Skip to main content

Full text of "A Tennyson Dictionary The Characters And Place Names Contained In The Poetical And Dramatic Works Of The Poet Alphabetically Arranged And Described"

See other formats






A TENNYSON DICTIONARY 



Uniform With this Volume , 


DICTIONARIES TO FAMOUS 
AUTHORS. 

Dickens. A. J. Pinup. 

Thackeray. I. U. Mudge and M. K. Sears, 
Scott (Waverley Novels). M. F. A. Husband. 
Kipling. W. A. Young. 

Thomas Hardy. F. Saxelby. 

Oscar Wilde. Stuart Mason. 

Zola (Rougon-Macquart Novels). 

j. G. Patterson. 

Medieval Romance and Romance Writers. 

Lewis Spence, 



TENNYSON DICTIONARY 


THE CHARACTERS AND PLACE-NAMES CONTAINED 
IN THE POETICAL AND DRAMATIC WORKS 
OF THE POET, ALPHABETICALLY 
ARRANGED AND DESCRIBED 

WITH SYNOPSES OF THE POEMS AND PLAYS 


By 

ARTHUR E. JBAjtER, F.R.Hist.S., F.L.A., 

Author of 

“ A Brief Account of the Public Library Movement in 
Taunton,” “A Concordance to the Poetical 
and Dramatic Works of Alfred, Lord 
Tennyson,” etc. 


LONDON 

GEORGE ROUTLEDGE & SONS, LTD 

New York : E. P. DUTTON & CO 




Debicateb 

To the Memory of 
CLARA, 

Who, after an illness borne with fortitude and patience, 
passed away on May 31st, 1914. 




INTRODUCTORY NOTE 


The success which has attended the publication of my Tennyson Con- 
cordance in 1912, has prompted me to undertake the compilation of 
this Dictionary. 

The book is intended as a work of reference for all lovers of Tenny- 
son’s works. Its principal function is to identify and describe the 
multitudinous characters, place-names, etc. — whether fictitious or 
historical— created or utilized by the. Poet ; anything, therefore, in the 
nature of criticism is entirely outside its scope. 

The two chief features claimed for this compilation are brevity and 
accuracy. The Synopses furnish a short explanatory account of the 
Poems and Plays, and the Dictionary proper a short description of 
the characters and place-names, together with the names of towns, 
rivers, horses, birds, flowers, etc. In all there are some 2,040 entries. 

A list of the books consulted or quoted throughout the work is 
appended ; and for the valuable information obtained from them I 
take this opportunity of expressing my acknowledgments. 

A. E. B. 


vii 




SYNOPSES OF THE POEMS AND PLAYS 


ACHILLES OVER THE TRENCH. 

A rendering of the Iliad 
xviii. 202, recounting the help 
given to Achilles by Pallas and 
the consequent rout of the 
Trojans. 

ADELINE. 

Five stanzas written to a 
certain 4 spiritual Adeline 5 to 
describe her charms. 

AKBAR’S DREAM. 

A supposed conversation in 
blank verse between Akbar, the 
great Mogul who ruled India 
from 1565 to 1605 a.d,, and 
his intimate friend Abul Fazl. 
The poem is prefaced by a 
quotation from the writings of 
Abul Fazl. Akbar was one of 
the most tolerant rulers who 
ever lived. No creeds were 
condemned by him, and he 
invented a new religion which 
aimed at being a sort of epitome 
of the best in all beliefs. In 
this poem, he tells Abul Fazl 
that the cause of a temporary 
depression is the shadow cast by 
an evil dream. He then ex- 
pounds his theory of life and 
religion to Abul. His opinion 
is that God is in all creeds and 
that the one intolerable thing 

t.d. I 


is intolerance. But now and 
then a doubt asserts itself — as 
when he is troubled by dreams 
such as the one that he has 
recently dreamed. In it, he 
thought he had built 

c a sacred 

fane, 

A temple, neither Pagod, 

Mosque, nor Church/ 
in which people of all creeds 
might worship, and in which 
might dwell 

‘ Truth 

and Peace 

And Love and Justice 5 
But while he and Abul stood 
looking at, and rejoicing in their 
work there was tumult, and in 
burst Akbar’s well-loved son 
Saleem, and slew both his 
father and Abul. c Death * 
however c had ears and eyes/ 
and Akbar saw his son despoiling 
the fair building and ruining a 
life-work. After a time came some 
people from the west, c an alien 
race/ and again built up the 
law of toleration and equity, 
abolishing such monstrous prac- 
tices as suttee and child-mar- 
riage. The poem ends with a 
morning hymn to the 

c Timeless in the 
flame that measures Time ! * 
B 



ALEX] 


2 


ALEXANDER. 

A Sonnet to Alexander, de- 
scribing him as 

< Warrior of God, whose 
strong right arm debased 
The throne of Persia,’ 

ALL THINGS WILL DIE. 

A lament that the inevitable 
end of all things, however 
beautiful and full of life, is 
death. Even the blue river, 
and the south winds will cease, 
c And the old earth must died 

AMPHION. 

The supposed writer of this 
rather merry poem had been left 
a park by his father. The 
poem voices his regret that 
he was not born in the days 
when ‘ Old Amphion 5 sat down 
and sung, and c left a small 
plantation;’ In those days, 
Nature was 

* So youthful and so flexile 

You moved her at your 
pleasured 

and trees sprang up at the 
twanging of a fiddle. But c in 
such a brassy age 5 as the pre- 
sent, c months of toil, And 
years of cultivation ’ are needed 
to make 

c at the end of all 
A little garden blossom d 

ANCIENT SAGE. 

An ancient sage gives a young 
man of fashion good advice in 
the form of a commentary on 
a despairing song which the 
latter had written. The youth 


[AYL 

is bidden to give up pleasure, 
and devote himself to temper- 
ance and good works. 

AUDLEY COURT, 

A short poem in blank verse. 
The writer and hn friend 
4 Francis Hale, the farmer's 
son/ are crowded out of the 
Bull and the Fkeee Inns, and 
so are forced to picnic at Aud- 
ley Court. After they have 
eaten of home-made bread and 
pastry, they discuss politics, 
the king, and matters nearer 
home. Lastly, they end the 
picnic by entertaining one an- 
other with songs. Francis sings 
a song, the refrain of which i$ 

4 Let me live my life,' while hi* 
friend’s choice falls upon a 
mournful song of one Ellen 
Aubrey. After this the two 
friends return at nightfall to 
the quiet town 
4 beneath a moon, that, just 
In crescent, dimly rain'd about 
the leaf 

Twilights of airy silver/ 

The poem was suggested by 
Abbey Park at Torquay, ami 
closes with a description of T ur- 
quay, as it was in Tennyau/i 
youth, 4 the loveliest sea-village 
in England/ 

AYLMER’S FIELD. 

A narrative poem in blank 
verse. The story is supposed 
to have been told to the write* 
by an old vicar of the place 
where the events narrated in 
the story took place. Sir Ayl- 
mer Aylmer was a typical 



AYL] 


3 


[BAN 


country squire. He lived in a 
magnificent house, and took 
great pride in his ancestry. 
The Aylmers had always been 
friendly with the vicars of the 
place — an office which was 
always held by the eldest son of 
the Averill family, and so 
descended from father to son 
with great regularity. At the 
time the story opens, sir Aylmer 
and his wife had an only daugh- 
ter, just five years younger 
than Leolin Averill, the younger 
brother of Averill Averill, who 
was then vicar. Leolin and 
Edith Aylmer grew up to- 
gether, and as they grew older 
their childish comradeship 
changed to love. Sir Aylmer 
suspected nothing — indeed he 
deemed it impossible that an 
Averill should dream of linking 
himself with an Aylmer. One 
day, however, he overheard 
some conversation between his 
daughter and Leolin Averill 
which revealed the fact that 
they were indeed lovers. He 
and his wife rated their daugh- 
ter severely, and forbade Leolin 
to have anything more to do 
with her. Leolin, in a passion 
of grief and anger, sought his 
brother Averill and confided 
to him his intention of making 
a great name and returning to 
marry Edith. In accordance 
with this resolve he went to 
London and worked at the law, 
occasionally receiving letters, 
secretly sent, from Edith. But 
one day sir Aylmer intercepted 


one of these letters and the 
correspondence was stopped. 
Edith, denied all intercourse 
with her lover, gradually pined 
and died. On the day of her 
death, Leolin was found stabbed 
by his own hand with a dagger 
Edith had given him. The 
elder Averill preached a savage 
indictment of the cruel parents 
from the text, ‘ Behold your 
house is left unto you desolate. 5 
The passionate sermon wrought 
such remorse in sir Aylmer and 
his wife that they, too, died. 
Aylmerston in Norfolk is said 
to be the scene of the poem. 

BALLAD OF OKI AN A. 

Describes a soldier’s woe, 
who after pledging his troth 
to the beautiful Oriana, went 
bravely into battle, only to see 
his betrothed, who was watch- 
ing him from the castle, pierced 
through the heart by an arrow. 

BANDIT’S DEATH. 

The bandit carries a woman 
to his cave after murdering 
her husband, Piero. She lives 
in hatred of the murderer, but 
her dislike is lessened by the 
arrival of a son. With the 
police on his track, the Bandit 
accidentally strangles the child 
as he utters a cry. He is sorry 
for his action, but the woman, 
her loathing revived, stabs him 
as he sleeps, and cutting off 
his head, puts it in a cloth, and 
carries it away with her. 



BAT] 


4 


BATTLE OF BRUNANBURH. 

Describes the defeat and 
slaughter of the army of Anlaf 
and Constantius the traitor, 
by Athelstan and his brother 
Edmund. 

BEAUTIFUL CITY. 

A short description of Paris, 
c the centre and crater of Euro- 
pean confusion. 5 

BECKET. 

A play in blank verse in five 
acts preceded by a Prologue. 
Prologue. King Henry and 
Thomas Becket, chancellor of 
England, are seen at chess. 
Their talk is friendly, and 
the king proposes making 
Becket archbishop of Canter- 
bury, and gives him a chart 
showing the bower designed 
for his paramour Rosamund, 
together with instructions to 
convey her safely thither. 
Eleanor of Aquitaine plans 
with Sir Reginald Fitzurse 
to seize Rosamund, her rival. 
Act i. Becket finds the burden 
of archbishoprick and chan- 
cellorship too heavy to bear, 
and returns the Great Seal to 
the king, resolving hence- 
forth to stand for the Church 
even against Henry. He 
saves Rosamund from Fitz- 
urse and Eleanor, angers the 
king by refusing to give his 
seal to certain laws regarding 
the trial of clerics, and finally 
flees to France after having 
feasted beggars instead of 


[BEG 


the angry nobles on the king's 

side. 


Act ii. 

Rosamund, in her 

bower, 

pleads 

with Henry 

to be 

friends 

with Becket. 

Louis i 

of France 

v Becket, and 

Henry 

meet at 

MontmiraiL 

Becket 

refuses 1 

:o crown the 

king's son. Henrv goes a wav 

in a rage and L 

nub, hitherto 

friendly, turns 

Becket out 

of France* but 

soon repents 

his decision 

and invites 

Becket 

to star. 


Act iii. 

Henry and Rosamund 

talk in 

the bower. A new 

bower- 

maid di'C 

hoes id Rusa- 

inund 

rise fad 

■ which has 

been 

kept 

es ret from 

her — that Henrv is mar- 

tied tu 

Eleanor 

of Aquitaine. 

Eleanor and Fhzurse >pv out 

the 

bower. ; 

Becket and 

Henry 

are n 

worn iled in 

France 

and start 

for England. 

Act iv. 

Cm »ffre; 

d child of 


Henry and Rosamund, leads 
Eleanor to his mother. 
Eleanor and Fitzurse offer 
to murder Rosamund, but; 
Becket intervenes in time, 
and saves her, and sends her 
to a convent. 

Act v. Henry k tricked by 
Eleanor and her knights into 
great anger against Becket. 
Four knights rush off and 
murder the archbishop in 
Canterbury Cathedral, leaving 
Rosamund by the body. 

BEGGAR MAID, 

A fair beggar maid came 



BLA] 

barefooted before king Co- 
phetua, who so admired her 
beauty that he swore an oath 
that he would make her his 
queen. 

BLACKBIRD, THE. 

The writer, unlike his neigh- 
bours, welcomes the blackbird 
into his garden, but laments the 
fact that, in the spring, the 
bird’s beautiful song is seldom 
heard, as he is too intent on 
feeding. 

BOADICEA. 

An * experiment 5 describing 
how queen Boadicea 

* Girt by half the tribes of 

Britain, near the colony 
Camulodune, 

Yell’d and shriek’d between 
her daughters o’er a wild 
confederacy.’ 

Her speech is a wild denuncia- 
tion of the Roman tyrants of 
Britain and a' fierce call to arms . 
In answer to her exhortation 
the people arose, and 

* Ran the land with Roman 

slaughter, . . 

BREAK, BREAK, BREAK, ETC. 

The writer, as he watches 
the sea ever breaking against 
the rocks, envies the fisher- 
man’s boy and the sailor lad 
who are both happy, while he 
longs 

£ for the touch of a vanish’d 
hand, 

And the sound of the voice that 
is still ! ’ 

The scene of the poem is 


5 [BRO 

Clevedon Church, which over- 
looks the Bristol Channel. 

BRIDESMAID, THE. 

A sonnet describing how the 
bridesmaid, who shed tears at 
her sister’s wedding, was com- 
forted by the assurance that 
she too, would make a happy 
bride. 

BROOK, THE. 

A poem in blank verse de- 
scribing the memories aroused 
in a certain Lawrence Aylmer 
by the sight of the brook he has 
known since childhood. Here 
he parted with a poet friend, and 
here too, he met with Katie 
Willows, whose father Philip 
he kept occupied with talk while 
Katie met her lover. But now 
£ Katie walks 
By the long wash of Austra- 
lasian seas 

Far off, and holds her head to 
other stars, 

And breathes in April-autumns. 
All are gone.’ 

Just as this conclusion is 
reached, the old dreamer looks 
up and is astonished to find 
himself face to face with a girl 
so like the old Katie that he 
is startled and inquires her 
name. £ Katie Willows ’ she 
says, and explains the seeming 
miracle by stating that she is 
the daughter of Katie Willows 
the first, but now returned 
from Australia. Through the 
poems runs the well-known 
lyric, beginning : 



BUO] 


6 


[CHA 


4 I come from haunts of coot 
and hern, 

I make a sudden sally/ 
the supposed reply of the brook 
to the poet’s question 
4 O babbling brook/ . . . 

4 Whence come you ? 3 

BUONAPARTE. 

A patriotic sonnet to Napo- 
leon glorying in the way Britain 
4 The island queen who sways 
the floods and lands 
From Ind to Ind/ 

4 taught him lowlier moods 3 at 
Trafalgar and in Egypt. 

BY AN EVOLUTIONIST. 

The soliloquy of a man who 
has reached old age with his ani- 
mal strength, and being largely 
decayed but 

4 the Man is quiet at last 

As he stands on the heights of his 
life with a glimpse of a height 
that is higher . 3 

CAPTAIN, THE. 

A 4 legend of the Navy 3 in 
ballad metre. This short poem 
is the story of a sea captain who 
‘earned the hatred of his crew 
by his cruelty, and yet thought 
to 

4 make the name 
Of his vessel great in story . 3 
One day he sighted a ship of 
France, and gave orders to 
advance towards her and give 
battle. The crew waited till 
they were alongside and then 
allowed the enemy to shoot 
them down and destroy their 
ship, thus revenging them- 


selves on their cruel captain 
at the cost of their own lives. 

CARESS’D OR CHIDDEN BY 

THE SLENDER HAND. 

One of the early sonnets, 
describing how 

4 Light Hope at Beauty’s call 
would perch and stand, 
And run thro 3 every change 
of sharp and flat . 3 

CHARACTER, A. 

Five stanzas, half playful 
description of man who 

4 canvass’d human mysteries. 
And trod on silk, as if the winds 
Blew his own praises in his eyes. 3 " 

CHARGE OF THE HEAVY 
BRIGADE AT BALACLAVA. 

A stirring practical descrip- 
tion of 4 that ride into the Rus- 
sian column . 3 

CHARGE OF THE LIGHT 
BRIGADE. 

A graphic description of the 
famous charge of the Light 
Brigade at Balaclava, when, 
owing to an improperly given 
command, six hundred cavalry 
rode to almost certain death 
in a hopeless attempt to cap- 
ture the Russian guns. 

CHARITY. 

A woman, whose lover deserts 
her to marry an heiress, finds 
out what true charity is, when, 
after the husband has been 
killed in a railway accident, the 
young widow helps and tends 
her in her hour of need. 



CfflJ] 


7 


CHURCH-WARDEN AND THE 
CURATE, THE. 

An amusing poem in dialect 
in which a churchwarden, for- 
merly a Baptist, gives some 
useful advice to a young curate. 
It was suggested by a story told 
to the poet by the Rev. Canon 
Rawnsley. The story is thus : 

* 1 returned to my father’s 
parish, Halton Holgate, near 
Spilsby, in Lincolnshire, from 
my ordination, and found my 
father’s churchwarden, G. R., 
upon the platform. He saw 
I had a white tie on, and he 
said cheerily, cc Well, Mr. 
Rownsley, I can sea by that 
white thing round youre throat 
that they’ve gone and maade 
a parson on you ! ” 

c “ Well well,” he added, 
‘ God Omighty knows theer 
mun bea parsons as well as 
farmers, and you’d be a fool i’ 
the crewyard along o’ the 
beasts, I reckon, and I should 
mebbe bea as big a fool in the 
pulpit o’ Sunday. Now, doant 
be stunt, I’m youre feyther’s 
churchwarden, and I’m goain’ 
to giv’ you a bit o’ my moind.” ’ 
Rawnsley : Memories of the 
*Tennysons . 

CIRCUMSTANCE. 

A single stanza tracing ‘ two 
children in two neighbouring 
villages,’ through their life to 
the second generation and end- 
ing with the reflection 
‘ So runs the round of life from 
hour to hour.’ 


[COL 

CITY CHILD, THE. 

Two stanzas describing the 
c city childs ’ — ‘ the dainty little 
maidens ’ — desire for the plea- 
sures of the country. 

CLARIBEL. 

Two stanzas descriptive of 
the beautiful bower ‘ where 
Claribel low-lieth.’ 

CLEAR - HEADED FRIEND, 
WHOSE JOYFUL SCORN. 

Three stanzas, addressed to 
a friend, who, the poet declares, 
‘ will not live in vain ’ and goes 
on to predict a glorious future 
for his evidently gifted friend. 

COLUMBUS. 

A speech put into the mouth 
of Columbus. He has dis- 
covered a new world and is now 
dying in chains for his pains. 
He is evidently speaking to a 
court noble come to visit him. 
He tells of all his struggles to 
convince people that the earth 
was a sphere, of the inward 
certainty, through all, that he 
was chosen of God to do his 
great work for Spain, and of his 
vow that whatever wealth he 
brought from the new world 
should be used in a Crusade. 
He bitterly resents his chains 
and the worthless men who 
have entered into the heritage 
of the land he discovered. 
Nevertheless, the poem ends 
on a fine note of patriotism : — 

‘ Rack’d as I am with gout, and 
wrench’d with pains, 

Gain’d in the service of His 
Highness, yet 



COMJ 


8 


[DAI 


Am ready to sail forth on one 
last voyage. 

And readier, if the King would 
hear, to lead 

One last crusade against the 
Saracen, 

And save the Holy Sepulchre 
from thrall.’ 

COME NOT, WHEN I AM DEAD. 

Two stanzas in which the 
poet exhorts his child not to 
come to weep over his grave 
but to 

* Pass on, weak heart, and leave 
me where I lie : 

Go by, go by.’ 

CROSSING THE BAR. 

The beautiful and last poem 
beginning 

Sunset and evening star, 

And one clear call for me ! ’ 
in which the poet compares 
his own death to the outgoing 
of a ship over the harbour bar 
into the open sea. 

CUP, THE. 

A tragedy in blank verse in 
two acts. 

Act i. Synorix, a Galatian ex- 
Tetrarch and a man with a 
reputation of loose life, re- 
turns to the temple of Artemis 
in Galatia in search of a priest- 
ess he had admired, now wife 
of Sinnatus, Tetrarch of 
Galatia. He meets Sinnatus 
while hunting, and calling 
himself Strato, goes in the 
evening to the Tetrarch’s 
house as guest. There he 
tells Camma, Sinnatus’ wife, 


of his plan of leaguing with 
Rome for the sake of Galatia. 
He also tells her of his love 
and that it -was he who earlier 
in the day had sent her a 
sacred cup. He bids her 
come to the temple in the 
morning, to plead with the 
Roman Antonius for the life 
of Sinnatus who has been 
plotting against Rome. The 
identity of Synorix is dis- 
covered, and Sinnatus drives 
him out. Camma meets 
Synorix at dawn. Sinnatus 
discovers them and is slain 
by Synorix. 

Act ii. Camma has become a 
priestess in the temple of 
Artemis. Synorix has at- 
tained his ambition and is 
king of Galatia under Rome. 
He sends messengers implor- 
ing Camma to marry him. 
She consents, and awaits his 
coming in the temple. Dur- 
ing the marriage ceremony 
she fills the sacred cup he 
had given her with poisoned 
wine, and, after drinking 
herself, gives it to him to 
drain. He does so, and pre- 
sently sickens and dies. 
Camma dies shortly after, 
calling on the name of Sin- 
natus. 

The theme of the tragedy is 
taken from Plutarch’s Moralia . 

DAISY, THE. 

A memory, written at Edin- 
burgh, of what was apparently 
a honeymoon journey in Italy. 



DAW] 

The writer — writing to his 
companion of the journey — 
recalls all the beautiful things 
they had seen together in Italy 
and how, as they were leaving 
the country, he plucked a daisy 
to give her — 

c It told of England then to me, 
And now it tells of Italy.’ 
Though he is now c ill and 
weary, alone and cold,’ the 
daisy, in fancy, takes him once 
more to his love’s side in Italy. 

DAWN, THE. 

A poem in five stanzas, pre- 
faced by a quotation from an 
Egyptian priest — ‘ You are but 
children.’ The poet expresses 
the view that the present is 
but the dawn of time — 

‘ Red of the Dawn ! 
Is it turning a fainter red ? so 
be it, but when shall we lay 

The Ghost of the Brute that is 
walking and haunting us 
yet, and be free ? ’ 

All time till present has been 
but e red of the Dawn ’ and now 
it is but ‘ turning a fainter red.’ 
The Day, that is to see a better 
race of men, is yet to come. 

DAY-DREAM, THE. 

A young man deeply in love 
with the Lady Flora, tells her 
his vision of the ancient legend 
of the Sleeping Beauty. He 
describes, in beautiful language, 
the Sleeping Palace and the 
Sleeping Beauty within it, who 
is awakened, after a hundred 
years, by a kiss from the Fairy 
Prince, who thus breaks the 


[DEA 

spell and sets the palace buzzing 
with renewed life and activity. 
The Prince then rides off with 
the Princess, and both are 
happy in their love for one 
another. 

The Moral, the young man 
says, is hard to find, but many 
people would find a meaning 
suited to their .minds, and A to 
hook it to some useful end’ 
would c cramp its use.’ 

He goes on to reflect on the 
pleasantness of falling asleep for 
some time and waking up to 
find things bettered and fresh 
wonders to behold. He says 
that he would gladly slumber for 
a hundred years himself, if, at 
the end of that time he could 
awake the Lady Flora with a 
kiss. 

DEAD PROPHET, THE. 

A fierce attack upon those 
who make dead famous men 
into c copy,’ dissecting their 
lives with a keen eye under the 
pretence of reverence for the 
dead. The poem is the story 
of an imaginary e dead pro- 
phet ’ and the indignities heaped 
upon his body by the old hag 
c Reverence.’ 

DEATH OF CENONE, THE. 

The beautiful shepherd- 
prince, Paris, husband of the 
nymph CEnone, had been chosen 
by the gods to judge which of 
the three goddesses Here, Pallas 
or Aphrodite, was the most 
beautiful, and to award a golden 
apple to his choice. Aphrodite 



DEA] 


10 


[DEF 


promised him the beautiful 
Helen of Tro y to wife if he 
would give her the apple. He 
did so, and deserted CEnone 
for Helen, thus causing great 
war and bloodshed. In this 
poem the poet tells the story 
of his return, sore wounded, 
to be cured of his mortal hurt 
by CEnone, who refuses pity 
to him who had no pity for 
her. Paris then falls dead, and 
is reverently cremated by the 
shepherds who had known him 
in his youth. At dawn, CEnone, 
who all night has been troubled 
by the vision of her husband’s 
disfigured face, goes forth, and, 
finding a smouldering funeral 
pyre inquires for whom it has 
been built. On hearing whose 
body lies there, she casts herself 
upon the pyre and, remember- 
ing only her early happiness, 
dies with her husband. 

DEATH OF THE DUKE OF 
CLARENCE AND AVONDALE. 

An address to the mourners 
for the Duke of Clarence, who 
died just before his projected 
marriage to the princess May. 
Tennyson bids the mourners 
‘ mourn in hope ’ for 

‘ after his brief range of 
blameless days, 

The toll of funeral in an Angel 
ear 

Sounds happier than the mer- 
riest marriage-bell.’ 

DEATH OF THE OLD YEAR, 
THE. 

A lament for the old year — 


here personified as an old man 
dying at the stroke of twelve, 
while the new year is spoken of 
as c his son and heir,’ who 
‘ blithe and bold ’ 
c Comes up to take his own.’ 

DEDICATION, A. 

A dedication of some writing 
given by the author to a very 
dear friend, exhorting him to 
‘ take this and pray that he. 
Who wrote it, honouring your 
sweet faith in him, 

May trust himself ; ’ 
through all mistrust, and scorn 
and criticism. 

DEDICATORY POEM TO THE 
PRINCESS ALICE. 

A short dedication of the 
Defence of Lucknow to the dead 
princess Alice, daughter of 
queen Victoria. The poet 
makes the princess’s known 
patriotism a pretext for dedi- 
cating 

c this ballad of the deeds 
Of England, and her banner in 
the East ? ’ 
at her dead feet. 

DEFENCE OF LUCKNOW. 

A patriotic poem descriptive 
of the gallant defence of Luck- 
now by a ‘ handful of men ’ 
written as though the writer 
had been one of the besieged 
army. At the end of every 
stanza is the triumphant refrain 
* And ever upon our topmost 
roof the banner of England 
blew 1 ’ 

The poem describes in vivid 



DEM] 


II 


[DES 


language the horrors of the 
siege, the death of the Com- 
mander * Lawrence, the best 
of the brave/ and the un- 
bounded joy of the whole gar- 
rison at the appearance of a 
relieving force with Havelock 
and Outram in command. 

Lucknow was one of the 
decisive sieges of the Indian 
Mutiny. 

DEMETER AND PERSEPHONE. 

A monologue spoken by 
Demeter the earth-goddess at 
the return of her daughter 
Persephone from the dark home 
of her husband, the monarch 
of Hades. Persephone, accord- 
ing to the Greek legend of the 
Spring, had been stolen away 
while playing in a field, and 
taken to be the bride of c dark 
Aidoneus,’ king of Hades. But 
so great was Demeter’s sorrow 
for her child that she neglected 
to bless the land with increase. 
So Zeus decreed that for nine 
months in the year Persephone 
should live with her mother — 
the other three to be spent with 
her husband in the underworld. 
Demeter, however, is but c ill- 
content/ and looks forward to 
the time when Persephone shall 
spend the whole year with her. 
The theme is taken from Ovid. 

DE PROFUNDIS. 

A poem in two parts, named 
respectively The Two Greetings 
and The Human Cry. The 
first part is subdivided, and con- 
tains a father’s greeting, first, 


to the physical being of his 
child, after the c nine long 
months of antenatal gloom/ 
and secondly to the spiritual 
being of the child ‘ half-lost 
In thine own shadow and this 
fleshly sign.’ The Human Cry 
is a shorter poem in two stanzas. 
In it, the poet voices the adora- 
tion of man towards God — 
c We know we are nothing — but 
Thou wilt help us to be. 

Hallowed be Thy name — 
Hallelujah ! ’ 

DESERTED HOUSE. 

A short poem in five stanzas, 
describing — in the simile of 
a deserted house — a dead body. 
It is called a house from which 
c Life and Thought have gone 
away 

* • • 

Leaving door and windows 
wide : ’ 

The last verse is an expression 
of the hope of immortality — 
c Life and Thought 

Here no longer dwell ; 

But in a city glorious — 

A great and distant city — have 
bought 

A mansion incorruptible.’ 
Nevertheless the human longing 
also finds voice in the last line — 
* Would they could have stayed 
with us ! 5 

DESPAIR. 

A man and his wife having 
lost faith in a God and hope 
of a life to come, and being 
miserable in this, resolve to end 
themselves by drowning. The 



DIR] 


12 


[DRE 


woman is drowned, but the man 
rescued by a minister of the 
sect he had abandoned. 

DIRGE, A. 

A poem in seven stanzas the 
refrain of which is 4 Let them 
rave.’ The dead need be 
troubled by no discordant 
voices — 

4 God’s great gift of speech 
abused ’ 

for the grave is quiet and only 
4 The balm-cricket carols clear 
In the green that folds thy 
grave . 5 

DORA, 

A narrative poem in blank 
verse, founded on a story in 
Miss Mitford’s Our Village. 
In it, the poet tells the story 
of a man who brought up his 
brother’s daughter with his own 
son. He had planned a mar- 
riage between them, and when 
the time was ripe he broached 
the subject to his son William, 
who refused to marry his cousin 
Dora, and left his father’s house 
to marry a certain Mary Mor- 
rison. The indignant father 
forbad Dora to see or communi- 
cate with William or his wife 
or child. William died in 
poverty, leaving his widow and 
small son. Dora helped them 
by stealth, and at last persuaded 
Mary to let her have the child 
in the hope that her uncle’s 
heart might be moved to com- 
passion. But after he had 
agreed to adopt the boy he sent 
Dora away in great anger. 


Mary, however, refused to allow 
Dora to sacrifice herself for the 
sake of the boy, and they went 
together to ask for the child 
again. The father was so moved 
by his daughter-in-law’s appeal 
and by the winsomeness of his 
grandson that he was reconciled 
to Dora and Mary — 

4 So those four abode 
Within one house together ; ’ 

DOUBT AND PRAYER. 

A short prayer in which the 
poet prays God 
4 Steel me with patience ! soften 
me with grief ! ’ 

Through sorrow and even sin, 
the soul finds God, but the 
poet here prays that death 
may not come to him 
4 Till this embattled wall of 
unbelief 

My prison, not my fortress, 
fall away ! ’ 

DREAMER, THE. 

A certain man dreamed he 
heard the lament c a voice of 
the Earth ’ of one who said — 

4 To the wail of my winds, and 
the moan of my waves, 

I whirl, and follow the Sun.’ 
The dreamer thought he an- 
swered with a song, counselling 
the wailing voice to remember 
that — 

4 all’s well that end’s well, 
Whirl, and follow the Sun ! 5 

DREAM OF FAIR WOMEN, A, 

The poet had been musing 
on Chaucer’s Wild Tales till he 
imagined himself living in the 



DYI] 

past. This poem is an account 
of the dream that followed. 
The poet dreamed he was in a 
wood in which he met with 
many fair dead women — Helen 
of Troy, Cleopatra, Jephtha*s 
daughter, and Fair Rosamond. 
They each told him of the joys 
and sorrows of their respect- 
ive lives, and he was at last 
awakened by Cleopatra's sharp 
scornful taunt of Rosamond 
for having so c tamely died.’ 
The dreamer closes the poem 
with the regret that he awak- 
ened before he had seen other 
fair women — 

* her, who clasp’d in her last 
trance 

Her murder’d father’s head,’ 
or Joan of Arc, or Eleanor of 
Castile. 

DYING SWAN, THE. 

A description in two stanzas 
of the wonderful death-song 
of a swan. Tennyson appar- 
ently believed the popular say- 
ing that c a swan only sings at 
its death.’ 

EAGLE, THE. 

Six lines, descriptive of a 
view seen from a mountain 
top by an eagle. 

EARLY SPRING. 

A c Spring Song ’ in eight 
stanzas. 

EDWARD GRAY. 

A ballad, containing the 
story of Edward Gray who was 
beloved by Ellen Adair. He, 
however, 


13 [ENG 

‘ Thought her proud, and fled 
over the sea ; ’ 

In his absence she pined and 
died. Edward Gray is un- 
touched by the lovableness of 
other women — his heart is 
buried with Ellen Adair. 

EDWIN MORRIS. 

This poem is the story of a 
man who stayed for nine months 
by a lake. While here he made 
friends with c Edwin Morris 
and Edward Bull the curate/ 
Also, he fell in love with a mil- 
lionaire’s daughter, Letty Hilh 
One evening he was found 
making love to Letty, and her 
relatives forbad him the place,, 
and married her 

c to sixty thousand pounds,. 
To lands in Kent and messuages 
in York, 

And slight Sir Robert with his 
watery smile 
And educated whisker.’ 

They then brought a lawsuit 
against Letty’s lover, and he 
left the place 

c left Edwin, nor have seen 
Him since, nor heard of her,, 
nor cared to hear.’ 

ELEANORE. 

A poem in eight stanzas 
written in praise of a c Serene,, 
imperial Eleanore ! ’ 

ENGLAND AND AMERICA IN 
1782 . 

A short poem addressed to 
England personified as c Strong- 
mother of a Lion-line.’ The 
writer bids England be proud 



ENO] 


[EPI 


H 


of the American rebels who 
6 Retaught the lesson thou hadst 
taught, 

And in thy spirit with thee 
fought ’ 

ENOCH ARDEN. 

A long narrative in blank 
verse. In it, the poet tells 
the story of Enoch Arden. 
He and Philip Ray — -the miller’s 
son — lived in a seaside town 
and both loved Annie Lee. 
She flirted impartially with 
both, but at last Enoch won 
and married her, for c Philip 
loved in silence.’ Enoch was 
a sailor’s orphan and pursued 
his father’s trade. When two 
children had been born to him, 
Enoch’s good fortune deserted 
him. He broke a limb in an 
accident and lost his job. As 
he lay recovering he was haunted 
by the thought of his wife and 
■children starving because he was 
unable to work for them . Then 
■came an offer from the captain 
of a China-going vessel to take 
Enoch as boatswain and he 
went, first selling his boat to 
provide money for Annie and 
bidding them all a sorrowful 
farewell. After his departure, 
the third and sickliest child was 
born, but scarcely lived a few 
weeks. Philip Ray, who had 
not seen Annie since Enoch 
left, thinking to be of comfort 
to her, asked her to let him 
educate the remaining boy and 
girl as Enoch would have 
wished. Annie consented and 


Philip became a second father 
to her children, though scruples 
kept him from seeing Annie 
often. But the years went by 
and Enoch did not return, and 
at last Philip convinced Annie 
that Enoch was dead, and they 
were married. A child was 
born, and they were very happy. 
Meanwhile Enoch was not dead, 
but prospering much. After 
he had made and lost a fortune, 
Enoch at last returned to his 
native town, eagerly anticipating 
seeing Annie again. He learned 
from a gossip called Miriam 
Lane of Annie’s marriage with 
Philip. The news was too 
much for his already failing 
strength, and he died without 
making himself known to Annie, 
first giving Miriam Lane a curl 
of his son’s hair, which Annie 
had given him — to give the 
boy’s mother. 

c And when they buried him the 
little port 

Had seldom seen a costlier 
funeral.’ 

EPIC, THE. 

An introduction to the beauti- 
ful Morte d° Arthur. On Christ- 
mas Eve four college friends 
sat about the fire and wine after 
the rest of the guests had 
departed. They talked of the 
decay of Christmas customs 
and of the Christian religion. 
One of their number, Everard 
Hall, was known at college as 
a toper and a poet of parts. His 
friends laughingly inquired of 



3EPI] 


I 5 


[FAR 


him what he had done with 
an epic he had written about 
king Arthur. He replied that 
he had burnt it, deeming it of 
little interest. One of the 
young men had, however, res- 
cued the eleventh book from 
the flames and forthwith pro- 
duced it. The poet was then 
constrained to read the Morte 
£ Arthur* 

EPILOGUE. 

A short poem dedicating c the 
Sleeping Beauty ’ series of poems 
to a certain 6 Lady Flora. 5 

EPITAPH ON CAXTON. 

Written for the Caxton win- 
dow in St. Margaret’s. The 
poet praises Caxton as a seer 
praying for c Light more light,’ 
but seeing only the glory and 
not the disadvantages of the 
spread of learning. 

EPITAPH ON GENERAL 
GORDON. 

Written for the cenotaph in 
Westminster Abbey. The poet 
addresses Gordon as ‘ Warrior 
of God,’ whose bones lie in the 
far-away Soudan. 

EPITAPH ON LORD STRAT- 
FORD DE REDCLIFFE. 

Lines written in memory 
of this enthusiastic admirer of 
Tennyson and friend of Byron. 

FAITH. 

Two stanzas encouraging men 
to 

4 Doubt no longer that the 
Highest is the wisest and 
the best/ 


FALCON, THE. 

A play in blank verse in one 
scene. Count Federigo degli 
Alberighi has been in love with 
the Lady Giovanna since she 
was fifteen. He had gone to 
the war, thinking she cared 
nothing for him, and in his 
absence and believing him dead 
she had married another. She 
is now a widow with one son, 
and Federigo is living with his 
old nurse and foster-brother in 
poverty — having sold all his 
possessions to give gifts to 
Giovanna. To the consterna- 
tion of the inmates of Federigo’s 
cottage, the lady appears one 
morning announcing that she 
will stay for breakfast. There 
is nothing in the larder, and 
Federigo reluctantly gives an or- 
der to kill his much loved falcon 
for the lady’s entertainment. 
He is horrified — when the bird 
is dead — to learn that she had 
come to beg no other thing 
than the falcon for her son who 
is sick. All, however, ends well 
with a mutual declaration of 
love and a hopeful certainty 
of the boy’s recovery. The 
theme of the story is taken from 
Boccaccio’s Decamerone. 

FAREWELL, A. 

Four stanzas in which the 
poet bids farewell to a c cold 
rivulet ’ c for ever and ever.’ 

FAR-FAR-AWAY. 

A song written for music 
with a refrain c far-far-away.’ 



FAT] 


1 6 


[FOR 


FATIMA. 

A woman’s passionate love- 
song. She enumerates the de- 
lights of her love and her long- 
ing for her lover’s coming and 
ends with a determination to 
c Die, dying clasp’d in his em- 
brace.’ 

FIRST QUARREL, THE. 

A narrative poem, written 
in dialect in the first person. 
The narrator is a woman who 
tells the story of her life to a 
sympathetic friend. She is an 
Isle of Wight girl. When quite 
a young girl she was the sweet- 
heart of a boy of the same vil- 
lage. When the boy — Harry 
— began to grow up, a farmer 
relative sent for him and after 
saying good-bye to Nelly — 
the girl — he went to Dorset- 
shire to work on his kinsman’s 
farm. While there, he got 
into trouble with another girl. 
But when he returned, he and 
Nelly were married and were 
very happy. Work, however, 
4 was scant in the Isle,’ and 
Harry crossed the Solent in 
search of employment. He 
wrote his wife saying he had got 
a six weeks’ job and was coming 
back to kiss her good-bye on 
the following day. While she 
was tidying the house ready 
for his return, she came across 
a box containing a letter written 
to Harry by the other girl. 
This so angered her that she 
would have nothing to say to her 
husband when he came in and 


refused to be mollified by his 
gentle assurances of love and 
trust, and the complete dead- 
ness of the past. After trying 
in vain to reassure her, Harry 
leaves her, and she refuses to 
say good-bye. He sends her 
a letter to say he had work in 
Jersey and is going by the boat 
that night — £ and the boat 
went down that night.’ So 
the first quarrel proved the last. 

FLEET, THE. 

Lines written in praise of the 
British Navy after a newspaper 
attack upon it. 

FLIGHT, THE. 

A girl rouses her sister on her 
wedding morning, and they fly 
together from a hateful mar- 
riage proposed by a mercenary 
father. 

FLOWER, THE. 

A c fable ’ of one who sowed 
a seed that, grown into a flower, 
was dubbed a weed. It grew 
tall and beautiful, the seeds 
were in demand, it became 
easy to get and so again a weed. 

FLOWER IN THE CRANNIED 
WALL. 

A fragment, in which the 
poet declares his conviction that 
“if I could understand 
What you ( [i.e . the flower) are, 

root and all, and all in all, 

I should know what God and 

man is.’ 

FORESTERS, THE. 

A play in blank verse in four 



FOR] 


*7 


[HAN 


acts. The plot is adapted from 
the legends of Robin Hood and 
Maid Marian. It opens with 
the outlawry of Robin by 
Prince John, Regent for Richard 
I, and ends with the return of 
Richard and the marriage of 
Robin and Marian. 

FORLORN. 

A short poem in which a 
mother chides her daughter for 
contemplating a marriage of 
which she is unworthy. 

FORM, THE, FORM, THE. 

An early sonnet in which the 
frivolous soul of a £ slight co- 
quette ’ is described. 

FRATER AVE ATQUE VALE. 

Lines written in praise of 
Catullus — c tenderest of the 
Roman poets . 5 This poem was 
written while Tennyson was 
staying in Italy, and contains 
descriptions of lake scenery. 

FREEDOM. 

A political poem in which 
the poet gave expression to his 
conviction that innovations and 
reforms should be gradually 
introduced. 

GARDENER’S DAUGHTER, 
THE. 

An artist tells the story of 
his love for the gardener’s 
daughter, and shows a picture 
of her in her youth. A narra- 
tive poem in blank verse. 

GOD AND THE UNIVERSE. 

Two stanzas in which the 
poet expresses his fear of God 


and imagines God to reply re- 
assuringly. 

GODIVA. 

A poem in blank verse in 
which the poet tells the story 
of the sacrifice made by Lady 
Godiva on behalf of the people 
of her husband’s city, Coventry. 

GOLDEN YEAR, THE. 

An account, in blank verse, 
of a poet who wrote some 
verses anticipating the return 
of the golden age. A friend 
of the poet declares 
c That unto him who works, 
and feels he works, 

This same grand year is ever 
at the doors.’ 

GOOSE, THE. 

A short humorous poem. 
An old woman is given a goose 
— which lays golden eggs — by 
a stranger. After prospering, 
she grows tired of the clatter 
made by the goose and drives 
it out to the original owner. 

GRANDMOTHER, THE. 

A monologue in which an 
old woman who has outlived 
all her children recounts the 
chief* events of her life to a 
grandchild. The poem was 
suggested in a letter from Ben- 
jamin Jowett giving the saying 
of an old lady, c The spirits of 
my children always seem to 
hover about me.’ 

HANDS ALL ROUND. 

A £ convivial lyric ’ in which 
the poet calls for healths to be 
C 



i8 


[IDY 


HAP] 


drank to England, her colonies 
and other friendly powers. 

HAPPY. 

The words of the wife of a 
leprous Crusader who has been 
formally separated from the 
community. The wife refuses 
to leave him, and swears that 
she will live and die at his side. 

HAROLD. 

A five-act play in blank verse. 
The plot is concerned with 
incidents happening between 
Harold’s — then earl of Wessex — 
first setting out for Normandy, 
where he was to swear the rash 
oath to help William of Nor- 
mandy to the English throne, 
and the defeat of the English and 
death of Harold at the battle 
of Senlac, 1066. 

HELEN’S TOWER. 

Lines written at the request 
of Lord Dufferin for the Tower 
built in memory of Helen, 
mother of Lord Dufferin. The 
poet expresses in these lines 
his conviction that were the 
* granite girth’ of the Tower 
as strong as the love between 
mother and son which caused 
it to be built, it would endure 
‘ Doomsday fire.’ 

HENDECASYLLABICS. 

An experiment in * a metre 
of Catullus ’ addressed to * you 
chorus of indolent reviewers,’ 
and humorously conveying the 
poet’s request and critics to be 
lenient to the new metre. 


HIGHER PANTHEISM, THE. 

A short poem expressing the 
poet’s belief in the 6 Immanence 
of God in the Universe.’ The 
poem contains the beautiful 
and well-known couplet 
* Speak to Him thou for He 
hears, and Spirit with Spirit 
can meet — 

Closer is He than breathing, 
nearer than hands and feet.’ 

IDYLLS OF THE KING. 

An epic series of poems 
founded on Malory’s Morte 
i y Arthur. 

Dedication. To Queen Vic- 
toria in memory of Albert, 
Prince Consort. 

Coming of Arthur. The com- 
ing of Arthur to his kingdom, 
his royal parentage is proved , 
he marries Guinevere, daugh- 
ter of king Leodogran, and 
founds his knighthood of the 
Round Table. He rids the 
land of wild beasts and ma- 
rauders. 

Gareth and Lynette. Of how 
Gareth son of Lot and Belli- 
cent obtained his mother’s 
consent to serve as kitchen- 
boy at Camelot before he 
should discover himself to 
Arthur and ask for knight- 
hood. Of how Arthur dis- 
covered the Prince in the 
kitchen-boy and sent him to 
rescue Lyonors, sister of Lyn- 
ette, from the Castle Perilous, 
guarded by four warriors. 
Of his success in the quest. 
Marriage of Geraint. Of how 



IDY] 


I 9 


[IDY 


queen Guinevere was in- 
sulted by a dwarf riding with 
a knight and lady. Of how 
sir Geraint followed them 
to avenge the Queen. Of 
how he came to the town 
where they dwelt and chanced 
to lodge with an old man in 
the power of the stranger- 
knight. Of how Geraint 
loved Enid, the daughter of 
his poverty-stricken host. 
Of how he overcame the 
stranger-knight in the lists. 
Of how Geraint and Enid 
rode back together to Arthur’s 
court, and there were married. 

Geraint and Enid. Of how 
Geraint took Enid his wife 
to his own land in Devon. 
Of how for love of her he 
neglected knightly adventure. 
Of how she wept for it. Of 
how he misunderstood her 
sorrow, and grew jealous 
thinking she loved another. 
Of how they set forth on 
horseback, Enid in front and 
not beside him. Of how 
Geraint fought many men 
by the way and overcame 
them all. Of how they came 
to Arthur’s court. Of how 
all misunderstanding was re- 
moved. Of how they re- 
turned to Devon to live long 
and happy. 

Balin and Balan. Of how Balin 
and Balan, brothers, were 
brought by the King to his 
court. Of how Balan was 
dubbed knight, and sent on 
a quest, and of how Balin, 


having been dubbed knight 
before, remained at court. 
Of how he obtained leave 
to wear the Queen’s crown 
upon his shield. Of how 
sir Balin presently rode away 
to seek adventure and came 
to the castle of king Pelles. 
Of how one sir Garlon spoke 
evil of the Queen and Lance- 
lot. Of how sir Balin struck 
him in his anger and fled the 
castle. Of how he rested in 
the forest and hung his shield 
upon a tree, deeming himself 
unworthy of the Queen’s 
token. Of how a damsel 
came and also spoke evil of 
the Queen. Of how sir 
Balan chanced to pass. Of 
how sir Balin, being beside 
himself, fought his brother. 
Of how they were both slain 
and afterwards buried by 
the Lady of the Lake. 

Merlin and Vivien. Of how 
Vivien came from the base 
king Mark to spy on Lancelot 
and Guinevere. Of how she 
whispered slanders in Arthur’s 
court. Of how she sought 
to gain from Merlin the 
secret of a spell. Of how she 
followed him to Broceliande, 
and, having gained the secret 
of the enchantment, used 
it upon the great wizard him- 
self and left him as one dead. 

Lancelot and Elaine. Of how 
sir Lancelot stayed at the 
castle of Astolat and of how 
Elaine, the maid of Astolat, 
loved him not knowing who 



IDY] 

he was. Of how he wore her 
favour in a tourney. Of how 
he was wounded, and of how 
Elaine tended him in sickness. 
Of how he recovered and rode 
away with no word of love, 
being pledged to the Queen. 
Of how Elaine sickened and 
died of her love, and of how 
her body was placed in a 
boat and rowed to Camelot 
by an old deaf servant. 

Holy Grail. Of how the sister 
of sir Percivale saw a vision 
of the Holy Grail. Of how 
she made a girdle of her hair for 
Galahad. Of how many of 
the Round Table swore to 
find the Grail. Of how they 
set forth from Camelot. Of 
how Galahad and Percivale 
set forth together. Of their 
adventures and temptations. 
Of how sir Galahad was the 
sole knight worthy to behold 
the Grail. Of the unsuc- 
cessful return of other knights 
to Camelot. Of the King’s 
welcome and of how some 
did not return. 

Pelleas and Ettarre. Of the 
young knight sir Pelleas and 
of how he overcame in the 
jousts and gained the victor’s 
circlet for the lady Ettarre. 
Of how she shut herself in 
her castle and scorned her 
champion. Of how he was 
brought a prisoner to her by her 
knights. Of how sir Gawain 
undertook to plead the cause 
of sir Pelleas with the lady 
Ettarre. Of how she was 


20 [IDY 

false with Gawain. Of how 
Sir Pelleas grew distraught 
and fought unwittingly with 
sir Lancelot and accused 
him of shame with Guinevere. 
Of how sir Pelleas went out 
and was no more seen. 

Last Tournament. Of the 
ruby carcanet that Guinevere 
gave to the king as a tourney 
prize. Of the tourney and 
of how sir Tristram won the 
rubies. Of how he refused 
to give them to any lady of 
the court but kept them for 
Isolt, the Queen of the Cor- 
nish king Mark. Of Da- 
gonet the king’s fool and of 
his talk with Tristram. Of 
Tristram’s coming to Tin- 
tagil and Isolt. Of Isolt’s 
jealousy of Tristram’s wife 
— Isolt of Brittany. Of how 
king Mark slew Tristram as 
he clasped the ruby carcanet 
about the throat of Isolt the 
Queen. 

Guinevere. Of Lancelot’s re- 
solution to leave Guinevere. 
Of their last meeting and 
of its discovery by Modred. 
Of the flight of Lancelot 
to his castle and of the queen 
to a nunnery at Aimes bury. 
Of the war of the king with 
Lancelot and of the treachery 
of Modred. Of the visit 
of the king to the queen at 
Almesbury, of his forgiveness 
and her repentance. Of how 
the king went out to his last 
battle, and of how Guinevere 
made atonement by a life 



IF] 21 [JUN 


of penitence and piety in the 
nunnery. 

Passing of Arthur. Of the 
battle with the heathen hosts 
of Modred. Of how the 
knights of the Round Table 
perished in the fight. Of 
how the king was wounded 
and of how he sent sir Bedi- 
vere to throw Excalibur into 
the lake, from whence it had 
come. Of how sir Bedivere 
at first would not and lied 
to the king, but at last 
yielded and flung Excalibur 
into the lake. Of how Arthur 
was carried to the water and 
of how he did not die but 
passed from sir Bedivere in 
a funeral barge in which were 
three queens. 

IF I WERE LOVED, AS I DESIRE 
TO RE. 

An early sonnet in which the 
poet declares that, with love at 
his desire, he would fear nothing 
in heaven or earth. 

IN MEMORIAM, A. H. H. 

A long poem in a unique 
metre written to the memory 
of the poet’s greatest friend, 
Arthur Henry Hallam, who 
died at Vienna. The body was 
brought back to be buried at 
Clevedon — -the home of the 
Hallams. The poem contains 
Tennyson’s expressed thoughts 
on Life and Death and God 
and Man, as well as his pas- 
sionate grief and love for Arthur 
Henry Hallam. 


IN MEMORIAM, WILLIAM 
GEORGE WARD. 

Six lines beginning — 
c Farewell, whose living like I 
shall not find,’ 

IN THE CHILDREN’S HOSPITAL. 

A nurse’s description of the 
illness and eventual death under 
an operation of a little girl 
in a children’s hospital. 

IN THE GARDEN AT SWAINS- 
TON. 

A lament for three dead 
friends, memories of whom are 
revived by the garden where 
they had walked with the poet. 

IN THE VALLEY OF CAUTER- 
ETZ. 

The poet’s memories of a 
dead friend who had formerly 
been with him at Cauteretz. 

ISABEL. 

Three stanzas in praise of 
Isabel — a pattern of purity and 
holy calm. 

ISLET, THE. 

A woman urges her lover to 
go with her to a beautiful island 
he has described for her. He 
refuses because 

c a worm is there in the lonely 
wood, 

That pierces the liver and 

blackens the blood ; 

And makes it a sorrow to be.’ 

JUNE BRACKEN AND HEA- 
THER. 

Nine lines, dedicating a book 
to a friend who has 



kap] 22 P-nr 


* a faith.as clear as the heights 
of the June-blue heaven, 
And a fancy as summer-new 
As the green of the bracken amid 

the gloom of the heather.’ 

KAPlOLANI. 

Six stanzas in praise of Kapio- 
lani, chieftainess of the Sand- 
wich Isles, who defied the 
priesthood of the Island god- 
dess, Peele, and so won the 
people to Christianity. 

KATE. 

Two stanzas in which is de- 
scribed a lady who bears strong 
resemblance to Shakespeare’s 
Kate — the Shrew. 

KRAKEN, THE. 

A sonnet describing some 
sort of horrible sea monster 
called the Kraken. 

LADY CLARA VERE DE VERE. 

Nine stanzas addressed by a 
poet to a certain nobly-born but 
haughty lady. He assures her 
that 

c Kind hearts are more than 
coronets, 

And simple faith than Nor- 
man blood.’ 

LADY CLARE. 

A narrative poem. Lady 
Clare discovers on the eve of 
her marriage that she is not 
lady Clare, and that the real 
owner of her lands and wealth 
is her husband-to-be. She 
hastens to tell him the truth. 
He appreciates her honesty but 
declares that he will marry her 


and that she shall still be 
Lady Clare.’ 

LADY OF SHALOTT, THE. 

The story of a mysterious 
lady who viewed the outer 
world solely through the medi- 
um of a mirror, because a 
curse would fall upon her if 
she ever looked through the 
window. She fell in love with 
the reflection of sir Lancelot as 
he passed towards Camelot, 
and, risking the curse, allowed a 
boat to carry her down stream 
in the same direction. She 
presently arrived at Camelot — 
a corpse. An Italian romance 
upon the Donna di Scalotta is 
said to have suggested this 
poem. — Palgrave’s Lyric Poems 
of Tennyson. 

LEONINE ELEGIACS. 

In praise of ‘ sweet Rosalind.’ 

LETTERS, THE. 

Six stanzas in which the poet 
tells the story of a man and 
woman, formerly affianced, 
separated by slanders. The 
woman returns his letters, but 
he replies with such a burst of 
invective against her whole 
sex, that he frightens her into 
a reconciliation that ends in 
marriage. 

LILIAN. 

Four stanzas in which the 
poet praises ‘ Airy, fairy Lilian/ 

LITERARY SQUABBLES. 

A short lament that such 
things as petty strife between 
literary men should exist. 



LOCKSLEY HALL. 

The soliloquy of a rejected 
lover. He recounts the inci- 
dents of his courtship, the 
ambitions of his youth, and the 
plans he has formed to induce 
forgetfulness of his unhappy 
love. These are rejected, and 
he leaves Locksley Hall — the 
scene of his courtship — with a 
noble resolution to live his life 
worthily. 

LOCKSLEY HALL SIXTY 
YEARS AFTER. 

A sequel to Locksley Hall . 
The young lover has now be- 
come an old man and the 
changes wrought by age are 
emphasized by the poet. 

LORD OF BURLEIGH. 

The story of the marriage of a 
village girl with the Lord of 
Burleigh and of her subsequent 
death from the effects of 

‘ the burthen of an honour 
Unto which she was not born.’ 

LOTOS-EATERS, THE. 

Some mariners find an en- 
chanted isle c In which it seemed 
always afternoon.’ Bewitched 
by the magic lotos plant, they 
grow weary of wandering and 
declare that they ‘ will no 
longer roam.’ The poem is 
founded on Odyssey ix. 82 seq . 

LOVE AND DEATH. 

A few lines in which the poet 
recounts the meeting of Love 
and Death and the former’s 
declaration — 

4 — I shall reign for ever over all.’ 


LOVE AND DUTY. 

A blank verse poem. Two 
lovers, parted by their sense of 
duty, contemplate a lonely 
future with a faint hope of love’s 
fulfilment in some future age. 

LOVER’S TALE, THE 

Argument . Julian, whose 
cousin and foster-sister Camilla, 
has been wedded to his friend 
and rival Lionel, endeavours 
to relate the story of his own 
love for her and the strange 
sequel. He speaks of having 
been haunted by a vision and 
the sound of bells tolling for a 
funeral, and at last ringing for 
a marriage ; but he breaks 
away overcome, as he approaches 
the event, and a witness to it 
completes the tale in the Golden 
Suffer. Eleven months after 
her marriage to Lionel, Camilla, 
supposedly dead, is borne to 
the vault. Julian, going for a 
last farewell to his cousin, 
finds her alive. After some 
time has passed he gives a great 
feast, at which he contrives the 
meeting of Lionel and the wife 
he had thought dead. 

LOVE THOU THY LAND. 

An exhortation in the metre 
of In Memoriam to a wise love 
of England. 

LUCRETIUS. 

Lucilla, wife of Lucretius, 
dissatisfied with her husband’s 
attitude towards herself, bought 
a love-philtre and mingled it 
with his drink. It, however. 



MAD] 


24 


[MER 


clouded his brain with insane 
fancies, and in a fit of madness 
he committed suicide, to the 
despair of his repentant wife. 

MADELINE. 

Three stanzas in praise of 
‘ Ever varying Madeline/ 

MAKING OF MAN, THE. 

Two stanzas in which the 
poet expresses a belief in the — 
as yet incompleted — evolution 
of man. 

MARGARET. 

Five stanzas in praise of 
‘ Sweet pale Margaret/ 

MARIANA. 

A poem in which the forlorn 
state of Mariana in waiting for 
her faithless lover is described. 
The character and circum- 
stance are taken from Shake- 
speare’s Measure for Measure. 

MARIANA IN THE SOUTH. 

Another description of the 
sad betrothed of the faithless 
Angelo in Measure for Measure. 

MAUD : A MONODRAMA. 

* A morbid man grows to 
love Maud the playmate of 
his youth. She, too, loves 
him. But he quarrels with her 
brother, she dies and he goes 
away. After her death, he is 
ill and for a time loses his rea- 
son, and fancies himself dead. 
He at length comes to a better 
frame of mind and finds con- 
solation in fighting for his 
country. Part of the poem 
— the verses beginning c Come 


into the garden, Maud ’ — has 
been set to music and is well- 
known as a song. 

MAY QUEEN, THE. 

A poem in three parts. In 
the first a young girl requests 
her mother to call her early in 
the morning of may-day for 
she is to be may-queen. In 
the second part — called Ne:u 
Year’s Eve — the former may- 
queen supposes herself to be 
dying, and bids farewell to her 
mother with many regrets for 
the happy life she leaves. In 
the Conclusion, however, she 
is still alive though it is spring 
time again. She thinks that 
her death really is near and de- 
clares herself glad to go where 
‘ — the wicked cease from 
troubling, and the weary 
are at rest/ 

MECHANOPHILUS. 

A short poem written in the 
time of the first railways. The 
poet marvels at present inven- 
tion and anticipates great things 
to come. 

MERLIN AND THE GLEAM. 

Merlin speaks, though all his 
life he has had for guidance the 
gleam — a lodestar revealed to 
him by the great magician and 
prophet who has taught him his 
Art. 

MERMAID, THE. 

Three stanzas, descriptive of 
an imaginary mermaid loved 
by many mermen and married 
by a sea-king. 



MER] 


25 


[NOR 


MERMAN, THE. 

The poet’s idea, expressed in a 
poem of three stanzas, of the 
merry life of a merman under 
the sea. 

MILLER’S DAUGHTER, THE. 

A man happily married to a 
miller’s daughter goes through 
his former life in retrospect 
with his wife — now growing old 
with him. He says that his 
life has been so happy that 
c Would God renew me from 
my birth 

I’d almost live my life again.’ 

MILTON. 

An experiment in Alcaics. 
The poet praises Milton in 
glowing words. 

MINE BE THE STRENGTH OF 
SPIRIT. 

A sonnet expressing the poet’s 
desire for a spiritual strength 
corresponding with the tre- 
mendous strength of a river in 
the physical world. 

MINNIE AND WINNIE. 

A c child-song ’ beginning — 

4 Minnie and Winnie 
Slept in a shell.’ 
and ending with — 

c Wake, little ladies, 

The sun is aloft ! ’ 

MONTENEGRO. 

A sonnet to Montenegro, 
which is thus addressed — 

‘ 0 smallest among peoples ! 

rough rock-throne 
Of Freedom ! ’ 


MORTE ©’ARTHUR. 

A beautiful description in 
blank verse of the mysterious 
passing and last words of the 
British hero-king. 

MOVE EASTWARD, HAPPY 
EARTH. 

A fragment in which the 
poet exhorts the earth to move 
eastward more quickly in order 
that his wedding day may come 
the sooner. 

MY LIFE IS FULL OF WEARY 
DAYS. 

A dying man bids farewell to 
his friend and leaves the last 
request — 

c Come only, when the days are 
still, 

And at my headstone whis- 
per low, 

And tell me if the woodbines 
blow.’ 

NORTHERN COBBLER. 

A dialect poem in which the 
Northern Cobbler tells a friend 
the story of how he cured him- 
self of drunkenness. 

NORTHERN FARMER, OLD 
STYLE. 

A poem in dialect. A north- 
ern farmer who is failing, has 
been visited by doctor and 
parson and is equally scornful of 
both. He reviews his life and 
decides to disregard the doctor 
and take his beer as usual. The 
poem was suggested by a story 
told to the poet by his great- 
uncle of a Lincolnshire farm- 



NOR] 26 

bailiff, who on his death-bed 
said : 6 God A’mighty little 

knows what He’s aboot, a-takin’ 
me, an’ ’Squire ’ll be so mad an’ 
all ! ’ 

NORTHERN FARMER, NEW 
STYLE. 

A dialect poem in which a 
more modern northern farmer 
gives his son advice as to 
marriage — 

4 Doant thou marry for munny, 

but goa wheer munny is ! ’ 
The poem was suggested by the 
remark of a rich neighbour, 

‘ When I canters my ’erse along 
the ramper I ’ears 'proputty , 
proputty> proputty 

NOTHING WILL DIE. 

One of the poet’s earlier 
efforts in which he declares that 
though the world may change 
yet nothing will die. 

OAK, THE. 

Three short stanzas in which 
the poet exhorts his readers to 
imitate in their own lives the 
stages in the life of an oak tree. 

ODE ON THE DEATH OF THE 
DUKE OF WELLINGTON. 

A beautiful funeral ode, on 
the death of the great duke. 
The poet expresses an c Em- 
pire’s lamentation,’ recounts the 
great deeds and fine qualities 
of the duke and ends with the 
prayer 

‘ God accept him, Christ 
receive him.’ 


[OF 

ODE SUNG AT THE OPENING 
OF THE INTERNATIONAL 
EXHIBITION. 

An Ode written for the open- 
ing of the Exhibition. The 
poet regrets that the Prince 
Consort — upon whose sugges- 
tion the Exhibition was founded 
— had succumbed to an attack 
of typhoid fever, and fore- 
shadows the time when the 
c arts of peace ’ shall have 
entirely superseded for all time 
the 6 works of war.’ 

ODE TO MEMORY. 

An invocation to Memory 
which the poet personifies as a 
friend with whom — 

c to live alone 
Were how much better than to 

own 

A crown, a sceptre, and a 

throne ! ’ 

CENONE. 

The very beautiful lament of 
the nymph CEnone, deserted 
by her lover, the shepherd- 
prince, Paris. She relates the 
story of the Three Goddesses 
and Paris’s judgment in favour 
of Aphrodite and of the conse- 
quent love of Paris for Helen 
of Troy. CEnone ends her 
tragic story with the declaration 
‘ That, wheresoe’er I am by 
night and day, 

All earth and air seem only 
burning fire.’ 

OF OLD SAT FREEDOM ON 
THE HEIGHTS. 

A five stanza poem in which 



ON] 


27 [POE 


Freedom is described, personi- 
fied as ‘ Grave mother of 
majestic works.’ 

ON A MOURNER. 

A poem in seven stanzas in 
which the poet describes the 
ways in which Religion and 
Nature combine to console a 
mourner. 

ON ONE WHO AFFECTED AN 
EFFEMINATE MANNER. 

Four lines, the gist of which 
seems to be — * man woman is 
not woman man.’ 

ON THE JUBILEE OF QUEEN 
VICTORIA. 

Eleven stanzas in which the 
poet recounts the glories of the 
Queen and of her reign, and ends 
with a forecast of a happy future # 

ON TRANSLATIONS OF HOMER. 

An experiment in Hexameter s 
and Pentameters . 

OPENING OF THE INDIAN AND 
COLONIAL EXHIBITION BY 
THE QUEEN. 

Lines written by the poet, as 
Laureate, for the royal opening 
of the above Exhibition. 

OWD roA. 

An old native of the North of 
England tells his son — in dialect 
— the story of the way in which 
c old Rover ’ saved his (the 
son’s) life in a fire. The grate- 
ful father declares that his in- 
tention is c to maake ’is owd 
a age as ’appy ’ as he possibly 
can. ‘ Owd Roa ’ is the north- 
ern version for Old Rover. 


The poem is the poet’s version 
of a report that he had read in a 
newspaper about a black re- 
triever which saved a child from 
a burning house. 

OWL, THE 

A song in two stanzas ad- 
dressed to a white owl who c in 
the belfry sits.’ 

PALACE OF ART, THE 

c A sort of allegory ’ in which 
the poet tells the story of a gifted 
soul who had a passion for Beauty 
que beauty — c Art for Art’s 
sake.’ She dwells for some time 
secure in a palace of perfect 
beauty but is at length cast out 
to bemoan her error in exclud- 
ing Love from her scheme of 
life. 

PARNASSUS. 

A description in three stanzas 
of the Mountain of the Gods. 
The poem is prefaced by a 
quotation from Horace. 

PLAY, THE 

A quatrain descriptive of the 
gradual unwinding of the plot 
of a drama. 

POET, THE 

A short poem setting forth 
the mission of a Poet. 

POET’S MIND, THE 

Two stanzas, beginning — 
c Vex not thou the poet’s mind 
With thy shallow wit : 

The poet goes on to describe 
the nature of a poet’s mind and 
warns off all alien spirits from 
what he declares is ‘ holy 
ground.’ 



FOE] 


28 


[PRO 


POET’S SONG, THE 

Two stanzas in which the 
effect of the song of a poet on 
birds and beasts is described. 

POETS AND CRITICS. 

j$f An exhortation to poets bid- 
ding them disregard critics and 
c Hold thine own, and work thy 
will ! 9 

In two stanzas. 

POETS AND THEIR BIBLIO- 
GRAPHIES. 

Tennyson congratulates the 
ancient poets that they lived 
c Before the Love of Letters, 
overdone, 

Had swampt the sacred poets 
with themselves.’ 

POLAND. 

An early sonnet expressing a 
passionate sympathy with the 
woes of Poland. 

POLITICS. 

A short poem of a single 
stanza addressed to 

c — you that drive, and know 
your Craft,’ 

i.e politicians, exhorting them 
not to be swayed by the cries 
of the multitude. 

PREFATORY POEM TO MY 
BROTHER’S SONNETS. 

A poem written as a preface 
to the dead poet’s dead brother’s 
sonnets. It contains tender 
memories of the dead and earnest 
hopes that the living poet may 
follow the example of the dead 
one. 


PREFATORY SONNET TO THE 
‘ NINETEENTH CENTURY . 5 

A sonnet as described in the 
title. 

PRINCESS, THE: A MEDLEY. 

A story in blank verse — inter- 
spersed with lyrics of great 
beauty — of a certain princess 
Ida ‘ proxy wedded ’ in infancy 
to a neighbouring prince. The 
princess however, on attaining 
marriageable age, elects to 
found a college for women from 
which men are rigidly excluded. 
To this house of learning the 
prince and his two friends gain 
access disguised as girls, would- 
be students. After many 
amusing adventures, the sex 
of the three friends is dis- 
covered and the prince woos 
and weds Ida after all. 

PROGRESS OF SPRING. 

A poem in nine stanzas de- 
scribing the gradual coming of 
Spring to its full perfection. 

PROLOGUE TO GENERAL 
HAMLEY. 

Lines addressed to Sir Ed- 
ward Hamley as a prologue to 
The Charge of the Heavy 
Brigade at Balaclava. The 
short poem is descriptive of the 
visit of General Hamley to 
Aldworth and the fine autumnal 
view from that place. 

PROMISE OF MAY, THE 

A play described as a ‘ Village 
Tragedy.’ The hero — a selfish 
libertine — among other wicked- 
nesses, seduces and then deserts 



QUE] 


[RIZ 


29 


a village girl. After many 
years lie returns to the scene 
of his crime, determined to 
make reparation by marrying 
the surviving elder sister, and 
rescue her old father from ruin. 
But the girl whom he had be- 
trayed long ago appears, and 
with her dying forgiveness, 
awakes in her seducer a true 
repentance, such as he had not 
felt before. The magnanimity 
of the father completes his 
moral salvation, and he quits 
the scene to make expiation by 
lifelong contrition. 

QUEEN MARY. 

A five-act play in blank verse, 
setting forth the tragedy of the 
reign of Mary Tudor, of her 
bigoted Roman Catholicism, of 
her piteous childless marriage 
with Philip of Spain, and of her 
painful illness and final death. 
The tragedy ends with the 
accession of Elizabeth. 
RECOLLECTIONS OF THE 
ARABIAN NIGHTS. 

An early poem in which the 
poet describes the imaginary 
adventures of a boy after reading 
the Arabian Nights. 

REQUIESCAT. 

Two quatrains in memory of 
a woman who died while young. 
The poet is sure that 
c Her peaceful being slowly 
passes by 

To some more perfect 
peace . 5 

REVENGE, THE 

A stirring * Ballad of the 


Fleet , 5 in which the poet tells 
the story of Sir Richard Gren- 
ville’s single-handed achieve- 
ment, when his flagship, the 
little c Revenge , 5 fought a fleet 
of fifty-three Spanish galleons 
for a day and a night before the 
death from wounds of the 
heroic Sir Richard, with these 
words on his lips — 

* I have fought for Queen and 
Faith like a valiant man and 
true ; 

I have only done my duty as a 
man is bound to do : 

With a joyful spirit I Sir 
Richard Grenville die ! 5 
The materials of this ballad were 
drawn from a c Report 5 of the 
fight by Sir Walter Raleigh. 

RIFLEMEN FORM I 

A recruiting song written to 
encourage the volunteer move- 
ment, before it was properly 
started. 

RING, THE 

A blank verse poem in the 
form of a conversation between 
father and daughter on the 
latter’s wedding morning. The 
father gives his child the ring- 
which had belonged to her dead’ 
mother, and tells the legend 
which endowed it with certain 
magic powers. He then re- 
lates the full story of the ring’s 
effect in his own life and that 
of his daughter’s mother and 
stepmother. 

RIZPAH. 

A poem in seventeen stanzas, 
in which a criminal’s mother. 



ROM] 


30 


[ST 


on her deathbed, tells a woman 
the story of her son’s crime, his 
death by hanging and her own 
theft of his bones in order to 
bury them in holy ground. 
She ends with a confident trust 
in God’s mercy — 
c — He means me I’m sure to 
be happy with Willy, I know 
not where.’ 

The poem was suggested by 
a story, which appeared in a 
magazine entitled Old Brighton , 
of a young man named Rooke 
who was hanged in chains for 
robbing the mail in the eight- 
eenth century, £ When the 
elements had caused the clothes 
and flesh to decay, his aged 
mother, night after night, in all 
weathers, and the more tempes- 
tuous the weather the more 
frequent the visits, made a 
sacred pilgrimage to the lonely 
spot on the Downs, and it was 
noticed that on her return she 
always brought something away 
with her in her apron. Upon 
being watched, it was discovered 
that the bones of the hanging 
man were the objects of her 
search, and as the wind and 
rain scattered them on the 
ground she conveyed them to 
her home. There she kept 
them, and, when the gibbet was 
stripped of its horrid burden, 
in the dead silence of the night 
she interred them in the hal- 
lowed enclosure of Old Shore- 
ham Churchyard.’ 

ROMNEY’S REMORSE. 

Romney, in his youth, was 


told that c wife and children 
drag an artist down,’ so he de- 
serted his young wife and child. 
In this poem the dying Romney 
expresses his remorse and im- 
plores the forgiveness of the 
wife, who heaps coals of fire 
upon his head by nursing him 
when he comes to her in his last 
illness. 

ROSALIND. 

A song to Rosalind — whom 
the poet likens to a bright-eyed 
falcon — in three stanzas. 

ROSES ON THE TERRACE. 

The sight of the roses on the 
terrace brings to the poet me- 
mories of a courtship fifty years 
old. 

SAILOR BOY. 

A song of a boy who went to 
sea in obedience to his irre- 
sistible desire, and in spite of 
all c danger of the roaring sea . 5 

ST. AGNES’ EVE. 

A beautiful poem in three 
stanzas. The young virgin- 
martyr, St. Agnes, soliloquizes 
on the eve of her death. 

ST. SIMEON STYLITES. 

The Saint, who spent c thrice 
ten years ’ on the top of a 
column to expiate his sins, in 
this poem makes his last prayer 
to God. 

ST. TELEMACHUS. 

The story, in blank verse, of 
an heroic man, who in the time 
of gladiatorial combats in Rome, 
came from the East to stop these 



SEA] 


31 


[SON 


murderous exhibitions. He was 
stoned to death, for daring to 
enter the arena to stop the 
people’s pleasure. But the em- 
peror forbade such combats for 
the future. 

SEA DREAMS. 

A narrative in blank verse. A 
man — bitter at the loss of money 
— his wife and infant daughter 
go to stay at the sea-side. The 
man and wife dream of the 
coast, wake, recount their 
dreams, and the man is pre- 
vailed upon to forgive a preacher 
of the town, against whom he 
bore a grudge, but who has died 
suddenly. The slumber song 
‘ What does little birdie say ’ 
occurs in the poem. 

SEA-FAIRIES. 

A short poem in which the 
poet describes the legendary 
syrens of the sea and their 
enchanted singing which lured 
mariners on to dangerous rocks. 
The theme is taken from Homer. 

SILENT VOICES, THE 

The poet beseeches the c silent 
voices ’ of the dead to urge him 
forward — 4 On ! and always on ! ’ 
— not drag him back. 

SIR GALAHAD. 

A short poem in which king 
Arthur’s youngest and purest 
knight describes himself and his 
quest for the Holy Grail. 

SIR JOHN FRANKLIN. 

Lines on the cenotaph in 
Westminster Abbey. The poet 


praises the ‘ heroic sailor-soul’ 
of the great Arctic explorer. 

SIR JOHN OLDCASTLE, LORD 
COBHAM. 

Soliloquy of Lord Cobham 
— one of the earliest protestants 
— who was burnt for heresy on 
Christmas Day, 1417. 

SIR LAUNCELOT AND QUEEN 
GUINEVERE. 

A fragment — a description of 
king Arthur’s Queen and her 
lover, Sir Launcelot, as they 
ride through the woods in 
Spring. 

SISTERS, THE. 

A short poem. One of two 
sisters is seduced by an earl, 
and after death is avenged by 
the death of the earl at the 
hands of the surviving sister. 

SISTERS, THE (EVELYN AND 
EDITH). 

A narrative in blank verse. 
A man tells the story of his love 
for two sisters. He married one 
but w r as never able to make up 
his mind which he cared for 
most. His wife was alienated 
from him by hearing of his 
former wooing of her sister — 
since dead. 

SNOWDROP, THE. 

A single stanza in which the 
poet welcomes the first appear- 
ance of the c February fair 
maid.’ 

SONNET TO- — . 

The poet here seems to be- 
lieve in a former existence, for 



SPE] 


[TIT 


32 


he writes in this sonnet to a 
friend that at the first meeting — 
c Methought that I had often 
met with yon, 

And either lived in either’s 
heart and speech.’ 

SPECIMEN OP A TRANSLATION 
OP THE ILIAD IN BLANK 
VERSE. 

Translation into stirring blank 
verse of Iliad viii. 542-561. 

SPINSTER’S SWEET-ARTS, THE 

A dialect poem. The solilo- 
quy of an 4 old maid ’ who has 
named her cats after her one- 
time sweethearts. She speaks 
to the cats as though they were 
indeed the men, and reminds 
them of her young days of 
courtship. 

SPIRIT HAUNTS THE YEAR’S 
LAST HOURS, A. 

A song in two stanzas in which 
the poet laments the passing 
of the old year. 

SPITEFUL LETTER, THE. 

The soliloquy of a poet on 
receiving a c Spiteful Letter ’ 
from a jealous fellow-poet. 

SUPPOSED CONFESSIONS OF A 
SECOND - RATE SENSITIVE 
MIND. 

Morbid, self-centred reflec- 
tions about the relation of the 
soul to God. An early poem. 

TALKING OAK, THE. 

A youthful poet obtains an 
account of the doings — in his 
absence — of the girl he loves 
from an oak gifted with speech. 


In return for the information 
he vows to honour the oak in 
prose and rhyme and make for 
his bride a chaplet of oak-leaves. 
A playful narrative in quatrains. 

THIRD OF FEBRUARY, 1852. 

Lines written on the political 
situation at this time. The 
poet regrets with scorn the 
suggestion of the House of 
Lords that English politicians 
should curb their c honest cen- 
sure ’ in order to placate France* 
who, at this time, was regarded 
as somewhat of a menace to 
England. 

THROSTLE, THE. 

A short set of verses in which 
the poet sets words to the music 
of the song-thrush and hails the 
bird as a c wild little poet.’ 

TIRESIAS. 

Tiresias, as a young man, had 
looked upon Pallas Athene as 
she came from the bath. He 
was blind from that time, but 
also gifted with a fatal gift of 
prophecy to which none would 
give ear. In this poem the 
old and dying Tiresias tells his 
son the story of his life, and 
prophesies the ruin of Thebes 
unless the young man will fight 
bravely for the city of his birth. 
The poem was suggested by the 
Phoeniss# of Euripides. 

TITHONUS. 

A soliloquy in blank verse, in 
which Tithonus regrets bitterly 
the irrevocable gift of immor- 



TO] 33 [TO 


tality bestowed on him by the 
gods. The story is told in the 
Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite. 

TO ALFRED TENNYSON, MY 
GRANDSON. 

Lines written to 4 golden- 
hair’d Ally,’ grandson and name- 
sake of the poet, who is ad- 
dressed as a c Glorious poet who 
never hast written a line.’ 

TO DANTE. 

Lines written at request of 
the Florentines. The poet 
casts at Dante’s feet his tribute 
of verse. 

TO E. FITZGERALD. 

Lines written on the death 
of Edward Fitzgerald, an old 
and close friend of the poet. 
In these lines Tennyson intro- 
duces a hope of eternal life into 
his sadness at his friend’s death. 

TO E. L., ON HIS TRAVELS IN 
GREECE. 

Lines to a friend who had ap- 
parently sent the poet vivid 
accounts of Greece, for Tenny- 
son declares himself to be 
transported in spirit to the 
Greece of the Golden Age. 
‘ E. L.’ was Edmund Lushing- 
ton, who married Tennyson’s 
sister. 

TO H.R.H. PRINCESS BEA- 
TRICE. 

Lines written on the marriage 
of princess Beatrice, daughter 
of queen Victoria. The poet 
rejoices that the princess’s 
marriage will not entirely 


separate her from her widowed 
mother. 

TO J. M. K. 

A sonnet written to a c soldier 
priest.’ 

TO S. S. 

Lines written to a friend on 
the death of a brother, who was 
also a friend of the poet. 

TO MARY BOYLE. 

Lines written to accompany 
a copy of The Progress of Springy 
sent by the poet to induce his 
friend to leave London for his 
own country home. 

TOMORROW. 

A narrative poem. An old 
woman recognizes the body of 
a young man laid in an Irish 
churchyard as that of the lover 
of her girlhood days. The man 
had been lost in a peat bog, and 
the peat had preserved the body 
perfectly. 

TO ONE WHO RAN DOWN THE 
ENGLISH. 

Four lines in which the poet 
expresses his hope that the 
fears of one who depreciated 
the English may prove false. 

TO PROFESSOR JEBB. 

Three stanzas dedicating 

Demeter and Persephone to 

Professor Jebb. 

TO THE DUKE OF ARGYLL. 

Lines to the 4 Patriot States- 
man ’ in which the poet urges 
wisdom, foresight and courage. 

D 



TO] 


34 


[TO 


TO THE MARQUIS OF BUF- 
FERED AND AVA. 

Viceroy of India. The poet 
praises the virtues of the mar- 
quis and mourns for Lionel 
Tennyson, who died in India, 
and whose memory brought to 
the poet affectionate memories 
of lord Dufferin. 

TO THE MASTER OF BALLIOL. 

Lines written to dedicate 

2 'he Death of (Enone to the 

Master of Balliol. 

TO THE PRINCESS FREDERICA 
OF HANOVER ON HER 
MARRIAGE. 

A marriage blessing in which 
the poet assures the Princess 
that her dead father’s blessing 
is upon her. 

TO THE QUEEN. I. 

A Dedication to queen Vic- 
toria of the poet’s collected 
poems — c this poor book of 
song.’ The poem was written 
on the occasion of Tennyson’s 
appointment as Poet Laureate, 
1850. 

TO THE QUEEN. II. 

An epilogue to < Ihe Idylls of 
the King , in which with fervent 
loyalty the poet begs her to 
accept them as a tribute to the 
memory of 

4 one to whom I made it o’er 
his grave.’ 

He prays for blessings for the 
Queen and England. 

TO THE REV. F. D. MAURICE. 

An invitation to pay a visit 


to the poet and his family sent 
by Tennyson to the godfather 
of Hallam Tennyson. 

TO THE REV. W. H. BROOK- 
FIELD. 

A sonnet written at the death 
of an old Cambridge friend. 
The poet recalls past companion- 
ship and prays a blessing for the 
dead. 

TO ULYSSES. 

Lines sent by the poet to W. 
G. Palgrave. Ulysses was the 
title of a book of Palgrave’s 
Essays , descriptive of Travels. 
This poem conveys the poet’s 
pleasure in this book of Pal- 
grave’s Essays — a £ various book ’ 
— in thanks for which he sends 
* a gift of slenderer value,’ a 
book of his own. 

TOURNEY, THE. 

The story of a knight who 
was victorious in a tourney and 
won his lady-love. A short 
poem in three stanzas. 

TO VICTOR HUGO. 

A sonnet written to Victor 
Hugo, after Lionel Tennyson 
had visited the French poet in 
France. 

TO VIRGIL. 

A poem in ten stanzas. 
Tennyson salutes the ancient 
poet as the 

c Wielder of the stateliest mea- 
sure ever moulded by the 
lips of man,’ 

TO W. C. MACREADY. 

A sonnet addressed to the 



TO] 


35 


[VOI 


actor on his retirement from the 
stage. 

TO WITH PALACE OF ART. 

Lines in which the poet dedi- 
cated his ‘ sort of allegory , 5 to a 
friend who * will understand . 5 

TWO VOICES, THE. 

The poem is an account of the 
agitations, the suggestions, and 
counter-suggestions of a mind 
sunk in hopeless despondency, 
and meditating self-destruction ; 
together with the manner of its 
recovery to a more healthy 
condition. 

ULYSSES. 

A short poem. The solilo- 
quy of the aged Ulysses ex- 
pressing his unconquerable love 
of adventure. He leaves his 
son to manage his kingdom and 
sets forth once more on his 
voyaging with undiminished 
zest. The theme of the poem 
is from Dante’s Inferno , Canto 

XXVI. 

VASTNESS. 

A poem in which the poet 
declares the whole Creation 
to be simply an unmeaning 
vastness unless interpreted by 
the doctrine of the immortality 
of life and love. 

VICTIM, THE. 

A narrative poem. An an- 
cient kingdom was ravaged by 
plague and famine. The priests 
consulted the gods and declared 
that only the sacrifice of the 
4 nearest and dearest 5 to the 


king would appease their wrath. 
The priests took the king’s only 
son, but at the last moment the 
queen substituted herself for 
her son, declaring that she was 
the dearest to the king. 

VILLAGE WIFE, THE. 

A poem in Lincolnshire dia- 
lect, in which an old 6 village 
wife 5 tells the story of an old 
book-loving, impractical squire, 
whose estate was entailed, and 
was to come to the nearest male 
relation, passing over the squire’s 
many daughters. The death of 
the squire and his only son at the 
same time leaves the daughters 
entirely unprovided for, and a 
stranger becomes squire and 
owner of the estate. 

VISION OF SIN, THE. 

A poem in which the poet 
recounts a vision of a purely 
sensual soul. It may have been 
suggested by Shelley’s Lrium'ph 
of Life. 

VOICE AND THE PEAK, THE. 

The Peak signifies height, the 
voice of the Peak is drawn down- 
wards, for ‘ the deep has power 
on the height,’ but the < thought 
of man ’ is higher and deeper 
than either, and will endure long 
after 

4 The valley, the voice, the peak, 
the star, 

Pass, and are found no more.’ 

VOICE SPAKE OUT OF THE 
SKIES, A. 

A fragment. A heavenly 
voice declares that the earth will 



VOY] 3 6 

endure but for a moment. The 
poet in answer to a beggar’s 
cry for food, reflects that if the 
Voice speak truth, the giving 
and receiving of food is of very 
little moment. 

VOYAGE, THE. 

A poem in twelve stanzas. 
The story of an endless voyage 
in the wake of a vision — 

‘ — blind or lame or sick or 
sound, 

We follow that which flies 
before.’ 

VOYAGE OF MAELDXJNE, THE. 

The story of a legendary Irish 
Chief who called his men to- 
gether to sail with him to the 
Isle of Finn to avenge the death 
of his father. They reached 
the Isle, but were blown away be- 
fore they could land. They con- 
tinued their voyage and landed 
at various magic islands in all 
of which they fought. After a 
while they came to the Isle of 
Brendan, who blest them and 
bade them 4 Let the past be 
past,’ so when they reached the 
Isle of Finn where the murderer 
of Maeldune’s father was, they 
forewent revenge and left the 
murderer alive. 

WAGES. 

< The wages of sin is death,’ 
but, says the poet, the wages of 
virtue is ‘ the glory of going on.’ 
Two stanzas. 

WALKING TO THE MAIL. 

A conversation in blank verse 
between two men walking to the 


[WIL 

mail. They discuss a neigh- 
bour and politics, and their own 
youthful doings. 

WANDERER, THE. 

Four stanzas in which a c wan- 
derer ’ bids farewell to his friends 
and passes on. 

WAN SCULPTOR, WEEPEST 
THOU TO TAKE THE CAST 

A sonnet in which the poet 
contrasts the grief of a sculptor 
or painter making a portrait of 
some dead friend with the 
greater grief of one who mourns 
the death of love itself — more 
generous than the death of 
love’s object. 

WELCOME TO ALEXANDRA, A. 

A poem written to welcome 
the young and beautiful Danish 
bride of the Prince of Wales — 
afterwards Edward VII. It is 
full of enthusiasm and praise for 
the young Princess, now the 
Queen-mother. 

WELCOME TO H.R.H. MARIE 
ALEXANDROVNA, DUCHESS 
OF EDINBURGH. 

Another poem of welcome for 
a bride. It was written at the 
time of the marriage of the 
duke of Edinburgh with the 
Russian princess Marie Alex- 
andra vna. 

WILL. 

Two stanzas in which the poet 
praises the man who possesses 
a strong will and pities the man. 
whose will is weak. 



WIL] 


37 


[YOU 


WILL WATERPROOFS LYRI- 
CAL MONOLOGUE. 

A monologue of a wine-loving 
man, seated in his favourite 
tavern. It is a discourse upon 
wine and the purely physical 
pleasures of life, in light, humor- 
ous verse. 

WINDOW, THE. 

A song cycle c in the German 
fashion 5 written for music of 
sir Arthur Sullivan. The story 
is a series of little songs of the 
loves of two wrens. 

WINDS, AS AT THEIR HOUR OF 
BIRTH, THE. 

A song, in two stanzas, of the 
freedom of the winds. 

WRECK, THE. 

A woman, unhappily married, 
escapes by sea with a more con- 
genial lover than her husband. 
She is haunted by memories of 
her only child, and when, after 
ten days, the boat is wrecked 
and her lover killed, she cries to 


be taken back to it. Her re- 
morse comes too late, as the 
child died on the night of the 
wreck. The poem is in the 
form of a story told by the 
woman herself to her mother. 

YOU ASK ME WHY, THO* ILL 
AT EASE. 

In this poem the poet answers 
those who question him as to 
why, in spite of disadvantage, 
he still chooses to live in Eng- 
land. England is free, c a man 
may speak the thing he will,’ 
but in spite of his choice of 
England as a permanent home, 
the poet desires to visit other 
lands before he dies. 

YOU MIGHT HAVE WON THE 
POET’S NAME. 

A poem written after reading 
a biography of one who < might 
have won the poet’s name ’ but 
preferred a silent ‘ deedful 9 life 
and so escaped the unseemly 
posthumous publicity which is 
the lot of poets. 




THE TENNYSON DICTIONARY 


ABADDON. 

The angel of the bottomless 
pit. 

And they had a king over them, which is 
the angel of the bottomless pit, whose name 
in the Hebrew tongue is Abaddon. Rev. 
ix. 2. 

St. Simeon Stylites . 

ABDIEL. 

One of the Seraphim, who 
withstood Satan in his revolt 
against God. 

So spake the Seraph Abdiel, faithful found » 
Among the faithless faithful only he ; 
Among innumerable false unmoved, 
Unshaken, unseduced, unterrified, 

His loyalty he kept, his love, his zeal; 

Milton : Paradise Lost , Book v. 896-900. 

Milton. 

ABEL. 

Hear me, son. As gold 
Outvalues dross, light darkness, Abel Cain, 
The soul the body, and the Church the Throne, 

Bechet. 

ABOMINABLE. 

The Abominable, that uninvited came 

Into the fair Peleian banquet-hall. 

Has reference to Eris, the 
Greek goddess of strife and dis- 
cord. She was the only goddess 
who was not invited to the 
marriage of Peleus and Thetis, 
and in revenge threw a golden 
apple among the guests, which 
led to the Trojan war. 

CEnone. 

ABSALOM. 

Deal gently with the young man Absalom. 

Bishop Foliot’s reference to 
Archbishop Becket. 

Bechet . 


ab6 said. 

Sufee poet, born a.d. 968? 
died at the age of 83. He was 
a mystical poet, and some of 
his expressions have been com- 
pared to our George Herbert. 
Poet’s Note . 

Akhar’s Dream. 

ACACIA. 

The name of a thorny tree 
found in Egypt. 

The Princess ; Maud. 

ACADEME. 

=Academy. 

who could think 

The softer Adams of your Academe, 

Shakespeare in Love’s Labour’s 
Lost uses the same term. 

The Princess. 

ACANTHUS-WREATH. 

The Acanthus is a prickly 
plant, the leaves of which are 
reproduced in the capital of 
Corinthian and Composite Or- 
ders. Lotos-Eaters . 

ACKffiANS. 

The common name for the 
Greek nation in the Homeric 
period. 

Achilles over the Trench . 

ACHILLES. 

Son of Peleus and Thetis, 
grandson of iEacus, king of the 
island of ^Egina, and the most 


39 



ACH] 


40 


[ACR 


famous of the Greek heroes 
in the Trojan war. When a 
baby he was taken to the river 
Styx, for it was said that those 
who bathed in its waters could 
never be wounded. Afraid to 
let go her child for fear he might 
drown, his mother plunged 
him into the tide, holding him 
fast by one heel. This she 
held so tightly that the waters 
never wet it, and some time 
after, when too late to 
remedy it, the oracle told her 
he would be wounded in his 
heel. At Troy he slew Hector, 
tied the corpse by the heels to 
his chariot and dragged it three 
times round the walls of Troy. 
After several other great fights 
Achilles was wounded in his 
heel by a poisoned arrow, shot 
by Paris, from which he died. 
Thus was fulfilled the prophecy. 
Upon his death his arms were 
awarded to Ulysses, who after- 
wards saw and conversed with 
him in Hades. It is supposed 
that he married Helen after 
the siege of Troy, but others, 
maintain that he was married 
after death in the island of 
Leuce, where many of the 
ancient heroes lived. 

It may be we shall touch the Happy Isles, 
And see the great Achilles, whom we knew*. 

The story of his quarrel with 
Agamemnon — who deprived 
him of his favourite mistress, 
Briseis — is the main subject of 
the Iliad of Homer. In the 
Odyssey he is one of the heroes 
of the underworld visited by 


Odysseus, and is also one of the 
characters in Shakespeare’s 
Troilus and Cressida . 

Ulysses ; Achilles over the Trench. 

ACRE, 

A seaport on the coast of 
Syria, on a promontory north 
of Mount Carmel. It was cap- 
tured by the Saracens in 638, 
by the Crusaders in 1104, re- 
captured by the Saracens in 
1187, and in 1191, after a two 
years’ siege and a loss of 300,000 
soldiers, it was taken by the 
Crusaders under Richard Coeur 
de Lion and Philip Augustus. 
It was then named St. Jean 
d’Acre on account of it being 
the headquarters of the Knights 
of the Order of St. John. It 
was again taken by the Saracens 
in 1291, when 60,000 Christians 
perished. In 1517 it was cap- 
tured by the Turks, and in 1799 
was besieged by the French 
under Napoleon, but was suc- 
cessfully defended by the gar- 
rison with the aid of English 
sailors under sir Sydney Smith. 
In 1832 it was stormed by 
Ibrahim Pasha, son of the vice- 
roy of Egypt, in whose posses- 
sion it remained until 1840, 
when it was captured by a com- 
bined English, Austrian and 
Turkish fleet under sir Robert 
Stopford. 

The Foresters . 

ACRISIUS. 

The included DanaS has escaped again 
Her tower, and her Acrisius — where to seek ? 

I have been about the city. 

In Greek mythology, king of 



ACT] 


+ 1 


[MO 


Argos and father of Danae {q.v). 
Being told by an oracle that his 
daughter’s son would kill him* 
he kept her shut up in a tower 
of brass, where she became the 
mother of Perseus — who won 
the Golden Fleece, and cut 
off the Gorgon’s head — by 
Jupiter, in the form of a 
golden shower. Acrisius then 
ordered his daughter and her 
child to be cast into the sea, 
but they were rescued by a 
fisherman named Dictys. When 
Perseus was grown to manhood, 
wishing to show his skill in 
throwing the quoit, he by mis- 
adventure struck the foot of 
Acrisius with a quoit, which 
caused his death, and thus the 
oracle was unhappily fulfilled. 
Acrisius reigned about 31 years. 

j Becket. 

ACTON (Roger). See Roger Acton. 

ADAIR. See Ellen, Ellen Adair. 
ADAM. 

For since the time when Adam first 
Embraced his Eve in happy hour, 

And every bird of Eden burst 
In carol, every bud to flower, 

Day-Dream. 

ADAM. 

so might there be 

Two Adams, two mankinds, and that was clean 

Against God’s work: 

Columbus. 

ADAM. 

From yon blue heavens above us bent 

The gardener Adam and his wife 
Smile at the claims of long descent. 

Lady Clara Vere de Vere. 

ADAMS. 

who COUld think 

The softer Adams of your Academe, 

The Princess . 


Adam is used here as c Galen ’ 
in Canto 1, line 19. 

ADAM’S WINE. 

A cant phrase for water as a 
beverage. 

Northern Cobbler. 

ADDER 

A small serpent of the genus 
V if era. 

Harold ; Becket. 

ADELINE. 

You are not less divine, 

But more human in your moods, 

Than your twin-sister, Adeline. 

Margaret. 

ADELINE. 

Adeline. 

ADMIRAL OF THE OCEAN. 

A title conferred upon Colum- 
bus and on his heirs and suc- 
cessors for ever, by Ferdinand 
of Spain. 

iEAKIDES. See Achilles. 

JEGIS. 

In mythology the shield of 
Jupiter, made of the hide of the 
goat Amalthsea. Jupiter gave 
this shield to Pallas, who placed 
upon it Medusa’s head, which 
turned into stone all those who 
fixed their eyes upon it. It 
was the symbol of divine pro- 
tection. 

and round 

The warrior’s puissant shoulders Pallas flung 
Her fringed aegis, 

Achilles over the Trench. 

iEOLIAN HARP. 

A stringed instrument con- 
sisting of a box, on or in which 
were stretched strings, on which 
the wind acted to produce the 



42 


[AGR 


AS] 


notes. It was usually placed 
at an open window. 

Two Voices. 

ASOP. 

Inverted JSsop — mountain out of mouse. 

