A. E. PICKARD
MARIE' C. HENEGREN
ELEMEKIARY INDUSTRIAL SERIES
AGRIC. DEPTi > >j(*^i>tc
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A. E. PICKARD
President, Collegiate Institute, Minneapolis; formerly Superintendent
of Associated Schools, Cokato, Minnesota; author of "Rural
Education", "Industrial Booklets" and
"Industrial Work for Boys"
MARIE C. HENEGREN
Instructor in Home Economics, Minneapolis Public Schools; formerly
Director of Home Economics, Associated Schools,
ELEMENTARY INDUSTRIAL^SJERIpS , a ,,
WEBB PUBLISHING COMPANY
ST. PAUL, MINN.
WEBB PUBLISHING COMPANY
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
Until recently the average school has provided very little
industrial work for girls. Even yet this important phase
of education is confined largely to cooking and sewing, of
some of. which the educational value is questionable. It
is true that the exercises in these subjects can be made very
practical. Too often they are unrelated and poorly exe-
cuted. The work is not taught; it is just done. In some
instances, these conditions have brought criticism upon the
entire industrial movement.
The industrial course of study should be as carefully
planned from the beginning classes as the academic work
and, to be most effective, must be correlated with it; that
is, definite instruction must precede or follow the industrial
exercise if the student is to get anything more than mechan-
ical training. From this standpoint, the paper weaving,
the yarn weaving and the other weaving of the primary
classes become important on account of the instruction
given in the manufacture of these products and of the infor-
mation gained about these important industries. The same
is true of the clay modeling, basketry and other elementary
industrial work. Many of the exercises may have little
or no practical value, but they should have much educa-
tional value if properly taught. For this reason, a course
of study with but a smattering of cookiu^\"aiid. '"sewing in
the upper classes, and with no defimte, plan,,, is entirely
inadequate; the student has no foundation J'c-r the work;
and fails to see the relation between it and her other studies.
Practically all the exercises suggested in this little book
have been successfully done in several rural associated
schools, as well as in the grades and the teachers' training
6 INDUSTRIAL WORK FOR GIRLS.
department at tjie central school under the supervision of
the authors. Some of the most successful teachers were
those who had but little previous preparation for this kind
of work but who became interested and learned the exer-
cises with the students.
The teacher must be alive to the situation, as upon her,
almost entirely, will depend the success of the work. Ref-
erence books and bulletins should be provided. The latter
may be obtained free from the Federal and state depart-
ments of agriculture, and a few good industrial books should
be purchased each year with the library supplies. The
amount of time given to industrial work must depend upon
local conditions, but some can be correlated with geography
and other subjects, as already suggested. Several grades
should be grouped together, and the two or three industrial
classes should be conducted at the same time, once or twice
a week, during the general period. An extended discus-
sion of the industrial course and the management of the
classes is given in Pickard's "Rural Education." Teachers
who are not familiar with the "Division Plan" of con-
ducting the classes should use that book as a reference.
While parts of Chapter I are extended primarily for the
teacher, it is suggested that such parts as pertain to the
purpose of industrial work, materials used and other phases
that will be helpful should be discussed as class work. These
, may pre.cerle,, or. be done in connection with, the regular
: ,; The -authors acknowledge the help received in the prep-
aration -of this :b'o6k .from standard references on industrial
work and from government bulletins. Thanks are also
extended to friends who have read parts of the manuscript
and offered valuable suggestions. THE AUTHORS.
I Course and Equipment 9
Purpose of Industrial Work, Preliminary Industrial
Work, Second and Third Division Work.
H General Industrial Work 19
School Exercises in Weaving, Paper Folding and Con-
struction, Raffia and Rattan Work, Modeling.
III Sewing in the Rural School 33
Equipment, Classification of Stitches, School Exer-
cises, Home Projects.
IV Principles of Home Science 67
Food Defined, Food Principles, Preservation of Food,
Planning Menus, Purpose and Principles of Cooking,
Bread Making, Cake Making, Pie Making, Salads,
V The Hot Lunch "... .97
Equipment, General Directions, Sauces and Thick-
ening for Cream Soups, Suggestive Dishes, Recipes.
VI Industrial Club Work 119
Tomato Contest, Home Canning, Bread Baking
VII Home Credit Exercises 128
The Flower Garden, House Plants, Bird Study, Bed
Making, Preparing a Meal, Laying the Table, Serv-
ing Meals, Clearing Dining Table and Washing
Dishes, Fly Control, Planning the Home, Ventilation,
Savings Banks, Home Accounts, Industrial Exhibit,
Industrial Work for Girls
COURSE AND EQUIPMENT
Our grandmothers learned the science of cooking and
the art of home making from their mothers. In fact, most
of their education was obtained at home, as they did not
have the advantages of school that we enjoy. Now that
young folk spend much of their time in school there is not
the opportunity to learn as much in the home as formerly.
For other reasons, also, it is usually impossible for girls
to get in the home the training that will make them efficient
and businesslike housekeepers.
It has been found possible to have the school co-operate
with the home in this training. Many successful projects
have been carried out in this manner in various parts of the
country during the last few years. Much of the work can
be done at school as regular class exercises. Some of it
can be better done at home as individual projects for which
the school should give "home credit." The contest work
with tomatoes, canning, bread baking, etc., is especially val-
uable and well worth while for any girl. It is not only ex-
ceedingly healthful exercise, but it will give a training in
managing, marketing and accounting that can hardly be
obtained in any other way. Get the girls of your school to
organize for some of the home projects and contest work
suggested in this book and, if you have never done any of this
1 r *l\ l$$US TRIAL WORK FOR GIRLS
work before, you will be delightfully surprised with the results.
Many girls have not only earned all the money they needed,
but have started savings bank accounts with the proceeds.
PURPOSE OF INDUSTRIAL WORK
Since the purpose of industrial work is to give a broader
education by training the hand as well as the head, and to
give an opportunity to get familiar with some of the great
industries, it is plain that one kind of industrial work, such
as sewing, is not enough. It has been observed, also, that
students who have done the elementary industrial work
of the lower grades are much better qualified for this kind
of work in the upper grades. Students who are taking the
work for the first time should, therefore, do some work in
weaving, both paper and rug, as well as basketry and other
work before attempting the work in home economics proper.
A noted educator says this of industrial work: "As
far as it neglects industry, the school falls short of its pur-
pose. Industry is among the departments of civilization
about which everybody should know something. Social
efficiency, too, depends upon knowledge; for without some
acquaintance with industrial affairs even those who are
engaged in other pursuits are handicapped. They cannot
intelligently co-operate with work which they know nothing
Industrial training in the elementary schools has been
too much of the hit-or-miss kind. There has been no stand-
ard course of study to follow, and resourceful teachers
have been able to conduct the' work only on account of
their own training and interest in it. Only two extremes
could be expected under such circumstances talking about
industrial work without doing it, and making unrelated
articles without instruction.
COURSE AND EQUIPMENT
The time given to industrial work must depend upon
local circumstances. At least two hours a week should be
devoted to it, and more if possible. The school should be
divided into either two or three divisions for this work.
The "Division Plan," discussed at length in "Rural Edu-
cation," divides the usual eight grades into the First
Division, the Second Division, and the Third Division.
The First Division includes the first three grades; the
Second Division includes grades four to six inclusive; and
the Third Division is made up of the seventh and eighth
grades. Probably a better plan is to have but seven
grades in the rural school curriculum. In that event, the
Second Division will include only the fourth and fifth
grades, and the Third Division, the sixth and seventh.
The supplies needed will naturally depend upon the
size of the school and the time given to industrial work.
From five to fifteen dollars' worth will be enough for the
general industrial work. The industrial and sewing ma-
Figure 1 . Preparing and assorting material for industrial work in
rural associated schools.
12 INDUSTRIAL WORK FOR GIRLS
terials of the advanced division should be paid for by the
students. A suggestive list of materials with prices is
given. They may be purchased from a school supply house.
For the First Division, paper weaving materials are
needed. These may be purchased in packages in various
sizes, with slits one fourth, one third, and one half inch wide,
at about a cent for each mat. All the standard colors may
be obtained. Colored sheets should be purchased and
strips cut with the scissors for more advanced weaving after
the ready-made mats have been put together. Papers
for folding and cutting may be purchased at fifteen to
twenty cents a hundred squares, usually four by four inches.
Looms may be made or purchased. Hammock looms
are easily made by cutting heavy cardboard to the de-
sired size, rounding the ends, and cutting notches in them
for the fastening of the warp. These are inexpensive and
are just as good as those that are purchased. Looms for
rug weaving may easily be made in the school, if the stu-
dents have manual training. A loom that retails for thirty
cents may be made for from three to six cents for the ma-
terial. Use oak one fourth of an inch thick. Pine or bass-
wood will do. The two endpieces are each ten inches long
and one and one fourth inches wide. Place the two end-
pieces together side to side and make a series of cross
notches from end to end by sawing their edges a quarter
of an inch deep and a quarter of an inch apart. In these
notches the warp is fastened for weaving. The ends are
fastened apart with two sidepieces twelve inches long
and three quarters of an inch wide. These are fastened
by sawing a slit in the ends of the endpieces, so that
the sidepieces will just fit flatwise. They are then nailed
and glued. Holes are bored in the ends for the heavy
wire to make the loom adjustable in width. These wires
COURSE AND EQUIPMENT 13
are copper, three sixteenths of an inch in diameter, and
may be bought at any hardware store. They
should be cut fourteen inches long and have a loop
made in one end for a handle. A wooden crosspiece
similar to one of the ends may be made to slide along the
sidepieces. This will enable one to make the loom adjust-
able in length as well as in width. Flat wooden needles
made from quarter-inch basswood, rounded off at one
end, and a hole bored in the other for threading the ma-
terial, can be made very easily, and they are better than
the metal needles for the most of the weaving. These
should be sandpapered down until they are a little less than
one eighth of an inch thick, a half inch wide and about
ten inches long. With such a needle, the material may
be drawn through the entire width of the rug at one time.
Metal needles are needed for finishing the rugs and for work-
ing patterns. See Figure 7.
Rug materials are few or numerous as one desires. Col-
ored rags from home are as good as anything for the prac-
tice work and cost nothing. They should be cut or torn
into suitable lengths and widths. Roving is a very coarse
weaving material, excellent for beginners, and may be
purchased in colors at about seventy cents a pound. It
should precede the finer materials. Carpet yarn may be
obtained at about sixty cents a pound. Jute makes cheaper
weaving material at from twenty-five to thirty cents a pound.
Chenille, plain and mottled, is good for pattern work or
for the entire rug. It costs about sixty cents a pound.
Macrame cord comes in balls, any color, and costs about
fifteen cents a ball. It is used principally for hammock
making, but is rather expensive. For practice, rugs may
be made out of rags, raffia, or even corn husks, and save
the expensive materials for exhibit work. All these ma-
14 INDUSTRIAL WORK FOR GIRLS
terials are used for the woof of rugs and hammocks. For
the warp to "thread" the looms, carpet warp may be pur-
chased in colors at about fifty cents a pound. Brass rings
for hammocks will cost about two cents a pair for the inch
size. Smaller ones may be used, if desired. Germantown
yarn is beautiful for knitting caps, bonnets, mittens, leggings,
etc., but is rather expensive for rugs. It costs about fifteen
cents a skein.
Basketry and raffia supplies may be furnished by the
school or purchased by the students, as desired. Plain
raffia costs from fifteen to eighteen cents a pound, and
colored, from forty to fifty cents. Rattan, or round reeds,
will cost from thirty-five to eighty-five cents, depending
upon the size. The medium sizes are used most, but the
teacher should order by sending samples of the sizes de-
sired. Flat reed for napkin rings and basketry costs about
fifty cents a pound. Raffia and rattan may be dyed, if
desired; but it is rather hard to get uniform tints unless
one has had practice. The finished baskets and trays
should be shellacked as soon as they are made.
Clay for modeling comes in three forms the flour, in
bricks, and moist in barrels. The flour may be obtained
in five-pound boxes at five cents a pound. The bricks are
usually five pounds each and cost the same as the flour.
Moist clay is a little cheaper when purchased in barrel
lots. Some communities have near at hand clay that is
good for this work, and costs only the labor of getting it.
PRELIMINARY INDUSTRIAL WORK
Those pupils who have not had the industrial work of
the lower grades should learn the principles of weaving
some raffia and rattan work, and do a little modeling with
clay. A few simple exercises are given, the material for
COURSE AND EQUIPMENT
which should be furnished by the school. The students
should make the looms, using paper for the Germantown
yarn and hammock work, and wood for the rugs. Have a
brush and shellac for the baskets and trays.
Paper folding and construction may precede or follow
the paper weaving. A ruler, pencil, pair of scissors and
paste are needed. Make envelopes and boxes for seed and
other collections in agriculture. Other objects from which
a selection may be made are as follows: Small basket,
doll's furniture, sled, Indian canoe, Puritan cradle, shaving
ball or pad, needlebook, match scratcher, Christmas bells,
windmill, May basket, carriage, house, barn, chicken-coop,
picture-frame, bookmark, fan, Chinese lantern, circular
marker, hexagonal box, blotting-pad, calendar, valentine,
button box, tent, card and photograph holders, screen,
flower holder, whisk-broom holder and pocket comb holder.
The materials for these are common manila drawing paper,
oak tag, cover paper and colored construction papers.
Weaving is usually be-
gun with paper strips and
readymade mats, as given
under materials for indus-
trial work. Paper weaving
may be followed by basket
weaving with heavy .fold-
ing paper, and by the
weaving of bookmarks,
pencil trays, mats, boxes,
napkin rings, match safes,
pincushions, blotters, cal-
endars and thermometer
backs. After paper weav-
Figure 2. Germantown yarn work, showing i i i i j i
caps, sweaters and leggings. ing, loom WOrk Should be
INDUSTRIAL WORK FOR GIRLS
given. Rugs of rags, roving, yarn, jute, chenille, raffia and
other materials are made. Bed blankets and draperies for
a doll's house may be woven. Hammocks, made of macrame
cord on homemade cardboard looms, may be hung outside
the doll house. Doll caps, mittens, and leggings may be
made of Germantown yarn on the loom and sewed to shape.
See Figure 2.
Raffia and rattan work should largely be done in the in-
termediate and advanced divisions. Raffia rugs, napkin
Figure 3. Making rattan trays and baskets on the school grounds.
rings, picture frames of cardboard wound in raffia, and raffia
baskets may be attempted in the primary division.
Modeling is always of interest and its educational value
is evident. A piece of oilcloth or a square board should
protect the desk. When clay is used it should be prepared
the day before. The children, of course, must be able to
wash their hands after the work. Encourage outside work
and ask the children to bring their products to school to
show the others. Modeling is especially valuable in train-
ing both hands at the same time. Begin with forms from
life, as animals and plants, rather than with geometrical
COURSE AND EQUIPMENT 17
forms. Later the latter should be given, and the ball,
apple, peach, pear, orange, banana and other similar objects
modeled. A bird's nest and eggs, marbles, clay baskets,
beads and ornamental vases are some of the popular pieces.
It is well to have in mind the following general divisions of
the subject: 1. Modeling from objects present at the
time. 2. Modeling from memory. 3. Modeling from
imagination. 4. Design in modeling. Fruit modeling
may be shaded with water colors and, when dry, given
a coat of shellac which gives a very natural effect, if well
done. Other objects may be colored in a similar manner.
SECOND AND THIRD DIVISION WORK
The general industrial work of these divisions should be
raffia and rattan weaving, basketry and, if desired, bead-
work. The objects made may be varied. If sewing is
given in these divisions, there will not be much time left.
A little basketry, however, should be given sometime
during the course. Napkin rings of rattan and flat reed,
baskets of raffia and rattan, collar boxes of rattan wound
and fastened with raffia, serving trays of rattan with a
wooden bottom, and waste baskets of heavy rattan, are all
useful and practical lessons. The rattan work should be
given a coat of shellac as soon as finished. It may be fin-
ished in colors or natural.
Reference books are necessary for the best results in
industrial work. It is impossible to give directions for
making of many of the articles suggested here, as space will
not permit. The authors have found the following list of
books almost indispensable: Paper Sloyd for Primary
Grades, by Rich; Industrial Work for Public Schools, by
Holton and Rollins; Hand-Loom Weaving by Todd; Card-
board Construction, by Trybom; Hand Work, by Hoxie;
18 INDUSTRIAL WORK FOR GIRLS
Raffia and Reed Weaving, by Knapp; Clay Modeling, by
Holland; and How to Make Baskets, by White. Bulle-
tins on industrial work may be obtained free from many of
the agricultural colleges.
Industrial work and geography should be correlated to
the extent that the students should know where all the
materials used come from and how they are used in the
industries. Raffia is a light yellow material that is shred-
ded off from the bark of a certain palm tree. Most of ours
comes from the island of Madagascar. On account of its
pliability and toughness, raffia is much used for industrial
work and also for rope making in the industries. Rattan
is a kind of a palm that grows in the East Indies. It is
peculiar in that it sometimes reaches one thousand feet
in length, and is supported by neighboring trees. It grows
in various sizes, but is seldom more than an inch in diam-
eter. There are very few branches, sometimes none for
two or three hundred feet. The different species are very
useful in their native countries for plaited work, rope mak-
ing, etc. Rattan is twisted into ropes and used for pur-
poses requiring great strength. In this country it is used
for basketry, rustic furniture making, etc. Jute is made
from the inner bark of a tall annual plant native to the
East Indies, but now grown in several countries for com-
mercial purposes. The fiber is used for making carpet,
canvas and rope.
Directions for making a few forms of industrial work are
given for those who have no other books, but as many
reference books on industrial work as the school can afford
should be in the library.
GENERAL INDUSTRIAL WORK
Students desiring to do industrial work out of school for
"home credit" should consult with the teacher regarding
objects to be made. Try to develop originality. The fol-
lowing are school exercises:
1 Single Paper Weaving
Materials: Manila drawing paper for practice. Later,
use colored papers for a variety.
Directions: Use a square of any desired size from four
to eight inches. Fold the bottom over to the top. With
Figure 4. Paper weaving. Note different designs.
a ruler and pencil make lines one half inch apart, beginning
one inch from the left side and ending one inch from the
right side. The lines should run to the folded edge of the
paper, but end just one inch from the upper edge. With
the scissors cut along the lines. Open the paper. It will
then be cut into slits one half inch apart. Cut another
piece of paper into strips one half inch wide and as long as
the square just used. Weave the first strip over one and
under the next strip in the square. Weave the second strip
20 INDUSTRIAL WORK FOR GIRLS
in the same way except that you weave under where you
wove over in the first strip. Continue until all the strips
are woven. Other weaving may be done, using strips of any
desired width and color, and working out various designs
in the square. As stated elsewhere, these squares may be
purchased all ready for weaving, if desired; but it is cheaper
to make them, and the practice in ruling and cutting is
also desirable. See Figure 4.
2 Paper Box
Materials: Drawing paper, ruler, pencil, scissors and
Directions: Draw on a piece of paper a square just
double the size you want your box to be. Fold over the
lower edge on the upper, then the lower edge back on the
crease, then the upper edge forward on the crease. Turn
the paper half around and do the same. Open. You
will now have sixteen squares. With the scissors cut
the lower edge of the two top corner squares and the
upper edge of the two bottom corner squares. Fold, so
that the four middle squares form the bottom of
the box. Paste the corner squares on the inside of the box.
Another box may be made in the same manner and used as
a cover. Heavier paper may be used for boxes to store
seeds and other agricultural products.
3 Paper Basket
Materials: Same as for the paper box.
Directions: If a square basket is desired, it may be
made the same as the box. Then paste the handle to it,
letting the ends extend on the inside of the basket. A
better form is an oblong about six by eight inches. Rule
and cut a paper this size, being careful to get it exact. Fold
it into two-inch squares, as directed for the box. Turn
GENERAL INDUSTRIAL WORK. 21
the paper with the long side up and down. Cut the two
sides of the upper middle square. Do the same for the lower
middle square. Fold the corner squares over the middle
squares and paste. Cut the handle and paste on the inside
in the middle of the basket. After practicing with drawing
paper, heavier material may be used for more permanent
baskets. Two colors may be used, if desired.
4 Paper Table
Materials: Heavy folding paper, scissors and paste.
Directions: Cut a square twice the dimensions desired
for the table. Fold it into sixteen squares, as directed in
making the box. Cut along the bottom of the two upper
corner squares and along the top of the lower corner squares.
Fold the ends over the corner squares and paste securely.
The bottom of the box just made is the top of the table.
Cut out an oblong from each side beginning one half inch
from the corners, making it about three inches long, to
form the legs.
5 Paper Chair
Materials: Same as for the paper table.
Directions: Cut a square having about three fourths
as many inches on a side as you used for the table. Fold
this into nine squares, as directed in the first numbers. Cut
along the top of the lower corner squares. Cut along both
sides of the upper middle square. Fold the upper middle
square toward you. This forms the back. Now fold
one of the upper corner squares over the other and fold
the rest of the squares to form a cube. Paste securely.
Strengthen the back by pasting a paper of the same size
over it. At the bottom cut out oblongs from each side
to form the legs, as directed for the table. The back may
be ornamented or left square.
22 INDUSTRIAL WORK FOR GIRLS
6 Paper Lantern
Materials: Plain or colored folding paper, black paper,
scissors and paste.
Directions: Paste half-inch bands of dark or black paper
across the top and bottom of a six inch square of colored
paper or paper tinted with water colors. Wall paper makes
pretty lanterns. Fold the bottom over on the top edge.
Cut half inch slits from the crease to the black paper. Form
circles with the black edges, making the top and bottom
of the lantern. Paste securely. Cut the handle of the same
material as the circular strips, making it the same width
and six inches long. Paste it to the lantern, and hang where
the lantern will show to advantage. A cardboard bottom
may be inserted, and a small candle fastened to it.
Materials: Drawing paper and yellow construction
paper, or tinted drawing paper.
Directions: Draw an oval the shape of a pumpkin
about three by three and one half inches, leaving a short
stem at the top. Cut out. With this, trace another on
yellow or tinted paper. Cut this out. Then cut holes for
the eyes, nose, and mouth, and paste the colored paper over
the other. Black disks of paper may be pasted on the
pupils of the eyes, and triangles for the teeth. These may
be used for invitations or hung up for decorations.
8 Halloween Fence
Materials: Manila drawing paper and yellow tinted
Directions: Using a piece of drawing paper eight inches
long and two and one half inches wide, cut out quarter-
inch oblongs three and one half inches long, leaving a quarter
of an inch at each end to represent the post. Cut out five
of these, leaving four strips of paper for the boards. Do
GENERAL INDUSTRIAL WORK 23
likewise on the other half of the paper. This will make three
posts and four boards between each,
with the posts projecting above and
below. Paste the fence to a sheet of
colored mounting paper. On the top of
each post paste a small Jack-o'-lantern
Figure 5. Halloween about one and a quarter inches in diam-
fence, paper cutting A f Ar TTin-nro ^
and mounting. eter - ^66 * IgUre O.
9 Christmas Bell
Materials: Red construction paper about the weight
of light oak tag, pencil and scissors.
Directions: On a five-inch square draw or trace a bell,
having the widest part at the bottom, the width of the square.
A rounded projection in the middle at the bottom represents
tongue, or clapper, of the bell. Cut along the outline.
A small hole punched in the top of the dome will enable
one to hang the bell. It may be used to send an invitation
to a school entertainment.
10 Christmas Stocking
Materials: Same as for number seven.
Directions: On a piece of red construction paper draw
or trace a stocking about eight inches long and three inches
wide at the top, and foot. Cut along the line. This may
also be used to send an invitation or to hang up for Christ-
11 Santa Claus
Materials: Red cardboard, cotton and metal fasteners.
Directions: Trace the upper part of the body down as
far as the waist line, making this part about five inches
from the top of the head to the waist, and about three
inches across at the waist. Cut out. Cut the arms and
fasten with a brass fastener, one on each side of the body.
