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AGRIC. DEPTi > >j(*^i>tc 

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President, Collegiate Institute, Minneapolis; formerly Superintendent 

of Associated Schools, Cokato, Minnesota; author of "Rural 

Education", "Industrial Booklets" and 

"Industrial Work for Boys" 



Instructor in Home Economics, Minneapolis Public Schools; formerly 

Director of Home Economics, Associated Schools, 

Cokato, Minnesota 











Until recently the average school has provided very little 
industrial work for girls. Even yet this important phase 
of education is confined largely to cooking and sewing, of 
some of. which the educational value is questionable. It 
is true that the exercises in these subjects can be made very 
practical. Too often they are unrelated and poorly exe- 
cuted. The work is not taught; it is just done. In some 
instances, these conditions have brought criticism upon the 
entire industrial movement. 

The industrial course of study should be as carefully 
planned from the beginning classes as the academic work 
and, to be most effective, must be correlated with it; that 
is, definite instruction must precede or follow the industrial 
exercise if the student is to get anything more than mechan- 
ical training. From this standpoint, the paper weaving, 
the yarn weaving and the other weaving of the primary 
classes become important on account of the instruction 
given in the manufacture of these products and of the infor- 
mation gained about these important industries. The same 
is true of the clay modeling, basketry and other elementary 
industrial work. Many of the exercises may have little 
or no practical value, but they should have much educa- 
tional value if properly taught. For this reason, a course 
of study with but a smattering of cookiu^\"aiid. '"sewing in 
the upper classes, and with no defimte, plan,,, is entirely 
inadequate; the student has no foundation J'c-r the work; 
and fails to see the relation between it and her other studies. 

Practically all the exercises suggested in this little book 
have been successfully done in several rural associated 
schools, as well as in the grades and the teachers' training 




department at tjie central school under the supervision of 
the authors. Some of the most successful teachers were 
those who had but little previous preparation for this kind 
of work but who became interested and learned the exer- 
cises with the students. 

The teacher must be alive to the situation, as upon her, 
almost entirely, will depend the success of the work. Ref- 
erence books and bulletins should be provided. The latter 
may be obtained free from the Federal and state depart- 
ments of agriculture, and a few good industrial books should 
be purchased each year with the library supplies. The 
amount of time given to industrial work must depend upon 
local conditions, but some can be correlated with geography 
and other subjects, as already suggested. Several grades 
should be grouped together, and the two or three industrial 
classes should be conducted at the same time, once or twice 
a week, during the general period. An extended discus- 
sion of the industrial course and the management of the 
classes is given in Pickard's "Rural Education." Teachers 
who are not familiar with the "Division Plan" of con- 
ducting the classes should use that book as a reference. 

While parts of Chapter I are extended primarily for the 
teacher, it is suggested that such parts as pertain to the 
purpose of industrial work, materials used and other phases 
that will be helpful should be discussed as class work. These 
, may pre.cerle,, or. be done in connection with, the regular 

: ,; The -authors acknowledge the help received in the prep- 
aration -of this :b'o6k .from standard references on industrial 
work and from government bulletins. Thanks are also 
extended to friends who have read parts of the manuscript 
and offered valuable suggestions. THE AUTHORS. 

October, 1916. 


Chapter Page 

I Course and Equipment 9 

Purpose of Industrial Work, Preliminary Industrial 
Work, Second and Third Division Work. 

H General Industrial Work 19 

School Exercises in Weaving, Paper Folding and Con- 
struction, Raffia and Rattan Work, Modeling. 

III Sewing in the Rural School 33 

Equipment, Classification of Stitches, School Exer- 
cises, Home Projects. 

IV Principles of Home Science 67 

Food Defined, Food Principles, Preservation of Food, 
Planning Menus, Purpose and Principles of Cooking, 
Bread Making, Cake Making, Pie Making, Salads, 
Beverages, Experiments. 

V The Hot Lunch "... .97 

Equipment, General Directions, Sauces and Thick- 
ening for Cream Soups, Suggestive Dishes, Recipes. 

VI Industrial Club Work 119 

Tomato Contest, Home Canning, Bread Baking 

VII Home Credit Exercises 128 

The Flower Garden, House Plants, Bird Study, Bed 
Making, Preparing a Meal, Laying the Table, Serv- 
ing Meals, Clearing Dining Table and Washing 
Dishes, Fly Control, Planning the Home, Ventilation, 
Savings Banks, Home Accounts, Industrial Exhibit, 


Industrial Work for Girls 


Our grandmothers learned the science of cooking and 
the art of home making from their mothers. In fact, most 
of their education was obtained at home, as they did not 
have the advantages of school that we enjoy. Now that 
young folk spend much of their time in school there is not 
the opportunity to learn as much in the home as formerly. 
For other reasons, also, it is usually impossible for girls 
to get in the home the training that will make them efficient 
and businesslike housekeepers. 

It has been found possible to have the school co-operate 
with the home in this training. Many successful projects 
have been carried out in this manner in various parts of the 
country during the last few years. Much of the work can 
be done at school as regular class exercises. Some of it 
can be better done at home as individual projects for which 
the school should give "home credit." The contest work 
with tomatoes, canning, bread baking, etc., is especially val- 
uable and well worth while for any girl. It is not only ex- 
ceedingly healthful exercise, but it will give a training in 
managing, marketing and accounting that can hardly be 
obtained in any other way. Get the girls of your school to 
organize for some of the home projects and contest work 
suggested in this book and, if you have never done any of this 



work before, you will be delightfully surprised with the results. 
Many girls have not only earned all the money they needed, 
but have started savings bank accounts with the proceeds. 


Since the purpose of industrial work is to give a broader 
education by training the hand as well as the head, and to 
give an opportunity to get familiar with some of the great 
industries, it is plain that one kind of industrial work, such 
as sewing, is not enough. It has been observed, also, that 
students who have done the elementary industrial work 
of the lower grades are much better qualified for this kind 
of work in the upper grades. Students who are taking the 
work for the first time should, therefore, do some work in 
weaving, both paper and rug, as well as basketry and other 
work before attempting the work in home economics proper. 

A noted educator says this of industrial work: "As 
far as it neglects industry, the school falls short of its pur- 
pose. Industry is among the departments of civilization 
about which everybody should know something. Social 
efficiency, too, depends upon knowledge; for without some 
acquaintance with industrial affairs even those who are 
engaged in other pursuits are handicapped. They cannot 
intelligently co-operate with work which they know nothing 

Industrial training in the elementary schools has been 
too much of the hit-or-miss kind. There has been no stand- 
ard course of study to follow, and resourceful teachers 
have been able to conduct the' work only on account of 
their own training and interest in it. Only two extremes 
could be expected under such circumstances talking about 
industrial work without doing it, and making unrelated 
articles without instruction. 



The time given to industrial work must depend upon 
local circumstances. At least two hours a week should be 
devoted to it, and more if possible. The school should be 
divided into either two or three divisions for this work. 
The "Division Plan," discussed at length in "Rural Edu- 
cation," divides the usual eight grades into the First 
Division, the Second Division, and the Third Division. 
The First Division includes the first three grades; the 
Second Division includes grades four to six inclusive; and 
the Third Division is made up of the seventh and eighth 
grades. Probably a better plan is to have but seven 
grades in the rural school curriculum. In that event, the 
Second Division will include only the fourth and fifth 
grades, and the Third Division, the sixth and seventh. 

The supplies needed will naturally depend upon the 
size of the school and the time given to industrial work. 
From five to fifteen dollars' worth will be enough for the 
general industrial work. The industrial and sewing ma- 

Figure 1 . Preparing and assorting material for industrial work in 
rural associated schools. 


terials of the advanced division should be paid for by the 
students. A suggestive list of materials with prices is 
given. They may be purchased from a school supply house. 

For the First Division, paper weaving materials are 
needed. These may be purchased in packages in various 
sizes, with slits one fourth, one third, and one half inch wide, 
at about a cent for each mat. All the standard colors may 
be obtained. Colored sheets should be purchased and 
strips cut with the scissors for more advanced weaving after 
the ready-made mats have been put together. Papers 
for folding and cutting may be purchased at fifteen to 
twenty cents a hundred squares, usually four by four inches. 

Looms may be made or purchased. Hammock looms 
are easily made by cutting heavy cardboard to the de- 
sired size, rounding the ends, and cutting notches in them 
for the fastening of the warp. These are inexpensive and 
are just as good as those that are purchased. Looms for 
rug weaving may easily be made in the school, if the stu- 
dents have manual training. A loom that retails for thirty 
cents may be made for from three to six cents for the ma- 
terial. Use oak one fourth of an inch thick. Pine or bass- 
wood will do. The two endpieces are each ten inches long 
and one and one fourth inches wide. Place the two end- 
pieces together side to side and make a series of cross 
notches from end to end by sawing their edges a quarter 
of an inch deep and a quarter of an inch apart. In these 
notches the warp is fastened for weaving. The ends are 
fastened apart with two sidepieces twelve inches long 
and three quarters of an inch wide. These are fastened 
by sawing a slit in the ends of the endpieces, so that 
the sidepieces will just fit flatwise. They are then nailed 
and glued. Holes are bored in the ends for the heavy 
wire to make the loom adjustable in width. These wires 


are copper, three sixteenths of an inch in diameter, and 
may be bought at any hardware store. They 
should be cut fourteen inches long and have a loop 
made in one end for a handle. A wooden crosspiece 
similar to one of the ends may be made to slide along the 
sidepieces. This will enable one to make the loom adjust- 
able in length as well as in width. Flat wooden needles 
made from quarter-inch basswood, rounded off at one 
end, and a hole bored in the other for threading the ma- 
terial, can be made very easily, and they are better than 
the metal needles for the most of the weaving. These 
should be sandpapered down until they are a little less than 
one eighth of an inch thick, a half inch wide and about 
ten inches long. With such a needle, the material may 
be drawn through the entire width of the rug at one time. 
Metal needles are needed for finishing the rugs and for work- 
ing patterns. See Figure 7. 

Rug materials are few or numerous as one desires. Col- 
ored rags from home are as good as anything for the prac- 
tice work and cost nothing. They should be cut or torn 
into suitable lengths and widths. Roving is a very coarse 
weaving material, excellent for beginners, and may be 
purchased in colors at about seventy cents a pound. It 
should precede the finer materials. Carpet yarn may be 
obtained at about sixty cents a pound. Jute makes cheaper 
weaving material at from twenty-five to thirty cents a pound. 
Chenille, plain and mottled, is good for pattern work or 
for the entire rug. It costs about sixty cents a pound. 
Macrame cord comes in balls, any color, and costs about 
fifteen cents a ball. It is used principally for hammock 
making, but is rather expensive. For practice, rugs may 
be made out of rags, raffia, or even corn husks, and save 
the expensive materials for exhibit work. All these ma- 


terials are used for the woof of rugs and hammocks. For 
the warp to "thread" the looms, carpet warp may be pur- 
chased in colors at about fifty cents a pound. Brass rings 
for hammocks will cost about two cents a pair for the inch 
size. Smaller ones may be used, if desired. Germantown 
yarn is beautiful for knitting caps, bonnets, mittens, leggings, 
etc., but is rather expensive for rugs. It costs about fifteen 
cents a skein. 

Basketry and raffia supplies may be furnished by the 
school or purchased by the students, as desired. Plain 
raffia costs from fifteen to eighteen cents a pound, and 
colored, from forty to fifty cents. Rattan, or round reeds, 
will cost from thirty-five to eighty-five cents, depending 
upon the size. The medium sizes are used most, but the 
teacher should order by sending samples of the sizes de- 
sired. Flat reed for napkin rings and basketry costs about 
fifty cents a pound. Raffia and rattan may be dyed, if 
desired; but it is rather hard to get uniform tints unless 
one has had practice. The finished baskets and trays 
should be shellacked as soon as they are made. 

Clay for modeling comes in three forms the flour, in 
bricks, and moist in barrels. The flour may be obtained 
in five-pound boxes at five cents a pound. The bricks are 
usually five pounds each and cost the same as the flour. 
Moist clay is a little cheaper when purchased in barrel 
lots. Some communities have near at hand clay that is 
good for this work, and costs only the labor of getting it. 


Those pupils who have not had the industrial work of 
the lower grades should learn the principles of weaving 
some raffia and rattan work, and do a little modeling with 
clay. A few simple exercises are given, the material for 



which should be furnished by the school. The students 
should make the looms, using paper for the Germantown 
yarn and hammock work, and wood for the rugs. Have a 
brush and shellac for the baskets and trays. 

Paper folding and construction may precede or follow 
the paper weaving. A ruler, pencil, pair of scissors and 
paste are needed. Make envelopes and boxes for seed and 
other collections in agriculture. Other objects from which 
a selection may be made are as follows: Small basket, 
doll's furniture, sled, Indian canoe, Puritan cradle, shaving 
ball or pad, needlebook, match scratcher, Christmas bells, 
windmill, May basket, carriage, house, barn, chicken-coop, 
picture-frame, bookmark, fan, Chinese lantern, circular 
marker, hexagonal box, blotting-pad, calendar, valentine, 
button box, tent, card and photograph holders, screen, 
flower holder, whisk-broom holder and pocket comb holder. 
The materials for these are common manila drawing paper, 
oak tag, cover paper and colored construction papers. 

Weaving is usually be- 
gun with paper strips and 
readymade mats, as given 
under materials for indus- 
trial work. Paper weaving 
may be followed by basket 
weaving with heavy .fold- 
ing paper, and by the 
weaving of bookmarks, 
pencil trays, mats, boxes, 
napkin rings, match safes, 
pincushions, blotters, cal- 
endars and thermometer 
backs. After paper weav- 

Figure 2. Germantown yarn work, showing i i i i j i 

caps, sweaters and leggings. ing, loom WOrk Should be 



given. Rugs of rags, roving, yarn, jute, chenille, raffia and 
other materials are made. Bed blankets and draperies for 
a doll's house may be woven. Hammocks, made of macrame 
cord on homemade cardboard looms, may be hung outside 
the doll house. Doll caps, mittens, and leggings may be 
made of Germantown yarn on the loom and sewed to shape. 
See Figure 2. 

Raffia and rattan work should largely be done in the in- 
termediate and advanced divisions. Raffia rugs, napkin 

Figure 3. Making rattan trays and baskets on the school grounds. 

rings, picture frames of cardboard wound in raffia, and raffia 
baskets may be attempted in the primary division. 

Modeling is always of interest and its educational value 
is evident. A piece of oilcloth or a square board should 
protect the desk. When clay is used it should be prepared 
the day before. The children, of course, must be able to 
wash their hands after the work. Encourage outside work 
and ask the children to bring their products to school to 
show the others. Modeling is especially valuable in train- 
ing both hands at the same time. Begin with forms from 
life, as animals and plants, rather than with geometrical 


forms. Later the latter should be given, and the ball, 
apple, peach, pear, orange, banana and other similar objects 
modeled. A bird's nest and eggs, marbles, clay baskets, 
beads and ornamental vases are some of the popular pieces. 
It is well to have in mind the following general divisions of 
the subject: 1. Modeling from objects present at the 
time. 2. Modeling from memory. 3. Modeling from 
imagination. 4. Design in modeling. Fruit modeling 
may be shaded with water colors and, when dry, given 
a coat of shellac which gives a very natural effect, if well 
done. Other objects may be colored in a similar manner. 


The general industrial work of these divisions should be 
raffia and rattan weaving, basketry and, if desired, bead- 
work. The objects made may be varied. If sewing is 
given in these divisions, there will not be much time left. 
A little basketry, however, should be given sometime 
during the course. Napkin rings of rattan and flat reed, 
baskets of raffia and rattan, collar boxes of rattan wound 
and fastened with raffia, serving trays of rattan with a 
wooden bottom, and waste baskets of heavy rattan, are all 
useful and practical lessons. The rattan work should be 
given a coat of shellac as soon as finished. It may be fin- 
ished in colors or natural. 

Reference books are necessary for the best results in 
industrial work. It is impossible to give directions for 
making of many of the articles suggested here, as space will 
not permit. The authors have found the following list of 
books almost indispensable: Paper Sloyd for Primary 
Grades, by Rich; Industrial Work for Public Schools, by 
Holton and Rollins; Hand-Loom Weaving by Todd; Card- 
board Construction, by Trybom; Hand Work, by Hoxie; 


Raffia and Reed Weaving, by Knapp; Clay Modeling, by 
Holland; and How to Make Baskets, by White. Bulle- 
tins on industrial work may be obtained free from many of 
the agricultural colleges. 

Industrial work and geography should be correlated to 
the extent that the students should know where all the 
materials used come from and how they are used in the 
industries. Raffia is a light yellow material that is shred- 
ded off from the bark of a certain palm tree. Most of ours 
comes from the island of Madagascar. On account of its 
pliability and toughness, raffia is much used for industrial 
work and also for rope making in the industries. Rattan 
is a kind of a palm that grows in the East Indies. It is 
peculiar in that it sometimes reaches one thousand feet 
in length, and is supported by neighboring trees. It grows 
in various sizes, but is seldom more than an inch in diam- 
eter. There are very few branches, sometimes none for 
two or three hundred feet. The different species are very 
useful in their native countries for plaited work, rope mak- 
ing, etc. Rattan is twisted into ropes and used for pur- 
poses requiring great strength. In this country it is used 
for basketry, rustic furniture making, etc. Jute is made 
from the inner bark of a tall annual plant native to the 
East Indies, but now grown in several countries for com- 
mercial purposes. The fiber is used for making carpet, 
canvas and rope. 

Directions for making a few forms of industrial work are 
given for those who have no other books, but as many 
reference books on industrial work as the school can afford 
should be in the library. 



Students desiring to do industrial work out of school for 
"home credit" should consult with the teacher regarding 
objects to be made. Try to develop originality. The fol- 
lowing are school exercises: 

1 Single Paper Weaving 

Materials: Manila drawing paper for practice. Later, 
use colored papers for a variety. 

Directions: Use a square of any desired size from four 
to eight inches. Fold the bottom over to the top. With 

Figure 4. Paper weaving. Note different designs. 

a ruler and pencil make lines one half inch apart, beginning 
one inch from the left side and ending one inch from the 
right side. The lines should run to the folded edge of the 
paper, but end just one inch from the upper edge. With 
the scissors cut along the lines. Open the paper. It will 
then be cut into slits one half inch apart. Cut another 
piece of paper into strips one half inch wide and as long as 
the square just used. Weave the first strip over one and 
under the next strip in the square. Weave the second strip 



in the same way except that you weave under where you 
wove over in the first strip. Continue until all the strips 
are woven. Other weaving may be done, using strips of any 
desired width and color, and working out various designs 
in the square. As stated elsewhere, these squares may be 
purchased all ready for weaving, if desired; but it is cheaper 
to make them, and the practice in ruling and cutting is 
also desirable. See Figure 4. 

2 Paper Box 

Materials: Drawing paper, ruler, pencil, scissors and 

Directions: Draw on a piece of paper a square just 
double the size you want your box to be. Fold over the 
lower edge on the upper, then the lower edge back on the 
crease, then the upper edge forward on the crease. Turn 
the paper half around and do the same. Open. You 
will now have sixteen squares. With the scissors cut 
the lower edge of the two top corner squares and the 
upper edge of the two bottom corner squares. Fold, so 
that the four middle squares form the bottom of 
the box. Paste the corner squares on the inside of the box. 
Another box may be made in the same manner and used as 
a cover. Heavier paper may be used for boxes to store 
seeds and other agricultural products. 

3 Paper Basket 

Materials: Same as for the paper box. 

Directions: If a square basket is desired, it may be 
made the same as the box. Then paste the handle to it, 
letting the ends extend on the inside of the basket. A 
better form is an oblong about six by eight inches. Rule 
and cut a paper this size, being careful to get it exact. Fold 
it into two-inch squares, as directed for the box. Turn 


the paper with the long side up and down. Cut the two 
sides of the upper middle square. Do the same for the lower 
middle square. Fold the corner squares over the middle 
squares and paste. Cut the handle and paste on the inside 
in the middle of the basket. After practicing with drawing 
paper, heavier material may be used for more permanent 
baskets. Two colors may be used, if desired. 

4 Paper Table 

Materials: Heavy folding paper, scissors and paste. 

Directions: Cut a square twice the dimensions desired 
for the table. Fold it into sixteen squares, as directed in 
making the box. Cut along the bottom of the two upper 
corner squares and along the top of the lower corner squares. 
Fold the ends over the corner squares and paste securely. 
The bottom of the box just made is the top of the table. 
Cut out an oblong from each side beginning one half inch 
from the corners, making it about three inches long, to 
form the legs. 

5 Paper Chair 

Materials: Same as for the paper table. 

Directions: Cut a square having about three fourths 
as many inches on a side as you used for the table. Fold 
this into nine squares, as directed in the first numbers. Cut 
along the top of the lower corner squares. Cut along both 
sides of the upper middle square. Fold the upper middle 
square toward you. This forms the back. Now fold 
one of the upper corner squares over the other and fold 
the rest of the squares to form a cube. Paste securely. 
Strengthen the back by pasting a paper of the same size 
over it. At the bottom cut out oblongs from each side 
to form the legs, as directed for the table. The back may 
be ornamented or left square. 


6 Paper Lantern 

Materials: Plain or colored folding paper, black paper, 
scissors and paste. 

Directions: Paste half-inch bands of dark or black paper 
across the top and bottom of a six inch square of colored 
paper or paper tinted with water colors. Wall paper makes 
pretty lanterns. Fold the bottom over on the top edge. 
Cut half inch slits from the crease to the black paper. Form 
circles with the black edges, making the top and bottom 
of the lantern. Paste securely. Cut the handle of the same 
material as the circular strips, making it the same width 
and six inches long. Paste it to the lantern, and hang where 
the lantern will show to advantage. A cardboard bottom 
may be inserted, and a small candle fastened to it. 
7 Jack-o'-lantern 

Materials: Drawing paper and yellow construction 
paper, or tinted drawing paper. 

Directions: Draw an oval the shape of a pumpkin 
about three by three and one half inches, leaving a short 
stem at the top. Cut out. With this, trace another on 
yellow or tinted paper. Cut this out. Then cut holes for 
the eyes, nose, and mouth, and paste the colored paper over 
the other. Black disks of paper may be pasted on the 
pupils of the eyes, and triangles for the teeth. These may 
be used for invitations or hung up for decorations. 
8 Halloween Fence 

Materials: Manila drawing paper and yellow tinted 

Directions: Using a piece of drawing paper eight inches 
long and two and one half inches wide, cut out quarter- 
inch oblongs three and one half inches long, leaving a quarter 
of an inch at each end to represent the post. Cut out five 
of these, leaving four strips of paper for the boards. Do 


likewise on the other half of the paper. This will make three 
posts and four boards between each, 
with the posts projecting above and 
below. Paste the fence to a sheet of 
colored mounting paper. On the top of 
each post paste a small Jack-o'-lantern 
Figure 5. Halloween about one and a quarter inches in diam- 

fence, paper cutting A f Ar TTin-nro ^ 
and mounting. eter - ^66 * IgUre O. 

9 Christmas Bell 

Materials: Red construction paper about the weight 
of light oak tag, pencil and scissors. 

Directions: On a five-inch square draw or trace a bell, 
having the widest part at the bottom, the width of the square. 
A rounded projection in the middle at the bottom represents 
tongue, or clapper, of the bell. Cut along the outline. 
A small hole punched in the top of the dome will enable 
one to hang the bell. It may be used to send an invitation 
to a school entertainment. 

10 Christmas Stocking 

Materials: Same as for number seven. 

Directions: On a piece of red construction paper draw 
or trace a stocking about eight inches long and three inches 
wide at the top, and foot. Cut along the line. This may 
also be used to send an invitation or to hang up for Christ- 
mas decoration. 

11 Santa Claus 

Materials: Red cardboard, cotton and metal fasteners. 

Directions: Trace the upper part of the body down as 
far as the waist line, making this part about five inches 
from the top of the head to the waist, and about three 
inches across at the waist. Cut out. Cut the arms and 
fasten with a brass fastener, one on each side of the body. 
Cut out the lower limbs about four inches long and fasten 



on the under side of the waist line. Both 
the arms and legs will then be movable. 
Paste cotton on the head for hair and 
whiskers; on the hands for fur mittens; on 
the waist line of the coat and above the 
ankles for the tops of the leggings. This 
makes an interesting Christmas decoration. 

12 Roving or Yarn Rug 

Materials: Loom and needle, carpet 
yarn or string for warp, and rags, yarn, 
chenille, raffia or roving, for the woof. 