Say for ten thousand ten — and pothouse 
knaves, 

iEsop was a famous Greek 
fabulist who lived in the sixth 
century b.c. Little is known 
of his history except that he 
was a native of Phrygia and a 
slave, but subsequently set 
free by Jadmon of Samos. 
Visiting the court of Croesus 
he gained his confidence to 
such an extent that he was 
sent on several missions, on 
one of which to Delphi he 
was put to death by the priests. 
(b.c. 620-560). 

Queen Mary . 

iETNA. 

A mountain on the east coast 
of Sicily, noted for its volcano. 

Demeter ancL Persephone ,* 
Lover's Pale. 

AFRIC (Africa). 

The voices of our universal sea 

On capes of Afric as on cliffs of Kent, 
The Maoris and that Isle of Continent, 
And loyal pines of Canada murmur thee, 

A Welcome to Her Royal 
Highness Marie Alex - 
androvna , Duchess of 

Edinburgh. 

AGARIC. 

A fungus, to which the com- 
mon mushroom belongs. 

Edwin Morris ; Gareth and 
Lynette . 

AGATHA. 

A sister of mercy, who per- 
suaded Eva Steer, who was sup- 


posed to be drowned, to return 
home to her father and implore 
his forgiveness. Agatha rescued 
Eva when she was about to 
commit suicide by drowning. 

Promise of May . 

AGAVE. 

A plant, native of the warmer 
parts of America. It takes 
from ten to seventy years, 
according to climate, to attain 
maturity, the stem rising to a 
height of 40 feet. 

j The Daisy . 

AGINCOURT. 

A village in Pas-se-Calais 
where one of the more import- 
ant battles in the Hundred 
Years’ War was fought ; Henry V 
defeatingthe French on October 
25, 1415. 

The Princess. 

AGLAIA. 

The child of Lady Psyche. 
Means brightness, and is the 
name of one of the Graces. 

Her maiden babe, a double April old, 

Aglaia slept. 

The Princess . 

AGNED-CATHREGONION. 

The scene of one of king 
Arthur’s battles. Some author- 
ities consider it to be a hill in 
Somersetshire ; according to 
others Edinburgh is the place, 
as the old name of that city was 
Agned. 

And up in Agned-Cathregonion too, 

And down the waste sand-shores of Trath 

5$ Treroit, * *, ^ 

Where manyjajheathen fell ; “ ' 

Lancelot and Elaine . 

AGRIPPINA. 

A cultured and courageous 



A GY] 


43 [AKR 


Roman matron, daughter of 
Vipsanius Agrippa and Julia, 
and the granddaughter of the 
emperor Augustus. She mar- 
ried Germanicus, whom she 
accompanied on his campaigns, 
and upon his death brought 
his ashes to Rome ; was subse- 
quently exiled to the island of 
Pandataria, by Tiberius, where 
she died in 33 a.d. 

and the Roman brows 

Of Agrippina. 

The Princess here is pointing out 
the brows on the marble statue 
of Agrippina. 

The Princess . 

AGYPT (Egypt). 

T omorrow. 

AIDONEUS. 

A surname of Pluto, king 
of the Molossi, who imprisoned 
Theseus because he and Piri- 
thous attempted to ravish his 
daughter Proserpine, hence the 
fable of the descent of Theseus 
and Pirithous into hell. 

Demeter and Persephone. 

AILMER (John). 

Chaplain to Henry Grey, 
marquis of Dorset, and tutor 
of lady Jane Grey. In 1522 
he was made archdeacon of 
Stow, but on the accession of 
Mary was deprived of prefer- 
ments for opposing in Convo- 
cation the doctrine of Tran- 
substantiation, and fled to 
Zurich. In 1558, upon Eliza- 
beth’s accession, he returned, 
was made archdeacon of London 
1562 ; D.D. of Oxford 1573 ; and 


bishop of London 1577 (1521- 

*594) ■ 

Queen Mary. 

AJALON. 

Than that earth should stand at gaze like 
Joshua’s moon in Ajalon t 

A valley in Palestine, and 
the scene of a battle between 
Joshua and five Canaanitish 
kings, during which Joshua 
commanded the sun and moon 
to stand still. 

* Sun, stand thou still upon Gibeon ; and thou. 
Moon, in the valley of Ajalon.’ Joshua x. 12., 

Locksley Hall . 

AKB AR (Jellal - Ud - Din - Mo - 
hammed). 

The greatest of the Mogul 
emperors, who, at the age of 
13, succeeded his father Huma- 
yun. Assuming the reins of 
government at the age of 18, 
he commenced his conquest of 
Hindustan. He subdued and 
ruled over fifteen provinces, 
and his empire extended from 
Cashmir to Ahmedabad and 
from Cabul to Dacca. His 
reign was marked by his daring 
change of policy from fanatical 
Mohammedanism to universal 
tolerance. He consulted Mo- 
hammedans, Hindus, Parsees, 
Jews and Christians, and drew 
up a new faith upon eclectic 
principles, by which he hoped 
to unite all creeds and peoples ; 
he abolished the poll-tax on 
infidels and the pilgrimage tax 
on Hindus (1542-1605). 

AkbaPs Dream. 

AKROKERAUNIAN WALLS. 

The long divine Peneian pass, 

The vast Akrokeraunian walls, 



ALB] 


44 


[ALC 


The Acroceraunia : a moun- 
tain range along the coast of 
north-west Greece jutting out 
into the Ionian sea. 

To E . L. 

ALBERIGHI (Federigo degli). See 
Federigo degli Alberighi. 

ALBERT. 

The Prince Consort, husband 
of queen Victoria. Before the 
Idylls of the King were pub- 
lished the Prince died (1861), 
and to his memory they were 
afterwards dedicated. 

These to His Memory — since he held 

them dear, 

Perchance as finding there unconsciously 
Some image of himself — I dedicate, 

I dedicate, I consecrate with tears — 

These Idylls. 

In the concluding lines of the 
Dedication Tennyson added 
some words of comfort to the 
■Queen on the death of the 
Prince : 

May all love. 

His love, unseen but felt, o’ershadow Thee, 
The love of all Thy sons encompass Thee, 
The love of all Thy daughters cherish Thee, 
The love of all Thy people comfort Thee, 
Till God’s love set Thee at his side again ! 

The success of the Exhibition 
of 1851 was mainly due to the 
efforts of the Prince, who at 
the time of his death was plan- 
ning the International Ex- 
hibition of 1862. In the Ode 
sung at the Opening of the Inter- 
national Exhibition , and the 
Opening of the Indian and 
Colonial Exhibition by the 
Queen , the poet alludes to the 
part played by the Prince in 
connexion with these two Ex- 
hibitions. 

It was chiefly owing to the 


Prince’s admiration of In Me- 
moriam that Tennyson was 
appointed Poet Laureate. 

Dedication of Idylls . 

ALBERT. 

And with him Albert came on his. 

I look’d at him with joy ; 

As cowslip unto oxlip is, 

So seems she to the boy. 

Brother of Olivia, who was 
betrothed to Walter. 

Talking Oak . 

ALBION. 

Ancient name for Britain, in 
use among the early Celtic 
inhabitants. The word means 
c white island 5 and was used 
by the Gauls to describe the 
white- chalked cliff land they 
saw to the North. 

On the Jubilee of Queen Victoria . 

ALCESTIS. 

Had I but known you as I know you now — 
The true Alcestis of the time. 

In Greek mythology, daughter 
of Pelias and Anaxibia, and 
wife of Admetus. In order 
that her father might be re- 
stored to youth by Medea, she, 
with her sisters, put him to 
death, but Medea lefused to 
redeem her promise, and the 
sisters fled to Admetus, who 
married Alcestis. Their bro- 
ther Acastus with an army 
pursued them, and Admetus 
being taken prisoner, was re- 
deemed from death by Alcestis 
who gave herself to save her 
husband; but Hercules de- 
scended to the lower world 
and brought her back. Alcestis 
is the subject of one of the 
tragedies of Euripides. 

Romney 1 s Remorse . 



ALC] 


45 


[ALE 


ALCOR. 

The name of a star in the tail 
of the Great Bear. 

Last Tournament. 

ALDER. 

A tree related to the birch, 
usually growing in moist land. 

Edwin Morris , Amfhion , 
A Farewell , Bolin and 
Balan . 

ALDRED. 

Abbot of Tavistock, 1027 ; 
bishop of Worcester, 1044 ; 
appointed ambassador by Ed- 
ward the Confessor to the 
emperor of Germany, Henry III, 
1054 ; and was the first English 
bishop to visit Jerusalem, which 
he did in 1058. On his return, 
he was made archbishop of 
York, 1060, with leave to hold 
his former See, but upon visit- 
ing Rome the pope refused him 
the pallium unless he resigned 
his former post. On the death 
of Edward (10 66) Aldred sup- 
ported Harold, and officiated 
at his coronation ; but after 
the battle of Senlac he became 
a faithful servant of the Con- 
queror, and "crowned William 
at Westminster before the year 
was completed in which he had 
crowned Harold ( d . 1069). 

Harold . 

ALDWYTH. 

Daughter of Alfgar, and 
widow of Griffyth, king of 
Wales ; she subsequently be- 
came the wife of Harold. 

Harold . 


ALENCON. 

Capital of the department of 
Orne, North France, once 
famous for its point-lace. The 
title of a Duchy held by various 
members of the royal family 
of France, from Charles II of 
Valois. In 1048 duke William 
of Normandy captured the 
town, and inflicted great cruelty 
on the inhabitants who had 
taunted him with his birth, 
by hanging raw hides over the 
walls, 

hast thou never heard 
His savagery at Alen^on — the town 
Hung out raw hides along their walls, and 

cried, 

* Work for the tanner/ 

The town was taken and 
retaken in the French Wars 
during the reigns of Henry V 
and Henry VI of England ; and 
in 1871 it capitulated to the 
Germans under the grand duke 
of Mecklenburg. The only re- 
mains of the ancient castle are 
three towers which form part 
of the present Town Hall. 

Harold. 

ALEXANDRA. 

Eldest daughter of the late 
king Christian IX of Denmark ; 
married to the Prince of Wales, 
afterwards Edward VII, at St. 
George’s Chapel, Windsor, on 
March 10, 1863. The poem 
was written as a welcome to her 
upon her arrival in England. 

Sea-Kings’ daughter from over the sea. 

Alexandra l 

Saxon and Norman and Dane are we, 

But all of us Danes in our welcome of thee 
Alexandra 

Welcome her, thunders of fort and of fleet 
Welcome her, thundering cheer of the street 

A Welcome to Alexandra . 



ALE] 


46 


ALF 


ALEXANDROVNA. See Marie, 
Marie Alexandrovna. 

ALFGAR. 

Son of Leofric, earl of Mer- 
cia and Godgifn (Lady Go diva). 
He and his father supported 
king Edward the Confessor 
against earl Godwin at Glou- 
cester, 1051. Was outlawed 
by the Witan, 1055, and took 
refuge in Ireland ; invaded 
Herefordshire with Welsh allies 
but was defeated by Harold ; 
made peace and succeeded as 
the earl of Mercia, 1057. In 
the same year he was again out- 
lawed, but regained his earl- 
dom with the help of Northmen. 

Harold . 

ALFRED. 

Duke of Edinburgh and duke 
of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha ; 
second son of queen Victoria 
and prince Albert ; married 
February 23, 1874, at St. 

Petersburg to the grand 
duchess Marie Alexandrovna, 
only daughter of Alexander II, 
czar of Russia. The bride and 
bridegroom made their public 
entry into London on March 12 
of the same year. 

A Welcome to Her Royal 
Highness Marie Alex - 
drovna , Duchess of Edin- 
burgh. 

ALFRED. 

King of the West Saxons, 
born at Wantage. His father 
was king Ethelwulf, and al- 
though the youngest of five 
sons succeeded to the crown 
in 872 a.d. — at the age of 22. 


In the first year of his reign the 
young king fought nine battles 
against the Danes who had 
overrun the greater part of 
England north of the Thames. 
After a respite of several years 
a second invasion took place 
in 878 under Guthrum, king 
of the Danes in East Anglia, 
who overran Somerset without 
opposition, and Alfred retired 
to Athelney, where tradition 
says he burnt the cakes. In 
the same year he inflicted a 
defeat on the Danes at Edington 
in Wiltshire. By the peace 
of Wedmore, Guthrum con- 
sented to become a Christian and 
to acknowledge the supremacy 
of Alfred of the country south 
of the Thames and the greater 
part of Mercia. He subse- 
quently devoted himself to 
legislation, the administration 
of government, and to the 
encouragement of learning, be- 
ing himself a man of letters. 
It is to him we owe the founda- 
tion of England’s greatness on 
the seas (849-901). 

An Ode on the death of tie 

Duke of Wellington ; 

Harold. 

ALFWIG. 

Abbot of New Minster and 
uncle of king Harold. With 
twelve of his monks, joined 
Harold at the battle of Senlac, 
and after the battle was found 
among the slain, his body being 
recognized by the habit of his 
order. 



ALI] 


47 


Osgod. I am sure this body 
Is Alfwig, the king’s uncle, 

A their ic. So it is I 

Harold . 

ALICE. 

A lady in waiting to queen 
Mary. 

Queen Mary. 

ALICE. 

Daughter of a wealthy miller, 
betrothed to a man whose 
parents at first thought he 
c might have looked a little 
higher. 5 They were married, 
and in later years her husband 
expressed a wish that they might 
die together. 

Pray, Alice, pray, my darling wife, 

That we may die the self-same day. 

Miller's Daughter. 

ALICE. 

The nurse of the supposed 
lady Clare. On the eve of the 
wedding of lady Clare and 
lord Ronald, Alice revealed to 
her the secret of her birth, 
namely, that she was the daugh- 
ter of her own nurse. 

Lady Clare . 

ALICE. 


There’s Margaret and Mary, there’s Kate and 
Caroline : 

But none so fair as little Alice in all the land 
they say. 


ALIF. 


May Queen. 


we scarce can spell 
The Alif of Thine alphabet of Love. 

The first letter of the Arabic 
alphabet. 

Akbar's Dream. 


ALINGTON. 

A castle — near the river Med- 
way — originally built in Saxon 
times by a family named Colum- 
bary, but was razed afterwards 
by the Danes. After the con- 


[ALL 

quest it was given to bishop 
Odo, and on his disgrace to 
earl Warrenne. It afterwards 
passed to the Cobham family, 
and from them to the Brents, 
by whom it was alienated to 
sir Thomas Wyatt, who made 
it his residence, and where was 
born his son and successor, 
sir Thomas Wyatt, Junior, 
who was subsequently deprived 
of his estates and executed for 
treason against Mary. 

Ah, gray old castle ofTAIington, green field 
Beside the brimming Medway, it may chance 
That I shall never look upon you more. 

Queen Mary . 

ALIOTH. 

The name of a star in the tail 
of the Great Bear. 

Last Tournament. 

ALLA. 

The word used by the Arabs 
to denote their chief god, 
and adopted by Mahomet as 
the name of the one true God. 

Akbar's Dream . 

ALLAN. 

A farmer, father of William, 
to whom he wished to wed his 
niece Dora. 

Dora. 

ALLEN (Francis). See Francis, 
Francis Allen. 

ALLEN. 

A labourer to farmer Steer. 

Promise of May. 

ALLEN (Sally). See Sally, Sally 
Allen. 

ALLENDALE (Earl of). 

Allen-a-Dale of Nottingham 
was to be married to a lady who 
returned his love, but her 



ALL] 


48 


[ALP 


parents compelled her to forego 
him for an old knight of wealth, 
Allen told his tale to Robin 
Hood, who, in the disguise of a 
harper, went to the church 
where the wedding ceremony 
was to take place. c This is no 
fit match ; the bride shall be 
married only to the man of her 
choice, 5 exclaimed Robin, and 
sounding his horn Allen and 
twenty-four bowmen entered 
the church. The bishop, how- 
ever, refused to marry the 
woman to Allen until the banns 
had been called three times, 
whereupon Robin pulled off the 
bishop’s gown, and placed it 
upon Little John, who called 
the banns seven times, and per- 
formed the ceremony. 

The Foresters . 

ALL-HEAL. 

A name applied to various 
plants, as the mistletoe, the 
great valerian, etc. 

Vastness . 

ALLY. 

Alfred Tennyson, grandson 
of the poet, to whom the poem 
is inscribed. 

Golden-hair’d Ally whose name is one with 

mine. 

To Alfred Tennyson . 

ALMESBURY. 

A town in Wiltshire on the 
river Avon, about eight miles 
from Salisbury. Elfrida, widow 
of Edgar, founded here in 980 
a Benedictine nunnery in atone- 
ment for the murder of her son- 
in-law, king Edward, but there 
had been a more ancient British 


monastery at the same place, 
called after king Ambrosius 
who lies buried there. Mary, 
daughter of king Edward I, 
took the veil here in 1285, and 
two years later, Eleanor, queen 
of Henry III and the mother 
of Edward I, was admitted. 
It was at this town that Guin- 
evere (q.v) after the death of 
Arthur, took the nun’s habit. 

Queen Guinevere had fled the court 

and sat 

There in the holy house at Almesbury 
Weeping, none with her save a little maid, 
A novice: 

Guinevere. 

‘ And when queen Guenever understood 
that king Arthur was slain, . . . she went 
to Almesbury, and there she let make herself 
a nun, and wore white clothes and black.’ 

Malory : Morte d' Arthur, Book XXI, chap. 

vii. 

Guinevere ; Passing of Arthur. 

ALMSHOUSES AT NOTTING- 
HAM. 

Part shall go to the almshouses at Notting- 
ham, part to the shrine of our Lady. 

The Foresters. 

ALOE. 

A genus of plants, some classed 
as trees, others as shrubs, of 
considerable medicinal import- 
ance. 

The Daisy. 

ALPHEGE OF ENGLAND. 

Monk of Deerhurst, bishop of 
Worcester 984; archbishop of 
Canterbury 1006. Inaugurated 
the Council of Enham, which 
made enactments against hea- 
thenism and the selling of 
slaves. By confirming Olaf 
Tryggwesson in his Christianity 
and obtaining from him in 994 
a promise not to invade Eng- 
land, he incurred the hatred of 



ALP] 


[AMA 


49 


the Northmen, and during the 
invasion of the Danes in ion 
was captured, and upon refusing 
to ransom himself was put to 
death. His body was trans- 
lated to Canterbury by Knut, 
and in 1078 he was canonized 
(954-10 1 2). 

Becket. 

ALPS. 

I climb’d the roofs at break of day : 
Sun-smitten Alps before me lay. 

The great mountain range 
in Europe, forming the bound- 
ary between France, Germany 
and Switzerland on the north 
and west, and Italy on the south. 

Lhe Daisy . 

ALRASCHID. See Haroun Alras- 
chid. 

ALVA (Duke of). 

A distinguished soldier and 
a descendant from one of the 
ancient families of Spain. < When 
only 17 years of age he was 
selected for a military command 
by Charles V, and was present 
at the battle of Pavia, 1535. 
In 1547 he gained a victory 
over John of Saxony at the 
battle of Muhlberg and subse- 
quently took part in the siege 
of Wittenburg and presided 
at the court-martial which 
tried and condemned to death 
the Elector. In 1552 he in- 
vaded France and was engaged 
for several months in an unsuc- 
cessful siege of Metz. In his 
campaign against pope Paul IV 
in 1556, Alva was completely 
successful and was at the gates 


of Rome when he was compelled 
by Philip to negotiate a peace, 
and to ask pardon for having 
opposed the pope in the war. 
In 1567 he was sent to the Low 
Countries to reduce the Nether- 
lands to the Spanish yoke, 
which they were attempting to 
throw off. By his tyranny he 
filled the provinces with terror 
and scenes of carnage, for which 
his memory is held in detesta- 
tion to this day. In 1573 the 
oppressed country was relieved 
of his presence, and on returning 
to Spain was treated with dis- 
tinction by Philip. Falling into 
disgrace he was banished from 
court, and confined in the castle 
of Uzeda, where he remained 
for two years. Appointed in 
command of an army he invaded 
Portugal in 1581, defeated An- 
tonio and subdued the kingdom 
(1508-1583). 

Queen Mary. 

AMARACUS. 

=Mar joram, a mint-like plant, 
used as a seasoning in cookery. 

(Enone. 

AMARANTH. 

The unfading Amaranth, so 
called because its flowers do not 
soon wither ; early employed 
as an emblem of immortality. 

Immortal Amarant, a flower which once 
In Paradise, fast by the Tree of Life, 

Began to bloom, but, soon for Man’s offence 
To Heaven removed where first it grew, 

Milton : Paradise Lost, Book III, 353-356. 

Lotos-Eaters ; Romney’s 
Remorse . 

AMARYLLIS. 

A genus of bulbous-rooted 

E 



AMA] 


50 


[AMP 


plants, including the narcissus, 
jonquil, daffodil, agave, etc. 
Amaryllis is the name of a 
country girl in Theocritus and 
Virgil. 

The Daisy. 

AMAZON. 

Glanced at the legendary Amazon 

As emblematic of a nobler age: 

In Greek mythology a race of 
warrior females, said to have 
inhabited the neighbourhood 
of the Caucasus. 

The Princess . 

AMBROSIA. 

for her, and her, 

Hebes are they to hand ambrosia, mix 
The nectar : 

The food of the gods which 
conferred immortality upon 
those who partook of it. 

The Princess; Demeter 
and Persephone . 

AMBROSIAL. 

With rosy slender fingers backward drew 
From her warm brows and bosom her 

deep hair 
Ambrosial, 

An epithet used by Homer of 
the hair of the gods. 

Claribel ; (Enone ; In 
Memoriam . 

AMBROSIALLY. 

= Delicious. 

and opening out his milk-white palm 
Disclosed a fruit of pure Hesperian gold, 

That smelt ambrosially, 

C Enone . 

AMBROSIUS. 

A monk. 

And one, a fellow-monk among the rest, 
Ambrosius, loved him much beyond the rest 
And honour’d him, 

Holy Grail . 

AMMON. 

A tribe, occupying the region 
to the east of Jordan, who hired 


Balaam to curse Israel. They 
were continually at war with 
the Israelites until subdued 
by Judas Maccabseus. 

* Moreover it is written that my race 

Hew’d Ammon, hip and thigh, from Aroer 

On Amon unto Minncth.’ 

Dream of Fair Women. 

AMMONIAN OASIS. 

Gliding with equal crowns two serpents led 
Joyful to that palm-planted fountain-fed 
Ammonian Oasis in the waste. 

Refers to Alexander’s visit 
to the famous temple of Jupiter 
Ammon in the Libyan desert. 

Alexander . 

AMMONITES. 

Carved stones of the Abbey-ruin in the park, 
Huge Ammonites, and the first bones of Time ; 

Huge fossil snake-shaped 
stones, known in the middle 
ages as c Cornu Ammonis,’ so- 
called from the Ammonian 
Horn of Ammon. 

The Princess. 

AMOMUM. 

An Indian spice plant. It is 
mentioned in Virgil’s Eclogue . 

The Cup . 

AMPHION. 

In Greek mythology son of 
Zeus and Antiope, and twin- 
brother of Zethus. He was 
born on mount Citheron, where 
Antiope had fled to avoid the 
resentment of Dirce (y.z/.), and 
the two children were exposed, 
but were brought up by shep- 
herds. It is said that Amphion 
invented the lute and built 
Thebes by the music of it, 
which was so melodious that 
the stones danced into walls. 



AMP] 


[ANA 


51 


Amphion there the loud creating lyre 
Strikes, and beholds a sudden Thebes aspire ! 

Pope : Temple of Fame , 85-86. 

When the two children had 
grown to manhood they united 
to avenge the wrongs which 
their mother had suffered at 
the hands of Dirce. They 
captured Thebes, slew Lycus, 
and tied Dirce to the tail of a 
wild bull which dragged her 
through precipices until she 
expired. Amphion married 
Niobe who, boasting that 

she was greater and more de- 
serving of immortality than 
Latona was changed into a stone, 
and in despair Amphion killed 
himself. Amfhion . 

AMPHISBASNA. 

so you quash rebellion too 
For heretic and traitor are all one: 

Two vipers of one breed — an amphisbaena, 
Each end a sting : Let the dead letter bum. 

A fabled serpent having two 
heads and able to move either 
backwards or forwards. 

Dreadful was the din 
Of hissing through the hall, thick-swarming 

now 

With complicated monsters, head and tail — 
Scorpion, and Asp, and Amphisbasna dire, 

Milton : Paradise Lost , Book X. 521-524. 

Queen Mary . 

AMURATH. 

The Third, sixth sultan of 
the Turks (1574-1595)- His 
first act on ascending the throne 
was to invite all his brothers to 
a banquet and strangle them. 

This is the English, not the Turkish court ; 
Not Amurath an Amurath succeeds, 

But Harry Harry. 

Shakespeare : 2 Henry TV . Act v. Scene 2. 

In 1579 a commercial treaty 
between Amurath and Elizabeth 
was ratified. 

Sir John Oldcastle , 
Lord Cobh am. 


AMY. 

The fiancee of an impetuous 
boy lover — her cousin — who 
found that his love had been 
disdained. Amy forsook him 
to satisfy the wishes of her 
father, and married for money. 
On account of his unhappy 
love affair he spoke of flight 
into a far country, and a mar- 
riage amid some savage tribes, 
but the bonds of culture and 
comfort were too strong for 
him, and the project of wild 
adventure was abandoned as 
quickly as it was formed. Amy 
died at the birth of her first 
child, and sixty years afterwards 
her once boy lover says : 

All in white Italian marble, looking still as 
^if she smiled, 

Lies my Amy dead in child-birth, dead the 
mother, dead the child. 

* * * 

I this old white-headed dreamer stoopt and 
kiss’d her marble brow. 

Locksley Hall ; Locksley 
Hall Sixty T ears After. 

AN AKIM. 

I felt the thews of Anakim, 

The pulses of a Titan’s heart ; 

Sons of Anak, a race of giants 
inhabiting the mountains of 
Hebron, and who were con- 
quered by Joshua. Joshua xi . 
21 - 22 . 

The Israelites said they were 
grasshoppers as compared with 
the Anakim. Numbers xiii . 33. 

In Memoriam . 

ANATOLIAN GHOST. 

Anatolian spectre stories. 

To Ulysses . 



ANE] 


5 2 


[ANN 


ANEMONE. 

A plant of the crowfoot 
family. 

Dream of Fair Women ; Fo 
the Rev. F. D. Maurice ; 
City Child. 

ANDREW, SAINT. See St. An- 
drew. 

ANGELO (Michael). 

A famous Italian sculptor, 
painter and poet. 

In Memoriam . 

ANGLE. 

A German race of people 
who invaded Britain in the fifth 
century and settled in North- 
umbria and East Anglia. From 
them the name of England was 
derived. 

Battle of Brunanhurh ; Har- 
old ; Bechet. 

ANGUISANT. 

King of Erin, subdued by 
king Arthur, fighting on behalf 
of Leodogran, king of Came- 
liard. 

Coming of Arthur. 

ANGLIA. 

Eques cum pedite 
Praspediatur ! 

Illorum in lacrymas 
Cruor fundatur 1 

Pereant, pereant, 

Anglia precatur. 

Harold. 

ANGLIAE. 

Hostis per Angliae 
Plagas bacchatur; 

Casa crematur, 

Pastor fugatur 

trucidatur — 

Harold 

ANGLIAM. 

Hostis in Angliam 
Ruit praedator, 

Illorum, Domine, 

Scutum scindatur ! 


ANJOU. 

An ancient province of 
France. In 1127 the eleventh 
count of Anjou married Plan- 
tagenet, the daughter of Henry 
I of England and became the 
father of Henry II, who took 
it from his brother Geoffrey 
in x 156. It was taken from 
king John by Philip Augustus 
of France in 1205, and united 
to the French kingdom in 1328 
by Philip VI, son of Charles of 
Valois. 

Bechet. 

ANLAF. 

A Danish king who invaded 
England and, joining forces 
with Constantins, king of the 
Scots, was defeated by Athel- 
stan (7.^.) and his brother 
Edmund Atheling (q.v) at the 
battle of Brunanburh, a.d. 937. 

Battle of Brunanburh. 

ANNE. 

The warrior Earl of Allendale, 

He loved the Lady Anne ; 

The lady loved the master well, 

The maid she loved the man. 

Tie Foresters. 

See Allendale (Earl of). 

ANNE (Queen). See Roleyn. 
ANNE. 

ANNE WHARTON. 

Wife of lord Wharton, and a 
friend of lady Jane Grey. 

she was passing 
Some chapel down in Essex, and with her j 
Lady Anne Wharton, and the Lady Anne ‘ 
Bow’d to the Pyx; 

Queen Mary. 

ANNE— ANNIE. 

For, Annie, you see, her father was not the 
man to save, 

Hadn’t a head to manage, and drank himself 
into his grave. 


Harold. 



ANN] 


53 


[ANT 


An old woman — who had 
survived all her children — re- 
lates to her grandchild Annie 
the story of her life. 

Grandmother . 

ANNIE. 

An’ es for Miss Annie es call’d me afoor 
my awn foalks to my fa ace 
‘ A hignorant village wife as ’ud hev to 
be lam’d her awn plaace,’ 

Eldest daughter of the village 
squire. Village Wife. 

ANNIE. 

* He ' says 1 shall never live thro’ it, 0 
Annie, what shall I do ? ’ 

Annie consider’d. * If I,’ said the wise 
little Annie, * was you, 

One of the inmates of a chil- 
dren’s hospital, who suggested 
to one of her fellow sufferers 
who was about to undergo an 
operation, that she should pray 
for help to c the dear Lord Jesus.’ 
In the Children's Hospital . 

ANNIE. 

ANNIE LEE. See Enoch, Enoch 
Arden. 

ANSELM. 

Archbishop of Canterbury. 
Born at Aosta in Piedmont. 
In 1060 entered the monastery 
of Bee, and in 1063 was in- 
stalled as prior in succession to 
Lanfranc, and fifteen years later 
was elected abbot. Visited 
England in 1092, and in the 
following year accepted the 
archbishopric of Canterbury 
from William II who was lying 
ill at Gloucester. Consecrated 
the church, erected by William 
I in 1094 on the field on which 
he defeated Harold. In 1494 
he was canonized (103 3-1 109). 

Becket . 


ANT. 

A small insect. 

Belle as and Ettarre ; Vast - 
ness ; Queen Mary . 

ANTIBABYLONIANISMS. See 
Boanerges. 

ANTIOCH. 

Ancient capital of the Greek 
kings of Syria, built by Se- 
leucus 300 b.c. It was famous in 
the early history of the Church 
as the seat of several ecclesias- 
tical councils, as well as for 
being the birthplace of Chrysos- 
tom. In 635 a.d. it fell into 
the hands of the Saracens, who 
held it until 969 a.d. when it 
came under Roman dominion 
and retained till 1084 a.d., when 
it fell into the hands of the 
Turks, from whom it was cap- 
tured by the Crusaders a.d. 
1098. 

Becket. 

ANTON. 

A Knight of the Round 
Table, and, according to Tenny- 
son, the foster-father of king 
Arthur. 

Wherefore Merlin took the child, 
And gave him to Sir Anton, an old knight 
And ancient friend of Uther ; and his wife 
Nursed the young prince, and rear’d him with 

her own ; 

And no man knew. 

Malory in his Morte d' Arthur 
says : c So the child was de- 
livered unto Merlin ; and so he 
bare it forth unto Sir Ector, 
and made an holy man to 
christen him, and named him 
Arthur.’ 

Coming of Arthur . 



ANT] 


54 


[APP 


ANTONIUS. 

A Roman general, but evi- 
dently not meant to be identi- 
fied with any Roman general 
known to history. 

S The Cup . 

ANTONY (Mark). See Mark An- 
tony. 

ANTONY. 

ANTONY KNYVETT. 

Lieutenant of the Tower of 
London in the reign of Henry 
VIII ; joined the earl of Devon 
in insurrection to prevent the 
marriage of Mary with Philip of 
Spain ; takenprisoner with Wyatt 
at Temple Bar by sir Maurice 
Berkeley, and being taken to 
the Tower was tried, condemned 
and executed. 

Queen Mary. 

ANTWERP. 

To Strasburg, Antwerp 

Frankfort, Zurich, Worms, 

Geneva, Basle — our Bishops from their sees 
Or fled, they say, or flying — 

Queen Mary , 

APE. 

A monkey. 

St. Simeon Stylites ; In Me- 
moriam ; Making of Man ; 
Queen Mary ; B ecket . 

APHRODITE. 

The Greek goddess of love 
and beauty, and wife of Hephaes- 
tus and mother of Cupid. Her 
sacred bird was the dove. As 
the queen of beauty she had 
the golden apple awarded her by 
Paris, and possessed the power 
of conferring beauty. In Ro- 
man mythology she is identified 
with Venus (< q.v .). 


APICUS. 

A celebrated Roman glutton 
in the time of Augustus Tiber- 
ius. He expended large sums 
in gluttony and wrote a book 
upon cookery. It is said that 
having spent £800,000 in supply- 
ing the delicacies of his table 
and having only £30,000 left, he 
committed suicide, not think- 
ing it possible to exist on such 
a miserable sum. 

Becket . 

APOLLO. 

The chief god of the Greeks ; 
in ancient literature described 
as possessed of many powers. 
Tennyson speaks of him as the 
god of the sun and god of music : 

Like that strange song I heard Apollo sing, 
Tithonus. 

* Look where another of our Gods, the Sun, 
Apollo,’ 

Lucretius. 

The statue of Apollo at 
Rhodes, made to commemorate 
the successful defence of that 
place against Demetrius Polior- 
cetes in 300 b.c., was one of the 
several wonders of the old 
world. It represented the sun- 
god with his head surrounded 
by rays, and with his feet rest- 
ing one on each side of the en- 
trance to the port. This Co- 
lossus of Rhodes, as the statue 
was generally called, was 105 
feet high, and took twelve years 
to build, at a cost of about 
£120,000. 

Tithonus; Lucretius . 

APPLE-TREE. 

A tree of many varieties. 

Holy Grail . 


CEnone. 



AQU] 


55 

AQUITAINE. 

A province of south-west 
France. It was conquered by 
the Romans 57 b.c. under 
Caesar, and again in 418 in the 
reign of Augustus. On the 
marriage of Louis VII with 
Eleanor, daughter of William X, 
it was annexed to the French 
crown, but upon Henry II of 
England marrying Eleanor after 
her divorce, it was added to the 
English crown. It remained 
in English possession until 1453, 
when it was restored to France. 

Becket . 

ARAB. 

From the delicate Arab arch of her feet 
To the grace that, 

Refers to the high instep 
of the Arab, giving swiftness 
and elasticity to his gait. 

Maud . 

arabi. 

Leader of the Egyptian Re- 
volt, 1882. As under-secretary 
for War in the Egyptian govern- 
ment, he adopted a policy 
which the British government 
had to meet by armed force. 
Alexandria was bombarded on 
July 11, 1882, and on September 
13 of the same year the British 
troops under sir Garnet Wolse- 
ley completely routed him at 
the battle of Tel-el-Kebir. 

You saw the league-long rampart-fire 

Flare from Tel-el-Kebir 
Thro’ darkness, and the foe was driven, 

And Wolseley overthrew 
Arabi. 

Arabi fled to Cairo, but 
surrendering was banished to 
Ceylon, 1883. In 1901 he was 
released and granted a pension. 


[ARA 

He claimed descent from the 
prophet. 

Prologue to General Hamley . 

ARABY. 

A poetical form of Arabia. 

Queen Mary . 

ARAC (Prince). 

A prince, whose hard old 
father represented in his blunt 
and violent manner the old- 
fashioned regime when women 
were women and knew their 
place. Since his infancy he 
had been proxy wedded to a 
certain princess Ida (q.v) 9 with 
whom he was deeply in love. 
He is described as a genial 
giant, with splendid muscles, 
healthy love of action, and 
proud devotion to his sister. 
When Ida reached marriageable 
age she founded a college for 
women from which men were 
excluded. Arac determined to 
gain access to the college, so 
with two more friends disguised 
as girl students, the college 
portress admitted them. After 
many adventures his sex was 
discovered. Arac wooed Ida, 
this time more successfully, 
and after many amusing hap- 
penings they were married. 

Phe Princess . 

ARAGON. 

Once a kingdom, but now 
divided into three provinces. 
It was conquered by the Ro- 
mans, but upon the fall of that 
empire, it passed into the 
hands of the Goths ; and at the 
beginning of the eighth century 



ARB] 56 [ART 


was conquered by the Moors. 
In 1137 it was recovered by the 
rulers of Aragon and united 
with Catalonia, and by the 
marriage of Ferdinand with 
Isabella of Castile in 1469 the 
crowns of Aragon and Castile 
(q.v.) were united. 

Queen Mary . 

ARBACES. 

Name of a horse. 

The Brook . 

ARCADY. 

And round us all the thicket rang 
To many a flute of Arcady. 

Represents Greek Idyllic 
poetry. 

In Memoriam . 

ARDEN (Enoch). See Enoch, 
Enoch Arden. 

ARDEN. 

A large forest supposed to 
have been in Warwickshire. 
It is a place-name in Shake- 
speare’s As Tou Like It. 

Sisters (Evelyn and Edith). 

ARES. 

The Greek god of war, called 
by the Romans, Mars, and son 
of Zeus and Hera. Was an 
enemy of Cadmus (q>v.) on 
account of his having killed 
the dragon that guarded the 
springs of Dirce which were 
sacred to Mars. 

The great God, Ar6s, burns in anger still 
Against the guiltless heirs of him from Tyre, 
Our Cadmus, out of whom thou art, who found 
Beside the springs of DircS, smote, and still’d 
Thro’ all its folds the multitudinous beast, 
The dragon, 

His symbols were the spear 
and the burning torch. 

I iresias . 


ARIMATHiEAN JOSEPH. See 
Joseph. 

ARNO. 

An Italian river which flows 
through Florence. 

I he Brook. 

ARNON. 

A river which formed the 
boundary between Moab and 
the Amonites, and afterwards 
between Moab and Israel. 
Dream of Fair Women. 

AROER. 

A city on the river Arnon, 
the southern point of the terri- 
tory of Sihon, king of the Amor- 
ites, and afterwards of the tribe 
of Reuben, but later in the 
possession of Moab. 

‘ Moreover, it is written that my race 

Hew’d Ammon, hip and thigh, from Aroer 
On Arnon unto Minneth.’ 

Dream of Fair Women. 
‘And he smote them from Aroer, even till 
thou come to Minnith.’ / udges xi. 33. 

Dream of Fair Women. 

’AROLD (Harold). 

Promise of May. 

AROMAT. 

Supposed to have been the 
native land of Joseph of Ari- 
mathsea and the place from 
which he brought the Holy 
Grail to Glastonbury. 

The cup, the cup itself, from which our Lord 
Drank at the last sad supper with His own. 
This, from the blessed land of Aromat — 

Holy Grail. 

ARTEMIS. 

In Greek mythology the 
daughter of Zeus and Leto. 
She was twin-sister of Apollo, 
and was born in the isle of 



ART] 


57 


[ART 


Delos. A virgin goddess, re- 
presented as a huntress armed 
with bow and arrows. The 
Romans identified Artemis with 
the old Italian goddess Diana 
(q.V.). 

2 'he Cup. 

ARTEMISIA (Carian). See Car- 
ian Artemisia. 

ARTHUR. 

‘ Yon know,’ said Frank, * he burnt 
His epic, his King Arthur, some twelve books. 

z=The Idylls of the King . 

The E'pic . 

ARTHUR. 

Sir Arthur, a local magnate. 

The Brook. 

ARTHUR. 

Arthur Henry Hallam, son of 
Henry Hallam, the historian, 
born 1811. During his resi- 
dence at Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, Tennyson made the 
acquaintance of Hallam, with 
whom he formed an affectionate 
friendship, and some years 
later Hallam became engaged 
to the poet’s sister Emily. 
His early death, which occurred 
suddenly at Vienna in 1833, 
was a great grief to the poet, 
whose In Memoriam is a noble 
elegy to his loss. 

My Arthur, whom I shall not see 

Till all my widow’d race be run ; 

Dear as the mother to the son, 

More than my brothers are to me. 

Hallam was buried at Cleve- 
don in Somersetshire, and in the 
Manor aisle of the church, 
over the vault of the Hallams, 
is a tablet, which bears the 
following inscription : 


TO 

THE MEMORY OF 
ARTHUR HENRY HALLAM 
ELDEST SON OF HENRY 
HALLAM ESQUIRE 
AND OF JULIA MARIA HIS WIFE 
DAUGHTER OF SIR ABRAHAM 
ELTON BARONET 
OF CLEVEDON COURT 

WHO WAS SNATCHED AWAY BY SUDDEN 
DEATH 

at Vienna on September 15TH 1833 

IN THE TWENTY-THIRD YEAR OF HIS AGE 
AND NOW IN THIS OBSCURE AND SOLITARY 
CHURCH 

REPOSE THE MORTAL REMAINS OF 
ONE TOO EARLY LOST FOR PUBLIC FAME 
BUT ALREADY CONSPICUOUS AMONG HIS 
CONTEMPORARIES 

FOR THE BRIGHTNESS OF HIS GENIUS 
THE DEPTH OF HIS UNDERSTAND IN G 
THE NOBLENESS OF HIS DISPOSITION 
THE FERVOUR OF HIS PIETY 
AND THE PURITY OF HIS LIFE 

Vale dulcissime 

Vale dilectissime Desideratissime 

REQUIESCAS IN PACE 
TER AC MATER HIC POSTHAC REQUIES- 
CAMUS TECUM 
USQUE AD TUBAM. 

In Memoriam. 

ARTHUR. 

Supposed to have been in the 
sixth century a war leader of 
the tribes inhabiting Cumbria 
and Strathclyde against the 
Saxons from the East and the 
Piets and Scots from the North. 
The name Arthur originally 
denoted the Bear, and the con- 
stellation of that name is called 
in Welsh the Chariot of Arthur. 
His father was Uther the pen- 
dragon, and his mother Ygerne 
widow of Gorlois, duke of Corn- 
wall, and he was born at Tin- 
tagel Castle, Cornwall, about 



ART] 


[ART 


58 

the year 500 a.d. Tennyson 
says that Merlin gave Arthur, 
when an infant, to Sir Anton 
to bring him up, and he was 
brought up as his foster-son. 

Wherefore Merlin took the child, 
And gave him to Sir Anton, an old Knight 
And ancient friend of Uther; 

Malory in his Morte < 3 ? Arthur 
says : 

So the child was delivered unto Merlin, 
and so he bore it forth unto Sir Ector, and 
made an holy man to christen him, and named 
him Arthur: 

Uther Pendragon dying while 
Arthur was yet an infant, the 
succession to the kingdom was 
in doubt, and in order to prove 
who was the rightful heir to 
the realm, the method of draw- 
ing a sword from a stone was 
adopted. This stone, which 
was in the churchyard of St. 
Stephen’s, London, was like a 
marble stone, with an anvil of 
steel in the middle a foot high, 
and on it was placed a sword 
naked to the point, and in- 
scribed thus : 

Whoso pulleth out this sword of this stone 
and anvil is rightful king bom of all England. 

Malory : Morte d? Arthur, Book I, chap. iii. 

Some 200 knights tried to 
release it but failed. Arthur 
alone could draw it, whereby 
proving his right of succession 
to the kingdom. 

And right as Arthur did at Christmas he 
did at Candlemas, and pulled out the sword 
easily, whereof the barons were sore aggrieved, 

Malory : Morte (V Arthur, Book I, chap. iv. 

At the age of fifteen he was 
crowned at Caerleon-upon-Usk 
by Dubricius, archbishop of the 
‘ City of Legions.’ No sooner 
had he ascended the throne than 
slanderous statements began to 


be circulated as to his birth y 
some maintaining he was not the 
son of Uther and Ygerne : 

* Away with him ? 
No king of ours ! a son of Gorki's he. 

Or else the child of Anton, and no king, 

Or else basebom.’ 

Others said that he was cast 
up from the sea on the ninth 
wave : 

And then the two 
Dropt to the cove, and watch’d the great sea 
fall, 

Wave after wave, each mightier than the last. 
Till last, a ninth one, gathering half the deep 
And full of voices, slowly rose and plunged 
Roaring, and all the wave was in a flame : 
And down the wave and in the flame was 
borne 

A naked babe, and rode to Merlin’s feet, 
Who stoopt and caught the babe, and cried 
‘ The King ! 

Here is an heir for Uther ! ’ 

Whilst another version says : 

Or if some other told. 
How once the wandering forester at dawn, 
Far over the blue tarns and hazy seas, 

On Caer-Eryri’s highest found the King, 

A naked babe, of whom the Prophet spake, 

A great war took place be- 
tween Arthur and eleven kings, 
all of whom were slain. Having 
defeated his enemies he ruled 
over the kingdom wisely, estab- 
lishing order throughout the 
land, for since the death of 
Uther, lawlessness had become 
rampant. Meeting one day 
king Pellinore, he attacked him, 
and in the encounter their 
swords met with such force that 
the sword of king Arthur was 
broken in two pieces ; but in 
order to save his life — being novr 
defenceless — Merlin cast an 
enchantment on Pellinore, and 
he fell to the earth in a deep 
sleep, and Arthur was borne 
away to a place of safety. After 
three days, when the king’s 
wounds were healed, Arthur 
told Merlin he had no sword. So 



ART] 


59 


[ART 


they rode till they came to a lake, 
and afar out in the midst of the 
lake, an arm clad in white samite 
rose from out the water and held 
up a fair sword. Then came the 
Lady of the Lake moving upon 
the water. c Enter into yonder 
barge , 5 she said, c and row to the 
sword and take it ; 5 whereupon 
the king rowed out in the middle 
of the lake and seized the sword. 
The weapon, which was called 
Excalibur, was possessed with 
magic power, and gave light 
equal to thirty torches ; and it 
was with this sword that he 
defeated all his enemies. He 

then began his career of con- 
quests. He is supposed to have 
fought and won twelve great 

battles over the Saxons, Piets 

and Scots ; the first was fought 
in Northumberland, by the 
river Glen ,* the second, third, 
fourth and fifth were the four 
battles of the Duglas ; the 

sixth by the river Bassa ; the 
seventh in the wood Celidon ; 
the eighth at Castle Gurnion, 

where Arthur bore the image of the Holy Vir- 
gin, Mother of God, upon his shoulders, and 
through the power of our Lord Jesus Christ, 
and the holy Mary, put the Saxons to flight, 
and pursued them the whole day with great 
slaughter. 

Nennius : Six Chronicles, 

It is however supposed to 
have been the head of the Virgin 
Mary engraven on the shield 
borne by Arthur. 

and again 

By castle Gurnion, where the glorious King 
Had on his cuirass worn our Lady’s Head, 
Carved of one emerald center’d in a sun 
Of silver rays, that lighten’d as he breathed 
Lancelot and Elaine. 

Athwart his brest a bauldrick brave he ware, 
That shind, like twinkling stars, with stones 

most pretious rare. 

And in the midst thereof one pretious stone 


Of wondrous worth, and eke of wondrous 

mights, 

Shapt like a Ladies head, exceeding shone, 
Like Hesperus amongst the lesser lights, 

And strove for to amaze the weaker sights : 

Spenser : Faerie Queene, Booh I. Canto vii. 
Amazement runs before the towering casque 
Of Arthur, bearing through the stormy field 
The virgin sculptured on his Christian shield : 

Wordsworth : Ecclesiastical Sonnets, Part /. 

Stanza x« 

The ninth battle was at 
Caerleon, or the c City of 
Legions 5 ; the tenth by the 
river Trath Treroit, the eleventh 
near Agned Cathregonion, and 
the twelfth — -the greatest vic- 
tory of all — near Badon Hill. 
Some authorities consider his 
kingdom embraced Devon, Corn- 
wall and part of Wales ; others 
that it extended as far as the 
Orkneys, for we find that the 
king of those islands was married 
to Arthur’s sister. Leodogran, 
king of Cameliard, then appealed 
to Arthur to assist him in clear- 
ing his kingdom of wild beasts 
and heathen hordes that 
swarmed from overseas. Arthur 
accepted the call and leading all 
his knighthood threw the 

kings 

Carados, Urien, Cradlemont of Wales, 
Claudias and Clariance of Northumberland, 
The King Brandagoras of Latangor, 

With Anguisant of Erin, Morganore, 

And Lot of Orkney. 

Meanwhile Arthur had fallen 
in love with king Leodogran’s 
daughter, Guinevere, and from 
the battle-field sent three of his 
knights — Ulfius, Brastias and 
Bedivere — to Leodogran, saying: 

* If I in aught have served thee wel^ 
Give me thy daughter Guinevere to wife.’ 

but Leodogran, having heard of 
the suspicion attached to his birth 
hesitated, but eventually satisfy- 
ing himself gave his consent. The 
marriage was however delayed 



ART] 


60 


[ART 


as Arthur was compelled to enter 
upona campaign abroad, with the 
result that Ireland and Iceland, 
as well as Norway* and Gaul, 
were added to his conquests. 
Returning, he was married by 
Dubricthehigh priest, amid great 
splendour, to Guinevere at Came- 
lot, in the church of St. Stephen’s. 

St. Dubric went before Christ had chosen him. 
The Archbishop of London walked by his side 
And fifteen bishops chosen from many lands. 
They were all hung about with very rich cloth- 
ing 

That was all embroidered with burnished gold. 
Trumpets were blowing, bells were ringing, 
Knights were riding, women forth gliding. 
Kirtlan : Sir Goasoain and the Green Knight. 

Leodogran gave Arthur for a 
wedding present the famous 
Round Table with ioo knights, 
which tradition says is still pre- 
served at Winchester. Arthur 
then established his new Order, 
known as the Knights of the 
Round Table, and made his 
knights swear to live lives of 
purest chastity, to love one 
maiden only, to redress human 
wrongs, and to reverence their 
king as their conscience. To 
accommodate the magic table 
a magnificent castle was erected, 
in the centre of which was a 
banqueting hall. 

'O brother, had you known our mighty hall, 
Which Merlin built for Arthur long ago ! 

For all the sacred mount of Camelot. 

And all the dim rich city, roof by roof, 

Tower after tower, spire beyond spire,* 

Holding a royal feast and 
Table Round at Camelot there 
came into the hall twelve men, 
ambassadors from Lucius, em- 
peror of Rome, demanding that 
Arthur should acknowledge him 
as his lord, and pay tribute as his 
predecessors had done. Arthur 


met it with a counterclaim to 
the empire for himself as being 
the real representative of Con- 
stantine, and receiving promise 
of help from the knights and 
lords, held a Privy Council at 
York to make the necessary 
arrangements for his departure, 
and leaving his nephew sir 
Modred in charge of the king- 
dom, sailed from Sandwich in 
Kent. Arriving in Brittany 
he met the united forces of the 
Romans and Saracens, and in a 
great battle slew the emperor 
and his * allies, the sowdan of 
Syria, and the kings of Egypt 
and Ethiopia, sent their 
bodies to the Senate at Rome, 
and marching over the Alps, 
through Lombardy and Tus- 
cany, arrived at Rome, where 
he was crowned king by the 
pope. After sojourning in Rome 
for a short time, a message was 
brought to him that his nephew 
Modred, whom he had left in 
charge of his kingdom, had 
traitorously proclaimed himself 
king, and had seized Guinevere 
and kept her a prisoner. With- 
out delay Arthur returned 
home, and landing at Dover 
was met by Modred, who being 
defeated fled with his forces 
to Winchester. Arthur pur- 
sued after him, and joined 
forces with him near the river 
Camel in Cornwall, where they 
fought all the day long. As 
night drew nigh, and some 
100,000 lay dead upon the field, 
Arthur took his sword, held it 



ART] 


61 


[ART 


with both hands, and ran to- 
wards sir Modred, calling 
out c Death to thee, traitor ! ’ 
c pierced the helmet and the 
brainpan, and sir Modred fell 
stark dead to the earth. And 
the noble Arthur fell in a swoon 
to the earth. 5 

And uttering this the King 
Made T at the man ; then Modred smote 
his liege 

Hard on that helm which many a heathen 
sword 

Had beaten thin ; while Arthur at one blow, 
Striking the last stroke with Excalibur, 

Slew him, and all but slain himself, he fell. 

Not one of sir Modred’s men 
remained alive, and of Arthur’s 
noble men, sir Bedivere alone 
had escaped. Finding his end 
drawing nigh, he commanded 
sir Bedivere to return his sword 
to the Lady of the Lake. 

* But now delay not : take Excalibur, 

And fling him far into the middle mere : 
Watch what thou seest, and lightly bring me 

word.’ 

Twice did sir Bedivere go to 
the mere, and twice did his heart 
fail him, for instead of flinging 
the brand into the water he hid 
it in the waterflags about the 
marge. Returning to the dying 
king and being questioned as to 
what he had seen, replied : 

‘ I heard the ripple washing in the reeds. 
And the wild water lapping on the crag.’ 

Perceiving the knight’s decep- 
tion, Arthur in wrath com- 
manded him to fulfil his task : 

* Unknightly, traitor-hearted ! Woe is me ! 
Authority forgets a dying king, 

* * * 

get thee hence : 

But, if thou spare to fling Excalibur, 

I will arise and slay thee with my hands.* 

whereupon the knight quickly 
rose, and going to the water side 
took the sword with both hands 


and flung it in mid-stream, when 
an arm rose up from out of the 
lake, caught it, and it disappeared 
for ever : 

Then quickly rose Sir Bedivere, and ran, 

And, leaping down the ridges lightly, plunged 

Among the bulrush beds, and clutch’d the 
sword, 

And strongly wheel’d and threw it. The 
great brand 

Made lightnings in the splendour of the moon. 

And flashing round and round, and whirl’d it* 
an arch, 

Shot like a streamer of the northern mom. 

Seen where the moving isles of winter shock 

By night, with noises of the Northern Sea. 

So flash’d and fell the brand Excalibur : 

But ere he dipt the surface, rose an arm 

Clothed in white samite, mystic, wonderful. 

And caught him by the hilt, and brandish’d 
him 

Three times, and drew him under in the mere. 

Returning again to the king 
he told him what he had seen y 
and taking the king upon his 
back, placed him in a barge 
in which were three queens — 
Queen Morgan le Fay ; the 
Queen of Northgales ; and the 
Queen of the Westerlands — who 
wept over him on account of 
his grievous wound. Elsdale 
in his Studies of the Idylls 
represents the three queens as 
Faith, Hope and Charity. Then 
sir Bedivere seeing his noble 
master about to leave him, asked 
permission to accompany him : 

Ah ! my Lord Arthur, whither shall I go ? 

Where shall I hide my forehead and my eyes ? 

For now I see the true old times are dead, 

and Arthur slowly answered : 

‘ The old order changeth, yielding place to* 
new, 

And God fulfils Himself in many ways, 

* * * 

Comfort thyself : what comfort is in me ? 

I have lived my life, and that which I have 
done 

May He within Himself make pure ! but thou 

If thou shouldst never see my face again. 

Pray for my soul. 

* * * 

But now farewell. I am going a long way 

With these thou seSst — 

* * * 

and the barge with oar and sail 

Moved from the brink, 



ART] 


62 


[ART 


With the three mourning 
queens he passed up the Bristol 
Channel and hence 

To the island- valley of Avilion : 

Where falls not hail, or rain, or any snow, 
Nor ever wind blows loudly ; but it lies 
Deep-meadow’ d, happy, fair with orchard 

lawns 

And bowery hollows crown’d with summer sea, 
Where I will heal me of my grievous wound. 

And in the Palace of Art the 
scene is pictured : 

Or mythic Uther’s deeply-wounded son 

In some fair space of sloping greens 
Lay, dozing in the vale of Avalon, 

And watch’d by weeping queens. 

According to tradition, king 
Arthur is not dead but rests in 
Glastonbury, £ till he shall come 
again, full twice as fair, to rule 
over his people. 5 Cervantes in 
his Don Quixote says : 

that he did not die, but that, by magic art, 
he was transformed into a raven : and that 
in process of time, he shall reign again, and 
recover his kingdom and sceptre ; for which 
reason it cannot be proved that, from time 
to time, any Englishman hath killed a raven. 

Some authorities contend that 
the mystery of his grave remains 
unsolved, for 

where is he who knows. 
From the great deep to the great deep he goes . 

Sharon Turner in his History 
<of the Anglo-Saxons says : 

In 1189 — -in the reign of Henry II — the body 
of king Arthur was found in Glastonbury 
Abbey sixteen feet under the surface. It 
was found under a stone, bearing the inscrip- 
tion : Hie jacit sepulius inciltus rex Arthurus 
in Insula Avallonia. The body was crumbled 
to dust, but a lock of golden hair was found, 
supposed to be that of his wife. 

In the British Museum is a 
fifteenth century MS., contain- 
ing annals of the Cistercian 
Abbey of Meaux, and a chronicle 
of events connected with it 
from its establishment in 1150 
to the reign of Henry VI. In 
this MS., occurs the following : 

In the twenty-third year of king Henry, 
the bodies of Arthur, some time king of the 
Britons, and of Wenevere his wife, were found 


at Glastonbury, between two stone pyramids 
formerly erected in the sacred cemetery. 
They were hidden by a hollow oak, lay about 
fifteen feet deep in the ground, and were 
distinguished by the most unmistakeahle 
marks ; for Arthur’s thigh-bone, when ex- 
amined, exceeded by three fingers in length 
the tallest man’s thigh-bone that had ever 
been found, when measured down to the 
knee. Moreover, the space between his eye- 
brows was of the breadth of the palm of a 
man’s hand. 

King Arthur has been made 
the hero of many adventures by 
romancers and poets of the 
Middle Ages. The earliest 
legends are found in the Welsh 
Tales, the three Welsh poets, 
Taliesin, Aneurin and Llywarch 
Hen being the first to celebrate 
his deeds. In the twelfth cen- 
tury Geoffrey of Monmouth 
introduced the legends into his 
Latin History of the Britons . 
In 1196 archdeacon Map intro- 
duced the legend of the Quest 
of the Holy Grail , and in 1485 
sir Thomas Malory published 
his Morte A* Arthur. It is from 
this work that Tennyson de- 
rived most of the incidents 
narrated in his Idylls of the 
King , and his Morte d y Arthur. 
Spencer introduced Arthur in 
his Faerie Queene, andJBlackwood 
wrote two epics, and Dryden 
produced a dramatic opera 
entitled King Arthur . Later 
sir Walter Scott edited the old 
romance of Sir Tristram , and 
in 1838 lady Charlotte Guest 
published a translation of the 
mediaeval Welsh tales, known 
as the Mabinogion. It is from 
the latter work that Tennyson 
derived his characters for his 
Idyll of Geraint and Enid . 

M orte A* A rthur ; C oming 



ARU] 


63 


[ASH 


of Arthur ; Gareth and 
Lynette ; Marriage of Ger- 
aint ; Geraint and Enid ; 
Bolin and Balan ; Merlin 
and Vivien ; Lancelot and 
Elaine ; Holy Grail ; Pel- 
leas and Ettarre ; Last 
T ournament ; Guinevere ; 
Passing of Arthur ; B e eke t ; 
Merlin and the Gleam . 

ARUNDEL (Thomas). 

Archbishop of Canterbury. 
Became bishop of Ely when 
only twenty-one years of age, 
and was Lord Chancellor five 
times under Richard II and 
Henry IV. In 1388 he was 
.created archbishop of York, and 
translated to Canterbury in 
1396; banished for conspiracy 
against Richard II in 1397, 
but returned to crown Henry IV 
in 1399. He was a vigorous 
persecutor of the Wickliffites 
(1353-14x4). 

Sir John Oldcastle , 
Lord Cobh am. 

ARVIRAGUS. 

Younger son of Cymbeline, a 
king of Britain from the time 
of the invasion of Claudius to 
the reign of Vespasian. Upon 
the arrival of Joseph of Ari- 
mathaea (q-v.) Arviragus gave him 
permission to settle, and pre- 
sented him with land upon 
which to erect a church. 

* From our old books I know 
That Joseph came of old to Glastonbury, 

And there the heathen Prince, Arviragus, 
Gave him an isle of march whereon to build ; 
And there he built with wattles from the 

marsh 

A little lonely church in days of yore/ 

Arviragus is one of the char- 


acters in Shakespeare’s Cym- 
beline. 

Holy Grail . 

ASAPH. 

The Levite, chief musician to 
king David. Considered to have 
been the founder of a guild of 
singers in the second Temple. 

I have built the Lord a house — sing 
Asaph ! clash 

The cymbal, Heman ! blow the trumpet, 
priest ! 

Fall, cloud, and fill the house — lo ! my 
two pillars, 

Jachim and Boaz l 

Harold . 

ASCALON. 

A city of the Philistines. The 
Egyptian army, sent by the 
Sultan of Egypt to recapture 
Jerusalem, was defeated near 
this town by the Crusaders under 
Godfrey of Bouillon, August 
12, 1099. Recaptured by the 
Moslems, it was retaken in 1157 
by Baldwin III, and in 1192 
was the scene of a great victory 
gained by the Christians under 
Richard I, over the Saracen 
army under Saladin. Its forti- 
fications were demolished by 
the Sultan Bibars, in 1270. 

The Princess . 

ASH. 

ASHTREE. 

A genus of trees of the Olive 
family. 

Amphion ; The Princess; 
In Memoriam ; Harold ; 
The Foresters; Promise of 
May . 

ASHRIDGE. 

Gardiner. I think she means to counsel 
your withdrawing 

To Ashridge, or some other country house. 

* * * 

l Elizabeth. ’Tis mine own wish fulfill’d 
before the word 



ASI] 


Was spoken, for in truth I had meant to crave 
Permission of Her Highness to retire 
To Ashridge, 

Ashridge House, in Bucking- 
hamshire, was founded in 
1221 by Edmund, earl of 
Cornwall, a grandson of king 
John, for an order of friars, 
called Bonhommes. After the 
dissolution of the monasteries 
it was given to the princess 
Elizabeth by her brother, Ed- 
ward VI, after whose death 
she continued to occupy it 
during the reign of Mary, and 
after her retirement from court 
made it her permanent resi- 
dence until she was suspected of 
conniving at sir Thomas Wyatt’s 
rebellion, when she was removed 
to the Tower. 

Queen Mary. 

ASIA. 

Locksley Hall Sixty 
Tears After. 

ASMODEUS. 

Devils pluck’d my sleeve, 
Abaddon and Asmodeus caught at me. 

The angel of the bottomless 
pit. 

St. Simeon Stylites . 

ASP ASIA. 

The most accomplished 
woman in Athens during the 
government of that city by 
Pericles, whose mistress she was. 
When Pericles was deposed from 
the office of General in 430 
b.c. Aspasia was, by the poet 
Hermippus, charged with im- 
piety and brought to trial, but 
the pleading of Pericles pro- 
cured her acquittal, and subse- 


[AS5 

quently a decree was passed 
legitimizing her son. 

The Princess. 

ASPEN. 

ASPEN-TREE. 

A species of the poplar ; the 
trembling poplar. 

Lady of Shalott ; A Fare- 
well ; Lancelot and Elaine . 

ASPHODEL. 

A plant of the lily species. 

CEnone , Lotos -Eaters , Demeter 
and Persephone . 

ASPICK. 

A venomous serpent. 

Dream of Fair Women „ 

ASS. 

A well-known quadruped of 
the horse family. 

T he Princess ; Last T ourna- 
ment ; Queen Mary . 

ASSAYE. 

Against the myriads of Assaye 
Clash’d with his fiery few and won ; 

A small town in the Deccan* 
India. Here Wellington, with 
an army of 4,500 English and 
Sepoy troops defeated the Mahr 
ratta army, consisting of 30,000 
men, on August 23, 1803. 

Ode on the death of the 
Duke of Wellington . 

ASSYRIAN BULL. 

That oil’d and curl’d Assyrian Bull 
Smelling of musk and of insolence, 

Her brother, 

Maud’s brother, with his 
well-oil’d and groomed curly 
hair, and his dignified manner, 
is represented here by the 
Assyrian Bull, human-headed 
winged lions and bulls, sculp- 


64 



AST] 


65 


[ATH 


tured in stone as found among 
Assyrian antiquities. 

Maud . 

ASTOLAT. 

According to Malory, the 
town of Guildford in Surrey, 
thirty miles south-west of Lon- 
don, and situated on the river 
Wey ; a tributary of the Thames. 

And then he rode so much until he came 
to Astolat, that is Gilford. 

Malory : Mortc d’ Arthur, Book XVIII. chap. 

ix. 

It was the home of Elaine 
‘the lily maid of Astolat.’ 

Lancelot and Elaine . 

ASTRAS AN. 

The second-sight of some Astraean age, 

Astrsea, which means ‘ star- 
bright ’ was a daughter of 
Astraeus and Eos, or, according 
to another account, of Zeus 
and Themis. She lived among 
men on earth during the golden 
age, and in the brazen age was 
the last to withdraw into the 
sky, where she shines as the 
constellation of Virgo. Should 
the golden age ever return it is 
believed she will re-establish her 
home on earth again. Many 
poets make reference to this 
theory, but the best known is 
Dryden’s Astrcea Redux. 

The Princess. 

ATHELING (Edgar). See Edgar 
(the Atheling). 

ATHELING (Edmund). See 
Edmund Atheling. 

ATHELSTAN. 

King of the Mercians and 
West- Saxons, and afterwards of 


all the English. Son of Ed- 
ward the Elder and grandson 
of Alfred the Great. Defeated 
the Welsh of Devonshire, Corn- 
wall and Wales, and in 937 
in a decisive battle defeated 
the Welsh, Scots and Danes at 
Brunanburh. He died at 
Gloucester in 940, and was 
buried at Malmesbury (895-940) . 

Athelstan King, 

Lord among Earls, 

Bracelet-bestower and 
Baron of Barons, 

He with his brother, 

Edmund Atheling, 

Gaining a lifelong 
Glory in battle. 

Slew with the sword-edge 
There by Brunanburh, 

Battle of Brunanburh ; 

Harold . 

ATHENE (Pallas). See Pallas, 
Pallas Athene. 


ATHENS. 

Capital of the kingdom of 
Greece. 


Freedom. 


ATHOS. 

Signifies ‘ Holy Hill.’ A 
mountain in the peninsula of 
Salonica, 6,780 feet high. It 
is celebrated for its twenty large 
monasteries, built during the 
ninth and tenth centuries, the 
first of which is said to have 
been founded by the empress 
Helena. The roofs of these 
monastic buildings sparkle with 
hues of bronze and purple and 
gold, and present a very pic- 
turesque appearance. There 
are many legends connected 
with the mountain. 

To E . L. 


F 



ATL] 


66 


[AUR 


ATLANTIC. 

The Atlantic Ocean. 

Third, of February; The 
Princess ; Columbus. 

AUBREY (Ellen). See Ellen, 
Ellen Aubrey. 

AUDLEY. 

AUDLEY COURT. 

‘ Let us picnic there 

At Audley Court.’ 

I spoke, while Audley feast 
Humm’d like a hive allround the narrow quay. 

A place-name in the poem 
entitled Audley Court . The 
poem was suggested by Abbey 
Park, at Torquay. 

Audley Court. 

AUGUSTINE. 

One o£ the fathers of the early 
Church. In 371 he was sent 
to Carthage, where he became 
a convert to the Manichasans, 
and taught rhetoric with great 
reputation, and on his return 
to Rome was appointed its 
professor at Milan. Here the 
sermons of St. Ambrose effected 
his conversion, and renouncing 
his heretical opinions he was 
baptized, 387. Returning to 
Africa he was ordained a priest, 
and subsequently became coad- 
jutor of Valerius, bishop of 
Hippo, and afterwards his suc- 
cessor. In the church of All 
Saints, Trull, Somerset, there 
is a fifteenth century oak pulpit, 
richly carved. On the pulpit 
are five figures, one of which 
represents Augustine of Hippo 
(354-430). Columbus . 

AURELIAN. 

Lucius Domitius Aurelian, 
son of a peasant of Pannonia, 


was elected emperor of Rome 
270 a.d., and rendered himself 
famous for his military char- 
acter ; drove the barbarians out 
of Italy ; defeated Zenobia, 
queen of Palmyra, and carried 
her captive to Rome. After a 
reign of six years, as he was on 
his way to crush a rebellion in 
Persia, he was assassinated near 
Byzantium by his troops, a.d. 
275. 

with the Palmyrene 

That fought Aurelian, and the Roman brows 
Of Agrippina. 

The Princess. 

AURELIUS. 

Elder brother of Uther the 
pendragon and reigned before 
him. In Latin he is called 
Ambrosius. He was the uncle 
of king Arthur. In 457 he 
defeated the Saxons who had 
been invited over by Vortigern, 
and beheaded Hengist (7.^.) ; 
and by the aid of his magician 
Merlin, brought the great stones 
known as the c Giant’s Dance ’ 
from Kildare to Salisbury Plain 
where he • erected them as a 
monument to the 460 British 
chiefs who had been treacher- 
ously slain by Hengist. It is 
said that upon his death there 
appeared in the sky a large 
comet which issued two long 
and brilliant rays, together with 
a fairy form like a dragon. 

For first Aurelius lived and fought and died, 
And after him King Uther fought and died, 
But either fail’d to make the kingdom one. 

Coming of Arthur ; Gareth 
and Lynette. 

AURICULA. 

A species of primrose, called 



AUS] 


67 


[AYL 


also, from the shape of its leaves, 
bear’s ear. 

City Child. 

AUSONIAN. 

stay’d the Ausonian king to hear 
Of wisdom and of law. 

Ausonia was the name of 
Campania, a province of Italy, 
during its occupation by the 
Oscans and Etruscans in the 
eleventh century. 

Palace of Art. 

AUSTIN (Augustine), 

Did not Great Gregory bid St. Austin here 
Found two archbishopricks, London and 

York ? 

Prior of the Benedictine mon- 
astery of St. Andrew, Rome ; 
sent by pope Gregory I in 596 
with forty other monks as a 
missionary to England. Land- 
ing on the Isle of Thanet the 
missionaries were kindly re- 
ceived by Ethelbert, king of 
Kent, who subsequently became 
a convert to Christianity. 
Founded the See of Canterbury, 
and became its first archbishop. 

Becket . 

AVALON— AVILION. 

Avalon or Avilion is supposed 
to have been an island in the 
neighbourhood of Glastonbury 
in Somersetshire, where Joseph 
of Arimathaea is said to have 
first landed with his boat with 
the Holy Grail. It was to this 
island that king Arthur went 
to be healed of his wounds, 
which he had received in the 
last weird battle in the west. 

4 if indeed -I go 
(For all my mind is clouded with a doubt) — 
To the island-valley of Avilion ; 


Where falls not hail, or rain, or any snow; 
Nor ever wind blows loudly : but it lies 
Deep-meadow’d, happy, fair with orchard 
lawns 

And bowery hollows crown’d with summer 
sea, 

Where I will heal me of my grievous wound.’ 

The word means c Apple-green 
Island 5 and it has been de- 
scribed as the c Island of the 
blest, upon which Glastonbury 
stood. 5 

O three times famous Isle, where is that place 
that might 

Be with thy self compar’d for glory and de- 
light, 

Whilst Glastonbury stood ? 

Drayton : Polyolbion, Third Song. 

Palace of Art ; Morte 
d? Arthur ; Gareth and 
Lynette ; Passing of 
Arthur. 

AVE MARY. See Mary. 
AVERILL. 

The Rector of the parish in 
which Aylmer’s Hall, the resi- 
dence of sir Aylmer Aylmer 
(q.v.) was situated. On the 
death of Edith, the daughter of 
sir Aylmer, he was asked to 
preach the funeral sermon, 
and taking for his text c Behold, 
your house is left unto you 
desolate 5 he denounced the 
pride and self-seeking of the 
Aylmer parents. 

Aylmer’s Field. 

AVILION. See Avalon. 

AYLMER. 

Sir Aylmer Aylmer was a 
country squire, and was looked 
upon as the supreme authority 
in the village in which he 
resided. 

Sir Aylmer Aylmer, that almighty man. 
The county God — in whose capacious hall. 
Hung with a hundred shields, the family tree 
Sprang from the midrid of a prostrate king — 



68 


[AYL 


AYL] 


His wife, lady Aylmer, had 
in her young days been a lady 
of superior beauty and attrac- 
tion, but with advancing years 
had lost some of her good looks. 

His wife, a faded beauty of the Baths, 
Insipid as the Queen upon a card ; 

Her all of thought and bearing hardly more 
Than his own shadow in a sickly sun. 

They had one daughter, 
Edith, heiress of their wealth 
and name, and a favourite in 
the parish, and sir Alymer’s 
ambition was, that the man who 
married her should adopt the 
name of Aylmer in order that 
the family name may not become 
extinct. 

His only child, his Edith, whom he loved 
As heiress and not heir regretfully? 

, But ‘ he tha t marries her mames jberjaame. * 

The Rector of the parish in 
which Aylmer hall was situated 
was named Averill, whose family 
was on intimate terms with the 
Aylmers, three generations of 
each family having followed one 
another at the rectory and the 
hall respectively. 

Where Aylmer followed Aylmer at the Hall 
And Averill Averill at the Rectory 
Thrice over : so that Rectory and Hall, 
Bound in an immemorial intimacy. 

Were open to each other: 

Edith was in love with Leolin 
— a barrister — brother of the 
rector, who, during the vaca- 
tions, used to come and stay 
with his brother at the rectory. 
On the other hand an Indian 
kinsman came to visit the 
Aylmers and made presents to 
Edith, among them being a 
jewelled dagger; but as Edith 
did not care neither for the 
dagger nor the donor she passed 
it on to Leolin. Owing to 


the gossip in the village sir 
Aylmer’s eyes were opened to 
the lovemaking between his 
daughter and Leolin, with the 
result that Leolin was forbidden 
to enter his house, and Edith 
was kept close at home. 

* Boy, should I find you by my doors again. 
My men shall lash you from them like a dog ; 
Hence ! * with a sudden execration drove 
The footstool from before him ; and arose : 

A clandestine correspondence 
was however carried on, and this 
being discovered was stopped, 
and Edith was more closely 
confined, with the result that she 
lost her health and eventually 
succumbed to an attack of 
fever. When Leolin learned 
the news he stabbed himself with 
the dagger that Edith had given 
him. 

The second day 

My lady’s Indian kinsman rushing in, 

A breaker of the bitter news from home. 
Found a dead man , a letter edged with death 
Beside him ; and t he dagger which himself 
Gave Edith, redden’d with no bandit’s blood : 

* From Edith ’ was engraven on the blade. 

On the Sunday following 
Edith’s death, the rector of the 
parish was asked to preach her 
funeral sermon, and taking for 
his text 6 Behold your house 
is left unto you desolate,’ he 
denounced the pride of the 
Aylmer parents. 

Long o’er his bent brows linger’d Averilb 
His face magnetic to the hand from which 
Livid he pluck’d it forth, and labour’d thro” 
His brief prayer- prelude, gave the verse 
* Behold, 

Your house is left unto you desolate ! ’ 

But lapsed into so long a pause again 
As half amazed half frighted all his flock : 

In a fainting condition lady 
Aylmer was carried out of 
church, followed by her hus- 
band, amid the frowns of the 
congregation. 



6 9 


[BAB 


AYL] 


While thus he spoke, his hearers wept; hut 
some, 

Sons of the glebe, with other frowns than those 
That knit themselves for summer shadow, 
scowl’d 

At their great lord. 

Neither of them entered the 
church again, for in the course 
of a month lady Aylmer died. 

But nevermore did either pass the gate 
Save under pall with bearers. In one month, 
Thro’ weary and yet ever wearier hours, 

The childless mother went to seek her^child . 

Sir Aylmer became an im- 
becile and two years later was 
laid beside his wife and daughter; 
the hall was demolished and 
its place became the haunt of 
the mole and hedgehog, the 
slow-worm and the weasel. 

his own head 

Began to droop, to fall ; the man became 
Imbecile ; his one word was * desolate ; ’ 
Dead for two years before his death was he ; 
But when the second Christmas came, escaped 
His keepers, and the silence which he felt. 
To find a deeper in the narrow gloom 
By wife and child. 

* * * 

Then the great Hall was wholly broken down, 
And the broad woodland parcelTd into farms : 
And where the two contrived their daughter’s 
good, 

Lies the hawk’s cast, the mole has made his 
run, 

The hedgehog underneath the plantain bores, 
The rabbit fondles his own harmless face, 

The slow-worm creeps, and the thin weasel 
there 

Follows the mouse, and all is open field. 

Aylmer's Field. 

AYLMER-AVERILL. 

A combination of the names 
of Aylmer and Ayerill ; Aylmer 
being the family name of the 
pompous squire, and Averill 
the name of the rector of the 
parish in which Aylmer hall was 
situated. 

Where Aylmer followed Aylmer at the Hall 
And Averill Averill at the Rectory 
Thrice over; so that Rectory and Hall, 
Bound in an immemorial intimacy, 

Were open to each other; 

In years gone by an Aylmer 
had married an Averill. 


There was an Aylmer-Averill marriage once, 
When the red rose was redder than itself. 

Aylmer's Field . 

AZORES. 

A group of nine volcanic 
islands in the Atlantic of which 
Flores is one. It was near these 
islands that sir Richard Gren- 
ville (q*v) in the reign of queen 
Elizabeth was attacked by the 
Spanish Fleet. 

Fhe Revenge. 

AZRAEL. 

I saw thee fall before me, and then 
Me too the black-wing’d Azrael overcame, 
But Death had ears and eyes ; 

The Angel of Death. Ac- 
cording to Mahomet the angel 
appointed to inflict the death 
penalty on all unbelievers. 

Akbar's Dream . 

BAAL. 

The principal god of the Ca- 
naanites and Phoenicians. In 
Biblical times the priests, in 
honour of their god, cut them- 
selves with knives. I Kings 
xviii. 28. 

Aylmer's Field; Becket. 

BABEL. 

till a clamour grew 

As of a new-world Babel, woman-built 
And worse-confounded : 

Signifies confusion. Has re- 
ference to the building of the 
tower of Babel. Genesis xi. 

!- 9 - 

The Princess. 

BABYLON. 

Sea Dreams ; Sir John Old- 
castle, Lord Cobham ; The Dawn. 

BABYLONIAN WALL. 

and she 

The foundress of the Babylonian wall, 

Semiramis, wife of Ninus, 



BAG] 


70 


[BAL 


king of Assyria and the founder 
of Nineveh. She was the 
daughter of Derceto, the Syrian 
fish-goddess, and married Onnes 
one of Ninus’ generals ; but 
after her heroic capture of 
Bactra, the king married her, 
and Onnes committed suicide. 
After Ninus’ death she ruled 
and founded many cities, in- 
cluding the city of Babylon. 
After reigning forty-two years 
she abdicated in favour of her 
son and ascended to heaven in 
the form of a dove. 

The Princess . 

BACCHANAL. 

Then those who led the van, and those in rear, 
Rush’d into dance, and like wild Bacchanals 
Fled onward to the steeple in the woods : 

=A noisy or riotous person. 

Lover's Tale . 

BACCHANTE. 

Cassandra, Hebe, Joan, 

Or spinning at your wheel beside the vine — 
Bacchante, what you will; 

=A female disciple of Bacchus. 

Romney’s Remorse . 

BACCHUS. 

In Roman mythology the god 
of wine, son of Zeus and 
Semele. 

Dream of Fair Women. 

BACON (Lord). See Verulam. 
BADGER. 

A burrowing nocturnal 
animal. 

Holy Grail ; The Foresters. 

BADON. 

The twelfth great battle of 
king Arthur with the Saxons 
was fought near Badon Hill, 
520 a. d. It was the greatest 


of all his victories, it being 
computed that 4 nine hundred 
and sixty men fell before 
Arthur’s single onset.’ 

‘ and on the mount 
Of Badon I myself beheld the King 
Charge at the head of all his Table Round, 
And all his legions crying Christ and him, 
And break them ; and I saw him, after, stand 
High on a heap of slain, from spur to plume 
Red as the rising sun with heathen blood/ 

The locality of Badon has 
been a matter of dispute. It 
has been identified with Badon 
Hill, in Linlithgow, but is now 
generally thought to be Brad- 
bury Hill, in Dorset. 

Lancelot and Elaine. 

BAGDAT. 

or Bagdad, on the river 
Tigris, was founded in 762 to 
be the capital of the Caliphate. 
Under Haroun Alraschid (< q.v .) 
it became famous as a seatjfof 
learning, and contained over 
100 mosques, the domes and 
minarets of which were orna- 
mented with glazed tiles in 
green and white. 

By Bagdat’s shrines of fretted gold, 
High-walled gardens green and old ,* 

True Mussulman was I and sworn. 

For it was in the golden prime 
Of good Haroun Alraschid. 

Recollections of the Arabian 

Nights. 

BAGENHALL. See Ralph, Ralph 
Bagenhall. 

BAILEY-GATE. 

Storm at the Water-gate ! storm at the Bailey 
gate ! storm. 

Defence of Lucknow. 

BALA. 

A Welsh lake, out of which 
flows the river Dee. The 
south-west wind blows from 
end to end of the lake, and as 



BAL] 


71 


[BAL 


it drives the water to north-east 
it fills the river. 

As the south-west that blowing Bala lake 
Fills all the sacred Dee. 

Geraint and Enid. 

BALAN. 

A Knight of the Round 
Table ; brother of Balin (q.v.) 

Balin and Balan . 

BALE (John). 

Bishop of Ossory. Born in 
Suffolk, and educated at a 
Carmelite monastery, Norwich, 
and Jesus College, Cambridge, 
he became a convert from 
popery. In 1540, on the fall 
of Cromwell, he fled to Ger- 
many, but in 1547 was recalled 
by Edward VI, made rector 
of Swaffam in 1551, and two 
years later bishop of Ossory. 
On the accession of Mary he 
fled to Basle, where he lived 
until 1559, but returned in the 
reign of Elizabeth, and was 
made a prebendary of Canter- 
bury. He wrote the first 
literary history of England, 
and in 1849 his select works 
were published by the Parker 
Society (1495-1563). 

Queen Mary. 

BALIN. 

A knight of the Round Table 
called 6 The Savage.’ He was 
a Northumberland' knight and 
being taken captive by king 
Arthur, was imprisoned for six 
months. When he was released, 
a damsel came to Camelot 
girded with a sword, and told 
the king that no one tainted 
with ‘ treachery 3 could draw 


it. King Arthur and all his 
knights tried and failed, but 
sir Balin drew it easily. The 
damsel begged for the sword 
but Balin refused, whereupon 
she said that it would be a 
plague to him, for with it he 
would slay his best friend, and 
would also prove his own death. 
The Lady of the Lake next 
demanded the sword, but Balin 
cut off her head with it and he 
was banished from court. Going 
one day to a castle to joust, he 
met a knight in red, accom- 
panied with a shield, and rode 
forth to meet him. So fierce 
was the encounter that both 
the combatants were wounded, 
each living long enough to 
learn that his antagonist was 
none other than his brother. 

* O brother/ answered Balin, * woe is me 1 
My madness all thy life has been thy doom, 
Thy curse, and darken’d all thy day ; and now 
The night has come. I scarce can see thee 

now. 

Goodnight ! for we shall never bid again 
goodmorrow — 

* * * 

Goodnight, true brother. 

Balan answer’d low, 

* Goodnight, true brother here ! goodmorrow 

there ! 

We two were bom together, and we die 
Together by one doom : ’ and while he spoke. 
Closed his death-drowsing eyes, and slept the 
sleep 

With Balin, either lock’d in either’s arm. 

Thus was fulfilled the dam- 
sel’s prophecy. Merlin buried 
the two brothers in one tomb, 
and 

* the scabbard of Balin’s sword Merlin left it 
on this side the island that Galahad should 
find it/ also he put * Balin’s sword in a marble 
stone standing upright as great as a millstone, 
and the stone hoved always above the water, 
and did many years, and so by adventure it 
swam down the stream to the city of Camelot, 
that is in English Winchester.’ 

Malory : Mortc £ Arthur, Book II. chap. xix. 

Balin and Balan . 



72 


BAL] 

BALLIOL 

A college at Oxford founded 
in 1263 by John de Baliol 
father of John de Baliol king 
of Scotland. 

To the Master of BallioL 

BALM-CRICKET. 

A cicada. A Dirge . 

BALTIC. 

O shaker of the Baltic and the Nile, 

Has reference to Lord Nel- 
son’s victory at the battle of 
Copenhagen, April 2, 1801. 

Ode on the Death of the 
Duke of Wellington . 

BALTIC (Sea). 

Maud . 

BAMBOO. 

A gigantic Indian reed or 
grass, with hollow jointed stem, 
which are used for poles, 
walking sticks, etc. 

To Ulysses. 

BARA. 

A Welsh word meaning 
c bread.’ 

Sir John Oldcastle , 
Lord Cobh am. 

BARABBAS. 

Why should this Rome, this Rome, 
Still choose Barabbas rather than the Christ. 

Becket. 

BARBARIAN. 

Till that o’ergrown Barbarian in the East 
Transgress his ample bound to some new 

crown : — 

=Russia. Poland . 

BARBAROSSA. 

Surname of Frederick I, 
emperor of the Holy Roman 
Empire. Succeeded his father 
duke Frederick II of Swabia 
in 1x47, and his uncle Conrad 
III as emperor in 1152. The 


[BAR 

great struggle of his reign was 
with Lombardy. Honorius III 
prepared to support the Lom- 
bardy cities, and Gregory IX 
began the struggle between the 
papacy and the emperor. 

I, true son 

Of Holy Church — no croucher to the Gregories 
That tread the kings their children under- 
heel — 

Must curb her, and the Holy Father, while 
This Barbarossa butts him from his chair. 

Died in 1190 in the crusade 
against Saladin (1123-1190). 

Becket . 

BARCELONA. 

At Barcelona — tho’ you were not then 
So bearded. Yes. The city deck’d herself 
To meet me, roar’d my hame ; the king, the 
queen 

Bad me be seated, speak, and tell them all 
The story of my voyage, 

A seaport and capital of the 
province of Barcelona. On his 
return from his first voyage 
Columbus arrived at Barcelona, 
where every preparation had 
been made to give him an en- 
thusiastic reception, and where 
Ferdinand and Isabella, seated 
under a rich canopy, awaited 
his arrival. As Columbus ap- 
proached the king and queen 
rose from their seats, and 
Columbus falling on his knees 
requested to kiss their hands. 
The sovereigns however 
ordered him to seat himself 
in their presence, and at their 
request Columbus gave an 
account of the voyage and a 
description of the land he had 
discovered. Columbus. 

BARLOW (William). 

A native of Essex, canon of 
St. Osith monastery Essex, and 
afterwards prior of the canons 
at Bisham. Appointed bishop 



BAR] 


73 


[BAY 


of London, 1509, and bishop 
of St. Asaph, 1535, being 
transferred to St. David’s in 
the following year. In 1547 
he was translated to Bath and 
Wells, and became a zealous 
preacher of the reformed faith. 
On the accession of Mary he was 
deprived of his bishopric, and 
committed to the Tower, but 
escaping, fled to Germany. 

our Bishops from their sees 
Or fled, they say, or flying — Poinet, Barlow, 
Bale, Scory, Coverdale ; 

Elizabeth having succeeded, 
he returned, was created bishop 
of Chichester, 1559, anc ^ ' m 
1560 prebendary of West- 
minster, and died the same year. 

Queen Mary . 

BARTON (Elizabeth). See Joan 
of Kent. 

BASILISK. 

A fabulous creature, resem- 
bling a dragon. 

Holy Grail . 

BASLE. 

A city in the north-west of 
Switzerland. Was a centre of 
influence in Reformation times, 
and for several years the home 
of Erasmus. 

To Strasburg, Antwerp, 

Frankfort, Zurich, Worms, 

Geneva, Basle — our Bishops from their sees 
Or fled, they say, or flying — 

Queen Mary . 

BASSA. 

Supposed to mean Bashall 
Brook, which joins the river 
Ribble near Clitheroe, in Lan- 
cashire. It was the scene of 
king Arthur’s sixth victory over 
the Saxons. 

Lancelot and Elaine . 


BAT. 

An animal with a body like 
a mouse, but which flies on 
wings attached mainly to its 
fore-feet. 

.. Mariana ; The Princess ; 

In Memoriam ; Maud ; 

Balin and Balan ; Despair ; 

The Foresters. 

BATHS. 

His wife a faded beauty of the Baths, 

=Lady Aylmer. Had for- 
merly been a belle at the 
fashionable watering-places, but 
had now lost her good looks. 

Aylmer's Field. 

BATHS, THE. 

The Baths, the Forum gabbled of his death, 

In great cities of the Roman 
Empire the Baths were popular 
lounges where amusements were 
provided for the people ; con- 
sequently centre of gossip. 

St. Telemachus. 

BATTLE-TWIG. 

=an earwig. 

Spinster's Sweet- Arts. 

BAY. 

=the laurel-tree. 

Gareth and Lynette ; Poets 

and their Bibliographies. 

BAYEUX. 

An ancient city of Normandy. 
The ancient cathedral in Gothic 
said to be the oldest in Nor- 
mandy, was rebuilt, after a fire, 
by William the Conqueror in 
1077, but the present structure 
dates mainly from 1106 to the 
thirteenth century. Bayeux is 
noted for its celebrated tapestry, 
preserved in the Bayeux public 



BEA] 


74 


[BED 


library. It is 230 feet long, 
by 20 inches wide, worked in 
coloured worsted, and divided 
into seventy-two scenes con- 
nected with the life of William 
the Conqueror. It is con- 
sidered to have been the work 
of queen Matilda. William’s 
half-brother, Odo, was ap- 
pointed bishop of Bayeux in 
1048, a see which he held for 
fifty"’ years. Harold. 

BEAR. 

=an animal of many varieties. 
The Princess ; Coming of 
Arthur ; Pelleas and 
Etiarre ; Harold ; Bechet . 

BEAR. 

A constellation of seven stars 
in the northern hemisphere, 
called also the Plough, the 
Wagon, and Charles’s Wain. 
In Welsh it is called the Chariot 
of Arthur, as the name Arthur 
originally denoted a Bear ; while 
the Round Table was suggested 
by the movement of the con- 
stellation round the pole star. 

Now poring on the glow-worm, now the star, 
I paced the terrace, till the Bear had wheel’d 
Thro’ a great arc his seven slow suns. 

The Princess , iv. 
and thro’ the gap 

The seven clear stars of Arthur’s Table Round — 
Holy Grail. 

The Princess . 

BECKET (Gilbert). See Gilbert 
Becket. 

BECKET (Thomas). See Thomas, 
Thomas Becket. 

BEDINGFIELD (Henry). See 
Henry Bedingfleld. 

BEDIVERE. 

The first made and the latest 
left of all the Knights of the 


Round Table. He is described 
as the c bold sir Bedivere, 7 
being always ready to defend 
king Arthur’s right to the 
throne. 

For bold in heart and act and word was he. 
Whenever slander breathed against the King — 

He was one of the three 
knights sent by king Arthur 
to king Leodogran, to ask for 
the hand of his daughter 
Guinevere ; and in the last 
weird battle in the west the 
only knight of Arthur’s who 
escaped alive. When Arthur 
lay dying he commanded sir 
Bedivere to return his sword 
Excalibur to the Lady of the 
Lake. 

* But now delay not : take Excalibur, 

And fling him far into the middle mere : 
Watch what thou sees t, and lightly bring me 

word.’ 

Twice did sir Bedivere go 
to the pool and twice did his 
heart fail him, for thinking it 
a pity to throw away so valuable 
a weapon he hid it among the 
waterfiags about the marge. 
Returning to the dying king 
and being questioned as to what 
he had seen he replied : 

* I heard the ripple washing in the reeds, 

And the wild water lapping on the crag.’ 

but the dying monarch detect- 
ing the knight’s deception, 
threateningly commanded him 
to fulfil his wishes. 

* Unknightly, traitor-hearted l Woe is me ! 
Authority forgets a dying king, 

* * * 

get thee hence : 

But, if thou spare to fling Excalibur, 

I will arise and slay thee with my hands.’ 

whereupon the knight rose, and 
going down to the mere, clutch’d 
the sword and threw it in the 
water. 



BEE] 


75 


[BEL 


But ere it dipt the surface, rose an arm 
Clothed in white samite, mystic, wonderful, 
And caught him by the hilt, and brandish’d 

him 

Three times, and drew him under in the mere. 

Returning to the king sir 
Bedivere told him what he had 
seen, and taking the king upon 
his back went to the water- 
side and placed him in a barge 
in which were three queens, 
all of whom wept. Rowing 
from the land sir Bedivere 
cried : 

* Ah, my lord Arthur, what shall become of 
me now ye go from me, and leave me here 
alone among thin e enemies. Comfort thy- 
self, said the king, and do as well as thou 
mayest, for in me is no trust for to trust in. 
For I will into the vale of Avilion, to heal me 
of my grievous wound. And if thou hear 
never more of me, pray for my soul.’ 

Malory : Morte d' Arthur, Book XXI . chap. v. 

And as soon as the bold sir 
Bedivere lost sight of the barge 
he wept, and taking to the 
forest became a hermit. 

Morte d' Arthur ; Coining 
of Arthur ; Passing of 
Arthur. 

BEE. 

A four-winged insect that 
makes honey. 

Claribel ; A Dirge ; 
Eleanor e ; Two Voices ; 
CEnone ; Amphion ; A 
Farewell ; Enoch Arden ; 
The Princess ; Northern 
Farmer , New Style ; The 
Window ; Lancelot and 
Elaine ; Holy Grail ; An- 
cient Sage ; Vastness ; Pro- 
gress of Spring; Romney's 
Remorse . 

BEE L 

=Bee. 

Northern Cobbler. 


BEECH. 

A tree with smooth silvery- 
looking bark. 

On a Mourner ; Talking 
Oak ; In Memoriam ; 
Progress of Spring; Edwin 
Morris; Amphion ; The 
Brook ; Prologue to General 
Hamley ; The Cup. 

BEELZEBUB. 

The Foresters. 

BEETLE. 

An insect, having four wings,, 
the outer pair being stiff cases 
for covering the others when 
they are folded up. 

Claribel. 

BEL. 

The British god of the under- 
world. 

Boadicea . 

BELLEROPHON. 

Name of a horse. 

The Brook. 

BELL1CENT. 

Daughter of Gorloi's, duke of 
Cornwall, and his wife Ygerne. 
As a widow married Uther the 
pendragon, and was therefore 
the mother of Arthur. Tenny- 
son says that she was the wife 
of Lot, king of Orkney, and 
mother of Gawain and Modred r 

there came to Cameliard,. 
With Gawain and young Modred, her two sons, 
Lot’s wife, the Queen of Orkney, Bellicent ; 

Geoffrey of Monmouth says 
‘ that Lot’s wife was Anne, the 
sister of Arthur ; ’ but Malory,, 
in his Morte d 7 Arthur, says 
c And king Lot of Lothian and 
of Orkney then wedded Mar- 
gawse that was Gawaine’a 



BEN] 


[BER 


76 


mother : and king Nentres of 
the land of Garlot wedded 
Elaine. 5 

Coming of Arthur ; Gareth 
and Lynette . 

BENEDICT. 

Founder of the religious 
order of the Benedictines. Born 
at Nursia of wealthy parents, 
he became convinced of the 
necessity of leading a life of 
meditation and prayer, and 
lived for three years as a hermit. 
Appointed abbot of the monas- 
tery of Vicovaro, he left it 
on account of the rules not 
being severe enough and founded 
the monastery of Monte Cassino, 
near Naples (480-543). 

Becket . 

BENGAL. 

A presidency of British India. 

The Brook . 

BERKELEY (Maurice). See 
Maurice, Maurice Berkeley. 

BERKHAMSTEAD. 

A castle erected by the 
Saxons, but in the time of 
Henry I was ordered to be 
razed to the ground. It is 
probable, however, that the 
demolition was only partial, 
as we find it some years later 
fitted up as a royal residence. 
In the twelfth century it was 
given to Thomas Becket, arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, by 
Henry II, and since was granted 
by the Crown from time to time 
to various noble families, until 
the time of Edward III, when 
It descended from the Crown to 


the successive Princes of Wales 
as heirs apparent to the throne 
and possessors of the dukedom 
of Cornwall. Becket . 

BERKSHIRE. 

and as now 

Men weed the white horse on the Berkshire 
hills 

To keep him bright and clean as heretofore, 

The figure of the White Horse 
on the Berkshire Hills is said 
to have been executed by king 
Alfred to celebrate his victory 
over the Danes at Ashdown in 
871. The figure, which is 374 
feet long, can be seen at a 
distance of fifteen miles, and is 
formed by cutting away the 
turf and leaving the chalk 
bare. A ceremony called the 
c Scouring of the White Horse 5 
was formerly held once a year ; 
and for this purpose it was 
customary for the neighbouring 
inhabitants to assemble with 
picks and shovels, and after they 
had rendered more distinct the 
form of the horse, were enter- 
tained by the lord of the manor. 