Cut out the lower limbs about four inches long and fasten
INDUSTRIAL WORK FOR GIRLS
on the under side of the waist line. Both
the arms and legs will then be movable.
Paste cotton on the head for hair and
whiskers; on the hands for fur mittens; on
the waist line of the coat and above the
ankles for the tops of the leggings. This
makes an interesting Christmas decoration.
12 Roving or Yarn Rug
Materials: Loom and needle, carpet
yarn or string for warp, and rags, yarn,
chenille, raffia or roving, for the woof.
Directions: Thread the warj5 back
and forth through the notches at the ends
simtaciaus of the loom. See that it is as tight as
possible. Weave the woof over one strand
of the warp and under the next, across the rug. Return,
going under the strand you went over before, and over the
next, and so on. If a long wooden needle is used, it may be
Figure 7. Raffia bag, yarn mat on a homemade loom and a raffia mat.
GENERAL INDUSTRIAL WORK
Figure 8. Roving and chenille rugs.
drawn across the entire mat at once, thus saving time.
Colored borders and stripes may be used or designs worked
in. The loom can be adjusted to any size of material.
In a previous paragraph, see directions for making a home-
made loom. Keep the woof tight by packing it with the
needle and finger. When finished, remove and bind the
ends of the warp with carpet yarn, or make a fringe. Raffia
may be used instead of roving or yarn. See Figures 7 and 8.
Materials: Cardboard loom, macrame cord in two
colors, a large darning needle and two brass rings about
three fourths of an inch in diameter.
Directions: Fasten the warp into the rings which are
attached to one side of the loom, and wind it around the
ends of the loom over the notches, or through the holes,
if those are used instead of notches. Any number of warp
26 INDUSTRIAL WORK FOR GIRLS
Figure 9. A hammock made of macrame cord.
strands may be used, from sixteen to twenty being common.
After the warp is stretched tightly, begin the weaving with
the same material used for warp. The woof strands should
be about half as long as the distance between the two rings
after the hammock is removed. Colored stripes may alter-
nate or borders may be used. When finished, remove from
the loom and make a fringe.
14 Reed Napkin Ring
Materials: Wooden loom, number three or four rattan,
number one rattan, flat reed and a knife.
Directions: Make a small wooden base of basswood or
pine two and one half inches square and a quarter of an
inch thick. On this base draw a circle two inches hi diam-
eter. With the ruler find the perpendicular diameter, and
place a dot at each end of it on the circle. Do the same for
the horizontal diameter. Again divide the space between
the dots into three equal parts, until you have twelve dots
on the circle, the same distance apart. With a brace and
bit, or gimlet, bore holes through the base at the dots.
These should be a trifle larger than the size of rattan you
want to use for the frame of the napkin ring. Cut twelve
GENERAL INDUSTRIAL WORK 27
pieces of rattan about the size of a match and one and one
half inches long. Place these firmly in the holes of the base.
Using rattan a size smaller as a weaver, weave four times
around the base, going inside of one upright and outside the
next. The second time around weave opposite to the first
time, and alternate each time. The weaver is moistened so
it is tough and pliable. Pull it tight, and press firmly against
the base. Next use flat reed for two layers and weave in
the same way. Then weave four rounds more of the same
size rattan as on the bottom. Fasten the last end securely.
Pull the ring off the base, being careful not to leave any of
the uprights in it. With number one rattan, bind the edge
together firmly by fastening one end around the top of an
upright, crossing to the next lower end, twisting around this
end, crossing to the next upper end, and so on, until you
have gone around the ring twice and finished binding each
upright. Cut off the ends of the uprights. Your napkin
ring should be strong and somewhat resemble a snare drum
on the outside. Be sure to keep the material moist while
working. See Figure 10.
15 Raffia Picture Frame
Materials: Cardboard and raffia.
Directions: Cut out a circle from the cardboard. It
may be any desired size, but about six inches in diameter
is common. Cut another circle in the center, leaving a hole
in the middle about two and one half inches in diameter.
Select board, smooth raffia. Moisten it, and wind carefully
around from center to outside. When finished, sew a braid
of raffia around the outer edge, making a loop at the top by
means of which to hang it up. Put in the picture. Oval
or square shape frames may be made according to the in-
INDUSTRIAL WORK FOR GIRLS
16 Rattan Mat
Materials: Number three rattan for spokes, raffia and
number one rattan for weaving.
Directions: For a six-inch mat you will need to use
pieces of rattan fourteen inches long in order to make the
border and fasten the ends. Cut eight pieces of the number
three rattan fourteen inches and one piece eight inches, as
it is easier to weave with an odd number of spokes. Take
four of the long spokes and cut a slit one half inch long
exactly in the middle of each. Draw the other four long
spokes half way through these slits, making a cross. Put
in the short spoke until the end shows on the other side.
With a needle weave raffia over one and under the next spoke,
starting in the center, until you have woven a little circular
mat about an inch all the way round from the center, or two
inches in diameter. You will thus make a firmer middle
than you can usually get with the rattan. Now use number
Figure 10. Rattan and raffia work, showing serving tray, baskets, collar box,
mats and napkin rings.
GENERAL INDUSTRIAL WORK 29
one rattan for the weaver in the same way, and keep the
seventeen spokes the same distance apart, until you have
a mat about six inches in diameter. Now sharpen the ends
of the spokes, moisten them so they will bend easily, and
pass each one in front of the next spoke to the left, and push
it down beside the second spoke, thus making a loop about
two inches across and an inch high. Do this with each
spoke until the border is finished. While the mat is moist,
see that it lies perfectly flat. When dry, put on a coat of
clear or colored shellac. See Figure 10.
17 Rattan Basket
Materials: Number four and number two rattan, and
Directions: Cut eight pieces of number four rattan from
eighteen to twenty-four inches long, depending upon the
height of the basket desired, twenty inches being a good
length. Cut one piece an inch or two more than half this
length for the odd spoke. Proceed as for the mat in number
16, using the raffia center, until you have a four-inch bottom.
Moisten the spokes, and turn each one up as you pass the
weaver around it. Keep the weaving pressed down firmly,
the spokes the same distance apart, and be very careful in
shaping your basket, that it may be even all the way around.
When through weaving, fasten the end securely. Make a
border with the spokes as for the mat, only pass the spoke
to the left in front of two spokes instead of one, and push it
down beside the third. This will strengthen the top. "Be
sure the shape is good. Let dry. Shellac, natural or colored.
See Figure 10.
18 Raffia and Rattan Mat
Materials: Number two or three rattan, raffia, needle.
Directions: Moisten the rattan and begin a coil. Take
a needle full of raffia. Wind the end of the coil for a short
30 INDUSTRIAL WORK FOR GIRLS
distance and fasten it together in a ring as small as you
can draw it. Continue coiling the rattan, and winding it
with raffia. Wind from you. About every third wind,
pass the needle between the ring formed and the next coil
of rattan, thus fastening the rattan to the ring. The third
coil is fastened to the second in the same manner and so
on until the mat is completed to any desired size. Colors
may be used for as many coils as you wish, making borders.
This makes a soft durable mat.
19 Collar Box
Materials: Same as for number eighteen.
Directions: Make the bottom six inches in diameter,
the same as the mat was made. Then turn the coils up to
form the circular side of the box. If two pieces of number
two or three rattan are wound together instead of one
piece, the effect is more pleasing, and you will have a firmer
box. Continue the coils until the box is three inches deep.
Now make a cover in the same manner as the bottom was
made, turning the edges up half an inch, so they will fit
down over the box, when inverted for the cover. This
may be fastened on, if desired. See Figure 10.
Materials: A circular base of one half an inch of pine
or basswood nine inches in diameter, heavy rattan for
spokes, number seven or eight, and rattan about two sizes
smaller for weaving.
Directions: Drill a row of twenty-five holes one half
an inch from the edge of the wooden base. Cut twenty-
five spokes of heavy rattan about two feet long, and put
them through the holes so that they extend about three
fourths of an inch below. Using rattan about two sizes
smaller as a weaver, turn the bottom side up, and weave
GENERAL INDUSTRIAL WORK
Figure 11. Rattan wastebaskets.
six or eight rows around the
spokes, as in basket weaving.
Then fasten the ends of the
spokes securely, making a
close border. Now turn the
bottom over, and press the
board down firmly on the
rattan base. Begin to weave
above the board, keeping the twenty-five spokes the same
distance apart, and shaping the basket as you proceed.
Make to any desired height, usually about a foot, and
fasten the top of the spokes as for the mats and baskets.
Cut off ends of spokes. Colored rattan will make effective
designs. Finish with shellac. See Figure 11.
21 Serving Tray
Materials: Wooden base, pine or basswood and rattan.
Directions: Make a wooden base of half-inch material
in an oval about fifteen inches long and ten inches at the
widest part. Bore holes for heavy rattan as for the basket.
Make the spokes long enough to weave and fasten below
and to make the tray about two inches deep with a close
border on top. Weave with number five or six rattan and
Figure 12. Clay work, showing fruit and geometrical forms,
32 INDUSTRIAL WORK FOR GIRLS
use number seven or eight for the spokes. This makes a
very firm and useful tray. It should have two coats of
shellac for finish, either dark or natural. See Figure 10.
22 Clay Modeling
Materials: Clay, oilcloth, water colors and shellac.
Directions: Prepare the clay the day before it is to be
used. Do not have it too wet, just moist enough to work
well. Knead until oily. Mould into shape of object being
modeled. If fruit, tint with water colors. Let dry. Shel-
lac with natural finish. See Figure 12.
SEWING IN THE RURAL SCHOOLS
The equipment needed by each child for sewing is not
elaborate : A thimble, needles, thread, emery bag, tape-meas-
ure, shears or scissors, one pair of buttonhole scissors, and
the material used in the model and garment making. For
some of the advanced work a sewing machine would save
time, and the students would get the practice, if they could
use one. Some rural schools rent a machine for all or part
of the school year, as it is needed. Such an arrangement
would not be expensive and would be desirable.
A thimble must be used when sewing. Each child
should furnish her own and have it fit the middle finger.
A thimble made of silver, celluloid or aluminum is better
than one of brass, for the latter may cause infection in case
of a sore on the finger. The emery bag is filled with pow-
dered emery, and may be purchased for five cents at any
store. When the hands become moist and sticky, the
needle does not push through the cloth easily, due to the
rust formation. In such a case, polish the needle by run-
ning it through the emery bag a few times. Scissors are
large enough for school use, and may be purchased for
twenty-five or thirty cents. Instruments under six inches
long are scissors; those six inches or over are shears. These
may be brought from home or the school may own enough
for two pupils to use one pair. They must always be kept
sharp, or they will neither cut easily nor accurately. Do
not allow them to drop, as they may be loosened or even
broken. Tools poorly cared for will not give good service.
Needles and thread must be used according to the work
to be done. Mrs. Blair, in her Sewing Tablets, suggests the
INDUSTRIAL WORK FOR GIRL8
The size of thread used should be in proportion to the
thread of the material : for coarse gingham, about number 70;
for fine soft muslin, number 100. It is always best to use a
fine needle and thread for hemming, as the stitches show less.
The following sizes of needles are commonly used with the
corresponding number of thread:
Number five Silkateen and Coarse Cotton
Number seven Fifty
Number eight Sixty, eighty
Number nine Ninety
Number ten One hundred
Number eleven One hundred twenty
Number twelve One hundred fifty
The correct length of a needleful of thread is from the
tips of the fingers to the shoulder of the extended arm. Do
not bite the thread; cut it with the scissors or knife. Thread
the needle with the end of the thread cut off from the spool,
as this will prevent knotting. Be sure to baste all seams
before attempting to sew them. Where the dimensions of
the material are given, the first is to be on the length of the
goods, and the second on the width.
Figure 13. The sewing room at a central school of au associated district.
SEWING IN RURAL SCHOOLS . 35
Correct position for sewing is very important. The body
should be erect, and both feet squarely on the floor. The
light should come from the left unless the student is left-
handed. Hold work high enough to be comfortable.
CLASSIFICATION OF STITCHES
Work from Right to Left
Basting is used to hold two pieces or two parts of one
piece of cloth in the exact relation desired and used as a
guide in sewing. The stitches are made over and under
the. material, working from right to left. If stitches are of
uneven length, have long stitches over and short under.
Figure 14. Basting stitch.
Running is light stitching. The stitches are made the
same as in basting, but are short and of even length.
Figure 15. Running stitch.
Gathering. For gathering the running stitch is used.
When several inches have been gathered on the needle,
bring the double thread from the eye of the needle, under
the point and then under the eye, making the figure eight,
and drawing the thread tight. Continue until material is
held securely on the needle. To place the gathers, hold
them firmly as they are on the needle, between the thumb
and forefinger of the left hand, and with the index finger of
the right hand at the back of the gathers, and the thumb on
the opposite side of the material, bring out the tiny gathers.
Then pull the material straight till the gathers are fixed.
Backstitching is done as follows: Insert the needle and
make a stitch under the material twice the desired length;
again insert the needle, going back half this distance and
forward twice the length of the btefcititdi. Thelmhrtll*
if toed where strength is desired or to resemble machine
stitching. Tbc second view shows a row of buckfdtcbei as
it would be seen if material were removed from the right-
hand side of it.
The combination stitch consists of three or far
sUlcbes and * backstitch. It is used where
required than is obtained with rum
Hemming. \V hen bemmmg, bold the
material over the index finger of the
Ifft hand. To
tfaeeodof it about half an
the edge of the hem. It will be fcst-
/\l nmfle paraBei with the edge of hem,
take one thread of the material and
of die SWIM
together and wed to
Bee "Buttonholes" lor
cedte. positkxi of thresd
s/ Ml -l\G IN RURAL SCHOOLS $7
hand so that the creased edges are in a horizontal position.
The stitch is made by bringing the needle over and then
straight through the two edges. Make stitches shallow and
close together. Pull the thread tight for each stitch.
Figure 19. Overhand stitch.
For hemstitching, pull six threads, fewer if the material
is coarse, twice the desired width of the hem from the end
of the material. Turn the raw edge in one fourth of an inch.
Turn and fold, having the first folded
edge even with the last thread. Baste.
Hold material and needle as for hemming.
Put needle under three or four threads and
hold thread as in making chain stitch.
Figure 20. Hemstitch. Draw tight. Make a stitch similar to
hemming. The thread is thus brought to the middle of the
next group. Hold thread down with left thumb, put needle
under next group of threads, and continue as above.
Work from Left to Right
Overcasting is used to keep the raw edges of the cloth
from raveling. It is made by bringing the thread over the
edge and putting the needle through the material. The
stitches are an eighth of an inch in depth and the same dis-
tance, or a trifle more, apart.
Figure 21. Overcasting.
The loop stitch is used to finish the raw edges of flannel
or of doilies. See illustration on next page.
INDUSTRIAL WORK FOR GIRLS
Figure 22. Loop stitch.
Work toward One
The chain stitch is an ornamental stitch. In making it,
the thread is held to the left with the thumb to keep it under
the needle. Always insert the needle within the last link.
Figure 23. Chain stitch.
The featherstitch is used for ornamentation. When mak-
ing the stitch to the right, hold the thread to the left; when
making the stitch to the left, hold the thread to the right of
the general direction of the stem. Clusters of two or three
stitches to each side may be made instead of the single one
to each side.
Figure 24. Featherstitch.
Work Away from One
The catstitch, or catch stitch, is an ornamental stitch. It
is also used in making flannel seams and hems. The row of
catstitch grows in length away from one, but the needle is
inserted toward one.
SEWING IN RURAL SCHOOLS 39
Figure 25. Catstitch.
SECOND DIVISION, ONE YEAR
1 Stitches. (Six Lessons.)
Materials: One piece of one eighth inch checked apron
gingham sixteen inches by six inches, number 7 needle and
red cotton thread number 50.
Directions: Count down forty-two checks, fold and
crease between checks. Knot the thread for basting only,
fasten thread with short running stitches and backstitches.
Basting Stitches. 1st row. Down from folded edge two
checks, under two checks, over two checks, etc. 2nd row.
Down from first row four checks, under one check over three
checks. 3rd row. Down from first row four checks, under
one check, over one check.
Running Stitches. 4th row. Down from third row four
checks. Make two stitches to a check.
Backstitching. 5th row. Down from fourth row four
checks, making stitches one eighth inch long, half way across
practice piece. The other half, make stitches one sixteenth
Combination, or running stitches with the backstitch
for every needleful. 6th row. Down from fifth row, four
checks. Make a needleful of running stitches, then a back-
stitch, then the running stitches again, and so on.
Chain Stitch. 7th row. Down from sixth row four
checks. Make each link one eighth inch long.
Catstitch. 8th row. Down from seventh row three
checks. Make stitches across two rows of checks. Start
at left-hand edge and work away from you,
40 INDUSTRIAL WORK FOR GIRLS
Feather, or Brier, Stitch. 9th row. Down from eighth
row three checks. Make stitches across two rows of checks.
Start at the right-hand edge and work toward you.
Loop Stitch. 10th row. With the lower edge toward
you, start at the left and finish edge with loop stitch. Make
stitches two checks deep and two checks apart.
2 Needlebook. (Six Lessons.)
Materials: One piece of art canvas five inches by three
inches, one piece of flannel five inches by three inches; one
tapestry needle number 22 or 23, one crewel needle number
Directions: Loop stitch the edges of the canvas cover
and the leaves. Sew the cover and leaves together with
silkateen and tie the ends into a neat bow. The cover may
be ornamented with one of the stitches learned.
Figure 26. Corner
of needlebook Figure 27. A different
cover. arrangement of cor- Figure 28. Loop at corner
ner stitches. of holder.
3 Holder. (Four Lessons.)
Materials: One piece of outing flannel six inches by
twenty-four inches, number 7 crewel needle and silkateen.
Directions: Fold the strip of outing flannel double, hav-
ing the two ends meet at the middle. Fold again. Baste
around the three edges. Loop stitch the four edges, making
the four corners alike. See needlebook cover. At one corner
make a loop of two or three threads of silkateen, then loop
stitch over them. See Figure 28,
SEWING IN RURAL SCHOOLS
Figure 29. Holder. Fold material on dotted lines.
4 Hemming Dust Cloths, Towels or Dishcloths. (Four Lessons.)
Material: A yard of cheesecloth, for the first; thirty
inches of linen toweling or a bleached flour sack if large
size, cut in two for the second; one third of a yard of linen
toweling, or a large sized bleached flour sack cut into four
squares for the third.
Directions: Turn one fourth inch hems, baste and fell.
To turn the hem, hold the material so that the raw edge is
up, turn the edge down about three sixteenths of an inch,
starting at the right hand and working toward the left, if
right-handed. Turn the material again, making a one
fourth inch hem, and covering the raw edge. Hold the ma-
terial in the same position as when turning the edge. Baste
and hem or fell. See Hemming, page 36.
5 Stockinet Darning. (Six Lessons.)
woolen hose with
yarn the same size
as in the stocking,
and cotton hose with
darning cotton the
same size as that in
the material. Have
the pupils bring their
own stockings from
home to darn. Use
number 7 crewel
Figure 30- Stockinet prepared for darning. needle for medium
42 INDUSTRIAL WORK FOR GIRLS
weight cotton and cashmere hose, number 5 or 6 for heavier
weight yarn stockings.
Directions: Cut away worn material, making a rec-
tangular hole. Starting at one corner, make one row of
running stitches around the hole about one eighth of an inch
from the edge. Draw up the thread, leaving the hole a
little larger than natural size. A knot may be avoided by
leaving the ends of the cotton rather long. Fill in the warp,
allowing two threads for each row of stitches in the stock-
inet. Care must be taken to leave the threads equally
loose. Make running stitches three sixteenths of an inch
into the stockinet at each end of the threads. When all
the warp threads are supplied, begin filling in the woof by
weaving over and under the warp threads. Always put
your needle over the threads that the needle went under
in the last row. Press the needle down close to the pre-
ceding thread to make a close darn and to avoid drawing
the woof threads too tight. Make running stitches into
the material at the sides the same as at the ends. In a
good darn there are raw edges on neither the right nor wrong
side, and the edges are smooth and soft.
6 Gingham Sewing Bag. (Eight or Nine Lessons.)
Materials: One piece of one eighth inch checked ging-
ham, twenty-four inches by eight inches; two pieces of tape,
each twenty inches long and one fourth of an inch wide.
Directions: Make a one eighth inch hem on each of
the two long edges. At each end make a two-inch hem.
Fold double, crosswise, right side in. With all edges even,
baste through the hems at the edges. Begin overhanding
the edges together just below the two-inch hems. Fasten
the thread by sewing over three eighths of an inch of the
end of it. In overhanding, make the stitches shallow,
SEWING IN RURAL SCHOOLS 43
close together, and draw the thread quite tight as you
make each stitch. Fasten the thread at the end of the
seam by making four or five stitches very close together.
Remove bastings. Turn right side out, push out corners,
and flatten out the overhand seams. Measure down one
and one half inches from the top and backstitch or use
running stitch, with a backstitch every third or fourth
stitch. This makes a one half inch casing for the tape.
Start one piece of tape at one edge of the bag and run it all
the way around. Put the other piece in, starting at the
opposite edge. Tie the two ends of each tape into a very
7 Buttonholes. (Five Lessons.)
Materials: One piece of one eighth inch checked ging-
ham five inches by four and three fourths inches, number 50
thread and number 7 needle.
Directions: At each end and on one side turn edge
down one fourth inch. Divide the width into thirds, fold
Figure 31. First stitch Figure 32. Second stitch
of buttonhole. of buttonhole.
the raw edge in, and the turned-in edge over. Baste all
four sides, keeping edges and corners even. The right-hand
portion of a woman's garment buttons over the left. Con-
sequently, the buttonholes should be worked in the right-
hand portion. Cut horizontally on the thread of the goods
a medium sized buttonhole one fourth inch in from the folded
edge. Use buttonhole scissors. Hold practice piece in
left hand so that the folded edge is to the left and the button-
INDUSTRIAL WORK FOR GIRLS
holes run along the length of the finger. Do not pull edges
far apart, because they ought to touch when the button-
hole is worked. Insert needle one eighth of an inch from
the near edge at right-hand end of buttonhole. Overhand
Figure 33. Position of
needle for button-
Figure 34. Position of
thread for button-
the edges of the near edge of buttonhole; turn the practice
piece so that the other edge becomes the near edge. Over-
hand these edges. Do not make the stitches close nor draw
the thread tight. It is best not to overhand at the ends
of buttonholes. Turn the buttonhole half way around to
its original position. At the right-hand end of the button-
hole, insert the needle one eighth of an inch from the near
edge. Take the two threads from the eye of the needle and
bring them from the right toward the left under the point
of the needle. Draw the thread quite tight. Continue
along the near edge of the buttonhole, making the stitches
close enough so that the threads barely touch one another.
The outer end of the buttonhole is fanned. It must be
Figure 35. Finished edge
Figure 36. Rounded
end, or fan, of
Figure 37. Pulling
thread to make fan.
carefully planned. One stitch extends from the end of the
buttonhole. Space the other stitches. These are farther
apart in the material and closer together at the corner of
the buttonhole than the stitches along the edge, but they
are of the same depth. After each stitch, draw the thread
SEWING IN RURAL SCHOOLS 45
tight and in the direction of the buttonhole stitch. The
little knots or purls at the end of the buttonhole must be
closely packed, one beside the other. When working the
fan, turn the piece gradually around, so that you always put
the needle in directly toward you. Continue, buttonhol-
ing the second edge in the same way as the first. Finish
the inner end of the buttonhole with a bar. Make two or
three stitches the length of the first and last stitches. Work
four or five buttonhole stitches over these threads, but do
not take in any of the cloth. Buttonholes running length-
wise in a garment are barred at both ends.
