ind. 

506 Dudley St., Dunmore, Pa, 

1010 Fourth Ave., Council Bluffs, la. 

321 S, 5th St., Livingston, Mont. 

Belleville, Kans. 

114 W. Fourth St, Marion, Ind. 

623 S. Wabash Ave., Chicago, HI. 

364 N. Main St, Wilkes-Barre, Pa. 

West High School, Rochester, N. Y. 

309 South Ave., Me^ Pa. 

State Normal School, Gcncseo, N. Y. 

763 Cuyahoga Falls Ave., Akron, O. 

Princeton, W. Va. 

52 Waite St, Malden, Mass. 

1127 S. 48th St, Philaddlphia, Pa. 



Homer, Florence High St., Proctor, Vt 

Hood, Eusebius H Shattuck St., Nashua, N. H. 

Boopez, Gladys E 126 Fifth Ave., c/o Silver Burdette & Co., New York, N. Y. 

Hoover, C. Guy Steinway Hall Bldg., Chicago, HI. 

TTnming, Mrs. F. S 623 Market St., Camden, N. J. 

Hosmer, Helen M 29 Walnut St., Winsted, Conn. 

Home, George Lewiston, Me. 

Hough, Laura M Haskell Institute, Lawrence, Kans. 

Houghton, BerteUe L ^ Holbrook St, N. Adams, Mass. 

Howard, Allie G Sikeston, Mo. 

Howatt, AUce D - 401 N. 4th St., Yakima, Wash. 

Howell, Lillian M 9122 Miles Park, Cleveland, O. 

Howell, Thankful S17 College St, Columbus, Miss. 

Howells, Eva M 731 Saville Ave., Eddystone, Pa. 

Hudson, Marcia A 821 3rd St., N. W., Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Hudson, M. Ethel 4931 Fountain Ave., St. Louis, Mo. 

Hud^th, Pearl S.N.S., Commerce, Texas 

Hughes, Florence E 519 Rising Sun Ave., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Hughes, Grace E 519 Rising Sun Ave., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Hughes, Ellen 2201 H. St, Sacramento, Cal. 

Hughes, Mrs. Bertha D 4 Sherman PL, Utica, N. Y. 

Hughes, Louise 821 Humboldt St., Manhattan, Kans. 

Hulscher, Mrs. Grace B Box 116, Cheney, Wash. 

Humberger, G. R 512 Washington St, Marietta, O. 

Humphreville, Margaret L 231 W. Vine St, Lancaster, Pa. 

Hunt, Dorothy 417 N, Aurora St, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Hunt, Edgar 20 St. David’s Ave., Wayne, Pa. 

Hurd, Edna W .113 Ridge Rd., Rutherford, N. J. 

Hurder, Mrs. Mary Bauer 1591 Franklin Ave., Columbus, O, 

Hurrell, Vera M 304 Hawkins Ave., North Braddock, Pa. 

Immel, Mary B ..1011 S. St. Bernard St, W. Philadelphia, Pa. 

Ingalls, K. Elizabeth School No. 1, Fort Lee, N. J. 

Inskeep, Alice C 200 N. 22nd St, E., Cedar Rapids, la. 

Ireland, Mary E Room 301, City Hall, Sacramento, Cal. 

Jackson, Alice H 69 Atkinson St, Bellows Falls, Vt. 

Jackson, C. Ferdinand 1708 Chestnut St, Philadelphia, Pa, 

Jackson, Edna B 221 E. North St, Greenfield, Ind. 

Jackson, Helen Hunt 1708 Chestnut St, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Jackson, Louis D 104 Mass. Ave. N. W., Washington, D. C. 

Jackson, Mary L 1729 Arlington Ave., Bessemer, Ala. 

Jackson, Virginia M 50 Peterborough St., Detroit, Mich. 

Jagger, dive B 117 Ferris PL, Westfidd, N. J, 

James, Evalyn 5861 Burchfield Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

James, Ida Belle 102 W, Ash St, Fairburg, HI. 

James, dive. Pawhudea, Okla. 

Jameson, Marion 2 B Stenton Apts., Atlantic City, N. J. 

Jewett, Grace A 12 N. Rowland St., Richmond Va. 

Jdinson, Agnes C 259 Spruce St., Morgantown, W. Va. 

Johns, Thomas 7 Point PL, New Castle, Pa. 

Johnson, Mrs. E. T 2111 Druid Hill Ave., Baltimore, Md. 

Johnson, Lola 1604 15th St, N. W., Washington, D. C. 



Joknson, Maude L 

Johnstone, Arthur Edward. 

Jones, Alice E 

Jones, Eugenia L 

Jones, Harry M 

Jones, Griffith J 

Jones, Jennie L 

Jones, J. Powell 

Jones, Mrs. J. Powell 

Jones, John P 

Jones, Mary E 

Jones, Rachel 

Jordan, Mildred E 

Judd, Clarence E 

Kanagy, Lulu 

Keffer, Edna M 

Keller, Edith M 

Keller, Emma K 

Keller, Henrietta L 

Keller, Ruth L 

Kelz, Bertha A 

Kemmerer, Mildred 

Kendel, John C 

Kendrick, Martha A 

Kennedy, Helen M 

Kennedy, Mary L 

Kennedy, Vivian F 

Kent, W.P 

Keogh, Katherine 

Kershaw, Joseph 

Kesling, Adair F 

Kettlety, Frank E 

Killeen, Earl G 

Kimbell, Elizabeth M 

Kimberly, May E 

King, Mrs. Catherine 


King, Edna M 

King, Florence 

Kinnear, Wm. B 

Kinsey, C, P 

Klepfer, Hden 


Kline, Estella 

Knapp, G- E 

Knights, Loretta 

Knouss, Mrs. M. Louise 

Knudsen, Mathilde 

Kodinke, Jeannette D 

Konkle, Winifred 

Konold, Selma M 

245 E. Rice St., CHatonna, Minn. 

4517 Olive St., St. Louis, Mo. 

718 Clark St., Evanston, HL 

101 York Rd., Towson, Md. 

16 Maple St., Pine Grove, Pa. 

lOiiO Carolyn Rd., Cleveland, O. 

1147 W. 47th St., Los Angeles, CaL 

c/o Board of Education, Cle\xland, O. 

2055 E. 79th St, Cleveland, O. 

310 E. 10th St., Homestead, Pa. 

134 W. Douglas St, Reading, Pa. 

27 Trinity St, Newton, N. J. 

614 S. Main St, Athens, Pa. 

Sheffield, Pa. 

54 The Chalfant, Indianapolis, Tnd 

615 E. Main St, Latrobe, Pa. 

112 N. Campus Ave., Oxford, 0. 

606 E. 9th St, Ada, Okla. 

.Southwest Teachers* College, Springfield, Mo. 

- 46 S. 3rd St, Cu^'ahoga Falls, 0. 

226 W. Fourth St, Greenville, O. 

27 N. 11th St, Allentown, Pa, 

1921 8th Ave., Greeley, Colo. 

- 506 E. First St, Moscow, Idaho 

High School, Atlantic City, N. J. 

45 S. 40th St., Bayonne, N. J. 

22 S. Water St., Sharon, Pa. 

33 Central Park West, New York, N. Y. 

17 S. Jardin St, Shenandoah, Pa. 

1215 Third, Box 18, Portsmouth, O. 

Dresden, Ohio 

44 Bernice Ave., VToonsocket, R, I. 

860 Crosby St, Akron, O. 

330 E. 22nd St., Chicago, HI. 

423 N. 13th St., MuskiOgee, Okla. 

College of Industrial Arts, Denton, Texas 

144 Peari St., Thompsonville, Conn. 

Scarborou^ School, Scarborou^-on-Hudson, N. Y. 

230 Homewood Ave., Warren, O. 

Lamed, Kans. 

809 S. Florence St, ^ringfield, Mo. 

.3024 N. 3rd St, Harrisburg, Pa. 

1904 Colorado Ave., Colorado Springs, Colo. 

353 Chestnut St,, Pottstown, Pa. 

University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyo. 

155 W. 129th St., New York, N. Y. 

3257 E. Baltimore St., Baltimore, Md. 

Bathgate, N. D. 

Abington Friends School, Jenkintown, Pa. 

Swarthmore, Pa. 

174 Prospect St., Ridgewood, N. J. 



Krieg, Ida B 83 N. Walnut St., East Orange, N. J, 

Krolin, E. C 3620 a Connecticut St., St. Louis, Mo. 

KruU, Lorle 525 E. llth St., Indianapolis, Ind. 

Kummer, Blanche 18 Monte Ave., Piedmont, Cal. 

Kurtz, Nettie S 6218 Ridge Ave., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Kwalwasser, Jacob 220 Coltart Sq,, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Kwalwasser, Mrs. Jacob 220 Coltart Sq., Pittsburgh, Pa, 

Kysor, Anne D 82 Orange Ave., Irvington, N. J. 

La Chat, 1. W Director of Music, Cambridge, 0. 

Ladzinski, Selma M 158 Circular St., Saratoga Springs, N. Y. 

Lafetra, Emma J Trenton, N. J. (Normal School) 

La Forge, Jack M. J 204 6th, North Manchester, Indiana 

Lambert, Louis 3671 Broadway, New York, N. Y. 

Lampert, Florence M Lena, HI. 

Landin, Olga F P. O. Box 183, Jerome, Idaho 

Lan^and, Louise G Madison, 0. 

Larson, Laura Valley City, N. D. 