The owld White Harse wants zettin to rights, 
And the Squire hev promised good cheer, 

Zo we’ll gee un a scrape to kip un in shape, 
And a’ll last for many a year. 

A was made a lang lang time ago 
Wi’ a good dale o’ labour and pains, 

By King Alferd the Great when he spwiled 
their consate 

And caddied thay wosbirds the Danes. 
The Bleawin Stwun in days gone by 
Wur King Alferd’s bugle ham, 

And the thamin tree you med plainly zee 
As is called King Alferd’s tham. 

There’ll be backsword play, and climmin the 
powl, 

And a race for a peg, and a cheese. 

And us thenks as hisn’s a dummell zowl 
As dwont care for zich spwoorts as theze. 
Hughes : Scouring of the White Horse. 

The festival, which concluded 
their labours, included horse- 
racing, foot-races, backsword- 
play, and other old English 



BER] 


77 


[BEV 


games, and prizes were distri- 
buted to the successful com- 
petitors. The ceremony was 
suspended in 1780, only, how- 
ever, to be renewed with great 
pomp in 1857. Appended is 
a copy of the hand-bills an- 
nouncing the ceremony for the 
years 1776 and 1857 ; from The 
Scouring of the White Horse , 
by Hughes. 

White Horse Hill, Berks, 1776. 

‘ The scowering and cleansing of the White 
Horse is fixed for Monday the 27th day of May ; 
on which day a Silver Cup will be run for near 
White Horse Hill, by any horse, etc., that 
never run for anything, carrying ir stone, the 
best of 3 two-mile heats, to start at ten o’clock. 
* Between the heats will be run for by Poneys, 
a Saddle, Bridle and Whip ; the best of 3 two- 
mile heats, the winner of 2 heats will be en- 
titled to the Saddle, the second best the Bridle, 
and the third the Whip. 

* The same time a Thill harness will be run 
for by Cart-horses, etc., in their harness and 
bells, the carters to ride in smock frocks without 
saddles, crossing and jostling, but no whipping 
allowed. 

* A flitch of Bacon to be run for by asses. 

‘ A good Hat to be run for by men in sacks, 
every man to bring his own sack. 

* A Waistcoat, 10s. 6d. value, to be given to 
the person who shall take a bullet out of a 
tub of flour with his mouth in the shortest 
time. 

* A Cheese to be run for down the White 
Horse Manger. 

‘ Smocks to be run for by ladies, the second 
best of each prize to be entitled to a Silk Hat. 

* Cudgel-playing for a gold-laced Hat and a 
pair of buckskin Breeches, and Wrestling for a 
pair of silver Buckles and a pair of pumps. 

‘ The horses to be on the White Horse Hill 
by nine o’clock. 

‘ No less than four horses, etc. or asses to 
start for any of the above prizes.’ 

Pastime. 

To be held on the occasion of the Scouring of 
the White Horse , September x 7 and 18, 1857. 

At a meeting held at the Craven Arms, Uf- 
fington, on the 20th day of August, 1857, the 
following resolutions (amongst others) were 
passed unanimously: — 

First. That a pastime be held on the White 
Horse Hill, on Thursday and Friday, the 
17th and 18th of September, in accord- 
ance with the old custom at the time of 
‘ The Scouring of the Horse.’ 

2dly. That E. Martin Atkins, Esq., of 
Kingston Lisle, be appointed Treasurer. 

3dly. That prizes be awarded for the fol- 
ing games and sports, That is to say — 

Backsword £ 

Wresting. { 0 ^ g ™ erSj g 

A jingling match. 

Foot races. 

Hurdle races. 


Race of cart-horses in Thill harness (for a 
new set of harness). 

Donkey race (for a flitch of bacon). 

Climbing pole (for a leg of mutton). 

Races down ‘ the Manger ’ (for cheeses). 

A pig will be turned out on the down, to be 
the prize of the man who catches him 
(under certain regulations) ; and further 
prizes will be awarded for other games and* 
sports as the funds will allow. 

4thly. That no person be allowed to put 
up or use a stall or booth on the ground, 
without the previous sanction of Mr. Spack- 
man, of Bridgecombe Farm [the occupier], 
who is hereby authorized to make terms 
with any person wishing to put up a stall 
or booth. 

Signed, E. Martin Atkins, 

Chairman. 

The White Horse was the 
emblem of Hengist, and repre- 
sented Odin, the war-god of 
the Teutonic Tribes. 

Geraint and Enid . 

BESS. 

The wife of a farmer, a native 
of the north of England. 

Owd Rod. 


BESS. 

Servant girl to an old spinster, 
who named her cats after her 
former admirers. 

Spinster’s Sweet- Arts. 


BESSY M ARRIS. 

A person of rather doubtful 
character. She accused an old 
farmer of being the father of 
her child. In order to deal 
fairly he decided to look after 
Bessy and her child. 

I done moy duty boy ’um as I ’a done boy the 
lond. 

Northern Farmer, Old Style. 


BETHLEHEM. 

Not least art thou, little Bethlehem 
In Judah, for in thee the Lord was bom; 

See Matthew it. v. 

Sir John Oldcastle y 
Lord Gobham . 


BEVERLEY (John). 

Carmelite : doctor and pro- 
fessor of divinity at Oxford ; 



BID] 


[BLA 


78 

canon of St. John’s Church, 
Beverley ; burnt to death, 1414. 

Burnt — good Sir Roger Acton, my dear friend • 
Burnt too, my faithful preacher, Beverley ! 

Sir John Oldc astle, 
Lord Cobh am. 

BIDEFORD. 

A town on the north coast of 
Devonshire, and in the time of 
Elizabeth a port of some im- 
portance. It was the birth- 
place of sir Richard Grenville 
(q.v.), commander of The Re- 
venge ,* and we may assume the 
greater part of his crew be- 
longed to this place : 

But Sir Richard bore in hand all his sick men 
from the land 
Very carefully and slow, 

Men of Bideford in Devon. 

Here Kingsley wrote part of 
his Westward Ho ! 

The Revenge. 

BILLY. 

Name of a horse. 

Village Wife. 

BILLY-ROUGH-UN. 

Name of a horse. 

Village Wife. 

BINDWEED-BELL. 

=the convolvulus, a genus 
of plants so-called from their 
twining or binding, with showy 
bell-like flowers. 

The Brook. 

BIRCH. 

A tree of several species. 
Prologue to General Hamley. 

BIRK. 

= Birch. 

A Dirge ; Progress of Spring. 

BISCAY. 

A bay between the west coast 


of France and the north coast 
of Spain. Navigation is much 
impeded by the heavy seas 
produced by the north-west 
winds. 

Enoch Arden. 

BITHYNIA. 

A country in the north-west 
of Asia Minor, its inhabitants 
being of Thracian origin. In 
the seventh and sixth cen- 
turies b.c. it was part of the 
kingdom of Lydia, and after- 
wards became a part of the 
Persian empire under Cyrus. 
During the decline of the 
Persian empire it became an 
independent kingdom under 
a dynasty of native princes, 
which lasted until 74 b.c., 
when Nicomedes III bequeathed 
it after his death to the Romans 
and it became a province of the 
empire. 

The Cup. 

BLAISE (Saint). 

Bishop of Sebaste, Cappa- 
docia, suffered martyrdom, 316. 
In 1070 a chapel in the north 
transept of Canterbury Cathe- 
dral was dedicated to St. Blaise 
which stood intact until 1379, 
when, in the course of rebuilding 
the nave the chapel was done 
away with. The staircase and 
passage leading to it is however 
preserved in the existing wall 

To the crypt? no — no, 

To the chapel of St. Blaise beneath the roof ! 

Becket. 

BLACK. 

An inland sea bounded by 
Russia, Asia Minor and Euro- 



BLA] 


pean Turkey, Bulgaria and 
Roumania. 

Maud . 

BLACK BESS. 

Name of a horse. 

The Brook . 

BLACKBIRD. 

A species of thrush, a well- 
known singing bird. 

The Blackbird ; Audley 
Court; Early Spring . 

BLACKCAP. 

A small European bird, so- 
called from its black crown. 

Progress of Spring. 


BLACKTHORN. 

A dark-coloured thorn ; the 
sloe. 


May Queen. 

BLANCHE. 

Lady Blanche, mother of 
Melissa, and a widow. She was 
a woman of narrow and jealous 
disposition. Was engaged by 
the princess Ida in the college 
founded by the princess for 
women. She regarded the in- 
stitution as a means for ignoble 
self-aggrandisement, and was 
willing to desert it when she 
conceived that her end might be 
more effectively secured else- 
where. Envious, self-centred, 
treacherous, she lacked even the 
redeeming feature of love for 
her child or respect for the 
memory of her dead husband. 

The Princess . 


BLESSED ISLES. 

Row to the blessed Isles I the blessed Isles 1 
Sxnnatus 1 

Name given to the Canary 


79 [BLU 

Islands off the coast of north- 
west Africa. 

The Cup . 

BLEYS. 

The historian of Arthur’s 
court. Malory tells us how 
Merlin, after Arthur’s great 
battle against the kings, c he took 
leave of Arthur and of the two 
kings, for to go and see his 
master Bleise that dwelt in 
Northumberland. Merlin gave 
Bleise an account of the fight, 
and so Bleise wrote the battle, 
word by word, as Merlin told 
him. . . . All the battles that 
was done in Arthur’s days Mer- 
lin did his master Bleise do 
write.’ 

andTone 

Is Merlin’s master (so they call him) Bleys, 
Who taught him magic ; but the scholar ran 
Before the master, and so far, that Bleys 
Laid magic by, and sat him down and wrote 
All things and whatsoever Merlin did 
In one great annal-book, where after-years 
Will learn the secret of our Arthur’s birth.’ 

Coming of Arthur. 

BLIND FATE. 

Tho’ Sin too oft, when smitten by Thy rod, 
Rail at * Blind Fate ’ with many a vain 

‘ Alas I ’ 

Has reference to a man who, 
for his evil deeds, and his viola- 
tion of the Divine Law, is 
overtaken by God’s judgments, 
but refuses to see in them any- 
thing more than the operation of 
‘ Blind Fate.’ 

Doubt and Prayer. 

BLUEBELL. 

A plant which bears bine bell- 
shaped flowers. 

A Dirge ; Adeline ; Last 
Tournament; Becket ; Pro- 
mise of May. 



BLU] 


80 

BLUEBOTTLE. 

A plant which grows in grain 
fields, so called from its blue 
bottle-shaped flowers. 

Promise of May . 

BOADICEA. 

Queen of the Iceni in Britain 
who inhabited Norfolk and Suf- 
folk. Being treated with in- 
dignity by the Romans, she — 
during the absence of the Ro- 
man governor in Anglesey — 
assembled an army, captured 
and burnt the Roman colonies 
of London, Colchester, and 
Verulam and slew 70,000 Ro- 
mans. Upon his return Sue- 
tonius Paulinus attacked and 
defeated her and in despair she 
poisoned herself, a.d. 61. This 
victory secured the Roman 
dominion in Britain. Cowper 
makes her the subject of one of 
his poems. 

She, with all a monarch’s pride. 

Felt them in her bosom glow, 

Rushed to battle, fought and died, 

Dying, hurled them at the foe. 

Cowper; Boadicea, 37-40. 

Boadicea. 

BOANERGES. 

A declamatory parson, who 
consigns to perdition all except 
his own followers. 

Our Boanerges with his threats of doom. 

And loud- lung’d Antibabylonianisms. 

Sea Dreams. 

BOAR. 

=the wild boar. 

Coming of Arthur ; Gareth 
and Lynette ; The Foresters. 

BOAZ. 

A brass pillar, signifying 
strength, at the entrance to 


[BON 

Solomon’s Temple, i Kings 
vii. 21. 

I f have built the Lord a house — sing, 

Asaph ! clash 

The cymbal, Heman ! blow the trumpet, 

priest I 

Fall, cloud, and fill the house — lo ! my 

two pillars 

Jachin and Boaz! — 

Harold. 

BOBOLI. 

At Florence too what golden hours, 

In those long galleries, were ours ; 

What drives about the fresh Cascind, 

Or walks in Boboli’s ducal bowers. 

Giardino di Boboli, a garden 
behind the Pitti Palace, Flor- 
ence, The walks, bordered 
with evergreens, attract crowds 
of pleasure-seekers. 

The Daisy . 

BOGGLE. 

=a ghost. 

Northern Farmer , Old Style. 

BOLEYN. 

Second queen of Henry VIII, 
and mother of Elizabeth. After 
a three years’ residence at the 
French court became maid- 
of-honour to queen Catherine ; 
attracted the admiration of 
Henry, and the king having 
instituted proceedings with a 
view of his divorce from Cather- 
ine of Aragon married her 
secretly on January 3, 1533 ; 
charged with adultery and con- 
spiracy she was condemned^to 
death and beheaded on Tower 
Hill, 1536 (1507-1536). 

Queen Mary. 

BOLINGBROKE (Harry). See 
Harry Bolingbroke. 

BONNER (Edmund). 

Bishop of London. Chap- 



BON] 


81 


[BOS 


lain to cardinal Wolsey 1539; 
appeared before the pope at 
Marseilles in 1533 to appeal 
for the excommunication of 
Henry VIII ; appointed to the 
living of East Dereham, 1534 ; 
bishop of Hereford and am- 
bassador to the French court, 
1538. In 1540 he was made 
bishop of London ; and was 
appointed ambassador to the 
emperor, 1 542 ; fell into dis- 
grace under Edward VI, who 
imprisoned him in Fleet ; repri- 
manded for neglecting to en- 
force use of the new prayer 
book, and imprisoned at Mar- 
shalsea, 1540-53 ; deprived of 
his bishoprick ; restored on 
the accession of Mary, 1553 ; 
refused to take the oath of 
supremacy under Elizabeth and 
was again imprisoned in the 
Marshalsea where he died (1500- 
1569). 

Queen Mary. 

BONNY DOON. 

where the waters marry — crost, 
Whistling a random bar of Bonny Doon, 

Air or tune to which the song 
of The Banks o' Doon is sung. 
The song is by Robert Burns, 
and begins : 

Ye banks and braes o’ bonnie Doon, 

How can ye bloom sae fresh and fair, 

Doon is the name of a river in 
Ayrshire. . 

The Brook . 

BOOR-TREE 

= Elder-tree. 

Tomorrow. 

BORS. 

A Knight of the Round 


Table, called sir Bors de Ganis* 
brother of sir Lionel and 
nephew of sir Lancelot. He 
was c a square-set man and 
honest ; 5 and represented those 
who have sinned and effectually 
repented. When sir Bors went 
to the castle of Corbin and saw 
Galahad, the son of Lancelot 
and Elaine, he ‘wept for joy, 
and he prayed to God it might 
prove as good a knight as his 
father was, 5 and forthwith the 
Holy Grail appeared unto him : 

And so came in a white dove, and she bare 
a little censer of gold in her mouth, and there 
was all manner of meats and drinks, and a 
maiden bare that Sancgreal, and she said 
openly, Wit you well Sir Bors that this child 
is Galahad, that shall sit in the siege perilous, 
and achieve the Sancgreal, and he shall be 
much better than ever was Sir Launcelot du 
Lake, that is his own father. And then they 
kneeled down and made their devotions. . . . 
And then the dove took her flight, and the 
maiden vanished with the Sancgreal as 'sh 
came. 

Malory : Morte d? Arthur, Book XI. chap, iv 

Sir Bors accompanied sir 
Galahad and sir Percivale in 
the quest of the Holy Grail, 
and was present when it ap- 
peared. After the death of 
Galahad, sir Bors departed 
with sir Lancelot from Cardiff 
and sailed to Benwick, and was 
crowned king of all king Claudus* 
lands. 

Holy Grail. 

BOS. 

when the long wave broke 
All down the thundering shores of Bude and 

Bos, 

Represents the rocky coast 
of Cornwall. Bos, now called 
Boscastle, is a village near 
Tintagil Head. 

Guinevere. 

BOSHAM. 

A seaport in Sussex. It was 
G 



BOU] 

% for some time the residence of 
king Harold, and the place 
from which he started on his 
journey to Normandy. In the 
church is the tomb of Bosham, 
secretary to Thomas Becket. 
King Canute built a castle 
here, and his daughter lies 
buried in the church. 

Harold ; Becket . 

BOUNTEOUS ISLE. See Mael- 
dune. 

BOURNE (Gilbert). 

Son of Philip Bourne and 
brother of sir John Bourne, 
Secretary of State in the time 
of Mary. In 1531 we find him 
Fellow of All Souls’ College, 
Oxford, and ten years’ later 
was made prebendary of Wor- 
cester and of St. Paul’s, In 
the meantime he had become 
chaplain to bishop Bonner, and 
was in 1553 sent to preach at 
Paul’s Cross ; and denouncing 
Edward VI for having im- 
prisoned Bonner in the Mar- 
shalsea, the crowd became so 
exasperated that a dagger was 
hurled at him, and had it not 
been for the interference of 
Courtenay, earl of Devon, 
would have undoubtedly paid 
for his rashness with his life. 

Son Courtenay, wilt thou see the holy father 
Murdered before thy face ? up, son, and save 
him! 

They love thee, and thou canst not come to 
harm. 

In 1553 he was created bishop 
of Bath and Wells, and soon 
afterwards was made president 
of Wales, but in the reign of 
Elizabeth was deprived (1559) 


82 [BOV 

for refusing to take the oath of 
supremacy, and was committed 
to the Tower ; afterwards being 
committed to c free custody.’ 
He died at Silverton, Devon- 
shire, 1569. 

Queen Mary . 

BOVADILLA (Franciso de). 

An official of the royal house- 
hold of Ferdinand and Isa- 
bella ; appointed Commissioner 
to investigate the state of 
affairs that existed in the island 
of Hispaniola under the vice- 
regency of Christopher Colum- 
bus. Armed with authority to 
take complete possession of the 
island he sailed from Spain in 
July 1500, and entered the 
harbour of San Domingo on 
August 23 of the same year. 
Landing on the following day 
he demanded from James Col- 
umbus — brother of the naviga- 
tor, who was left in command 
during Christopher’s absence 
in Vega Real — the release of 
all the prisoners in the fortress, 
and upon James refusing took 
the fortress by storm. He then 
occupied Columbus’ house and 
seized all his public and private 
papers. Hearing of Bovadilla’s 
arrival, Columbus set out for 
San Domingo, and upon his 
arrival was — with his brothers 
James and Bartholomew — 
arrested, placed in chains and 
sent home to Spain, Bovadilla 
remaining in command of the 
island. He however tailed to 
reduce the colony to order, and 



BOX] 


83 


[BRI 


in 1501 was superseded by 
Nicholas de Ovando. Upon 
the latter’s arrival in the island, 
Bovadilla embarked for Spain, 
but encountering a hurricane 
immediately upon leaving the 
shore was shipwrecked and 
consequently lost his life. 

Columbus . 

BOX. 

A tree or shrub remarkable 
for the hardness and smoothness 
of its wood. 

A Sprit haunts . 

BRAMBLE. 

A prickly shrub. 

Holy Grail ; P die as and 
Ettarre . 

BRANDAGORAS. 

King of Latangor, subdued 
by king Arthur, fighting on 
behalf of Leodogran, king of 
Cameliard. 

Coming of Arthur . 

BRAS T1 AS. 

A Knight of the Round 
Table : one of the three knights 
sent by king Arthur to king 
Leodogran to ask for the hand 
of his daughter Guinevere. 
Brastias became a hermit and 
retired to a hermitage in the 
forest of Windsor, where he 
was visited by sir Lancelot 
when the latter was com- 
manded by Guinevere to avoid 
the court. 

Coming of Arthur . 

BRENDAN. 

An Irish saint of the sixth 
century. He lived an ascetic 
life and was Abbot over 100 


monks. Said to have visited 
certain islands in the eastern 
ocean where he — with his Irish' 
monks — preached. 

And we came to the Isle of a Saint who had 
sail’d with St. Brendan of yore. 

The islands of St. Brendan are 
supposed to be to the west of 
the Canary Islands. Brendan 
visited St. Columbia at Iona 
in 563. He is the hero of the 
Navigation of St. Brendan , a 
popular tale of the mediaeval 
ages. 

Voyage of Maeldune. 

BRETON (Brittany). 

Maud ; Merlin and Vivien ; 

Last Tournament. 

BRETT (Captain). 

Joined sir Thomas Wyatt in 
insurrection to prevent the 
marriage of Mary with Philip 
of Spain, and was in charge 
of the London deserters ; taken 
prisoner by sir Maurice Berke- 
ley at Temple Bar, and executed. 

Queen Mary. 

BRIAR. 

= Brier. 

Day-Dream ; Promise of May . 

BRIER. 

A plant with a stem bearing 
prickles. 

Buonaparte ; Y ou might 
have won; The Princess; 
The Window ; Last Tourna- 
ment; Lover’s Tale. 

BRIGADE, Heavy. See Heavy 
Brigade. 

BRIGADE Light. See Light 
Brigade. 



BRI] 

BRIGADE, Scarlett’s. See Scar- 
lett’s Brigade. 

BRIONY. 

On a sudden a low breath 
Of tender air made tremble in the hedge 
The fragile bindweed-bells and briony rings ; 
And he look’d up. 

A wild climbing plant com- 
mon in English hedgerows ; its 
rings are its spiral tendrils. 

Talking Oak ; The Brook. 

BRITAIN. 

You ask me why ; The 
Princess ; Third of Febru- 
ary ; A Welcome to Her 
Royal Highness Marie 
Alexandrovna ; Boadicea ; 
Maud; Coming of Arthur ; 
Marriage of Geraint ; Balin 
and Balan; Lancelot and 
Elaine ; Last Tournament; 
Guinevere; To the Queen , 
11 ; Defence of Lucknow ; 
Sir John Oldcastle , Lord 
Cobham ; Battle of Brunan- 
burh ; Opening of the Indian 
and Colonial Exhibition ; 
To Marquis of Dufferin and 
Ava; Harold; Queen Mary. 

BRITO (Richard de). See De 
Brito. 

BRITTANY. 

The north-western peninsula 
of France. It was conquered 
by the Romans in 57- 56 b.c., 
and in the fifth and sixth cen- 
turies was invaded and chris- 
tianized from England and Ire- 
land. From the end of the 
tenth to the middle of the 
fifteenth centuries it was inde- 
pendent of the French king, 
being governed by dukes, but 


84 [BRO 

in 1532 was united to the French 
crown. 

Last Tournament; Harold; 

The Foresters . 
BROC. See De Broc. 

BROCELIANDE. 

A forest supposed to have been 
Brittany. At one end of the 
forest stands the fountain of 
Baranton, and near by is the 
tomb of Merlin surmounted 
by a cross of wood. From the 
fountain flows a mineral spring, 
which bubbles up when a piece 
of iron or copper is thrown 
into it. 

And chafed the flashes of his golden horns 
Until they vanish’d by the fairy well 
That laughs at iron — as our warriors did — 
Where children cast their pins and nails, and 
cry, 

‘ Laugh, little well,’ but touch it with a sword. 
It buzzes fiercely round the point ; 

Merlin and Vivien . 

BROOKS. 

William Henry Brookfield, 
son of Charles Brookfield, a 
Sheffield solicitor. Curate of 
Malt by (1834), St. James’, 
Piccadilly, London (1840), and 
St. Luke’s, Berwick Street 
(1841); chaplain-in-ordinary to 
queen Victoria (i860). Whilst 
at Trinity College, Cambridge, 
made the acquaintance of 
Tennyson, who in 1875 wrote 
for Lord Lyttelton’s preface to 
Sermons by the late Rev. Wil- 
liam Henry Brookfield, the 
following : 

Old Brooks, who loved so well to mouth my 
rhymes, 

How oft we two have heard St. Mary’s chimes ! 
How oft the Cantab supper, host and guest, 
Would echo helpless laughter to your jest ! 
How oft with him we paced that walk of limes. 
Him, the lost sight of those dawn-golden times. 

Life of Tennyson. 

To Rev. W. H. Brookfield. 



BRU] 


85 


[BUL 


BRUNANBURH. 

The scene of a bloody battle 
in 937, where Athelstan (q.v.) 
and his brother Edmund Athel- 
ing gained a decisive 

victory over Anlaf the Dane, 
Constantine of Scotland, and 
the Northumbrian Danes, 
which victory practically estab- 
lished the unity of England. 
The site of the battle is uncer- 
tain, but it has been variously 
located in Northumberland, 
Dumfriesshire, Lancashire and 
Yorkshire. 

Battle of Brunanlurh ; Harold . 

BRUNELLESCHI. 

A famous Italian architect, 
born at Florence. He built 
the Pitti Palace, the churches 
of San Lorenzo, and Spirito 
Santo, as well as the Duomo 
of the Cathedral, the latter 
being his principal title to fame. 

My dearest brother, Edmund, sleeps. 
Not by the well-known stream and rustic 

spire. 

But unfamiliar Arno, and the dome 
Of Brunelleschi : 

The Brook. 

BRUSSELS. 

The capital of Belgium. 

Queen Mary. 

BRUTUS (Lucius Junius). See 
Lucius Junius Brutus. 

BUBLIN*. 

=a young unfledged bird. 

Owd Rod . 

BUCKINGHAM. 

Edward Stafford, third duke 
of Buckingham, eldest son of 
Henry Stafford, second duke. 
On April 16, 1521, he was com- 


mitted to the Tower for treason, 
and on May 13 was tried by 
seventeen peers, presided over 
by the duke of Norfolk ; con- 
demned and executed on Tower 
Hill on the 17th of the same 
month, his body being buried 
in the church of the Austin 
Friars (1478-1521). 

Queen Mary. 

BUDE. 


when the long wave broke 
All down the thundering shores of Bude and 
Bos, 

The rocky coast of Cornwall. 
Bude is a small port on the 
north coast of that county. 

Guinevere. 


BULBUL. 

A Persian word much used in 
Persian poetry. Though there 
is much dispute as to the bird 
to which it refers, it is generally 
considered to be the nightingale. 

The living airs of middle night 
Died round the bulbul as he sung ; 

Recollections of the Arabian 
Nights ; The Princess. 

BULL. 

An inn sign. 

The Bull, the Fleece are cramm’d, and not a 
room 

For love or money. 

Audley Court . 


BULL (Edward). 

A curate. 

Edwin Morris. 


BULLINGHAM (Nicholas). 

Fellow of All Souls’ College, 
Oxford, 1536; chaplain to 
archbishop Cranmer ; preben- 
dary of Lincoln, 1 547 ; and 
rector of Thimbleby, 1551 ; 
deprived on account of being 



BUR] 


86 [CAD 


married in 1553, and on the 
outbreak of the Marian per- 
secution fled to Germany. In 
the reign of Elizabeth he re- 
turned, was appointed to the 
vacant See of Lincoln rendered 
vacant by the deprivation of 
bishop Watson, and was one 
of the bishops appointed to 
draw up the Articles. In 1571 
he was translated to Worcester, 
and appointed one of the Com- 
missioners for the enforcement 
of the Book of Common Prayer. 
He died in 1576 and was buried 
in the chapel at Worcester 
cathedral. On his tomb ap- 
pears the following epitaph : 

Here bom, here bishop, buried here, 

A Bullyngham by name and stock, 

A man twice married in God’s fear, 

Chief pastor, late of Lincolne flock, 

Whom Oxford trained up in youth, 

Whom Cambridge doctor did create, 

A painful preacher of the truth, 

Who changed this life for happy fate 
18 April, 1576. 

Dictionary of National Biography . 

Queen Mary. 

BURDOCK. 

A broad-leaved, prickly plant. 

Holy Grail. 

BURGUNDY. 

An old duchy of France. 

Harold. 

BURLEIGH. 

Deeply mourn’d the Lord of Burleigh, 
Burleigh-house by Stamford-town. 

Lord of Burleigh . 

BURLEIGH-HOUSE. 

‘ Burleigh-house by Stam- 
ford-town ? is the county resi- 
dence of the marquis of Exeter, 
the descendant of the famous 
Cecil, lord Burleigh, who was 
Secretary of State to queen 
Elizabeth. In the Civil War 


it was taken by the Parliamen- 
tarians. 

Lord of Burleigh. 

BUTTER-BUMP. 

—Bittern, a bird of the heron 
family. 

Northern Farmer , Old Style. 

BUTTERFLY. 

The name of an extensive 
group of beautiful winged in- 
sects. 

Adeline ; F diking Oak ,** 
Queen Mary ; Promise of 
May. 

BUZZARD. 

A rapacious bird of prey of 
the falcon family. 

Queen Mary. 

BUZZARD-CLOCK. 

= Cockchafer, a beetle, called 
also the May-bug. 

Northern Farmer , Old Style. 

CADE (Jack). 

And Thomas White will prove this Thomas 

Wyatt, 

And he will prove an Iden to this Cade. 

An Irish adventurer, and the 
leader of an insurrection in 
Kent in the reign of Henry VI 
(1450), against the oppressive 
taxation of the government. 
With a force of 15,000 men 
marched on London, and en- 
camped at Blackheath ; and 
defeating the royal army sent 
against him entered London 
on July 2, 1450. The citizens 
however retaliated and a 
struggle took place between 
them and Cade on the night of 
July 5. As a result terms 



CAD] 


[CAB 


87 


were arranged, and the Kentish 
men retired from the city. A 
price being set upon Cade’s 
head, he attempted to reach 
the coast, but was pursued by 
a Kentish squire named Alex- 
ander Iden (q-v.), who fought 
and killed him in a garden at 
Heathfield in Sussex, for which 
service he was knighted. 

King Henry. The head of Cade! — Great 
God, how just art thou ! — 

0, let me view his visage, being dead. 

* * * 

King Henry. How art thou call’d? and 
what is thy degree? 

Iden. Alexander Iden, that’s my name ; 
A poor esquire of Kent, that loves his king. 
* * * 

King Henry. Iden, kneel down. 

Rise up a knight. 

Shakespeare : 2 King Henry VI . 

Act V . Scene i. 

On the side of the road oppo- 
site the garden where he was 
killed stands a monumental 
stone bearing the following 
inscription : 

Near this spot was slain the notorious Rebel 
Jack Cade 

By Alexander Iden, Sheriff of Kent, a.d. 1450. 
His body was carried to London, and his head 
fixed on London Bridge. 

This is the success of all rebels. 

And this fortune chanceth ever to traitors. 

Queen Mary . 

CAD MEAN* 

A citadel of Thebes, built by 
Cadmus (q.v.), son of Agenor, 
king of Phoenicia. 

Lucretius. 

CADMUS. 

In Greek mythology son of 
Agenor, king of Phoenicia by 
Telephassa or Agriope. Was 
ordered by his father to go in 
quest of his sister Europa 
whom Jupiter carried away, 
and he was never to return to 
Phoenicia if he did not bring 
her back. His search proving 


fruitless, he consulted the Del- 
phic oracle, who ordered him 
to build the Cadmean, after- 
wards the citadel of Thebes. 
Here he killed a dragon which 
guarded the well of Ares, and 
sowed its teeth which sprang 
up as armed men, who imme- 
diately fought and slew each 
other, except five. For this 
act Cadmus made reparation 
to Ares for a period of eight 
years. 

The great God, Ares, bums in anger still 
Against the guiltless heirs of him from Tyre, 
Our Cadmus, out of whom thou art, who found 
Beside the springs of Dirce, smote, and still’d 
Thro’ all its folds the multitudinous beast 
The dragon, 

Afterwards he married Her- 
mione, the mother of Venus, 
and both of them being changed 
into serpents by Zeus were 
removed to Elysium. Cadmus 
was the first to introduce the 
alphabet into Greece. 

‘Tiresias. 

CAER-ERYRI. 

= Snowdon. The latter part 
of the word means ‘ eagle’s 
nest.’ 

Or if some other told 
How once the wandering forester at dawn. 

Far over the blue tarns and hazy seas, 

On Caer-Eryri’s highest found the King, 

Gareth and Lynette. 

CAERLEON. 

An ancient town in Mon- 
mouthshire on the river Usk. 
The name Caerleon-upon-Usk 
distinguished it from Chester, 
which was Caerleon-on-Dee. 
This ‘ City of Legions ’ with 
its golden domes and magnifi- 
cent churches, and its gorgeous 
palace, with its giant tower 



CAE] 


88 


[CAL 


from whose high crest, they say, 
Men saw the goodly hills of Somerset, 

And white sails flying on the yellow sea ; 

is supposed to have equalled 
Rome in splendour. It was one 
of the principal residences of 
king Arthur, where he lived 
in splendid state, surrounded 
by his knights, and where he 
held his court. 

For Arthur on the Whitsuntide before 
Held court at old Caerleon upon Usk. 

King Arthur’s ninth great 
battle against the Saxons was 
fought here. Roman remains 
have been found, as walls, bath, 
and an amphitheatre (i 6 feet 
high and 222 by 192 feet) called 
king Arthur’s Round Table. 
Marriage of Geraint ; Ger- 
aint and Enid ; Balin and 
Balan ; Lancelot and 
Elaine ; Merlin and Vivien ; 
Pelleas and Ettarre. 

CAERLYLE. 

The city of Carlisle in Cum- 
berland. 

Lancelot and Elaine . 

€£1SAR. 

nor tame and tutor with mine eye 
That dull cold-blooded Caesar. 

Octavian Augustus Caesar, 
the adopted son of Julius Caesar. 

Dream of Fair Women . 

CA2SAR. 

And King Leodogran 

Groan’d for the Roman legions here again, 
And Caesar’s eagle : 

Coming of Arthur. 

CAESAR. 

And sweeter than the bride of Cassivelaun, 
Flur, for whose love the Roman Caesar first 
Invaded Britain, But we beat him back, i 

= Julius Caesar. 

Marriage of Geraint . 


CiESAR. 

Rome of Caesar, Rome of Peter, which was 
crueller ? 

Locksley Hall Sixty V ears After. 


CiESAR. 

Now thy Forum roars no longer, 

Fallen every purple Caesar’s dome — 

To Virgil. 

CiESAR. 


Lightning may shrivel the laurel of Caesar, 
but mine would not wither. 

Parnassus. 

CiESAR. 

Of ‘ Render unto Caesar.’ . . . The Good 
Shepherd ! 

Take this, and render that. 

Harold. 


CAIAPHAS- ARUNDEL. 

These Pharisees, this Caiaphas-Arundel, 
What miracle could turn ? 

Has reference to archbishop 
Arundel, who examined and 
condemned to death sir John 
Oldcastle. 

Sir John Oldcastle , 
Lord Cobham . 

CAIN. 

Maud ; Forlorn ; Haffy ; 
Bechet ; Queen Mary . 


CALABER (Quintus). See Quin- 
tus Calaber. 


CALAIS. 

A French seaport on the 
straits of Dover. It was cap- 
tured by Edward III in 1347 
after a heroic defence, and re- 
mained under the English crown 
until the time of Mary (1558), 
when it was taken by the duke 
of Guise. It was the last town 
held by the English on French 
soil, and its loss was a blow to 
the English nation, queen Mary 
declaring that on her death 



CAL] 


[CAM 


89 


‘ Calais 5 would be found written 
on her heart. 

Queen Mary . 

CALIPHAT. 

The government or empire 
of the Caliphs. 

Recollections of the Arabian 
Nights . 

CALIXTUS. 

The first pope of Rome ; 
elected 219 a.d. and martyred 
223 a.d. He is known as the 
constructor of the celebrated 
catacombs on the Appian Way 
at Rome. 

Harold . 

CALLIOPE. 

A daughter of Jupiter and 
Mnemosyne, and the first and 
noblest of the nine Muses (q.v.). 
She is represented as presid- 
ing over epic poetry and elo- 
quence. Her attributes are a 
tablet and stylus ; sometimes a 
scroll. 

Rather, O ye Gods, 
Poet-like, as the great Sicilian called 
Calliope to grace his golden verse — 

Lucretius . 

CALPE. 

The rock of Gibraltar, and 
one of the pillars of Hercules — 
the other being Abyla. It is 
supposed these two were origin- 
ally one mountain, but Hercules 
tore them asunder and the sea 
poured between them. 

Last with wide arms the solid earth He tears, 
Piles rock on rock, no mountain mountain 

rears; 

Heaves up huge Abyla on Afric’s sand, 
CrownsTwith mm Calpe Europe’s salient strand, 
Crests with opposing towers the splendid scene, 
And pours from urns immense the sea be- 
tween, 

Darwin : Botanic Garden : Part I. Econ- 
omy of Vegetation . 

The Poet . 


CAM A. 

In Hindu mythology the god 
of love and marriage, repre- 
sented as riding across the sky 
on the back of a parrot accom- 
panied by the cuckoo and the 
humming-bee. 

Or over hills with peaky tops engrail’d. 

And many a tract of palm and rice, 

The throne of Indian Cama slowly s ail’d 

A summer farm’d with spice. 

Palace of Art . 

CAMBALU. 

The mediaeval name of Pekin, 
the city of the Great Khan. 

His eye might there command wherever stood 
City of old or modem fame, the seat 
Of mightiest empire, from the destined walls 
Of Cambalu, seat of Cathaian Can, 

Milton : Paradise Lost , xi. 385-388. 

Columbus ; 

CAMBRIDGE. 

The capital of Cambridgeshire, 
and the seat of one of the Eng- 
lish Universities. 

Becket. 

CAMEL. 

A large ruminant quadruped, 
much used in Asia and Africa 
as a beast of burden, and for 
riding. The camel is remark- 
able for its ability to go a long 
time without drinking. 

Merlin and Vivien ; Lover's 
Pale . 

CAMELEON. 

A small lizard famous for 
changing its colour. 

Queen Mary. 

CAMELIARD. 

The realm of Leodogran, 
father of Guinevere, wife of 
king Arthur. Brecknock — 
three miles from which town 
is a hill known as Arthur’s 
hill — was considered to have 



CAM] 


9 ° 


[cam: 


marked one of its borders, and 
its capital is said to have been 
Carohaise, a city as yet undis- 
covered. 

Leodogran, the King of Cameliard, 

Had one fair daughter, and none other child ; 
And she was fairest of all flesh on earth, 
Guinevere, and in her his one delight. 

With the assistance of king 
Arthur he cleared his realm of 
wild beasts and heathen hordes 
that swarmed from overseas, 
after which his daughter Guine- 
vere became Arthur’s queen. 

Coming of Arthur . 

CAMELOT. 

The place where king Arthur 
chiefly held his court. 

As it fell out on a Pentecost day, 

King Arthur at Camelot kept his court 
royall, 

With bos faire queene dame Guenever the gay ; 

And many bold barons sitting in hall ; 

With ladies attired in purple and pall ; 
And heraults in hewkes, hooting on high, 
Cryed, Largesse, Largesse, Chevaliers ires-hardie. 

Percy’s Reliques. King Ryence's Challenge, 

Caxton in his preface to 
Malory’s Morte d? Arthur speaks 
of it as if it were in Wales, 
probably meaning Caerleon- 
upon-Usk, where the Roman 
amphitheatre is still called 
Arthur’s Round Table. The 
place referred to by Shake- 
speare in his King Lear is 
considered to be in Cornwall. 

Goose, if I had you upon Sarum plain, 

I’d drive ye cackling home to Camelot. 

Shakespeare : King Lear , Act II. Scene ii. 

But the Camelot of the 
Arthurian romance is supposed 
to be the city of Winchester. 

Balin’s sword was put in a marble stone 
standing upright as great as a millstone, and 
the stone hoved always above the water, 
and did many years, and so by adventure it 
swam down the stream to the city of Camelot 
that is in English Winchester. 

Malory : Morte d* Arthur, Booh II. chap . xix. 

It is now identified with a 


village called Camel in Somerset- 
shire and the town of Camelford 
in Cornwall. In the former 
place remains of the entrench- 
ments of an ancient town are 
still to be seen. The village 
still preserves the traditions of 
Arthur, ‘ the bridge over the 
river Camel is called Arthur’s 
Bridge,’ and in the neighbour- 
hood is a spring known as 
‘ Arthur’s Well.’ At Camel- 
ford there is a grave locally 
known as * King Arthur’s 
grave,’ and in the vicinity is 
Slaughter Hill, the reputed 
scene of the ‘last weird battle 
in the west,’ where the traitor 
Modred was slain, and where 
Arthur received his mortal 
wound. In Gareth and Lynette- 
it is described as : 

a city of shadowy palaces 
And stately, rich in emblem and the work 
Of ancient kings who did their days in stone : 
Which Merlin’s hand, the Mage at Arthur’s- 
court. 

Knowing all arts, had touch’d, and every- 
where 

At Arthur’s ordinance, tipt with lessening 
peak 

And pinnacle, and had made it spire to heaven. 

And in the centre of the city 
was the great hall which Merlin 
had built for Arthur 

O brother, had you known our mighty hall 
Which Merlin built for Arthur long ago I 
For all the sacred mount of Camelot, 

And all the dim rich city, roof by roof, 

Tower after tower, spire beyond spire. 

But in the description of the 
departure of the three knights 
in search of the Holy Grail, 
Percivale says : 

O brother, had you known our Camelot, 

Built by old kings, age after age, so old 
The king himself had fears that it would fall r 
So strange, and rich, and dim ; for where the? 
roofs 

Totter’d toward each other in the sky 
Met foreheads all along the streets of those 
Who watch’d us pass ; 



CAM] 


91 


[CAN: 


And in Pelleas and Ettarre, 
as Pelleas is riding away from 
the castle of Ettarre 

he saw 

High up in heaven the hall that Merlin built, 
Blackening against the dead-green stripes of 
even, 

* Black nest of rats,’ he groan’d, ‘ ye build too 
high.’ 

Lady of Shalott ; Morte 
£ Arthur ; Gareth and 
Lynette ; Marriage of Ger- 
aint ; Balin and Balan ; 
Merlin and Vivien ; Lance- 
lot and Elaine ; Holy Grail ; 
Pelleas and Ettarre ; Last 
Tournament ; Guinevere ; 
Passing of Arthur ; Merlin 
and the Gleam. 

CAMILLA* See Julian. 

GAMMA* 

Wife of Sinnatus (y.z>.), after- 
wards priestess in the temple 
of Artemis. 

The Cu'p . 

CAMPANILE. 

A genus of plants, bearing 
bell-shaped flowers. 

The Daisy . 

cAmulodune. 

The Roman name for the 
city of Colchester. Claudius 
established a Roman settlement 
here to assist in the subjuga- 
tion of Caractacus, a war- 
like king who lived in South 
Wales. During the absence of 
the Governor, the Iceni, under 
Boadicea (q*v.) captured and 
burnt the colony and massacred 
the inhabitants, some 70,000 
Romans being said to have 
perished, but Suetonius Paulinus 


on his return from Wales re* 
covered possession of the place. 

Boadicea . 

CANA. 

Perhaps, like him of Cana in Holy Writ, 

Our Arthur kept his best until the last ; 

Refers to the marriage feast 
in Cana of Galilee where Christ 
was present with His disciples 
and performed His miracle of 
turning the water into wine. 
John ii. i-ii. 

Holy Grail . 

CANADA. 

A Welcome to Her High- 
ness Marie Alexandrovna , 
Duchess of Edinburgh ; 
Hands all Round . 

CANNING. 

Stratford Canning, first vis- 
count Stratford de Redcliffe,, 
the famous ambassador. Was 
secretary to the Envoy to Den- 
mark in 1807 ; Constantinople 
in 1808, and two years later was 
left in charge of the British 
Embassy at Constantinople ; 
plenipotentiary to Switzerland 
1813-20; envoy to the United 
States of America 1820-24; 
to St. Petersburg 1824, and 
again to Constantinople in 
1825. M.P. for Salisbury 1828,. 
and for Stockbridge, 1830 ; 
appointed Envoy to St. 
Petersburg 1833, but the 
Czar refused to receive 
him ; in 1835 declined the 
governorship of Canada ; M.P. 
for Kings Lynn 1835-41, and 
in 1842 appointed ambassador 
at Constantinople. Envoy to 



CAN] 


[CAR 


92 


Switzerland 1847, and in the 
following year returned to Con- 
stantinople. In 1852 he was 
created viscount Stratford de 
Redcliffe, and six years later 
resigned his ambassadorship. 
He died in 1880. A statue to 
his memory was erected in 
Westminster Abbey in 1884. 
Will Waterproofs Lyrical 
Monologue ; \Epitaph on 
Lord Stratford de Redcliffe . 

CANOPUS. 

A bright star in the rudder 
of Argo, a constellation of the 
southern hemisphere ; so called 
from the old Egyptian city 
Canopus, or from an Egyptian 
god of that name. 

‘ We drank the Libyan Sun to sleep, and lit 

Lamps which out-bum’d Canopus.’ 

Dream of Fair Women. 

CANTERBURY. 

Queen Mary ; Harold ,* Bechet . 

CANTERBURY-BELLS. 

= Campanula, a plant bearing 
bell-shaped flowers. 

City Child . 

CANTERBURY MINSTER. 

Bechet . 

CAPITOL. 

The temple of ancient Rome, 
where the senate met. It was 
situated on the Mons Capitol- 
inus, the smallest but the most 
famous of the seven hills on 
which Rome is built. 

Freedom. 

CAPRERA. 

A small island in the Buc- 
cinari group of the coast of 


Sardinia. It was the home of 
general Garibaldi, where he 
died, and his burial-place. 

To Ulysses . 

CARADOS. 

A king subdued by king 
Arthur, fighting on behalf of 
Leodogran, king of Cameliard. 

Coming of Arthur . 

CARAFFA. 

John Peter Caraffa, elected 
pope of Rome under the title 
of Paul IV in 1555, at the age 
of eighty. 

Oueen Mary. 

CARAVEL. 

the frailer caravel , 
With what was mine, came happily to the 

shore. 

There was a glimmering of God’s hand. 

The small, open ship of the 
Portuguese was called a caravel. 
When Bovadilla (« q.v .) started 
on his homeward voyage to 
Spain, a hurricane burst over 
his fleet. Many of the ships 
were entirely lost, and others 
returned to San Domingo in a 
shattered condition. The only 
ship of the fleet which pursued 
her voyage and ultimately 
reached her port of destination 
was the frail caravel freighted 
with the property of Columbus. 

C olumhus. 

CARBONEK. 

A castle, according to legend 
built as the resting place of the 
Holy Grail in the time of 
Alain, grandson of Joseph of 
Arimathaea. It was the resi- 
dence of king Pelles, whose 
daughter Elaine was mother 
of sir Galahad. 



CAR] 


and looking up, 

Behold, the enchanted towers of Carbonek, 

A castle like a rock upon a rock, 

Holy Grail. 

CAREW (Peter). See Peter 
Carew. 

CARIAN ARTEMISIA. 

Daughter of Lygdamis, and 
queen of Halicarnassus. She 
built in memory of her hus- 
band king Mausolus of Caria, 
the famous Mausoleum of 
Halicarnassus, counted by the 
ancients as one of the seven 
wonders of the world. With 
five ships she joined Xerxes in 
his invasion of Greece, and 
fought at Salamis, 480 b.c., 
where she displayed such signal 
courage and energy, that 
Xerxes exclaimed : c My men 
have become women, and my 
women men.’ 

and she 

The foundress of the Babylonian wall 
The Carian Artemisia strong in war. 

The Princess . 

CARLOS. 

Don Carlos, son of Philip 
II of Spain. 

Queen Mary . 

CAROLINE. 

There’s Margaret and Mary, there’s Kate and 
Caroline : 

But none so fair as little Alice in all the land 
they say. 

One of the four little girl 
friends of Alice, c Queen of the 
May.’ 

May Queen . 

CARP. 

A fresh-water fish. 

Marriage of Geraint . 

CARRIER-PIGEON. 

A domestic pigeon used to 


93 [CAS 

convey messages from a distant 
point to its home. 

Harold . 

CARYATIDS. 

In Greek architecture draped 
female figures supporting an 
entablature in place of a column. 

The Princess. 

CASCINE. 

At Florence too what golden hours. 

In those long galleries, were ours ; 

What drives about the fresh Cascine, 

Or walks in Boboli’s ducal bowers. 

A park of Florence about two 
miles long, bounded by the 
rivers Arno and Mugnone. It 
affords refreshing walks to the 
traveller, and is a fashionable 
rendezvous, particularly for 
driving. 

The Daisy . 

CASSANDRA. 

A Trojan princess ; the beau- 
tiful daughter of Priam and 
Hecuba, whom Apollo in return 
for her love endowed with the 
gift of prophecy. She pre- 
dicted to the Trojans the siege 
and destruction of their city,, 
and was shut up in prison as 
a madwoman. On the fall 
of Troy she became the slave 
of Agamemnon, and was mur- 
dered along with her master 
by his wife Clytemnestra. She 
is one of the characters in 
Shakespeare’s Troilus and 
Cressida . 

(Enone ; Romney’s Remorse . 

CASSIA. 

A genius of plants of many 
species, most of which have 
purgative qualities. 

Love and Death . 



<CAS] 


94 


[CAS 


CASSIOPEIA. 

Queen of Ethiopia, mother of 
Andromeda. For boasting that 
her daughter’s beauty surpassed 
the beauty of the sea-nymphs, 
Neptune sent a sea-serpent, 
which ravaged the kingdom. 
At death she was made a con- 
stellation, consisting of thirteen 
stars. 

Or that starred Ethiop queen that strove 

To set her beauty’s praise above 

The Sea-Nymphs, and their powers offended. 

Milton : II Penseroso, 19-21. 

The Princess . 

cAssivelaun. 

Cassivelaun, was a king of 
Britain at the time when Julius 
Csesar invaded the island. 
Mwrchan, a Gallic chief, in 
league with Caesar seized and 
carried away to Gaul, Flur, 
Cassivelaun’s betrothed, but 
Cassivelaun invading Gaul at 
the head of 60,000 troops, 
gained a complete victory and 
rescued his bride. 

And sweeter than the bride of Cassivelaun, 
Flur, for whose love the Roman Caesar first 
Invaded Britain, 

On Caesar’s second invasion 
of the island, Cassivelaun again 
vanquished him ; but the 
Romans being reinforced by 
Androgeus, he was defeated 
and agreed to pay tribute to the 
amount of 3,000 pounds of 
silver annually. Several years 
after he died and was buried at 
York. 

Boadicea ; Marriage of 
Geraint . 

€ASTAUES. See Castaly. 

The Princess . 


CASTALY. 

A fountain at the foot of 
mount Parnassus, sacred to the 
Muses ; called after a nymph 
who drowned herself in it to 
escape Apollo. Its waters in- 
spired those who drank thereof 
with the gift of poetry. 

Bechet, 

CASTILE— CASTILLE. 

A district of Spain, divided 
by the mountains of Castile 
into old and new Castile. 
Anciently inhabited by Celti- 
berian tribes, but united to the 
crown of Spain in 1469 by the 
marriage of Ferdinand and 
Isabella. 

Columbus ; Queen Mary . 

CASTLE PERILOUS. 

The home of Lady Lyonors. 
There she was held captive by 
four knights. Lynette {q-v) 
her sister went to king Arthur 
and asked for a knight to fight 
to rescue her, and the task was 
given to sir Gareth Q.zQ, 
who overcame the knights and 
liberated the lady. Malory in 
his Morte d’ Arthur says that 
Gareth married the lady and 
his brother Gaheris married 
Lynette, but Tennyson says 
that Gareth married Lynette, 
but makes no mention of lady 
Lyonors. 

Gareth and Lynette. 

CASTRO. 

Chaplain to king Philip of 
Spain. 

Thou knowest I bad my chaplain, Castro 

preach 

Against these burnings. 

Queen Mary . 



CAT] 


95 


[CAT 


CAT. 

A domestic animal. 

The Falcon ; The Owl ; 
The Goose ; Walking to the 
Mail; The Princess; 
Maud ; Promise of May ; 
The Foresters ; Holy Grail ; 
Northern Cobbler; To- 
morrow ; Spinster’s Sweet- 
Arts ; Locksley Hall 
Sixty T ears After ; Owd 
Rod ; Church-warden and 
the Curate. 

CATALONIAN MINORITE. 

For curbing crimes that scandalised the Cross 
By him, the Catalonian Minorite, 

Rome’s Vicar in our Indies ? 

Catalonian = Catalonia, a 
Spanish province. Minorite = 
a monk. Has reference to Friar 
Bernardo Buil, a Benedictine 
monk who accompanied Colum- 
bus on his second voyage to 
America, 1493. He had been 
chosen by pope Alexander VI 
to be his apostolic vicar in the 
West Indies. 

Columbus. 

CATERPILLAR. 

The coloured grub of the 
lepidopterous insects, or of 
butterflies and moths. 

Guinevere. 

CATHARINE. 

of Aragon (b. 1485), first queen 
of Henry VIII, youngest daugh- 
ter of Ferdinand and Isabella 
of Spain. Married first to 
Arthur, eldest son of Henry 
VII, in 1501, but was left a 
widow, and in 1509 by a papal 
dispensation was married to 
her brother-in-law, afterwards 


Henry VIII. In 1533, shortly 
after Henry’s cleavage with 
Rome, Cranmer declared the 
marriage null and void ; but 
the pope pronounced it valid, 
1534. Died 1535, and buried 
in Peterborough Abbey. 

Queen Mary. 

CATHAY. 

The mediaeval name for Tar- 
tary, the capital of which was 
Albracca. 

the ship 

From Ceylon, Inde, or far Cathay, unloads 
For him the fragrant produce of each trip ; 

Byron : Don Juan, Canto XII. Stanza ix. 

Locksley Hall. 

CATHERINE. 

Daughter of a woman who 
chides her because she is con- 
templating a marriage, of which 
her mother says she is unworthy. 

Murder would not veil your sin, 

Marriage will not hide it, 

Earth and Hell will brand your name. 

Wretch you must abide it . . . 

She exhorts her to confess to 
her lover. 

Up, get up, and tell him all, 

Tell him you were lying ! 

Forlorn . 

CATIEUCHLANIAN. 

An ancient British tribe 
whose kingdom embraced the 
present counties of Buckingham- 
shire, Northamptonshire, and 
Middlesex. 

Boadicea. 

CATO. 

M. Porcius Cato, Roman 
orator and statesman. He was 
known as c the Censor,’ to which 
office he was appointed in 184 
b.c. He was an opponent o 
Hellenic fashions, and during 
the second Punic war (215 
b.c.), when Rome was in danger 



CAT] 9 6 

of being captured by Hannibal, 
a law — called the Oppian Law 
— -was passed to restrain the 
extravagant dress of the Roman 
ladies, but some years after the 
women rose in revolt, and were 
successful in getting the law 
repealed in spite of the opposi- 
tion of Cato (234-149, b.c.). 

Titanic shapes, they cramm’d 
The forum, and half-crush’d among the rest 
A dwarf-like Cato cower'd. 

The Princess . 

CATULLUS, 

Considered to be the greatest 
of Roman lyric poets. Some 
of his poems are inspired by the 
love for a beautiful maiden 
named Lesbia, a passion that 
eventually proved his downfall. 
The poem referred to in Edwin 
Morris , 79, is by Catullus. 

Hendecasyllabics ; Frater 
Ave A tque Vale ; Poets and 
their Bibliographies . 

CAUCASIAN. 

but every legend fair 
Which the supreme Caucasian mind 
Carved out of Nature for itself, 

A phrase by which the 
race of people who inhabited 
the Caucasian mountains was 
known. 

Palace of Art . 

CAUCASIAN. 

He never yet had set his daughter forth 
Here in the woman-markets of the west, 

Where our Caucasians let themselves be sold. 

Alludes to the sale of Cau- 
casian girls for Turkish harems. 

Aylmer's Field. 

CAUCASUS. 

A mountain range, 900 miles 
in length, with an average 
height of 12,000 feet, extend- 


[CEC 

ing from the Black Sea to the 
Caspian. 

The Poet; A Welcome to 
Her Royal Highness Marie 
Alexandrovna y Duchess of 
Edinburgh . 

CAUF. 

=Calf. 

Spinster’s Sweet-Arts . 

CAVALL. 

King Arthur’s best hound ; 
name of a mountain in Wales, 
where tradition says exists a 
stone with a footprint of the 
dog impressed in it. 

And chiefly for the baying of Cavall, 

King Arthur’s hound of deepest mouth, 

Marriage of Geraint. 

CECIL. 

William, baron Burghley, 
queen Elizabeth’s chief minister. 

Queen Mary . 

CECILY. 

A Roman virgin of rank, who 
embraced Christianity in the 
reign of Antoninus, and who is 
said to have been visited by 
angels. She is the Latin saint 
of music, and the reputed in- 
ventor of the organ. Suffered 
martyrdom about 200 b . c . 

Or in a clear- wall’d city on the sea. 

Near gilded organ-pipes, her hair 
Wound with white roses, slept St. Cecily ; 

An angel look’d at her. 

Dryden, Pope, Addison and 
other English poets have con- 
tributed Odes, but the best- 
known is Dryden’s (1697). 

Orpheus could lead the savage race. 

And trees unrooted left their place. 

Sequacious of the lyre ; 

But bright Cecilia raised the wonder higher : 
When to her organ vocal breath was given,, 
An angel heard, and straight appeared 
Mistaking earth for heaven. 

Dryden : A Song for St, Cecilia's Day, 48-54. 

Palace of Art. 



CED] 

CEDAR. 


97 


[CHA 


CEDAR-TREE. 

The name of several ever- 
green trees. 

Recollections of the Arabian 
Nights; Gardener's Daugh- 
ter ; The Princess ; Milton; 
Maud ; Queen Mary. 

CELANDINE. 

A plant of the poppy family 
with yellow leaves. 

Progress of Spring. 

CELIDON. 

A forest, and the scene of 
Arthur’s seventh victory over 
the Saxons. One authority 
considers it in Cornwall, an- 
other in Lincolnshire, while 
another places it on the banks 
of the Carron in Upper- 
Tweeddale. 

then the war 

That thunder’d in and out the gloomy skirts 
Of Celidon the forest ; 

Lancelot and. Elaine. 

CELTIC DEMOS. See Demos. 
CHAMIAN ORACLE. 

There in a silent shade of laurel brown 
Apart the Chamian Oracle divine 
Shelter’d his unapproach’d mysteries : 

The temple of Jupiter Am- 
mon. Ammon was an Egyptian 
god, represented in the shape 
of a ram, his chief temple being 
in the desert of Libyan, twelve 
days’ journey from Memphis. 
This temple possessed a famous 
oracle, said to have had con- 
nexion with the oracle at 
Dodona, two black doves flying 
away from Thebes in Egypt, 
one to the temple of Jupiter 


Ammon and the other to 
Dodona, by which the inhabit- 
ants were informed of the 
divine mission ; consequently 
the Greeks identified Ammon 
with their god Zeus and the 
Romans with their Jupiter. 

Alexander . 

CHARING CROSS. 

A part of London, the junc- 
tion of Whitehall and the 
Strand. It derived its name 
from the stone cross which 
was erected as a memorial to 
Eleanor, queen of Edward I. 

Queen Mary. 

CHARIOTEER. 

and the Charioteer 
And starry Gemini hang like glorious crowns 
Over Orion’s grave low down in the west. 

The constellation Auriga, situ- 
ated midway between the Polar 
Star and Orion. 

Maud; Achilles over the 
Trench. 

CHARLES (the First). 

King of England, third son of 
James I and Anne, daughter of 
the king of Denmark. Created 
duke of York and Cornwall on 
the accession of his father, and 
in 1616, four years after the 
death of his elder brother 
Henry, created Prince of Wales. 
Succeeding his father in 1625 
he married Henrietta Maria, 
youngest daughter of Heniy IV 
of France. Became involved 
in controversy with Parliament, 
particularly regarding the re- 
venues rendered necessary by 
his extravagant policy, and for 
eleven years through his ministers 
H 



CHA] 


98 


[CHA 


governed without one. Civil 
war eventually broke out which 
ended in the disastrous battle 
of Naseby in 1645. In the 
following year he surrendered 
himself to the Scots at Newark, 
who handed him over to the 
English. On January 20, 1649, 
he was brought to trial, and 
on the 27th of the same month 
was condemned, and beheaded 
at Whitehall three days later 
(1600-1649). 

Third of February . 

CHARLES (the Second). 

King of England, second son 
of Charles I. Having assisted 
his father until after the battle 
of Naseby he proceeded with 
his mother to the Hague, where 
he received the news of his 
father’s fate. He was pro- 
claimed king at Edinburgh on 
February 3, 1649, and again 
on July 15, 1650, after his 
arrival in that country, and 
on January 1 in the following 
year was crowned at Scone, 
in Perthshire. In August of 
the same year he invaded 
England at the head of 10,000 
troops, but was defeated by 
Cromwell at Worcester. Es- 
caping, he hid in the branches 
of a large oak in Boscobel wood 
to avoid his pursuers, who 
actually came under the tree 
where he was . Wandering from 
place to place in disguise he 
eventually reached Shoreham, 
escaped to France, and hence 
to Brussels, where he remained 


until the death of Cromwell in 
1658. Two years later he was 
recalled to the throne, and 
arriving in England was re- 
received with acclamation. In 
1665 he declared war against 
Holland and a Dutch fleet sailed 
up the Medway and destroyed 
several ships. The same year 
a great plague swept away a 
large number of the inhabitants 
of London, and in the following 
year a large portion of the city 
was destroyed by fire. In 1674 
he made peace with Holland, 
and his niece, princess Mary, 
married William of Orange in 
1 677 (1630-1685). 

Talking Oak . 

CHARLES (the Fif tfc). 

Emperor of Germany , son of 
Philip of Austria, became in 1516 
by right of birth, ruler of Spain, 
the Netherlands, Sicily, and 
Naples ; and on the death of his 
grandfather added Austria to his 
dominions. His chief ambition 
was the suppression of the 
Reformation and the succession 
of his son Philip to the imperial 
crown, but failing in both, 
abdicated in favour of his son, 
and retired to the monastery 
of St. Yuste, in Estremadura, 
where he died, having, not- 
withstanding his retirement, 
continued to direct the policy 
of his son (1500-1558). 

Queen Mary . 

CHARLES’S WAIN. 

The constellation of Ursa 
Major, a wagon without a 



CHA] 


99 


[CHI 


wagoner, an old English name 
for the constellation of the 
Great Bear. 

May Queen. 

CHARLEY. / 

spaniel-^belonging to Maud. 

Look, a horse^at the door, 

And little King Charley snarling. 

Maud . 

CHARLIE. 

A son of an old woman, who 
outlived all her children. See 
Harry. ~ 

' Grandmother . 

CHARLIE. 

Only son of an old book- 
loving village squire. Unlike 
his father he did a little hunting 
and fishing. His fatjj^r Restate 
was entailed, andj^mg in debt 
he asked his s^n^^help him oiit 
of the difficult}*, \but he refused, 
suggesting that tnfe bodks should 
be sold. Charlie however did 
not live to enjoy the possession 
of the estates, for \yM e out 
riding one evening nis horse 
threw him, and he was killed. 

Village Wife. 

CHARLOCK. 

A plant of the mustard family, 
with yellow leaves, that grows 
as a weed in cornfields. 

Gareth and Lynette . 

CHARTIST PIKE. 

I once was near him, when his bailiff brought 
A Chartist pike. 

A weapon used by the revolu- 
tionary party known as the 
Chartists. During the agita- 
tion by the working-classes for 
greater political power in 1838 


in a document called the 
4 People’s Charter ’ there were 
fears of a secret rising on account 
of the petition being refused 
by the House of Commons. 

Walking to the Mail. 

CHATELET. 

A poet-squire in the suite of 
Marshal Damville, who was 
executed for intrigue with Mary, 
queen of Scots. 

Margaret. 

CHAUCER (Dan). See Dan 
Chaucer. 

CHESTNUT. 

wa tree. 

Miller’s Daughter Lord 
of Burleigh ; Progress of 
Spring . 

CHICHESTER (Bishop of). 

Hilary ; elected bishop of 
Chichester 1147, and arch- 
bishop of York the same year, 
but the latter appointment 
was not confirmed by the pope. 
He urged Becket to accept the 
c ancient customs ’ included in 
the embassy to the pope against 
Becket ; and granted absolution 
to those bishops whom Becket 
had excommunicated (d. 1169). 

Becket. 

CHIMERA. 

In Greek mythology a fire- 
eating monster, destroyed by 
Bellerophon, having the head 
of a lion, the body of a goat, 
and the tail of a dragon. The 
word signifies any impossible 
monstrosity. 


The Princess . 



CHI] 

CHINA. 


100 


[CLA 


till warming wth her theme 
She fulmined out her scorn of laws Salique 
And little-footed China, touch’d on Mahomet 
With much contempt, and came to chivalry : 

Refers to the custom pre- 
valent in China of cramping the 
feet of girls from an early age 
in tight bandages to keep them 
small. 

The Princess . 

CHRISTCHURCH (Dean of). 

our Bishops from their sees 
Or fled, they say, or ftying — Poinet, Barlow, 
Bale, Scory, Coverdale; besides the Deans 
Of Christchurch, Durham, Exeter, and Wells — 

Queen Mary. 

CHRISTIAN. 

More like the picture 
Of Christian in my * Pilgrim’s Progress ’ here 
Bow’d to the dust beneath the burthen of sin. 

The hero of Bunyan’s Pil- 
grim? s Progress. 

Promise of May. 

CHRISTOPHER COLON. See 
Columbus. 

CICALA. 

At eve a dry cicala sung, 

There came a sound as of the sea ; 

An insect with wings. The 
male makes a shrill sound by 
peculiar organs in the side of 
the abdomen. 

Mariana in the South. 

CLARA VERE de VERE. 

Daughter of an earl, nobly 
born, but of a haughty and 
proud disposition. The poet 
assured her that hers was not a 
character to be admired, and 
that for all her wealth and name 
he would not forsake a simple 
maiden with a truer heart. In 
the poem appear the well- 
known lines : 


Kowe’er it be, it seems to me, 

’Tis only noble to be good. 

Kind hearts are more than coronets. 

And simple faith than Norman blood. 

Lady Clare V ere de V ere. 

CLARE, LADY. 

The supposed child of an 
earl, who is afterwards told by 
her old nurse that she is not the 
lady Clare, as the old earl’s 
daughter died almost directly 
after birth. The nurse tells 
her that she is her mother. 
The supposed lady Clare hastens 
to tell the truth to her lover, 
lord Ronald, the real heir to 
her lands. This takes place on 
the eve of her marriage. Lord 
Ronald greatly appreciates her 
honesty and frankness. 

If you are not the heiress born 

And I,’ said he, * the lawful heir. 

We two will wed to-morrow morn. 

And you shall still be Lady Clare.’ 

Lady Clare . 

CLARENCE. 

A lady-in-waiting to queen 
Mary. 

Queen Mary. 

CLARIANCE. 

King of Northumberland, 
subdued by king Arthur fight- 
ing on behalf of Leodogran, 
king of Cameliard. 

Coming of Arthur. 

CLARIBEL. 

Claribel lived in a beautiful 
bower, where everything was 
at peace. 

Where Claribel low-lieth 
The breezes pause and die, 

Letting the rose-leaves fall : 

Claribel. 

CLAUDIAS. 

One of the petty kings over- 
come by king Arthur fighting 



101 


[COC 


CUE] 

on behalf of Leodogran, king of 
Cameliard. 

Coming of Arthur. 

CLELIA. 

A Roman virgin who swam 
the river Tiber to escape from 
Porsina, king of Clusium, whose 
hostage she was. Being sent 
back by the Romans, Porsina 
not only set her at liberty but 
allowed her to take with her a 
part of the hostages. 

The Princess . 

CLEMATIS. 

A genus of climbing plants. 

Golden Year ; City Child ; 
The Window ; Voyage of 
Maeldune . 

CLEOPATRA-LIKE. 

Cleopatra-like as of old 

To entangle me when we met, 

=Cleopatra, queen of Egypt, 
distinguished for her beauty and 
her charms ; first fascinated 
Caesar, and after his death 
Mark Antony (< q.v .). On the 
fall and suicide of the latter she 
killed herself to escape being 
taken to Rome. Maud. 

CLIFFORD. See Rosamund, 
Rosamund de Clifford. 

CLOVER. 

A genus of plants, containing 
a great number of species. 

A Dirge ; City Child. 

COBHAM. 

Sir John Oldcastle, lord 
Cobham ; lollard leader ; first 
author and first martyr among 
the English nobility. In the 
reign of Henry IV he com- 
manded an English army in 


France, where he compelled 
the duke of Orleans to raise 
the siege of Paris. Becoming 
a convert to Wycliffe’s doc- 
trines, he was in the reign of 
Henry V tried by archbishop 
Arundel and other bishops ; 
declared to be a heretic, and 
sent to the tower, but escaping, 
summoned all his followers to 
meet him in St. Giles 5 fields. 
The assemblage being attacked 
and his followers dispersed, he 
fled to Wales, and after hiding 
for four years was captured, 
conveyed to London, and being 
condemned was hanged in chains 
and burnt, December 1416. 

Sir John Oldcastle , 
Lord Cohham. 

COBRA. 

A hooded and poisonous 
snake, a native of the East 
Indies. AkhaPs Dream. 

COCK, THE. 

O plump head- waiter at The Cock 
To which I most resort, 

A Tavern, No. 201, Fleet 
Street, near Temple Bar, and 
of great antiquity. 

Generally he would stay at the Temple 
or in Lincoln’s Inn Fields ; dining with his 
friends at The Cock, and other taverns. A 
perfect dinner was a beefsteak, a potato, a 
cut of cheese, a pint of port, and afterwards a 
pipe (never a cigar). 

* * * 

* The plump head-waiter of The Cock,* 
by Temple Bar, famous for chop and porter, 
was rather offended when told of the poem 
[Will Waterproof J. 1 Had Mr. Tennyson 
dined oftener there, he would not have minded 
it so much/ he said. 

Edward Fitzgerald quoted 
in Life of Tennyson. 

Pepys in his Diary for April 
23, 1668, speaks of having been 
there : 



COC] 102 [COL 


Thence by water to the Temple, and there 
to the Cock alehouse, and drank, and ate a 
lobster, and sang, and mighty merry. 

Will Waterproofs Lyrical 
Monologue . 

COCKATRICE. 

A fabulous monster, resem- 
bling a serpent. 

Holy Grail . 

COCO. 

=the cocoa-nut tree. 

Enoch Arden . 

COCO-PALM. 

=Cocoa-palm. 

Progress of Spring . 

COESNON. 

A river forming the boundary 
between Normandy and Brit- 
tany. Harold. 

COGOLETTO. 

A village in the province of 
Genoa, on the coast. 

The Daisy. 

COLE (Henry). 

Fellow of the New College, 
Oxford, 1521-40 ; submitted to 
the Reformation, and became 
prebendary of Salisbury in 1539, 
but on Mary’s accession joined 
the Roman Catholic party ; 
was made archdeacon of Ely in 

1553, canon of Westminster and 
provost of Eton ; and disputed 
with Cranmer at Oxford in 

1554. He preached at St. 
Mary’s Church, Oxford, on the 
occasion of the martyrdom of 
Cranmer in 1556. 

Him perch’d up there? I wish some 
thunderbolt 

Would make this Cole a cinder, pulpit and all. 

Dean of St. Paul’s, 1556-9 ; 
vicar-general of the archbishop 
of Canterbury, 1557-8 ; sent to 


Ireland to extirpate protes- 
tantism 1558. 

‘In 1558,’ says Timbs and 
Gunn’s Abbey , Castles , etc, 9 
‘Dr. Henry Cole, dean of St. 
Paul’s, was entrusted with the 
commission issued by queen 
Mary, to institute prosecutions 
against such as should refuse 
to observe the ceremonies of the 
Roman Catholic religion in 
Ireland. The doctor stopped 
at Chester on his way, and at 
the Blue Posts Inn was visited 
by the Mayor, to whom, in the 
course of conversation, he com- 
municated the business upon 
which he was engaged; open- 
ing his cloak-bag, he took out 
a leather box, observing with 
exultation, “ he had that within 
which would lash the heretics 
of Ireland.” The hostess acci- 
dentally overheard the dis- 
course, and having a brother 
who was a Protestant, she be- 
came alarmed for his safety; 
and with a surprising quickness 
of thought, whilst the doctor 
was complimenting his worship 
down the stairs, to open the 
box, take out the commission, 
and leave instead a pack of 
cards, with the knave of clubs 
uppermost. Soon afterwards 
the dean sailed for Ireland, 
where he arrived on December 
7, 1558. Being introduced to 
the Lord-Deputy Fitzwalter 
and the Privy Council, he ex- 
plained the nature of his em- 
bassy, and then presented the 
box containing, as he thought. 



COL] 103 

the commission ; his lordship 
took it, and having lifted the 
lid, beheld with considerable 
surprise the pack of cards, with 
the knave on the top. The 
doctor was thunderstruck, and 
in much confusion affirmed that 
a commission he certainty had, 
and that some artful person 
must have made the exchange. 

“ Then, 55 said his lordship, <e you 
have nothing to do but return 
to London and get it renewed ; 
meanwhile we’ll shuffle the 
cards. 55 This unwelcome ad- 
vice the doctor was constrained 
to follow . . . but before he 
could reach Ireland a second 
time queen Mary died, and 
her sanguinary commission be- 
came useless. The woman 
whose dexterity and presence 
of mind had thus providentially 
operated, was rewarded by 
Elizabeth with a pension of 
forty pounds a year. 5 

In 1559 he was one of the 
eight romanist disputants at 
Westminster Abbey, and for 
contempt was fined 500 marks 
and deprived of all his prefer- 
ments. In the following year 
he was committed to the Tower, 
whence he was removed to the 
Fleet. His subsequent history 
is obscure. Queen Mary . 

COLEWORT. 

A species of cole, or cabbage. 

Guinevere. 

COLLANTINE. 

A town on the Anio, built 
by the people of Alba. 

Lucretius . 


[COL 

COLOSSEUM. 

Like some old wreck on some indrawing sea, 
Gain’d their huge Colosseum. 

The great amphitheatre in 
Rome standing on the site of 
Nero’s palace. It was begun 
by Vespasian 72 a.d., and 
finished by Titus a.d. 82. It 
was here the fights of wild 
beasts and gladiators went on. 

S Telemachus. 

COLT. 

A young hor 

Talking Oak ; Enoch Arden ; 
The Brook ; The Princess ; 
Coming of Arthur ; Rom- 
ney’s Remorse . 

COLUMBUS. 

A celebrated Genoese navi- 
gator. His life is of little inter- 
est till 1470, when he settled 
in Lisbon and made voyages 
to the Madeira and the Azores. 
Thinking it possible to reach 
India by sailing westward, he 
made an appeal to his native 
city but without result ; to 
the king of Portugal, to Henry 
VII of England, and to the 
dukes of Medina Sidonia, and 
Medina Celi, who advised him 
to lay his proposals before the 
Spanish king and queen. After 
seven years of delay his pro- 
posals were accepted by the 
Spanish monarchs, and on 
August 3, 1492, his little 

squadron of three small ships 
set sail on its perilous voyage, 
and on October 12 of the same 
year landed on the island of 
Guanahani, one of the Bahamas, 
which he called San Salvador, 



[CON 


COL] 

and thence sailed to Cuba 
and Hispaniola. On his return 
to Spain in 1493 he was wel- 
comed with great enthusiasm, 
and many honours were con- 
ferred upon him, that which he 
prized most of all being the 
title c Admiral of the Ocean.’ 
He sailed on his second voyage 
on September 25, 1493, and 
discovered Porto Rico and 
Jamaica. Returned in 1496 and 
set out on his third voyage 
which resulted in the discovery 
of Trinidad, and the mainland 
of South America. His enemies 
in Spain, however, did him 
much harm, and a new gover- 
nor, Francisco Bovadilla 
acted with great harshness ; and 
in October 1500 Columbus was 
placed in irons and sent back 
to Spain. This treatment 
caused a wave of indignation to 
sweep over Spain, and Colum- 
bus, on landing, was restored 
to favour by Ferdinand and 
Isabella. 

Chains for the Admiral of the Ocean ! chains 
For him who gave a new heaven, a new earth. 
As holy John had prophesied of me. 

Gave glory and more empire to the kings 
Of Spain than all their battles! chains for 
him 

Who push’d his prows into the setting sun 
And made West East, and sail’d the Dragon’s 
mouth. 

And came upon the Mountain of the World, 
And saw the rivers roll from Paradise 1 

In 1502 he made his fourth 
and last voyage and explored 
the north coast of the gulf of 
Mexico. He returned in 1504, 
and worn out in body died 
two years later at Valladolid, 
in poverty and want. He was 
buried at Valladolid, but in 


104 

1513 his remains were trans- 
lated to Seville, and a monu- 
ment erected' to his memory in- 
scribed : £ To Castile and Leon 

Columbus has given a new 
world.’ In 1513 they were 
taken, with those of his son 
Diego, and laid in the Cathe- 
dral of San Domingo. Two 
hundred and fifty years later 
the island was ceded to the 
French, and they were removed 
to the cathedral of Havana in 
Cuba. After the Cuban war 
the bones were — in 1898 — 
brought from Havana to Spain, 
kept for a time at Granada, 
and finally deposited in 1912 
in the cathedral of Seville 
(1435-1506). 

The Daisy ; Columbus . 

COMO. 

A town on the lake of Como 
of Italy. 

‘The Daisy. 

CONSTANTINUS. 

A king of Scotland, who 
allied himself with the Danes 
under Anlaf against Athelstan. 
The allied kings were defeated 
at Brunanburh (937 a.d.), by 
Athelstan and his brother Ed- 
mund. This victory practically 
established the unity of Eng- 
land. 

Battle of Brunanburh. 

CONVOLVULUS. 

A genus of twining plants, 
called also Bindweed. 

Enoch Arden ; Voyage of 
Maeldu ne% 



[COR 


105 


CON] 

CONY. 

=a rabbit. Enoch Arden. 

COOMBERLAND (Cumberland). 

Promise of May. 

COOT. 

A short-tailed water-fowl, 
with a white spot on the 
forehead. The Brook. 

COPHETUA. 

An imaginary king of Africa. 
Sitting one day at his palace 
window he saw a beggar maid 
pass, and fell in love with her 
and married her. The story 
is alluded to in Percy’s Reliques> 
and in Shakespeare's Love's 
Labour's Lost , and Romeo and 
Juliet . 

The magnanimous and most illustrate king 
Cophetua set eye upon the pernicious and 
indubitate beggar Zenelophon, 

Shakespeare : Love's Labour's Lost , 
Act IV. Scene i. 

So sweet a face, such angel grace. 

In all that land had never been : 

Cophetua sware a royal oath : 

‘ This beggar maid shall be my queen ! * 

Beggar Maid.. 

COPTIC. 

Peal after peal, the British battle broke, 
Lulling the brine against the Coptic sands. 

=Egyptian. Buonaparte. 

CORIMNA. 

A Greek poetess, born at 
Tanagra in Boeotia. She was 
the most eminent of the Greek 
lyric poets, but only fragments 
of her poems remain. At the 
national games she was said to 
have obtained a victory over 
Pindar, the lyric poet of Greece. 
Her name is the title of one of 
de Stael’s novels : 

At the word, they raised 
A tent of satin, elaborately wrought 
With fair Comma’s triumph ; here she stood, 
Engirt with many a florid maiden-cheek, 

The woman-conqueror; 

The Princess. 


CORITANIAN. 

A British tribe who in- 
habited the present counties of 
Lincolnshire, Derbyshire, Not- 
tinghamshire, Leicestershire, 
and Northamptonshire. 

Boadicea . 

CORNELIA. 

Wife of Titus Sempronius 
Gracchus, and mother of the 
Gracchi. She was held in high 
esteem by the Romans, who 
during her lifetime erected a 
statue in her honour with the 
inscription : Cornelia , the 

mother of the Gracchi. 

The Princess. 

CORNWALLIS (Sir Thomas). 

Eldest son of sir John Corn- 
wallis. In 1549, he was sent 
into Norfolk to suppress the 
rebellion headed by Ket, and 
was made sheriff of Norfolk 
in 1553. In the following year 
he escorted the princess Eliza- 
beth to London ; and was one 
of the commissioners at the 
trial of sir Thomas Wyatt, the 
insurrectionary leader. From 
1 5 54-7 he was treasurer of 
Calais, and it is generally con- 
sidered that he sold the town 
to the French. In the latter 
year he was made Comptroller 
of the Household, but on the 
accession of Elizabeth was re- 
moved from the post, as well 
as from the privy council, and 
retired into private life. He 
died in 1604 (1510-1604). 

Queen Mary. 



CORJ 


io 6 


[COV 


CORONACH. 

An Irish funeral song or 
lamentation. 

Dying Swan. 

CORRIENTES. 

A province, Argentine Re- 
public, between the Parana 
and the Uruguay rivers. 

To Ulysses. 

COSSACK. 

Cossack and Russian 

Reel’d from the sabre-stroke, 

Shatter’d and sunder’d. 

The Cossacks are a warlike 
people in south-eastern Russia, 
forming splendid light cavalry. 

Charge of the Light Brigade. 

COURTENAY. 

Edward Courtenay, earl of 
Devonshire. With his parents 
was in 1538, when only twelve 
years of age, imprisoned in the 
Tower until 1547, when he was 
released by Edward VI. On 
the accession of Mary he was 
created earl of Devonshire, and 
at her coronation carried the 
Sword of State ; and being 
held in high favour by the 
queen, was hopeful for her 
hand in marriage ; but on 
Mary’s marriage with Philip of 
Spain was urged to propose 
marriage to the princess Eliza- 
beth. At the end of 1553 a 
plot was discovered having for 
its object the placing of Eliza- 
beth on the throne. Sir 
Thomas Wyatt joined in the 
conspiracy, but he and his 
followers were promptly sup- 
pressed and Courtenay was sent 
back to the Tower, and subse- 
quently removed to Fotherin- 


gay. In 1555 he was exiled 
and went to Brussels, and thence 
to Padua, where he died (1526- 
1556). Queen Mary. 

COURT-GALEN. 

Our great court- Galen poised his gilt-head 

cane, 

Has reference to a celebrated 
Greek physician named Clau- 
dius Galenus of Pergamos. He 
went to Rome where he gained 
great renown in the medical 
profession, and undertook 
scientific journeys through 
Greece and Asia. He was a 
great writer, being author of 
some 300 volumes — 125 of 
which were destroyed in a fire 
— and his writings, which left 
no branch of medicine un- 
touched, formed for many cen- 
turies the chief text-books for 
physicians and doctors. It was 
customary for the medical pro- 
fession to carry a gilt-headed 
cane in his honour. 

The Princess. 

COVENTRY. 

A city in Warwickshire. Ac- 
cording to legend it obtained 
its municipal rights from Leo- 
fric about 1044, by the ride of 
Godiva (q.v) through the streets 
of the city. 

Godiva. 

COVERDALE (Miles). 

Bishop of Exeter, and trans- 
lator of the Bible. The Great 
Bible or CromwelVs Bible (1539) 
was printed under his direction 
and issued under the auspices 
of Thomas Lord Cromwell. 
CranmePs Bible (1540), was also 



COW] 107 

edited by Co verdale. Appointed 
chaplain to Edward VI in 1548 
and bishop of Exeter in 1551. 
Upon the accession of Mary he 
was deposed from his See and 
imprisoned, but released upon 
the intercession of the king of 
Denmark and retired to Geneva ; 
but returned to England after 
Elizabeth had ascended the 
throne, and subsequently ap- 
pointed to the living of St. 
Magnus, near London Bridge 
(1488-1568). 

Queen Mary . 

COW. 

The female of the bovine 
animals. 

'The Brook ; Northern 
Farmer , Old Style ; Village 
Wife ; Promise of May ; 
Spinster’s Sweet - Arts ; 
Locksley Hall Sixty Years 
After ; Church- war den and 
the Curate ; Queen Mary ; 

The Foresters. 

COWSLIP. 

A species of primrose, having 
yellow blossoms. 

Adeline ; Rosalind ; May 
Queen ; Talking Oak ; 
Aylmer’s Field ; In the 
Children’s Hospital. 

CRAB. 

An animal of the class Crus- 
tacea with the whole body 
covered by a crust-like shell. 
Harold ; The Foresters ; 
Walking to the Mail. 

CRADLEMONT. 

A king of North Wales, sub- 
dued by king Arthur, fighting 


[CRA 

on behalf of Leodogran, king 
of Cameliard. 

Coming of Arthur. 

CRAG-CLOISTER. 

The monastery of Sumelas, 
It stands on the side of a rocky 
glen near Trebizond, 4,000 feet 
above the level of the sea, and 
is approached by a zigzag path 
at the side of the cliff. The 
foundation is considered to be 
some 1,500 years old, and in 
1360 it was rebuilt by the 
emperor Alexius Comnenus, 
The bull of that emperor, which 
henceforth became its charter, 
is still preserved in the monas- 
tery, which also possesses the 
firman of Mohammed II, by 
which he accorded his protec- 
tion to the monks on becoming 
ruler of that part of Asia Minor ^ 
To Ulysses. 

CRAKE. 

A corn-crake, a bird which 
frequents grain fields. 

In Memoriam . 

CRANE. 

A large wading bird, with 
long legs, neck and bill. 

The Princess; Progress of 
Spring 

CRANMER. 

Archbishop of Canterbury ; 
born at Aslacton, Nottingham. 
In 1522 he was appointed 
vicar of St. Mary’s, Taunton. 
His opinion of the divorce of 
Henry VIII with Catherine 
of Aragon recommended him 



CRA] 


108 


[CRO 


to that monarch, which opinions 
he propounded in a treatise. In 
1530 he was sent as an embassy 
to the pope, and two years later 
to the emperor Charles V, and 
while in Germany married a 
niece of the reformer Osiander. 
In 1533 he w r as created arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, and pro- 
nounced Henry’s marriage with 
Catherine as invalid and that 
with Anne Boleyn lawful. On 
the accession of Mary he was 
committed to the Tower, but 
subsequently released. A 
charge of heresy was however 
brought against him and he 
was condemned. On the pro- 
mise of life he was induced to 
sign his abjuration of the Pro- 
testant faith. For having com- 
mitted this act he was struck 
with deep remorse, and when 
brought into St. Mary’s Church, 
Oxford, to read his recantation 
in public, instead of complying 
he denounced the errors of the 
Romish Church. This greatly 
enraged his enemies, who, de- 
nouncing him as a heretic, 
dragged him to the stake oppo- 
site Balliol College. When the 
faggots were lighted he put his 
right hand in the flame and 
exclaimed € This unworthy 
hand’ (1489-1556). 

Queen Mary. 

CRAW. 

Woa — theer’s a craw to pluck wi’ tha, Sam : 

=crow, to have something 
to settle with some one. 

Northern Farmer ; New Style . 


CRETE. 

or Candia, an island in the 
Mediterranean sea. 

On a Mourner . 

CRICHTON. 

His own — I call’d him Crichton, for he seem’d 
All-perfect, finish’d to the finger nail. 

James Crichton, surnamed 
6 the Admirable Crichton ’ a 
Scottish nobleman. He visited 
Paris, Rome and other conti- 
nental universities, and at 
Venice he challenged all scholars, 
claiming to be an expert lin- 
guist, as well as an expert 
swordsman. He became tutor 
to the son of the duke of Man- 
tua. He was killed one night 
in the street, presumably by a 
body of masked men, when only 
twenty-three years of age. 

Edwin Morris. 

CRICKET. 

An orthopterous insect. The 
male makes a chirping noise by 
rubbing his w r ing-covers against 
each other. 

Death of the Old Year ; In 
Memoriam ; Merlin and 
V ivien ; Lancelot and 
Elaine ; V oy age of Maeldune. 

CROCODILE’S TEARS. 

= Affected tears. 

A Dirge . 

CROCUS. 

A bulbous plant with brilliant 
yellow or purple flowers. 

CEnone ; Palace of Art ; 
To Rev. F. D. Maurice ; 
Voyage of Maeldune ; Pre- 
fatory Sonnet to the c Nine- 
teenth Century ’ / Progress of 
Spring. 



CROW. 

A large black bird. 

Audley Court ; Locksley 
Hall ; Will Waterproofs 
Lyrical Monologue ; Mer- 
lin and Vivien ; The Ring ; 
Queen Mary ; The Fores- 
ters . 

CROWN. 

An inn sign. 

and she brew’d the best ale in all Glo’ster, 
that is to say in her time when she had the 
* Crown.’ 

Becket . 

CUCKOO. 

A bird whose name is sup- 
posed to be called from its note. 
It builds no nest of its own, but 
lays its eggs in the nests of other 
birds to be hatched by them. 
Gardener 9 s Daughter ; The 
Princess ; The Window ; 
Coming of Arthur ; Lover 9 s 
Tale ; Prefatory Poem to 
my Brother 9 s Sonnets ; To 
Mary Boyle ; Progress of 
Spring ; Queen Mary. 

CUCKOO-FLOWER. 

A species of Cardamine, called 
also Lady’s Smock. 

Margaret ; May Queen . 

CULVER. 

A dove, or wood-pigeon. 

Progress of Spring. 

CUMBERLAND. 

Promise of May. 

CUNOBELINE. 

==Camulodune (q.v.) 

CUPID. 

In Roman mythology the 
God of love, and the son of 
Mercury and Venus ; repre- 


sented as a winged boy and 
armed with a bow and a quiver 
of arrows. In Apuleius’ Golden 
Ass Cupid and Psyche {q.v) are 
the subjects of a beautiful fable 
representing the soul of per- 
fection. 

Edwin Morris ; Talking Oak ; 

The Princess ; Becket. 

CUSHIE. 

Name of a cow. 

Spinster’s Sweet- Arts. 

CYGNET. 

A young sv T an. 

Lancelot and Elaine . 

CYPRESS. 

An evergreen tree, whose 
branches used to be used at 
funerals and to adorn tombs, 
hence a symbol of mourning and 
sadness. 

Amphion ; The Princess / 
The Daisy ; In Memoriam ; 
Lover’s T ale ; Dedicatory 
Poem to the Princess Alice ; 
Voyage of Maeldune ; Ak - 
bar’s Dream ; The Cup. 

CYRIL. 

One of the two friends of 
prince Arac. A man of vigor- 
ous, healthy common-sense, un- 
disturbed by haunting fancies, 
unfettered by false modesty, 
and as clear-sighted as jovial.. 
In gaining admission to the 
ladies’ college he had a very 
humorous manner in dealing 
with two of the tutors. Psyche 
he appeased, by complimenting 
her abilities as a lecturer, and 
admiring Aglaia, her baby. The 



CYP] 


no 


[DAI 


lady Blanche he silenced by 
appealing to her ambitions. 

The Princess. 

CYPBUS. 

Again this Richard is the lion of Cyprus, 
Robin, the lion of Sherwood — 

= Richard Cceur de Lion. 
When journeying to Jerusalem 
on the third Crusade he stayed 
some time at this island, and 
here he married Berengaria of 
Navarre, after having deposed 
the ruler of the island. 

The Foresters . 

CYRUS. 

A warlike and blood-thirsty 
king who after subduing the 
eastern parts of Asia organized 
an expedition against the Mas- 
sagetae in Scythia. Tomyris 
(q.v.), queen of the Massagetse, 
met and defeated him, and 
cutting off his head threw it 
into a vessel filled with human 
blood, remarking as she did so, 

4 There, drink thy fill.* 

And great bronze valves, emboss’d with 
Tomyris 

And what she did to Cyprus after fight, 

The Princess. 

CZAR. 

And Jack on his ale-house bench has as many 
lies as a Czar; 

Represents the indignation 
of the English people with 
Russia in 1853 at her destruc- 
tion of the independence of 
Poland, and its tyrannous de- 
mand for the surrender of the 
Hungarian refugees. 

Maud. 

DAFFODIL. 

A plant of the genus Nar- 


cissus . It has a bulbous root, 
and flowers of a yellow hue. 
Maud ; Lover’s T ale ; 
Prefatory Sonnet to the 
c Nineteenth Century .’ 

DAFFODILLY. 

=Daffodil. 

The Princess . 

DAGONET. 

King Arthur’s Fool and a 
Knight of the Round Table. 

And upon a day Sir Dagonet, King Arthur’s 
fool, came into Cornwall, with two squires 
with him, 

* * * 

For they would not for no good that Sir 
Dagonet were hurt, for king Arthur loved 
him passing well, and made him knight with 
his own hands. And at every tournament he 
began to make king Arthur to laugh. 

Malory : Morte a Arthur, Book X . chap. xii. 

Tennyson says that he was 
made a mock-knight by Gawain. 

Dagonet, the fool, whom Gawain in his mood 
Had made mock-knight of Arthur’s Table 
Round, 

At Camelot, 

Last Tournament . 

DAHOMEY. 

A French colony on the 
Guinea coast of Africa. The 
colony represents the former 
native kingdom of Dahomey, 
where human victims were 
offered in sacrifice, but these 
were prohibited after the coun- 
try was subdued by the French 
in 1892. 

Head-hunters and boats of Dahomey that 
float upon human blood ! 

The Dawn . 

DAISY. 

Name of a cow. 

Queen Mary . 

DAISY. 

A common wild-flower. 

Two Voices ; Gardener’s 



DAM] 


in 


[DAN 


Daughter ; The Daisy; 
City Child ; In Memoriam ; 
Maud; Lover’s Tale ; The 
Wreck; The Ring; The 
Throstle ; Queen Mary ; 
Promise of May ; The 
Foresters . 

DAMON. 

The polish’d Damon of your pastoral here, 
This Dobson of your idyll ? 

A goat-herd in Virgil’s 
Eclogues . 

Promise of May . 

DAN. 

DANNY O’ROON. 

The lover of a certain Molly 
Magee. They agreed to meet 
on the morrow at a chapel- 
door, but that to-morrow never 
came. Years afterwards his 
body was found in a peat bog, 
perfectly preserved. Molly 
recognized the body as that of 
her former lover and fell dead 
by his side. 

Tomorrow . 

DANAE. 

An Argive princess, daughter 
of Acrisius (< q.v .), king of Argos. 
She was confined in an inacces- 
sible tower of brass by her 
father, where she was visited 
by Jupiter in the form of a 
shower of gold, and became the 
mother of Perseus. She was 
then, with her son, cast into the 
sea, but was rescued by a fisher- 
man named Dictys, of the 
island of Seriphos. Polydectes, 
ting of the island, wished her 
to marry him, but Perseus 
rescued her, and took her back 
to Greece. 


The included DanaS has escaped again 
Her tower, and her Acrisius — where to seek ? 
I have been about the city. 

The Princess ; Becket. 

DAN AID. 

Danaus, king of Argos, had 
fifty daughters, called the 
Danaids. ^Egyptus, brother 
of Belus, king of Egypt, and 
his fifty sons drove Danaus and 
his fifty daughters from Egypt 
into Argos. The sons of 
iEgyptus subsequently followed 
and compelled Danaus to give 
his daughters in marriage. At 
their father’s command they 
all (with one exception), mur- 
dered their husbands on their 
wedding-night, and were pun- 
ished in Hades by having to 
pour water everlastingly into 
sieves. 

Let not your prudence, dearest, drowse, or 
prove 

The Danaid of a leaky vase. 

The heads of the sons of 
iEgyptus were buried at Argos ; 
but their bodies were left at 
Lema, where they had been 
murdered. 

The Princess . 

DANCE OF DEATH. 

An allegorical representation 
of the universal power of death, 
dating from the fourteenth 
century. Frescoes of the Dance 
of Death are painted on the 
walls of the Campo Santo at 
Pisa ; on the walls of the 
Tower of London ; the cloister 
of St. Paul’s ; the Hungerford 
Chapel at Salisbury Cathedral ; 
and many other churches. 

Queen Mary . 



DAN] 


1 12 


[DEA 


DAN CHAUCER. 

Dan Chaucer, the first warbler, whose 
sweet breath 

Preluded those melodious bursts that fill 
The spacious times of great Elizabeth 
With sounds that echo still. 

Dan is a title of honour com- 
monly used by old poets. 

Dream of Fair Women . 

DANIEL. 

Refers to Daniel, a book of 
the Old Testament. 

Sea Dreams. 

DANIEL. 

Has reference to Daniel, the 
Hebrew’ Prophet. 

Harold. 

DANNY. 

DANNY O’RGON. See Dan. 

Tomorrow . 

DAN SMITH. 

A farm labourer. 

Promise of May. 

DANTE. 

The most distinguished of the 
Italian poets. 

Palace of Art. 

DANUBE. 

The Danube to the Severn gave 
The darken’d heart that beat no more ; 
They laid him by the pleasant shore, 

And in the hearing of the wave. 

Let her great Danube rolling fair 
Enwind her isles, unmark’d of me : 

I have not seen, I will not see 
Vienna; 

Arthur Henry Hallam, died 
at Vienna on the Danube, and 
was buried at Clevedon on the 
Severn. 

In Memoriam . 

DARNLEY BRIDGE. 

There is Damley bridge 

It has more ivy ; 

The Brook. 


DARNLEY CHASE. 

Then crost the common into Damley chase 
To show Sir Arthur’s deer. 


The Brook . 


DAUPHIN, THE. 