8 Sewing Apron. (Twelve Lessons.)
Materials: Use twelve and one half or fifteen cent
checked gingham. One piece, twenty-four inches by twenty-
two inches, one piece, the waist measure plus three inches
by two and one half inches, number 7 needle, and number
60 or 70 thread for basting and gathering, number 8 needle
and number 80 thread for hemming, overhanding and
backstitching; number 7 crewel needle and silkateen for the
Directions: Make a one eighth inch hem at each of
the edges of the large piece; a one and one eighth inch hem
across one end. Have the three hems face the same side.
On the right side ornament the wide hem with catstitch
or featherstitch. Hold the right side of the apron toward
you, the wide hem down. Turn this end of the apron up to
form an eight inch pocket. Baste at sides, keeping edges
of hems even, then overhand. Next remove basting threads,
press seams flat, turn pocket and push out corners. Orna-
ment the hem above the pocket with the same stitch as
used on wide hem, and continue to the bottom of the apron.
Divide the pocket into three equal sections and catstitch
or featherstitch between them. Gather apron across the
46 INDUSTRIAL WORK FOR GIRLS
top. Baste to band, having fullness
in i in imifr hang straight from the band when
m 1 111 1 1 ii ii uv^ worn. Use the backstitch when sew-
ing it on the band. This seam faces
1 portion to ee mlke b bS the wrong side, when the garment is
at end of buttonhole.
of the band and fold over this seam, just to cover the stitches;
turn in the edges of band beyond the edges of the apron,
and at the ends of the band. Baste. Overhand ends and
lower edge of the band at each side of the apron, and fell
the band down across the apron. Ornament both edges
and ends of band. Work a buttonhole in the right-hand
end of the band. Sew a button three fourths of an inch
from the other end. In sewing on a button the stitches
should extend in the same direction as the buttonhole.
The thread may be knotted, if the knot is put on the right
side so that .the button will cover it. Fasten the thread se-
curely when the button is sewed on.
9 Hemmed Patch. (Three Lessons.)
Materials: For the practice piece, or model, use one
eighth inch checked gingham, one piece six inches square,
one piece four inches square; number 7 and 8 needles, number
70 and 80 thread.
Directions: Cut the material between checks. Place
the small square in center of large square so that the warp
threads run the same direction in both pieces and so that
white stripes fall on white stripes and colored stripes fall on
colored stripes. Cut out a square in center of large square,
eight checks smaller than patch. Cut diagonally through
one check at each corner of this hole and turn back each of
four edges one check. See illustration of hemmed patch.
Place patch over the hole, matching stripes and warp. Baste
SEWING IN RURAL SCHOOLS 47
Figure 39. Preparation
patch in place, two checks in from edge.
Turn in edges of patch one check. Baste
near the turned-in edge. Turn the
other side toward you, and baste the
turned-in edge to the patch. Hem this
edge down; also hem around the patch
on the wrong side. Overcast the edge
for hemmed patch. o f mo d e l. Use the coarser needle and
thread for basting, the finer for hemming and overcasting.
10 Application of Hemmed Patch. (Three Lessons.)
Materials: A gingham or calico apron or- dress, or a grain
sack; same kind of material for patch; needles and thread
of suitable size.
Directions: Cut out the worn portions, making a square
or rectangular hole. If the material is figured, striped, or
checked, match the design before -cutting the patch. Allow
one half inch on each of the four edges of the patch. Proceed
as in the hemmed patch.
11 Hemstitched Towel. (Five Lessons.)
Materials: One yard of huckaback or linen crash; num-
ber 7 needle and number 70 thread.
Directions: Draw six threads two and three fourths
inches from each end. Turn in one fourth inch, then turn
hem and baste securely, making sure that edges are even at
ends of hem. Overhand ends of hems. Hemstitch hems.
12 Darning Three-Cornered Tear. (Three Lessons.)
Materials: A piece of light colored woolen material,
ravelings of the same material, or thread to match, a number
7 crewel needle, or a number 7 needle.
Directions: Make a three-cornered cut in a piece four
or five inches square. For the first darn the pupils should
use thread. Cut the cloth on the straight of the goods to
INDUSTRIAL WORK FOR GIRLS
get the ravelings. Use the crewel needle, if using ravelings.
The stitches making the edges meet are not removed. Sup-
ply the warp and woof threads. In crossing the cut edges
Figure 40 Making edges Figure 41 Fanned three-
of three-cornered tear cornered darn,
Figure 42 Following warp
and woof in the three-
go over one and under the other alternate times. The corner
may be fanned, or the warp and woof threads followed. To
hold down any ends of the cut threads, finish the darn with
two rows of running stitches, following the cut or tear.
Make all the stitches very short.
13 Application of Three-Cornered Darn.
(Two or More Lessons.)
Materials: Garment with three-cornered tear, ravelings
to match, number 7 crewel needle.
Directions: Darn as for the three-cornered darn in
SECOND DIVISION. OTHER YEAR.
1 Stitches. (Six Lessons.)
Materials: The same materials are used as in Number
1, Second Division, One Year, page 39.
Directions: Follow the directions given in Number 1,
Second Division, One Year.
2 Flannel Seam and Hem. (Three Lessons.)
Materials: Two pieces of white flannel each eight inches
by two and three fourths inches, numbers 7 and 8 needles,
number 70 thread, sewing silk.
SEWING IN RURAL SCHOOLS
Figure 43. The flannel
seam and hem.
Directions: Place the two pieces
together so that all edges are even.
Baste the two pieces together, the long
way, one fourth inch from edge. Sew
seam with silk, three sixteenths inch
from the edge, using the running stitch
with a backstitch for every needleful.
Baste the seam open, and catstitch. See cut for Flannel
Seam. Across one end of this practice piece turn toward the
wrong side a one and one eighth inch hem. Baste near the
folded edge; then baste hem near its upper edge. Catstitch
3 -Flannel Placket. (One Lesson.)
Materials: One piece of flannel eight inches
by five inches, number 7 and 8 needles, number
70 thread, and sewing silk.
Directions: Find the middle of either end,
and cut three and one half inches into the
material, following the thread. Hold the piece
of flannel so that the right side is toward you
and the opening at the top. On the right-hand
edge of opening make a seven eighths inch
flannel hem. On the left-hand edge make a
Figure 44. flannel hem three eighths inch wide at the top
Sde W 3 8 fla^n3 and tapering to almost nothing at the bottom.
placket. Catstitch at the bottom of placket to strengthen
it and to keep the right edge over the left.
4 Outing Flannel Petticoat. (Fourteen Lessons.)
Materials: Outing flannel, twice the desired length of
petticoat plus one third yard, one piece of muslin, the waist
measure plus two inches, by two and one half inches, number
7 needle, number 70 thread, number 7 crewel needle and silk-
50 INDUSTRIAL WORK FOR GIRLS
Directions: Cut skirt by a two or a four-gore skirt pat-
tern, allowing three inches for hem and from two to three
inches for shrinkage. Make seams and hem as directed in
Number 2 of this year's work. Cut a nine-inch placket in
middle of back gore. Make the placket as directed in
Number 3 of this year's work. If a sewing machine is obtain-
able, the seams and band may be stitched on the machine,
but must be done under the teacher's supervision. Use the
silkateen for the catstitching. Find center front of the
skirt and the band. Pin these two points together, lay the
extra fullness in plaits at the back, and pin at the seams,
making the opposite ones equidistant from the center front.
Baste the skirt together. This seam faces the wrong side of
the petticoat. Sew the skirt to the band, using the back-
stitch and making the seam one fourth inch wide. Remove
the basting thread. With the wrong side of the band
toward you, turn the other edge of the band down one fourth
inch. Fold the band toward the wrong side, just to cover
the back stitching, pin in place, turn in the ends of the band,
at least one fourth inch, and baste in place. Overhand the
ends of the band and hem the lower edge of the band in
place. See Number 6, for button and buttonholes.
5 Buttonhole Practice. (Two Lessons.)
Materials: The same as in Number 7, Second Division,
One Year, page 43.
Directions: The same as in Number 7, Second Divi-
sion, One Year.
6 Making Buttonholes in the Band and Sewing Button
on the Band of the Outing Flannel Petticoat.
(One to Three Lessons.)
Materials: Outing flannel petticoat, number 7 needle,
number 50 thread, one pearl or vegetable ivory button.
SEWING IN RURAL SCHOOLS 51
Directions: Cut one buttonhole in the right end of
the band a little below the middle. Work as directed
above. Make buttonholes in the band to correspond
with the buttons on the underwaist with which the petti-
coat will be worn. Bar these buttonholes at both ends.
Sew on the button one half inch from the other end and
slightly below the center of the band. See last part of
Number 8, Second Division, One Year, page 45.
7 Flannel Patch. (Two Lessons.)
Materials: Two pieces of flannel, one six inches square,
one four inches square, number 7 needle, number 70 thread,
and sewing silk.
Directions: Cut a hole three inches square in center
of large square to represent the worn portion. Place evenly
over the hole, having the wrong sides of both pieces
toward you. Baste near the edge of the patch, and near
the edge of the hole. Catstitch patch in place and around
the edge of hole.
8 Application of Flannel Patch. (Two Lessons.)
Materials: A flannel garment, a piece to match for the
patch, sewing silk to match, number 7 needle, number 70
thread, sewing silk.
Directions: Cut away the worn portions making hole
rectangular, if possible. Cut patch one inch larger each
way than the hole. Proceed as in Number 7.
9 Three-Cornered Darn. (Three Lessons.)
Materials: Same as in Number 12, Second Division,
One Year, page 47.
Directions: Same as in Number 12, Second Division,
10 Application of Three-Cornered Darn. (Two Lessons.)
Materials: Same as in Number 13, Second Division,
One Year, page 48.
52 INDUSTRIAL WORK FOR GIRLS
Directions: Same as in Number 13, Second Division,
11 Double Hemstitched Towel. (Six Lessons.)
Materials: Same as in Number 11, Second Division,
One Year, page 47. Or use one and one half, or one and
three fourths yards of material, and make a dresser scarf.
Directions: Same as in Number 11, Second Division,
One Year. Hemstitch along the other edge of the space
where threads have been drawn. Take the same threads
to a stitch as were taken in opposite stitch of the single
12 Plain Seam. (One Lesson.)
Materials: Two pieces of gingham, each eight inches
by three inches, number 7 needle, number 70 thread.
Directions: Baste these two pieces together, one fourth
inch from edge. Use the running stitch with a backstitch
for each needleful in sewing them together. Remove
the basting thread, trim the edges, if raveled, and overcast
the two edges together.
13 Gingham Holder. (Three Lessons.)
Materials: One piece of gingham, calico or percale,
twelve and one half inches by six and one half inches, four
thicknesses of sheet wadding five and seven eighths inches
square, number 7 needle, number 70 thread, silkateen.
Directions: Turn in edges of piece of gingham one
fourth inch. Fold double, crosswise, crease and insert
wadding. Baste, keeping corners and edges even. Over-
hand edges. Make two rows of running stitches, at right
angles to each other at the center, to hold the wadding
in place. Finish with a loop at one corner, as directed in
Number 3, Second Division, One Year, page 40.
SEWING IN RURAL SCHOOLS 53
14 Gingham Work Apron. (Sixteen Lessons.)
Materials: Apron gingham, twice the desired length
plus one half yard, number 7 needle, number 70 thread.
Directions: Remove selvages, cut off
a three-inch strip the entire length of
piece of goods. Cut from the three-inch
I strip the ties, each twenty-seven inches
Figure 45. Diagram long. The band is the waist measure
showing how to cut . -11 i i if
out apron. less two inches by two and one half
inches, and is cut from the remaining portion of the three-
inch strip. Cut the large piece crosswise into equal parts.
Cut one of these pieces, lengthwise, into halves. The large
piece is the front, and the two narrow pieces are the side-
pieces of the apron. On each edge of the ties and one edge
of each of the sidepieces of the apron make a one eighth
inch hem. Make plain seams in apron, a three-inch hem
at the bottom of the apron, and a one-inch hem at one end
of each tie. Gather the apron across the top and gather
each tie at the end not hemmed. Sew apron and ties to the
band. See Sewing Apron, Number 8, Second Division, One
Year, page 45.
THIRD DIVISION ONE YEAR
1 Laundry Bag. (Six Lessons.)
Materials: One and one half yards of white linen
crash toweling, three yards of three eighths inch tape, num-
ber 7 needle, number 70 thread.
Directions: Make a two-inch hem at each end of the
piece of toweling. In the hem make a row of backstitches
one half inch from the hemmed edge, thus forming a casing
for the tape. Fold double, crosswise. With edges on each
side even and the hems even, baste together the edges on
each side, beginning just below hem. Overhand edges
together on each side. Fasten thread by sewing over the
54 INDUSTRIAL WORK FOR GIRLS
end of it. Remove the basting threads and turn right
side out, push out corners, and smooth out overhand seams.
Cut tape in two. Draw it into casing, starting one piece
at each side and bring each all the way around. Sew up
the two ends of each tape, making a felled seam. See
Number 4, of this year's work.
2 Overhand Patch. (Two Lessons.)
Materials: Two pieces of one eighth inch checked
gingham, one six inches by six inches, one four inches by
four inches, number 7 needle and number 70 thread.
Directions: Match stripes and warp and
cut away the supposedly worn portion as in
Number 9, Second Division, One Year, page
46. Cut diagonally through two checks
at each corner of the hole. Turn the
Figure 46. Over- edges on each side of the hole down two
hand patch show- , .. .
ing details of the checks. Lay the piece thus prepared on the
desk wrong side up. Place the patch evenly
over the hole, matching stripes and warp. Turn the edges
down two checks on each side of patch. (When turning an
edge always turn it toward yourself.) Then place the patch
in the space it is to fill, matching stripes and warp. Baste
together the two edges that touch, the wrong sides out, and
overhand these two edges together. Then remove the bast-
ing thread, baste the two adjacent edges, overhand, and so
continue around the patch. Press the overhand seam as
smooth as possible and overcast all the raw edges.
3 Application of the Overhand Patch. (Three Lessons.)
Materials: A garment in need of mending, a piece of
the same material, number 7 needle and number 70 thread
for basting, needle and thread or silk suitable to use with
material in garment.
SEWING IN RURAL SCHOOLS 55
Directions: Remove worn portion, making a square or
rectangular hole; fit the patch to it, matching the design and
warp; and cut the patch one half inch larger than the hole
on each of four edges. Proceed as in Number 2 of this
4 Felled Seam. (One Lesson.)
Materials: Two pieces of outing flannel, eight inches
by three inches, number 7 needle and number 70 thread.
Directions: Place one of the pieces on the other, so
that the ends are even and the one long edge of the under
piece extends three sixteenths of an inch beyond the edge of
the upper piece. Baste one half inch from the edge farthest
out. Stitch just outside of the basting. Remove the bast-
ing thread. Turn in the wider edge one fourth inch; then
turn this part of the seam flat over the narrow edge of seam
and baste the turned-in edge to the material. Stitch very
close to the turned-in edge.
5 Outing Flannel Nightgown. (Ten Lessons.)
Materials: Three times the required length plus one
yard of outing flannel, number 7 needle, number 70 thread
and a sack nightgown pattern.
Directions: Cut out all parts, allowing for the growth
of the individual and shrinkage of the material. Make
felled seam on the shoulder, under the arm and in the sleeve,
having the back come over the front. Hem fronts the
desired length for opening. Stitch the two fronts together
below opening. Hem the lower edge of sleeve and gown.
Gather the sleeves at the top, and baste them into the
armhole. If the sleeves are in correctly, stitch them, mak-
ing a half-inch seam. Remove the basting thread and over-
cast the two edges together. Baste this half-inch seam to
the adjoining parts of the gown, stitch again one fourth
56 INDUSTRIAL WORK FOR GIRLS
inch from the overcast edge. Cut one piece as for a lay-
down collar; sew it to the gown around the neck, with the
seam toward the right side. Remove the basting thread,
turn collar toward the right side of gown, and baste around
the neck. Turn in the edge of the collar and baste it to the
6 Buttonholes. Review. (One Lesson.)
Materials: The materials are the same as given in
Number 7, Second Division, One Year, page 43.
Directions: The directions for making the buttonholes
are the same as given in Number 7, Second Division, One
7 Buttonholes and Buttons. (Three Lessons.)
Materials: Nightgown (see Number 5, of this year's
work), number 7 needle, number 50 thread, and six half-
inch pearl buttons.
Directions: Work six buttonholes as directed in Number
7, Second Division, One Year, page 43, in the right-hand
portion of the front of the nightgown. Sew buttons as
directed in Number 6, Second Division, Other Year, page
50, on the left-hand portion of the front of the gown to
correspond with the buttonholes.
8 Stockinet Darning. (Six Lessons.)
Materials: The materials are the same as given in
Number 5, Second Division, One Year, page 41.
Directions: The directions are the same as given in
Number 5, Second Division, One Year.
9 Sleevelets. (Three Lessons.)
Materials: One half yard of thirty-six inch wide muslin
or India linen, needle and thread to correspond with material.
A "leg-of-mutton" sleeve pattern with but one seam.
SEWING IN RURAL SCHOOLS
Directions: Cut sleevelets sufficiently large to go on
over dress sleeves and to reach from the wrist past the elbow,
allowing for a three fourths inch hem at the lower edge,
and a three eighths inch hem at the upper edge. Make a
French seam in sewing the sleeve, and hem the upper and
10 Hemming Curved Edge. (One Lesson.)
Materials: One piece of fine muslin or India linen,
seven inches by seven inches, number 7 or 8 needle, number
70 or 80 thread.
Directions: Choosing any one corner as the center, with
seven inches as a radius, cut an arc of a circle. Turn, and
baste a hem less than one eighth inch wide. Hem.
11 Cap. (Four Lessons.)
Materials: One half yard of fine muslin or India linen,
number 7 needle, number 70 thread, number 9 needle, and
number 90 thread, and one piece of elastic to fit head.
Directions: Cut a circle eighteen inches in diameter
from the muslin. To cut a true bias fold the material so
that the warp threads fall on the woof threads,
then cut on the fold. Cut one and one half
yards of bias strips seven eighths of an inch
wide. Make a one eighth inch hem around
the cap. Turn each edge of the bias strip one
eighth inch under and baste it at each edge two
inches from the edge, on the wrong side of the
cap. Cut off the extra amount of the bias
strip, allow enough with which to hem each end
and stitch bias strip at each edge to the cap.
12 Application of Patches and Darns. (Two to Six Lessons.)
Materials: See Number 5, Number 10 and Number
13, Second Division, One Year; Number 8, Second Divi-
a true bias.
58 INDUSTRIAL WORK FOR GIRLS
sion, Other Year; and Number 3, Third Division, One Year.
Directions: For directions see the same numbers as
for the materials.
13 Tray Cloth or Doily. (Four Lessons.)
Materials: One piece of medium fine linen of the
desired size, number 7 needle, number 70 thread.
Directions: Draw six threads one and one half inches
from each edge. See cut of miter, Number 5, Third Divi-
sion, Other Year. Baste hems and double hemstitch as
in Number 11, Second Division, Other Year, page 52.
14 Buttonholes. (Four Lessons.)
Materials: Garments brought from home, needle and
thread of suitable sizes, the thread to match the color of
Directions: For directions see Number 7, Second Divi-
sion, One Year, page 43.
THIRD DIVISION. OTHER YEAR
1 French and Felled Seams. (Two Lessons.)
Materials: Three pieces of muslin or gingham, each
eight inches by three inches, numbers 7 and 8 needles,
numbers 70 and 80 thread.
Directions: For the French seam, baste the long edges
of two pieces one fourth inch from the edge. Sew one eighth
inch from the edge. Remove the basting thread, and trim
the edges slightly, to remove all frayed edges. Turn the
other side of material toward you and baste the seam just
made within the seam. Stitch this seam one eighth inch
from edge. For the felled seam, see directions for Number
4, Third Division, One Year, page 55. Make it one
eighth of an inch wide.
SEWING IN RURAL SCHOOLS 59
2 Long Sleeved Apron. (Six Lessons.)
Materials: Three times the length from shoulder to
bottom of skirt plus one yard of gingham or print. If
percale is used, add one half yard to three times the re-
quired length. Number 7 needle, number 70 thread and
a long sleeved apron pattern with straight lines.
Directions: Cut out apron, allowing for shrinkage of
cloth and growth of child. Make French seams, remem-
bering that the first time they are basted toward the right
side of the material. Sew in the sleeves; finish the neck
and bottom the same as the nightgown, when the two
edges in the back have been hemmed. Make two pockets,
each seven inches by six inches. Sew one pocket on each
side of the front of the apron.
3 Buttonholes in Apron. (Four Lessons.)
Materials: Apron, number 7 needle, number 50 thread,
and eight one half inch pearl buttons.
Directions: See Number 7, Second Division, One Year,
page 43, and Number 7, Third Division, One Year, page 56.
4 Marguerite. (Seven Lessons.)
Materials: One yard of muslin, two yards of lace with
beading, one piece of linen tape three sixteenths inch wide,
number 7 and 8 needles, number 70 and 90 thread, and
corset cover pattern.
Directions: In cutting out the material remember the
marguerite slips on over the head, and that it is best not to
cut it very low around the neck. Make a felled seam on
the shoulder, a French seam under the arm, and a one
eighth inch hem at the bottom, around the neck, and at the
armholes. Make a felled seam when joining the lace. Sew
the lace around the neck and armholes with the overhand
stitch. Full the lace slightly under the arm in front of the
60 INDUSTRIAL WORK FOR GIRLS
under-arm seam. Have the right sides of the marguerite
and of the lace face each other, with the lace on the thumb
side, the side nearest you. Prepare a bias fold as directed
in Number 9, Second Division, One Year, to fit across the
back at the waistline. Baste in place and stitch. Draw
a piece of tape long enough to tie around the waist through
the casing formed by the bias fold. Draw the tape into the
beading and tie.
6 French Hem and Miter. (One Lesson.)
Materials: A seven-inch square of medium fine linen,
numbers 7 and 8 needles, numbers 70 and 80 thread, and a
four-inch square of stiff paper.
Directions: From one corner of the paper,
measure five eighths of an inch on each side,
connect these two points with a straight line,
and cut along this line. Cut one corner of
square by this pattern. Turn each of the ad-
joining edges one eighth of an inch, then a one
fourth inch hem. Baste near the turned-in edge.
Fold the hem back on one side and overhand the two folded
edges. In a similar manner hem the other side adjacent to
the mitered corner. Hem the miter at the corner.
6 Application of French Hem. (Six Lessons.)
Materials: Two napkins brought from home, numbers
7 and 8 needles, and numbers 70 and 80 thread.
Directions: Napkins have selvages on two edges. Cut
the other two edges straight by the thread. Make a one
fourth inch French hem at each of these two edges.
7 Gingham Underskirt. (Eight Lessons.)
Materials: Twice the skirt length plus three fourths of
a yard of striped gingham, number 7 needle, numbers 70
SEWING IN RURAL SCHOOLS 61
and 50 thread, one medium-sized pearl button, and a plain
five-gore skirt pattern.
Directions: Cut the gores two inches shorter than the
desired length, three pieces across the material, each five
and a half inches deep, for the ruffle, one piece, the waist
measure plus two inches by two and a half inches for the
band, one piece twenty inches by two and a half inches, for
the extension placket, and enough bias strips to face edge
of ruffle and to finish seam at upper edge of ruffle. Make
French seams in skirt, leave a nine and a half inch placket
at the top of the back seam, join with plain seams the three
pieces of the ruffle and the bias strips. To face one edge
of the ruffle with the bias strip, put the right side of bias to
the wrong side of the ruffle, having their edges even, baste
and stitch three sixteenths of an inch from edge. Remove
the basting thread, turn the bias strip toward the right side
of ruffle, baste at the edge, and turn under the upper edge
of the bias strip. Baste and sew at the upper edge. Divide
the ruffle into quarters and notch it; then gather it at its
upper edge. Divide the lower edgb of the skirt into quar-
ters, starting at center back. Pin ruffle and skirt together
at notches, the wrong sides together. Baste the two,
arranging the gathers evenly. Then baste the bias strip to
the ruffle side of the seam just basted, having the right side
of the bias strip face ruffle. Stitch, and remove the basting
threads. Turn the bias over the seam and baste at its
lower edge. Finish as at lower edge of the ruffle. To
make the extension placket, place the piece cut for it on the
wrong side of the skirt; starting at the upper end of the right-
hand portion of the placket opening, baste in place; taking
particular care at the lower end of the placket, sew; remove
the basting thread; turn the other edge one fourth of an
inch and bring it over the seam to just cover the stitches.