Latham, Helen 537 West 121st St., New York, N. Y. 

Lawrence, Edith M 76 Normandie Court, Rochester, N. Y. 

Lawton, Mrs. Charlotte D .121 St. Stephen St., Boston, Mass. 

Lea, Margaret .874 N. 22nd St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Leahey, Christine R. D. 28, Overland, Mo. 

Leary, Marie Highland & Carnes Ave., Buntyn, Term. 

Leavitt, Helen 15 Ashburton PL, Boston, Mass. 

Lee, Florence A 400 B. St., N. E., Washington, D. C. 

Lee, Hilda V 1512 Atlantic Ave., Atlantic City, N. J. 

Lee, Ruth H 200 Kenilworth Ave., Detroit, Mich. 

Leader, Josq)h A 2122 Olive St., Long Beach, Cal. 

L^ge, Nina 4311 Prospect St., Cleveland, 0. 

Ldbing, Frances E 432 N. Center St., Terre Haute, Ind. 

Lei^, Blanche Technical High School, Virginia, Minn. 

Lennon, Lida 839 First St., Chico, Cal. 

Leonard, Julia H 239 Caledonia St., Lockport, N. Y. 

Letts, Grace Bridgeton, N. J. 

Levengood, Helen Spring Ave., Ogontz, Pa. 

Lewis, Alice 4418 Locust St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Lewis, Charies L 639 Belvidere Ave., Plainfield, N. J. 

Lewfe, Mildred 23rd & Montgomery Ave., Ashland, Ky. 

liggct, Mary, Mrs Central College, Pella, Iowa 

light, Esther Jane State Normal School, Bowling Green, 0. 

lindbom, Ebba M .226 Sixth Ave., McKeesport, Pa. 

Lmdsay, G. L 1825 N. 18th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

lindstrom, Helen 3711 Lancaster Ave., Philadelphia, Pa. 

linneH, Bertha R College Ave., California, Pa. 

lisk, Anna R Aurora-on-Ca 3 ruga, N. Y. 

little, Harriet 2616 Endora St., Denver, Colo. 

liver, Bessie B Independence, Wis. 

Lloyd, Herbert H 603 N. Church St., Bound Brook, N. J. 

littlejohn, Elfleda 2107 San Antomo St, Austin, Texas 

Lochhead, Alvah C 1210 Travis Ave., Ft Worth, Texas 

Loeper, Helen 1731 Park Ave., Indianapolis, Ind. 

PHILADELPHU, PA., MARCH 22-26, 1920 227 

Loomis, Louise 47(H Fiftb Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Lord, Helen S Box 294, Sheridan, Wyo. 

Lose, Lillian Board of Education, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Love, E. Jeannette .221 8th St., N. E., Washington, D. C. 

Lovelace, Mrs. Ella 1309 S. 7th St,, Waco, Texas 

Low, Henrietta Baker Prince (korge Hotel, New York, N. Y. 

Lowden, Alice M 507 Pearl St., Ypsilanti, Mich. 

Lowe, Elizabeth E Main St., Groton, Mass. 

Lowman, Goldie P ....128 Pacific Ave., Detroit, Mich. 

Lowman, Mary R 108 South St., Johnstown, Pa. 

Lowrie, Blanche E ...,45 Linden Ave., Irvington, X. J. 

Lowther, Mildred Box 115, Salem, W. Va. 

Loyer, Freda A New Washington, 0. 

Lucas, Eva M 1109 6th Ave., Mtoona, Pa. 

Luce, AHena Univ’-eraity of Porto Rico, Rio Piedras, Porto Rico 

Lull, G. P 14 Leigh St., Bradford, Pa. 

Lundblad, J. 0 408 N. George St., Rome, N. Y. 

Lutton, Charles E 64 E. Van Buren St., Chicago, 111. 

Lynch, Fannie E - 456 Roslyn PL, Chicago, HI. 

Lynch, Lucy G 1403 Monroe St., N. E,, Washington, D, C. 

MacConnell, Marie F 57 W. 58th St., New York, N. Y. 

MacCuUoch, Mrs. Jennie M 106 Momingside Dr., New York, N. Y. 

MacDougall, H. C Wellesley College, Wellesley, Mass. 

MacGugin, Mrs. Lillian M .805 West 7th St., Sedalia, Mo. 

MacLean, Ida E 2117 John Ave., Superior, Wis. 

Macphie, Edith F ...5539 Morris St., Germantown, Pa. 

Maddy, Joseph E - 450 Lakeview Park, Rochester, N. Y. 

Maguire, Mary J 1203 State St., Alton, HI. 

Mahin, Mrs. Oma F Egeland, N. D, 

Mahn, Naomi A 1229 Westmoreland St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Maladey, Elizabeth 7114 Kelly St, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Mannon, Vida L ....540 E. Pike St, MartinsvdEe, Ind. 

Mardis, Myrtle 1^6 E. State St, Athens, O. 

Marlatt, Edna A 306 N. 5th St, Richmond, Ind. 

Marsh, Lewis J 59 Main St, Batavia, N. Y, 

Marston, Caroline E 85 Cheney St., Newport, N. H. 

Martell, Leslie A Oliver Ditson Co., Boston, Mass. 

Martin, h^Cldred 87 Tudor St., Chelsea, Mass. 

Maryott, Harold B 6357 Kimbark Ave., Chicago, HI. 

Mason, Goldie C 108 W. Saratoga St., Baltimore, Md. 

Mason, Howard 97 Pond St, Natick, Mass. 

Massey, Ruth 6329 Marchand St, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Mattem, David E 310 Stewart Ave., Ithaca, N. Y. 

Mattem, Irene 310 Stewart Ave., Ithaca, N. Y, 

Maybee, Harper C 1423 S. Grand Ave., Kalamazoo, Mich. 

Meachum, Elizabeth Sam Houston N. I., Huntsville, Texas 

Mears, Walter 2215 Holyoke St, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Meisner, Meta C 1115 W. 3rd St, Davenport, Iowa 

Melberger, Mrs. Grace F 39 Greenfield St, Hartford, Conn. 

Mdchoir, Wm. T Narberth, Pa. 

Menaul, Anna E Madison High School, Madison, Wis. 

Mercer, Walter C 505 W. Grace St, Richmond, Va. 



Meredith, Rose 51 N. Water St., Franklin, Ind. 

Meriwether, Mary C Box 310, Vandalia, Mo. 

Merry, Margaret C D unk i r k, Ind. 

Merry, Cora A 1506 Orange St., Riverside, Cal. 

Messenger, Sophie 513 Union St., The DaUes, Ore. 

Meyer, Lilah E Sauk City, Wis, 

Meyer, Pauline A State Normal School, New Britain, Conn. 

Middleton, Angie A 5170 Jones St., Omaha, Nebr. 

Middleton, T. R 1018 W. Marshall St, Norristown, Pa. 

Miessner, W. Otto 521 Beverly Rd., Milwaukee, Wis, 

Milam, Mrs. A. B 593 Penn Ave., Taylor, Texas 

Miles, David 68 Church St, Plymouth, Pa. 

Miles, Wm R. 13, Fort Wayne, Ind. 

Miller, Bessie 249 a N. 18th St, Kansas City, Elans. 

Miller, C. H Municipal Bldg., Rochester, N. Y. 

Miller, Mrs. C. H Municipal Bldg., Rochester, N. Y. 

hliller, Enuly C 449 East End Ave., Beaver, Pa. 

Miller, Emily M 1914 Forster St, Harrisburg, Pa. 

Miller, Jessie V 221 Columbus Ave., Boston, Mass, 

MUler, May D Box 244, Elkpoint, S. D. 

Miller, Rhea E Metanmora, Til. 

Minick, Pearl A 421 Berwick St, Detroit, Mich. 

Minor, Eva 616 Chapel Hill St., Durham, N. C. 

Mitchell, Bernice 0 2623 Faraon St, St Joseph, Mo. 

Moffitt, Luther R 237 Ransom Ave., N. E., Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Monahan, Clementine 73 N. Belvedere Ave., Memphis, Tenn. 

Monnier, Mrs. Maud N 1 Charter Oak PL, Hartford, Conn. 

Monnier, Wm. D 1 Charter Oak PL, Hartford, Conn. 

Montani, Anthony ,1207 Walnut St, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Montgomery, Grace A 924 Elk St., Franklin, Pa. 

Moon, 1. D Kingman, Kans. 

Mooney, Lawrence 2117 Chatterton Ave., Unionport, Bronx, N. Y. City 

Moore, Adda W 315 W. North St, Kenton, O. 

Moore, Mrs. Clara 2904 L St, Gralveston, Texas 

Moore, Genevieve P 135 Rankin St, High Point, N, C. 

Moore, Louise V .3514 N. 16th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Moran, Jane C 212 N. Dithridge St, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Morgan, Gertrude T 320 Green St, Cmnberland, Md. 

Morgan, Katherine L .2023 N. College Ave., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Morgan, Russell V 1871 E. 1st St, Cleveland, Ohio 

More, Grace Van Dyke. 806 So. Lincoln Ave., Urbana, HL 

Morlock, TUlie 192 Main St, Oshkosh, Wis. 

Morrow, Bernice Eureka College, Eureka, HI. 

Morton, W. M 330 E. 22nd St, Chicago, HI. 

Mossman, Isabdle 323 N. Main St, Princeton, Ind. 

Moulton, Harriet J 1035 White Ave., Grand Junction, Colo. 