The title of the eldest son 
of the king of France, and heir 
to the crown. Since the Re- 
volution of 1830 the title has 
been discontinued. Mary, 
queen of Scots, was married 
to the dauphin of France in 
1558, who for a year (1559-60) 
was king Frances II. 

Queen Mary. 

DAVID. 

King David called the heavens a hide, 

See Psalm civ. 2. 

Columbus. 


DAVID. 


They say the gloom of Saul 
Was lightened by young David’s harp 

See Samuel xvi. 23. 

Queen Mary. 

DAVID. 


To meet him ? 


And no David 
See Samuel xvii. 

Harold.. 


DAWES (Jocky). See Jocky 
Dawes. 

Walking to the Mail. 


DEAD INNOCENCE. See Tourna- 
ment of the Dead Innocence. 


DEAD MARCH. 

Hush, the Dead March wails in the people's- 
ears : 

The dark crowd moves, and there are sobs and 
tears : 

=a funeral march in Handel’s 
Oratorio. 

Ode on the death of the Duke 
of Wellington. 

DEAN. 

An ancient royal forest in the 
west of Gloucestershire. 

Marriage of Geraint ; Pel- 
leas and Ettarre. 



DEB] 


IJ 3 


[DEN 


DE BRITO. 

One of the murderers of 
Thomas Becket. 

Becket. 

DE BROC. 

of Saltwood Castle. It was at 
this castle that the four knights 
— murderers of Becket — stayed 
upon their arrival in England 
from Normandy, and from 
thence proceeded to Canter- 
bury. 

Becket . 

DEE. 

The river Dee ; rises in Bala 
lake in Merionethshire and flows 
into the Irish Sea. The ancient 
Britons considered it to be a 
sacred river, its ancient name 
Deva meaning divine. 

As the south-west that blowing Bala lake 
Fills all the sacred Dee. 

Geraint and, Enid . 

DEER. 

A quadruped of several 
species, as the stag, the fallow- 
deer, the reindeer, etc. 

Talking Oak ; Sir Launce - 
lot and Queen Guinevere ; 
The Brook ; Aylmer's 
Field; The Princess ; The 
Victim; Gareth and Lynette; 
Last Tournament; Harold; 
Becket ; The Gup ; The 
Foresters . 

DELIUS. 

A surname of Apollo, because 
he was born at Delos. 

Lucretius . 

DE MORVILLE. 

Hugh de Morville, son of 
Hugh de Morville, of Burgh- 


on- Sands, and one who took 
part in the murder of Thomas 
Becket. He married Helwis de 
Stuteville and thus inherited 
the castle of Knaresborough. 
There is scant evidence as to 
whether he actually struck the 
archbishop, as he kept back the 
crowd which were pouring into 
the cathedral. After the mur- 
der he rode with his companions 
to Saltwood Castle, and thence 
to Knaresborough, where he 
sheltered his fellow-murderers, 
and finally was sent by the pope 
to the Holy Land as a penance, 
after which he regained the 
royal favour. He died in 1204. 

Becket. 

DEMOS. 

Celtic Demos rose a Demon, 

The mob of France, with 
Celtic blood in their veins. 

Locksley Hall Sixty Tears 
After. 

DENIS. 

DENIS OF FRANCE. 

Bishop of Paris and patron 
saint of France. One of the 
missionaries sent from Rome in 
the third century to convert 
the Gauls. By order of the 
Roman governor he was tor- 
tured and put to death about 
270 A.D. 

Ay, by St. Denis, now will he flame out. 
And lose his head as old St. Denis did. 

Becket . 

DENMARK. 

The King of France is with us ; the King 
of Denmark is with us; the world is with 
us — war against Spain ! 

Queen Mary . 



DER] 


DERWENT. 

A river in Derbyshire. 

Where lie the Norsemen ? on the Derwent ? 
ay 

At Stamford-bridge. 

Harold. 

DESENZANO. 

Row us out from Desenzano, to your Sirmione 
row ! 

So they row’d, and there we landed — 

A small town at the south- 
west angle of the Lago de Garda 
in Italy. 

Frater Ave Atque Vale . 

BE TRACY. 

William de Tracy, one of the 
murderers of Thomas Becket. 
He was the first to approach the 
archbishop, and struggled be- 
fore the altar with Becket who 
dashed him on the pavement. 
He is considered to have struck 
the first mortal blow which 
nearly severed the arm of Ed- 
ward Grim — Becket’s cross- 
bearer — who rushed be- 
tween the archbishop and De 
Tracy. With his fellow-mur- 
derers he rode back to Salt- 
wood Castle, and thence to 
Knares borough, the home of 
de Morville ; and was the first 
of the four to surrender him- 
self to the pope ; but the last 
to set out for the Holy Land. 
He however got no farther than 
the isle of Sicily, where he was 
taken ill of a foul disease and 
died in 1173, praying for for- 
giveness. Becket . 

DEVILSTOW. 

He bad me put her into a nunnery — 

Into Godstow, into Hellstow, Devilstow ! 

The Church 1 the Church ! 

God’s eyes ! 

Becket . 


14 [DIG 

DEVON. See Courtenay, Earl of 
Devon. 

DEVON (County of). 

Marriage of Geraint ; Ger- 
aint and Enid; Fhe Re- 
venge ; Queen Mary. 

DIAN. See Diana. 

The Princess ; Fhe Foresters. 

DIANA. 

An Italian goddess, the dis- 
penser of light, identified with 
the Greek goddess Artemis (q.v). 
She was a virgin goddess repre- 
sented as presiding over the 
open country, armed with a 
bent bow and quiver and 
attended by gods. The temple 
of Diana at Ephesus was one 
of the seven wonders of the 
world. 

but also that the temple of the great goddess 
Diana should be despised, and her magnifi- 
cence should be destroyed, whom all Asia and 
the world worshippeth. 

Acts xix. 2 7. 

Literary Squabbles ; The Cup. 

DICK. 

Thim’s my noations, Sammy, wheerby I 
means to stick ; 

But if thou marries a bad un, I’ll leave the 
land to Dick. — 

Son of a northern farmer, who 
was to receive the lands at his 
father’s death, if his brother 
married f a bad ? un. J 

Northern Farmer , New Style . 

DICK— DICKY. 

Son of a north of England 
farmer. When young his life 
was saved by their faithful dog 
4 Owd Roa.’ 

Owd Rod. 

DICKON. 

look ye, here’s little Dickon, and little Robin, 
and little Jenny — 



DIG] 


[DIO 


US 


One of a crowd of women and 
children collected together on 
London Bridge. 

Queen Mary. 

DICKON. 

One of the three pages 
attendant on queen Mary. 

Queen Mary. 

DIDO. 

Ilion falling, Rome arising, wars, and filial 

faith, and Dido’s pyre ; 

Daughter of Belus, king of 
Tyre. Having put Sichasus to 
death for the sake of his wealth 
she fled to Africa and founded 
Carthage. Hairbas, king of the 
Libyans, made suit for her hand 
in marriage, but in order to 
escape him she erected a funeral 
pyre and stabbed herself in the 
presence of her subjects. Ac- 
cording to Virgil she fell in love 
with iEneas, who fleeing from 
Troy, visited Dido at Carthage, 
but the gods ordered him to 
leave her, and on his doing so 
she stabbed herself with a sword 
given her by him. When Por- 
son, the celebrated Greek 
scholar — who boasted he could 
rhyme on any subject, was asked 
to rhyme upon the three Latin 
gerunds, he gave this couplet : 

When Dido found Eneas would not come, 

She mourned in silence, and was Di-do dum (b). 

Brewer : Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. 

To Virgil. 

DIES ILLA. 

DIES IRAS. 

let ’em look to it, 
Cranmer and Hooper, Ridley and Latimer, 
Rogers and Ferrar, for their time is come. 
Their hour is hard at hand, their * dies Irae,’ 
Their ‘ dies Ilia,* which will test their sect. 

Dies Ilia = That (awful) 


day. Dies Ires = Day of 
Wrath ; the name of a famous 
mediaeval Latin hymn on the Last 
Judgment, the opening lines of 
which are : 

Dies irse, dies ilia, 

Solvet saeclum, in favilla 
Teste David cum sybilla. 

The day of wrath, that dreadful day 
Shall all the world in ashes lay, 

As David and the sybils say. 

The hymn is supposed to 
have been written by Thomas 
de Celano, a Franciscan friar 
of the thirteenth century. 
Macaulay’s version of the lines 
is : 

On that great, that awful day, 

This vain world shall pass away, 

Thus the sibyl sang of old. 

Oueen Mary. 

DIET. 

Yet while they rode together down the plain. 
Their talk was all of training, terms of art, 
Diet and seeling, jesses, leash and lure. 

Has reference to the feeding 
of hawks, which was an import- 
ant matter in their manage- 
ment. 

Merlin and Vivien. 

DIM SAESNEG. 

The Shepherd, when I speak, 
Failing a sudden eyelid with his hard 
* Dim Saesneg ’ passes, wroth at things of old — 

Two Welsh words meaning 
4 no Saxon ’ and 4 no English.’ 

Sir John Oldcastle , 
Lord Cobh am. 

DIOTIMA. 

A Mantineia priestess, the 
teacher of Socrates. Socrates 
was put to death by poison in 
399 b.c. on a charge of teaching 
atheistic and immoral doctrines. 
The usual method of inflicting 
the death penalty in Athens at 
that period was by a decoction 
of the hemlock. 



DIR] 


116 


[DOR 


beneath an emerald plane 
Sits Diotima, teaching him that died 
Of hemlock ; 

The Princess . 

DIRGE. 

Wife of Lycus,king of Thebes, 
who for her ill-treatment of 
Antiope, her divorced pre- 
decessor, was by Antiope’s two 
sons — Amphion (q-V-) and 
Zethus — tied to the tail of a 
wild bull, which dragged her 
about, until the gods, pitying 
her sufferings, changed her into 
a fountain, which bore her name 
ever after. 

Tire si as. 

DIVES. 

When Dives loathed the times, and paced 
his land 

In fear of worse, 

And sanguine Lazarus felt a vacant hand 
Fill with his purse. 

The name given to the rich 
man in the parable of the Rich 
Man and Lazarus. Luke xvi. 

To Mary Boyle. 

DOBBINS (Dobson). 

Promise of May. 

DOBSON. 

A farmer, in love with Dora, 
daughter of farmer Steer. 

Promise of May. 

DOE. 

The female of the fallow- 
deer. 

The Foresters ; Lady Clare. 

DON. 

‘ We be all good English men. 

Let us bang these dogs of Seville, the children 
of the devil, 

For I never turn’d my back upon Don or 
devil yet.’ 

A Spanish, title. 

The Revenge. 


DON CARLOS. See Carlos. 
DONOVAN’S WAKE. 

An’ he ped me back wid the best he could 
give at ould Donovan’s wake — • 

A wake is a festival held on 
the anniversary of a patron 
saint, especially in Ireland. 

Tomorrow. 

DOOM (Bonny). See Bonny Boon. 
DOORM. 

A russet-bearded earl who 
tried to make Enid his mistress ; 
and because she would not con- 
sent smote her on the cheek ; 
whereupon her husband. Sir 
Geraint, cut off his head with 
one stroke of his sword. 

Take my salute,’ unknightly with flat hand. 
However lightly, smote her on the cheek. 
Then Enid, 

* * * 

Sent forth a sudden sharp and bitter cry, 

* * * 

This heard Geraint, and grasping at his sword, 
(It lay beside him in the hollow shield), 

Made but a single bound, and with a sweep of 
it 

Shore thro’ the swarthy neck, and like a ball 
The russet-bearded head roll’d on the floor. 

Geraint and Enid. 

DORA. 

A niece of farmer Allan. 

Dora. 

DORA. 

DORA STEER. 

Daughter of farmer Steer, 
and sister of Eva (q.v.) 

Promise of May. 

DORMOUSE. 

A rodent, so-called because 
they are usually torpid in 
winter. It is allied to the 
mouse, and resembles the 
squirrel in habits. 

The Window . 



DOR] 


117 


[DUB 


DORSET— DORSETSHIRE 
(County of). 

First Quarrel . 

DOVE. 

A pigeon. 

Supposed Confessions of a 
Second-rate Sensitive Mind ; 
Miller 3 s Daughter ; Gar- 
dener's Daughter's Walk- 
ing to the Mail ; Locksley 
Hall ; Lucretius ; The 
Princess ; The Window ; 
In Memoriam ; Maud; To 
E. Fitzgerald ; Progress of 
Spring ; Harold ; Bechet. 

DOVER. 

A seaport in Kent. 

Queen Mary ; Harold ; 

Becket. 


DRAGON. 

Inn sign. 

Slip-shod waiter, lank and sour, 

At the Dragon on the heath ! 

Let us have a quiet hour, 

Let us hob-and-nob with Death. 

Vision of Sin. 


With greedie pawes, and over all did spredd 
His golden winges : his dreadfull hideous hedd 
Close couched on the bever, seemed to throw 
From flaming mouth bright sparckles fiery 
redd, 

That suddeine horrour to faint hartes did 
show ; 

And scaly tayle was stretcht adowne his back 
full low. 

Spenser: Faerie Queene , Book I. Canto vii. 

Guinevere. 


DRAGON’S MOUTH. 

And made West East, and sail’d the Dragon’s 
mouth, 

The passage between the 
island of Trinidad and the 
peninsula of Paria, South 
America. In the rainy months 
of July and August the impetu- 
ous body of water which flows 
through the gulf of Paria 
renders the entrance and exit 
extremely dangerous to naviga- 
tion. 

Columbus. 

DRUID. 

A priest among the ancient 
Celtic nations, particularly of 
Gaul and Britain. 

Boadicea. 


DRAGON-FLY. 

An insect of the family 
libellula. 

Two Voices; Marriage of 
Geraint ; Lover's T ale. 

DRAGON OF THE GREAT PEN- 
DRAGONSHIP. 

And while he spake to these his helm was 
lower’d, 

To which for crest the golden dragon clung 
Of Britain ; so she did not see the face, 
Which then was an angel’s, but she saw. 

Wet with the mists and smitten by the lights, 
The Dragon of the great Pendragonship 
Blaze, making all the night a steam of fire. 

The crest of Arthur’s helmet. 
Spenser describes it thus : 

His haughtie Helmet, horrid all with god. 
Both glorious brightnesse and great terrour 
bredd : 

For all the crest a Dragon did enfold 


DRUIDESS. 

A prophetess, or a female 
Druid. 

Boadicea. 

DRYAD-LIKE. 

And when my marriage mom may fall, 

She, Dryad'-like, shall wear 
Alternate leaf and acorn-ball 

In wreath about her hair. 

In Greek mythology the 
Dryads were nymphs who were 
supposed to dwell in the forests. 

Talking Oak. 

DUBRIC, 

or Dubritius, archbishop of 
Caerleon-upon-Usk ; the c City 
of Legions/ and primate of 



DUD] 


[EA(r 


118 


Britain. Geoffrey of Mon- 
mouth says : 

He was primate of Britain, was so eminent 
for his piety, that he could cure any sick per- 
son by his prayers. 

Tennyson calls him ‘ Dubric 
the high saint, 5 and he is men- 
tioned on the occasion of the 
marriage of king Arthur and 
Guinevere ; and also as having 
set the crown on the head of 
Arthur at Caerleon-upon-Usk. 

To whom arrived, by Dubric the high saint. 
Chief of the Church in Britain, and before 
The stateliest of her altar-shrines, the King 
That mom was married, 

Coming of Arthur . 

And all that week was old Caerleon gay, 

For by the hands of Dubric, the high saint, 
They twain were wedded with all ceremony. 

Marriage of Geraint. 

Coming of Arthur ; Mar- 
riage of Geraint ; Geraint 
and Enid. 

DUDLEY (Guildford). See Guild- 
ford Dudley. 

DUGLAS. 

The scene of four Arthurian 
battles. The Duglas is said to 
be the river Douglas in Lan- 
cashire w T hich falls into the 
estuary of the Ribble. Other 
authorities consider it is a 
stream in Lennox, which falls 
into Loch Lomond. 

And in the four loud battles by the shore 
Of Duglas ; 

Lancelot and Elaine . 

DUMBLE. 

Name of a cow. 

Queen Mary . 

DUNSTAN. 

Archbishop of Canterbury, 
born at Glastonbury in 924. 
In 945 he was made abbot of 
Glastonbury by king Edmund, 


and soon made the monastery 
famous as a seat of learning. 
King Edgar created him bishop 
of Worcester, and afterwards 
bishop of London. In 959* 
consequent on the death of 
Edwy, Edgar became king of 
the whole of England and he 
made Dunstan archbishop of 
Canterbury. He died in 958 
and was afterwards canonized. 

Harold. 

DURHAM (Dean of). 

Queen Mary. 

DWARF-ELM. 

An elm which is much below 
the ordinary size of its species 
or kind. 

Pelleas and Ettarre. 

DYFLEN. 

=Dublin. 

Shaping their way toward Dyflen again, 
Shamed in their souls. 

Battle of Brunanburh . 

EAGLE. 

A rapacious bird of the genus 
Falco. 

Palace of Art ; Golden 
Year; Go diva ; 7 he Prin- 
cess ; Ode on the Death 
of the Duke of Wellington ; 
Boadicea ; In Memoriam ? 
Coming of Arthur ; Gareth 
and Lynette ; Merlin and 
Vivien ; Last Tournament ? 
Montenegro ; Battle of 
Brunanburh ; The Wreck; 
Opening of the Indian and 
Colonial Exhibition . 

EAGLE-OWL. 

A genus of large owls. 

Gareth and Lynette \ 



[EDI 


“9 


EDE] 

EDEN. 

Two Voices ; Gardener's 
Daughter ; Locksley Hall ; 
Day-Dream ; Enoch Ar- 
den ; The Princess ; The 
Islet ; Milton ; In Me - 
moriam ; Maud ; Geraint 
and Enid ; Lover's Tale ; 
Happy ; The Foresters . 

EDEN-ISLES. 

The Philippine islands. 

To Ulysses . 

EDGAR (the Atheling). 

A Saxon prince, and grand- 
son of Edmund Ironside ; was 
proclaimed king of England 
after the death of Harold at 
the battle of Senlac, but was 
kept out of the throne by the 
Conqueror. He made two un- 
successful attempts to over- 
throw William, and compelled 
to leave the country took refuge 
with Malcolm, king of Scotland, 
who married Edgar’s sister 
Margaret. Embracing the 
cause of Robert, duke of Nor- 
mandy against Rufus, he was 
driven from Scotland and went 
with Baldwin II, to the Cru- 
sades ; was finally taken prisoner 
in 1106 when fighting for duke 
Robert against his brother 
Henry I. He died in obscurity. 

Harold . 

EDGAR (afterwards Mr. Harold). 

See Eva. Promise of May. 

EDITH. 

Eadgyth Swanneshals (Edith 
of the Swan’s neck) ; ward of 
king Edward the Confessor, and 


afterwards the mistress of king 
Harold. After the battle of 
Senlac she went in search of the 
body of Harold and found it 
underneath a heap of slain. 

Harold . 

EDITH. See Alymer. 

Aylmer's Field. 

EDITH. 

Wife of the impetuous boy 
lover mentioned in Locksley 
Hall. Years brought recon- 
ciliation to him, and a stronger, 
deeper and more reasonable 
love for Edith. 

She with all the charm of woman, she with all 
the breadth of man, 

Strong in will and rich in wisdom, Edith, yet 
so lowly-sweet. 

Woman in her inmost heart, and woman to 
her tender feet.’ 

Locksley Hall Sixty Tears 
After. 

EDITH. 

One of two sisters — the other 
being Evelyn — both of whom 
were loved by the same man, 
who eventually married Evelyn, 
Edith being bridesmaid. Dur- 
ing the wedding ceremony she 
was pale and statuelike, and 
spoke no word at parting. Her 
grief at her sister’s marriage 
with her former lover, was so 
great that she died soon after- 
wards. 

Sisters (. Evelyn and Edith). 

EDITH. 

EDITH MONTFORT. 

Betrothed to Ralph who took 
part in the tournament, and 
earned great praise from his 
king. At the conclusion of the 



EDM] 


120 


[EDW 


tournament Edith crowned 
Ralph 

and flush’d as red 
As poppies when she crown’d it. 

The Tourney . 

EDMUND. 

Brother of Lawrence Aylmer. 
On account of ill health he went 
to the warm climate of Italy, 
but the journey was taken when 
it was too late to save his life. 
Poetry and not money-making 
was what he cared for : 

One whom the strong sons of the world despise ; 
For lucky rhymes to him were scrip and share, 
And mellow metres more than cent for cent ; 
* * * 

* Poor lad, he died at Florence, quite worn out, 
Travelling to Naples.’ 

The Brook . 

EDMUND ATHELING. 

King of the Mercians and 
West Saxons, son of Edward 
the Elder; was present at the 
battle of Brunanburh in 937, 
where he and his brother Athel- 
stan (q*v) gained a decisive 
victory over Anlaf the Dane, 
Constantine of Scotland and 
the Northumbrian Danes ; suc- 
ceeded his brother in 941. On 
May 26, 946, an outlaw named 
Leof slipped into the banquet- 
ing-hall of Edmund, who was 
celebrating the festival of St. 
Augustine at Pucklechurch in 
Gloucester. The king endea- 
voured to remove him, where- 
upon the outlaw stabbed him 
with a dagger (922-946). 

Battle of Brunanburh . 

EDMUND IRONSIDE. See Eng- 
lish Ironside. 


EDMUND (Saint). 

King of the East Angles. 
Son of king Alkmund of Saxony, 
he was adopted by Offa, king 
of the East Angles as his heir, 
and succeeded 855. In 870, 
during the Danish invasion, he 
was defeated at Hoxne, and, 
being captured by the Danes was 
beheaded on refusing to re- 
nounce Christianity. He was 
buried at Hoxne, but his re- 
mains were afterwards trans- 
lated to Bury St. Edmunds. 
He was subsequently canonized 
(841-870). 

Harold . 

EDWARD (the Confessor). 

King of England and the elder 
son of Ethelred the Unready ; 
born at Islip, Oxfordshire ; 
married Edith, daughter of the 
great earl Godwin, and suc- 
ceeded to the throne in 1042. 
The greater part of his life was 
spent in Normandy. He was 
a pious and peaceful man, but 
a feeble monarch. He died in 
1066 and was buried in West- 
minster Abbey. In 1161 he 
was canonized by Alexander 
III (1004-1066). 

Harold . 

EDWARD (the Elder). 

Bang of the Anglo-Saxons 
(921-925). He was the eldest 
son and successor of Alfred the 
Great, and most of his reign 
was spent in war with the Danes, 
regaining from them the greater 
portion of central England. 

Battle of Brunanburh. 



EDW] 


121 


[EDW 


EDWARD (the First). 

Surnamed Longshanks, king 
of England, eldest son of Henry 
III, born at Westminster in 
1239, ascended the throne in 
1272, married Eleanor of 
Castile. He came first into 
prominence in the war with 
the Barons, whom he defeated 
at Evesham ; joined the last 
Crusade in 1270, and distin- 
guished himself at Acre ; re- 
turned to England in 1274 1:0 
assume the crown, having befen 
two years previously pro- 
claimed king. Under his reign 
Wales was finally subdued and 
annexed to England, and during 
the latter part of his reign was 
largely engaged in Scottish 
affairs, winning the battle of 
Falkirk in 1298, and seven years 
later captured and executed 
Wallace. Some years previ- 
ously Edward had, along with 
queen Eleanor, visited Glaston- 
bury and taken away as relics 
the skulls of king Arthur and 
queen Guinevere, which had 
been found buried in Glaston- 
bury Abbey. He died in 1307 
at Burgh-on-sands while lead- 
ing an army against Robert 
Bruce. 

Queen Mary. 

EDWARD (the Third). 

King of England, born at 
Windsor 1312, son of Edward 
II whom he succeeded in 
1327. During his boyhood the 
government was carried on by 
regency. In 1328 the inde- 


pendence of Scotland was recog- 
nized, but the principal event 
of his reign was the beginning 
of the Hundred Years 5 War with 
France. In 1340 Edward de- 
feated the French fleet at 
Sluys, one of the earliest vic- 
tories of English arms at sea ; 
on August 26, 1346, he routed 
the French forces at Cregy ; 
and in October of the same 
year queen Philippa defeated 
the Scots — who had invaded 
England — at Neville’s Cross. 
In 1347 Edward captured 
Calais, but the ravages of the 
black death in the succeeding 
year stopped hostilities for a 
time. In 1355 the war was 
resumed, and in the following 
year the Black Prince won a 
brilliant victory at Poitiers. 
By the peace of Bretigny in 
1360 Calais, Ponthieu, Gascony 
and the greater part of the 
duchy of Aquitaine were added 
to the English crown. War 
broke out again in 1369, but it 
proved disastrous to England, 
involving as it did the with- 
drawal of Edward’s claim to the 
French crown. The Black 
Prince died in 1376, and twelve 
months later Edward died, 
having reigned fifty years. It 
was during this reign that the 
Lords and Commons first sat 
in different chambers and the 
Order of the Garter insti- 
tuted. 

On the Jubilee of Queen 
Victoria . 



EDW] 


122 


• [EDW 


EDWARD (the Fourth). 

King o£ England, son of 
Richard, duke of York, born 
1442. He succeeded the Lan- 
castrian Henry VI in 1461, 
whom he defeated at Towton. 
The chief event of his reign 
was the War of the Roses, the 
Yorkists gaining victories at 
Hedgeley Moor, Hexham, Bar- 
net and Tewkesbury. During 
his reign Caxton introduced 
the printing press. He died in 
1483. 

Queen Mary. 

EDWARD (the Sixth). 

King of England, son of 
Henry VIII and Jane Seymour, 
born 1537. Being only nine 
years old at his succession, the 
government was carried on by 
regency under the earl of Hert- 
ford and later the duke of 
Somerset. His reign was 
marked by a victory over the 
Scots at Pinkie in 154 7, and 
in 1549 the first Prayer Book 
of Edward VI was issued. In 
the same year Somerset was 
deposed from the protectorate, 
and Warwick, who in 155 1 had 
become duke of Northumber- 
land became supreme, and had 
Somerset executed in January 
1552. In the same year the 
second Prayer Book of Edward 
VI — which was of a more re- 
formed type than the first — 
was issued, as well as the forty- 
two articles embodying the 
doctrines of the Church. By 
the advice of Northumberland 


he left the crown to lady Jane 
Grey. He died in 1553, having 
reigned only six years. 

Queen Mary. 

EDWARD. 

Christian name. 

Locksley Hall Sixty Tears 
After. 

EDWARD BULL. 

A curate friend of Edwin 
Morris, who was spending a 
holiday by a lake. 

Edwin Morris. 

EDWARD GRAY. 

The lover of Ellen Adair, 
who on account of her shyness., 
which he mistook for coldness, 
left her, and went across the 
sea. On his return he found 
she had pined and died. He 
reproached himself for his treat- 
ment of her, and 

will love no more, no more f 
Till Ellen Adair come back to me. 

Edward Gray. 

EDWARD HEAD. 

The subject of a conversation 
between two men walking to 
the mail. He left his country 
house and went abroad, vex’d 
with a melancholy that pos- 
sessed him like an evil spirit. 

‘ sick of home went overseas for change.* 

Walking to the Mail. 

EDWIN. 

The absent lover of one of 
two sisters, who had gone on a 
voyage to 

* those islands of the Blest I 

While he was away her father 
planned a marriage which to 



EDW] 


123 


[EGL 


her was loathsome, and in order 
to avoid it, the two sisters 
decided to fly away together. 

O would I were in Edwin’s arms — once more 
— to feel his breath, 

Upon my cheek — on Edwin’s ship, with 
Edwin, ev’n in death. 

The Flight . 

EDWIN. 

Earl of Mercia, son of Alfgar, 
whom he succeeded in 1062 ; 
joined his brother Morcar in his 
revolt against earl Tostig, and 
was defeated by the Norsemen, 
under Hardrada at Fulford 
Gate, near York, September 20, 
1066. After the battle of Sen- 
lac he opposed the Conqueror, 
and made his last stand in 
person on the banks of the river 
Weaver, near Nantwich, but 
being defeated, surrendered, 
made submission to William 
and was pardoned. In 1071 
he joined the insurrection in 
the Isle of Ely under Hereward 
the Wake, and met his death on 
his way to the c Camp of 
Refuge.’ 

Harold . 

EDWIN. 

EDWIN MORRIS. 

A man skilled in botany and 
geology, a poet, and with 
various other accomplishments. 

he seem’d 

All-perfect, finish’d to the finger nail. 

He made the friendship of a 
man who had intended to spend 
a holiday by the lake, but being 
disappointed in his love affair, 

left Edwin, nor have seen 
Him since, nor heard of her, nor cared to hear. 

Edwin Morris . 


EDYRN. 

Son of Nudd, and nephew of 
earl Yniol. He was a mali- 
cious man, and was called the 
c sparrow-hawk.’ 

And toppling over all antagonism 

Had earn’d himself the name of sparrow-hawk 

He ousted his uncle frorn 
his earldom and attempted to 
win his daughter Enid, but 
was unsuccessful. Being over- 
thrown in a tournament by sir 
Geraint, he was compelled to 
restore the earldom to Yniol, 
after which he was sent to the 
court of Arthur, and became 
a reformed character. 

Marriage of Geraint ; 
Geraint and Enid. 

EFFIE. 

Sister to the c Queen of the 
May ’ (q.v.). 

Little Effie shall go with me to-morrow to the 
green, 

And you’ll be there, too, mother, to see me 
made the Queen ; 

May Queen. 

EGBERT. 

These old pheasant-lords. 

These partridge-breeders of a thousand years. 
Who had mildew’d in their thousands, doing 
nothing 

Since Egbert — why, the greater their disgrace 1 

Has reference to Egbert, king 
of the West Saxons. 

Aylmer 3 s Field. 

EGLANTINE. 

A name given to the sweet- 
brier, and some other species of 
rose. Milton seems to have 
applied the name to some 
twining plant — 

Through the sweet-briar or the vine, 

Or the twisted eglantine. 

Milton : V Allegro , 47-48. 

The Window ; Lover 3 s Tale. 



EGL] 


124 


[ELE 


EGLATERE. 

= Eglantine. 

A Dirge. 

EGYPT. 

Dream of Fair Women ; 
The Princess ; To Pro- 
fessor J ebb ; Bechet; The 
Cup ; Promise of May ; 
Columbus. 

ELAINE. 

The ‘ lily maid of Astolat,’ 
daughter of king Pelles, and 
mother of Galahad, son of 
Lancelot ; a lady at the court 
of king Arthur in love with 
Lancelot, whose shield she had 
in her charge. 

Elaine the fair, Elaine the loveable, 

Elaine, the lily maid of Astolat, 

High in her chamber up a tower to the east 
Guarded the sacred shield of Lancelot : 

When Lancelot claimed the 
shield and bid the damsel good- 
bye she confessed her love for 
him ; but being told by Sir 
Lancelot that his love was 
another’s, she pined and died. 
According to her dying request 
her dead body was placed on a 
bed in a barge, with a letter 
in her right hand, and, thus 
conveyed to the palace of king 
Arthur. The letter, telling of 
her love for Lancelot was 
handed to the king who ordered 
her story to be blazoned on her 
tomb. 

And while my body is hot, let this letter 
be put in my right hand, and my hand bound 
fast with the letter until that I be cold and 
let me be put in a fair bed . . . and so let 
my bed ... be laid with me in a chariot 
unto the next place where Thames is, and 
there let me be put within a barget, 

Malory: Morte d’ Arthur, Book XVIII. 

chap . xix. 

When the barget arrived 


before the king, he took the 
latter and brake it and made 
a clerk to read it : this being 
the substance of the letter : 

Most noble knight, Sir Launcelot, now 
hath death made us two at debate for your 
love ; I was your lover, that men called the 
fair maiden of Astolat ; therefore unto all 
ladies I make my moan ; yet pray for my 
soul, and bury me at the least and offer ye 
my mass-penny. This is my last request. 
And a clean maiden I died, I take God to 
witness. Pray for my soul, Sir Launcelot, 
as thou art peerless. 

Malory : Morte d' Arthur, Book XVIII. 

chap . xx. 

Lancelot and Elaine. 

ELBURZ. 

A mountain range in North 
Persia, south of the Caspian. 
A Welcome to Her Royal 
H ighness Marie A lexandrov- 
na , Duchess of Edinburgh . 

ELEANOR. 

of Aquitaine, daughterof duke 
William X of Aquitaine ; 
married Louis VII of France, 
1137, divorced 1152, and in the 
following year married Henry, 
count of Anjou and duke of 
Normandy, afterwards Henry 
II of England. Became jealous 
of Henry on account of his 
paramour the £ fair Rosamund,’ 
whom she poisoned. For ex- 
citing her sons to rebel against 
their father she was imprisoned 
for sixteen years, released on 
the accession of Richard I, and 
in his absence in the Holy Land 
was made regent. She died a 
nun in the Abbey of Fonte- 
vrault in 1204. 

Dream of Fair Women ; 

Bechet. 

eleAnore. 


Eleanore . 



ELE] 


125 


[ELL 


ELEUSIS. 

A town in ancient Attica, 
north-west of Athens. It pos- 
sessed a famous temple for the 
worship of Demeter, and was 
the scene of an annual festival 
lasting nine days held in honour 
of Demeter and Persephone. 
The Greek Archaeological 
Society a few years ago dis- 
covered the remains of some of 
its famous buildings. 

Demeter and Persephone. 

ELF. 

A supernatural being, much 
like a fairy, supposed to haunt 
hills and wild places. 

Every elf and fairy sprite. 

Hop as light as bird from brier; 

Shakespeare: Midsummer-Night's Dream, 
Act V. Scene i. 

Phe Foresters . 

ELISABETTA. 

Nurse to count Federigo 
degli Alberighi. 

Phe Falcon . 

ELIZABETH. 

Queen of England, and only 
child of Henry VIII and Anne 
Boleyn, bom at Greenwich, 
1533. She was educated in the 
Protestant religion, and in the 
reign of Mary was sent to the 
Tower, afterwards to Wood- 
stock, where she was kept till 
1555, being then taken to the 
royal palace at Hatfield. On 
the death of Mary in 1558 she 
was proclaimed queen, and four 
years later refused the offer of 
Philip II of Spain (husband 
of Mary) of marriage. In 
1561 Mary, queen of the Scots, 
claimed to be Mary’s suc- 


cessor, but being defeated at 
Langside, fled to England and 
was confined by Elizabeth in 
Tutbury castle, and on the 
charge of conspiracy was be- 
headed. Pope Pius V in 1570 
issued a bull excommunicating 
the queen, an act which was 
immediately answered by the 
enactment of penal statutes 
against the Roman Catholics. 
The chief event of her reign 
occurred in 1588, when Philip 
of Spain sent against England 
his Armada, to which the 
pope had given the appellation 
of Invincible — which was de- 
feated by Drake and Hawkins. 
She died in 1603. 

Dream of Fair Women ; 

P he Princess ; Queen Mary . 

ELIZABETH (Aunt). 

' To the Abbey : there is Aunt Elizabeth 
And sister Lilia with the rest.’ 

Aunt to Walter, son of sir 
Walter Vivian, who lived at 
Maidstone Park. At the time 
of speaking, Elizabeth with 
others, was spending the day 
at the house of sir Walter 
Vivian, where a festival -was 
being held. 

Phe Princess . 

ELLEN. 

An Isle of Wight girl, who 
told the story of her unhappy 
life to a sympathetic doctor. 
When quite young she was the 
sweetheart of a boy of the same 
village. When the boy — 
Harry — was grown up, a farmer 
relative sent for him to wort 
on his farm. He said good-bye 



ELL] 


126 


[ELY 


to Ellen, went to Dorsetshire, 
and while there got into trouble 
with another girl. He returned, 
and on Christmas Da y married 
Ellen. Work was, however, scant 
in the Isle, so Harry crossed 
the Solent in search of em- 
ployment. In waiting for his 
return Ellen set to righting 
the house, and found a letter 
written to Harry by the Dorset- 
shire girl. On his return she 
refused to be reassured by his 
assurances of his love and trust. 
He left her, and she refused 
to say good-bye. He wrote 
to say he had work in Jersey 
but in crossing, the boat went 
down and he was drowned. 

First Quarrel . 

ELLEN. 

ELLEN ADAIR. 

A maiden in love, much 
against the will of her parents, 
with a certain Edward Gray, 
who mistook her quiet and 
reserved manner for coldness 
and pride. Being angry with 
her he fled over the sea. 

Shy she was, and I thought her cold ; 
Thought her proud, and fled over the sea ; 

During his absence she pined 
and died. On his return he 
.saw his folly, but it was now too 
late. 

Love may come, and love may go. 

And fly, like a bird, from tree to tree ; 

But I will love no more, no more, 

Till Ellen Adair come back to me. 

Where her body is buried, there 
lies his heart also. 

There lies the body of Ellen Adair ! 

And there the heart of Edward Gray! 

Edward Gray. 


ELLEN. 

ELLEN AUBREY. 

The subject of a song sung by 
Everard Hall, at the con- 
clusion of a picnic, in reply to 
that sung by his friend, Francis 
Hale. Everard found the song 
in a book of songs, but sub- 
stituted familiar names — of 
which Ellen Aubrey was one — 
in place of the original ones. 

I found it in a volume, all of songs, 

* * * 

I set the words, and added names I knew. 

Audley Court . 

ELM. 

ELM-TREE. 

A tree of the genus Vlmus . 
Ode to Memory ; Gar- 
dener's Daughter ; Am- 
phion ; The Princess ; In 
Memoriam ; Balin and 
Balan ; Lover's Tale ; The 
Ring ; To Ulysses; To 
Mary Boyle ; May Queen ; 
Sir Launcelot and Queen 
Guinevere. 

ELSINORE. 

A seaport on the island of 
Zeeland in Denmark ; and the 
scene of Shakespeare’s Hamlet . 

Buonaparte . 

ELY (Bishop of). See Thirlby. 
ELY (City of). 

Harold. 

ELYSIAN. 

= Elysium, the Greek heaven. 
There is a description of the 
place in the Odyssey. 
Lotos-Eaters ; The Princess. 

ELYSIUM. 

The land of the blest, where 



EMI] 127 [ENG 


the souls of the righteous passed 
without dying. The place is 
considered to be the Canary 
Islands. 

Demeter and Persephone . 

EMILIA. 

Sister of Ellen Aubrey, both 
of whom are mentioned in a 
song sung by Everard Hall, at 
a picnic held at Audley Court. 
Francis Hale, friend of the poet, 
sang a song, and Everard re- 
plied with one the opening 
lines of which were — 

* Sleep, Ellen Aubrey, sleep, and dream 
of me : 

Sleep, Ellen, folded in thy sister’s arm, 

And sleeping, haply dream her arm is mine. 
Sleep, Ellen, folded in Emilia’s arm;* 

Audley Court. 

EMMA MORELAND. 

Met Edward Gray on his re- 
turn to his native country, and 
asked him, 

* Are you married yet, Edward Gray ? * 

to which he replied, weeping, 

* Sweet Emma Moreland, love no more 

Can touch the heart of Edward Gray. 

He related to her the sad death 
of Ellen Adair, and told her that 
love will never again touch his 
heart, as it is buried with Ellen 
Adair. 

Edward Gray. 

EMMIE. 

A little girl who died in the 
ward of a children’s hospital, 
after undergoing an operation. 
In the Children's Hospital. 

EMPEROR-MOTH. 

One of the several large and 
beautiful moths, the prevailing 
colours being dark grey, brown 
and reddish yellow. 

I he Princess . 


EMRYS (Aurelius). See Aurelius. 
’ENEMIES. 

Anemones. 

Northern Farmer , Old Style . 

ENGLAND. 

Polking Oak; Amphion ; 
Enoch Arden ; Ode on the 
death of the Duke of Wel- 
lington ; Third of Febru- 
ary ; A Welcome to Her 
Royal Highness Marie Alex- 
androvna , Duchess of Edin- 
burgh ; The Daisy ; On 
Translations of Homer; Mil- 
ton ; In Memoriam ; Dedi- 
cation of Idylls ; To the 
Queen , II ; Dedicatory 
Poem to the Princess Alice ; 
Defence of Lucknow ; Col- 
umbus ; To Victor Hugo; 
Locksley Hall Sixty Tears 
After ; Prologue to General 
Hamley ; Epitaph on Lord 
Stratford de Redclijfe ; 
Hands all Round ; The 
Fleet; To Professor Jebb ; 
Kapiolani ; Queen Mary ; 
Harold ; Becket ; The 
Foresters. 

ENGLISH GARTER. 

and round his knee, misplaced. 
Our English Garter, studded with great 
emeralds, 

Rubies, I know not what. 

The Order of the Garter, an 
order of Knighthood instituted 
in 1344, by Edward III ; it is 
the highest order of Knight- 
hood, and is designated K.G. 

Queen Mary . 

ENGLISH IRONSIDE. 

Edmund the Second, com- 
monly known as Ironside on 



MI] 128 

account of his bravery, son of 
Ethelred the Unready and 
half-brother to the Confessor. 
Elected king in 1016, but only 
London acknowledged him, the 
rest of England accepting the 
rule of Canute the Dane, who 
was chosen king at Southamp- 
ton. A fierce struggle there- 
fore raged between him and 
Canute, and Edmund defeated 
the Danes at Pen in Somerset- 
shire, at Sherborne, and at 
Otford. He was however de- 
feated at Assandun, where c all 
the flower of the English race 
perished 5 and an arrangement 
was entered into at Olney, an 
island in the Severn, by which 
the kingdom was divided, Ed- 
mund receiving Wessex, East 
Anglia, Essex and London ; and 
Canute Mercia and Northum- 
bria ; and it was further agreed 
that on the death of either the 
survivor was to succeed him. 

A few weeks after this agree- 
ment Edmund was assassinated 
at Oxford by two of his 
chamberlains (981-1016). 

Or Athelstan, or English Ironside 

Who fought with Emit, or Knut who coming 

Dane 

Died English. 

Harold. 

ENID. 

Daughter of earl Yniol and 
the wife of sir Geraint, a Knight 
of the Round Table, who had 
delivered the earl from the 
tyranny of his nephew Edyrn. 
When Guinevere’s infidelity was 
spread about the court of 
Arthur, Geraint, in order to 


I [ENN 

save Enid from the taint, left 
the court and removed to his 
mansion in Devonshire. Over- 
hearing the latter part of a 
sentence uttered by her, Ger- 
aint charged her with unfaith- 
fulness, and bade his wife to 
wear her meanest apparel. 

And thou, put on thy worst and meanest 
dress, 

And ride with me.’ And Enid ask’d, amazed, 
‘ If Enid errs, let Enid learn her fault.’ 

Being wounded in battle 
Enid nursed him with such 
devotion that he saw he had 
misjudged her. Full of repent- 
ance he expressed his mistake 
and they became reconciled, 
and c crown’d a happy life with 
a fair death.’ 

nor did he doubt her more 
But rested in her fealty, till he crown’d 
A happy life with a fair death, and fell 
Against the heathen of the Northern Sea 
In battle, fighting for the blameless King. 

At the court of Arthur she 
was called c Enid the fair,’ but 
the people called her Enid the 
good.’ The representation of 
purity, she was loved by queen 
Guinevere and was the most 
beautiful lady at Arthur’s court 
next after the queen. 

Marriage of Geraint ; Ger- 
aint and Enid ; Guinevere . 

ENNA. 

A city of Sicily, remarkable 
for its fertile soil and numerous 
springs. In ancient times it 
possessed a famous temple of 
Demeter and another of Pro- 
serpine. Proserpine was carried 
off by Pluto while gathering 
flowers in the plain. 

she moved. 

Like Proserpine in Enna, gathering flowers ; 



ENO] 


129 


[ENO 


Edwin Morris ; Demeter 
and Persephone. To Pro- 
fessor Jebb. 

ENOCH. 

ENOCH ARDEN. 

The hero of Enoch Arden . 
He was a ‘ rough sailor’s lad.’ 
At first he was successful, 
prospered in his fishing, became 
an able seaman on board a 
merchantman, and before he 
attained the age of twenty-one 
purchased his own boat and 
married Anne Lee, c the prettiest 
little damsel in the port.’ All 
things continued to go well 
until he fell from a mast and 
broke a limb, and the master 
of the ship he had served in 
hearing of his misfortune offered 
to take him as boatswain, to 
which Enoch consented. When 
the day of his departure arrived 
he kissed his wife and his two 
elder children, but the youngest, 
asleep in the cot, he would not 
waken, but took away with him 
a little curl from the baby’s 
head. 

Enoch rose. 

Cast his strong arms about his drooping wife. 
And kiss’d his wonder-stricken little ones ; 
But for the third, the sickly one, who slept 
After a night of feverous wakefulness. 

When Annie would have raised him Enoch 
said, 

‘ Wake him not : let him sleep ,* how should 
the child 

Remember this ? * and kiss’d him in his cot. 
But Annie from her baby’s forehead dipt 
A tiny curl, and gave it : this he kept 
Thro’ all his future ; 

During his absence his wife 
had no success, and had it not 
been for Philip Ray would have 
sunk into poverty. Ten years 
passed away, and nothing having 


been heard of Enoch, Philip 
offered to marry her, and she 
became his wife. In the mean- 
time, Enoch had on his home- 
ward voyage been wrecked on a 
desert island. During his soli- 
tary life on the island, the sights 
and sounds of his home passed 
continually through his mind, 
until at length a ship took him 
off and he returned to England. 
Arriving at the little port' he 
reached his old home, 

But finding neither light nor murmur there 
(A bill of sale gleam’d thro’ the drizzle) crept 
Still downward thinking ‘ dead or dead to- 
me 1 ’ 

Going to the village tavern he 
found that during his absence 
the landlord had passed away, 
but his widow, Miriam Lane, 
still held the house and here he 
rested. So completely had he 
changed that he lived at the 
tavern without being identified, 
and learned from Miriam Lane 
the story of his house. 

Told him, with other annals of the port. 

Not knowing — Enoch was so brown, so bow’d. 
So broken — all the story of his house. 

His baby’s death, her growing poverty. 

How Philip put her little ones to school, 

And kept them in it, his long wooing her. 

Her slow consent and marriage, 

But Enoch longed to see his 
wife again, and in the darkness 
went to Philip’s house, and 
through the window saw his 
wife and children in comfort on 
Philip’s hearth. Creeping from 
the garden he fell upon the 
earth and prayed for strength 
not to tell her, never to let her 
know. But he did not live 
long. Finding death dawning 
upon him he called for Miriam 
Lane, and under promise on 
K 



[ERO 


EPH] 130 

the Bible not to divulge until 
after death, told her who he 
was, and taking from his pocket 
the dead child’s curl bade her to 
give it to Annie in order that 
she might know that it was really 
he, and to tell her that he died 
blessing her and her children 
and Philip. Three days after- 
wards he passed away, and in 
gratitude to this devoted soul 
was, by the villagers, accorded 
a rich funeral. 

Then the third night after this, 
While Enoch slumber’d motionless and pale, 

And Miriam watch’d and dozed at intervals, 
There came so loud a calling of the sea, 

That all the houses in the haven rang. 

He woke, he rose, he spread his arms abroad 
•Crying with a loud voice, ‘ A sail ! a sail ! 

I am saved : ’ and so fell back and spoke no 
more. 

So past the strong heroic soul away, 

And when they buried him the little port 
Had seldom seen a costlier funeral. 

Enoch Arden. 


EPHESIAN ARTEMIS. 

Artemis, Artemis, hear her, 

Ephesian Artemis! 

= Diana of the Ephesians. 
Her magnificent temple at 
Ephesus was burnt to the ground 
by Herostratos, in the same 
night in which Alexander the 
great was bom (b.c. 3 56). It 
was rebuilt by contributions 
from all the Ionian cities, and 
was regarded as one of the 
seven wonders of the world. 
This ‘ Ephesian Artemis ’ was 
apparently an ancient Asiatic 
deity whose worship the Greeks 
found in Ionia. Its image is 
stated to have fallen down from 
Jupiter (Acts, chap. xix. verse 
35), the lord of Heaven. 

The Cup. 


EPHESUS. 

I have had a vision 
The seven sleepers in the cave at Ephesus 
Have turn’d from right to left. 

Has reference to the seven 
Christian youths of Ephesus, 
who, in order to escape from the 
persecution of the Christians 
under Decius took refuge in a 
cave near that city. Being 
discovered, great stones were 
rolled against the entrance to 
the cave in order that they might 
die of hunger. They however 
fell into a supernatural sleep, 
and some 200 years afterwards, 
in the reign of Theodosius, they 
were discovered. One of the 
seven was sent to the city to 
purchase provisions, but was 
arrested for offering a coin of 
the time of Decius and brought 
before the authorities ; but 
leading his accusers to the 
cavern where his six companions 
were found, was liberated. The 
seven sleepers is a favourite 
subject in early mediaeval art. 

Harold. 

ERIN. 

The Celtic name for Ireland. 

Coming of Arthur. 

ERNE (Miriam). See Miriam, 
Miriam Erne. 

ERNE (Muriel). See Muriel 
Erne. 

EROSES. 

But a bevy of Eroses apple-cheek’d. 

In a shallop of crystal ivory-beak’d. 

With a satin sail of a ruby glow. 

=gods. 


The Islet . 



[ETT 


ESA] 13 

ESAIAS. 

Word of God 

In English : over this the brainless loons 
That cannot spell Esaias from St Paul, 

Make themselves drank and mad, fly out 
and flare 
Into rebellions. 

= Isaiah. 

Queen Mary . 

ESAU. 

And from a heart as rough as Esau’s hand, 

He answer’d, ‘ Ride you naked thro’ the town, 
And I repeal it ; ' ... 

See Genesis xxvtt. 23. 

Goiiva . 

ESH. 

ESHTREE. 

= Ash-tree. 

Northern Farmer , New Style ; 

Promise of May . 

ESHCOL. 

over which there roll’d 
To meet me long-arm’d vines with grapes 
Of Eshcol hugeness. 

The name signifies a bunch 
of grapes. See Numbers xiii. 
23-24. 

To E. Fitzgerald . 

ESSEX. 

Why, Madam, she was passing 
Some chapel down in Essex, and with her 
Lady Anne Wharton, and the Lady Anne 
Bow’d to the Pyx; 

Queen Mary . 

ESTHER. 

A Jewish maiden, the niece 
of Mordecai, a Jewish resident 
at the court of Ahasuerus. 
Was chosen as queen in place 
of Vashti, who had refused' to 
obey the king’s command. 
Esther . 

Marriage of Geraint . 

ETHELRED (the Second). 

Called the € Unready’; king of 
Saxon England, son of Edgar and 
Elfrida ; succeeded his half- 
brother Edmund the Martyr 
in 979. During his reign the 
Danes invaded England, and 


Ethelred defeated them at 
Watchet in Somersetshire and 
at Maldon, but his unmanly 
spirit submitted to pay a tribute 
to the Danes by a tax levied on 
his subjects known as the ‘ Dane- 
geld.’ In 1002 during the time 
of peace he ordered a general 
massacre of all the Danes in 
England, and Sweyn, king of 
Denmark, entered his kingdom 
and he fled to Normandy. 
Sweyn dying soon afterwards 
Ethelred returned and in 1014 
he defeated Cnut, but in the 
following year Cnut renewed 
his attack, ravaged Mercia and 
Wessex, and was preparing to 
march on London when Ethel- 
red died April 23, 1016. 

Harold - 

ETTARRE. 

A lady loved by sir Pelleas, 
but being so proud she scorned 
him, and said she would never 
return his love even if he died 
for her. But Pelleas promised 
to follow her from place to place, 
and never to leave her until she 
returned his love ; but she sent 
her knights to fight with him 
and treated him very shame- 
fully. 

Thereon her wrath became a hate ; and once, 
A week beyond, while walking on the walls 
With her three knights, she pointed down- 
ward, ‘ Look, 

He haunts me — I cannot breathe — besieges 
me: ... 

Down 1 strike him ! put my hate into your 
strokes, 

And drive hfrn from my walls.’ And down 
they went. 

And Pelleas overthrew them one by one ; 

And from the tower above him cried Ettarre, 

* Bind him, and bring him in.’ 

Sir Gawain then promised to 
advocate his cause with the 



EUR] 


132 


lady, but she played him false, 
for sir Pelleas coming to the 
pavilion outside Ettarre’s castle 
found them caressing each 
other. 

Then was he ware of three pavilions rear’d 
Above the bushes, gilden-peakt : in one, 

Red after revel, droned her lurdane knights 
Slumbering, and their three squires across 
their feet : 

In one, their malice on the placid lip 
Froz’n by sweet sleep, four of her damsels lay ; 
And in the third, the circlet of the jousts 
Bound on her brow, were Gawain and Ettarre. 

The Damosel of the Lake then 
came to Pelleas and bade him 
come forth with her in the 
country, and ‘ she rejoiced sir 
Pelleas, and they lived together 
during their life days’ and the 
lady Ettarre died from sorrow. 
Pelleas and Ettarre. 

EUROPA. 

A beautiful maiden, daughter 
of Agenor, king of Phoenicia. 
While gathering flowers she 
was carried off to Crete by 
Zeus, disguised as a white bull. 

Or sweet Europa’s mantle flew unclasp’d, 

From off her shoulder backward borne : 
From one hand droop’d a crocus : one hand 
grasp’d 

The mild bull’s golden bom. 

She was worshipped in Crete 
under the name of Hellotis, 
and a festival called Hellotia 
was held in her honour, at 
which her bones were carried 
surrounded by wreaths of 
myrtle. 

Palace of Art. 

EUROPE. 

Locksley Hall ; Ode on the 
death of the Duke of Wel- 
lington ; Third of February ; 
To Rev . F . D. Maurice ; 
Defence of Lucknow ; Locks- 
ley Hall Sixty T ears After ; 


[EVA 

Queen Mary ; Becket ; 
The Foresters. 

EUSTACE. 

An artist — a very muscular 
and well-made person. 

My Eustace might have sat for Hercules ; 

So muscular he spread, so broad of breast. 

Along with an artist friend they 
went to see the gardener’s 
daughter. Eustace painted 
Juliet, fell in love with her, and 
after a year had passed married 
her. 

Gardener's Daughter. 

EVA. 

Daughter of farmer Steer, 
and sister of Dora Steer. Under 
a promise of marriage, she was 
seduced by Philip Edgar, a 
wealthy gentleman. She ran 
away, leaving a letter to the 
effect that she would drown 
herself. At the news of her 
disgrace the old father worked 
himself into a fury which 
subsided into paralysis. After 
many years’ absence Edgar re- 
turned under the name of 
Harold, but on account of his 
beard passed unrecognized. 
Dobson, a farmer who was 
himself in love with Dora 
Steer, suspected him, but Edgar 
showed him a newspaper cut- 
ting of his father’s death, which 
he easily passed off as his own. 
Edgar made love to Dora, who 
was easily won, when news 
arrived that a lady had been 
run over in a neighbouring 
lane. The injured lady, who 
was nursed by Dora, was none 
other than Eva, who yearned 



EVA] 


133 [EXC 


for her father’s forgiveness, but 
the old man was too troubled 
with his disease to understand. 
Edgar and Eva eventually met, 
and Dora learned who her lover 
really was. At the sight of the 
meeting Eva fell dead, and 
over her sister’s dead body 
Dora cursed the man, who 
hoped by marrying her to make 
amends for Eva’s seduction. 

Promise of May . 

EVANGEL. 

=The Gospels. 

Heaven-sweet Evangel, ever-living word. 

Who whilome speaking to the South in Greek 
About the soft Mediterranean shores, 

Sir John Oldcastle , 
Lord Cobham . 

EVANGELIST. 

Behold a man raised up by Christ ! 

The rest remaineth unreveal’d ; 

He told it not ; or something seal’d 
The lips of that Evangelist. 

= St. John. 

In Memoriam. 

EVE. 

Day-Dream ; Maud ; Bechet, 

EVELYN. 

One of two sisters — the other 
being Edith. She married her 
sister’s former lover, but was 
quite unconscious of the fact, 
which was only made known to 
her after her sister’s death. 
The news caused some estrange- 
ment between husband and wife. 
During the second year of her 
married life she died. 

Sisters . ( Evelyn and Edith.) 

EVERARD. 

EVERARD HALL. 

A poet. While at college he 


wrote an epic about king Arthur, 
but thinking that 

nothing new was said, or else 
Something so said ’twas nothing — 

destroyed it. His college friend, 
Francis Allen inquired later as 
to what had become of it. He 
replied that considering it of 
small value he had destroyed it. 

* these twelve books of mine 
Were faint Homeric echoes, nothing-worth, 
Mere chaff and draff, much better burnt.’ 

Francis had however, rescued 
the eleventh book from the 
hearth, and forthwith produced 
it 

* But 1/ 

Said Francis, * pick’d the eleventh from this 
hearth 

And have it ; keep a thing, its use will come. 
I hoard it as a sugar-plum for Holmes.’ 

The Epic ; Morte d? Arthur. 

EVERGREEN. 

A plant that remains green 
all the year, as the laurel and 
the ivy. 

Enoch Arden ; Spiteful 

Letter ; Gareth a7id Lynette. 

EWE. 

EWE-LAMB. 

A female sheep. 

The Princess ; Becket. 

EXCALIBUR. 

King Arthur’s magic sword. 
It meant cut-steel and would 
cut through iron or steel ; in 
poetic language, it is called 
a sword as its blade flashed like 
fire. It was given to Arthur 
by the Lady of the Lake, and 
she was nine years in the shaping 
of it, sitting in the deeps upon 
the hidden bases of the hills. 

Arthur and his enchanter Merlin rode one 
day by a broad lake, and afar out in the midst 
of the lake an arm clad in white samite rose 
from out of the water and held up a fair 
sword. Then came the Lady of the Lake 
moving upon the water. ‘ Enter into yonder 



EXC] 


134 


[FAL 


barge,* she said, ‘ and rovr to the sword and 
take it and the scabbard.’ 

Tappan : Heroes of the Middle Ages . 

It was so bright in his enemies’ 
eyes, that it gave light equal 
to thirty torches. Tennyson 
in his Coming of Arthur de- 
scribed it : 

* There likewise I beheld Excalibur 
Before him at his crowning borne, the sword 
That rose from out the bosom of the lake, 

And Arthur row’d across and took it — rich 
With jewels, elfin, Urim, on the hilt. 
Bewildering heart and eye — the blade so 
bright 

That men are blinded by it — 

It was by this sword that 
Arthur overcame his enemies 
in battle. After receiving his 
wound in the last weird battle 
in the west, king Arthur com- 
manded sir Bedivere to take the 
sword and return it to the Lady 
of the Lake. 

But now delay not : take Excalibur, 

And fling him far into the middle mere : 
Watch what thou seSst, and lightly bring me 
word.’ 

Twice did sir Bedivere go to 
the pool and twice did his heart 
fail him, for instead of flinging 
the brand into the water he hid 
it. Returning to the dying 
king and being questioned as 
to what he had seen, replied : 

* I heard the ripple washing in the reeds, 

And the wild water lapping on the crag.’ 

but the king detecting the 
knight’s deception threateningly 
commanded him to fulfil his 
task, whereupon the knight 
went to the lake, and seizing 
the sword threw it into the 
water. 

But ere he dipt the surface, rose an arm 
Clothed in white samite, mystic, wonderful, 
And caught him by the hilt, and brandish’d 
him 

Three times, and drew him under in the 
mere. 

Morte d’ Arthur ; Coming 


of Arthur ; Gareth and 
Lynette ; Holy Grail ? 
Last Tournament ; Passing 
of Arthur. 

EXETER (Dean of). 

Queen Mary .. 

EYE. 

A Castle. 

My lord, the King demands three hundred 
marks, 

Due from his castles of Berkhamstead and 
Eye 

When thou whereof wast warden. 

Becket. 

FAIR-HANDS. 

According to Malory, a nick- 
name given by sir Kay to 
sir Gareth when he was a 
kitchen-scullion at the court 
of king Arthur. 

And since he hath no name, I shall give him 
a name that shall be Beaumains, that is Fair- 
hands. 

Malory : Morte d’ Arthur, Book VII. chap i. 

Tennyson in his Gareth and 
Lynette makes sir Kay address 
sir Lancelot whilst referring to 
sir Gareth : 

fair and fine, forsooth ! 

Sir Fine-face, Sir Fair-hands? but see thou 
to it 

That thine own fineness, Lancelot, some fine- 
day 

Undo thee not — and leave my man to me.’ 

Gareth and Lynette. 

FALCON. 

A bird of prey formerly 
trained to the pursuit of game. 
Marriage of Geraint ; Mer- 
lin and Vivien ; Lancelot 
and Elaine ; Happy ,* The- 
Falcon ; Harold. 

FALCON, THE. 

Name of a ship. 

For at huge sea smote every soul from the- 
decks of The Falcon but one. 

The Wreck. 



FAN] 


135 


[FER 


FANNY. 

The name of a song. 

Fanny be the naame i’ the song , but I 
swopt it fur she. 

Promise of May. 

FATHER PHILIP. 

=PhiIip Ray. 

Enoch Arden. 

FAUN. 

The symbol of a drunkard. 

Arise and fly 

The reeling Faun, the sensual feast ; 

Move upward, working out the beast, 
And let the ape and tiger die. 

Lucretius ; In Memoriam . 

FAUNUS. 

In Roman mythology the 
grandson of Saturn, and the god 
of fields and shepherds. Upon 
the introduction of Greek 
mythology Faunus was identi- 
fied with Pan the protector of 
flocks and herds. Two festi- 
vals were held annually in his 
honour in the temple on the 
island in the Tiber, when the 
peasants brought their simple 
offerings . 

* But who was he, that in the garden snared 

picus and Faunus, rustic Gods ! ’ 

Lucretius . 

FEDERIGO. 

FEDERIGO DEGLI ALBERIGHX. 

An impoverished nobleman, 
in love with a wealthy widow, 
the lady Giovanna. She had a 
rival — his favourite falcon — for 
which the count had a strange 
affection, the bird at times being 
as dear to him as his mistress. 
The son of the lady Giovanna 
fell sick, and yearned for the 
count’s falcon. The lady paid 


a visit to the count at the lun- 
cheon hour, with the object 
of begging the bird from him ; 
but the scanty provision of the 
larder being insufficient for 
the meal, the count ordered 
his foster-brother Filippo to 
kill the falcon and have it 
cooked for the lady. When 
the lunch was spread she could 
not eat on account of her anxiety 
for her request ; but when she 
learned that her lover had 
killed his favourite bird in 
order to entertain her, she con- 
fessed her love for him, and 
happiness ensued. 

The Falcon . 

FERDINAND. 

the fifth of Aragon, second of 
Aragon and Sicily, and third of 
Naples, bom at Sos in Aragon ; 
married Isabella of Castile,, 
sister of Henry IV, a step by 
which these ancient kingdoms 
were united. It was during 
his reign that Columbus sailed 
from Spain on his voyages of 
discovery, Ferdinand granting 
him three ships for the purpose. 

Columbus . 

FERIA. 

A Spanish count who came 
to England with Philip II as 
one of his ministers. Married 
in 1558 to Jane Dormer, second 
daughter of sir William Dormer. 
He was a bigoted Catholic, and 
an enemy of Elizabeth, and 
notwithstanding his apparently 
friendly speeches, urged Philip 
to an armed interference in 



EER] 


[FIR 


136 


England. In a letter full of 
friendliness Philip announced 
to Elizabeth that Feria’s ser- 
vices were required in Flanders, 
and accordingly he left England. 
He died in August 1571. 

Queen Mary . 

FERN. 

The popular name of the 
order of cryptogamic plants 
called Filices. 

Edwin Morris ; Talking 
Oak ; Enoch Arden ; The 
Brook ; The Princess ; 
Marriage of Geraint ; 
P die as and Ettarre ; Last 
Tournament; Sisters 

(Evelyn and Edith) ; 
Harold. 

FERRAR (Robert E.) 

Bishop of St. David’s. Was 
an Augustinian Canon and 
monk of St. Mary’s Priory, Ox- 
ford ; became a convert to 
the reformed religion, but was 
compelled to recant ; created 
bishop of St. David’s by Ed- 
ward VI ; deprived 1554, and 
being charged by Gardiner 
with having violated his mon- 
astic vow was burnt to death, 

1555 - 

let ’em look to it 
Cranmer and Hooper, Ridley and Latimer, 
Rogers and Ferrar, for their time is come 
Their hour is hard at hand, their ‘ dies Ira?, 
(Their * dies Ilia, 1 which will test their sect . 

Queen Mary. 

FXGTREE. 

A small tree, with lobed, 
rough and deciduous leaves, 
cultivated in warm climates for 
the sake of its fruit. 

The Princess. 


FILIPPO. 

Foster - brother to count 
Federigo degli Alberighi. 

The Falcon. 

FINE-FACE. 

According to Tennyson sir 
Kay was addressing sir Lance- 
lot, but referring to sir Gareth, 
w r ho was a kitchen -scullion at 
the palace of king Arthur. 

fair and fine, forsooth ! 

Sir Fine-face, Sir Fair-hands? but see thou 
to it 

That thine own fineness, Lancelot, some fine 
day 

Undo thee not — and leave my man to me.’ 

Gareth and Lynette. 

FINN. 

And we wallow'd in beds of lilies, and chanted 
the triumph of Finn, 

According to tradition an 
Irish leader of the third century, 
and the son of Cumall the hero 
of the Ossianic tales. After 
his defeat in County Meath he 
escaped, but was slain soon 
afterwards at Athbrea. Other 
authorities say he did not die 
but passed to the blessed land. 
In this, as in many other re- 
spects, he resembled the British 
king Arthur. 

Voyage of Maeldune . 

FIR. 

The name of several species 
of cone-bearing trees, some of 
them valued for their timber 
and others for their resin. 

Gareth and Lynette ; Loved s 
Tale. 

FIRE-FLY. 

A name applied to many 
phosphorescent insects, some 
giving forth a steady light, 



PIS] 


137 


[FLO 


others flashing light intermit- 
tently. 

Locksley Hall ; Lhe Princess . 

PISHER (JOHN). 

Bishop of Rochester, born at 
Beverley ; was distinguished at 
Cambridge and became chap- 
lain to the mother of Henry 
VIII who had him appointed 
first lady Margaret professor 
of divinity in 1503. In the 
following year he was elected 
Chancellor of the University 
and bishop of Rochester ; fined 
for denying the validity of the 
divorce of Catherine of Aragon, 
1534; and in the same year 
was with sir Thomas More 
sent to the Tower for refusing 
to swear to the Act of Suprem- 
acy ; deprived and beheaded 
by order of the king, 1535. He 
was beatified in 1886. 

Queen Mary. 

FITZ. 

Edward Fitzgerald, English 
poet and translator, and a friend 
of Tennyson ; first met at the 
home of James Spedding, in the 
Lake District. Upon his death 
in 1883, Tennyson wrote the 
following lines : 

Gone into darkness, that full light 

Of friendship, past, in sleep, away 
By night, into the deeper night ! 

The deeper night? A clearer day 
Than our poor twilight dawn on earth — 

If night, what barren toil to be ! 

What life, so maim’d by night, were worth 

Our living out ? Not mine to be 
Remembering all the golden hours 

Now silent, and so many dead, 

And him the last. 

Life of Lenny son. 

Some years later his widow 
wrote to the poet thanking him 
for dedicating Liresias to the 


memory of her late husband. 

To E. Fitzgerald . 

FITZURSE. See Reginald, Regi- 
nald Fitzurse. 

FLAG-FLOWER. 

=the Iris ; an original of the 
; fleur-de-lys in the arms of 
France. 

Miller's Daughter . 

FLANDERS. 

A former name of a country 
of Europe extending along the 
North Sea from the Straits of 
Dover to the river Scheldt. 

Queen Mary ; Harold. 

FLEA. 

An insect remarkable for its 
great agility. 

Merlin and Vivien; Queen 
Mary. 

FLEECE, THE. 

Name of an Inn. 

‘ The Bull, the Fleece are cramm’d, and not 

a room 

For love or money. 

Audley Court. 

FLEUR-DE-LYS. 

The flower of the lily. A 
bearing in the French Arms 
of the house of Bourbon, repre- 
sented by three lilies, as em- 
blematic of royalty. 

Sir John Oldcastle , 
Lord Cohham. 

FLORA. 

A famous portrait by Titian, 
the famous Italian painter, 
and representation in Roman 
mythology of the goddess of 
Flowers and the Spring. 

1 will you climb the top "of Art, 
You cannot fail but work in hues to dim 
The Titianic Flora. 

Gardener's Daughter . 



FLO] 


[FOK 


138 


FLORA. 

The lady Flora, to whom is 
related by a young man deeply 
in love with her, the familiar 
fairy tale of the Sleeping Beauty. 
At the time she was working in 
the drawing room at her em- 
broidery. In conclusion, he 
told her that he would gladly 
slumber for a hundred years if 
at the end of that time he could 
awake her with a kiss. 

li he Day-Dream. 

FLORENCE. 

A famous Italian city, in the 
valley of the Arno. It is the 
city of Dante, Petrarch, Angelo 
and many more of Italy’s great 
men. 

The Brook ; The Daisy ; 
Mauds T 0 Dante; The 

Falcon . 

FLORES. 

One of the Azores islands. 
Discovered in 1439 by Vander- 
berg, it was near this island that 
sir Richard Grenville in the 
reign of Elizabeth fought his 
famous sea-fight. 

At Flores in the Azores Sir Richard Gren- 
ville lay, 

And a pinnace, like a flutter'd bird, came 
flying from far away : 

The Revenge. 

FLORIAN. 

A friend of prince Arac, one 
of the three who gained admis- 
sion to princess Ida’s college. 
He was described by prince 
Arac as 

my other heart, 
And almost my half-self, for still we moved 
Together, twinn’d as horse’s ear :j and eye. 

The Princess. 


FLORIDA. 

Ev’n as the warm gulf-stream of Florida 
Floats far away into the Northern seas 
The lavish growths of southern Mexico. 

Mine be the strength. 

FLORIO. 

Only child of the lady Gio- 
vanna, who married count 
Federigo deghli Alberighi. 

The Falcon . 

FLOWERING ISLE. 

And we hated the Flowering Isle, as we hated 

the isle that was mute, 

Voyage of Maeldune. 

See Maeldune. 

FLUR. 

The daughter of Mygnach 
Gorr and the betrothed of 
Cassivelaun (q.v.), a king of 
Britain. Mwrchan, a Gallic 
chief carried her away to Gaul y 
but Cassivelaun invaded Gaul 
with 60,000 men and gaining a 
victory, rescued her. 

Marriage of Geraint. 

FOLIOT (Gilbert). See Gilbert 
Foliot. 

FONSECA (Juan Rodriguez de). 

Archdeacon of Seville ; ap- 
pointed commissioner to super- 
intend the fitting-out of 
Columbus’ second voyage from 
Spain. A capable man, but 
of a very crafty disposition, he 
objected to the number of 
footmen which Columbus pro- 
posed for his domestic house- 
hold, and the matter being re- 
ferred to Ferdinand he was 
ordered to carry out Columbus 7 
wishes. Fonseca subsequently 
became archbishop of Toledo 
and Patriarch of the Indies. 

Columbus . 



FOR] 


*39 


[FRA 


FORGET-ME-NOT. 

A small herb, with beautiful 
blue flowers, and considered 
the emblem of fidelity. 

Miller's Daughter ; The 

Brook ; Queen Mary ; 

Promise of May. 

FORTUNE. 

And affluent Fortune emptied all her horn. 

In Roman mythology the 
goddess of good luck. She was 
worshipped at a great number 
of shrines under various titles ; 
but is represented here as hold- 
ing in her hand the horn of 
plenty. 

Ode on the death of the 
Duke of Wellington . 

FORUM, THE. 

The Baths, the Forum, gabbled of his death, 

Was originally the market- 
place of the city, but afterwards 
the centre of the religious, civil 
and political life of the city. 

The Princess; St. Tele - 
machus ; To Virgil. 

FOX. 

An animal of the dog family, 
remarkable for cunning. 

Walking to the Mail ; Day- 

Dream ; Aylmer's Field ; 

Pelleas and Ettarre ; 

Village Wife ; Queen 

Mary ; Promise of May. 

FOXGLOVE. 

= a plant, whose leaves are 
used as a medicine. 

Two Voices ; In Memoriam ; 

Sisters (Evelyn and Edith) ; 

The Foresters. 


FRANCE. 

Dream of Fair Women 
The Captain ; The Prin- 
cess ; Ode on the death of 
the Duke of Wellington ; 
Aylmer's Field ; In 
Memoriam ; To the Queen , 
II. In the Children's Hos- 
pital ; Columbus; To Vic- 
tor Hugo ; Locksley Hall 
Sixty T ears After ; Queen 
Mary ; Harold ; Becket . 

FRANCHE-COMTE. 

An ancient province in East 
France, added to the crown of 
France at the peace of Nime- 
guen in 1671. It extends from 
the Saone to the Jura moun- 
tains. 

Quee?i Mary. 

FRANCIS. 

FRANCIS ALLEN. 

Friend of Everard Hall who 
had written an Epic about king 
Arthur. At the house of Fran- 
cis on Christmas eve, four 
college friends sat round the 
fire talking of Christmas cus- 
toms. Everard was asked what 
he had done with his Epic . 
Francis replied that Everard 
had burnt it, but he had been 
fortunate enough to save the 
eleventh book from the flames 
and forthwith produced it. 

The Epic ; Morte d' Arthur. 

FRANCIS. 

FRANCIS HALE. 

A farmer’s son, who lived at 
Torquay, and a friend of 
Everard Hall. Was present 



FRA] 


140 


[FUR 


with him at a picnic at Audley 
Court as 

* The Bull, the Fleece are cramm’d, and not 

a room 

For love or money. Let us picnic 

At Audley Court.’ 

They spent an enjoyable 
evening, eating homely fare, 
discussing politics, the king and 
matters nearer home, and ended 
the picnic by entertaining each 
other with a song. 

He sang his song, and I replied with mine *. 

and returned in the dusky 
moonlight to Torquay. 

Audley Court. 

FRANCIS OF ASSISI. 

Founder of the Franciscan 
order, born at Assisi in Umbria 
(1182). Began life as a soldier, 
but at the age of twenty-four 
he gave himself up entirely to 
religious life. He died in 1226 
and was canonized in 1228. 

Locksley Hall Sixty Tears 
After 

FRANK. See Francis, Francis. 
Allen 

FRANKFORT. 

On-the-Main, one of the old 
free cities of Germany. 

To Strasburg, Antwerp, Frankfort, Zurich, 
Worms, 

Geneva, Basle — our Bishops from their sees 
Or fled, they say, or flying — 

Queen Mary . 

FRIAR TUCK. 

Robin Hood’s chaplain. He 
is represented as being fat and 
very self-indulgent, and a very 
humorous character. He was 
a monk of Fountains Abbey, 
which was of the Cistercian 
order, and wore a red corded 
girdle ornamented with gold 


twist, red stockings and a wallet. 
He was nick-named ‘ Tuck ’ on 
account of his dress being tucked 
at the waist by a girdle. 

In this our spacious Isle, I thinke there is 
not one, 

But he hath heard some talke of him and 
Little John ; 

And to the end of time, the Tales shall ne’e r 
be done, 

Of Scarlock, George a Greene and Much , the 
Millers sonne. 

Of Tuck , the merry Frier, which many a Ser- 
mon made, 

In praise of Robin Hood, his Out-lawes, and 
their Trade.’ 

Drayton : Polyolbion. Five and twentieth 

Song. 

The Foresters. 

FROG. 

An amphibious animal of the 
genus Rana , remarkable for its 
activity in swimming and 
leaping. 

On Translations of Homer. 

FROTHFLY. 

Also called froth- worm and 
frog-fly ; a small insect which 
in its larva state is found on 
plants, enveloped in a frothy 
liquid. 

Aylmer's Field. 

FULVIA. 

The first wife of Mark An- 
tony and a woman of dissolute 
character. In 40 B.c., during 
Antony’s absence from Rome, 
she raised a. revolt in Italy 
against Augustus, and was be- 
sieged in Perusia. On its fall 
she escaped and fled to Antony. 
Cleopatra likens her to Eleanor, 
the queen of Henry II, hence : 

You should have dung to Fulvia’s waist, and 
thrust 

The dagger thro’ her side.* 

Dream of Fair Women . 

FURY— FURIES. 

The three Greek goddesses 



FUR] 


[GAL 


3:41 


of vengeance : named Alecto 
(She who rests not) ; Tisi- 
phone (avenger of murder) ; 
and Negara (the jealous one). 
They were the daughters of 
Gaia and Uranus, and resided 
at the court of Pluto. They 
punished without mercy all 
wicked doers, haunting them 
on earth and scourging them 
in hell. 

Vision of Sin ; Lucretius ; 

In Memoriam ; Maud ; 

Sisters (. Evelyn and Edith). 


FURZE. 

A thorny evergreen shrub 
with yellow flowers. 

Becket. 


FUZZ. 

= Furze. 

Northern Farmer, Old Style. 


GABRIEL. 

The archangel, who an- 
nounced to the Virgin Mary the 
solemn intimation that God had 
elected her to be the mother of 
the Messiah. Daniel viu 1 5-27. 
Luke i . 26. 

By the Mohammedans he is 
called the c Holy Spirit 5 and 
‘ Spirit of Truth 5 and is be- 
lieved to have dictated the 
Koran to Mahomet. 

Milton . 


GAD-FLY* 

A fly which deposits its eggs 
in the skin of cattle. 

The Princess ; The Foresters . 

GAFFER. 

Then yelp’d the cur, and yawl’d the cat ; 

Ran Gaffer, stumbled Gammer. 


The goose ew this way and flew that, 

And filled the house with clamour. 

=A rustic. 

The Goose. 

GAFFER DEATH. 

but i£ 

You starve me I be Gaffer Death hims elf. 

=A Goodman. 

The Foresters. 

GALAHAD. 

Son of sir Lancelot and 

Elaine and a Knight of the 

Round Table. Famous in 
Arthurian legend for his suc- 
cess in the quest of the Holy 
Grail. Malory says : c and he 
was named Galahad because 
sir Launcelot was so named at 
the fontain-stone ; and after 
that, the Lady of the Lake con- 
firmed him sir Launcelot du 

Lake. 5 He was known as the 

knight of the c long isles 5 and 
was always clad in white armour- 
His sword was the one which 
Balin released from the scabbard 
brought by the damsel to the 
court of king Arthur, and his 
shield was snow-white on which 
Joseph of Arimathaea made a 
cross with his blood. Sir Gala- 
had was called the £ perfect 
knight, 5 being the only knight 
who could sit in the c Siege 
Perilous, 5 a seat reserved for the 
knight who was successful in his 
search for the Holy Grail. Sir 
Galahad, with sir Bors and sir 
Percivale went in quest of the 
Grail, but only Galahad was 
permitted to see the vision with 
the bodily eyes after which his- 
soul was borne to heaven. 

Merlin and Vivien; Lan - 



•GAL] 


142 


[GAR 


celot and Elaine ; Holy 
Grail; Bechet . 

GALATIA. 

An ancient district of Asia 
Minor. It derived its name 
from the Gauls who took posses- 
sion of it in the third century 
b.c. In 25 b.c. ? during the reign 
of Augustus, Galatia was made 
a Roman province. 

The Cup . 

GALATIAN ARTEMIS. 

See Ephesian Artemis. 

GALAXY. 

Like to some branch of stars we see 

Kung in the golden Galaxy. 

The Milky Way, or the lumin- 
ous band of stars stretching 
across the heavens. 

Lady of Shalott . 

GALEN. See Court-Galen. 
GALILEE. 

for she walks. 

Wearing the light yoke of that Lord of love 
Who still'd the rolling wave of Galilee ! 

Has reference to Christ re- 
buking the storm on the Sea of 
Galilee. Matthew viiu 26 ; 
Mark iv. 39 ,* Luke viiu 24. 

Aylmer's Field . 

GAMA. 

Father of princess Ida. 

prince Arac says : 

His name was Gama; crack’d and small his 

voice, 

But bland the smile that like a wrinkling 

wind 

On glassy water drove his cheek in lines ; 

A little dry old man, without a star, 

Not like a king : 

Prince Arac visited him, and 
reminded him of the former 
compact. Gama explained to 


Arac the new ideas of Ida con- 
cerning the college for women, 
and said his chance of winning 
her was almost as nothing. 
Gama suggested war, but the 
prince objected to its almost 
inevitable accompaniments, and 
wished to win his bride in some 
better way 

The Princess . 

GAMEL. 

A Northumberland Thane, 
son of Orm. Was by treachery 
murdered by earl Tostig, who 
had invited him into his room 
on pretence of peace. 

Harold . 

GAMMER. 

Then yelp’d the cur, and yawl’d the cat ; 

Ran Gaff er, stumbled Gammer. 

The goose flew this way and flew 7 that. 

And fill’d the house with clamour. 

=An old woman. 

The Goose. 

GANYMEDE. 

A beautiful youth, son of 
Tros, king of Dardania, whom 
Zeus, attracted by his beauty, 
carried off disguised as an eagle 
to heaven, and conferring im- 
mortality upon him, made him 
cup-bearer to the gods in place 
of Hebe. As a compensation 
to Tros, Zeus presented him 
with four immortal horses for 
his chariot. 

Or else flush’d Ganymede, his rosy thigh 

Half-buried in the Eagle’s down. 

Sole as a flying star shot thro’ the sky 

Above the pillar’d town. 

Palace of Art ; Will Water- 
proofs Lyrical Monologue ; 
The Princess. 

GARCIA (Villa). See Villa 
Garcia. 



‘GAR] 


143 


[GAR 


GARDA. 

GARDA LAKE. 

An Italian lake on the edge 
of the plain of Lombardy. 

Queen Mary ; Frater Ave 
Atque Vale . 

GARDINER (Stephen). 

Bishop of Winchester, born 
14.83 . Private secretary to Wol- 
sey ; in 1528 sent as ambas- 
sador to pope Clement VII, 
he obtained a second commis- 
sion on the royal divorce ques- 
tion ; after Wolsey’s fall acted 
as secretary to Henry VIII ; 
■created bishop of Winchester 
1531 ; ambassador in France 
1531-32; falling into dis- 
favour he was ousted from the 
council and the chancellorship 
of Cambridge, deprived of his 
see, and was imprisoned in the 
‘Tower during the whole of the 
reign of Edward VI. On 
Mary’s accession he was liber- 
ated, reinstated, and made Lord 
Chancellor ; opposed the Span- 
ish marriage and advocated 
severe measures against Eliza- 
beth, whom he caused to be 
declared illegitimate by Act of 
Parliament. He died in 1555. 

Queen Mary . 

GARETH. 

A Knight of the Round Table, 
who c underwent the sooty yoke 
of kitchen-vassalage.’ Malory 
says that he 

4 was the youngest son of Lot, king of Orkney 
and Morgawse, Arthur’s sister,’ 

hut according to Tennyson he 
was 

* the last and tallest son of Lot king of Orkney 
-and of Bellicent his wife. 


In order to please his mother 
he concealed his name and 
served as kitchen-knave at 
Arthur’s court for a twelve- 
month and a day, and on 
account of his large hands was 
by sir Kay nicknamed Fair- 
hands : 

And since he hath no name, I shall give him 
a name that shall be Beatimains, that is Fair- 
hands. 

Malory : Morte £ Arthur, Book VII. chap, i . 

At the end of the twelve- 
month he was knighted, and a 
maiden called Lynette 
went to king Arthur to ask for 
a knight to deliver her sister 
Lyonors (q-v-), who was held 
captive in Castle Perilous. The 
king gave the quest to Gareth, 
but Lynette became indignant 
and treated him with indignity, 
calling him c a master of dishes 
and a kitchen knave.’ He 
bravely endured her insults, 
and eventually won her admira- 
tion by his courageously slaying 
the four knights who kept the 
passage to Castle Perilous and 
liberating her sister, whom, 
according to Malory, he married. 
Tennyson however makes him 
marry Lynette. 

And he that told the tale in older times 
Savs that Sir Gareth wedded Lyonors, 

But he, that told it later, says Lynette. 

Gareth was slain by sir Lan- 
celot in the rescue of Guinevere 
from the stake. 

Gareth and Lynette ; Lan- 
celot and Elaine . 

GARGARUS. 

Behind the valley topmost Gargarus 
Stands up and takes the morning : 

The highest peak of the Ida 



144 


[GAW 


GAR] 

range rising about 4,600 feet 
above the level of the sea. 

CEnone . 

GARLON. 

A Knight of the Round 
Table. He was a man of 
secrecy, and went about in- 
visible inflicting wounds. He 
was slain at a feast by Balin 
in revenge for having slain two 
of his (Balin’s) knights. 

Soon Balin asked a knight. Is there not 
a knight in this court whose name is Garlon ? 
Yonder he goeth, said a knight, he with the 
black face ; he is the marvellest knight that 
is now living, for he destroyeth many good 
knights, for he goeth invisible. . . . There- 
with this Garlon espied that this Balin behind 
him , and then he came and smote Balin on 
the face with the back of his hand. . . . 
Give me the truncheon, said Balin to his 
lady, wherewith he slew your knight . . . 
and therewith Balin smote him through the 
body, and said openly, With that truncheon 
thou hast slain a good knight, and now it 
sticketh in thy body. 

Malory : Marie <? Arthur, Book II. chap. xiv. 

Balin and Balan. 

GARRICK. 

David Garrick, dramatist, 
born at Hereford, 1717 ; was 
a pupil of Samuel Johnson, 
whom he accompanied to Lon- 
don in 1737. Four years later 
he commenced his career as an 
actor and in 1747 became, with 
Lacy, joint-proprietor of Drury 
Lane Theatre, which he con- 
tinued to direct until his retire- 
ment from the stage in 1776, 
when he sold his half-share for 
£35,000. He died in 1779, 
and was buried in Westminster 
Abbey. In all Saints Church, 
Hereford, a brass plate bears 
the following inscription : 6 In 
memory of David Garrick, who 
was bom in this parish, and 
baptized in this Church, 28th 


February 1717, and was interred 
in Westminster Abbey.’ 

To W. C. Macready . 

GASCON. 

and most amorous 
Of good old red sound liberal Gascon wine : 

=Wine from Gascony, a 
province of France. 

Bechet. 

GAW AIN. 

A Knight of the Round Table r 
son of king Lot, nephew of king 
Arthur, and brother of ModrecL 
and Gareth. He was the second 
of the fifty knights created by 
Arthur, and was considered to 
be the most reckless and irrever- 
ent of them all. He fought 
with, and struck off the head 
of sir Priamus, but the headless 
knight picked up his head again 
and walked away, requesting 
sir Gawain to meet him twelve- 
months hence. Gawain kept 
the appointment and was 
sumptuously entertained by 
Priamus. Gawain counselled 
king Arthur not to be over- 
hasty in punishing Guinevere 
for her unfaithfulness. Ga- 
wain was considered at first to 
be the hero of the quest of the* 
Holy Grail, but was deprived 
of that honour by Malory. 
According to the prophecy of 
Merlin Gawain fell in fighting 
for king^ Arthur against sir 
Lancelot in Benwick ; and 
previous to the ‘ last weird- 
battle in the west ’ Arthur is 
represented as seeing the ghost 
of Gawain * blown along a 
wandering wind ’ and crying* 
out* 



GEM] 


145 


[GEO 


Then, ere that last weird battle in the west. 
There came on Arthur sleeping, Gawain kill’d 
In Lancelot’s war, the ghost of Gawain blown 
Along a wandering wind, and past his ear 
Went shrilling, ‘ Hollow, hollow all delight i 
Hail, King 1 to-morrow thou shalt pass away. 
Farewell ! there is an isle of rest for thee. 

And I am blown along a wandering wind, 
And hollow, hollow, hollow all delight.’ 

To which sir Bedivere replied: 

* O me, my King, let pass whatever will, 

E Ives, and the harmless glamour of the field ; 
But in their stead thy name and glory ding 
To all high places like a golden doud 
For ever: but as yet thou shalt not pass. 
Light was Gawain in life, and light in death 
Is Gawain, for the ghost is as the man ; 
And care not thou for dreams from him, 
but rise — 

I hear the steps of Modred in the west, 

Coming of Arthur ; Gareth 
and Lynette ; Lancelot and 
Elaine ; Holy Grail ; Pel- 
leas and Ettarre ; Last 
Tournament ; Passing of 
Arthur . 

GEMINI. 

The Twins, two stars in the 
southern hemisphere, named 
Castor and Pollux. 

Maud ; j The Foresters . 

GENEVA. 

A city of Switzerland. 

To Strasburg, Antwerp, Frankfort, Zurich 
Worms, 

Geneva, Basle — our Bishops from their sees 
Or fled, they say, or flying — 

Queen Mary. 

GEOFFREY (of Monmouth). 

A Welsh monk and cele- 
brated chronicler and ecclesi- 
astic of the twelfth century, 
born in Monmouth, where he 
was educated in a Benedictine 
monastery. In this monastery 
there is a chamber — with a 
projecting window, called 
‘ Geoffrey’s window 5 — said to 
have been used by the monk 
as a study. Chaplain till 1128 
to count William of Normandy ; 


archdeacon of Monmouth, 
1140; created bishop of St. 
Asaph 1152. His chief work is 
Chronic on sive Historia Briton - 
um> which was the basis of a 
number of works of the Ar- 
thurian cycle (1 1 00-1154). 

To the Queen , II. 

GEOFFREY. 

GEOFFREY PLANTAGENET. 

Son of Rosamund and Henry 

II. 

Bechet . 

GEORGE. 

Patron Saint of England, re- 
presented on horseback slaying 
a dragon. He is supposed to 
have sprung from Cappadocia, 
and to have suffered martyrdom 
under Diocletian, a.d. 303. 
The historian Gibbon identifies 
him with George of Cappa- 
docia the Arian archbishop of 
Alexandria, who, for his tyranny 
and oppression was massacred 
by the people, December 24, 
361. Clapton in his Life of 
St. George , says : 

It is unfortunate that the life history of 
this saintly martyr has been absurdly mixed 
up, even by the historian Gibbon, with that 
of the Arian George of Cappadocia, who lived 
more than half a century later, became by 
fraud archbishop of Alexandria, and turned 
out so great a villain that he was lynched 
by his own people, and his body cast into the 
sea. 

The historical reason for the 
introduction of the saint in 
England is this : — In the wars 
of the Crusades he is said to 
have appeared at the head of a 
large army, carrying a banner 
with a red cross engraved upon 
it, to help Godfrey de Bouillon 
L 



GEO] 


[GER 


146 


against the Saracens at the 
siege of Antioch. 

A bloodie Crosse Be bore, 

TBe deare remembraunce of bis dying Lord. 

In a vision Richard Coeur de 
Lion was bidden to take for 
his battle-cry ‘ Saint George 
for England. 5 This he did, 
and won the day, and St. 
George was adopted by Richard 
as his patron saint. 

By the decree of the Council 
of Oxford, in 1222, the festival 
of St. George assumed a na- 
tional character, but it was not 
until 1349, in the reign of 
Edward III, that he was defin- 
itely recognized as the nation’s 
patron saint. 

About 126 churches are dedi- 
cated to his honour, and it was 
under the flag of St. George 
that Nelson won the battle of 
the Nile. The Union Jack, 
the national flag of Great 
Britain and Ireland, consists 
of a combination of the three 
crosses of St. George, St. An- 
drew and St. Patrick, denoting 
the union of England, Scotland 
and Ireland. 

At St. Neot in Cornwall, the 
life of the saint is depicted in 
twelve panels of stained glass, 
beneath each of which is a 
Latin scroll : 

1. S. George fights against 

the Gauls. 

2. He is captured by them 

and slain at the shrine 
of the Blessed Virgin, 
who 

3. brings him back to life from 

the grave, and 


4. arms him. 

5. He rescues Princess Cleo- 

dolinda and slays the 
dragon. 

6. He is arrested for treason 

and brought before the 
ki ng. 

7. His body is torn with rakes. 

8. On hands and knees he is 

ridden by the emperor’s 
son. 

9. He is heavily weighted and 

hung by the wrists. 

10. He is set in boiling lead. 

11. He is dragged by a wild 

horse. 

12. He is beheaded. 

The Foresters. 

GERAINT. 

A tributary prince of Devon, 
and brother of Gareth and one 
of the Knights of the Round 
Table. He was married to 
Enid (q.v) only child of Yniol. 
Overhearing the latter part of 
her speech, he charged her with 
unfaithfulness, and commanded 
her to put on her meanest dress 
and follow him silently through 
the world. Being wounded in 
fighting against the Saxons, Enid 
nursed him with such devotion 
that he could no longer doubt 
her fealty, confessed his error, 
and they lived together happily. 

nor did he doubt her more. 
But rested in her fealty, till he crown’d 
A happy life with a fair death, and fell 
Against the heathen of the Northern Sea 
In battle, fighting for the blameless King. 

Marriage of Geraint ; Ger- 
aint and Enid; Lancelot 
and Elaine . 



I 47 


[GLA 


GER] 

GERMANY. 

0 » Tra?islations of Homer ; 

Bechet. 

GHOUL. 

An imaginary eastern demon, 
who was supposed to subsist 
on human flesh. 

Ancient Sage. 

GIDEON. 

The Israelite judge, who was 
appointed by God to destroy 
the altar and groves of Baal. 
With a small army of 300 men 
he gained a complete victory 
over the Midianites. See 
Judges , chap. vii. The refer- 
ence here is to Napoleon, who 
with a mighty army thought to 
conquer the world, but w r as 
defeated by the British both in 
Egypt and at Trafalgar — 

* at Trafalgar yet once more 
We taught him : late he learned humility 
Perforce, like those whom Gideon school’d 

with briers. 

Buonaparte. 

GIGGLESBY GREEAN. 

But wa boath was i’ such a clat we was 
shaamed to cross Gigglesby Greean, 

Spinster’s Sweet-Arts. 

GIGGLESBY HINN. 

Sa we boath on us kep out o’ sight o’ the 
winders o’ Gigglesby Hinn — 

Spinster’s Sweet-Arts. 

GIGGLESBY WOOD. 

By the claay’d-oop pond, that the foalk 
be sa scared at, i’ Gigglesby wood, 

Spinster’s Sweet- Arts. 

GILBERT BECKET. 

A London merchant and a 
native of Rouen ; father of 
Thomas Becket, archbishop of 
Canterbury. 


GILBERT FOLIOT. 

Bishop of London, prior of 
Clugny and Abbeville and after- 
wards abbot of Gloucester ; 
created bishop of Hereford In 
1147, and translated to London 
in 1163; opposed election of 
Becket to the archbishoprick of 
Canterbury, and refused to 
yield him obedience ; excom- 
municated by Becket in 1167, 
and again in 1169, but was ab- 
solved at Rouen in the follow- 
ing year ; consecrated Henry 
IPs eldest son for which act he 
was again excommunicated and 
again absolved in 1172. 

Becket. 

GILEADITE. 

The daughter of the warrior Gileadite, 

A maiden pure; as when she went along 
From Mizpeh’s tower’d gate with welcome 
light, 

With timbrel and with song. 

Has reference to Jephthah, 
one of the Judges of Israel. See 
Judges xi. 

Dream of Fair Women. 

GILLYFLOWERS. 

A name given by old writers 
to the clove pink. 

Aylmer’s Field. 

GIOYANNA (The Lady). See 
Federigo degli Alberighi. 

GLASTONBURY. 

A city in Somerset, built in 
the form of a cross and situated 
on the peninsula formed by 
the river Brae called the Isle 
of Avalon. It was one of the 
earliest centres of Christianity 
in Britain; its abbey is sup- 
posed to have been founded by 


Becket. 



GLIJ 

Joseph of Arimathaea, and 
the place where he is represented 
to have landed in his boat with 
the Holy Grail. On setting 
foot on land he planted his 
pilgrim’s staff which took root, 
and grew into a holy thorn 
which miraculously blossomed 
every old Christmas-eve until 
it was cut down by a puritan 
soldier, who was maimed in the 
act. A graft of the thorn is 
however supposed to exist. 
King Arthur is supposed to 
have been buried in the abbey. 
Balin and Balan ; Holy 
Grail . 

GLIMMER-GOWK. 

=An owl. 

Village Wife . 

GLO’STER (Gloucester). 

Becket. 

GLOW-WORM. 

A beetle of the genus Lam - 
pyris, having phosphorescent 
structures on the abdomen. 

like a glow-worm in the nigh 

The which hath fixe in darkness, none in light : 

Shakespeare : Pericles, Act //. Scene tit. 

Vision of Sin ; The Princess ; 
Bechet; The Foresters . 

GNAT. 

A genus of troublesome 
winged insects of numerous 
species. 

Caress’d or Chidden ; Day- 
Dream ; Merlin and 
Vivien ; Lancelot and 
Elaines Vastness s Harold . 

GNOME. 

An imaginary creature, repre- 


[GOD 

sented as a protector of mines 
and quarries. 

Merlin and the Gleam . 

GOAN PADRE. 