62 INDUSTRIAL WORK FOR GIRLS
Baste, sew, and remove basting thread. To sew the skirt
to the band, first notch the middle front of the skirt. Then
notch the band one and one fourth inches to one side of the
middle. Place the band on the wrong side of the skirt.
Pin the notches together, with the longer portion toward
the left side of the skirt. At the back pin the skirt to the
band, the left portion of placket extended, and the right
portion turned back. Dispose of the extra fullness by gath-
ering or laying it in plaits, whichever way is the most de-
sirable. Remember that the skirt must hang straight from
the band. Baste, and stitch the skirt to the band. Con-
tinue as directed in Number 4, Second Division, Other Year,
page 49. Work a buttonhole in the right-hand end of the
band and sew the button on the band at the left-hand
end. Have the ends of the band overlap the width of
the extension placket one inch.
8 Muslin Nightgown. (Eight Lessons.)
Materials: Twice the length from the shoulder, at the
neck, to the floor, plus one half yard of thirty-six inch mus-
lin, two yards of lace with beading, one piece of one fourth
inch linen tape, numbers 7 and 8 needles, numbers 70 and
80 thread, and a nightgown pattern.
Directions: The pattern used in Number 5, Third Di-
vision, One Year, could be used, or a nightgown pattern
with butterfly sleeves. One third yard less material is re-
quired for the pattern with butterfly sleeves. If the pattern
mentioned first is used, allow two inches at the center for
fullness. Add three inches for hem to the required length.
If it is necessary to piece the front on each side at the bot-
tom, make plain seams. (Make felled seams on the shoulder
and French seams under the arm and in the sleeve.) Make
a three-inch hem at the bottom, and a one eighth inch hem
SEWING IN RURAL SCHOOLS 63
around the neck and at the lower edge of sleeves which are
of elbow length. Gather the sleeves at the top. Baste
sleeves into armholes, and fit them. If the sleeves fit prop-
erly, sew them, making a three eighths inch seam. Over-
cast the raw edges, putting a stitch through each of the
gathers. Sew on the lace as directed in Number 4 of this
year's work. There are, of course, no separate sleeves, if
the butterfly pattern is used.
9 Sofa Cushion Cover. (Four Lessons.)
Materials: Two pieces of linen or cretonne twenty-two
inches by eighteen inches, two pieces each twenty-two inches
by two and a half inches, thread to match, number 7 needle,
number 70 thread, arid four clasps.
Directions: Face, with the narrow strips, one edge of
each of the large pieces. Place the two large pieces with the
faced edges together and the right sides so as to face each
other. Baste and sew one fourth inch from the edge at
the ends and the side not faced. Remove basting threads,
trim slightly the two corners just stitched, turn, and push
out the corners. Baste near the edge of the three stitched
sides; baste a second time two and one eighth inches from
the edge; and stitch two inches from the edge. Sew the
clasps near the hemmed edges of the facings at the opening.
The top may be ornamented with a stenciled design, cro-
cheted motifs, or embroidery, if cover is of plain material.
Patterns may be altered. A plain gored skirt pattern, if
it is too long, may be shortened by laying a plait across each
gore at half the distance down from the top. Have the
edges even at the front or the part of the pattern that will
come on the straight of the goods. If the pattern is too
large around the hips, lay equal sized plaits lengthwise
64 INDUSTRIAL WORK FOR GIRLS.
through the middle of each gore. Sleeve patterns are re-
duced in a similar manner. If a plain waist pattern is ''long
waisted," determine whether the extra length is above or
below the bust line or both. Shorten the pattern where
it is too long. If a pattern is too wide across the shoulder,
make a lengthwise plait through the middle of that por-
tion, and, if too wide under the arm, do the same there.
If a pattern is too narrow or too short, determine where to
enlarge. See above how to reduce. Cut the pattern and
insert a strip of paper of the required width.
Wash goods of linen or cotton and woolen goods should
be shrunk before making up. A tablespoonful of salt added
to each quart of lukewarm water used when shrinking
the wash goods sets the color. When pressing the mate-
rial keep the edges straight.
If the material is figured, checked or plaid, decide which
is up and which is down and cut all parts the same way.
1 Pair of Drawers
Materials: Muslin, twice the length from the waist-
line to the bent knee plus six inches, two and a half yards of
five-inch or six-inch embroidery, thread and needles of suit-
able sizes, and a good pattern.
Directions: Tear off a strip of the material at one end
to straighten it, and pull the goods straight, if it seems
uneven. Turn up the lower edge of the pattern five or six
inches, the width of the embroidery. Place pattern on goods
with its lower edge on the straight end of the cloth and cut
one part. To cut the corresponding part, use the piece
just cut, placing the woof threads in it on the woof threads
of the larger piece of cloth. Cut two pieces, one for the
placket and one for the band the same as in Number 7,
Third Division, Other Year. W^hen sewing the (short)
seam in each of the two large portions, make a felled seam.
SEWING IN RURAL SCHOOLS 65
Join with a felled seam the two portions, which should be
pairs, having the two short seams meet.
If the placket is desired at the back, leave the length of
it when sewing this seam. Or, the placket may be made at
either side. Make the placket and sew skirt to the band
as in Number 7, Third Division, Other Year. Turn up the
lower edge five eighths of an inch toward the wrong side.
Baste near folded edge. Stitch, making a three sixteenths
inch tuck. Cut the embroidery into two equal pieces, trim
upper edge, if it is uneven. Match the pattern and join
with a plain seam. For convenience later, divide each
flounce into fourths, starting at the seam, marking the
upper edge with a notch or pin. Gather each flounce.
Divide the lower edges of drawers into fourths, starting at
the seams. Pin a flounce to the raw edge of each portion,
placing seams together, also wrong sides, and notches.
Baste, arranging gathers uniformly, stitch each three six-
teenths of an inch from edge and remove basting threads.
Turn the seam up and baste the tuck down over it and
baste the tuck in place. Stitch in the very edge of the tuck.
Finish the band with a button and buttonhole.
2 Wash Dress
Materials: Select material that will launder nicely and
that is suitable to the wear you wish to give the dress and
of becoming color, the correct size of a simple pattern, of
suitable style for a wash dress, thread to match the ma-
terial, and buttons or No. 2 hooks and eyes.
Directions: Styles change so frequently that but few
general directions can be given. Study and follow direc-
tions with the pattern. Fit pattern, alter if necessary, and
lay all parts of it on the goods before beginning to cut. It
is sometimes necessary to rearrange the parts of the pat-
66 INDUSTRIAL WORK FOR GIRLS
tern in order to cut goods economically. Make French
or plain seams in skirt depending on the material, an ex-
tension placket as in Number 7, Third Division, Other Year.
Baste the skirt to the band. See that the seams in the
skirt hang straight, that it does not pull anywhere and that
it is even at the bottom. Finish the band neatly at the
ends, being careful to make the two edges of the placket the
same length. When turning the hem, dispose of the fullness
of its upper edge by laying a small plait in the part of each
gore that is on a bias. If one plait disposes of fullness but
makes the skirt longer at that place, make two a small
distance apart. The lower edge of a plain gored skirt is
uniformly curved, if the hem is turned correctly and no
unusual alterations have been made to make it fit. Finish
the waist neatly at the neck, the bottom, the lower edge of
the sleeves, and where it fastens. When putting in the
fasteners, whether it be buttons and buttonholes, or hooks
and eyes, make sure that they will fullfill their purpose of
keeping the garment properly adjusted. If the dress re-
quires a belt or girdle, sew fasteners in it.
REFERENCES FOR SEWING
Books: How We Are Clothed, Chamberlain; Clothing and Other
Textiles, Carpenter; Great American Industries, Manufactories, Roch-
leau; Shelter and Clothing, Kinne and Cooley; Textiles, Dooley;
Textiles, Woolman and McGowan; Sewing Tablet Series, Blair.
Farmers' Bulletins, Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.:
Flax for Seed and Fiber, No. 27; Silkworm Culture, No. 165; Angora
Goat, No. 137; Sea Island Cotton, No. 302.
Minnesota Farmers' Library: Industrial Contests for Boys and
Girls, No. 3; Flax Growing, No. 27; Rural School Agriculture, No. 2,
PRINCIPLES OF HOME SCIENCE
It is not the intention of the authors to advocate that
laboratory work should be done in one-room schools. The
general principles here discussed are such as all girls should
understand, however, and the school lessons may be sup-
plemented by home work in cooking. Such an arrange-
ment will not be difficult to carry out in small schools.
Semigraded and consolidated rural schools should provide
for laboratory work.
HUMAN BODY AND STEAM ENGINE COMPARED
In comparing the human body with a steam engine we
find that they are similar in that both require fuel to pro-
duce heat and energy, or power to work. The body uses
food for fuel and the engine uses wood or coal. They are
similar in that both require material for building and re-"
pairing their several parts. The engine is built of different
material from that which it uses for fuel. The body may
consume its own materials to produce heat and energy, if
necessary. The growth, or development, and uses of the
various organs, such as the heart, lungs, etc., depend upon
the nutrition of the body.
The uses of food are (1) to build the body and keep it
repaired, and (2) to yield heat to keep the body warm and
to supply energy for work. At water says, "Food is that
which taken into the body builds tissue and yields heat and
FOOD PRINCIPLES, OR NUTRIENTS
The body is composed of from fifteen to twenty elements.
The most abundant are oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, cal-
68 INDUSTRIAL WORK FOR GIRLS
cium, phosphorus and sulphur. These elements form a
number of compounds, the most important being carbohy-
drates, protein, fats, mineral matter and water. These
compounds occur in the body and, obviously, they are also
found in the food which builds the body. The first four com-
pounds are often referred to as the food principles, or nu-
trients. Water is not classified as a nutrient, because it
does not build tissues or yield heat. It is, however, a very
important constituent of food. Each of the food principles
has a special function, or use, in the body.
Carbohydrates, such as starches and sugars, yield heat and
energy. Vegetables, cereals and fruits supply the carbohy-
drates, with the exception of milk sugar which is found in
milk. Each particle of starchy foods, such as cereals, pota-
toes, etc., contains a mass of minute starch grains. Each
starch granule is surrounded by woody fiber, called cellulose.
Such foods as potatoes, oatmeal, cornmeal, macaroni, rice,
etc., should be cooked to soften the cellulose and permit the
starch grains to swell and burst. About 1 per cent of the
weight of the human body is composed of carbohydrates.
Vegetables. Select firm vegetables and wash clean. Po-
tatoes, parsnips and other roots and tubers should be pared
or scraped, and cut as desired. For creamed dishes, they are
usually cut into half-inch cubes or one-eighth inch slices.
Place in cold water to prevent discoloration. Put to cook
in boiling water, usually j ust enough to cover the vegetables.
Cook strong flavored vegetables uncovered. Parboil strong
flavored vegetables, drain and add more boiling water.
When vegetables are about half-cooked, add a tablespoonful
of salt for each quart of water in which they are being cooked.
Cook vegetables until tender. A time-table is suggestive.
PRINCIPLES OF HOME SCIENCE 69
The variety, quality and age of vegetables make the differ-
ence in the length of time it takes to cook them. As soon as
they are cooked, drain off the liquid and save it, if it is to be
used. Cover the vegetables with several thicknesses of
clean cloth, that the steam may escape, but the heat be
retained. If a cover is placed over the kettle, the steam
remains in it, which, as it cools, makes the vegetables soggy.
Use the liquid in which vegetables are cooked when making
cream soups or creaming vegetables.
In the process of cooking, the water dissolves the nutri-
ents, and flavors are withdrawn from the vegetables. Before
combining the vegetable and the liquid in which the vege-
table has been cooked with milk or white sauce, add soda
if the vegetable is acid, as tomato or cabbage, the amount
depending upon the acidity of the liquid. Otherwise, the
milk will curdle.
Cereals. Like vegetables, cereals are put to cook in
boiling water. Use from two and one half to five parts of
water to one part of the cereal, as cereals need to absorb much
water in the process of cooking, because they contain but a
small amount. Cook cereals in salty water directly over
the fire for the first ten minutes, stirring occasionally, so
that the mixture does not stick to the bottom of the kettle
or to the upper part of the double boiler. Place in the lower
part of the double boiler in which is boiling water, or in a
fireless cooker, and continue cooking for a long time. Long
slow cooking is necessary on account of the large amount of
cellulose that cereals contain. This must be softened. Use
from one to one and one half tablespoonfuls of salt to one
quart of water.
Fruits. With the exception of quinces and cranberries,
fruits are eaten mostly in the fresh state. Use only sound,
ripe specimens. Unripe fruit is not very digestible, unless
70 INDUSTRIAL WORK FOR GIRLS
cooked, and overripe fruit lacks flavor. Serve fresh fruits in
season and serve them cold. Cooked fruits are usually
either baked or stewed. Baking is used with large whole
fruits, such as apples, pears and bananas. Stewing may be
used for all kinds of fruits. Dried fruits, such as prunes, figs,
apples, apricots, etc., should be soaked in fresh water for
several hours before cooking.
The protein compounds are the most important nutrients.
They are the muscle builders and assist in the building of the
body tissue. About 18 per cent, by weight, of the body of
the average person consists of protein compounds. These
compounds contain nitrogen.
The chief sources of protein are eggs, lean meat, milk,
cheese, legumes and cereals. Some of the protein compounds
and their sources are albumin in egg white, albumin and myo-
sin in meat, casein, or curd, in milk, legumin in peas and
beans and gluten in wheat. The protein-supplying vege-
tables are the cheapest source of food for muscle building.
Eggs. There is no waste to eggs except the shells. If
properly cooked, or not cooked at all, the egg is readily
digested. Heat coagulates the albumen, or the egg white, and
cold water dissolves it. If intense heat is used, the white
becomes tough. The yolk and white of egg are evenly
cooked if a temperature below the boiling point of water,
212F., is used.
The following is a simple test for eggs to be used for the
table or in cooking: Place the egg in a tumbler two thirds
full of water. If it sinks and lies horizontally on the bottom
of the tumbler, it is suitable for poaching or soft or hard
cooking. If the large end of the egg is raised a little,
the egg is not strictly fresh. If the large end is raised
PRINCIPLES OF HOME SCIENCE
Figure 49. Eggs in cartons, the neatest
and most attractive way to sell or buy.
considerably more, the
egg is not suitable for the
table, but can be used in
cooking. If the egg
comes to the top, it is
not fit for food.
To hard- cook an egg
proceed as for "Soft-
cooked Eggs" in the hot
lunch recipes, Chapter V.
At the end of ten min-
utes, remove from the
hot water and cover with
boiling water. Let "the
egg remain in this water for ten minutes. Keep dish where
the water will keep hot but not boil. Remove from the hot
water and place in cold water for a second or two, so that the
egg white will not stick to the eggshell.
Eggs can be used with a large number of food materials,
because their flavor is not pronounced and, therefore, blends
readily with other flavors. When combining egg with a
hot mixture of any kind, add the mixture slowly to the
beaten egg, while stirring, in order to cook the egg slowly.
Egg is used to make mixtures light with enclosed air by beat-
ing the egg yolk and white separately, or by adding the egg
to the mixture and beating until light. The first method
will produce the most feathery product; the second, the finer
grained, but more compact. Egg mixtures, as well as eggs,
should be cooked slowly and not longer than necessary.
Cakes containing a large quantity of eggs shrink, if baked too
long. If custards are steamed or baked too long, or with
too intense heat, whey will form. Directions for making
custards are given in recipes in Chapter V. Eggs are used to
INDUSTRIAL WORK FOR GIRL8
thicken liquids, as pudding sauces. They are also used to
clear liquids. To clear beef brolh, stir the white of egg,
slightly beaten, into the lukewarm broth and allow it to
come to a boil. Egg white is used to clear coffee, as given in
the directions for making coffee with egg, page 94.
Lean Meat. Meats are the most expensive of the pro-
tein-supplying foods, on account of the high cost of pro-
duction and the length of time necessary to cook them.
Only s the lean of meat supplies protein. This chapter
permits only a brief and general discussion. The kinds of
meats are beef, veal, mutton, lamb, pork, game and poultry.
The flavor and tenderness of certain cuts of each kind of
meat make them at least seem more desirable. They are
more desirable to those who can spend but a few minutes on
the preparation of their meats. Refer to the figures rep-
resenting the different cuts of meat. Start at the loin,
which is regarded the choicest on account of the flavor and
Figure 50. Diagram of cuts of beef.
G. Fore shank.
/. Cross ribs.
N. Second cut round.
(>. Hind shank.
PRINCIPLES OF HOME SCIENCE
Figure 51. Diagram of cuts of veal.
tenderness. The cuts at either side are less tender, and the
farther from the loin, the tougher, as the neck, the shin and
the shank. The food value, the amount of protein supplied,
is practically the same regardless of the location of the cut,
from the same kind of meat.
Figure 52. Diagram of cuts of lamb and mutton.
INDUSTRIAL WORK FOR GIRLS.
In-ordjer to render the tougher and less pleasantly flav-
ored cuts of meat palatable, one must understand the effect
of heat and moisture upon meat. Albumin coagulates when
heat is applied, and it dissolves in cold water. The tissue
which surrounds the fibres and bundles of fibers that make
up the muscles and encloses the muscle itself is called con-
nective tissue. The muscles taper toward the ends where
there is more and stronger connective tissue, gradually
forming the tendons. The tendons attach the muscles to
the bony frame. When a muscle shortens, it contracts
through the largest part of it, and some part of the body
moves. The muscles receiving the most exercise are the
strongest and are, consequently, the toughest on account
of the large amount of connective tissue in them. When
dry heat is applied to meat, the connective tissue is hardened.
Moist heat softens it. Keeping these facts in mind and
applying them when cooking meats, one need not have
If we wish to broil or roast meats, we must have tender
cuts, because we apply dry heat. See "Methods of Cook-
ing," page 84. Upon the cutting and cooking of a beef-
steak, depend its tenderness. Only tender cuts, the loin
Figure 53. Diagram of cuts of pork.
1. Head. 5. Belly.
2. Shoulder. 6. Ham.
3. Ribs. 7. Loin.
4. Middle cut.
PRINCIPLES OF HOME SCIENCE 75
and one or two steaks cut from the round of young, well-
fed beef, can be broiled to advantage. The steak should
be cut at least an inch thick. The heat should be sufficient
to sear the cut surfaces quickly and the steak should be turned
frequently to apply the heat evenly to both sides. When
the meat is seared, the albumin near the surface is coagu-
lated. This coat of coagulated albumin retains the juices
of the interior. Now, if the steak is cut thin, when the
surfaces are seared, all the albumin is coagulated the
exterior coat extends from each side to the center of the cut
and there are no juices left to produce a juicy, tender steak.
If a roast is to be cooked in the oven, its cut surfaces must
be seared in order to retain the juices. This can be done
either by searing it in a pan on top of the stove, or the oven
may be very hot when it is put into it, and the heat de-
creased when the meat is seared.
The tough cuts of meat should be treated in just the
opposite way cooked with moist heat and put to cook in
cold water, so rione of the albumin will be coagulated in the
meat. The tougher cuts of meat require more seasoning,
and sometimes small quantities of vegetables are added to
improve and vary the flavor. The less choice cuts of beef
are often chopped, as Hamburg steak, meat loaf, etc. In
this manner the connective tissue is cut into very short pieces.
Pork, veal, mutton, lamb, poultry and game should not
be cooked rare. They are more wholesome when thor-
Milk and Cheese. Mijk and cheese belong to the
protein-supplying foods. Clean milk is essential to good
health. In order to have clean milk, the milk cans, pails,
pans and bottles everything in which milk may be kept
must be thoroughly washed, rinsed and scalded. The
76 INDUSTRIAL WORK FOR GIRLS
milk should be cooled to remove the animal heat and then
kept in a clean, cool and fresh place.
Milk is more easily digested if not boiled. It is pasteur-
ized, scalded and sterilized to kill different kinds of disease
germs, such as those of tuberculosis, typhoid and diph-
theria. On account of its nutritive value, milk should be
used in the preparation of other foods with which it is com-
patible. Milk is sometimes called a perfect food. It is,
for the young. While it contains all the nutrients, milk
is not a perfect food for adults, as too large quantities would
be required to supply the solids necessary. Even the best
milk is very largely water.
Cheese, being a milk product that consists almost en-
tirely of the curd, or casein, should not be cooked with
too intense heat nor for too long a time. It is a very concen-
trated food and should be eaten as such. Served as it
usually is, with dessert at the end of a heavy meal, it is likely
to cause indigestion. Eaten, as it should be, as the main
protein part of the meal, it is wholesome and nutritious.
Cheese dishes can thus be made a meat substitute.
Legumes and Cereals. The legumes are those plants
that, with the aid of soil bacteria, have the power to use
nitrogen directly from the air and deposit it in the soil.
Such plants are clover, peas, beans, vetches, etc. Those
used chiefly for human food are the peas, beans, lentils and
peanuts. While these legumes are sometimes not regarded
as choice food as meat cuts and some other foods, they are
rich in protein. The same amount of nutrients can be
obtained for a very small fraction of the cost of the ex-
pensive meats or eggs. Legume dishes can be made very
palatable, as these important protein foods can be cooked
in a great variety of ways.
Every person in charge of purchasing the food supplies
PRINCIPLES OF HOME SCIENCE
should be familiar with the nutrients in the common food
stuffs, and select the kinds that give most nourishment
for the money. Change enough for variety is necessary,
of course; but a thorough knowledge of the various methods
of preparing foods will often mean real economy, both as to
nutrients and cost.
Average Composition of Common Food Stuffs
Compiled from Various Bulletins
Kind of Food
< 'nr bo-
Milk, skimmed . . .
Beef chuck ribs
Pork, loin chop
Eggs, edible portion
78 INDUSTRIAL WORK FOR GIRLS
Cereals contain protein and, when purchased in bulk, as
they should be, afford a comparatively cheap supply of
that nutrient. While package breakfast foods are both
sanitary and palatable, they are expensive. The same
nourishment can be obtained in bulk for much less money,
and it would be economy to purchase them that way and
provide sanitary receptacles in which to store them.
Fats include oils. Fats are solids at ordinary tem-
peratures and oils are liquid. Fats are more concentrated
fuel foods than carbohydrates and, consequently, take
longer to digest. Fats produce more heat than the carbohy-
drates. In this respect, carbohydrates and fats might be
compared with wood and coal respectively.
About 15 per cent of the weight of a person is fat. If
more fat is eaten than is used for heat and energy, it is stored
as body fat until it is needed. If more carbohydrates are
eaten than required to produce the necessary amount of heat
and energy, the surplus is transformed by the body and
stored as body fat. The amount of fuel the body needs
is dependent upon the amount and kind of exercise and
Fats are of both vegetable and animal origin. Olive
oil, cocoanut oil, cottonseed oil, oil of corn and of wheat are
derived from vegetation. Cream, butter, lard and tallow are
of animal origin. A number of fats is obtained when cook-
ing meats, poultry, etc., as beef drippings, bacon fat, chicken
fat and goose oil. The price of the fats depends upon their
flavor not the fuel value the pleasantly flavored fats and
oils being higher priced. Fats are used in the preparation
of most dishes. Lard, cottolene and beef tallow are used
for deep fat frying.