Mountain, Chas. W 301 N. 6th St, Fairfield, Iowa 

Mowen, Allen K 3229 W. 99th St, Cleveland, O. 

Moyer, Anna E Topton, Pa. 

Moyer, Violet Box 284, Canonsburg, Pa. 

Muekey, F. S 324 W. 103rd St, New York, N. Y. 

Muffly, May R. B GreenviUe, N. C. 



Muir, Hazel C 

Muldowney, Mary H 

Murphy, Anna V 

Murrie, Catherine 

Myers, Ruth L 

Me Avoy, M. IMildied . . . 

McCall, Sallie J 

McCarthy, Margaret M . . 

McClure, Letha L 

McConnell, Sarah I 

McConathy, Osbourne 

McCoy, Mrs. Archie 

McCracken, Lillian 

McCreery, Elizabeth 

McCutchan, Robert G 

McDonough, Anne J 

McFadden, E. Marien 

McFee, A, V 

McGranahan, Elizabeth B 

McGuire, M. Adalaide 

McGurrin, Irene 

McDroy, Helen 

Me Hroy, Janies, Jr 

McKay, Mary 

McKenae, Duncan 

McKinley, Ethel G 

McKinley, FaJlie F 

McMackin, Carrie P 

McReynolds, Samuel 

MeShane, Mary M 

Nagel, Zeno K 

Nassau, William L 

Naylor, Florence M 

NeCoUins, Elmer 

Neill, Ruth 

Neilson, T. R 

Neppert, Julia M 

Nesbitt, Mary 

Newell, Helen 

Newmeyer, Forrest R 

Newton, E. W 

Nichols, Paul E 

Nichdson, Maude 

Nixon, Inez 

Norton, W. W 

Nowise, RuthH 

Nugent, Mary G 

Obemdorfer, Anne F 

Obemdorf er, Marx E . . . . 

Oberwathy, Hortense 

0*Brien, Charles X 

Ochs, Martha 

250 Paris Ave., Grand Rapids. Mich. 

Heckschervillc, Pa. 

. . .1440 Alabama Ave., Dormont, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Music Dept, E.T.S.N.C., Commerce, Texas 

State Normal School. Bioomsburg, Pa. 

Alexandria Bay, N. Y. 

Box 1958, Bisbec, Ariz. 

129 S. Oak St, Mt. Carmel, Pa. 

842 Central Bldg., Seattle, Wash. 

Moberiy, Mo. 

1727 Wesley Ave., Evanston, 111. 

318 State St., W., Hastings, Mich. 

2231 13th St, Boulder, Colo. 

.7 First St., Canton, Pa. 

De Pauw University, Greencastle, Ind. 

1823 Walnut St, Philadelphia, Pa. 

401 3rd Ave., St. Cloud, Minn. 

Harrogate, Tenn. 

203 N. Wabash St, Wheeling, W. Va. 

4202 Ellis Ave., Chicago, HI. 

Michigan Soldiers’ Home, Grand Rapids, Mich. 

714 S. Union Ave., McKeesport, Pa. 

129 Woodlawn Ave., Mt. Oliver Stn., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

314 Chicago St, Elgin, HL 

712 Outermont Ave., Montreal, Can. 

17 W. Irving Ave., MerchantviUe, N. J. 

75 Central Ave., Montclair, N. J. 

114 Beaufain St, Charieston, S. C. 

801 S. 20th St, Birmingham, Ala. 

88 Montgomery St, Middletown, N. Y. 

177 Ostrander Ave,, Syracuse, N. Y. 

Glassboro, N. J. 

Hamilton, Mont 

100 Washington Sq., New York, N. Y. 

Venice, 0. 

Payette, Idaho 

2862 Howard St, San Fiandsco, CaL 

.519 17th St, Moundsville, W., Va, 

1531 Swain St, Philadelphia, Pa. 

6432 Limekiln Pike, Philadelphia, Pa. 

15 Ashburton Place, Boston, Mass. 

185 ABen St, Buffalo, N. Y. 

DeKalb, HI. 

657 E. Clinton St, Frankfort, Ind. 

Community Service, MilTOukee, Wis. 

25 N. 7th Ave., Mt Vernon, N. Y. 

76 Elizabeth St, Pit t sfield, Mass. 

.520 Fine Arts Bldg., CBcago, HL 

520 Fine Arts Bldg., Chicago, HL 

Oilton, Okla, 

758 Market St, Elirdra, N. Y. 

467 OakwnoH Aim.- rnlnmhitc n 


O’Connor, Katharine 245 Broadway, Girard, O. 

Odell, Arthur H Greenfield, la. 

Odell, H. D Monongahela, Pa. 

O’Haire, Sara L 223 8th St., Troy, N. Y. 

Oliver, Rebecca T 713 Barclay St, Chester, Pa. 

Ormond, Mrs. Hannah 644 McKinley Parkway, Buffalo, N. Y. 

Ormond, Rebecca E .644 McKinley Parkway, Buffalo, N. Y. 

Osborn, A. S 119 Nelson Ave., Saratoga Springs, N. Y. 

Osbum, R. L 404 Eddy St, Ithaca, N. Y. 

O’Shea, J. A 120 Sutherland Rd. Boston (47), Mass. 

Oswald, Victor A 720 Centre St., Freeland, Pa. 

O’Toole, WfiUiam J 62 N. Clinton Ave., Trenton, N. J. 

Overlade, Arthur R Pleasant Grove, Utah 

Owen, Herman E Lowell High School, San Francisco, Cal. 

Owen, Norma V Main Avenue H. S., San Antonio, Texas 

Oyer, Miriam R Sheridan Ave., Annville, Pa. 

Palmer, Mabel Box 34, East Greenwich, R. 1. 

Palmer, Mabel 426 S. 3rd St, W., Missoula^, Mont. 

Park, Alberta M 5217 Latona Ave., Seattle, Wash. 

Parke, C. Ernest 2221 18th St, Columbus, Nebr. 

Parr, Mrs. Marie Burt 1854 Beersford PL, East Cleveland, O. 

Parson, Ruth M 1405 Center St, Wilkin sburg, Pa. 

Parsons, Mrs. Gertrude B 1110 W. Washington St, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Parsons, R. M 2799 Woodward Ave., Highland Park, Mich. 

Patterson, Eiolalia M Box 382, Coldwater, Kans. 

Patterson, Jessie A 312 N. Maple Ave., Greensburg, Pa. 

Paul, Katharine S 619 Marlyn Rd., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Paulding, Margaretta E Daretown, N. J. 

Paxton, Emma F 125 W. 6th Ave., Garnett, Kans. 

Paysen, Magnus Hebron, Nebr. 

Pearce, Blanche Box 673, Warren, Pa. 

Pearce, Mrs. Lewis H Manasquan, N. J. 

Pearsall, John V 181 Argyle PL, Arlington, N. J. 

Pearson, Enoch W .17th & Pine Sts., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Pease, Ruth E 57 Foster St., Meriden, Conn. 

Pecht, Ida Mae 629 N. 19th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Percival, Frank E High School, Sioux City, la. 

Percival, Mrs. Frank c/o Board of Education, Indianapolis, Ind. 

Perkins, Alta B Moorestown, N. J. 

Perkins, L. Pearl 8 Oxford Apts., Houston, Texas 

Perkins, Margaret H 401 Gay St., Phoenixville, Pa. 

Perley, Lena M 77 Treno St, New Rochelle, N. Y. 

Persons, Minnie A 407 West Sullivan St, Olean, N. Y. 

Peters, Emil y E Lansdowne, Pa. 

Peters, Myra K 506 Prospect Ave., Lead, S. D. 

Peterson, Nina Lakota, N. D. 

Philbrook, E. L 1506 28th St, Rock Island, HI. 

Phillips, Adelaide Normal Dormitory, Valley City, N. D. 

Phillips, Bertha Mary Lyon School, Swarthmore, Pa, 

Phillips, Mary D 126 University Hall, Urbana, HI. 

Phfflips, Ruth M 252 S. State St, Elgin, HI. 

Pierce, Carrie E 528 Lincoln Ave., Lincoln, Illinois 

PHILADELPHIA, PA., MARCH 22-26, 1920 231 

Pierce, Grace G .49 Electric Ave., West Somerville, Mass. 

Pierce, Howard T Maine Central Institute, Pittsfield, Me. 

Pines, Anna M 41 S. 7th St., Lewisburg. Pa. 

Pitcher, E. S 79 High St., Auburn, Me. 

Pitts, Lilia BeUe c/o Board of Education, Dallas, Texas 

Plass, Madge Humboldt, Nebr. 

Plumb, LueUa 4215 McKinnej' Ave., Houston, Texas 

Plummer, Letticia Valley City, N. D. 

Pool, Neva A 516 Jones St., Evclcth, Minn. 

Poonnan, Nellie Chazy, N. Y. 

Porter, Marguerite Ocala, Fla, 

Powell, Beryl M Jeffersonville, Vt 

Powell, Edith L 2110 E. 93rd St, Cleveland, O. 

Powell, Inez Huntsville, Texas 

PoweU, Laura A I.O.O.F, Bldg., Alarion, Ind, 

Powers, J- Harold Mt. Pleasant, IVlich. 

Pratt, Elizabeth 4339 Olive St, St Louis, Mo. 

Prentice, Marion H 80 Alfred St, Detroit, Mich. 

Preston, Edna B 2577 Collis Ave., Huntington, W. Va. 

Preston, Georgia A 137 Watkins Ave., Bellevue, Pa, 

Preston, Valentine L Mitchell, S. D. 

Preyer, Myrtle W 506 Summit Ave., Greensboro, N. C. 

Price, Eleanor 5539 Jackson St, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Price, James D • • • * Warehouse Point, Conn. 

Prosser, Issac H 246 Shenango Blvd., Farrell, Pa. 

Provin, Nina Sloan Lakewood Rd., Jamestown, N. Y. 

Pugh, Goldie M Weston, Ohio 

Purviance, Cora M .1612 Park Ave., Bridgeport, Conn. 

Quantz, E. W. Goethe 161 Duchess Ave., London, Ontario, Can. 

Quayle, Harry 36 Franklin Blvd., Pontiac, Mich. 

Quimby, Pearle K .7 E. Central Ave., Moorestown, N. J. 

Rafferty, Sadie Corsicana, Texas 

Rambeau, Ddight 300 Pike St, Cincinnati, O. 

Randall, Bernice D 2035 F. St, N. W., Washington, D. C. 

Ransom, Lettie J .465 Fifth St, Niagara Falls, N. Y. 

Rathbun, Mary B 35 Delawareview Ave., Trenton, N. J. 

Rawlins, Florine E Box 118, Burlington, N. C, 

Ramond, Jennie E 65 Pleasant St, Danbury, Conn. 

Reade, Mrs. Estella Hall Ripon College, Ripon, Wis. 

Ream, Louise F State Normal School, Brockport, N. Y. 

Reeder, Ethel M 442 S. Rebecca St, E. E. Pittsburgh, Pa. 

l^avid .641 E. State St., Sharon, Pa. 

Reese, S. Gertrude .School for Blind, Overbrook, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Reeves, Valerie 1205 N. 2nd St, Abilene, Texas 

Reeves' Ruth M 313 N. 2nd St, Millville, N. J. 

Reichelderfer, Lola Elwood, Ind. 

Reader, Mrs. E. S 510 W. Third St, Williamsport, Pa, 

Reinert, Ida M -416 E. Philadelphia Ave., Boyertown, Pa, 

Reitter,' Amelia M 919 W. Erie Ave., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Relfe, Emfly E 116 E. Terrace, Chattanooga, Tenn. 

Repine, Ruth L 214 E. Maple St, Jeffersonville, Ind. 

Rex, Evelyn 1 105 S. First St, Richmond, Va. 



Reynolds, T. H 1115 N. lOth St, Kansas City, Kans. 

Rejmolds, Vivian Mansfield, Pa. 

Rhodes, M. Gertrude 210 E. Main St, Ephiate, Pa. 

Rice, Ann Pearl Box 292, Rawlins, Wyo. 

Rke, Chas. 1 42 Shattuck St, Worcester, Mass. 

Rice, Emily 125 Ferry St, Easton, Pa. 

Rich, Mabd H Victor Talking Machine Co., Camden, N. J. 

Richards, Marne 307 W. Abbott St, Lansford, Pa. 

Richardson, Etha McC 1050 E. Maiden St., Washington, Pa. 

Richeson, May Carter Glasgow, Mo. 

Richaidson, Margaret L Meridian Junior College, Meridian, Tex. 

RicbiTKHid, Marion D 608 South Main St, S. Manchester, Conn. 

Rkkards, Ruth 129 N. Sycamore Ave., Centralia, HI. 

Rkgdi, Samuel J 763 N. 20th St, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Rigby, Ralph Berea College, Berea, Ky. 

Rioter, Charies B., Jr 2308 Dudley St, Lincoln, Nebr. 

Rinck, Katie M 1108 E. Centre St, Mahanoy City, Pa. 

Roberson, Fanny Bdl Robersonville, N. C. 

Roberts, Dorothy 7118 Linwood Ave., Cleveland, O. 

Roberts, R. W 14 W. 9th Ave,, Columbus, O. 

Roberts, Thomas 333J^ N. Main St, Findlay, 0. 

Robertson, R. R .c/o Board of Education, Springfield, Mo. 

Robinson, Clarence C 108H E. Nittany St, State College, Pa. 

Robinson, Lucy 500 South Front St, Wheeling, W. Va. 

Robinson, O. E 300 S. Wabash Ave., Chicago, HI. 

Rogeirs, Alice 1514 Famam St, Davenport, Iowa 

Refers, Dorothy 2301 Prairie Ave., Chicago, HI. 

Rogers, Louise R ...251 W. Grand St, Elizabeth, N. J. 

Rogers, Walter C 11 Tompkins Ave., Ossining, N. Y. 

RoIKns, Florence M 1922 Eighth Ave., Altoona, Pa, 

Rolhnan, Vesta M Brookville, 0. 

Root, Stella R State Normal Schoed, St Qoud, Minn. 

Ropes, Alice H 151 Hazelwood Ave., Detroit, MicL 

Rose^ Edward G 3rd and Bridge St, New Cumberland, Pa. 

Rooenbeny, M. Claude 910 N. 2nd St, Reading, Pa. 

Ross, Laura E 26 Gaskill Ave., Jeannette, Pa. 

Ross, Lttcile 131 Bdmont Ave., Detroit, Mich. 

Ross, M. LilKan 708 Madison St, Chester, Pa. 

Roth, Anna C 114 W. Barbee St, LouisviUe, Ky. 

Rothholz, Amanda E 34 S. Stenton PL, Atlantic City, N. J. 

Roush, Erma Cavalier, N. D. 

Rovelstad, Thora L 373 Chicago St, E!^, HL 

Rowe, Mrs. Ada 518 E, 10th Ave., Taieatum, Pa. 

Rowland, Johnsie 403 S. Elliott St, Olney, HL 

Ruhe, Mae A 1435 Turner St, ADmtown, Pa. 

Rust, Alvina Vall^ City, N. D. 

Ruth, Mary Josephine 765 Sommer St, Lynn, 

Rumbley, Blanche 212 S. Evergrem St, Channte, Kans. 

Russell, Dorothy C ...S. Dartmouth, 

Russdl, Ellen L .731 S. 7th St, Terre Haute, liid. 

Ruth, Stdla 135 West 2nd St, Berwick, Pa. 

Ryder, Gertrude C Caimd, N. Y. 

PHTEADELPHIA, PA., MARCH 22-26, 1920 233 

SalmoE, Bessie M 221 Columbos Ave., Boston, Mass. 

Sanderson, Eva A 66 Davis Avc., West Newton (65), Maas. 

Sargent, Celia Mary Lyon Schoc^ Swarthmore, Pa. 

Sanford, Claia F Box 62S, St Jos^k, Mo. 

Sargent, Robert S 718 Allent St, Syracuse, N. Y. 

Saunders, Ella San Benito, Texas 

Saiby, Mme. Helene 212 Hyde Park PL, Tampa, Fli. 

Scales, Burton 4727 Hand Ave., FbDadelpSiia, Pa. 

Scales, Mrs, Burton 4727 Hiazd Avc., P hfi ad e ilpli i a , Pa. 

Scanlon, Mary B 59 C3iatham St, Pittsbui]^ Pa. 

Schde, Johanna Valley City, N. D. 

Scheringer, Christine G B<nc 35, Fremont, M ic h . 

Schmidt, Gertrude K .440 McKee Ave., Monessen, Pa. 

Schmidt, Mrs. Kad 128 E. Oak St, LouisviOe, Ky. 

Schoen, Johnson City, Tenn. 

Schod, TTatJiflTTnft 4655 Locust St, PhOadeipbia, Pa. 

Schrock, Elizabeth 161 West BSl, Wabash, Ind. 

Schuette, A Oregon Normal School, MoimKmth, Ore. 

Schulze, Cora E 301 Giencoe Bldg., Ihiluth, Minn. 

Sdiumacfcar, Hermine M 6100 Stanton Avc., Pittsbur;^ Pa. 

Sdmtz, Claia 1 277 Paix PL, MeadviHe, Pa. 

Schwarz, Helen. New Medco Institute for Blind, Alamagordo, N. M- 

Schwarz, Moritz E 60 Park St, Jersey aty, N. J. 

Scott, Aktha M Central City, Neb. 

Scott, Vivian 323 W. Harvey St, Wellington, Kans. 

Seadc, Rosa E Normal Scho^ North Adtns, Mass. 

Seabeding, Mrs. F. A Stan Hywet Hall, Akron, O. 

Seitz, Hairy.- Henry, HL 

Seilais, E 426 So. 45th St, Philaddphia, Pa. 

Sellers, Elizabeth 14 W. Chestnut St, West Chester, Pa. 

SenecaJ, Marie L 1111 Douj^as Ave., East Las Vegas, N. M. 

Sexton, TlHian Music Dept, K.S.N.S., Emporia, Kana. 

ShanUand, Nina K 1008 West 2ad St, Mcikjok, Nd*. 

Sharp, Jean C 28 Bank St, Bridgeton, N. J. 

Sharpe, Ndle 1 4, 127 E. St Joseph St , Tnd i anapolLs Ind. 

Shauck, Vida - - 1^1 Hudson Ave., Newark, 0. 

Shaw, Reba M 232 East Gay St, West Ghester, Pa. 

Shawe, 62 S. Dale St, St Paul, Minn. 

Shearer, Anna M 405 Green Terrace, Reading, Pa. 

Shdby, Mrs. James D .352 E. Lexington Ave., Danville, Ky. 

Sheldon, E. Annville, Pa. 

Sheldon, Pansy E 903 First Ave., Dodge Gty, Kans. 

Shenton, Russell F West Chester Normal, West Chester, Pa. 

Sherlock, Ethd 3530 Broadway, Chicago, DL 

Sherrill, Rachd .Box 241, Sour Lake, Texas 

Sherwood, Gisdle 145 West 45th St, New York, N. Y. 

Shipman, Mrs. Bessie R. 46 S. Walnut St, Akron, 0. 

Sjtoemaker, R31a 508 Brown Ave., Osawatomie, Kans. 

Short, Williani J 57 Bdmont Ave., Northampton, Mass. 

Showers, Fkanfc. .230 Clifton St, Park Ridgpe, IK 

Shmtz, Helen M 537 West 149th St, New York, N. Y. 

Shute, Florence 318 10th Ave. E., Duluth, Minn. 



Shutt, Bulali I Hershey, Pa, 

Siebert, Ida M 216 S. Ashland Blvd., Chicago, Dl. 

sal, Peari A 211 Central Ave., Clayton, N. J. 

Simmons, Masrtie 327 N. Ellis St., Cape Girardeau, Mo. 

Simpson, Mrs. Amy M Minot, N. D. 

Simpson, Ruth 411 E. Oak St., Boonville, Ind. 

Simons, Mrs. J. A 172 Broad St., Charleston, S. C. 

Sin^feinan, W. J 180 Ro<i St, Pittston, Pa. 

Sitzer, EmOy H Albion, N^dbr. 

Skinner, Erva E 91 Main St, Potsdam, N. Y. 

Sladt, Julia M Box 224, Anetq, N. D. 

^e^>er, James T 49 Rutgers H., Passaic, N. J. 

Slm^, Rose S 2138 California St, Washington, D. C. 

Slin^uff, Olive A 1304 S. River Dr., Miami, Fla, 

SLoane, Ralph C 103 N. 16th St., Richmond, Ind. 

Small, Cora 1322 W. 15th St, Bedford, Ind. 

Smedley, Henrietta M 4027 Spring Garden St, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Smink, G. L .325 Climax St, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Smith, A. W 16 Main St, St Johnsbury, Vt 

Smith , A, H 1238 46th St, Des Moines, Iowa. 

Smith, Mrs. Besse E Bryn Athyn, Pa. 

Smith, Boo^as A 1314 Huey St, McKeesport, Pa. 

Smith, Edxnee 319 S. Oakland St, Gastonia, N. C 

Smith, EHm M 113 First St N., Moorhead, Minn. 

Smit h , Eula R Sapulpa, CFkla. 

Smith, F. Louise 35 N. Franklin St, Waynesboro, Pa. 

Smith, Fowler Supervisor of Music, Boise, Idaho 

Smith, Frances Wichita Falls, Texas 

Smith, Fred G High School, Fort Smith, Ark. 

Smith, H. C 62 Chambers Ave., Greenville, Pa. 

Smith, Herman F .3317 Lisbon Ave., Milwaukee, Wis. 

Smith, Lcfla D 271 West King St, Winona, Minn. 

Smith, c/o North Texas Normal College, Benton, Texas 

Smith, Rosabdi G 1228 N. 60th St, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Smith, Ruth C 333 S. Oak St, KendallviUe, Ind. 

Smith, S. F 929 Watchung Ave., Plainfield, N. J. 

Smith, Winifred V 2712 S. 60th Court, Cicero, HL 

Snidow, Una M Hiawatha, TTatig 

Snyder, Mrs. C. G !602 E. Rliig St, Chambersbuig, Pa. 

Snyder, Ira M & Jefferson Sts., Bellaire, O. 

Snyder, M. E 453 Delaware St, Gary, Ind. 

Solither, Alta F Holgate, O. 

Soper, Laura J EEarris Teachers’ College, St Louis, Mo, 

Spangler, Henry Muacal Blue Book, 105 West 4i0th St, New York, N. Y, 

Spaulding, Thankful E 71 Jefferson Ave., Rochester, N. Y. 

Spacer, Harold A .641 Landis Ave., Vineland, N. J. 

^)enoer,VdmahC 7 Ms^e St, Sanford^ Me. 

Sperry, Marie YaXe^ Okla. 

Spink, Lillian F 10 Fifth St, East Providence, R. L 

Spoor, Lena M lllg First Ave., N, Great Falls, Mont 

Spratt, W. E Commerce Club, St Jdeeph, Md. 

Spring, Grace F 614 Division St, Merrill, Wis. 



Staislcy, Maud C 

Staley, Laui^ B 

Starr, Clam Ellen 

Starr, Mary E 

Starr, Minnie E 

Start, Margaret H 

Staton, Harty M 

Steams, Oiian 

Stebbins, Edna 

Steele, MiS. Ctaude L. . 

Stede, Mary E 

Steiner, Emma 

Stepbc^ Madge R. W. 
Stephens^ Miss WSlie, . . 

Stevens, Esllier J 

Stevens, Lnin 

Stewart, Zetta 

Stickel, Stanley L 


Stzvexs, Mrs. Mary N. . 
Stodc, George Cbadwkk 

Stocke, Cbris H 

Stoddarf, L. F 

Stoessor, liBian B 

Stone, Edyth M 

Stone, LouiseM 

Stopber, Henry W 

Stonns, Ruth E 

Stou^ton, Carrie E 

Stout, Julia E 

Strahin, Franz J 

Strodidt, Amdia 

Strong, Caroline A 

Scroop, Efia C 

Strbuse, Catharine £ . . . 

Stryker, Mary J 

Stuber, B. F 

Sturgeon, T. W 

Sctrdo, JosqA. 

Satbesland, Mrs. Bdle . . . 

S«t(^, Adde 

Sutton, Grace E 

Swager, Riibie E 

Swaim, Hannah-Marie . . 

Swanson, Neva M 

Swan-Ze&ca:, Edith 

Sweeney, Esther A 

Swee^, Mis. L. V 

Sylvester, Luona I 

Taylor, Edith S 

Tayior, Mkrie A 

Taylor, Minnie 

101 EQsworth SL, Philadelphia, Pa. 

137 Coulter Ave., Ardmore, Pa. 

Northwestem High School, Detroit, Mkh. 

1152 Pearl St., Denver, Colo. 

502 North G SL, Mus^gjw, CWa. 

145 Teazle St, Fredooia, N. Y. 

. . .5307 GennantownAve.,Philaddlphk,Fa. 

412 Main St, Hackensack, N. J. 

706 E. Seneca St, Ithaca^ N. Y. 

513 Court St, Muskogee, Okhu 

.... .251 S. St Oair St, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
. 184 W. Hutchinson Ave., Edgewood, Pa. 

Hemet, Riveiride Co., CaKfmnia 

Senior BSgjb School, Austin, Texas 

140 Scott Ave., WeDsville, N. Y. 

920 Dallas St, Houston, Tessa 

.11 Holly St, Cranford, N. J. 

1301 Central Ave., Dodge Oty, 

. . . - Kingwood, W. Va. 

.Cold Spring Harbor, Lend Isknd, N. Y. 

158 Maple St, New Haven, Cobbl 

3504 a Greer Ave., St Louis, Mo. 

827 EjeHogg Ave., Ames, la. 

. . . . . .382 LiQmore Ave., E. Aurora, N. Y. 

510 W. Main St, Jackson, MSch. 

6 Congress St, Tnnnansbuzg, N. Y. 

830 St Mary St, Baton Rouge, La. 

826 West St, Wibnington, I>d. 

514 Hdknd St, Erie, Pa. 

State Normal School, Durant, Wa. 

.State Normal S(Aool, Bowhng Green, Ky. 

137 W. Durham St, Phikdd^phia, Pa. 

139 Haitnon St, Warren, O. 

706 S. Detroit St, Xenia, O. 

. . . .State Normal School, Emporia, Xans. 

39 West 41st St, Bayonne, N.J. 

.1508 Beazdsli^ St, Akron, O. 

116 Union Ave., Mt. Vemon, N. Y. 

. . .2315 Madison Ave., South Norwood, O. 

386 S, BdnKmt Ave., Newark,Nr J. 

10 S. 18th St, Plafaddplik, Pa. 

4 Cazdotte, Ridgeway, Pa. 

314 Porter Ave,, Warren, O. 

1 Park PL, Athens, O. 

.2521 Iowa St, Cedar FaUs, la. 

Marietta, Okbu 

303 Biadfoird St, PneMo, Colo. 

Mills College, Oakland, CaL 

....24 Knapp St, Livermore Falls, Me. 

Box 584, Mount Kisco^ N. Y. 

62 Fremont St, Battle Creek, Mich. 

515 Walnut St, Leavenworth, Kans. 



Taylor, LduM 

Taylor, Sara B 

Teller, Henry 

Teii>a^ Adelaide 

Terry, Henry 

Terry, Jeannie E 

Teist^e, Meta 

Thomas, Lovfa B 

Thompson, Mrs. Bdla 

Thompson, Blanche L 

Thompson, J. M 

Thompison, Maude 

Thornton, Addaide 

Thornton, Alice H 

TOlinghast, Elizabeth H 

Tindall, GSenn M 

Todd, Alice A. E 

Tomson, Lorena 

Tonkin, Edna 

Tooke, Harriet A 

Tovey, Henry D 

Townsend, Cora E 

Treadwdl, Myrtle Hale 

Tremaine, C. M 

Triol, Jessie D 

Troost, Mrs. Loava A- M 

Tme, Vera 

Tubbs, F. A 

Tucker, Esther A 

Tudler, Joseph B 



Tyder, J. Gerald 

UUemeycr, Grace 

Unthank, Gertrude 

Van Den Berg, Anna 

Vandevere, J. Lilian 

Van de Walker, Pauline E 

Vander Sluis, Alice C 

Van Fleet, Minnie L 

Van Horn, Hallie F 

Vannatta, Harriet C 

Van Ostrand, Alice 

Van Sickle, Pauline M 

Vayo, Caroline 

Vernon, Mary S 

WingCTf Bonnie Marie 

Vosselier, Elizabeth Van Fleet 

Votaw, Lyravine 

Wadsworth, Mary Ella 

Waite, Virgima F 

Wakefield, Helen M 

. .... 1156 Lexington Ave., Indianapolis, Lad. 

18 Liberty St., Petersburg, Va. 

144 W. 37th St, New York, N. Y. 

416 Adams St, Gary, Lad. 

Fairview, Utah 

123 S- Hill St, Mishawaka, Lad. 

179 N. 11th St, Newark, N. J. 

58 Bismark St, Danville, BL 

57 U St, N. W., Washington, D. C, 

Onaxga, HL 

Hillsdale PL, Joliet, HL 

224 Clark St, Augusta, Kans. 

601 N. West St, Indianapolis, Ind. 

5317 Virginia Ave., Los Angeles, Calif. 

425 Wood St, Burlington, N. J. 

Shdb 3 rville, Ind. 

218 Manly St, Greenville, S. C. 

Station A., Hattiesburg, Miss. 

2707 Worth St, Cleveland, Tenn, 

2417 Milton Ave., Solway, N. Y. 

614 Ida Ave., Fayetteville, Ark. 

206 Park Ave., Pasay, Rizal, P. I. 

Normal School, Lewiston, Idaho 

105 West 40th St, New York, N. Y. 

404 Walnut St, Jenkintown, Pa. 

212 East Ave., Virieilaiid, N. J. 

450 Baltimore St, Jackson, Tenn. 

Bryan, 0. 

137 Market St, Bangor, Pa, 

Montpelier, Idaho 

222 Ransom Ave., Grand Ripids, Mich. 

197 Main St, Kingston, N. Y. 

2354 Michigan Ave., St Louis, Mo. 

....1207 19th St, Rock Island, DL 

117 Conwei Stj^, Aurora, Ind. 

1100 N. Lepez Blvd., New Orleans, La.^ 

. .275 W. Rittenhouse St, Gerinantown, Pa. 

502 S. Washington St, Dillon, Mont 

32 Ross Court, Medford, Ore. 

105 West Water St, Lock Haven, Pa. 

Box 105, Lost Cre^ W. Va. 

1226 S. Cindnnad, Tul^ Okk. 

405 Locust St, Yankton, S. D. 

Frankfort, Ind. 

c/o Board of Educatum, Rodkester, N. Y. 

301 Seminary St, Wheaton, DL 

311 Ross Ave., Alamosa, Colo. 

Flemington, N. J, 

6026 Kenwood Ave., Chicago, BL 

87 Central Ave., Pawtucket, R. L 

615 Church St, Huntingdon, Pa. 

810 Ave. C.. Bayonne. N. I. 

PHELADELPHU, PA., MARCH 22-26, 1920 


Valker, Annie R Hcmdon, Va. 

Valter, Esther M. (Mrs.) 820 Mahanto&go St., Pottsvilk, Pa. 

Wallace, Lena N RandaH St, Waterbiuy, Vt 

VaJler, Dorothy M 2104 Cbmy St, Erie, Pa. 

Vallis, Minnie E 34 Bdmont St, Caiboodak, Pa. 

Valter, Florence L 205 K Hy St, Ishpaning, MSck 

Varing, Frances W 149 S. Hopkins St, &iyie. Pa. 

Vashbum College library Top^ 

Vatts, liUian 1304 p^rk Ave., Racine, TOs. 

Veatherby, Mrs. Lama F. .Pitman, N. J. 

Veaver, Hazel Chapd Hill, N. C. 

Veaver, Paul J Director of Mnsk, Univeraty of North Carolina, Chapel PTfH^ N. C. 

V^ter, Ada M c/o Board of Education, Rodoster, N- Y. 

Vefler, Jennie M N. & S. T, S., MBedgeville, Ga. 

Vefls, Clarence 257 Pad: Ave., East Orange, N; J. 

Vdls, Phradie Boer 43, ChiHicothc, Ma 

Ventz, Ehzabeth H 301 Y<Hk St, Hanerv'er, Pa. 

Ventz, MSdred G 132 W. 3ni St, Lewiston, Pa. 

Vertman, Newton 311 Prospect St, Ashland, O. 

Vestwood, Louise 17 Pennington St, Newark, N. J. 

Vheeler, Claia A i7th k Pine Sts., Phiiadelpiiia, Pa. 

Vheder, Mrs. Emma G. 311 Sixth Ave., N. W., Mandan, N. D. 

Vheeler, Harold P.. .Manhattan, 

Vheeler, Mary E 209 Ddawaie Ave., Olyphant, Pa- 

Vheder, Mrs. Mary P Crescent City, Fla. 

Vhedock, Mrs- Grace SHrvin Hotd, Oklahoma City, Okla. 

Vhedock, Mary E 612 E. I^xth St, Alton, HL 

Vherxy, *Winifred St^. PabMc School Mir^ Oarkstown, Wn. 

Vhite, Sarah R 505 S. 11th St, St Joseph, Mo. 

Vhite, William A Supervise of Masac, Denver, Colo. 

Vhitdey, Mrs. Bessie M 608 E. 9th St, Kansas City, Mow 

Vhiteman, Marie L 400 S. McDonoo^ St, Montgomery, Ala, 

Vhitlatch, R. Oima 447 Center Ave., Verona, Pa. 

VMtmore, A 115 Valley Ave., Winchester, Va. 

Vbittemore, Harry E School Department, City Hall, Mandsester, N. M. 

Viddicombe, Elizabeth A Gay k Morris Sts., PhoenixvOle, Pa. 

Viecking, Hermine 73 Park St, Ashtabula, O. 

^gman, Dorothy 103 Wflson Ave., Mt Oliver Station, Pittsburg Pa. 

VHcox, Dora Womm^s Coli^ of Ddawaie, Newari:, Dd. 

Vild, Theresa F 160 Qazemont Ave., Apt K, New Y<ak City 

VHhite, Alice 1314 Roseauuy Lane, Coh 3 nihla,Md. 

VBkins, Annabd .660 Holies St, Cape May City, N. J. 

Vilkinson, A. J Huntmgton, W. Va. 

Villiams, Elizabeth 601 Fanqder St, Fredericksburg, Va. 

Vaiiams, Marguerite C 901 E. State St, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Vaiiams, Marion S 104 Gogdbic St, Irinwood, Mkh. 

^^hiams, Nancy C State Normal School, Mankato, Mhm. 

Villiains, Raymond B State Agr. College, Manhatten, Kansas 

ViQiams, Sara A 607 E. First Ave, Oskaloosa, la. 

ViHiains^ Sndie L 211 S. Lancaster Ave, Dallas, Texas 

Vmiams, T. R 86 Raiboad St, Pittston, Pa. 

Vmianisoii, Viola B Glassboio, N. J. 



Willoughby, Mrs. J. H 121 N. Church St., Brookhaven, Miss. 

Wfllson, Wm. A Woolworth Bldg., New York, N. Y. 

Wnson, Ethyle G Box 113, Grand Island, Nebr. 

Wilson, Grace W 1028 Harrison St., Topeka, 

wnson, Helen N Palmyra, Mo. 

Wilson, Mrs. Kate M. B 623 S. Weadock Ave., Saginaw, Mich. 

Wilson, Mary A 701 Butler Ave., Ambler, Pa. 

Wilson, Thomas 17 Oakwood PL, Elizabeth, N. J. 

■V^^trout, Gkd}^ M 2928 Broadway, Indianapolis, Ind, 

Wingate, Ray W Alfred University, Alfred, N. Y. 

Wingfield, Daisy 217 Mountain Ave., S. W., Roanoke, Va. 

"Winkler, Theo 1230 N. 6th St., Sheboygan, Wis. 

Winn, Nelie R 212 E. Crawford St., Paris, HL 

Wise, Will F 229 W. 14th St., Anderson, Ind. 

Wisenall, E. Jane 113 Garrard St., Covington, Ky, 

Wohlsen, Helen M 430 W. Orange St, Lancaster, Pa. 

Wmnack, Mrs. Frauds 161 Main St, Reidsville, N. C. 

Wood, Mrs. D. D 1713 N. Park Ave., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Wood, Eva M 1214 W. Genesee Ave., Saginaw, Mich. 

Wood, M. Aurilla 220 6th Ave., Clinton, la. 

Wood, M. Louise 233 8th St. N. E., Washington, D. C. 

Woodard, Harriet N 163 S. Main St, PhiUipsburg, N. J. 

Woodcodc, Elizabeth W River Rd., Salisbury, Md. 

Woodford, Marion J 16 W. 24th St., Baltimore, Md. 

Woodman, Mrs. Grace P 1027 Oak St, Jacksonville, Fla. 

Woodroffe, Minnie C Hamburg, Iowa 

Woodruff, Louise 618J^ N. 9th St, Boise, Idaho 

Woods, Glenn H Board of Education, Oakland, CaL 

Woods, Mrs. Katherine T 325 Stratford Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Woody, Blanche 1103 Jackson St., Anderson, Ind. 

Wonnley, Miss J. E 547 Florida Ave., N. W., Washington, D. C. 

Wray, Nellie 412 Eighth St, Orange, Texas 

Wright, R. W 931 7th Court, Lorain, O. 

Wytoff, Irving 0 623 Witherspoon Bldg., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Wylli, Joseph 2442 Franklin Ave., Toledo, 0. 

Yenser, Elmer C .Third St, Lehighton, Pa. 

YcigBS, M a r t ha D 103 Mound St, Logan, 0. 

Young, Amy M Broaddus Collie, Phi%pi, W. Va. 

Yount, Frances Lewiston S.N.S., Lewiston, Idaho 

Zanzig, Augustus D .33 Central Park West, New York, N. Y. 

Zehetner, Martha M 58 Prairie St, Dubuque, la. 

Zenor, Helen. 213 K 3rd, Claremore, Okla. 

Zisgen, Catharine M Administration Bldg., Trenton, N. J. 


NAiCE Location 

Abbott, Nettie H Buffalo, N. Y. 

Banes, Mrs. S. T Philadelphia, Pa. 

Banctt, Margaret Bristol, Pa. 

Beaumont, Waiian, Miss. New York, N. Y. 

Beggs, Jolmc Chester, Pa. 



Bell, Emily 

Beliak, Mrs. Blanche E 

Sevan, W. E 

Bradt, Marion 

Brann, Mrs, Robert 

Burkhart, Mrs. I 

Caldwell, Mrs. J. R,... 

Capon, Miriam 

Chadwick, Mrs. Floyd . 
Chase, Mary M. C , . . . 

Claxton^ Mrs. Chas 

Coan, Robert A 

Comeal, Janies E 

Cross, Donzella 

Cunningham, Wm. P . 
De Forest, Margaret M 

Dick, Mrs. Clara 

Downs, S. E 

Downs, Mrs. S. E 

Eaton, Eunices 

Eaton, Roland 

Eldridge, Mrs. Harry. . 

Ellis, Ethel M 

Enos, Hdea 

Feruly, Gertrude H 

Fittien, Julia M 

Fitzsimons, Henry T. , . 

Foster, Albert H 

Fraser, Loraine E 

French, Eilene 

Fries, Anna M 

Froehlich, Mrs. F. Wm. 

Greenlau, Helen 

Groves, Anab^ 

Haines, Beatrice 

Harvey, Abbe 

Hammerling, John P. . . 
Himrod, Catherine F. . . 

Hobson, Caroline 

Hood, William M 

Jackson, Louis D 

Johnson, Emma K 

Juett, Mary 

Keedi, Mabel L 

Kimball, Dexter S., Jr. 

Kimball, Mrs. D. S 

Lancaster, Maud M — 

Latham, Helen 

Lawrence, Lomse 

Leach, A. Addb 

Leach, M. Atherton . . . 
Lee, Mldred F 

, Philadelphia, Pa. 
.Washington, D. C. 
.Mauch Chunk, Pa.. 
.DeKalb, BL 
.Pottsville, Pa. 
.Washington, D. C. 
.Philadelphia, Pa, 
.Philadelphia, Pa. 
.Ardmore, Pa. 
.Trenton, N. J. 
.Philaddphia, Fa. 
.Brooklyn, N. Y. 
.Philadelphia, Pa. 
.Camden, N. J. 

. Philadelphia, Pa. 
Wetmore, Kans. 
Philaddphia, Pa. 
Ardmore, Pa. 
Ardmore, Pa. 
Philaddphia, Pa. 
Philaddphia, Pa. 
Dayton, Ohio 
Camden, N. J. 
Trenton, N. J. 
Philaddphia, Pa. 

, Camden, N. J. 
LaGrange, HL 
Chicago, BL 
Malone, N. Y. 

New York, N. Y. 
Lansford, Pa. 
Reading, Pa. 
Trenton, N. J. 
Wiimington, DeL 
IPitman, N. J. 
Trenton, N. J, 
Warren Point, N. J. 
Chicago, Bl. 
.In(Banapolis, Ind. 
Washington, D, C. 
Washingten, D, C. 
Chester, Pa. 
.Chester, Pa. 
.Philaddphia, Pa. 
Ithaca, N. Y. 
.Ithaca, N. Y. 
Akron, Ohio 
.New York, N. Y. 
Trenton, N. J, 
Philaddphia., Pa. 
Philaddphia, Pa. 
Trenton, N. J. 



Lott, Lola J 

Mays, V, G 

Middleton, Mrs. Thos. R. 
MOlikin, Marguerite Y. . . 

Mitchell, Albert G 

Mitchell, Nellie J 

Mitchell, Ruth B 

Monnier, Martin Wm. M 

Morris, John F- L 

Muhlig, Dorothy E 

Myers, Mrs. Carrie M . . . 
McCarthy, Kathryn E . . . 
McClaugherty, Rachel T. 

McGowan, Bess. 

McGowan, Mercy 

Mclntire, Alice 

Nassau, Mrs, W. L 

Nevin, George B 

Ohmut, Jean V 

Park, Etta 

Phillips, Delia 

Poole, Mr. Henry 

Poole, Mrs. Sidney 

Powers, Augustine J 

Price, Anna Marie 

Price, Emma A 

Puliver, GrazfUa 

Rhetis, Edith M 

Roberts, Mrs. Chapin 

RopCT, '^daE 

Schill, Edmund 

Schntz, Henry C 

Sdlers, E. C 

Shaw, J. H 

Smith, Susan F 

Span^, Marie 

Stanger, Mrs. Warren 

Storey, PhyOis V 

Swanstrom, Mabel B 

Van Sant, Mrs. Lottie G. 

Walsh, David 

Wharton, Elizaberii F 

Wheaton, Ltira A 

Winklu, Mrs. Theodore. . 
Withrow, Mrs. James P. . 
Wrigjit, Thomazine 

.Philadelphia, Pa. 

.St Joseph, Mo. 
.Norristown, Pa. 
.Wilmington, Del, 
.Boston, Mass. 

.Boston, Mass. 
.Andover, Mass. 
.Hartford, Conn. 
.Philadelphia, Pa. 
.Wilmington, Del. 
-Springfield, Mass. 
.Buffalo, N. Y. 
.Princeton, W. Va. 
.Christiana, Pa. 

.West Philadelphia, Pa. 
.Wilmington, Del, 
.Glassboro, N. J. 
.Easton, Pa. 

.Ardmore, Pa. 

.Keokuk, Iowa 
.Lambertville, N. J. 
.Ardmore, Pa. 
.Ardmore, Pa. 

.New York, N. Y. 

. Jenkintown, Pa. 
.Riverton, N. J. 
-Cleveland, Ohio 
-Camden, N. J. 
.Germantown, Pa. 
-Atlantic City, N. J. 
.Newark, N. J. 

.Boston, Mass. 
-Philaddphia, Pa. 
.Philaddphia, Pa. 
.Wilmington, DeL 
.Philaddphia, Pa. 

. Glassboro, N. J. 
.Toronto, Canada 
. Chicago, HL 
.Paulsboro, N. J. 
.Camden, N. J. 

West Philaddphia, Pa. 
.LittleVaJl^,N. Y. 
.Sheboygan, Wis. 
.Narberth, Pa. 

.Trenton, N. J. 


Abbott, George J 72 

Adams, F. Eugenia 197 

Afternoon Section Meetings 94 

After School Piano Classes, Regulatwns 

Governing 70 

Aiken, Walter 68 

Aims in Class Violin Teaching 109 

Alabama Report 184 

Allen, Mrs. Pearl B 187 

Amateur Listeners 48 

Amedon, Fannie C 198 

Anderson, Ndl K 186 

Appliances to Supply Needs .109 

Archibald, Mr. Fred W 90, 193 

Armitage, Mary J 51 

Barnes, Mr. E. N. C 88, 90, 202 

Beadi,F.A 90,147,153? 

Beattie, John W 102,169, 175 ! 

Beck^PaulE ...143,200 

Bennett, Minerva 195 

Beigquik, J, V 118 

Bilge, E. B. . . .80, 83, 85, 167, 169, 173, 187 

Bivins, Alice 92 

Breach, Wm .....125, 165 

Brown, Mr., oi New Jersey 172 

Bryant, Laura 92 

Business Sessions 161 

Butterfield, Walter 63, 67 

By-laws 8 

Gdendar of Meetings 9 

California R^rt 184 

Canada R^rt 209 

Car^, Bruce 209 

Carr, Mr 67 

Chflvers, Thomas H 193 

dark, Mr 174 

Clarke, Mrs. Frances E 26 

Qaifcson, Margaret 184 

Class Violin Teaching 108, 114 

Cogswell, Mr. BL E 116, 120 

Cde,Mr 116 

Colorado Report 185 

Community Song Book Committee 15 

Conditions in Washington, D. C 120 

Congdan .172 

Connecticiit Report. -.185 

Contiibul^ EjiuMtors at Piulad^phia.2U 

Constitation aiKi By-laws 5 

Conwell, Dr. Russel H 156 

Cooke, James Frands. 26, 156, 160 

Courses of Study in Music for Credits in 
ES A Schools and the Univ. of Arkan- 
sas 123 

Course of Study for Outside Credit in 

Craig, Jeanie 187 

Crane, Miss A. JuHa 90, 197 

DaoKn, Inez F. 69 

Damro^, F 41 

Dann, A. J 63 

Dann, Hollis. .31, 66, 161, 162, 163, 165, 166, 
167, 16S, 169, 170, 172, 173, 175 

Da^-idson, C. A 200 

Day, Theresa M 203 

D^ware Report 186 

District of Columbia Rowrt 186 

Dockham, Gecnge H 196 

DonncBy., 162 

Driver, Lee L 153 

Dytema, P. W. .80, 85, 161, 164, 167, 1^, 

Eariiart,Wai 28, 75,85,116 

Eckenrotb,Mr 61 

Edlnbnigh, M. A 130 

Educatumal Council 10 

Educatxmal Council of Music Super.usorslSO 
Educational Cyzzd. of M. Sjp. Nat. 

Conf. Constitution 180 

Essential Difference Between Private and 

Class Piano Teaching 73 

Europe or American for Players in Our 
Symplmy Orchestras of Tomorrow^ 
Whidi? 65 

Famsworth, Chas. 166 

Fay, J. W 67, 113 

Ferguson, EL 0 60, 62, 166, 169, 192 

rath Day 156 

Financial Report of the Editor of the 

Music Supw^rs Journal 211 

First Day 25 

Frthian,Mr 170 

Florida Riport 186 

FourthDay. 143 

French Horn and the More Unusual In- 
struments in Rdation to Class Teach- 
ing 113 

Frybei^, Agnes Moore 57 

Fullerton, C. A 189 

Gan^tvooctfA. J 66 

Garber, J.P 27 

Garthon, Geo* 36 

GAhait, D. R 85, 72, 204 

Gheitejs, K. W. .41, 42, 80, 81, 163, 164^ 178 

Girard College. 25 

Gleim,Mab^ 54 

Gddthwaitc, Geo. T 192 

Haake, Mrs. GaB Martm 93 

EEarmc^ in the High School. 76 

Btarmitmy in the Junior ffigh School 78 

Harrington, BcM M 205 

Harvey, Mb. Marie Turner 145 




Hayden, Philip C 161, 163, 166, 169 

Haywood, Frederick 128 

Held, Lillian B 78 

Hesser, Ernest G 52, 198 

mgh School 77, 94 

H§i School Courses 75 

How to Introduce Music Appreciation 
into Schools Which Have Never Had 
Music 51 

Idaho Report 187 

Illinois Report 188 

Indiana Report 188 

Innskeep, Alice C 177 

Inside-of-School Piano L^sons 68 

Instrumental Classes in the Public 

Schools 102 

Iowa Report 189 

Jones, Miss 92 

Kansas Report 180 

Kents, W. P 96 

Kindergarten, Beginnin gs of Music in the, 135 

Kindergarten, Singing in the 134, 138 

Kindergarten, The Supervisor of Music 

and the 141 

Konold, Selma .135 

Lewis, Leo R. 116 

List of Members 213 

Littlejohn, Elfledia 204 

Lord, Hden S 207 

Louisiana Report 191 

Low, Mrs. Henrietta Baker 143 

Lutkin, Dr 174 

Maine Report 192 

Making of the First Assistant, The 88 

Maryland Report 192 

Mariatt, Edna A. 85 

Massachusetts Report 193 

hlarshall, J. P 123 

Material from Wniich Supervisors Are to 

be Made 86 

Mattem, D. E 68 

Mental and Musical Equipment of the 

School Supervisor 41 

Michigan Report 193 

Miller, Bessie 190 

MiUer, Mr. .116, 162, 163, 164, 165, 168, 174 

Minnesota Report 193 

3^Iississippi Report 194 

Missouri Report 195 

Mitchell, Albert G 108 

MofiEatt 66 , 67 

Monnier, W. D 185 

Montana Report 195 

Morning Section Meetings .404 

Morse, Hermann N 151 

Mu^ Appreciation 94, 100 

Muac Appreciation as Related to tie 

Curriculum.... 57 

Music Appreciation in the Elemeatary 

Grades 44 1 

Music Appreciation in the Elementary 
Grades, Importance of Beginning 47 1 

Music Appreciation in the High School . . 

94, 99 

Music Appreciation, Meaning and Value 

of 46 

Music Credits for Outside Work: Why 

and How 117 

Music in Rural Schools as Seen from 30 

Yeais’ Experience 153 

Music as Seen Through Literature and 

Art 96 

Music Training for the Grade Teacher ... 85 

Musicians’ Union 67 

My First Experience with Violin Classes .111 

McClure, Letha L 206 

MacConneU, Marie F 904 

McConathy, Osbourne. .116, 120, 163, 165, 
169, 172 

McCracken, Miss Lillian 92, 185 

McGunine, Irene 138 

McKenzie, Duncan 130 

McHroy, Mr 174 

McMakm, Carrie P 202 

Narional Week of Song Committee 15 

Nation-TOde Challenge, A 147 

Nebraska Rejjort 196 

New Hampshire Report 196 

New York State R^ort 197 

Norm^^ School and Teachers’ College 

Training for Supervisors 85 

North Carolma Report 197 

North Dakota Report 198 

Officers 16 

Ohio Report 198 

Oklahoma Report 199 

Opening Reception 35 

Ch^on Report 200 

Parr, Mrs 90 

Parsons, Gertrude B 184 

Past, Present and Future 31 

Past Presidents, Report of Comm. of. 176 

Pearson, Enoch W 22, 27 

Perdval, Frank E 65, 68, 169, 170 

Pennsylvania Rqfwrt 200 

Philadelphia Public Schools 25 

Piano Classes 68 

Piano Teach-in the Schools 68 

Plan for Giving Credit for Outside Study 
in Applied Music: Preliminary State- 
ment 123 

Porto Rico Report 207 

President’s Address 31 

Problems and Difficulties of the Boy’s 

Voice m the High School 130 

Program 17 

Public School Piano Classes as I Have 
Known Them 69 

Receprion Committee 147 

Rdation of School to Outside Study 83 

Rdation of Music Appreciation to Other 
Phases of Music and Correlation with 
Other Subjects of the Curriculum 52 

TmUiDELPBIA, PA., MARCH 22-26, 1920 


Relation of Private Teacher to the Public 

School Piano Class 

Report of Committee on National Week 

of Song 181 ; 

Reports of Committees and Officers 176 1 

Report of Committee on Resolutions .... 182 1 

R^rt of Educational Council 177 1 

Reports of State Advisory Committees 

by Their Chairmen 184 1 

Refuse for the Conference 28 

Resiilts of Questionnaire 199 

Rhode Island Report 202 

Robinson, Ethel M 136 

Root, Stella R .193 

Rural Life Betterment Thru Music 143 

Rural Life and Music 151 

Rural Music, Beginnings in 145 

Rural Schools, Some Suggestions for 
Music in 143 

Sanford, Miss Oaa F 175, 195 

Saxby, Mrs. Hdene 186 

Sdioen, Mr. Max .88, 148 

School Band, The 160 

School Music Credits Committee ... 15 

School Music Teaching, An Introduction 


School Orchestra, The 

School Orchestra, Organization and 


Scott, Col. W.R 

Second Day 

Some Obstacles to the Progress of Music 

in Rural Communities 

Song and the Child 

Soper, Mr 

South Carolina Report 

South Dakota Report 

Special Groups 

Specific Voice Training in the High 

Schod 125 

^)eci^ Voice Culture for High Scho^. . 128 

Standing Committees 15 

Starr, Minnie E 199 

State Advisory Committees 10 

Status of Outade Credit in Boston and 

Other Massachusetts Cities 123 

Stock, George Chadwkk .132, 172 

Stopher, H. W .191 

Strauss, Mr ’..172 

Strouse, Miss 90 

sj-iir.’iscri Part in Making Grade 
Teacher Efficient in the Teaching of 

Music Apprcdadon 54 

Survey of tlie Instrumental Work in the 
Grand Vifn. Grnde School .... 105 
Sun sv o: tne Initr-rer/j:! Work in the 
Grand Rapids, Mich. H3gb Sdtod 104 

Task of Normal School and Teachers Col- 
lege 86 

Tennessee Report 204 

Texas RQx>rt 20i 

Theory Courses for Students of Applied 

Muac 81 

Third Day. 44 

Thompson, Mr 1^, 165 

Thomson, Lorena 194 

TmdaU, Glenn M 99 

Tovcy,H.D 121, 123 

Treasurer’s Report 210 

Mrs. Troost 66, 67 

Vahre of Class Form Vocal Instruction: 
Some Phases of the Work 132 

Wanastaker, John, Coiitmercud lostitnte 62 

Washington Report 206 

Weaver, Mr 164, 172 

Weloome 27 

West Virginia Report .206 

What Shall We Teach, Why, How? 48 

What the Normal Schools and the Teach- 
ers’ Colleges Can Do for the Grade 

I Teachmin the Summer Sesdon 92 

Luke L 44 

Winkler, Theo 121 

Wisenall, Jane E 76 

Woody, Miss Blanche 90, 92 

W^orkmg Plan for Crediting Outride 

Study of Music 116 

Working Plan for Musk Cr^ts, A 121 

Wyoming Report 207 

Zaarig, Angnstus D 

I Supcridsor. The 36 

72 j j restk.'^ with Grade Tcach- 

er=, ar.J Value 90 

Superrisors of the Future 36 



■* :::l. 



VfcZr. Tszz.:.: : \a Classes 113, 115 

2 j j Virginia Report 201