And when the Goan Padre quoting Him, 
Issa Ben Mariam, bis own prophet, cried 
* Love one another little ones,' and * bless * 
Whom ? even * your persecutors 1 ! 

Goan ; a place in India. 
Padre : a priest. 

Akbar^s Dream . 

GOAT. 

A ruminating quadruped, 
allied to the sheep* 

CEnone s Morte d’ Arthur ; 
Lochsley Halls The Prin- 
cess ; Merlin and Vivien ; 
Last Tournament ; Passing 
of Arthur . 

GODIVA. 

Wife of Leofric, earl of 
Mercia and lord of Coventry. 
About 1040, in order to save 
Coventry from excessive taxa- 
tion, she consented to ride 
naked through the streets of 
that city. The deed is com- 
memorated by a stained-glass 
window in St. Michael’s Church, 
Coventry, bearing the inscrip- 
tion : 

X Luriche, for the love of thee. 

Doe make Coventre tol-free. 

The legend of the prying, 
inquisitive tailor, who looked 
out of a window being struck 
blind was also commemorated 
in an effigy of c Peeping Tom 
of Coventry’ which long pro- 
truded from an upper window 
in High Street, adjoining the 
Eling’s Head Tavern. 

Godtva. 


148 



[GOO 


149 


GOD] 

GODSTOW. 

GODSTOW NUNNERY. 

He bad me put her into a nunnery — 

Into Godstow, into Hellstow, Devilstow ! 

The Church I the Church ! 

God’s eyes ! 

A nunnery on the banks of 
the Isis, two miles from Ox- 
ford, the ruins of which may 
still be seen. It was founded 
in the reign of Henry I by 
Editha, a lady of Winchester. 
Rosamund de Clifford (q.v-), 
the mistress of Henry II, was 
buried here in 1177. 

Bechet . 

GODWIN. 

Earl of the West Saxons, 
being appointed by Canute ; 
married a daughter of Ulf, 
Canute’s brother-in-law. In 
1042 took a prominent part 
in raising to the English throne 
Edward the Confessor, to whom 
he married his daughter Edith, 
and headed the national party 
against the Norman favourites. 
On the accession of Jumieges 
to the See of Canterbury the 
old charge of having caused the 
death of Alfred the Atheling 
was revived, and in 1051 was, 
with his sons, outlawed and 
took refuge with count Baldwin 
of Flanders. He returned in 
the following year and was 
restored to favour, and died in 
1054 of apoplexy while dining 
with the king. 

Harold . 

GOLDEN FLEECE. 

and five days after that 
He met the bailiff at the Golden Fleece, 

The name of an Inn. Has 


reference to the fleece of a ram 
which Phryxos, after he had 
sacrificed it to Zeus, gave to 
iEetes, king of Colchis, who 
hung it on a sacred oak, and 
had it guarded by a dragon. 
It was however stolen by Jason 
in his Argonautic expedition. 

! The Brook. 

GOLDEN FLEECE. 

An order of knighthood in- 
stituted in 1429 by Philip, duke 
of Burgundy. 

hanging down from this 
The Golden Fleece — and round his knee, mis- 
placed 

Our English Garter, 

Queen Mary. 

GOLD-LILY. 

Edwin Morris. 

GOLDSMITHS (Immanuel). See 
Immanuel Goldsmiths. 

GOLIATH. 

There is one 

Come as Goliath came of yore — he flings 
His brand in air and catches it again. 

He is chanting some old warsong. 

Has reference to the landing 
in England of William, duke of 
Normandy. See 1 Samuel xvii. 

Harold. 

GOOD FORTUNE. 

Name of a ship. 

prosperously sail’d 
The ship * Good Fortune/ tho’ at setting forth 
The Biscay, roughly riding eastward, 

Enoch Arden. 

GOOSE. 

An aquatic fowl of the genus 
Anser. 

The Goose ; The Brook ; 

Maud ; Gareth a?id 

Lyneite ; Last Tournament ; 

Becket ; The Foresters. 



GOB] 


150 


[GRE 


GORGON. 

A hideous looking creature 
with a hissing serpent on her 
head in place of hair, the sight 
of whom turned the beholder 
to stone. Perseus, son of Zeus 
and Danae, being armed with 
a sharp sickle, discovered the 
Gorgons asleep, cut off Me- 
dusa’s head, and thrusting it into 
a bag flew away, being pursued 
by two other gorgons. 

Lest Gorgon rising from the infernal lakes, 
With horrors arm’d, and curls of hissing snakes, 
Should fix me, stiSen’d at the monstrous sight, 
A stony image, in eternal night ! 

Homer : Odyssey, Book XI. 

Death of (Enone. 

GORLOIS. 

Lord of Tintagel in Cornwall. 
He is by some authorities con- 
sidered to be the father of king 
Arthur. His daughter Belli- 
cent became the wife of Lot, 
king of Orkney. 

Sir, for ye know that in King Arthur’s time 
The prince and warrior Gorlois, he that held 
Tintagil castle by the Cornish sea, 

Was wedded with a winsome wife, Ygerne : 

Coming of Arthur . 

GORSE. 

=the furze, a prickly shrub 
with yellow flowers. 

Voyage of Maeldune. 

GRACES. 

The Graces were three god- 
desses named Aglai'a, Thalia, and 
Euphrosyne, representing Grace, 
Gentleness and Beauty. 

Vision of Sin ; T he Princess . 

GRAIL. See Holy Grail. 
GRAMERCY. 

A word formerly used to 
express thanks. 

The Foresters, 


GRASSHOPPER. 

An insect that lives among 
grass, closely allied to the locust. 
Leonine Elegiacs ; (Enone ; 

Becket . 

GRANADA. 

Queen Mary. 

GRAY (Edward). See Edward 
Gray. 


GRAYHOUND. 

A tall slender dog kept for 
the chase, remarkable for keen 
sight and swiftness. 

Harold. 

GRAYLING. 

And here and there a lusty trout, 

And here and there a grayling. 

A silvery-gray fish of the 
salmon genus. 

The Brook. 


GREAT SEAL. 

The principal seal of England 
with which all state documents 
are stamped. 

Becket . 

GREAT SILENCE. 

Ay, sir, 

Inherit the Great Silence. 

=be killed. 

Queen Mary - 

GREECE. 

(Enone. 


GREENWICH. 

Queen Mary. 

GREGORY. 


I, true son 

Of Holy Church — no croucher to the Gregories 
That tread the kings their children underheel — 

Refers to the popes in general* 
more particularly to Gregory 
VII, pope of Rome from 1073 
to 1085 A.D. 

Becket. 



GRE] 


[GUI 


151 


GREGORY. 

Did not Great Gregory bid St Austin here 

Found two axchbishopricks, London and 

York ? 

= Gregory I, pope of Rome 
from 590 to 604 a.d. 

Bechet, 

GREGORY. 

Not to a Gregory of my.thromng ! No. 

Bechet. 

GRENVILLE (Sir Richard). See 
Richard, Richard Grenville. 

GRESHAM (Sir Thomas). See 
Thomas Gresham. 

GREYS. 

The Scots Greys, who, with 
the 2nd squadron of Innis- 
killings made the famous charge 
at Balaclava. 

Charge of the Heavy Brigade 
at Balaclava . 

GRIFFIN. 

A fabulous monster repre- 
sented as half lion and half 
eagle. 

Holy Grail ; Merlin and 
the Gleam . 

GRIFFYTH. 

A king of Wales ; joined with 
Elf gar, earl of East Anglia, and 
gathering a large army of Welsh- 
men and Irishmen invaded 
England. The earl of Here- 
ford, king Edward’s nephew, 
met him, but was defeated, and 
Griffyth sacked the city of 
Hereford and burnt the Cathe- 
dral to the ground. Harold, 
earl of Wessex, afterwards king 
of England, was sent by Edward 
the Confessor to avenge this 
disaster, and with earl Tostig 


succeeded in suppressing the 
rebellion (1063). I* 1 the same 

year Griffyth was slain by his 
own men and his head brought 
to Harold who sent it to the 
king. 

Harold . 

GRIM (Edward). 

Thou art but yesterday from Cambridge r 
Grim ; 

What say ye there of Becket? 

A monk of Cambridge. Was 
cross-bearer to Thomas Becket. 
When the four knights — mur- 
derers of Becket — entered Can- 
terbury Cathedral, Grim stood 
by the archbishop during his 
altercation with them, and 
shielded him from their violence 
until his own arm was nearly 
cut off by a stroke aimed at the 
primate . F ailing to the ground, 
he crawled away to the altar 
where the other clerks had 
taken refuge, and escaped with 
his life. He was the author of 
a biography of Becket. 

j Becket. 

GUANAHANI. 

An island in the West Indies 
on which Columbus first landed 
on October 12, 1492, and to 
which he gave the name of San 
Salvador. 

and last the light, the light 
On Guanahani ! but I nfrangftri the name ; 

San Salvador I call'd it; 

Columbus . 

GUERNSEY. 

Second in size and population, 
of the Channel Islands. 

Oueen Mary. 

GUILDFORD DUDLEY. 

Fourth son of the first duke* 



GUI] 


152 


[GUI 


of Northumberland. At the 
instigation of his father — whose 
object was to get the succession 
of the crown transferred from 
Mary — he married lady Jane 
Grey, daughter of the duke of 
Suffolk. The plot however 
failed, and upon the accession 
of Mary, Dudley was committed 
to the Tower, and thence to 
trial at the Guildhall, where he 
was condemned, sentenced to 
death and beheaded on Tower 
Hill, February 12, 1554. 

Queen Mary . 

GUINEA-HEN. 

An African bird of the pheas- 
ant family, having dark-gray 
plumage variegated with small 
white spots. The Brook . 

GUINEVERE. 

Daughter of Leodogran, king 
of Cameliard. 

Leodogran, the King of Cameliard, 

Had one fair daughter, and none other child : 
And she was fairest of all flesh on earth, 
Guinevere, and in her his one delight. 

After king Arthur had assisted 
king Leodogran in clearing his 
kingdom of wild beasts and 
heathen hordes, he sent three 
of his knights to Leodogran 
to ask for the hand of Guinevere, 
and Leodogran consenting they 
were married by Dubric, at 
Camelot, in the church of St. 
Stephen’s. She entertained a 
guilty passion for sir Lancelot 
(q.v) and was in consequence 
condemned to be burnt. When 
she was at the stake she was 
rescued by Lancelot, who 
carried her off to his castle at 
Joyous Guard, which castle 


was besieged by Arthur. Ulti- 
mately Guinevere was given up 
by Lancelot, and received back 
by Arthur, who, on the advice 
of Gawain waged a second war 
on Lancelot in Ben wick. Dur- 
ing the absence of Arthur on 
his expedition against the 
Romans, Modred, nephew of 
Arthur, who had been left in 
charge of the kingdom, traitor- 
ously proclaimed himself king, 
and seized Guinevere whom he 
kept prisoner. Upon receiv- 
ing the news, Arthur hurriedly 
returned, and defeating Modred 
rescued Guinevere. After the 
battle, she with two other 
queens received Arthur in a 
barge and conveyed him to the 
Isle of Avalon, where he died, 
after which Guinevere retired 
to the nunnery at Almesbury. 

And when queen Guenever understood that 
king Arthur was slain . . . she went to 
Almesbury, and there she let make herself 
a nun, and wore white clothes and black. 
Malory : Morte <V Arthur, Book XXI, chap. vii. 

and on the death of the Abbess 
was chosen as her successor, 
and remained head of the 
establishment for a period of 
three years. 

And likewise for the high rank she had borne. 
Was chosen Abbess, there, an Abbess lived 
For three brief years, and there, an Abbess, 
past 

To where beyond these voices there is peace. 

Her death being revealed to 
Lancelot in a dream, he pro- 
ceeded to Almesbury, and 
taking the body of the queen 
he laid it by the side of king 
Arthur in the chapel of Glaston- 
bury. 

Sir Launcelot and- Queen 



GUI] 


153 


[GUY 


Guinevere ; Coming of 
Arthur ; Marriage of Ger- 
aint ; Balin a?id Balan ; 
Merlin and Vivien ; Lan- 
celot and Elaine ; Pelleas 
and Ettarre ; Last Tourna- 
ment ; Guinevere. 

GUISNES. 

A town near Calais. The 
garrison commanded by lord 
Grey was besieged and sur- 
rendered to the duke of Guise 
in the reign of Mary. 

Queen Mary. 

GULISTAN. 

A Persian word for rose- 
garden. 

4 O Bulbul, any rose of Gulistan 
Shall burst her veil : 

The Princess. 

GULL. 

A web-footed sea-fowl of the 
genus Larus. 

Pelleas and Ettarre. 

GURNION. 

The scene of king Arthur’s 
eighth battle against the 
Saxons : 

where Arthur bore the image of the Holy 
Virgin, Mother of God, upon his shoulders, 
and through the power of our Lord Jesus 
Christ, and the holy Mary, put the Saxons 
to flight, and pursued them the whole day 
with great slaughter. 

Nennius : Six Chronicles. 

It is however supposed to 
have been the head of the Virgin 
Mary engraven on the shield 
borne by Arthur. 

and again 

By castle Gumion, where the glorious King 
Had on his cuirass worn our Lady’s Head, 
Carved of one emerald center’d in a sun 
Of silver rays, that lighten’d as he breathed ; 

Lancelot and Elaine. 

Athwart his brest a bauldrick brave he ware, 
That shind, like twinkling stars, with stones 
most pretious rare. 


And in the midst thereof one pretious stone 
Of wondrous worth, and eke of wondrous 

mights, 

Shapt like a Ladies head, exceeding shone, 
Like Hesperus amongst the lesser lights, 

And strove for to amaze the weaker sights : 

Spenser : Faerie Queene, Book /. Canto vii. 

Amazement runs before the towering casque 
Of Arthur, bearing through the stormy field 
The virgin sculptured on his Christian shield : — 

Wordsworth : Ecclesiastical Sonnets , Part I. 

Stanza x. 

The Castle of Gurnion is 
generally considered to have 
been in Wales. 

Lancelot and Elaine. 

GURTH. 

Earl of East Anglia and son 
of earl Godwin ; accompanied 
his father in exile in 1052, and 
returned with him the follow- 
ing year ; succeeded to the 
earldom of East Anglia in 1057. 
He accompanied his brother 
Harold to the battle of Stam- 
ford-bridge. Gurth advised 
Harold not to appear in person 
against William, but to stay 
and guard the city of London. 
Fought by the side of Harold 
at the battle of Senlac, where 
he threw a spear at the charger 
ridden by the Conqueror and 
killed it ; but William rushed 
forward on foot and slew Gurth 
with his own hand. 

Harold. 

GUY. 

Count of Ponthieu. Earl 
Harold sailing one day in a 
fishing boat in the English 
Channel was driven by storm 
on the coast of Ponthieu, and 
was taken prisoner by Guy, 
count of Ponthieu. Harold, 
however, sent a message to 
duke William of Normandy 



GWY] 


154 


[HAM 


complaining of the treatment 
he had received, and asking his 
interference. William ordered 
his release, and invited him to 
his court, when it is said he 
persuaded Harold to swear to 
assist him to the crown of 
England upon Edward’s death. 

drave and crack’d 
His boat on Ponthieu beach ; where our friend 

Guy 

Had wrung his ransom from him by the rack, 

Harold. 

GWYDION. 

Who, after, turn’d her daughter round, and 

said, 

She never yet had seen her half so fair ; 

And call’d her like that maiden in the tale, 
Whom Gwydion made by glamour out of 

flowers, 

The tale is that of ‘Math,’ 
son of Mathonwy, who, with 
Gwydion sought to form, by 
enchantment, a wife for Llew. 

So they took the blossoms of the oak, and 
the blossoms of the broom, and the blossoms 
of the meadow-sweet, and produced from 
them a maiden, the fairest and most graceful 
that man ever saw. 

Guest : The Mabinogion : Math the Son of 
Mathonwy. 

Marriage of Geraint . 

GYNAECEUM. 

The women’s quarters in a 
Greek house. 

The Princess . 

HALCYON. 

=the kingfisher. 

Progress of Spring. 

HALE (Francis). See Francis, 
Francis Hale. 

HALL (Everard). See Everard, 
Everard Hall. 

The Epic ; Morte P Arthur. 

HAMAN. 

hut all those that held with him, 
Except I plead for them, will hang as high 
As Hainan. 

Has reference to Hainan, 


king Ahasuerus’ chief minister,, 
who was hanged on the gallows 
which he had erected for 
Mordecai. Esther vii . 

The Foresters . 

HAMILTON (Lady). 

The daughter of a labourer,, 
bom at Ness, Cheshire, in 1763. 
For some years she lived under 
the protection of sir William 
Hamilton, whom she married 
in 1791. She was a woman of 
extraordinary beauty, and is 
immortalized in many portraits 
by Romney. 

What ! the Lady Hamilton ? 
Good, I am never weary painting you. 

She subsequently became the 
mistress of lord Nelson, and 
although a widow with a fortune^ 
fell into debt and died in 
poverty in 1815. 

Romney 3 s Remorse. 

HAMPDEN. 

The singlefnote 
From that deep chord which Hampden smote 
Will vibrate to the doom. 

Has reference to John Hamp- 
den who withstood the illegal 
exaction of Charles I in 1627, 
and whose refusal to pay ship 
money in 1635 kd to his being 
tried before the court of 
exchequer ; and although judg- 
ment was given against him, 
the country expressed itself 
strongly on the side of Hampden 
and the Long Parliament re- 
versed the decision of the court. 

England and America. 

HAMPTON COURT. 

A palace situated on the 
Thames erected by Cardinal 



HAN] 


iS5 


[HAR 


Wolsey in 1515, and presented 
by him to Henry VIII in 1526. 
Mary, Elizabeth, Cromwell, the 
Stuarts, William III, and other 
monarchs have resided there, 
but since the time of George 
II it has ceased to be a royal 
residence, and is now occupied 
by pensioners of the crown. 

Queen Mary . 

HANNIE (Annie). 

Eldest child of the village 
squire, disliked by the village 
wife. 

Hes fur Miss Hannie the heldest ties now be 
a-grawin’ sa howd, 

I knaws that mooch o’ shea es it beaut not 
fit to be towd ! 

Village Wife. 

HANOVER SHIP. 

And curse me the British vermin, the rat ; 

I know not whether he came in the Hanover 
ship, 

But I know that he lies and listens mute 
In an ancient mansion’s crannies and holes : 

Has reference to the Nor- 
wegian rat, which came to Eng- 
land during the eighteenth 
century. This rat infests ships 
and thus was carried into coun- 
tries where they were unknown. 
The Jacobites claimed that this 
rat had come to England with 
the House of Hanover in 1714, 
when George Ludwig, elector of 
Hanover, succeeded Anne on 
the English throne, hence it was 
called the c Hanoverian rat. 5 

Maud. 

HAPPY ISLES. 

It may be we shall touch the Happy Isles, 
And see the great Achilles, whom we knew. 

The Isles of a happy abode 
for the departed, identified 
with the Canaries and the 
Azores. Ulysses . 


HARDRADA. 

Harold Hardrada, king of 
Norway, who, at the invitation 
of earl Tostig (q.v.) came to 
England and defeated Edwin 
and Morcar at the battle of 
Fulford in Yorkshire, but was 
in turn defeated by Harold at 
the battle of Stamford-bridge, 
Hardrada and Tostig being 
among the slain. 

May all invaders perish like Hardrada!' 

All traitors fail like Tostig! 

Harold. 


HARE. 

A rodent of the genus Lepus y 
with long ears, a short tall, 
soft hair, and a divided upper 
iip. 

Aylmer’s Field ; The Foresters . 


HAREBELL. 

A small branching plant with 
pale blue bell-shaped flowers. 
The Princess ; Promise of May. 


HARFLEUR. 

A French village on the 
estuary of the Seine. In the 
Hundred Years 5 War it was 
taken after a six months 5 siege 
by the English under Henry 
V (1415), and during the suc- 
ceeding twenty years changed 
hands three times. The town 
was lost to England on No vein- 
ber 4, 1435. 

Harold. 


HAROLD. 

King of England, second son 
of earl Godwin. Was in 1051 
along with his father banished, 
and took refuge with count 
Baldwin of Flanders. He re- 



HAR] 


156 


[HAR 


turned the following year, and 
on Godwin’s death became earl 
of Wessex, and the right hand 
of king Edward the Confessor. 
In 1064 he was shipwrecked on 
the coast of Ponthieu and taken 
prisoner by Guy ( q.v .) count of 
Ponthieu. Harold complained 
to duke William of Normandy 
of the treatment he was re- 
ceiving at the hands of the 
count, and asked his interfer- 
ence. William ordered his re- 
lease, invited him to his court, 
where it is said he made him 
swear that he would, on the 
death of Edward the Con- 
fessor, help to make him king 
of England. On the death 
of Edward Harold was pro- 
claimed king. His younger 
brother Tostig (q.v.) rebelled, 
and invited over to England 
Harold Hardrada (q.v.) y king 
of Norway. Hardrada sailed 
up the Humber and with Tostig 
defeated the English troops at 
Fulford Bridge in Yorkshire. 
Harold however marched to 
meet them, and joined forces 
with them at Stamford-bridge, 
where, after a bloody struggle, 
he won a complete victory on 
September 25, 1066, Tostig 
and Hardrada being among the 
slain. Four days later, news 
arrived that duke William of 
Normandy had landed at Peven- 
sey. Harold marched south- 
ward, and with his troops 
occupied the hill of Senlac, near 
Hastings. There he was visited 
by a monk who urged him to 


yield to the pope, who had 
given encouragement to the 
claims of William. Harold in 
anger repudiated Rome’s author- 
ity : 

Back to that juggler, 
Tell him the Saints are nobler than he dreams. 
Tell him that God is nobler than the Saints, 
And tell him we stand arm’d on Senlac Hill, 
And bide the doom of God. 

The battle, which lasted 
from nine o’clock in the morn- 
ing until after sunset was 
fought on October 14, 1066, and 
after a desperate struggle the 
English were defeated, owing 
to their allowing the pretended 
flight of the Normans to draw 
them from their impregnable 
position on the hill, Harold 
himself being slain by an arrow 
which pierced his eye. Harold’s 
body was found upon the field 
of battle, and was, by William, 
ordered to be buried there, 
saying c He guarded the shore 
when living, let him guard it 
now he is dead,’ but afterwards 
he permitted it to be interred 
at Waltham Abbey. 

Harold . 

HAROLD (King of Norway). See 
Hardrada. 

HAROLD (Mr. Philip Edgar). 

See Eva. 

Promise of May. 

HAROLD THE SAXON. See 
Harold (King of England). 

Phe Foresters. 

HAROUN ALRASCHID. 

(Aaron the Orthodox.) The 
most renowned of the Bagdad 



HAR] 


157 


[HAR. 


caliphs, succeeded to the 
Caliphate in 786 a.d. He 
maintained a magnificent court 
where he gathered round him 
a company of poets and scholars. 
He was a contemporary of 
Charlemagne, and figures as the 
chief character in the Arabian 
Nights. 

Recollections of the Arabian 
Nights. 

HARRY. 

1 Ere yet, in scorn of Peter’s-pence 
And number’d bead, and shrift. 

Bluff Harry broke into the spence 
And turn’d the cowls adrift : 

Has reference to the dissolu- 
tion of the monasteries by 
Henry VIII. 

'Talking Oak. 

HARRY. 

One of the sons of an old 
woman, who outlived all her 
children. She fancied they 
were not dead, but were all 
about her yet. 

While Harry is in the five-acre and Charlie 
ploughing the hill, 

And Harry and Charlie, I hear them too — 
they sing to their team : 

He died at the age of sixty. 

Grandmother. 

HARRY. 

Husband of Ellen, with whom 
she quarrelled on account of a 
letter written him by a girl 
in Dorsetshire. Harry wrote 
his wife assuring her that all 
would come right again. He 
left for Jersey, stating he had 
found work there, but while 
crossing the boat went down 
and he was drowned. His wife, 
who had refused to say good- 
bye to him, felt she was to 
blame. First Quarrel . 


HARRY BOLINGBROKE. 

Henry IV — sumamed Boling- 
broke, from the place of his 
birth — king of England from 
1399 to 1418 ; the first of the 
Lancastrian kings ; eldest son 
of John of Gaunt and grand- 
child of Edward III. After 
spending some time of his life 
in exile at Paris, he invaded 
England, and owing to the 
misrule of his cousin Richard 
II had little difficulty in de- 
posing that monarch and assum- 
ing the crown. This usurpa- 
tion of the throne gave rise to 
civil strife known as the Wars 
of the Roses, which broke out 
during the reign of Henry VI. 

Harry of Bolingbrokc 
Had holpen Richard’s tottering throne to 
stand. 

Could Harry have foreseen that all our nobles 
Would perish on the civil slaughter-field. 

During his reign wars were 
successfully undertaken against 
the Welsh under Glendower,, 
and against the rebellion of 
the Percies in their attempt to 
win the crown for Mortimer. 
A statute for the burning of 
heretics — the first in England 
for the suppression of religious 
opinion — was passed during his 
reign (1366-1413). 

Queen Mary. 

HARRY OF MONMOUTH. See- 
Henry V. 

HARRY THE EIGHTH. See 
Henry Vm. 

HARRY THE SEVENTH. See' 
Henry VH. 

HARRY THE SIXTH. See Henry 
VI. 



.HAR] 


IS* 


HARWICH. 

A seaport in Sussex. 

Oueen Mary. 

HASTINGS (Francis). 

Second earl of Huntingdon, 
eldest son of George Hastings, 
first earl. Joined the duke of 
Northumberland against the 
protector Somerset, and on 
October 13, 1549, conducted 
Somerset to the Tower. In 
order to strengthen his alliance 
with Northumberland married 
his son Henry to Northumber- 
land’s daughter Katherine on 
the same day as lord Guildford 
Dudley married lady Jane Grey. 
He was one who signed the 
agreement to maintain lady 
Jane Grey’s succession to the 
crown, and on the death of 
Edward VI joined Northum- 
berland in declaring her Queen. 
By order of Mary was arrested 
and sent to the Tower; being 
released, was sent down to 
Leicester to suppress the revolt 
headed by the duke of Suffolk, 
whom he brought back a 
prisoner to the Tower in 
February 1555. After obtain- 
ing several minor appointment s 
under Maiy and Elizabeth he 
died at Ashby-de-la-Zouch in 
1561. 

Queen Mary . 

HASTINGS. 

A town and seaport in Sussex, 
near to which place was fought 
the battle of Senlac, 1066. On 
a hill near the town are the 


[HAV 

ruins of the castle built by the 
Conqueror. 

Harold . 

HAVELOCK (General Sir Henry) 
of Bishop-Wearmouth, Dur- 
ham. Educated at the Charter- 
house, and in 1823 proceeded 
to India. Served w r ith dis- 
tinction in the Afghan and 
Sikh Wars and in the Persian 
Expedition. On the outbreak 
of the Indian Mutiny he 
was sent to the relief of 
Cawnpore and Lucknow, the 
latter of which places he entered 
on September 25, 1857. He was 
however in turn himself be- 
sieged, but held out until re- 
lieved by sir Colin Campbell. 
Almost immediately afterwards 
he was attacked by dysentery 
and died on November 22, 
1857, and was buried in the 
Alum-Bagh. 

Defence of Lucknow. 

HAVERINGATTE-BOWER. 

The nightingales in Haveringatte-Bower 
Sang out their loves so loud, that Edward’s 
prayers 

Were deafen’d and he pray’d them dumb, 

A village in Essex. It was 
the seat of some of the Saxon 
kings, and a favourite resort 
of Edward the Confessor. It 
abounded with nightingales — 
being a woody and peaceful 
place — and it is said that they 
sang so loudly that the king was 
disturbed in his devotions. The 
ruins of Edw r ard the Con- 
fessor’s palace are still to be 
seen. 


Harold. 



HAW] 


J S9 


[HEB 


HAWA-I-EE. 

One of the Sandwich, islands. 
It contains the famous volcano 
Kilauea, the crater of which 
is one of the world’s wonders, 
being nine miles in circum- 
ference, and which is filled with 
boiling lava which ebbs and 
flows like an ocean tide. 

Kapiolani. 

HAWK. 

One of a numerous species of 
rapacious birds of the family 
Falconidee . 

And where the two contrived their daughter’s 

good, 

Lies the hawk’s cast, the mole has made his 

run, 

Hawk’s cast = feathers, fur, 
and other indigestible matters 
ejected from the stomach by a 
hawk after it has devoured its 
prey. 

Poefs Song ; Aylmer 3 s 
Field; Marriage of Ger- 
aint ; Sir John Oldcastle , 
Lord Cobham ; Harold ; 
Becket ; The Foresters . 

HAWTHORN. 

A thorny shrub or tree, with 
small fragrant flowers. It is 
extensively used for hedges. 

May Queen ; Progress of 
Spring. 

HAZEL. 

HAZEL-TREE. 

A shrub or small tree of the 
genus Corylus. 

Will Waterproofs Lyrical 
Monologue ; Enoch Arden ; 
In Memoriam ; May Queen. 

HEAD (Edward). See Edward 
Head. 


HEAGLE. 

= Eagle. 

Owd Rod . 

HEATH (Sir Nicholas). See 
Nicholas, Nicholas Heath. 

HEATH. 

A small evergreen shrub, 
growing on waste lands. 

Maud ; Coming of Arthur ; 
Pelleas and Ettarre ; The 
Ring . 

HEATHER. 

= Heath. 

Romney 3 s Remorse ; June 
Bracken and Heather . 

HEAVY BRIGADE. 

A brigade consisting of two 
squadrons of the Scots Greys, 
and the 2nd squadron of Innis- 
killings, commanded by sir 
James Yorke Scarlett which 
made the famous charge at 
Balaclava, October 25, 1854. 
Charge of the Heavy Brigade 
at Balaclava. 

HEBE. 

The goddess of eternal youth, 
daughter of Zeus and Hera ; 
cup-bearer to the immortals, 
before Ganymede (q.v.) super- 
seded her. She became the 
wife of Hercules after his ad- 
mission among the immortals. 
Gardener 3 s Daughter ; The 
Princess ; Romney 3 s Re- 

morse . 

HEBREW. 

* And I went mourning. No fair Hebrew boy 

Shall smile away my maiden blame among 
The Hebrew mothers ’ — emptied of all joy. 

Leaving the dance and song, 



HEC] 


160 


[HEL 


Among the Jews it was a 
reproach to women to be child- 
less, as each hoped to be the 
maternal ancestor of the pro- 
mised Messiah. 

Dream of Fair Women. 

HECTOR. 

Son of Priam and Hecuba, 
and chief hero of Troy in the 
Trojan war. He was a favourite 
of the gods, especially of Apollo. 
His chief exploits were his 
single combat with Ajax, and 
his slaying of Patroclus the 
friend of Achilles. In revenge 
for the latter deed Achilles 
stabbed him and fastened his 
body to his chariot, and dragged 
it three times round the grave 
of Patroclus, but Apollo pre- 
served it from mutilation. The 
Iliad of Homer describes the 
last meeting of Hector and 
Andromache, her lament upon 
his death, and the mourning 
of his mother, his wife and 
Helen at the funeral obsequies. 

Specimen of Iliad. 

HEDGAR (Edgar). 

See Eva. 

Promise of May. 

HEDGEHOG. 

A prickly-backed insecti- 
vorous quadruped, able to roll 
itself into a ball so as to present 
the spines outwardly in every 
direction. It makes a hole or 
nest for itself a few inches below 
the surface of the ground, and 
is nocturnal in its habits. 

Aylmer* s Field . 


HEDGE-PIG. 

=a young hedgehog. 

The Foresters. 

HEDGE-ROSE. 

=the wild rose. 

Queen Mary . 

HELEN, 

b< . ‘ Then, then, from utter gloom stood out the 
breasts, 

The breasts of Helen, 

Has reference to Helen of 
Troy, daughter of Zeus and 
Leda, and the wife of Menelaos, 
king of Sparta, who was carried 
off to Troy by Paris (q.v.) y 
the shepherd-prince of Troy. 

Lucretius . 

HELEN’S TOWER. 

Helen’s Tower stands on a 
hill on the southern shore of 
Belfast Lough. It was built 
for the purpose of enshrining 
the following verses written 
by lady Dufferin to her son* 
the great British diplomatist* 
on his coming of age in 1847 : 

TO MY DEAR BOY ON HIS 21ST 
BIRTHDAY. 

With a Silver Lamp. 

Fiat Lux. 

How shall I bless thee ? human love 
Is all too poor in passionate words; 

The heart aches with a sense above 
All language that the lip affords. 

Therefore, a symbol shall express 
My love, a thing nor rare nor strange ; 
But yet eternal, measureless. 

Knowing no shadow and no change; 

Light, which of all the lovely shows 
To our poor world of shadows given, 

The fervent prophet-voices chose 
Alone as attribute of heaven. 

At a most solemn pause we stand. 

From this day forth for evermore 
The weak but loving human hand 
Must cease to guide thee as of yore ; 

Then as through life thy footsteps stray 
And earthly beacons dimly shine, 

* Let there be light ’ upon the way, 

And holier guidance far than mine, 

* Let there be light * in thy clear soul 

When passion tempts or doubts assail, 
When grief’s dark tempests o'er thee roll 
‘ Let there be light ’ that shall not fail. 



HEL] 


[HEN 


So, angel-guarded may’st thou tread 
The narrow path which few may find, 
And at the end look back nor dread 
To count the vanished years behind ; 

And pray that she whose hand doth trace 
This heart- warm prayer, when life is past, 
May see and know thy blessed face 
In God’s own glorious light at last. 

In 1 86 1 the marquis of Duf- 
ferin addressed to Tennyson a 
letter to the effect that he had 
erected on a hill in his park in 
Ireland a tower which he had 
named after his mother 6 Helen’s 
Tower,’ and that the only thing 
wanting to make it a perfect 
little gem of architecture and 
decoration, was 4 a voice? In 
answer to this the poet sent 
the marquis the following 
lines : — 

Helen’s Tower, here I stand. 

Dominant over sea and land. 

Son’s love built me, and I hold 
Mother’s love engrav’n in gold. 

Love is in and out of time, 

I am mortal stone and lime. 

Would my granite girth were strong 
As either love to last as long ! 

I should wear my crown entire 
To and thro’ the Doomsday fire. 

And be found in angel eyes 
In earth’s recurring Paradise.* 

* The fancy of some poets and theo- 
logians that Paradise is to be the renovated 
earth, as, I dare say, you know. 

Life of Tennyson . 
Helen’s Tower. 

HELICONIAN HONEY. 

Or Heliconian honey in living words, 

To make a truth less harsh, 

Lucretius. 

HELICONIAN RIDGE. 

Part of the mountain range 
of Parnassus sacred to the Muses. 

Tiresias. 

HELLSTOW. 

He bad me put her into a nunnery — 

Into Godstow, into Hellstow, Devils tow ! 

The Church ! the Church ! 

God’s eyes ! 


161 

HEMAN. 

Son of Joel, and grandson of 
Samuel the prophet. He is 
called the musician, and was one 
of the three Levites — the others 
being Asaph and Ethan — in 
charge of the vocal and instru- 
mental music in the second 
Temple. 

sing, Asaph ! clash 

The cymbal, Heman I blow the trumpet, 
priest ! 

Fall, cloud, and fill the house — lo ! my two 
pillars, 

Jachin and Boaz ! — 

Harold. 

HEMLOCK. 

The name of several poison- 
ous herbs. In ancient Greece 
the punishment of death was 
inflicted by criminals being 
forced to drink a decoction of 
the hemlock. 

The Princess ; Lover s 
Tale ; Demeter and Perse- 
phone. 

HENGIST. 

The first Saxon king of Kent 
and joint-founder with his 
brother Horsa of that kingdom ; 
arrived at Ebbsfleet from Jut- 
land in 449 a.d. at the invitation 
of Vortigern to help him in 
repelling the Piets and Scots ; 
but afterwards turned against 
the Britons themselves and was 
defeated at Aylesford, 455. 

Guinevere. 

HENRY (Bedingfield). See Henry 
Bedingfield. 

HENRY (the First). 

King of England, was the 
youngest son of William the 
Conqueror, and the first mon- 
M 


Bechet. 



HEN] 


[HEN 


162 


arch of the Norman line who 
was English by birth. He suc- 
ceeded his brother William 
Rufus in 1100, at which time 
his brother Robert was in 
Normandy. Soon after Robert 
invaded England, but agreed 
to renounce his claim to the 
throne. Robert was however 
persuaded again to resort to 
arms and Henry invaded Nor- 
mandy, defeated him and 
brought him prisoner to Eng- 
land where he died in Cardiff 
castle, and Normandy was 
united to England. William, 
Robert’s son, however secured 
the assistance of Louis VI and 
the counts of Flanders and 
Aragon, and in o rder to defend 
himself Henry married his 
daughter Matilda to the em- 
peror Henry V, and in mo 
defeated the French king at 
B remule. Henry died sud- 
denly at Rouen in 1135, and 
was buried at Reading. 

Becket. 

HENRY (the Second). 

King of England* eldest son 
of Geoffrey Plantagenet ; suc- 
ceeded Stephen in 1154. 
Through his father and mother, 
Aragon, Touraine, Normandy 
and Maine were added to the 
English crown ; while through 
his wife, Eleanor — the divorced 
wife of Louis VII of France — 
he secured the provinces of 
Poitou, Limousin and Gascony. 
His reign was troubled by dis- 
putes between himself and 


Becket, archbishop of Canter- 
bury, who was murdered in 
1170; and Henry was obliged 
by the pope to undergo penance 
at the tomb of the archbishop 
at Canterbury. In 1170 he 
caused his son Henry to be 
crowned king, and three years 
later his sons, at the instigation 
of their mother, rebelled against 
him on account of his attach- 
ment to Rosamund de Clifford. 
In 1183 his son Henry died, 
and Richard, his third son, re- 
volted against his father, and 
being supported by the king 
of France defeated him in 
Normandy. He died at Chinon 
1189. 

Becket . 

HENRY (the Third). 

King of England, eldest son 
of John, whom he succeeded 
in 1216, when only ten years 
of age. He was of a feeble 
character, and during his reign 
Normandy and other French 
provinces were relinquished to 
the king of France. Civil war 
broke out, and from 125 8-64 
a struggle took place between 
the king and the barons, and at 
the battle of Lewes in 1264 
Henry was defeated and taken 
prisoner, but promised to accept 
the Provisions of Oxford. At 
the battle of Evesham the 
Barons were totally defeated, 
chiefly through the courage of 
Henry’s son Edward, where- 
upon he deprived several of 
them of their estates. He can- 



MEN] 


[HEN 


163 


celled the Great Charter and 
allowed the pope to collect 
tithes in England. By the 
treaty of Shrewsbury in 1267 
Wales was pacified. He died 
in 1272 at Westminster and was 
buried in the Abbey. 

On the Jubilee of Oueen 
Victoria. 

HENRY. 

Son of Henry II, bom in 1155 
and married at the age of five 
to princess Margaret of France. 
Crowned as his father’s suc- 
cessor at Westminster 1170, and 
again with his queen at Win- 
chester 1172. In the following 
year he rebelled against his 
father, and fled to Normandy ; 
became reconciled to his father 
in 1174, and eight years later 
made war on his brother Richard 
in Aquitaine, and afterwards 
on his father. He died penitent, 
of fever, at Martel at the age 
of twenty-eight, and was buried 
at Rouen (11 55-1183). 

Becket . 

Henry (the Seventh). 

King of England, son of Ed- 
mund Tudor and of Margaret, 
of the house of Lancaster. 
Henry, who -was in Brittany, was 
invited to invade England to 
rescue it from the usurper 
Richard III, and in 1485 landed 
in Wales and marched to Bos- 
worth in Leicestershire, where 
Richard was defeated and slain, 
Henry being crowned Hng upon 
the spot. He united the houses 
of York and Lancaster, by 


marrying Elizabeth daughter 
of Edward IV. During his 
reign a joiner’s son named 
Simnel, who pretended to be 
the young earl of Warwick, rose 
in rebellion, but was suppressed 
by Henry’s victory at Stoke, 
near Newark, in 1487. Some 
years later a Yorkist pretender 
from Flanders, named Perkin 
Warbeck, personated Richard, 
duke of York, w T ho was believed 
to have been murdered in the 
tower, claimed the crown, but 
he was apprehended and con- 
fined to the Tower, where, 
with the earl of Warwick, he 
was executed (1499)- Henry 
died at Richmond in 1 509, and 
was buried in Henry the 
Seventh’s chapel, built by him 
in Westminster Abbey (1457- 
1509). 

Oueen Mary. 

HENRY (the Sixth). 

King of England, son of 
Henry V. Being only ten 
years of age when he was pro- 
claimed king, the country dur- 
ing his long minority was 
governed by the Privy Council. 
Charles king of France, dying 
soon after, the duke of Orleans 
encouraged by the minority 
of Henry assumed the title 
of king, under the name of 
Charles VII. Henry was 
crowned king of England at 
Westminster in 1 429, and 
king of France at Paris in 
1431 ; but the conclusion of 
peace between Charles VII, 



HEN] 


[HEN 


164 


and Burgundy, and the 
death of the duke of Bedford 
brought ruin to the English 
arms in France. The siege 
of Orleans was raised by the 
French in 1429, inspired by 
Jeanne d’Arc ; Normandy was 
lost in 1450, and in 1483 with 
the exception of Calais the 
English were expelled from 
France. The king being de- 
clared insane, the duke of York 
was made protector, and on 
Henry’s recovery York openly 
claimed the crown, civil war, 
known as the Wars of the Roses, 
broke out, and at the first great 
battle at St. Albans in 1455 
Henry was defeated and taken 
prisoner. For the two succeed- 
ing years there was peace, 
York governing in Henry’s 
name, but in 1459 war again 
broke out, the Yorkists winning 
the battle of Bioreheath, but 
were defeated at Ludlow. In 
the following year the Yorkists 
won the battle of Northampton, 
but were defeated at Wakefield 
by Margaret, Henry’s queen, 
York himself being slain. In 
1461 York’s son Edward gained 
a victory at Mortimer’s Cross, 
and although Warwick was de- 
feated by Margaret at the 
second battle of St. Albans, 
young Edward was crowned at 
Westminster, and Henry fled to 
Scotland. After wandering for 
four years he was captured and 
imprisoned in the Tower, where 
after the defeat of Margaret 
at Tewkesbury, and the murder 


of prince Edward after the 
battle, he was murdered (1421- 

71)- 

Queen Mary. 

HENRY (the Eighth). 

King of England, son of 
Henry VII, whom he succeeded 
in 1509 at the age of eighteen. 
In the same year he married 
Catherine of Aragon, widow 
of his brother Arthur, and the 
early years of his reign were very 
popular. In 1512 he joined 
the Holy League, formed by 
pope Julius II, and Henry in- 
vaded France, and having won 
several victories, concluded 
peace with the French king., 
Louis XII. During his absence 
James IV of Scotland invaded 
England, but was defeated and 
slain at Flodden Field. Form- 
ing an attachment for Anne 
Boleyn, he determined to 
divorce his wife Catherine, his 
plea being that she was his 
brother’s widow, and the 
divorce being refused by the 
pope, Henry assumed the title 
of head of the English Church. 
In 1522 Cranmer, who had been 
created archbishop of Canter- 
bury, declared Henry’s marriage 
with Catherine void, and the 
king married Anne Boleyn, but 
some years later, on the ground 
of infidelity, she was executed, 
and Henry married Jane Sey- 
mour, but she dying soon after 
the birth of Edward VI, Henry 
married Anne of Cleves, who 
tvas in 1540 divorced. Henry 



HEN] 


[HEN 


165 


next married Catherine Howard, 
niece of the duke of Norfolk, 
who was subsequently beheaded 
for infidelity, after which he 
married Catherine Parr, who 
happily survived him. During 
his reign the Reformation made 
great headway ; statutes were 
passed by parliament completely 
abrogating the papal authority 
in England, and in 1535 an 
act made Heniy the supreme 
Head of the Church. The monas- 
teries were suppressed, but this 
act aroused discontent, and 
an outbreak known as the 
Pilgrimage of Grace, headed by 
Robert Aske, broke out in 1536. 
The rebels were defeated in 
Lincolnshire, but took posses- 
sion of York, and marching on 
Doncaster were dispersed by 
the duke of Norfolk. In the 
following year they again rose, 
but were promptly suppressed 
and the leader executed 
(1491-1547). See Harry. 

Oueen Mary. 

HENRY (the Second). 

King of France, succeeded his 
father Francis in 1547. He 
married Catherine de Medici, 
but was largely under the influ- 
ence of his celebrated mistress 
Diane de Poitiers, and the 
family of Guise. He formed an 
alliance with Scotland, and 
declared war against England 
which ended in 1558 with the 
loss of Calais, the last English 
possession on French soil, that 
city having been in the hands 


of the English for 210 years. 
Henry was accidentally wounded 
in a tournament held in honour 
of his daughter’s marriage, by 
Montgomery, a Scottish noble- 
man and captain of the guard, 
of which he died on July 10, 
1559. it was his fixed in- 
tention to destroy all the 
Protestants in his dominions, 
and his sudden death preserved 
him from the execration which 
clings to the name of 
Charles IX. 

Queen Mary . 

HENRY BEDINGFIELD. 

A Privy Councillor, son of sir 
Edmund Bedingfield. On the 
death of Edward VI he sup- 
ported the cause of Mary, and 
was appointed Constable of the 
Tower in 1555 in succession 
to Lord Williams of Thame, 
when the princess Elizabeth 
was committed to his keeping 
for supposed complicity in the 
rebellion of sir Thomas Wyatt. 
On the accession of Elizabeth 
he retired into private life. 

Queen Mary. 

HENRY OF ENGLAND. See 
Henry (the Second). 

HENRY OF WINCHESTER. 

Henry of Blois, brother of 
king Stephen. Abbot of Glas- 
tonbury, where he built a palace 
and abbey buildings ; created 
bishop of Winchester in 1129, 
and procured the throne for his 
brother Stephen — whom he 
crowned — by guaranteeing the 
liberty of the Church. 



HEN] 


1 66 


[HER 


Bechet. Henry c.i Winchester ? 

Henry. Him who crown’d Stephen — 
King Stephen’s brother ! No ; too royal for 
me. 

Was suspended from his 
bishoprick for advising Stephen 
to forbid Theobald’s attend- 
ance at the papal council at 
Rheims in 1148, but obtained 
absolution three years later. 
Consecrated Becket as primate 
in 1162, and supported him 
against Henry II, and on his 
deathbed rebuked Henry for 
the murder of Becket. 

Becket. 

HENRY (The Fifth). 

King of England, surnamed 
Monmouth from the place of 
his birth, eldest son of Henry' 
IV. Henry having laid claim 
to the French crown, left the 
kingdom in the hands of a 
regency, and invaded France, 
where he won, in 1415, a great 
victory at Agincourt. Three 
years later he married Catharine, 
daughter of the French king, 
and by the treaty of Troyes got 
himself appointed as successor 
to the French throne. One 
of the most illustrious men of 
this reign was sir John Old- 
castle, Lord Cobham (<7.^.), a 
nobleman who had fought with 
success in France during the 
reign of Henry IV, and a friend 
of Henry V. Being a convert 
to Lollardism he was sum- 
moned by archbishop Arundel 
to appear before his court, and 
being found guilty of heresy, 
Henry had the unpleasant task 
of choosing between his old 


comrade and the Roman pre- 
late, with the result that Cob- 
ham was condemned and burnt 
to death, December 1417. 

Sir John Oldcastle y 
Lord Cobham. 

HERBERT (of Bo sham). 

Born at Bosham, 1162. On 
the election of Becket to the 
archbishoprick of Canterbury,. 
Bosham was appointed his 
special monitor. Accompanied 
Becket to the Council of Tours 
(1163), and the Councils of 
Clarendon and Northampton 
in 1164. Went with Becket 
into exile, and returned with 
him in 1170, but returned almost 
immediately to France. Fie 
returned again to England in 
1184, and died two years later 
and was buried in Bosham 
Church. He was the author of 
a biography of Becket. 

Becket . 

HERB-OF-GRACE. 

The common rue, a perennial 
suffrutescent plant, with a bitter 
taste. Queen Mary . 

HERCULES. 

My Eustace might have sat for Hercules ; 
So muscular he spread, so broad of breast.. 

Has reference to Hercules, 
son of Zeus and Alkmene, the 
typical hero of the Greeks. 

Dream of Fair Women ; 

Gardener's Daughter . 

HERCULES. 

He fasts, they say, this mitred Hercules l 
He fast ! is that an arm of fast ? 

Bishop Foliot’s reference to 
archbishop Becket. 


Becket . 



HER] 


1 67 


HERE. 

Wife of Zeus and the queen 
of heaven, whose sacred bird 
was the peacock. In Greek 
mythology the attendant at the 
banquet of the gods, whose food 
was ambrosia and whose drink 
was nectar. In Italian myth- 
ology she was identified with 
Juno (£.#.). 

CEnone ; The Princess. 

HEREFORD (Bishop of). 

Gerard, archbishop of York, 
sent by William II in 1095 on 
a secret mission to pope Urban, 
from whom he obtained the 
despatch of a legate and pallium. 
On his return was created 
bishop of Hereford, and crowned 
Henry I ; translated to York 
in 1100; opposed archbishop 
Anselm in the investiture dis- 
pute, but was repudiated by the 
pope, and compelled to profess 
obedience to Anselm. He 
attempted to consecrate bishops, 
and on his death was refused 
burial in the minster, but v T as 
subsequently transferred thither 
by archbishop Thomas II. 

Bechet . 

HEREWARD THE WAKE. 

A yeoman who made a gallant 
attempt to rally his countrymen 
against the Conqueror. He held 
the Isle of Ely for about twelve 
months (1070-71), and when 
William succeeded in encom- 
passing the English, and pene- 
trating their camp of refuge, 
he cut his way through the 
besieging army and escaped. 


[HER 

His subsequent fate is not 
certain. 

The Foresters. 

SERMON HILL. 

A mountain on the north- 
eastern border of Palestine, over 
against Lebanon, and a great 
landmark to the Israelites. It 
is referred to in many instances 
in the Bible, and the mount on 
which Christ was transfigured. 

The beauty that endures on the Spiritual 
height. 

When we shall stand transfigured, like Christ 
on Hermon hill. 

Happy. 

HERN. 

The Heron. 

The Brook ; In Me- 
ntor i am ; Gareth and 
Lynette ; Geraint and 
Enid; Lancelot and 
Elaine ; The Falcon. 

HEROD. 

Ah, gentle cousin, since your Herod’s death,. 
How oft hath Peter knock’d at Mary’s gate ? 

Oueen Mary. 

HEROD. 

And so she throve and prosper’d : so three 
years 

She prosper’d : on the fourth she fell. 

Like Herod, when the shout was in his ears. 
Struck thro’ the pangs of hell. 

Has reference to Herod 
Agrippa in Acts xii. 22-23. 

And the people gave a shout, saying, It is 
the voice of a god, and not of a man. 

And immediately the angel of the Lord 
smote him, because he gave not God the glory : 
and he was eaten of worms and gave up the- 
ghost. 

Palace of Art. 

HEROD-HENRY. 

When Herod-Henry first 
Began to hatter at your English Church, 

Refers to Henry VIIPs re- 
pudiation of the papal authority 
in England. 


Queen Mary . 



HER] 


168 


[HIL 


HERON. 

A large water-fowl, with long 
sharp bill and. long legs and toes. 

Happy. 

HESPER. 

The personification of the 
evening star. 

Leonine Elegiacs ; Mariana 
in the South ; In Me- 
morial! ; Locksley Hall 
Sixty Y ears After. 

HESPERIAN. 

He smiled, and opening out his milk-white 
palm 

Disclosed a fruit of pure Hesperian gold, 

That smelt ambrosially, 

The golden apple that grew 
in the fabulous garden of Hes- 
perides the daughter of Hes- 
perus, or Night, in Africa. 

(Enone. 


HESPER-PHOSPHOR. 

Sweet Hesper- Phosphor, double name 

Hesper and Phosphor are two 
names for the same star, i.e. 
Venus as she is the evening or 
the morning star. 

In Memoriam. 

HESPERUS. 

The personification of the 
evening-star. The name of a 
knight — one of four brothers — 
who kept the passages of Castle 
Perilous, where the lady Lyonors 
was held a prisoner, and who 
was overthrown by sir Gareth. 

Leonine Elegiacs ; Gareth 
and Lynette. 

HETAIRAI. 

But girls, Hetairai, curious in their art, 

Hired animalisms. 

A supposed primitive state 
of society, in which all the 


females of a tribe were held in 
common. 

Lucretius . 


HETTY. 

Daughter of the village squire, 
supposed to be weak-minded. 

An Hetty wur weak i’ the hattics, wi’out 
ony harm i’ the legs, 

Village Wife . 

HIC JACETS. 

The first words on old tomb- 
stones — ‘ Here lies! 

Merlin and Vivien . 

HIDALGOS. 

Spanish noblemen. 

C olumbus . 


HIGGINS. 

A farm labourer. 

Promise of May. 

HILDEBRAND. 

Pope Gregory VII, born in 
Tuscany. His youth was passed 
at Rome in the monastery 
of St. Maria, and afterwards 
studying at Clugny became 
famous as a preacher. Elected 
pope in 1073 ; deposed by the 
emperor Henry IV, but Gregory 
retaliated by excommunicating 
the emperor, and finally com- 
pelled him to do penance. 
Gregory was however subse- 
quently deposed in favour of 
Clement III, in 1080, by Henry, 
who besieged and captured 
Rome, but Gregory was liber- 
ated by Robert Guiscard, and 
retired to Salerno, where he 
died. 

Harold . 


HILL OF HOPE. 


4 Brother/ she said, * let this be call’d hence- 
forth 

The Hill of Hope 

Lover* s Pale. 



HIL] 

HILL OF WOE. 


169 

Last we came 
To what our people call ‘ The Hill of Woe.* 

Lover's Tale. 

Mills* 

A millionaire family. 

new-comers in an ancient hold, 
New-comers from the Mersey, millionaires, 
Here lived the Hills — a Tudor-chimnied hulk 
Of mellow brickwork on an isle of bowers. 

Edwin Morris. 

HISPANIOLA. 

The largest of the West 
Indian Islands, now known by 
the name of Hayti, discovered 
by Columbus in 1492. In 
1697 the island was ceded to 
France, but in 1791 after a 
revolution, the natives swept the 
island of all Europeans, and 
established a republican form of 
government. 

Columbus . 

HO. 

they swerved and brake 
Flying, and Arthur call’d to stay the brands 
That hack’d '• among the flyers, * Ho ! they 

yield !„* 

A word used by the Heralds to 
stop fighting in tournaments 
in mediaeval times. 

Coming of Arthur . 

HOLLY. 

An evergreen shrub, with 
hard, prickly leaves and red 
and yellow berries. 

The Princess ; Spiteful 
Letter ; In Memoriam ; 
Pelleas and Ettarre ; Sir 
John Oldcastle , Lord 
Cobham . 

HOLLY-HOAK. 

A rich luxuriant plant,^ a 
favourite in English shrubberies, 


[HOL 

with a great variety of colour 
in its flower. 

The Princess . 

HOLLYHOCK. 

A kind of mallow, bearing 
flowers of various colours. 

A Spirit Haunts ; Aylmer* s 
Field. 

HOLMES. 

A clergyman present at the 
house of Francis Allen, on 
Christmas Eve, when a con- 
versation on the decay of 
Christmas customs and the 
Christian religion took place 
between some college-friends 
assembled round the wassail- 
bowl. 

The Epic . 

HOLOFERNES. 

And, couch’d behind a Judith, underneath 
The head of Holofemes peep’d and saw. 

The Assyrian general in com- 
mand of Nebuchadnezzar’s 
army. As he was besieging 
the' # town of Bethulia, Judith, a 
Jewish heroine, made her way 
into his tent and cutting off his 
head as he lay asleep, bore it 
in triumph to the town. The 
subject forms part of the 
apocryphal book of Judith, but 
it is not mentioned by Josephus, 
and is therefore considered 
spurious. Judith , a poem, the 
authorship of which is unknown, 
gives in some 35^ lines the 
slaughter of Holofemes and 
Judith’s summons to the 
Israelites. 

The Princess . 



HOL] 


170 


[HOI* 


HOLY CROSS. 

English cries. Harold and Holy Cross 1 
Out ! out ! 

See Waltham. 

HOLY ELDERS. 

Such times have been not since the light that 

led 

The holy Elders with the gift of myrrh. 

Has reference to the Magi 
who were led to Bethlehem by 
the Star in the East where they 
presented to the new-born 
Christ their offerings of gold, 
frankincense and myrrh. St. 
Matthew ii. 11. 

Morie d* Arthur ; Fas sing of 
Arthur. 

HOLY GRAIL. 

The vessel made of emerald 
stone, said to have been used 
by Christ at the last supper, 
and in which Joseph of Ari- 
mathasa caught some of the 
blood that flowed from His 
wounds on Calvary. 

The cup, the cup itself from which our Lord 

drank at the last sad supper. 

The story is, that after Joseph 
of Arimathaea had begged the 
body of Christ he followed 
Philip to Gaul as a preacher, 
and being sent across the 
Channel to carry the gospel 
into Britain, came to Glaston- 
bury in Somersetshire. He 
brought with him the dish 
which was eventually lost, and 
the quest of the Grail was 
undertaken by several knights 
of the Round Table. As the 
Knights were seated at the 
Round Table at Camelot, a 
noise as of thunder was heard 
and the palace shook, and there 


came from the beam a vision 
of the Holy Grail, covered with 
white samite and borne by 
invisible hands ; all the knights 
heard the noise, but only sir 
Galahad the pure was permitted 
to see it with his bodily eyes,, 
after w r hich it was borne away 
to the holy heavens. 

The Cathedral of Genoa is 
supposed to contain the Holy 
Grail. It is a shallow basin 
made of dark green glass, and 
was for centuries regarded as 
an emerald. It was brought 
to Genoa in 1101 a.d. by 
Guglielmo Embriaco, a native 
of Genoa and a Crusader. 
Embriaco invented the movable 
wooden towers used at the 
siege and capture of Jerusalem 
in the First Crusade. 

Sir Galahad; Holy GraiL 

HOLY LAND. 

=Palestine. 

In Memoriam ; Lover* s' 
Tale ; Happy ; The For- 
esters r. 

HOLY ROOD. 

The cross or crucifix fixed 
over the entrance to the chancel 
of a church. 

Harold ; Queen Mary ? 
Bechet ; I he Foresters. 

HOLY SEPULCHRE. 

whereon X vow’d 
That, if our Princes harken’d to my prayer, 
Whatever wealth I brought from that new 

world, 

Should, in this old, be consecrate to lead 
A new crusade against the Saracen, 

And free the Holy Sepulchre from thrall. 

The Sepulchre in which the 
body of Christ was laid. 

Columbus . 



HGL] 


171 


[HOK 


HOLY WAR. 

The name given to an expedi- 
tion carried on by Christians 
against the Saracens in the Holy 
Land in the eleventh, twelfth 
and thirteenth centuries. 

Happy. 

HOLY WRIT. 

—The Scriptures. 

Merlin and Vivien ; Holy 
Grail; Queen Mary ; The 
Foresters. 

HOMER. 

The great epic poet of Greece, 
and author of the Iliad and the 
Odyssey. 

The Princess ; On Trans- 
lations of Homer ; Epilogue ; 
Parnassus. 

HOMERIC. 

these twelve books of mine 
Were faint Homer x echoes, nothing- worth. 

Has reference to the poetry 
of Homer the famous Greek 
poet. 

The Epic . 

HONEYSUCKLE 

A flowering plant with cream- 
coloured flowers. 

May Queen ; AylmePs 
Field ; Gareth and Lynette; 
City Child. 

HONG-KONG. 

dag-cloister; Anatolian Ghost; 

Hong- Kong, Karaac, and the rest. 

=the three cities. 

To Ulysses. 

HONORIUS. 

but echo’d on to reach 
Honorius, till he heard them, and decreed 
That Rome no more should wallow in this 
old lust 

Of Paganism, and make her festal hour 
Dark with the blood of man who mur’er’d 
man. 


Flavius Honorius Augustus, 
emperor of Rome, second son 
of Theodosius. He suppressed 
the gladiatorial combats prac- 
tised in Rome. It was during 
his reign that the persecution 
of the pagans began (384-423). 

St. T elemachus. 

HOOD (Robin). See Robin,. 
Robin Hood. 

HOOPER (John). 

Born in Somersetshire in 1518, 
and became a Cistercian monk 
at Gloucester. A study of the 
writings of Zwingli con- 
verted him to the reformed 
faith, and in 1550 he w r as 
created bishop of Gloucester 
by Edward VI, but was impris- 
oned in the Fleet prison for 
objecting to wear the episcopal 
habit. In 1552 he was made 
bishop of Worcester. On the 
accession of Mary he was com- 
mitted to the Tower, and after 
eighteen months 5 imprisonment 
was tried for heresy, con- 
demned to death, and burnt 
at Gloucester, February 9, 1555. 

Queen Mary. 

HOP. 

A bitter plant, the cones of 
which are much used in brewing. 

AylmePs Field ; The 
Princess . 

HORACE. 

The Roman lyric poet. 

Epilogue; Poets and their 
Bibliographies. 

HORSELEECH. 

Golden Year. 



HOR] 

HORTENSIA 


[HUG 


172 


On the other side 
Hortensia spoke against the tax ; 

In 44 b.c. after the assassina- 
tion of Julius Caesar there was 
formed in Rome a Commission, 
called the Commission of Public 
Safety. This Commission, hav- 
ing declared war against Brutus 
(the murderer of Caesar), levied 
a war tax on the wealthy ladies 
of Rome, but the eloquent 
pleading of Hortensia succeeded 
in the proposed tax being re- 
jected. She was the daughter 
of the famous orator Hortensius. 

The Princess. 

HOUGOUMONT. 

this, indeed, ’’'her voice 
And meaning, whom the roar of Hougoumont 
Left mightiest of all peoples under heaven ? 

= Battle of Waterloo. 

To the Queen , II. 

houris. 

Or thronging all one porch of Paradise 
A group of Houris bow’d to see 
The dying Islamite, with hands and eyes 
That said, We wait for thee. 

Seventy-two beautiful virgins 
of paradise, whose companion- 
ship, according to the teaching of 
the Korany is part of the reward 
of every faithful Mohammedan 
after death. They are pos- 
sessed with perpetual youth and 
beauty. 

Palace of Art ; Promise of May. 

HOURS. 

But thy strong Hours indignant work’d their 
wills. 

Three sisters, attendants on 
the gods. 

T ithonus. 

HOWARD (Thomas). 

See Thomas Howard. 


HOWARD (Lord William). See 
William, William Howard. 

HOWL. 

—Owl. 

Ozvd Rod. 

HOWLABY BECK. 

But I minds when i’ Howlaby beck won 
daay ya was ticklin’ o’ trout, 

An’ keeaper ’e seed ya an roon’d, an’ ’e beal’d 
to ya ‘ Lad, coom hout ’ 

Church-warden and the Curate. 

HOWLABY DAALE. 

An’ ’e kep his head hoop like a king, an’ Vd 
niver not fown wi’ ’is taail. 

Fur *e’d niver done nowt to be shaamed on, 
when we was i’ Howlaby Daale. 

Ozvd Rod. 

HUBERT. 

Lover of Miriam Erne, only 
child of the late Miriam Erne. 
Hubert was spoken of by 
Miriam’s father as the fairy 
prince. On the wedding morn- 
ing Miriam asked her father 
to wish her joy. He replied, 

What need to wish when Hubert weds in 
you 

The heart of Love, and you the soul of Truth 
In Hubert ? 

The Ring . 

HUGH. 

An old knight who had fought 
at Agincourt where Henry V 
defeated the French in 1415. 
Walter, son of Walter Vivian, 
showed to some of his friends 
invited to spend the day with 
them, some of the articles which 
adorned his father’s house, and 
which had been collected from 
all quarters of the globe and 
•at all eras of history. And 
* this ’ he said, c was Hugh’s at 
Agincourt.’ 

The Princess. 



HUG] 


173 


[ICE 


HUGH (de Morville). See De 
Morville. 


HUMBER (river). 

Harold. 


HUNGARY. 

Shall I weep if a Poland fall ? shall I shriek 
if a Hungary fail? 

In 1848-9 the Hungarians 
under Louis Kossuth rebelled 
against Austrian rule, but, 
with the aid of Russia, were 
reduced to subjection. 

Maud. 

HUNTINGDON (Earl of). See 
Robin, Robin Hood. 


HUTTERBY HALL. 

I could fettle and clump owd booots and 
shoes w i’ the best on ’em all. 

As fer as fro’ Thursby thum hup to Harmsby 
and Hutterby Hall. 

Northern Cobbler. 

HYACINTH. 

A beautiful bulbous-rooted 
flowering plant of many varieties. 
The hyacinth was fabled to 
have sprung from the blood of 
Hyakinthos, a youth killed by 
Apollo with a quoit. 

Balm and Balan ; Guinevere. 

HYADES. 

on shore, and when 
Thro’ scudding drifts the rainy Hyades 
Vext the dim sea : 

A Greek word meaning the 
c rainers ’ ; and a name given 
to seven stars in the constella- 
tion Taurus ; their rising and 
setting simultaneously with the 
sun is believed to be attended 
with wet weather. 

Ulysses . 

HYMEN. 

In Greek mythology the god 


of marriage, son of Apollo ; 
represented as a boy with 
wings, and carrying in his hand 
the marriage torch and bridal 
veil. Originally a song sung at 
a Greek wedding. 

Till Hymen brought bis love-delighted hour, 
There dwelt no joy in Eden’s rosy bow’r ! 

In vain the viewless seraph ling’ring there, 

At starry midnight, charm’d the silent air ; 

In vain, the wild-bird caroll’d on the steep*. 
To hail the sun, slow- wheeling from the deep ; 
In vain, to soothe the solitary shade. 

Aerial notes in mingling measure play’d ; 
The summer wind that shook the spangled 
tree, 

The whispering wave, the murmur of the bee ; — 
Still slowly pass’d the melancholy day. 

And still the stranger wist not where to stray. 
The world was sad 1 — the garden was a wild C 
And man, the hermit, sigh’d — till Woman 
smil’d ! 

Campbell : Pleasures ofcHope, Part II 

The Cup. 


HYPERION. 

‘ Look where another of our Gods, the Sun, 
Apollo, Delius, or of older use 
All-seeing Hyperion — what you will — 

The name given by the poets 
to the Sun. 

Lucretius. 

IBYCI. 

And one an uxor pauperis Ibyci. 

Has reference to the wife of 
Ibycus, a Greek lyric poet. 

Becket . 

ICELAND. 

An island in the North 
Atlantic Ocean. 

Harold. 

ICENIAN. 

An ancient British tribe who 
inhabited the present counties 
of Norfolk and Suffolk. Under 
their queen Boadicea 
they rose against the Romans, 
destroyed the Roman colonies 
of Colchester, St. Albans and 
London, and slew 70,000 
Romans, but were in turn de- 



1 74 


[IDA 


IDA] 

feated by Suetonius Paulinus 
the Roman governor of Britain. 

Boddicea. 

IDA. 

A mountain range in Asia 
Minor extending from Phrygia 
through Mysia into the Troas. 
It was the scene of the rape of 
Ganymede and the judgment 
of Paris, and the place from 
which the gods watched the 
battle between the Trojans and 
the Greeks. Zeus is said to 
have been bom here, and it 
possessed a temple in honour 
of Cybele the Idaean Mother. 
The rivers Gramcus, Simois, 
Scamander and many other 
smaller streams have their 
sources in the mountain, hence 
Tennyson’s epithet of Many- 
fount ain'd Ida . 

C Enone ; Lucretius ; Death 
of (Enone . 

IDA. 

Heroine of I he Princess , 
betrothed in infancy to prince 
Arac. On attaining marriage- 
able age she determined to 
found a college for women, and 
rigidly exclude all men. She 
was essentially earnest and de- 
voted to her cause for its own 
sake, and would undoubtedly 
have shrunk from no personal 
sacrifice which might have pro- 
moted the welfare of her darling 
purpose. In her position as 
head of the college she was the 
embodiment of majestic dignity, 
her voice resonant and divine 
.and formed a striking contrast 


to some of the subordinate 
members of her staff. In 
founding the college her chief 
aim was for the betterment of 
woman’s position. She thought 
that the province of woman in 
the economy of nature was 
intellectual eminence. 

Knowledge is now no more a fountain seal’d : 
Drink deep, until the habits of the slave. 

The sins of emptiness, gossip and spite 
And slander, die.’ 

The prince put on woman's 
clothing, and was admitted 
to the college as a girl 
student. The prince’s father 
declared war upon the father 
of the princess to enforce 
the marriage contract, and it 
was agreed to settle the quarrel 
by a combat of fifty warriors on 
either side ; the prince was 
beaten and the college was 
turned into a hospital for the 
wounded men, most of the 
girl graduates being ordered 
home. The princess remained 
to nurse the defeated prince, 
with the natural consequence 
that in tending him she was 
drawn to love him, abandoned 
the college, and married her 
betrothed. 

5 The Princess. 

IDALIAN. 

Idalian Aphrodite beautiful, 

Fresh as the foam, new-bathed in Paphian 
wells, 

Idalium, an ancient town in 
Cyprus. It possessed a temple 
sacred to Aphrodite, from 
which she was sometimes called 
Idalia. 

(Enone. 



IDE] 


175 


[INN 


IDEN. 

And Thomas White will prove this Thomas 
Wyatt, 

And he will prove an Idea to this Cade, 

Has reference to Alexander 
Iden, a Kentish squire who 
slew Jack Cade (q-v.) and 
brought his head to Henry VI, 
f 0 r which service he was knighted . 
Shakespeare in Second Part of 
King Henry VI, Act v . Scene 
i, alludes to it : 

King Henry. The head of Cade! Great 
God, how just art thou ! 

O, let me view his visage, being dead, 

* * * 

King Henry. How art thou call’d? and 
what is thy degree ? 

I den. Alexander Iden, that’s my name ; 
A poor esquire of Kent, that loves his king. 

* * * 

King Henry. Iden, kneel down. 

Rise up a knight. 

Queen Mary. 


IDRIS. 

Himself beyond the rest pushing could move 
The chair of Idris. 

A mythical Welsh giant, 
whose rocky chair was on the 
mount of Cader Idris in 
Merionethshire. Tradition says 
that any one passing the night 
in the chair, would, in the morn- 
ing either be found dead or 
endowed with poetical inspir- 
ation. 

Marriage of Geraint. 


ILIAD, 

The great epic poem by 
Homer. 


Parnassus. 


1LION. 

but in front 

The gorges, opening wide apart, reveal 
Troas and Ilion’s column’d citadel. 

The crown of Troas. 

= The city of Troy, built by 
the gods Neptune and Apollo, 
for Laomedon, the father of 
Tithonus. 


(EnoTte ; T ithonus ; Lucre- 
tius ; To Virgil ; Death of 
CEnone. 

ILLYRIAN. 

Illyrian woodlands, echoing falls 
Of water, sheets of summer glass, 

The coastlands east of the 
Adriatic and north of Greece. 

To E. L. 

IMMANUEL GOLDSMITHS. 

A jeweller, whose shop was 
ransacked and c ower a hoonderd 
pounds worth o’ rings stolen.’ 

Promise of May. 


IND. 

and bind with bands 
That island queen who sways the floods and 
lands 

From Ind to Ind, 

= India. 

Buonaparte ; Queen Mary . 

INDIA. 

Milton ; A Welcome to Her 
Royal Highness Marie Alex - 
androvna , Duchess of Edin- 
burgh ; To the Marquis of 
Dufferin and Ava ; On the 
Jubilee of Queen Victoria ; 
Defence of Lucknow. 

INDIES. 

= West Indies. 

Columbus ; Queen Mary. 

INNISKILLENS. 

The second squadron of 
Inniskillings, who, with two 
squadrons of the Scots Greys 
made the famous charge at 
Balaclava. 

Charge of the Heavy Brigade 
at Balaclava* 



INQ] 176 [ISL 


INQUISITION DOGS. 

To these Inquisition dogs and the devildoms 

ol Spain. 

= The Spanish Inquisition 
established in 1480. 

2 'he Revenge. 

IONIAN ARTEMIS. See Ephe- 
sian Artemis. 

IONIAN FATHER. 

And there the Ionian father of the rest ; 

A million wrinkles carved his skin ; 

= Homer. 

Palace of Art . 

IONIAN HILLS. 

There lies a vale in Ida, lovelier 

Than all the valleys of Ionian hills. 

May probably refer to the 
neighbouring hills of Mysia. 

( Enone . 

IRAN. 

= The Persian empire. 

AkbaPs Dream . 

IRELAND. 

Last Tournament ; Harold . 

IRIS. 

But light-foot Iris brought it y ester-eve. 

Delivering, that to me. 

The daughter of Thaumas 
and Electra. She was a virgin 
goddess and a messenger of the 
gods, and swift as the breeze 
with wings of gold. She was 
the personification of the rain- 
bow. 

(Enone; Achilles over the 
Trench . 

mis. 

A genus of plants having 
showy flowers and bulbous roots. 

In Memoriam . 

ISABEL. 

Revered Isabel, the crown and head, 

The stately flower of female fortitude, 

Of perfect wifehood and pure lowlihead. 

Has reference to Tennyson’s 


mother. The poem itself is a 
description of her. 

Isabel . 

ISCARIOT. 

That Pontius and Iscariot by my side 
Show’d like fair seraphs. 

= Judas, sumamed Iscariot, 
one of the twelve Apostles* 
who betrayed his Master for 
thirty pieces of silver. 

St. Simeon Stylites ; Queen 
Mary . 

ISIS. 

For the drift of the Maker is dark, an Isis hid 
by the veil. 

An Egyptian goddess and 
the goddess of procreation and 
birth, her symbol being the 
cow. Her principal temple was 
at Busiris in the Delta of the 
Nile. Several feasts were held 
in her honour, and there were 
also special mysteries of Isis* 
supposed to have been borrowed 
from the Eleusinian mysteries- 
of Demeter. 

Maud. 

ISLAMITE. 

Or thronging all one porch of Paradise 
A group of Houris bow’d to see 
The dying Islamite, with hands and eyes 
That said. We wait for thee. 

=Obedience to God’s Will. 
Palace of Art . 

ISLE OF FINN. 

Go back to the Isle of Finn and suffer the Pash 
to be Past.’ 

s= Ireland. 

Voyage of Maeldune. 

ISLE OF A SAINT. 

ISLE OF FIRE. 

ISLE OF FLOWERS. 

ISLE OF FRUITS. 

ISLE OF SHOUTING. 



ISL] 


177 


[IXI 


ISLE OP THE DOUBLE TOWERS. 
ISLE OF WITCHES. 

See Maeldune. 


ISLE OF WIGHT. 


Yet one lay-hearth would give you welcome 
(Take it and come) to the Isle of Wight : 

An island in the English 
Channel. 

To Ulysses ; To Rev. F. D. 

M auric e. 


ISLIP. 

A town near Oxford. 

Queen Mary . 

ISOLT. 

According to the Arthurian 
tradition there were two ladies 
of this name, Isolt the Fair, 
daughter of Anguish, king of 
Erin, wife of king Mark (q.v.) 
of Cornwall ; and Isolt of the 
‘ White Hands/ daughter of 
Howell, king of Brittany, and 
the wife of sir Tristram 
It is the latter lady to whom 
Tennyson refers. 

Last Tournament ; Guinevere. 


ISSA BEN MARIAM. 

Issa Ben. Mariam, his own prophet, cried 
‘ Love one another, little ones,’ and ‘ bless ’ 
Whom ? even 1 your persecutors 5 ! 

= Jesus, the son of Mary, 
founder of the Christian religion. 

AkbaPs Dream. 


ISSUS. 


when her Satrap bled 
At Issus by the Syrian gates, 

A Cihcian town, famous for 
the victory which Alexander the 
Great obtained over Darius, 
333 b.c. 

Alexander . 


ITALY. 

The Brook ; The Daisy ; 
To Dante ; Queen Mary. 


ITHACENSIAN SUITORS. 

I ceased, and all the ladies, each at each 
Like the Ithacensian suitors in old time, 
Stared with great eyes, and laugh’d with 
alien lips. 

Has reference to Penelope* 
wife of Odysseus, king of Ithaca* 
who, during the latter’s absence 
in the Trojan war, was beset 
by numerous suitors, assuming 
that Odysseus had perished in 
the -war. Eventually, through 
the good offices of Pallas 
Athene, Odysseus returned, and 
relieved her of her perplexity. 

The Princess. 

IVIN 5 . 

= Ivy. 

Owd Rod ; Church-warden 
and the Curate „ 


IVY. 

A plant of the genus Hedera , „ 
with dark smooth evergreen 
leaves. The stem clings to 
walls and trees. 

CEnone ; Lotos-Eaters ; 
Day-Dream ; The Brook ; 
Spiteful Letter ; Marriage 
of Geraint; Lover 3 s Tale ; 
Harold ; The Foresters . 

IX10N-LIKE. 

Shadows thou dost strike. 
Embracing cloud, Ixion-like ; 

Ixion was the king of the 
Lapithae, who attempted to 
win the love of Juno, but 
Jupiter substituted a cloud of 
her instead, whereby he became 
the father of the Centaurs, and 
whom Jupiter punished by 
fastening him to an eternally 
revolving wheel in hell. 

Two Voices. 

N 



178 


[JAM 


JAC] 

JACHIN. 

A brass pillar, signifying sta- 
bility, at the entrance to Solo- 
mon’s temple, i Kings vii. 21. 

Ijhave built the Lord a bouse — sing, Asaph 1 

The cymbal, Heman! blow the trumpet, 
priest! 

Fall, cloud, and fill the house — Io ! my two 
> pillars, 

Jachin and Boaz! — 

Harold. 

JACK. 

The man employed by a 
farmer named Jocty Dawes to 
remove his household belong- 
ings from the farm as the house 
was supposed to be haunted. 

Walking to the Mail . 

JACK. 

And’ Jack on his ale-house bench has as many 
lies as a Czar ; 

See Czar. 

Maud. 

JACKSON. 

A labourer to farmer Dobson. 
Promise of May. 

JACOBINISM— JACQUERIE. 

After madness, after massacre, Jacobinism 
and Jacquerie. 

Jacobinism . The policy of 
the Jacobite faction opposite to 
legitimate government. Jac- 
querie . A name given to the 
French peasants who rose in 
revolt against the nobles during 
the absence of king John II 
of France as a prisoner in Eng- 
land in 1358, the leader of 
whom assumed the name of 
Jacques Bonhomme. 

Locksley Hall Sixty Tears 
After. 

JAEL. 

And highest, among the statues, statue -like. 
Between a cymbal’d Miriam and a Jael, 


A Jewish heroine, wife of 
Heber the Kenite, who slew 
Sisera the captain of the host 
of the Canaanites, who after 
being defeated by Deborah and 
Balak near the brook Kishon, 
fled and took refuge in her tent. 
See Judges iv . 

The Princess. 

JAMES. 

A friend of the poet Leonard, 
also spending a holiday in 
Llanberis. He had listened to 
the lines written by Leonard 
concerning the Golden Age, 
and added all in heat, 

4 What stuff is this ! 
Old writers push’d the happy season back, — 
The more fools they — we forward : dreamers 

both : 

He declares : 

That unto him who works, and feels he works, 
This same grand year is ever at the doors.' 

Golden Tear. 

JAMES. 

We flung the burthen of the second James. 

=We got rid of James II, 
declared the throne vacant, and 
resisted him by force of arms. 

Third of February. 

JAMES. 

A Protestant who with others 
was assembled to see the 
burning of Cranmer, who at 
the time of the conversation 
was set upon a scaffold before 
the people. 

First Protestant . See how the tears run 
down his fatherly face. '•* 

Second Protestant. James, didst thou 
ever see a carrion crow 
Stand watching a sick .beast before"he"dies ? 

Queen Mary. 

JAMES, ST. See St. James. 



JAM] 


179 


[JEN 


JAMES WILLOWS. 

Cousin of Katie Willows, and 
also her lover — 

James Willows, of one name and heart with 

her. 

Katie and her lover quar- 
relled, and it was implied that 
the narrator, Lawrence Aylmer, 
of whom James was jealous, 
was the guilty person. 

And James departed vext with him and her. 

Lawrence, however, did Katie 
a good turn by engaging the 
attention of her father Philip, so 
that she and James had an 
opportunity of making up the 
quarrel. 

1 Arrived and found the sun of sweet content 

Re- risen in Katie’s eyes, and all things well. 

The Brook. 

JANE. See Jenny. 

JANE. 

Daughter of Henry Grey, 
marquis of Dorset and a dis- 
tinguished linguist. The duke 
of Northumberland, who had 
succeeded Somerset, compelled 
her to marry against her wish 
his fourth son, lord Guildford 
Dudley, and on the death of 
Edward VI had her pro- 
claimed queen. On the acces- 
sion of Mary she was sent to the 
Tower, and being condemned 
to death was six months later 
with her husband beheaded. 

Queen Mary. 

JAPAN. 

To Ulysses. 

JAQIJES. 

Our kindlier^trustieri Jacques, past away 1 

Has reference to Jaques, a 
lord attendant on the banished 
duke in the forest of Arden. Is 


one of the characters in Shake- 
speare’s As you like it, AW s 
well that ends well , and Henry 
V . 

To Rev. W . H. Brookfield. 

JASMINE. 

A shrubby plant, bearing 
flowers of a peculiarly fragrant 
odour. 

Dream of Fair W omen ; 

Aylmer's Field ; The Prin- 
cess. 


JAY. 

A bird allied to the crow 
family with gay plumage. 

My life is full ; Progress of 
Spring ; The Foresters. 

JEAN. 

A priest. 

Harold. 


JENNY. 

Cousin of the speaker in the 
poem, and to whose house she 
had come with the idea of 
making trouble between the 
speaker and her lover Willy. 
She partially succeeded, being 
seen one moonlight night taking 
a walk with Willy. On account 
of this the speaker suggested 
to her lover that they should 
part, but Willy said 

Sweetheart, I love you so well that your good 
name is mine. 

And what do I care for Jane, let her speak of 
you well or ill ; 

But marry me out of hand : we two shall be 
happy still.’ 

Grandmother . 


JENNY. 

One of a crowd of women 
and children assembled on 
London Bridge, who were much 



JEP] 


[JOA. 


against the marriage of Mary 
and Philip of Spain. 

Queen Mary. 


JEPHTHA. 

JEPHTHA’S DAUGHTER. 

Pale, for on her the thunders of the house 
Had fallen first, was Edith that same night ; 
Pale as the Jephtha’s daughter. 

Has reference to the daughter 
of Jephtha, who was offered 
up to God as a sacrifice. See 
Judges xv . 

A ylmer's F ield ; T he Flight. 


JEROOSILIM (Jerusalem). 

Tomorrow. 

JERSEY. 

The largest of the Channel 
Islands. 

First Quarrel. 

JERUSALEM. 

The capital of ancient 
Judaea, and of modern Palestine, 
and the scene of many import- 
ant events in Biblical history. 

Columbus ; Becket ; Promise 
of May. 

JESSAMINE. 

=Jasmine. 

Maud. 


JESSMINE. 

= Jasmine. 

Spinster's Szveei-Arts . 


JESSES. 

Yet while they road together down the plain, 
Their talk was all of training, terms of art. 
Diet and seeling, jesses, leash and lure. 

Two short straps round the 
legs of a hawk to which was 
attached the leash. 

Merlin and Vivien . 


JILT. 

Name of a horse. 

The Brook . 


180 

JINNY. 

Daughter of the village squire- 

An’ the fever ’ed baakecf Jinny’s ’ead as bald 
as one o’ them heggs. 

Village Wife . 

JOAN. 

A French maiden, born of 
poor parents. Professed to 
have been inspired to liberate 
France from the English ; and 
in 1428 led the French army 
to victory, raised the siege of 
Orleans and saw Charles VII 
crowned king at Rheims on 
July 13, 1429. In the follow- 
ing year she was captured and 
sold to the English, and after 
being imprisoned at Rouen 
was brought to trial, and 
being condemned as a sorceress 
was burnt to death, May 30* 
I 43 I * 

The Princess ; Romney's 
Remorse ; Dream of Fair 
Wo 7 nen . 


JOAN. 

A country wife. 

Oueen Mary . 

JOANES. 

Described by an old farmer, 
whose strength is fast failing, 
as being devoid of sense, and a 
person who could be more 
easily spared to die than the 
farmer himself. 

A mowt ’a taaen owd Joanes, as ’ant not a. 
’aapoth o* sense. 

Northern Farmer, Old Style. 

JOAN OF KENT. 

’twas youe 

That sign’d the burning of poor Joan of Kent** 
But then she was a witch. 

Called the c Maid of Kent,* 
born in 1506. When a domestic 



[JOH 


JOC] 


181 


servant at Aldington she came 
out of an illness in a state of 
religious mania, and under the 
direction of a monk — sent by 
archbishop Warham to examine 
her — gave herself out as a 
prophetess who had received 
inspiration from the Virgin 
Mary. Events having falsified 
her predictions she was in 1533 
examined before parliament, 
confessed the imposture and 
was condemned and executed 
at Tyburn, with other accom- 
plices in April 1534. When 
brought to the scaffold she 
described herself as * a poor 
wench without learning, who 
had been puffed up by praises 
to her own undoing and that 
of her companions. 5 

Oueen Mary. 

JOCELYN (Bishop oi Salisbury). 

No saying of mine — Jocelyn of Salisbury. 

=Jocelin de Bohun, bishop 
of Salisbury 1142-1184. 

Becket. 

JOCKY DAWES. 

A farmer — tenant of Sir 
Edward Head — who removed 
from his farm as it was supposed 
to be haunted by a ghost 

that shook 

The curtains, whined in lobbies, tapt at doors. 
And rummaged like a rat : no servant stay’d : 
The farmer vext packs up his beds and chairs. 
And all his household stuff ; 

Walking to the Mail. 

JOHN. 

What amulet drew her down to that old oak. 
So old, that twenty years before, a part 
Falling had let appear the brand of John — 

The tree had been branded with the letters 
I.R. (= John Rex or King), denoting that 
it had been so marked in the reign of King 


John. The marks thus burnt into the bark 
of the tree had been concealed from view 
by the overgrowth of fresh bark, which, fak- 
ing off centuries after, had disclosed the an- 
cient brand. 

Webb : Notes ott Aylmer's Field . 

T. J. M. wilting in Notes and 
Queries , September 25, 1880, 
says : 

* that in cutting down some timber in Birk- 
land and Billagh, in Sherwood Forest, letters 
have been found cut or stamped in the body 
of the trees, denoting the lung’s reign in which 
they were so marked. The cyphers were of 
the reign of James I., of William and Mary, 
and one of King John. The mark of John 
was eighteen inches within the tree, and 
something more than a foot from the centre ; 
it was cut down in 1791. But the middle 
year of John’s reign was 1207, from which, 
if we subtract 120 — the number of years 
requisite for a tree of two feet in diameter to 
arrive at that growth — it will make the date 
of its planting 1085, or about twenty vears 
after the Conquest.’ 

J. T. F. in the same issue of 
Notes and Queries tells us : 

* that a bit of oak bearing the two Roman 
letters I.R., was given to his grandfather, 
William Fowler, of Winterton, some sixty 
years ago, by a gentleman, in the neghbour- 
hood of Newark. The letters, which are a 
little over an inch in height, are cut or branded 
directly across the gram of the wood. At- 
tached to the fragment is a label inscribed as 
follows : — 

4 This piece of wood was found in an Oak 
tree, 15 inches below the bark, and contained 
the Initals of King John, who died at Newark 
600 years ago.* 

Aylmer's Field. 


JOHN. 

St. John the Evangelist. 
Columbus considered the words 
in the Book of Revelation, chap, 
i, verse i, referred to him. 

Columbus. 

JOHN. 


Let them go. 

They go like those old Pharisees in John 
Convicted by their conscience, arrant cowards, 

=The Gospel of St John. 

Queen Mary. 


JOHN. 

Prince John, afterwards king 
of England. 


The Foresters . 



JOHJ 


[JOS 


JOHN. 

JOHN OF OXFORD. 

Bishop of Norwich ; presi- 
dent of the Council of Claren- 
don in 1164; in November of 
the same year — after Becket’s 
flight — was sent with other 
bishops, to the French king 
requesting that he would not 
receive the archbishop. In 
1166 Becket while at Veselay 
formally excommunicated him, 
but he obtained absolution 
from Alexander III. In 1175 
he was appointed bishop of 
Norwich by Henry II. His 
latter years appear to have 
been spent in retirement. He 
died in 1200. 

Becket. 

JOHN. 

JOHN OF SALISBURY. 

Bishop of Chartres ; secre- 
tary to archbishop Theobald 
for some years ; fell into dis- 
grace with Henry II and 
appealed to Becket to intercede 
for him ; left England in 1164 
but returned in 1170 after 
Becket’s interview with Henry 
at Freteval. Was in the com- 
pany of Becket when the four 
knights made their appearance 
in Canterbury Cathedral, and 
advised Becket to be prudent 
in his dealings with them ; 
when the actual attack began he 
fled and hid himself. After the 
murder he supported the in- 
clusion of Becket’s name in the 
calendar of martyrs and wrote 
a biography of him with a view 
of securing his canonization. 


182 


In 1176 he was appointed 
bishop of Chartres. He died 
on October 25, 1179, and was 
buried in the monastery of 
Josaphat. 

Becket. 

JOHN (Prester) . See Prester John. 

JOHN, ST. See St. John, 

JOHN THE SWEARER. See 
John of Oxford. 


JONAH. 


* I am the Jonah, the crew should cast me 
into the deep, 

The Wreck. 


JONAH. 

I had liefer that the fish had swallowed me, 
Like Jonah, than have known there were such 
devils. 

Harold. 

JONAH’S GOURD. 


In us true growth, in her a Jonah’s gourd, 

Up in one night and due to sudden sun : 

See Jonah iv. 6. 

The Princess . 

JOSEPH. 

of Arimathaea. The story is- 
that after Joseph of Arimathaea 
had begged the body of Christ 
he followed Philip to Gaul as 
a preacher, and being sent 
across the Channel to carry the 
gospel into Britain landed with 
his boat at Glastonbury. 

And finds himself descended from the Saint 
Arimathsean Joseph; him who first 
Brought the great faith to Britain over seas ; 

Arviragus, a heathen king at 
that time welcomed Joseph 
and gave him land upon which 
to build a church, and he 
erected a wattle church on the 
site of St. Mary’s Chapel, 
Glastonbury, which is supposed 
to have been destroyed by fire 
about 1180. 



JOS] 


[JUL 


183 


‘ From our old books I know 
That Joseph came of old to Glastonbury, 
And there the heathen Prince, Arviragus, 
Gave him an isle of marsh whereon to build ; 
And there he built with wattles from the 

marsh 

A little lonely church in days of yore, 

Joseph brought with him 
from the land of Aromat the 
H0I7 Grail, the cup in which 
he is said to have caught some 
of the blood of Christ, as He 
hung upon the cross 

but now — the Quest, 

This vision — hast thou seen the Holy Cup, 
That Joseph brought of old to Glastonbury ? 

Upon landing he planted his 
pilgrim’s staff into the ground, 
which took root and grew into 
a Holy Thorn, which miracul- 
ously blossomed every old Christ- 
mas eve until it was cut down 
by a puritan soldier who was 
wounded in the act. A graft 
of the thorn is however sup- 
posed to exist. 

the good saint 

Arimathaean Joseph, journeying brought 
To Glastonbury, where the winter thorn 
Blossoms at Christmas, mindful of our Lord. 

He is the reputed founder 
of Glastonbury Abbey — which 
includes in the north transept 
the Chapel of St. Mary (other- 
wise known as St. Joseph’s), 
and he is said to lie buried on 
a hill known as Chalice Hill. 

Balin and Balan ; Holy Grail. 

JOSHUA. 

Than that earth should’ stand at gaze like 

Joshua’s moon in. Ajalon ! 

The successor of Moses as the 
leader of the Israelites. In 
the valley of Ajalon, the scene of 
a battle between the Israelites 
and five Canaanitish kings, he 
commanded the sun and the 
moon to standstill. Joshuax. 12. 

Locksley Hall. 


JOSHUA. 

What fame ? I am not Raphael, Titian — no, 
Nor even a Sir Joshua, some will cry. 

=Sir Joshua Reynolds, the 
English painter. 

Romney’s Remorse. 

JUDAH. 

Not least art thou, thou little Bethlehem 
In Judah, for in thee the Lord was bom : 

See Matthew ii. 

Sir John Oldcasile , 
Lord Cobh am. 

JUDITH. See Holofernes. 

The Princess. 

JUDITH. 

But your Judith — but your worldling — she 
had never driven me wild.] 

Judith was the woman who 
had jilted the grandson of the 
speaker. 

Locksley Hall Sixty Tears 
After. 

JULIAN. 

Cousin and foster-brother of 
Camilla, for whom he conceived 
a silent love, 

I did not speak : I could not speak my love. 
Love lieth deep: Love dwells not in lip- 
depths. 

When Camilla told him of her 
love for his friend Lionel his 
heart was broken and he lived 
a life of solitude. Camilla 
married Lionel, but died within 
the year. Shew r as buried in an 
open coffin in the family vault, 
where she was visited by Julian 
who embraced her in death. 

He rose and went, and entering the dim vault , 
And, making there a sudden light, beheld 
All round about him that which all will be. 
The light was but a flash, and went again. 
Then at the far end of the vault he saw 
His lady with the moonlight on her face ; 
Her breast as in a shadow-prison, bars 
Of black and bands of silver, which the moon 
Struck from an open grating overhead 
High in the wall, and all the rest of her 
Drown’d in the gloom and horror of the vault. 

As he held her to him, 
he felt her pulse beat, she 



JXJL] 


[JUN 


184 

was alive ; and taking her JUNO. 


into his arms carried her to her 
mother’s house, where immedi- 
ately afterwards her child was 
bom. Then Julian made a 
feast to which Lionel was in- 
vited. At the end of the feast, 
in accordance with a Persian 
custom which showed the 
guests the richest treasure of 
his host, he brought Camilla 
and the babe into the room. 
She was reunited to Lionel. 

Thai taking his dear lady by one hand. 
And bearing on one arm the noble babe, 

He slowly brought them both to Lionel 
And there the widower husband and dead wife 
Rush'd each at each with a cry, that rather 
seem'd 

For some new death than for a life renew’d ; 

And Julian, magnanimous at 
the spectacle of their happiness, 
without bidding farewell, 
rushed from the scene : 

* It is over : let us go ’ — 
There were our horses ready at the doors — 
We bad them no farewell, but mounting these 
He past for ever from his native land ; 

And I with him, my Julian, back to mine. 

Lover's Tale. 

JULIET. 

Gardener's Daughter . 

JULIUS (the Third). 

Pope of Rome from 1550 to 
1555. As a cardinal he was 
one of the papal legates at the 
Council of Trent, and on being 
appointed pope sent cardinal 
Pole to England to arrange 
with Mary as to the best means 
of bringing the kingdom again 
in subjection to the papal see. 

Queen Mary . 

JUMllGES. See Robert ot 
JumiSges. 


In Italian mythology the 
wife of Jupiter and queen of 
heaven. Her temple at Rome, 
which was in the Capitol close 
to Jupiter, was one of the most 
ancient and venerated. As 
queen of the heavens, she pre- 
sided over marriage, and parti- 
cularly patronised the most 
faithful and virtuous of the sex, 
and severely punished lewdness 
in matrons . She was the go ddess 
of power and empire, and is 
represented sitting on a throne 
vrith a diadem on her head 
and a golden sceptre in her 
right hand. In another form of 
worship she is represented as 
clad in a mantle of goat-skin, 
bearing a shield and an up- 
lifted spear, and accompanied 
by a sacred serpent. In Greek 
mythology she was identified 
with Here. Paris the 

shepherd-prince of Troy, was 
appointed arbiter to decide 
which of the three goddesses 
(Juno, Pallas Athene and Venus) 
was the most beautiful, and 
to which should be awarded 
the golden apple, the prize 
of beauty. On appearing be- 
before Paris she made an 
attempt to bribe him, promising 
him sovereignty. 

She to Paris made 
Proffer of royal power, ample rule 
Unquestioned, overflowing revenue 
Wherewith to embellish state, ‘ from many 
a vale 

And river-sunder’d champaign clothed with 
com. 

Or labour’d mine undrainable of ore. 

* * •* 

Still she spake on and still she spake of power, 
1 Which in all action is the end of all ; 

Power fitted to the season ; wisdom-bred 



JUF] 


[KAT 


i8 S 

And throned of wisdom — from all neighbour 

crowns 

Alliance and allegiance, till thy hand 
Fail from the sceptre-staff.’ 

Paris however decided in 
favour of Venus. 