PRINCIPLES OF HOME SCIENCE 79
Mineral matter is a class of nutrients which yields only a
small amount of heat, if any, but it builds bony tissue, such
as bone, teeth, hair and nails. It is mineral matter which
enables the skeleton to keep its form. Without this, it
would be soft and pliable. From 5 per cent to 6 per cent
of the body is mineral matter. It is found in solution in the
blood and other tissues of the body, aids in the digestion of
food and helps to regulate other body processes.
Vegetables and fruits are the chief source of supply of
mineral matter. It is located directly beneath their skins.
Grains contain mineral matter also, but, in the process of
manufacture, this is very largely lost, so that the breakfast
foods and white flour contain but a very small portion of the
mineral matter of the grain from which they are manufac-
Water forms 60 per cent of the body. Water is present in
all the tissues of the body, but, as it does not burn, it yields
no heat nor energy. About 50 per cent of all food is water.
This is not sufficient, however, and in addition about four
pints ought to be consumed daily. Water is a solvent and
aids in digesting the food by diluting the contents of the
stomach to the consistency of thick cream soup and diluting
the gastric juices so that they can readily reach and act on
all particles of food. By diluting the body fluids, water is
the carrier of nutrition to the cells and it removes waste
products from every cell in the body. On account of this
circulation, the heat of the body is evenly distributed.
Body heat is regulated by perspiration, and thus the body
is kept at practically a constant temperature.
Water is the great cleansing agent of the interior of the
body as well as of the exterior, For drinking purposes,
80 INDUSTRIAL WORK FOR GIRLS
water must be pure. If its purity is doubted, it should be
boiled and cooled.
Water is hard or soft according to the amount of mineral
matter it contains. Soft water is a better solvent of dirt
than hard water. Water containing lime is softened by
boiling. Borax, sal soda and ammonia are used to soften
water. Soap is used for the same purpose and to act upon
grease, making the removal of dirt easier.
PRESERVATION OF FOOD
By making the conditions unfavorable to the growth of
bacteria, we are enabled to preserve food for a period of time,
the length of which depends upon the thoroughness of our
efforts. Warmth, food and moisture are required for the
growth of bacteria.
The object of preserving food is to have various foods
when they are out of season and, consequently, are high
priced. The foods are preserved in season when at their best
Preserving food by the removal of heat checks the growth
of bacteria. Freezing meats and fish or keeping them in
cold storage at a temperature just above freezing preserves
these foods for an indefinite time. Butter, eggs, etc., may
be kept in a similar manner. They should be used at once
when thawed out or removed from cold storage.
Some foods, such as fruits, berries and meat, are preserved
by removing most of the moisture they contain, thus check-
ing the growth of bacteria. Before cooking these dried
foods, moisture is supplied by soaking for several hours in
PRINCIPLES OF HOME SCIENCE 81
Meats and fish are salted by placing them in a heavy
brine. The salt solution displaces the natural juices. The
food is preserved because the moisture is removed and the
growth of bacteria is checked.
Meats and fish which are to be smoked are first salted
in brine for a few weeks. They are then washed and allowed
to drain and dry for two or three days. When dry, the
pieces are hung in a smokehouse and smoked. The smoke
penetrates the meat and closes the pores to some extent,
thereby excluding the air and preventing attack from
bacteria and insects.
Using salt has already been discussed. A heavy syrup
of granulated sugar will preserve fruits and berries. Jelly
and preserves are examples when the mixtures are cook-
ed. The principle is the same as in salting.
The chemical preservatives, usually spoken of as canning
powders, are very harmful and should not be used.
Canning used to be sealing sterilized food in sterilized
cans. With the cold-pack method predominant, canning is
the process of sterilizing clean food materials packed in glass
jars or tin cans and sealing the jars and cans when removed
from the canner. See U. S. bulletins on "Boys' and Girls'
Home Canning Club Work."
Select strictly fresh eggs eggs which have been collected
the day they are to be packed, and from nests from which the
eggs are gathered at least twice daily. By excluding the air,
82 INDUSTRIAL WORK FOR GIRLS
the eggs may be kept fresh for several months. Care should
be taken to place the small end down, and to keep the eggs
in a cool place. ' Methods tried and used successfully in
school work are:
(1) Pack the eggs in an earthen jar of such a size as will
hold the desired number of eggs. Cover them with a liquid
glass solution, commonly known as "water glass." Use
from eleven to twenty parts of boiled and cooled water to
one part of liquid glass. Stir well and carefully pour over
the eggs. Have enough to cover the eggs. Cover the jar
to prevent the water from evaporating. Result: 100 per
(2) Wrap each egg carefully in a piece of newspaper
about ten inches by eight inches. Pack in a jar or pail and
cover the top of it. 100 per cent fresh.
(3) Eggs packed in salt are often difficult to remove
when wanted, because the salt absorbs moisture which
evaporate? when there is less moisture in the air and leaves
the salt hard. During this process the egg is likely to absorb
moisture and flavors. 75 per cent good for cooking.
(4) and (5) Bran and sawdust are light weight materials
and require large containers if they are used in packing eggs.
They are not so good as the others given. 80 per cent good.
It is necessary to consider age, sex, climate and season
of the year when planning menus. The growing child
needs a large amount of protein supplying, or muscle building,
foods to meet the requirements of the body. An adult at
hard muscular labor requires more fuel foods and also muscle
building foods to produce energy for work and to repair the
waste respectively. Women, generally speaking, require about
80 per cent as much food as men. A person living in a warm
PRINCIPLES OF HOME SCIENCE 83
climate does not require the fuel foods that a person living
in the North does. Nor does a person living in the North
require so much of the heat producing foods during the very
warm weather as during the cold winter months.
Meals should be planned to meet the requirements of
every member of the family during the different seasons of
the year. The flavors of the different dishes should har-
monize. The reference books should be consulted and the
menus studied carefully. Work out a balanced diet for an
average working man; another for an office man. Plan a
good working menu for your home family for one week.
Submit it to the teacher for approval.
PURPOSE AND PRINCIPLES OF COOKING
Some foods are made more easily digested by cooking and
others more difficultly. Beef and eggs are more easily
digested if not cooked. When cooked, both usually are more
pleasing in appearance and more palatable. Raw pork may
prove harmful; but, if thoroughly cooked, it may safely be
used as food, because cooking kills any germs and parasites
that may be in it. Vegetables and cereals are generally
more easily digested when cooked, because the cellulose, the
woody fiber which incloses the starch granules, is softened
and the starch granules expand and burst the cell walls.
As a result, the consistency is changed to a soft, pasty mass,
as cooked starch, macaroni, rice and potatoes. Some foods
can be cooked or eaten raw, or cooked in different ways to
develop or modify flavors.
Summed up, the purpose of cooking a food may be one or
more of the following:
To develop flavor.
To make food more palatable.
To make food more pleasing in appearance.
84 INDUSTRIAL WORK FOR GIRLS
To kill germs.
To render food more easily digested.
To give variety.
Methods of Cooking
Heat is applied to the food either by means of hot water,
heated air, heated metal, hot fat or a combination of some two.
Foods are cooked in hot water by the following methods :
Boiling is cooking food in enough water to cover it.
Stewing is cooking food in a small amount of water and
keeping the kettle tightly covered.
Steaming is cooking food directly over the steam, or
indirectly, when in a double boiler.
Foods are cooked by hot air by the following methods :
Roasting is cooking meat in a heated oven.
Baking applies more generally to bread, cake, etc., and is
the same as roasting, or cooking in a heated oven.
Broiling is cooking meats directly over the fire. A
special broiler is needed. For this reason, pan broiling is
Foods are cooked by hot metal by the following method :
Pan broiling is cooking food in a hot pan, turning it often.
Foods are cooked by hot fat by the following methods:
Frying is cooking food in deep fat.
Sauteing is cooking food in a small amount of fat and
turning it often.
Foods are cooked in a combination of hot fat and hot
water by the following method:
Fricasseeing is begun by cooking the food in a small
amount of fat until browned and the flavor is well developed ;
then a small amount of water is added and the food stewed
until tender. The cooking is completed by browning again
PRINCIPLES OF HOME SCIENCE 85
Foods are cooked by a combination of heated air and hot
water by the following method :
Braising is browning the food in the oven, adding water
and stewing in a covered pan in the oven until tender.
There are four methods of combining ingredients :
Stirring is a circular motion and is used when mixing a
dry material, as flour, with a liquid and when stirring the
contents of a kettle while cooking.
Beating is a circular motion used to inclose air in a mix-
ture, as a batter or an egg. A spoon, wire beater and Dover
beater are the tools used.
Cutting is used to mix flour and shortening for pastry.
One or two knives, or a fork, are used.
Folding is used when adding beaten egg white to a
batter. The batter from near the bottom of the dish is
carried up and over the beaten egg white, care being taken
not to break up the egg white so that the enclosed air escapes.
See the chapter on "The Hot Lunch" for measures, ab-
breviations, directions for measuring, making white sauces
and thickening soups. For general directions for prepar-
ing and cooking vegetables, cereals and pastes, see "Carbo-
hydrates," this chapter. For preparation of meals,
laying the table, clearing the dinner table and washing
dishes, see Chapter VII. For general directions for cook-
ing eggs and meats see "Protein," this chapter. For meat
and egg dishes, see Chapter V.
Bread is used in some form by all civilized peoples. There
are two classes of bread: The quick breads, which are
86 INDUSTRIAL WORK FOR GIRLS
leavened or made light with a leavening agent, as soda and
baking powder, when carbon dioxide gas is formed rapidly,
and the yeast breads, which are made light with yeast.
The yeast plants give off carbon dioxide gas, but it takes
longer to make dough light with yeast, because the plants
Yeast bread, being the most wholesome arid keeping
best if thoroughly baked, will be considered first. The
three essential ingredients of yeast bread are flour, yeast
The important constituents of flour are starch and gluten.
The quality of gluten in wheat flour makes it possible to
make light bread. Gluten is elastic and strong, thus giving
the carbon dioxide gas an opportunity to expand. Yeast
is a dust plant which is used commercially. For bread
making, active yeast is needed; i. e., yeast with strong plants.
Commercially, yeast comes in cakes, as compressed yeast
and dry yeast.
Compressed yeast contains more moisture and does not
keep as long as dry yeast, but it contains more active yeast
plants. If kept in a cool place, it will keep for a week.
Starch is mixed with the yeast. Dark spots in compressed
yeast indicate dead yeast plants.
In dry yeast there is cornmeal or other cereal meal.
This yeast must be soaked for a long time before using. A
sponge is usually made in the evening and allowed to rise
until morning. Liquid, or homemade, yeast is made of
flour and water, some mashed potato or potato water with
some dry or compressed yeast for a starter.
Milk, water, half milk and half water and buttermilk
are the liquids used. Liquid consisting of equal parts of
milk and water gives the most satisfactory results. The
milk should be scalded to prevent the bacteria from acting
PRINCIPLES OF HOME SCIENCE 87
upon the lactose-, or milk sugar, changing it to lactic acid.
The temperature of the liquid should be between 75 and 90
There are three nonessential ingredients, sugar, salt
and fat. They add flavor. Sugar serves as a ready food
for the yeast plant, which lives upon the starch in the flour,
first changing it to sugar. Fat improves the crumb.
Yeast Bread One-Loaf Basis
Recipe Directions: Scald the milk.
Y* c mil k Add the cold water. Put yeast
l /2 c water J f
3 c flour or more to soak in two tablespoon! uls 01
% c dry yeast lukewarm water an hour or two
2 t sugar before making the sponge. Keep
1 * fat the yeast in a warm place. Dur-
ing the cold weather if flour is cold, warm it before using.
Warm the bowl with warm water if eathenware is used.
Pour milk and water into the bowl, add sugar, salt, fat
and enough flour to make a smooth batter. Add yeast,
mix thoroughly. Add more flour, enough to make two
cupfuls. Beat the sponge to enclose air and make smooth
by distributing the gluten evenly. Cover and wrap the
bowl in a cloth to prevent its getting chilled. Early the
next morning, add more flour and knead it on the moulding
board until it does not stick to the hands or the board when
no flour is used. Clean the bowl out carefully by rubbing
it with a little flour. Sprinkle a very small amount of flour
into the bowl, place in it the dough and' sprinkle it very spar-
ingly with flour. Cover and keep warm while it rises to
twice its original size. Knead again to distribute the gas
evenly. Form into loaves. Place in a greased bread tin.
Brush the top with butter; cover lightly with a towel while
the loaf rises.
INDUSTRIAL WORK FOR GIRLS
If a wood or coal range is used, a fire must be started
one half hour or more before the oven is wanted, in order
to heat it. Test the heat of the oven with a piece of white
paper. If the paper is a golden brown at the end of five
minutes the oven is ready. The temperature should be
highest during the first ten to fifteen minutes. The loaf
will rise some and become slightly specked with brown,
whereupon it will cease rising. The heat of the oven can
be decreased gradually from now until the loaf is baked.
Figure 54. Diagram of stove, showing course of draft and heat when oven dam-
per is open and when shut 1, ashpan; 2, fire-box; 3, oven; 4, stovepipe.
The time required to bake a single loaf is from fifty to sixty
minutes. When baked and removed from the oven, the top
crust can be brushed with milk or butter, which both softens
and flavors it. Cool the bread, placing it out of a draft but
so that the air can circulate around it. Have a bread box,
preferably a tin box or can or an earthen crock, washed,
scalded and aired, in which to store the bread when it is
thoroughly cooled. The crust will be softened after being
in a covered box for a few hours. Bread should not be
wrapped in cloth. The bread box should be scalded and
aired before fresh bread is put into it.
PRINCIPLES OF HOME SCIENCE 89
Griddle Cakes with Sour Milk and Soda
R< 3/ P c flour Directions: Mix and sift the
% c of sour milk dry ingredients. Add to the
1 T butter or m jj k and me i t ed butter or butter-
M c rich buttermilk . .
14 t salt milk in the mixing bowl. Mix
^ * soda and beat well. Bake on a smok-
ing hot griddle. Grease slightly for the first baking only,
unless the cakes should burn; then scrape and grease. When
the upper side is full of holes, and the cake shows signs of
being baked more than half way through, turn and bake
on the other side. Be sure that the cakes are well baked.
If the milk is not thick, use more flour, about one and one
half tablespoonfuls. Serve as soon as baked.
Muffins with Eggs
Recipe Directions: Mix and sift dry
1^ c flour ingredients, add milk, beaten
2 T baking powder
\/ 2 1 salt egg yolk and melted butter, beat-
1 1 sugar m g eacn we u m before adding
1 cmilk ^ ... .
l egg the next. Fold in the beaten
1 T melted butter egg wn ite. Bake in a hot oven
from twenty-five to thirty minutes. The heat can be de-
creased during the last half of the time.
Baking Powder Biscuit
Recipe Directions: Take out a round-
4 t baking powder m S tablespoonf ul of flour and
t salt put with the baking powder.
Cut the butter into the flour with
two knives, held in one hand
with the forefinger between the blades just below the handles;
or rub the butter into the flour with a fork, by pressing down
90 INDUSTRIAL WORK FOR GIRLS
with the fork, so that the flour and fat pass up between
the tines. When thoroughly mixed, add flour with baking
powder. Mix well and add the milk, gradually, to the dry
flour. Handle as little as possible. Place on floured mould-
ing board. Use a case knife for handling dough. Roll
to one inch and cut with a biscuit cutter, first dipped in flour.
Place half an inch apart on a greased tin. Bake in a hot
oven twenty to twenty-five minutes.
For meat pie crust, roll biscuit dough one inch thick and
bake on a greased tin. There is no danger of its being doughy
on the side.
When the ingredients for making baking powder bis-
cuits are mixed, take the dough by spoonfuls, roll in flour and
place all on a hot plate in a steamer. Steam for half an
hour, then test with a pointed knife. Serve hot with stews.
If covered with a cloth and kept in a warm place, dumplings
can be kept hot for a reasonable length of time without
There are two classes of cakes butter cakes and egg
cakes, or those without butter. For butter cakes, cream the
butter, add the sugar and cream until the sugar is dissolved.
Add the beaten yolks to creamed butter and sugar, add flour
and milk, alternately, until all of both is used. A little flour
is added to the baking powder. Mix well and add to the
mixture. Add the flavoring. Fold in the beaten whites.
Bake on well greased tins in a hot oven until done. When
baked, the cake will recede from the sides of the tin. It is
well to try the cake in the center with a toothpick to see if
the cake sticks. It is baked if the toothpick comes out clean.
The yolk and white of one egg may be added at a time to the
creamed mixture and beaten until light. Then proceed with
PRINCIPLES OF HOME SCIENCE 91
the remainder as directed. Bake cakes that are made with-
out butter with moderate heat. These cakes shrink, if
baked in a hot oven or too long.
Rich Butter Cake
Re 3 ci P e ~ gar Directions: Put together as
\Y 2 T butter directed for butter cake. Bake
i/t biking powder in a muffin P an ' S am Unt is
YZ egg enough for two cups, if they are
2 or 3 drops flavoring rWr
Y 2 c 2 T flour
Cheap Butter Cake
gSEJgE,. Directions: Mix ingredients
Y 2 c milk as directed for butter cake.
lX g c flour Bake in a greased loaf tin.
3 t baking powder This recipe makes one layer.
J4 t flavoring
Angel Food Cake
Recipe Directions: Mix and sift
1 c egg white % sugar and flour seven or eight
1 t creTrn of tartar times Beat e gg s slightly, add
I c flour cream of tartar and continue
I 1 almond extract or vanilla beat j ng; uging ft wire ^^ mta
the egg whites do not slip from the dish, when it is inverted.
Add flavoring. Carefully fold beaten egg white and sugar
and flour mixture together. Bake in a tubed tin, which
has not been greased. Bake in a- slow oven for sixty
minutes, or until the cake does not stick to a toothpick.
When baking, keep cake covered during first half of the time.
Sponge cake is another kind of egg cake. The egg yolk
is beaten until lemon colored. Add the sugar gradually;
then the liquid and flavoring, and the flour. The beaten
egg whites are folded in.
92 INDUSTRIAL WORK FOR GIRLS
Plain Drop Cookies
Re i C x pc Tx* Directions: Cream the but-
Y c butter
^ c sugar ter and sugar. Add the egg and
2 T milk beat> Add milk . Mix baking
1 t baking powder powder with a tablespoonf ul of
1 c plus 1 T flour fl our< Add the remainder of the
flour gradually to the mixture. Beat well. Add baking
powder, and mix thoroughly. Drop by the teaspoonful
about two inches apart on a greased tin. Bake in a hot
Recipe Directions: Cream the but-
\Y c sugar
3 eggs ter and sugar. Add the beaten
1 c butter yolks, milk and the dry ingredi-
3*c flour ents. Flour the chopped rais-
3 t baking powder j ns and nuts and a( Jd them to the
Yi c English walnuts . ....
1 c raisins mixture. As each ingredient or
1 t cinnamon mixture of two or more is added,
YA t cloves . , . . . ^ . . . M .
y% t allspice mi x thoroughly. Fold in the
beaten whites. Drop with a
teaspoon an inch apart on the greased tin. Bake fifteen
minutes in a hot oven. This amount makes four dozen.
Recipe Directions: Mix ingredients
Y c fat as directed for biscuit. Roll out
water ne ei 6 hth inch thick ' To fit
j| t salt the crust to the tin, lift it with
H t baking powder the roUing p[ ^ and pkce it QVer
the tin. Fit the crust to it. For a double-crust pie, such
as apple or mince, trim the crust even with edge of tin,
PRINCIPLES OF HOME SCIENCE 93
fill, dampen the edge and lift the upper crust in place, after
cutting a few air-holes in it. Press the edges together with a
fork, after trimming the edge as on the first. Bake pie crust
in an oven that will brown a piece of white paper in three
minutes. When the crust does not stick to the tin, it is baked.
While it is necessary to start baking the pie in a hot oven on
account of the shortening, it is necessary to decrease the
heat so that the filling may cook and the crust not be over-
done. When a single crust pie is being made, bake the crust
first, after having built up the edge by turning the crust under
about three fourths of an inch, and pressing the edges to make
it stand up. Thicker pies can be made, if the edge is of uni-
To make a banana pie, first bake a single crust. Fill with
sliced and sugared bananas. Cover with whipped cream.
Stew enough prunes to fill the crust. Pit the prunes and
fill the crust with them. Cover with whipped cream.
Salads are very important. By means of such dishes,
vegetables, fruits, left overs of meats and fish, etc., that
otherwise might be wasted, can be utilized. Lettuce and
cabbage dressed with vinegar, salt and pepper, or vinegar
and sugar, are simple salads. So, also, are boiled beets
dressed with vinegar. Most of the green vegetables, and
some fruits, are good dressed with oil and vinegar. A simple
cooked egg dressing, mixed with an equal amount of whipped
cream and seasoned to suit the flavor of the mixture it is to
dress, can be used. Mustard is not required with a cabbage
salad, as the cabbage contains mustard. Nor should sugar
be used for a potato salad. Care should be taken not to
make a salad mussy in appearance by stirring it.
94 INDUSTRIAL WORK FOR GIRLS
Cooked Egg Dressing
Directions: Heat the vine-
C 2 eggTor & ar - Beat the eggs and pour the
4 egg yolks boiling vinegar slowly into the
2*t butter ^ beaten egg. Return to the
fire and cook slowly while stir-
ring constantly, or cook in a double boiler. Add butter
when cooked. For meat and vegetable salads, season with
mustard, salt and pepper. For fruit salads, season with
sugar, salt and pepper.
Recipe Directions: Good coffee can
1 c wate? ^e ma de by starting it with cold
water or with boiling water. If
starting it with cold water, place the coffeepot where it
will heat and when the coffee comes to a boil remove it to
a cooler place where it will keep hot. Serve in five minutes.
If the liquid coffee is grayish in color, it indicates that
the water should be boiled before adding the coffee. The
iron in hard water discolors coffee. If the water is boiling,
place the coffeepot where it will keep hot for five minutes
but not boil. It is as well if coffee does not boil. Be sure
to serve it hot. Half an egg white to six tablespoonfuls of
coffee will keep the coffee clear when making it with cold
water. As the water heats, the egg white coagulates and
entangles the coffee grounds. Use only a clean, aired and
scalded coffeepot. Do not allow the coffee to remain long
with the grounds, as they will spoil it.
c 6 water Directions: Heat the water
V* c milk and mix the cocoa and sugar.
1 t cocoa ... ... . .
\Y 2 t sugar Add some boiling water, making
PRINCIPLES OF HOME SCIENCE 95
a smooth paste. Pour this into the boiling water. Let it
simmer for five minutes. When ready to serve, scald the
milk and add it to the hot cocoa mixture. Milk is more
easily digested if not boiled.
Recipe Directions: Heat the teapot
1 c Sling water with hot water - Put tea and
boiling water into the teapot and
allow the tea to steep not more than five minutes, where it
will keep hot but not boil. Serve hot. Use while fresh.
Recipe Directions: Dissolve the
jZSfl (medium) sugar in a little hot water. Chill.
y c to K c sugar Cut the lemons and orange in
3 c water, ice-cold halveg gqueeze the j uice from
them. Mix juice, syrup and ice-cold water. Place a thin
slice of lemon in each glass, and serve at once.
Soda and an Acid. Prepare a vinegar solution, two tea-
spoonfuls in half a glass of water. Half fill two test tubes
with the solution. Drop about a sixteenth of a teaspoonf ul
of soda into each tube. Stir it. Watch the bubbles rise.
With what are they filled? Heat one tube. Watch for
any change that may occur. What conclusion do you come
to as to speed when making quick breads, cakes, etc.?
Effect of the heat of the oven?
Baking Powder and Water. Try a similar experiment,
using one quarter of a teaspoonf ul of baking powder in the
water. Are the results similar? What is your conclusion as
to the effect of moisture on baking powder? Heat?