Directions: Thread the warj5 back 
and forth through the notches at the ends 
simtaciaus of the loom. See that it is as tight as 
possible. Weave the woof over one strand 
of the warp and under the next, across the rug. Return, 
going under the strand you went over before, and over the 
next, and so on. If a long wooden needle is used, it may be 

Figure 7. Raffia bag, yarn mat on a homemade loom and a raffia mat. 



Figure 8. Roving and chenille rugs. 

drawn across the entire mat at once, thus saving time. 
Colored borders and stripes may be used or designs worked 
in. The loom can be adjusted to any size of material. 
In a previous paragraph, see directions for making a home- 
made loom. Keep the woof tight by packing it with the 
needle and finger. When finished, remove and bind the 
ends of the warp with carpet yarn, or make a fringe. Raffia 
may be used instead of roving or yarn. See Figures 7 and 8. 

'13 Hammock 

Materials: Cardboard loom, macrame cord in two 
colors, a large darning needle and two brass rings about 
three fourths of an inch in diameter. 

Directions: Fasten the warp into the rings which are 
attached to one side of the loom, and wind it around the 
ends of the loom over the notches, or through the holes, 
if those are used instead of notches. Any number of warp 


Figure 9. A hammock made of macrame cord. 

strands may be used, from sixteen to twenty being common. 
After the warp is stretched tightly, begin the weaving with 
the same material used for warp. The woof strands should 
be about half as long as the distance between the two rings 
after the hammock is removed. Colored stripes may alter- 
nate or borders may be used. When finished, remove from 
the loom and make a fringe. 

14 Reed Napkin Ring 

Materials: Wooden loom, number three or four rattan, 
number one rattan, flat reed and a knife. 

Directions: Make a small wooden base of basswood or 
pine two and one half inches square and a quarter of an 
inch thick. On this base draw a circle two inches hi diam- 
eter. With the ruler find the perpendicular diameter, and 
place a dot at each end of it on the circle. Do the same for 
the horizontal diameter. Again divide the space between 
the dots into three equal parts, until you have twelve dots 
on the circle, the same distance apart. With a brace and 
bit, or gimlet, bore holes through the base at the dots. 
These should be a trifle larger than the size of rattan you 
want to use for the frame of the napkin ring. Cut twelve 


pieces of rattan about the size of a match and one and one 
half inches long. Place these firmly in the holes of the base. 
Using rattan a size smaller as a weaver, weave four times 
around the base, going inside of one upright and outside the 
next. The second time around weave opposite to the first 
time, and alternate each time. The weaver is moistened so 
it is tough and pliable. Pull it tight, and press firmly against 
the base. Next use flat reed for two layers and weave in 
the same way. Then weave four rounds more of the same 
size rattan as on the bottom. Fasten the last end securely. 
Pull the ring off the base, being careful not to leave any of 
the uprights in it. With number one rattan, bind the edge 
together firmly by fastening one end around the top of an 
upright, crossing to the next lower end, twisting around this 
end, crossing to the next upper end, and so on, until you 
have gone around the ring twice and finished binding each 
upright. Cut off the ends of the uprights. Your napkin 
ring should be strong and somewhat resemble a snare drum 
on the outside. Be sure to keep the material moist while 
working. See Figure 10. 

15 Raffia Picture Frame 

Materials: Cardboard and raffia. 

Directions: Cut out a circle from the cardboard. It 
may be any desired size, but about six inches in diameter 
is common. Cut another circle in the center, leaving a hole 
in the middle about two and one half inches in diameter. 
Select board, smooth raffia. Moisten it, and wind carefully 
around from center to outside. When finished, sew a braid 
of raffia around the outer edge, making a loop at the top by 
means of which to hang it up. Put in the picture. Oval 
or square shape frames may be made according to the in- 
dividual preference. 


16 Rattan Mat 

Materials: Number three rattan for spokes, raffia and 
number one rattan for weaving. 

Directions: For a six-inch mat you will need to use 
pieces of rattan fourteen inches long in order to make the 
border and fasten the ends. Cut eight pieces of the number 
three rattan fourteen inches and one piece eight inches, as 
it is easier to weave with an odd number of spokes. Take 
four of the long spokes and cut a slit one half inch long 
exactly in the middle of each. Draw the other four long 
spokes half way through these slits, making a cross. Put 
in the short spoke until the end shows on the other side. 
With a needle weave raffia over one and under the next spoke, 
starting in the center, until you have woven a little circular 
mat about an inch all the way round from the center, or two 
inches in diameter. You will thus make a firmer middle 
than you can usually get with the rattan. Now use number 

Figure 10. Rattan and raffia work, showing serving tray, baskets, collar box, 
mats and napkin rings. 


one rattan for the weaver in the same way, and keep the 
seventeen spokes the same distance apart, until you have 
a mat about six inches in diameter. Now sharpen the ends 
of the spokes, moisten them so they will bend easily, and 
pass each one in front of the next spoke to the left, and push 
it down beside the second spoke, thus making a loop about 
two inches across and an inch high. Do this with each 
spoke until the border is finished. While the mat is moist, 
see that it lies perfectly flat. When dry, put on a coat of 
clear or colored shellac. See Figure 10. 

17 Rattan Basket 

Materials: Number four and number two rattan, and 
plain raffia. 

Directions: Cut eight pieces of number four rattan from 
eighteen to twenty-four inches long, depending upon the 
height of the basket desired, twenty inches being a good 
length. Cut one piece an inch or two more than half this 
length for the odd spoke. Proceed as for the mat in number 
16, using the raffia center, until you have a four-inch bottom. 
Moisten the spokes, and turn each one up as you pass the 
weaver around it. Keep the weaving pressed down firmly, 
the spokes the same distance apart, and be very careful in 
shaping your basket, that it may be even all the way around. 
When through weaving, fasten the end securely. Make a 
border with the spokes as for the mat, only pass the spoke 
to the left in front of two spokes instead of one, and push it 
down beside the third. This will strengthen the top. "Be 
sure the shape is good. Let dry. Shellac, natural or colored. 

See Figure 10. 

18 Raffia and Rattan Mat 

Materials: Number two or three rattan, raffia, needle. 

Directions: Moisten the rattan and begin a coil. Take 

a needle full of raffia. Wind the end of the coil for a short 


distance and fasten it together in a ring as small as you 
can draw it. Continue coiling the rattan, and winding it 
with raffia. Wind from you. About every third wind, 
pass the needle between the ring formed and the next coil 
of rattan, thus fastening the rattan to the ring. The third 
coil is fastened to the second in the same manner and so 
on until the mat is completed to any desired size. Colors 
may be used for as many coils as you wish, making borders. 
This makes a soft durable mat. 

19 Collar Box 

Materials: Same as for number eighteen. 
Directions: Make the bottom six inches in diameter, 
the same as the mat was made. Then turn the coils up to 
form the circular side of the box. If two pieces of number 
two or three rattan are wound together instead of one 
piece, the effect is more pleasing, and you will have a firmer 
box. Continue the coils until the box is three inches deep. 
Now make a cover in the same manner as the bottom was 
made, turning the edges up half an inch, so they will fit 
down over the box, when inverted for the cover. This 
may be fastened on, if desired. See Figure 10. 

20 Wastebasket 

Materials: A circular base of one half an inch of pine 
or basswood nine inches in diameter, heavy rattan for 
spokes, number seven or eight, and rattan about two sizes 
smaller for weaving. 

Directions: Drill a row of twenty-five holes one half 
an inch from the edge of the wooden base. Cut twenty- 
five spokes of heavy rattan about two feet long, and put 
them through the holes so that they extend about three 
fourths of an inch below. Using rattan about two sizes 
smaller as a weaver, turn the bottom side up, and weave 



Figure 11. Rattan wastebaskets. 

six or eight rows around the 
spokes, as in basket weaving. 
Then fasten the ends of the 
spokes securely, making a 
close border. Now turn the 
bottom over, and press the 
board down firmly on the 
rattan base. Begin to weave 
above the board, keeping the twenty-five spokes the same 
distance apart, and shaping the basket as you proceed. 
Make to any desired height, usually about a foot, and 
fasten the top of the spokes as for the mats and baskets. 
Cut off ends of spokes. Colored rattan will make effective 
designs. Finish with shellac. See Figure 11. 

21 Serving Tray 

Materials: Wooden base, pine or basswood and rattan. 

Directions: Make a wooden base of half-inch material 
in an oval about fifteen inches long and ten inches at the 
widest part. Bore holes for heavy rattan as for the basket. 
Make the spokes long enough to weave and fasten below 
and to make the tray about two inches deep with a close 
border on top. Weave with number five or six rattan and 

Figure 12. Clay work, showing fruit and geometrical forms, 


use number seven or eight for the spokes. This makes a 
very firm and useful tray. It should have two coats of 
shellac for finish, either dark or natural. See Figure 10. 

22 Clay Modeling 

Materials: Clay, oilcloth, water colors and shellac. 

Directions: Prepare the clay the day before it is to be 
used. Do not have it too wet, just moist enough to work 
well. Knead until oily. Mould into shape of object being 
modeled. If fruit, tint with water colors. Let dry. Shel- 
lac with natural finish. See Figure 12. 


The equipment needed by each child for sewing is not 
elaborate : A thimble, needles, thread, emery bag, tape-meas- 
ure, shears or scissors, one pair of buttonhole scissors, and 
the material used in the model and garment making. For 
some of the advanced work a sewing machine would save 
time, and the students would get the practice, if they could 
use one. Some rural schools rent a machine for all or part 
of the school year, as it is needed. Such an arrangement 
would not be expensive and would be desirable. 

A thimble must be used when sewing. Each child 
should furnish her own and have it fit the middle finger. 
A thimble made of silver, celluloid or aluminum is better 
than one of brass, for the latter may cause infection in case 
of a sore on the finger. The emery bag is filled with pow- 
dered emery, and may be purchased for five cents at any 
store. When the hands become moist and sticky, the 
needle does not push through the cloth easily, due to the 
rust formation. In such a case, polish the needle by run- 
ning it through the emery bag a few times. Scissors are 
large enough for school use, and may be purchased for 
twenty-five or thirty cents. Instruments under six inches 
long are scissors; those six inches or over are shears. These 
may be brought from home or the school may own enough 
for two pupils to use one pair. They must always be kept 
sharp, or they will neither cut easily nor accurately. Do 
not allow them to drop, as they may be loosened or even 
broken. Tools poorly cared for will not give good service. 

Needles and thread must be used according to the work 
to be done. Mrs. Blair, in her Sewing Tablets, suggests the 
following : 

3 33 



The size of thread used should be in proportion to the 
thread of the material : for coarse gingham, about number 70; 
for fine soft muslin, number 100. It is always best to use a 
fine needle and thread for hemming, as the stitches show less. 
The following sizes of needles are commonly used with the 
corresponding number of thread: 

Needle Thread 

Number five Silkateen and Coarse Cotton 

Number seven Fifty 

Number eight Sixty, eighty 

Number nine Ninety 

Number ten One hundred 

Number eleven One hundred twenty 

Number twelve One hundred fifty 

The correct length of a needleful of thread is from the 
tips of the fingers to the shoulder of the extended arm. Do 
not bite the thread; cut it with the scissors or knife. Thread 
the needle with the end of the thread cut off from the spool, 
as this will prevent knotting. Be sure to baste all seams 
before attempting to sew them. Where the dimensions of 
the material are given, the first is to be on the length of the 
goods, and the second on the width. 

Figure 13. The sewing room at a central school of au associated district. 


Correct position for sewing is very important. The body 
should be erect, and both feet squarely on the floor. The 
light should come from the left unless the student is left- 
handed. Hold work high enough to be comfortable. 

Work from Right to Left 

Basting is used to hold two pieces or two parts of one 
piece of cloth in the exact relation desired and used as a 
guide in sewing. The stitches are made over and under 
the. material, working from right to left. If stitches are of 
uneven length, have long stitches over and short under. 

Figure 14. Basting stitch. 

Running is light stitching. The stitches are made the 
same as in basting, but are short and of even length. 

Figure 15. Running stitch. 

Gathering. For gathering the running stitch is used. 
When several inches have been gathered on the needle, 
bring the double thread from the eye of the needle, under 
the point and then under the eye, making the figure eight, 
and drawing the thread tight. Continue until material is 
held securely on the needle. To place the gathers, hold 
them firmly as they are on the needle, between the thumb 
and forefinger of the left hand, and with the index finger of 
the right hand at the back of the gathers, and the thumb on 
the opposite side of the material, bring out the tiny gathers. 
Then pull the material straight till the gathers are fixed. 

Backstitching is done as follows: Insert the needle and 
make a stitch under the material twice the desired length; 
again insert the needle, going back half this distance and 


forward twice the length of the btefcititdi. Thelmhrtll* 
if toed where strength is desired or to resemble machine 

stitching. Tbc second view shows a row of buckfdtcbei as 
it would be seen if material were removed from the right- 
hand side of it. 


The combination stitch consists of three or far 
sUlcbes and * backstitch. It is used where 
required than is obtained with rum 

Hemming. \V hen bemmmg, bold the 
material over the index finger of the 
Ifft hand. To 
tfaeeodof it about half an 
the edge of the hem. It will be fcst- 

/\l nmfle paraBei with the edge of hem, 
take one thread of the material and 


of die SWIM 


together and wed to 

Bee "Buttonholes" lor 
cedte. positkxi of thresd 

overhand two 
hold the 




:' v 


hand so that the creased edges are in a horizontal position. 
The stitch is made by bringing the needle over and then 
straight through the two edges. Make stitches shallow and 
close together. Pull the thread tight for each stitch. 

Figure 19. Overhand stitch. 

For hemstitching, pull six threads, fewer if the material 
is coarse, twice the desired width of the hem from the end 
of the material. Turn the raw edge in one fourth of an inch. 
Turn and fold, having the first folded 
edge even with the last thread. Baste. 
Hold material and needle as for hemming. 
Put needle under three or four threads and 
hold thread as in making chain stitch. 

Figure 20. Hemstitch. Draw tight. Make a stitch similar to 
hemming. The thread is thus brought to the middle of the 
next group. Hold thread down with left thumb, put needle 
under next group of threads, and continue as above. 

Work from Left to Right 

Overcasting is used to keep the raw edges of the cloth 
from raveling. It is made by bringing the thread over the 
edge and putting the needle through the material. The 
stitches are an eighth of an inch in depth and the same dis- 
tance, or a trifle more, apart. 

Figure 21. Overcasting. 

The loop stitch is used to finish the raw edges of flannel 
or of doilies. See illustration on next page. 



Figure 22. Loop stitch. 

Work toward One 

The chain stitch is an ornamental stitch. In making it, 
the thread is held to the left with the thumb to keep it under 
the needle. Always insert the needle within the last link. 

Figure 23. Chain stitch. 

The featherstitch is used for ornamentation. When mak- 
ing the stitch to the right, hold the thread to the left; when 
making the stitch to the left, hold the thread to the right of 
the general direction of the stem. Clusters of two or three 
stitches to each side may be made instead of the single one 
to each side. 

Figure 24. Featherstitch. 

Work Away from One 

The catstitch, or catch stitch, is an ornamental stitch. It 
is also used in making flannel seams and hems. The row of 
catstitch grows in length away from one, but the needle is 
inserted toward one. 


Figure 25. Catstitch. 


1 Stitches. (Six Lessons.) 

Materials: One piece of one eighth inch checked apron 
gingham sixteen inches by six inches, number 7 needle and 
red cotton thread number 50. 

Directions: Count down forty-two checks, fold and 
crease between checks. Knot the thread for basting only, 
fasten thread with short running stitches and backstitches. 

Basting Stitches. 1st row. Down from folded edge two 
checks, under two checks, over two checks, etc. 2nd row. 
Down from first row four checks, under one check over three 
checks. 3rd row. Down from first row four checks, under 
one check, over one check. 

Running Stitches. 4th row. Down from third row four 
checks. Make two stitches to a check. 

Backstitching. 5th row. Down from fourth row four 
checks, making stitches one eighth inch long, half way across 
practice piece. The other half, make stitches one sixteenth 
inch long. 

Combination, or running stitches with the backstitch 
for every needleful. 6th row. Down from fifth row, four 
checks. Make a needleful of running stitches, then a back- 
stitch, then the running stitches again, and so on. 

Chain Stitch. 7th row. Down from sixth row four 
checks. Make each link one eighth inch long. 

Catstitch. 8th row. Down from seventh row three 
checks. Make stitches across two rows of checks. Start 
at left-hand edge and work away from you, 


Feather, or Brier, Stitch. 9th row. Down from eighth 
row three checks. Make stitches across two rows of checks. 
Start at the right-hand edge and work toward you. 

Loop Stitch. 10th row. With the lower edge toward 
you, start at the left and finish edge with loop stitch. Make 
stitches two checks deep and two checks apart. 

2 Needlebook. (Six Lessons.) 

Materials: One piece of art canvas five inches by three 
inches, one piece of flannel five inches by three inches; one 
tapestry needle number 22 or 23, one crewel needle number 
7; silkateen. 

Directions: Loop stitch the edges of the canvas cover 
and the leaves. Sew the cover and leaves together with 
silkateen and tie the ends into a neat bow. The cover may 
be ornamented with one of the stitches learned. 

Figure 26. Corner 

of needlebook Figure 27. A different 
cover. arrangement of cor- Figure 28. Loop at corner 

ner stitches. of holder. 

3 Holder. (Four Lessons.) 

Materials: One piece of outing flannel six inches by 
twenty-four inches, number 7 crewel needle and silkateen. 

Directions: Fold the strip of outing flannel double, hav- 
ing the two ends meet at the middle. Fold again. Baste 
around the three edges. Loop stitch the four edges, making 
the four corners alike. See needlebook cover. At one corner 
make a loop of two or three threads of silkateen, then loop 
stitch over them. See Figure 28, 



Figure 29. Holder. Fold material on dotted lines. 

4 Hemming Dust Cloths, Towels or Dishcloths. (Four Lessons.) 
Material: A yard of cheesecloth, for the first; thirty 
inches of linen toweling or a bleached flour sack if large 
size, cut in two for the second; one third of a yard of linen 
toweling, or a large sized bleached flour sack cut into four 
squares for the third. 

Directions: Turn one fourth inch hems, baste and fell. 
To turn the hem, hold the material so that the raw edge is 
up, turn the edge down about three sixteenths of an inch, 
starting at the right hand and working toward the left, if 
right-handed. Turn the material again, making a one 
fourth inch hem, and covering the raw edge. Hold the ma- 
terial in the same position as when turning the edge. Baste 
and hem or fell. See Hemming, page 36. 

5 Stockinet Darning. (Six Lessons.) 

Materials: Darn 
woolen hose with 
yarn the same size 
as in the stocking, 
and cotton hose with 
darning cotton the 
same size as that in 
the material. Have 
the pupils bring their 
own stockings from 
home to darn. Use 
number 7 crewel 

Figure 30- Stockinet prepared for darning. needle for medium 


weight cotton and cashmere hose, number 5 or 6 for heavier 
weight yarn stockings. 

Directions: Cut away worn material, making a rec- 
tangular hole. Starting at one corner, make one row of 
running stitches around the hole about one eighth of an inch 
from the edge. Draw up the thread, leaving the hole a 
little larger than natural size. A knot may be avoided by 
leaving the ends of the cotton rather long. Fill in the warp, 
allowing two threads for each row of stitches in the stock- 
inet. Care must be taken to leave the threads equally 
loose. Make running stitches three sixteenths of an inch 
into the stockinet at each end of the threads. When all 
the warp threads are supplied, begin filling in the woof by 
weaving over and under the warp threads. Always put 
your needle over the threads that the needle went under 
in the last row. Press the needle down close to the pre- 
ceding thread to make a close darn and to avoid drawing 
the woof threads too tight. Make running stitches into 
the material at the sides the same as at the ends. In a 
good darn there are raw edges on neither the right nor wrong 
side, and the edges are smooth and soft. 

6 Gingham Sewing Bag. (Eight or Nine Lessons.) 

Materials: One piece of one eighth inch checked ging- 
ham, twenty-four inches by eight inches; two pieces of tape, 
each twenty inches long and one fourth of an inch wide. 

Directions: Make a one eighth inch hem on each of 
the two long edges. At each end make a two-inch hem. 
Fold double, crosswise, right side in. With all edges even, 
baste through the hems at the edges. Begin overhanding 
the edges together just below the two-inch hems. Fasten 
the thread by sewing over three eighths of an inch of the 
end of it. In overhanding, make the stitches shallow, 


close together, and draw the thread quite tight as you 
make each stitch. Fasten the thread at the end of the 
seam by making four or five stitches very close together. 
Remove bastings. Turn right side out, push out corners, 
and flatten out the overhand seams. Measure down one 
and one half inches from the top and backstitch or use 
running stitch, with a backstitch every third or fourth 
stitch. This makes a one half inch casing for the tape. 
Start one piece of tape at one edge of the bag and run it all 
the way around. Put the other piece in, starting at the 
opposite edge. Tie the two ends of each tape into a very 
small bowknot. 

7 Buttonholes. (Five Lessons.) 

Materials: One piece of one eighth inch checked ging- 
ham five inches by four and three fourths inches, number 50 
thread and number 7 needle. 

Directions: At each end and on one side turn edge 
down one fourth inch. Divide the width into thirds, fold 

Figure 31. First stitch Figure 32. Second stitch 

of buttonhole. of buttonhole. 

the raw edge in, and the turned-in edge over. Baste all 
four sides, keeping edges and corners even. The right-hand 
portion of a woman's garment buttons over the left. Con- 
sequently, the buttonholes should be worked in the right- 
hand portion. Cut horizontally on the thread of the goods 
a medium sized buttonhole one fourth inch in from the folded 
edge. Use buttonhole scissors. Hold practice piece in 
left hand so that the folded edge is to the left and the button- 



holes run along the length of the finger. Do not pull edges 
far apart, because they ought to touch when the button- 
hole is worked. Insert needle one eighth of an inch from 
the near edge at right-hand end of buttonhole. Overhand 

Figure 33. Position of 
needle for button- 
hole stitch. 

Figure 34. Position of 
thread for button- 
hole stitch. 

the edges of the near edge of buttonhole; turn the practice 
piece so that the other edge becomes the near edge. Over- 
hand these edges. Do not make the stitches close nor draw 
the thread tight. It is best not to overhand at the ends 
of buttonholes. Turn the buttonhole half way around to 
its original position. At the right-hand end of the button- 
hole, insert the needle one eighth of an inch from the near 
edge. Take the two threads from the eye of the needle and 
bring them from the right toward the left under the point 
of the needle. Draw the thread quite tight. Continue 
along the near edge of the buttonhole, making the stitches 
close enough so that the threads barely touch one another. 
The outer end of the buttonhole is fanned. It must be 

Figure 35. Finished edge 
of buttonhole. 

Figure 36. Rounded 
end, or fan, of 

Figure 37. Pulling 
thread to make fan. 

carefully planned. One stitch extends from the end of the 
buttonhole. Space the other stitches. These are farther 
apart in the material and closer together at the corner of 
the buttonhole than the stitches along the edge, but they 
are of the same depth. After each stitch, draw the thread 


tight and in the direction of the buttonhole stitch. The 

little knots or purls at the end of the buttonhole must be 
closely packed, one beside the other. When working the 
fan, turn the piece gradually around, so that you always put 
the needle in directly toward you. Continue, buttonhol- 
ing the second edge in the same way as the first. Finish 
the inner end of the buttonhole with a bar. Make two or 
three stitches the length of the first and last stitches. Work 
four or five buttonhole stitches over these threads, but do 
not take in any of the cloth. Buttonholes running length- 
wise in a garment are barred at both ends. 

8 Sewing Apron. (Twelve Lessons.) 

Materials: Use twelve and one half or fifteen cent 
checked gingham. One piece, twenty-four inches by twenty- 
two inches, one piece, the waist measure plus three inches 
by two and one half inches, number 7 needle, and number 
60 or 70 thread for basting and gathering, number 8 needle 
and number 80 thread for hemming, overhanding and 
backstitching; number 7 crewel needle and silkateen for the 
ornamental stitch. 

Directions: Make a one eighth inch hem at each of 
the edges of the large piece; a one and one eighth inch hem 
across one end. Have the three hems face the same side. 
On the right side ornament the wide hem with catstitch 
or featherstitch. Hold the right side of the apron toward 
you, the wide hem down. Turn this end of the apron up to 
form an eight inch pocket. Baste at sides, keeping edges 
of hems even, then overhand. Next remove basting threads, 
press seams flat, turn pocket and push out corners. Orna- 
ment the hem above the pocket with the same stitch as 
used on wide hem, and continue to the bottom of the apron. 
Divide the pocket into three equal sections and catstitch 
or featherstitch between them. Gather apron across the 


top. Baste to band, having fullness 
in i in imifr hang straight from the band when 

m 1 111 1 1 ii ii uv^ worn. Use the backstitch when sew- 
ing it on the band. This seam faces 
1 portion to ee mlke b bS the wrong side, when the garment is 

at end of buttonhole. 

of the band and fold over this seam, just to cover the stitches; 
turn in the edges of band beyond the edges of the apron, 
and at the ends of the band. Baste. Overhand ends and 
lower edge of the band at each side of the apron, and fell 
the band down across the apron. Ornament both edges 
and ends of band. Work a buttonhole in the right-hand 
end of the band. Sew a button three fourths of an inch 
from the other end. In sewing on a button the stitches 
should extend in the same direction as the buttonhole. 
The thread may be knotted, if the knot is put on the right 
side so that .the button will cover it. Fasten the thread se- 
curely when the button is sewed on. 

9 Hemmed Patch. (Three Lessons.) 

Materials: For the practice piece, or model, use one 
eighth inch checked gingham, one piece six inches square, 
one piece four inches square; number 7 and 8 needles, number 
70 and 80 thread. 

Directions: Cut the material between checks. Place 
the small square in center of large square so that the warp 
threads run the same direction in both pieces and so that 
white stripes fall on white stripes and colored stripes fall on 
colored stripes. Cut out a square in center of large square, 
eight checks smaller than patch. Cut diagonally through 
one check at each corner of this hole and turn back each of 
four edges one check. See illustration of hemmed patch. 
Place patch over the hole, matching stripes and warp. Baste 


Figure 39. Preparation 

patch in place, two checks in from edge. 
Turn in edges of patch one check. Baste 
near the turned-in edge. Turn the 
other side toward you, and baste the 
turned-in edge to the patch. Hem this 
edge down; also hem around the patch 
on the wrong side. Overcast the edge 
for hemmed patch. o f mo d e l. Use the coarser needle and 
thread for basting, the finer for hemming and overcasting. 

10 Application of Hemmed Patch. (Three Lessons.) 
Materials: A gingham or calico apron or- dress, or a grain 
sack; same kind of material for patch; needles and thread 
of suitable size. 

Directions: Cut out the worn portions, making a square 
or rectangular hole. If the material is figured, striped, or 
checked, match the design before -cutting the patch. Allow 
one half inch on each of the four edges of the patch. Proceed 
as in the hemmed patch. 

11 Hemstitched Towel. (Five Lessons.) 
Materials: One yard of huckaback or linen crash; num- 
ber 7 needle and number 70 thread. 

Directions: Draw six threads two and three fourths 
inches from each end. Turn in one fourth inch, then turn 
hem and baste securely, making sure that edges are even at 
ends of hem. Overhand ends of hems. Hemstitch hems. 

12 Darning Three-Cornered Tear. (Three Lessons.) 
Materials: A piece of light colored woolen material, 

ravelings of the same material, or thread to match, a number 

7 crewel needle, or a number 7 needle. 

Directions: Make a three-cornered cut in a piece four 

or five inches square. For the first darn the pupils should 

use thread. Cut the cloth on the straight of the goods to 



get the ravelings. Use the crewel needle, if using ravelings. 
The stitches making the edges meet are not removed. Sup- 
ply the warp and woof threads. In crossing the cut edges 

Figure 40 Making edges Figure 41 Fanned three- 
of three-cornered tear cornered darn, 

Figure 42 Following warp 
and woof in the three- 
cornered darn. 

go over one and under the other alternate times. The corner 
may be fanned, or the warp and woof threads followed. To 
hold down any ends of the cut threads, finish the darn with 
two rows of running stitches, following the cut or tear. 
Make all the stitches very short. 

13 Application of Three-Cornered Darn. 
(Two or More Lessons.) 

Materials: Garment with three-cornered tear, ravelings 
to match, number 7 crewel needle. 

Directions: Darn as for the three-cornered darn in 
Number 12. 


1 Stitches. (Six Lessons.) 

Materials: The same materials are used as in Number 
1, Second Division, One Year, page 39. 

Directions: Follow the directions given in Number 1, 
Second Division, One Year. 

2 Flannel Seam and Hem. (Three Lessons.) 
Materials: Two pieces of white flannel each eight inches 
by two and three fourths inches, numbers 7 and 8 needles, 
number 70 thread, sewing silk. 



Figure 43. The flannel 
seam and hem. 

Directions: Place the two pieces 
together so that all edges are even. 
Baste the two pieces together, the long 
way, one fourth inch from edge. Sew 
seam with silk, three sixteenths inch 
from the edge, using the running stitch 
with a backstitch for every needleful. 
Baste the seam open, and catstitch. See cut for Flannel 
Seam. Across one end of this practice piece turn toward the 
wrong side a one and one eighth inch hem. Baste near the 
folded edge; then baste hem near its upper edge. Catstitch 
the hem. 

3 -Flannel Placket. (One Lesson.) 
Materials: One piece of flannel eight inches 
by five inches, number 7 and 8 needles, number 
70 thread, and sewing silk. 

Directions: Find the middle of either end, 
and cut three and one half inches into the 
material, following the thread. Hold the piece 
of flannel so that the right side is toward you 
and the opening at the top. On the right-hand 
edge of opening make a seven eighths inch 
flannel hem. On the left-hand edge make a 
Figure 44. flannel hem three eighths inch wide at the top 
Sde W 3 8 fla^n3 and tapering to almost nothing at the bottom. 
placket. Catstitch at the bottom of placket to strengthen 
it and to keep the right edge over the left. 

4 Outing Flannel Petticoat. (Fourteen Lessons.) 
Materials: Outing flannel, twice the desired length of 
petticoat plus one third yard, one piece of muslin, the waist 
measure plus two inches, by two and one half inches, number 
7 needle, number 70 thread, number 7 crewel needle and silk- 



Directions: Cut skirt by a two or a four-gore skirt pat- 
tern, allowing three inches for hem and from two to three 
inches for shrinkage. Make seams and hem as directed in 
Number 2 of this year's work. Cut a nine-inch placket in 
middle of back gore. Make the placket as directed in 
Number 3 of this year's work. If a sewing machine is obtain- 
able, the seams and band may be stitched on the machine, 
but must be done under the teacher's supervision. Use the 
silkateen for the catstitching. Find center front of the 
skirt and the band. Pin these two points together, lay the 
extra fullness in plaits at the back, and pin at the seams, 
making the opposite ones equidistant from the center front. 
Baste the skirt together. This seam faces the wrong side of 
the petticoat. Sew the skirt to the band, using the back- 
stitch and making the seam one fourth inch wide. Remove 
the basting thread. With the wrong side of the band 
toward you, turn the other edge of the band down one fourth 
inch. Fold the band toward the wrong side, just to cover 
the back stitching, pin in place, turn in the ends of the band, 
at least one fourth inch, and baste in place. Overhand the 
ends of the band and hem the lower edge of the band in 
place. See Number 6, for button and buttonholes. 

5 Buttonhole Practice. (Two Lessons.) 

Materials: The same as in Number 7, Second Division, 
One Year, page 43. 

Directions: The same as in Number 7, Second Divi- 
sion, One Year. 

6 Making Buttonholes in the Band and Sewing Button 

on the Band of the Outing Flannel Petticoat. 

(One to Three Lessons.) 

Materials: Outing flannel petticoat, number 7 needle, 
number 50 thread, one pearl or vegetable ivory button. 


Directions: Cut one buttonhole in the right end of 
the band a little below the middle. Work as directed 
above. Make buttonholes in the band to correspond 
with the buttons on the underwaist with which the petti- 
coat will be worn. Bar these buttonholes at both ends. 
Sew on the button one half inch from the other end and 
slightly below the center of the band. See last part of 
Number 8, Second Division, One Year, page 45. 

7 Flannel Patch. (Two Lessons.) 

Materials: Two pieces of flannel, one six inches square, 
one four inches square, number 7 needle, number 70 thread, 
and sewing silk. 

Directions: Cut a hole three inches square in center 
of large square to represent the worn portion. Place evenly 
over the hole, having the wrong sides of both pieces 
toward you. Baste near the edge of the patch, and near 
the edge of the hole. Catstitch patch in place and around 
the edge of hole. 

8 Application of Flannel Patch. (Two Lessons.) 

Materials: A flannel garment, a piece to match for the 
patch, sewing silk to match, number 7 needle, number 70 
thread, sewing silk. 

Directions: Cut away the worn portions making hole 
rectangular, if possible. Cut patch one inch larger each 
way than the hole. Proceed as in Number 7. 

9 Three-Cornered Darn. (Three Lessons.) 
Materials: Same as in Number 12, Second Division, 
One Year, page 47. 

Directions: Same as in Number 12, Second Division, 
One Year. 

10 Application of Three-Cornered Darn. (Two Lessons.) 
Materials: Same as in Number 13, Second Division, 
One Year, page 48. 


Directions: Same as in Number 13, Second Division, 
One Year. 

11 Double Hemstitched Towel. (Six Lessons.) 

Materials: Same as in Number 11, Second Division, 
One Year, page 47. Or use one and one half, or one and 
three fourths yards of material, and make a dresser scarf. 

Directions: Same as in Number 11, Second Division, 
One Year. Hemstitch along the other edge of the space 
where threads have been drawn. Take the same threads 
to a stitch as were taken in opposite stitch of the single 

12 Plain Seam. (One Lesson.) 

Materials: Two pieces of gingham, each eight inches 
by three inches, number 7 needle, number 70 thread. 

Directions: Baste these two pieces together, one fourth 
inch from edge. Use the running stitch with a backstitch 
for each needleful in sewing them together. Remove 
the basting thread, trim the edges, if raveled, and overcast 
the two edges together. 

13 Gingham Holder. (Three Lessons.) 

Materials: One piece of gingham, calico or percale, 
twelve and one half inches by six and one half inches, four 
thicknesses of sheet wadding five and seven eighths inches 
square, number 7 needle, number 70 thread, silkateen. 

Directions: Turn in edges of piece of gingham one 
fourth inch. Fold double, crosswise, crease and insert 
wadding. Baste, keeping corners and edges even. Over- 
hand edges. Make two rows of running stitches, at right 
angles to each other at the center, to hold the wadding 
in place. Finish with a loop at one corner, as directed in 
Number 3, Second Division, One Year, page 40. 


14 Gingham Work Apron. (Sixteen Lessons.) 
Materials: Apron gingham, twice the desired length 
plus one half yard, number 7 needle, number 70 thread. 

Directions: Remove selvages, cut off 
a three-inch strip the entire length of 
piece of goods. Cut from the three-inch 
I strip the ties, each twenty-seven inches 
Figure 45. Diagram long. The band is the waist measure 

showing how to cut . -11 i i if 

out apron. less two inches by two and one half 

inches, and is cut from the remaining portion of the three- 
inch strip. Cut the large piece crosswise into equal parts. 
Cut one of these pieces, lengthwise, into halves. The large 
piece is the front, and the two narrow pieces are the side- 
pieces of the apron. On each edge of the ties and one edge 
of each of the sidepieces of the apron make a one eighth 
inch hem. Make plain seams in apron, a three-inch hem 
at the bottom of the apron, and a one-inch hem at one end 
of each tie. Gather the apron across the top and gather 
each tie at the end not hemmed. Sew apron and ties to the 
band. See Sewing Apron, Number 8, Second Division, One 
Year, page 45. 

1 Laundry Bag. (Six Lessons.) 

Materials: One and one half yards of white linen 
crash toweling, three yards of three eighths inch tape, num- 
ber 7 needle, number 70 thread. 

Directions: Make a two-inch hem at each end of the 
piece of toweling. In the hem make a row of backstitches 
one half inch from the hemmed edge, thus forming a casing 
for the tape. Fold double, crosswise. With edges on each 
side even and the hems even, baste together the edges on 
each side, beginning just below hem. Overhand edges 
together on each side. Fasten thread by sewing over the 


end of it. Remove the basting threads and turn right 
side out, push out corners, and smooth out overhand seams. 
Cut tape in two. Draw it into casing, starting one piece 
at each side and bring each all the way around. Sew up 
the two ends of each tape, making a felled seam. See 
Number 4, of this year's work. 

2 Overhand Patch. (Two Lessons.) 

Materials: Two pieces of one eighth inch checked 
gingham, one six inches by six inches, one four inches by 
four inches, number 7 needle and number 70 thread. 

Directions: Match stripes and warp and 
cut away the supposedly worn portion as in 
Number 9, Second Division, One Year, page 
46. Cut diagonally through two checks 
at each corner of the hole. Turn the 
Figure 46. Over- edges on each side of the hole down two 

hand patch show- , .. . 

ing details of the checks. Lay the piece thus prepared on the 
desk wrong side up. Place the patch evenly 
over the hole, matching stripes and warp. Turn the edges 
down two checks on each side of patch. (When turning an 
edge always turn it toward yourself.) Then place the patch 
in the space it is to fill, matching stripes and warp. Baste 
together the two edges that touch, the wrong sides out, and 
overhand these two edges together. Then remove the bast- 
ing thread, baste the two adjacent edges, overhand, and so 
continue around the patch. Press the overhand seam as 
smooth as possible and overcast all the raw edges. 

3 Application of the Overhand Patch. (Three Lessons.) 
Materials: A garment in need of mending, a piece of 
the same material, number 7 needle and number 70 thread 
for basting, needle and thread or silk suitable to use with 
material in garment. 


Directions: Remove worn portion, making a square or 
rectangular hole; fit the patch to it, matching the design and 
warp; and cut the patch one half inch larger than the hole 
on each of four edges. Proceed as in Number 2 of this 
year's work. 

4 Felled Seam. (One Lesson.) 

Materials: Two pieces of outing flannel, eight inches 
by three inches, number 7 needle and number 70 thread. 

Directions: Place one of the pieces on the other, so 
that the ends are even and the one long edge of the under 
piece extends three sixteenths of an inch beyond the edge of 
the upper piece. Baste one half inch from the edge farthest 
out. Stitch just outside of the basting. Remove the bast- 
ing thread. Turn in the wider edge one fourth inch; then 
turn this part of the seam flat over the narrow edge of seam 
and baste the turned-in edge to the material. Stitch very 
close to the turned-in edge. 

5 Outing Flannel Nightgown. (Ten Lessons.) 

Materials: Three times the required length plus one 
yard of outing flannel, number 7 needle, number 70 thread 
and a sack nightgown pattern. 

Directions: Cut out all parts, allowing for the growth 
of the individual and shrinkage of the material. Make 
felled seam on the shoulder, under the arm and in the sleeve, 
having the back come over the front. Hem fronts the 
desired length for opening. Stitch the two fronts together 
below opening. Hem the lower edge of sleeve and gown. 
Gather the sleeves at the top, and baste them into the 
armhole. If the sleeves are in correctly, stitch them, mak- 
ing a half-inch seam. Remove the basting thread and over- 
cast the two edges together. Baste this half-inch seam to 
the adjoining parts of the gown, stitch again one fourth 


inch from the overcast edge. Cut one piece as for a lay- 
down collar; sew it to the gown around the neck, with the 
seam toward the right side. Remove the basting thread, 
turn collar toward the right side of gown, and baste around 
the neck. Turn in the edge of the collar and baste it to the 
gown. Stitch. 

6 Buttonholes. Review. (One Lesson.) 

Materials: The materials are the same as given in 
Number 7, Second Division, One Year, page 43. 

Directions: The directions for making the buttonholes 
are the same as given in Number 7, Second Division, One 

7 Buttonholes and Buttons. (Three Lessons.) 

Materials: Nightgown (see Number 5, of this year's 
work), number 7 needle, number 50 thread, and six half- 
inch pearl buttons. 

Directions: Work six buttonholes as directed in Number 
7, Second Division, One Year, page 43, in the right-hand 
portion of the front of the nightgown. Sew buttons as 
directed in Number 6, Second Division, Other Year, page 
50, on the left-hand portion of the front of the gown to 
correspond with the buttonholes. 

8 Stockinet Darning. (Six Lessons.) 

Materials: The materials are the same as given in 
Number 5, Second Division, One Year, page 41. 

Directions: The directions are the same as given in 
Number 5, Second Division, One Year. 

9 Sleevelets. (Three Lessons.) 

Materials: One half yard of thirty-six inch wide muslin 
or India linen, needle and thread to correspond with material. 
A "leg-of-mutton" sleeve pattern with but one seam. 



Directions: Cut sleevelets sufficiently large to go on 
over dress sleeves and to reach from the wrist past the elbow, 
allowing for a three fourths inch hem at the lower edge, 
and a three eighths inch hem at the upper edge. Make a 
French seam in sewing the sleeve, and hem the upper and 
lower edges. 

10 Hemming Curved Edge. (One Lesson.) 
Materials: One piece of fine muslin or India linen, 

seven inches by seven inches, number 7 or 8 needle, number 

70 or 80 thread. 

Directions: Choosing any one corner as the center, with 

seven inches as a radius, cut an arc of a circle. Turn, and 

baste a hem less than one eighth inch wide. Hem. 

11 Cap. (Four Lessons.) 

Materials: One half yard of fine muslin or India linen, 
number 7 needle, number 70 thread, number 9 needle, and 
number 90 thread, and one piece of elastic to fit head. 

Directions: Cut a circle eighteen inches in diameter 
from the muslin. To cut a true bias fold the material so 
that the warp threads fall on the woof threads, 
then cut on the fold. Cut one and one half 
yards of bias strips seven eighths of an inch 
wide. Make a one eighth inch hem around 
the cap. Turn each edge of the bias strip one 
eighth inch under and baste it at each edge two 
inches from the edge, on the wrong side of the 
cap. Cut off the extra amount of the bias 
strip, allow enough with which to hem each end 
and stitch bias strip at each edge to the cap. 

12 Application of Patches and Darns. (Two to Six Lessons.) 
Materials: See Number 5, Number 10 and Number 
13, Second Division, One Year; Number 8, Second Divi- 

Figure 47. 
Folding the 
material for 
a true bias. 


sion, Other Year; and Number 3, Third Division, One Year. 
Directions: For directions see the same numbers as 
for the materials. 

13 Tray Cloth or Doily. (Four Lessons.) 

Materials: One piece of medium fine linen of the 
desired size, number 7 needle, number 70 thread. 

Directions: Draw six threads one and one half inches 
from each edge. See cut of miter, Number 5, Third Divi- 
sion, Other Year. Baste hems and double hemstitch as 
in Number 11, Second Division, Other Year, page 52. 

14 Buttonholes. (Four Lessons.) 

Materials: Garments brought from home, needle and 
thread of suitable sizes, the thread to match the color of 
the material. 

Directions: For directions see Number 7, Second Divi- 
sion, One Year, page 43. 

1 French and Felled Seams. (Two Lessons.) 

Materials: Three pieces of muslin or gingham, each 
eight inches by three inches, numbers 7 and 8 needles, 
numbers 70 and 80 thread. 

Directions: For the French seam, baste the long edges 
of two pieces one fourth inch from the edge. Sew one eighth 
inch from the edge. Remove the basting thread, and trim 
the edges slightly, to remove all frayed edges. Turn the 
other side of material toward you and baste the seam just 
made within the seam. Stitch this seam one eighth inch 
from edge. For the felled seam, see directions for Number 
4, Third Division, One Year, page 55. Make it one 
eighth of an inch wide. 


2 Long Sleeved Apron. (Six Lessons.) 

Materials: Three times the length from shoulder to 
bottom of skirt plus one yard of gingham or print. If 
percale is used, add one half yard to three times the re- 
quired length. Number 7 needle, number 70 thread and 
a long sleeved apron pattern with straight lines. 

Directions: Cut out apron, allowing for shrinkage of 
cloth and growth of child. Make French seams, remem- 
bering that the first time they are basted toward the right 
side of the material. Sew in the sleeves; finish the neck 
and bottom the same as the nightgown, when the two 
edges in the back have been hemmed. Make two pockets, 
each seven inches by six inches. Sew one pocket on each 
side of the front of the apron. 

3 Buttonholes in Apron. (Four Lessons.) 

Materials: Apron, number 7 needle, number 50 thread, 
and eight one half inch pearl buttons. 

Directions: See Number 7, Second Division, One Year, 
page 43, and Number 7, Third Division, One Year, page 56. 

4 Marguerite. (Seven Lessons.) 

Materials: One yard of muslin, two yards of lace with 
beading, one piece of linen tape three sixteenths inch wide, 
number 7 and 8 needles, number 70 and 90 thread, and 
corset cover pattern. 

Directions: In cutting out the material remember the 
marguerite slips on over the head, and that it is best not to 
cut it very low around the neck. Make a felled seam on 
the shoulder, a French seam under the arm, and a one 
eighth inch hem at the bottom, around the neck, and at the 
armholes. Make a felled seam when joining the lace. Sew 
the lace around the neck and armholes with the overhand 
stitch. Full the lace slightly under the arm in front of the 


under-arm seam. Have the right sides of the marguerite 
and of the lace face each other, with the lace on the thumb 
side, the side nearest you. Prepare a bias fold as directed 
in Number 9, Second Division, One Year, to fit across the 
back at the waistline. Baste in place and stitch. Draw 
a piece of tape long enough to tie around the waist through 
the casing formed by the bias fold. Draw the tape into the 
beading and tie. 

6 French Hem and Miter. (One Lesson.) 

Materials: A seven-inch square of medium fine linen, 
numbers 7 and 8 needles, numbers 70 and 80 thread, and a 
four-inch square of stiff paper. 

Directions: From one corner of the paper, 
measure five eighths of an inch on each side, 
connect these two points with a straight line, 
and cut along this line. Cut one corner of 
square by this pattern. Turn each of the ad- 
joining edges one eighth of an inch, then a one 
fourth inch hem. Baste near the turned-in edge. 
Fold the hem back on one side and overhand the two folded 
edges. In a similar manner hem the other side adjacent to 
the mitered corner. Hem the miter at the corner. 

6 Application of French Hem. (Six Lessons.) 

Materials: Two napkins brought from home, numbers 
7 and 8 needles, and numbers 70 and 80 thread. 

Directions: Napkins have selvages on two edges. Cut 
the other two edges straight by the thread. Make a one 
fourth inch French hem at each of these two edges. 

7 Gingham Underskirt. (Eight Lessons.) 

Materials: Twice the skirt length plus three fourths of 
a yard of striped gingham, number 7 needle, numbers 70 


and 50 thread, one medium-sized pearl button, and a plain 
five-gore skirt pattern. 

Directions: Cut the gores two inches shorter than the 
desired length, three pieces across the material, each five 
and a half inches deep, for the ruffle, one piece, the waist 
measure plus two inches by two and a half inches for the 
band, one piece twenty inches by two and a half inches, for 
the extension placket, and enough bias strips to face edge 
of ruffle and to finish seam at upper edge of ruffle. Make 
French seams in skirt, leave a nine and a half inch placket 
at the top of the back seam, join with plain seams the three 
pieces of the ruffle and the bias strips. To face one edge 
of the ruffle with the bias strip, put the right side of bias to 
the wrong side of the ruffle, having their edges even, baste 
and stitch three sixteenths of an inch from edge. Remove 
the basting thread, turn the bias strip toward the right side 
of ruffle, baste at the edge, and turn under the upper edge 
of the bias strip. Baste and sew at the upper edge. Divide 
the ruffle into quarters and notch it; then gather it at its 
upper edge. Divide the lower edgb of the skirt into quar- 
ters, starting at center back. Pin ruffle and skirt together 
at notches, the wrong sides together. Baste the two, 
arranging the gathers evenly. Then baste the bias strip to 
the ruffle side of the seam just basted, having the right side 
of the bias strip face ruffle. Stitch, and remove the basting 
threads. Turn the bias over the seam and baste at its 
lower edge. Finish as at lower edge of the ruffle. To 
make the extension placket, place the piece cut for it on the 
wrong side of the skirt; starting at the upper end of the right- 
hand portion of the placket opening, baste in place; taking 
particular care at the lower end of the placket, sew; remove 
the basting thread; turn the other edge one fourth of an 
inch and bring it over the seam to just cover the stitches. 


Baste, sew, and remove basting thread. To sew the skirt 
to the band, first notch the middle front of the skirt. Then 
notch the band one and one fourth inches to one side of the 
middle. Place the band on the wrong side of the skirt. 
Pin the notches together, with the longer portion toward 
the left side of the skirt. At the back pin the skirt to the 
band, the left portion of placket extended, and the right 
portion turned back. Dispose of the extra fullness by gath- 
ering or laying it in plaits, whichever way is the most de- 
sirable. Remember that the skirt must hang straight from 
the band. Baste, and stitch the skirt to the band. Con- 
tinue as directed in Number 4, Second Division, Other Year, 
page 49. Work a buttonhole in the right-hand end of the 
band and sew the button on the band at the left-hand 
end. Have the ends of the band overlap the width of 
the extension placket one inch. 

8 Muslin Nightgown. (Eight Lessons.) 

Materials: Twice the length from the shoulder, at the 
neck, to the floor, plus one half yard of thirty-six inch mus- 
lin, two yards of lace with beading, one piece of one fourth 
inch linen tape, numbers 7 and 8 needles, numbers 70 and 
80 thread, and a nightgown pattern. 

Directions: The pattern used in Number 5, Third Di- 
vision, One Year, could be used, or a nightgown pattern 
with butterfly sleeves. One third yard less material is re- 
quired for the pattern with butterfly sleeves. If the pattern 
mentioned first is used, allow two inches at the center for 
fullness. Add three inches for hem to the required length. 
If it is necessary to piece the front on each side at the bot- 
tom, make plain seams. (Make felled seams on the shoulder 
and French seams under the arm and in the sleeve.) Make 
a three-inch hem at the bottom, and a one eighth inch hem 


around the neck and at the lower edge of sleeves which are 
of elbow length. Gather the sleeves at the top. Baste 
sleeves into armholes, and fit them. If the sleeves fit prop- 
erly, sew them, making a three eighths inch seam. Over- 
cast the raw edges, putting a stitch through each of the 
gathers. Sew on the lace as directed in Number 4 of this 
year's work. There are, of course, no separate sleeves, if 
the butterfly pattern is used. 

9 Sofa Cushion Cover. (Four Lessons.) 
Materials: Two pieces of linen or cretonne twenty-two 
inches by eighteen inches, two pieces each twenty-two inches 
by two and a half inches, thread to match, number 7 needle, 
number 70 thread, arid four clasps. 

Directions: Face, with the narrow strips, one edge of 
each of the large pieces. Place the two large pieces with the 
faced edges together and the right sides so as to face each 
other. Baste and sew one fourth inch from the edge at 
the ends and the side not faced. Remove basting threads, 
trim slightly the two corners just stitched, turn, and push 
out the corners. Baste near the edge of the three stitched 
sides; baste a second time two and one eighth inches from 
the edge; and stitch two inches from the edge. Sew the 
clasps near the hemmed edges of the facings at the opening. 
The top may be ornamented with a stenciled design, cro- 
cheted motifs, or embroidery, if cover is of plain material. 


Patterns may be altered. A plain gored skirt pattern, if 
it is too long, may be shortened by laying a plait across each 
gore at half the distance down from the top. Have the 
edges even at the front or the part of the pattern that will 
come on the straight of the goods. If the pattern is too 
large around the hips, lay equal sized plaits lengthwise 


through the middle of each gore. Sleeve patterns are re- 
duced in a similar manner. If a plain waist pattern is ''long 
waisted," determine whether the extra length is above or 
below the bust line or both. Shorten the pattern where 
it is too long. If a pattern is too wide across the shoulder, 
make a lengthwise plait through the middle of that por- 
tion, and, if too wide under the arm, do the same there. 
If a pattern is too narrow or too short, determine where to 
enlarge. See above how to reduce. Cut the pattern and 
insert a strip of paper of the required width. 

Wash goods of linen or cotton and woolen goods should 
be shrunk before making up. A tablespoonful of salt added 
to each quart of lukewarm water used when shrinking 
the wash goods sets the color. When pressing the mate- 
rial keep the edges straight. 

If the material is figured, checked or plaid, decide which 
is up and which is down and cut all parts the same way. 
1 Pair of Drawers 

Materials: Muslin, twice the length from the waist- 
line to the bent knee plus six inches, two and a half yards of 
five-inch or six-inch embroidery, thread and needles of suit- 
able sizes, and a good pattern. 

Directions: Tear off a strip of the material at one end 
to straighten it, and pull the goods straight, if it seems 
uneven. Turn up the lower edge of the pattern five or six 
inches, the width of the embroidery. Place pattern on goods 
with its lower edge on the straight end of the cloth and cut 
one part. To cut the corresponding part, use the piece 
just cut, placing the woof threads in it on the woof threads 
of the larger piece of cloth. Cut two pieces, one for the 
placket and one for the band the same as in Number 7, 
Third Division, Other Year. W^hen sewing the (short) 
seam in each of the two large portions, make a felled seam. 


Join with a felled seam the two portions, which should be 
pairs, having the two short seams meet. 

If the placket is desired at the back, leave the length of 
it when sewing this seam. Or, the placket may be made at 
either side. Make the placket and sew skirt to the band 
as in Number 7, Third Division, Other Year. Turn up the 
lower edge five eighths of an inch toward the wrong side. 
Baste near folded edge. Stitch, making a three sixteenths 
inch tuck. Cut the embroidery into two equal pieces, trim 
upper edge, if it is uneven. Match the pattern and join 
with a plain seam. For convenience later, divide each 
flounce into fourths, starting at the seam, marking the 
upper edge with a notch or pin. Gather each flounce. 
Divide the lower edges of drawers into fourths, starting at 
the seams. Pin a flounce to the raw edge of each portion, 
placing seams together, also wrong sides, and notches. 
Baste, arranging gathers uniformly, stitch each three six- 
teenths of an inch from edge and remove basting threads. 
Turn the seam up and baste the tuck down over it and 
baste the tuck in place. Stitch in the very edge of the tuck. 
Finish the band with a button and buttonhole. 

2 Wash Dress 

Materials: Select material that will launder nicely and 
that is suitable to the wear you wish to give the dress and 
of becoming color, the correct size of a simple pattern, of 
suitable style for a wash dress, thread to match the ma- 
terial, and buttons or No. 2 hooks and eyes. 

Directions: Styles change so frequently that but few 
general directions can be given. Study and follow direc- 
tions with the pattern. Fit pattern, alter if necessary, and 
lay all parts of it on the goods before beginning to cut. It 
is sometimes necessary to rearrange the parts of the pat- 


tern in order to cut goods economically. Make French 
or plain seams in skirt depending on the material, an ex- 
tension placket as in Number 7, Third Division, Other Year. 
Baste the skirt to the band. See that the seams in the 
skirt hang straight, that it does not pull anywhere and that 
it is even at the bottom. Finish the band neatly at the 
ends, being careful to make the two edges of the placket the 
same length. When turning the hem, dispose of the fullness 
of its upper edge by laying a small plait in the part of each 
gore that is on a bias. If one plait disposes of fullness but 
makes the skirt longer at that place, make two a small 
distance apart. The lower edge of a plain gored skirt is 
uniformly curved, if the hem is turned correctly and no 
unusual alterations have been made to make it fit. Finish 
the waist neatly at the neck, the bottom, the lower edge of 
the sleeves, and where it fastens. When putting in the 
fasteners, whether it be buttons and buttonholes, or hooks 
and eyes, make sure that they will fullfill their purpose of 
keeping the garment properly adjusted. If the dress re- 
quires a belt or girdle, sew fasteners in it. 


Books: How We Are Clothed, Chamberlain; Clothing and Other 
Textiles, Carpenter; Great American Industries, Manufactories, Roch- 
leau; Shelter and Clothing, Kinne and Cooley; Textiles, Dooley; 
Textiles, Woolman and McGowan; Sewing Tablet Series, Blair. 

Farmers' Bulletins, Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.: 
Flax for Seed and Fiber, No. 27; Silkworm Culture, No. 165; Angora 
Goat, No. 137; Sea Island Cotton, No. 302. 

Minnesota Farmers' Library: Industrial Contests for Boys and 
Girls, No. 3; Flax Growing, No. 27; Rural School Agriculture, No. 2, 


It is not the intention of the authors to advocate that 
laboratory work should be done in one-room schools. The 
general principles here discussed are such as all girls should 
understand, however, and the school lessons may be sup- 
plemented by home work in cooking. Such an arrange- 
ment will not be difficult to carry out in small schools. 
Semigraded and consolidated rural schools should provide 
for laboratory work. 

In comparing the human body with a steam engine we 
find that they are similar in that both require fuel to pro- 
duce heat and energy, or power to work. The body uses 
food for fuel and the engine uses wood or coal. They are 
similar in that both require material for building and re-" 
pairing their several parts. The engine is built of different 
material from that which it uses for fuel. The body may 
consume its own materials to produce heat and energy, if 
necessary. The growth, or development, and uses of the 
various organs, such as the heart, lungs, etc., depend upon 
the nutrition of the body. 


The uses of food are (1) to build the body and keep it 
repaired, and (2) to yield heat to keep the body warm and 
to supply energy for work. At water says, "Food is that 
which taken into the body builds tissue and yields heat and 



The body is composed of from fifteen to twenty elements. 
The most abundant are oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, cal- 



cium, phosphorus and sulphur. These elements form a 
number of compounds, the most important being carbohy- 
drates, protein, fats, mineral matter and water. These 
compounds occur in the body and, obviously, they are also 
found in the food which builds the body. The first four com- 
pounds are often referred to as the food principles, or nu- 
trients. Water is not classified as a nutrient, because it 
does not build tissues or yield heat. It is, however, a very 
important constituent of food. Each of the food principles 
has a special function, or use, in the body. 


Carbohydrates, such as starches and sugars, yield heat and 
energy. Vegetables, cereals and fruits supply the carbohy- 
drates, with the exception of milk sugar which is found in 
milk. Each particle of starchy foods, such as cereals, pota- 
toes, etc., contains a mass of minute starch grains. Each 
starch granule is surrounded by woody fiber, called cellulose. 
Such foods as potatoes, oatmeal, cornmeal, macaroni, rice, 
etc., should be cooked to soften the cellulose and permit the 
starch grains to swell and burst. About 1 per cent of the 
weight of the human body is composed of carbohydrates. 

Vegetables. Select firm vegetables and wash clean. Po- 
tatoes, parsnips and other roots and tubers should be pared 
or scraped, and cut as desired. For creamed dishes, they are 
usually cut into half-inch cubes or one-eighth inch slices. 
Place in cold water to prevent discoloration. Put to cook 
in boiling water, usually j ust enough to cover the vegetables. 
Cook strong flavored vegetables uncovered. Parboil strong 
flavored vegetables, drain and add more boiling water. 
When vegetables are about half-cooked, add a tablespoonful 
of salt for each quart of water in which they are being cooked. 
Cook vegetables until tender. A time-table is suggestive. 


The variety, quality and age of vegetables make the differ- 
ence in the length of time it takes to cook them. As soon as 
they are cooked, drain off the liquid and save it, if it is to be 
used. Cover the vegetables with several thicknesses of 
clean cloth, that the steam may escape, but the heat be 
retained. If a cover is placed over the kettle, the steam 
remains in it, which, as it cools, makes the vegetables soggy. 
Use the liquid in which vegetables are cooked when making 
cream soups or creaming vegetables. 

In the process of cooking, the water dissolves the nutri- 
ents, and flavors are withdrawn from the vegetables. Before 
combining the vegetable and the liquid in which the vege- 
table has been cooked with milk or white sauce, add soda 
if the vegetable is acid, as tomato or cabbage, the amount 
depending upon the acidity of the liquid. Otherwise, the 
milk will curdle. 

Cereals. Like vegetables, cereals are put to cook in 
boiling water. Use from two and one half to five parts of 
water to one part of the cereal, as cereals need to absorb much 
water in the process of cooking, because they contain but a 
small amount. Cook cereals in salty water directly over 
the fire for the first ten minutes, stirring occasionally, so 
that the mixture does not stick to the bottom of the kettle 
or to the upper part of the double boiler. Place in the lower 
part of the double boiler in which is boiling water, or in a 
fireless cooker, and continue cooking for a long time. Long 
slow cooking is necessary on account of the large amount of 
cellulose that cereals contain. This must be softened. Use 
from one to one and one half tablespoonfuls of salt to one 
quart of water. 

Fruits. With the exception of quinces and cranberries, 
fruits are eaten mostly in the fresh state. Use only sound, 
ripe specimens. Unripe fruit is not very digestible, unless 


cooked, and overripe fruit lacks flavor. Serve fresh fruits in 
season and serve them cold. Cooked fruits are usually 
either baked or stewed. Baking is used with large whole 
fruits, such as apples, pears and bananas. Stewing may be 
used for all kinds of fruits. Dried fruits, such as prunes, figs, 
apples, apricots, etc., should be soaked in fresh water for 
several hours before cooking. 


The protein compounds are the most important nutrients. 
They are the muscle builders and assist in the building of the 
body tissue. About 18 per cent, by weight, of the body of 
the average person consists of protein compounds. These 
compounds contain nitrogen. 

The chief sources of protein are eggs, lean meat, milk, 
cheese, legumes and cereals. Some of the protein compounds 
and their sources are albumin in egg white, albumin and myo- 
sin in meat, casein, or curd, in milk, legumin in peas and 
beans and gluten in wheat. The protein-supplying vege- 
tables are the cheapest source of food for muscle building. 

Eggs. There is no waste to eggs except the shells. If 
properly cooked, or not cooked at all, the egg is readily 
digested. Heat coagulates the albumen, or the egg white, and 
cold water dissolves it. If intense heat is used, the white 
becomes tough. The yolk and white of egg are evenly 
cooked if a temperature below the boiling point of water, 
212F., is used. 

The following is a simple test for eggs to be used for the 
table or in cooking: Place the egg in a tumbler two thirds 
full of water. If it sinks and lies horizontally on the bottom 
of the tumbler, it is suitable for poaching or soft or hard 
cooking. If the large end of the egg is raised a little, 
the egg is not strictly fresh. If the large end is raised 



Figure 49. Eggs in cartons, the neatest 
and most attractive way to sell or buy. 

considerably more, the 
egg is not suitable for the 
table, but can be used in 
cooking. If the egg 
comes to the top, it is 
not fit for food. 

To hard- cook an egg 
proceed as for "Soft- 
cooked Eggs" in the hot 
lunch recipes, Chapter V. 
At the end of ten min- 
utes, remove from the 
hot water and cover with 
boiling water. Let "the 
egg remain in this water for ten minutes. Keep dish where 
the water will keep hot but not boil. Remove from the hot 
water and place in cold water for a second or two, so that the 
egg white will not stick to the eggshell. 

Eggs can be used with a large number of food materials, 
because their flavor is not pronounced and, therefore, blends 
readily with other flavors. When combining egg with a 
hot mixture of any kind, add the mixture slowly to the 
beaten egg, while stirring, in order to cook the egg slowly. 
Egg is used to make mixtures light with enclosed air by beat- 
ing the egg yolk and white separately, or by adding the egg 
to the mixture and beating until light. The first method 
will produce the most feathery product; the second, the finer 
grained, but more compact. Egg mixtures, as well as eggs, 
should be cooked slowly and not longer than necessary. 
Cakes containing a large quantity of eggs shrink, if baked too 
long. If custards are steamed or baked too long, or with 
too intense heat, whey will form. Directions for making 
custards are given in recipes in Chapter V. Eggs are used to 



thicken liquids, as pudding sauces. They are also used to 
clear liquids. To clear beef brolh, stir the white of egg, 
slightly beaten, into the lukewarm broth and allow it to 
come to a boil. Egg white is used to clear coffee, as given in 
the directions for making coffee with egg, page 94. 

Lean Meat. Meats are the most expensive of the pro- 
tein-supplying foods, on account of the high cost of pro- 
duction and the length of time necessary to cook them. 
Only s the lean of meat supplies protein. This chapter 
permits only a brief and general discussion. The kinds of 
meats are beef, veal, mutton, lamb, pork, game and poultry. 
The flavor and tenderness of certain cuts of each kind of 
meat make them at least seem more desirable. They are 
more desirable to those who can spend but a few minutes on 
the preparation of their meats. Refer to the figures rep- 
resenting the different cuts of meat. Start at the loin, 
which is regarded the choicest on account of the flavor and 

Figure 50. Diagram of cuts of beef. 

A. Neck. 

B. Chuck. 

C. Ribs. 

D. Loin. 

E. Rump. 

F. Brisket. 

G. Fore shank. 
H. Shoulder. 

/. Cross ribs. 

J. Plate. 

K. Navel. 

L. Flank. 

M. Round. 

N. Second cut round. 

(>. Hind shank. 



Figure 51. Diagram of cuts of veal. 

Fore shank. 










Hind shank. 

tenderness. The cuts at either side are less tender, and the 
farther from the loin, the tougher, as the neck, the shin and 
the shank. The food value, the amount of protein supplied, 
is practically the same regardless of the location of the cut, 
from the same kind of meat. 

Figure 52. Diagram of cuts of lamb and mutton. 









In-ordjer to render the tougher and less pleasantly flav- 
ored cuts of meat palatable, one must understand the effect 
of heat and moisture upon meat. Albumin coagulates when 
heat is applied, and it dissolves in cold water. The tissue 
which surrounds the fibres and bundles of fibers that make 
up the muscles and encloses the muscle itself is called con- 
nective tissue. The muscles taper toward the ends where 
there is more and stronger connective tissue, gradually 
forming the tendons. The tendons attach the muscles to 
the bony frame. When a muscle shortens, it contracts 
through the largest part of it, and some part of the body 
moves. The muscles receiving the most exercise are the 
strongest and are, consequently, the toughest on account 
of the large amount of connective tissue in them. When 
dry heat is applied to meat, the connective tissue is hardened. 
Moist heat softens it. Keeping these facts in mind and 
applying them when cooking meats, one need not have 
tough meat. 

If we wish to broil or roast meats, we must have tender 
cuts, because we apply dry heat. See "Methods of Cook- 
ing," page 84. Upon the cutting and cooking of a beef- 
steak, depend its tenderness. Only tender cuts, the loin 

Figure 53. Diagram of cuts of pork. 

1. Head. 5. Belly. 

2. Shoulder. 6. Ham. 

3. Ribs. 7. Loin. 

4. Middle cut. 


and one or two steaks cut from the round of young, well- 
fed beef, can be broiled to advantage. The steak should 
be cut at least an inch thick. The heat should be sufficient 
to sear the cut surfaces quickly and the steak should be turned 
frequently to apply the heat evenly to both sides. When 
the meat is seared, the albumin near the surface is coagu- 
lated. This coat of coagulated albumin retains the juices 
of the interior. Now, if the steak is cut thin, when the 
surfaces are seared, all the albumin is coagulated the 
exterior coat extends from each side to the center of the cut 
and there are no juices left to produce a juicy, tender steak. 
If a roast is to be cooked in the oven, its cut surfaces must 
be seared in order to retain the juices. This can be done 
either by searing it in a pan on top of the stove, or the oven 
may be very hot when it is put into it, and the heat de- 
creased when the meat is seared. 

The tough cuts of meat should be treated in just the 
opposite way cooked with moist heat and put to cook in 
cold water, so rione of the albumin will be coagulated in the 
meat. The tougher cuts of meat require more seasoning, 
and sometimes small quantities of vegetables are added to 
improve and vary the flavor. The less choice cuts of beef 
are often chopped, as Hamburg steak, meat loaf, etc. In 
this manner the connective tissue is cut into very short pieces. 
Pork, veal, mutton, lamb, poultry and game should not 
be cooked rare. They are more wholesome when thor- 
oughly done. 

Milk and Cheese. Mijk and cheese belong to the 
protein-supplying foods. Clean milk is essential to good 
health. In order to have clean milk, the milk cans, pails, 
pans and bottles everything in which milk may be kept 
must be thoroughly washed, rinsed and scalded. The 


milk should be cooled to remove the animal heat and then 
kept in a clean, cool and fresh place. 

Milk is more easily digested if not boiled. It is pasteur- 
ized, scalded and sterilized to kill different kinds of disease 
germs, such as those of tuberculosis, typhoid and diph- 
theria. On account of its nutritive value, milk should be 
used in the preparation of other foods with which it is com- 
patible. Milk is sometimes called a perfect food. It is, 
for the young. While it contains all the nutrients, milk 
is not a perfect food for adults, as too large quantities would 
be required to supply the solids necessary. Even the best 
milk is very largely water. 

Cheese, being a milk product that consists almost en- 
tirely of the curd, or casein, should not be cooked with 
too intense heat nor for too long a time. It is a very concen- 
trated food and should be eaten as such. Served as it 
usually is, with dessert at the end of a heavy meal, it is likely 
to cause indigestion. Eaten, as it should be, as the main 
protein part of the meal, it is wholesome and nutritious. 
Cheese dishes can thus be made a meat substitute. 

Legumes and Cereals. The legumes are those plants 
that, with the aid of soil bacteria, have the power to use 
nitrogen directly from the air and deposit it in the soil. 
Such plants are clover, peas, beans, vetches, etc. Those 
used chiefly for human food are the peas, beans, lentils and 
peanuts. While these legumes are sometimes not regarded 
as choice food as meat cuts and some other foods, they are 
rich in protein. The same amount of nutrients can be 
obtained for a very small fraction of the cost of the ex- 
pensive meats or eggs. Legume dishes can be made very 
palatable, as these important protein foods can be cooked 
in a great variety of ways. 

Every person in charge of purchasing the food supplies 



should be familiar with the nutrients in the common food 
stuffs, and select the kinds that give most nourishment 
for the money. Change enough for variety is necessary, 
of course; but a thorough knowledge of the various methods 
of preparing foods will often mean real economy, both as to 
nutrients and cost. 

Average Composition of Common Food Stuffs 

Compiled from Various Bulletins 

Kind of Food 




< 'nr bo- 



pr. ct. 

pr. ct. 


pr. ct. 

pr. ct. 

pr. ct. 







Prunes uncooked 











Beans, dried 






Peas, shelled 
Peas, dried 
Potatoes, white 

Bread, white 

78.3 . 







74 1 


1 3 

7 7 

16 7 

7 3 

66 2 

2 1 

Wheat, cracked 

Dairy Products: 










Cheese Cheddar 



27 7 


36 8 

4 1 


Milk, skimmed . . . 



18 5 

5 1 



Milk, whole 

Beef, round 
Beef chuck ribs 




18 5 







Veal, loin 
Mutton, leg 
Pork, loin chop 
Ham, smoked 


10 5 

64 2 








Bass black 

76 5 

20 6 

1 7 

1 2 

Cod, salt 
Eggs, edible portion 








Cereals contain protein and, when purchased in bulk, as 
they should be, afford a comparatively cheap supply of 
that nutrient. While package breakfast foods are both 
sanitary and palatable, they are expensive. The same 
nourishment can be obtained in bulk for much less money, 
and it would be economy to purchase them that way and 
provide sanitary receptacles in which to store them. 


Fats include oils. Fats are solids at ordinary tem- 
peratures and oils are liquid. Fats are more concentrated 
fuel foods than carbohydrates and, consequently, take 
longer to digest. Fats produce more heat than the carbohy- 
drates. In this respect, carbohydrates and fats might be 
compared with wood and coal respectively. 

About 15 per cent of the weight of a person is fat. If 
more fat is eaten than is used for heat and energy, it is stored 
as body fat until it is needed. If more carbohydrates are 
eaten than required to produce the necessary amount of heat 
and energy, the surplus is transformed by the body and 
stored as body fat. The amount of fuel the body needs 
is dependent upon the amount and kind of exercise and 
the climate. 

Fats are of both vegetable and animal origin. Olive 
oil, cocoanut oil, cottonseed oil, oil of corn and of wheat are 
derived from vegetation. Cream, butter, lard and tallow are 
of animal origin. A number of fats is obtained when cook- 
ing meats, poultry, etc., as beef drippings, bacon fat, chicken 
fat and goose oil. The price of the fats depends upon their 
flavor not the fuel value the pleasantly flavored fats and 
oils being higher priced. Fats are used in the preparation 
of most dishes. Lard, cottolene and beef tallow are used 
for deep fat frying. 


Mineral Matter 

Mineral matter is a class of nutrients which yields only a 
small amount of heat, if any, but it builds bony tissue, such 
as bone, teeth, hair and nails. It is mineral matter which 
enables the skeleton to keep its form. Without this, it 
would be soft and pliable. From 5 per cent to 6 per cent 
of the body is mineral matter. It is found in solution in the 
blood and other tissues of the body, aids in the digestion of 
food and helps to regulate other body processes. 

Vegetables and fruits are the chief source of supply of 
mineral matter. It is located directly beneath their skins. 
Grains contain mineral matter also, but, in the process of 
manufacture, this is very largely lost, so that the breakfast 
foods and white flour contain but a very small portion of the 
mineral matter of the grain from which they are manufac- 


Water forms 60 per cent of the body. Water is present in 
all the tissues of the body, but, as it does not burn, it yields 
no heat nor energy. About 50 per cent of all food is water. 
This is not sufficient, however, and in addition about four 
pints ought to be consumed daily. Water is a solvent and 
aids in digesting the food by diluting the contents of the 
stomach to the consistency of thick cream soup and diluting 
the gastric juices so that they can readily reach and act on 
all particles of food. By diluting the body fluids, water is 
the carrier of nutrition to the cells and it removes waste 
products from every cell in the body. On account of this 
circulation, the heat of the body is evenly distributed. 
Body heat is regulated by perspiration, and thus the body 
is kept at practically a constant temperature. 

Water is the great cleansing agent of the interior of the 
body as well as of the exterior, For drinking purposes, 


water must be pure. If its purity is doubted, it should be 
boiled and cooled. 

Water is hard or soft according to the amount of mineral 
matter it contains. Soft water is a better solvent of dirt 
than hard water. Water containing lime is softened by 
boiling. Borax, sal soda and ammonia are used to soften 
water. Soap is used for the same purpose and to act upon 
grease, making the removal of dirt easier. 


By making the conditions unfavorable to the growth of 
bacteria, we are enabled to preserve food for a period of time, 
the length of which depends upon the thoroughness of our 
efforts. Warmth, food and moisture are required for the 
growth of bacteria. 

The object of preserving food is to have various foods 
when they are out of season and, consequently, are high 
priced. The foods are preserved in season when at their best 
and plentiful. 

Cold Storage 

Preserving food by the removal of heat checks the growth 
of bacteria. Freezing meats and fish or keeping them in 
cold storage at a temperature just above freezing preserves 
these foods for an indefinite time. Butter, eggs, etc., may 
be kept in a similar manner. They should be used at once 
when thawed out or removed from cold storage. 


Some foods, such as fruits, berries and meat, are preserved 
by removing most of the moisture they contain, thus check- 
ing the growth of bacteria. Before cooking these dried 
foods, moisture is supplied by soaking for several hours in 
cold water. 



Meats and fish are salted by placing them in a heavy 
brine. The salt solution displaces the natural juices. The 
food is preserved because the moisture is removed and the 
growth of bacteria is checked. 


Meats and fish which are to be smoked are first salted 
in brine for a few weeks. They are then washed and allowed 
to drain and dry for two or three days. When dry, the 
pieces are hung in a smokehouse and smoked. The smoke 
penetrates the meat and closes the pores to some extent, 
thereby excluding the air and preventing attack from 
bacteria and insects. 

Using Preservatives 

Using salt has already been discussed. A heavy syrup 
of granulated sugar will preserve fruits and berries. Jelly 
and preserves are examples when the mixtures are cook- 
ed. The principle is the same as in salting. 

The chemical preservatives, usually spoken of as canning 
powders, are very harmful and should not be used. 


Canning used to be sealing sterilized food in sterilized 
cans. With the cold-pack method predominant, canning is 
the process of sterilizing clean food materials packed in glass 
jars or tin cans and sealing the jars and cans when removed 
from the canner. See U. S. bulletins on "Boys' and Girls' 
Home Canning Club Work." 

Packing Eggs 

Select strictly fresh eggs eggs which have been collected 
the day they are to be packed, and from nests from which the 
eggs are gathered at least twice daily. By excluding the air, 


the eggs may be kept fresh for several months. Care should 
be taken to place the small end down, and to keep the eggs 
in a cool place. ' Methods tried and used successfully in 
school work are: 

(1) Pack the eggs in an earthen jar of such a size as will 
hold the desired number of eggs. Cover them with a liquid 
glass solution, commonly known as "water glass." Use 
from eleven to twenty parts of boiled and cooled water to 
one part of liquid glass. Stir well and carefully pour over 
the eggs. Have enough to cover the eggs. Cover the jar 
to prevent the water from evaporating. Result: 100 per 
cent fresh. 

(2) Wrap each egg carefully in a piece of newspaper 
about ten inches by eight inches. Pack in a jar or pail and 
cover the top of it. 100 per cent fresh. 

(3) Eggs packed in salt are often difficult to remove 
when wanted, because the salt absorbs moisture which 
evaporate? when there is less moisture in the air and leaves 
the salt hard. During this process the egg is likely to absorb 
moisture and flavors. 75 per cent good for cooking. 

(4) and (5) Bran and sawdust are light weight materials 
and require large containers if they are used in packing eggs. 
They are not so good as the others given. 80 per cent good. 


It is necessary to consider age, sex, climate and season 
of the year when planning menus. The growing child 
needs a large amount of protein supplying, or muscle building, 
foods to meet the requirements of the body. An adult at 
hard muscular labor requires more fuel foods and also muscle 
building foods to produce energy for work and to repair the 
waste respectively. Women, generally speaking, require about 
80 per cent as much food as men. A person living in a warm 


climate does not require the fuel foods that a person living 
in the North does. Nor does a person living in the North 
require so much of the heat producing foods during the very 
warm weather as during the cold winter months. 

Meals should be planned to meet the requirements of 
every member of the family during the different seasons of 
the year. The flavors of the different dishes should har- 
monize. The reference books should be consulted and the 
menus studied carefully. Work out a balanced diet for an 
average working man; another for an office man. Plan a 
good working menu for your home family for one week. 
Submit it to the teacher for approval. 


Some foods are made more easily digested by cooking and 
others more difficultly. Beef and eggs are more easily 
digested if not cooked. When cooked, both usually are more 
pleasing in appearance and more palatable. Raw pork may 
prove harmful; but, if thoroughly cooked, it may safely be 
used as food, because cooking kills any germs and parasites 
that may be in it. Vegetables and cereals are generally 
more easily digested when cooked, because the cellulose, the 
woody fiber which incloses the starch granules, is softened 
and the starch granules expand and burst the cell walls. 
As a result, the consistency is changed to a soft, pasty mass, 
as cooked starch, macaroni, rice and potatoes. Some foods 
can be cooked or eaten raw, or cooked in different ways to 
develop or modify flavors. 

Summed up, the purpose of cooking a food may be one or 
more of the following: 

To develop flavor. 

To make food more palatable. 

To make food more pleasing in appearance. 


To kill germs. 

To render food more easily digested. 

To give variety. 

Methods of Cooking 

Heat is applied to the food either by means of hot water, 
heated air, heated metal, hot fat or a combination of some two. 

Foods are cooked in hot water by the following methods : 

Boiling is cooking food in enough water to cover it. 

Stewing is cooking food in a small amount of water and 
keeping the kettle tightly covered. 

Steaming is cooking food directly over the steam, or 
indirectly, when in a double boiler. 

Foods are cooked by hot air by the following methods : 

Roasting is cooking meat in a heated oven. 

Baking applies more generally to bread, cake, etc., and is 
the same as roasting, or cooking in a heated oven. 

Broiling is cooking meats directly over the fire. A 
special broiler is needed. For this reason, pan broiling is 
generally used. 

Foods are cooked by hot metal by the following method : 

Pan broiling is cooking food in a hot pan, turning it often. 

Foods are cooked by hot fat by the following methods: 

Frying is cooking food in deep fat. 

Sauteing is cooking food in a small amount of fat and 
turning it often. 

Foods are cooked in a combination of hot fat and hot 
water by the following method: 

Fricasseeing is begun by cooking the food in a small 
amount of fat until browned and the flavor is well developed ; 
then a small amount of water is added and the food stewed 
until tender. The cooking is completed by browning again 
in fat. 


Foods are cooked by a combination of heated air and hot 
water by the following method : 

Braising is browning the food in the oven, adding water 
and stewing in a covered pan in the oven until tender. 

Combining Ingredients 

There are four methods of combining ingredients : 

Stirring is a circular motion and is used when mixing a 
dry material, as flour, with a liquid and when stirring the 
contents of a kettle while cooking. 

Beating is a circular motion used to inclose air in a mix- 
ture, as a batter or an egg. A spoon, wire beater and Dover 
beater are the tools used. 

Cutting is used to mix flour and shortening for pastry. 
One or two knives, or a fork, are used. 

Folding is used when adding beaten egg white to a 
batter. The batter from near the bottom of the dish is 
carried up and over the beaten egg white, care being taken 
not to break up the egg white so that the enclosed air escapes. 

Working Directions 

See the chapter on "The Hot Lunch" for measures, ab- 
breviations, directions for measuring, making white sauces 
and thickening soups. For general directions for prepar- 
ing and cooking vegetables, cereals and pastes, see "Carbo- 
hydrates," this chapter. For preparation of meals, 
laying the table, clearing the dinner table and washing 
dishes, see Chapter VII. For general directions for cook- 
ing eggs and meats see "Protein," this chapter. For meat 
and egg dishes, see Chapter V. 


Bread is used in some form by all civilized peoples. There 
are two classes of bread: The quick breads, which are 


leavened or made light with a leavening agent, as soda and 
baking powder, when carbon dioxide gas is formed rapidly, 
and the yeast breads, which are made light with yeast. 
The yeast plants give off carbon dioxide gas, but it takes 
longer to make dough light with yeast, because the plants 
must multiply. 

Yeast bread, being the most wholesome arid keeping 
best if thoroughly baked, will be considered first. The 
three essential ingredients of yeast bread are flour, yeast 
and liquid. 

The important constituents of flour are starch and gluten. 
The quality of gluten in wheat flour makes it possible to 
make light bread. Gluten is elastic and strong, thus giving 
the carbon dioxide gas an opportunity to expand. Yeast 
is a dust plant which is used commercially. For bread 
making, active yeast is needed; i. e., yeast with strong plants. 
Commercially, yeast comes in cakes, as compressed yeast 
and dry yeast. 

Compressed yeast contains more moisture and does not 
keep as long as dry yeast, but it contains more active yeast 
plants. If kept in a cool place, it will keep for a week. 
Starch is mixed with the yeast. Dark spots in compressed 
yeast indicate dead yeast plants. 

In dry yeast there is cornmeal or other cereal meal. 
This yeast must be soaked for a long time before using. A 
sponge is usually made in the evening and allowed to rise 
until morning. Liquid, or homemade, yeast is made of 
flour and water, some mashed potato or potato water with 
some dry or compressed yeast for a starter. 

Milk, water, half milk and half water and buttermilk 
are the liquids used. Liquid consisting of equal parts of 
milk and water gives the most satisfactory results. The 
milk should be scalded to prevent the bacteria from acting 


upon the lactose-, or milk sugar, changing it to lactic acid. 
The temperature of the liquid should be between 75 and 90 
degrees F. 

There are three nonessential ingredients, sugar, salt 
and fat. They add flavor. Sugar serves as a ready food 
for the yeast plant, which lives upon the starch in the flour, 
first changing it to sugar. Fat improves the crumb. 

Yeast Bread One-Loaf Basis 

Recipe Directions: Scald the milk. 

Y* c mil k Add the cold water. Put yeast 

l /2 c water J f 

3 c flour or more to soak in two tablespoon! uls 01 

% c dry yeast lukewarm water an hour or two 

2 t sugar before making the sponge. Keep 

1 * fat the yeast in a warm place. Dur- 

ing the cold weather if flour is cold, warm it before using. 
Warm the bowl with warm water if eathenware is used. 
Pour milk and water into the bowl, add sugar, salt, fat 
and enough flour to make a smooth batter. Add yeast, 
mix thoroughly. Add more flour, enough to make two 
cupfuls. Beat the sponge to enclose air and make smooth 
by distributing the gluten evenly. Cover and wrap the 
bowl in a cloth to prevent its getting chilled. Early the 
next morning, add more flour and knead it on the moulding 
board until it does not stick to the hands or the board when 
no flour is used. Clean the bowl out carefully by rubbing 
it with a little flour. Sprinkle a very small amount of flour 
into the bowl, place in it the dough and' sprinkle it very spar- 
ingly with flour. Cover and keep warm while it rises to 
twice its original size. Knead again to distribute the gas 
evenly. Form into loaves. Place in a greased bread tin. 
Brush the top with butter; cover lightly with a towel while 
the loaf rises. 



If a wood or coal range is used, a fire must be started 
one half hour or more before the oven is wanted, in order 
to heat it. Test the heat of the oven with a piece of white 
paper. If the paper is a golden brown at the end of five 
minutes the oven is ready. The temperature should be 
highest during the first ten to fifteen minutes. The loaf 
will rise some and become slightly specked with brown, 
whereupon it will cease rising. The heat of the oven can 
be decreased gradually from now until the loaf is baked. 

Figure 54. Diagram of stove, showing course of draft and heat when oven dam- 
per is open and when shut 1, ashpan; 2, fire-box; 3, oven; 4, stovepipe. 

The time required to bake a single loaf is from fifty to sixty 
minutes. When baked and removed from the oven, the top 
crust can be brushed with milk or butter, which both softens 
and flavors it. Cool the bread, placing it out of a draft but 
so that the air can circulate around it. Have a bread box, 
preferably a tin box or can or an earthen crock, washed, 
scalded and aired, in which to store the bread when it is 
thoroughly cooled. The crust will be softened after being 
in a covered box for a few hours. Bread should not be 
wrapped in cloth. The bread box should be scalded and 
aired before fresh bread is put into it. 


Griddle Cakes with Sour Milk and Soda 

R< 3/ P c flour Directions: Mix and sift the 

% c of sour milk dry ingredients. Add to the 

1 T butter or m jj k and me i t ed butter or butter- 
M c rich buttermilk . . 

14 t salt milk in the mixing bowl. Mix 

^ * soda and beat well. Bake on a smok- 

ing hot griddle. Grease slightly for the first baking only, 
unless the cakes should burn; then scrape and grease. When 
the upper side is full of holes, and the cake shows signs of 
being baked more than half way through, turn and bake 
on the other side. Be sure that the cakes are well baked. 
If the milk is not thick, use more flour, about one and one 
half tablespoonfuls. Serve as soon as baked. 

Muffins with Eggs 

Recipe Directions: Mix and sift dry 

1^ c flour ingredients, add milk, beaten 

2 T baking powder 

\/ 2 1 salt egg yolk and melted butter, beat- 

1 1 sugar m g eacn we u m before adding 
1 cmilk ^ ... . 

l egg the next. Fold in the beaten 

1 T melted butter egg wn ite. Bake in a hot oven 

from twenty-five to thirty minutes. The heat can be de- 
creased during the last half of the time. 

Baking Powder Biscuit 

Recipe Directions: Take out a round- 

4 t baking powder m S tablespoonf ul of flour and 

t salt put with the baking powder. 

Cut the butter into the flour with 

two knives, held in one hand 

with the forefinger between the blades just below the handles; 
or rub the butter into the flour with a fork, by pressing down 


with the fork, so that the flour and fat pass up between 
the tines. When thoroughly mixed, add flour with baking 
powder. Mix well and add the milk, gradually, to the dry 
flour. Handle as little as possible. Place on floured mould- 
ing board. Use a case knife for handling dough. Roll 
to one inch and cut with a biscuit cutter, first dipped in flour. 
Place half an inch apart on a greased tin. Bake in a hot 
oven twenty to twenty-five minutes. 

For meat pie crust, roll biscuit dough one inch thick and 
bake on a greased tin. There is no danger of its being doughy 

on the side. 

Steamed Dumplings 

When the ingredients for making baking powder bis- 
cuits are mixed, take the dough by spoonfuls, roll in flour and 
place all on a hot plate in a steamer. Steam for half an 
hour, then test with a pointed knife. Serve hot with stews. 
If covered with a cloth and kept in a warm place, dumplings 
can be kept hot for a reasonable length of time without 



There are two classes of cakes butter cakes and egg 
cakes, or those without butter. For butter cakes, cream the 
butter, add the sugar and cream until the sugar is dissolved. 
Add the beaten yolks to creamed butter and sugar, add flour 
and milk, alternately, until all of both is used. A little flour 
is added to the baking powder. Mix well and add to the 
mixture. Add the flavoring. Fold in the beaten whites. 
Bake on well greased tins in a hot oven until done. When 
baked, the cake will recede from the sides of the tin. It is 
well to try the cake in the center with a toothpick to see if 
the cake sticks. It is baked if the toothpick comes out clean. 
The yolk and white of one egg may be added at a time to the 
creamed mixture and beaten until light. Then proceed with 


the remainder as directed. Bake cakes that are made with- 
out butter with moderate heat. These cakes shrink, if 
baked in a hot oven or too long. 

Rich Butter Cake 

Re 3 ci P e ~ gar Directions: Put together as 

\Y 2 T butter directed for butter cake. Bake 

i/t biking powder in a muffin P an ' S am Unt is 

YZ egg enough for two cups, if they are 

2 or 3 drops flavoring rWr 
Y 2 c 2 T flour 

Cheap Butter Cake 

gSEJgE,. Directions: Mix ingredients 

Y 2 c milk as directed for butter cake. 

lX g c flour Bake in a greased loaf tin. 

3 t baking powder This recipe makes one layer. 
J4 t flavoring 

Angel Food Cake 

Recipe Directions: Mix and sift 

1 c egg white % sugar and flour seven or eight 

1 t creTrn of tartar times Beat e gg s slightly, add 

I c flour cream of tartar and continue 

I 1 almond extract or vanilla beat j ng; uging ft wire ^^ mta 

the egg whites do not slip from the dish, when it is inverted. 
Add flavoring. Carefully fold beaten egg white and sugar 
and flour mixture together. Bake in a tubed tin, which 
has not been greased. Bake in a- slow oven for sixty 
minutes, or until the cake does not stick to a toothpick. 
When baking, keep cake covered during first half of the time. 

Sponge Cake 

Sponge cake is another kind of egg cake. The egg yolk 
is beaten until lemon colored. Add the sugar gradually; 
then the liquid and flavoring, and the flour. The beaten 
egg whites are folded in. 



Plain Drop Cookies 

Re i C x pc Tx* Directions: Cream the but- 
Y c butter 

^ c sugar ter and sugar. Add the egg and 

2 T milk beat> Add milk . Mix baking 

1 Ggg 

1 t baking powder powder with a tablespoonf ul of 

1 c plus 1 T flour fl our< Add the remainder of the 

flour gradually to the mixture. Beat well. Add baking 
powder, and mix thoroughly. Drop by the teaspoonful 
about two inches apart on a greased tin. Bake in a hot 


Recipe Directions: Cream the but- 

\Y c sugar 

3 eggs ter and sugar. Add the beaten 

1 c butter yolks, milk and the dry ingredi- 

3*c flour ents. Flour the chopped rais- 

3 t baking powder j ns and nuts and a( Jd them to the 

Yi c English walnuts . .... 

1 c raisins mixture. As each ingredient or 

1 t cinnamon mixture of two or more is added, 

YA t cloves . , . . . ^ . . . M . 

y% t allspice mi x thoroughly. Fold in the 

beaten whites. Drop with a 

teaspoon an inch apart on the greased tin. Bake fifteen 
minutes in a hot oven. This amount makes four dozen. 


Pie Crust 

Recipe Directions: Mix ingredients 

Y c fat as directed for biscuit. Roll out 

water ne ei 6 hth inch thick ' To fit 

j| t salt the crust to the tin, lift it with 

H t baking powder the roUing p[ ^ and pkce it QVer 

the tin. Fit the crust to it. For a double-crust pie, such 
as apple or mince, trim the crust even with edge of tin, 


fill, dampen the edge and lift the upper crust in place, after 
cutting a few air-holes in it. Press the edges together with a 
fork, after trimming the edge as on the first. Bake pie crust 
in an oven that will brown a piece of white paper in three 
minutes. When the crust does not stick to the tin, it is baked. 
While it is necessary to start baking the pie in a hot oven on 
account of the shortening, it is necessary to decrease the 
heat so that the filling may cook and the crust not be over- 
done. When a single crust pie is being made, bake the crust 
first, after having built up the edge by turning the crust under 
about three fourths of an inch, and pressing the edges to make 
it stand up. Thicker pies can be made, if the edge is of uni- 
form height. 

Banana Pie 

To make a banana pie, first bake a single crust. Fill with 
sliced and sugared bananas. Cover with whipped cream. 

Prune Pie 

Stew enough prunes to fill the crust. Pit the prunes and 
fill the crust with them. Cover with whipped cream. 


Salads are very important. By means of such dishes, 
vegetables, fruits, left overs of meats and fish, etc., that 
otherwise might be wasted, can be utilized. Lettuce and 
cabbage dressed with vinegar, salt and pepper, or vinegar 
and sugar, are simple salads. So, also, are boiled beets 
dressed with vinegar. Most of the green vegetables, and 
some fruits, are good dressed with oil and vinegar. A simple 
cooked egg dressing, mixed with an equal amount of whipped 
cream and seasoned to suit the flavor of the mixture it is to 
dress, can be used. Mustard is not required with a cabbage 
salad, as the cabbage contains mustard. Nor should sugar 
be used for a potato salad. Care should be taken not to 
make a salad mussy in appearance by stirring it. 


Cooked Egg Dressing 

Directions: Heat the vine- 

C 2 eggTor & ar - Beat the eggs and pour the 

4 egg yolks boiling vinegar slowly into the 

2*t butter ^ beaten egg. Return to the 

fire and cook slowly while stir- 
ring constantly, or cook in a double boiler. Add butter 
when cooked. For meat and vegetable salads, season with 
mustard, salt and pepper. For fruit salads, season with 
sugar, salt and pepper. 


Recipe Directions: Good coffee can 

1 c wate? ^e ma de by starting it with cold 

water or with boiling water. If 

starting it with cold water, place the coffeepot where it 
will heat and when the coffee comes to a boil remove it to 
a cooler place where it will keep hot. Serve in five minutes. 
If the liquid coffee is grayish in color, it indicates that 
the water should be boiled before adding the coffee. The 
iron in hard water discolors coffee. If the water is boiling, 
place the coffeepot where it will keep hot for five minutes 
but not boil. It is as well if coffee does not boil. Be sure 
to serve it hot. Half an egg white to six tablespoonfuls of 
coffee will keep the coffee clear when making it with cold 
water. As the water heats, the egg white coagulates and 
entangles the coffee grounds. Use only a clean, aired and 
scalded coffeepot. Do not allow the coffee to remain long 
with the grounds, as they will spoil it. 

c 6 water Directions: Heat the water 

V* c milk and mix the cocoa and sugar. 

1 t cocoa ... ... . . 

\Y 2 t sugar Add some boiling water, making 


a smooth paste. Pour this into the boiling water. Let it 
simmer for five minutes. When ready to serve, scald the 
milk and add it to the hot cocoa mixture. Milk is more 
easily digested if not boiled. 

Recipe Directions: Heat the teapot 

1 c Sling water with hot water - Put tea and 

boiling water into the teapot and 

allow the tea to steep not more than five minutes, where it 
will keep hot but not boil. Serve hot. Use while fresh. 


Recipe Directions: Dissolve the 

jZSfl (medium) sugar in a little hot water. Chill. 
y c to K c sugar Cut the lemons and orange in 

3 c water, ice-cold halveg gqueeze the j uice from 

them. Mix juice, syrup and ice-cold water. Place a thin 
slice of lemon in each glass, and serve at once. 


Soda and an Acid. Prepare a vinegar solution, two tea- 
spoonfuls in half a glass of water. Half fill two test tubes 
with the solution. Drop about a sixteenth of a teaspoonf ul 
of soda into each tube. Stir it. Watch the bubbles rise. 
With what are they filled? Heat one tube. Watch for 
any change that may occur. What conclusion do you come 
to as to speed when making quick breads, cakes, etc.? 
Effect of the heat of the oven? 

Baking Powder and Water. Try a similar experiment, 
using one quarter of a teaspoonf ul of baking powder in the 
water. Are the results similar? What is your conclusion as 
to the effect of moisture on baking powder? Heat? 

Qualities of Gluten. Make a stiff dough, using one 
quarter of a cupful of water and flour. Does kneading it 


change its appearance? What has occurred? Place the 
dough in cheesecloth or a wire strainer. Wash with run- 
ning water. What color is the water? What colors the 
water? When thoroughly washed, is the mixture as white? 
What is left? Take it up in your hands and pull it. Does 
it have elasticity? How does this quality help to make 
light bread? 


Books: Domestic Science: Principles and Application, Bailey; 
Boston Cooking-School Cook Book, Farmer; Household Science, Shep- 
perd; How We Are Fed, Chamberlain; People's Health, Coleman; First 
Lessons in Food and Diet, Richards; Human Physiology, Ritchie; 
Foods and Their Uses, Carpenter; How the World is Fed, Carpenter. 

Farmers' Bulletins, Department of Argiculture, Washington, D. C.: 
Meats, Composition and Cooking, No. 34; Facts About Milk, No. 42; 
Care of Milk on the Farm, No. 63; Milk as Food, No. 74; Bread and 
Bread Making, No. 112; Beans, Peas and Other Legumes, No. 121; 
Eggs and Their Uses as Food, No. 128; Principles of Nutrition, No. 142; 
Cereal Breakfast Foods, No. 249; Preparation of Vegetables for the 
Table, No. 256; Use of Fruit as Foods, No. 293. 

Minnesota Farmers' Library: Dressing and Curing Meat, No. 11; 
Domestic Science in Rural Schools and Supplement, No. 19; Marketing 
Eggs from the Farm, No, 30; Farm Vegetable Garden, No. 17. 


So many ridiculous questions have been asked and 
statements made regarding the hot lunches served in schools 
that it is well to ask, What is the "hot lunch idea"? In 
the first place, it is not serving lunches between meals during 
the forenoon and afternoon sessions of school, as some have 
imagined. Neither is it giving a course in domestic science. 
The hot lunch idea is a simple question of practical hygiene. 
Farmers are careful of their feed for cows, and many farmers 
have heaters to warm the water for their cows to drink in 
cold weather, moved by no other consideration than finan- 
cial profit. They know that the cows produce more butter 
fat under these conditions. Even heaters for cooking the hog 
feed in winter are employed as a matter of business economy. 
And yet some of these same thrifty farmers will let their 
children walk two or three miles through snow and cold to 
school, eat a frozen lunch at noon, unless by good fortune 
it has thawed out, and trudge home again at night in time 
to do the chores before supper. 

The primary purpose of serving something hot at noon 
to those who carry lunches is, then, simply one of efficiency. 
Like the food for the cattle and hogs, the hot lunch has 
been found profitable, profitable from the standpoint of 
educational efficiency as well as physical betterment. The 
boy or girl who eats only a cold lunch day after day is not 
physically or mentally capable of doing the work that may 
be expected of them. 

Other advantages of the hot lunch plan are that the 
older students have an opportunity to do some practical 
plain cooking occasionally, without interfering with their 

7 97 



school work. The assuming of responsibility for preparing 
the hot dish to be served, the practice of serving and of 
table etiquette, and the study of food principles, are all 
valuable training. It should not be thought for a moment 
that the whole meal is prepared at school. The children 
bring their lunches from home. One hot dish is prepared 
for all the students each day during the cold weather. 
Even if this were nothing but a hot drink of milk or cocoa, 
it would be well worth while, but it is entirely unnecessary 
to limit the dishes that can be served to a few of which the 
children will soon tire. The kinds of prepared food which 
one can carry in a lunch basket are limited. The hot dish 
gives a variety and increases the nutritive value of the lunch. 
The equipment for serving hot lunches need not be 
extensive. A cupboard with doors, made by the .older boys 
of the school, provides a place for dishes, cooking utensils 
and supplies. The one shown in the picture is similar 
to several others that were made out of dry goods boxes. 

Figure 55. Equipment for the hot lunch. Photograph taken in a rural school. 
Note the improvised cupboard made out of a dry goods box and covered 
yrith curtain. 


Shelves were put in and curtains hung over the front. Doors 
would be more sanitary than curtains, however. Each 
child is asked to bring a cup, saucer, fork and spoon. These 
utensils remain during the hot lunch season, from November 
to April. It is also desirable, but not necessary,- that each 
child bring two napkins one to be used as a tablecloth 
on the desk. Paper napkins may be purchased out of a 
general fund, if desirable. Linen ones should be washed 
as often as necessary or exchanged for clean ones at home. 
Coffee cans or fruit jars can be obtained in which to keep 
the staple supplies, as flour, sugar, salt, oatmeal, cornmeal, 
rice, etc. 

The question of supplies is often raised. How are the 
materials used by the students obtained? Sometimes a levy 
of ten cents each is made for the purchase of groceries. We 
have found a more satisfactory way in which the students 
bring practically all the supplies from home. This is not 
difficult, as they can furnish large or small quantities a 
quart of milk or one cupful, one potato or half a dozen. If 
a soup or some dish requiring milk is made, it is well to let 
one family furnish all that is needed for that day. It will 
not bring anything more until its turn comes again. This 
matter can easily be regulated by the teacher, and a record 
kept. If baked potatoes were the dish to be served, each 
child could select from home a potato and bring it to school 
the da/ it is to be used. A few cents each will provide the 
general supplies referred to above, or even they may be 
brought from the homes. There will be no difficulty in 
getting all the supplies, if the teacher is tactful and has 
the co-operation of the mothers. There may be home con- 
ditions in the community where it would be wise to have 
the children from some homes bring only vegetables. Other 
families could furnish the milk, butter, eggs, meal, etc. Plans 


should be made and the dish selected two or three days before 
it is to be served. As far as possible let the students make 
the selections. Two or three can be suggested by the teacher 
and one chosen. Change enough should be made to vary 
the nutrients from day to day. 

Housekeepers, or monitors, should be selected from 
the older boys and girls to serve for one week. Two are 
enough at once. In case the school is large, one or two more 
may be selected to help serve and to wash the dishes. These 
students are responsible, but the teacher should assist and 
encourage them. The necessary preparations are made in 
the morning^ before school and at recess. One of the house- 
keepers can quietly get up and start the stove at whatever 
time the dish needs to be put on to have it ready by noon. 
The rest of the students will soon pay no more attention to 
this than to any other schoolroom activity to which they are 
accustomed. Little, if any, time needs to be taken to watch 
the heating or cooking process. 

As soon as dismissed, the pupils should take their seats 
for lunch. The monitors should then pass the napkins, the 
spoons or forks, and the dinner pails from home. The hot 
dish made in school is then served to each, and eaten with the 
lunch from the pails. The teacher should always sit and 
eat with the pupils. Encourage pleasant conversation. 
Sometimes she- could have them discuss what they have for 
lunch and its uses. Nutrition, balanced diets, sanitation, 
good health, games for the playground, are suggestive topics 
for conversation. Table manners such as are found in the 
best homes should prevail. At least twenty minutes should 
be used in eating the noon lunch, and, if persons leave before 
that time, they should ask to be excused, as at any other 
table. Lunch plans for the next day are made. The lessons 


to be learned from these sources are well worth the little 
extra work required to conduct the hot lunches. 

Dishwashing follows the lunch, and is done by the house- 
keepers, changing each week. The water should be heated 
for this while the lunch is being eaten. The monitors re- 
move the dishes, but each student is responsible for the 
crumbs near his desk. The dishes are washed, rinsed, wiped 
and put in their proper places in the cupboard. See that 
the mixing dishes are kept very clean. As soon as students 
get used to the routine of preparing, serving and dishwashing, 
very little time will be consumed in these tasks. The boys 
should take their turns as well as the girls. The experience 
will be valuable to them also. 

The equipment here given is regarded as suitable and 
sufficient. It costs less than ten dollars and will last for 
years. The equipment may be used for farmers' club meet- 
ings, institutes, and other social gatherings at the school. 
Any live school can raise enough money to purchase the 
outfit if it is not furnished by the district. 


1 double burner blue flame kero- cover to fit. 

sene stove, 
single burner oven, 
twelve-quart dish pan. 
draining pan. 
set of six muffin tins, 
three-pint mixing bowl. 

wooden mixing spoon. 


tablespoon (metal). 

teaspoon (metal). 

kitchen knife. 


small bowl. 1 Dover egg beater. 

cup (St. Dennis). 1 strainer. 

dinner plate. 1 paring knife. 

2 pie tins (1 large, 1 small). 1 case knife. 

2 asbestos mats. 1 graduated measuring cup. 

1 eight-quart granite kettle. 1 eight-inch omelet pan or skillet. 


Use level measures for both dry and liquid materials. 
If you wish to measure a spoonful of flour, dip a spoon into 


the flour and level off with the back of a case knife. Starting 
at the handle, push the surplus off as the knife moves toward 
the end of the spoon. Fill a cup or large measure by lifting 
the material into it with a spoon or dish, then level off with a 
case knife. Filling a measure by dipping it into the dry 
material causes the material to pack. Always look up the 
table of measures when using a recipe from a new book. 
Abbreviations, measures and weights that will be used in 
carrying out the hot lunch idea are here given. 


t = teaspoonf ul ; T = tablespoonf ul ; c = cupful ; pt . = pint ; 
qt. =quart; Ib. =pound. 


4 teaspoonf uls make 1 tablespoonf ul; 16 tablespoonf uls makes 1 
cupful; 12 tablespoonf uls of dry materials, as rice and rolled oats, 
make 1 cupful; 2 cupfuls make one pint; 2 pints make 1 quart; 4 quarts 
make 1 gallon. 

Thin Sauce Medium Sauce 

1 T of fat 2 T of fat 

1 T of flour 2 T of flour 

1 c of milk (usually) 1 c of milk or other liquid 

Y t of salt y t of salt 

A dash of white pepper A dash of white pepper 

Methods of Making Sauces or Thickening Liquids 

1. Use this method when all ingredients are cold and 
time must be considered. Place the flour and fat in a pan 
over the fire. Stir with a wooden spoon as the butter 
melts, and do not allow it to burn. A wooden spoon is acid- 
proof, noiseless and does not become hot. When frothy, 
add the liquid. Stir constantly and rapidly while the sauce 
cooks. It is cooked when it does not taste of raw flour. 

2. Use this method when liquid to be thickened is 
warm. Mix the flour and fat in a cup or bowl. With the 


knife place the mixture of flour and fat on the end of wooden 
spoon and stir it into the liquid. It is cooked when it does 
not taste of raw flour. Season. 

3. Use this method when a small amount of fat is used. 
To the flour add enough of the cold liquid to make a smooth 
batter. Pour the batter into the boiling liquid. It is 
cooked when is does not taste of raw flour. Add fat and 

Sauces and cream soups must be smooth and not lumpy. 
Should either show signs of lumping, remove from the fire 
immediately and beat the mixture with the Dover beater 
until smooth. Return to the fire, stirring constantly and 
cook until done. The thin sauce is suitable for creamed 
potatoes, macaroni, toast and rice. The medium sauce is 
used with vegetables less starchy than potatoes, and with 
fish. A cupful of sauce is needed for a pint of diced vege- 
tables when preparing a creamed dish. The medium sauce 
is also used in making creamed soups. An equal amount 
of the liquid in which the vegetable is cooked is added 
to the sauce. In some cases the vegetables are pressed 
through a sieve and added. Sauces can be kept warm, if 
covered tight and placed in a pan of hot water. 


Fifty dishes that have been prepared and served in rural 
schools are given. Select from them. 

Note: The time for each recipe is an estimate of the time required to cook it 
with reasonably good heat, not to prepare it. Salt is added as directed in cooking 
cereals and vegetables when boiling either. Sauces are seasoned except when 
otherwise directed, as in creamed chipped beef. If recipes requiring a long time are 
chosen, there should be some place to heat them on the regular stove to save oil. 
A homemade fireless cooker should be used if possible as it will save both time 
and fuel. Where an oil stove only can be used, do not select the recipes that re- 
quire more than a short time. 

Carbohydrates and protein are discussed as fully as space 
will permit in Chapter IV. This discussion should be con- 


suited frequently for the preparation of vegetables, cereals 
and other foods used in the laboratory work in preparing 
hot lunch dishes. 


1 Baked Potatoes. Time: V/ hours. 

Recipe Directions: Wash and put 

P0tat potatoes to bake on grate in hot 
oven an hour and fifteen minutes 
before time to serve. Turn potatoes occasionally while 
baking. They are baked, if they feel soft when pressed 
between the hands. If not ready to serve at once, burst or 
prick with fork the skin of each potato, so that the steam may 
escape. Otherwise the potatoes become soggy. Place in 
a clean towel to keep warm. 

2 Mashed Potatoes. Time: 46 minutes 

Recipe Directions: Prepare and cook 

m c e h J o U t m miik edP tat0eS ^ directed for vegetables. Cut 
2 T butter in halves only. Potatoes usually 

M t white pepper cook in thirty minutes. When 

tender, drain well, cover with 

several thicknesses of cloth and let stand for a minute or 
two to allow some of the steam to escape. In the mean- 
time put the milk on to heat. Mash smooth with a wooden 
potato masher. Add butter, salt, and pepper and enough 
of the hot milk to make light. Beat until white. This 
amount will serve eight to ten pupils. 

3 Creamed Potatoes. Time: 45 minutes. 

Recipe Directions: Make a thin sauce 

m potatoes of milk, fat, and flour and add a 

1 T fat pint of boiled diced potatoes. See 

1 V t salt sauces and cooking vegetables. 

Pepper Enough to serve four pupils, 


4 Scalloped Potatoes. Time: \y hours. 

Recipe Directions: Wash, pare and 

t c d mifk P 1 cut P^atoes in one eighth inch 

1 T salt slices into a buttered baking dish. 

2 T flour 61 * O n eac h l aver f potatoes sprinkle 
Pepper to taste flour, salt, and pepper, and dot 

with bits of butter. Continue until all are used. Pour 
hot milk over the potatoes, but not enough to cover the top 
layers. Place in a hot oven and bake, covered for the first 
half hour, but uncover to allow to brown. Bake for another 
half hour or until tender when tried. Add more milk, if 
the potatoes appear dry. Serve hot. This amount will 
serve six pupils. 

5 Mashed Turnips. Time: 2 hours. 

Recipe Directions: Prepare and cook 

lfc e ho U t m milk ed tUmiP the turnip as for the other vege- 

1 T butter tables. Mash. Add milk, butter 

Sdttotarff and eer - This amount 

serve five or six pupils. 

6 Buttered Beets. Time: 3 to 4 hours. 

Recipe Directions: Wash and put 

IVo c diced beets , i -^i i T-\ 

IT butter beets to cook with skins. Do 

H c salt not cut the roots of beets, be- 

Dfpepper cause in the process of cooking 

they bleed too much and spoil the color and flavor. Boil 
from two to four hours. It is wise to wash the beets, and 
put the required amount of water in kettle the day before. 
Whoever tends the fire can put the kettle on, so that the 
beets can be put on about eight o'clock. Keep them boil- 
ing continually. When tender, drain and cover with cold 
water for a minute or two. Drain again. Remove skins. 
Dice, add butter, salt and pepper. Two medium sized 


beets diced amount to about one and one hajf cupfuls. 
This amount is enough to serve three pupils. 

7 Baked Hubbard Squash. Time: 1^ hours. 

Recipe Directions : Wash and dry. 

One piece of squash about /-, , . i i , , i 

4^ inches by 2^ inches Cut the sc l uash mto halves > re ~ 

for each person move the seeds and stringy por- 

tion, cut into pieces and place in hot oven either in a pan or 
on grate of oven. If the oven does not bake evenly, change 
pieces around. After an hour sprinkle with salt, and bake 
another half hour. Serve hot with butter, salt -and pepper. 

8 Stewed Tomatoes. Time: 15 minutes. 

Recipe Directions: Heat tomato, add 

l^c tcTsf^bread or butter, salt, pepper and bread or 

1 c soda crackers crackers. Break slices of stale 

% i salt Gr bread or crackers into half-inch 

Pepper to taste pieces. Serve hot. This amount 

will serve ten to twelve pupils. 

9 Scalloped Corn. Time: 35 minutes. 

Recipe Directions : To the seasoned 

i Tmediumwhite sauce medium white sauce add corn, 

\ l /2 T sugar sugar and salt. Butter the bak- 

3 T butter m S dish. Cover the bottom 

M c bread crumbs with a layer of corn and sauce. 

Cover this wkh a layer of buttered bread crumbs. Use stale 

bread crumbs. Place butter and crumbs in pan on stove, 

and stir until butter is melted. Continue until all is used. 

Have crumbs over the top. Bake in a medium oven for 

twenty-five minutes. This amount will serve eight pupils. 

10 Creamed Garbage. Time: 1 hour. 

Recipe Directions: Prepare cabbage 

and cook in J ust enou S h Water to 

cover. Toward the last allow 
the water to boil down to about one half a cupful. Pour 


cabbage and liquid into sauce. Add more seasoning, if re- 
quired. This amount will serve six to eight pupils. 

11 Creamed Cabbage with Cheese. Time: 1 hour. 
Recipe Directions: Prepare and cook 

IfmSm^auce the cabbage as in Number 10. 

K to l /2 c grated cheese Make sauce and to it add the 
grated cheese. Use stale cheese, as it is more easily grated. 
This amount will serve six to eight pupils. 

12 Creamed Carrots. Time: 30 minutes. 
Recipe Directions: Prepare carrots as 

ducted for vegetables. Cook for 

% i sugar thirty minutes in just enough 

boiling water to cover. Allow the water to boil down 
toward the last. Turn carrots and the liquid they are 
cooked in into the white sauce. Add sugar. Serve. This 
amount will serve five pupils. 

13 Creamed Peas. Time: 30 minutes. 

Recipe Directions : At least an hour 

1 pi. meTium^auce before usin S the P eas P en and 

H t salt empty the can at once. While 

making the sauce according to 
directions for sauces, allow the 

peas to heat. Add the salt, sugar and pepper to peas. 

Pour the peas into white sauce. Mix and serve hot. This 

amount will serve eight pupils. 

14 Creamed Corn. Time: 20 minutes. 

Recipe Directions : Make a thin white 

1 pt. SslcT s auce by first method as directed 

1 1 sugar in sauces. Open a can of corn 

and empty it an hour before 

time to use. To do so will improve the flavor. Heat the 
corn, if necessary, and add a little water to keep from burn- 


ing. Pour the corn into sauce, add sugar, and salt, and 

pepper to taste. This amount will serve eight or nine pupils. 

15 Baked Beans. Time: 10 to 12 hours 

Recipe Directions : Pick over beans, 

1 pt. beans .- , , . , , 
3 sa it if necessary, and soak over night 

M t soda in two or three times as much 

2 sUcef^t pork water. In the morning put to 
1 1 molasses (scant) cook in cold water to cover, add- 
ing two teaspoonf uls of salt and the soda. Let boil ten min- 
utes, drain, rinse with cold water and drain again. Cut 
pork, about one quarter of a pound, into half-inch cubes. 
Put part of pork in the bottom of the jar and the balance 
nearer the top after most of the beans are in the jar, add 
sugar, molasses and salt, unless pork is very salty. Cover 
with boilirig water. Bake in a slow oven the balance of the 
day, and from early next morning continue baking them until 
noon. A regular bean pot or crock with a plate to cover it 
is used. Cook covered and the last half hour, uncover to 
brown. Beans should cook slowly from ten to twelve 
hours. If all the water is absorbed before they are cooked, 
add boiling water, but not enough to cover. This amount 
will serve eight to ten pupils. 


16 Rice Gruel. Time: V/% hours. 
Recipe Directions: When washed, 

\Y 2 cToiling water cook the rice as directed for ce- 

1 c of milk reals. After the first ten minutes, 

cook covered in improvised 

double boiler for one and one half hours. About fifteen 
or twenty minutes before the time to serve add the milk, 
and cover. Leave pan or kettle containing gruel in pan of 
boiling water. Add salt and serve hot. This amount 
will serve one and one half pupils. 


17 Boiled Rice with Butter. Time: 2 to 3 hours. 

Recipe Directions : Clean, wash, and 

1 T salt drop rice into boiling salted 

4 c water water. Cook for two or three 

hours as directed for cereals. If steam escapes, more boiling 

water must be added, if rice tasted raw when cooked dry. 

Serve with butter, salt and pepper. This amount will 

serve eight pupils. 

18 Boiled Rice. Time: 2 to 3 hours. 

Recipe Directions : Cook as directed 

1 ^i in Number 17. Heat the milk 

1 T salt a little or just keep it in the room 

*c boiling water so that it will not be cold. Keep 

it covered to protect it from dust. Serve rice hot with 

milk and sugar. This amount will serve eight to ten pupils. 

19 Steamed Rice with Raisins, Milk and Sugar. Time: 2 to 3 hours. 

Recipe Directions: Cook the rice for 

3 c bailing water ten minutes, using three cupfuls 

1 qt. milk of salted water, then add sugar 

1 T sugar anc ^ one cu pf u l f m ilk an< ^ co k 

Yi c raisins for two or three hours as directed 

for cereals. Serve with milk and sugar. This amount will 
serve nine or ten pupils. 

20 Macaroni with Tomato Sauce. Time: 2 hours. 
Recipe Directions: Cook macaroni 

as in Number 21. With strained 

1 T flour tomato, flour and butter make a 

y t salt Gr sauce and season it as directed 

A dash of pepper for sauces. Pour the macaroni 

into sauce, heat for a minute or two so that macaroni will be 

hot. Serve. This amount will serve seven or eight pupils. 


21 Creamed Macaroni with Cheese. Time: 2 hours. 

Recipe Directions : Break the maca- 

% pkg. macaroni . , j , -, f , 

1 c milk rom m ^ one anc * one half inch 

1 T butter lengths. Cook same as rice, in 

V t salt^ ^ wo an d one nanC quarts of boiling 

A dash of white pepper water to which two and one half 

tablespoonfuls of salt have been 

added. Cook for two hours. Drain well, and cover with 
cold water and drain again. Make white sauce with the 
flour, fat and milk. Season, add grated cheese and maca- 
roni. Cover and place in pan of hot water to keep hot. 
This amount is enough for seven or eight pupils. 

22 Cornmeal Mush. Time: 3 hours. 

Recipe Directions : Pour boiling 

water into kettle - Put salt into 

1 c cold water or it. Make the cornmeal and cold 

1 c cornmeal water or the cornmeal and milk 

1 1 salt into a smooth batter. Stir while 

pouring this into the boiling salted water. Continue cooking 

it for two or three hours as directed for cereals. Serve with 

milk and sugar. This amount will serve ten or twelve 


23 Oatmeal Mush. Time: 6 to 10 hours. 

Recipe Directions : Cook as directed 

1 c rolled oats m cooking cereals. Start cook- 

3 c boiling water ing at noon of the preceding day. 

iy 2 T salt Cook during afternoon. Set ves- 

sel where it will keep warm over night and continue cook- 
ing the -following forenoon. Serve with milk and sugar. 
This amount will serve six to eight pupils. 


24 Rolled Oats with Dates or Bananas. Time: 4 to 7 hours. 
Recipe Directions : Cook rolled oats 

^Numbe^f at8 aS ln as d i r e c t e d in- Number 23. 
% c pitted dates or Shortly before serving add the 

3 bananas dateg wWch are begt cut ^ 

fourths. Serve with milk and 

sugar. If bananas are used, peel, slice into a dish and 
sprinkle with sugar to prevent discoloration. Cover dish 
until ready to serve. To each service of rolled oats add two 
tablespoonfuls of bananas. 

25 Barley Soup. Time: 10 to 12 hours. 

Recipe Directions : Cook the barley 

bSnKJS; ten to twelve hours according to 

1 1 salt directions for cooking cereals. 

Add barley to reheated broth from Number 26 or other 

broth made for that purpose. This amount is enough for 

eight pupils. 

26 Beef Broth. Time: 4 to 5 hours. 

Recipe Directions : Make broth the 

tfeat andb ne day before serving. Bone con- 
2 1 salt tains nourishment and flavor 

3 P T 6P e P a diced onions, which improves the soup. A 

carrots, parsnips and shin or shank of beef (often spok- 

4 T U bacon E f S at en of as a SOU P bone ) containing 

equal amounts of lean meat and 

bone is best. Saw bone, and cut meat into small pieces. 
Put bone, meat and cold water into a kettle with a tight 
fitting cover. The water ought to cover the meat and the 
bone one inch deep. Add one half of the salt, the pepper- 
corns, and, if desired, one third that amount of whole all- 
spice. Heat contents of kettle slowly and simmer four 


or more hours. In some hot bacon fat in a spider cook the 
diced vegetables until brown. Put browned vegetables in 
soup kettle, also the small amount of water with which the 
spider is rinsed. Add remainder of salt. Simmer half an 
hour. The browned vegetables are used to add flavor and 
color to the broth. Pour broth through a strainer into large 
bowl or pan. Place bone, meat, and vegetables in other 
utensils. After rinsing kettle, pour broth into it. Cover 
kettle with cloth to keep dust out and let broth cool. There 
will be about three quarts of stock or broth. The next day 
remove fat from the top and reheat. Serve each pupil with 
one half or three fourths cupful of broth. Cover meat with a 
clean cloth to keep the dust out and keep in a cool place until 
it is used. 

27 Beef Broth with Rice. Time: 4 to 5 hours. 

Recipe Directions : Prepare soup 

jfViSt stock as directed in Number 26. 

1 c boiling water Cook rice for two or three hours 

in boiling salted water, as directed 

in cooking cereals. When cooked, drain well and add to 
soup stock. This amount will serve two pupils. 

28 Cream of Cabbage. Time: 1 hour. 

Recipe Directions : Remove the wilt- 

1 pt th cabbTge e ed or very green leaves from the 

cabbage. Cut into medium-sized 

pieces enough to fill a pint measure or a cup twice. Wash 
and put to cook as directed for vegetables. Cook uncovered 
for one hour. Add enough water to liquid in which the cab- 
bage is cooked to make one cupful and pour it into the 
white sauce. Serve hot. This amount serves four pupils. 


29 Pea Soup. Time: 10 to 12 hours. 

Recipe Directions : If necessary pick 

yea over ' Soak in one <l uart of water 

5 c water over night. In the morning 

2tsaTt place peas, soda, and one tea- 

spoonful of salt in kettle with 

enough cold water to cover. Boil for ten minutes, drain, 
rinse and drain again. Add pork cut in half -inch cubes, 
one teaspoonful of salt and five cupfuls of cold water, cover 
and allow to simmer all day and the next forenoon. If too 
strong, add more water about half an hour before lunch time. 
Season with salt and pepper to taste. This amount is enough 
to serve a dozen pupils. 

30 Cream of Celery. Time: 40 minutes. 

Recipe Directions: Cut into inch 

lj| c bomng r water P ieces the coarse P arts of celei T 

M t salt after it has been thoroughly 

cleaned. Put to cook in boiling 

salted water. Keep covered with water, and boil until 
tender, about thirty minutes. Press through a sieve, add 
enough boiling water to pulp, and of liquid to make one 
and one half cupfuls. Combine with sauce. Serve hot. 
This amount will serve five pupils. 

31 Vermicelli Soup. Time: 4 to 5 hours. 

Recipe Directions: Make required 

\il vrmLdlf k amount of meat stock, as directed 

M t salt in Number 26. Break vermicelli 

into inch lengths and cook for 

one and one half hours in salty water. Drain. Cover with 
cold water, drain again, and place in broth. Serve hot. 



32 Vegetable Soup. Time: 25 minutes. 

Recipe Directions: Use vegetables in 

Carrots equal amounts or lessen or omit 

Parsnips any not desired. Prepare and 

cook as directed for vegetables. 

Allow half a cupful of diced vegetables to a pupil. To soup 
stock left from Number 26, add from one third to one half 
as much vegetable stock, the liquid in which the vegetables 
are cooked. Serve hot. Three quarters of a cupful to a 

33 Cream of Peas. Time: 30 minutes. 

Recipe Directions: An hour before 

1 pt. canned peas 

lf$t salt they are wanted, open and empty 

3 c boiling water at once a can o f peas< Mash the 
3 c medium white sauce . ... 

Pepper to taste peas. Add the boiling water 

and salt. Make the white sauce according to directions in 
thickening sauces for soups. Combine mashed peas and 
sauce immediately before serving. This amount will serve 
ten to twelve pupils. 

34 Bean Soup. Time: 10 to 12 hours. 
See Pea Soup, Number 29. Use the same amounts and 
make in the same way. 

35 Cream of Tomato Soup. Time: 16 minutes. 
Recipe Directions: Thicken the milk 

y 2 c miik ned tomat with flour and butter and add 

2 t butter seasoning. Heat tomato and add 
\^ t fl ^ enough soda so that the milk does 
A dash of white pepper not curdle when small amounts 

of each are combined. When ready to serve pour heated 
tomato into the thickened milk. Stir while pouring. This 
amount will serve one pupil. 


36 Hot Milk and Bread. Time: 5 minutes. 
Recipe Directions : Heat the milk in 

Eac h W p^pa t0 brings a t P w e o rSO or double boiler or an improvised 

more slices of bread one, until a thin tissue forms 

over the top. Serve at once. Pupils break the bread into it. 

37 Cocoa. Time: 10 minutes. 
Recipe Directions: Heat the water 

njcoSoa* and mix the cocoa and su s ar - 

\YL i sugar Add some boiling water, making 

a smooth paste. Pour this into 

the boiling water. Let it simmer for five minutes. When 
ready to serve, scald the milk and add it to the hot cocoa 
mixture. Milk is more easily digested if not boiled. To 
preserve the color of the cocoa, acid-proof utensils must 
be used. This amount will serve one and one third pupils. 


38 Meat Loaf. Time: 25 minutes. 
Re ^ e ~i Directions: Use the meat 

O 1 Kq r)ppf 

2 slices salt pork or bacon from Number 26. Chop it and 

2 1a d r ge e or C 3 a u; gg s the salt pork or bacon, add the 

Y* t pepper crackers, crumbled fine, the salt 

and pepper, and mix well. Moisten with left-over soup stock 

or a little hot water and butter, and add well beaten eggs. 

Shape into a loaf in greased baking pan. Bake until the egg 

is cooked. This amount will serve fifteen to eighteen pupils. 

39 Beef Stew. Time: 3 to 4 hours. 

Recipe Directions: Start to stew 

2qts.wtir bS early in the morning. Proceed 

iy 2 t salt as for beef broth, brown part of 

5*t bacon fat meat before stewin g ^ and kee P 

y<z c each of diced onions, tightly covered. Brown all the 

pototo'es 13 ^ 11 ^ 8 ' tUrnipS ' vegetables, add them and cook 
6 peppercorns fifteen or twenty minutes more. 


Thicken with flour, using the third method of making sauces 
and thickening soups. 

40 Meat with Tomato Sauce. Time: 25 minutes. 
Recipe Directions: Make a sauce 

' with the t m ato flour and but- 

I c strained tomato 

I 1 butter ter, add seasoning and boiled 

M t g^ meat from Number 26, and cut 

spper to taste into small pieces. Cook until 

meat is heated, stirring occasionally to prevent from burning. 
This amount will serve six to eight pupils. 

41 Creamed Chipped Beef. Time: 15 minutes. 
Recipe Directions: Cut beef into 

small pieces, put it into a small 
dish that will stand being heated. 
Cover with cold water and heat slowly. When hot, the 
meat will have soaked up half of the water. Make 
sauce as directed for sauce, but omit the salt. Pour the 
meat and water in which it has soaked into the white sauce. 
Add salt, if required. This amount will serve ten pupils. 
If desired, serve creamed chipped beef with boiled rice as 
prepared in Number 17. 

42 Chop Suey. Time: 1*4 hours. 
Recipe Directions: Cook spaghetti 

1 pkg. spaghetti tne same as vermicelli in Number 

1 pt. strained tomato- 31 and put it into the smoking 

2 1 butter or bacon fat i . f , i i i > 

i^ t salt hot fat in spider and brown it. 

Y% t pepper . Add the tomato and seasoning. 

Boil for two or three minutes. 
Serve hot. This amount will serve eighteen or twenty pupils. 


43 Creamed Eggs. Time: 5 minutes. 

Recipe Directions: Each pupil should 

K^white sauce bring a hard-boiled egg. Prepare 


enough white sauce to serve all, allowing one fourth of a 
cupful for each pupil. 

44 Soft-Cooked Eggs. Time: 8 to 10 minutes. 
Recipe Directions : Place eggs in pan 

1 c^water * boiling water, allowing one 

cupful to an egg. Cover and let 

stand where there is but little heat for eight or ten minutes, 
depending on how soft they are desired. Remove and cover 
with cold water for a second. Serve at once. 
45 Scrambled Eggs. Time: 3 minutes. 
Recipe Directions: Break the re- 

I fhot milk or hot water <l uired number of e gg s into dish 

I 1 bacon fat or butter and beat until yolks and whites 

are well mixed. Stir while adding hot water or milk. Place 
one teaspoonf ul of bacon fat or butter in upper part of double 
boiler, the lower part being one third full of boiling water. 
When fat is hot, pour in egg mixture. As the egg cooks 
near the bottom and sides of pan, stir mixture. When cooked, 
the egg will be of a soft creamy texture. Allow one egg to 

a person. 

46 Egg Gruel. Time: 10 minutes. 

Recipe Directions : Beat the egg while 

1 c g milk milk i g heating. When steaming 

1-16 t salt hot, not boiling, pour slowly over 

beaten egg. Continue beating while pouring. Serve at 

once. This amount will serve two pupils. 

47 Steamed Soft Custard. Time: 20 to 30 minutes. 

Recipe Directions: Beat egg in a 

I c gg c aided milk bowl until the y lk and white 

I 1 sugar are thoroughly mixed, and add 

the sugar. Stir while adding the 

scalded milk. Pour mixture into a pail with tight fitting 
cover or upper part of a double boiler, and place it in a pan 


of boiling water. Keep water hot, but not boiling. Allow to 
cook until you have a smooth custard that will cut with a 
a knife and not stick to it. This amount will require cook- 
ing from twenty to thirty minutes. For a larger quantity a 
longer time would be necessary. This will serve two pupils 

48 Baked Custard. Time: 25. to 30 minutes. 
Recipe Directions : Combine the same 

} e g llk as in Number 47. Pour into the 

1 1 sugar teacups and place them in a pan 

of boiling water. Place pan in 

very slow oven. Bake thirty minutes or until the point of 
a paring knife will cut it and come out clean. This amount 
will serve two pupils. 


Various fruit dishes may easily be prepared. ' Apple 
sauce can be made quickly, each student contributing one 
or more apples. Dried fruits, such as apples, prunes, apri- 
cots, etc., will require only a small amount of time in prep- 
aration and are very palatable served hot with cold lunches. 

49 Baked Apples. Time: 1^ hours. 

Directions: Bake one apple for each pupil. Wash and 
core. Place in a granite pan, put a teaspoonful of sugar in 
the center of each apple and pour enough water into the dish 
to cover the bottom of it. Bake until tender. Apples are 
best if baked in a very slow oven for one and one half hour. 

60 Apple Tapioca Pudding. Time: 1J^ hours. 
Recipe Directions: Soak tapioca over 

loVaTapples ni S ht in six cupf uls of cold water. 

1 c sugar Pare, core and quarter the apples. 

Add the apples, sugar and lemon 

juice to the tapioca when it has cooked for fifty minutes. 
Cook until apples are tender. Serve with cream. This 
amount will serve sixteen to eighteen pupils. 


Garden and canning clubs have been organized in nearly 
every state in the Union. The Federal Government has 
assisted the movement by sending experts to various parts 
of the country and state departments of agriculture have co- 
operated through their extension work. Mr. T. A. Erickson, 
state leader of boys' and girls' club work for Minnesota, 
gives five reasons why every school district should have one 
or more of these clubs. They are well worth considering. 

1. To bring the school, home and farm into closer co- 

2. To encourage boys and girls to assist their mothers 
in having a good supply of vegetables and fruit for the table, 
thus helping to reduce the cost of living, and to teach boys 
and girls how to save what is often otherwise wasted. 

3. To interest the boys and girls in gardening and in 
the best methods of growing the tomato and other standard 

4. To teach the best methods of canning what is not 
used fresh. 

5. To provide a means by which boys and girls may 
earn some money and at the same time learn many valuable 

There are many fruits and vegetables that may be grown 
profitably by school girls in their home gardens. Toma- 
toes and strawberries are probably the most profitable, 
as there is always a ready market for these, and the surplus 
is easily canned. In fact, the tomato is popular on account 
of the canning that goes with that club work, as most of 
the product is sold as canned goods. Many girls have 



entered the acre corn contests. Sweet corn may be substi- 
tuted for the field corn, if it is preferred by the girls, and part 
of the crop canned in the same manner as the tomatoes. 
In that case, a full acre would not be required unless three or 
four girls formed a partnership, and operated a home can- 
ning outfit together. This outfit is discussed elsewhere. 
Garden peas have been grown and canned successfully by 
some of the clubs. 

Insects and weeds are deadly enemies of garden, field 
and orchard, and must be constantly guarded against. Poor 
seed also is often responsible for small yields. It is neces- 
sary, therefore, that girls, as well as boys, make a careful 
study of all garden pests and also learn how to test their 
seeds for purity and germination, if they are to get the best 
results. A poultry contest and a potato yield contest also 
could be conducted with advantage by girls. 

Tomato growing, home canning and bread baking con- 
tests are discussed at length in this book. Many of the 
other subjects are discussed in a companion book, "Indus- 
trial Work for Boys." Consult bulletins and reference books 
for further information on organizing and conducting these 
contests and such other club work as may be undertaken. 

This has been one of the most popular and successful pro- 
jects in club work and, where conditions are favorable for 
tomato raising, it is strongly recommended. A century ago 
the tomato was rarely grown and then only as an ornamental 
plant. It was thought to be poisonous until its food value 
was discovered accidentally. The tomato is now one of the 
most valuable vegetable crops in the United States, and is 
extensively grown in almost every other country. No 
other fruit or vegetable is so much used for canning pur- 


The young tomato plant is very tender and must not be 
transplanted until all danger of frost is past. In the north- 
ern states this time will be about the middle of May. 
The plants must, therefore, be started in window boxes or 
hotbeds, and transplanted to the garden. Start them about 
six weeks before they are to be set out in the open. There are 
a great many varieties of tomatoes, but the large, late kinds 
are best for canning. The plants should be set in rows at 
least four feet apart to allow plenty of room for horse culti- 
vation and for the development of the plant. The distance 
apart in the row will depend upon the variety, as space 
enough for growth is necessary. Tomatoes thrive best in 
a rich, sandy soil and require plenty of warm weather 
during a long growing season. They must be kept free 
from weeds and insects and should not only be cultivated 
often, but kept hoed close to the plant. As soon as the young 
fruit is formed, the plant should be well supported by staking 
and tying or part of the crop will be spoiled on the damp 
ground. When time to ripen, cut away the surplus branches 
to let the sun in and allow the nourishment that would 
feed the branches to go to the green tomatoes. Early 
varieties may often be marketed fresh in small baskets at 
handsome profits, but the individual or girls' club should 
own a home canning outfit and can the main crop. Write to 
the national and state departments of agriculture for bulle- 
tins and information pertaining to the culture and canning 
of the tomato. Farmer's Bulletin No. 521 is good for the 


Canning has become very popular among both boys and 
girls during the last few years, both as home projects and as 
club work. As home work, it is usually done by the girls, but 
as club work, it is important for both girls and boys. Fruits, 


vegetables and soups are canned and glass sealers and tin 
cans are used for containers. There is always a good de- 
mand for foods preserved in this way. The canning pro- 
jects supplement the fruit and vegetable gardening work and 
make all profitable. 

There are five general ways of canning food stuffs: the 
intermittent, or fractional-sterilization, method; cold-water 
method; vacuum-seal method; hot-pack, or open-kettle, 
method; and the cold-pack method. 

The intermittent method is very effective, but requires 
three days to complete the process and is expensive in time 
and fuel. The cold-water method is used with sour food 
stuffs, such as gooseberries and rhubarb. The product is 
washed and sealed in cold water. In the vacuum-seal 
method a special can is required. It is successful, but has 
not yet come into general use. 

The hot-pack, or open-kettle, method is still the common 
way of canning in most homes. The products are com- 
pletely cooked before packing in the cans and sealing. 
The method is a success for fruits, but is a failure for vege- 
tables, and it is always laborious. 

The cold-pack method is gradually displacing the hot- 
pack. It is the method generally recommended for the 
club work and home canning projects. By it, vegetables, 
as well as fruits, may be preserved. 

The equipment for canning by the cold-pack method 
need not be elaborate. While there are several kinds of 
commercial outfits on the market, their chief advantage 
over the homemade ones is their convenience. Homemade 
outfits may be constructed from washtubs, wash boilers, 
kettles, milk cans, pails, etc. Select an outfit that is deep 
enough for water to come one inch above the top of the tallest 
jar. This type of cooker is called a hot water bath outfit. 



It should be provided with handles, a false bottom and a tight 
cover. The false bottom is used to keep the containers off 
the bottom and thus allow water to come in contact with the 
cans or jars. A tinner can make a special false bottom, or 
one can be made at home by fastening thin boards to some 
cleats and submerging in the water. Wire handles may be 
fastened to the false bottom to lift the entire lot of containers 
out when cooked, or the cans may be removed singly with 
'tongs or other device. 

Figure 56. Canning by the cold-pack method. 

The various steps in cold-pack canning are, in order, as 
as follows: Select sound products; grade for ripeness, size 
and quality; wash clean; trim, if necessary; scald or blanch 
to loosen the skin, reduce bulk and drive out objectionable 
acids; plunge into cold water immediately, or "cold dip," to 
separate the skin from the pulp, firm the texture, set the 
color and render packing easy; pack carefully and closely in 
glass jars or tin cans; add hot water for vegetables and hot 
water or hot syrup for fruits; place rubber and cover on jar 


and partially seal, or cap and tip tin cans at once; cook, or 
"process," immediately and according to time-table, but do 
not begin to count time until the water in the cooker is 
boiling. Scalding is immersing for one or two minutes in 
boiling water or live steam. It is used mostly for tree 
fruits and tomatoes. Blanching is parboiling. The prod- 
uct is left in the boiling water for a longer period than is 
necessary for scalding. The time varies from one to fifteen 
minutes, according to the nature of the product. 

The time necessary to cook the products will depend 
upon the kind of food stuff to be canned and the altitude. 
Water boils at 212F. at sea level, but the boiling point de- 
creases as the altitude increases. It takes longer, therefore, 
to cook the products at high altitudes. In general, the time 
should be increased at the rate of about 25 per cent for each 
increase of 4,000 feet in altitude. In general, the time re- 
quired in the hot water bath outfit for soft fruits, such as 
berries, peaches, etc., at an altitude of 500 feet, is about 16 
minutes; for sour berry fruits, such as currants, gooseberries, 
etc., about 16 minutes; for hard fruits, such as apples, pears, 
etc., 20 minutes; for greens, such as spinach, Swiss chard, 
etc., blanch 15 or 20 minutes and sterilize 90 minutes; for 
roots and tubers, such as parsnips, sweet potatoes, etc., 90 
minutes; for tomatoes, 22 minutes; for sweet corn, 180 
minutes; for string beans and peas, 120 minutes; and for 
pumpkin and squash, 60 minutes. While overcooking makes 
the product look mushy, it is always better to overcook than 
to undercook, as in the latter case the food is likely to spoil. 

As soon as removed from the cooker, the glass containers 
should be tightly sealed, and placed . bottom side up until 
cold. They should then be stored in a darkened place, as 
strong light fades the color. 


The person or club doing the canning should send to the 
Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C., for the N R 
series, "Co-operative Extension Work in Agriculture and 
Home Economics," for complete recipes, tables, etc., neces- 
sary for a thorough understanding of the subject. It is 
suggested that, where club work is done at school or at home, 
a commercial canning outfit should be purchased. It could 
belong to the club or to the school. Many clubs have worked 
on the co-operative plan and sold enough canned products 
from the home gardens to bring large returns for the time 
and money invested. Special labels for club work can be 
obtained and should be used for the cans that are to. be sold. 
The club brand is popular in many markets. 


Bread is truly the "staff of life" in the American home, 
and bread making is one of the things that every girl should 
learn to do well. Experience is a good teacher, but experi- 
ence alone will not produce good bread and biscuit bakers, 
as many fathers and brothers can testify. The scientific 
principles must be understood. No experiment should be 
more interesting than that of learning to bake bread. If 
possible, demonstrations should be given at school before 
the home credit work begins. In any event every girl 
should seek an opportunity to show what she can do in 
baking for a certain length of time either in school or at 
home or both. One state held a bread baking contest with 
over eighty counties represented and more than sixteen 
hundred contestants. 

The essential factors in bread making are the flour, the 
yeast and the liquid used. It is true that there is a difference 
in flour, but most of the flour made in modern mills is good 
flour and should make good bread. Some flours require more 



Figure 57. Prize winning loaves in a state bread baking contest. Over six- 
teen hundred entries were in competition. 

liquid, or more kneading, or something else different from 
others, but it is usually not the fault of the flour when the 
bread is not good. Good bread makers can generally use 
the home flour with success. Wheat flour contains stronger 
gluten than any other and it is this that makes the bread 
light. For this reason white flour is mixed with rye and 
other flours to make them light. Yeast is one of the dust 
plants found in the air. Because it gives off carbon dioxide 
which causes the bread to rise as the gas expands, it is used 
commercially in various forms. The yeast cake, dried or 
compressed, is probably best for general use, although the 
homemade yeast sometimes gives better results. 

Compressed yeast is used in the short process of bread 
making and has certain advantages over other yeasts. It 
is very active, but must be used while it is fresh as it will not 
keep long. Dark spots indicate dead yeast plants; hence, 
whenever compressed yeast is used, it should be carefully 
inspected. The chief disadvantage in the use of compressed 


yeast is that it is almost impossible for those who cannot get 
it fresh frequently to keep it active. The other kinds are 
better for ordinary use. On the other hand, if it is not pos- 
sible or convenient to keep a sponge over night, the com- 
pressed yeast will hurry up the process so that the bread can 
be baked the same day the sponge is set. 

Milk, water, potato water and buttermilk are all used as 
liquids. Milk usually gives a better crust than the others 
and the bread will keep fresh longer. Equal quantities of 
milk and water are often used, but buttermilk is not so 
commonly a factor in bread making. Other ingredients are 
sugar, which acts as food for the yeast plant and hastens the 
rising, salt for flavoring, and shortening to make the bread 

There are several methods of scoring bread when it is 
judged in contests. The following is one that is used in 
judging the bread in the contest work of one state: General 
appearance, twenty points ; flavoring, odor and taste, thirty- 
five points; lightness, fifteen points; and crumb texture, 
color, grain, thirty points; total, one hundred points. 

See Chapter IV for recipe for yeast bread. If you enter 
any particular contest, you will probably have a definite 
recipe to follow. When you write your booklet on "Bread 
Baking," tell which recipe you used. 


Many city and village schools have adopted the advanced 
policy of allowing school credit for certain kinds of home 
work. There is no good reason why this plan cannot be 
extended to the rural schools as well. The following "Home 
Credit Exercises" have been carefully planned with a view 
to giving such credit. In any event, they are worth doing 
and the teacher can be of great assistance in directing the 
work whether the school can give credit or not. 


There should be more flower gardens on our home 
grounds. After studying references on landscape gardening 
and consulting with teacher, brothers and parents, plan a 
landscape garden for the front of the house. If not already 
in grass, the soil should be leveled and seeded down or sod- 
ded. When ready to plant, use a plat drawn especially 
for this purpose and set out the shrubs first. As shrubs are 
permanent, great care must be used in the arrangement. A 
small lawn will be crowded if more than a few are used. 
A few clusters, with two or more shrubs in a cluster, placed 
in an irregular manner, as nature arranges them, will be 
sufficient. The rose, snowball, bridal wreath and syringa are 
some of the beautiful flowering shrubs. One or more flower 
beds, depending upon the size of the lawn, should be provided. 
They may be round, oval or irregular, as desired, and they 
should be elevated. Cannas are beautiful for the center. 
Small geraniums, carnations, begonias, sweet alyssum or 
some other favorite plants that are suitable, should surround 
the cannas. Have some small foliage plants around all as a 



border for the bed. Be careful to use good judgment in the 
arrangement so that the colors will blend harmoniously as 
well as produce a natural effect in the landscape. 

A delightful back garden may be produced in the back 
yard with a little planning and work. If you can have a 
summer playhouse, which should be the inheritance of every 
young person, so much the better. Cover it with five- 
leaf ivy and climbing roses, and make it the center of at- 
traction. Winding paths, bordered by hedges and shaded 
with flowering shrubs, should lead to the house. Old- 
fashioned flowers may be arranged artistically as space 
will permit. For a permanent border, select columbines, 
foxgloves, larkspurs, Canterbury bells, bleeding heart and 
other old favorites. For annual beds, there are many kinds 
that are suitable, such as sweet peas, pansies, phlox, as- 
ters, violets, poppies, nasturtiums, gladioli and chrysan- 

Such a flower garden as here suggested will require 
plenty of energy and constant care, but it may be made a 
veritable fairyland of birds and bees and flowers, and is 
well worth while. It should be made a home club affair 
in which all the members of the family take an interest. 
Neither the cost nor the labor can be the reasons why there 
are so few such gardens. Some one must take the initia- 
tive and show that the project is commendable. The girls 
can do it. Let the school help you get yours started. 


In case it seems impossible to carry out the flower garden 
idea on such an elaborate scale as given under that heading, 
there is still opportunity to work with flowers in the home. 
Many of these can be transplanted to the garden during the 
summer. A few flower pots or window boxes will be all 


that is necessary at first. If there is a large south or east 
window in the house, so much the better. A flower stand 
can be made of narrow boards, and stained or painted to 
harmonize with the surroundings. Select the varieties you 
like best and secure slips and bulbs from your neighbors 
or the florist. Plant in rich, mellow soil and keep well 
watered. Loosen the soil occasionally to prevent baking 
or hardening. Watch for plant lice and destroy them with 
a soap emulsion sprayed over the plant. A few common 
house plants are the geranium, hydrangea, lily, fuchsia, 
carnation, begonia, petunia, Christmas cactus, asparagus 
and sword ferns. Both pleasure and profit will be derived 
from a careful study of house plants. 


One of the most interesting projects for which home 
credit should be given is a study of the common birds. 
This, being outdoor work, will afford abundance of health- 
ful exercise. A notebook should be a constant companion 
and, if you are fortunate enough to have a kodak, the 
field work will be still more interesting. Your notes should 
be written in permanent form into a " Birds That I Know" 

Birds are classified as land, water, game and birds of prey. 
Some go south for the winter; others do not. You should 
make a table of these migrations with dates in the spring 
and fall. Some birds are injurious, destroying grains, 
fruits, beneficial animals and other birds. Some of these are 
the common English sparrow, the kingfisher and the crow. 
These birds should be destroyed. Other birds are highly 
beneficial and should be protected. Still others are prized 
for their songs and plumage. Some of the beneficial birds 
are as follows: Robin, house wren, song sparrow, orchard 


oriole, bank swallow, barn swallow, blue jay, cardinal, 
red-winged blackbird, redheaded woodpecker, killdeer, quail, 
dove, screech owl, barn owl, buzzard, humming bird, cow- 
bird and meadow lark. Nearly all these, as well as many 
others, can be observed and studied in your community. 
Birds feed chiefly upon insects and other injurious pests 
and hence should be protected. State and national laws 
protect most of these birds, but you can help also. Bird 
houses to protect from cold and wet, crumbs thrown out 
when snow is on the ground and watching that cats and 
other animals do not molest the young birds just from the 
nest are some of the ways. 


Every girl should learn how to make beds properly and 
then apply her knowledge. This is a very good task for 
home credit work. 

On rising in the morning, throw the bed covers back 
over the foot of the bed allowing the bedding to air for an 
hour or two with the windows open. Then make the beds 
as follows : Straighten the mattress and smooth out the pad 
carefully, before putting on the sheets. Spread the lower 
sheet right side up over the bed. Bring the edges and 
ends well under the mattress in order that it may be pro- 
tected and that the sheet will not become unnecessarily 
wrinkled. Spread the upper sheet over the bed wrong side 
up and the wide hem or ornamented end of the sheet toward 
the head of the bed. Bring the sheet up far enough so that 
it can be turned back about eight or ten inches over the 
blankets or quilts in order to protect them. Be sure to place 
all covers on the bed so that they extend equally on both 
sides. Tuck the covers down at the foot of the bed. Put 
on the spread neatly. Fluff out the pillows and arrange 
them neatly at the head of the bed. 


At least once a week air the bedclothes out-of-doors 
in the sunshine. Fresh air and sunshine are the best puri- 
fiers and germ killers known. Turn the mattress over and 
exchange ends occasionally to prevent forming hollows in 
it. Sheets and pillow cases should be changed at least once 
a week. 


Get the breakfast or some other meal regularly for 
six weeks- or other convenient unit of time. Such work 
is excellent training and the parents can determine how soon 
the students should be allowed credit in school for the work 
done at home. A signed statement from them may be taken 
to the teacher. The following suggestions for preparing 
a meal may be helpful: 

Prepare those things in advance which can be so pre- 
pared without injuring the quality of food, in case it is 
some time before they are to be served. Start those dishes 
first which take the longest time; then those that are to be 
prepared and served at once. Watch the clock and try to 
have things ready just in time. For the beginner, it is 
advisable to choose dishes that will not spoil if completed 
a short time before they are to be served. Serve those dishes 
which are to be hot, hot; and cold dishes, cold. Wash 
as many of the mixing and cooking utensils as possible 
before serving the meal. You will find it necessary to remain 
in the kitchen during the greater part of the time while the 
meal is cooking. Make use of the spare moments and there 
will be fewer dishes to wash later. 


Learn how to lay a table properly and then arrange to 
have charge of it for six weeks at a time, or as long as it 
may be desired. Since many persons do not lay the 


table properly, be sure that you know how before you 
begin to do this work. The following suggestions may 
be helpful: 

Spread a white felt cloth over the table to protect its 
polish, to give body to the tablecloth and to deaden the sound. 
When buying the silence cloth, as the felt cloth is called, 
plan to have it extend well over the edges of the table and 
make it long enough to allow for shrinkage. Spread the 
tablecloth over this, having the lengthwise fold extending the 
long way of the table, and the cloth extending over equally 
at both ends and at the sides. Make similar plans for a 
round table. Place the centerpiece in the center of the 
table and on it a rather shallow dish of flowers. A table 
fern or other suitable plant may be used. At breakfast, 
it is pleasing to have a dish of fruit in the center of the 

Allow about two feet for each cover. A " cover" means 
the knives, forks, spoons, plates, tumbler and napkin needed 
by each person. Excepting the tumbler, the cover is placed 
from one half to one inch from the edge of the table. The 
plate is placed in the middle of the cover, the forks at the 
left of the plate in the order in which they are to be used, 
beginning at the outside. The napkin is placed at the left 
of the forks. The knives and spoons are at the right of the 
plate, also in the order in which they are to be used, begin- 
ning at the outside. The sharp edge of the knives should 
be towards the plate. The bowls of the spoons and the 
tines of the forks should be up. The tumbler is placed at 
the end of the knives and slightly towards the plate. 

Salt and pepper, cream and sugar, jelly and pickles, and 
usually bread and butter are placed on the table before the 
meal is announced. 



To serve a meal properly is an art every girl should be 
proud to accomplish. Do this one or more meals daily 
for six weeks or longer and submit a report to school for 
home credit. 

Have everything that is to accompany the first course 
on the table when the meal is announced. When a waitress 
is serving something in an individual dish it should be 
placed from the right-hand side of the person sitting at the 
table. When the waitress is passing a dish from which the 
person being served is to help himself, it should be passed 
to the left of the person, and the dish should be held on the 
level of the table. As soon as the course is completed, re- 
move it and everything that was served with it. Next 
remove the soiled dishes and the silver used for the course. 
Remove all dishes from the right- of the person. In polite 
society it is considered best to remove the dishes from but 
one cover at a time. In any event, do not take more than 
from two persons at one time. The waitress should be care- 
ful while serving not to reach in front of anyone. 

Before serving the dessert, remove the crumbs from the 
table, using a crumb tray. Have the glasses of water filled 
only three fourths full when the guests are seated. The 
glasses should be refilled if necessary during the meal, being 
careful to take hold of the glass as near the bottom as pos- 
sible. Remove but one tumbler at a time when refilling it, as 
otherwise the glasses might be exchanged. . 

First remove all soiled dishes from the dining table. If 
necessary, scrape crumbs from the table again. Remove 
the cloth, folding it carefully in the same folds. Remove the 
silence cloth. If the napkins have been used by the regular 
members of the family, they may be used again and should 


be placed in the sideboard drawer; but, if used for special 
guests for that particular meal, they should be taken directly 
to the laundry. 

Place a centerpiece on the table, and on it a dish of 
flowers or ferns, if available. Brush up the crumbs from the 

While the dining room is being cleared, the water should 
be heating for the dishes. Collect the silver and place it to 
soak in a jar or pitcher. Remove all particles of food 
from the dishes, using a plate scraper or a crust of bread. 
Wipe greasy dishes with a paper. Soak those which con- 
tained sugar mixtures in warm water, and those that 
contained milk, eggs and starchy mixtures in cold water, 
before starting to wash the dishes. Pile the plates of one 
size together. If but few of a kind, the smaller ones may be 
placed on top. Remove left over food to smaller dishes 
and put it away in the refrigerator or other sanitary place. 
Prepare warm, soapy water in the dish pan and in it wash the 
glassware. Some prefer to dry the glassware without 
rinsing it, as it is then more easily polished. Use a clean 
dry towel. Put each lot of dishes away as soon as dried. 
Wash, rinse and dry in the following order: Silver, cups, 
saucers, small odd dishes, as cream pitchers, etc., small 
plates, large plates, serving dishes, mixing and cooking 
utensils. Change the water if there are many dishes, as 
the work cannot be well done otherwise, and the dish towels 
become unnecessarily soiled. Clean the work tables. When 
the dishwater is emptied, wash, rinse and dry with the 
towel the dish pan and the drain pan. Wash and rinse 
the dish cloth and hang it up where it can dry quickly 
and be aired. Also hang up the dish towels to dry. 
Clean the sink thoroughly, using a special cloth for that 




One of the worst pests of modern life is the common house, 
or "typhoid," fly. It is filthy and loathsome, breeding in 
barnyard manure, outhouses, etc.; consequently, it is one 
of the worst disease carriers. Typhoid fever, tuberculosis 
and dysentery are often traced to the house fly. The only 
real preventive is to get rid of the breeding places. Manure 
must not be allowed to collect. Houses should be made 
modern; but, until then, outhouses can be screened and 
kept clean and odorless. Do not throw out dishwater or 
other slops where they will be a harbor for flies. Have a 

garbage pail and use it. 
See that all doors and 
windows are screened. 
Fly poisons are danger- 
ous and must be used 
with care. The commer- 
cial sticky papers and the 

"swatter" help get rid of 

Figure 58. House, or typhoid, fly a, adult 
or fly; b, < 
all enlarge 

or fly; b, eggs; c, larva or maggot; d, pupa; 

those flies already in the 
house. A few cedar 
boughs suspended from 

the ceiling will attract the flies to roost at night, from 
which they may be shaken into bags. Send to your state 
entomologist for a bulletin on the control of flies, and a 
description of traps for catching them. Many communities 
have annual crusades against flies, offering bounties and 
rewards for the largest numbers. This is a home project 
worthy of study. 


Make drawings of your home showing the rooms on each 
floor as well as the basement. Make three drawings the 




basement, first floor and second floor. Be careful to show 
the details, as location of the clothes closets, direction in 
which the doors swing, etc., as these are very important. 
After these drawings have been approved by the teacher, 
draw an original house plan, laying out each room exactly 
as you want it, keeping convenience, comfort, sanitation, 
art and cost in mind. Draw this to some convenient scale, 
as one half inch to the foot. This exercise is valuable and 
will require some careful reading, study and consultation. 


If there is a new barn at your home, it probably has 
special ventilators to carry off the foul air and furnish the 
stock with plenty of pure air. Where are the ventilators in 
the house? Very likely the stove, the doors and the windows 
are the only means of getting a change of air. This method 
of ventilating is not so bad in summer, if the doors and win- 

Figure 62. Ventilation of room, showing "window" and "register" methods. A 
board inserted at the bottom of the window will leave space between the two 
sashes for the admission of air. The register method is possible only with a 


dows are kept open, but in cold weather it is seldom that the 
home is well ventilated. Air becomes impure and a source 
of disease. Colds, tuberculosis and many other diseases are 
often caused from impure air, through lack of ventilation. 
A simple test for carbon dioxide in the air is limewater. 
Slack a small lump of lime in cold water and let it settler 
Pour off the clear limewater, put a few spoonfuls into a glass 
jar and allow it to stand for several hours in the room you 
wish to test. If a white powdery looking substance settles 
in the bottom after you shake the jar there is enough carbon 
dioxide in the air to be injurious and the air is not fit to 
breathe. Test the air of the schoolroom, and then of the 
bedrooms at home. What are your conclusions? Do you 
always sleep with your windows up, winter as well as sum- 
mer? If not, try it. 


One of the best plans to encourage thrift and teach the 
value of saving is the one now adopted by many schools of 
affiliating the school with one or more banks and allowing 
students to make weekly deposits. The teacher acts as 
local cashier and deposits the money at the banks when con- 
venient. One day a week is known as banking day at school 
and pupils may deposit any amount from one cent up. 
They are given stamps as certificates. These stamps are 
furnished free by the banks. One school of thirty students 
recently deposited more than $100 in four months, most of 
which would have been spent needlessly, had they not be- 
come interested in the savings bank movement. The 
garden and club work make it possible for all young persons 
to earn money for themselves, and there is all the more need 
of learning to save. Many look upon "pin" money as some- 
thing with which to buy chewing gum and candy, if not 


something more injurious. Increasing the earning capacity 
is very important; but unless one learns to spend less than is 
earned, there can be no saving. The following ten thrift 
maxims have been selected from an Oregon pamphlet on 
''Industrial Club Work." They are proverbs well worth 
considering : 

" Fortune helps them that help themselves." 

"Punctuality is the soul of business." 

"Who will not keep a penny shall never have many." 

"Plow deep while sluggards sleep, and you shall have corn 
to sell and keep." 

"Industry is fortune's right hand and frugality her left." 

"He is poor whose expenses exceed his income." 

"Early to bed, early to rise, makes a man healthy, 
wealthy and wise." 

"He that will not stoop for a pin will never be worth a 

"He that has but four, and spends five, has no need of 
a purse." 

"He that saves when he is young, may spend when he 
is old." 


Every girl should know how to keep simple home ac- 
counts, and then keep them. It is said that the average 
housekeeper has the spending of about three fourths of the 
income for the family. She should spend it systematically 
and economically, and keeping accounts will assist her to 
do so. As a supplement to the club work and savings bank 
accounts this work is admirable. 

Learning to keep accounts should be a part of the arith- 
metic work of the upper classes. There are a few simple 
things that must be remembered and always followed. 



An account may be defined as the name under which certain 
transactions are arranged according to whether they have 
been "received," or "parted with." When an account 
receives something, the transaction is put on the left side, 
or "debited"; when it parts with something, the transaction 
is put on the right side, or "credited." The school should 
have some special ledger cards, about six by eight inches, 
made up for this work. 

The inventory is the first step in starting accounts. A 
continued form is shown. Study it and make out one for 
your home. A half dozen accounts is all that is necessary, 
unless you run store accounts. In that event, you will 
need a personal account for each firm with which you trade. 
Study the suggestive accounts here given and start to keep 
the real records of your home as a home credit project". 

Suggestive Accounts 




Jan. 1, 

Jan. 1, 


Jan. 1, 

Kitchen Utensils 
1 Range 
1 Tea Kettle 
2 Dish Pans 

3 yrs. old 

40 00 
1 50 
1 50 

36 00 
1 00 
1 00 

Dining Room 
1 Table 
6 Chairs 

Quar. Oak 
8uar Oak 

22 50 
9 00 

20 00 

7 00 

Table Linen 

loths, Napkins 

12 50 

8 50 

Living Room 
2 Rockers . . . 


15 00 

12 00 

1 Stand 


3 75 

3 25 


1 Rug 


18 00 

16 00 

1 Hall Tree 


4 50 

4 25 

1 Rug 


8 50 

7 00 

2 Bedsteads 
2 Rugs 
2 Dressers 


17 50 

6 00 
18 00 

16 50 
4 00 
16 00 





Brought Forward 
Received Check 

2 60 



Brought Forward 
1 Sack Flour 

2 10 
2 60 

2 Ibs. Dairy Butter @ 25c 

2 60 

2 60 



Brought Forward 
Received Check 

3 30 


Brought Forward 
2 Kitchen Chairs @ 75c . . 

1 50 


Picture Wire 
2 yds. Linoleum @ 85c. . . 

1 70 

3 30 

3 30 



Brought Forward 
By Check 

4 85 


Brought Forward 
5 gal. Kerosene @ 15c . 



2 pkgs. Needles @ lOc . . . 
1 pr. Shoes 
1 pr. Yarn Gloves 
6 yds. Gingham @ 15c . . . 

3 50 

4 85 

4 85 



Brought Forward 
Monthly Allowance 

40 00 


Brought Forward 
Received Check 

40 00 

40 00 

40 00 




Brought Forward 
Received Check 

Bal. on Hand 

40 00 





Brought Forward 

2 Ibs. Mutton @ 15c... 
1 Ib. Lard 
Paid Rent 

10 00 
4 85 
2 60 
3 30 
18 27 

Church Collections 
A. L. Thelander & Co. 
S. A. Norberg 
C. A. Swanson 
Bal. on Hand 

40 00 
18 27 

40 00 





Brought Forward 


Brought Forward 


Paid Rent 
5 gal. Kerosene @ 15c.. . 

10 00 



10 75 

10 75 

10 75 




Brought Forward 
2 Kitchen Chairs @ 75c . 

1 50 


Brought Forward 
House F. Expense 

3 30 


Picture Wire 
2 yds. Linoleum @ 85c. . . 


1 70 


3 30 

3 30 



Brought Forward 
1 pr Shoes 

3 50 


Brought Forward 
Clothing Expense 

4 90 


1 pr. Yarn Gloves, . ." 
6 yds. Gingham @ 15c. . . 


4 90 

4 90 



Brought Forward 


Brought Forwafrd 


21bs. Mutton 15c.. . 



Food Expense 

3 08 

1 Ib. Lard 



1 Sack Flour 

2 10 


2 Ibs Butter @ 25c 


3 08 

3 08 




Brought Forward 

Church Collection 
2 pkgs. Needles @ lOc . . . 



Brought Forward 
Misc Expense 




There are many other suitable exercises for which the 
school should give home credit under certain conditions, 
but space will not permit discussions. Some of them are as 


follows: Dusting with oiled cloths, scrubbing floors, wash- 
ing clothes, ironing, pressing clothes, planning menus, pur- 
chasing materials, learning the cuts of meats and their values, 
preserving fresh eggs, making dairy butter, and a study of 
textiles' wool, cotton, linen, silk, etc. 


Finally, as the grand climax of the industrial "work, plan 
to have at least one industrial exhibit each year at the school 
and invite all the people of the community. Get the farmers' 
club, the creamery directors and other organizations, as well 
as the school board, interested enough to offer small prizes 
to encourage the work. If no prizes are offered, have the 
exhibit anyway. The best plan is to have two one in the 
spring, just before school is out, and th'e other in fall just 
before cold weather. In the spring the best work of the 
year at school may be shown, not only the industrial work, 
but arithmetic, writing, language, etc. A spelling contest 
will add interest. In the fall, a "harvest home festival" 
may be given at which will be exhibited the work done by 
the students during the summer. This will include garden 
products, corn, tomato, canning and other contest work, 
as well as any other special "home credit" projects. 

The following premium list was used for the annual con- 
test of fifteen rural associated schools at Cokato, Minnesota, 
spring of 1915. In addition to the individual and school 
prizes, a sweepstakes silver trophy was offered, which be- 
comes the permanent property of any school winning it for 
two successive years. 

Premium List for Contest in Associated Schools 


1. Best individual specimen of writing, including movement 

exercises, small letters, capitals, figures and words . . . .75 .50 .25 

2. Best general display from all grades 75 .50 .25 



1. Best relief map of Minnesota 75 .50 .25 

2. Best relief map of any continent 75 .50 .25 

3. Best drawn map of any kind, 75 .50 .25 


1. Best booklet on any one of the following topics: Corn, 

Noxious Weeds, Vegetable Garden, Strawberries, Ap- 
ples, Poultry for Pleasure and Profit, Farm Animals, 
Bee Culture, Home Sanitation, The Typhoid Fly 75 .50 .25 

2. Best general display from all grades 75 .50 .25 



Best general display from all grades 






Best woven mat, yarn or cloth 





Best hammock 





Best napkin ring -. 





Best raffia or reed mat 





Best raffia or reed basket 





Best yarn cap or bonnet 





Best clay exhibit 





Best general exhibit of industrial work 






Best needlebook 





Best outing flannel holder 





Best gingham holder 





Best sleevelets 





Best cap 





Best hemstitched towel 





Best stockinet darning 





Best buttonholes 





Best gingham bag 





Best sewing apron 





Best hemmed patch 





Best three-cornered darn 





Best outing flannel nightgown 





Best overhand patch 





Best general exhibit of sewing 

Each article is to be made as directed in course of study 


of study 


1. Best match scratcher 50 .35 .25 

2. Best plant marker 50 .35 .25 

3. Best salt box 75 .50 .25 

4. Best match box 75 .50 .25 

5. Best other article 75 .50 .25 

6. Best composition on "Manual Training in the Rural 

School" 75 .50 .25 

7. Best general exhibit in manual training 1.00 


1. Corn judging contest 75 .50 .25 

2. Corn germinator with germinating corn ready to count. 

Must include report on test and opinion of seed by ex- 
hibitor 75 .50 .25 

3. Long and short splice (both must be included) 75 .50 .25 

4. Best general exhibit of rope work including knots and 

splices. 75 .50 .25 

5. Best noxious weed seed exhibit to be selected and de- 

termined by the school 75 .50 .25 

6. Best general exhibit in agricultural work 1.00 


I Rural Education I 


| 1 

Adopted in Several States and Many Counties 

Industrial subjects are disputing place with academic 
= even in the rural school. What shall be eliminated? What 
^ shall be taught? How? With what result? 

Rural Education Tells What to Teach 

Aside from the excellent arrangement of the program of 
H academic subjects and the full treatment of methods for 
teaching the same, Rural Education presents practical plans 
for including the required industrial work, viz: agriculture, 
H manual training and domestic science. In addition it fully ^ 
discusses the outside activities which enlarge the scope of the 
school and the community life and form a vital part of real 
rural education. 

Rural Education Tells How to Teach 

The co-ordination and arrangement of all these con- 
= flicting courses is a problem which this book solves with 
M satisfaction and success. Complete instruction is given for f| 

the carrying out of the plans suggested and for the teaching 
= of each subject in detail. In the industrial subjects the actual 

work to be pursued is supplied. 

1 1 

Rural Education Increases Teaching Efficiency 

The definite outlines and methods which have been M 
thoroly tested and found to be most successful, together with 

H the enlarged outlook and inspiration which come with a view 

of new and greater possibilities, tend to increase efficiency in ^ 

s the schoolroom and to direct and elevate all rural life. 

12mo., 430 pages. Illustrated. Price, $1.00 net 


1 1 


I Industrial W>rk/^ Boys j 



This volume is in keeping with the rapid strides that are 
^j being made by^industrial education. It is an up-to-date text 
H for teaching industrial work tq boys in rural and graded 

schools. With the exception of its companion volume, no 
H other book is better designed for training the hand as well as 

the head. 


Chapter I Course and Equipment. Purpose of Industrial Work, 
Preliminary Industrial Work, Second and Third Division Work. 

H Chapter II General Industrial Work. School Exercises in Weav- 

== ing, Paper Folding and Construction, Raffia and Rattan Work, 


Chapter III 'Rope Work and Belt Lacing. Whipping, Crowning, 
Splicing, Making Knots, Rope Halters, Block and Tackle Reev- 
ing, Lacing Three-inch and Six-inch Belts. 

= Chapter IV Woodwork at School. Equipment, Thirty-two Man- 
ual Training Exercises. 

Chapter V^Home Projects in Woodwork. Equipment, Nineteen 
Home Credit Projects, including the Making of a Work Bench, 

= Folding Ironing Table, Stepladder, Chicken Coop, Stock Rack, 

Wagon Box, Farm Gate and Road Drag. 
Chapter VI Projects in Cement and Iron. Making Concrete 

= Walks, Floors, Posts and Building Blocks, Iron Work. 

= Chapter VII Home Credit Work in Agriculture. Soil Study, Ro- 
tation of Crops, Germination Tests, Garden Work, Weed Col- 
lection, Insect Collection, Collection of Woods, Study of Birds 
and Rodents, Study of Machinery, Stock and Grain Judging, 
Tree Grafting, Strawberry Raising. 

H Chapter VIII Contests and Club Work. Acre-yield Corn Plot, 

= Potato Yield Contest, Tomato Contest, Home Canning, Poultry 

= Contest, Pig Contest, Savings Banks, Keeping Accounts, In- 

= dustrial Exhibit. 

J The book contains over 100 illustrations, most of which 

H are working drawings for the projects suggested. These 

H diagrams alone are worth in school or at home many times 

H the price of the book. 

12mo., about 150 pages. Illustrated. Price, 40 cents net 



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