A Character ; The Cup . 

JUPITER. 

In Italian mythology the 
lord of heaven, identified with 
the Greek Zeus. His chief 
seat of worship was the Capitol 
at Rome, an earthenware image 
being enthroned in the temple, 
with a thunderbolt in his right 
hand. After existing for 400 
years the temple was burnt 
down, but was rebuilt with 
increased magnificence in b.c. 
83. It was again destroyed 
by fire a.d. 70, and scarcely 
had it been rebuilt by Ves- 
pasian when it was again burnt 
down a.d. 80 ; but in a.d. 
82 Domitian erected a temple 
which stood as late as the ninth 
century. 

The Cup. 

KALIFA. 

Those cobras ever setting up their hoods — 

One Alla ! one Kalifa ! 

A title given to the successors 
of Mahomet. 

AkbaPs Dream. 

KAPIOLANI. 

A great chieftainess who 
lived in the Sandwich islands 
at the beginning of the eigh- 
teenth century. She won the 
cause of Christianity by openly 
defying the priests of the 
terrible goddess Peele. In spite 
of their threats of vengeance 
she ascended the volcano 


Mauna-Loa, then clambered 
down over a bank of cinders 
400 feet high to the great 
lake of fire (nine miles round) 
— Kilauea — the home and 
haunt of the goddess, and flung 
into the boiling lava the conse- 
crated berries which it was 
sacrilege for a woman to handle. 
Poe? s Note. 

Kapiolani. 

KARNAC. 

Hong- Kong, Karnac, and all the rest. 

=The temple of Karnac in 
Egypt. To Ulysses. 

KATE. 

Friend of a little girl Alice, 
who is to be c Queen of the 
May/ May Queen. 

KATE. 

A girl who according to the 
description given of her by the 
poet bears a very strong resem- 
blance to Shakespeare’s Kate 
— the Shrew. She is described 
as woman-soldier. 

My woman-soldier, gallant Kate, 

As pure and true as blades of steel. 

Her lover expresses a wish 
that he were an armed and far- 
famed knight. Then he thinks 
that Kate would accept his 
love : 

Kate loves well the bold and fierce ; 

But none are bold enough for Kate, 

She cannot find a fitting mate. 

Kate . 

KATE. 

An attendant on Maid Marian. 

The Foresters. 

KATEKIN. 

Littlejohn . I have lodged my pretty Kate- 
kin in her bower. 


The Foresters. 



KAT] 


[KIL. 


1 86 


KATIE WILLOWS. 

Daughter and only child of 
Philip Willows, and bom and 
bred amid country surroundings. 

A daughter of our meadows, yet not coarse, 
Straight, but as lissome as a hazel wand ; 
Her eyes a bashful azure, and her hair 
In gloss and hue the chestnut. 

She was betrothed to James 
Willows, her cousin, with 
whom she quarrelled. James 
was supposed to be jealous of 
a certain Lawrence Aylmer, 
who afterwards engaged the 
attention of Katie’s father in 
conversation concerning the 
farm, so that she and James 
had an opportunity of making 
up their quarrel. Lawrence 
related how at the conclusion 
of his conversation with Philip, 
he 

found the sun of sweet content 
Re-risen in Katie’s eyes, and all things well. 

The Brook. 


KATTY’S. 

The name of the proprietor 
of a grog-shop. 

Tomorrow . 


KAY. 

A Knight of the Round 
Table ; son of sir Ector and 
foster-brother of king Arthur. 
He was a rude and boastful 
knight, and delighted in giving 
nicknames. He called sir 
Brewnor the 4 Shocking Bad 
Coat ’ and sir Gareth he nick- 
named * Beaumains ’ on account 
of his large hands. 

Gareth and Lynette ; Last 
T ournament. 


KEMBLE. 


John Mitchel Kemble, Anglo- 
Saxon scholar ; son of Charles 


Kemble. Editor of writings 
of the Anglo-Saxon period, his 
chief works being Codex Diflo- 
maticus aevi Saxonici and The' 
Saxons in England . Made the 
acquaintance of Tennyson whilst 
at Cambridge and soon after- 
wards the poet visited him in 
London. 

To W. C. Macready. 

KENDAL CHURCH. 

Have I not met you somewhere long ago ? 

I am all but sure I have — in Kendal church — 
O yes ! 

Kendal is a town in Westmor- 
land. 

Romney's Remorse . 

KENT. 

E dwin Morris ; A Welcome to 
Her Royal Highness Marie 
Alexandrovna , Duchess of 
Edinburgh ; Queen Mary e 
Becket. 


KESTREL. 

A small species of falcon, 
allied to the sparrow-hawk. 

Boadicea . 


KHAN. 


A title of a Tartar sovereign 
or prince. 


Columbus . 


KILAUEA. 

A lake of fire (nine miles- 
round) in the island of Hawaii,, 
the home of the goddess Peele. 
It was into this lake that 
Kapiolani, the chieftainess of 
the Sandwich islands, defied the 
goddess , by descending and 
flinging into the boiling lava 
the consecrated berries which 
it was sacrilege for a woman 
to handle. Kafiolani . 



i8 7 


[LAE 


KIN] 

KINGCUP. 

=The common buttercup. 
Queen Mary ; A Dirge ; 
City Child; Last Tourna- 
ment ; Progress of Spring. 

KINGSTON. 

Wyatt. Be happy, I am your friend. 

To Kingston, forward ! 

= Kingston-upon-Thames . 

Queen Mary. 

KINGSTON BRIDGE. 

we must round 

By Kingston Bridge. 

A bridge over the river Thames. 

Queen Mary. 

KITE. 

A rapacious bird of the hawk 
kind. 

Boddicea ; Promise of May ; 

Harold. 

KITTEN. 

A young cat. 

Merlin and Vivien. 

KNXJT 

Or Athelstan, or English Ironside 
Who fought with Knut, or Knut who coming 
Dane 

Died English. 

King of Denmark, Norway 
and England. After succeed- 
ing his father as king of Den- 
mark he landed in England and 
was chosen king at Southampton. 
Edmund Ironside who had been 
elected king in 1016 on the 
death of Edward the Confessor 
however opposed him so bravely 
that an agreement was entered 
into at Olney, an island in the 
Severn, by which the kingdom 
was divided, but Edmund being 
assassinated a few weeks after- 
wards Knut obtained the whole 
of the kingdom. A famous 


story is told of him that seated 
in a chair on the seashore at 
Southampton he rebuked his 
flattering courtiers by showing 
to them how regardless the 
waves were of his kingly power, 
and bade them to remember 
that the Great Being only was 
the One whom the waters and 
winds obeyed. In 1027 he 
made a pilgrimage to Rome and 
founded the monasteries of St. 
Bennet at Holme, and St. 
Edmund’s Bury. He died at 
Shaftesbury and was buried in 
Winchester Cathedral. Knuts- 
ford ( c Canute’s ford ’) a town 
in Cheshire is supposed to have 
derived its name from this 
king (995-1035). 

Harold. 

KNYVETT. See Antony, Antony 
Knyvett. 

KORAN. 

The Mohammedan bible. 

Akbar’s Dream. 

KRAKEN. 

Far, far beneath in the abysmal sea. 

His ancient, dreamless, uninvaded sleep 
The Kraken sleepeth: 

A fabulous sea-monster, sup- 
posed to have been seen in the 
Norwegian seas. 

The Kraken. 

KYPRIS. 

Ay, and this Kypiis also — 

= Venus. 

Lucretius. 

LABURNUM. 

A small tree with beautiful 
flowers, a native of the Alps. 

In Memoriam. 



LAC] 


188 


[LAD 


LACTANTIUS. 

Some cited Old Lactantius : could it be 
That trees grew downward, rain fell upward, 
men 

Walk’d like the fly on ceilings ? 

A Christian apologist in the 
fourteenth century. 

Columbus . 

LADY-FERN. 

A pretty British fern. 

Batin and Balan . 

LADY OF SHALOTT. 

A beautiful lady who dwelt 
in a castle on the island of Shalott. 

On either side the river lie 
Long fields of barley and of rye, 

That clothe the wold and meet the sky; 

And thro’ the field the road runs by 
To many- tower’d Camelot ; 

And up and down the people go, 

Gazing where the lilies blow 
Round an island there below. 

The island of Shalott. 

In this castle she sat and 
sang, and wove a web of beau- 
tiful silk embroidery in many 
colours. In front of her hung 
a large mirror, through the 
medium of which she viewed 
the outside world, as a curse 
would fall upon her if she 
looked through the window. 

There she weaves by night and day 
A magic web with colours gay. 

She has heard a whisper say, 

A curse is on her if she stay 
To look down to Camelot. 

She knows not what the curse may be 
And so she weaveth steadily, 

And little other care hath she. 

The Lady of Shalott. 

One night a bride and bride- 
groom passed down the wind- 
ing road to Camelot, and as 
they strolled along the road 
in the moonlight, and she saw 
the happiness that shone in 
their eyes, a longing sprang 
into her heart, and she cried 
out in a passionate voice : 1 1 
am half sick of shadows. 5 


Or when the moon was overheard. 

Came two young lovers lately wed ; 

* I am half sick of shadows,’ said 
-The Lady of Shalott. 

Eventually on the path lead- 
ing to Camelot came a figure 
of a knight. It was sir Lance- 
lot, one of the Knights of the 
Table Round. On his shield 
was the figure of a red-cross 
knight kneeling to a fair lady. 

A bow-shot from her bower-eaves. 

He rode between the barley-sheaves, 

The sun came dazzling thro’ the leaves. 

And flamed upon the brazen greaves 
Of bold Sir Lancelot. 

A red-cross knight for ever kneel’d 
To a lady in his shield, 

That sparkled on the yellow field, 

Beside remote Shalott. 

As sir Lancelot approached 
the magic island, singing e Tirra 
lirra,’ his reflection fell on the 
magic mirror, and the lady 
who could no longer resist 
the temptation, leaned upon 
the sill of the window, and 
looked down to Camelot. 

Immediately she did so, she 
heard a fearful crash, and look- 
ing behind her saw the magic 
mirror was cracked from side to 
side. c Alas, for my .disobedi- 
ence ! 5 she exclaimed, c the 
mirror is broken. The web 
has gone ! The curse is upon 
me ! Where shall I go, or 
what shall I do ? J 

She left the web, she left the loom, 

She made three paces thro’ the room, 

She saw the water-lily bloom, 

She saw the helmet and the plume, 

She look’d down to Camelot. 

Out flew the web and floated wide * 

The mirror crack’d from side to side; 

‘ The curse is come upon me, ’.cried 
The Lady of Shalott. 

Coming to herself she noticed 
how differently everything 
around her had become, and 
leaving the castle, proceeded 
to the river where she found a 



LAD] 


[LAM 


189 


boat beneath the willows, on 
whose prow she wrote in clear 
letters : — The Lady of Shalott. 

Down she came and found a boat 
Beneath a willow left afloat, 

And round about the prow she wrote 
The Lady of Shalott. 

Stepping into the boat, she 
gazed for a moment on Came- 
lot, and knew her end was near. 

And down the river’s dim expanse 
like some bold seer in a trance, 

Seeing all his own mischance — 

With a glassy countenance 
Did she look to Camelot. 

Lying down in the boat she 
crossed her hands upon her 
breast, and singing a beautiful 
song, allowed the boat to drift 
down the stream to Camelot. 

And at the closing of the day 

She loosed the chain, and down she lay ; 

The broad stream bore her far away," 

The Lady of Shalott. 

Lying, robed in snowy white 
That loosely flew to left and right — 

The leaves upon her falling light — 

Thro’ the noises of the night 
She floated down to Camelot : 

And as the boat-head wound along 
The willowy hills and fields among, 

They heard her singing her last song, 

The Lady of Shalott. 

As the boat approached the city 
of Camelot no song was heard, 
and the curiosity of the people 
being aroused at the boat 
gliding along by itself they 
drew it ashore, only to find in 
it the dead body of the princess. 
As sir Lancelot drew near and 
beheld the beautiful form of 
the lady he exclaimed : — c How 
peaceful and lovely a face ! 
God grant mercy to her and to 
us too, that we also may lead 
pure and noble lives. 5 

But Lancelot mused a little space ; 

He Said, ‘ She has a lovely face ; 

God in his mercy lend her grace, 

The Lady of Shalott.’ 

Lady of Shalott . 

LADY OF THE LAKE. 

A mysterious personage . She 


gave to king Arthur the sword 
Excalibur, in recompense for 
which she asked for the head 
of Balin (q.v.) because he had 
slain her brother, but the king 
refused the request. c Ye would 
have my head, 5 said Balin,. 

‘ therefore ye shall lose thine 
own, 5 and smote off her head 
in the presence of king Arthur. 
She was denoted by the sacred 
fish on her breast. 

Morte d? Arthur ; Gareth 
and Lynette ; Lancelot and 
Elaine ; Passing of Arthur. 

LAIS. 

Bucket. Where, my liege ? With Phryne, 
Or Lais, or thy Rosamund, or another ? 

Henry. My Rosamund is no Lais , 

Thomas Becket; 

The name of two Greek cour- 
tesans of extraordinary beauty. 
One is said to have been born 
in Corinth and flourished during 
the Peloponnesian war. The 
other was a native of Sicily, but 
went to Corinth when a child 
and is said to have been stoned 
to death by the Thessalian 
women out of jealousy. 

Becket . 

LAMB. 

=The Saviour of the World- 

St. Agnes 5 Eve ; Columbus. 

LAMBERT. 

and there was Lambert 
Who can foresee himself? 

John Lambert ; became a 
convert to protestantism ; chap- 
lain to the English factory at 
Antwerp ; imprisoned 1532, but 
released on the death of arch- 
bishop Wareham in the same- 
year ; condemned and burnt 



LAM] 


190 


[LAN 


to death for denying the doc- 
trine of transubstantiation. 

Queen Mary . 


LAMBETH. 

LAMBETH PALACE. 

A London municipal and par- 
liamentary Borough. The Palace 
is the official residence of the 
Archbishop of Canterbury. 

Queen Mary. 

LAMECH. 

An old song vexes my ear ; 

But that of Lamech. is mine. 

See Genesis it. 23. 

Maud. 


LAMMAS. 


Nay — and she will not marry till Richard 
come. 

And that’s at latter Lammas — never perhaps. 


= The Greek Kalends, never. 

1 Ike Foresters. 


LANCASTER. 

And York’s white rose as red as Lancaster’s, 

= Wars of the Roses between 
the houses of York and Lan- 
caster. 

Aylmer 9 s Field . 

LANCELOT. 

The son of king Ban and 
Helen, and the father of sir 
Galahad, the chastest of the 150 
knights, who was allotted the 
c Siege Perilous.’ He was 
stolen in infancy by Vivian, the 
Lady of the Lake, who threw 
him into the water, in conse- 
quence of which he was called 
sir Launcelot du Lake. He was 
the bravest of all the knights 
and was honoured by king 
Arthur more than all the rest 

Then Arthur charged his warrior whom he 
loved # 

And honour’d most, Sir! Lancelot, to ride 
forth 

Andibring the^Queen; — 


He fell in love with Guine- 
vere {q*v), who ordered him to 
slay the knights who kept the 
door, but sir Modred escaping 
informed king Arthur, who 
condemned Guinevere on ac- 
count of her unfaithfulness to 
be burnt, but when at the stake 
she was rescued by Lancelot. 
In consequence of this guilty 
passion for the queen he was 
commanded to avoid the court, 
and as king Arthur refused to 
be reconciled to him he left 
the realm and retired to Ben- 
wick. Going one day to joust 
at Astolat he left his blazoned 
shield in charge of Elaine {q.v), 
the fair maid of Astolat. Being 
wounded in the encounter, he 
was carefully nursed by Elaine. 
Upon being restored to health 
he claimed his shield and bid 
the damsel good-bye, where- 
upon she confessed her love 
for him ; but being told that 
his love was another’s, pined 
away and died. 

When the news of the ‘last 
weird battle in the west,’ in 
which king Arthur received his 
mortal wound, reached Lancelot, 
he made haste to see his noble 
master to seek his pardon for 
the injury he had done him. 
Upon his arrival he found the 
king had passed away, and 
kneeling down on the earth 
wept and prayed heartily for 
his soul. Going in search of 
Guinevere he found the queen 
in a nunnery at Aimes bury 
(^.■z/.), and after taking farewell 



XAN] 


LLAR 


191 


of her withdrew into solitude, 
and for six years led a life of 
prayer and fasting. In a vision 
he was told that Guinevere was 
no more, and hastening to 
Aimes bury found the news too 
true. With reverence and out 
■of love and gratitude for Arthur 
he took the body of the queen 
and laid it by the side of king 
Arthur in Glastonbury Abbey, 
after which he again withdrew 
to his lonely cell ; and some 
weeks later the spirit of this 
bold warrior passed away and 
he was buried in Joyous Guard. 
Lady of Shalott ; Gareth 
and Lynette ; Coming of 
Arthur ; Marriage of Ger- 
aint ; Balin and Balan ; 
Merlin and Vivien ; Lance- 
lot and Elaine ; Holy Grail ; 
Pelleas and Ettarre ; Last 
Tournament; Guinevere . 

LANDBIRD. 


at length 

The landbird, and the branch with berries 
on it, 

The carven staff 

A reference of the nearness of 
land which Columbus sighted 
on October 11, 1492. 

Columbus. 


LANE (Miriam). See Miriam, 

Miriam Lane. 

LAPIDOTH. 

there on the roofs 

Like that great dame of Lapidoth she sang. 

Has reference to the Hebrew 
prophetess Deborah, wife of 
Lapidoth. She joined Barak 
in a campaign to deliver Israel 
from the tyranny of Jabin, king 
of Canaan, and utterly de- 


feated the Canaanites under 
Sisera near the brook Kishon. 
After the victory Deborah and 
Barak sang a song of triumph 
known as the song of Deborah. 
See Judges iv. and v. 

The Princess . 

LAPWING. 

A bird of the plover family 
called also peewit. 

Locksley Hall ; Queen Mary. 

LAR AND LUCUMO. 

Appraised the Lycian custom, spoke of those 
That lay at wine with Lar and Lucumo ; 

Two titles of honour borne 
respectively by priests and 
nobles among the inhabitants 
of Etruria, an ancient country 
in central Italy. 

The Princess. 

LARCH. 

A genus of coniferous trees, 
distinct from firs, with erect 
and regularly tapering stem, 
and small branches. 

In Memoriam ; Maud . 

LARIANO. 

Name of the vessel which 
conveyed the poet and his wife 
while spending a holiday in 
Italy, to the various Italian 
ports. 

As on the Lariano crept 

To that fair port below the castle 
Of Queen Theodolind, where we slept ; 

The Daisy . 

LARI MAXUME. 

The rich Virgilian rustic measure 
Of Lari Maxume, all the way, 

= c O great Larius ’ i.e. c O 
great Lake of Como.’ 

The Daisy . 



LAR] 


192 


[LA IF 


LARK. 

A well-known singing bird 
of the genus Alauda. 

Rosalind ; Gardener* s 

Daughter; Audley Court; 
! Talking Oak ; Day Dream; 
Poefs Song; The Princess; 
The Window; In Me - 
moriam ; Gareth and Lyn - 
ette ; Lancelot and Elaine ; 
Holy Grail ; Lover* s Tale ; 
First Quarrel ; Northern 
Cobbler ; Voyage of Mael- 
dune ; Ancient Sage ; The 
Flight; Tomorrow; Pro- 
gress of Spring ; Queen 
Mary ; Harold ; The Cup ; 
The Falcon ; Promise of 
May ; The Foresters. 

LATANGOR. 

The King Brandagoras of Latangor, 

With Anguisant of Erin, Morganore, 

And Lot of Orkney. 

Coming of Arthur. 

LATERAN. 

A celebrated church in Rome, 
so called from its occupying the 
site of the palace of the Laterani 
family ; and which was until 
1308 the residence of the popes 
of Rome. No fewer than five 
CEcumenical councils have met 
within its walls. 

Harold ; Becket . 

LATIMER. 

Bishop of Worcester, son of 
a Leicestershire yeoman. At 
the beginning of the Reforma- 
tion was an earnest advocate 
of popery, but eventually be- 
came a convert to the reformed 
faith. Received permission to 
preach throughout England, 


and his fame reaching Henry 
VIII he was commanded to 
preach before that monarch,, 
who conferred upon him the 
bishopric of Worcester in 1535,. 
which See he resigned in 1539* 
because he could not support 
the Act of the Six Articles. 
Twice under Henry VIII he 
was committed to the Tower,, 
but was released on the acces- 
sion of Edward VI, who would 
have restored him to his diocese 
but he refused ; assisted Gran- 
in er in framing the Homilies 
and in completing the work of 
the Reformation. In 1555, 
upon the accession of Mary, he 
was again committed to the 
Tower, whence he was with 
Cranmer sent to Oxford to 
defend his views before a Com- 
mission, and being found guilty 
of heresy was condemned — 
and with bishop Ridley (« q.v .) 
burnt to death opposite Balliol 
College, Oxford, 1555. After 
commending his soul to God 
he turned to his companion 
and exclaimed, ‘ Be of good 
cheer. Master Ridley, and play 
the man ; w T e shall this day 
light such a candle in England,, 
which by God’s grace will never 
be put out.’ 

Queen Mary . 

LAUDAMUS. 

And then the great ‘ Laudamus ’ rose to- 

heaven. 

The Te Deum Laudamus . A 
hymn which forms part of the 
morning service in the English 
Church. * The authorship is 



LAU] 


I 93 


[LAZ 


unknown, though tradition as- 
cribes it to St. Ambrose. 

Columbus. 

LAUNCELOT. See Lancelot. 
LAURENCE. 

Not thrice your branching limes have blown 
Since I beheld young Laurence dead. 

A former lover of lady Clara 
Vere de Vere, whom she first 
loved, and afterwards rejected. 
His grief at her conduct pro- 
bably hastened his death. 

Lady Clara Vere de Vere. 

LAVAINE. 

A Knight of the Round Table, 
brother of Elaine, and son of 
sir Bernard, baron of Astolat. 
Displayed great bravery in 
battle on behalf of King Arthur ; 
and afterwards departed to 
Brittany with Lancelot who 
created him earl of Arminak. 

Lancelot and Elaine. 

LAWRENCE. See St. Lawrence. 

LAWRENCE. 

Voice of the dead whom we loved, our 

Lawrence the best of the brave: 

Sir Henry Lawrence, briga- 
dier-general, and chief com- 
missioner in Oudh. At the 
outbreak of the Indian Mutiny 
he was appointed in command 
of the troops in Oudh, and was 
killed while holding Lucknow 
against the mutineers. His 
death was a blow to the little 
garrison, but they held out until 
relieved by sir Colin Campbell. 

Defence of Lucknow . 

LAWRENCE AYLMER. 

Lawrence and Edmund Ayl- 


mer were brothers. Edmund 
on account of ill health left for 
Italy where he died. The 
brothers parted by a certain 
brook known to both since child- 
hood. Near the brook Law- 
rence met Katie Willows, a 
farmer’s only child. She had 
quarrelled with her lover James 
Willows. Lawrence asked who 
had angered James and found 
out from Katie’s manner that 
he himself was the cause of 
some little jealousy. He how- 
ever succeeded in putting an 
end to the quarrel, by engaging 
her father in conversation, while 
Katie and her lover met. 

Lke Brook. 

LAZARUS. 

When Lazarus left his charnel-cave. 

And home to Mary’s house return’d, 

Was this demanded — if he yearn’d 
To hear her weeping by his grave ? 

Has reference to the raising 
from the dead of Lazarus, 
brother of Martha and Mary. 
John xi . 

In Memoriam . 

LAZARUS. 

When Dives loathed the times, and paced 
his land 

In fear of worse, 

And sanguine Lazarus felt a vacant and 
Fill with his purse. 

Has reference to the beggar 
in the parable of the rich man 
and Lazarus. Luke xvi. 19-31. 

Lo Mary Boyle. 

LAZARUS (Saint). 

By St. Lazarus, no X 
I am confounded by thee. Go in peace. 

Brother of Martha and Mary, 
and reputed first bishop of Mar- 
seilles. 

Becket. 

o 



USA] 

LEA (Sir Richard). See Richard, 
Richard Lea, Richard of the 
Lea. 

LEA (Walter). See Walter, 

Walter Lea. 

LEAR. 

A legendary British king, hero 
of one of Shakespeare’s tragedies. 
In his old age he divided his 
kingdom between two of his 
elder daughters, on condition 
that each should alternately, 
month by month, provide him 
with a home. They however 
showed him very scant hospi- 
tality, whereupon the youngest 
daughter Cordelia — who had 
been disinherited, and who 
had married the king of France, 
raised an army in order to de- 
throne her sisters, but was de- 
feated and put in prison where 
she died. The elder sister 
then murdered her younger 
sister from jealousy, after which 
she committed suicide herself. 

Promise of May. 

LEBANON. 

O, art thou sighing for Lebanon 

In the long breeze that streams to thy delicious 

East, 

Sighing for Lebanon, 

The lofty mountain-range in 
the southern part of Syria. 

Maud. 

LEBANONIAN CEDAR. 

' Madam, he the wisest man 
Feasted the woman wisest then, in halls 
Of Lebanonian cedar : 

A mountain range in Pales- 
tine. Originally the mountains 
were covered with trees, but 
are now almost bare, only a 


[LEN 

few of the famous cedars re- 
maining. 

Fhe Princess . 

LEE (Annie). See Enoch, Enoch 
Arden. 

LEGEND OF GOOD WOMEN. 

I read, before my eyelids dropt their shade, 

The Legend of Good Women, long ago 
Sung by the morning star of song, who made 

His music heard below ; 

A poem by Chaucer, con- 
sisting of nine legends and a 
prologue, celebrating the faith- 
fulness of the brides of ancient 
song : Cleopatra, Thisbe, Dido, 
Hypsipyle and Medea, Lucrece, 
Ariadne, Philomela, Phillis, and 
Hypermnestra. 

Dream of Fair Women . 

LEICESTER. 

The Duke hath gone to Leicester ; Carew stirs 
In Devon : 

The capital of Leicestershire. 

Queen Mary. 

LEICESTER (Lord). 

Robert de Beaumont, first 
earl of Leicester. Was present 
at the council of Northampton, 
1164. 

Becket . 

LENNOX (Lady). 

Courtenay. — made you follow 

The Lady Suffolk and the Lady Lennox ? — 
You, 

The heir presumptive. 

Lady Margaret Douglas, 
niece of Henry VIII, who in 
1544 marr i e d Matthew Stew- 
art, earl of Lennox ; planned 
marriage between her son lord 
Darnley and Mary queen of 
Scots ; imprisoned for treason- 
able intentions by Elizabeth in 
1562; released, but again im- 
prisoned in 1565 ; released im- 


194 



LEN] 


LEO 


195 


mediately after the murder of 
Darnley, and at the court of 
Elizabeth denounced Mary 
queen of Scots for the crime. 
Her ambition was realized in 
1567 by the accession of her 
grandson, James VI, to the 
throne of England. She died 
in 1578. 

Queen Mary . 

LENT-LILY. 

= the daffodil, as flowering 
in Lent. 

Gareth and Lynette ; Pro- 
gress of Spring. 

LEODOGRAN. 

King of Cameliard, and 
father of Guinevere. King 
Arthur rescued him from king 
Rience of North Wales. Uther 
gave him the famous Round 
Table which would seat 150 
knights, and when king Arthur 
married Guinevere, Leodogran 
gave him the table with 100 
knights as a wedding gift. 

Coming of Arthur. 

LEOFRIC. 

Abbot Alfwig, 

Leofric, and all the monks of Peterboro’ 
Strike for the king; 

A nephew of earl Leofric, 
and abbot of Peterborough 
1053-66. Was present at the 
battle of Senlac. 

Harold . 

LEOFWIN. 

Son of earl Godwin ; accom- 
panied his father in exile in 
1051, and returned with him 
and was made earl of the present 
counties of Kent, Surrey, Essex 


and Middlesex. Accompanied 
his brother Harold to the battle 
of Stamford-bridge in 1066, 
and in the same year fought at 
Senlac where he was slain. 

Harold. 

LEOLIN. 

A barrister, brother of Averill 
the rector of the parish in which 
Aylmer’s hall was situated ; 
he was in love with Edith, 
daughter and heiress of sir 
Aylmer and lady Aylmer {q.v). 

AylmePs Field. 

LEONARD. 

A poet who was spending a 
holiday in Llanberis, but was 
sought out by his friends. His 
morning had been spent in 
writing lines concerning a Gol- 
den Age that was to be brought 
about by the peaceful growth 
of commerce binding the nations 
together. He said that in the 
Golden Year wealth will be 
more equally distributed, but 
men will not all be reduced, as 
in socialistic schemes, to one 
dead level. 

Golden Tear. 

LEONARD. 

Son of Edith and of the boy 
lover in Locksley Hall. He 
was drowned at sea when quite 
a young man. The speaker, 
talking to his grandson, says : 

Gone our sailor son thy father, Leonard early 
lost at sea ; 

Thou alone, my boy, of Amy’s kin and mine 
art left to me. 

Locksley Hall Sixty Years 
After. 



LEO] 


[LIL 


196 


LEOPARD. 

A rapacious quadruped of the 
cat tribe, a native of Southern 
Asia and Africa. 

The Princess. 

LETTY. 

LETTY HILL. 

Millionaire’s daughter, who 
fell in love with a visitor to the 
lake, but on being found in his 
company was forced by trustees 
and aunts and uncles to forsake 
him and marry Sir Robert (q.v). 

Edwin Morris. 

LEVERET. 

A hare in its first year. 

Audley Court. 

LEWES. 

Were those your sires who fought at Lewes ? 

Battle of Lewes, 1264, be- 
tween Henry III and the 
barons under Simon de Mont- 
fort. 

Third of February. 

LIBYAN. 

4 We drank the Libyan Sun to sleep, and lit 
Lamps which out-burn’d Canopus. 0 my 

life 

In Egypt ! 

A district in north Africa. 

Dream of Fair Women. 

LIGHT BRIGADE. 

Consisted of the 13 th Light 
Dragoons, the 17th Lancers, the 
nth Hussars, the 4th Light 
Dragoons, and the 8th Hussars 
commanded by lord Cardigan, 
who made the famous charge 
at the battle of Balaclava, 
October 25, 1854. 

Charge of the Light Brigade. 

LILAC. 

A shrub bearing flowers of a 
delicate purple tint. 

On a Mourner ; The Princess. 


LILIA. 

One of the young ladies 
engaged at the college founded 
by princess Ida, and supposed 
to be chaperoned by a certain 
aunt Elizabeth. A very lively 
sort of person. At the time of 
speaking, Lilia with others was 
spending a day at the house of 
sir Walter Vivian, and during 
the afternoon aunt Elizabeth 
was slightly offended at the 
frivolous behaviour of Lilia and 
a certain Walter. 

The Princess . 

LILIAN. 

The subject of a short poem 
written in praise of her. She is 
described by the poet as resem- 
bling a fairy with her vivacious 
manner : 

Airy, fairy Lilian, 

Flitting, fairy Lilian, 

Lilian. 

LILY. 

A genus of plants of many 
species, producing flowers of 
beauty and variety of colour. 
Supposed Confessions of a 
Second-rate Sensitive Mind ; 
Ode to Memory ; Adeline ; 
Lady of Shalott ; (Enone ; 
Gardener's Daughter ; Sir 
Galahad; Lady Clare ; To 
E. L. ; The Princess ; City 
Child ; In Memoriam ; 
Maud ; Geraint and Enid ; 
Bolin and Balan ; Lancelot 
and Elaine ; Voyage of 
Maeldune ; Ancient Sage ; 
Queen Mary ; Harold ; 
Bechet ; Promise of May ; 
The Foresters. 



ML] 


197 


[LIT 


LILY MAID OF ASTOLAT. 

Elaine the fair, Elaine the loveable, 

Elaine, the lily maid of Astolat, 

High in her chamber up a tower to the east 
Guarded the sacred shield of Lancelot ; 

= Elaine (q.v.). 

Lancelot and Elaine. 

LIME. 

The linden tree. 

Margaret ; Lady Clare de 
V ere ; On a Mourner ; 
Gardener’s Daughter ; Talk- 
ing Oak ; The Princess ; 
In Memoriam ; Maud; To 
Ulysses . 

LIMOURS. 

= Doorm (< q.v .). 

Marriage of Geraint; 
Geraint and Enid. 


LINNET. 

A singing bird of the finch 
family. 

1 Sir Launcelot and Queen 
Guinevere ; The Princess ; 
Minnie and Winnie; The 
Window; In Memoriam; 
Gareth and Lynette ; Guine- 
vere ; Lover’s Tale; Pro- 
gress of Spring. 


LINTWHITE. 
= Linnet. 


Claribel . 


LION. 

A fierce quadruped of the 
genus fdis found in southern 
Asia and in many parts of Africa. 
Lady Clare de V ere ; Dream 
of Fair Women; Locksley 
Hall ; Aylmer’s Field ; 
The Princess ; The Daisy; 
Maud ; Gareth and Lynette ; 


Balin and Balan ; Lancelot 
and Elaine ; Holy Grail ; 
The Revenge; Tiresias ; 
Locksley Hall Sixty Tears 
After ; St. Telemachus ; The 
Foresters ; Queen Mary ; 
Harold ; Becket ; The Cup . 

LIONEL. See Julian. 

LIONESS. 

A female lion. 

The Princess ; Demeter and 
Persephone ; The Foresters. 

LISBON. 

The capital of Portugal. 

Ode on the death of the Duke 
of Wellington . 

LITTLECHESTER. 

Promise of May. 

LITTLE JOHN. 

Robin Hood’s lieutenant. His 
name is supposed to have been 
John Little, but standing over 
seven feet in height, his com- 
panion Will Stutely in merry 
mood reversed the names. 

O, here is my hand, the stranger reply'd. 

I’ll serve you with all my whole heart; 
My name is John Little, a man of good mettle ; 
Ne’re doubt me, for I’ll play my part. 

* * * 

He was, I must tell you, but seven foot high, 
And, may be, an ell in the waste ; 

* * * 

Brave Stutely came then, with seven yeomen. 
And did in this manner proceed ; 

This infant was called John Little, quoth he ; 

Which name shall be changed anon : 

The words we’ll transpose; so wherever he 
goes, 

His name shall be call’d Little John. 

Ritson : Robin Hood, Vol. II. 

He lies buried in the church- 
yard of Hathersage in Derby- 
shire, the grave being over seven 
feet in length. His c goode 
stout bowe of best yew tree > 



LIZ] 


[Lom 


198 


is preserved at Cannon hall, 
near Barnsley. 

The Foresters. 

LIZARD. 

A family of four-footed 
reptiles. 

(Enone ; Enoch Arden. 

LIZARD-POINT. 

May never saw dismember thee, 

Nor wielded axe disjoint, 

Thou art the fairest-spoken tree 
From here to Lizard-point. 

Headland on the south coast 
of Cornwall. 

Talking Oak. 

LLANBERIS. 

we that day had been 
Up Snowdon ; and I wish’d for Leonard there, 
And found him in Llanberis : 

A' small town at the foot of 
mount Snowdon. 

Golden Tear. 

LLANBERRIS. 

Yet once when first 

I came on Lake Llanberris in the dark, 

A moonless night with storm — 

Sisters {Evelyn and Edith). 

LOCKSLEY. 

Locksley Hall Sixty Tears 
A fter. 

LOCKSLEY HALL. 

An imaginary place. 

Locksley Hall ; Locksley 
Hall Sixty Tears After. 

LOCKSLEY SHIELD. 

Locksley Hall Sixty Tears 
A fter . 

LOCKSLEY TOWER. 

Locksley Hall Sixty Tears 
After . 

LODI. 

A town in Lombardy, famous 
for the victory of Buonaparte 
over the Austrians, 1796. 

The Daisy. 


LOMBARDY. 

Oueen Mary. 

LONDON (City of). 

Edwi?i Morris ; Locksley 
Hall ; Ode on the death of 
the Duke of Wellington ; 
Boadicea ; Maud ; To ther 
Queen , II ; Locksley Hall 
Sixty Tears After ; The 
Dawn ; Queen Mary ; 
Harold ; Becket ; Promise 
of May ; The Foresters ; 
To E. Fitzgerald . 

LONDON (Bishop of). 

Becket. 

LONDON BRIDGE. 

The first bridge is said to 
have been built by the Romans. 
In 1008 it was broken down 
in the fighting which took place 
between Ethelred and the 
Danes who had gained posses- 
sion of the city of London. 
This incident is the subject of 
a Scandinavian poem 

London Bridge is broken down — 

Gold is won and bright renown. 

Shields resounding, 

War-horns sounding, 

Hildur shouting in the din 1 
Arrows singing, 

Mail- coats ringing — 

Odin makes our Olaf win ! ’ 

Under William Rufus the 
bridge was repaired, but during 
the Kentish rising in 1471 it 
was attacked by the Kentish 
men under the leadership of 
Thomas Fauconberg. During 
the last 700 years it has been 
destroyed and rebuilt on several 
occasions ; the present struc- 
ture dating from 1831. 

There is an old song entitled 
London Bridge , the authorship 



LOT] 


[LOU 


199 


of which is unknown. Several 
versions of this song are given. 
Rod well’s version in his Old 
London Bridge commences : — 

London Bridge is broken down ; 

Dance o’er, Lady Lea. 

London Bridge is broken down 
With a gay La-dee. 

while John o’ London’s trans- 
lation in his London Stories is : 

London Bridge is broken down ; 

Dance over, my Lady Lee. 

London Bridge is broken down 
With a gay Ladye. 

A later version is as follows : — 

London Bridge is broken down ; 

Dance over my Lady Lee. 

Old King Lud he built it first, 

Built it firm of posts and planks ; 

Julius Caesar built it next ; 

Caesar marched through London Town, 
When Duke Brutus killed him dead. 

Good St. Olave dinged it down ; 

So he saved us from the foe ; 

So we built his holy shrine. 

Norman William built it up, 

Built it strong of wood and iron ; 

He was crowned in London Town. 

London Bridge is broken down ; 

Who will build it up again ? 

We must build it up again. 

How shall we build it up again ? 

Queen Mary. 


LOT. 

King of Orkney, married 
Bellicent, daughter of Gorlois, 
lord of Tintagel Castle, Corn- 
wall. Father of sir Gawain 
and sir Modred. Made war 
on king Arthur on several 
occasions, notably that of the 
great battle of the kings. 
Allied himself with Nero, 
brother of King Rience of 
North Wales against Arthur 
and in the battle which ensued 
was slain by Pellinore. In 
Geoffrey of Monmouth he is 
called king of Norway. 

Coming of Arthur ; Gareth 
and Lynette ; Bolin and 
Balan ; Lancelot and 
Elaine . 


LOTOS— LOTUS 

A low thorny shrub, a native 
of Northern Africa, fabled by 
the ancients to make strangers 
who ate of it to forget their 
native country, or lose all desire 
to return to it. 

CEnone ; Lotos-Eaters ; 

Akbar’s Dream . 


LOTOS-EATERS. 

And round about the keel with faces pale, 
Dark faces pale against that rosy flame, 

The mild-eyed melancholy Lotos-eaters came. 

A race of people who lived 
in Cyrenaica, a district on the 
north and north-east coast of 
Africa (Tripoli and Tunis), 
who lived on the fruit of the 
lotos tree. 

Lotos-Eaters. 


LOTOS-LAND. 


In the hollow Lotos-land to live and lie re- 
clined 

On the hills like Gods together, careless of 
mankind. 

The north and north-east 
coast of Africa. 

Lotos-Eaters. 


LOT’S WIFE. 


Stiff as Lot’s wife, 


see how you stand 


See Genesis xix. 26. 

The Princess. 


LOTUS. See Lotos. 

LOUIS. 

LOUIS OF FRANCE. 

Son of Louis VI, whom he 
succeeded in 1137. Engaged in 
a crusade but was defeated by 
Saladin. Having divorced his 
wife Eleanor, she married Henry 
II of England by which the 
provinces of Poitou and Guienne 
were annexed to the English 
crown. This produced war 
between England and France 



which lasted twenty-one years 
(1120-1180). 

Becket. 

LOVER’S BAY. 

Lover's Tale . 

LOVER’S LEAF. 

Lover's Tale. 

LUC1LIA. See Lucretius. 

LUCIUS JUNIUS BRUTUS. 

Son of Junius and Tarquinia, 
sister of Superbus. When Tar- 
quin put his brother to death 
Brutus pretended to be an 
idiot, hence his name, meaning 
4 stupid.’ When the public 
indignation was aroused on 
account of the foul outrage on 
Lucretia by Tarquin’s son, he 
raised a revolt and expelled 
the tyrant from Rome. In 509 
he became the first consul of 
Rome and sentenced to death 
his two sons found guilty of 
conspiring to restore the mon- 
archy and in the same year 
was killed in an attack led on 
by Aruns, son of Tarquin. 

The Princess. 

LUCKNOW. 

City in British India, and 
capital of the district of Luck- 
now and of the old province 
of Oudh. During the Indian 
Mutiny it underwent a siege 
of six months at the hands of 
the mutineers. It was relieved 
by sir Colin Campbell. 

Defence of Lucknow. 

LUCRETIUS. 

Lucilia, wedded to Lucretius, found 
Her master cold ; , 


The poem portrays the rav- 
ings of the maddened Lucre- 
tius. His wife, Lucilia, not 
being satisfied with her hus- 
band’s conduct towards her, 
mixed a love-philtre and min- 
gled it with his drink. At one 
moment he cursed, and the 
next revelled in, the animal 
passion. 

— how the sun delights 
To glance and shift about her slippery sides. 
And rosy knees and supple roundedness, 

And budded bosom-peaks — 

He raved against love and the 
gods, and lashing himself into a 
frenzy committed suicide. 

Lucretius. 

LUCULLUS. 

that Lucullus or Apicus might have sniffed 
it in their Hades of heathenism, 

A Roman general and epicure, 
who distinguished himself in 
the war against Mithridates, 
and who was celebrated for 
the luxurious life he lived at 
Rome. For placing before him 
one day a less sumptuous feast 
than usual he reprimanded his 
servant, remarking : 

4 Are you aware, sirrah, that Lucullus dines 
with Lucullus to-day ? * 

Becket. 

LUCUMO. See Lar. 

LUCY. 

Daughter of the village squire. 
She was supposed to have an 
ungainly deportment. 

An* Lucy wur laame o’ one leg, sweet-’arts 
she niver ’ed none — 

Straange an’ unheppen Miss Lucy ! we naamed 
her ‘ Dot an’ gaw one 1 ’ 

Village Wife. 

LUDGATE. 

A famous London gateway 
supposed to have been built by 



LUN] 


201 


[LYN 


Lud, king of the Britons, who 
lies buried beneath the gate. 

Queen Mary . 

LUNNON (London). 

Northern Farmer , Old Style ; 

Promise of May . 

LURE. 

Yet while they rode together down the plain, 
Their talk was all of training, terms of art, 
Diet and seeling, jesses, leash and lure. 

A decoy, used in falconry for 
training the hawk. 

Merlin and Vivien. 

LUSCOMBE. 

A farm labourer. 

Promise of May. 

LUSITANIAN. 

But such whose father-grape grew fat 
On Lusitanian summers. 

= Lusitania, the ancient 
name for Portugal. 

Will Waterproofs Lyrical 
Monologue. 

LUTHER. 

The ghosts of Luther and Zuinglius fade 
Into the deathless hell which is their doom 
Before my star! 

Has reference to Martin Lu- 
ther, the protestant reformer. 

To J. M. K. ; Queen Mary. 

LUTTERWORTH. 

Not least art thou, thou little Bethlehem 
In Judah, for in thee the Lord was bom ; 
Nor thou in Britain, little Lutterworth, 
Least, for in thee the word was born again. 

A town in Leicestershire, the 
church of which John Wycliffe 
was Rector from 1374 ^ 
death in 1384. He was buried 
there, but in 1428 his remains 
were exhumed and burned, and 
the ashes cast into the river 
Swift that flows through Lutter- 
worth on its course to the Avon. 


* the little river conveyed Wy cliff’s remains 
into the Avon, Avon into the Severn, Severn 
into the narrow seas, they to the main ocean. 
And thus the ashes of Wyclifte are the emblem 
of his doctrine, which now is dispersed all the 
world over.’ 

Thomas Fuller. 

Sir John Oldcastle , 
Lord Cobh am. 

LYCIAN CUSTOM. 

Appraised the Lycian custom, spoke o those 
That lay at wine with Lar and Lucumo : 

The ‘ custom ? referred to 
here is that the Lycians, in- 
habitants of the country of 
Lycia in Asia Minor took their 
names from their mothers and 
not their fathers, and always 
reckoned their ancestry in the 
female line. 

The Princess. 

LYDIAN CARPETS. 

Lay down the Lydian carpets for the king. 

Lydia was a country of Asia 
Minor and as early as 700 b.c. 
was a powerful empire and a 
centre of religion and culture. 
It was noted for its music, its 
purple dyes, and the weaving of 
carpets in colours and patterns. 

The Cup. 

LYDIAN LAUGHTER. 

as we wander’d to and f fro 
Gazing at the Lydian laughter of the Garda 

Lake below 

Sweet Catullus’s all-but-island, 

= Soft, melodious, as the 
ancient Greek mode of music 
known as Lydian. 

F rater Ave Atque Vale. 

LYNETTE. 

Sister to the lady Lyonors. 
She was a high-spirited girl and 
exceedingly proud, a fact of 
which she was reminded by the 
peacock in his pride that ladies 



LYN] 


202 


[MA3> 


should be of a loving and gentle 
disposition. 

And there they placed a peacock In his pride 
Beside the damsel, and the Baron set 
Gareth beside her, but at once she rose. 

Lynette went to king Arthur 
to ask for a knight to deliver 
her sister Lyonors (q.v) from 
the tyranny of four knights who 
held her prisoner in Castle 
Perilous. 

Gareth and Lynette . 

LYNX. 

An animal resembling the 
common cat ; with a short tail 
and ears tipped with pencils 
of hair. 

Bechet . 

LYONESSE— LYONNESSE. 

Considered to have been :i a 
country uniting the Scilly 
islands with western Cornwall, 
and now covered by the sea. 
The ‘last weird battle in the 
west 5 between king Arthur and 
sir Modred is supposed to 
have been fought here. 

Then rose the King and moved his host by 

night, 

And ever push’d Sir Modred, league by league, 
Back to the sunset bound of Lyonnesse — 

A land of old upheaven from the abyss 
By fire, to sink into the abyss again; ! 
Where fragments of forgotten peoples dwelt, 
And the long mountains ended in a coast 
Of ever-shifting sand, and far away 
The phantom circle of a moaning sea. 

Morte d* Arthur ; Lancelot 
and Elaine ; Last Tourna - 
ment ; Merlin and Vivien ; 
Guinevere ; Passing of 
Arthur. 

LYONORS. 

The lady of Castle Perilous, 
where she was held captive by 
four knights. Her sister, the 
lady Lynette, went to king 


Arthur to ask for a knight to 
deliver her from the tyrants. 
The king gave the quest to sir 
Gareth (q*v) who overcame 
the knights and liberated the 
lady, whom according to Malory 
he married. Tennyson however 
makes Gareth marry Lynette. 

And he that told the tale in older times 
Says that Sir Gareth wedded Lyonors, 

But he, that told it later, says Lynette. 

Gareth and Lynette. 

MACAW. 

A tropical bird of the parrot- 
tribe, with long tail and a 
hooked jaw. 

Day-Dream. 

MACHREE. 

An’ shure thin ye’ll meet me tomorra ? ’ 

* Tomorra, tomorra, Machree ! ’ 

Tomorrow. 

MACREADY. 

A famous tragedian ; was 
manager of Covent Garden,, 
and afterwards of Drury Lane 
Theatres. He was a friend 
of Tennyson, and on his retire- 
ment from the stage the poet 
addressed the following sonnet 
to him : 

Farewell, Macready, since to-night we part 
Full-handed thunders often have confessed 
Thy power, well used to move the public 
breast. 

We thank thee with our voice and from the 
heart. 

Farewell, Macready, since this night we part. 
Go, take thine honours home ; rank with 
the best, 

Garrick and statelier Kemble, and the rest. 
Who made a nation purer thro’ their art. 

Thine is it that our drama did not die, 

Nor flicker down to brainless pantomime, 
And those gilt gauds men-children swarm to 
see. 

Farewell, Macready ; moral, grave, sublime ; 
Our Shakespeare’s bland and universal eye 
Dwells pleased, thro’ twice a hundred years, on 
thee. 

To W. C. Macready . 

MADELINE. 

Described by the poet as a 



MAE] 


203 


[MAI 


person of an ever-changing 
mood. He speaks of her as 
‘ Ever-varying Madeline,’ and 
remarks that her smiles and 
frowns seem to be part of each 
other. 

Thy smile and frown are not aloof 

From one another, 

Each to each is dearest brother ; 

Madeline. 

MAELDUNE. 

The hero of an Irish legend 
a.d. 700. He was the son of 
Owenacht of Aran, but before 
his birth his father was killed 
by a band of robbers. When 
he had grown to manhood he 
determined to seek out his 
father’s murderers, and with 
a crew of some fifty men set 
out on his voyage. The vessel 
was blown away from the coast 
of Ireland, probably amongst 
the Hebrides, and they visited 
islands, — described by the poet 
as the Isle of a Saint, the 
Bounteous Isle, Isle of Fire, 
Isle of Flowers, Isle of Fruits, 
Isle of Shouting, Isle of the 
Double Towers, the Isle of 
Witches, and the Silent Isle — 
which abounded with mon- 
strous animals, fruits, shouting 
birds, and biting horses of 
gigantic size, lakes of fire and 
of witches. Eventually they 
came to a bare rock upon which 
was a fortress where lived his 
father’s murderers, but instead 
of slaying them, he forgave 
them in thankfulness to God 
for having delivered him from 
so many perils. 

Voyage of Maeldune . 


MAGDALEN. 

A character in Queen Mary . 

Queen Mary . 

MAGDALEN (Saint Mary). 

Briket. 

MAGEE (Molly). See Dan, Danny 
O’Roon. 

MAGPIE. 

A bird of the genus Pica r 
allied to the jay. 

To Rev. F. D. Maurice. 

MAHOMET. 

till warming with her theme 
She fulmined out her scorn of laws Salique 
And little-footed China, touch’d on Mahomet 
With much contempt, and came to chivalry : 

Probably refers to the system 
of Islam, which permits poly- 
gamy, or to the general idea 
that Mahomet considered that 
women have no souls. 

The Princess. 

MAHOUNB. 

The corrupt form of the name 
Mahomet used by old writers. 

Becket ; The Foresters. 

MAID MARIAN. 

Supposed to have been the 
daughter of sir Richard Lea, 
who assumed the name of Maid 
Marian while Robin Hood re- 
mained in a state of outlawry. 
She is frequently mentioned 
as the paramour of Robin 
Hood. She was supposed to 
have been poisoned at Dunmow 
Priory by order of king John, 
because she rejected him. 

Queen Mary ; The Foresters. 

MAID OF ASTOLAT. 

Elaine the fair, Elaine the loveable, 

Elaine, the lily maid of Astolat, 



MAI] 


204 


High in her chamber up a tower to the east 
Guarded the sacred shield of Lancelot ; 

See Elaine. 

Lancelot and Elaine. 

MAIDSTONE. 

The county town of Kent, 
situated on the river Medway. 

Queen Mary. 

MAIDSTONE MARKET. 

Queen Mary. 

MALET. . 

William Malet of Graville 
in Normandy and a companion 
of the Conqueror. Was sheriff 
of York till 1068, taken prisoner 
at the capture of York in 1069, 
but subsequently released. 

Harold. 

MALLEOR. 

or him 

Of Geoffrey’s book, or him of Malleor’s, 

— Sir Thomas Malory, author 
of Morte d\ Arthur. 

To the Queen , II. 

MALLOW. 

A plant which grows on 
marshy or moist soils. 

The Brook. 

MALVOISIE. 

= Malmsey, a sweet wine 
from Crete, Canary Islands, 
and the Azores. 

The Foresters. 

MAMMON. 

He believed 

This filthy marriage-hindering Mammon 
made 

The harlot of the cities : 

Has reference to the Syrian 
god of wealth, and wishes to con- 
vey that persons prevented from 
marrying on account of material 


[MAR 

wealth are apt to fall into 
dissipation. 

Aylmer* s Field . 
MAMMONITE MOTHER. 

When a Mammonite mother kills her babe 
for a burial fee, 

The mother subscribes to 
an Insurance Society and then 
murders her child in order to 
get its funeral expenses. 

Maud . 

MANCHESTER. 

Tho’ niggard throats of Manchester may bawl 
What England was, shall her true sons forget ? 

Has reference to the c School 
of Manchester ? who protested 
against the Crimean war. 

Third of February. 

MANSFIELD. 

A town in Nottinghamshire. 

The Foresters. 

MANTOVANO. 

I salute thee, Mantovano, I that loved thee 
since my day began, 

Wielder of the stateliest measure ever moulded 
by the lips of man. 

Has reference to Virgil, the 
Latin poet, who was born near 
Mantua. 

To Virgil. 

MAP. See Walter Map. 

MARAH. 

Becket. Breaking already from thy novi- 
ciate 

To plunge into this bitter world again — 

These wells of Marah. 

See Exodus xv. 23. 

Becket. 

MARGARET. 

Represented by the poet as a 
pale, delicate and pensive girl, 
and also appears at times to be 
given to melancholy. He com- 
pares her to the calm sea, and 



MAR] 


205 


[MAR 


also speaks of her as the evening 
star. 

alway 

Remaining betwixt dark and bright: 

Margaret. 

MARGARET. 

Friend of a little girl Alice, who 
is to be c Queen of the May. 5 

May Queen . 

MARGARET. 

The three year old daughter 
of a city clerk, gently born and 
bred, who with his wife and 
child was spending a holiday 
at the sea-side. The mother 
rocked Margaret’s cradle, sing- 
ing her to sleep with the well- 
known slumber song : 

* What does little birdie say.' 

Sea Dreams. 

MARGERY. 

Daughter of a poor woman, 
who received permission from 
the priest, Father Philip, to 
send her daughter into the 
world to earn her own living 
as a bower-maid. Margery re- 
lated ‘ he asked our mother if 
I could keep a quiet tongue i 5 
my head, and not speak till I 
was spoke to. 5 Fulfilling these 
conditions she was to be ad- 
vanced into the service of a 
great lady, namely Rosamund 
de Clifford, paramour of Henry 
the Second. It was Margery, 
however, who first disclosed to 
Rosamund the secret fact of 
Henry’s marriage to Eleanor 
of Aquitaine. The news caused 
great grief to Rosamund. Mar- 
gery left the bower, singing : 

Bee mustn’t buzz, 

Whoop — but he knows. 

Becket. 


MARIA. 

Pole. Ave Maria, gratia plena, Benedicts 
tu in mulieribus. 

= Virgin Mary. 

Queen Mary. 

MARIAM (ISSA BEN). See Issa- 
Ben Mariam. 

MARIAN. See Maid Marian. 

MARIAN. 

The dead wife of a friend in 
the poem. He induced him to 
leave London, and come to 
spend a few days with him 
at his country home. 

Is memory; with your Marian gone to rest, 

Dead with the dead? 

The writer thought that a 
change of scenery would be some 
consolation to him in his grief 
for his wife Marian. 

To Mary Boyle. 

MARIE. 

MARIE ALEXANDROVNA. 

Only daughter of Alexander 
II, czar of Russia, married to 
the duke of Edinburgh, second 
son of the late queen Victoria,, 
at St. Petersburg, January 23,, 
1874. 

A Welcome to Her Royat 
Highness Marie Alexandrov- 
na , Duchess of Edinburgh. 

MARK. 

of Tintagel Castle, king of Corn- 
wall. He was a man of vice and 
treachery, and was hated by all 
the Knights of the Round 
Table. He sent an envoy to 
king Arthur bearing a costly 
cloth of gold as a gift to the 
king, with a request that Arthur' 



JBAR] 


206 


[MAR 


would knight him, as he had 
knighted Tristram, but the 
king rejected with scorn both 
the gift and the request. 

Then came in hall the messenger of Mark, 

A name of evil savour in the land, 

The Cornish king. In either hand he bore 
What dazzled all, and alone far-off as shines 
A field of charlock in the sudden sun 
Between two showers, a cloth of palest gold, 
Which down he laid before the throne, and 
knelt. 

Delivering, that his lord, the vassal king, 

Was ev’n upon his way to Camelot; 

For having heard that Arthur of his grace 
Had made his goodly cousin, Tristram, knight, 
And, he himself was of the greater state, 
Being a king, he trusted his liege-lord 
Would yield him this large honour all the 
more ; 

So pray’d him well to accept this cloth of gold, 
In token of true heart and fealty. 

Then Arthur cried to rend the cloth, to rend 
In pieces, and so cast it on the hearth. 

Being jealous of the popu- 
larity of his brother Boudwin 
he murdered him. He married 
Isolt, daughter of king Anguish 
of Ireland. He plotted against 
his nephew Tristram (^.z/.), who 
had married Isolt, daughter 
of Howell, king of Brittany, 
and finally slew him whilst 
dallying with his wife. 

He spoke, he turn’d, then, flinging round her 
neck, 

Claspt it, and cried * Thine Order, O my 
Queen ! ’ 

But, while he bow’d to kiss the jewell’d throat, 
Out of the dark, just as the lips had touch’d, 
Behind him rose a shadow and a shriek — 

‘ Mark’s way,’ said Mark, and clove him thro’ 
the brain. 

Gareth and Lynette ; Bolin 
and Balan ; Merlin and 
V ivien ; Last T ournament . 

MARK ANTONY. 

Marcus Antonius, son of Mar- 
cus Antonius Creticus and Julia, 
sister of Julius Cassar. He 
became consul with Caesar 
44 b.c., whom he accompanied 
to Gaul. When Caesar was 
murdered on the Ides of March 
he formed a triumvirate and 


defeated Brutus and Cassius at 
Philippi. Fell in love with 
Cleopatra, with whom he lived 
in luxury in Egypt. Eventu- 
ally he was deposed by the 
Triumvirate and war being 
proclaimed he was defeated 
in a naval engagement off 
Actium, by Octavius, b.c. 31. 
His outburst against Cleo- 
patra after his defeat is de- 
picted in Shakespeare’s Antony 
and Cleopatra , Act iv. Scene xii. 

All is lost ; 

This foul Egyptian hath betrayed me : 

My fleet hath yielded to the foe ; and yonder 
They cast their caps up and carouse together 
Like friends long lost. Triple-tum’d whore ! 
’tis thou 

Hast sold me to this novice ; and my heart 
Makes only war on thee. 

and when she has left him, he 
proceeds : 

’Tis well thou'rt gone, 

If it be well to live ; but better ’twere 
Thou fell’st into my fury, for one death 
Might have prevented many. Eros, ho ! 

The shirt of Nessus is upon me : 

Twelve months later he com- 
mitted suicide (83-30 b.c.). 

Dream of Fair W omen. 

MARRIS (Bessy). See Bessy 
Marris. 

MARS. 

The Roman god of war. He 
was regarded as the father of 
Romulus, the founder of Rome. 
Maud ; Locksley Hall Sixty 
Tears After . 

MARSH-DIVER. 

The Princess. 

MARSH-MARIGOLD. 

A genus of plants of the 
Ranunculus order, having large 
yellow flowers, common in 
marshes. 


Queen Mary . 



MAR] 


20 7 


[MAR 


MARY. 

But ‘ Ave Mary/ made she moan, 

And ‘ Ave Mary/ night and mom, 

= £ Hail Mary, 5 a prayer to 
the Virgin Mary. 

Mariana in the South ; 
Harold ; The Foresters. 

MARY. 

One of four girl friends 
spoken of by Alice, the c Queen 
of the May. 5 

May Queen . 

MARY. 

When Lazarus left his charnel- cave, 

And home to Mary’s house return’d, 

Was this demanded — if he yearn’d 
To hear her weeping by his grave ? 

Sister of Martha and Lazarus. 

In Memoriam. 

MARY. 

The silver year should cease to mourn and 
sigh — 

Not long to wait — 

So close are we, dear Mary, you and I 
To that dim gate. 

= Mary Boyle, to whom the 
Progress of Spring is dedicated. 

To Mary Boyle. 

MARY. 

Wife of Romney, the great 
painter, who married when he 
was only nineteen. Sir Joshua 
and other artists remarked to 
him that marriage spoiled an 
artist, and almost immediately 
he forsook his wife and young 
child, and scarcely saw them 
until the close of his life. When 
old and weary and desolate 
he returned to her, who received 
him kindly and nursed him until 
he died. Before his death he 
implored for her forgiveness, 
and said he 

lost 

Salvation for a sketch. 

Romney* s Remorse . 


MARY. 

Queen of England, daughter 
of Henry VIII and Catherine 
of Aragon. On the death of 
Edward VI she was proclaimed 
queen. The duke of Northum- 
berland had however induced 
Edward VI to set aside Henry’s 
will in favour of lady Jane Grey, 
who had married his son, lord 
Guildford Dudley, but the 
country favoured Mary and 
she entered London in triumph 
on July io, 1553. Northum- 
berland and others were exe- 
cuted, including lady Jane Grey 
and her husband, and the 
Roman Catholic religion was 
again restored. The unpopu- 
larity of the proposal to marry 
Philip of Spain brought about 
the rebellion of sir Thomas 
Wyatt, which was crushed with 
severity, and the princess Eliza- 
beth being suspected was com- 
mitted to the Tower, and 
afterwards removed to Wood- 
stock. In 1555 persecution 
broke out which gave her the 
name of Bloody Mary, 5 some 
300 persons, including Cran- 
mer, Ridley and Latimer being 
sent to the stake. At the 
instigation of Philip she de- 
clared war with France, with 
the result that Calais was lost 
to England. During the last 
years of her reign she suffered 
from ill-health, and her un- 
happy and childless marriage, 
aggravated by the loss of 
Calais, produced a fever of 
which she died on November 



MAB] 


208 


[MAH 


17, 1558, and with her ended the 
domination of the papal power 
in England. 

Queen Mary . 

MARY 

MARY MORRISON. 

The lover, and eventually 
the wife of William, son of farmer 
Allan. 

Dora . 

MARY OF ENGLAND. See Mary 
(Queen of England). 

MARY OF SCOTLAND. See 
Scots (Mary, Queen of). 

MASTIFF. 

A large dog. 

Promise of May . 

MATILDA (or Maud). 

Daughter of Henry I of 
England. Married in 1114 to 
the emperor Henry V, and after 
his death in 1128 to Geoffrey 
Plantagenet. On the death of 
her father, her cousin Stephen 
(q.v) became king, and civil 
war broke out. In 1139 s ^ e 
arrived in England from Nor- 
mandy, defeated and took 
Stephen prisoner at the battle 
of Lincoln, but being defeated 
herself she fled to Normandy. 
In 1153 a peace was concluded 
by which it was agreed that 
Matilda’s son Henry should be 
Stephen’s successor. 

Bechet, 

MAUD. 

Daughter of a man who by 
speculation came into possession 
of a hall and certain estates. 


The son of the ruined man 
thought of leaving the hateful 
neighbourhood, but as Maud,, 
the playmate of his youth, re- 
turned to the hall, he remained. 
Maud was perfectly beautiful, 
but her face w r as expression- 
less. She grew to love the 
playmate of her youth, to whom 
she had been betrothed since 
birth. Her harsh brother for- 
bade all intercourse, but her 
lover invited her to meet him in 
the garden, using the lovely lyric, 

* Come into the garden, Maud. 

The trys ting-place was how- 
ever discovered by her brother 
and a certain young lord. High 
words ensued, followed by a 
duel. Maud’s brother was shot 
dead — and the lover fled to 
the Breton coast. The news 
of Maud’s death reached him 
and he fell into the apathy of 
despair. 

Maud. 

MAURICE (Rev. Frederick Deni- 
son). 

Theologian and social re- 
former and friend of the poet. 
Son of a Unitarian minister, 
in 1812 went to Trinity College, 
Cambridge, and founded — -in 
conjunction with Sterling — the 
Apostles Club ; in 1834 P ro ~ 
ceeded to Oxford and took his 
degree ; appointed chaplain of 
Guy’s Hospital 1837; and 
from 1846-53 was Professor 
of Theology at King’s College, 
having in the meantime ap- 
peared before the principal 



MAU] 


209 


[MEL 


to answer the charges of hetero- 
doxy brought against him in the 
Quarterly Review . 

For, being of that honest few, 

Who give the Fiend himself his due, 

Should eighty thousand college- councils 
Thunder ‘ Anathema,’ friend, at you ; 

Should all our Churchmen foam in spite 
At you, so careful of the right, 

Yet one lay-hearth would give you welcome 
(Take it and come) to the Isle of Wight ; 

In 1852 he was godfather to 
Hallam Tennyson. 

Come, when no graver cares employ, 
Godfather, come and see your boy : 

Your presence will be sun in winter, 
Making the little one leap for joy. 

In the following year upon 
the publication of his ‘Theolo- 
gical Essays was, by the Council 
of King’s College, requested 
to retire. He subsequently 
accepted the Incumbency of 
Vere Street Chapel, which he 
held until appointed Professor 
of Moral Philosophy at Cam- 
bridge. Incumbent of St. Ed- 
ward’s, Cambridge, 1870-72 and 
Cambridge preacher at White- 
hall 1871. He died in the 
following year and was buried 
at Highgate. 

To Rev . F . D. Maurice. 

MAURICE. 

MAURICE BERKELEY. 

Sir Maurice Berkeley. Fought 
on the side of Mary in the Wyatt 
insurrection, 1554. Wyatt sur- 
rendered to him at Temple 
Bar. 

Queen Mary . 

MAVIS. 

= The song-thrush. 

Claribel ; Gareth and Lyn - 
ette ; The Foresters . 


MAVORS. 

then would I cry to thee 
To kiss thy Mavors, roll thy tender arms 
Round him, 

= Mars. 

Lucretius . 

MAYFLY. 

A short-lived fly which 
appears in May. 

Maud. 

MAY LILIAN. See Lilian. 
MAY-SWEET. 

Lover’s Tale. 
MEADOW-CRAKE. 

= the corn-crake. It builds 
its nest in meadow grass. 

The Princess. 

MEADOW-SWEET. 

A fragrant herbaceous plant 
with white flowers, called also 
queen of the meadow. 

The Brook ; Promise of May . 

MEDITERRANEAN. 

An inland sea enclosed east 
by Asia, south by Africa and 
north by Europe. 

Sir John Oldcastle? 
Lord Gobham . 

MEDWAY. 

Ah, gray old castle of Alington, greenffield 
Beside the brimming Medway, it may chance 
That I shall never look upon you more. 

A river of Kent. 

Queen Mary. 

MEG. 

began 

To troll a careless, careless tavern- catch ,j 
Of Moll and Meg, and strange experiences j 
, Unmeet for ladies. 

A colloquialism for Margaret. 

The Princess. 

MELISSA. 

Daughter of lady Blanche and 
friend of Ida, heroine of The 
Princess, one of the young 
P 



MEL] 


210 


[MEN 


ladies who accompanied Ida to 
her house of learning. Melissa 
is the Greek word for c Bee 5 
or * Honey.’ She was supposed 
to be a maiden of youthful 
charm and one whose tender 
conscience and loving manner 
could not brook the shadow 
of deceit. At the college she 
occupied a subordinate posi- 
tion, but her youthful charm 
.and subordinate sphere formed 
a striking contrast to the prin- 
cess who was the embodiment 
of majestic dignity. 

The Princess. 

MELPOMENE. 

The Muse of Tragedy. Her 
attribute is a tragic mask, or a 
sword. The Muses (< q.v .) were 
nine in number, daughters of 
Zeus and Mnemosyne, and 
were considered as goddesses 
dwelling in Olympus. 

In Memoriam . 

MEMMIAN NAPHTHA-PITS. 

or fled 

Beyond the Memmian naphtha-pits, disgraced 
For ever — 

=Mennis, a place in Meso- 
potamia with Naphtha-pits, 
identified with the modern 
Kerkuk, or Kirkook, in Asiatic 
Turkey, twenty hours’ journey 
from Arbela. 

Alexander quartis castris ad Mennin urbem 
pervenit. Cavema ibi est, ex qua tons 
ingentem vim bituminis effundit, adeo ut 
satis constet, Babylonios muros ingentis 
©peris fontis bitumine interlitos esse. 

Q. Curtius : Hist. Alex. Magni v. i. 16. 

See Professor Bensly’s com- 
munication to Notes and 
Queries , February 14, 1914, 
?• * 37 * 

Alexander . 


MEMMIUS. 

and meant 

Surely to lead my Memmius in a train 
Of flowery clauses onward to the proof 
That Gods there are, and deathless. 

=A Roman citizen. Was tri- 
bune, pretor and subsequently 
governor of Bithynia ; banished 
by Caesar. Lucretius dedicated 
his poem to him. 

Lucretius. 

MEMNON. 

The beautiful son of Tithonus 
and Eos. He was sent by his 
father to assist in the Trojan 
war and slew Antilochus, but 
was himself killed by Achilles ; 
whereupon his mother besought 
Jupiter to immortalize his 
memory. This, however, did not 
calm her sorrow, for she bears 
witness to her weeping in the 
dews of the morning. A colos- 
sal statue of king Amenophis 
built near Thebes, and which 
was said to emit a musical sound 
at dawn, was given the name of 
Memnon. 

Thro’ which the lights, rose, amber, emerald, 
blue, 

Flush’d in her temples and her eyes, 

And from her lips, as mom from Memnon 
drew 

Rivers of melodies. 

Palace of Art ; The Princess . 

MENCECEUS. 

A young Theban, son of 
Creon. During the siege of 
Thebes, Tiresias prophesied 
that victory would ensue on the 
side of Thebes if the wrath 
of the god Ares was pacified 
by a descendant of the warriors 
that had sprung from the 
dragon’s teeth sown by Cadmus 



MEN] 


2 1 1 


[MER 


(q*v) at the well of the Dirce 
being sacrificed. Menceceus, 
one of the last of the race, slew 
himself on the wall and his 
body fell down into the cave 
which had been the haunt of 
the dragon. 

1 Tiresias . 


MEN-TOMM1ES. 

= Sweet-hearts. 

Spinster's Sweet-Arts. 

MERCURY. 

The Italian god of commerce. 
Lucretius ; Lover's Tale. 


MERIBES. 

The personification of the 
noonday sun. The name of 
a knight — one of four brothers 
— who kept the passages of 
Castle Perilous, where the lady 
Lyonors was held captive, and 
who was overthrown by sir 
Gareth. 

Gareth and Lynette. 

MERLE. 

= The blackbird. 

Gareth and Lynette ; The 
Foresters . 


MERLIN. 

The magician of Arthur’s 
court. He is supposed to have 
been a bard, born about the 
year 470 a.d., and adopted the 
name of Ambrose. He first 
served the British chief Am- 
brosius Aurelianus, and after- 
wards king Arthur. 

and one 

Is Merlin, the wise man that ever served 
King Uther thro’ his magic art; 

In 457 a.d., after the defeat 
of the Saxons under Hengist, 


Merlin conveyed great stones 
from Ireland to England, and 
set them up at Stonehenge as 
a monument to the British 
chiefs who had been slain by 
Hengist, where they still remain. 

How Merlin by his skill, and Magiques won- 
drous might, 

From Ireland, hither brought the Stonehenge 
in a night: 

Drayton : Polyolbion, Fourth Song. 

He received king Arthur 
after his birth and handed him 
to sir Anton to bring him up. 

Wherefore Merlin took the child 
And gave him to Sir Anton, an old knight. 
And ancient friend of Uther ; and his wife 
Nursed the young prince, and rear’d him with 
her own ; 

And no man knew. , 

He afterwards made the 
Round Table at Camelot to seat 
150 knights and built a castle 
to accommodate the magic table. 

* O brother, had you known our mighty hall, 
Which Merlin built for Arthur long ago l 
For all the sacred mount of Camelot, 

And all the dim rich city, roof by roof, 

Tower after tower, spire beyond spire, 

Various accounts are given 
as to the manner of his death, 
but Tennyson says that his fair 
mistress Vivien (« q.v .), who never 
left his side, followed him to 
the wild woods of Broceliande 
where she induced him by 
craft to reveal to her the secret 
of his magic strength. Having 
learnt this, Vivien confined 
him in a hollow tower from 
which there was no escape. 

And then she follow’d Merlin all the way, 
Ev’n to the wild woods of Broceliande. 

For Merlin once had told her of a charm. 
The which if any wrought on any one 
With woven paces and with waving arms, 
The man so wrought on ever seem’d to lie 
Closed in the four walls of a hollow tower, 
From which was no escape for evermore. 

Morte d' Arthur ; Coining 
of Arthur ; Gareth and 
Lynette ; Merlin and 



MER] 


212 


[MIR 


Vivien ; Holy Grail ; Pel- 
leas andEttarre ; Last Tour- 
nament ; Passing of Arthur ; 
Merlin and the Gleam . 

MERSEY. 

And here, new-comers in an ancient hold, 
New-comers from the Mersey, millionaires, 
Here lived the Hills. 

= The river Mersey. 

Edwin Morris . 

METHUSALEH. 

Eh ! if I could ha’ gone on wi’ the plowin’ 
nobbut the smell o’ the mou’d ’ud ha’ maiide 
ma live as long as Jerusalem. 

Eva. Methusaleh, father. 

Promise of May. 

MEW. 

= A sea-gull. 

Sea Fairies ; T he Princess . 

MEXICO. 

A republic of North America. 
Mine he the strength ; 

Queen Mary. 

MICHAEL. 

An archangel, and leader of 
the heavenly host, who drove 
the rebel angels out of heaven. 

Last Tournament. 

MICHAEL ANGELO. 

A famous Italian sculptor, 
painter and poet. 

In Memoriam . 

MILAN. 

A city of northern Italy, 
and capital of the province of 
Milan. 

The Daisy ; Queen Mary. 

MILLY. 

Servant to farmer Dobson. 

Promise of May . 


MILTON. 

Poet (1608-1674). 

Palace of Art ; Milton ; 

Romney’s Remorse . 

MINNETH. 

The chief city of the Am- 
monites. 

And he smote them from Aroer, even till 
thou come to Minnith. Judges xi. 33. 

Dream of Fair Women. 

MINNIE. 

Minnie and Winnie 
Slept in a shell. 

Sleep, little ladies ! 

And they slept well. 

Minnie and Winnie . 

MINNOW. 

A small fresh-water fish. 

Miller’s Daughter . 

MIRIAM. 

And highest, among the statues, statue-like 
ween a cymbal’d Miriam and a Jael, 

Sister of Moses and Aaron, 
and a prophetess. After the 
passage of the Red Sea she took 
a cymbal in her hand, and 
followed by the whole female 
population of Israel sang a song 
of thanksgiving to God for 
having delivered Israel from 
theEgyptians. Exodus xv. 20-21* 
The Princess. 

MIRIAM. 

MIRIAM ERNE. 

Cousin of Muriel Erne, in 
whose company she was often 
to be found, Muriel fishing 
and Miriam sketching by a 
certain brook. Miriam married, 
but died during the first year of 
her married life, leaving a little 
daughter also called Miriam. 

The Ring . 



MIR] 


213 


[MOL 


MIRIAM. 

MIRIAM LANE. 

The landlady of the village 
tavern in Enoch Arden. 

Enoch Arden. 

MISERERE MEL 

Then knelt and said the Miserere Mei — 

But all in English, mark you ; rose again, 

The Fifty-first psalm. 

Oueen Mary. 

MISTLETOE. 

A parasite plant or shrub, 
which grows on different trees. 
When found upon the oak it 
was regarded by the Druids 
as an object of superstition. 

Day-Dream. 

MIZPEH. 

The daughter of the warrior Gileadite, 

A maiden pure ; as when she went along 
From Mizpeh’s tower’d gate with welcome 
light, 

With timbrel and with song. 

See Judges xi. 34-36. 

Dream of Fair Women . 

MNEMOSYNE. 

In Greek Mythology, the god- 
dess of memory and mother of 
the muses. 

The Princess . 

MOAB. 

and a hundred meres 
About it, as the water Moab saw 
Come round by the East, 

See 2 Kings tit. 22. 

Last Tournament. 

MOCK-HYMEN. See Hymen. 
MODRED. 

Son of Lot, king of Orkney, 
and Bellicent, daughter of 
Gorlois and Ygerne, and brother 
of sir Gawain and sir Gareth. 
His name signifies ‘ Biter, ’y 
which represents the serpent of 
which king Arthur was by 
Merlin warned to beware. 
When king Arthur ( q.v .) was 
absent on a campaign abroad 


he left Modred regent ; but 
he usurped the kingdom and 
tried to wed Guinevere the 
queen. Upon Arthur learning 
the news he returned and in the 
* last weird battle in the west ’ 
Modred was slain and Arthur 
also received his death- wound. 
Coming of Arthur ; Gareth 
and Lynette ; La?icelot and 
Elaine ; Pelleas andEttarre; 
Last Tournament ; Guine- 
vere; Passing of Arthur. 
MOLE. 

A small animal which bur- 
rows in the ground and casts 
up little heaps of mould. 

My life is full; Aylmer's 
Field ; Defence of Lucknow . 

MOLL. 

began 

To troll a careless, careless tavern- catch 
Of Moll and Meg, and strange experiences 
Unmeet for ladies. 

A colloquialism for Mary. 

The Princess. 

MOLLY. 

Servant girl to an old spinster 
who had named all her cats 
after her former sweethearts. 
She seemed to induce Molly to 
believe her ideas. 

That a man be a durty thing an* a trouble 
an’ plague wi’ indoor. 

Spinster's Sweet- Arts. 

MOLLY. 

One of the daughters of the 
new village squire, and described 
by the village wife 

For Molly the long un she walkt away wi’ a 
hofficer lad, 

An’ nawbody ’eard on ’er sin, sa 0* coorse she 
be gone to the bad ! 

Village Wife. 

MOLLY. 

MOLLY MAGEE. See Dan, Danny 
O’Roon. 



MOL] 


214 


[MOR 


MOLOCH. 

Screams of a babe in the red-hot palms of 
Moloch of Tyre, 

Refers to the fire god of the 
Ammonites, which was wor- 
shipped in Rabba, and to whom 
human sacrifices were offered. 

First, Moloch, horrid king, besmeared with 
blood 

Of human sacrifice, and parents’ tears ; 
Though, for the noise of drums and timbrels 
loud. 

Their children’s cries unheard that passed 
through fire 

To his grim idol. Him the Ammonite 
Worshipped in Rabba and her watery plain. 

In Argob and in Basan, to the stream 
Of utmost Amon. 

Milton : Paradise Lost, Book I, 392-399. 

The Dawn. 


MOLOWNY. 

A priest. 

T omorrow . 


A small principality on the 
shores of the Mediterranean sea. 

The Daisy. 

MONMOUTH (Harry of). See 
Harry of Monmouth. 

MONNA GIOVANNA. 

See Federigo degli Alberighi. 

MONTE ROSA. 

How faintly-flush’d, how phantom-fair, 

Was Monte Rosa, hanging there 

A thousand shadowy-pencill’d valleys 
And snowy dells in a golden air. 

A glacier mass between 
Switzerland and Italy. 

The Daisy. 

MONTFORT (Edith). See Edith, 
Edith Montfort. 


MOLY. 

A fabulous herb of magic 
power, said by Homer to have 
been given by Hermes to Odys- 
seus to counteract the spells of 
Circe. 

And yet more med’cinal is it than that Moly 
That Hermes once to wise Ulysses gave. 

Milton: Comus, 636-63 7. 

Lotos-Eaters. 

MONA. 

While about the shore of Mona those Neron- 
ian legionaries 

Burnt and broke the grove and altar of the 
Druid and Druidess, j 

The Roman name of the 
isle of Anglesey. Upon the 
occasion of the second Roman 
invasion of Britain, it was the 
only place where Druidism 
existed, which was finally de- 
stroyed by the Roman General 
Suetonius Paulinus in a.d. 6i. 

Bo Mice a. 

MONACO. 

How like a”gem, beneath the city 
Of little Monaco, basking, glow’d. 


MORCAR. 

Earl of Northumbria and 
son of Alfgar of Mercia ; joined 
his brother Edwin, earl of 
Mercia in his revolt against 
Tostig : and was defeated by 
the Norsemen under Hardrada 
at Fulford Bridge, near York, 
September 20, 1066. After the 
battle of Senlac he made sub- 
mission to the Conqueror and 
was pardoned. In 1071 he 
joined the insurgents in the 
Isle of Ely under Hereward 
the Wake and on surrendering 
was committed to the custody 
of Roger de Beaumont ; in 
1087 he was imprisoned at Win- 
chester. 

Harold. 

MORE (Sir Thomas). 

Son of sir John More and the 
author of Utopia. Succeeded 
Wolsey as Lord Chancellor 1529, 



MOR] 


215 


[MOT 


but resigned the office (1532) 
because he could not support 
Henry VIIFs action in the 
matter of his divorce ; with 
John Fisher, bishop of Rochester, 
was committed to the Tower 
for refusing to take the oath 
of supremacy ; found guilty 
and was beheaded July 6, 1535 ; 
his body was buried in the 
Tower and his head exhibited 
on London Bridge (1478-1535). 

Queen Mary . 

MORELAND (Emma). See Emma 
Moreland. 

MORGANORE. 

One of the petty kings over- 
come by king Arthur fighting 
on behalf of Leodogran, king 
of Cameliard. 

Coming of Arthur . 

MORIAH. 

After the day of darkness, when the dead 
Went wandering o’er Moriah — 

A mountain near Jerusalem 
where king Solomon built the 
temple. 2 Chronicles , chap. Hi. 

The wandering of the dead 
after the crucifixion is referred 
to in St. Matthew xxvii . 50-53. 

Holy Grail ; Columbus. 

MORRIS (Edwin). See <Edwin, 
Edwin Morris. 

MORRISON (Mary). See Mary, 
Mary Morrison. 

MORS. 

An infernal deity, the off- 
spring of Night. 

Gareth and Lynette. 

MORVILLE. See De Morville. 

MOSES. 

Tomorrow. 


MOTH. 

A family of nocturnal insects-* 
The Princess ; In Me - 
moriam ; Sir J bhn Oldcastle , 
Lord Cobh am ; Becket ; 
Promise of May . 

MOUNT OF BLESSING. 

MOUNT OF VISION. 

And climb the Mount of Blessing, whence if 
thou 

Look higher, then — perchance — thou mayest 
— beyond 

A hundred ever-rising mountain lines, 

And past the range of Night and Shadow- 
see 

The high-heaven dawn of more than mortal 
day 

Strike on the Mount of Vision ! 

Ancient Sage. 

MOUSE. 

A small rodent quadruped, 
of the genus mus . 

Mariana ; Aylmer's Field ; 
Northern Farmer , Nezu 
Style ; Maud ; Village 
Wife ; Spinster's Sweet- 
Arts ; Owd Rod ; Queen 
Mary ; The Falcon. 

MOUNTAINS OF THE WORLD. 

And came upon the Mountains of the World 
And saw the rivers roll from Paradise 

The description given by 
Columbus to the beautiful and 
fertile shore of Paria, South 
America, which he considered 
to have been the abode of 
Adam and Eve. He presumed 
that the stream of fresh water 
which filled the Paria, and 
sweetened the salt ocean in its 
vicinity being supplied by the 
fountain mentioned in Genesis, 
as springing from the tree of life 
in the Garden of Eden. 

Columbus .. 



MUC] 


216 


[MYR 


MUCH. 

The ‘ miller’s son,’ one of 
Robin Hood’s band of outlaws. 

The Foresters . 

MUGGINS. 

A methodist preacher sup- 
posed to have preached a ser- 
mon on c Hell-fire an’ the loov 
0’ God fur men/ when Sally 
and her lover the northern 
cobbler, first went to the meeting 
together. He was supposed to 
have had some influence over 
the cobbler in getting him to 
give up his habit of drunkenness. 

Northern Cobbler. 

MULE. 

A hybrid animal, generated 
between an ass and a mare. 

Sir Launcelot and Queen 
Guinevere. 

MURIEL ERNE. 

Muriel and Miriam Erne 
were cousins. The latter died 
leaving a little girl who was 
also named Miriam Erne. 
Muriel, out of pity for the 
lonely child, took her and nursed 
her, and in later years became 
the child’s stepmother. 

The Ring. 

MUSCOVITE. 

How long this icy-hearted Muscovite 
Oppress the region ? ’ 

= a native of Moscow, or of 
Russia. 

Poland. 

MUSES, THE. 

Goddesses who presided over 
poetry, music, dancing, and the 
liberal arts. They were the 
daughters of Zeus and Mnemo- 


syne, and were nine in number : — 

Calliope : the Muse of elo- 
quence and epic poetry. Her 
symbols are a tablet and stylus ; 
sometimes a scroll. 

Clio : the Muse of history. 
Her symbol is a scroll. 

Erato : the Muse of erotic 
poetry and elegy. Her symbol 
is a lyre. 

Euterpe : the Muse of music. 
Her symbol is a flute. 

Melpomene : the Muse of 
tragedy. Her symbol is a tragic 
mask, or a sword. 

Polyhymnia : the Muse of 
sacred poetry. She has no attri- 
bute. 

Terpsichore : the Muse of 
choral song and dance. Her 
symbols are a lyre and the 
plectrum. 

Thalia : the Muse of comedy. 
Her symbol is a shepherd’s 
staff, or a wreath of ivy. 

Urania : the Muse of astro- 
nomy. Represented as hold- 
ing a staff with which she 
points to a globe. 

The Princess; In Me- 
moriam ; To Virgil ; Dead 
Prophet ; Parnassus. 

MUSSULMAN. 

= The Persian form of Mos- 
lem. Recollections of the 
Arabian Nights ; Romney’s 
Remorse ; Akbar’s Dream ; 
Becket. 

MYRTLE. 

An evergreen shrub of the 
genus Myrtus . The ancients 



NAD] 


21 7 


NER] 


considered, it sacred to Venus, 
the goddess of Love. 

The Islet ; The Cup. 

NADIR. 

May this hard earth cleave to the Nadir hell 
Down, down, and close again, and nip me flat, 
If I be such a traitress. 

Represents the lowest point. 

Merlin ani Vivien. 

NAIAD. 

In Greek mythology the 
Naiads were female nymphs, 
represented as presiding over 
fresh-water fountains and 
streams, and endowed with 
prophetic power. 

Leonine Elegiacs ; Adeline ; 

ToE.L. 

NAPLES. 

A city of Italy and capital 
of the province of Naples. 

The Brook; The Ring; 

Queen Mary.- 

NEILGHERRY. 

yet the brook he loved, 
For which, in branding summers of Bengal, 
Or ev’n the sweet half-English Neilgherry air 
I panted, 

A mountain district in south 
India. It is a bracing district 
and much frequented by Eu- 
ropeans as a health resort. 
In some respects it resembles 
the climate of England, hence 
‘ half-English. ? 

The Brook. 

NELL. 

NELLY. SeeH Ellen. 

NELLY. 

Daughter of the village 
squire. 

An’ Nelly wur up fro’ the craadle as big i’ the 

mouth as a cow, 


On account of this the village 
wife recommended that she 
must emigrate. 

An’ saw she mun hammergrate, lass, or she 
weant git a maate onyhow ! 

Village Wife. 

NELSON. 

Horatio, Lord Nelson. 

The Fleet. 

NEMESIS. 

and some great Nemesis 
Break from a darken’d future, crown’d with 
fire, 

In Greek mythology the 
goddess of moral justice and the 
personification of Divine retri- 
bution. According to Hesiod 
she is the daughter of Night, 
and with Aidos, the divinity 
of modesty, left the earth on 
the advent of the iron age. 
Her statue at Athens is said 
to have been executed by 
Phidias, the greatest sculptor 
the world has ever seen, out 
of a block of Parian marble 
which Darius brought from 
Persia, and which he had in- 
tended to set up in Athens 
as a monument of his victory 
over the Greeks at Marathon. 
It was used instead to record 
his defeat. 

The Princess . 

NENE. 

J Becket. Where is the King ? 

Roger of York. Gone hawking on the Nene 

A river which has its source 
in Northamptonshire, and enters 
the North Sea by the Wash. 

Bechet . 

NERONIAN. 

While about the shore of Mona those Neron- 
ian legionaries 

Burnt and broke tbe grove and altar of the 
Druid and Druidess, 



2l8 


[NIO 


NET] 

Refers to the Roman army 
under Suetonius Paulinus who 
destroyed the Druidical power 
in the Isle of Mona (Anglesey) 

A.D. 6l. 

Bo diice a. 

NETHERLANDS. 

=The low countries. 

Queen Mary . 

NEW ENGLAND. 

A name applied to the former 
British possession in North 
America, and now comprising 
the States of Maine, New 
Hampshire, Vermont, Massachu- 
setts, Connecticut, and Rhode 
Island. The inhabitants are 
descendants of English Puri- 
tans. Captain John Smith 
made an extensive exploration 
of the region in 1614, and sug- 
gested that it should be called 
c New England.’ 

Hanis All Round. 

NEW FOREST. 

A royal forest of England, 
enclosed by William the Con- 
queror, and situated in the 
south-western portion of Hamp- 
shire. Contains the Rufus 
stone marking the traditional 
site of the death of William II. 

Sisters (. Evelyn and Edith). 

NEWFOUNDLAND (dog). 

Aylmer’s Field. 

NICHOLAS (Saint). 

Patron saint of Russia ; was 
bishop of Myra in Lycia, and 
suffered persecution under Dio- 
cletian. Children, especially 
schoolboys, are regarded as be- 


ing under his guardianship, and 
he still survives in the Santa 
Claus of Christmas rejoicings. 

The Foresters. 

NICHOLAS. 

NICHOLAS HEATH. 

Archbishop of York and Lord 
Chancellor ; fellow of Christ’s 
College, Cambridge, 1521, and 
of Clare Hall, Cambridge, 
1524, vicar of Hever 1531-32, 
and in 1534 appointed arch- 
deacon of Stafford. Created 
bishop of Rochester, 1539; 
and in 1542 succeeded Latimer 
in the see of Worcester, but was 
deprived in 1551. On the ac- 
cession of Mary was restored 
to Worcester, and subsequently 
elected archbishop of York, 
vacant by the deprivation of 
archbishop Holgate. In 1556 
he was appointed Lord Chan- 
cellor. On the death of Mary 
he proclaimed Elizabeth in the 
House of Lords, and for a short 
time continued to hold the 
office of Chancellorship. Was 
deprived of his archbishoprick 
for refusing to take the oath 
of supremacy and committed 
to the Tower, but was subse- 
quently set at liberty on giving 
an undertaking not to inter- 
fere in Church and State 
matters. He died in 1579? 
and was buried in the chancel 
of Cobham Church. 

Queen Mary. 

NIGHTINGALE. 

A small bird of the Passerine 
family. It sings at night and 



NIL] 


219 [NOR 


is celebrated for the sweetness 
of its song. 

Palace of Art ; Gar- 
dener’s Daughter ; Vision of 
Sin ; Poet’s Song ; Ayl- 
mer’s Field ; Fhe Princess ; 
Grandmother ; In the Gar- 
den at Swainston ; Marriage 
of Geraint ; Balin and 
Balan ; First Quarrel; 
Ancient Sage ; Demeter and 
Persephone. 

NILE. 

O saviour of the silver- coasted isle, 

O shaker of the Baltic and the Nile, 

Has reference to lord Nel- 
son’s victory at the battle of the 
Nile, August 1, 1798. 

Ode on the death of the Duke 
of Wellington. 

NILUS. 

The Nilus would have risen before his time 

And flooded at our nod. 

Has reference to the annual 
overflow (July to October) of 
the river Nile. 

Dream of Fair Women. 

NIOBE. 

In Greek mythology the 
daughter of Tantalus, and wife 
of Amphion, king of Thebes. 
She had twelve children, six sons 
and six daughters, and she 
scorned the goddess Leto who 
had only two children, Apollo 
and Diana. These two chil- 
dren being indignant at the 
insult to their mother slew with 
their arrows all Niobe’s chil- 
dren. For nine days they lay 
in their blood, and on the tenth 
day the gods buried them. 
Niobe fled to mount Sipylos, 


in Asia Minor, where she was 
turned into a stone. 

Walking to the Mail ; Pro- 
mise of May.. 

NIOBEAN. 

Has reference to Niobe (q*v) 
queen of Thebes. 

The Princess. 

NOAILLES. 

Antoine de Noailles (1504— 
1562), soldier and diplomatist. 

Queen Mary. 

noAks. 

A notorious character, a 
poacher, who was supposed to 
have shot a keeper and accord- 
ing to the story told by an old 
farmer, was condemned and 
hanged. 

Noaks or Thimbleby — toaner ’ed shot ’um as- 

dead as a naail. 

Noaks wur ’ang’d for it oop at 'soize — 

Northern Farmer , Old Style. 

NOKES. 

A character in Queen Mary. 

Queen Mary. 

NOKES. 

A farm hand. 

Promise of May m 

NORFOLK (Duke of). 

Thomas Howard, third duke 
of Norfolk (1473-1554), tried to 
suppress the Wyatt rebellion, 
but was unsuccessful. 

Queen Mary. 

NORMANDY. 

An old province of France 
of which Rouen was the CapitaL 
Harold ; Becket. 

NORMANLAND. 

= Normandy. 


Harold . 



NOR] 


220 


NORSELAND. 

= Scandinavia, but more par- 
ticularly Norway. 

Harold . 

NORTHAMPTON. 

Becket. On a Tuesday was I born, and on 
a Tuesday 

Baptized ; and on a Tuesday did I fly 
Forth from Northampton ; on a Tuesday 
pass’d 

From England into bitter banishment; 

In 1164 Thomas Becket, 
archbishop of Canterbury, was 
summoned by Henry II to a 
•Council at Northampton to 
give an account of the various 
sums of monies received by 
him during the time he held 
the office of Lord Chancel- 
lor. Judgment being given 
against him, Becket left the 
palace, and stealing away by 
night, reached Sandwich, and 
thence by boat to Flanders. 

Becket. 

NORTH-SEA. 

Lancelot and Elaine. 

NORTHUMBERLAND. See Nor- 
thumbria. 

Coming of Arthur ; Harold . 

NORTHUMBERLAND (Earl of). 

John Dudley, first duke of 
Northumberland ; executed 
(1553) for resisting the acces- 
sion of Mary to the throne. His 
son lord Guildford Dudley was 
married to lady Jane Grey. 

Queen Mary. 

NORTHUMBRIA. 

An ancient British kingdom 
reaching from the Humber to 
the Firth of Forth and from 
the North Sea westward to 


[OAK 

the Celtic Strathclyde. It was 
founded by Ida in 547. 

Harold . 

NORWAY. 

but came 

As night to him that sitting on a hill 
Sees the midsummer, midnight, Norway sun 
Set into sunrise ; then we moved away. 

Has reference to the Aurora 
Borealis, or Northern Lights. 

The Princess . 

NORWAY (King of). See Har- 
drada. 

NORWAY. 

The northernmost country of 
Europe. 

Harold. 

NOTTINGHAM. 

The Foresters. 

NOX. 

In Greek mythology the 
goddess of night. 

Gareth and Lynette. 

NUDD. 

Father of Edyrn (q.v). 
Marriage of Geraint ; 
Geraint and Enid . 

OAF. 

A changeling left by the 
fairies. 

The Foresters . 

OAK. 

OAK-TREE. 

A tree of about 300 species. 
Buonaparte ; Talking Oak ; 
Amphion ; Lord of Bur- 
leigh ; Aylmer* s Field ; The 
Princess ; Boddicea ; In 
Memoriam ; Geraint and 
Enid ; Bolin and Balan ; 
Merlin and Vivien ; Last 



OBA] 


221 


[OLA 


Tournament; Hands all 
Round; To Mary Boyle; 
The Oak ; The Tourney ; 
Claribel ; Gareth and Lyn - 
ette ; The Cup ; The 
Foresters . 

OBALISQUE. 

A name given to a female 
slave in the Turkish harem. 

The Princess. 

OBERON. 

King of the Fairies. He is 
one of the characters in Shake- 
speare’s Midsummer - Night's 
Dream. 

The Foresters. 

ODIN. 

or Wo din, the chief god of the 
Teutonic tribes. His seat was 
Hlidskialf in Asgard and he 
held his court in Walhalla (q.v) y 
where the warriors slain in 
battle spent their future exist- 
ence. He was attended by two 
black ravens, Hugun and Munin, 
representing Thought and 
Memory respectively. 

The Victim. 

ODO. 