Qualities of Gluten. Make a stiff dough, using one
quarter of a cupful of water and flour. Does kneading it
96 INDUSTRIAL WORK FOR GIRLS
change its appearance? What has occurred? Place the
dough in cheesecloth or a wire strainer. Wash with run-
ning water. What color is the water? What colors the
water? When thoroughly washed, is the mixture as white?
What is left? Take it up in your hands and pull it. Does
it have elasticity? How does this quality help to make
REFERENCES FOR DOMESTIC SCIENCE
Books: Domestic Science: Principles and Application, Bailey;
Boston Cooking-School Cook Book, Farmer; Household Science, Shep-
perd; How We Are Fed, Chamberlain; People's Health, Coleman; First
Lessons in Food and Diet, Richards; Human Physiology, Ritchie;
Foods and Their Uses, Carpenter; How the World is Fed, Carpenter.
Farmers' Bulletins, Department of Argiculture, Washington, D. C.:
Meats, Composition and Cooking, No. 34; Facts About Milk, No. 42;
Care of Milk on the Farm, No. 63; Milk as Food, No. 74; Bread and
Bread Making, No. 112; Beans, Peas and Other Legumes, No. 121;
Eggs and Their Uses as Food, No. 128; Principles of Nutrition, No. 142;
Cereal Breakfast Foods, No. 249; Preparation of Vegetables for the
Table, No. 256; Use of Fruit as Foods, No. 293.
Minnesota Farmers' Library: Dressing and Curing Meat, No. 11;
Domestic Science in Rural Schools and Supplement, No. 19; Marketing
Eggs from the Farm, No, 30; Farm Vegetable Garden, No. 17.
THE HOT LUNCH
So many ridiculous questions have been asked and
statements made regarding the hot lunches served in schools
that it is well to ask, What is the "hot lunch idea"? In
the first place, it is not serving lunches between meals during
the forenoon and afternoon sessions of school, as some have
imagined. Neither is it giving a course in domestic science.
The hot lunch idea is a simple question of practical hygiene.
Farmers are careful of their feed for cows, and many farmers
have heaters to warm the water for their cows to drink in
cold weather, moved by no other consideration than finan-
cial profit. They know that the cows produce more butter
fat under these conditions. Even heaters for cooking the hog
feed in winter are employed as a matter of business economy.
And yet some of these same thrifty farmers will let their
children walk two or three miles through snow and cold to
school, eat a frozen lunch at noon, unless by good fortune
it has thawed out, and trudge home again at night in time
to do the chores before supper.
The primary purpose of serving something hot at noon
to those who carry lunches is, then, simply one of efficiency.
Like the food for the cattle and hogs, the hot lunch has
been found profitable, profitable from the standpoint of
educational efficiency as well as physical betterment. The
boy or girl who eats only a cold lunch day after day is not
physically or mentally capable of doing the work that may
be expected of them.
Other advantages of the hot lunch plan are that the
older students have an opportunity to do some practical
plain cooking occasionally, without interfering with their
INDUSTRIAL WORK FOR GIRLS
school work. The assuming of responsibility for preparing
the hot dish to be served, the practice of serving and of
table etiquette, and the study of food principles, are all
valuable training. It should not be thought for a moment
that the whole meal is prepared at school. The children
bring their lunches from home. One hot dish is prepared
for all the students each day during the cold weather.
Even if this were nothing but a hot drink of milk or cocoa,
it would be well worth while, but it is entirely unnecessary
to limit the dishes that can be served to a few of which the
children will soon tire. The kinds of prepared food which
one can carry in a lunch basket are limited. The hot dish
gives a variety and increases the nutritive value of the lunch.
The equipment for serving hot lunches need not be
extensive. A cupboard with doors, made by the .older boys
of the school, provides a place for dishes, cooking utensils
and supplies. The one shown in the picture is similar
to several others that were made out of dry goods boxes.
Figure 55. Equipment for the hot lunch. Photograph taken in a rural school.
Note the improvised cupboard made out of a dry goods box and covered
THE HOT LUNCH 99
Shelves were put in and curtains hung over the front. Doors
would be more sanitary than curtains, however. Each
child is asked to bring a cup, saucer, fork and spoon. These
utensils remain during the hot lunch season, from November
to April. It is also desirable, but not necessary,- that each
child bring two napkins one to be used as a tablecloth
on the desk. Paper napkins may be purchased out of a
general fund, if desirable. Linen ones should be washed
as often as necessary or exchanged for clean ones at home.
Coffee cans or fruit jars can be obtained in which to keep
the staple supplies, as flour, sugar, salt, oatmeal, cornmeal,
The question of supplies is often raised. How are the
materials used by the students obtained? Sometimes a levy
of ten cents each is made for the purchase of groceries. We
have found a more satisfactory way in which the students
bring practically all the supplies from home. This is not
difficult, as they can furnish large or small quantities a
quart of milk or one cupful, one potato or half a dozen. If
a soup or some dish requiring milk is made, it is well to let
one family furnish all that is needed for that day. It will
not bring anything more until its turn comes again. This
matter can easily be regulated by the teacher, and a record
kept. If baked potatoes were the dish to be served, each
child could select from home a potato and bring it to school
the da/ it is to be used. A few cents each will provide the
general supplies referred to above, or even they may be
brought from the homes. There will be no difficulty in
getting all the supplies, if the teacher is tactful and has
the co-operation of the mothers. There may be home con-
ditions in the community where it would be wise to have
the children from some homes bring only vegetables. Other
families could furnish the milk, butter, eggs, meal, etc. Plans
100 INDUSTRIAL WORK FOR GIRLS
should be made and the dish selected two or three days before
it is to be served. As far as possible let the students make
the selections. Two or three can be suggested by the teacher
and one chosen. Change enough should be made to vary
the nutrients from day to day.
Housekeepers, or monitors, should be selected from
the older boys and girls to serve for one week. Two are
enough at once. In case the school is large, one or two more
may be selected to help serve and to wash the dishes. These
students are responsible, but the teacher should assist and
encourage them. The necessary preparations are made in
the morning^ before school and at recess. One of the house-
keepers can quietly get up and start the stove at whatever
time the dish needs to be put on to have it ready by noon.
The rest of the students will soon pay no more attention to
this than to any other schoolroom activity to which they are
accustomed. Little, if any, time needs to be taken to watch
the heating or cooking process.
As soon as dismissed, the pupils should take their seats
for lunch. The monitors should then pass the napkins, the
spoons or forks, and the dinner pails from home. The hot
dish made in school is then served to each, and eaten with the
lunch from the pails. The teacher should always sit and
eat with the pupils. Encourage pleasant conversation.
Sometimes she- could have them discuss what they have for
lunch and its uses. Nutrition, balanced diets, sanitation,
good health, games for the playground, are suggestive topics
for conversation. Table manners such as are found in the
best homes should prevail. At least twenty minutes should
be used in eating the noon lunch, and, if persons leave before
that time, they should ask to be excused, as at any other
table. Lunch plans for the next day are made. The lessons
THE HOT LUNCH ' Idf
to be learned from these sources are well worth the little
extra work required to conduct the hot lunches.
Dishwashing follows the lunch, and is done by the house-
keepers, changing each week. The water should be heated
for this while the lunch is being eaten. The monitors re-
move the dishes, but each student is responsible for the
crumbs near his desk. The dishes are washed, rinsed, wiped
and put in their proper places in the cupboard. See that
the mixing dishes are kept very clean. As soon as students
get used to the routine of preparing, serving and dishwashing,
very little time will be consumed in these tasks. The boys
should take their turns as well as the girls. The experience
will be valuable to them also.
The equipment here given is regarded as suitable and
sufficient. It costs less than ten dollars and will last for
years. The equipment may be used for farmers' club meet-
ings, institutes, and other social gatherings at the school.
Any live school can raise enough money to purchase the
outfit if it is not furnished by the district.
1 double burner blue flame kero- cover to fit.
single burner oven,
twelve-quart dish pan.
set of six muffin tins,
three-pint mixing bowl.
wooden mixing spoon.
small bowl. 1 Dover egg beater.
cup (St. Dennis). 1 strainer.
dinner plate. 1 paring knife.
2 pie tins (1 large, 1 small). 1 case knife.
2 asbestos mats. 1 graduated measuring cup.
1 eight-quart granite kettle. 1 eight-inch omelet pan or skillet.
Use level measures for both dry and liquid materials.
If you wish to measure a spoonful of flour, dip a spoon into
102 ' ItfDVSTRIAL WORK FOR GIRL&
the flour and level off with the back of a case knife. Starting
at the handle, push the surplus off as the knife moves toward
the end of the spoon. Fill a cup or large measure by lifting
the material into it with a spoon or dish, then level off with a
case knife. Filling a measure by dipping it into the dry
material causes the material to pack. Always look up the
table of measures when using a recipe from a new book.
Abbreviations, measures and weights that will be used in
carrying out the hot lunch idea are here given.
t = teaspoonf ul ; T = tablespoonf ul ; c = cupful ; pt . = pint ;
qt. =quart; Ib. =pound.
4 teaspoonf uls make 1 tablespoonf ul; 16 tablespoonf uls makes 1
cupful; 12 tablespoonf uls of dry materials, as rice and rolled oats,
make 1 cupful; 2 cupfuls make one pint; 2 pints make 1 quart; 4 quarts
make 1 gallon.
SAUCES AND THICKENING FOR CREAM SOUPS
Thin Sauce Medium Sauce
1 T of fat 2 T of fat
1 T of flour 2 T of flour
1 c of milk (usually) 1 c of milk or other liquid
Y t of salt y t of salt
A dash of white pepper A dash of white pepper
Methods of Making Sauces or Thickening Liquids
1. Use this method when all ingredients are cold and
time must be considered. Place the flour and fat in a pan
over the fire. Stir with a wooden spoon as the butter
melts, and do not allow it to burn. A wooden spoon is acid-
proof, noiseless and does not become hot. When frothy,
add the liquid. Stir constantly and rapidly while the sauce
cooks. It is cooked when it does not taste of raw flour.
2. Use this method when liquid to be thickened is
warm. Mix the flour and fat in a cup or bowl. With the
THE HOT LUNCH 103
knife place the mixture of flour and fat on the end of wooden
spoon and stir it into the liquid. It is cooked when it does
not taste of raw flour. Season.
3. Use this method when a small amount of fat is used.
To the flour add enough of the cold liquid to make a smooth
batter. Pour the batter into the boiling liquid. It is
cooked when is does not taste of raw flour. Add fat and
Sauces and cream soups must be smooth and not lumpy.
Should either show signs of lumping, remove from the fire
immediately and beat the mixture with the Dover beater
until smooth. Return to the fire, stirring constantly and
cook until done. The thin sauce is suitable for creamed
potatoes, macaroni, toast and rice. The medium sauce is
used with vegetables less starchy than potatoes, and with
fish. A cupful of sauce is needed for a pint of diced vege-
tables when preparing a creamed dish. The medium sauce
is also used in making creamed soups. An equal amount
of the liquid in which the vegetable is cooked is added
to the sauce. In some cases the vegetables are pressed
through a sieve and added. Sauces can be kept warm, if
covered tight and placed in a pan of hot water.
SUGGESTIVE DISHES FOR HOT LUNCHES
Fifty dishes that have been prepared and served in rural
schools are given. Select from them.
Note: The time for each recipe is an estimate of the time required to cook it
with reasonably good heat, not to prepare it. Salt is added as directed in cooking
cereals and vegetables when boiling either. Sauces are seasoned except when
otherwise directed, as in creamed chipped beef. If recipes requiring a long time are
chosen, there should be some place to heat them on the regular stove to save oil.
A homemade fireless cooker should be used if possible as it will save both time
and fuel. Where an oil stove only can be used, do not select the recipes that re-
quire more than a short time.
Carbohydrates and protein are discussed as fully as space
will permit in Chapter IV. This discussion should be con-
104 INDUSTRIAL WORK FOR GIRLS
suited frequently for the preparation of vegetables, cereals
and other foods used in the laboratory work in preparing
hot lunch dishes.
1 Baked Potatoes. Time: V/ hours.
Recipe Directions: Wash and put
P0tat potatoes to bake on grate in hot
oven an hour and fifteen minutes
before time to serve. Turn potatoes occasionally while
baking. They are baked, if they feel soft when pressed
between the hands. If not ready to serve at once, burst or
prick with fork the skin of each potato, so that the steam may
escape. Otherwise the potatoes become soggy. Place in
a clean towel to keep warm.
2 Mashed Potatoes. Time: 46 minutes
Recipe Directions: Prepare and cook
m c e h J o U t m miik edP tat0eS ^ directed for vegetables. Cut
2 T butter in halves only. Potatoes usually
M t white pepper cook in thirty minutes. When
tender, drain well, cover with
several thicknesses of cloth and let stand for a minute or
two to allow some of the steam to escape. In the mean-
time put the milk on to heat. Mash smooth with a wooden
potato masher. Add butter, salt, and pepper and enough
of the hot milk to make light. Beat until white. This
amount will serve eight to ten pupils.
3 Creamed Potatoes. Time: 45 minutes.
Recipe Directions: Make a thin sauce
m potatoes of milk, fat, and flour and add a
1 T fat pint of boiled diced potatoes. See
1 V t salt sauces and cooking vegetables.
Pepper Enough to serve four pupils,
THE HOT LUNCH 105
4 Scalloped Potatoes. Time: \y hours.
Recipe Directions: Wash, pare and
t c d mifk P 1 cut P^atoes in one eighth inch
1 T salt slices into a buttered baking dish.
2 T flour 61 * O n eac h l aver f potatoes sprinkle
Pepper to taste flour, salt, and pepper, and dot
with bits of butter. Continue until all are used. Pour
hot milk over the potatoes, but not enough to cover the top
layers. Place in a hot oven and bake, covered for the first
half hour, but uncover to allow to brown. Bake for another
half hour or until tender when tried. Add more milk, if
the potatoes appear dry. Serve hot. This amount will
serve six pupils.
5 Mashed Turnips. Time: 2 hours.
Recipe Directions: Prepare and cook
lfc e ho U t m milk ed tUmiP the turnip as for the other vege-
1 T butter tables. Mash. Add milk, butter
Sdttotarff and eer - This amount
serve five or six pupils.
6 Buttered Beets. Time: 3 to 4 hours.
Recipe Directions: Wash and put
IVo c diced beets , i -^i i T-\
IT butter beets to cook with skins. Do
H c salt not cut the roots of beets, be-
Dfpepper cause in the process of cooking
they bleed too much and spoil the color and flavor. Boil
from two to four hours. It is wise to wash the beets, and
put the required amount of water in kettle the day before.
Whoever tends the fire can put the kettle on, so that the
beets can be put on about eight o'clock. Keep them boil-
ing continually. When tender, drain and cover with cold
water for a minute or two. Drain again. Remove skins.
Dice, add butter, salt and pepper. Two medium sized
106 INDUSTRIAL WORK FOR GIRLS
beets diced amount to about one and one hajf cupfuls.
This amount is enough to serve three pupils.
7 Baked Hubbard Squash. Time: 1^ hours.
Recipe Directions : Wash and dry.
One piece of squash about /-, , . i i , , i
4^ inches by 2^ inches Cut the sc l uash mto halves > re ~
for each person move the seeds and stringy por-
tion, cut into pieces and place in hot oven either in a pan or
on grate of oven. If the oven does not bake evenly, change
pieces around. After an hour sprinkle with salt, and bake
another half hour. Serve hot with butter, salt -and pepper.
8 Stewed Tomatoes. Time: 15 minutes.
Recipe Directions: Heat tomato, add
l^c tcTsf^bread or butter, salt, pepper and bread or
1 c soda crackers crackers. Break slices of stale
% i salt Gr bread or crackers into half-inch
Pepper to taste pieces. Serve hot. This amount
will serve ten to twelve pupils.
9 Scalloped Corn. Time: 35 minutes.
Recipe Directions : To the seasoned
i Tmediumwhite sauce medium white sauce add corn,
\ l /2 T sugar sugar and salt. Butter the bak-
3 T butter m S dish. Cover the bottom
M c bread crumbs with a layer of corn and sauce.
Cover this wkh a layer of buttered bread crumbs. Use stale
bread crumbs. Place butter and crumbs in pan on stove,
and stir until butter is melted. Continue until all is used.
Have crumbs over the top. Bake in a medium oven for
twenty-five minutes. This amount will serve eight pupils.
10 Creamed Garbage. Time: 1 hour.
Recipe Directions: Prepare cabbage
and cook in J ust enou S h Water to
cover. Toward the last allow
the water to boil down to about one half a cupful. Pour
THE HOT LUNCH 107
cabbage and liquid into sauce. Add more seasoning, if re-
quired. This amount will serve six to eight pupils.
11 Creamed Cabbage with Cheese. Time: 1 hour.
Recipe Directions: Prepare and cook
IfmSm^auce the cabbage as in Number 10.
K to l /2 c grated cheese Make sauce and to it add the
grated cheese. Use stale cheese, as it is more easily grated.
This amount will serve six to eight pupils.
12 Creamed Carrots. Time: 30 minutes.
Recipe Directions: Prepare carrots as
ducted for vegetables. Cook for
% i sugar thirty minutes in just enough
boiling water to cover. Allow the water to boil down
toward the last. Turn carrots and the liquid they are
cooked in into the white sauce. Add sugar. Serve. This
amount will serve five pupils.
13 Creamed Peas. Time: 30 minutes.
Recipe Directions : At least an hour
1 pi. meTium^auce before usin S the P eas P en and
H t salt empty the can at once. While
making the sauce according to
directions for sauces, allow the
peas to heat. Add the salt, sugar and pepper to peas.
Pour the peas into white sauce. Mix and serve hot. This
amount will serve eight pupils.
14 Creamed Corn. Time: 20 minutes.
Recipe Directions : Make a thin white
1 pt. SslcT s auce by first method as directed
1 1 sugar in sauces. Open a can of corn
and empty it an hour before
time to use. To do so will improve the flavor. Heat the
corn, if necessary, and add a little water to keep from burn-
108 INDUSTRIAL WORK FOR GIRLS
ing. Pour the corn into sauce, add sugar, and salt, and
pepper to taste. This amount will serve eight or nine pupils.
15 Baked Beans. Time: 10 to 12 hours
Recipe Directions : Pick over beans,
1 pt. beans .- , , . , ,
3 sa it if necessary, and soak over night
M t soda in two or three times as much
2 sUcef^t pork water. In the morning put to
1 1 molasses (scant) cook in cold water to cover, add-
ing two teaspoonf uls of salt and the soda. Let boil ten min-
utes, drain, rinse with cold water and drain again. Cut
pork, about one quarter of a pound, into half-inch cubes.
Put part of pork in the bottom of the jar and the balance
nearer the top after most of the beans are in the jar, add
sugar, molasses and salt, unless pork is very salty. Cover
with boilirig water. Bake in a slow oven the balance of the
day, and from early next morning continue baking them until
noon. A regular bean pot or crock with a plate to cover it
is used. Cook covered and the last half hour, uncover to
brown. Beans should cook slowly from ten to twelve
hours. If all the water is absorbed before they are cooked,
add boiling water, but not enough to cover. This amount
will serve eight to ten pupils.
16 Rice Gruel. Time: V/% hours.
Recipe Directions: When washed,
\Y 2 cToiling water cook the rice as directed for ce-
1 c of milk reals. After the first ten minutes,
cook covered in improvised
double boiler for one and one half hours. About fifteen
or twenty minutes before the time to serve add the milk,
and cover. Leave pan or kettle containing gruel in pan of
boiling water. Add salt and serve hot. This amount
will serve one and one half pupils.
THE HOT LUNCH 109
17 Boiled Rice with Butter. Time: 2 to 3 hours.
Recipe Directions : Clean, wash, and
1 T salt drop rice into boiling salted
4 c water water. Cook for two or three
hours as directed for cereals. If steam escapes, more boiling
water must be added, if rice tasted raw when cooked dry.
Serve with butter, salt and pepper. This amount will
serve eight pupils.
18 Boiled Rice. Time: 2 to 3 hours.
Recipe Directions : Cook as directed
1 ^i in Number 17. Heat the milk
1 T salt a little or just keep it in the room
*c boiling water so that it will not be cold. Keep
it covered to protect it from dust. Serve rice hot with
milk and sugar. This amount will serve eight to ten pupils.
19 Steamed Rice with Raisins, Milk and Sugar. Time: 2 to 3 hours.
Recipe Directions: Cook the rice for
3 c bailing water ten minutes, using three cupfuls
1 qt. milk of salted water, then add sugar
1 T sugar anc ^ one cu pf u l f m ilk an< ^ co k
Yi c raisins for two or three hours as directed
for cereals. Serve with milk and sugar. This amount will
serve nine or ten pupils.
20 Macaroni with Tomato Sauce. Time: 2 hours.
Recipe Directions: Cook macaroni
as in Number 21. With strained
1 T flour tomato, flour and butter make a
y t salt Gr sauce and season it as directed
A dash of pepper for sauces. Pour the macaroni
into sauce, heat for a minute or two so that macaroni will be
hot. Serve. This amount will serve seven or eight pupils.
110 INDUSTRIAL WORK FOR GIRLS
21 Creamed Macaroni with Cheese. Time: 2 hours.
Recipe Directions : Break the maca-
% pkg. macaroni . , j , -, f ,
1 c milk rom m ^ one anc * one half inch
1 T butter lengths. Cook same as rice, in
V t salt^ ^ wo an d one nanC quarts of boiling
A dash of white pepper water to which two and one half
tablespoonfuls of salt have been
added. Cook for two hours. Drain well, and cover with
cold water and drain again. Make white sauce with the
flour, fat and milk. Season, add grated cheese and maca-
roni. Cover and place in pan of hot water to keep hot.
This amount is enough for seven or eight pupils.
22 Cornmeal Mush. Time: 3 hours.
Recipe Directions : Pour boiling
water into kettle - Put salt into
1 c cold water or it. Make the cornmeal and cold
1 c cornmeal water or the cornmeal and milk
1 1 salt into a smooth batter. Stir while
pouring this into the boiling salted water. Continue cooking
it for two or three hours as directed for cereals. Serve with
milk and sugar. This amount will serve ten or twelve
23 Oatmeal Mush. Time: 6 to 10 hours.
Recipe Directions : Cook as directed
1 c rolled oats m cooking cereals. Start cook-
3 c boiling water ing at noon of the preceding day.
iy 2 T salt Cook during afternoon. Set ves-
sel where it will keep warm over night and continue cook-
ing the -following forenoon. Serve with milk and sugar.
This amount will serve six to eight pupils.
THE HOT LUNCH 111
24 Rolled Oats with Dates or Bananas. Time: 4 to 7 hours.
Recipe Directions : Cook rolled oats
^Numbe^f at8 aS ln as d i r e c t e d in- Number 23.
% c pitted dates or Shortly before serving add the
3 bananas dateg wWch are begt cut ^
fourths. Serve with milk and
sugar. If bananas are used, peel, slice into a dish and
sprinkle with sugar to prevent discoloration. Cover dish
until ready to serve. To each service of rolled oats add two
tablespoonfuls of bananas.
SOUPS AND BEVERAGES
25 Barley Soup. Time: 10 to 12 hours.
Recipe Directions : Cook the barley
bSnKJS; ten to twelve hours according to
1 1 salt directions for cooking cereals.
Add barley to reheated broth from Number 26 or other
broth made for that purpose. This amount is enough for
26 Beef Broth. Time: 4 to 5 hours.
Recipe Directions : Make broth the
tfeat andb ne day before serving. Bone con-
2 1 salt tains nourishment and flavor
3 P T 6P e P a diced onions, which improves the soup. A
carrots, parsnips and shin or shank of beef (often spok-
4 T U bacon E f S at en of as a SOU P bone ) containing
equal amounts of lean meat and
bone is best. Saw bone, and cut meat into small pieces.