Half-brother of William the 
Conqueror, who created him 
bishop of Bayeux in 1049. 
Accompanied the Conqueror to 
England and fought at the 
battle of Senlac, for which 
service he was created earl of 
Kent and rewarded with Dover 
Castle. During William’s ab- 
sence from England was viceroy ; 
built himself a palace at Rome, 
and even aspired to the pope- 


dom ; arrested and imprisoned 
at Rouen. During the reign 
of William II he became the 
centre of conspiracy and was 
compelled to flee to Normandy., 
In 1085 was present at the pro- 
clamation of the first Crusade 
and in the following year ac- 
companied duke Robert of 
Normandy as a crusader. He 
died at Palermo in 1097. 

Harold. 

(ENONE. 

A nymph of Mount Ida*, 
daughter of Kebren, the river- 
god, and the wife of Paris {q.v) 
the shepherd-prince of Troy* 
She was endowed with the gift 
of prophecy and told her hus- 
band that his journey to Greece 
would be his ruin. During 
the siege of Troy he was 
wounded by an arrow, and sent 
for CEnone, but on her arrival 
she found him dead and stabbed 
herself over the body. 

And muffling up her comely head, and crying, 
‘ Husband ’ she leapt upon the funeral pile, 
And mixt herself with him and past in fire. 

CEnone ; Death of CEnone. 

OLAF. 

St. Olaf, not while I am by ! Come, come,. 
Join hands, let brethren dwell in unity ; 

Olaf II, king of Norway ; 
wrested the throne of Norway 
from Eric and Jarl ; endea- 
voured to exterminate paganism 
by fire and sword ; excited 
disaffection among his subjects*, 
who rebelled, and with the 
assistance of Canute over- 
powered him. Fled to the 
court of his brother-in-law* 



OLD] 


222 


[OPH 


Jaroslav of Russia ; by his help 
he tried to recover his throne, 
but was defeated and slain by 
Canute at Stiklestad. Was 
canonized in 1164 and is the 
patron saint of Norway (995- 
i°3 0 )* 

Harold. 

OLDCASTLE (Sir John). See 
Cobham. 

OLDHAM. 

A farm labourer. 

Promise of May. 

OLEANDER. 

An evergreen shrub having 
clusters of beautiful red or white 
flowers . 

The Daisy . 

OLIVE. 

A tree cultivated in the East 
for its oily fruit. Its branches 
are the emblems of peace. 

The Princess ; The Daisy ; 
Maud ; Frater Ave Atque 
Vale. 

OLIVE. 

And hear me swear a solemn oath. 

That only by thy side 
Will I to Olive plight my troth 

And gain her for my bride. 

= A girl’s name. 

Talking Oak. 

OLIVET. 

Mount of Olivet or Olives, 
also called Mount of Corrup- 
tion. A rising ground to the 
east of Jerusalem over against 
the Temple hill, and separated 
from it by the Kidron valley. 
At its summit is the church of 
the Ascension, and on its west 
slope Gethsemane. 

In Memoriam • 


OLIVIA. 

Betrothed to a young English- 
man named Walter. During 
his absence she spent much of 
her time beneath the boughs 
of an old oak-tree. When 
Walter returned, the oak-tree 
—supposed to be gifted with 
speech — gave him an account of 
her doings during his absence. 
In return for the information 
he vowed to make for his bride 
a bridal wreath of alternate 
leaf and acorn ball. 

Talking Oak. 

OLYMPIAN. 

From out the Ghost of Pindar in you 
Roll’d an Olympian; 

Has reference to an Olympian 
Ode, written by Pindar in 
honour of the victors at the 
Olympian games. 

To Professor Jebb. 

OMAR. 

that large infidel 

Your Omar ; and your Omar drew 

Full-handed plaudits from our best 
In modem letters, 

Fitzgerald’s translation of 
Omar Khayyam , the astronomer 
poet of Persia. 

To E. Fitzgerald. 

OPHIR. 

but had I brought 

From Solomon’s now-recover’d Ophir all 
The gold that Solomon’s navies carried home, 

In his fourth voyage Colum- 
bus arrived at Veragua, and 
the amount of gold obtained 
from the mines of that district 
led him to believe that he had 
discovered the place from 
which Solomon obtained his sup- 
plies of gold. See 1 Kings ix. 28. 

Columbus . 



OPP] 

OPPIAN LAW. 


223 


for on one side arose 
The women up in wild revolt, and storm’d 
At the Oppian law. 

See Cato. 

The Princess . 

ORAN. 

A port in Algeria. 

Ballad of Oriana . 

ORANGE. 

A tree of the genus Citrus . 

Queen Mary ; Promise of 
May. 

ORANGE. 

Was the capital of the small 
principality of Orange in France. 
Passed by marriage into the 
hands of the house of Nassau 
in 1531, and the first Nassau 
prince of Orange was the father 
of William the Silent. The 
principality was annexed by 
France in 1713. 

Queen Mary . 

ORCHIS. 

A genus containing ten of the 
British species of orchids. 

In Memoriam . 

OREAD. 

A mountain-nymph. 

(Enone ; Lucretius ; Maud . 

ORIANA. 

Heroine of the Ballad of 
Oriana . As she stood on the 
castle wall, watching her lover 
go forth to battle, she was 
pierced through the heart by 
an arrow. 

Ballad of Oriana . 

ORIEL. 

She took her throat : 
She sat betwixt the shining Oriels. 

To ring her songs alone. 


[OUT 

A recess in a room with a 
bay-window. 

Palace of Art ; Day- 
Dream ; Lancelot and 
Elaine ; Holy Grail . 

ORION. 

In Greek mythology a giant 
and hunter, son of Hyrieus. 
He fell in love with Merope, 
daughter of CEnopion, but was 
struck blind by CEnopion be- 
cause of his treatment of her, 
but recovered his sight by ex- 
posing his eyeballs to the rays 
of the rising sun. At his death 
he was placed in the heavens 
as a constellation. 

Canst thou, bind the sweet influences of 
j )*• Pleiades, 

Or loose the bands of Orion? 

Job xxxviii. 31. 

Locksley Hall ; Maud. 

ORKNEY. 

A group of islands north of 
Scotland. 

Coming of Arthur ; Harold . 

ORM. 

Father of Gamel. . 

Harold . 

O’ROON (Danny). See Dan, Danny 
O’Roon. 

O’SHEA (Shamus). See Shamus, 
Shamus O’Shea. 

OSIER. 

A water-willow, from withes 
of which baskets are made. 

Enoch ArdenT^ 

OUTRAM (Sir James). 

Son of Benjamin Outram 
of Butterley Hall, Derbyshire. 
Appointed in 1840 a British 



OUZJ 


224 


[PAG 


Political Agent in Sind, and 
distinguished himself by his 
heroic defence of the British 
Residency at Hyderabad. Ap- 
pointed Chief Commissioner of 
Oudh in 1843, and in 1857 
joined the Persian expedition. 
During his absence the Mutiny 
broke out, and on his return 
was offered the commander- 
ship of the Lucknow Relief 
Force, but waived his military 
rank and acted as a volunteer 
under Havelock (^.^.),who had 
already fought eight victorious 
battles with the rebels. After 
Lucknow was relieved he as- 
sumed the command, only to 
be in turn himself besieged, 
and relieved by sir Colin Camp- 
bell. Was rewarded with a 
baronetcy, a pension of £1,000 
and the Freedom of London. 
He died at Paris in 1863, an -d 
was buried in Westminster 
Abbey where the slab on his 
grave bears the epitaph : The 
Bayard of India. Statues have 
been erected to his memory in 
London and Calcutta. 

Defence of Lucknow. 

OUZEL. 

One of the several species of 
thrushes, especially the black- 
bird. 

Gardener's Daughter. 

OWL. 

A bird that seeks its food by 
night, noted for its howling or 
hooting noise. 

The Owl ; St. Simeon 
Stylites ; The Princess ; 


Gareth and Lynette ; Balin 
and Balan ; Lancelot and 
Elaine ; Holy Grail; Des- 
pair ; Forlorn. 

OWLBY. 

He’ll niver swap Owlby an’ Scratby fur owfc 

but the Kingdom o’ Heaven ; 

Church-warden and the Curate . 

OWLET. 

A young owl. 

Leonhie Elegiacs. 

OXFORD. 

A city and capital of Oxford- 
shire. It is the seat of one of 
the English Universities. 

Queen Mary ; Becket ; 

The Foresters. 

OXLIP. 

A species of primrose. 

Talking Oak. 

PADRE (Goan). See Goan Padre. 

PADUA. 

A city of Venetia. 

Queen Mary. 

Pi£ AN. 

An ancient Greek hymn, sung 
in honour of Apollo. 

Two Voices. 

PAGET (Lord). 

William Paget, first baron ;; 
played a prominent part in the 
plot to set aside the will of 
Henry VIII ; joined queen 
Jane’s council on the death of 
Edward VI, but sanctioned the 
proclamation of Mary. Made 
Lord Privy Seal, but on acces- 
sion of Elizabeth he relinquished 
the office (1505-1563). 

Queen Mary. 



225 


PAL] 

PALLAS. 

PALLAS ATHENE. 

In Greek mythology the god- 
dess of Wisdom, daughter of 
Zeus, identified with the Roman 
Minerva. She was produced 
from Zeus 5 brain without a 
mother. The story is that 
Zeus in fear that a son stronger 
than himself would be born, 
devoured his first wife Metis, but 
Hephasstus clave open his head 
with an axe and Athene sprang 
forth in full armour, the god- 
dess of eternal virginity. Her 
powers were equal to those of 
Zeus ; she could hurl the 
thunder of Jupiter, and bestow 
the gift of prophecy. A yearly 
festival, called Panathen<ea, was 
founded in her honour by 
Theseus, one of the Greek heroes. 
A magnificent temple called the 
Parthenon was built on top of 
the Acropolis at Athens in her 
honour, and a colossal statue 
wrought in ivory and gold, some 
thirty feet in height, was 
erected. Her attributes are 
the helmet, the lance, the 
round shield with the Gorgon’s 
head, the olive branch and the 
owl. When Paris (q*v.) the 
shepherd-prince of Troy was 
appointed to decide which of 
the three goddesses (Juno, 
Pallas Athene, and Venus) was 
the most beautiful, and to which 
should be awarded the golden 
apple, the prize of beauty, 
Pallas attempted to bribe 
him by promising him wis- 
dom. 


[PAL 

‘ Self-reverence, self-knowledge, self-control. 
These three alone lead life to sovereign power. 
Yet not for power (power of herself 
Would come uncall’d for) but to live by law, 
Acting the law we live by without fear ; 
And, because right is right, to follow right 
Were wisdom in the scorn of consequence.’ 

Again she said : ' I woo thee not with gifts. 
Sequel to guerdon could not alter me 
To fairer. Judge thou me by what I am. 
So shalt thou find me fairest. 

* * * 

Here she ceas’d. 

And Paris ponder’d, and I cried, ‘ O Paris, 
Give it to Pallas 1 ’ but he heard me not, 

Or hearing would not hear me, woe is me ! 

Paris decided in favour of 
Venus. 

A Character ; CEnone ; The 
Princess ; In Memoriam ; 
Achilles over the Trench ; 
T iresias . 

PALM. 

PALM-TREE. 

A tropical tree of many 
varieties bearing at the summit 
large leaves like the palm of the 
hand. A leaf of the palm, 
anciently borne was a symbol of 
victory or rejoicing. 

Arabian Nights ; Palace of 
Art; Lotos Eaters ; ‘You 
ask me why? etc . ; St . 
Simeon Stylites ; Locksley 
Hall ; Enoch Arden ; Ayl- 
mer's Field ; T he Princess ; 
A Welcome to Her Royal 
Highness Marie Alexan- 
drovna , Duchess of Edin- 
burgh ; The Daisy ; The 
Islet ; In Memoriam ; Gar- 
eth and Lynette ; Lover's 
Tale ; Columbus ; The 
Wreck ; To Ulysses ; Ak- 
baPs Dream ; Harold; The 
Foresters. 

PALMYRENE. 

Zenobia, wife of Bedouin 
Q 



226 


[PAP 


PAN} 

Septimius Odenathus, king of 
Palmyra. After her husband’s 
death she was appointed queen 
and conquered Egypt . She then 
aimed at the complete inde- 
pendence of the Roman empire 
but was defeated by Aurelian 
at Hemesa, a.d. 272, and herself 
captured. She was taken to 
Rome, but was presented by 
Aurelian with possessions at 
Tivoli, where she passed the 
rest of her life in the society of 
her two sons. She was a beau- 
tiful woman, endowed with 
prudence and great courage. 

The Princess . 

PAN. 

In Greek mythology the son 
of Hermes and the god of shep- 
herds. The Romans identified 
the Greek Pan with their god 
Faunus (q.v). He is repre- 
sented with horns and goat’s 
feet ; hence is derived the 
modern devil of Christianity. 

In Memoriam. 

PANCRATIUS (St. Pancras). 

Son of a heathen noble of 
Synnada in Phrygia. Being 
taken to Rome he was during 
the persecution of Diocletian 
executed, when only fourteen 
years of age. He is represented 
as the Latin saint of children, 
with a sword in one hand and a 
palm in the other. St. Pan- 
cras Station, the terminus of 
the Midland Railway in London, 
is named from the parish in 
which it is situated. 

Harold . 


PANDORA-ROX. 

This beggarly life, 
This poor, flat, hedged-in-field — no distance 

— this 

Hollow Pandora-box, 

With all the pleasures flown, not even Hope 
Left at the bottom ! 

In Greek mythology a beau- 
tiful woman whom Jupiter in 
order to punish the human race 
— because Prometheus had 
stolen the heavenly fire — con- 
structed on earth. Jupiter 
gave her a box containing all 
human ills which, when opened, 
escaped and spread over all the 
earth, Hope alone remaining 
at the bottom of the box. 

Promise of May . 

PANSY. 

A species of violet. 

Gardener's Daughter. 

PANTHER. 

A fierce spotted quadruped, 
allied to the leopard. 

CEnone ; Death of CEnone . 

PAPHIAN. 

Paphos, a town in Cyprus, 
chiefly identified as a centre of 
the worship of Aphrodite, the 
Greek goddess of love and 
beauty. Aphrodite means c sea- 
foam 9 and Paphos is the place 
where she is said to have landed 
after her birth from the sea. 

CEnone . 

PAPHLAGONIA. 

Have you alliances ? 
Bithynia, Pontus, Papblagonia ? 

An ancient country in Asia 
Minor. The country was inde- 
pendent under Persian and 
Macedonian rule. It passed 
later to Pontus and subse- 



PAR] 


227 


[FAR 


quently became a Roman pro- 
vince, b.c. 65. 

The Cup . 

PARAGUAY. 

A South American state. 

To Ulysses. 

PARIS. 

He groan’d, he turn’d, and in the mist at once 
Became a shadow, sank and disappear’d, 
But, ere the mountain rolls into the plain, 
Fell headlong dead ; and of the shepherds one 
Their oldest, and the same who first had found 
Paris, a naked babe, among the woods 
Of Ida, following lighted on him there, 

And shouted, and the shepherds heard and 
came. 

Son of Priam and Hecuba, 
king and queen of Troy. When 
an infant his mother dreamed 
that she saw a flaming brand 
in the cradle where the child 
lay. Hecuba, very anxious to 
know the meaning of the dream, 
decided to ask an oracle to 
explain it, and was informed 
that the child was destined to 
bring destruction on his native 
city. To escape this calamity 
Paris was carried away to a 
forest to die of hunger, but 
was found by shepherds who 
brought him up, hence he is 
called the shepherd-prince of 
Troy. He married GEnone, 
daughter of the river-god 
Kebren, but was afterwards 
rewarded by Venus with the 
love of the beautiful Helen of 
Sparta whom he carried off to 
Greece and which led to the 
Trojan War. The story is, 
that on the occasion of the 
marriage of Peleus and Thetis, 
Eris the goddess of strife was 
the only goddess not invited 
to the wedding, and to show 


her displeasure threw among 
the guests a golden apple on 
which was written 4 For the 
fairest. 5 The three goddesses 
(Juno, Pallas Athene, and 
Venus), each claimed the apple, 
and Paris was appointed to judge 
which of the three was the most 
beautiful. On appearing be- 
fore Paris they each made 
attempts to bribe him in order 
to gain the verdict. Juno pro- 
mised him sovereignty : 

She to Paris made 
Proffer of ample power, ample rule 
Unquestion’d, overflowing revenue 
Wherewith to embellish state, ‘ from many a 
vale 

And river- sunder’d champaign clothed with 
com, 

Or labour’d mine undrainable of ore. 

* * * 

Still she spake on and still she spake of power, 

‘ Which in all action is the end of all ; 

Power fitted to the season; wisdom-bred 
And throned of wisdom — from all neighbour 
crowns 

Alliance and allegiance, till thy hand 
Fail from the sceptre-staff. 

Pallas Athene promised him 
wisdom : 

‘ Self-reverence, self-knowledge, self-control. 
These three alone lead life to sovereign power. 
Yet not for power (power of herself 
Would come uncall’d for) hut to live by law, 
Acting the law we live by without fear; 
And, because right is right, to follow right 
Were wisdom in the scorn of consequence.* 

* # * 

Again she said : * I woo thee not with gifts, 
Sequel of guerdon could not alter me 
To fairer. Judge thou me by what I am, 

So shalt thou find me fairest. 

* * * 

* Here she ceas’d, 
And Paris ponder’d, and I cried, ‘ 0 Paris, 
Give it to Pallas ! * but he heard me not, 

Or hearing would not hear me, woe is me ! 

Venus promised him the 
fairest woman in Greece for his 
wife : 

Idalian Aphrodite beautiful, 

Fresh as the foam, new-bathed in Paphian 
wells, 

With rosy slender fingers backward drew 
From her warm brows and bosom her deep 
/hair 

Ambrosial, golden round her lucid throat 
And shoulder ; from the violets her light foot 
Shone rosy-white, and o’er her rounded form 



PAR] 


228 


[PAS 


Between the shadows of the vine-bunches 
Floated the glowing sunlights, as she moved. 
* * * 

She with a subtle smile in her mild eyes, 
The herald of her triumph, drawing nigh 
Half-whisper’d in his ear, ‘ I promise thee 
The fairest and most loving wife in Greece,' 
She spoke and laugh’d : I shut my sight for 

fear : 

But when I look’d, Paris had raised his arm, 
And I beheld great Herd’s angry eyes, 

As she withdrew into the golden cloud, 

And I was left alone within the bower ; 

And from that time to this I am alone, 
And I shall be alone until I die. 

Paris handed the apple to 
Venus. Subsequently during a 
visit to Sparta he abused the 
hospitality o£ Menelaos, for 
during his absence in Crete 
Paris eloped with Helen. To 
avenge this insult Menelaos 
laid siege to the city of Troy, 
and fought a single combat with 
Paris, whom he defeated, and 
who would have perished had 
not Venus interfered. In a 
succeeding battle Paris slew 
Achilles, the most famous of 
all the Greek heroes in the war, 
but on the fall of the city, being 
himself mortally wounded by a 
poisoned arrow of Philocteles, 
he sent for CEnone whom he 
had abandoned, but upon her 
arrival she found him dead, and 
in despair threw herself upon 
his body and stabbed herself. 

CEnone ; Death of CEnone . 

PARIS (city of). 

Locksley Hall Sixty Tears 

After ; Romney* s Remorse ; 

\ The Dawn. 

PARMA. 

An Italian town. 

The Daisy . 

PARNASSUS. 

The highest peak of a range of 


mountains in Greece, dedicated 
to the Muses, Apollo and Bac- 
chus. 

In Memoriam . 

PARROT. 

One of a family of tropical 
birds, remarkable for its beauti- 
ful plumage, and its powers of 
imitating the human voice. 

Locksley Hall ; Day- 
Dream ; The Princess . 

PARTHENON. 

O thou so fair in summers gone. 

While yet thy fresh and virgin soul 
Inform'd the pillar’d Parthenon, 

The glittering Capitol; 

A celebrated temple on the 
Acropolis at Athens, built under 
Pericles and dedicated b.c. 438 
to Athena. It is considered the 
finest specimen of Greek archi- 
tecture extant. A gold and 
ivory statue of the goddess 
Athene stands in the midst 
of the Parthenon. 

j Freedom. 

PARTHIAN. 

The last Parthian shaft of a forlorn Cupid 
at the King’s left breast, and all left-handed- 
ness and under-handedness. 

An arrow discharged at an 
enemy when retreating from 
him, as was the custom of 
the ancient Parthians. 

Becket. 

PARTRIDGE. 

A wild gallinaceous bird of 
the genus Perdrix. It is noted 
as a game bird. 

Lover's Tale. 

PASSION-FLOWER. 

A flower so-called from a 
fanciful resemblance to a crown 



MU] 


[PEL 


229 


of thorns, the emblem of 
Christ’s passion. 

Maud ; Voyage of Maeldune . 

PAUL. 

Saint Paul, the apostle of the 
Gentiles. 

Godiva ; In Memoriam ; 
Sir John Oldcastle , Lord 
Cobham ; Queen Mary . 

PAUL THE FOURTH (Pope). 
See Caraffa. 

PAUL’S. 

Right down by smoky Paul’s they bore, 
Till, where the street grows straiter, 

One fix’d for ever at the door, 

And one became head- waiter. 

= St. Paul’s Cathedral, Lon- 
don. Founded bp Ethelbert. 
In Roman times a temple of 
Diana is believed to have stood 
on the site, as a stone altar 
sculptured with the image of 
Diana was found during the 
excavations for the foundations 
of Goldsmith’s hall, in 1830. 
Destroyed bp fire 1087, and 
again in the great fire of 1666 ; 
rebuilt bp Sir Christopher Wren 
1675-1710. 

Will Waterproofs Lyrical 
Monologue . 

* PEACE, RE STILL ! ’ 

and while I spoke 

The crowd’s roar fell as at the ' Peace be still ! ’ 

Has reference to the words 
of Christ in the storm on the 
Sea of Galilee, 

Columbus . 

PAYNIM. 

= Pagan. 

Balin and Balan ; Holy 
Grail ; Last Tournament. 


PEACH. 

A tree with a delicious juicp 
fruit. 

Progress of Spring; The 
Falcon . 

PEACOCK. 

A large bird of the pheasant 
kind remarkable for the beauty 
of its plumage, especially that 
of its tail. 

(Enone ; Day-Dream ; The 

Princess ; The Daisy ; 

Maud; Gareth and Lynette ; 

Oueen Mary. 

PEACOCK-YEWTREE. 

A pewtree clipped into the 
shape of a peacock. 

Enoch Arden. 

PEA-HEN. 

The female of the peacock. 

The Falcon. 

YEEL&. 

A goddess who had her home 
in a great lake of fire nine miles 
round — Kilauea — the 

largest active volcano in the 
world. 

Kapiolani. 

PELElAN BANQUET-HALL. 

The Abominable, that uninvited came 
Into the fair Peleian banquet-hall, 

The banquet-hall in which 
the guests at the marriage of 
Peleus and Thetis assembled, 
and where Eris the goddess of 
strife threw among the guests 
the golden apple of discord. 

CEnone. 

PELEION. 

unweariable fire 

That always o’er the great Peleion’s head 
Burn’d, 



PEL] 


230 


[PEM 


= Achilles, so-called because 
he was the son of Peleus. 

Achilles over the Trench. 

PELEUS. 

‘ This was cast upon the board. 
When all the full-faced presence of the Gods 
Ranged in the halls of Peleus ; whereupon 
Rose feud, with question unto whom, 'twere 

due ; 

Has reference to the marriage 
of Peleus with the sea-nymph 
Thetis, and where Eris the god- 
dess of discord threw the golden 
apple among the guests, to show 
her resentment at not being in- 
vited. 

CEnone. 

PELICAN. 

X saw 

The pelican on the casque of our Sir Bors 
All in the middle of the rising moon : 

The pelican used as a crest 
was a symbol of devotion to a 
kinsman. 

Holy Grail. 

PELLAM. 

King of Listengise. He gave 
a feast to all the knights of the 
Round Table and their ladies ; 
and they all rose from the table 
and attacked Balin for having 
slain sir Galon, Pellam himself 
being wounded by a miraculous 
spear but was healed of the 
wound by sir Galahad. 

Balin and Balan. 

PELLEAS. 

A Knight of the Round Table, 
created to fill one of the gaps 
made by the quest of the Holy 
Grail, and lord of many Isles. 
Fell in love with the lady 
Ettarre (q.v.) but the lady did 
not return his love. For some 


time was knight to queen 
Guinevere. Was slain by sir 
Meliagrance in defending his 
mistress. 

Pelleas and Ettarre. 

PEMBROKE (Earl of). 

Sir William Herbert, first 
earl Pembroke ; son of sir 
Richard Herbert. Became a 
gentleman-pensioner in 1526. 
For having killed a mercer in a 
fracas escaped to France and 
joined the French army ; re- 
turning, he married Anne, sister 
of Henry VI II’s sixth queen, and 
at once rose in royal favour. At 
the dissolution of the mon- 
asteries he received the Abbey 
of Wilton, destroyed the monas- 
tic building and built a magnifi- 
cent mansion. Further grants 
of land were made him by 
Henry VIII and Edward VL 
On the outbreak of the quarrel 
between Somerset and Warwick 
Pembroke sided with the latter 
for which he was suitably re- 
warded, receiving Somerset’s 
estates in Wiltshire. He signed 
the agreement for the succession 
of lady Jane Grey to the throne, 
and was with her at the Tower 
of London, but later he declared 
in favour of Mary and accom- 
panied the Lord Mayor of 
London to Cheapside to read 
the proclamation. On the out- 
break of the Wyatt rebellion — 
although his loyalty was re- 
garded as suspicious — -was ap- 
pointed chief in command of 
the army to resist Wyatt’s 
entry into London, but his 



231 


[PER 


PEN] 

troops made such a feeble resist- 
ance that Wyatt succeeded in 
entering the city. He intro- 
duced into the royal presence 
the Spanish ambassador who 
came to represent Philip at the 
formal betrothal of the Queen, 
and on the arrival of Philip met 
him at Southampton, and was 
one of the four peers who gave 
Mary away at the wedding 
in Winchester Cathedral. Al- 
though a great favourite with 
both Mary and Philip his loyalty 
was regarded from time to time 
with such suspicion that Mary 
was advised to place him under 
arrest. Immediately upon 
Mary’s death, Pembroke went 
to Hatfield and attended Eliza- 
beth’s first Privy Council, and 
zealously supported a protestant 
revival. Appointed Lord Stew- 
ard of the royal household in 
1568, he compromised his posi- 
tion by supporting the proposed 
marriage of the duke of Nor- 
folk with Mary, queen of Scots, 
and was arrested, admitted 
sympathy with the scheme but 
denied the charge of disloyalty. 
He died in 1570, and was buried 
in St. Paul’s Cathedral. 

Queen Mary . 

PENDRAGON. 

A title — meaning 6 chief 
leader in war ’ — conferred upon 
several British chiefs in times of 
distress. Uther and Arthur 
were each appointed to the 
office to repel the Saxon in- 
vaders. 

Lancelot and Elaine. 


PENDRAGONSHIP. 

Has reference to the title 
of Pendragon (q-v). 

Guinevere. 

PENElAN. 

The long divine Peneian pass, 

The vast Akrokeraunian walls, 

The river Peneus in Thessaly 
which flows through a narrow 
pass, and is extremely beautiful 
on account of the precipitous 
rocks on either side. 

To E. L. 

PENENDEN HEATH. 

but ten thousand men on Penenden Heath 
all calling after your worship, 

Pennenden Heath. Ori- 
ginally a large common near 
Maidstone in Kent. In Saxon 
times the Witenagemot was 
held here, since which time it 
has been the meeting place for 
large and important gatherings. 
A large portion of the com- 
mon has now been built upon, 
and part is now used as a public 
recreation ground under the 
control of the Maidstone Cor- 
poration. 

Queen Mary. 

PENUEL. 

Past Yabbok brook the livelong night. 

And heaven’s mazed signs stood still 
In the dim tract of Penuel. 

Clear-headed Friend. 

PERCIVALE. 

A Knight of the Round Table, 
son of Pellinore, king of Wales. 
In Lancelot and Elaine he is 
called ‘ the meek Sir Percivale ’ 
and in the Holy Grail is known 
as * the Pure ’ and is hailed as 
the guardian of the Holy Grail : 



PER] 


232 


[PET 


And the angelic choir sang in jubilant tones : 

* Hail to thee Percival, king of the Grail ! 

Seemingly lost for ever, 

Now thou art blest for ever. 

Hail to thee Percival, king of the Grail ! * 

, Wagner : Epics and Romances of the Middle 
Ages [Trans, by M. W. Macdowall). 

Sir Percivale accompanied sir 
Galahad and sir Bors in the 
quest of the Holy Grail and was 
present when it appeared, but 
whether he was permitted to 
see it with his bodily eyes is 
not known. Some authorities 
consider that sir Galahad only 
saw the vision, while others 
contend that both sir Galahad 
and sir Percivale beheld the 
holy vessel, after which Perci- 
vale withdrew into a hermitage 
and spent the rest of his life in 
prayer. 

Sir Percivale 

Whom Arthur and his knighthood call’d The 

Pure, 

Has pass’d into the silent life of prayer, 

Praise, fast, and alms ; and leaving for the cowl 

The helmet in an abbey far away 

From Camelot, there, and not long after, died 

Merlin and Vivien ; Lan- 
celot and Elaine ; Holy 
Grail ; Pelleas and Ettarre. 
PERSEPHONl). 

In Greek mythology the 
daughter of Jupiter and Deme- 
ter, and queen of the lower 
world. As a maiden she was 
carried off, while plucking 
flowers in Enna, into the lower 
world by Pluto in his car, and 
is represented sitting on an 
-ebony throne wearing a crown. 

or the enthroned 

Persephone in Hades, 

She married Pluto and be- 
came the mother of the Furies. 
In Italian mythology she is 
identified with Proserpine. 

T he Princess ; Demeter and 
Persephone . 


PERSIA. 

An Asiatic country. 
Alexander ; Lover's Pale . 

PERSIAN GIRL. 

Then stole I up, and trancedly 
Gazed on the Persian girl alone, 

= Anis al-Jalis, in Burton’s 
Arabian Nights . 

Recollections of the Arabian 
Nights . 

PERU. 

Queen Mary . 

PETER. 

= Saint Peter, one of the 
twelve Apostles. 

Godiva ; Gareth and Lyn- 
ette ; To E. Fitzgerald ; 
Locksley Hall Sixty Tears 
After ; Queen Mary ; 
Harold; Becket. 

PETER. 

Then of the latest fox — where started — kill’d 
In such a bottom : ‘ Peter had the brush, 

My Peter, first : ’ 

A character at a meeting 
of the hounds. 

Aylmer's Field . 

PETER. 

The Eternal Peter of the changeless chair, 

= Pope of Rome. 

Queen Mary. 

PETER (Peter Martyr). 

Pietro Martire Vermigli, born 
at Florence 1550. Was an 
Augustinian monk, but became 
a convert to the reformed 
faith, and in consequence had 
to flee from Italy in 1542. Pro- 
fessor of Divinity at Strasburg 
1542-7, and at Oxford in 1548 ; 
returned to Strasburg in 1553, 
and became Professor of Divin- 



PET] 


233 


[PEW 


ity in the following year; died 
at Zurich in 1562. 

Peter, I’ll swear for him 
He did believe the bond incestuous. 

Queen Mary. 

PETERBORO’ 

Abbot Alfwig, 
Leofric, and all the monks of Peterboro’ 
Strike for the king ; 

Harold. 

PETER CAREW. 

Son of sir William Carew. 
In the reign of Henry VIII was 
sheriff of Devonshire. On the 
death of Edward VI he opposed 
the succession of lady Jane 
Grey and proclaimed Mary as 
queen in the West. Con- 
spired against the Spanish 
marriage and the plot being 
discovered escaped to the con- 
tinent. Passing through Ant- 
werp he was arrested by lord 
Paget, sent back to England, 
and confined in the Tower. 
On the accession of Elizabeth 
he rose in favour, and was Con- 
stable of the Tower in 1572, 
when the duke of Norfolk was 
convicted for treason. The 
latter part of his life was spent 
in recovering his property in 
Ireland. He died in 1575, and 
was buried in the church at 
Waterford. 

Queen Mary . 

PETERS. 

Gentleman to lord Howard. 

Queen Mary. 

PETER’S-PENCE. 

An annual tribute of one 
penny paid to support the pope. 
Presented by Ina of the West- 


Saxons for the endowment oi 
an English College at Rome, 
725, it was confirmed by Offa, 
777, and afterwards claimed 
by the pope as a tribute from 
England and collected regularly 
until its abolition by Henry 
VIII in 1534. 

Talking Oak. 

PETHER. 

An* tell thim in Hiven about Molly Magee 
an’ her Danny O’Roon, 

Till Holy St. Pether gets up wid his kays an’ 
opens the gate ! 

= St. Peter. 

Tomorrow . 

PEVENSEY. 

PEVENSEY CASTLE. 

A village in Sussex on the 
English Channel twelve miles 
from Hastings. It was in the 
bay of this little village that 
William, duke of Normandy, 
landed with his army on Septem- 
ber 28, 1066. The Romans 
built here a castle — now in 
ruins — the fortress of which 
was of great strength. It with- 
stood for six days the attack 
of the army of Rufus against 
Odo, bishop of Bayeux ; king 
Stephen and Simon de Mont- 
fort besieged it unsuccessfully ; 
but it was again successfully 
defended by lady Jane Pelham 
in 1399. The castle remained 
a fortress until the time of 
Elizabeth. 

Harold ; Becket. 

PEWIT. 

=The lapwing. 

Will Waterproofs Lyrical 
Monologue. 



PHA] 


234 


[PHr 


PHARAOH. 

May Pharaoh’s darkness, folds as dense as 

those 

Which hid the Holiest from the people’s eyes 
Ere the great death, shroud this great sin from 

all! 

See Exodus x. 21-23. 

Aylmer's Field. 

PHAROS. 

but had you stood by us, 
The roar that breaks the Pharos from his base 
Had left us rock. 

An island near Alexandria on 
which a lighthouse was erected 
by Ptolemy I, b.c. 250. 

The Princess . 

PHENOMENON. 

Name of a horse. 

The Brook. 

PHILIBERT. 

PHILIBERT OF SAVOY. 

Emanuel Philibert, duke of 
Savoy, born 1528, succeeded 

1553 ; died 1580. 

Queen Mary. 

PHILIP. 

A priest. 

Queen Mary. 

PHILIP. 

King of Naples and Sicily, 
afterwards king of Spain, son 
of the emperor Charles V. In 

1554 married Mary, queen of 
England in Winchester Cathe- 
dral, and became unpopular. 
In the following year left Eng- 
land in disappointment that 
an expected heir was not born 
to him ; resolved to extirpate 
protestantism in his dominions, 
and employed sword and fire 
with bitterness ; the Nether- 
lands however resisted the attack 
and succeeded in throwing off 
the Spanish yoke ; made over- 


tures to queen Elizabeth, but 
was refused and in 1559 married 
Isabella, daughter of the king 
of France. In 1588 he sent his 
c Invincible ’ Armada against 
England, which was almost to- 
tally destroyed, the defeat of 
which marked the beginning of 
the decline of Spain. The 
only praise that can be accorded 
to this tyrant is that he gave 
a certain amount of encourage- 
ment to the advancement of 
the Arts and Sciences (1527- 
1598). 

Queen Mary. 

PHILIP. 

And following our own shadows thrice as long 
As when they follow’d us from Philip’s door,. 
Arrived and found the sun of sweet content 
Re-risen in Katie’s eyes, and all things well 

Father of Katie Willows. 

The Brook. 

PHILIP. 

PHILIP RAY. See Enoch, Enoch. 
Arden. 

PHILIP (de Eleemosyna). 

Pope’s Almoner ; called the 
Abbot of l’Aumone ; was of 
the Cistercian order. 

Becket. 

PHILIP (Philip Edgar, afterwards 
Mr. Harold). See Eva. 

Promise of May. 

PHILIP EDGAR (afterwards Mr. 
Harold). See Eva. 

Promise of May. 

PHILIP HAROLD (Philip Edgar). 
See Eva. 

Promise of May. 

PHILIP HEDGAR (Edgar). 

See Eva. 


Promise of May . 



PHI] 


235 


[PHR 


PHILIPPINES. 

An archipelago, lying between 
the China Sea in the west, and 
the Pacific Ocean in the east. 

Queen Mary. 

PHLEGETHON. 

That oft had seen the serpent-wanded power 
Draw downward into Hades with his drift 
Of flickering spectres, lighted from below 
By the red race of fiery Phlegethon : 

In Greek mythology a river 
of hell. 

Demeter and Persephone. 


PHCEBE. 

A priestess in the temple of 
Artemis, along with Camma. 
Gamma’s husband Sinnatus was 
slain by Synorix. Camma 
married Synorix, and seemed 
to have no fear of him. Phoebe 
reminded her of the shyness 
with which she faced her first 
marriage, and was horrified to 
think that Camma should marry 
and ‘ clasp a hand Red with the 
blood of Sinnatus ? ’ but she 
endured it all that she might 
pass to Sinnatus on the other 
side of Death, and tell him that 
he was avenged. 

The Cup. 

PHOSPHOR. 

Bright Phosphor, fresher for the night, 

' By thee the world’s great work is heard 

Beginning, and the wakeful bird ; 

Behind thee comes the greater light : 

The light-bringer or morning 
star. 

In Memoriam. 


PHOSPHORUS. 

The personification of the 
‘ Morning-star.’ The name of 
a knight — one of four brothers 
— who kept the passages of 


Castle Perilous where the lady 
Lyonors was held captive, and 
who was overthrown by sir 
Gareth. 

Gareth and Lynette. 

PHRA-BAT. 

The footstep of the Lord on 
a rock. See Phra-Chai. 

To Ulysses. 


PHRA-CHAI. 

The shadow of the Lord. 
Certain obscure markings on 
a rock in Siam, which express 
the image of Buddha to the 
Buddhist more or less dis- 
tinctly according to the faith 
and his moral worth. — Poets 
Note . 

To Ulysses. 

PHRYNE. 

Becket. Where, my liege ? WithtPhryne, 
Or Lias, or thy Rosamund, or another ? 

Has reference to Phryne, a 
Greek courtesan. On account 
of her beauty she obtained 
numerous suitors who lavished 
gifts upon her so freely that 
she became exceedingly rich. 
She was a model to Praxiteles 
for his statue of Venus. Being 
accused of profanity she was 
brought before the Tribunal, 
and was defended by Hyperides, 
one of her lovers ; but seeing 
that the eloquence of Hyperides 
failed to convince the judges, 
she exposed her person, and 
was immediately acquitted, 
and carried ih triumph to the 
temple of Venn. 


Becket. 



236 


[PIL 


PIA] 

PIACENZA. 

An old Italian city. 

The Daisy. 

PICUS. 

‘ But who was he, that in the garden snared 
Picus and Faunus, rustic Gods ? 

King of Latium, son of 
Saturn, and the Italian god of 
agriculture. He married the 
nymph Canens, and became 
the father of Faunus. When 
out hunting in the woods one 
day he was met by Circe, who 
changed him into a woodpecker, 
because he rejected her love 
and was faithful to Canens. 

Lucretius. 


PIERIAN. 


If the lips were touch’d with fire from off a 
pure Pierian altar. 


A regular epithet for the 
muses. 


Parnassus. 


PIERO. 

Piero was cruelly murdered 
by the captain of a band of 
highwaymen. The reason given 
by his wife for such an outrage 
is 


‘ the Bandit had woo’d me in vain, and he 
stabb’d my Piero with this. 

The bandit dragged the 
woman to his cave in the moun- 
tain, where she lived in hatred 
of her husband’s murderer, 
crying to the saints to avenge. 
On the birth of a son, however, 
there seemed to be a little less 
hatred between them. Being 
tracked by the police, the bandit 
.accidentally strangled the child 
as he utter’d a cry. The 
woman’s loathing revived, she 
stabbed him as he slept, put 


the head in a cloth, and set out 
to receive the promised ransom. 

You have set a price on his head : I may claim 
it without a lie. 

* * * 

For I with this dagger of his — do you doubt 
me ? Here is his head ! 

Bandit’s Death . 

PIERO. 

The dead lover of Elisabetta, 
nurse to Count Federigo degli 
Alberighi. Elisabeth remon- 
strated with the count for 
his extravagance towards the 
lady Giovanni for whom he had 
bought a diamond necklace, and 
pointing to her own said : 

they are but blue beads — my Piero, 

God rest his honest soul, he brought ’em for 
me, 

Ay, but he knew I meant to marry him. 

Phe Falcon „ 


PIGEON. 

A well-known bird of the 
genus Columba. 

Audley Court ; Phe Brook ; 

Gareth and Lynette. 

PIKE. 

A large fresh- water fish. 

Village Wife. 

PILATE. 

Pontius Pilate. 

Becket. 

PILGRIM’S PROGRESS. 

More like the picture 
Of Christian in my ‘ Pilgrim’s Progress * here 
Bow’d to the dust beneath the burthen of sin. 

An allegory by John Bunyan, 
recounting the adventures of 
the hero Christian in journey- 
ing from the City of Destruction 
to the heavenly Jerusalem. It 
was written by Bunyan during 
his imprisonment in Bedford 
jail, between 1660 and 1672. 

Promise of May , 



2 37 


[POI 


PIN] 

PINDAR. 

Fair things are slow to fade away, 

Bear witness you, that yesterday 
From out the Ghost of Pindar in you 
Roll’d an Olympian ; 

The greatest lyric poet of 
Greece. 

To Professor Jebb . 

PINE. 

A cone-bearing evergreen 
tree. 

Leonine Elegiacs ; T wo 
Voices ; CEnone ; Lotos - 
Eaters ; Amphion ; The 
Voyage ; Aylmer's Field ; 
Lucretius ; The Princess ; 
Ode on the death of the Duke 
of Wellington ; A Welcome 
to Her Royal Highness 
Marie Alexandrovna , Duch- 
ess of Edinburgh ; The 
Daisy ; To Rev. F. D. 
Maurice ; The Islet ; The 
Window ; Maud ; Gareth 
and Lynette ; Lover's Tale ; 
Voyage of Maeldune ; To 
Ulysses ; Progress of Spring ; 
Death of CEnone ; Bandit's 
Death ; Queen Mary ; 
Becket ; The Cup. 

PLANE. 

= a tree of the genus Plat anus. 
Lucretius ; 

The Princess ; The Cup. 

PLANTAGENET. 

What songs below the waning stars 
The lion-heart, Plantagenet, 

Sang looking thro’ his prison bars ? 

Refers to the songs supposed 
to have been composed by 
Richard I during his captivity. 

Margaret . 

PLANTAGENET. 

A line of English kings who 


reigned from the extinction, 
of the Norman line to the 
accession of the Tudor, 1154- 
1485. See Geoffrey. 

Queen Mary ; The Foresters .. 

PLANTAIN. 

A common weed, with, 
broad, strong leaves. 

Aylmer's Field. 

PLATO. 

A Greek philosopher, 427-347- 

B.C. 

Palace of Art ; Lucretius ; 
The Princess; Sisters 
( Evelyn and Edith). 

PLEIADS. 

A cluster of seven stars ; ap- 
plied in Greek mythology to 
seven Greek poets 

Canst thou bind the sweet influences of 
Pleiades, 

Or loose the bands of Orion ? 

Job xxxviii. 31. 

Locksley Hall; Queen Mary. 

PLOVER. 

= the lapwing. 

May Queen ; Come not y 
when , etc. ; Geraint and ' 
Enid ; Happy ; Becket. 

POET-SATYR. 

Poet of the poet-satyr 
Whom the laughing shepherd bound with, 
flowers ; 

Silenus, who was caught 
asleep and bound with flowers 
as narrated in Virgil’s Sixth 
Eclogue. 

To Virgil. 

POINET (JOHN). 

Bishop of Winchester ; be- 
came a convert to the reformed 
faith, and was appointed chap- 



POI] 


[PON 


238 


lain to archbishop Cranmer in 
1547. Created bishop of Ro- 
chester by Edward VI in 1550 
and translated to Winchester 
in the following year. On the 
accession of Mary he was de- 
prived and fled to Strasburg 
where he died in 155 6. 

Cranmer. To Strasburg, Antwerp, Frank- 
fort, Zurich, Worms, 

Geneva, Basle — our Bishops from their sees 
Or fled, they say, or flying — Poinet, Barlow, 
Bale, Scory, Coverdale ; 

Queen Mary. 

POITEVINS. 


X learn but now that those poor Poitevins, 

= The people of Poitou. 

Becket. 


POITOU. 

A province of France. 

Harold . 


POLAND. 


Shall I weep if a Poland fall ? shall I shriek 
if a Hungary fail? 

Has reference to the Polish 
insurrection against Russia in 
1831. The rebellion proving 
a failure, Cracow, which had 
been hitherto an indepen- 
dent state was annexed to 
Austria, and the remainder of 
the kingdom of Poland was 
made a constitutional monarchy 
under the Czar of Russia. 

Maud; Poland. 


POLE (Reginald). See Reginald 
Pole. 


POLECAT. 

An animal of the weasel kind, 
which has glands secreting a 
disagreeable odour. 

The Foresters . 

POLLIO. 

Chanter of the Pollio, glorying in the blissful 
years again to be. 

Roman historian and poet ; 


the Pollio is the fourth Eclogue 
of Virgil, which the poet dedi- 
cated to him. 

To Virgil . 


POLYTHEISM. 

The doctrine of the belief 
in a plurality of gods each with 
a sphere of his own, and each 
a personification of some ele- 
mental power in the govern- 
ment of the world. 

AkhaPs Dream. 

P0NTH1EU. 

A French province. 

Harold. 


PONTIC. 

To Ulysses. 

PONTIGNY. 

A French village possessing 
a famous Cistercian monastery 
built in the twelfth centurv, 

tf 7 

and the monastery in which 
Becket took refuge when he 
fled to France in 1164. 

Becket . 


PONTIUS. 

That Pontius and Iscariot by my side 
Show’d like fair seraphs. 

=Pontius Pilate. 

St. Simeon Stylites . 

PONTUS. 

An ancient district of Asia 
Minor on the south-east coast 
of the Euxine or Black Sea. In 
Pontus a native monarchy 
arose soon after 400 b.c. which 
reached its chief importance 
under Mithridates VI the 
Great, who carried on several 
wars with Rome. In 63 b.c. 
after the conquest of Mithri- 



POP] 


239 


[PRO 


dates, Pompey made the western 
half a Roman province, and In 
63 a.d. the eastern half was also 
added to the Roman empire. 

5 The Cup . 

POPLAR. 

POPLAR-TREE. 

A tree of the genus Populus. 
Leonine Elegiacs ; Mari- 
ana ; Ode to Memory ; 
Amphion ; In M Conor iam ; 
Lancelot and Elaine ; 
Sisters (Evelyn and Edith ) ; 
Voyage of Maddune ; Batin 
and Balm ; 7 he Cup. 

POPPY. 

A plant of the genus Papaver 
having large showy flowers. 

Lotos-Eaters ; Dora ; The 
Princess ; Last Tourna- 
ment ; Voyage of Maddune; 
Spinster 7 s Szoeet-Arts ; The 
Tourney . 

PORTUGAL. 

Sisters (Evelyn and Edith). 

PRASUTAGUS. 

King of the Iceni, husband 
of queen Boadicca. On his 
deathbed, 60 a.d., he made the 
emperor Nero with his two 
daughters joint heir of his 
wealth, in the hope of securing 
Nero’s protection for his family 
and the people of Iceni ; but 
no sooner was he dead than the 
Romans seized the territory 
and treated the inhabitants with 
cruelty, who under Boadicea 
(q.v*) rose against them but were 
defeated. 

Boadicea. 


PRESTER JOHN. 

Or clutch’d the sacred crown of Pres ter John 
And cast it to the Moor : 

A supposed king and priest 
who is said to have reigned over 
a kingdom in the interior of 
Asia. This idea was universal 
until the beginning of the 
fourteenth century when it was 
transferred to Ethiopia and the 
title applied to a ruler of 
the Abyssinian kingdom. He 
claimed to have been the 
mightiest monarch on earth, 
no less than seventy-two kings 
being his tributaries. In 1221 
he was defeated by Genghis 
Khan, one of the tributary 
kings who had revolted against 
him. 

Columbus. 

PRIVET. 

A shrub, much used for 
hedges. 

Walking to the Mail . 

PROSERPINE. 

In Italian mythology the 
daughter of Zeus and Demeter ; 
Identified with the Greek Perse- 
phond (q.v). Whilst gather- 
ing wild asphodels in the 
fields of Enna was seized and 
carried off by Pluto to the 
infernal regions and made queen 
of Hades. 

she moved 

Like Proserpine in Enna, gathering flowers 

She married Pluto and became 
the mother of the Furies. 

Edwin Morris . 

PROVENCAL. 

Nay, if I took and translated that hard 
heart into our Provencal facilities, I could 
so play about it with the rhyme — 

Becket . 



PRO] 


240 [PYR 


PROVENCE. 

A province of southern 
France. 

Lover's T ale ; Becket . 

PSYCHE. 

Lady Psyche was one of the 
tutors at the female college 
founded by princess Ida, heroine 
of The Princess. She was sup- 
posed to be a person possessing 
a very charming manner, and 
was essentially feminine both 
in heart and manner. Her 
abilities as a lecturer were 
marked and to her abilities 
Cyril paid a delicate compli- 
ment when he, disguised as a 
girl student, gained admission 
into the college. 

The Princess. 

PSYCHE. 

The long-limb’d lad that had a Psyche too : 

In Greek mythology a beau- 
tiful maiden, the youngest of 
three daughters of a king, repre- 
sented as the personification 
of the Human Soul. She was 
loved by Cupid who carried 
her away to a palace where he 
visited her without being identi- 
fied. Psyche could not however 
resist the curiosity of knowing 
who he was, and lit a lamp, when 
a drop of oil fell on Cupid’s 
shoulder, which awoke him and 
he fled. She then wandered 
from place to place in search 
of her lover, until she came to 
the palace of Venus, who, being 
jealous of her beauty, made her 
her slave, but ultimately Cupid 
came to her rescue, married 


her and bestowed on her im- 
mortality. 

The Princess . 

PTARMIGAN. 

and know 

The ptarmigan that whitens ere his hour 
Woos his own end ; 

A species of grouse. The 
colour of this bird varies, being 
brownish-gray in summer and 
white in winter. 

Last Tournament . 

PUBLIUS. 

Captain of a band of Roman 
soldiers, and guard to Synorix^ 
from whom he received orders 
to capture as traitors any one 
who was talking with Synorix 
when he cried c Rome, Rome/ 
Publius was also present in the 
temple at the murder of Sin- 
natus by Synorix, and helped 
to bear away the body from the- 
temple for burial. 

The Cup. 

PUMPY. 

Scizzars an’ Pumpy was good uns to goa 
'Thruf slush an’ squad 
When roads was bad, 

But hallus ud stop at the Vine-an’-the-Hop, 
Fur boath on ’em knawed as well as mysen 
That beer be as good fur ’erses as men. 

Name of a horse. 

Promise of May . 

P. W. 

Poor Philip, of all his lavish waste of words* 
Remains the lean P. W. on his tomb: 

= Philip Willows ; father of 
Katie Willows. 

The Brook . 

PYRENEAN. 

TiU o’er the hills her eagles flew 
Beyond the Pyrenean pines, 

= The Pyrenees. 

Ode on the death of the Duke 
of Wellington 



PYT] 


241 


PYTHAGORAS. 

And once for ten long weeks I tried 
Your table of Pythagoras, 

= A vegetarian diet, as recom- 
mended by Pythagoras, the 
famous Greek philosopher, and 
adopted by Fitzgerald. 

To E. Fitzgerald . 

QUAIL. 

A bird closely allied to the 
partridge. 

Audley Court. 

QUEEN O’ THE MAY. 

The chief character in the 
poem entitled the May Queen. 
The poem is divided into three 
parts, and opens 

You must wake and call me early, call me 
early, mother clear: 

To-morrow 'ill be the happiest time of all the 
glad New- year ; 

Of all the glad New-year, mother, the maddest 
merriest day ; 

For I'm to be Queen 0' the May, mother, Fm 
to be Queen o' the May. 

The second portion, entitled 
New T car's Eve, opens with a 
request from the girl to her 
mother to call her early on the 
first morning of the year : 

If you're waking call me early, call me early 
mother dear. 

For I would see the sun rise upon the glad New- 
year. 

It is the last New-year that I shall ever see. 
Then you may lay me low i’ the mould and 
think no more of me. 

Later on in the poem we 
find the girl lying seriously ill, 
but longs to live until the 
snowdrop comes : 

There’s not a flower on all the hills : the frost 
Is on the pane : 

I only wish to live till the snowdrops come 
again : 

I wish the snow would melt and the sun come 
out on high ; 

I long to see a flower so before the day I die. 

Towards the end of the poem 
she charges her sister to look after 
her little garden : 


tQUI 

She'll find my garden-tools upon the granary 
floor : 

Let her take ’em : they are hers : I shall never 
garden more : 

But tell her, when I’m gone, to train the rose- 
bush that I set 

About the parlour-window and the box of 
mignonette. 

The girl however lingers long 
enough to see not only the 
snowdrop but also the violet : 

I thought to pass away before, and yet alive 
I am ; 

And in the fields all round I hear the bleating 
of the lamb. 

How sadly, I remember, rose the morning of 
the year ! 

To die before the snowdrop came, and new 
the violet’s here. 

and as the girl lies in her 
mother’s arms at the point of 
death, happy in the anticipation 
of meeting her mother and 
sister in the world beyond, the 
poem concludes : 

O sweet and strange it seems to me, that ere 
this day is done 

The voice, that now is speaking, may be 
beyond the sun — 

For ever and for ever with those just souls 
and true — 

And what is life, that we should moan ? why 
make we such ado ? 

For ever and for ever, all in a blessed home — 
And there to wait a little while till you and 
Effie come — 

To lie within the light of God, as I lie upon 
your breast — 

And the wicked cease from troubling, and the 
weary are at rest. 

May Queen . 

QUINCE. 

A tree belonging to the same 
tribe as the apple. 

Balin and Balan . 


QUINTUS CALABER. 

And read a Grecian tale re- told, 

U hich cast in later Grecian mould, 

Quintus Calaber 

Somewhat lazily handled of old; 

A poet, who wrote in four- 
teen books a Greek poem as a 
continuation of Homer’s Iliad 
in the third century. 

To the Master of BallioL 

R 



242 


[RAT 


RAB] 

RABBIT. 

A rodent quadruped of the 
hare family. 

Aylmer's Field ; Queen 
Mary ; Promise of May . 

RACHEL. 

Fairer than Rachel by the palmy well, 

Has reference to the first 
meeting of Jacob and Rachel 
at the well of Haran. Genesis 
xxix. 

Aylmer's Field . 

RAGGED-ROBIN. 

A common wild-flower of 
the campion kind, its petals 
having a ragged appearance, 
hence its name. 

— Marriage of Geraint. 

RAHAB. 

Pole. The scarlet thread of Rahab saved 
her life ; 

And mine, a little letting of the blood. 

Has reference to Rahab who 
received the spies sent by 
Joshua to spy out Jericho. 

Queen Mary. 

RALPH. 

Sir Ralph, an old knight, 
who evidently took part in the 
Crusades. 

* And that was old S r Ralph’s at Ascalon,’ 

It was near Ascalon that the 
Crusaders in 1099 under God- 
frey de Bouillion defeated a 
superior army sent by the sultan 
of Egypt to capture Jerusalem. 
A statue of Sir Ralph in orange 
scarf and silken sash evidently 
adorned princess Ida’s college, 
but when prince Arac and 
princess Ida were wedded, 
the knight was disrobed of his 
feminine attire, and was seen 


once more standing in the 
armour that befitted his sex and 
profession. 

The Princess . 

RALPH. 

Ralph, a knight, and lover of 
Edith Montfort. He took part 
in a tournament, won it, and 
was crowned by his lady-love, 
and won the admiration of his 
king. 

The Tourney. 

RALPH. 

RALPH BAGENHALL. 

Sir Ralph Bagenhall ; the 
only member of the House of 
Commons who protested against 
reconciliation with Rome in 
1556, for which he was com- 
mitted to the Tower. 

Queen Mary. 

RAM. 

= A male sheep. 

Last Tournament. 

RANDULF. 

Grim. And one of the De Brocs is with 
them, Robert, 

The apostate monk that was with Randtuf 
here. 

The brother of Robert de 
Btqc. 

Bechet. 

RAPHAEL. 

What fame ? I am not Raphael, Titian— -no 
Not even a Sir Joshua, some will cry. 

The celebrated painter, sculp- 
tor and architect. 

Romney's Remorse. 

RAT. 

A rodent quadruped of the 
genus Mus. 

The Foresters ; Walking to 
the Mail ; Maud ; Merlin 



EAV] 


2 43 


[REG 


and Vivien ; Pelleas and 
Ettarre ; 0;vd Rod ; Queen 
Mary ; The Fill con ; Pro- 
mise of May. 

RAVEN, 

A large bird of the crow 
family. 

Boddicea ; Maud ; Guine- 
vere ; Rizpah ; Battle of 
Brtinanburh ; Merlin and 
the Gleam; Harold; The 
Foresters . 

RAY (Philip). See Enoch, Enoch 
Arden. 

RAYMOND OF POITOU. 

Have we not heard 
Raymond of Poitou, thine own unde— 

Raymond I, prince of Antioch. 

Beckct. 


REDCAP. 

A bird of the goldfinch 
family, having a conical crest 
of red feathers on the top of 
its head. 

Gardener's Daughter . 

REDHATS. 

But the King hath bought half the College 
of Redhats. 

= Cardinals. 

Becket . 

RED SEA. 

An inland sea between 
Africa and Asia. 

T o the Marquis of Duferin 
and Ava . 

REFORM. 

Name of a horse. 

The Brook . 

REGGIO. 

An Italian seaport. 

The Daisy . 


REGINALD. 

REGINALD FITZURSE. 

Eldest son of Richard Fitz- 
urse and the principal actor 
in the murder of Thomas 
Becket. For some years he re- 
sided at Williton in Somerset. 
After the murder he escaped 
with his fellow-murderers to 
Saltwood castle, and finally 
to Knaresborough the home of 
de Morville, where they re- 
mained for about a year, after 
which Fitzurse went to Rome 
to receive sentence by the pope 
and was sent to expiate his sins 
at Jerusalem. 

Becket . 


REGINALD POLE 

Cardinal archbishop of' Can- 
terbury, son of sir Richard Pole. 
Appointed to various benefices 
by Henry VIII and upon the 
death of Wolsey refused the 
aichbishoprick of York. Being 
attainted of treason he fled to 
Italy and settled for some years 
in Padua; opposed the royal 
divorce and was deprived of all 
his preferments. In r 53 ^ 
was summoned to Rome by the 
pope who appointed him a 
cardinal, and sent him to the 
French king, Francis I, to stir 
him to war against England ; 
was one of the legates sent to 
open the Council of Trent, 
1545. On the accession of 
Mary he was appointed papal 
legate to England, to arrange 
with queen Mary as to the best 
means of bringing the kingdom 



HEN] 


2 44 


[RIC 


again in subjection to the 
papal see, and upon his arrival 
in England was created arch- 
bishop of Canterbury. In 1557 
his legation was cancelled and 
he was summoned to Rome on 
the charge of heresy, but falling 
ill, died on the same day as 
queen Mary, November 17, 
1558, and was buried in St. 
Thomas’ Chapel, Canterbury. 

Queen Mary . 

RENARD (Simon). See Simon, 
Simon Renard. 

REVEXLLEE. 

The beat of drum, or bugle 
blast, about break of day, to give 
notice that it is time for soldiers 
to rise. 

In Memoriam. 

REVENGE, THE. 

The ship commanded by sir 
Richard Grenville (y.v.) in 
lord Howard’s squadron which 
was attacked by the Spanish 
fleet off the Azores in August 
1591. 

1 he Revenge. 

RHINE. 

The principal river of 
Germany. 

In Memoriam . 

RHODOPE. 

The Rhodope, that bui t the pyramid, 

Has reference to Rhodopis, 
a courtesan of ancient Greece 
who lived about 600 b.c. There 
is a Greek legend that she built 
the third pyramid, but in 
reality it was the work of 
Nicotris. 


A statelier pyramis to her I'll rear 
Than Rhodope’s of Memphis, ever was : 
Shakespeare : I Henry VI. Ad i. Scenes v%. 

The Princess. 

RICHARD (the first, Coeur de 
Lion). 

King of England, third son 
of Henry II. In 1189 t0 °k t ^ le 
vow of a crusader and in the 
following year proceeded to the 
East with Philip Augustus of 
France, leaving the bishop of 
Ely to carry on the government 
at home. Richard displayed 
valour against Salad in whom 
he defeated near Caesarea, but 
having concluded a peace set 
out for England. His vessel 
being shipwrecked on the coast 
of Italy, he made his way in 
disguise through the dominions 
of his natural enemy Leopold 
of Austria, but being recognized 
was arrested and handed o\er 
to the emperor, Henry VI, who 
confined him in a castle in the 
Tyrol, bound with chains. At 
length he was ransomed by his 
subjects for 150,000 marks and 
arrived in England in 1104. 
He found his dominions in great 
confusion owing to the intrigue 
of Philip of France and John 
his brother, but rapidly made 
himself master of the castles 
which held out for John — who 
submitted and was pardoned — 
was in 1194 crowned a second 
time. He is supposed about 
this time to have visited Robin 
Hood in Sherwood Forest. On 
May 12, 1194, he left England 
and invaded France with a 
large army, and while besieging 



BBC] 


[RID 


245 


the castle of Chain?, in Aquitaine 
was wounded. He died on 
April 6, 1199, and was buried 
in the Abbey Church of 
Fontevraud. 

The Foresters. 

RICHARD (the Third). 

King of England, son of 
Richard, duke of York. On 
the death of Edward IV he 
assumed the title of Pro- 
tector, and on July 6, 1483, 
was crowned king. Shortly 
afterwards the two princes 
were murdered in the 'Power, 
there being strong suspicion 
that Richard himself was con- 
cerned in their murder. Dis- 
gusted with his cruelty and the 
usurpation of the crown, Henry, 
son of Edmund Tudor, who 
was in Brittany, was invited to 
invade England, and landing at 
Milford Haven marched to 
Rosworth in Leicestershire where 
Richard was defeated and slain, 
Henry being crowned king on 
the field. 

Queen Mary, 

RICHARD (de Brito). See De 
Brito. 

RICHARD. 

RICHARD GRENVILLE. 

A gallant seaman in Eliza- 
beth’s time ; took part in the 
defeat of the Armada. In 
1591, while commanding the 
Revenge , engaged singlehanded 
the entire Spanish fleet off the 
Azores, and, after a desperate 
fight of eighteen hours, sur- 
rendered and was carried 


wounded on board the Spanish 
flagship San Philip, where 
he died. 

And the stately Spanish men to their flagship 
bore him then. 

Where they laid him by the mast, old Sir 
Richard caught at last, 

And they praised him to his face with their 
courtly foreign grace ; 

But he rose upon their decks, and he cried : 
‘ I have fought for Queen and Faith like a 
valiant man and true ; 

I have only done my duty as a man is bound 
to do : 

With a joyful spirit I Sir Richard Grenville 
die 1 ' 

And he fell upon their decks, and he died 

The Revenge. 

RICHARD. 

RICHARD LEA. 

RICHARD OP THE LEA. 

Sir Richard Lea, father of 
Maid Marian. 

‘The Foresters. 

RICHARD. 

That traitor to King Richard and the truth, 

Richard II, king of England 
from 1377 to 1399. 

Sir John 0 Ideas tie, 
Lord Cobham. 

RIDLEY (Nicholas). 

Bishop of London ; descended 
from an ancient Northumber- 
land family ; became chaplain 
to archbishop Cranmer in 1537 
and chaplain to king Henry 
VIII in 1541. Appointed by 
Edward VI bishop of Rochester, 
and took part in the framing 
of the Articles and Homilies . 
On the deprivation of Bonner, 
bishop of London, Ridley 
was appointed his successor. 
Visited the princess Mary at 
Hunsdon, but failed to shake 
her adherence to the Roman 
Catholic faith, and conse- 
quently signed the will of Ed- 
ward VI settling the crown on 



RIN] 


[ROB 


246 


lady Jane Grey. On Mary’s 
accession was deprived and sent 
to the Tower, thence — with 
Latimer and Cranmer — to Ox- 
ford, and on refusing to recant 
was condemned, and with 
Latimer (q.v) burnt to death 
opposite Balliol College, Oxford, 
I 5SS* 

Queen Mary . 

RINGDOVE. 

A wood-pigeon, so-called from 
a white ring on the neck. 

Talking Oak ; Queen Mary . 

ROA. 

Name of a dog. 

Owd Rod. 

roAver. 

Name of a dog. 

Owd Rod. 

ROB. 

Name of man and cat. 

Spinster's Sweet-arts . 

ROBBY. 

Name of man and cat. 

Spinster's Sweet-arts. 

ROBERT. 

Sir Robert, mentioned by 
Everard Hall, during an enter- 
tainment at Audley Court. 
Francis Hale, his friend, sang 
a song ; Everard replying with 
one also, explaining 

I found it in a volume, all of songs, 

Knock’d down to me, when old Sir Robert’s 

pride— 

His books— the mote the pity, so I said— 
Came to the hammer here in March- 

Sir Robert was evidently a 
literary person. 

Audley Court . 

ROBERT. 

Wedded to Letty Hill, a 


millionaire’s daughter. She fell 
in love with a man who came 
to spend a holiday near her 
home, but acting under the 
influence of her relatives she 
forsook him, to marry Sir 
Robert. 

They wedded her to sixty thousand pounds* 
To lands in Kent and messuages in York, 

And slight Sir Robert with his watery smile 
And educated whisker. 

Edwin Morris. 

ROBERT. 

Grim. And one of the L>e Brocs is with 
them, Robert, 

The apostate monk that was with Randulf 
here. 

Robert de Broc. A monk. 

Becket . 


ROBERT. 

ROBERT OF JUMU&GES. 

Archbishop of Canterbury* 
a Norman by birth. Prior of 
St. Ouen at Rouen, and in 1037 
was appointed Abbot. Accom- 
panied Edward the Confessor 
to England in 1043, who ap- 
pointed him bishop of London 
in the following year. Opposed 
the earl of Godwin with the re- 
sult that the earl and his family 
were driven into exile, but upon 
Godwin’s return in 1052 he 
fled to Walton-on-the-Naze in 
Essex where he embarked for 
Normandy. Being deprived of 
his See, he went to Rome to lay 
the matter before the pope, 
who ordered his reinstatement* 
but he did not regain possession 
of it. On his return from Rome 
he went to Jumi6ges, where he 
died and was buried near the 
high altar of the Abbey Church. 

Harold . 



ROB] 

ROBIN. 

Friend and playmate of the 
* May Queen,’ who thinks she is 
dying, and bids farewell to her 
friends, of whom Robin is one. 

And say to Robin a kind word, and tell him 

not to fret ; 

m » m 

If I had lived —I cannot tell—I might have 

been his wife ; 

May Quern . 

ROBIN. 

Subject of a song sung by a 
milkmaid, beginning 

Shame upon you, Robin, 

Shame upon you now. 

Queen Mary. 

ROBIN. 

ROBIN HOOD. 

ROBIN OF HUNTINGDON. 

A famous outlaw, who, with 
his companions— the most noted 
of whom were Little John, Will 
Scarlet, Much, the miller’s 
son, his chaplain, Friar Tuck, and 
his paramour Maid Marian — 
inhabited the forest of Sher- 
wood in Nottingham. He is 
identified with Robin, earl of 
Huntingdon, and was born at 
Locksley, Nottingham, in the 
reign of Henry II. 

* In Locksdy town, in merry Nottinghamshire, 
In merry sweet Locksly town, 

There hold Robin Hood was born and was 
bred, 

Bold Robin of famous renown." 

\Sloanc MS. 

He was skilled in archery, and 
his exploits and those of his 
merry men, are the subject of 
many ballads and tales. Robin 
Hood’s Bay, on the east coast 
of Yorkshire, is said to owe its 
name to the tradition of Robin 
Hood, whose arrows shot from 
the tower of Whitby reached 


[ROB 


three miles distant. He robbed 
the rich only, being particularly 
fond of pillaging prelates, whom 
he seems to have held in decided 
aversion. 

These byshoppes and thyse archebyshoppes 
Ye shall them bete and bynde. 

He gave freely to the poor, 
and protected the needy. 

The performance of the 
Morrice Dance, which was so 
common in the fourteenth 
century — and to some degree 
still extant — has been associated 
with Robin Hood’s forest games, 
and his jovial life in the green 
glades of Sherwood, when Robin 
Hood and Maid Marian and 
Friar Tuck were the chief char- 
acters, which company also 
included the Hobby-horse and 
the Fool. 

The merry pranks he playd, would aske an 
age to tell, 

And the adventures strange that Robin Hood 
befell, 

When Mansfield many a time for Robin bath 
bin layd, 

How he that cosned them, that him would 
have betrayd ; 

How often he hath come to Nottingham dis- 
guisd, 

And cunningly escapt, being set to be surprizd. 

In this our spacious Isle, I thinke there is not 
one, 

But he hath heard some talke of him and 
Little John : 

And to the end of time, the Tales shall ne’r be 
done, 

Of Scarlock, George a Greene, and Much , the 
Millers sonne, 

Of Tuck, the merry Frier, which many a Ser- 
mon made, 

In praise of Robin Hood, his Out-lawes, and 
their Trade. 

Drayton : Polyolhion . Five and twentieth 
Song. 

He is supposed to have been 
intentionally bled to death at 
the age of eighty-seven in the 
Cistercian nunnery at Kirklees 
in Yorkshire, about the year 
1247. 

It is said that when Robin- 
perceived the treachery which 


247 



ROB] 


[ROC 


248 

had been practised on him, he 
blew a loud blast on his bugle- 
horn. The call reached the 
ears of Little John, who hastened 
from the adjoining forest of 
Kirklees, and forced his way into 
the chamber where the dying 
chieftain lay, who, according 
to an old ballad, made the 
following request : 

Give me my bent bow in my hand, 

And a broad arrow I’ll let flee; 

And where this arrow is taken up, 

There shall my grave digg’d be. 

Lay me a green sod under my head, 

And another at my feet, 

And lay my bent bow by my side, 

Which was my music sweet. 

And make my grave of gravel and green, 

Which is most right and meet. 

Let me have length and breadth enough, 

With a green sod under my head, 

'That they may say, when I am dead, 

‘Here lies bold Robin Hood.* 

These words they readily promised him, 

Which did bold Robin please, 

And there they buried bold Robin Hood, 

Near to the fair Kirkleys. 

The bow being placed in his 
hand by Little John, Robin 
discharged it through the open 
window, and the arrow alighted 
•on a spot where according to 
tradition he was afterwards 
interred. On a stone within 
the railings surrounding the 
: grave is the following inscription: 

‘ Hear Underneath dis laitl stean 
Laz Robert earl of Huntingtun 
Ne’er arcir ver az hie sa geud 
An pipl kauld im Robin Heud 
Sick utlawz as hi an iz men 
Vil England nivr si agen 
Obiit 24 Kal Dekembris 1247.’ 

Robin Hood has been made 
the hero of many tales and ad- 
ventures by romancers and 
poets. The first historical allu- 
sion is found in Piers Plough- 
man, by William Langland, 
which, according to Skeat, 
cannot be older than 
.about 1377. In 1420 Wyn- 


town published his Scottish 
Chronicle , and at the com- 
mencement of the sixteenth 
century he is mentioned in 
Mair’s History of Great Britain. 
After the introduction of the 
art of printing in England by 
Caxton in 14 77, there appeared 
a collection of Robin Hood 
Ballads entitled Here beginneth a 
little geste of Robin Hood and his 
7 neiny : and of the fraud Sheriff 
of N ottingham, and towards the 
end of the same century a play 
by Anthony Munday, The 
Downfall of Robert , Earl of 
Huntingdon , made its appear- 
ance. Reference is also made 
to him in Michael Drayton^s 
Polyolbion , Song XXV Lincoln- 
shire , published about 1622. 
In 1821 Joseph Ritson pub- 
lished his Robin Hood Ballads , 
and some years afterwards 
appeared Campbell’s A His- 
torical Sketch of Robin Hood . 

The Foresters . 

ROBIN. 

Robin-redbreast, a bird with 
a reddish breast. 

Locksley Hall ; Enoch Arden . 

ROBINS. 

A farm hand mentioned by an 
old farmer, who was fast failing, 
though he refused to believe 
so, as he had so much work to do. 
He said that God 

‘ a mowt ’a taaen young Robins — a niver 

mended a fence: 

Northern Farmer , Old Style. 

ROCHESTER. 

A city and seaport in Kent. 

Queen Mary . 



HOG] 


[ROG 


2 49 


ROGER. 

A servant. 

Queen Mary. 

ROGER. 

ROGER OF YORK. 

Archbishop of York. With 
Socket was brought up at the 
court of Theobald, archbishop 
of Canterbury. In 1148 he was 
made archdeacon of Canter- 
bury, and six years later was 
created archbishop of York. 
On the election of Becket, 
Roger claimed the right of 
consecrating him, but his claim 
was rejected. He however ob- 
tained the pope’s authority to 
crown kings, which right was — 
upon Becket protesting — with- 
drawn. In 1170 he performed 
—in spite of Becket’s remon- 
strances and the prohibition of 
pope Alexander III— the coro- 
nation ceremony of Henry IPs 
son. Roger was suspended, and 
upon Becket’s return from exile 
crossed over to Normandy and 
complained to Henry that there 
would be no peace so long as 
Becket remained alive. Some 
authorities consider that he 
was mainly responsible for the 
murder of the archbishop, for 
after the murder lie took an 
oath before the archbishop of 
Rouen that he was innocent 
of the charge, and confessed 
that he had not received per- 
mission from the pope to crown 
Henry’s son king, and was 
accordingly absolved. Ob- 
tained permission to carry his 


cross within the province of 
Canterbury, and at the council 
of Northampton in 1176 urged 
that the Scottish Church should 
be made subordinate to the 
See of York ; which claim pope 
Alexander III recognized in 
1180. He died in 1181 and 
was buried in York Minster. 

Becket. 

ROGER ACTON. 

Burnt — good Sir Roger Acton, my dear frie»d ! 

A Shropshire knight, exe- 
cuted for taking part in Old- 
castle’s insurrection, 1414, 

Sir John Oldcastle , 
Lord Cohham , 

ROGERS (John). 

The first Marian martyr, was 
bom at Birmingham. Was 
rector of Holy Trinity Church, 
London, 1532-34, after which 
he lived for some years at Ant- 
werp, where he became inti- 
mate with Tyndale, and be- 
came a convert to Protestant- 
ism ; published at Antwerp in 
1637 what is known as Matthew's 
Bible. Returned to England 
in 1 548, and was appointed 
rector of St. Margaret’s Moyses, 
London, and vicar of St. 
Sepulchre’s, London. In 1555, 
upon the accession of Mary, he 
preached at St, Paul’s Cross 
against Romanism ; was de- 
prived of his benefice, and 
imprisoned in Newgate ; and 
after a long term of imprison- 
ment was sentenced to death 
for heresy and burnt at Smith- 
field, February 1555. 

Queen Mary. 



ROL] 


250 


[RO& 


ROLF. 

A Ponthieu fisherman. 

Harold . 

ROME. 

Lucretius ; The Princess ; 
Boddicea ; Maud ; Com- 
ing of Arthur ; Gareth 
and Lynetie ; Passing of 
Arthur ; Columbus; Locks - 
ley Hall Sixty T ears After ; 
T 0 Virgil ; Freedom; The 
Ring ; Romney's Remorse ; 
St. Telemachus ; The Dawn ; 
Queen Mary ; Harold ; 
Becket ; The Cup. 

RONALD (LORD). 

Betrothed to lady Clare. 
On the eve of his marriage he 
was told by the lady that he was 
the heir to all her lands, as she 
was not the daughter of the late 
earl, but, 

I am a beggar born,’ she said, 

* And not the Lady Clare.’ 

Lord Ronald laugh’d ‘ a laugh 
of merry scorn,’ and assured 
her that even if she were not the 
heiress-born, on her marriage 
on the morrow she would still 
be lady Clare. 

Lady Clare . 

ROOD. See Holy Rood. 

ROOK. 

A species of crow, so called 
from its croak. It is black, with 
purple and violet reflections. 
May Queen ; In Memoriam; 
Marriage of Geraint ; The 
Ring. 

ROSA. See Monte Rosa. 


ROSALIND. 

The subject of a mournful 
song by a man in a depressed 
mood. He says c that Hesperus 
all things bringeth, soothing 
the wearied mind : ’ that Hes- 
per comes in the morning, but 
his Rosalind cometh not morn- 
ing nor evening. He concludes 
by saying : 

False-eyed Hesper, unkind, where is my sweet 

Rosalind ? 

Leonine Elegiacs. 

ROSALIND. 

The writer likens a girl— 
Rosalind — to a bright-eyed fal- 
con. She is a very high-spirited 
girl, untamed, and also untame- 
able. 

Rosalind. 

ROSALIND. 

Lo, 7 the face again. 
My Rosalind in this Arden — Edith— all 
One bloom of youth, health, beauty, ^happi- 
ness, 

The charming daughter of 
the banished duke in Shake- 
speare’s As You Like it. Dressed 
in male attire and accompanied 
by her cousin Celia, she seeks 
her exiled father in the forest of 
Arden. 

Sisters (. Evelyn and Edith). 

ROSAMUND. 

ROSAMUND DE CLIFFORD. 

Jane Clifford, c Rosamund the 
Fair,’ daughter of Walter, lord 
Clifford, and mistress of Henry 
II. She is supposed to have 
been a nun in Godstow nunnery, 
where Henry met her ; and to 
keep her from the eyes of queen 
Eleanor kept her in a bower of 



ROS] 


251 


[ROS 


Woodstock, which was sur- 
rounded by a labyrinth. Here 
she was, by a silken thread, 
supposed to have been discovered 
and poisoned by queen Eleanor, 

A.D. U77. 

But nothing could this furious queen 
Therewith appeased bee : 

The cup of deadly© poyson strange 
As she knelt on her knee, 

She gave this comelye dame to cirinke ; 

Who took it in her hand, 

And from her bended knee arose, 

Anti on her feet did stand. 

And casting up her eyes to heaven. 

She did for mercye calle ; 

And drinking up the poyson strange. 

Her life she lost withalle. 

Her body was buried in the 
chapel of Godstow nunnery, 
where candles were kept con- 
tinually burning over her tomb 
until the bishop of Lincoln in 
1 19 1 caused them to be re- 
moved. 

Dream of Fair Women ; 

Becket. 

ROSE. 

The daughter of a gardener 
who was loved by an artist. 
The latter gives an elaborate 
description of her in her youth. 
In conclusion he says 

Behold her there, 

As I beheld her ere she knew my heart, 

My first, last love ; the idol of my youth. 
The darling of my manhood, 

Gardener* s Daughter. 

ROSE. 

Rose, on this terrace fifty years ago, 

When I was in my June, you in your May, 
Two words 1 My Rose * set all your face aglow' 
And now that I am white, and you are gray* 

Sister of Mary Boyle. 

Roses on the Terrace . 

ROSE. 

ROSETREE. 

A fragrant flower and shrub 
of the genus Rosa of many 


species and varieties. It is the 
favourite of poets and the 
national emblem of England. 
Ode to Memory ; A Spirit 
Haunts ; A Dirge; Ade- 
line; Two Voices; CEnone; 
Palace of Art ; Lotos- 
Eaters ; Gardener* s Daugh- 
ter ; Day-Dream ; Lady 
Clare ; Vision of Sin ; 
Enoch Arden ; Aylmer* s 
Field; Lucretius; The 
Princess ; City Child ; 
H endec asyllabics ; The 
Window ; In Memoriam ; 
M aud ; Geraint and Enid ; 
Balin and Balan ; Merlin 
and Vivien ; Holy Grail ; 
Pelleas and Ettarre ; Lover* s 
Tale ; Sir John Oldcastle , 
Lord Cobham ; Voyage of 
Maeldune ; The Wreck; 
Ancient Sage ; Tomorrow ; 
Locksley Hall Sixty Tears 
After ; On the Jubilee of 
Queen Victoria ; Vastness ; 
The Ring; Happy; Rom- 
ney* s Remorse ; Roses on the 
Terrace ; The Snowdrop ; 
Akbar*s Dream ; Queen 
Mary ; Harold ; Becket ; 
Promise of May ; The 
Foresters. 

ROSE-CAMPION. 

A garden plant with hand- 
some crimson flowers. 

Last Tournament , 

ROSE-CARNATION. 

A carnation striped with rose 
colour. 

In Memoriam . 



BOS] 

ROSEMARY. 

A small fragrant evergreen 
shrub of a pungent taste growing 
in the countries round the 
Mediterranean. It is used as 
an emblem of fidelity or con- 
stancy. 

There’s rosemary, that’s for remembrance ; 

Shakespeare : Hamlet , Act IV. Scene v. 

Gareth and Lynette. 

BOSE OF LANCASTER. 

Rose of Lancaster, 
Red in thy birth, redder with household war, 
Now reddest with the blood of holy men, 
Redder to be, red rose of Lancaster — 

= Wars of the Roses between 
the houses of York and Lancaster. 

Sir John Oldcasile , 
Lord Cobham. 

ROUND TABLE. 

A Table made by Merlin the 
magician for Uther the pen- 
dragon. Uther gave it to king 
Leodogran, and when king 
Arthur married Guinevere 
Leodogran gave him the table 
with a hundred knights as a 
wedding present, which tradi- 
tion says is still preserved at 
Winchester. The Table would 
seat 150 knights and Arthur 
instituted an order of Knight- 
hood called ‘ the Knights of 
the Round Table 5 and each 
seat was appropriated. One 
of the seats was called the 
4 Siege Perilous 5 and was re- 
served for sir Galahad the 
Pure, the only knight who could 
occupy it with safety. Some 
accounts say that the Round 
Table was made in token of the 
roundness of the world, sug- 
gested by the movement of the 


[SAA 

Great Bear round the polar star. 

But now tbe whole round table is dissolved 
Which was an image of the mighty world ; 

and others, that it was con- 
structed in imitation of the 
table used by our Lord and His 
disciples at the Last Supper. 
Round Tables were not un- 
usual in the feudal age, for it is 
placed on record that one of 
the kings of Ireland had his 
c Knights of the Round Table. 5 
Roger de Mortimer established 
at Kenilworth a Round Table, 
and Edward III had his Round 
Table at Windsor said to be 
200 feet in diameter. Tradi- 
tion affirms that the earliest 
use of the Round Tower at 
Windsor Castle was as a meeting- 
place for the knights of the 
Garter. 

Morte d’ Arthur ; Pelleas 
and Ettarre ; Last Tourna- 
ment ; Passing of Arthur . 

RUNNYMEDE. 

A meadow on the banks of 
the river Thames where king 
John signed the Magna Charta, 
June 15, 1215. 

j T hird of February. 

RUSSIA. 

Locksley Hall Sixty Tears 
A fter . 

RUTH. 

Fairer than Ruth among the fields of corn, 
See Ruth it. 

Aylmer’s Field. 

SAATAN (Satan). 

Heer wur a fall fro’ a kiss to a kick like Safi tan 
as fell 

Down out o’ heaven i’ Hell-fire — thaw theer’s 
naw drinkin’ i’ Hell ; 

Northern Cobbler. 


252 



SAB ’| 


253 


[ST 


SABASAN. 

Dripping with Saharan spice 
On thy pillow, lowly bent 
With melodious airs lovelorn, 

Breathing Light against thy face, 

=the region of Saba in 
Arabia, celebrated for produc- 
ing aromatic plants. 

Adeline. 

SABINE. 

but she 

That taught the Sabine how to rule, 

Has reference to Egeria, a 
nymph of ancient Italy who 
taught Numa the Sabine, king 
of Rome, the way to govern. 
He used to meet her in a grove, 
in which, was a well, afterwards 
dedicated by him to the Ca- 
menx\ 

The Princess. 

SAGRAMGRE. 

A knight of the Round Table. 
Merlin and Vivien. 

SAHIB. 

An Indian term to a person 
of rank. 

Aylmer* s Field. 

ST. ANDREW. 

One of the Apostles, brother 
of St. Peter. Suffered martyr- 
dom by crucifixion at Patras 
in Achaia. 

Queen Mary. 

ST* JAMES. 

they led 

Processions, chanted litanies, dash’d their 
bells, 

Shot off their lying cannon, and her priests 
Have preach’d, the fools, of this fair prince to 
come ; 

Till, by St.’James,'! find myself the fool. 

One of the Apostles, son of 
Zebedee and brother of John. 
Was the first martyr among 
the Apostles, being put to death 


by Herod Agrippa. Acts xii. 2. 

Queen Mary. 

ST. JOHN. 

What saitb St. John : — 
' Love of this world is hatred against God.’ 

One of the Apostles, son of 
Zebedee and brother of James. 
Was banished to the Isle of 
Patmos, where he wrote the 
Gospel, the Epistles and the 
Apocalypse. 

Queen Mary. 

ST. LAWRENCE. 

The patience of St. Lawrence in the fire. 

A deacon of the Church at 
Rome who suffered martyrdom 
by being broiled on a gridiron 
in the time of Valerian, 258 a.d. 

Queen Mary. 

ST. MARY’S. 

ST. MARY’S CHURCH. 

A church in Oxford where 
archbishop Cranmer was taken 
to read his recantation in public,, 
but instead of complying de- 
nounced the errors of the Church 
of Rome. 

Queen Mary. 

ST. PAUL. 

Gardiner. Word of God 

In English ! over this the brainless loons 
That cannot spell Esaias from St. Paul, 
Make themselves drunk and mad, fly out and 1 

flare 

Into rebellions. 

Originally called Saul ; the 
Apostle of the Gentiles. 

Queen Mary. 

ST. PETER. 

Has reference to St. Peter,, 
the Apostle, originally called 
Simon. 

Queen Mary ; Becket . 

ST. VALERY. 

St. V.-sur-Somme, mouth o£ 



SAL] 


[SAL 


254 


the river Somme. The port 
from which William duke of 
Normandy sailed for England. 

Harold. Well then, we must fight. 

How blows the wind? 

Gurth. Against St. Valery 

And William. 


A girl who drowned herself 
in a pond in Gigglesby Wood 
because she had been disgraced. 

Spinster's Sweet- Arts. 

SALADDEEN. 

Nay, ev’n the accursed heathen Saladdeen — 

Refers to Saladin, sultan of 
Egypt and Syria, the Saracen 
leader in the third crusade. 

Bechet. 

■SALAMANCA. 

Were you at Salamanca ? 

Has reference to the confer- 
ence held in the Convent of St. 
Stephen at Salamanca, in i486, 
to consider the proposals of 
Columbus. Famous for the 
victory won by the duke of 
Wellington over the French, 
July 22, 1812. 

Columbus. 

'SALEEM. 

thou knowest how deep a well of love 
My heart is for my son, Saleem, mine heir, — 

Son of Akbar, the Mogul 
emperor. 

Akbar's Dream . 

>SALIQUE. 

till warming with her theme 
She fulmined out her scorn of laws Salique 
And little-footed China, 

The Laws Salique forbad the 
succession to pass through the 
female line. The laws origin- 
ated amongst the Salic or Salian 
Franks, a German tribe in the 


fifth century. The accession of 
Philip the Long to the throne 
of France in 1337 seems to be 
the first time on which it re- 
ceived public sanction, Edward 
III claiming the crown of 
France in right of his mother 
Isabella, daughter of the late 
king Philip V, which claims 
resulted in the outbreak of the 
Hundred Years 5 War between 
England and France. 

Lhe Princess. 

SALISBURY (John of). See John 
of Salisbury. 

SALISBURY (Bishop of). See 
Joeelyn. 

SALLY. 

The wife of a northern 
cobbler, who had turned to 
drink and ruined his home. 
Sally was obliged to take in 
washing to ‘ keep the wolf from 
the door, 5 and during her 
absence her husband found her 
earnings and spent it in drink. 
Matters got worse, and when 
drunk one evening he kicked his 
wife. Good seemed to come 
out of evil, for when the 
cobbler saw Sally walking as if 
lame, he was ashamed and made 
a promise to touch drink no 
more. 

Northern Cobbler. 

SALLY. 

The dead wife of a northern 
farmer, who must have exerted 
a great deal of influence over 
him, for his own words are : 



255 


[SAN 


SAL] 

An* 1 hallus room’d to \ church afoot raoy 

Sally wur dead. 

Northern Farmer , Old Style . 

SALLY. 

•SALLY ALLEN. 

A servant to farmer Dobson. 

Promise of May. 

SALTWOOD. 

SALTWOOD CASTLE. 

A castle near Hythe, in Kent. 
When Henry II confiscated the 
property of the See of Canter- 
bury during the time Thomas 
Becket (q*v.) was an exile in 
France, the castle was granted 
by the king to Randulf de Broc. 
Upon Becket’s return to Eng- 
land in 1170 he denounced 
and excommunicated De Broc, 
and hurled a candle to the floor 
in Canterbury Cathedral as a 
symbol of the extinction of the 
man whom he had cursed. 
This castle was the destination 
of the four knights — murderers 
of Becket — upon their arrival 
in England from Normandy in 
1170, and the place where they 
laid their plans for the murder 
•of the archbishop, and having 
accomplished their task, rode 
back to the castle where they 
remained during the night of 
December 30, 1170. 

They rode to Softwood the night of the deed ; 
the next day to South Mailing. On entering 
the house they threw off their arms and trap- 
pings on the dining-table, which stood in the 
hall, and after supper gathered round the 
blazing hearth. Suddenly the table started 
back and threw its burthen to the ground. 
The attendants, roused by the crash, rushed 
in. with lights, and replaced the arms. But 
a second and still louder crash was heard, 
and the various articles were thrown still 
further off. Soldiers and servants with 
torches scrambled in vain under the solid 
table to find the cause of its convulsions, till 
■one of the conscience-stricken knights sug- 
gested that it was indignantly refusing to 
bear the sacrilegious burthen of their arms 


— the earliest and most memorable instance 
of a rapping, leaping, and moving table. 

Stanley : Memorials of Canterbury. 

In the reign of John the 
castle reverted once more to the 
possessions of the Church, and 
during the twelfth and thir- 
teenth centuries was in the 
occupation of various knights 
as tenants of the archbishop 
of Canterbury. At the disso- 
lution of the monasteries it was 
voluntarily presented to Henry 
VIII by archbishop Cranmer. 

Becket . 

SAM. 

SAMMY. 

Foolish son of a modem 
northern farmer, who, giving 
him advice as to marriage, says : 

* Doiint thou marry for munny, but goa wheer 

munny is ! ’ 

His father also promised him 
that if he married £ a good ? un ? 
he would leave the land to him. 

Northern Farmer , New Style. 

SAMIAN. 

whene’er she moves 
The Samian Her 6 rises and she speaks 
A Memnon smitten with the morning Sun.* 

Refers to Samos an island off 
Asia Minor, where a large 
temple in honour of Here the 
queen of Heaven was erected, 
of which remains still exist. 

The Princess. 

SANDERS. 

A man in a crowd who was 
rebuked by Stephen Gardiner, 
bishop of Winchester, for wear- 
ing his cap before the queen 
Mary. He offered an explana- 
tion. that he was so c squeezed 
among the crowd ’ he could 
not lift his hands to his head. 



SAN] 


256 


[SAD 


He refused at first to give his 
name to Gardiner, but after- 
wards said his name was Sanders, 
and he lived in Cornhill at the 
Sign of the Talbot. 

Oueen Mary. 

SANGUELAC. 

= A bloody fountain. 

According to tradition a San- 
guelac, or a bloody fountain, is 
said to have sprung up on the 
hill of Senlac after the battle, 
which prompted William the 
Conqueror to found Battle 
Abbey as an atonement for the 
blood that had been shed, as 
well as for a commemoration 
of his victory. 

Harold. 

SAN PHILIP. 

The flagship of the Spanish 
fleet in the battle with sir 
Richard Grenville (q-v.) off the 
Azores in 1591. 

The Revenge. 

SAN SALVADOR. 

An island in the West Indies 
on which Columbus landed 
on October 12, 1492. The 

native name was Guanahani, 
but Columbus changed it to 
San Salvador. 

and last the light, the light 
On Guanahani ! but I changed the name ; 
San Salvador 1 call'd it; 

Columbus. 

SAPPHO. 

arts of grace 

Sappho and others vied with any man: 

A poetess of ancient Greece 
of the seventh century b.c. 
She was a native of Mitylene 
in Lebos and a contemporary 
of Alcaeus and of Pittacus, who 


banished her from Lebos. Of 
her poetry only a few fragments 
remain. 

The Princess. 

SARACEN. 

Whatever wealth I brought from that new 
world 

Should, in this old, be consecrate to lead 
A new crusade against the Saracen, 

And free the Holy Sepulchre from thrall. 

A name given by the Cru- 
saders to the Mohammedans 
in the Holy Land. 

Columbus; Oueen Mary; 

Becket. 

SASSENACH WHATE. 

* Ochone are ye goin’ away,? 

‘ Goin’ to cut the Sassenach- whate/ he says 
‘ over the say ’ — 

= English Wheat. 

T omorrozo. 

SATRAP. 

when her Satrap bled 
At Issus by the Syrian gates, 

A governor of a province in 
ancient Persia. 

Alexander. 

SATURN. 

Still as, while Saturn ./whirls, his stedfast 
shade 

Sleeps on his luminous ring.' 

The planet of the solar system 
which revolves on its own axis 
in about io| hours. It is 
surrounded by a bright ring 
which, when the shadow Saturn 
is cast upon it, appears motion- 
less, though the body of the 
planet revolves. 

Palace of Art. 

SAUL. 

They say the gloom of Saul 
Was lighten’d by young David’s harp. 

The first king of Israel, son 
of Kish of the tribe of Ben- 
jamin. 

Oueen Mary . 

SAUL. See Paul. 



257 


[SCO 


SAV] 

SAVOY. 

A duchy to the north-east 
of France. 

Queen Mary . 

SCARBORO 5 CASTLE. 

The Castle, now a ruin, was 
built in the reign of Stephen, 
and has been the scene of many 
stirring events. Piers Gaveston, 
the favourite of Edward II, 
sought refuge here from the 
barons in 1312, but the carl 
of Pembroke compelled him to 
surrender and he was beheaded. 
In the Pilgrimage of Grace it 
was unsuccessfully besieged by 
sir Robert Aske. During 
Wyatt’s rebellion in the reign 
of Mary, sir Thomas Stafford, 
grandson of the duke of Buck- 
ingham who was an exile in 
France, sailed from Dieppe with 
two vessels manned by thirty 
Englishmen and landing in 
Yorkshire, surprised and cap- 
tured the castle, but three days 
afterwards it was retaken by 
the earl of Westmorland, and 
Stafford and all his men were 
executed. 

Sir Thomas Stafford, a bull-headed ass, 

Sailing from France, with thirty Englishmen, 
Hath taken Scarboro’ Castle, north of York ; 

It was in this castle that 
George Fox, the first of the 
people called Quakers, was im- 
prisoned for his religious opin- 
ions, in the reign of Charles I. 

Queen Mary. 

SCARLET. 

Will Scarlet, one of the com- 
panions of Robin Hood in 
Sherwood Forest. 

T he Foresters . 


SCARLETT. 

Sir James Yorke Scarlett, 
son of James Scarlett, first 
baron Abinger. Appointed 
General and Leader of the 
Heavy Brigade in the Crimea, 
and on October 25 led the 
famous charge of the Heavy 
Brigade at Balaclava. In 1855 
he was appointed to com- 
mand the entire British Cavalry 
in the Crimea. 

Charge of the Heavy Brigade 
at Balaclava. 

SCARLETT’S BRIGADE. 

The brigade commanded by 
sir James Yorke Scarlett (q.v.) 
at Balaclava, October 25, 1854. 

Charge of the Heavy Brigade 
at Balaclava . 

SCIZZARS. 

Name of a horse. 

Scizzars an’ Pumpy was good uns to goa 
Thruf slush an’ squad 
When roads was bad, 

But hallus ud stop at the Vine-an’-the-Hop r 
Fur boath on ’em knawed as well as mysen 
That beer be as good fur ’erses as men. 

Promise of May . 

SCORY (John). 

A Dominican Friar bom at 
Acle in Norfolk. On the dis- 
solution of the monasteries he 
became Chaplain to archbishop 
Cranmer. Created bishop of 
Rochester in 1551, and trans- 
lated to Chichester in the 
following year. On the acces- 
sion of Mary he was deprived 
of his living on account of 
being married ; was compelled 
by Gardiner to renounce his 
wife ; did penance, and received 
absolution ; and soon after- 
s 



SCO] 


[SCO 


258 


wards fled to Germany; but 
returned in the reign of Eliza- 
beth (1558), and was created 
bishop of Hereford. 

Queen Mary. 

SCOTLAND. 