Put bone, meat and cold water into a kettle with a tight
fitting cover. The water ought to cover the meat and the
bone one inch deep. Add one half of the salt, the pepper-
corns, and, if desired, one third that amount of whole all-
spice. Heat contents of kettle slowly and simmer four
112 INDUSTRIAL WORK FOR GIRLS
or more hours. In some hot bacon fat in a spider cook the
diced vegetables until brown. Put browned vegetables in
soup kettle, also the small amount of water with which the
spider is rinsed. Add remainder of salt. Simmer half an
hour. The browned vegetables are used to add flavor and
color to the broth. Pour broth through a strainer into large
bowl or pan. Place bone, meat, and vegetables in other
utensils. After rinsing kettle, pour broth into it. Cover
kettle with cloth to keep dust out and let broth cool. There
will be about three quarts of stock or broth. The next day
remove fat from the top and reheat. Serve each pupil with
one half or three fourths cupful of broth. Cover meat with a
clean cloth to keep the dust out and keep in a cool place until
it is used.
27 Beef Broth with Rice. Time: 4 to 5 hours.
Recipe Directions : Prepare soup
jfViSt stock as directed in Number 26.
1 c boiling water Cook rice for two or three hours
in boiling salted water, as directed
in cooking cereals. When cooked, drain well and add to
soup stock. This amount will serve two pupils.
28 Cream of Cabbage. Time: 1 hour.
Recipe Directions : Remove the wilt-
1 pt th cabbTge e ed or very green leaves from the
cabbage. Cut into medium-sized
pieces enough to fill a pint measure or a cup twice. Wash
and put to cook as directed for vegetables. Cook uncovered
for one hour. Add enough water to liquid in which the cab-
bage is cooked to make one cupful and pour it into the
white sauce. Serve hot. This amount serves four pupils.
THE HOT LUNCH 113
29 Pea Soup. Time: 10 to 12 hours.
Recipe Directions : If necessary pick
yea over ' Soak in one <l uart of water
5 c water over night. In the morning
2tsaTt place peas, soda, and one tea-
spoonful of salt in kettle with
enough cold water to cover. Boil for ten minutes, drain,
rinse and drain again. Add pork cut in half -inch cubes,
one teaspoonful of salt and five cupfuls of cold water, cover
and allow to simmer all day and the next forenoon. If too
strong, add more water about half an hour before lunch time.
Season with salt and pepper to taste. This amount is enough
to serve a dozen pupils.
30 Cream of Celery. Time: 40 minutes.
Recipe Directions: Cut into inch
lj| c bomng r water P ieces the coarse P arts of celei T
M t salt after it has been thoroughly
cleaned. Put to cook in boiling
salted water. Keep covered with water, and boil until
tender, about thirty minutes. Press through a sieve, add
enough boiling water to pulp, and of liquid to make one
and one half cupfuls. Combine with sauce. Serve hot.
This amount will serve five pupils.
31 Vermicelli Soup. Time: 4 to 5 hours.
Recipe Directions: Make required
\il vrmLdlf k amount of meat stock, as directed
M t salt in Number 26. Break vermicelli
into inch lengths and cook for
one and one half hours in salty water. Drain. Cover with
cold water, drain again, and place in broth. Serve hot.
114 INDUSTRIAL WORK FOR GIRLS
32 Vegetable Soup. Time: 25 minutes.
Recipe Directions: Use vegetables in
Carrots equal amounts or lessen or omit
Parsnips any not desired. Prepare and
cook as directed for vegetables.
Allow half a cupful of diced vegetables to a pupil. To soup
stock left from Number 26, add from one third to one half
as much vegetable stock, the liquid in which the vegetables
are cooked. Serve hot. Three quarters of a cupful to a
33 Cream of Peas. Time: 30 minutes.
Recipe Directions: An hour before
1 pt. canned peas
lf$t salt they are wanted, open and empty
3 c boiling water at once a can o f peas< Mash the
3 c medium white sauce . ...
Pepper to taste peas. Add the boiling water
and salt. Make the white sauce according to directions in
thickening sauces for soups. Combine mashed peas and
sauce immediately before serving. This amount will serve
ten to twelve pupils.
34 Bean Soup. Time: 10 to 12 hours.
See Pea Soup, Number 29. Use the same amounts and
make in the same way.
35 Cream of Tomato Soup. Time: 16 minutes.
Recipe Directions: Thicken the milk
y 2 c miik ned tomat with flour and butter and add
2 t butter seasoning. Heat tomato and add
\^ t fl ^ enough soda so that the milk does
A dash of white pepper not curdle when small amounts
of each are combined. When ready to serve pour heated
tomato into the thickened milk. Stir while pouring. This
amount will serve one pupil.
THE HOT LUNCH 115
36 Hot Milk and Bread. Time: 5 minutes.
Recipe Directions : Heat the milk in
Eac h W p^pa t0 brings a t P w e o rSO or double boiler or an improvised
more slices of bread one, until a thin tissue forms
over the top. Serve at once. Pupils break the bread into it.
37 Cocoa. Time: 10 minutes.
Recipe Directions: Heat the water
njcoSoa* and mix the cocoa and su s ar -
\YL i sugar Add some boiling water, making
a smooth paste. Pour this into
the boiling water. Let it simmer for five minutes. When
ready to serve, scald the milk and add it to the hot cocoa
mixture. Milk is more easily digested if not boiled. To
preserve the color of the cocoa, acid-proof utensils must
be used. This amount will serve one and one third pupils.
38 Meat Loaf. Time: 25 minutes.
Re ^ e ~i Directions: Use the meat
O 1 Kq r)ppf
2 slices salt pork or bacon from Number 26. Chop it and
2 1a d r ge e or C 3 a u; gg s the salt pork or bacon, add the
Y* t pepper crackers, crumbled fine, the salt
and pepper, and mix well. Moisten with left-over soup stock
or a little hot water and butter, and add well beaten eggs.
Shape into a loaf in greased baking pan. Bake until the egg
is cooked. This amount will serve fifteen to eighteen pupils.
39 Beef Stew. Time: 3 to 4 hours.
Recipe Directions: Start to stew
2qts.wtir bS early in the morning. Proceed
iy 2 t salt as for beef broth, brown part of
5*t bacon fat meat before stewin g ^ and kee P
y<z c each of diced onions, tightly covered. Brown all the
pototo'es 13 ^ 11 ^ 8 ' tUrnipS ' vegetables, add them and cook
6 peppercorns fifteen or twenty minutes more.
116 INDUSTRIAL WORK FOR GIRLS
Thicken with flour, using the third method of making sauces
and thickening soups.
40 Meat with Tomato Sauce. Time: 25 minutes.
Recipe Directions: Make a sauce
' with the t m ato flour and but-
I c strained tomato
I 1 butter ter, add seasoning and boiled
M t g^ meat from Number 26, and cut
spper to taste into small pieces. Cook until
meat is heated, stirring occasionally to prevent from burning.
This amount will serve six to eight pupils.
41 Creamed Chipped Beef. Time: 15 minutes.
Recipe Directions: Cut beef into
small pieces, put it into a small
dish that will stand being heated.
Cover with cold water and heat slowly. When hot, the
meat will have soaked up half of the water. Make
sauce as directed for sauce, but omit the salt. Pour the
meat and water in which it has soaked into the white sauce.
Add salt, if required. This amount will serve ten pupils.
If desired, serve creamed chipped beef with boiled rice as
prepared in Number 17.
42 Chop Suey. Time: 1*4 hours.
Recipe Directions: Cook spaghetti
1 pkg. spaghetti tne same as vermicelli in Number
1 pt. strained tomato- 31 and put it into the smoking
2 1 butter or bacon fat i . f , i i i >
i^ t salt hot fat in spider and brown it.
Y% t pepper . Add the tomato and seasoning.
Boil for two or three minutes.
Serve hot. This amount will serve eighteen or twenty pupils.
43 Creamed Eggs. Time: 5 minutes.
Recipe Directions: Each pupil should
K^white sauce bring a hard-boiled egg. Prepare
THE HOT LUNCH 117
enough white sauce to serve all, allowing one fourth of a
cupful for each pupil.
44 Soft-Cooked Eggs. Time: 8 to 10 minutes.
Recipe Directions : Place eggs in pan
1 c^water * boiling water, allowing one
cupful to an egg. Cover and let
stand where there is but little heat for eight or ten minutes,
depending on how soft they are desired. Remove and cover
with cold water for a second. Serve at once.
45 Scrambled Eggs. Time: 3 minutes.
Recipe Directions: Break the re-
I fhot milk or hot water <l uired number of e gg s into dish
I 1 bacon fat or butter and beat until yolks and whites
are well mixed. Stir while adding hot water or milk. Place
one teaspoonf ul of bacon fat or butter in upper part of double
boiler, the lower part being one third full of boiling water.
When fat is hot, pour in egg mixture. As the egg cooks
near the bottom and sides of pan, stir mixture. When cooked,
the egg will be of a soft creamy texture. Allow one egg to
46 Egg Gruel. Time: 10 minutes.
Recipe Directions : Beat the egg while
1 c g milk milk i g heating. When steaming
1-16 t salt hot, not boiling, pour slowly over
beaten egg. Continue beating while pouring. Serve at
once. This amount will serve two pupils.
47 Steamed Soft Custard. Time: 20 to 30 minutes.
Recipe Directions: Beat egg in a
I c gg c aided milk bowl until the y lk and white
I 1 sugar are thoroughly mixed, and add
the sugar. Stir while adding the
scalded milk. Pour mixture into a pail with tight fitting
cover or upper part of a double boiler, and place it in a pan
118 INDUSTRIAL WORK FOR GIRLS
of boiling water. Keep water hot, but not boiling. Allow to
cook until you have a smooth custard that will cut with a
a knife and not stick to it. This amount will require cook-
ing from twenty to thirty minutes. For a larger quantity a
longer time would be necessary. This will serve two pupils
48 Baked Custard. Time: 25. to 30 minutes.
Recipe Directions : Combine the same
} e g llk as in Number 47. Pour into the
1 1 sugar teacups and place them in a pan
of boiling water. Place pan in
very slow oven. Bake thirty minutes or until the point of
a paring knife will cut it and come out clean. This amount
will serve two pupils.
Various fruit dishes may easily be prepared. ' Apple
sauce can be made quickly, each student contributing one
or more apples. Dried fruits, such as apples, prunes, apri-
cots, etc., will require only a small amount of time in prep-
aration and are very palatable served hot with cold lunches.
49 Baked Apples. Time: 1^ hours.
Directions: Bake one apple for each pupil. Wash and
core. Place in a granite pan, put a teaspoonful of sugar in
the center of each apple and pour enough water into the dish
to cover the bottom of it. Bake until tender. Apples are
best if baked in a very slow oven for one and one half hour.
60 Apple Tapioca Pudding. Time: 1J^ hours.
Recipe Directions: Soak tapioca over
loVaTapples ni S ht in six cupf uls of cold water.
1 c sugar Pare, core and quarter the apples.
Add the apples, sugar and lemon
juice to the tapioca when it has cooked for fifty minutes.
Cook until apples are tender. Serve with cream. This
amount will serve sixteen to eighteen pupils.
INDUSTRIAL CLUB WORK
Garden and canning clubs have been organized in nearly
every state in the Union. The Federal Government has
assisted the movement by sending experts to various parts
of the country and state departments of agriculture have co-
operated through their extension work. Mr. T. A. Erickson,
state leader of boys' and girls' club work for Minnesota,
gives five reasons why every school district should have one
or more of these clubs. They are well worth considering.
1. To bring the school, home and farm into closer co-
2. To encourage boys and girls to assist their mothers
in having a good supply of vegetables and fruit for the table,
thus helping to reduce the cost of living, and to teach boys
and girls how to save what is often otherwise wasted.
3. To interest the boys and girls in gardening and in
the best methods of growing the tomato and other standard
4. To teach the best methods of canning what is not
5. To provide a means by which boys and girls may
earn some money and at the same time learn many valuable
There are many fruits and vegetables that may be grown
profitably by school girls in their home gardens. Toma-
toes and strawberries are probably the most profitable,
as there is always a ready market for these, and the surplus
is easily canned. In fact, the tomato is popular on account
of the canning that goes with that club work, as most of
the product is sold as canned goods. Many girls have
120 INDUSTRIAL WORK FOR GIRLS
entered the acre corn contests. Sweet corn may be substi-
tuted for the field corn, if it is preferred by the girls, and part
of the crop canned in the same manner as the tomatoes.
In that case, a full acre would not be required unless three or
four girls formed a partnership, and operated a home can-
ning outfit together. This outfit is discussed elsewhere.
Garden peas have been grown and canned successfully by
some of the clubs.
Insects and weeds are deadly enemies of garden, field
and orchard, and must be constantly guarded against. Poor
seed also is often responsible for small yields. It is neces-
sary, therefore, that girls, as well as boys, make a careful
study of all garden pests and also learn how to test their
seeds for purity and germination, if they are to get the best
results. A poultry contest and a potato yield contest also
could be conducted with advantage by girls.
Tomato growing, home canning and bread baking con-
tests are discussed at length in this book. Many of the
other subjects are discussed in a companion book, "Indus-
trial Work for Boys." Consult bulletins and reference books
for further information on organizing and conducting these
contests and such other club work as may be undertaken.
This has been one of the most popular and successful pro-
jects in club work and, where conditions are favorable for
tomato raising, it is strongly recommended. A century ago
the tomato was rarely grown and then only as an ornamental
plant. It was thought to be poisonous until its food value
was discovered accidentally. The tomato is now one of the
most valuable vegetable crops in the United States, and is
extensively grown in almost every other country. No
other fruit or vegetable is so much used for canning pur-
INDUSTRIAL CLUB WORK 121
The young tomato plant is very tender and must not be
transplanted until all danger of frost is past. In the north-
ern states this time will be about the middle of May.
The plants must, therefore, be started in window boxes or
hotbeds, and transplanted to the garden. Start them about
six weeks before they are to be set out in the open. There are
a great many varieties of tomatoes, but the large, late kinds
are best for canning. The plants should be set in rows at
least four feet apart to allow plenty of room for horse culti-
vation and for the development of the plant. The distance
apart in the row will depend upon the variety, as space
enough for growth is necessary. Tomatoes thrive best in
a rich, sandy soil and require plenty of warm weather
during a long growing season. They must be kept free
from weeds and insects and should not only be cultivated
often, but kept hoed close to the plant. As soon as the young
fruit is formed, the plant should be well supported by staking
and tying or part of the crop will be spoiled on the damp
ground. When time to ripen, cut away the surplus branches
to let the sun in and allow the nourishment that would
feed the branches to go to the green tomatoes. Early
varieties may often be marketed fresh in small baskets at
handsome profits, but the individual or girls' club should
own a home canning outfit and can the main crop. Write to
the national and state departments of agriculture for bulle-
tins and information pertaining to the culture and canning
of the tomato. Farmer's Bulletin No. 521 is good for the
Canning has become very popular among both boys and
girls during the last few years, both as home projects and as
club work. As home work, it is usually done by the girls, but
as club work, it is important for both girls and boys. Fruits,
122 INDUSTRIAL WORK FOR GIRLS
vegetables and soups are canned and glass sealers and tin
cans are used for containers. There is always a good de-
mand for foods preserved in this way. The canning pro-
jects supplement the fruit and vegetable gardening work and
make all profitable.
There are five general ways of canning food stuffs: the
intermittent, or fractional-sterilization, method; cold-water
method; vacuum-seal method; hot-pack, or open-kettle,
method; and the cold-pack method.
The intermittent method is very effective, but requires
three days to complete the process and is expensive in time
and fuel. The cold-water method is used with sour food
stuffs, such as gooseberries and rhubarb. The product is
washed and sealed in cold water. In the vacuum-seal
method a special can is required. It is successful, but has
not yet come into general use.
The hot-pack, or open-kettle, method is still the common
way of canning in most homes. The products are com-
pletely cooked before packing in the cans and sealing.
The method is a success for fruits, but is a failure for vege-
tables, and it is always laborious.
The cold-pack method is gradually displacing the hot-
pack. It is the method generally recommended for the
club work and home canning projects. By it, vegetables,
as well as fruits, may be preserved.
The equipment for canning by the cold-pack method
need not be elaborate. While there are several kinds of
commercial outfits on the market, their chief advantage
over the homemade ones is their convenience. Homemade
outfits may be constructed from washtubs, wash boilers,
kettles, milk cans, pails, etc. Select an outfit that is deep
enough for water to come one inch above the top of the tallest
jar. This type of cooker is called a hot water bath outfit.
INDUSTRIAL CLUB WORK
It should be provided with handles, a false bottom and a tight
cover. The false bottom is used to keep the containers off
the bottom and thus allow water to come in contact with the
cans or jars. A tinner can make a special false bottom, or
one can be made at home by fastening thin boards to some
cleats and submerging in the water. Wire handles may be
fastened to the false bottom to lift the entire lot of containers
out when cooked, or the cans may be removed singly with
'tongs or other device.
Figure 56. Canning by the cold-pack method.
The various steps in cold-pack canning are, in order, as
as follows: Select sound products; grade for ripeness, size
and quality; wash clean; trim, if necessary; scald or blanch
to loosen the skin, reduce bulk and drive out objectionable
acids; plunge into cold water immediately, or "cold dip," to
separate the skin from the pulp, firm the texture, set the
color and render packing easy; pack carefully and closely in
glass jars or tin cans; add hot water for vegetables and hot
water or hot syrup for fruits; place rubber and cover on jar
124 INDUSTRIAL WORK FOR GIRLS
and partially seal, or cap and tip tin cans at once; cook, or
"process," immediately and according to time-table, but do
not begin to count time until the water in the cooker is
boiling. Scalding is immersing for one or two minutes in
boiling water or live steam. It is used mostly for tree
fruits and tomatoes. Blanching is parboiling. The prod-
uct is left in the boiling water for a longer period than is
necessary for scalding. The time varies from one to fifteen
minutes, according to the nature of the product.
The time necessary to cook the products will depend
upon the kind of food stuff to be canned and the altitude.
Water boils at 212F. at sea level, but the boiling point de-
creases as the altitude increases. It takes longer, therefore,
to cook the products at high altitudes. In general, the time
should be increased at the rate of about 25 per cent for each
increase of 4,000 feet in altitude. In general, the time re-
quired in the hot water bath outfit for soft fruits, such as
berries, peaches, etc., at an altitude of 500 feet, is about 16
minutes; for sour berry fruits, such as currants, gooseberries,
etc., about 16 minutes; for hard fruits, such as apples, pears,
etc., 20 minutes; for greens, such as spinach, Swiss chard,
etc., blanch 15 or 20 minutes and sterilize 90 minutes; for
roots and tubers, such as parsnips, sweet potatoes, etc., 90
minutes; for tomatoes, 22 minutes; for sweet corn, 180
minutes; for string beans and peas, 120 minutes; and for
pumpkin and squash, 60 minutes. While overcooking makes
the product look mushy, it is always better to overcook than
to undercook, as in the latter case the food is likely to spoil.
As soon as removed from the cooker, the glass containers
should be tightly sealed, and placed . bottom side up until
cold. They should then be stored in a darkened place, as
strong light fades the color.
INDUSTRIAL CLUB WORK 125
The person or club doing the canning should send to the
Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C., for the N R
series, "Co-operative Extension Work in Agriculture and
Home Economics," for complete recipes, tables, etc., neces-
sary for a thorough understanding of the subject. It is
suggested that, where club work is done at school or at home,
a commercial canning outfit should be purchased. It could
belong to the club or to the school. Many clubs have worked
on the co-operative plan and sold enough canned products
from the home gardens to bring large returns for the time
and money invested. Special labels for club work can be
obtained and should be used for the cans that are to. be sold.
The club brand is popular in many markets.
BREAD BAKING CONTEST
Bread is truly the "staff of life" in the American home,
and bread making is one of the things that every girl should
learn to do well. Experience is a good teacher, but experi-
ence alone will not produce good bread and biscuit bakers,
as many fathers and brothers can testify. The scientific
principles must be understood. No experiment should be
more interesting than that of learning to bake bread. If
possible, demonstrations should be given at school before
the home credit work begins. In any event every girl
should seek an opportunity to show what she can do in
baking for a certain length of time either in school or at
home or both. One state held a bread baking contest with
over eighty counties represented and more than sixteen
The essential factors in bread making are the flour, the
yeast and the liquid used. It is true that there is a difference
in flour, but most of the flour made in modern mills is good
flour and should make good bread. Some flours require more
INDUSTRIAL WORK FOR GIRLS
Figure 57. Prize winning loaves in a state bread baking contest. Over six-
teen hundred entries were in competition.
liquid, or more kneading, or something else different from
others, but it is usually not the fault of the flour when the
bread is not good. Good bread makers can generally use
the home flour with success. Wheat flour contains stronger
gluten than any other and it is this that makes the bread
light. For this reason white flour is mixed with rye and
other flours to make them light. Yeast is one of the dust
plants found in the air. Because it gives off carbon dioxide
which causes the bread to rise as the gas expands, it is used
commercially in various forms. The yeast cake, dried or
compressed, is probably best for general use, although the
homemade yeast sometimes gives better results.
Compressed yeast is used in the short process of bread
making and has certain advantages over other yeasts. It
is very active, but must be used while it is fresh as it will not
keep long. Dark spots indicate dead yeast plants; hence,
whenever compressed yeast is used, it should be carefully
inspected. The chief disadvantage in the use of compressed
INDUSTRIAL CLUB WORK 127
yeast is that it is almost impossible for those who cannot get
it fresh frequently to keep it active. The other kinds are
better for ordinary use. On the other hand, if it is not pos-
sible or convenient to keep a sponge over night, the com-
pressed yeast will hurry up the process so that the bread can
be baked the same day the sponge is set.
Milk, water, potato water and buttermilk are all used as
liquids. Milk usually gives a better crust than the others
and the bread will keep fresh longer. Equal quantities of
milk and water are often used, but buttermilk is not so
commonly a factor in bread making. Other ingredients are
sugar, which acts as food for the yeast plant and hastens the
rising, salt for flavoring, and shortening to make the bread
There are several methods of scoring bread when it is
judged in contests. The following is one that is used in
judging the bread in the contest work of one state: General
appearance, twenty points ; flavoring, odor and taste, thirty-
five points; lightness, fifteen points; and crumb texture,
color, grain, thirty points; total, one hundred points.
See Chapter IV for recipe for yeast bread. If you enter
any particular contest, you will probably have a definite
recipe to follow. When you write your booklet on "Bread
Baking," tell which recipe you used.
HOME CREDIT EXERCISES
Many city and village schools have adopted the advanced
policy of allowing school credit for certain kinds of home
work. There is no good reason why this plan cannot be
extended to the rural schools as well. The following "Home
Credit Exercises" have been carefully planned with a view
to giving such credit. In any event, they are worth doing
and the teacher can be of great assistance in directing the
work whether the school can give credit or not.
THE FLOWER GARDEN
There should be more flower gardens on our home
grounds. After studying references on landscape gardening
and consulting with teacher, brothers and parents, plan a
landscape garden for the front of the house. If not already
in grass, the soil should be leveled and seeded down or sod-
ded. When ready to plant, use a plat drawn especially
for this purpose and set out the shrubs first. As shrubs are
permanent, great care must be used in the arrangement. A
small lawn will be crowded if more than a few are used.
A few clusters, with two or more shrubs in a cluster, placed
in an irregular manner, as nature arranges them, will be
sufficient. The rose, snowball, bridal wreath and syringa are
some of the beautiful flowering shrubs. One or more flower
beds, depending upon the size of the lawn, should be provided.
They may be round, oval or irregular, as desired, and they
should be elevated. Cannas are beautiful for the center.