Queen Mary ; Harold ; 

The Foresters. 

SCOTS, MARY, QUEEN OF. 

Only daughter of James V of 
Scotland and Mary of Guise ; 
became queen when only a 
week old. The more import- 
ant years of her early life were 
spent in France, and in 1558 she 
was married to the Dauphin. 
On the death of Mary she 
formally claimed the English 
crown on the ground that 
Elizabeth was illegitimate, and 
in 1560 on the death of her 
husband returned to Scotland, 
having escaped the English 
ships of war sent out by Eliza- 
beth to intercept her. Some 
years later, in spite of protest, 
she married her ' cousin lord 
Darnley, a man with lack of 
character and ability, who found 
himself superseded in the 
Queen’s counsels by David 
Rizzio, an Italian and court 
favourite, who was subsequently 
murdered in the presence of 
the queen on March 9, 15 66. 
Three months later her only 
son (afterwards James VI of 
Scotland and I of England), 
was born in Edinburgh Castle. 
In February 1567, as Darnley 
was lying ill in a small mansion 


in Edinburgh it was blown up 
by the earl of Bothwell ; and 
the queen’s subsequent marriage 
with the earl lent suspicion that 
she herself was not wholly 
ignorant of the plot. The 
nobles rose in rebellion and the 
queen escaped to Dunbar, but 
surrendering at Carberry was 
conveyed to Loch Leven, where 
she was compelled to abdicate 
in favour of her son who was 
— a few days later — crowned 
at Stirling. Escaping from Loch 
Leven castle, she found herself 
at the head of an army of 6,000 
men, which was defeated near 
Glasgow, and a few days later 
fled to England, only to find 
herself a prisoner. Catholic 
plots were formed to liberate 
her and place her on the Eng- 
lish throne, the chief of which 
was the Babington plot, which 
had for its object the assassina- 
tion of Elizabeth. Letters in 
Mary’s handwriting approving 
of the assassination were found, 
and in September 15 86 she was 
brought to trial. Sentence of 
death was passed on October 
25 of the same year, but it 
was not until February 1, 1587, 
that Elizabeth signed the death 
warrant. The execution took 
place on the 8th of the same 
month and her body was buried 
at Peterborough. In i6r2 it 
was removed to Henry VI IPs 
chapel at Westminster, where 
it now lies in a tomb erected 
by her son James. 

Queen Mary . 



259 


[SER 


SCO] 

SCOTT. 

Sir Walter Scott, the Scottish 
novelist, to whom the poem 
The Bandit’s Death is dedicated. 

Bandit’s Death. 

SCRATBY. 

He’ll niver swap Owlby an’ Scratby fur owl 

but the Kingdom o’ Heaven ; 

Church-warden and the Curate . 

SCRITCH-OWL. 

= the Bam or screech-owl, 
so called from its screeching 
cry, and superstitiously re- 
garded as a bird of evil men. 

The Foresters. 

’SDEATH. 

= An exclamation of anger. 
Corrupted from God’s death. 

The Princess. 

SEAL. 

Ilcannot cease to follow you, as they say 

The seal does music ; 

An aquatic carnivorous mam- 
mal of the family Phocidas. 
Like other animals, the seal is 
said to be strongly attracted by 
musical sounds. 

The Princess. 

SEAMEW— SEA-MEW. 

= The sea-gull. 

In Memoriam ; Harold. 

SEA-SNAKE. 

= A sea-serpent. 

The Mermaid . 

SEELING. 

Yet while they rode together down the plain 

Their talk was all of training, terms of art, 

Diet and seeling, jesses, leash and lure. 

Has reference to the custom 
of closing the eyes of a hawk 
by sewing the eyelids together. 
This custom was in time 
superseded by hoods. 

Merlin and Vivien. 


SEINE. 

Proclaiming social truth shall spread, 

And justice, ev’n tho* thrice again , 

The red fool-fury of the Seine 
Should pile her barricades with dead. 

= The Red Republicanism of 
France. 

hi Memoriam . 

SENESCHAL. 

= A steward. An officer in 
the house of a prince in the 
Mediaeval ages who had the su- 
perintendence of functions, etc. 
The Falcon; Gareth and 
Lynette ; Marriage of 
Geraint ; Last Tournament. 

SENLAC. 

SENLAC HILL. 

A hill near Hastings where 
the battle of Senlac — between 
Harold and William of Nor- 
mandy — was fought on October 
14, 1066. Battle Abbey, which 
stands upon the spot where 
Harold fell, was founded by 
William to commemorate this 
battle. 

Harold. 

SENS. 

A French town. Its original 
building is the Gothic cathedral 
of St. Stephen, where are pre- 
served the vestments of Thomas 
Becket. 

Bechet . 

SERPENT. 

A general term for any reptile 
of the order Ophidia. 

Alexander ; In Memoriam ; 
Geraint and Enid; Holy 
Grail ; Locksley Hall Sixty 
Tears After ; Demeter and 
Persephone. 



SEV] 


260 


SEVERN. 

The Danube to the Severn gave 

The darken’d heart that beat no more : 
They laid him by the pleasant shore, 

And in the hearing of the wave. 

Arthur Henry Hallam died at 
Vienna on the Danube, and was 
buried at Clevedon on the 
Severn. 

In M emotion. 

SEVERN. 

but, last, 

Allowing it, the Prince and Enid rode, 

And fifty knights rode with them , to the shores 
Of Severn, and they past to their own land : 

King Arthur’s Court being 
held at Caerleon-upon-Usk, it 
was necessary for the knights 
who attended to cross the 
Severn when returning to their 
homes. 

Marriage of Geraint ; 

Geraint and Enid . 

SEVILLE. 

Let us bang these dogs of Seville, the children 

of the devil, 

A city of Spain and the port 
from which the squadron which 
fought sir Richard Grenville 
off the Azores in 1591 was 
fitted out. 

The Revenge. 

SHAKESPEARE. 

A famous English poet, and 
the greatest of dramatists. 

Palace of Art ; You might 
have won ; In Memoriam ; 
ToE. Fitzgerald ; ToW.C. 
Macready. 

SHALOTT, ISLAND OF. 

The enchanted island on 
which was situated the castle 
in which dwelt the lady of 
Shalott {q.v) 

Lady of Shalott . 


[SHE 

SHALOTT, LADY OF. See Lady 
of Shalott. 

SHAMUS. 

SHAMUS O’SHEA. 

Friend of Danny O’Roon, 
both of whom were frequent 
visitors to Katty’s shebeen. 
Shamus loved Molly Mageehand 

’Ud ’a shot his own sowl dead for a kiss”of ye. 
Molly Magee. 

'Tomorrow. 

SHEBA. 

No, not to answer, Madam, all (those] hard 
things 

That Sheba came to ask of Solomon.’ 

Refers to the queen of Sheba’s 
visit to Solomon at Jerusalem. 
1 Kings x. 1-13. 

The Princess. 

SHEBEEN. 

= A grog-shop. 

T onion cav. 

SHE-GOAT. 

= A female goat. 

Bechet . 

SHELLEY. 

My Shelley would fall from my hands where 
he cast a contemptuous glance; t< 
From where he was poring over his Tables 
of Trade and Finance ; 

= The poems of Percy Bysshe 
Shellev. 

The J Freeh. 

SHEPHERD-DOG. 

A dog specially trained to 
help in tending sheep. 

Leonine Elegiacs. 

SHERWOOD. 

SHERWOOD FOREST. 

Originally a royal forest 
situated in the west of the 
county of Nottingham, but is 



SHI] 


261 


[SIE 


now almost disafforested, being 
occupied by gentlemen’s resi- 
dences, the town of Mansfield, 
and several villages. It was 
the scene of the exploits of the 
famous outlaw Robin Hood 
and his merry men, and of 
several conflicts daring the 
Wars of the Roses. 

The Foresters . 

SHIAH. 

And warm* the blood of Shiah and Sunnec, 
Symbol the Eternal ! 

On the death of Mahomet the 
Church which he had founded 
was divided into two sections, 
the Shiahs and the Sunnees. 
The former are the champions 
of Ali, the fourth CalifF, Ma- 
homet’s nephew, and recog- 
nized the right of succession 
to the prophet to rest with him 
and his descendants. The Per- 
sians belong to this sect. The 
Sunnees, or Sunnites, accept 
the teaching of the Prophet as 
of the same authority as the 
Koran , as their rule of faith 
and manners, and accept the 
four Califs— -Abu Beker, Omar, 
Othman and Ali— as the true 
successors of Mahomet. To 
this sect the Turks belong. 

AkbaFs Dream. 

SHREW. 

A small animal resembling 
a mouse, but having a longer 
and more pointed nose. 

Gareth and Lynette . 

SHRIKE. 

A bird of the family Laniida 
having a strong hooked bill. It 


impales its prey on thorns, 
hence it is called also the 
butcher bird. 

Maud . 

SHUSHAN. 

O Vashti, noble* Vashti ! Summon’d out 
She kept her state, and left the drunken king 
To brawl at Shusluui underneath the palms. 

See Esther in. 15. 

Phe 'Princess. 

SICILIAN. 

Poet-like, as the .great Sicilian called 
Calliope to grace his golden verse-— 

Theocritus, the bucolic poet 
of Greece, bom at Syracuse, 
in the third century, b.c. His 
poems, some thirty in number, 
are pictures of Sicilian life, and 
are much admired for their 
beauty and elegance. The date 
of his death is not known, but 
it is supposed that for having 
written some satire of Hiero, 
king of Syracuse, he was by this 
king ordered to be strangled 
in 300 b.c. 

Lucretius. 

SICILY. 

Queen Mary. 

SIEGE PERILOUS. 

The Round Table made by 
Merlin contained 150 sieges. 
One of these was called the 
4 Siege Perilous ’ and was re- 
served for the knight who 
achieved the quest of the Holy 
Grail. The Round Table is 
supposed to have been an imita- 
tion of the Table of the Holy 
Grail made by Joseph of Arima- 
thsea, but whether the vacant 
seat represented the one in 
which Christ Himself sat, or the 
traitor Judas, opinions differ 



SIG] 


[SIN 


262 


Every seat at the table was in- 
scribed with the name of its 
occupant, and the name on 
the c Siege Perilous 5 was c Gala- 
had the Pure.’ 

Holy Grail. 

SIGN OF THE TALBOT. 

An Inn sign. 

Queen Mary. 

SILENT ISLE. See Maeldune. 

Voyage of Maeldune. 

SIMEON. 

SIMEON STYLITES. 

A famous monk — founder of a 
class of recluses, called c Pillar- 
saints ’ — who lived in extreme 
seclusion in a Syrian monastery 
for nine years. At the end of 
that time he retired to the 
Syrian desert, where he lived 
for thirty years on the top of 
a pillar seventy-two feet high, 
engaged in prayer and preach- 
ing. He died on his pillar 
at the age of seventy-two and 
was buried at Antioch. Gib- 
bon’s Decline and Fall of the 
Roman Empire gives an account 
of this monk. 

St. Simeon Stylites. 

SIMOIS. 

A river of Troy which has 
its origin in mount Ida. It 
joins the Scamander, which 
also has its source in the same 
mountain, in the plain of 
Troas, and flowing north-east 
falls into the Hellespont. 

(Encne. 


SIMON. 

SIMON RENARD. 

Spanish ambassador to the 
English court, time of queen 
Mary. 

Queen Mary. 

SINAI. 

But in the darkness and the cloud, 

As over Sinai's peaks of old, 

While Israel made their gods of gold, 

Altko’ the trumpet blew so loud. 

= True Faith is enveloped 
with perplexity, as God was 
hidden in the cloud of fire and 
smoke on Mount Sinai. Exodus 
xix. 1 6 . 

In Memoriam. 

SINNATUS. 

Sinnatus was a libertine, 
tetrarch of Galatia, but being 
suspected of infidelity to Rome 
Antonius, a Roman General, 
w r as sent to investigate his 
honour, and was accompanied 
by an ex-tetrarch, named 
Synorix. Some time before he 
held the tetrarchy, Synorix had 
become enamoured with Gamma, 
the beautiful wife of Sinnatus, 
a priestess of Artemis, but being 
unable to win her by persuasion 
or force, perpetrated a dreadful 
deed. He sent to Camma a 
golden cup embossed with the 
figure of Artemis, and then by 
chance fell in with Sinnatus in 
a hunting expedition. At the 
end of the day’s sport Sinnatus 
invited Synorix to his house ; 
where the traitor excited 
Camma’s fear by swearing that 
Antonius knew Sinnatus to be 
false to Rome, and begged her 
to ask for mercy for her hus- 



SIR] 


[SKI 


263 


band at the hands of the Roman. 
General. Gamma presented 
herself at the camp, but instead 
of Antonins she found Synorix. 
Drawing her dagger against 
him, she was disarmed, and 
Sinnatns rushing to the rescue 
was slain by Synorix. Camma 
fled to the Temple for safety, 
and was subsequently installed 
Priestess, and Synorix who had 
been appointed Prince of 
Galatia, asked for her hand. 
She accepted him, and crowned 
herself queen of Galatia ; but 
Camma, learning how treacher- 
ously Synorix had deceived her, 
poisoned the libation in the 
cup which Synorix had handed 
to her ; and after she had 
drunk a portion of the liquid 
she bade him drink the rest ; 
after he had done so she burst 
into a fierce thanksgiving that 
she had been permitted to 
avenge the death of her mur- 
dered husband, and she and her 
would-be betrayer died together. 

The Cu'p. 

SIRENS. 

O sister, Sirens tho’ they be, were such 
As chanted on the blanching bones of men ? 

In Greek mythology, the 
Sirens were sea-nymphs, the 
virgin daughters of Phorcys. 
They dwelt on the shores of an 
island between Circe’s isle and 
Scylla, and sang with such 
sweetness that they allured and 
infatuated all who passed by to 
draw near, but only to meet 
with death. In Homer there 
are two, in later writers three, 
their names being Ligeia, 


Parthenope, and Leucothea. 

The Princess . 


SIRIUS. 

A dog-star, the brightest star 
in the heavens and one of the 
stars of the southern Constella- 
tion. 

The Princess. 

SIRMIO. 

The ancient name of modern 
Sirmione, on the Lago di Garda.. 
F rater Ave Atque Vale . 

SIRMIONE. 

Gazing at the Lydian laughter of the Garda. 
Lake below 

Sweet Catullus’s all-but-island, olive-silvery 
Sirmio 1 

A promontory which pro- 
jects from the southern shore 
of Lake Garda, and still con- 
tains the ruins of a villa said 
to have been the country- house 
of Catullus, who wrote his 
poems there. Here Tennyson 
wrote his F rater Ave Atque Vale . 
F rater Ave Atque Vale . 

SIX HUNDRED. 

Consisted of the 13th Light 
Dragoons, the 17th Lancers,, 
the nth Hussars, the 4th 
Light Dragoons, and the 8th 
Hussars, known as the Light 
Brigade who made the famous 
charge at the battle of Balaclava- 

Half a league, half a league, 

Half a league onward, 

All in the valley of Death 
Rode the six hundred. 

‘ Forward, the Light Brigade ! 

Charge for the guns ! ’ he said : 

Into the valley of Death 
Rode the six hundred. 

Charge of the Light Brigade . 

SKIPWORTH. 

A farm labourer. 

Promise of May - 



SKY] 


264 


[S 0 O 


SKYLARK. 

A lark that mounts towards 
the sky, and sings on the wing. 

Miller's Daughter. 

SLEUTH-HOUND. 

A hound that tracks game by 
the scent ; a bloodhound. 

Gareth and Lynette. 

SLOE. 

SLOE-TREE. 

= The Blackthorn. 

! The Flight; To Mary 
Boyle; Amphion . 

SLOW-WORM. 

= the blind-worm, a reptile 
that feeds on earth-worms. 
According to Skeat a slay-worm. 

Aylmer's Field. 

SMITH (Dan). See Dan Smith. 

SNAKE. 

= a serpent. 

Queen Mary ; (Enone ; 
Poet's Song ; The Princess ; 
Marriage of Geraint ; Mer- 
lin and Vivieti ; Holy 
Grail ; Pelleas and Et- 
tarre ; Last Tournament; 
Lover's Tale; Death of 
(Enone ; St. Telemachus ; 
Becket. 

SNIPE. 

A bird of the family Scolo- 
pacidce , having a long, straight, 
flexible bill. 

On a Mourner. 

SNOWDON. 

A mountain in North Wales. 

Golden Tear. 

SNOWDROP. 

A bulbous plant with a white 


bell-shaped flower, which often 
appears while the snow is on 
the ground. 

May Queen ; St. Agnes' 
Eve ; The Princess ; Last 
T ournamen t ; Early Spring ; 
Progress of Spring. 

SOLECISMS. 

A name given to the incon- 
gruity of language in the 
combination of a sentence. 
Supposed to have been derived 
from the city of Soli in Cilicia, 
whose inhabitants — in conse- 
quence of their intercourse with 
the natives — spoke very bad 
Greek. 

The Princess. 


SOLENT. 

So Harry went over the Solent to see if work 
could be found ; 

Separates the Isle of Wight 
from the mainland. 

First Quarrel. 


SOLOMON. 

No, not to answer, Madam, all those hard 
things 

That Sheba came to ask of Solomon/ 

Refers to the queen of Sheba’s 
visit to Solomon at Jerusalem. 
1 Kings x. 1 -1 3. 

The Princess. 

SOLOMON. 


but had 1 brought 

From Solomon’s now-recover’d Ophir all 
The gold that Solomon’s navies carried home 
Would that have gilded me? 

See x Kings x. 2 . 

See Ophir. 

Columbus. 


SOMERSET— SOMERSETSHIRE. 


Marriage of Geraint ; Pro- 
mise of May . 

SOOMERSET (Somerset). 

Promise of May, 



SOU] 


SOUDAN. 

Warrior of God, man’s friend, and tyrant’s 
foe, 

Now somewhere, dead far in the waste Soudan, 

Refers to the death of general 
Gordon at Khartoum. 

Epitaph on General Gordon . 

SOUTHWARK. 

Queen Mary. 

SPAIN. 

The Revenge ; Columbus ; 
The Wreck ; The Ring ; 
Queen Mary. 

SPANIEL. 

A sporting dog, having long 
and thick hair and large droop- 
ing ears. 

Promise of May. 

SPARHAWK. 

=the sparrow-hawk. 

Sir Launcelot and Queen 
Guinevere. 


SPARROW. 

A small bird of the family 
F 'ringillida . 

Mariana ; Amphion ; The 
Window ; Maud ; Marri- 
age of Geraint. 


SPARROW-GRASS. 

A corruption of Asparagus. 
Spinster's Sweet- Arts. 

SPARROW-HAWK. 

= A small European hawk. 
Marriage of Geraint. 

SPARTAN. 

and why should I not play 
The Spartan Mother with emotion, be 
The Lucius Junius Brutus of my kind ? 

Has reference to the idea 
prevalent among the Spartans 
that man lived for his country’s 


265 [SPL 

welfare and must make any 
sacrifice in its behalf. 

The Princess. 

SPEEDWELL. 

A plant with blue, white, or 
pink flowers. 

Promise of May ; In Memoriam . 

SPHINX. 

and that smooth rock 
Before it, altar fashion’d, where of late 
The woman-breasted Sphinx, with wings 

drawn back, 

Folded her lion paws, and look’d to Thebes. 

A monster, the daughter of 
Chimera, represented with, the 
body of a winged lion and breast 
and head of a maiden. Juno 
sent her to Thebes, and taking 
up her abode upon a rock near 
the city asked every passer-by 
the following conundrum : 
4 What creature walks upon 
four legs in the morning, upon 
two at noon, and upon three 
in the evening ? ’ and all those 
who were unable to answer it 
she punished by throwing them 
from the rock. (Edibus, son 
of Laius, however, succeeded 
in solving the riddle rightly, 
whereupon she flung herself 
from the rock and was dashed 
to pieces. 

T iresias . 

SPIDER. 

A web-spinning, apterous in- 
sect of the class Arachnida . 

The Princess ; Merlin and 
Vivien ; Becket ; The 
Foresters. 

SPLUGEN. 

What more ? we took our last adieu, 

And up the snowy Splugen drew. 



SQU] 


266 


[STE 


But ere we reach’d the highest summit 
I pluck’d a daisy, I gave it you. 

An Alpine pass in the Grisons. 

‘ The Daisy . 

SQUIRREL. 

A reddish-brown rodent ani- 
mal, with a long tufted tail. 
The Princess ; Lover's 
Tale ; Prologue to General 
Hamley ; The Foresters. 

STAFFORD (Sir Thomas). See 
Thomas Stafford. 

STAG. 

A male red-deer. 

Bechet ; T he Cup ; T he 
Foresters. 

STAG-TUCKEY. 

= A turkey-cock. 
Church-warden and the Curate. 

STAMFORD-BRIDGE. 

A village on the river Der- 
went, where king Harold de- 
feated Harold Hardrada (1 q.v .) 
king of Norway on September 
25, 1066. 

Harold . 

STAMFORD-TOWN. 

Weeping, weeping late and early. 

Walking up and pacing down, 

Deeply mourn'd the Lord of Burleigh, 
Burleigh-house by Stamford-town. 

A town in Lincolnshire. 
Lord of Burleigh . 

STANDARD. 

= A tree not supported or 
attached to a wall. 

The Blackbird. 

STATES. 

He’s gone to the States, aroon, an’ he’s married 
another wife. 

An’ ye’ll ndver set eyes an the face of the 
thraithur agin in life ! 

= United States. 

Tomorrow. 


STEER. 

A farmer. 

Promise of May. 

STEER (Dora). See Dora, Dora 
Steer. 

STEERS (Family of). 

Promise of May . 

STEEVIE. 

Name of a man and a cat. 

Spinster's Sweet- Arts. 

STEPHEN (Saint). 

The first martyr of the 
Christian church, stoned to 
death, a.d. 33. See Acts vii. 

Two Voices . 

STEPHEN. 

Name of the lover of the 
speaker in the poem. 

The Wreck. 

STEPHEN. 

King of England, son of 
Stephen, earl of Blois, and Adela, 
daughter of William the Con- 
queror ; crowned at West- 
minster 1135. Matilda (q.v.) 
daughter of Henry I, and wife 
of emperor Henry IV, was the 
legitimate heir to the throne, 
but Stephen, taking advantage 
of her absence, obtained posses- 
sion of it. Matilda landed in 
England in 1139 * a 1 *4 2 
Stephen was taken prisoner at 
the battle of Lincoln by the 
earl of Gloucester, and sent to 
Bristol, but was subsequently 
released in exchange for Glou- 
cester — who had been captured 
by the friends of Stephen* — and 
again crowned 1141. Eventu- 
ally peace was concluded by 
which it was agreed that 



STEJ 


2 67 


[SUF 


Matilda’s soix Henry should be 
Stephen’s successor. For several 
years he was in conflict 
with Rome, whereby an inter- 
dict was laid upon the kingdom 
in 1148, and some years later 
failed to obtain the pope’s sanc- 
tion to the crowning of his son 
Eustace. He died in 1 154, and 
was buried in Feversham Abbey, 
which he had founded. 

Becket. 

STEPHEN GARDINER. See 

Gardiner. 

STIGAND. 

Archbishop of Canterbury. 
A Saxon prelate who was 
created bishop of the East 
Angles in 1038 by Edward 
the Confessor. Soon after was 
deprived, but reinstated in 1044. 
Created bishop of Winchester 
in 1047 and in 1052 was trans- 
lated to Canterbury, but al- 
though pope Benedict sent him 
the Pall, his appointment was 
generally looked upon as uncan- 
onicah 

Old uncanonical S ligand — ask of me 
Who had my pallium from an Antipope ! 

On the death of Harold he 
supported Edgar Atheling, but 
eventually submitted and 
crowned William I at West- 
minster. Some years later he 
was deprived and sentenced to 
perpetual imprisonment. He 
died shortly afterwards and was 
buried in Winchester Abbey. 

Harold . 

STOAT. 

An animal of the weasel tribe, 


called the ermine when in its 
winter dress. 

Gareth and Lynette . 

STOCK-DOVE. 

A wild pigeon, so called from 
its breeding in the stocks, or 
trunks, of trees. 

Promise of May. 

STORK. 

A long-necked and long- 
legged wading-bird, allied to 
the heron. 

Talking Oak. 


STRASBURG. 

Cranmer. To Strasburg, Antwerp, Frank- 
fort, Zurich, Worms, 

Geneva, Basle — our Bishops from their sees 
Or fled, they say, or flying — 

The capital of Alsace-Lor- 
raine. 

Queen Mary. 


STRATO. 

A Greek name assumed by 
Synorix. 


The Cup. 


STYLITES. See Simeon, Simeon 


Stylites. 


SUCCORY. 

A plant of the genus Cichor - 
ium 9 having bright blue flowers. 
Corrupted from chicory. 

Promise of May . 

SUFFOLK (Duke of). 

Henry Grey, duke of Suffolk, 
marquis of Dorset, father of 
lady Jane Grey. Supported 
lady Jane Grey’s accession to 
the throne, but relinquishing 
her cause was pardoned by 
Mary ; joined the insurrection 



8 UF] 


268 


[SYC 


against the Spanish marriage and 
was executed for treason, 1554* 
Queen Mary . 

SUFFOLK (Lady). 

Courtenay. — made you follow 

The Lady Suffolk and the Lady Lennox ? — 
You, 

The heir presumptive. 

Oueen Mary. 

SUMNER-CHACE. 

Talking Oak. 

SUMNER-PLACE. 

Talking Oak. 

SUNFLOWER. 

A plant of the genus Heli- 
anthus , so-called from its flower, 
which is a large disc, with yellow 
rays. 

A Spirit Haunts ; In 

Memoriam . 


SUNNEE. See Shiah. 

SUSSEX. 

Harold ; Prologue to General 
Hamley. 

SETTEE. 

Nor in the field without were seen or heard 
Fires of Siittee, nor wail of baby-wife, 

Or Indian widow ; 

A custom prevalent in India 
for about two thousand years, 
by which a widow upon the 
death of her husband burned 
herself on his funeral pyre. 

The Emperor Akbar decreed that every 
widow who showed the least desire not to be 
burnt on her husband’s funeral pyre should be 
let free and unharmed.’ 

Poet's Note. 

The custom was prohibited in 
1829 under lord William Ben- 
tinck’s administration. 

AkbaPs Dream. 


SWALE. 

= A river. 


1 Harold. 


SWALLER. 

= A swallow. 

Promise of May. 

SWALLOW. 

A migratory bird of the family 
Hirundinidae, with long pointed 
wings. 

Dying Szvan ; May Queen ; 
Edzvin Morris; Paris 
Song ; The Brook; The 
Princess; The W in doze ; 
Maud ; Coming of Arthur ; 
Ancient Sage ; The Ring ; 
Progress of Spring ; Oueen 
Mary ; Harold ; Beck ft ; 
The Foresters . 

SWAN. 

A large aquatic fowl of the 
genus CygnuSj having a long 
neck, and noted for its graceful 
movements in the water. 

Dying Szvan ; Palace of 
A rt ; Morte d'A rikur ; 
Tithonus ; Lancelot and 
Elaine ; Holy Grail ; Pass- 
ing of Arthur ; Queen Mary. 

SWEET-GALE. 

A shrub having bitter frag- 
rant leaves that grows in marsh} 1 
places. 

Edzvin Morris. 

SWIFT. 

A bird resembling the 
swallow. 

Coming of Arthur. 


SYCAMORE. 

A large tree, allied to the 
common fig. 

Becket ; Audley Court ; 

In Memoriam, 



SYL] 


269 [TAR 


SYLLA. 

I thought that all the blood by Sylla shed 
Came driving ramlike down again on earth, 

Lucius Cornelius Sulla, a 
Roman of patrician birth and 
leader of the aristocratic party 
in Rome, In 93 b.c. he was 
praetor, and in 92 b.c. governor 
of Cilicia. Marcus having re- 
volted against the Senate, Sulla 
marched to Rome, outlawed 
Marcus and re-established the 
power of the Senate. After 
taking part in several cam- 
paigns in Epirus and at Orcho- 
menus, he won the battle of 
the Colline Gate, outside the 
walls of Rome, and for having 
been proscribed he set himself 
to extirpate his political oppo- 
nents and caused himself to be 
proclaimed Dictator in 81 b.c. ; 
resigned the dictatorship in 79 
B.c., and retired into private 
life (138-79 b.c.) Lucretius. 
SYLVESTER. 

And rail'd at all the Popes, that ever since 
Sylvester shed the venom of world-wealth 
Into the church, had only prov'n themselves 
Poisoners, murderers. 

Sylvester the first, pope of 
Rome from 314-335 a.d. 

Sir John 0 Ideas tie, 
Lord Cobham. 

SYNORIX. 

An ex-Tetrarch of Galatia. 
See Sinnatus. 

SYRIAN GATES. 

A Pass across mount Taurus 
by which Alexander the Great 
entered Cilicia. 

Alexander . 

TAATE. 

= potato. 

Northern Cobbler ; V illage 
Wife. 


TABLE ROUND. See Round Table.. 
TABOO. 

A Polynesian word meaning 
‘ To forbid/ 

The Princess ; Kafiolani . 

TABOR. 

A mountain in Galilee which,, 
according to tradition, was the 
scene of the Transfiguration,, 
but has little evidence in its 
favour. A church — now in 
ruins — built by the Crusaders 
to commemorate the event 
crowns the summit. 

Queen Mary . 

TALBOT. 

A large-eared hound, usually 
white. 

Holy Grail. 

TALIESSIN. 

A celebrated Welsh Poet who 
lived in the sixth century.. 
The village of Taliesin, in Car- 
diganshire, is supposed to be 
built on the site of his grave.. 
Was one of the first poets to 
celebrate the deeds of king- 
Arthur. 

Holy Grail. 

TALLYHO. 

Name of a horse. 

The Brook . 

TAMES A. 

Bloodily flow’d the Tamesa rolling phantom; 
bodies of horses and men; 

The ancient name of the 
river Thames. 

Boddicea. 

TANTIVY. 

Name of a horse. 

The Brook . 

TARANIS. 

Till the face of Bel be brighten’d, Taranis be* 
propitiated. 

A god to whom the ancient 



TAR] 


fTET 


270 


Britons did sacrifice. Equated 
with the Roman Jupiter. 

Bo diice a. 

TARQUIN. 

When, brooking not the Tarquin in her veins, 
She made her blood in sight of Collatine 
And all his peers, 

c The Tarquin 5 here = Sextus, 
the blood of Sextus. 

Lucretius. 

TARQUIN. 

That your own people cast you from their 

bounds, 

For some unprinccly violence to a woman. 
As Rome did Tarquin. 

Tarquin the second, seventh 
king of Rome. He was, to- 
gether with his family, expelled 
about 510 b.c., on account of 
the outrage committed by his 
son Sextus on Lucretia, wife 
of Tarquinius Collatinus. He 
made several attempts to regain 
his throne, but being finally 
defeated fled to Cum as, where 
he died. 

The Cup. 

TEL-OEL-KEBIR. 

The scene of a memorable 
victory by the British forces 
under sir Garnet Wolselcy over 
the Egyptian troops of Arabi 
Pasha, September 13, 1882. 
Prologue to General Harnley. 

TELEMACHUS. 

Son of Ulysses and Penelope. 
He was an infant when his 
father went to the Trojan war, 
and after twenty years’ absence 
Telemachus went to seek him. 
Having visited Pylos and Sparta 
he returned to Ithaca, where his 
mother’s suitors conspired to 
murder him, but under the 


guidance of Pallas Athene he 
discovered his father, and they 
together succeeded in slaying the 
suitors. Upon his father's 
death he married Cassiphone, 
and some time after had the 
misfortune to kill his mother- 
in-law ; he fled to Italy and 
founded Clusium. 

Ulysses. 

TELEMACHUS (Saint). 

An eastern monk, who went 
to Rome a.d. 404 to protest 
against the cruelties of the 
amphitheatre. He sprang into 
the arena, and endeavoured 
to separate the gladiators, but 
was stoned to death by the 
spectators. His act and deatli 
led to the abolition of the 
exhibitions. 

St. Telemachus. 

TEMPLE BAR. 

A famous London gateway. 
Rebuilt after the great fire by 
Wren in 1660-73, it was re- 
moved in 1878-79, and re- 
erected in Theobald’s Park, 
Cheshunt, in 1888. 

Queen Mary. 

TENERIFFE. 

The great flame-banner by Teneriffe, 

Has reference to the Pico-de- 
Teyde, a famous volcanic 
mountain in the island of 
Teneriffe, which was in erup- 
tion when Columbus sailed 
past the island on the night 
of August 23-24, 1492. 

Columbus , 

TETRARCH. 

A governor of the fourth part 



TET] 


271 


of a country under the Roman 
empire. Herod Antipas and 
Philip were called Tetrarchs 
because they ruled the fourth 
part of the former kingdom of 
their father Herod the Great. 
See Matthew xiv. and Luke Hi. 

The Cup . 

TETRARCHY. 

Part of a province under a 
Tetrarch. 

The Cup . 

THAMES. 

Will Waterproofs Lyrical 

Monologue ; Oueen Mary ; 

Harold. 


THANE. 

In Anglo-Saxon times a title 


of a dignitary. 


Harold. 


THEBES. 

An ancient city of Greece. 
The walls of Thebes were 
anciently believed to have 
arisen to the music of fairy 
harps. See Amphion. The 
city was besieged and taken 
by Alexander the Great. The 
walls were broken down, and 
not a single building was left 
standing, except the house of 
Pindar, the Greek poet, whose 
songs Alexander had always 
admired. 

Tire si as. 


THEOBALD. 

Archbishop of Canterbury ; 
of Norman blood. Appointed 
to Canterbury in 1137 and 
joined Matilda against Stephen, 
but on the latter’s release from 
prison submitted and crowned 


[THE 

him at Canterbury ; attended 
the pope’s council at Rheims 
in 1148, although forbidden 
by Stephen ; upon his return 
was deprived and fled to France ; 
returned and became recon- 
ciled to Stephen ; refused to 
crown Stephen’s son Eustace, 
was imprisoned, but escaping 
fled to Flanders ; recalled and 
brought about a peace between 
Matilda and Stephen, and on 
his deathbed recommended to 
Henry II Thomas Becket as 
his successor. 

Becket. 

THEODOLIND. 

Queen of the Lombards, and 
wife, first of king Authari 
(a.d. 589), and then of Agilulf. 

The Daisy. 

THERMOPYLAE. 

= c the hot gates.’ A famous 
pass in Greece, leading from 
Thessaly into Locris and Phocis. 
Celebrated for a battle which 
was fought there b.c. 480, 
between Xerxes and the Greeks; 
also of Greece’s struggles against 
Brennus and the Gauls, b.c. 279. 

Third of February. 

THESSALIAN. 

And I will work in prose and rhyme, 

And praise thee more in both 
Than bard has honour’d beech or lime, 

Or that Thessalian growth. 

Has reference to the oracular 
oaks of Dodona in Epirus. 
Dodona was an ancient Greek 
religious centre with a temple 
dedicated to Zeus, and the 
priests interpreted the will of 
the god by the wind rustling 



THI] 


272 


through the leaves of the oak 
or beech trees. 

Talking Oak. 

THIMBLEBY. 

A notorious character who 
was with Noaks when a keeper 
was shot dead. For the crime 
Noaks was hanged. 

Noaks or Thimbleby — toiiner ’ed shot ’um. as 
dead as a naail. 

Noaks war ’anged for it oop at ’soize — but git 
ma my aale. 

Northern Farmer , Old Style. 

THIRLBY. 

Thomas Thirlby, the only 
bishop of Westminster, and 
successively bishop of Norwich 
and Ely ; as prolocutor to 
Canterbury Convocation he 
signed the decree annulling 
Henry VIIPs marriage with 
Anne of Cleves, 1 540 ; and the 
same year was created bishop of 
Westminster. In 1543 and 
1545 he was ambassador to the 
emperor Charles V of Spain ; 
opposed the Act of Uniformity ; 
appointed to Norwich 1550, 
and in 1554 translated to Ely 
by Mary ; presided at the trial 
of bishop Hooper ; ambassador 
to the pope 1555; assisted at 
the degradation of Cranmer 
in 1556. On the accession of 
Elizabeth he refused to take 
the oath of supremacy, deposed 
1559 9 anc ^ continuing to preach 
against the Reformation was 
imprisoned 1560 (1506-1570). 

Queen Mary. 

THISTLE. 

A genus of prickly plants. 
The national emblem of Scot- 
land. 


[TH0 

Amphion ; Will Water- 
proofs Lyrical Monologue ; 
Ode on the death of the 
Duke of Wellington ; Mar- 
riage of Geraint ; Last 
Tournament ; Guinevere ; 
Spinster’s Sweet- Arts; Rifle - 
■men form ! 

THOMAS. 

THOMAS BECKET. 

Son of Gilbert Becket. He 
was educated at Merton Priory 
and in 1 142 entered the house- 
hold of Theobald, archbishop 
of Canterbury ; promoted the 
cause of Henry II against 
Stephen’s son Eustace ; and 
thus won the favour of that 
king who in 1155 made him 
Lord Chancellor ; supported 
Henry’s campaign in Toulouse 
where he displayed great valour. 
Upon the death of Theobald, 
archbishop of Canterbury, he 
was* appointed to the vacant 
See, and resigned the office of 
Lord Chancellor. Like all 
the Norman kings Henry en- 
deavoured to keep the clergy 
subordinate to the State and 
called upon the bishops to sign 
the c customs.’ Becket re- 
fused, but afterwards upon an 
order from pope Alexander III 
submitted, but refused to seal 
the Constitution of Clarendon 
in 1164. t ^ e sanm year he 
was summoned to a council at 
Northampton, to account for 
various sums of money received 
by him during his capacity as 
Chancellor. He appeared at 



THO] 


273 


[THO 


the Council arrayed in his robes, 
and holding in his hand his 
cross appealed to the pope ; but 
judgment being given against 
him he left the palace, stole 
away by night, and reaching 
Sandwich put off in a little 
boat and reached the Flemish 
coast. During his six years’ 
exile in France .he resided at 
Pontigny Abbey and at Sens, 
while Henry confiscated the 
property of his See. In 1170 
lie had an interview with Henry 
at Freteval, in which the king 
promised to give him the c kiss 
of peace 5 when they met in 
England, and on December 1 
of the same year Becket landed 
at Sandwich and immediately 
excommunicated the archbishop 
of York and the bishops of 
London and Salisbury for having 
crowned Henry’s soil king. 
Fresh quarrels broke out and 
Henry, in a fit of passion, ex- 
claimed 4 of all the cowards 
that cat my bread, is there 
none will rid me of this turbu- 
lent priest ? 9 Four knights — 
Reginald Fitzurse (q.v.), William, 
de Tracy (j.zc), Hugh de Mor- 
ville (q.v.) and Richard de 
Brito (q.v .) overheard these 
hasty words and leaving Nor- 
mandy entered Canterbury 
Cathedral on December 29, 
1170, and demanded from 
Becket the absolution of the 
bishops whom he had excom- 
municated and an acknowledg- 
ment of the king’s supremacy ; 
and upon Becket’s refusal slew 


him before the altar of St. 
Benedict in the North Transept. 
Two years afterwards he was 
canonized, and in 1220 his 
bones were exhumed from the 
nave in the crypt and enshrined 
in a chapel in the cathedral, 
where they were for three 
centuries a favourite object 
of pilgrimage. 

Queen Mary ; Becket. 

THOMAS GRESHAM. 

Sir Thomas Gresham, son 
of sir Richard Gresham and 
founder of the Royal Exchange 
and the Gresham College. 

Queen Mary. 

THOMAS HOWARD. 

Lord Thomas Howard, first 
earl of Suffolk ; distinguished 
himself against the Spanish 
Armada in 1588 and com- 
manded the squadron which 
was attacked by the Spanish 
Fleet off the Azores in 1591 ; 
created earl of Suffolk in 1603 
by James I ; lord high treasurer 
in 1614, and in 1618 was fined 
and imprisoned for embezzle- 
ment. 

The Revenge . 

THOMAS OF CANTERBURY. 
See Thomas, Thomas Becket. 

THOMAS STAFFORD. 

Son of lord Stafford and a 
relative of cardinal Pole ; op- 
posed the Spanish marriage 
and was compelled to seek 
refuge in France. During the 
Wyatt insurrection sailed from 
Dieppe with two ships manned 
T 



THO] 


[THO 


274 


by thirty Englishmen, and 
landing in Yorkshire surprised 
and captured Scarborough 
Castle, but three days after- 
wards it was retaken by the 
earl of Westmorland, and 
Stafford and all his followers 
were executed. 

Sir Thomas Stafford, a bull- headed ass, 
Sailing from France, with thirty Englishmen, 
Hath taken Scarboro’ Castle, north of York. 

Queen Mary. 

THOMAS WHITE. 

Sir Thomas White, founder 
of St. John’s College, Oxford, 
born at Reading. Became a 
London merchant and a mem- 
ber of the Merchant Taylors 5 
Company. In 1544 he was 
elected an Alderman for Corn- 
hill, but refusing to serve was 
committed to Newgate. In 
1547 he was appointed Sheriff 
and some years later (1554) 
was elected Lord Mayor of 
London. He sat on the Com- 
mission for the trial of lady 
Jane Grey, received the Spanish 
envoys and restored the custom 
of going in procession to St. 
Paul’s Cathedral to attend high 
mass. Upon the outbreak of 
the Wyatt rebellion Mary ap- 
pealed to the loyalty of the 
citizens of London, who in 
response undertook to raise a 
force of 1,000 men for its 
defence. These precautions 
taken by the Mayor and Council 
prevented Wyatt from entering 
the city, the rebels being re- 
pulsed from Southwark Bridge 
by White, who arrested the 
marquis of Northampton, and 


presided over the Commission 
at the trial of Wyatt and his 
adherents. In 1544 an attempt 
was made to assassinate him 
whilst attending St. Paul’s, 
caused by his issuing a pro- 
clamation that the citizens of 
London should follow the 
Roman Catholic religion. In 
the following year he obtained 
the royal licence to found St. 
John’s College, Oxford, and 
subsequently went to reside in 
that city. He died in February 
1567 and was buried in the 
College Chapel (1492--1567). 

Queen Mary. 

THOMAS WYATT. 

Sir Thomas Wyatt, the 
younger son of sir Thomas 
Wyatt the elder. When a boy 
he accompanied his father to 
Spain, where the elder sir 
Thomas was threatened by the 
inquisition. 

I know Spain. I have been there with my 
father ; I have seen them in their own land ; 
have marked the haughtiness of their nobles ; 
the cruelty of their priests. 

On the death of his father 
in 1542 he succeeded to the 
title and estates, and in the 
following year was arrested 
with the earl of Surrey and 
others for having eaten meat 
during Lent, and committed 
to the Tower, where he re- 
mained for about a month. 
When the announcement of the 
marriage of Mary with Philip 
was made, Wyatt regarded it 
as a national danger, and re- 
ceiving an invitation from 
Courtenay, earl of Devon, to 
join in an insurrection for the 



THO] 


275 


[THU 


purpose of preventing it, under- 
took to raise the county of 
Kent. Making Rochester his 
headquarters he marched to 
Blackheath at the head of four 
thousand men. Being pro- 
claimed a traitor some two 
thousand men were enrolled 
for the protection of the city 
of London, bridges over the 
Thames were either strongly 
guarded or broken down and 
a reward set upon his head. 

Wyatt (reads). * Whosoever will appre- 
hend the traitor Thomas Wyatt shall have a 
hundred pounds for reward.’ 

On February 3, 1554, he 
entered Southwark, but many 
of his followers deserting him 
was compelled to evacuate it, 
marched to Kingston where 
he arrived on February 6, 
thence through Kensington and 
reached Ludgate on the morn- 
ing of February 8. Finding 
the gate shut against him he 
retreated to Temple Bar, and 
finding his cause was lost 
surrendered. He was taken to 
the Tower, tried for high 
treason, condemned and be- 
headed on Tower Hill, April 
II, 1554. On the following 
day his head (which was stolen 
some days later), was hanged 
to a gallows near Hyde Park, 
and his limbs were distributed 
among gibbets in various parts 
of the city of London (1521- 

* 554 )- 

Queen Mary. 

THOR. 

The Norse god of thunder. 

The Victim ; Harold . 


THOULOUSE. See Toulouse. 

THREE HUNDRED. 

The c Three Hundred 5 were 
two squadrons of the Scots 
Greys and the 2nd squadron of 
Inniskillings known as the 
Heavy Brigade who made the 
famous charge at Balaclava. 

Glory to each and to all, and the charge that 
they made ! 

Glory to all the three hundred, and all the 
Brigade. 

Charge of the Heavy Brigade 
at Balaclava. 

THROSTLE. 

= The song-thrush, or mavis. 
To the Queen; Clarihel ; 
Sir Launcelot and Queen 
Guinevere; The Window; 
Early Spring; The Fores- 
ters. 

THRUSH. 

A bird of the family 
Tur didoe . It is noted for the 
sweetness of its song. 

In Memoriam . 

THURKILL. 

A rich landowner of Kingston 
in Berkshire, killed at the battle 
of Senlac. 

Harold . 

THURNABY HOALMS. 

But godamoighty a moost taake mea an’ 
taake ma now 

Wi’ aaf the cows to cauve an’ Thumaby hoalms 
to plow ! 

Northern Farmer , Old Style . 

THURNABY WAlSTE. 

I weant saay men be loiars, thaw summun 
said it in ’aaste: 



THU] 

But ’e reads worm sarmin a weeak, an’ I ’a 
stubb’d Thumaby waaste. 

Northern Farmer, Old Style. 

THUESBY THURN. 

I could fettle and clump owd booots and shoes 
wi’ the best on ’em all, 

As fer as fro’ Thursby thurn hup to Harmsby 
and Hutterby Hall. 

Northern Cobbler. 

TIB. 

A country wife. 

Queen Mary. 

TIGER. 

A fierce quadruped of the 
feline kind, native of southern 
Asia and East Indies. 

Palace of Art ; In Me - 
moriam ; Defence of Luck - 
now ; Demeter and Per- 
sephone ; AkbaPs Dream ; 
Making of Man ; Harold . 

TIGER-CAT. 

= A wild-cat. 

I he Princess. 

TIGER-LILY. 

= A species of lily with spotted 
flowers. 

A Spirit Haunts , etc . 

TIGRESS. 

= The female of the tiger. 
I he Princess ; Queen Mary . 

TIGRIS. 

A river in Asia, which rises 
in the mountains of Kurdistan, 
and flows into the Persian gulf. 
On its banks are the ruins of 
Nineveh. 

Recollections of the Arabian 
Nights . 

TIMOUR-MAMMON. 

And Timour-Mammon grins on a pile of chil- 
dren’s bones, 

Timour represents the spirit 


[TIM 

of avarice ( see Timur), and 
Mammon is the Syrian god of 
wealth. 

Maud. 

TIMUR. 

Timur built his ghastly tower of eighty thou- 
sand human skulls, 

Refers to Timurbeg, the cele- 
brated Tartar conqueror. He 
was a typical Asiatic despot, 
and inspiring a lust for con- 
quest built up a mighty empire. 
Whilst engaged in an expedi- 
tion in India, Bagdad revolted, 
and hastening back he gave the 
city up to pillage and put to 
death 80,000 persons. Re- 
solved to make the conquest of 
China he set out at the head 
of a large army, but died on 
the march (1336-1405). 

Locksley Hall Sixty Tears 
After „ 

TINTAGIL. 

A strong castle on the coast 
of Cornwall. It stands upon 
the summit of a headland and 
is reached by a steep path 
through a rugged valley. In 
Domesday Book it was entered 
as Dunchine, or Chain Castle. 
It was at the foot of the rock 
upon which the castle stands 
that Merlin found a naked 
babe upon the sands : 

For there was no man knew from whence he 
came ; 

But after tempest, when the long wave broke 
All down the thundering shores of Bude and 
Bos, 

Then came a day as still as heaven, and then 
They found a naked child upon the sands 
Of dark Tintagil by the Cornish sea ; < 

And that was Arthur ; and they foster’djhim 
Till he by miracle was approven King : 

Close by is an immense 


27 6 



HR] 


2 77 


[TOS 


cavern locally known as Merlin’s 
cave. 

Coming of Arthur ; 'Merlin 
and Vivien; Last \ Tourna- 
ment ; Guinevere . 

TIRRA LIRRA. 

* Tirra lirra,’ by the river 
San# Sir Lancelot. 

An imitation of a musical 
sound as of the note of a lark. 

The lark, that tirra-lyra chants. 

With heigh ! with heigh ! the thrush and the 
jay, 

Shakespeare: Winter's Talc, Act vi. Scene 

ttt 

Lady of Shalott. 

TITANIA. 

Queen of the Fairies. 

The Foresters . 

TITIAN. 

An Italian painter (1477- 
iS7 6 )- 

Romney's Remorse. 

TITIANIC FLORA. See Flora. 
TITMOUSE. 

A small bird of the genus 
Pams. 

M and. 

TITYRUS. 

Poet of the happy Tityrus piping underneath 
his beechen bowers ; 

A shepherd ; one of the 
characters in Virgil. 

To Virgil . 

TOFT HALL. 

in Somerset ; the residence 
of Philip Edgar, afterwards 
known as Mr. Harold. 

Promise of May. 

TOM. 

Name of men and cats. 
Spinster's Sweet-Arts. 

TOMMY. 

Name of a boy. 

Northern Cobbler. 


TOMMY. 

Name of lovers and cats. 

Spinster's Sweet- Arts. 

TOMOHRIT. 

Toraohrit, Athos, all things fair, 

With such a pencil, such a pen, 

You shadow forth to distant men, 

I read and felt that I was there : 

A mountain in Albania. 

To E. L. 

TOMYRIS. 

Queen of the Massagetas. 
After her husband’s death she 
marched against Cyrus (q>v)> 
cut his army to pieces and killed 
him on the spot. She then 
ordered the head of the fallen 
king to be cut off, and thrown 
into a vessel full of human 
blood, remarking as she did so 
< There, drink thy fill.’ 

And great bronze valves, emboss’d with 

Tomyris 

And what she did to Cyrus after fight, 

The Princess. 

TONUF. 

= Turnip. 

Village Wife ; Owd Rod ; 

Church-warden and the 

Curate. 

TORRE. 

Brother of Elaine and son 
of sir Bernard, baron of Astolat. 

Lancelot and Elaine. 

TOSTIG. 

Earl of Northumbria, son of 
earl Godwin (q.v.). Was for 
some years an exile at the court 
of Baldwin of Flanders. Upon 
the death of Edward the Con- 
fessor he ravaged the south and 
east coasts, but being driven 
away by Edwin and Morcar 
went to Malcolm, king of Scot- 



TOU] 


[TEA 


278 


land, where he stayed for some 
time. Having invited Harold 
Hardrada Q.^.), king of Nor- 
way, to assist him in conquering 
England, he met the Norway 
king off Northumbria and they 
sailed up the Humber and de- 
feated Edwin and Morcar at 
Fulford Bridge, but was in 
turn defeated by Harold at the 
battle of Stamford-bridge, both 
Tostig and Hardrada being 
among the slain. 

Morcar. May aE invaders perish Eke 
Hardrada I 

AE traitors faE Eke Tostig! 

Harold. 

TOULOUSE. 

I speak after my fancies, for I am a Trouba- 
dour, you know, and won the violet at Tou- 
louse ; 

A city in the south of France. 
Henry II having laid claim to 
the earldom of Toulouse, Becket 
accompanied the English army 
and fought as a knight in arm- 
our, riding at the head of 700 
troops equipped at his own 
expense. 

Becket. 

TOURNAMENT OF THE DEAD 
INNOCENCE. 

But when the morning of a tournament, 

By these in earnest those in mockery call’d 
The Tournament of the Dead Innocence, 

In the early days — -the time 
of Gareth and Geraint — the 
* Tournament of the Dead In- 
nocent 5 could have meant but 
one thing — the memory of the 
dead innocent babe ; but now 
there is another suggestion in 
the title, for the purity of 
the ladies and the knights has 
faded : it is their innocence 
that is dead. 


This Tournament is the last, 
and it is a failure. As the gale 
makes havoc with the emblem 
of the kings after the Quest of 
the Grail is ended, so here the 
c useful trouble of the rain * 
mars the pageant, and makes it 
‘ draggled at the skirt.’ And 
the rules of tournament are 
not enforced. Lancelot pre- 
sides as arbiter, but he too is 
dreaming of dead innocence, 
and takes so languid an interest 
that the laws of chivalry are 
broken before him with im- 
punity. — Littledale : Essays. 

Last Tournament. 

TOWSER. 

Name of a dog. 

Promise of May. 

TRACY (Sir William de). See 
Be Tracy (Sir William). 

TRAFALGAR. 

at Trafalgar yet once more 
We taught him : late he learned humility 
Perforce, like those whom Gideon school’d 

with briers. 

Has reference to the battle of 
Trafalgar. 

Buonaparte. 

TRATH TREROIT. 

And down the waste sand-shores of Trath 

Treroit, 

Where many a heathen fell : 

The scene of king Arthur’s 
tenth victory over the Saxons. 
It is identified with a stream 
near the Solway Firth. 

Lancelot and Elaine. 

TRAVELLER’S-JOY. 

The Clematis Vitalba. , a climb- 
ing plant with white flowers. 

Aylmer* s Field. 



TRE] 

TREE-FERN. 

A fern with a tree-like woody 
stem. To Ulysses. 

TRIE (Sir Engelratn de). See 
Engelram de Erie. 

TRINACRIAN ENNA. 

Tho’ dead in its Trinacrian Enna 
Blossom again on a colder isle. 

Trinacrian = Sicilian. Enna 
(q.v.) was a city in Sicily. 

To Professor Jebb. 

TRINOBANT. 

Hear Icenian, Catieuchlanian, hear Cori- 

tanian, Trinobant ! 

The inhabitants of Trino- 
bantium, an ancient British 
tribe who inhabited the present 
counties of Middlesex and 
Essex. 

Boadicea. 

TRISTRAM. 

Son of sir Meliodas, king of 
Liones, and a Knight of the 
Round Table ; married Isolt, 
daughter of Howell, king of 
Brittany, but the marriage was 
an unhappy one, on account of 
his attachment to Isolt his 
aunt, the wife of king Mark 
(q.v.) of Cornwall. This Isolt 
was the daughter of king Anguish 
of Ireland, and Tristram 
escorted her to England as 
bride for his uncle Mark, and 
on the morning of the marriage 
Isolt and Tristram drank a love- 
potion which kindled in their 
hearts a passion which com- 
pelled them to love each other 
as long as they both lived. 
Tristram was slain by Mark 
while he was dallying with his 
aunt. 


[TRO 

He spoke, he turn’d, then, flinging round her 

neck, 

Clasp t it, and cried ‘ Thine Order, O my 

Queen ! ’ 

But, while he bow’d to kiss the jewell’d throat, 
Out of the dark, just as the lips had touch’d, 
Behind him rose a shadow and a shriek — 

‘ Mark’s way,’ said Mark, and clove him thro’ 

the brain. 

Isolt, seeing her lover dead* 
flung herself upon his corpse 
and died also. The two were 
buried in the one grave by order 
of king Mark, who planted 
over it a rose and vine which 
became so interwoven that it 
was impossible to separate them. 
Gareth and Lynette ; Lan- 
celot and Elaine ; Last 
Tournament ; Guinevere . 

TROAD. 

Name of the region round 
about Troy. 

Death of (Enone. 

TROAS. 

A country in Phrygia in Asia 
Minor of which Troy was the 
capital. 

(Enone. 

TROUBADOUR. 

A class of French poets who 
flourished from the eleventh to 
the thirteenth century. 

Becket. 

TROUT. 

A fresh-water fish of the 
salmon kind. 

Miller's Daughter ; Walk- 
ing to the Mail; The 
Brook ; Church-warden and 
the Curate ; Promise of 
May. 

TROY. 

A city of Troas, celebrated 
as the scene of the legend im- 
mortalized by the Iliad o£ 


279 



TSE] 


280 


[ULF 


Homer of the abduction of 
Helen of Sparta by Paris ( q.v .), 
which led to the T roj an war. It 
was built by the gods Neptune 
and Apollo for Laomedon, 
father of Tithonus, the stones 
of which are said to have been 
placed in their positions to the 
sound of Apollo’s lute. 

0 Caves 

That house the cold crown'd snake ! O 
mountain brooks, 1 
I am the daughter of a River-God, 

Hear me, for I will speak, and build up all 
My sorrow with my song, as yonder walls 
Rose slowly to a music slowly breathed, 

A cloud that gather’d shape : 

(Enone ; Lotos-Eaters ; On 
a Mourner ; Ulysses ; Speci- 
men of a Translation of the 
Iliad in Blank Verse ; 
Death of (Enone . 

TSERNOGORA. 

Great Tsernogora ! never since thine own 
Black ridges drew the cloud and brake the 
storm 

Has breathed a race of mightier mountaineers. 

The Slavonic name for Mon- 
tenegro. 

Montenegro. 

TUCK (Friar), See Friar Tuck. 
TULIP. 

A bulbous plant, with beau- 
tiful bell-shaped flowers of the 
genus Tulip a. 

Gardener's Daughter ; In 
Memoriam ; Voyage of 
Maeldune. 

TUNIS. 

Oueen Mary . 

TURBlA. 

What Roman strength Turbia show’d 
In ruin, by the mountain road ; 

How like a gem, beneath, the city 
Of little Monaco, basking, glow’d. 

A village near Monaco. 

The Daisy . 


TURKISH ISLAM. 

warriors beating back the swarm 
Of Turkish Islam for five hundred years, 

Montenegro . 

TURTLE. 

A gallinaceous bird of the 
genus Columba. 

Progress of Spring. 

TUSCAN POETS 

O bliss, when all in circle drawn 

About him, heart and ear were fed 

To hear him, as he lay and read 
The Tuscan poets on the lawn ; 

Tuscan— the literary dialect 
of Italy : Poets = Dante, 
Petrarch, etc. 

In Memoriam . 

TYNE (river). 

The Foresters . 

TYROL. 

A crownland of Austria. It 
lies between Bavaria and Italy, 
and is noted for the beauty of 
its scenery. 

The Princess. 

ULAMA. 

but our Ulama, 

Who ‘ sitting on green sofas contemplate 
The torment of the damn’d * already, 

A body of learned men among 
the Mohammedans. 

Akhar's Dream. 

ULFIUS. 

King Arthur’s chamberlain, 
and a knight of the Round 
Table. He accompanied Uther 
when he entered the castle of 
Tintagel as the duke of Tin- 
tagel to have access to the duke’s 
wife, Ygerne, the mother of 
king Arthur, He afterwards 
assisted king Arthur in the 
great battle of the kings, and 
was one of the three knights 



ULR] 


281 


[VAL 


sent by Arthur to king Leodo- 
gran to ask for the hand of his 
daughter Guinevere. 

Coming of Arthur . 

ULRIC. 

A leprous Crusader dwelling 
according to the custom of the 
Church and the laws of God 
in a hut on a solitary moor. 
His wife refused to leave him, 
saying she would live and die 
with him. 

The leprosy of the thirteenth 
and fourteenth centuries was 
supposed to be a legacy of the 
Crusades. 

Happy. 

ULYSSES. 

Ulysses, much experienced man, 

Whose eyes have known this globe of ours, 
Her tribes of men, and trees, and flowers, 
From Corrientes to Japan, 

= W. G. Palgrave, author of 
a book of that name. Palgrave 
was a great traveller, like the 
Greek Ulysses. 

T 0 Ulysses. 

UNICORN. 

A fabulous animal men- 
tioned by ancient authors, with 
one horn on the forehead and a 
body like that of a horse. The 
Unicorn is mentioned in the 
Old Testament. 

Canst thou bind the unicorn with his band in 

the furrow ? Job xxxix. 10. 

Holy Grail . 

URANIA. 

In Greek mythology the Muse 
of Astronomy, represented as 
holding a staff with which she 
points to a globe. 

In Memoriam. 


URANIAN. 

This I seal’d : 

The seal was Cupid bent above a scroll, 

And o’er his head Uranian Venus hung, 

And raised the blinding bandage from his 

eyes : 

= Heavenly love. 

The Princess . 

URIEN. 

A king of north Wales. Hus- 
band of Morgan le Fay and 
father of sir Gawain. 

Coming of Arthur. 

USE. 

A river of Monmouthshire. 
Marriage of Geraint ; Ger- 
aint and Enid ; Balin and 
Balan ; Pelleas andEttarre. 

UTHER. 

Pendragon of the Britons ; 
married Igerna or Ygerne, widow 
of Gorlois ; father of king 
Arthur. He succeeded his 
brother Aurelius (<7.1?.), king 
of the Britons, and defeated 
the Saxons under Vortigern 
and Hengist. He then over- 
came Gorlois, duke of Corn- 
wall, and married his widow 
Igerna. Uther commanded 
Merlin to make the Round 
Table and gave it to king Leo- 
dogran who gave it to king 
Arthur as a wedding gift. 
Uther was poisoned by the 
Saxons and buried at Stone- 
henge near his brother. 

Palace of Art ; Coming of 
Arthur ; Gareth and Lyn - 
ette ; Geraint and Enid. 

VALERY. See St. Valery. 

VALHALLA. See Walhalla. 



VAL] 

VALKYRIAN. 


282 


[YEN' 


But great is song 
Used to great ends : ourself have often tried 
Valkyrian hymns, or into rhythm have 

dash’d 

The passion of the prophetess ; 

In Scandinavian mythology 
the warrior nymphs who chose 
the slain in battle for transpor- 
tation to Walhalla (q.v) and 
who handed to the warriors 
their drinking-horns at their 
daily feast with Odin. 

The Princess. 

VAN DIEMEN. 

And show you slips of all that grows 

From England to Van Diemen. 

= the island of Tasmania. 

Amfhion. 

VASHTI. 

Wife of king Ahasuerus of 
Babylon, who was divorced, for 
refusing to obey the king’s 
command. Esther u 

The Princess. 

VAUNTCOURIER. 

A word meaning 4 Fore- 
runner.’ 

Lover's Tale. 

VAVASOUR (MISS). 

A schoolmistress. 

Promise of May. 

VENICE. 

A city and seaport of Italy 
and capital of the province of 
Venice. 

The Ring ; Queen Mary. 

VENUS. 

In Roman mythology the 
goddess of love, the queen of 
laughter, and the mistress of 
the graces and of pleasures, 
daughter of Jupiter and Dione, 
and mother of Cupid. In 


Greek mythology she is identi- 
fied with Aphrodite (q.v). She 
is represented as presiding over 
flower-gardens and vines, and 
is worshipped by gardeners 9 
vine-growers and florists. She 
had a temple built in her honour 
in the Forum by Caesar in 46 
b.c. and in a.d. 135 Hadrian 
erected a double temple in 
her honour the ruins of which 
may still be seen. When Paris 
(q.v.), the shepherd-prince of 
Troy, was appointed arbiter to 
judge which of the three god- 
desses (Juno, Pallas Athene,, 
and Venus) was the most beau- 
tiful, and which should be 
awarded the golden apple, the 
prize of beauty, Venus, on 
appearing before him promised 
him as a bribe the most beauti- 
ful woman in Greece as his wife. 

Idalian Aphrodite beautiful, 

Fresh as the foam, new-bathed in Paphian 
wells, 

With rosy slender fingers backward drew 
From heir warm brows and bosom her deep 
hair 

Ambrosial, golden round her lucid throat 
And shoulder ; from the violets her light foot 
Shone rosy-white, and o’er her rounded form 
Between the shadows of the vine-bunches 
Floated the glowing sunlights, as she moved 
* * * 

She with a subtle smile in her mild eyes, 

The herald of her triumph drawing nigh 
Half-whisper’d in his ear, * I promise thee 
The fairest and most loving wife in Greece/ 
She spoke and laugh’d : I shut my sight for 
fear : 

But when I look’d, Paris had raised his hand 
And I beheld great Herd’s angry eyes, % 

As she withdrew into the golden cloud, 1 
And I was left alone within the bower ; 

And from that time to this I am alone. 
And I shall be alone until I die. 

Paris handed the apple to 
Venus. 

Lucretius ; The Princess ; 

Lover's Tale; Locksley 

Hall Sixty Tears After ; 
The Cup. 



VER] 

VERAGUA. 


283 


my lord, 

I swear to you I heard his voice between 
The thunders in the black Veragua nights, 

A region in the western part 
of the Isthmus of Panama. It 
was named by Columbus, who 
discovered it in 1502, and who 
attempted to found a settle- 
ment there, but was driven off 
by the Indians. 

Columbus. 

VERULAM. 

The title of the barony con- 
ferred on Bacon by Elizabeth 
in 1618. 

Palace of Art ; The Princess. 

VERULAM. 

The Roman name for the 
city of St. Albans. It was 
identical with the fortress of 
Cassivellaunus destroyed by 
Caesar in 54 b.c. and it was 
captured and burnt by Boadicea 
(q.v) in 61 a.d. 

Boadicea. 

VESELAY. 

A French town. 

Bechet. 

VICISTI GALILEE. 

Eve after eve that haggard anchorite 
Would haunt the desolated fane, and there 
Gaze at the ruin, often mutter low 

* Vicisti Galilrec ’ ; louder again, 

Spurning a shatter’d fragment of the God, 

* Vicisti Galilaee ! ’ 

Has reference to Julian, called 
the 1 Apostate/ emperor of 
Rome for eighteen months from 
361-363 a.d. On becoming 
emperor he renounced Christi- 
anity and endeavoured to re- 
store paganism, and is said to 
have persecuted the Christians 
although there is no evidence 


[vm 

to justify it. He was the 
author of several works, one of 
which was in opposition to 
Christianity. In an expedi- 
tion against the Persians he was 
wounded, and as he fell from 
his horse in a fainting condition* 
he exclaimed : c Vicisti Gali- 
laee 5 ( £ Thou hast conquered* 
O Galilean ! ’) He was carried 
to his tent and died the same 
evening, June 26, 363. 

St. Telemachus. 

VICTORIA. 

Victoria, — since your Royal grace 
To one of less desert allows 
This laurel greener from the brows 
Of him that utter’d nothing base ; 

Queen Victoria. 

To the Queen. 

VIENNA. 

My blood an even tenor kept, 

Till on mine ear this me sage falls, 

That in Vienna’s fatal walls 
God’s finger touch’d him, and he slept. 

Capital of the Austrian-Hun- 
garian monarchy, situated on 
the river Danube. 

In Memoriam. 

VILLA GARCIA. 

One of the men who tried to 
induce Cranmer to sign and 
declare the queen’s right to 
the throne, confess his faith 
before all hearers, and retract 
the Eucharistic doctrine. He 
also helped with Soto to take 
Cranmer to St. Mary’s Church* 
and with the choir helped to 
£ strike ’ up the Nunc Dimittus. 

Queen Mary. 

VINE. 

A climbing plant which pro- 
duces the grape, of the genus 
Fitis. 

Queen Mary ; Harold 



[VIV 


ym] 


1 84 


The Cup ; Ode to Memory ; 
Mariana in the South ; 
(Enone ; Lotos - Eaters ; 
Dream of Fair Women ; 
Audley Court; Amphion ; 
Aylmer's Field ; T he Prin- 
cess ; Ode on the death of the 
Duke of Wellington ; Death 
of (Enone; The Daisy; 
The Islet; The Window; 
Romney's Remorse ; In 
Memoriam ; Lancelot and 
Elaine ; Voyage of Mael- 
dune ; Demeter and Per- 
sephone ; To E. Fitzgerald ; 
Tiresias. 

VINE-AN’-THE-HOP. 

An inn sign. 

Promise of May. 

VIOLET. 

One of the staff of the College 
for women, founded by the 
princess Ida. 

The Princess . 

VIOLET. 

An herbaceous plant and 
flower of the genus Viola , of 
many species. 

Adeline; (Enone; May 
Queen ; Dream of Fair 
Women; Will Water- 
proof's Lyrical Monologue ; 
Sir Launcelot and Queen 
Guinevere ; Aylmer's Field ; 
The Princess ; To Rev. F. 
D . Maurice ; In Memoriam ; 
Maud; Lover's Tale; 
Progress of Spring ; Becket; 
The Falcon ; Promise of 
May. 


VIPER. 

A European serpent whose 
bite is venomous. 

The Princess ; Merlin and 
V ivien. 

VIRGIL. 

= The Latin poet. 

T 0 Virgil ; Poets and their 
Bibliographies ; Queen 
Mary. 

VITUS (Saint). 

A Roman saint martyred 
under Diocletian, and the patron 
of dances. * 

The Foresters. 

VIVIAN (Sir Walter). 

Sir Walter Vivian — a gentle- 
man supposed to be living at 
Maidstone Park, when in 1844 
a festival of the Mechanics’ In- 
stitution was being held there, 
sir Walter himself being patron 
of the Institution. His house 
was adorned with articles col- 
lected from all quarters of the 
globe and all eras of history. 

The Princess . 

VI VI AN -PL ACE . 

The home of sir Walter 
Vivian. 

The Princess. 

VIVIEN. 

A wanton at the court of 
king Arthur, who hated all the 
knights. She was an orphan, 
her father having been killed 
in battle, and her mother had 
died upon his corpse on the 
battlefield. She went to queen 
Guinevere to ask protection and 
the queen took her as one of 



VOL] 


[WAX* 


285 


her maids, where she tried 
without success to seduce the 
blameless king. With Merlin 
(q.v.) she had better success, 
for under pretence of great 
devotion, she followed him to 
the wild woods of Broceliande 
in Brittany. 

A storm was coming, but the winds were still. 
And in the wild woods of Broceliande, 
Before an oak, so hollow, huge and old 
It look’d a tower of ivied masonwork 
At Merlin’s feet the wily Vivien lay. 

Being pestered with her he 
confided to her the secret of his 
magic power, whereupon she 
confined him in a hollow tower 
from which there was no 
escape. 

And then she follow’d Merlin all the way, 

ICv’n to the wild woods of Broceliande. 

For Merim once had told her of a charm, 
The which if any wrought on any one 
With woven paces and with waving arms, 
The man so wrought on over seem’d to lie 
Closed in the four walls of a hollow tower , 
From which was no escape for evermore ; 

Sal in and Balan ; Merlin 
and Vivien ; Guinevere. 

VOLTIGEUR. 

Name of a horse. 

Promise of May . 

VULCAN. 

In Italian mythology the 
god of fire, and of the art of 
forging, identified with the 
Greek Hephaestus. A temple 
was built in his honour at Rome, 
and he is supposed to have had 
a forge under mount Etna where 
he manufactured thunderbolts. 

The Princess. 

VULTURE. 

A rapacious bird of prey of 
the genus Vultur , feeding largely 
on carrion. 

You might have won ; The 
Princess . 


WALES. 

Golden Year; Coming of 
Arthur ; Sir John Old- 
castle , Lord Cohham 
Harold. 

WALHALLA. 

In Scandinavian mythology 
the Hall of the Slain ; the name 
of the residence for brave 
warriors slain in battle where 
they were conveyed by the war- 
rior nymphs, the Valkyries 

Harold . 

WALNUT. 

A tree and its fruit of the 
genus Jugians . 

Miller’ 3 s Daughter ; The Cup.. 

WALTER. 

Married Miriam Erne, cousin 
of Muriel Erne. Before they 
were married Walter gave 
Miriam a ring supposed to be 
possessed with magic power. 

then I bad the man engrave- 
‘ From Walter * on the ring, and send it. 

The Ring. 

WALTER. 

The lover of Olivia, and to 
whom the oak-tree supposed to* 
be gifted with speech gave an 
account of the doings of Olivia 
during his absence. In return 
for the information given he 
vowed that Olivia should wear 
on her wedding day a wreath 
of alternate leaf and acorn ball.. 

Talking Oak. 

WALTER. 

WALTER LEA. 

Son of sir Richard Lea, and 
brother of Maid Marian. 

The Foresters . 



WAL] 


286 


[WAR 


WALTER. 

WALTER VIVIAN. See Vivian. 
WALTER MAP. 

A twelfth century writer, 
probably bom in Herefordshire. 
Was an intimate friend of arch- 
bishop Becket. After studying 
at the University of Paris, 
entered the service of Henry 
II, and acted as chaplain to the 
king during the wars brought 
about by the rebellion of 
Henry’s sons. Represented 
Henry at the court of Louis 
VII and attended the council 
at the Lateran at Rome in 1179. 

For some time was parson 
at Westbury, where he came 
in conflict with the monks of 
the neighbouring Cistercian 
monastery. Canon of St. 
Paul’s and Chancellor of Lin- 
coln, and in 1197 was appointed 
archdeacon of Oxford. He was 
the author of Latin Satirical 
Poems against the priesthood. 

Becket. 

WALTHAM. 

the Holy Rood 

That bow’d to me at Waltham — 

Waltham Holy Cross was 
founded by Tovi, standard- 
bearer to king Canute, and 
finished by king Harold in 1060. 
Gasquet in his Greater Abbeys 
■of England says : 

The first foundation at Waltham, and in- 
deed the adoption of the name of * Holy 
Cross ’ as the dedication, was brought about, 
according to legend, in a mysterious manner. 
In the reign of king Canute a pious smith, so 
runs the story, received a supernatural intima- 
tion that he would find a crucifix buried on 
the hill at Montacute, in Somerset. The 
parish priest was consulted and thought the 
matter should be examined into at once. At 
the head of a procession, praying and singing 
the Litanies, this priest accompanied the 
■smith to the spot which had been pointed 


out to him in his dream and which, when on 
the ground, he fully recognized. Here, after 
much digging, the searchers came upon a 
wonderful crucifix carved in black marble. 
The discovery naturally made a great im- 
pression at the time , and indeed, the fact 
suggested the war cry of the English at the 
battle of Senlac : ‘ Holy Cross, out, out ! ’ 
The lord of the manor of Montacute at the 
time of the discovery was named Tovi, a 
well-known soldier who was standard-bearer to 
king Canute. By his direction the crucifix 
was placed on an ornamented car, to which 
were harnessed twelve red oxen and twelve 
white cows, and the ultimate destination was 
left to their instincts, guided, of course, by 
Providence. The spot at which they ulti- 
mately stopped, and which was thus pointed 
out by fate as the place where the cross was 
to remain, was Waltham. . . . Here Tovi, 
with the king’s help, established two priests 
to act as guardians of the crucifix thus so 
strangely fjund at Montacute and provi- 
dentially brought to Waltham. From the 
first this cross was believed to possess miracu- 
lous powers, and amongst other favours 
thought to have been obtained at its shrine 
was the cure of Harold, son of earl Godwin, 
from the palsy. 

On his way to the battle of 
Senlac Harold came to Wal- 
tham to pay a visit to the shrine 
and offer up his devotions at the 
great Cross. His body, found 
on the field of battle, was by 
William ordered to be buried 
there, but at the request of his 
mother was transferred to Wal- 
tham and buried in the Abbey. 

Harold . 


WALWORTH. 

Queen Mary . 

WANSTEAD. 

A town in Essex. 

Queen Mary . 

WARD. 

Farewell, whose living like I shall not find. 
Whose Faith and Work were bells of full 
accord, 

My friend, the most unworldly of mankind. 
Most generous of all Ultramontanes, Ward, 

William George Ward, to 
whom the poem is dedicated. 
A zealous advocate of the Trac- 
tarian movement, he carried it 
out in principle by joining in 



WAR] 


[WHA 


1845 the Roman Catholic 
Church (1812-1882). 

In Memoriam , William 
George Ward. 

WAR-HAWK. 

Battle of Brunanburh. 

WASP. 

A hymenopterous insect of 
the genus Vespa whose sting 
is very painful. 

The Princess. 

WATERFLAG. 

Reeds, with long leaves, that 
wave like flags in the wind. 

Morte d’ Arthur ; Passing of 
Arthur. 

WATERFOWL. 

A bird that frequents the 
water. 

Merlin and Vivien. 

WATER-GATE. 

Storm at the Water-gate ! storm at the Bailey- 

gate! storm, 

Defence of Luchiozv. 

WATER-GNAT. 

An insect whose early stages 
are passed in ponds, ditches, 
and shallow pools. 

Leonine Elegiacs. 

WATER-LILY. 

A plant of the genus Nymph - 
tea, with large floating leaves 
and beautiful flowers. 

Lady of Shalott ; The 
Princess. 

WATERLOO. 

= Battle of Waterloo. 

Will Waterproofs Lyrical 
Monologue ; Ode on the 
Death of the Duke of Wel- 
lington ; Sisters (Evelyn and 
Edith). 


287 

WAYFARING-TREE. 

A European shrub having 
large ovate leaves and small 
white flowers. 

Sir John Oldcastle , 
Lord Cohham . 


WEASEL. 

A small quadruped of the 
genus Must el a which feeds on 
birds and mice. 

Aylmer* s Field ; The Prin- 
cess ; Gareth and Lynette ; 
Promise of May. 


WEEDY SEAS. 

= the Sargasso Sea, where 
masses of seaweed accumulate. 

Columbus. 


WELLS (Dean of). 

Queen Mary. 


WESSEX. 

The kingdom of the West 
Saxons. 


Harold. 


WESTMINSTER (City of). 

Harold ; Becket. 

WESTMINSTER (Bishop of). See 
Thirlby. 

WEST-S AXON-LAND. 

Also the brethren. 

King and Atheling, 

Each in his glory. 

Went to his own in his own West-Saxon-land, 
Glad of the war. 

Battle of Brunanburh. 


WHALE. 

A mammal of the order 
Cetacea , hunted chiefly for 
its oil and whalebone. 

Harold. 

WHARTON (Lady Anne). See 
Anne, Anne Wharton. 



WHI] 


288 


[WIC 


WHITE (Sir Thomas). See 
Thomas White. 

WHITE HORSE. 

and as now 

Hen weed the white horse on the Berkshire 

hills 

To keep him bright and clean as heretofore, 

See Berkshire. 

Geraint and Enid. 

WHITE ROSE. 

Name of a horse. 

The Brook. 

WHITETHORN. 

= the hawthorn. 

Queen Mary. 

WICKENTREE. 

= the mountain-ash or rowan- 
tree. 

The Foresters , 

WICLIF. 

John Wiclif, the * morning 
star of the Reformation. 5 In 
1361 appointed Master of 
Ballioi College and four years 
afterwards was made Warden 
of Canterbury hall by arch- 
bishop Islip, but deprived by 
Islip’s successor Stephen Lang- 
ton at the instigation of the 
monks, who were angry with 
him for exposing their corrupt 
lives. In 1374 ^- e was P re " 
ferred by the crown to the 
rectory of Lutterworth, and for 
openly preaching against the 
corruption of the Roman Church 
pope Gregory XI issued several 
bulls charging him with heresy 
and he was summoned to appear 
at St. Paul’s by the bishop of 
London, where he made such 
an able defence of himself that 
the council broke up without 


coming to a decision. The 
pope, however, issued a series 
of bulls to the bishops bidding- 
them to arrest and imprison 
Wiclif, with a consequence that 
he was ordered to appear be- 
fore a synod in the arch- 
bishop’s palace at Lambeth,, 
which synod was prohibited by 
an order from the king’s mother. 
At this time the Roman Church 
was shaken by the election of 
a second pope, and Wiclif,, 
taking advantage, struck at the 
constitution of the Roman 
Church and denounced in 
vigorous language its corrupt- 
ness. He translated the Bible ; 
organized a body of poor priests 
who went through the country 
preaching and spreading his- 
doctrines. In 1380 he declared 
against the doctrine of transub- 
stantiation, but his theses were 
condemned by a convocation at 
Oxford, who forbade him to 
teach them in the university. 
Two years later archbishop 
Courtenay condemned his 
opinions and his followers were 
arrested and compelled to re- 
cant. Wiclif withdrew to Lut- 
terworth, where in spite of a 
stroke of paralysis he con- 
tinued his literary activity. 
He died on December 31, 1384, 
and in 1428 his bones were dug 
up and burned, and his ashes 
thrown into the river Swift,, 
close by the town where he had 
laboured so long (1320-1384). 

Sir John Old castle* 
Lord Golham. 



WIL] 

WILD-SWAN. 

A large bird, measuring five 
feet in length and eight across 
its expanded wings. These 
birds fly in a wedgelike figure, 
following the course set them 
by their c leader.’ 

The leader wild-swan in among the stars 
Would clang it, 

Poet's Song; The Princess. 

WILDWEED-FLOWER. 

Day-Dream . . 

WILD WILL. 

Name of a horse. 

The Brook. 

WILLED. 

= the willow. 

Promise of May. 

WILLIAM. 

With farmer Allan at the farm abode 
William and Dora. 

Son of farmer Allan. 

Dora. 

WILLIAM. 

WILLIAM HOWARD. 

Eldest son of Thomas How- 
ard, second duke of Norfolk ; 
governor of Calais 1 5 5 2 ~5 3 ; 
and lord high admiral 1554-73 ; 
was created a peer for his 
defence of London against 
sir Thomas Wyatt in 1554. 

Queen Mary. 

WILLIAM THE FIRST. 

WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR. 

King of England, son of 
Robert I, duke of Normandy, 
whom he succeeded in 1035. 
In 1051 he visited the English 
Court, and received from Ed- 
ward the Confessor a promise 
that he should succeed him as 


[WIL 

king, and in 1064, during earl 
Harold’s visit to the French 
Court he made him swear to 
help him to gain the English 
crown. On the death of Ed- 
ward the Confessor Harold 
was proclaimed king, and in 
September 1066 William in- 
vaded England, and in the 
following month of the same 
year defeated Harold at the 
battle of Senlac, marched to 
London and was crowned in 
W estminster Abbey on Decern ber 
25, 1066. He ruled with great 
tyranny, in consequence of 
which several insurrections took 
place, which were not quelled 
until William had devastated 
various parts of the country 
with fire and sword. He in- 
stituted the curfew and made 
a survey of all the lands in the 
kingdom known as the Domes- 
day Book. In 1070 an insurrec- 
tion broke out in the Isle of 
Ely under the leadership of 
Hereward the Wake. Eight 
years later he built the Tower 
of London, and having entered 
upon a war with Philip of 
France, he attacked and burned 
in 1087 the city of Mantes. 
As he rode through the burning 
town his horse stumbled, and 
he received an injury from 
which he died on September 9- 
of the same year. He was; 
buried at Caen. 

Queen Mary ; Becket ; 

Harold . 

WILLIAM OF ORANGE. 

A member of the noble house 


289 



WIL] 


[WIL 


290 


of Nassau, who inherited from 
his cousin the principality of 
Orange. Owing to the perse- 
cution of Protestants in the 
Netherlands took up arms in 
defence of his country’s freedom 
against the tyranny of Philip 
of Spain, and did not rest 
until he had freed it from the 
Spanish yoke. In 1580 Philip 
issued a ban against him, and 
set a price of 25,000 gold 
crowns upon his head, and on 
July 10 he was assassinated in 
his house at Delft by Balthazar 
Gerard (1533-1584). 

Queen Mary . 

WILLIAMS (Lord, of Thame). 

Whereat Lord Williams gave a sudden cry : 

‘ Make short ! make short ! * and so they lit 

the wood. 

Son of sir John Williams . On 
the death of Edward VI he 
became a supporter of Mary’s 
cause, proclaimed her at Ox- 
ford, and raised some six thou- 
sand men in Northamptonshire 
to support her cause. He had 
the custody of the princess 
Elizabeth at Woodstock, until 
she was transferred to the 
keeping of sir Henry Beding- 
field. As Sheriff of Oxford- 
shire he conveyed Cranmer, 
Latimer and Ridley to Oxford 
to await their trial, and was 
present at their execution. On 
account of the kindness he had 
shown to Elizabeth during the 
time she was in his custody, 
he was on her accession ap- 
pointed to attend her to Lon- 
don in 1558, and soon after- 
wards was appointed Lord 


President of Wales. He died 
in 1559, at Ludlow Castle, and 
was buried in the parish church 
at Thame. 

Queen Mary . 

WILLIAM THE SILENT. See 
William of Orange. 

WILLOW. 

A tree or shrub of the genus 
SaltXy including many species. 
Dying Swan ; Lady of 
Shalott ; Mariana in the 
South ; Walking to the 
Mail ; Amphion ; In Me- 
moriam ; Merlin and the 
Gleam . 

WILLOW-HERB. 

A perennial herb with narrow 
willowlike leaves and rose- 
purple flowers. 

Promise of May . 

WILLOWS (James). See James 
Willows. 

WILLOW-WEED. 

A plant which grows on 
marshy or moist soils. 

Lhe Brook. 

WILLY. 

An old grandmother of re- 
ligious frame of mind, as her 
memory travels back, felt that 
the spirits of her dead sons, of 
whom Willy was one, were 
about her in the kitchen, and 
lost all sense of time and loss, 
in looking forward towards her 
own end with restful expecta- 
tion. Willy was her eldest 
born, and the flower of her 
flock, and the news of his death 



WIL] 


291 


[WOL 


had been brought to her by a 
little girl named Annie, to 
whom in reply, she said : — . 

I ought to have gone before him : I wonder 
he went so young, 

I cannot cry for him, Annie ; I have not long 
to stay ; 

She could not weep for Willy, 
but looked forward to a happy 
reunion with her husband and 
all her children, as she said : 

I, too, shall go in a minute. 

Grandmother . 


WILLY. 

Son of the speaker in the 
poem . The woman when on her 
deathbed related to another 
woman, the story of her son’s 
crime. She blamed others for 
his sin : 

But he lived with a lot of wild mates, and 
they never would let him be good ; 

He robbed the mail as an 
act of daring, and was hanged 
in chains. His mother stole 
his bones from the prison-yard 
and buried them in the night 
by the churchyard wall. She 
contrasts the actions of the 
lawyer with that of the Saviour. 

For the lawyer is born but to murder — the 
Saviour lives but to bless. 

Rizpah . 


WILSON. 

A schoolmaster. 

Promise of May. 

WINCHESTER (Bishop of). 

Queen Mary . 

WINCHESTER (Henry of). See 
Henry of Winchester. 

WIND-HOVER. 

= the Kestrel, a bird of the 
hawk kind, so called from its 


hovering in the wind over one 
spot without fluttering its 
wings. 

Aylmer 9 s Field . 

WINDSOR. 

Queen Mary . 

WINNIE. 

Minnie and Winnie 
Slept in a shell. 

Sleep, little ladies 1 
And they slept well. 

Minnie and Winnie . 

WIT AN. 

= Witenagemot : the Na- 
tional Council of England in 
Anglo-Saxon times. 

Harold. 

WITCH-ELM. 

The drooping broad-leaved 
elm of Scotland. 

In Memoriam. 

WODEN. See Odin. 

WOLF. 

An animal of the genus 
Canis, allied to the dog. 

Aylmer 9 s Field ; T he Prin- 
cess ; Boadicea ; Maud ; 
Coming of Arthur ; Ger- 
aint and Enid; Balin and 
Balan ; Merlin and Vivien; 
Pelleas and Ettarre ; 
Northern Cobbler ; Sir John 
Oldcastle , Lord Cohham ; 
Battle of Brunanburh ; For- 
lorn ; Queen Mary ; Harold ; 
Bechet; j JThe Cup; The 
Foresters . 

WOLSELEY. 

Field-Marshal viscount Wolse- 
ley, eldest son of Major Garnet 
Joseph Wolseley. He served 



WOO] 


292 


[WOR 


in the Burmese War, the 
Crimea, the Indian Mutiny — 
being present at the relief of 
Lucknow — in the Chinese war, 
and afterwards in Canada, and 
in 1873 was appointed in com- 
mand of the punitive expedition 
to the Gold Coast against the 
Ashantis. On the outbreak of 
the rebellion in Egypt in 1882 
he was appointed in command of 
the expedition, and after fight- 
ing several engagements with 
the enemy, advanced to Tel-el- 
Kebir, where on September 13, 
1882, he completely routed the 
rebels under Arabi Pasha (q*v). 

You saw the league-long rampart-fire 
Flare from Tel-el-Kebir 
Thro’ darkness, and the foe was driven. 
And Wolseley overthrew 
Arabi, and the stars in heaven 
Paled, and the glory grew. 

Ten years later he proceeded 
again to Egypt in command 
of an expedition for the relief 
of general Gordon at Khartoum, 
but arrived too late to effect its 
object. He died on March 25, 
1913 (1833-1913). 

Prologue to General Hamley . 

WOODBINE. 

= a climbing plant ; the 
honeysuckle. 

Promise of May ; A Dirge ; 
My life is full ; Talking 
Oak ; Day-Dream ; In Me - 
moriam ; Spinster's Sweet- 
Arts ; Promise of May. 

WOODCOCK. 

A bird belonging to the 
genera Scolopax and Philohela , 
allied to the snipe. 

Balin and Balan . 


WOOD-DEVIL. 

Balin and Balan. 

WOOD-DOVE. 

= the wild dove. 

Balin and Balan. 

WOOD-LOUSE. 

= a terrestrial isopod of the 
family Oniscidce. 

The Window. 

WOODPECKER. 

A bird of the order Pic aria , 
with a strong chisel-like bill, 
with which it is able to drill 
holes in the bark and wood 
of trees. 

Kate ; The Princess ; Pro- 
gress of Spring. 

WOODSTOCK. 

Was a royal residence when 
the Domesday Survey was 
made. It was the scene of 
Henry IPs courtship of Rosa- 
mond de Clifford. Queen 
Elizabeth was a prisoner here 
from May 1554 to May 1555, 
and after her accession to the 
throne visited it in 1556 and 
again in 1575. After the battle 
of Blenheim the manor of 
Woodstock was bestowed in 
perpetuity on John duke of 
Marlborough. 

Queen Mary. 

WORKS AND DAYS. 

Landscape-lover, lord of language more than 

he that sang the Works and Days, 

The name of a poem by 
Hesiod, the Greek poet, the 
earliest didactic poem known 
to us in Greek. 

To Virgil. 

WORMS. 

A city and capital of the 



WRE] 


2 93 


[YNI 


province of Rhine-Hesse, on the 
river Rhine. 

Queen Mary . 

WREN. 

A species of small bird be- 
longing to the genus Troglodytes. 
Golden Tear; The Win- 
dow ; Marriage of Geraint. 

WRIGGLESBY BECK. 

Northern Farmer , New Style. 

WRIT, HOLY. See Holy Writ. 
WULFNOTH. 

Son of Godwin, and brother 
of king Harold. 

Harold. 

WYATT (Sir Thomas). See 
Thomas Wyatt. 

WYCLIFFE (John). See Wiclif. 
WYE. 

A river in south Wales. 

In Memoriam. 

WYVERN. 

An heraldic device in shape of 
a dragon with expanded wings. 
Aylmer’s Field ; Holy Grail. 

XANTHUS. 

A river of Troas. 

Specimen of a Tratislation 
of the Iliad in Blank Verse . 

YABBOK BROOK. 

Clear-headed Friend . 

YAFFINGALE. 

= the green woodpecker, 
noted for its loud laughing note. 

And hear the garnet-headed yaffingale 
Mock them : 

Last Tournament . 


YEW. 

YEW-TREE. 

An evergreeen tree of the 
genus Taxus , allied to the pine. 
Love and Death ; Two 
Voices; Amphion ; The 
Letters ; Enoch Arden ; The 
Princess ; In Memoriam ; 
Lancelot and Elaine ; Dedi- 
catory Poem to the Princess 
Alice ; The Flight ; Walking 
to the Mail ; Holy Grail ; 
Promise of May ; The 
Foresters. 

YGERNE. 

Wife of Gorlois, lord of 
Tintagel Castle. She was a 
beautiful woman, and at a 
festival of the Round Table 
Uther fell in love with her, and 
upon Ulfin revealing it to her 
she told her husband Gorlois, 
who locked her up in the im- 
pregnable fortress of Tintagel, 
and gathering together an 
army, fought against Uther, but 
was defeated and slain. Ygerne 
then became the wife of Uther 
and subsequently the mother of 
king Arthur. 

Coming of Arthur. 

YNIOL. 

An earl of decayed fortune 
and the father of Enid, wife of 
sir Geraint. He was ousted 
from his earldom by his nephew 
Edyrn, who attempted to win 
his daughter, but was unsuccess- 
ful. Edyrn, however, being 
overthrown in a tournament by 



YOR] 


294 [ZUB 


sir Geraint, the earldom was 
restored to him. 

Marriage of Geraint ; Ger- 
aint and Enid. 

YORK. 

And York’s white rose as red as Lancaster’s 

= Wars of the Roses between 
the houses of York and Lan- 
caster. 

Aylmer’s Field. 

YORK (Archbishop). 

Bechet. 

YORK (Archbishoprick). 

Bechet. 

YORK (City of). 

Queen Mary ; Harold ; 

The Foresters . 

YORK (County of). 

Edwin Morris ; Aylmer’s Field. 

ZERUBBAREL. 

The Christian name of a man 
called Sanders (q.v.), ,who lived 


in Cornhill at the Sign of the 
Talbot. 

Queen Mary. 

ZEUS. 

In Greek mythology the 
lord of Heaven, identified with 
the Italian Jupiter (q.v.). 
Achilles over the French. 

ZOROASTRIAN. 

A follower of Zoroaster, the 
prophet of the ancient Persians. 

Aklar’s Dream . 

ZUINGLIUS. 

The ghosts of Luther and Zuinglius fade 
Into the deathless hell which is their doom 
Before my star ! 

Has reference to Zuingli, the 
Swiss reformer. 

Queen Mary. 

ZURICH. 

Cranmer. To Strasburg, Antwerp Frank- 
fort, Zurich, Worms, 

Geneva, Basle— our Bishops from their sees 
Or fled, they say, or flying — 

A town in Switzerland, and 
capital of the Canton of Zurich. 

Queen Mary. 



LIST OF AUTHORITIES AND OF WORKS 
CONSULTED AND QUOTED 


Abbott, Dr. Evelyn. History of Greece. 

Alfred Lord Tennyson. A Memoir, by his son. 

Allen, Grant. Anglo-Saxon Britain. 

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, The. 

Arthurian Chronicles, represented by Wace and Layamon. 

Bible, The. 

Brewer, Rev. Dr. E. C. Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. 
Brewer, Rev. Dr. E. C. Reader’s Handbook. 

Burns, Robert. Poetical Works. 

Byron, Lord. Poetical Works. 

Campbell, Thomas. Pleasures of Hope. 

Cervantes, Miguel de. Don Quixote. 

Chambers, R. Editor. Book of Days. 

Chambers’s Encyclopaedia. 

Conybeare, Edward. Roman Britain. 

Cowper, William. Poetical Works. 

Darwin, Erasmus. Botanic Garden. 

Dictionary of National Biography. 

Drayton, Michael. Polyolbion. 

Dryden, John. Poetical Works. 

Encyclopaedia Britannica. 

Freeman, Dr. E. A. Norman Conquest. 

Froissart, Sir John. Chronicles of England, France, Spain, etc. 
Froude, James Anthony. History of England. 

Fuller, Rev. Thomas. Worthies of England. 

Gardiner, Dr. Samuel R. History of England. 

Geoffrey of Monmouth. 

Guerber, H. A. Myths and Legends of the Middle Ages. 
Guest, Lady Charlotte. The Mabinogion. 

Harms worth’s Encyclopaedia. 

Haydn’s Dictionary of Dates. 

Homer. The Iliad and Odyssey. 

Hunt, Rev. William. Norman Britain. 

Irving, Washington. Life of Columbus. 

295 



296 

Kirtlan, Rev. E. J. B. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. 
Lempriere, Dr. J. Classical Dictionary. 

Liddell, Dr. Henry G. History of Rome. 

Littledale, Prof. H. Essays on Lord Tennyson’s Idylls of the King# 
Macmillan’s Modern Languages and Literature Series. 

Malory, Sir Thomas. Morte d’Arthur. 

Milton, John. Poetical Works. 

Nennius. Six Chronicles. 

Nuttall- Encyclopaedia, The. Edited by Rev. James Wood. 

Pepys, Samuel. Diary of. 

Percy, Thomas. Reliques of Ancient English Poetry. 

Pope, Alexander. Poetical Works. 

Rawnsley, Rev. Canon. Memories of the Tennysons. 

Rhys, Dr. J. Celtic Britain. 

Ritson, Joseph. Robin Hood. 

Rollin, Prof. Charles. Ancient History. 

Seyffert, Dr. Oskar. Dictionary of Classical Antiquities, Mythology, 
Religion, Literature and Art. 

Shakespeare, William. Works. 

Sloane, Sir Hans. Manuscript. 

Spenser, Edmund. Poetical Works. 

Tappan, Eva M. Heroes of the Middle Ages. 

Turner, Sharon. History of the Anglo-Saxons. 

Wagner, Dr. W. Epics and Romances of the Middle Ages. Trans- 
lated by W. M. Macdowall. 

Webster’s International Dictionary. 

Wordsworth, William. Poetical Works. 


Printed in England , 

by Butler & Tanner, Selwood Printing Works, Frome, Somerset. 






UNIVERSAL 

LIBRARY 



UNIVERSAL