Small geraniums, carnations, begonias, sweet alyssum or
some other favorite plants that are suitable, should surround
the cannas. Have some small foliage plants around all as a
HOME CREDIT EXERCISES 129
border for the bed. Be careful to use good judgment in the
arrangement so that the colors will blend harmoniously as
well as produce a natural effect in the landscape.
A delightful back garden may be produced in the back
yard with a little planning and work. If you can have a
summer playhouse, which should be the inheritance of every
young person, so much the better. Cover it with five-
leaf ivy and climbing roses, and make it the center of at-
traction. Winding paths, bordered by hedges and shaded
with flowering shrubs, should lead to the house. Old-
fashioned flowers may be arranged artistically as space
will permit. For a permanent border, select columbines,
foxgloves, larkspurs, Canterbury bells, bleeding heart and
other old favorites. For annual beds, there are many kinds
that are suitable, such as sweet peas, pansies, phlox, as-
ters, violets, poppies, nasturtiums, gladioli and chrysan-
Such a flower garden as here suggested will require
plenty of energy and constant care, but it may be made a
veritable fairyland of birds and bees and flowers, and is
well worth while. It should be made a home club affair
in which all the members of the family take an interest.
Neither the cost nor the labor can be the reasons why there
are so few such gardens. Some one must take the initia-
tive and show that the project is commendable. The girls
can do it. Let the school help you get yours started.
In case it seems impossible to carry out the flower garden
idea on such an elaborate scale as given under that heading,
there is still opportunity to work with flowers in the home.
Many of these can be transplanted to the garden during the
summer. A few flower pots or window boxes will be all
130 INDUSTRIAL WORK FOR GIRLS
that is necessary at first. If there is a large south or east
window in the house, so much the better. A flower stand
can be made of narrow boards, and stained or painted to
harmonize with the surroundings. Select the varieties you
like best and secure slips and bulbs from your neighbors
or the florist. Plant in rich, mellow soil and keep well
watered. Loosen the soil occasionally to prevent baking
or hardening. Watch for plant lice and destroy them with
a soap emulsion sprayed over the plant. A few common
house plants are the geranium, hydrangea, lily, fuchsia,
carnation, begonia, petunia, Christmas cactus, asparagus
and sword ferns. Both pleasure and profit will be derived
from a careful study of house plants.
One of the most interesting projects for which home
credit should be given is a study of the common birds.
This, being outdoor work, will afford abundance of health-
ful exercise. A notebook should be a constant companion
and, if you are fortunate enough to have a kodak, the
field work will be still more interesting. Your notes should
be written in permanent form into a " Birds That I Know"
Birds are classified as land, water, game and birds of prey.
Some go south for the winter; others do not. You should
make a table of these migrations with dates in the spring
and fall. Some birds are injurious, destroying grains,
fruits, beneficial animals and other birds. Some of these are
the common English sparrow, the kingfisher and the crow.
These birds should be destroyed. Other birds are highly
beneficial and should be protected. Still others are prized
for their songs and plumage. Some of the beneficial birds
are as follows: Robin, house wren, song sparrow, orchard
HOME CREDIT EXERCISES 131
oriole, bank swallow, barn swallow, blue jay, cardinal,
red-winged blackbird, redheaded woodpecker, killdeer, quail,
dove, screech owl, barn owl, buzzard, humming bird, cow-
bird and meadow lark. Nearly all these, as well as many
others, can be observed and studied in your community.
Birds feed chiefly upon insects and other injurious pests
and hence should be protected. State and national laws
protect most of these birds, but you can help also. Bird
houses to protect from cold and wet, crumbs thrown out
when snow is on the ground and watching that cats and
other animals do not molest the young birds just from the
nest are some of the ways.
Every girl should learn how to make beds properly and
then apply her knowledge. This is a very good task for
home credit work.
On rising in the morning, throw the bed covers back
over the foot of the bed allowing the bedding to air for an
hour or two with the windows open. Then make the beds
as follows : Straighten the mattress and smooth out the pad
carefully, before putting on the sheets. Spread the lower
sheet right side up over the bed. Bring the edges and
ends well under the mattress in order that it may be pro-
tected and that the sheet will not become unnecessarily
wrinkled. Spread the upper sheet over the bed wrong side
up and the wide hem or ornamented end of the sheet toward
the head of the bed. Bring the sheet up far enough so that
it can be turned back about eight or ten inches over the
blankets or quilts in order to protect them. Be sure to place
all covers on the bed so that they extend equally on both
sides. Tuck the covers down at the foot of the bed. Put
on the spread neatly. Fluff out the pillows and arrange
them neatly at the head of the bed.
132 INDUSTRIAL WORK FOR GIRLS
At least once a week air the bedclothes out-of-doors
in the sunshine. Fresh air and sunshine are the best puri-
fiers and germ killers known. Turn the mattress over and
exchange ends occasionally to prevent forming hollows in
it. Sheets and pillow cases should be changed at least once
PREPARING A MEAL
Get the breakfast or some other meal regularly for
six weeks- or other convenient unit of time. Such work
is excellent training and the parents can determine how soon
the students should be allowed credit in school for the work
done at home. A signed statement from them may be taken
to the teacher. The following suggestions for preparing
a meal may be helpful:
Prepare those things in advance which can be so pre-
pared without injuring the quality of food, in case it is
some time before they are to be served. Start those dishes
first which take the longest time; then those that are to be
prepared and served at once. Watch the clock and try to
have things ready just in time. For the beginner, it is
advisable to choose dishes that will not spoil if completed
a short time before they are to be served. Serve those dishes
which are to be hot, hot; and cold dishes, cold. Wash
as many of the mixing and cooking utensils as possible
before serving the meal. You will find it necessary to remain
in the kitchen during the greater part of the time while the
meal is cooking. Make use of the spare moments and there
will be fewer dishes to wash later.
LAYING THE TABLE
Learn how to lay a table properly and then arrange to
have charge of it for six weeks at a time, or as long as it
may be desired. Since many persons do not lay the
HOME CREDIT EXERCISES 133
table properly, be sure that you know how before you
begin to do this work. The following suggestions may
Spread a white felt cloth over the table to protect its
polish, to give body to the tablecloth and to deaden the sound.
When buying the silence cloth, as the felt cloth is called,
plan to have it extend well over the edges of the table and
make it long enough to allow for shrinkage. Spread the
tablecloth over this, having the lengthwise fold extending the
long way of the table, and the cloth extending over equally
at both ends and at the sides. Make similar plans for a
round table. Place the centerpiece in the center of the
table and on it a rather shallow dish of flowers. A table
fern or other suitable plant may be used. At breakfast,
it is pleasing to have a dish of fruit in the center of the
Allow about two feet for each cover. A " cover" means
the knives, forks, spoons, plates, tumbler and napkin needed
by each person. Excepting the tumbler, the cover is placed
from one half to one inch from the edge of the table. The
plate is placed in the middle of the cover, the forks at the
left of the plate in the order in which they are to be used,
beginning at the outside. The napkin is placed at the left
of the forks. The knives and spoons are at the right of the
plate, also in the order in which they are to be used, begin-
ning at the outside. The sharp edge of the knives should
be towards the plate. The bowls of the spoons and the
tines of the forks should be up. The tumbler is placed at
the end of the knives and slightly towards the plate.
Salt and pepper, cream and sugar, jelly and pickles, and
usually bread and butter are placed on the table before the
meal is announced.
134 INDUSTRIAL WORK FOR GIRLS
To serve a meal properly is an art every girl should be
proud to accomplish. Do this one or more meals daily
for six weeks or longer and submit a report to school for
Have everything that is to accompany the first course
on the table when the meal is announced. When a waitress
is serving something in an individual dish it should be
placed from the right-hand side of the person sitting at the
table. When the waitress is passing a dish from which the
person being served is to help himself, it should be passed
to the left of the person, and the dish should be held on the
level of the table. As soon as the course is completed, re-
move it and everything that was served with it. Next
remove the soiled dishes and the silver used for the course.
Remove all dishes from the right- of the person. In polite
society it is considered best to remove the dishes from but
one cover at a time. In any event, do not take more than
from two persons at one time. The waitress should be care-
ful while serving not to reach in front of anyone.
Before serving the dessert, remove the crumbs from the
table, using a crumb tray. Have the glasses of water filled
only three fourths full when the guests are seated. The
glasses should be refilled if necessary during the meal, being
careful to take hold of the glass as near the bottom as pos-
sible. Remove but one tumbler at a time when refilling it, as
otherwise the glasses might be exchanged. .
CLEARING DINING TABLE AND WASHING DISHES
First remove all soiled dishes from the dining table. If
necessary, scrape crumbs from the table again. Remove
the cloth, folding it carefully in the same folds. Remove the
silence cloth. If the napkins have been used by the regular
members of the family, they may be used again and should
HOME CREDIT EXERCISES , 135
be placed in the sideboard drawer; but, if used for special
guests for that particular meal, they should be taken directly
to the laundry.
Place a centerpiece on the table, and on it a dish of
flowers or ferns, if available. Brush up the crumbs from the
While the dining room is being cleared, the water should
be heating for the dishes. Collect the silver and place it to
soak in a jar or pitcher. Remove all particles of food
from the dishes, using a plate scraper or a crust of bread.
Wipe greasy dishes with a paper. Soak those which con-
tained sugar mixtures in warm water, and those that
contained milk, eggs and starchy mixtures in cold water,
before starting to wash the dishes. Pile the plates of one
size together. If but few of a kind, the smaller ones may be
placed on top. Remove left over food to smaller dishes
and put it away in the refrigerator or other sanitary place.
Prepare warm, soapy water in the dish pan and in it wash the
glassware. Some prefer to dry the glassware without
rinsing it, as it is then more easily polished. Use a clean
dry towel. Put each lot of dishes away as soon as dried.
Wash, rinse and dry in the following order: Silver, cups,
saucers, small odd dishes, as cream pitchers, etc., small
plates, large plates, serving dishes, mixing and cooking
utensils. Change the water if there are many dishes, as
the work cannot be well done otherwise, and the dish towels
become unnecessarily soiled. Clean the work tables. When
the dishwater is emptied, wash, rinse and dry with the
towel the dish pan and the drain pan. Wash and rinse
the dish cloth and hang it up where it can dry quickly
and be aired. Also hang up the dish towels to dry.
Clean the sink thoroughly, using a special cloth for that
INDUSTRIAL WORK FOR GIRLS
One of the worst pests of modern life is the common house,
or "typhoid," fly. It is filthy and loathsome, breeding in
barnyard manure, outhouses, etc.; consequently, it is one
of the worst disease carriers. Typhoid fever, tuberculosis
and dysentery are often traced to the house fly. The only
real preventive is to get rid of the breeding places. Manure
must not be allowed to collect. Houses should be made
modern; but, until then, outhouses can be screened and
kept clean and odorless. Do not throw out dishwater or
other slops where they will be a harbor for flies. Have a
garbage pail and use it.
See that all doors and
windows are screened.
Fly poisons are danger-
ous and must be used
with care. The commer-
cial sticky papers and the
"swatter" help get rid of
Figure 58. House, or typhoid, fly a, adult
or fly; b, <
or fly; b, eggs; c, larva or maggot; d, pupa;
those flies already in the
house. A few cedar
boughs suspended from
the ceiling will attract the flies to roost at night, from
which they may be shaken into bags. Send to your state
entomologist for a bulletin on the control of flies, and a
description of traps for catching them. Many communities
have annual crusades against flies, offering bounties and
rewards for the largest numbers. This is a home project
worthy of study.
PLANNING THE HOME
Make drawings of your home showing the rooms on each
floor as well as the basement. Make three drawings the
HOME CREDIT EXERCISE 8
138 INDUSTRIAL WORK FOR GIRLS
basement, first floor and second floor. Be careful to show
the details, as location of the clothes closets, direction in
which the doors swing, etc., as these are very important.
After these drawings have been approved by the teacher,
draw an original house plan, laying out each room exactly
as you want it, keeping convenience, comfort, sanitation,
art and cost in mind. Draw this to some convenient scale,
as one half inch to the foot. This exercise is valuable and
will require some careful reading, study and consultation.
If there is a new barn at your home, it probably has
special ventilators to carry off the foul air and furnish the
stock with plenty of pure air. Where are the ventilators in
the house? Very likely the stove, the doors and the windows
are the only means of getting a change of air. This method
of ventilating is not so bad in summer, if the doors and win-
Figure 62. Ventilation of room, showing "window" and "register" methods. A
board inserted at the bottom of the window will leave space between the two
sashes for the admission of air. The register method is possible only with a
HOME CREDIT EXERCISES 139
dows are kept open, but in cold weather it is seldom that the
home is well ventilated. Air becomes impure and a source
of disease. Colds, tuberculosis and many other diseases are
often caused from impure air, through lack of ventilation.
A simple test for carbon dioxide in the air is limewater.
Slack a small lump of lime in cold water and let it settler
Pour off the clear limewater, put a few spoonfuls into a glass
jar and allow it to stand for several hours in the room you
wish to test. If a white powdery looking substance settles
in the bottom after you shake the jar there is enough carbon
dioxide in the air to be injurious and the air is not fit to
breathe. Test the air of the schoolroom, and then of the
bedrooms at home. What are your conclusions? Do you
always sleep with your windows up, winter as well as sum-
mer? If not, try it.
One of the best plans to encourage thrift and teach the
value of saving is the one now adopted by many schools of
affiliating the school with one or more banks and allowing
students to make weekly deposits. The teacher acts as
local cashier and deposits the money at the banks when con-
venient. One day a week is known as banking day at school
and pupils may deposit any amount from one cent up.
They are given stamps as certificates. These stamps are
furnished free by the banks. One school of thirty students
recently deposited more than $100 in four months, most of
which would have been spent needlessly, had they not be-
come interested in the savings bank movement. The
garden and club work make it possible for all young persons
to earn money for themselves, and there is all the more need
of learning to save. Many look upon "pin" money as some-
thing with which to buy chewing gum and candy, if not
140 INDUSTRIAL WORK FOR GIRL 8
something more injurious. Increasing the earning capacity
is very important; but unless one learns to spend less than is
earned, there can be no saving. The following ten thrift
maxims have been selected from an Oregon pamphlet on
''Industrial Club Work." They are proverbs well worth
" Fortune helps them that help themselves."
"Punctuality is the soul of business."
"Who will not keep a penny shall never have many."
"Plow deep while sluggards sleep, and you shall have corn
to sell and keep."
"Industry is fortune's right hand and frugality her left."
"He is poor whose expenses exceed his income."
"Early to bed, early to rise, makes a man healthy,
wealthy and wise."
"He that will not stoop for a pin will never be worth a
"He that has but four, and spends five, has no need of
"He that saves when he is young, may spend when he
Every girl should know how to keep simple home ac-
counts, and then keep them. It is said that the average
housekeeper has the spending of about three fourths of the
income for the family. She should spend it systematically
and economically, and keeping accounts will assist her to
do so. As a supplement to the club work and savings bank
accounts this work is admirable.
Learning to keep accounts should be a part of the arith-
metic work of the upper classes. There are a few simple
things that must be remembered and always followed.
HOME CREDIT EXERCISES
An account may be defined as the name under which certain
transactions are arranged according to whether they have
been "received," or "parted with." When an account
receives something, the transaction is put on the left side,
or "debited"; when it parts with something, the transaction
is put on the right side, or "credited." The school should
have some special ledger cards, about six by eight inches,
made up for this work.
The inventory is the first step in starting accounts. A
continued form is shown. Study it and make out one for
your home. A half dozen accounts is all that is necessary,
unless you run store accounts. In that event, you will
need a personal account for each firm with which you trade.
Study the suggestive accounts here given and start to keep
the real records of your home as a home credit project".
1 Tea Kettle
2 Dish Pans
3 yrs. old
2 Rockers . . .
1 Hall Tree
INDUSTRIAL WORK FOR GIRLS
S. A. NORBERG
1 Sack Flour
2 Ibs. Dairy Butter @ 25c
C. A. SWANSON
2 Kitchen Chairs @ 75c . .
2 yds. Linoleum @ 85c. . .
A. L. THELANDER & CO.
5 gal. Kerosene @ 15c .
2 pkgs. Needles @ lOc . . .
1 pr. Shoes
1 pr. Yarn Gloves
6 yds. Gingham @ 15c . . .
MRS. HENRY SMITH
Bal. on Hand
2 Ibs. Mutton @ 15c...
1 Ib. Lard
A. L. Thelander & Co.
S. A. Norberg
C. A. Swanson
Bal. on Hand
HOME CREDIT EXERCISES
RENT, FUEL & LIGHTING
5 gal. Kerosene @ 15c.. .
2 Kitchen Chairs @ 75c .
House F. Expense
2 yds. Linoleum @ 85c. . .
1 pr Shoes
1 pr. Yarn Gloves, . ."
6 yds. Gingham @ 15c. . .
21bs. Mutton 15c.. .
1 Ib. Lard
1 Sack Flour
2 Ibs Butter @ 25c
2 pkgs. Needles @ lOc . . .
OTHER HOME PROJECTS
There are many other suitable exercises for which the
school should give home credit under certain conditions,
but space will not permit discussions. Some of them are as
144 INDUSTRIAL WORK FOR GIRLS
follows: Dusting with oiled cloths, scrubbing floors, wash-
ing clothes, ironing, pressing clothes, planning menus, pur-
chasing materials, learning the cuts of meats and their values,
preserving fresh eggs, making dairy butter, and a study of
textiles' wool, cotton, linen, silk, etc.
Finally, as the grand climax of the industrial "work, plan
to have at least one industrial exhibit each year at the school
and invite all the people of the community. Get the farmers'
club, the creamery directors and other organizations, as well
as the school board, interested enough to offer small prizes
to encourage the work. If no prizes are offered, have the
exhibit anyway. The best plan is to have two one in the
spring, just before school is out, and th'e other in fall just
before cold weather. In the spring the best work of the
year at school may be shown, not only the industrial work,
but arithmetic, writing, language, etc. A spelling contest
will add interest. In the fall, a "harvest home festival"
may be given at which will be exhibited the work done by
the students during the summer. This will include garden
products, corn, tomato, canning and other contest work,
as well as any other special "home credit" projects.
The following premium list was used for the annual con-
test of fifteen rural associated schools at Cokato, Minnesota,
spring of 1915. In addition to the individual and school
prizes, a sweepstakes silver trophy was offered, which be-
comes the permanent property of any school winning it for
two successive years.
Premium List for Contest in Associated Schools
1. Best individual specimen of writing, including movement
exercises, small letters, capitals, figures and words . . . .75 .50 .25
2. Best general display from all grades 75 .50 .25
HOME CREDIT EXERCISES 145
1. Best relief map of Minnesota 75 .50 .25
2. Best relief map of any continent 75 .50 .25
3. Best drawn map of any kind, 75 .50 .25
1. Best booklet on any one of the following topics: Corn,
Noxious Weeds, Vegetable Garden, Strawberries, Ap-
ples, Poultry for Pleasure and Profit, Farm Animals,
Bee Culture, Home Sanitation, The Typhoid Fly 75 .50 .25
2. Best general display from all grades 75 .50 .25
Best general display from all grades
ELEMENTARY INDUSTRIAL WORK
Best woven mat, yarn or cloth
Best napkin ring -.
Best raffia or reed mat
Best raffia or reed basket
Best yarn cap or bonnet
Best clay exhibit
Best general exhibit of industrial work
Best outing flannel holder
Best gingham holder
Best hemstitched towel
Best stockinet darning
Best gingham bag
Best sewing apron
Best hemmed patch
Best three-cornered darn
Best outing flannel nightgown
Best overhand patch
Best general exhibit of sewing
Each article is to be made as directed in course of study
1. Best match scratcher 50 .35 .25
2. Best plant marker 50 .35 .25
3. Best salt box 75 .50 .25
4. Best match box 75 .50 .25
5. Best other article 75 .50 .25
6. Best composition on "Manual Training in the Rural
School" 75 .50 .25
7. Best general exhibit in manual training 1.00
1. Corn judging contest 75 .50 .25
2. Corn germinator with germinating corn ready to count.
Must include report on test and opinion of seed by ex-
hibitor 75 .50 .25
3. Long and short splice (both must be included) 75 .50 .25
4. Best general exhibit of rope work including knots and
splices. 75 .50 .25
5. Best noxious weed seed exhibit to be selected and de-
termined by the school 75 .50 .25
6. Best general exhibit in agricultural work 1.00
I Rural Education I
A. E. PICKARD
AN AID TO PRODUCTIVE TEACHING
FOR NORMAL CLASSES, READING CIR-
CLES, COUNTY SUPERINTENDENTS and
Adopted in Several States and Many Counties
Industrial subjects are disputing place with academic
= even in the rural school. What shall be eliminated? What
^ shall be taught? How? With what result?
Rural Education Tells What to Teach
Aside from the excellent arrangement of the program of
H academic subjects and the full treatment of methods for
teaching the same, Rural Education presents practical plans
for including the required industrial work, viz: agriculture,
H manual training and domestic science. In addition it fully ^
discusses the outside activities which enlarge the scope of the
school and the community life and form a vital part of real
Rural Education Tells How to Teach
The co-ordination and arrangement of all these con-
= flicting courses is a problem which this book solves with
M satisfaction and success. Complete instruction is given for f|
the carrying out of the plans suggested and for the teaching
= of each subject in detail. In the industrial subjects the actual
work to be pursued is supplied.
Rural Education Increases Teaching Efficiency
The definite outlines and methods which have been M
thoroly tested and found to be most successful, together with
H the enlarged outlook and inspiration which come with a view
of new and greater possibilities, tend to increase efficiency in ^
s the schoolroom and to direct and elevate all rural life.
12mo., 430 pages. Illustrated. Price, $1.00 net
WEBB PUBLISHING COMPANY,
SAINT PAUL, MINN.
I Industrial W>rk/^ Boys j
A. E. PICKARD
A COMPANION VOLUME TO
"INDUSTRIAL WORK FOR GIRLS"
This volume is in keeping with the rapid strides that are
^j being made by^industrial education. It is an up-to-date text
H for teaching industrial work tq boys in rural and graded
schools. With the exception of its companion volume, no
H other book is better designed for training the hand as well as
Chapter I Course and Equipment. Purpose of Industrial Work,
Preliminary Industrial Work, Second and Third Division Work.
H Chapter II General Industrial Work. School Exercises in Weav-
== ing, Paper Folding and Construction, Raffia and Rattan Work,
Chapter III 'Rope Work and Belt Lacing. Whipping, Crowning,
Splicing, Making Knots, Rope Halters, Block and Tackle Reev-
ing, Lacing Three-inch and Six-inch Belts.
= Chapter IV Woodwork at School. Equipment, Thirty-two Man-
ual Training Exercises.
Chapter V^Home Projects in Woodwork. Equipment, Nineteen
Home Credit Projects, including the Making of a Work Bench,
= Folding Ironing Table, Stepladder, Chicken Coop, Stock Rack,
Wagon Box, Farm Gate and Road Drag.
Chapter VI Projects in Cement and Iron. Making Concrete
= Walks, Floors, Posts and Building Blocks, Iron Work.
= Chapter VII Home Credit Work in Agriculture. Soil Study, Ro-
tation of Crops, Germination Tests, Garden Work, Weed Col-
lection, Insect Collection, Collection of Woods, Study of Birds
and Rodents, Study of Machinery, Stock and Grain Judging,
Tree Grafting, Strawberry Raising.
H Chapter VIII Contests and Club Work. Acre-yield Corn Plot,
= Potato Yield Contest, Tomato Contest, Home Canning, Poultry
= Contest, Pig Contest, Savings Banks, Keeping Accounts, In-
= dustrial Exhibit.
J The book contains over 100 illustrations, most of which
H are working drawings for the projects suggested. These
H diagrams alone are worth in school or at home many times
H the price of the book.
12mo., about 150 pages. Illustrated. Price, 40 cents net
WEBB PUBLISHING COMPANY,
SAINT PAUL. MINN.
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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY