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Full text of "Interesting tracts, relating to the island of Jamaica, consisting of curious state-papers, councils of war, letters, petitions, narratives, &c. &c., which throw great light on the history of that island, from its conquest down to the year 1702"

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/ * 




PROCLAMATION of the proteOor relating to JamaiCM 

A letter fro n Chriftophcr Columbus in Jamaica to the king of Spain 

A narrative by general Venables of //i? evpeddton to 'the ijland of 
Jamtica^ arid the conqu^i thereof under the prote^or/hip of Oliver 

A le^er fent the lord prefidoit Lawrence, lord Lamberty and feveral others of 
Che CQuncal of ftate. 


A council of war held at the Indian Bridge Town, JBarbadoes^ March iZ 
1654, to coniider the wants of the army 

A council of war held on board the Swiftfure, April 7, .1655 


I.ftrudions to the feveral colonels about landing 

Certificate writ by Mr. Henry Gary 

Articles concluded on the taking of Jamaica 

A letter to fecretary Thurloe 

A letter to Mr. Noel . ' 

A letter to Mr. Rowe 

A council of war held at Jago de la Vega^ the 7th }une, 1655 

Several confiderations to be humbly reprefented to his highnefs the lord pro- 
tedor and council, in behalf of the army io America 

petition of general Venables, a prifoner oi the Tower of If mv fenj 
ki^thnefe ibc lord proicdor 









A kcooA 

f " ] 

A Tecdnd pet{t?m ef general Venables 

A third petition o general V^enables ' 7!l 

Ldxvs military for the idand of Jam ica^ publijlied by his etceVency 
Jir Thomas Modyjord ' 9Q 

Proceedings againfi ^r Thomas Modf/ford - 102 

Tfie prefent ftate of Jamaica^ in a letter from Mr. Kevil to the 
ea/loj Jarlijlc . . 105, 

Th£ earl of CarH^e s fpeech to the.affemhly of Jamaica 118 

A report of the right honourable the lords of the committee for 
trade and plantations to the king 120 

An addrefs of the alfembly of Jamaica to the earl of Carlijte 127 

A proclamacon for the enconra^^ii^ of planters in his majefty^s 
ijland of Jamaica^ in the if eji'lndiu 135 

An addrefs of the council of Jamaica to the kin<( 137 

AnabJlraSf of the government of Jamaica ftnci his mnje/hys refloror^ 
' tion^ given in by fir Thomas Lym h to the king in council r * 1 39 

* _ _ » ^ 

A petition ot Samuel Lony^ tfq. again/i the tarl (f Carlijle^to the 
king in council^ with the earl sanfujer thereto " 143 

A copy of Lang's articles prefent ed to his mrjc/ly in ChU tril 146 

The earl of Cti Itflf^ anlwrr to a charge (fgj^injl him^ exhib':ed to his 
maje/h/ in Ci)*tncil^ by Samuel Long 147 

An aconnt nf (one a fairs in jfamaica during the gov€rnm?nt of the 
earl >f Carlijlc . n* 

A nd^cnf from king Charles ^\. for the o^ce of furvcyor cnl an- 
dit }r-^e:icral oj the rcjcnues in Ja.aaica 1^9 

A dialog ce 

1 » 

[ * 1 

A diahs^ie between tw& q/Tem^'ly-men of Jamaica^ for ancL againfi 

r - V^JJi'^S ^^^*^ revenue bill for feven years i 71* 

An order difanproving the aSt declaring the laws of England m force 

in Jamaica 184 

3r//f governor's fpeech to the affemhly of Jamaica \ 82 

TVte kin^s injiruflions tpfir Philip Houardj Anight 187 

Samuel Bernard^ efquires^ fpeech to his excellency colonel Afole^xvorth^ 
on Lis approiing the ajJemblQS choice qi htm for their fpeaket 206 

Colonel MolefwortlC s fpeech to theafjemhly of Jameita 202 

Mr. Elletfon^s fpeech in the ajfembly 205 

\ ..... 

South Sei account^ by Arnold . 206 

, Samuel Bar^ys petition to the king 212^ 

^ An addrefs of the . council and ajemblyof Jamaica to the king^ after 
the arrival of the duke of Albemarle .213 

. An addrfs of the Cutl oUcs in Jamaica to the duke of Albemarle 2 1 * 

A fpeech of efq. to the duke of Albemarle^ on his up- 

proving (he aJfer.'Mys choice oj him Jor their jpeaker. 216 

... . • » fVi Uanis tnfiru5lio7U to the earl of Inchiquin -218 

An adi^refs of the grand jury of Jamaica to the king 232 

An addrefs of the grand jury of Jamaica to the governor - 233 

A ipccc\ of tJie car! of Inchiquin to the ajjcmbly of Jamaica 23 1 

A fpeech of the earl of Inchiquin to the afjanbly of Jamaica at 
ikdy dijfolutioa 236 


An aiirefi df thepejiiml OfCd «c^tf»fW <gf fymiikU t» t%t kwf mi 
queen 338 

Jiiflruahntto Mr. J^Mthcdtty ftfc* /r6i^ the tcm<:U Mtut ^mbl^ 6f 

Jamaica - . . g^Q 

A fhoTt accaunt of the affairs &f Jamaica in relation to the t^tnhfy 
called by the duke of Albemarle^ m 1688; with rea/ons why the 
laws made by that ajembly Jhmld not pafs 244 

An addrefs of the council and ajinibly of Jamaica le tke king and 
^uccn» 'U4f7 

A narrative ^ by Jir WilUam Beiejlon of the defeent en Jamaica by the 
French 240 

A letter from the council in England to Jir William Beejlm^ in nnfwcr 
* io his narrative S60 

An addrefs of the ajimbfy of Jamaica ttfir WilHam Bee^oti 'fi5< 

Refolttthns of a council 0f wary held at P^age-Fort, February 8, 
1695-6 263 

Stueries propofti to Jir Simon Hareourt MS 

A fpeich of Hi etceUency general Selwyn to ihe affembly 261 

Thedi/lrihnfon of the rv/al dviattve^ which king Charles H. fent to 
the oJficiTs and Jb.diers in Jamaica 258 

A journal kept by Ctflawl Beejotty from his Jkjl coming /» Jamaica 27 1 



*■ < '!■ M lfc 






WHEREAS, by the good providence of God, our fleet, in their late 
expedition into America, have pofleflTed themfelves of acertaia 
ifland called Jamaica, fpacious in its extent, commodious in its harbours 
and rivers within itfelf, healthful by its fituation, fertile in the nature of 
the foil, well ftored with horles. and other cattle, and generally fit an4 
worthy to be planted and improved, to the advantage, honour, and in- 
tereft, of this nation. 

And v^ereas divers perfons, merchants, and others, heretofore con* 
verfant in plantations, and the trade of the like nature, are defirous to 
undertake and proceed upon plantations and fcttlements upon that ifland« 

We, therefore, for the better encouragement of all fuch perfons, io 
inclined, have, by the advice of our council, taken care, not only 
for the ftrengthening and fecuring of that illand from all enemies, 
but for the conflituting and fettling of a civil government, by fuch good 
laws smd cuiioms as aic and have been exercifed in colonies and places of 

A the 


( 2 ) 

the like nature, have appointed furveyors and other public afficf^r?^ foi 
tlie more equal dillribution of public right and jullice in tlie faid ilUn J# 

And; for the further encouragement to the induftry ancf gool affc^ion 
of fuch perfons, we have provided and given orders to the commiirioner^ 
of our cuftoms, that every planter or adventurer to that iflmd flmll b© 
exempt and free from paying any excife, or cuftom, for any manufadlures^ 
proviiions, or any other goods or neccffaries, which he or they Ihall tranf- 
port to the faid ifland of Jamaica, witliin the fpace of fcven years lo 
come from Michaelmas next. 

' And alfo that fufficient caution and fecurity be given by the faid com- 
miflioners, that fuch goods (hall be delivered at Jamaica only. And we 
have alfo, out of our fpccial confideratioh of the welfare and profperity 
of that ifland, provided that no cuftom^^, or other tax, or inipoft, be laid 
or charged upon any commodity, which ihall be the produce and native 
growth of that ifland, and ihall be imparted into any of the dominion! 
belonging to this commonwealth: which favour and exemption ihall con- 
tinue for the fpace of ten years, to begin and be accounted from Michkcl- 
mas next. We have alfo given our fpecial orders and directions, that no 
embargo or other hindrance, upon any pretence whatfoever, be laid 
upon any fhips, feamen, or other paflengcrs or adveuturers, which 
fliall appear to be engaged and bound for the faid ifland. 

* And we do hereby further declare, for ourfelvcs and fucceflors, that 
whatfoever other favour, or immunity, Or protection, fliall or may conduce 
to the welfare, ilrength, and improvement, of the faid ifland, ihall from 
time to time be conlinued and applied thereunto* Given under quk 
hand, &V. 

• % I * f > • 

■ • 

A letter: 

«f «/* •«*..«vi-**A 

( 3 ) 




Jamaica, 1505. 

DIEGO MENDEZ, and the papers Ifendby Iiim, will fliew your 
highnefs what rich mines olgold I havedifcovered at Veragua, and 
. how I intended to have left my brother at River Belen, if the judgments 
of heaven and the greateft misfortunes in the world had not prevented 
it. However, it is iufficient your highnefs and fucceflbrs wilf have the glory, 
and advantage of all, and that the full difcovery and fetUement are rcfcrvcd, 
for happier perfons than the unfortunate Columbus. If God be fo mer- 
ciful to me as to condudt Mendez to Spain, 1 doubt not but he will make; 
your highnefs and my great miltrcfs undcrfland that this will not onl)": 
Be a Caltile and Leon, but a difcovery of a world of fubjcfls, lands, and 
wealth, greater than man's unbounded fancy could ever comprehend, 
or avarice itfelf covet. But neither he, this paper, nor the tongue of 
mortal man, can exprefs the anguiih and atfli{5tions of my mind and body< 
nor the mifery of my fon, biother, and friends ; for here already we have, 
been above ten months lodged upon the open decks of our Ihips, that 
are run aihore and lafhed together ; thofe of my men that were well 
have mutinied under the Porras' of Sevilla ; my friends that were faith- 
ful are moftly fiek and dying ; we have confumcd the Indian's provifions, 
fo they do abandon us ; all therefore are like to penfli by hunger, and thefe 
miferics arc accompanied with fo many aggravating circumflances that 
iciider me the moft wretched objcft of misfortune this world fiiall ever 
fee, as if tlie difplcafuie of heaven fcconded the envy of Spain, and 
would puniih as criminal thofe undertakings and difcoveries, that former 
ageswouldhave acknowledgedas great and meritorious. Good heaven! 
and you holy faints that dwtll in it, let theking Don Fernando, and my 
illulirious miftrefp Ponna Ifabella, know that I am the moft miferable man 
liviLg, andthatn.y zcbiforthcir fervice and iuteicU hath brought me to 

A a it. 

< * > 

it ; for It is impoiTible to live and have affli<3:ions equal to mine. I fee, and 
with horror apprehend, (and for my fake,) thofe unfortunate and deferv- 
ing people's deftru6tion. Alas ! piety and juftice have retired to their 
habitations above, and it is a crime to h^ve done or performed too much^ 
.as my mifery makes my life a burthen to myfelf, lo I fear the empty 
titles of perpetual vieeroy and admiral render me obnoxious to the Span- 
i(h nation. It is vifible enough how all methods are made ufe of to cut 
the thread ivhich is breaking, for I am in my old age, and loaded 
with unfupportable pains of the gout, and am now languilhing and ex- 
piring with that and other infirmities amv^ng favages, where 1 have nei- 
ther medicines nor provifionsfor the body, priell nor facraments for the foul. 
My men mutinying, my broUicr, my fon, and thofe that are faithful, Tick, 
Aarving, and dying., Ihe Indians have abandoned u§; and the governqr qf 
St. Domingo, Abando, has fent father to fee if I am dead, than, to fuc^ouf 
us, or carry' me alive hence, for his boat neither delivered a letter nor fpoke, 
or would receive any from us, fo I conclude your highnefs officers intend 
here my voyage and life fhall end. O blelicd mother of God, that com- | 

paffionatcth the miferable and opprcifed, why did not cruel BonadilU 
kill me, when he robbed me and my brother of our dear purchafe4 i 

gold, and font us for Spain in chains, without hearing, trial, crime^ or ftia- 
dow of one ! 1 hefe chains are all the trcafures I have, and fhall be bu- 
ried with me, if I chance to have a coffin or a grave ; for I would have 
the remembrance of fo unjuft and tragic an a6l die with me, and, for thi? 
glory of 'the Spanifh name, be eternally forgot. Had it been fo (O bleff- 
cd virgin !) Obando had not then forced us to be dying ten or twelve 
months, and to perilh per malice as great as our misfortunes. O let it not; 
bring a further infamy on the Caftilian name, nor let ages to come know, 
there were wretches fo vile in this, that thought to recommend them- ] 

felves to Don Fernando, by deftroying the unfortunate and miferable I 

Chriftopher Columbus, not for his crimes, but for his fervices indifcoycr- i 

ing and giving Spain a new world. It was you, O heaven ! that infpired 
and conducted me to it, do you therefore weep for me, and ihew pity; | 

let the earth, and every foul in it that loves juftice or mercy, weep for 
me. And you, O glorified faints of God, that know my innocency 
and fee my fuftbrings, have mercy. If this prefent age is too envious or 
obdurate to weep for me, furely thofe that are to be born will do it, when 
they are told Chriltopher Columbus, with his own fortune, at the hazard 
of his own and brother's li ves^ with little of no expence to the crown of Spain, 
ID twelve years, and four voyages, rendered greater fervices than ever mpr- 




C B y 

tal man die! to prince or kingdom, yet was made to pcrifh (without being 
charged with the lead crime) poor and miferable, all but his chains b-ing 
taken from him, fo that he who gave Spain another world, bad nolther in it a 
•cottage for lumfelf nor wretched family. But fhould heaven ftill perfecute 
me, and feem difplcafed with what I hayp done, as if the difcovery of 
this world may be fatal to the old, and as a punishment bring my life in 
this miferabJc place to its fatal period ; yet do you, O good angels ! (you 
that fuccour the -opprelied and innocent,) bring this paper to my great 
miftrefs. She knows how much I have done, and will believe what 1 fuffcr 
for her glory and fervice, and will be fo jult and pious as not to let the 
fons and brothers of him, that has brougtit to Spain fuch immenfe richesj^ 
and added to it vaft and unknown kingdoms and empires, want bread or 
fubfifl on alms. She, (if flie lives) will confider cruelty and ingratitude will 
provoke heaven, and the wealth I have difcovered will (lir up all mankind 
to revenge and rapine, fo tliat the nation may chance to fuffer hQrQaft(:r^ 
Jfyx what cuaviQusj malici^u^, and yngrateful^ people do npw« 



C ^ ) 





TT being the ufual coiirfe of fefch perfons, whofe pikes prove too fhort,^ 
A? to make ufe of their pens to fiipply that defect, and by that jncans* 
endeavour to dear themfelves from envy and reproach, their difaftersr* 
might draw upon them, which is ordinarily meafured to them with a large 

, hand, I fhould have waved any thing in this nature, and wholly call 
my reputation, in the managing of this weftern defign, upon the opinion 

* of thofe that have formerly been acquainted both with my perfon and 
former fervices ; but there being fo many thoufands who never knew me^ 
nor' them, 1 find myfelf nccrfTitated to publifh to the world, a 
true narrative of the defign, left otherwife, (if I be filent,) fome envious 
perfons Ihould take the liberty to cenfure me, as their own mifguidcd fan- 
cies and humours, or the flanderous reports of envious tongues fliall die* 
tate to them. 

The fad and never fufficiently to be lamented differences, which have 
fome few years paft fallen out in thefe nations, and being fo general, that 
almoft every man was in action, or afl'ection, engaged in them, upon one 
part or otf)cr. Among others myfelf, (as confcienceand judgment guided 
me,) adhered to the parliament, upon fuch grounds, reafons, and engage- 
men ts, as v^e re held forth by them, (though fruitlefs of myhopesin thcend,) 
which caufe I promoted, to my utmoft ability againft all difcouragements^ 
and, to enable me the better, I fold a tenement of about forty pounds a 
year, with the money to raife arms, and to maintain a company of loot 
in tl at fervice, which J did, and ferved with the fame in Lancalhire, with- 
out any pay. My fervice in England I ftiall not mention, but leave to 
others to fpeak of both in Lancafhire, Cheftiire, Yorkfhire, SaUop, and 
Korth VValeiy, in the (lege of Nantwick, fight at Leckbridge, Chrillleton^ 

. aod 

( 7 ) 

Bnd \fontgomery, befides other fcrv ices of lefs importance. Tlie,\var,rn 
England being ended, I was engaged in the Iriih fervice, and landed at 
tublin, (it bcingbefK^ged,) fiilt of any rcginieht, in fuch a time when 
they defpaircd oi any relief, and the toldiers running away to the enemy 
byhundreds, fo that they were almoft come to anecelTity to treat of a furr?a- 
der thereby, to favefomething, all olherwife being certainly lolt. My arriv il 
put a Hop to this, and put life into the foldiers, who otherwife out of mere 
defpairof relief would have revolted. After the taking of Drogheda, (other 
officers refufing the employment,) I was fent into Ulfter with one thoufand 
five hundred horfe and foot only, there being in that province abovfefo many 
regiments as I had hundreds, to dppofe me ; where how the^ Lord prof- 
percd me, is publickly known. So that betorc I ha^l received two thou- 
land poimds from the Hate, to carry on that fervice, the Lord had givea 
into the parliament's hands whatever the Jicots had in pollclFion, and for 
furrender of vvhi( h, the parliament did, by their commiffioners, oftbr to 
the Scots one liundred and iifty thoufand pounds; and as one of the 
commilTioners, fir Robert King^ told me, they had coramiffiort to give two 
lumdred thouiand pounds, if it would be accepted. In Carling Fort, 
Kewry, Belfaft, Lyfnegarive, Antrim, Toom, and Carrjckfergus, were 
above eighty pieces of ordnance, and near lialf of them brafs; eighty 
barrels of powder, with match and ball proportionable ; with about two 
lumdred arms ; for all which fervice, I never received further reward, 
than a letter of thanks for the fame, from the council of (late. After I 
had continued in Ireland almoll five years, and never feen home, (the Irith 
war being ended^) the right honourable the lord Broughill and myff If 
were, at a general council of the ofldcers, voted .to attend his highnefs with 
fome addrefies from the army, in order to the fettling and planting of 
Ireland, which buiinefs being almoll perfected, it was his highnefsVplea- 
fure to acquaint mc, that he intended fome other employment for me. I 
defired to know it. After fome time, the defign was iniparted to me, and 
tlic jufl:ice of it, which I defired to be cleared to me before I accepted of 
it, in which particular being fatisfied by' this dilemna, that either there 
was a peace with the Spaniards in the Weil-Indies or not? If peace,^ 
they had violated it, and to feck reparation wasjuft. If wchad no peace, 
then was there nothing a6led againll articles with Spain. After this, .1 
defired his highnefs to grant me fome requefts before I could iaccepl of 
this employment. His hi^^hncfs commanded mc to draw them up, in 
writing, and to deliver them to Mr. Secretary Thurloe, who fhould p;ivc 
me aniinfv/er to tlicro, which accordingly I did. Thefc being granteo, I 
, * . prbcceaca 

( 8 ) 


J)roCeeded to propound land In Ireland, for my arrears due for my feryicfe 
there, and fome in lifting of officers now aftiiig ; when fuddenly all th6 
bufinefs was at a fta^d, and all further proceedings in it to be waved, fo that 
1 thought all had been ended, and betook me again to my own aflairs. 
After fome five months filence, I was fuddenly again called upon to un- 
dertake the employment. I anfwered, 1 could not in confcicnce engage, 
unlefs my propofals were granted, nor leave my children without any care 
of them, except I ihould fall und^ r the apoftle's ccnfure — He that pro^ 
videth not for than of his family has denied the failhy and is uotfe than 
an infidel. ' 

I dcfired to know the grounds and reafons of the dcfign, that I might 
the better imderrtand the ftate of thofe parts^ 1 defircd arms, ammuiii* 
tion, and all other nccelfarics, by a particular under my hand, fuitablc la 
the defign, and the diftimcc of the place, fupplies; not being to be had, and> 
therefore, muft carry the more with us, left, when we come to work, we 
Jhould be forced to rti)nd ftill, through want of necellaries to carry on the 
fervice. I further moved, that my friends ihould not be made more tor- 
midable to me than my enemies, by bounding and ftieightening me with 
commiffions and inftruftions wliich, at that diltance, could ferve but as 
Ifctters contingencies not being poffible to be forefeen, and I by them 
difcouraged, and put into doubt, when I Ihould need the greatelt en- 
tourngements, without fear to engnge againft all hazards, which, by in- 
.Iflr unions, might be double to what the enemy could make them. 1 had 
*a fatIsla6tory anfwcr to all, but how performed Ihall be afterwards de- 
clared. Whilft thefe things ^vere in tranfa6lion thtTe were fome difcon- 
lents in the fleet, and complaints were faid to be againll the unfoundneft 
of the provifion ; about which, 1 bring fpoke4i unto by the officers, that 
the care of the food belpnged to me, I defired the perfon that informed 
ine, to acquaint g(»neral Defbrow with it, which he did, and general Def- 
brow was fo incenfed againft me, that he pnblickly fell out with me, and 
told me, 1 fought to hinder the defign, and raifed an untrue report: I re- 
j)lied ! did not, and that 1 had only lent the informer privately to acquaint 
liim with thefe things, in regard he had the care of the fleet, to fee it welj 
.furnifhed with all things, and that 1 had the information from colonel Dul- 
ler, and had not fpoke of it to any, fave the commiffiouers, and therefore 
could not be guilty of any mifcarriage to the prejudice of the defign be- 
ing; I meddled not in any report, but willed Buller tu inform him what 
iie had told me, and therefore did wonder why he Ihould thus publickl^- 

( 9 ) 

reprehend me to no end, fave to make a breach betwixf the land and fea- 
men. He anlwercd, he had for twelve years ieeu tranfaclions of afiairs, 

and had an end, wherefore he . I replied, tlie end lie aimed kt 

I knew not, but was certain liis language would prodAiee no good to the 
dehgn but hurt. I afterwards enquiring of a friend the reafon. I was an- 
fwercd, no information againft the victuallers of the navy would be heard 
with a^iy other acceptance. I afked the reafon of that. It was anlwercd, 
though general Defbrow was no vi6lualler, yet it was believed, iipoa vcvy 
ftrong prefumptions, he had a ihare in the profit of the place, and there- 
fore would receive no complaints againft the victuallers of the navy, but 
with reproach and plTion againft the informer; his own intereft (though 
private and not generally "known) engaging him in their behalf, it being 
his own concern, as well as theirs. After this, myfelf and officers made 
feveral propofals to the lords of the council, for the advantageous carry- 
ing on of the lervice, as we conceived, wherein we were fo modeft in mat- 
ters of our own concernments, that never men did undertake fo hard and 
defperate a work upon fo mean and low conditions; to let the world 
know it was the promotion of the gofpej and the fervice of our country 
we chiefly did propound to ourfelves. But, after four months attendance 
and expence of our money, we had not any pofitive anfwer, whether the 
delign would go on or no, and yet thedefignwasvulgarlydifcourfed; where- 
by the enemy had timely warning to provide ; ^hich we find they did 
'with much circumfpe6tion and prudence. After about five months time, 
I was commanded to be ready to go with fo much hafte, having wholly 
laid all conceit of the defign afide, that I was fo furprifed with confufion 
in my thoughts, 1 had fcarce time to know in what condition the ftate of 
things were before our men were drawn out. I defired we might only have 
luch as freely ofl'ered themfelves, which waspromifed us; yet the officers 
generally gave us the moft abje6l of their companies, and, if any man 
4)ftered himfelf, he was ftruck or otherv^'ife puniflied; and one thing I 
cannot omit, that thofe men we had were taken up purpofely to fp^e 
their old blades, and among thofe thus entertained were diverfe papifts, in 
particular fixteen, and four of them Irifti, and one a prieft, were put upon 
us out of the lower regiment; many more were found iince, though all 
*we could difcoverwere caihiered at Barbadoes; and though it was ear- 
neftly moved by me that we might have the men raifed out of the Irifh 
trmy, feafoned with hardfhip and danger, it was utterly reje^ed : befides, 
the men thus given wanted five hundred of the number defigned, and al- 
moftiolf their arms defe^ve^ and altogether uuferviceabi^; which be* 

'•V • • 

( . 10 ) 


ing related to the council, we vyere not permitted to flay for arms, mup)[> 
lefs, which I earneftly prcHcd, to exerciic the men and try what they 
were; but tlic officers and myfelf were threatened to be imprifoned if 
they rtaycd in the city till next day; whereby fome were conltrained to 
leave thou* necefliirics behind them, which they could never procure to be 
brought to tlicm ; all being denied carriages, vvliich are allowed all other 
officers in the three nations* I then moved, that we miglit liave a gene* 
ral mufter, that I might fee the officers and foldiers together, the better 
to judge of their titnefsand abilities; and was promifed it Ihpuld be at 
Portfmouth; but, before I could come thither, fome were ffiippcd and 
fent away, and all were reproached for not shipping fafter than wind, and 
tide, and boats, would fervc us; and, when I carnellly moved to have our 
(lore ihipswith us, 1 was promifed they ihould meet us at Portfmouth, 
and there I was told they would be with us before we left Barbadoes. In 
all my defires and proposals I was conftantly anfwered with feoff or bad 
language by fome ; as, moving for targets, the country being woody (the 
want of which we found to our grief) we had a jell told us, and then a 
denial. Inftead of minifters to the lix regiments I prelfed for, being the 
defign wasalledged to be for the propagation of the gofpel, a number, of 
black coats were offered ; 1 complaining of prophane perfons put vipon 
nie, it was anfwered, if they offended to calhier them, contrary to the 
old adage tw^ius ejicitur^ S^c. All thefe things might have difcou- 
raged me from going, had not my affeftions to the fervice of my country 
tranfported me beyond my reafon, and all the perfuafions of my friends. 
J, leaving a confiderable employment at home, as well as elVate, fo that 
neceffity did not force me upon the fervice. I was promifed ten months 
provifions for ten thoufand men; but, in Head of liaving it put on board 
with me, it was fent to London to the ftore fhips, for \yant of room,, and 
yet the officers of the navy took in commodities to trade wlthall at Bar- 
badoes. When we came to Barbadoes, being the twenty-ninth of Jai\u-. 
ary, we fell next day to purfue oiir bufinefs arid inftru6lion$, but found 
things fo contrary to expe6latioa and proniife, that niyfelf writ the fol- 
lowing letter to the protecftor: 

May it pleafe your higfmefsj 


THE good hand.of God going along withjus^ at fea preferving us from 
tempefts and difeafes, not twenty that 1 can hear, of dying ni all tlie 
fleet, the difficulties and wants we have met with in this place are fully 

. repreiied 

( " ) . 

jcprefTed by the commiflioners, that I ihould but* trouble your highnefs 
with mentioning of them. It may be your highnefs thinks we have 
fpent too much tune, and fo do I ; but when our wants are recounted, 
and the difficulties or rather impoflibillties to fupply ourfelves here 
confidered, it will appear to fuch as know this ifland we have not been 
flow; neither will it be imputed as a fault to us, I hope, confidering our 
ftores and other neceflaries are all behind, whicli plead the more for us, 
aiid manifefts our obedience to your highncfs's commands ; yet nothing 
can dilcourage, fave what does wholly difable us to profecute the fame, 
which 1 hope will appear by our fubfequent a6lings. Our fupplies and 
recruits, I am confident, need not be prefled upon your highnefs, they 
being fo necellary, and the work fo ferviceable to your highnefs, that I 
ihall give you no other diverlion, fave conclude my felf, &c. 


AFTER a mod merciful and good hand of God towards us at fea^ 
the twenty*ninth lalt we came to anchor at Carlifle Bay. 1 he next 
day we landed and fell about our work, but prefently of our own felves, and 
by friends privately, were aflivrcc! (which fmce we find true) that all the 
inhabitants were againft our dcfign, as dellru'6tive to them, and that they 
would not readily and cordially aflift us. All the promifes made to us in 
England of men, provifions, and arms, we find to be but promifes, and do 
not know that we have raifed one thoufand five hundred men, and not 
armsfor three hundred of them. Mr. Neal's fifteen hundred arms are 
dwindled to one hundred and ninety. We did not doubt but my lord 
and his council had proceeded and grounded their refolves upon greater 
certainties than we yet dilcern, by any one particular, of all that was 
taken as moft certain, the confidence of which did caufe us, with great 
ailurance, to reft fatisfied with what was p'-omifed us we fhould find here ; 
only the country has raifed us fixty horie in a troop. We cannot expe6t 
to be relieved from hence with provifions, they buying all their own ; and, 
had we not found fome fent here by the victuallers of the navy, I know 
not how we Ihould have fubfifled when gone hence. We have feized 
fome Dutch veflels which we found here, which refufe to give us any 
invoice pr bill of lading, they having almoft fold^ all their gdods, and 
laaded them before we came ; and the inhabitants will Qot difcover to 

B ii xvhom 

( 12 ) 

whom they were fold ; only fince we came, a Dutchm'an came in witk 
two hundred and forty-four negroes, which we have fold for about five 
thoufand one hundred and fiKty-two pounds ; and another velil-l, with 
foilie alles, fold for about two thoufand two hundred pounds, and twenty- 
three not yet fold, which will much exceed all other feizures ; but what- 
ever is not to be gotten here mud be fent from England, pr we mull pe- 
rifli. We defired our men's arms might be changed, being extremely bad, 
and two fifths not to be made fcrviceable here. Of three thoufand men 
defigned, we brought but two thoufand five hundred, and of thofe not one 
thoufand fix hundred well armed, fo that our ftores not coming as pro- 
mifed, we are making half pikes here to arm the reft of thoie we faife, 
for we have not hopes at any rate to procure one thoufand fix hundred 
fire arms. If bread and meat be not conftantly fent us from Englanrfi 
we muft want it; for caffava after \t is planted (and we cannot plan.t it 
till June at fooneft) will not be fit to eat tor one year. It is agreed up- 
on, by all thofe perfons that know America^ that Englifh powder wdl 
not keep above nine months, and at that time we muft receive conftaat 
fupplies. French and Spaniih powder will keep many years, therefore I 
earneftly defire fait petre and all other materials, with men to make pow- 
der, may be fent to us ; for the ingredients will keep uncom])oundcd very 
well. We have met with all the obftru6lion that men in this place can 
caft in our way, and, now we have time to draw our men together, we find 
not half of them armed, nay, in fome regiments, not above two hundred 
arms, the moft unfit arms and unfit men generally given us, and here we 
are forced to make half pikes to an» them, which hath lofl us fo much 
time and will hazard our ruin. Had we been armed in England, doubt- 
lefs we had been at work before this. I have juft now received an ac- 
count from general Penn of what arms the Ihips can accommodate Us 
with, which, as you may fee by the enclofed particular, will not amount 
to, in fliot, above fifteen Ihot a man, a moft inconfiderable proportion to 
have hunted tories with in Ireland, wher6 we might have fupplies 
every day, much more to attempt one of the greateft princes in the 
world, within his moft beloved country, where fupplies cannot be had 
above twice a year, and thisifland upon trial will not fit us with fo much; 
a fad matter that we muft attempt fo high with little or nothing, or return; 
to do which fome of us could more chearfuUy hear the news ot death 
than be guilty of. I have given the beft account I am able. The com- 
miflioners will be more large, I believe, to his highnefs. Pray let not the 


( 1^ ) 


f^Id proverb be verified, in us, out of fight out of mind; if fo, yau wlfl 
quickly hear we are not in this world, &V. 
Barbadoesy Februaiy 

The fubftance alfo of this letter, with fomc particular inftru61:ions, was 
written to Mr. William Rowe and Martin Nowell, who were agents for 
me and the army at London. 

The firll bufinefs w^ fell upon at Barbadpes was the feizing of all Dutch 
vefl'cls, accordmg to his highnefs inftru<?tions. General Pt nn put his own 
nephew, one Mr. Poole, to take the invoices and bills of lading. Mr. 
Window and myl'elf urged that he fhould nota6t but by comniiAion from 
us, and that we would put a check upon him ; he told us, he had power 
of himfclf to commiffion him, refuled ours, and would not admit of a 
cheeky rtor fuffer to fee original invoices; only one I faw, which was con- 
veyed away immediately, iml the number of elephant's teeth in it, which 
I remembered exa<?lly, one hundred and ninety-one, were, in the copy of 
it, made but one hundred and fifty. I urged the falfehood of the copy, 
and dt fired the original ; at laft they brought in a hundred and eighty-one, 
and* urged that the other ten were my mifl:ake, but I had taken the number 
into my memorial, and could not miftake it; however this one a<Sl (if the 
reft of the invoices, as I have ground to believe, were curtailed according- 
ly) will fhew tl'ic feamen*s proceedings. Mr. Winflow and mylelf conli- 
dcred how to remedy this, but finding the feamen our enemies, and at 
Icaft to fcorn us and adhere to their general, and colonel Searle to comply 
with him^we wereconftrainedto be patient by Ibrce, and cominit thcthingto 
private remembrance, when time ferved to vindicate ourfelves, and Mr. 
Winflow laid he would certilyfecretaryl hurloeof it; which I believe hedid« 

At a council of war held at the Indian Bridge Town in 
Barbadoes, March 18, 1654, to consider the wants ow 


General Venables^ 
Major General Heinesy Colonel Morris^ 

Colonel Fortefcue^ Colonel Carter^ 

Colonel Buller^ Colonel Doyley^ 

*• Kesolved, 

• THAI it be propofed to general Penn and his officers, that as the land 
Ibrcea do ptomile nev^r to dcfert the fleet, general Peon and his offi« 


( 1* ) 

I • 

cers do mutually engage with the land forces not to leave them until their 
fupplics come, which, if they fhould mifcarry, then to tranfport thera 
back again to England. 

That it be propofed to the commilTioners, that large proportions of 
fliippingbe provided to tranfport the army, Icit, by pellering the fhips, 
infectious difcafes ihould confume the forces, and fo endanger if not 
overthrow the defign. . ^ ^"^ 

That foldier's wives, who offer to carry ihoir own provifions, may \}e 
traiifported, to take care of the lick and woiiiidcd men. 

That old linen be provided for tlie chirurgcons. 

That we do not march hence under at lead twenty ton of ball. 

That we have ten ton of match before we march hence. 

That, before we part hence, we have from the fleet two thoufand fire-- 
arms, fix hundred pikes, befides piftols, carbines, and two hundred haH 
pikes, and that they be prefently fent on ihore. 

We defired at the fame time copies of the invoices. After long delay, 
one was delivered, and immediately by Pool borrowed from Mr. Gary, and 
would never be redeliverod till the day we left Barbadoes, were forced to 
leave it with the cdmmiflioners for prize office there. But of this more 
hereafter, with Gary his teflunbny concerning the fame. 

Our ftores not coming, I fent to general Penn to know what arms, ihot, 
and match, he could fpare, (for general Delbrowhad aflfured me and the 
^ pfficers in England that what was in the fleet was and fliould be for the 
carrying on the lervice andatthecommiffioners difpofal, and that there was 
enough to ferve both us and the fleet, for feme good time). He returned 
me an account of fifteen fhot a man was all he could fpare of his ball^ 
and a few tons of match; but, though he had many hundred pikes in the 
fleet tQ ^are, and lances to kill cows, which were tor our ufe as well as the 
fleets, yet we could not get one pike or lance, only fome few half and 
quarter pikes ; wherefore I was neceflTitated to fet all hands to work to 
make half pikes (the iixnjwr of that country not bein^ fit for long ones,) 

( 15 > 

which were yet fo bad that 1 fuppofe Tom Tmkcr, or Tom a Bedlam, io 
England marches with better weapons. Upon our arrival there, I found 
all men's arms unfixed, our gunfniith's tools were in the ftore ihips, 
and were denied to be fejit v\ith us, fo that our want of fmith's 
tools, and making of half pike?-, hindered us from fixing our arms 
and the offictMs from exercifing their men, except a very little be- 
fore we came from thence. V\>-c were ordered to take up provifions 
there, and charge bills of exchange at hoiYie, but I fuppofe it was known 
to others, though not to me, that no provifions were to be gotten there, 
for fo I found by experience, and the rates much higher than what they 
were in England, for what I bought myfclf; fo that thefe, with fome other 
reafons, caufcd Mr. Winilow, one of the commiflTibners, to fay to divers of 
' the offiters that we were betrayed, and if it had been in thelate king's reign 
he would have declared fo. Motwith (landing all thele difficulties I con- 
tinued forward and chearful until fuch time I heard the feamen talk of 
going home, which raifed fome doubts among the officers that they in- 
tended to leave us (which was promifecl in England they Ihould not before 
another fleet came) and then we faw we mull perifh. . Another fell in 
the rear of this, was that, upon dur coming from Barbadoes, the feamen 
liad their allowance, and our landmen were reduced to half (by what or* 
der I know not) and that given them but ibur days in the week and the 
other three fifh days. The feamen had their victuals with brandy, and the 
landmen Ir^id only bread (and that moil beaftly rotten) and water, which 
brought them fo low that at landing they fell down, and fome of them 
into the water, as the rear-admiral obferved ; and the vice-admiral march- 
ing along with us with a regiment of feameu, feeing our men's weaknefs, 
find, that the fortnight's weakening at fea with bad provifions would not 
he recovered with t\\ o month's good diet at land ; and, though the ofl[icers 
complained of their bad bread, itwasanfweredthc bjjead was bought by the 
commiffioners at Barbadoes, and mufl be fpent,which it might have been with- 
out prejudice, ifdelivered out for onedayin the week to all feamen and land- 
men. And here! mull query, whether thebad bread in the fleet was not given 
the landmen upon this pretence? It is true the provifions were bad, fo 
that they were refufed by the fleet in England, and therefore fent by the 
vi^luallers ot the navy to Barbadoes to be fold; which we were forced to 
buy rather thali ftarve, being our own llores came not to us, preferring bad 
food before noile. We left Barbadoes the lall of March, and by the way 
dfifpatched fome bufmefs at St. Chrillopher's, where we took in a regiment 
* foot 5 and tlien when wc can>c from i^. ChriAopher's multered on 

^ board 

' «* • « 

r • 

( 1« ) 

board, and, finding great want of arms, we once more dcfired a fupply 
from the fleet, who had above a tboijfand two hundred pikes to fpare, and 
a large quantity of lancos, but were rdufcd by general Penn the loan of 
one pike or lance (though the lances wore put on board for the army to 
kill cows,) fo that we were conftrained lo ufc half pikes, Ihorter by two 
foot than the enemy's, which gave them great advantage againil us. Our 
next bufuicfs (which lailed long and was interwoven with other debates,) 
wasaclaufein the commilTioners inftruclions from his highnefs, that they 
ihould difpofe of all preys and booties got by fea or land towards the car- 
rying on of the prefent fcrvice and dcfign; which, when it came into 
agitation, I told the commiffioners I conceived it was to be underftood of 
ihips and their lading, or ol large quantllics of treafure in towns or forts; 
for if,* as they underftood, it were to be intended of all. forts of pillage, 
k was not poflfible to be put in execution ; b( fides I did fear it* would dif- 
guft the army and turn them againft me, and if 1 loft the officers aftec- 
tions 1 conceived it would utterly difable me to ferve his highnefs; for this 
was fo contrary to what had bejen pra<^iifed in England, as I doubted it 
would be impofTible to fatisfy them, and how to bring them from pay and 
plunder (both which they had in England) to have neither pay nor plun- 
der, without the propounding fome fit medium, I thought it was impofA- 
ble. The thing was propounded to the officers, and a rortnight's pay pro- 
pounded to them in lieu of their pillage of Santa Domingo. I'he ofii* 
cers being in arrears, and many of them coming in hopes of pillage into 
a country where they conceived gold as plentiful as ftoues, demanded 
three months ; I with entreaty drew them to accept ot fix weeks pay, an3 
in this time of difpute I drew up a declaration that did fatisfy the officers, 
and thecommiffionersdidfo farapproveof it asthat thcygaveorder to have 
it drawn fair; for each regiment one>, that they might fubfcribe it. The 
order, follows : 

^ By the commiffioneri appointed by his highnefs for managing the affairf 
of Americft with the confent of the officers : Whereas it hath been the praC'- 
jtice of the be/l conmanders and beji ordered armies that ever have been^ not 
only to make flriff lawsy but exeaite the fame with like flriS feverity 
tipon ftich officas and foldiers as fhould pillage or plunder without licence^ 
or conceal what they had Jo pillaged^ and not bring it to the public fiore or 
Jlock ; in regard many armies have been thereby ruined and deftr^ed when 
they have had the, victory pipqff'effio?if yet bjf that only JauU hwf given the 

( n ^ 

enemy opportunity to xvrejl the fame out of their hands^ as the French at Ga^ 
righan and the Venetians at Tacobtd \ aljb^ becauje the 7ne?i that actually 
perfojTned the fc/ vice ofthedar/li/ejlain^woundedy or have the enemy Jlill before 
them^ Jo that without imminent ruin they cannot Jeek after fpoil v but pei Jons j 
uhofe deferfs merited little or nothing in the fervicc of the day^ carry away 
the pro^t of the whole fuccefs^ to the fingular difcouragement of brave rejo* 
lufions^ ivho ujually get nothing but bloivs ; the injujlice of which caufed 
Dwid to make it a niilitary law Samuel I. %Oth chapter and 2ifth verfe^ 
to give equal fliare to every perfon of the army though not prejent in the ac- 
tion \ andthoHsih the equity of thething carry enough with it tojufiify thepro-^ 
feedings of antiquity againfl fo great an^vil^ the diforder being oj^ Jo danger- 
ous a confeqiience^and contrary to reajon and religion^ thatafexv perfons ficho 
are ufnally the leaft defervingj fliould carry away the xvhole reward of the 
victory and fuccejs purchajed t)y the blood and hazard of all : Wherejore^ it 
is his highneffes fpecial commands to us^ (hat we Jhould rectify Jo great a 
diforder crept fo far into modern armies^ and that a jufi account be tMen of 
the pillage and booties^ to the end that a7i equal dijlribution may bemade thereof 
to all perfons ; according to every mai\!s quality and merit : It is therefore here- 
by ordered that no perfons of xvhat degree or quality Joever do prefume to pil- 
lage withoxit licence^ or to concealy detain^ or keep^ to his own private life 
or profit y any arms, money, plate, jewels, or goods whatjbever, upon pain of 
forfeiture of his intereft in the ivliolc pay or pillage, and likewife to fuffer the 
pain of death for the faid offence. And it is hereby further ordeied and de- 
clared, that officers Jliall be chofen by mutual con fent, and fworn to receive and 
difpofe of all pillage and booties, according to every mans place, quality, and 
defer t ; and the faid officers fliall take an oath to execute the faid place jiifily 
nnd truly, and the dijlribution Jhall be made by the advice of perlons chojen 
hy the oncers and foldiers, according to each man^s quality and merit. 
Given under our hands this day of 

Richard Venables, 
William Penn. 

But whrn all thingg were mnde ready, the commiflloners (general Penn 
and inyfelf excepted) rcfufed to iign the order, which gave the officers 
great oflcnce ; who, to fatisfy the cOmmifTioners, had feveral of them 
ngrecd to f^gn tlie cnfuing declaration, in cafe the commiflioncrs would 

havcfigned the foregoing order: 


t 18 ) 

Wherea.^ we haw received an order from his hightiejis commij^ntrs for 
ivanag big the affairs of Ame7'ica^ declaring his highneffes in/tructiom to 
thcni^ and thereby reqtiiri?ig an exact account frotn them of all prizes 
4ind booties taken by fea or land^ that fo every officer and foldier may receive 
an equal ftiare^ according to their feveral qualities^ places^ and deferts, a?idJor 
ihc carrying on of the puhlick fervice ; and being convinced by the reafons ai^ 
tedged in the fame of the injujlice^ dangerous inconveniences^ and the iinrea^ 
fonablenefs^ of thai too frequent and nnreformed diforder^ that a few fan4 
thofe nfaally that perform leajl of the fervice) Jhould engrofs to themfelves 
xvhat is pnrchafed by the blood and hazard of all the forces^ xve do tvholly ap^ 
prove of the order^ and alfo engage for ourfclvcs that Xic tcill ^tot vio'att 
the. fame \ but endeavour to caufe allimder our fiver al charges and com- 
mands to give obedience to the faid corrimand^ and to bring oil ofaid^ 
ers againfi the faid law and order to puni/hmcnty and OialU after our 
refpcctive pay is dif charged^ acquiefce in t lie difpqjing and ijjuing forth of the 
r-cmainder by the faid commijjioners^ either is reivards to dcferving perfons, ^ 
for neceflaries to carry on the fervice^ and^ if neceffity require^ to lend our 
pay to provide tlie faid Jieceffaries as the comnvljimers ffiall appoint \ and ^ if 
the Lord fliall blefs us xvithfo high fucceffes^ in returning the overplus toeafc 
the burthens of our dear ?iafive country, for whofe fahe next to the glory of 
Cod this defign is undertaken^^ 

So that Lad not pertinacltv and weakneFis blinded the commliTioncr*^ tliey 
•would havegottliedifpofalof allmto their owij hands, only by yielding fo far 
as to give difconteuted perfons (wliom by force they could not compel) 
a few fair words; which I fuppofe no wife man woidd have refufed, whea 
To much inconvenience muft fallow the denial. But I myfelf, being: as well 
a commiflioner, was put to great ftrait, being wholly a llranger to the ar- 
my, which, occafioned Mr. Winflow to think that it would caufc the ar* 
my to difguft me, .and fo make me uncapable of doing any fervice, hav- 
ing loft the hearts of the officers; for feveral of them charged me 
with negleft to them m iiding with the commiffioners to take away their 
privileges ; for being wont to have pillage when thc^ took any place 
by ftorm in England, and fo had both pay and pillage; and now being in a 
ftrangc country, where they had no pay, to be denied pillage, much ex- 
afperated their fpirits, having no confidence in me : for I had neither of* 
ficer nor foldicrs that had experienced my fiiithfulnefs to them, as they 
were all ftrangers to me, and I to them. 1 was neccffitated to entreat 
-the officers to cntruft me, alfuring them 1 would endeavour their ajlvan-^. 


( Id ) 


t&ge, and that for my own partkulaf I fhould difclaim any tiling of r?ght 
or advantage, and wholly endeavour theirs ; and fo intreated tliem to ac- 
cept of fix weeks pay from the commiffioners, if God ihould give them 
the place, which they corifented to at my requeft. I moved the commif- 
iiuners to join with me to aflure it to the foldiers; but it was denied me j 
and then I was forced lo make a new requeil to the foldiers, that they 
Ihould venture their lives as I ihould do mine, and truft God for the 
reward, which they alfented to: but withal many of thenl declared 
they would never ftrike a ftroke more where there fliould be conv^ 
miffioners to controul the foldiers, but would return for England with 
fpeed ; and thus the bufincfs about di\iding the bear's ftcin before killed 
was laid afide and let flcep for a time, but it will wake much more fierce 
than formerly ; for, if it were dili^ti^faciion at firfl, it would prove mutiny, 
when ripe. In conclufion, myfclf and officers with fome of the commif- 
fioners propounded and infiued to run the fleet into the harbour pf St. Do* 
mingo ; yet the fleet oppofed, and would not, pretending a boom; though 
Cox, our guide, who but a little before came thence, denied it; fo that 
their denial and refufal conflrained us upon a refolution to land at the Ri- 
ver Hine ; and, hearing there was a fort and a trench, we voted to try to force 
them; and JLo that end pafled the votes following: 

At a council of war held on board the Swiftstjre, thk 
7th of APRIL, 1655, where myself and the colone;ls of 



THAT the army land at the River Hine. 

That the regiments caft lots who fhall land firft. 

That two or tliree be landed at once. 

That the feconds to each regiment be appointed. 

That the fliips in which each regiment is tranfported be ordered to 
fail very nc ar in company, for the better ordering the feveral regiments 
m landmg. 

C That 

( 20 ) 

That it be ordered what boats fliall take the foldiers in, according a3 lot 
and command fhall require. 

By myself and the field officers of the army, on B0AR]> 

THE Swiftsvre, April 10, 1655, 


THAT, in cafe the furge of the fca go high, and the fort and trench b6 
defended, the army land to the leeward behind the fecond point. 

That, after the army islanded, a regiment be ordered to the eaft of the 
city, provided general Penn engage to fupply them with all neceflariesi 
The regiment is colonel BuUer's by lot. 

Instructions to the several colonels about landing iir 


. 1ft. THAT the regiments which land firft at the River Hine, (if we land 
there, and that the ditch at the landing be defended and within lhot>) . 
then they are to advance againft the enemy, and to pafs the fame; but if 
it be out of (hot and not defended, then tolland ftill till all be landed; 
but if at the more wefterly, then to draw up and ftand till all be landed. 

2d. In cafe we find no oppofition then none to march away, but all in 
feniority as their due, 

8d. The fignal a piece of white cloth or paper upon the left arm* 

4th. That the word be religion. 

5th. In cafe the enemy oppofe, each man is at landing to advance to 
relieve where there is moll neceffity. 

Thefe things, thus ordered, Mr. Winflow came aod told me that gene- 

( 21 ) 

ral Pcnn had fent Cox forth ; nnd that he fccirf; a vCiT^ 1 b'^prij-^L': a^vnv from 
the rcll of the fleet, aikcd who he was an I wliat he went a' tout. He was 
anfwered it wasCox, Jind that the general had font him. I jjon which I 
went to general Penn and a(k(*d for cMjAiiin Cox (who with one Mr. 
Bounty had heen taken [u at St, Chrilloplier's as guides, both of thcni 
being lately come from Hifpaniola, where Cox had ferved many years a 
gunner in the caflleof St. Domingo) : General Penn told me he had fent 
him forth to gain intelhgenee. I alked further, if he would return to be 
onr ofuide when we landed ? he anfwered he would, for he had orders fo to 
do. I replied it was well if he did. I then began to put the regiments 
that were to land with myfclf in readincfs for landing, delivered out my 
forem^ntioned nirtruclioJis to the fevcral colonels ; and the next day, wh^Mi 
1 lo(^k leave of general Penn and Mr. Window, they gave mc orders to 
prohibit plundering, which I told them I would do by publilhing the or- 
der accordingly. 1 then alked for Cox, whom the feamcn they lay faw a 
few hours before returning to us: general Penn told mc he was before me 
onboard the vice-admiral whither I w^as then going. I alked for Fearnes 
and Bounty, that one of them might Hay with the fleet when Cox letl 
them to march with us by land, he faid they muft tlay with him to bring 
the fleet (which any ihallop might have done) to au anchor: I replied 
one of them was fuifieicnt; for that we might want two : but he would 
not part with eitlier of them. When I came aboard the vice-admiral I 
was difcourfmg with feme officers about what we were to do, and prelent- 
ly enquired of the vice-admiral .whether we were yet fallen into the River 
nine : he replied he knew not. I then aflced for Cox, he faid he was not 
on board nor returned back that he knew of, fmce the general lent him; 
and that he had no guide but one Sabada, a Dutchman, nor any g'.iide 
nor order for landing at Hine River. I told him it was the place' we dc- 
ligned to land at, and that we would attempt that place before we went 
to the leeward point. He faid he durft not venture the fleet without a 
pilot in a ftrange and dangerous place. I defired him to fend for Fearnes 
or Bounty, or return with the fleet to general Penn ; he faid he could 
not, the wind was againft: us, and that we muft go to the leeward point. 
I then protefted my diffatisfaclion at thefe paH'ages, and fo by force was 
carried to the weft point, which occafioned a long and tedious march, 
forty miles or thereabouts, in a woody country we knew not, and without 
any guide fave Heaven, the land burnt up with a drought, fo that our 
horfes and men, the fun being in our faces, fell down for thirft; but if 
any had the leaft liquor poured into hmi he recovered, otlierwife died im- 


i «2 ) 

mediately; our very feet fcorched through our flioes with the fand and 
gravel, there l)chig no grals fave in favanna's, and the heats in the torrid 
2one at the highell, the nights cold and much dews, which with eating 
oranges for thirll, wanting water, made our men after their former bad and - 
Ihort diet more a()t to thc^fluK ; and in this condition we marched four days 
to come to the place wc Ihould and might have landed at tlie firll day, and 
have prevented all this trouble, ficknefs, and the enemy's fummoning in 
' the wliole country to oppofe us ; and, to add to our mifery, many of our 
men (who thought to have three days provilions) were by fome feamen 
put on ihore, by whofc fault I know not, with only one day's victuals, (o 
that we were ready to fmk down with extreme faintnefs. At this place 
we made a iigrfal, and defired to pafs over the river. By the votes of the* 
council of war before mentioned, colonel Buller was to land to the eaft of 
the city; I gave him order alfo not to attempt agiinft it, the haven being 
betwixt him and the city, till the army appeared on the other fide; left, 
if he were repulfed in fo dangerous dn attempt, it might heighten the 
enemy's refolves. But, in cafe he could not land to the eaft, then to ob- 
ferve the commiftioners orders till he joined with the army. No place 
feeiiig found to land him to the eaft of the city, he was landed at Hine 
River the day we came to it, w^ith order not to ftir from thence till we 
came to him ; but he difobeyed that order, and marched away with Gox, 
our only land guide, who returned to general Penn in our abfc*nce; 'which 
catifed us to march ten or twelve miles about, not knowing the ^ord ; to 
faft two days longer, which almoil deftroyed our weak and fainting men, 
and brought along with it fo many inconveniences as blafted all our re- 
folves ; be fuffering his men to ftraggle, it caufed the enemy to lay an am- 
buih for hlm,ashimfelf confelled, into which he fell, and neceUity forcing 
our retreatit encouraged the enemy; all which is evidenced, though death 
Iiath prevented me of many witneiics, yet the enfuing letter, which was 
fentine from a cploijel in the army, dated from Jamaica, the 14?th of 
March, 1665, and declares both our refolves as to runnmg the fleet int© 
the haven and BuUer's words and adtions as is uow mentioned : 

Ilmiourable *SVr, 

WHEREAS I hear tlicy accuibyoufor chufmg toland at point Nizarfe, 1 
knew it was not your choice, and allmen will believe it when iliey coniider 
what little CQinp^anii y^u bad of the Eect; and 1 remember well you were 


( « ) 

fa far from wi/liing well to a long mnrch that you defired to have landed 
at the very city itfelf ; but it was arfirmcd at the debate that there was a 
chain layhig acrofs the mouth of the harbour, to hinder pafiage, which 
was afhrmed by fo emhient a perfon that none of the pilots would con- 
tradict it, whilit they were in the cabin, tiiough I cap depofe thai after- 
wards one of them, who had not long fnice bcei) there^ did affirm to me 
there neither was, nor did he believe there could be, any fuch thing. 

W1 at thefujfTeTinsjsof the army were in vour march I cannot know, 
otherwife than by relation and by the experience of my own and colonel 
Buller's men in a much Ihorter way, which was but from Hijic River to 
the two new plantations, wliich could not be above fix miles, and yet 
brought our men to that extremity for want of water that I never heard the 
like comj)laint as was the next moiiimg amongft them ; a condition we fell 
into through the forwardnefs of colonel Buller to march h"om Hine River, 
where we landed, and w^ re appointed to expci^tthe army, or that melTage 
you were to fend to the rear-admiral for provifions, he himfelf confe fling 
botli in his letter to general Penn and Mr. ^^*i^lllow on board, antl Ukewife 
to the officers of that party, that he had no orders to marclu I likewife 
knew that a party was fent forth by him next morning, commanded by 
his major Bhmd, and guided by Cox, to difcover,the fort of St. Ilieroni- 
nio, aivjtoget fome intelligence of your march with the reft of the army. 
He thvre flayed fo long nt the meeting of the ways, which was about hair a 
mile from the fm"t, as colonel Buller wondered at it. I thereupon oftbred 
to march with a fmall party, to know what was the occafion of their itay; 
and, as I remember Bland told me they were ordered there to remain to 
'Cxpeft the army to come up, which he was confident would not be .kmg^ 
if the news was true which was brought to his colonel upon the march 
ihe day before, by a foldier who llayed behind at Hine Bay; which vvaf5, he 
'faw a man come to the river fide with two colours upon a pike. I afked 
him how far the fort was from where he and his party ftayed : he faid it 
was hard by, and that a little within the woods 1 might plainly fee it; 
tvdiich I defire^ to d«, and took Coxe the guide with me; who led me by 
a fmall patH about mufl^et-lhot through the wood to a piece of fallen 
ground, which lay next adjoining to the fort, and about a .quarter of a 
jnile diftant from it. ' Having feen the fort and having Bland's anfwer, I 
tetumed with it to colonel Buller, the party ftill remaining there till the 
iirmy's comiag up;; but as it feems to me that free and often looking on 
^Uxeiiwt bad.canfed thofemen to be difcoveied, and thence bx.eught that 


( 24 ) 

• ■ * » 

ambufcade forth, in whofe hand*? your honour had like to have fallen; fw 
I have heard colonel BuUer fay he did believe that Uiiibufli was laid for 
his men and not for the army. 

: This letter Was writ to me from colonel T^ichard TToldipe, in anfwer 
to one of mine when I petitioned arid expected to be called to give aa 
account of all ray .tranfa6lions. 

This following certificate was writ by Mr. Henry Gary, 

secretary to his highnesses commissioners. 

/, underwritten^ ^^fi^fy ^^o,t being prefent in the great cabin on board the 
ParagOj I heard general Veimbks ajk ^of vice-admiral Good/on ivhether they 
were yet fallen in with the River Hiiie for words to that purpofej that they 
might tiy to land there ; whereupon the vice-admiral replied^ that they had 
overjkot it as they thought ; whereat the general ttondering^ and faying that 
it was refolved to land there if theycould^ he further added that he had no or-' 
ders to flop there. This difcourfe happened on the lit h of Aprils 1655^ 
which I am ready to confirm by oath^ if need require. 

Henry Gary* 

I mentioned before the commiflTioners order to me, which as foon as we 
landed, according as they required, I publifhed that order againil: all plun- 
dering, and that whatfoever was gotten .ihould be brought into a 'publick 
llock, and acquainted the officers with the commiffioners order, which 
followeth : 

By the commiffioners appointed by his highncfsfor ordering and managing 
the affairs in Ainericay xve^ taking into our ferious conf deration upon our near 
appraach to the city of Domingo^ a place that zve have refolved to make the 
firji attempt upon^ in order to the prefent expedition in the WeJl-IndieSy con- 
ceive it a jufl and meet thing that fame moie than ordinary encouragement be 
given to the arniy^ and the rather becaufe if God ^Piall pivcle to put it itiio 
our haiids^ tve may not admit of plundery jor that his highncfs intends to 
j>la7it a colony of Englifli there ; and therefore do declare // the faid ^cTty of 


( 25 ) 

Domingo Jhall rtfufe to furrender upon a fair fummons^ and force the army 
to take it by Jlornij that then the army Jhall have one moiety of ail thai /hall 
be taken^ except armsj ordtiafice^ ammunition^ and other royalties^ viz. of 

Juch goods as Jhall be brought into the public /lores: or in cafe general Vcna-^ 
ties Jhall promife them a month or fix weeks pay^ xve JIi&ll be ready to afjijl 
hhn in it ; provided the place be able to make it good, and we in any meafurt 

. enabled to carry on the defign, and with all provided thefoldiers break not this 
cgreement by plunder: and in cafe it Jliall be taken by furraiderj and that 
the general fhall promife them fuch tncourageniait as the faid condition will 
admit, viz* one third part of what fluill he taken or three wetks pay, except be^ 

fore excepted, the commijfioners will affiji the general therein alfo\ and the ge^ 
rteral is de/ired to iJTue out his orders accordingly to his officers, to prevent plun- 
dcTj and fo confequmtly that ruin which would thereby be bi^ouglu upon the 
itrmy itfelf. Given undei' our hands this 13th day of April, 165 5, 

WlLtlAM PeNN", 

Edward Winsi^ow, 
George Butler* 

' But their fpirits were by former*difcontents fo exafperated, that what 
Would at firft have been willjngly accepted of with love and thankfiihiefs 
Was now rejected ; and the feamen firft of all, then all the reft, fell into mutiny ; 
and feme laid that I was but one man. and fo could not hang all the army, 
and that whilft they had no pay they would have all they could get. Of 
all which I certified the commiffioners, withall aifuring them that I n#w 
found ny former fears to come to pafs, that they would deftroy my in- 
tereft in the army by their unfcafonable and unreafonable pertinacity in 
refufing the officer's motions; but,* that having difcharged my duty in ob« 
ferving their orders and his highnefles inftru^tions, I fliall fatisfy my own' 
heart therein whatever the event were. Whereupon they fent me a fur** 
ther order, but all too late; for, paffion having ufurped the feat of rcafon, 
nothing would be heard, and the reins of governnient being loofed, would 
not now be endured to reftrain their will, and my iptereft being loft^ 
all my endeavours were to no purpofe. In this dilcontented hu- 
ttiour we marched in a moft fad and miferable manner, in an unknown 
©ountr)', tormented with heat, hunger, and thirft, (my felf enduring what 
tlie meaneft fuft'ered) until the fourth day after we came to the River 
Hine^ where we purpofed and might have landed at firftf as is before re-» 

D lated; 

lated J where we were by Cox mformed, there was a ford, which we 
fearched lor, but could find none in half i mile ; and hearing that Bui* 
ler was marched away and Cox with him, we conceived they were gone 
up the river to meet us, and fuppofed the ford was higher above, (but w^ 
left it at the influx of the river into the fea, an unufual place to find a 
ford in, and never thought of) whereupon we marched five miles, but n# 
ford found. We quartered that night without water, and the next 
morning, afterthree miles further march we found one, and then pafledthe 
river, with a refolution to march to the harbour to take in ammunition and 
provifwin, and to refrefh our weary, fick, and fainting, men with fome reft; 
but, hearing colonel Duller and Holdipe's drums, I defired if poflible to 
fend to them to come to us. This bping now the fifth day after we had 
begun with our three days vi6tuals, we marched towards the mips, and 
finding a farm houfe with water, we halted thither ; and I commanded 
a captain out with fome men to feek out the way, ordering him to en- 
quire of a Spaniard who lay bed-rid which was the neareft and beft way 
to the river, where our fhips rode at anchor ; but he negleAed to go, be- 
caufe the Spaniard either could not or would not tell him the way, yet 
never gave any account that he ftayed ; fo that myfelf, not knowing there- 
of, flayed three hours waiting his return. At the laft, finding he was not 
gqne» I called him out and called fome officers to debate, and captain 
Butler one of the commiffioners who was with us all the march. Anol4 
Iriihman was brought in, who offered to bring us within two miles of a 
river, where we might com€ at our ihips. Myfelf was fufpicious of him^ 
after examination, lell he came to betray us, (and the fequel proved 
my jealoufy not to be gr^undlefs) but captain Butler preflfed with 
great earneftnefs to believe him, faying he durft pawn his lite he was lio- 
n eft, and charged me by virtue of my inftru6tions to follow his advice; 
and fome of the officers being fo prefTing I durft not refufe, it being part 
of my inftrucftions to fleer my courfe by the advice of the commmif- 
f:oners,or, by reafon of the death or abfence of the refl, of one. But ^ftet 
three miles march, river appearing, our me© fainting, he faid he 
onlyfpoke of water which was near and the ihips alfo; but fending a 
party, no water within a mile's march was to be found. We met with 
colonel Biiller and his guide captain Cox, who promifed water, which 
was glad tidingf?. We marched towards it, but colonel. Buller's men hav- 
ing quartered thereabouts had rambled up and down , for pillage, wl ich 
gave th enemy occafion to place an^ambufh, wliidi fell upon our forlorn, 
whom ihey routed, and flew feveral officers (former light matters 1 pafs as 


iiot worth mentUning) but were inftantly beaten back with lofs, and.pur-^ 
fued within cannot fhot of the town, where our men, being with the flvir- 
mifh drawn on, forgot that thirft which, when the fight ended, they faint- 
ed under ; feveral men and horfes dying with thirft upon the place. A 
council of war being called, and the condition of the arn^y ftated, which 
was this, — fome had fafted four daysfave the fruits they found in the woods, 
(unfit for men to live upon) their match fpent to three or four inches, 
ne water, the Spaniards having rtopped up all their wells within feveral 
miles, our men fainting, our fhips nottx) be come unto in tliat place; 
if we went on, we muft leave the town betwixt us and ©ur fleet, and by 
confequence betwixt us and our victuals and ammunition ; we had nei- 
ther ladders, guns, nor any man that knew thetown or country,(for captain 
Cox was flain in the fkirmifh). To return was to encourage the enemy 
and to difcourage our men ; to carry famting and ahnoft tfimifhed men 
upon a ftorm, in a dark night, in an unknown place, where we could 
not choofe the fittcft ground to aflault, after fome had fafted five and all 
two days, without ammunition, was thought madnefs; and therefore our 
former refolutions, from which the Irifhman's relation by captain Butler's 
peremptory counfel diverted us, were taken up as the beft. The four miles 
we had advanced out of our way loft us, in that marching back, many 
men and horfe, through want of meat and water. Thefe reafons were then 
propounded and fince (exxt by joae in a letter to colonel Doyly. His 
anfwer follows : , ' 

Jamaica J July 12, 1656. 
Sir, ♦ 

FOR the matter of the allegations you mention, and the reafons of 
our not falling on St. Domingo, though 1 doubt my relation will be little 
advantageous to you now, the Protedtor having wifely and prudently 
judged your cafe, not by the uncertain event of war, but by your own 
deportment ; yet I muft, in honour of truth and juftice, affirm the rea- 
fons in your letter to be the very fame that were then given, which I per* 
4)e^y remember. 

Your's fiCcit 

Edward Doyly. 

D S Wc 

( 28 ) 

• We flayed at the harbour three or four days, taking in of ammunition, 
victuals, and otherneceiraries, and to refreih our men. We again advanced 
"With a mortar-piece, to take the fort where the enemy had laid his am- 
bufh, about a mile fhort of the town, and tWo fmall pieces drawn by 
' men ; but when we came to the fame place, oiu: men in the forlorn, com- 
manded by adjutant general Jackfgn, fell into an ambufh, going againft 
order without any parties to fearch the woods, and with their pikes in tlie 
rear, contrary to order given at the firft landing ; in regard that in forty 
miles march we never faw above three favannas, the whole country beings 
a continual wood, where not above four could march abreaft, and an hun* 
dred might trouble ten thoufand; belidcs himfelf having the charge of* 
the party, put a lieutenant and a captain at the head of them before him, 
and himlelf brought up the rear. The enemy fuffered (without k'tt) our 
men to march on, who went jufl into the midlt of danger, being ready to 
faint with thiiil, having marched eight miles without water, and then 
charged them. 1 he van received the charge and fired orderly, but the 
rear run away, and Jackfon the firll man of all. 1 he way being narrow, 
they ran upon my own regiment, who charged their pikes at Jackion and 
his men to keep them back, but they would not be flayed, but routed firft 
that regiment, then major general Haynes's. 1 he enemy followed eager* 
ly, gave no quarter, fo that the major general and all our beft officers, who 
fco^ncd flight, fell in that action. iJut the fea regiment coming on, with 
myfelf and vice admiral Goodfon at the head of them, with our fwords 
we forced the runaways into the woods, rather choofing to kill them than 
they ftiould route us; which the enemy feeing, retreated; fo that we reco- 
vered the dead bodies and'place of figbt, which ground \vc kept though the 
enbmy*s cannon from the fort fwept away our men by eiglit or nine at a 
ihot. The mortar-piece was drawn up to play, but fuch was the terror 
or floth, or both, that had poflefled our men, that not a man would work 
for any reward to plant it. I had now been troubled for a fortnight w:ith a 
grievous flux, which had fo weakened me (befidcs the pains of the day) 
that 1 could not go except fupported by two, and thus I went from place 
to place, as the cannon played, to encourage the men to fland, and to 
plant the mortar piece ; and at laft fainting, J was forced to leave the care 
to major-general Fortefcue, who could prevail no n>ore than myfelf had 
done ; fo, relling there that nrght, to bury our dead, a council of war 
was called of the colonels and Teveral field officers^ where no man diflent- 
ing, it was voted, that the difficulty of thirfl was not to be overcome, the ' 
enemy having barricadoed tlie way, and placed ambuihes, fo that we 


( 29 ) 

V • 

xnight die of third (llio»h^'h we fbould beat them) before we eould c«>!Ti/e» 
to our ihip?^ who neai the town had found a place to land water and ; 11 
neceflarics, which they trad in readinv^fs for us, as they informed us; and 
therefore refolved n?\t morning to retreat at fun riling, if the m r- 
tar-piece could not play before; which we did accordingly. In tliis hll 
action our men fhewed themielves fo hcartlefs, that they only* tbllowed 
the officers to charge, and there left them to die, except they were as nim- 
ble footed as themfelvcs ; entreaties, perfuafion^, and reafons, not pre- 
vailing to llay them, though they neither' were able nor knew whither to 
run for fafety. Our planters wo lound moft fearful, being only bold to do 
mifchief, not to be commanded as foldiers, nor to be kept in any c}\iji 
order, being the moll proplian(* debauched perfons that we ever faw"^; 
fcorners of religion, and indeed m ?n keot fo loofe as not to be kept un- 
der difeipline, and fo cowardly as not to be made to tight ; fo that had we 
known what they would have proved we fhould rather have chofen to 
have gone durfelves as we can ; fr j n England than to have takeji fuch to 
our alliilancre, who we fear, with fome others put upou usm England, have 
drawn heavy affliction upon us, and dishonour to our nation and religion* 
How fenfible the commilhoners were of our ftreights, and the cowardice 
of our men, let their own letter to the governor of Barbadoesj written in 
my abfence, Ipeak : 



WE are afhamed ofthe cowardice of our men, which yet contlnueth^and 
were not the enemy as cowardly as themfelves, and, they might with a few 
deftroy our army, or elfe the officers muft leave their charge, and charge 
the enemy in a body together ; nor will they be brought to go on again ; 
We mean the body of the army, and, to fay the truth, your men and the 
men of St. Chriftopher's lead all the diforder and confufion: But, having 
conferred with the officers this day, they all agree that thcfe people will 
never be brought to march up to that place again. This hath made ut 
to take up a newrefolution^ to our great grief and anguifh of fpirit, viz. 
to attempt Jamaica in the next place, and therefore defire you to fend 
our (lores thither, if they be. not as yet fent away ; and if the Great Cha- 
rity be not there, not at all to fend our ordnance, mortar-pIece, (hells and 
Jballs for the great guns, but keep them with you till further order ; but if 
ihe or any' other man of waf come witb thenv then ibip thexu in her^ and 

• let 

< 30 ) 

let tliem go with the floras ; but carry the forementioned back to England 
when the (lores are landed at Jamaica; and, in cafe they ihould not find 
lis at Jamaica, then let all return for England; but general Pena will 
write to the commander of any man of war of their (lore (hips more par- 
ticularly, whofe orders therein we pray you will have fpecial refpecft unto, 
if they Ihall be produced. 1 ime will not permit us to tell you of every 
particular, nor to fet out tlie worth of our general ; how he fought by 
all means to (lop the bafe flight of our men, and how our men, 
nay horfes alfo, which are of little ufe in thickets for fight, fell 
dow4i upon their march, forae dying with third upon the place; but if 
flrong water or ordinary water was poured into them they indantly rofe 
up and marched ; how valiantly captain Carpenter has behaved himfelf. 
Captain Paulctt is (lain In this lail engagement, but whether of wounds in 
the back or forward as yet we know not. Thus you fee our fad condi- 
tion. We pray you prefent our refpefts to the commifli#ners for the prize 
office. That God will be pleafed to enable us to make a right ufe of thtf 

^great affli<Stion is tlie earned cjefire o^ 



Your humble fervarits, 

William Penk, 
From on hoard the SwiftfurCj Edward Winslow, 

April 1%^ 1(T55^ George Butler. 

This claufe alfo in a letter from captain Carpenter^ viz. " In the firft 
jny horfe was (hot under me, and 1 was carried away on foot in the throng, 
and fpake to you as I met you biinging up the fea regiment to our relict; 
and beating up the remainder of the major-generars regiment to make 
them face the enemy, and did afterwards tell you of the cowardice of ad- 
jutant Jackfon as the lo(s of our honours, B^c^ But, not to excufe our* 
/elves wholly, we fear we xiid trud too much in the arm of fleih, having 
fo great an army as England never fent into thefe parts before ; and indeed 
•our numbers in this woody country were our trouble not drength. In our 
iird encounter we had fome further difcouragement from the feameh.— 
Our iick and wounded men lent on board (foi tents and carriages we had 


(.51 ) 


©one) were kept upon thpbarcdcckforty-eighthours,and had neither raeat> 
drink, nor drelTing, fo that worms bred in their wounds, and captain Le* 
vcrington, a gallant man, died thereby ; and ouc vi<5liials fent its on ihore 
^as though we were not thirfty enough) luiwatered and candied witlx 
lalt, fo that our men could not eat it till necelfity enforced ; and general 
Penn,. after our difafler, gave the reajr-admiral order,, though oiu: victuals 
were fpent and a day more, that he ihould deliver us none, Mr. Window 
the commiflTioner being prefcnt. The men, which we do not jullifvt be- 
ing commonly called dogs,, and judged worthy, (the motion being made 
accordingly) to be left to the enemy, and fo fet fail for England. This 
being fo horrid a motion, my foul detefted it, and I fhould never have 
mentioned it had not the negledts and injuries put upon me, with my owa 
juft defence, neceffitated me thereunto, that the world might fee the kind- 
nefs the feamcn were like to exprefs unto us. in all our wants and extremi- 
ty, and as an evidence to confirm the relation of their former hard ufage. 
fromthem at fea. So foon as we were retreated to the fea fide, I fell 
into -examination of feveral mifcarriages \ where adjutant Jackfon was 
charged, and the charge proved upon oath^ that tirlt, coatrary to orders . 
and my daily pra6lice, he marched without any party to fearch the woods ta 
prevent ambuihes : Secondly, he took no pikes, or very few, and placed 
them in th« rear, as though he feared our horfe only : Thirdly, he put 
other officers in the van, and himfelf brought up the rear, near enough to 
claim honour if it were gotten, and in a fafe place to run if there waa 
occafion: Fourthly, he was the firft man that was feen to run of the 
whole party, and would not be ftopped ; yea> for eagemefs to be gone^ 
that he, at the flop my regiment gave him, which caufed a crowd, with 
his' hands took hold of them that weire before and thruft them afxde, that 
he might make way for himfelf to be^./oremoft in the retreat; my felf 
coming up, I fa w him upon a pillow with a woman by him weeping 
for him. I, fuppofing him wounded, alked him how he did I — ^he replied 
fore bruifed. I afkcd the woman what her concern was for him? — ihe faid 
that her name was Jackfon, and that her hufband was (lain* I told her 
fhe ought rather to look after her hufband than a ftrangen AU which, 
being proved upon oath before a council of war^ he was only fenteuced to 
be cafhiered, and his fword broken- over his head, and to be madeafwab- 
ber to keep the hofpital fiiip clean, for the health of thofe who. by bis 
evil conduft and cowardice were wounded^ A fentence too gentle for fa 
notorious an offender, againft whom fomeof the colonels made complaint 
Ibr whoring aiid dr unkennels at Barbadoesj but not being able to prove 


< 32 :y 

the h^9 though, conficjeringhis former courfe of life, the prefumptions 
were ftrong. lie and a woman lodging in one chamber together, and not 
?iny other perfon witji either; enough to induce a belief that he was an of- 
fender, he having twd wives in England and (landing guilty of forgery : in 
all which I defired major-general \Vorfley to join with me to acquaint his 
highnefs with, that he mi^it be taken off, and notfuffered to go with me, 
left he (hould bring a curfe upon us, as I fear he did; but his high- 
nefs would not hear, as Mr. Eaton of 4)uckei»field Church can teftify, to 
whom major-general Worfley related this matter in the Tower, they com- 
ing to fee me. After this both perjury and forgery was proved againft 
liiiri in the cafe of colonel * ^ . , a general of Barbadocs, ruined by 

himtby that means. Upon the complaint and with the advice of the faid 
colonel I rebuked him privatfely, which he took fo diftaftcfully that, as it 
9ftei;wards appeared, he ftudied and endeavoured nothing but mutiny, and 
to find fit matter to work upon; as in an army that has neither pay, pillagc,| 
arms, ammunition, nor vi6luals, will not be difficult; but this I came to 
underftand afterwards. We alfo proceeded againft a ferjeant, who, in the 
laft Ikirmifh, threw down his arms,cryiAgout, ** Gentlemen^ fhift for your ^ 
fehtSy we are all loJiP* and foran away. He was hanged, with his fault 
written upon his brcaft. I muft now infert a fmall digrefTion, that diu'ing 
this and the former ftay at this place for refrefliment, myfelf being ex- 
tremely troubled with the flux,havingneithcrtcnt;ior other fhelter, and the 
rains then falling, did for three nights go aboard to lodge in aihipabout muf- 
ketfhot from the ftiore, and returned in the morning. Mr. Winflow came 
, afhore to us and preficd for a third attempt. The officers uiiiverfally de- 
clined leading up ot their men, but freely oficred to regiment thcmfelvcs, 
fo to live and die together; for their men, whom they had never known 
i;i England, being generally new raifed men, or cavalry that had been 
fent to Barbadoes and often beaten at home, and therefore found it not 
fafe to truft to their courage, \^ hich they had experienced to the lofs oi^ 
many of their fellows; but this was declined by Mr. Winllow. Where- 
upon the comniiirioncrs confulted what was further to be done, finding 
the foldiers fo cowardly and not to be trufted or confided in, except raifed 
in their fpirits by feme fmaller fuccefs, did therefore rcfolve to attempt 
Jamaica. During thofe debates the foldiers ^fupplies of vi6tuals being 
kept back by general Penn*s orders, as is related, their wants were io 
great that they eat up all the dogs, affes, and horfes, in the camp, and fome 
cat poifonous food, lo that 1 was informed forty-fix died with it at once, 
choofing poifon before famine. It being refolved that we iliould all be 
iliipped to attempt Jamaica, but the officersrefufed to permitthe regimentof 


( " > 

fcnmon to be fhippcd firfl ; left, as it was mentioned, they fliould be left 
on (hore without food, ammunition, medicaments, or any ncceliarics, 
to be given up to the mercy of the enemy But at the laft all being* got 
aboard, we Jet fail for Jamaica, where the firft; day following we landed in 
the afternoon ; and here, remembering our men's cowardice at Hifpanio-^ 
la, I iHlied forth an order againft runaways, that his next fellow ihould kill 
him x>r be tried for his own life; which one obferves was a neglect at Hi- 
fpaniola; but he had forgot that €.v mails morihus boncdcges riafainnn', and 
we could not aforehand conceive our men to be fo bafely cowardly, but 
hoped they had been Englifhmen ; but this namelefs and fhamelefs tra- 
ducer ihall have a full anfwer before I make an end. When we came to 
laud, general Penn and myfell went on board the Martin galley (which 
played upOn the enemy in the fort and they upon it) the better to order 
things in the attempt. The wind favoured us here, for, being in the 
rear of our men, they could not pofllfbly row back, but muft vanquilh or 
die; and fo t conceive were the bolder (neceflity enforcing them), gaining 
with little oppofition the enemy's fort with fome guns. It being about 
three of the clock, the officers thought it beft not to march thence that 
Xiight wanting guides, for if they fhould want water (which was there to 
be had) the men being already, with want and bad diet, very weak, might 
be endangered ; befides, the enemy might be in an unknown place, when 
they would not have day to view all pallages and advantages, and fall into 
their quarters ; whereupon it was deferred till next morning : which being 
come we began our march with the fun, and about noon came up to the 
favannah by the town, where two or three Spaniards at a diftance made 
fome fignals of civility : I commanded fo many to go to ihem, they then 
rid away, and prefently made a (land. I commanded one well mounted 
to a(k what they would. They dcfired a treaty. We told them we would 
treat when we faw any authorized from the governor. - Whereupon they 
went away, and next morning a prieft and a major came to us, to defire 
a treaty, and that they would give us m reafon what we could defire. I 
told them we came not to pillage, but to plants and withal, having been 
long at fea with fait meat, I expefted they fhould fend us in an hundred 
cows daily for our fupply of fttfh meat, and caiTivina bread proportion-* 
able, or without thpfe fupplies I would not treat. Whereupon they fent 
116 in cattle, but not bread, alledging they had not enough for us. We 
prefently fet commiflioiiers to work, but they defired that our men might 
not ftraggle for fear of their mulattoes. We told them they were their 

lefvants and at their commandi and neithtr durit or would do any hurt 

' r 

liut by their command or connivance* The treat/ went mi^ anx! the ai^ 
tides were concluded 01^ a3 iA>liaw$:' 

Impkimis, That all forts, arm% ammunition, utcnfife, and necpflaries fof 
war, of what kind or nature focver, (except what ib hereafter exe9i|>t« 
cd) and all kind of (hipping that now is in any harbour of tiij# 
ifland, with the furniture, fail*^, apparel, anununitioii, ordnance, c*fcw 
thereunto belonging ; as alfo goods, wares* merchanducs, or what elfa 
is upon the faid iUand, be delivered up unto the right honourable gc* 
Bcral Venables, or whom he (hall appoint, to receive the fame for the 
life of his highnefs Oliver, the lord proteftor gf the cooimon wealth of 
England, Scotland, and Ireland, before the day of this initant 

month of May, wUhout afiy d&ceit|, emhezzlemexit,. or tfoaccahaacai^ 

$EC0NDLY, That all and ei^ery the. inhabit ants of the ifland fexcep^ th« 
hereafter excepted) (hall have their lives granted, and (hall notb^i a* 
buft d in their perfons ; and that tliofc of them that (hall deiire to do* 
part this iflaiid (hall, with theijr wives and children, be ^ranfported tm 
tome part of Nova Hifpania, wind and weather permitting ; or others 
wife to fome of the king, of Spain's dominions in America, they pro* 
viding their own provifions and vi<5luals neceliary foff the voyage, thf 
%v hich they (hall have the pernjuiTion freely to do. 

Thirdly, That all comnn(rion officers, and none dfe^ iiave liberty ti 
enjoy or wear their rapiers and poigriards. 

Fourthly, That liberty fhall be given ta all that fhall depart according 

• to the fecond article, to carry with them their wearuij^ appaiet anl^ 
any books or writings tliey (hall defuc. 

Fifthly, That all artificers and raeanerfort of inhabitants who (hall defirf 
lo remain on the iQand (except hereafter excepted) (HaU en}Qy theif 
freedom and goods (excepting (taves) they fubmitting and ci^n^rminj 
Co the laws of the Englifh nation, and fuch others as IhaH be declaie4 

. jby authority to be put in ufc and ei^ercifed withia this id^nd. 

MjOLtaLX, Thit all goods aod aPCPfl5Hf»a» weU kouithoikl a&^ im 4<ausht • 


( w > 

%e COirfitftfe^' at tfitf Teveral habitations and ejiancias to wfiich fliey 
ielong, and that all fuch goods as have been conveyed from the places 
to which they belonged refpediively, and concealed or eiiabezzled, be 
returned unto the feveral habitations unto' which they appertained be- 
fore the ^ay of this inftant May, and that an account be given 
in thereof unto the faid right honourable general Venables or his de- 
puties, according to the tenor of the firli article. 

Seventhly, That nofliing In the preferit articles be underftood to extend 
to any perfon that came to this illand upon a former attempt, under 

. captain William Jackfon, and then forfaking their colours, revolted to 
the enemy; and that the governor .do deliver the {iai4-j)erfQns untp 
the power aforcfaid. . 

IfciGHTHLY, That fuch *hoftages or rehenes as fhall be defired be given 
on the part of the inhabitants for the true performance of thefe ar- 
ticles, alfoforthe fafe return of the Englifh ihips that Ihall be ap- 
pointed for the tranfporation of thofe tliat delire to depart this illand, 

"Ninthly, That, in order to the tranfportation of thofe that ihall depart 
the number be certainly known, that convenient fliipping be provided 
Accordingly : It is agreed that the mafter of every family, or otheyp . 
iree perlon of the inhabitants of this ifland that fhall depart, do witl>- 
itl days after the date hereof bring unto the faid right honour- 

' ible general Venables, or his deputies, a perfect lift of all the perfoiis 
of their refpeftive families for whom they expedl tranlportation, ac- 
cording to the preceding articles, as likewife the names and. numb^f 
of all the fervants and Haves that belonged . unto them on the 
day of tliis inftaiTt nionth. 

Tenthly, That a tnie lift of all other the inhabitants and free men of 
the ifland, with their names, titles, qualities, and occypations, toge- 
ther with the names of their wives, children, fervants, and flaves, hie 
brought in to the faid general or liis deputies within day5 

*after the date hereof, 

I^LBVENtHLY, That for all fuch perfons whofe names fhall Be fo delU 
veied at the jp^ioiC^a^^, ^o fuch a^ihaUJbe Uusn^ppoiated by th^ 

£ jt general 

general of tli^ fleet to receive tli? Aime, tor the \\(i of the fMJ pcrfon* 
to be tranfported, all (l^ves, ne<{roes, and oiIvms, be required by th ir 
feveral inalier*; to prefent themfelves upon the day of tiiis 

inftant Mav, before the right honourable gc^neral Venablos upon I be 
favannah before the town Casjuaya, to receive fuch favourable cua* 
celfrom as are intended to be made unto thc^m touching tbcir lii>crty. 

That all perfons that are to be tranfported be ready at the port of Ca* 
guaya before the day of May, or be utterly OLcluded touch- 

ing tlieir liberty from the benefit of thefe articles. 

The commiflioners for us were major-general Fortefcue, vice-admiral 
Goodfon, colonel Richard Holdipe, and colonel Edward D'Oyly.; 

Signed by thefe and the Spanifh commiflioners. I have the original of 
thefe in Spanifh, but whether rightly tranilated or no X cannot fay, b©* 
caufe I underftand not the language. 

The articles being figned by the commiffioners, T demanded the coittr 
xniffioners as hoftages for performance, and kept them and the governor, 
whom 1 fetched in as hoftages ; but there was a colonel amongft them, an 
enemy to the governor, who perfuaded the people ( being a man of in* 
tereft and authority amongft them ) that if they did drive away tlie cattle 
they might ftarve us away. One of the commiflioners fent his prieft^ 
\vho was a difcreet negro, to diifuadc them from this courfe, but thejr 
lianged him. Whereupon this gentleman Don Acofta, a Portuguefe, ta 
revenge the death of his prieft whom he loved, direrted us how to reco- 
ver all the cattle, informing us whither they had driven them into the 
mountains, and that they muft gome into the plains to driiikt which fell 
cut accordingly. 


I was alfo informed, about this time, that the foldiere draggled abroaci 
tokill cattle; and in regard the country was woody, except they <hot thi in 
'idead (which was not ufual) they ran into the woods and there rotted i 
ip that, as 1 was aftiirc d, fome hundreds were tbund thus dead ; which 
-<?pjurfc (if fuftbred) would iji a Ihort time confume all the cattle, andthcji 
tl^e army mult ftarve. 1 o prevent which mifchief (the men being fomc-» 
"tJuncB ilainhy ftra^gling) I urdcrciilhatriO private loldicr ihould hence*^ 


C 37 ) 

foTO'a**^ go for' -1 to kin COWS alone, but that comm-^TKJcd parties fhnnli 
conlt mt y bo lent tbrJi to fetch in cows for the armv's neceiriry fupply ; 
and forth.* fiuurc we. were conftantly furniihed with beef, and this was 
nol (as Mr. I S. faid) Itarving in a cook's fho.p. And this rule being ob- 
ieived by colonel I loldipe, he had catlle, but bread we extnMiiely want- 
ed, which was fent us with a llraight and ilack hand, and alfo very bad, 
£s the following letters will evidence, writ into England bv fome g'^ntlo- 
men to their friends, who iinc<* give ioaie of them (and copies of oiUl,^ 
aliclled under their hands) lo mc : 

Jamaica^ June *, lff53^ 


THESE are to let you know that we are at the iflind of Jamuca^ 
ilfv'hich is a very good illand, very fruitful of cattle at prefent. We are 
polielibd of the town and of their houfe%» and the people are fled into tlie 
mountains, not daring to fight us ; fo that now we are fpreading our army 
into tl^e country to quarter, and to prevent the enemy from getting pro* 
^ifion; fo alfo to plant for. our own relief; for our Ihipping not comnig 
to us hath put us to gieat iofs and hardihip, fo that all the lots we had at 
Ififpaniola wasoccaiioncd thereby, for want of arms, provilions, and of 

fuides; but you will hear all, and more than all. by lome ihat went 
iick from us ; fome of which I fuppofe came only to fee golden moun- 
tcuns, and to plundef, not expecting to meet with fo many difficulties 
as we met with ; which was much x)Ccaiioned by fome milinformation 
that my lord proteftor had ol the great fupplies of men and provilions 
that we fhould have at the ifland, which was much to their and our huift ; 
Tor they did for us what they were able, and the men we had fronj 
thence, for the moft part proved good for little. I daie lay that one thou* 
iand of our foldiers that came out of England or Ireland is better tiiaa 
iive thoufand of them ; for they have been for the moit part fuch old 
Jbcaten runaways, as that they know how to do little elfe except to plua* 
4ler ; and for thofe we carried out of England we now find, by fad exp - 
xitnce, that but few of them were old foldiers; but certainlv moll of 
tht m w^re appnuitices that ran from their malters, and others that came 
c>i!t of Fridewell, or one gaol or other ; fo that in our poor army we have 
t/ut few that either tear God or reverence man. But blelied be God thofe 

tloi iire ia chief pLcc arc jgodiy, aad wc have ^uUly teacl^Tb amon^ us» 

fo tliat I hope Gcrd t^'iH carry on hrs tvork amon^ t»i Tfna t %ope flt^^ 
lord Prote6tor will be cardul to fend bettermen, I mean better foldiers, 
and as many godly men as may be; for certainly wc had a great many bad 
commanders as well as bad foldiers. How they got in I knownot, but Barbae 
does did difcover many of them, and God will, I hope, difcover them 
jiiore and more, and weed them out from among us. Our enemies hav- 
ing much time to fly away before us, did carry the beft of what they 
had with them, they having fo many horfes and carts to carry with^ for 
this place doth abound with horfes, (o that we have mounted divers of our 
men, and are about to mount more, they being of fuch fpecial ufe to us 
as we find them to be. But 1 hope ere long they will all fall into our 
hands, for on the mountains they have little to live upon, and but two 
narrow paflages to come down, which we have fent to block up ; .fo that 
I hope that work will be fhort. You will too foon hear what comman- 
ders we loft before St. Domingo, but among the reft major FerguHbn was 
flain the fame day and time that major-general Haynes was flain. TeH 
Mr. Partington that his runaway apprentice came to me to fend hiim 
home ; he would be glad of the fcraps that come from his mafter's tables 
for indeed he and all the reft of thofe runaways God hath met with them 
to purpofe ; for indeed great hath been the hardihips we have met with^ 
find the ftreights we are now in are very great ; for tbefe feventeen days 
•^^e have had but three bifkets of bread a man, neither officer nof foldier^ 
«nd fomctimes little or no meat for two or three days together, and wheii 
God will fend us fupplies we know not. We find it fomewhat difficult to 
get cattle,^ and that is the moft we live upon ; and it is not a few that we 
ihall fpend in fix months ; but our eyes are towards him that knows whit 
i« good for us. We had yellcrday fome of our enemies brought ih, and 
liope God will bring them all in, and fome of our fhips are come in, but 
iti6»butikd€,pro¥«6on tliey bring us. So not having clfe at prefenti I rclj^ 

ITour ioving -brother till death. 

THTESfi «e «to eertify thofe whtfm it may ctmcem, that I* beu., 

|iow again to go to fea, thought it convenient to leave a few lines behinL 
xne, touching whsrt I have formerly faid in relation to our voyage to the 

W«A1ikU«% baviflg hadidvecal 4«b»(«9 CMtcrniog tbe iame with feve* 

i ^ ) 

|al commander and other perfon* of qu iHtj^ ^hcMt tWs wt?^, tnti mqi 
knowing what foms may fay in my abfeace, left this fqr viodicatiou ait 
the truth by whomfoever fpokea : 

SLue^ion ift. — ^The great queftion hath been, for the moft part^hoif 
It came to pafs we had fo bad fuccefs in our voyagi* ? 

Anftver — ^That it was God*8 handy work, for the fins of the nation, an 
ml fu for our (ins, who were very unfit inllrumcntb for fuch a work; being for 
the moft part fuch as were not foldiers, and but few that were not more 
than ordinary wicked and debauched: and that not only ppvate foU 
diers but feveral commanders alfo,wliich might juftly provoke the Lord 
again ft us. \ 

Hueflion 2d. — ^But what might be the eaufe, was it througli the bad 
Carrias;e o( the generals, or through want, or how do you conceive ? 

Anfwer — Herein I fhall give a relation in the prefence of the great 
I^ord of Heaven and Earth, according to truth, as 1 did apprehend things 
to be through the whole voyage. We had from Portfmoutb to Barboi- 
does a very comfortable and fpecdy pallage, were we lay about ten weebg 
looking for .our ftore ihips, both for ammunition and provifion; and, fee» 
tng no fupplies tQ come, did tear fome trouble in England that might 
|>oiribly hinder- We feared the danger of the fea alfo, hut it did appear 
iliat (we were necefntated to take arras) it was God*s own handy work^ 
to preirent our ftore ihii>s from coming to us; by which means we were 
itx prefent waiitx)f arms and ammunition, as did appear, that we were ne« 
ccffitated t€» take anns fiom the tilanders, and to make half pikes of cab^ 
|>age trees and other wood, which proved very ufeful, and uur arms ver|f 
bad which we had, and lome had none at all; which made our men verjf 
heartlc^fs. Further, when. we fet (\iil from Barbadocs, wc thin went liK 
pien te four Bften*s allowance % hut all this wJiile.our men.had thoir hcaltlx 
well. But when we were brought to Hifpaniola, and to land thert^ wf 
laad but three days prc^viiions, and divers foldiers bemg 'put out of their 
Aiips the day befiH-e into fmall v<iUc Is, and when we iai>ded there was on^f 
4day fpi^oH in landing ; "fo that then there was (wo days proviiioni) fpent t9 
feme, and one day to the whole; io that many had but one day's ;iu6tua)| 
to march with, and the reft hut two, with- which we marched up to St, 
Domingo, iiiid drew oS 'again, and was till cither Thurfday or iprid^y be- 

W^iu^di!^4mtf^ittte^% >H?^ which 

(40 ) 

long march we were fcvcral times In want of water, to the great, preju* 
dice of the army. 

Qtiefimi 5d. — But why did you draw off again the firft time fro» St 

Anfxver — We were ncccfTitatcd to it for want of water and provifionsj 
for I do think, had weftayed till next day and not have taken the town, 
we fhould have loft more than half the army; lor, drawing off that 
night, the army being fo weak with want and wcarinefs, we could hardly 
draw off, and many doubtlefs were not able to draw off, but were loft, 

fiuefiion 4th. — But how came you to be fo routed again the laft time^ 
when you went towards St. Domingo. 

Anfwtr — Doubtlefs there was a great fault in Jackfon, who command- 
ed the forlorn ; for that they were fo eafily routed : for this you are to 
know, that if a forlorn be routed in fuch a place as that was, where but 
four could march abreaft, and that thofe that are rquted turn in upon the 
body, that muft gf neceflity breed a great confufion ; and this was our 
cafe; and moftof thofe meri were either no foldiers, or old beaten run--^ 
aways in England, Scotland, and Ireland, and fo by their running, or en- 
deavouring to to do, routed thofe who would have ftood if they could; 
'^hiany of which were (lain and trod down in that throng, and doubtlefs it 
fell upon the worft regiment of all thofe that went out of England, for 
^ that they had the moft of thofe new raifed forces at Barbadoes, many of 
which were good for little ; and indeed this \ muft fay, that of thofe we 
carried out of England we found there was but few old foldiers ; for I 
iim of that judgment that we had not above one thoufand old ibldiers in 
our army. 

^vefiion 5th*— Why did you draw off again and not march into 
i)omingo ? 

Anjwer — We were not able to do it, oiir army being then fo weak and 
iio water to be had, ahd we nothing Ho carry it with us, were forced 
to diaw off in the moft private way that could be, left we ihould therd 

fiueftion 6th.— Why did you not march up again ? 

Anjuer — 1 he general calling a council of officers to advife with, they 

idid unanisiouily rcfufci as judging the amiy &«t in capacity fo (o do^ 

( 41 ) 

and the ratfitr folr that wc were that time about three or fo:ur days m 
which we had no provifions at all from the ihips ; in which time horfes, 
a(!es, and dogs, were good food to our poor foldien, and in which time 
men fell down apace* 

fluefiion 7th. — ^But why did general Venables fuffer that, being one of 
the commiiTioners ? 

Anfwer. — He could do no more than he could do, it being in the 
bands of general Penn ; and this I remember, that, a little before major- 
general Haynes was (lain, 1 aiked him why the regiment of feamen took 
place of our regiment, colonel Carter being eftablifhed in England, who 
1 had heard before took offence at it. His anfwer was, that he de^ 
fired me to fpeak no more of it, for that they were fbrced to comply 
with them what they oould, to get that which was their own, from whidi 
I gather, that the fault was in general Penn and not in general Venables* 
^— Thus being again neceffitated to go on board to get to fome other 
place, God fo ordering it by the hand of his providence, as to bring us 
to Jamaica, where we landed with a fmall portion of vicSluals for two or 
three days; having been kept on board at half allowance to no allow- 
ance ; for in feventeen days we had but three bifkets a man, and thofc 
the worft I ever faw before or fmce to my befl remembrance; in which 
time during the treaty with the Spaniards, and their flying away from 
us, all other things were hard to come by, for that the Spaniards at their 
flight drove away their cattle. 

Quejion 8th. — -But why were not the. foldiers fuflfered to go abroad t» 
•jjet what they could ? 

Anfwer. — For that they were commanded, upon pain of death, not |o 

• go forth but by order, and that for thefe reafons : — 1ft. Becaufe the Spa- 

• niards had promifcd within fo many days to come in and bring what they 
had. — 2d. For that after their flight they did kill divers of our men that 
did ftraggle abroad, fo that it was thought better to fend out in parties, 

•and a commlfTioned officer or more to command the party. — Sd. Becaufe 
that thofe that did flraggle did do muchfpoil in gathering fruits not h^f 
grown, which doubtlefs was a great caufe of want. 

fluefiian ©th.-^-Was any punifhed according to the rigour of that or^ 
. i^er with death ? 

^nfwa.^^aop but fome were made jMsibners^ and ttbofe who w^ie 

W . eminently 

C *2 ) 

eminently gmlty, and fome had rid the wooden horfe, and two who were 
notorious fvvearers were whipt and burnt through the to.igue, for that 
and other mifdemeanors ; which was done in the time of general Vena* 
bles' ficknefs a little before our coming away. - 

^uefthn 10th»— But why fhould any be punifhed for going abroad to 
get relief f 

Anlwer» — ^Their going abroad was not only hurtfyl ta the army, in 
fpoiling caiTava and fruits, but alfo in making the cattle wild; for they 
were not fo wild but might with eafe be drawn into pens with men on horle- 
back; but our men (hooting at the cattle wounded many, and. killing but 
few, made the cattle wild, and to run further from us, and much harder 
to come by ; for I heard captain Jones's lieutenant fay, m two days being 
fcnt to fetch in cattle, he had feen about fourfcorg wounded cattle in the 
woods, fome having their guts trailing after them; fo that few were to be 
feen before we came away in thofe places, where there were thoufaodf 
to be feen before, which being fufiered mull needs bring fcarcity. 

fiuejlion 1 1th. — ^But why did your^eneral come home ? 

Anfmr. — ^That one main reafon was, he was generally thought the fit^ 
tell man to come home, for he was beft able to give -an account of thto 
affairs of the army to his highnefs. Further, he had not his health, and 
the doctors faid he would die if he did not foon go on ihipboard ; alio ho 
came with the confent and , as I conceive, at the deiire of the major part oC 
the field officers^ 

^mJiUn 12th.— But how did general VenaWes carry himfelf in hif 

Anfwer.'-^He did in my judgment carry himfelf like a godly, valiant^ 
clifcreet, general, expofing himfelf to the greatell danger, and iharirig 
Vvith us in our wants ; and one that did in his place endeavour the fup« 
f)refrmg of fin and the promotion of godlinefs, and one tliat I conceive 
cvould have done it more had he fit inilrumente for his help in that km4 
fi^hich I conceive was much wanting* 

Dani£I« How. 

Here alfo followeth fome abftrafl^s of a letter from Mr. John Daniel^ 
ff aur affairs^ ta Im Jxothei colunel WUliaia Damclt governor of 

( *9 >. 


St* Johnfton's in Scotland; from whence I received the particulars 
following : 

Jamaica^ June 13, 1655, 

"WEDNESDAY and Thurfday we hovered off Hifpaniola in councils; 
and concluded the certain pofleffion thereof without blows, (ihafing the 
lioning loving (kin) with fuch . ailurances as I believe much difpleafed 
our gracious God, that hitherto had brought us fafe : and by commiffioner 
Winflow (always irrefiftable) affirmative death was ordered for any foldier 
to plunder or diminilh the leaft; which, being proclaimed at the land- 
ing, proved fatal to the army. One regiment of feamen joined with us* 
Our beft councils advifed to run into the town and harbour of St, Do- 
mingo fuddenly, before knowledge of our approach, and that had cer- 
tainly carried our bufinefs. The feamen no fooner hearing the proclama* 
tion againft plunder, laid down their arms, and fo mod of the army by , 
that example; though much Iweetnefs wasufed by the general ; butnocor- 
dial could mitigate that poifon : Yet, feeming cheerful, they marched 
that day, Sunday, and Monday, through rougli woods, fome favannasj 
and rich valleys. A plentiful ifland but very fcarcely watered, which 
with the heat and hard marching parched all with drought. Monday 
the feventeenth of April colonel Buller's regiment, with five hundred of 
colonel Holdipe's, landed in a bay fafe, near a fort were fir Francis Drake 
landed, about ten miles from the town of St, Domingo; and approaching 
that fort, the enemy quitted the fame, leaving two great guns difmounted, 
and the walls they endeavoured todifmantle as the time would give thenj 
leave, which made colonel Buller purfue his march towards the town, 
through the narrow pafles of the woods, and by a guide was raifled to 
fome plantations vacant and waterlefs near a ftrong fort, within three 
miles of the town. No fooner was colonel Buller marched from Drake's 
landing place, call, or view, but the general with the main army, after 
thirty miles tedious and weary march, came hungry, thirfty, and tiredj 
and, being informed by a mefl'age fronri the rear-admiral who rode there 
to fecure that fort or landing-place and watering, that colonel Buller 
was marched to the town, and the tide being come into the pafles 
of the river (forded by O^lonel Buller) which the army could not 
then find iordable. .' The general immediately marched^along the river 
to a fugar work, lodging tJiat night upon a favanna williout water, feveij. 

Fa. mile^ 

( 4* ) 

from colonel BuHer ; and tlie next day, the cigliteentli, we marched^ 
and met with colonel Buller near theftroog fort in the town road|^ 
where the enemy had ambufcades, and lined the woods; fell into our 
forlorn^ killed adjutant-general Walters and captain Jennings, commanr 
der of the reformades, captain Gates of the fca regiment, captain Cox of 
the firelocks, the general's fecretfiry Mr. lemple, and the commifTioners 
fub-fecretary Mr. Murford, who all with the general expected no fuch 
falute? ; yet, by God*s providence and mercy, his excellency was mira« 
culoufly preferved. The army then enraged, beat the enemy, took their 
ground, and recovered all the bodies, and had not extremity of thirds 
hunger, weaknefs, and night, refiftcd, would have that night entered tha 
town; b^t5|^ neceflity has no law, all impatiently cried water, and fome 
fainted, which regn tftilly caufed a retreat at ten o'clock at nighty 
und no known water, nearer than Drake^s landing-place. With a 
tftrong rear-guard to preferve the faint and fick men, we came Wed- 
refday to the faid river and fort, to our (hipping, and refreflied our weary 
limbs and fainting Spirits m confultations until Tuefday the twenty-fitlli 
of April. The fea general all this while hovering before the town five 
leagues oflF the fort (where Mr. Winflow being) no confultations could 
come to action without his and general Penn's itamp i which made our 
lioble and unwearied general to have fo many dangerous palfages in little 
ibrigantines to windward, for their confcuting advice, which, every time 
differing, caufed fo much delay, embarraffed our foldiers, encouraged our 
enemy, and gave tiine for all poflTible refiftance to encreafe their number3t 
effeft their councils, and efpy our weaknefs. We having no. intelligence 
or knowledge of the country, our chief guide, captain Cox, flain, feed- 
ing on the word' of fait beef, unwatered, with all the mouldy brokea 
dirty fweepings of the (hip*s bilket, which the falle fiewards could give 
vs, allowing us no brandy or comfortable liquor, caufed fuch immode- 
rate defire of water, wl)ich that river (coming from a copper mine) af» 
forded rather to encreafe than quench thirft ; and the rain nightly pour* 
ing with fogs and dews along the river, fo foaked eur bodies with fluxes^ 
none efcaping that violence, that our refrefhment proved a weakening 
inftead of a fupport. However, another march was refolved,a fmall mor- 
itar-piece borrowed at Barbadoes, with ten fhells, and two fm:ill drakes^ 
andfomeblukderbufles, got afhore, a very iittle proportion of brandy aU 
''lowed tocheerourmen,of which a good fpoon might have heldoneV lliare^ 
^€hen highly fluxing ; no harnefs nor horfes to draw, but all dravva by 

"fi^me £i»kUer»^ mattocks and fpades eaiaed by Wicr»« wiiica Nvitii tliiur 


C 45 ) 

calaliafhes of water, lcnapfacks> bad arms, ^c. fpent lOur Urongefl: raenj 
the weak unferviceable. Tuefday the twenty-fifth day of April we 
inarched, and lay that night in the woods. Wednefday, adjutant-gene* 
j-al Jacklon, commanding four hundred in the torlorn, advanced near the 
fort to the town, where difpbeying his order to have two wings on eacli 
iidc the woods for difcovering ambulcades, and cowardly neglecting thp 
duty of his place (I doubt treacheroufly,^ put captain Butler (a Itout buj 
unexperienced foldier for fuch a defign) to lead the forlorn, who inno- 
cently fell into their arabufcades, but molt bravely behaving himfelf with 
his.diviiion, fought it to death, and very orderly brought up his men un- 
til (lain ; fo did captain Pawlet of the firelocks fight to death, whom 
Jackfon feeing fall, inllead of relief, faced about and barely ranaway^ 
^ liereupon all the forlorn immediately, as a torrent in a narrow palfage 
llreightencd on a fudden makes furious way into the fea, tumbled int^ 
the reformades, they all as fuddenlv tumbled into the horfe, they aU 
mixed like amafs (info narrow a pafs) not able to contain above fix abreaib 
n he clofe thick woods encompaffing the "fides, where the enemy was 
lodged to flank us, and the fort great gun's loaded with fmall fhot, bits of 
iron, broken piftol barrels, and fuch mifchief, had full power and fure 
aim all along that narrow pafs ; they in the fame moment routed the ge- 
ncraUs own regiment, and, altogether mixed and crowded^ fell into ma- 
jor-general Haynes's regiment ; iiever was any thing fo wedged as we, 
whjch made the enemy weary with killing; and had not the rear pait 
©f ,major-goneral Haynes's regiment drawn into the woods, and fo coun* 
ter -flanked, beating back the enemy to the fort, regaining all the ground^ 
bodies, and ambufcades, even under and befide the very fort, (which wa^ 
jnaintained all night,) our whole arniy had been in that fudden motbii 
ifdifordered and confufed. Jackfon fneaked into the bvfhcs, like an ol4 
fox, and faved himfelf. Our mod gallant, noble, and valiant, major-ge- 
lieral Haynes, with whom and near his perfon (at his^ own great defire) I 
ivas myfelf all this while, was flain, lanced through the body, yet regain- 
cd and brought ofi'by his own regiment: this was a great lofs, as our ma* 
jiir general, his lieutenant, colonel's clerk, died of their wounds. Ma-* 
jor Forgifon of the general's regiment, captain Butler, captain Paw- 
4et, captain Hine, captain Hancock, with many lieutenants, en- 
figns, and all the reformades, only fcvcnteen excepted, got into the 
>i\oods, and many hundred foldiers, with the lofs of nine colonels, that 
is rcform:ides, captain Pawlet's of tlie firelocks, five of the general's regi- 
^ex4f <uid iwo of the m^jor-gencialsi to Uie great dilhonoui uf ourfelvea 


( 4ff ) 

and nation. Yet what God will muft be done, and this our affll(?lion I 
hope will turn to mercy, if we be humbled as we ought. 1 hurfday 
the twenty-feyenth of April, early in the morning, cnir general demand^ 
ed of captain Hughes, whether he could play the mortar-piece ; who 
anfwf red no, for the fort had fuch command over all thofe places, that it 
would beat them from it. This I heard him fay and confc&. Where- 
upon, confidering the foldiers weaknefs, want of vi61:uals, and moft oi * 
all water, and alfo the former difcouragenients, ' a retreat was privately 
concluded, a ftrong rear-guard appointed, the ten mortar fhclls neatly 
buried, our mortar-piece, drakes, fpadcs, and fhovels, all drawn off, aiid 
we fafely allthat day got toour old landing-place and fort. There we flay- 
ed our general's many goings to general Penn and Mr. Winflow, and every 
return created new councils; the rain increafed, our men weakening, all 
even to death fluxmg; the feamen aboard neglefting us forced us to 
eat up all our troop horfes, the enemy driving all relief from us, triumph-. 
ing in thefe our cncreaflng miferies. Our councils refolved by feeking 
God to purge the army. Firft, Jackfon found guilty of cowardice, had 
his fword broke over his head for a coward, his commiffion taken away, 
and ex tlie army, and fo to be fwabber to the hofpital (hip of fick peo- 
ple ; which was accordingly done. Some women in men's cloathswe pu- 
nifhcd, and all fufpected whores narrowly fought after ; all officers fl:ri6lly 
commanded to obfcrve duty upon greateft pains. One of the major-general's 
(now Fortcfcue) foldiers proved to run away hanged, and indeed, like a wife 
prudent general, all things by him ordered ; yet our ficknefs increafing,^ 
it was refolved again to Ihip dire<5lly for Jamaica, where God hath 
owned us. I cannot now omit to exprefs fome thing concerning this Our 
bufinefs, which I am fure the world will miftake in reporting ; but my- 
felf being a prcfcnt ^ye witnefs there on the place, and amongft the 
crowd in the midft of danger, near the major-general's perfon, I have not, 
neither fhall I relate, any thing but what I know for certain truth. I 
know a three-fold cord cannot be eafily broken, but when they twift not 
equally together they many times cut one another ; and thus I am fure 
that in martial affairs, where commanders fhould execute like lightnings 
and thofe variable as the wind, according as. the prefent emergency re- 
quires, and not go for confent of others to the lofs of all. -I well know 
liis highnefs would never fubmit in all his pafta6lions to fucLcurbs, nor 
can brave defigus ever fucceed with fuch bridles, which I hope to be, 
amended. / 

< *7 ) 

The oris;ma! of another letter from Mr. Daniel to one Mr. Stirrope, to 
the fame purpofe, 1 have by me, and thererore 1 foibear lo infert it. 

I then, being very Weak, ordered the council of war to fall about thfi 
diftributing the army mto the fevcral plantations, tliat they might (all ta 
work and live (for the future) upon their own endeavours, and fix plan* 
tiitions to be fupplicd at hand (Europe being far oft) for the further caf- 
ryingon the defign, in what oIIkt place fhould be judged moft fit to at- 
tempt, according to my inllru(:*tions I fent alio feveral parties abroad to 
difcover the country, and attempt upon the enemy, and to lecure the 
paifcs into the mountains ; who returned with iome prifimers and pillage, 
a id fhortly after mod of the regiments were fent to their feveral plan« 
tations as it fell to them by lot. I prelfed agAin for bread, but it was an- 
fwcred the men mull work or rot: I replied their prefent labours mu(t 
flay a tune to receive a return of a crop, and, if they were not fupplied 
till they did reap the fruit of their endeavours, they would certainly be 
loft or rot before that day ; but all, as above-witnelfed by letter, did take 
lit'le efFe<?l upon thofe who regarded not our mifery and fufferings.-r* 
About thi^ time I difpatched loui€ letters into England to give an accguut 
of our condition. 


STNCE my laft we have only taken fome prifoners, the reft continui5 
in the mountains wanting houfes, bread, and willing to fubmit, if not 
awed by a few^ and difcouraged by fome foldiers that are unruly, occa- 
iioned by extreme want, which to redrefs was the work of this day, and 
we hope to make them good fubjedts, being moft of them Portuguefe. 
7 he Spaniards we (hall remove, and endeavour to |^aia all of them by our 

We ftruggle with all difficulties, about two thoufand men fick. We 
fall (hort.both of bread, and brandy, iCc. of what was promifed and be- 
lieved to be provided for us. We have not three weeks bread, and little 
caifava m the country, of which the enemy fteals a ihare. Our men 
die daily, eating roots and frefh flclh (when any food is gotten) without 
bread or very little, we not daring on a fudden to take them from bread ; 
by degrees accuftoming them to want that which none will have five 


( «« ) 

weeks hence, at half a bilket per diem. There muft fome block-houfes 
be ere6led at the harbour'^ mouth, were our men able to work at fuch 
hard labour, though I fear indeed they will not be able to plant caflava to 
feed thera, or other necedliries to preferve life, many preferring nay de- 
firing death rather than life, though they have recovered their hearts 
(courage I cannot fay they had) which they loft at Hifpaniola. Yet I 
am confident they muft not be the men mutt carry on this defign in the 
field, it may be they may in the country by planting, for I am confident 
had we raifed men over England at a venture we Ihould have been better 
fitted than by thofe afhgned uj> ; thefe with fome other reafons have moved 
the council of war to defire me (if the ijord gave health) to prefent our 
condition to ^his highnefs and council, with fome expedients which at 
prefent are not refolved upon ; neither am I able to enlarge, having quite 
fpent my fpirits, to give fome competent account by general Penn, who 
yefterday vifited me, and told me he refolved for England to-morrow, a 
warning too fhort for me to be large, who am fo weak alter five weeks 
flux, only fome few days intermiffion. \ 

: ... ^ . 

The inclofed is a true account of the lAand, which for commoditieSj^ 
air at leaft, equals any fituation among the Spaniards, and exceedeib ilii* 
paniola in the judgment of 

Sif, your yery obliged fervant. 


Richard V£Nabl&s» 

%» .^ 

A iK^Tik *o Mr. Noel, Jtrme 15, 1655. 

\ RECEIVED yours Conccming Mr. Blake, tod the other expre/Tmg 
my lords mind in the managing this defign, which at prefent we cannot 
put in execution : firft, becaufe it was not pofitive in our inftru(^ions but 
conditional : fecondly, in regard there are but few plantations all along 
that coaft to Carthagena, and in confequence not victuals for us : thirdly, 
Carthagena itfelf is five miles diflant from any fre(h water, and is fup- 
plied only with rain water kept in cifterns; and fo we were not able to 
ilay there any time : fourthly, our tents not coming nor our (lores, we 
doubted the rains (which would kill us all) would overtake us before we 
could gain any place of ihelter^ or mftke one; they ufually on that 

( 49 ) 

eoaft, fulling in the beginning of April, and dertroying the natives if ly^ 
ing in the open air, as we mult, and our men raw and unleafoned to the 
climate. You were pleafed to afllire me, by the colonel and commlfTioner 
Povey, that one hundred tons of brandy were put on board the fleet for 
the landmen, as well as the fcamcn. We find a very great failure in this, 
and our men die daily, as the phyficians tell me, f )r want of it and 
bread, of which none mull taftc five weeks hence, at the rate of hilf 
a bifket per diem; and frelh flcfh and roots put them into fluxes, which 
fwcep them away by ten and twenty per diem. Frequently our 
planting tools fall very fliort; we mull have more ; forty fets apiece lor 
fniiths and carpenters.. I am informed that much of our cloathing is 
fpoiled at fea with wet ; a fupply of this alfo, with (lore of iron and 
ileel, ftioes, and linen, we want mod. Match and flint waile daily, and 
not to be fuppUed here. Ammunition alfo, and a new fquadron of iHip?. 
But I carneltly delire you to prefs hard for fvvords and targets, and black 
jacksi without the lall not a man can march in thefe torrid regions, 
where water is precious and fcant ; and without the other we fliali do 
little fervice in thefe perpetual wildernelTes. And if you forget brabdy, 
bread, meal, peafe, and rice, never expe6l good of all that hath been e\- 
pended, nor probably to fee us alive. Our wants are great, our diflfjcuU 
ties are many. Unruly raw foldiers, the major part ignorant, lazy, dull, 
pflficers, that have a large portion of pride but not of wit, valour, or ac- 
tivity ; but this mpft not be made public* though I defire my lord may 
Jcnow it, but no more. Go.od lir, ftir for us wilii vigour, and you will 
ever oblige, 

Sir, your very humble fervant, 

Richard Vsnables* 


I MUST of neceffity inform you of a jarr that hath lately been betwixt 
eaptain Buth r and myfelf, upon information given me of his fetting the 
officers in difguft againft me, of which fcveral complaints were made 
unto me ; whereupon I told him of it, and indeed called him drunken 
fot ; lor when the treaty was betwixt the French governor and us, he wiis 
U) driwk that he fell iiom his horfe and vomited, of which I have fuf* 

<j ficient 

ficient witnefs ; and my lord protestor as much derided by them, for cm«' 
ploying fuch a man as he was in fo honourable employment. Pray, fir^ 
if there Ihall be any blemiflies call upon me or the army, move the coun- 
cil that tliey will not credit any rumdurs, but leave their own thoughti 
free till they have heard all parties, and judge upon clear proofs and 
grounds ot reafon. That the old adage, viz, audi alterem partem may be 
my fharc is all I wifti, I have enclofcd fent you a copy of a part of a' 
letter to Mr. Secretary Thurloe. Bcfides my weaknefs, and the fcatteritig 
of the regiments into feveral plantations of the country, and the depar- 
ture of the commiiTioncrs and fleet which ftiould tranfport from place to 
place, and want of provifions, renders me incapable of doing more fer-* 
vice to my friends* 

Sir, I am your very humble fervant, 
June H* 

Richard Venables. 


THESE things difpatched, general Penn prepared to return, and not- 
withftanding all entreaties, and his own promife to ftay with us till a new 
fleet came, which was urged, would not be diverted ; but before he took 
leave he fent to me, in June 1655, to fign apoft commiAion, dated De- 
cember the 8th, 1654, for Mr. Poole his nephew, to take charge of the 
prizes, and at the fairie time a warrant for his difcharge from that place, 
which contained an acquittance alfo; both which 1 refufed to fign, and 
by letter gave him my reafons, defiring that there might be an. auditor 
fettled for that and all other accounts tliat did concern the ftate, but was 
refufed ; but my figning the warrant and acquittance earnefl:ly prefled, 
which I as conftantly denied. 1 he difcharge was not mferted, but the 
fum pf his pay left to me to infert. 



Jamaica, iC 

WHEREAS, we lately ifliied out a warrant to Mr. William Poole, 
j^SiZQ Qfficer^ Jie^uiring of him iQ deliver unto Mr. &uxxuel Crave, fuc* 


( SI ) 

•eeding !iii« m the hid employment, a pcrfe<?l account of all fuch prizes 
and prize goods as he the laid William Poole hath been hitherto intruded 
withal ; and that we find, by the receipt of the faid Samuel Crave, that he 
l^ath fully and intirely performed what was required of him by the faid 
order, we do therefore hereby declare, that we fully and completely dif- 
charge him the faid William Poole of the fiiid employment of prize of- 
ficer, and in coniideration of his pains taken therein, and faithful account. 

THERE were alfo letterswritbyfome of general Penn's officers to fome 
©f my friends, to entreat them to perfuade me to lign the warrant at leaft^ 
but all prevailed not with me; therefore I writ him the following letter : 

Your's found me in a mod weak condition, my flux as violent as ever; 
»o rett the laft night nor this diy, which makes me make ufe of another's 
pen. Concerning the auditor, it is the place not theperfon 1 dcfire to 
fettle, and without which the ftate will be a great lofer ; and yourfelf 
gave directions here to draw an order for the fame, though fince Mr. 
Cary has aflured me you denied to fign the order. But as to Mr. Poole, 
truly I do owe the gentleman all juft refpecft, and (hall pay it, but can- 
not in this particular; and therefore muft remind you of former pailages 
at Barbadoes, We intended to fettle a prize otfice, and, upon your men- 
tioning Mr. Poole, his honefty, and ability, we offered to commiilion 
him ; you anfwered you had done that already. We anfwered, without 
our hands he was not our officer, and we mult join othen? with lum. 1 he 
commiflion was preflcd by us to be accepted ; invoices, bills of lading, 
iCc. called for; none could be got; till at lall a copy of fome examina- 
tions, and a copy of invoices brought in, which was delivered by Mr. 
Cary, and immediately by Mr. Poole borrowed • back, and could never 
be got again, though often demanded; and yourfelf anfwered you fawit 
delivered in ''when it was not to be found) which we acknowledged, but 
Wondered, until Mr. Cary told the realbn before mentioned. Our war- 
rants to him to deliver any thing we declined, and yourfelf did anfwer 
you would order him to ilfue forth what we defired. We never had a 
check upon him, never faw the original invoices or his accounts, wiucU 
caufed Mr. W inflow and myfelf to refolvc to meddle no more in it, only 
to receive what was tendered to carry on die expedition ; fo that how I 
can vary from that refolution .1 fee not, being as ignorant of what he haft 
4dgoe Si& tl^e lueaaclt officer that ferves under aici and though I do not in* 

G 2 tend 

( 58 ) 

tend liereby toblemifti the gentleman's integrity, I dlefirenot to be fo 
underftood, but profefs I cannot fee how I canjuftify myfelf fhould I 
difcharge him (as the paper tendered me doth) from all things; and yet 
know nothing nor fee any charge againft him, fave what himfelf (a thing 
unufual) bringeth in. ' 

The letter to his hlghncfs I have altered, to fatl^fy captain Butler; left 
out the beginning, and made the latter part what was firll agreed upon ; 
for as it now is altered it fpeaks a plain advice from me for your return, 
which you know I never declined to give. Concerning the ordering the 
fleet that flays, I have reafon to be prefling, being fo much interelted 
with the whole army in it, and having a vote in all things that tend to 
advantage the prefent defign, yet like to know nothing till you are gone 
what our condition will be, and if my cxpe6lations be againft what you 
order, it is not poflible to rectify the fame. I defire it again, that fo we 
may fee if any thing be amended in it. Sir, your civilities more and 
more engage, and my power to acknowledge (I dare not fay requite) 
leffens. I pray disfurnilh not yoilrfelf for him whofe weaknefs - does not 
a little ftagger the hopes of a fpcedy voyage, though I know God can raife 
from die diift. Your trouble and want of Mr. Lawcs I am fenfible of, 
being myfelf under (I am certain) as great difficulties. My fervlce to 
the vice-admiral and rear-admiral, with the reft of your officers, andcap^- 
tain Poole. I beleech you, fir, think not prejudicially of me, that I 
cannot comply with your dcfires. I fliall in any thing in my power ma- 
nifeft myfelf 

Sir, your very real fervant, 
June 18, 1655. 

Richard Venables. 

HERE foJloweth acertificate of Mr. Henry Gary, fecretary to his high- 
fiefl'cs commiffioners ; who, being prefent at all debates, knew all tranfac- 
lions; and was more concerned than ordinary about this bulinefs of prize 
goods. He fell fick in Jamaica, and in the prefence of feveral drew the 
following relation, and, had not weakneis prevented, had enlarged it to 
all other occurrences, according to a letter he had writ to the right ho- 
nourable the lady R vifcountefs Ranelagh; who finding the letter 

did much clear my innocence, Ihcwed the fame to Mr. Secretary Thurloe, 


( 53 ) 

who deiired it from her honour to fhew it to his highnefs, but would never 
return it back" again ; by which means I am deprived of a moll lingular 
evidence as to my vindication, though that honourable lady is ready to 
teftify what I aflert. But neceflity hath confined me to what folio weth : 

Mr. Henry Gary, fecrctary to the commiflioners, is ready to depofe 
tipon oath, being the expreflloiis of a dying man, that having been an 
eye-witnefs to all the proceedings of the right honourable general Ri- 
chard Venables, through the whole courfc of this American expedition, 
he judges in his confcicnce, and in the prefence of God, that the faid 
right honourable general Richard Venables is not in the leaft liable to 
liiofe malicious cenforious reports, which his enemies labour to afperfe 
him withal; which, that it may more fully appear, he thinks good to col- 
le6l briefly every one of them as they came to his knowledge : 

PiRST. — ^Forwhat may be objecFled at Barbadoes, that he neglecleJ 
the prize goods, for that the flate might judge itfclf highly cheated. He 
teftifies that he was often prefent when both the faid general Richard Ve- 
nables and Mr. Edward Winflovv did earneftly prefs the right honourable 
general AVilliam Penn to return them in an exacft account of all the prize 
goods and prize (hips that were at any time feized on, but he for a long 
time refufed to comply with their requefts, but at length prcfented thcra 
with a copy, keeping the original to himfelf ; which very copy was de- 
fired of me by thcfecretary Mr. William Poole, conftituted commifhoner 
of the prize office by general Penn alone, without the confent of the 
other commiirioners, and without a check to controul his proceedings, in 
cafe there (liould be any mifcarriagcs, under pretence of copying out the 
faid papers, promifing faithfully to return them again immediately; but, 
nbtwithftanding, he retained them fo long that they were fain to be left 
with the commiirioners of the prize office creeled at Barbadocs ; there being 
no time loft for the copying them out, we being upon the point of depar- 
ture. That he mav make an end of all that relates to the fame bufinefs 
at once, he is ready further to depofe, that the right honourable general 
Penn, intending to depart for England, font a commiffion to be figned by 
the right honourable general Venables, impowering the faid \Villiam 
Poole to act as commillioner to the prize ofiicc, bearing date from the 
time general Penn had employed him in the faid trutt, which was re- 
fufed by general Venables for three reafons: — Firft, That he had no 
check all along whiltl he dilchargcd the{;mie: — Secondly, Becaufe 
V thexc 

f 5* ) 

tfiere was contained in the fame a total and entire difcliarfe, botfi of th^^ 
employment of the faid William Poole, as alfo of his accounts ; whicH 
having not been examined by any auditor was thought very unreafona-* 
ble : — Ihirdly, By reafon general Venables and commiffioner Winflow, 
Iraving heretofore offered to general Penn to fign a commiffion to the 
f^iid William Poole, he flighted this proffer, notwithilanding the refufal of 
g' neral V^enables to fign the faid commiffion^ for the reafons aforefaid^ 
general Penn gets commiffioner Butler to join with himfelf in figaing it j 
And this is the whole trutli and potliing but the truth as 1 hope t9 is9 
"the face of God. 

The next objedlidn of mifcarriage in general Venables is ufually th^ 
Imding at HifpAniola, fo far off from St. Domingo; in anfwer to whict) 
the fame deponent, with the fame ferioufnefs and protcftations as in thff 
former dcpofition, teflifies, that the landing fo far off was extremely con- 
trary to the intention and refolution of the faid general Venables. 

General Penn during thefe tranfa<?lion6 writ tome the following letter, 
but though money was prefled for, yet no auditor would be cflablilhecj 
that Mr. Poole's and others accounts might be viewed, wherefore I re-« 
fiifed ; but commiffioner Butler, as I was jpformed^ figned all witliou^ 

1 have hitherto delayed a narrative of fome engagements betwixt ge^. 
iicral Penn and myfelf, which was thus : 

At firfl, when I came abroad, I began to confider that, without mu-« 
tual agreement betwixt us, all would be deflroycd ; and thereupon told 
liim, it thisdcfign did mifcarry, none would bear the blame but he and 
inyfelf, and therefore added that, feeing our own reputations, the honour 
of our nation, and (which is more thai'l all other con<idcratioiis) the glorjf 
of God, whofe gofpel we went to propagate, did lie at fbkc, I dclircd 
that tlicre miglU be that joint iiflbdtionate ailiitance of each to other in 
all things as might enable ourfclves to difcharge our trufl, and difcou- 
rn^c any that might endeavour to fovv divifion betwixt us, which would 
rum us. He accepted the motion^ and engaged foleninly to aid each 
ctlier ; but he performed not, as he promiled, in giving my men no vie-*, 
tuals, < r fo fhort in proportion, alfo in denying to lend uk^ arms for thofe 

thai \v^xted, iiuviiig Ipure aincis aboard, and no ulc ioi: Uicm i iii. fending 


( S3 ) 

away our guide, refufingto run the fleet into the haven, landing againrt^ 
vote and define fo far off the town, and fuffering the feamen to traduce 
me ; about which I writ to him. Whether he could have a6ted more 
deftruftive to the defign than what he did^ let all rational men judge. 
But being ready to return for England, he writ to me to remind me of 
our engagement ; without which letter I could not have proved our en- 
gagement, or his breach of faith, nor cleared myfelf in general particu- 
lars, efpecially in trufting.tohis word and promife; which made me not 
fo cautious to prevent his defigns upon me; for who could have thouglrt 
that a man profelling religion, and employed about the advancement of 
the gofpel of Chrift, durtl have acted fo much for its enemies. He liad 
formerly, without the leaft provocation from me, (fave my refuel to fign 
Mr. Poole's acquittance and commillion, and a letter to his high nefs 
which contained my confent to his return) fcnt me a letter, with a 
ilrange clofe, wljich folio weth: 


SEVERAL commanders of the fleet having, at the requefl: of the- 
late major-general and other land officers, iflfued out divei-s parcels of 
cloaths, laid on board by tlie ftate for the ufe of feamen, for prefent fup- 
plying the necefiities of feveral, and many of the foldiers in cold wea- 
ther at coming out of England, I therefore defire you will be plcafed 
to appoint fome perfon or perfons to receive the account thereof, and 
take fome courfe that fatisfaftion be given to the faid commanders; for, 
otherwife, they will affuredly be made at home to pay for the fanxe out 
of their own purfes, which will he very hard requital for their readinefs 
to comply with the faid ofl[icers in that exigency. Hoping you will con- * 
£der thereof, and let them have no occafion to complain, 

I reft, fir, 

•Swi/tjttre, June 8, 1655. 'V^^'illiam Pjenjt. 

I ifOTK we ihall both bear in mind the mutual promife made folemnly 


( se ) 

between us, as in the prefencc of God, of love, and affection, to be con- 
fidercd iijviolable between us ; an4 how that if any fower of fedition 
ihould eqdeavour to diflblve fo facred a tic, to difcover fuch perfons and 
projects either to other. I, for my part, have and do firmly adhere to 
the fame, and I hope you are like minded. If you have any commands 
to lay upon me, now homev/ard bound, you fhall find them with all 
faithfulaefs effected, and that I ihall in all things iludy to be 

Sir, your true friend and fervant, 


William Penn'. , 

But, having no return from me (to his of the 8th June, 1655,) un- 
fuitable to our cngagomcnt of love, he fent me for his farewcl another 
letter about fome bufinefs, the clofe of which fpeaks as above. I pur- 
poffly omit the matter of bufinefs, the letter being very long, and my 
anlwer declares what the matters were. My letter folioweth : 

To General Penn* 

I received your's this inftant, being fcarcc able to hold a pen, and 
weaker than ever. The merchants debt on the committee of the navy 
I defire may be difchargcd. There are prize fhips enough to reimburfe 
them, but for any thing I can fee, if we exhauft the land trcafury, the 
army may ftarvc before fupplies come ; and if the money be above our 
fum it is confiderable ; and Dur commiffioners at Barbadoes went beyond 
their commiffions and inflru6lions, to charge money on us who are fo low; 
and if you pleafe to draw an order to fatisfy them in England, I do here- 
by engage to join with you in it. For hides we have few, except fuch as^ 
are old or wet, and they refufe to take them at the fame rates as other 
merchants give. The reafon I figned not the bills of fale of prize fhipa 
was this, I know your order is futBcient witTiout my hand, and I mnft fign 
with an implicit faith, knowing neither their worth or appraifement, and 
ignorant of all the rates prefcribed in the particular ; and fome of thofe I 
dcfired might not be fold, but left to carry on the fervice. Sir, if you 
would be pleafcd to fend any to receive the cattle, you Ihould be fitted 
lience ; or if the ropes fent hence to lead fuch were returned, we Ihould 


( 57 ) 

/enre you to our power; but neither being done, though both dcfired, 
we were incapacitated to do it. The abufe offered your men I have given 
orders to have it examined, and, being found, punifhcd. I defire your 
help in it. Sir, my ftrength is fpent, yet one word I cannot omit, I have 
a little more of a gentleman in me than to break my promifc or engage- 
ment of peace and love, having never been of a contentious fpirit, and 
will be found as true of my word as any perfon in the world fhall be unto^ 
kini, who is^ 

Sir, your real friend and fervant, 

Richard Venables. 


SINCE the clofing of my letter there came a feaman, who, as cap- 
tain Bingham and others aver, faid he was fen t to^ overtake the packet 
to which this is an anfwer, and that it was a falfe and miftaken thing ; 
which expreffion queftioning him about, he confefled he was fent to ftay 
it, and doth not much deny that other, which had raifcd fome thought 
in my mind, not being able to conceive the reafon. 

But, notwithftanding all my refufals to join in the falc of fhips, or dif- 
charging of debts, with landmen's money only, when there were prizes 
fufficient to defray all, yet he and captain Butler fold fome vcifels 
that were very good failcrs, good velfcls, and very fit for, the fervice of 
thofe parts; and fome of them to officers in the fleet, who laded them 
and fent them to Virginia, whither himfelf alfo fraught the Katheriue 
(which by his highneflies order, with all her ordnance, fails, and tackjingv 
was given him, being a velfel of about five hundred tons, and thirty 
pieces of ordnance). And here I fliould queftion whether the freight 
of thefe fhips was had, for betwixt England and Barbadocs we touched ajt*. 
J}<) place, and (though I enqtiircd diligently) I could never learn that he^ 
nor the officers that freighted thofe Ihips, bought one ton of fugar atlbar- 
badoes, or any other commodities, at Hifpaniola not a hide ; and at Ja- 
maica all the hides we could get were iold to buy fack and brandy for 
the army ; fo that I am at a fland to find out where they could poffibly 
be ^ot^ and therefore leave every one to their own' conjecture. 

H But. 

( « > 

But, before the fleet departed for England, T urged for brandy ; It wai 
anfwered there was none for us, I was told in England there was above 
a hundred, I think two hundred, tons of brandy aboard the fleet for fca 
and landmen; we took, as I was aflured from general Pen n and his 
coufrn Poole, above thirty tons more at Barbadoes; but 1 do not kno\v 
the army ever had ten tons whilft 1 was in the Indies. 

Whilft the commlfiTioners and myfelf were tranfa(5ling thefc matter*^ 
fomc in the army were not idle in taking the advantage of my dillemper, 
which eticrealed daily; fo that colonel BuUcr called u council of war of 
his own officers, to debate what was fit for the army to do, and no body^ 
(lead they fhould add to my diftempcr) would tell me of thefe difordcTs, 
which W'ere not at the firfl incurable ; but captain Butler, a commmif- 
iioncr, falling in with them upon this account, Mr. Window informed 
general Penn and me how he got drunk, at Barbadoes, and ran (houting 
through the town ; whereupon we fent him, with fome other officers, as 
commiffioner to St. Chriftopher's, to difpatch bufine(s there, lell his Hay 
at Barbadoes ihould difgrace us : but there, in a treaty witii the French, 
he was fo overcome with drink that he fell from his horfe, and vomited 
before the French and mod of the Englifh gentlemen, that the French 
jeered at his highnefles commiffioners.^ "Ihefe things he prac^ifmg at 
Jamaica, I told him of it, and dcfired him to reform ; but he, beinj>;dif^, 
gudcd thereat, alfociated himfclf with all difcoatcnted perfons, and made 
it his bufmefs to rail upon and revile me, as Mu Weaiworth*ij IcttCi^ 
which followcth, will tcftify : 

Afay it pleafe ymr honour^ 

YOURS of the fixteenth inftant I received, ancT, after interfocutfoTt 
with lieutenant Newton, was well informed of the fudden departure* of 
this convenicncy, which, out of a tender refpe^t, i have to the vindica- 
tion of your honour, and that duty which I owe to Chriltian profeffion, C 
^elire to' make \\{^ of it. Ihefe, therefore, m,iy mlbrm.all whom it m ly 
concern, tiiat on Ihurfday, before we came with the Marlton Moore 
fiom Jamaica, I went on (hore with captain Builer, who was commif- 
fioner for the fleet, and faw fuch mifcaiTiag.-^s by him as I n.ver faw be- 
fore, ai;d which were not befitting a jjrnll man ; v* liich I fiipp )fe was 
tliip'jgh oxccfs of diiak, and that fcvcrul oi Lib acur iclinuc w le ck- 



< 59 ) 

tremely difcontentcd with the aforcfald, and ll : !ic witli 

*th"em were mutually fomenting eKpreflions of dlfcontent. I wifh my; 
perfon or teftimony may in point of equity ferve you. In the mean while 
thcle lines are attettcd by, 

Sir, your honour's humble fcnant, 
Portfmouthy Odober 20, 1655. John Wentworth. 

, i 

THIS carriage of his towards mc gave fuch encouragement to fome 
officers, fuch as knew themfelves guilty of mifdemeanours, that, if I had 
lived, they muft think to fuffer ; but finding it the only way to their own 
fecurity, to lay all upon me, wiio was not likely to live to cxcufc myfelf, 
to have proceeded on for the time to come. Colonel BuUer, being the 
principal leading man, and all his officers with him, came to defire mc 
to take notice of a vote of a council of war; when I, being gone to the 
fleet to the commiffioners, who would not come to me, captain Butler re- 
fuhng there conftantly, as though all his bufinefs and employment had 
been only for the navy and not for the army. I told you before how I 
had ordered the officers to fet conftantly to order tl:e quartering of the 
army, and to put them into plantations, whilft I went to the fleet; but 
BuUer in my^abfence, forced the commiflioncrs tofiill about what he and 
liis officers had before confulted about, fo that at my return nothiHg was 
done. But Bullcr came to me, to defire a council might be called, to 
confult ab6ut fending into England, now the fleet was ready to depart. I 
replied, I had writ ahead y, and reprefented our condition. He defired 
me however to confult the officers. He had prepared all to his own mind, 
and I knew nothing of all this. Some of his aflbciates feconded him, I 
confented, and when they were met, I, not being able to fl:ay with them, 
iold thiem 1 muit leave the matter and them together, being not able to 
ftay. I being gone, Buller propounded that an agent might be fent to 
England ; for though 1 had writ, yet letters were but dead things, with- 
out one tofolicit, hoping he had provided himfelf ihould be the man. 
One of the officers faid, a perfon without interell and unacquainted with 
affairs, was as dead as letters, and that none was fo intereiled in the aft'airs 
of the army as the general (who was difabled w^ith ficknefs), and was a 
perfon of moreintereftat court than any man they could fend. Replica 
.pall in the confultation. 'Mrey paflcd the following votes, which they 
prefcnted to me for my affent : 

H 2 At 

( 60 ) 

At a council of wae held at St. Jaoo pe ^a Vxoa^ the 7tii 

June 1655, 


Mujor-general Forlefcue^ 
Colovel BulJer^ Q^iiartcr-ma/fer-general Kti^yari^ 

Colonel Doy'y^ Adjutant-general Birkinhead, 

Colonel Career, Lieufenani-colonei Uarry^ 

Colonel Holdii^e. M^ij^r Huuth^ 


THAT whofoever goes for England, to reprefent the condition of th« 
^rmy, ^d (hall return again within a twelvemonth after his departure, 
Ihall be uncapable of receiving benelit by any plantation, being a pro* 
portion as a member of the array* 

T hat we are willing, if the general pleafes to take the trouble upon 
him of going into England, to reprefent the condition of the army and 
this ifland, to procure fuch relief and fupplies as (hall be needful for the 
c irrying on the deiign. That he Oiall difpoft himfelf for the voyage u 
Coon as he ihould think convenient. 

That fome one officer of the army be defired to attend the general into 
England, and that the officer agreed upon be colonel Buller« 

We wliofe names are underwritten, being field officers of the army^ 
though not prefcnt at the 'council of war betoie mentioned, do freely 
confmt to, and approve of, the votes and relblutions of the faid counciii 
as they are before exprcllcd* 

Philip Ward^ MicffAEL Bland, 



( « ) 

Jamaica^ July 18, 1^55. 


AS we do; wi'h all thankfulncfi?, acknowledge his higlincfles care, in. 
ord ring confid'^rablc fuppli^s and acconimodations t'>r the imu\', ihuuj^ti 
it plealed G<kK llirough his providence, to retard them — fo fortius future 
it is humbly defired and hoped, that his'highnefs will be pleafed, froni 
ti lie to time, to order, upon the terms formerly agreed on, accommoia- 
tions for cloathing of ofticers and foldiers, and all manner of worki.ig 
tools and inllruments, better than thofe now received ; for the wood ^ - 
iKTally fo hard, and tools cdijes fo bad, that they are fcarce fiTvice- 
able ; as alfo bread, oatmeal, brandy, isc. Aims, ammumtion, plank^ 
and medicines, i(c. 

That feveral from Scotland, or elfewhere, may be fent to aflift m 
planting; S»)r which the ofticers, out of their pay, will make fuch allow-- 
ance as his highnefs Ihall think lit, and aflTigii them fuch proportions of 
land as his highnefs fliall direct, at the expiration of their refpeclivff 
terms : by this means we (hall be able to make provifions for fuch as are 
already here, and fuch asfhall be fent hither by his highnefs for further 
fervice, and they will be in leadinefs for fuch other employments as hi3 
liighnefsihall command. 

That th« allotment and diftribution of land to the refpeftlve regiments 
of the army, already approved of by his highneffes commiffioners, may 
b * ratified by his highnelfes faniftion. The allotment made to the SU 
C ..iftepher^s regiment, which is to be reduced, excepted. 

That fuch encouragen%ent as IJs highnefs (Kail think fit, may be give* 
And granted, to fuch as ihall deiire la conxe from England or any olljcr 
lns{lilh colonies. 

1 hat in regard it maytiappen, as by experietice it hath done, that tl^ 
fupptic s ordeied and intended by his highnc fs may not feafonably arrive^ 
by r' a(*»n of contrary winds ; by reaion wluTeoi, the army may be dif» 
trcU^d aad luduceii 4o exi^cocice^ lii^ hi^hacjU will he pleafed to enai'le 

( (K ) 

the army to take up necefTary provifions for our accommodation of fuch 
merchant (hip or Ihips as fliall come into the harbours of this ifland, and 
to draw bills of payment on fucli trcafury in lingland as his highnef^ 
iliall think fit, the fame not exceeding ten thoufand pounds. 

That for the better ordering and regulating this commonwealth, and 
^encouragement of fuch as defire to live under a civil and fettled govern- 
ment, hishighnefs will be pleafed to fend fuch conftitutions and laws at 
his highnefs ihall think lit, for the government of this place v'or impower 
fuch in the place as his highnefs Ih.ill approve ot> to make and conltilute, 
from lime to tirrie, fuch wholefome and necelfary laws as fhall be moil fit 
for the ordering and governing of things here ; and to 'Creft a court and 
courts of jullice and equity, for deciding controverfirs between party 
and party, and power granted to allow fuch officers as ihall be employed 
fuch falary as (hall be judged needful. 

That, in res:ard much uiconvenlence hath been found by the diftinct 
and indeprndant command of the army and fleet, his highnefs would 
be pleafed to order that both may be under one command; and that 
power may be given to ereift courts of admiralty, and grant comraiirions 
to private men of war, to annoy the enemies of otir nation. 

That his highnefs would pleafe to allow, that fuch merchant or mer- 
chants, as (hall be willing to advance the fervice and plantations of thik 
3(l*ind,.mav have all due encouragement; and fuch perfon or perfons, ashfe 
highneis ihall pleafe to authorize and appoint here, may be enabled to 
treat and contract with him or them accordingly. 

. That, forafmuch as the officers have found, by fad experience, that the 
generality of the private foldiers of this sirmy are men of low fpirits, 
apt to receive impretTion's of fear, and baCely to defert their officers and 
fervice, his highnefs be humbly defired, for the more efte6tual carrying 
oi> the war iq thefe parts, to order a confiderable (upply of well difcn 
plined, approved, and experienced, foldiers, fuch as have been accuiiomed 
to hardilup in Ireland or elfewhere, well accommodated with proviiiuri?^ 
leather bottles, tenls, flfc. 

Richard Holdipe, John Read, William Jordak, 
.^ Edwarp 

( «3 > 

Edwaud Doyly, Hknry Arcbold, TTfntry Bartlett, 
RoijERT vSmitpi, Philip \\ ard, Michael Bland, 
"William Smith, Richard Foktescue, Samuel Barry^ 
Andrew Carter, \ inceint, Francis Barri^gton^^ 

THESE precedinsj propofals were alfo given mr f'om the army, to pre-^ 
Tnt to his lii^hhds, in ordiT to ihc better IctthnL; of allaiis, and preveniing 
for the iuture what had Ibrnierly been the prejudice of the army. Bolh 
thefe were delivered to nie to prefent to his highnels in En^jl.ind, but t 
mad * not any halte to go, intending to fettle tliin«;s fully there; but my 
flux encrealing fo exceedingly, that, about three weeks alter, I fenl lo 
gMverai Vvnn and captain Butler to let them know I now defpaired of 
Lf(, defiriug them to come, that we might break opc^n his higlmelVes hiil 
and cli>fe commillion, which was thus indorfed — Nat fo be opcmd but in 
cafe of the deaths dil ability ^ or abfence^ of one orbothof the generals — 1 had J or 
about a fortnight before, left the command of the army to major gene \\ 
Fortefcue, and was now confiiied to my bed. They delayed iwo days, 
though 1 fent feveral mrirengers ; — ^at la(t, I caufed it to be opv ned be- 
fore the officers, and, according to its contents, nominated m -jor-g nc- 
ral Tortcfcue, and refigned my command to him, figned hi<^ commnbon, 
and general Penn joined in it. Captain Butler came into n^y chamb r, 
y\[\ as 1 had rtligned my command, and fpake to the ofliccrs lo acknov- 
Irrlge the major-general as their commander in chief. Butl.T,, linJm^ 
the fvmptoms of death, he and Bnller fmiled upon each other (vvhirh I 
©oferved witli fome trouble of mind), but he refufc d to jom with me to 
aj)p<>int a general in mv place, according a^ the commilllon requnech — - 
1 he words of the commiffion ran thui^: — '* IVe do impower you (nan ii^g 
\}*r commlllioners), or any two or one of you, the re/i h^ing dtad or abtenf^ 
t'tat^ in cafe general Venahles die^ be difatncdy at ablhu^ then you, o) ajiy 
tw> or }7V>re )/ y;.7, ^y aforefa'd, ao chox)fe and ar*point lome ofhe^ pe, fqn 
ti'fom you judge mo/l fit to ftcceed inhis place, to carfy on the /V/ vtce ihew.''* 
•& e. X ice ;.dmiial Goodion was appointed, by thecommilhon, in g nrr I 
I', nn & place, upon the fame grounds and occalion. W iti;in tuo d vs 
ati/M-, 1 nil into a n.l'nture; and now 1 cannot rv 1 »te anv thinii^ to ::.v 
o ' n knowhdgc ; but 1 hnd, bv circumltances as w«^ll as other r( lati -n, 
t . i CO' •in^id in t? U di ^^•■(^I'ion .liout one* monui, and was thm ni 
tiiai cuuuKiou Ciiiiicd uu uuji'd,- llic phyixciautt adalint; it; in i ^^ \ 


that no means tfiey could ufe did prove effeAual to help me, and ray 
flux having flopped at fea whilft we came between Hifpaniola and Ja- 
maica, they hoped it might Hay again; however it was but an adventure^ 
no hurt could follow to try^ for at land I could not live, and at fea per* 
haps I might recover ; and, if not, it was not material whether worms or 
fi(h eat that poor and almoift confumed remainder of me. Upon this, I 
was carried onboard July, 1655, and there kept nine or ten days, ex* 
peeling I would certainly dicl At laft we put to fea, where others that 
. went pretty well on board died within a fciV days, and I the firft night 
flept founfily,. neither the jactitation of the fea nor the noife of the men 
dillurbcd me ; fo that within a week I recovered my fenfes again. But, 
before I take leave of Jamaica, I cannot but with trouble of fpirit remem- 
ber the fad condition of the army, being infe6lcd with difeafes, fwcpt 
away by forty, fifty, fixty, yea fome weeks a hundred, by fevers and 
fluxes, caufcd by their want of food or unwholefomediet ; neceffitycaufing 
them rather to chufe unfound or unhcalthful food tlian none at all, the 
feamen not delivering the bread and brandy, the chief prefervations 
againft fluxes in thofe parts, delaying our fupplies, though daily urged 
by us, fomefime. pretending one thing then another; though this was 
fpoken of before, yet being now more negle<3ed than ever, I cannot but 
fpeak of it again, and defirc the reader lo look back into captain Howe'g 
and Mr. DanieFs letters, writ from hence, and upon the occafion of the 
army's neccfllties. — Mr, Daniel, being our commiflary, received the 
provifions from the feamen, and is therefore heft able to fpeak of their 
demeanours; and what he writ he complained of to me before their faces, 
juftifying the bafenefs and rottennefs of the bifcuits, and their denying 
to weigh them, but requiring acquittances from him and captain Bamford 
for what quantity they pleafed to name, or elle refufing to deliver any 
at alL 

The officers and foldlers pfeflfed to have their trunks on fliore, but were 
not permitted to go on board for them, and fome of them complained 
that thQ feamen had carried their neccflarics back into England, when 
they returned with generaJ Penn; wherefore major-general Fortefcue 
writ to me feveral times, when I had occafion to go to the commiffioners 
about bufinefs, they keeping on board and. refuling to come to me to 
difpatcli bufinefs ; fo that how weakfoever or unfit for bufinefs or travel 1 
were, yet I muft go to them (that were in health) or all muft fink or 
/wim for any care they took. His letters follow: 


C « ) 



TiSaxf tt'pltaft your trceUaicy^ 



THE army are in great want of provifions, as alfo of match anri giin^ 
powder, and that if you pleafe to order a faddeii march it is neceilarjr 
the ioldiers be fupplied with bifciiit, at leal 1: fuch of them as Ihall be 
drawn forth for any fervice. I deiire your excell ncy will pleafe to in- 
form general Penn of the general complaint of officers and ioldiers, of 
the feamen*s refufal to carry them on board to fetch their ^oods. If he 
would pleale to appoint any certain day when officers and loidiei-s (hoald 
come to receive their goods, and that bonts may attend tiiat buliiiefs, 
snd (o make but one trouble ot it. We want our hjjs, m iltocks, S\c^ 

Your moft humble fervant, 
JUatf 29a 1655. 

Richard Fortescub. 

ACCORDING to your order, T fent four hundred men, commanded 
fcy major Bamford, with iixty horle, to fetch up the provifions and 
animunition which general Penn promifed fhould be landed early this 
morning, whereby we might have bcien enabled to march, according ta 
your or^er, towards the enemy, who ftilJ remain refradVory, as appears 
by the enclofed ; but, contrary to expectation, one of my officers return* 
cd from the feaiide^ and affures me there were no provifions landed when 
we came away. Sir, the foldiers have not had any provifions almoll 
forty-eight hours^ but one bifcuit a man fince we came hither; by rea- 
fon whereof they grow very weak and are n^uch enfeebled. 1 have 
enquired concerning the ways and pafiages leading to the place where 
the enemy are encamped, which is from hence eight leagues, and I an^ 
allured there is but one way and none other near it; much of it is 
through favannahs, part through a mountain, water Ibme part at the 
end of two leagues, iomt pait iialf a league, according to the enclofed 

VPON receipt of yonr Tetter, T fnmmoned the field offfccrs, and with 
>iKbeir advicc dicw out two parties, one oJf a tUouland tour hundred, ta 

<W ) 

march by land, and another of fix hundred, to be tranfported by fea, and 
have appointed officers to command them ; but, when I fent commif* 
fary Daniel to take an account of the provifions fent laft night by the 
party, being thirty bags of caiTava, he ccrtilieth, under his hand, and 
will aver before you, that the wliole weight is not two thoufand pounds, 
as appeareth per the particular inclofed; which is judged too fmall a 
proportion not only for the army but the party commanded out, I have 
therefore fent Mr. Daniel, with the advice of the officers, to inform you of 
our condition ; and that we concc ive there was agreatmiftake in thofe that 
fent the proviiions on ihore, who alledgcd there was fix thoufand lyeight, 
and demanded a receipt accordingly; but Mr. Bamford refufed to give 
them a receipt for fo much weight, becaufe all the bags were broken, 
and much of the bread embezzled. 1 he truth is, the army are gene- 
rally in a very weak condition for want of provifions. The party 1 fent 
down yefterday to the feafide could have brouglit treble the quantity 
that was fent. If we might know how much fliould be landed, we 
would fend parties accordingly. I do, with the officers advice, repre- 
fcnt the army's condition to you. We want medicines for the cbirurgeons. 

May, 1655. 

Here followeth the teftimony of lieutenant-colonel Ward :— • 

He affirms that^ be'mg on board the Matthias on Saturday the eighth of 

Jiaiej 1655, enquiring of captain Kirby^ commander of the /aid vej/et^ 

the /aid captain Kirbyfaid^ that he received a check of geneial Pennfor re» 

vealing whatjlores he had in hisjhip^ with this fayingy^-^Y ou caD have n0 

ftores on board you, but you muft be babling. 


Phil. Ward* 

MfiMoRANDVM — ^There were in the fhip*s cabin, when tkis was fpokett^ 
eaptain Pegg, lieutenant-colonel Bufhell, fick in bed, Mr. Garviner^ 
and commilikry Pain. 

So that all may fee how the promifes of general Defbrow were made 
good to us, who aflured us, that what was on board ftiould be for the 
landmen as well as the feamen, and alfo what civilities we might exped 
from the feamen, to afford us relief out of their owa ilores^ who concealed 
tnd Withheld our owa torn us* 



( <"• ) 

Their wants and bufferings were the caiife, I fuppofe, which moved 
the 'officers to defire my return for England, to reprefent them t > his 
highnefs, but I was never permitted to fpcak ; only Mr. Secretary Thur- 
loe writ to me, when in the tower, to fend him the officers humble con* 
^derations, which were dire6led to hishighnefs; which I did, but never 
heard more. And now, being on board, I fhall take leave of Jamaica, 
and fail for England to difcharge my truft to the ftate and army, in re* 
prefenting the condition of thofe parts, and what might moft advance 
the fervice, and whidi way was moft probable the defign may be carried 
on; which I did in the tower. I had a motl comfortable and fwect 
paflage homeward, and, when I came northward, gathered llrcngth 
exceedingly^ my weaknefs confidered. We landed fafely at Plymouth, 
September the tenth, 1655 j having not felt one ftorm; — but that wasr 
to follow at land. So foon as 1 came to Portfmouth, I writ to his higU* 
fiefs as folio weth: 

May it pleafe yonr hi^hiefs^ 

I D0U3T not but general Penn hath informed your highnefs of the weak 
Cond tioiihe left me in,out of which all that faw me judged it was impoffi- 
ble lor me ever to recover ; even the phyficians defpaired, except change 
of air did, though it was doubted I could not live to be put on board ; 
yet, death being certain if I ftayed, it was refolved to adventure me ; in 
regard 1 could but die. Ihe extreme wants of your forces in the Indies 
vere alfo recommended to me (by the officers) to reprefent to your 
highnefs; but, as my great weaknefs difabled me to travel by land, 1 am 
at prefent. incapacitated to difcharge that truft, unlefs it (hall pleafe the 
Lord to give more ftrength or brin^ me about by fea. And, in the interim, 
that your highnefs may be bleiled with profperous fuccefs in all your 
pious defigns, and be temporally and eternally happy, i$, aad ihail be^ 
the prayer off 

Your bighneflcs moil humble and faithful fervaht, 

Richard Vsii ablbs* 

1 3 To 

To Mk« Sscketart Thvrloc* 

• • ■ • ■ 

Honoured Sir^ 

I DO perfuade myfelf that you have had a report by general Penn*i 
fleet of my death, which was moft probable, my returning being def* 
paired of by all men, even the phyficians; and change of air was the lad: 
of remedies, all others failing ; though it was thought by moft 1 ihould 
never fee the fea. Yet being I could but die, it was refolved to adven- 
ture me, though I was a mere fkeleton, and had at times been in a 
raving condition about three weeks, and continued fo about a week after 
I came on ihipboard ; and yet continue but (kin and bones, and fo weak 
that I (Cannot ride or fcarce fit, except very eafy, and therefore not able 
to travel by land, but muft come about «p Thames. 1 hough my heart longs 
to inform his highnefs of the ftate of h«s affairs in the Weft Indies, and 
indeed hafte is extremely necelikry. If the Lord bring mc fafe to Lon* 
idon, I (hall tuUy inform you of all, which I dare hot commit to paper, 
2>eing conftrained to make ufe of another's hand, for which your pardoii 
_^«aaieftly deftred by 

Your very humble fervant, 


To THE Lord Lambert. 

My Lordj 

MY death being reported by moft, and the impofTibility of my rceo^ 
>ery believed by all general Penn's fleet, I perfuade myfelf hath by 
them come to your ears, fo that you would rather fuppofe the certain 
news of my death had now been brought you, than that I am in the land 
of 3the living and fo near you; indeed all men, even the phyficians, def- 
paired of my life, the air being fo much my enemy; and therefore it was 
refolved that I ihould goto fea, though moft (and not the leaft judicious) 
thought I ihould never come on board alive ; yet being 1 could but die, 
it yv as refolved to adventure me, though I was but a mere (keltton, and 
Jiad at times been in a raving conditiua about Uu:ee weeks^ and continued 

lb a week after T came oti "board, and I yet contihue but ikin and bones, 
and (b weak that I cannot ride, or fcarce fit, but very ^afy, and there- 
fore not able to travel fey land to London, but muft c<rme about up 
1 hames, though my heart iongs to mfonn his highnefs of the ftate of 
liis affairs in the Weft; but indeed hafte is extremely neceifary. If the. 
I-ord bring me alive to Ix)ndon, I fhall fully inform you of all, which I 
tjare not commit to paper, being conftrained to make ufe of another'^ . 
bandy for which your pardon is earneftly defired by, 


My lord, your lordihip's nvoft humble fervant, ^ 

Richard Venables. 

The like was writ to colonel Sydenham and general Defbrow. 

J But, though I preffed fo earneftly to come to London by fea, yet wa« 
denied, though fo weak that I had like to have died on-board before I 
came to land. However, being commmanded to come away, I got a 
coach and one to fupport me in it, and fo came \o liondon; and the 
fame day went to fecretary Thurloe, to acquaint him that I defired to 
wait upon his highnefs, who appointed me to attend the next morning 
to that end, which I did ; and was at laft called in before his highncls. 
and the council, who demanded of me who fentfor me: I anfwercd, 
the army had defired me to pome, to reprefent to his highnefs the ftate 
of his affairs there, and their extreme wants. — He then demanded of me 
if I had ever read of any general that had left his army, not being com* 
mandedback: iTcplied, I fuppofed hiftory would clear it, though my- 
memory, difcompofed hy ficknefs, could not at prefent call it to mind ; 
but at laft named the earl of Eflex. — He replied,- a fad example ! and 
aftced. me if I had any thing elfe to fay in my defence : 1 replied, I did, 
not expe6l to be called to an account for this thing, and fo was not pre- 
pared to anfwer ; and humbly craved refpite for a few days, that I might 
perufe my papers, and confider the thing fully, and I would then give 
bim a full anfwer. — He denied me that moft juft liberty, which a heathen 
denied not to Paul, 4:o have time and place to defend himfelf. I hum- 
bly begged it again, and was denied it; and this added, that I muft then ; 
^eak, or what I had fpoke would be looked upon as all I could fay. I 
then replied, I had the army's vote, which I then produced, and defired 
it mijht he jaead ; but was denied^ and was told colonel BuUer was the - 


( TO ) 

army*s agent. I replied^ I humbly conceived myfelf wa^ tTte tftan, an^ 
he only my afliftant; and again prefled to have the votes read, to jullity 
my allegatiori^ but was denied, and urged for my further anlwer. I laid 
I was wafted with, iicknefs, fo that I was incapacitated to cou'nfel myfelfv 
much lefs able to command or direct the army ; and that I ftayed above 
a month after thofe votes before I came away, to fee if I fhould recover 
fo as to be able to difcharge the duty of my place, but grew daily worle^ 
till I was at laft deprived of my fenfcs, and knew not what 1 did or fpake ; 
and in that condition, by the phyfician's advice, I was carried on Ihip* 
board, to try if the fea would (as it had done formerly) llop my flux; 
for iC I llaid at land I was a dead man, and it was but the trial of one ejy* 

{)eriment, whether the fifh or worms, muft eat me. Befides^ I added hit, 
Hghnefles commilfion, which was indorfed thus: Not to be opened except 
in cafe of the deaths difabilityy or abfencej of one or both of the generalf. 
the which words alfo running through the body of the commiflion, to im^. 
power the commiffioners to chufea new general, which commillion wat 
executed accordingly, and major-general Fortefcue chofe into my place 
a month or near thereabouts before I came away, and executed the fame 
accordingly. I added, I had much more to fay, but except I liad time 
(which I again earneftly begged, but was denied) I could not at prefent 
add any more, however craved my weaknefe of memory might oot be 
made my crime. 

I was commanded forth ; and prefently Mr. Scobell fent to me for the 
officers votes, which I dcfired them to give me a copy of, but he did not; 
but I had a copy before. I waited. At laft the council rofe. I met 
ivith colonel Sydenham, who told me that he was forry tor me, and that 
the hand of God ihould be the caufe of my fuftering; for he faid my 
frntence was fevere. I fpoke alfo to the lord prefident Lawrence, to 
Ivnow his command^ not being in a capacity to attend it. He told me^ 
tho clerk would acquaint me with their order, and that I muft ftay;^ 
which I did, and the ferjeant at laft came to me and acquainted me with 
the covmcirs order, with a very civil apology for his acting. I moved 
that he would give me leave (being fafting, and very weak) to go home^ 
or at leaft to fome cook's f hop for fomc refrefhment, and time to fend for 
fom(' necertaries to carry with me to the tower : all which, with much 
compaffion and refpe<5t, he granted; fo that I returned home with his 
frrvant, alfurinaf him that, if he would truft me, I would that night 

|>refcat myfeU' wiUi the cauugJ j warrant to the lieulcnaat oi the tower^ 


i li ) 

fer I was not able to go^ much lefs fly, and that I was not confcious to 
inyfelf of any guilt, and fcorned to bring my innocency and former fer- 
vice fo much into queltion as to blemifh myfelf with a thought to efcape 
or fly. When I came home, fome friends came to vifit me, who offered 
their fervice to aflitl me in any thing they could* Whereupon I writ to 
the lord prefident Lawrence, and drew up a petition^ which my wife and 
friends prefented, both which follow : 

My Lord, 

AFTER your lordfhip Was pleafed to tell me, that the clerk of the 
council would acquaint me with your refolves, 1 found Mr. Serjeant Den- 
dy to be the man that brought it, and a very fad , one, which afFe6ts mc 
more than, I perfuade myfelf, the news of death ; being that my moft 
dear reputation, purchafed with the lofs of my blood and limbs, and 
thirteen years faithful and not unfuccefsful fervice, and all called into 
queiiion by this blow, I perceive my plea of his highefles additional in* 
ftru<5lions for the choofing a commander-in-chief, hi cafe of the death, 
difability, or abfence, of either of thofe then in commiflTion, is wholly 
waved, it pre-fuppofing all tht fe ; which muft needs induce me to be- 
lieve my coming away was not fuch a capital offence. Your lordfhip's 
piety, and confidence of your favour herein, hath emboldened me to 
move your lordfhip to prefent the inclofed petition to his highnefs, if 
your lordlhip judge it meet, which is fubmitted to your lordftiip's plea- 
'iiite by, 

My lord, your mod humble and afilidled fervant, 



AND Ireland. 



7'HAT^ upon Jignification of your highneffes difpleafure^ in his commiU 
tfunt to (he tower, fU humbly by petition made his uddre/s to your highnefs^ 



% • 

l^&t M rimthammi U K9 dkmmko* mug h i mi prrf^ 

of his great wmincfs mid vmny jn tjjing 4^cafions \ but that fus ht httmbly 
conceives J not coming in feafon to your highnefsy he agai?i humbly imploreth 
your highnejfes favourable coJiJideration of his affliiled condition^ and his 
great xveahiefs yet co?itinuingj and fince that time fome further Jear of its 
increafe arifing^ he is neccjfiiated mjoji humbly to implore your highnefs^ fa 
far to commiferate his fad condition as to grant him, fo much ailargement 
as may affoid the benefit of air and phyfic for his recovery \ and that he 
alfo may have opportunity to reprefeyit to your highnefs the feries of his ma* 
Tingemtnt of that tru/l your highnels did commit to him ; zaherein if he be 
not able to evidence he hath been faithful^ though Providence denied fuccefsy 
he fhall fivith mtuh more quietnefs of heart) undergo ariy further mark of 
your highnejfes difpleafure^ and your hi^hnefes favour heydn, Jfiall engage 
^ your petitio7ier ever to pray^ 
' • Richard Vsnablss^ 

1 DESiitED that I might be only confined to my chamber, in regard of 
Biy extreme weaknefs, that fo I might ufe the help of phyfic for my re^* 
covcry, and offered ten thoufand pounds bond, and perfons to be fecurity 
with me, who would alfo be bound, body for body, that they would (if I 
recovered) bring me in to anfwer any charge that fhould be brought againft 
fne, whenever called to ; but all was refufed, fo that 1 was that night» 
being the of September, 1655, carried to the tower, and delivered 
prifoner to the lieutenant of the tower,, colon.el Barkftead, fince knighted 
by his highnefs^ and the warrant for my commitment^ which foUowetht 

Oliver, Protector* 

iVHEBEAS general Richard Vetiables^ beinf^ general of the Engli/k 
forces fent-into America^ hath without licenfe dtferied the aimy committed 
' to his charge^ contrary to his trujly thefe are^ therefore^ to will and requitt 
you to receive and take into your cnjiody in our tower of London the body 
of the faid general Richard Venabjes^ herewith jent uhto you^ and him t(t 
keep in fafe culiodi/ until you , fhall receive order from us to the contrary, 
tiereof you are not to failj as you will anfwer the contrary^ and this fhall be 
^our warrant in that behalf Given at Whitehall^ this twentieth of Sept. 1655« 

ITq J aHw Ba AiiLST£AD9 efq. liiutmant of our tou^tr of London. > 

1 HAjr 

( 7S ) 

I HAD not continued many days in the tower, but fcveral friends came- 
to vifit me, fome pcrfuading me to fubmit myfelf to his highnefs ; for if 
I came to a trial I fliould be fentenced ; but I Hill defired a hearing. 
Some others told me, that fome godly men were told that it would not 
be well taken if they went to vifit me, for that the vifits of godly men 
did make me flubborrt, and kept me from fubmilHon; and thus it was 
fought to fet godly men againft me as ray enemies, and to deprive me 
of the comfort of their company, counfel, and prayers. My friends 
were not idle, but moved for enlargement, for air, in order to phyfic 
and health ; and at lail the lady Melton (to whom general Lambert was 
ever refpe<ftive) had this return from him, that flie muft perfuade me to 
fubmit, and 1 (hould be enlarged. She fent me word of it, and alfo of 
her anfwer, which was, that the next day I mull be cried about the 
ftreets, if they had any fault to charge mc with, flic defired them to pro- 
ceed againft me, or to fet me at liberty if innocent. Prefently after the 
lord Fleetwood, lord deputy of Ireland, was pleafed to honour me with 
hisperfon; to whom, after other difcourfe, I faid that I looked upou 
myfelf as a prifoner for form only, and not for offence; it being fit that a 
private perfon Ihould rather bear the blemiih of any mifcarriage than ihe 
public, and that I was content fo to do ; . but defired him not to let me 
be too much a fufferer, for, before I would die like a dog, I would fpeak 
like a man. He defired me to give him an account of the ftateof thofe 
parts, for his own private fatisfaftion, and that he would not impart them 
to any other ; which I did. He promiied me too his utmoft friendfhip, 
which did much fatisfy me that there was not any thing of concernment 
or moment charged againft me ; otherwife, I luppofed, he would not 
liave made me fo large a promife* 

About the 10th of October, 1655, Mr. Eaton, paftor of the church 
of Stockport, came to fee me ; and within a few days brought me a mef- 
fage frbm my lord Fleetwood, which was, that he defired me to fend him 
anfwers to fix queries, for his own private fatisfa£tion. Ihe feveral que* 
ries with my aniwers here follow : 

My LoRDy 

Mr. EATON told me yon dfefired fatisfa<?lt()n to fome particulars, he 
ttientioncd tlietUi ta which I bcfecch ycm receive the aafwers ; 

' ( 7* > 

1ft.- — ^Was there a contention betwixt general Pcnn and me about placet 
Truly I know not that ever we ftroye, fave to give precedency each to 
other, tliough ufually he had it at fea and I at land; only Mr, W inflow 
told me at Barbadoes, that general Penil having feen the commiffion and 
inftruAions at Portfmouth (which I did not) he excepted againfl my being 
named firft; upon which (all being Hill unk^^own to me) he was named 
firll in the inllru6tions and I in the commiffion, which the erafurey (aif 
Mr. Winflow bade me obferve) caufed me to believe. 

2nd. — ^That I took too much ilate upon me at Barbadoes. 

My lord, I confcfs that I remember not any thing of that nature, nei- 
ther doth my heart accufe me of any a(5t ; but conceive the grounds of 
this report (and have heard it) arifes from the governor of Barbadoes, his 
snarfliall gomg before him and me bareheaded to church ; which I could 
not avoid, lodging at his houfe ; and it hath been and yet is the practice 
of that ifland, that whither the governor goeth or ridelh his marftiall go- 
eth with him arid bareheaded; and I think twice my marfhall, without 
order from me> went in that pofture before us to church ; but if any can 
prove that my marfliall did ever ride or go with me at all, much lefs bare- 
iieaded, as the other's did, I cpnfefs the fault. 

5d. — ^The fa6lionsin the arrriy were occafioned by bad conduct. 

1 anfwer, that before 1 went 'I confclled my unfitncfs for fuch a com- 
mand, and do believe that true ; yet I can prove they fell out thus: that 
major-general Haynes expecfted the command in chief, and went out of 
England in the confidence that T would not come, and before we left 
Barbadoes I had many ftrong prefumptions that he hoped to gain the 

4th. — ^As for our long ftay at Barbadoes. 

1 anfwer that a perfon of honour charged it as a fault upon me, that I 
left that place before our ftores came, and indeed, my lord, all. the 
officers grudged at it; neither did we ftay longer than to provide ncCefla- 
ries fdr the fleet and army, which were exceedingly retarded by fome of 
the inhabitants. 

5th. — Landing too much to leeward. 

My lord, myfelf and officers did vpte for the River Hine, except bpaten 
eff| and general Penn's inflrudions were jthat he fliould trahfport us from 

t '5 ) 

place to place as the fervice did require. The guide did bring us weft^ 
ward of the river. I am no fcaman, and proteiFed my trouble at ^ the 
thing, as I can prove, neither knew I any port or part of that coaft.-— 
Whenlwentto generalPenn 1 knewnothing but that our guidc(as he told 
me) was on board the vice-admiral, to bring us^ to the river, till I was 
told we were paft it. 

6th. — Marching about, when major-general Haynes advifcd a nearer 

My lord, we had not one man amongfl us that knew one foot of the 
way from our landing place to the River Hine, and therefore no man ctn 
fay we went out of our way there; and when we came to the river there 
was a ford which we fearched for, but found none. Colonel BuUer (^yho . 
was ocdered by general Penn to ftay at the ford for us) marched away 
againft order, and carried the guide with him, which put us ten or 
twelve miles out of the way; but major-general Haynes and captaiij 
Butler were earneft, notwithftanding our men were long failing, to march 
to feek Buller, left he might be cut off; which we did, and no maa 
Iluows but we went the neareft way, and 1 believe there was no other. 

My lord, I have briefly given your excelliency an acooimt, according 
afi the ihortnefs of the time did fuggeft things to my thoughts, but I have 
fomething more to add when I have with more deliberation confidered 
the particulars, and therefore humbly delire that this may not be takca 
^ the utmoft can be pleaded by, my lord. 

Your excellency's very humble and obliged fervant, • 


1 eovLD have fpoten more fully and more particularly, but I con* 
ceived this general anfwer molt rational, and therefore referved for a trial^ 
if called to it. After this Mr- Eaton came to me again, and defired me 
to draw a petition, and he would prefent it to his highnefs; and my lord 
Fleetwood did promife to affift him iii it. Wbereupoa i ckew (he fuUow*' 
iBjj; petitioD^ Octobei as^ IQ5^ ; • 

x^a T» 

( 7« ) 

To his highnefs the tor d protestor of Ev glands Scottandydnd IreUtn^^ 
The humble petition of Richard Venables. 


TflATj upon the Jignificaiion of your hxghntjfesdifplfafure^ in his com* 

mitJtient to tfie tower y he made his hu?nble addrefs by petitioji to your high* 

nefsy that a confinement to his chamber might only have been infiiEted Jot 

fometime\ in regard of his prefent weaknefs and many occafions^ which much 

preffed him ; but not being delivered^ as he hurnbly conceives^ until afta* his 

commitmaity he now mo/l humbly implorethy that your highneffes clemency 

may fo far comfniferate his fad affliction as to grant him fo much of enlarge^^ 

7nent from his imprifonmentj that he may be enabled to mate ufe of jome 

^neans for his healthy and may have an opportunity to lay bej ore your high* 

vefs the whole fervices of his behaviour^ in the budnefs he hath beenfo unhappy 

m ; wherein if he be not able to manifefl he hath behaved himf elf faithfully y 

though accompanied with crofs providences^ he is ready to abide with much 

more fatisfatlion any further or other mark of your difpleafure; and youT 

^lighneffesjavour herein f hall oblige your petitioner ever to pray. 

Richard Venables* 

^ SOME few days after, Mr. Eaton returned to me, and told me his 
higlmefs was in great rage upon reading it; and call it away, faying, I 
would caft the. blame of all upon him. After this, Mr. Eaton ciime to 
me and told me, that there were fome further exceptions againft me, 
to which I gave him my anfwers, which here foUoweth : 

ObjeSionfiifl. — A proclamation againft pillage. * . 

Anfwa\ — I did nothing in that but what was the commiilioners order, 
which by my inftru<5lionsI was bound to obferve; and therefore, though 
.againft my judgment, (which is before cleared), yet was conftrained to 
do it, ItJft the nf gle6l ihould be charged upon me. 

ObjeElion fecond.-'^OMr landing to the weft ward, 
Anfwer. — ^1 was no fcaman and knew not any port, and muft land 


( 77 ) 

where the feamen would bring me. Myfelf and officers voted the River 
Hine; from which place, unlefs beat off, we refolved not to go, as the 
votes yet extant will declare ; but our guide brought us elfewhere, which 
was not my fault ; that part of the fervice belonging to the feamen 
•over whom I had no command. 

ObjeSlion thtrd.^'^Our retreat the firft time after the enemy was beaten. 

^w/w^.— 111. Our men at that inftant were farting forty-eight hours, 
and both men and horfe died of thirft. 2d. They wanted ammunition. 
Sd. Our guide was flain in the fight. 4th. It was fo dark we could not 
fee a place to afiault. 5th. If we could, we had no ladd^^rs. 6th. Had 
we marched up the river, it was five miles, through woods, no guide to 
lead us, and fubje6t to ambufhes ; and alfothe town would lie between 
us and our fleet. The retreat was voted for thefe reafons by a council of 

ObjeBibn /owrfA.— The drawing off the mortar-piece. 

Anfwer. — The army had a panick terror upon them, fo that the oflfi- 
cers faid, as foldiers we were bound to go on, but as chriftians they would 
not advife it, feeing the foldiers had loil their hearts and always left their 
oflScers. • The fire-mafter came in and offered to take the place with the 
mortar-piece; upon which the officers voted they would not draw oft* 
before the next day at funrife. The pioneers would not be drawn, nor 
• any other, though myfelf and officers did, fo long as we could ftand on 
our legs, endeavour to procure men to work for money or any reward, 
but none would ; and captain Hughes refufed to play the piece without 
a breaftwork : fo that he declining, and no workmen to be got, accord- 
ing to the council's vote, the amiy fainting for water, were forced 
to retreat. 

ObjeEiion Jifth.^^ls/Ly breaking up the commifiion alone. 

-^/i/ti/cr.— L'fent for the commiffioners, and, when no man expected 
*my continuance in this life for twenty-four hours, they deUyed two days ; 
and then only captain Butler came : fo that unlefs 1 ihould have fuffered 
his highnefles fervice to be prejudiced, the inftru^ions being in my hand, 
if loft, as poffibly they might all have been in confufion ; and therefore 
the neceflily of his highnelles fervice requiring it, I hoped I did that which 
anotlier negle<5tcd for the good of his fervice, 


Mr. Eaton told me alTo he had fpoken to hts highnefs concerning me^ 
who faid to hini, bring a paper from him, and 1 will get the bufmefs of 
his liberty effc<fted; which Mr. Eaton told me, and laid that he thought 
his highhefe intended the laft paper I gave him, containing my anfwer 
to the lall objecFVions. Whereupon I drew one for him, 'which he dclL* 
vered to his highnefs ; which Iiis highnefs, when he had read it, was dif- 
pleafed with, caft it from him again, faying it was not the paper; and 
that he obferved that time, and ever after, hi» countenance was changed 

againft me ; for he expefted a petition acknowledging an error. 


Mr. Eaton i^iS^ent to my lord Fleetwood,, and fhewed him a copy of mjr 
petition befoirementioned ; who told him that would not pleafe, for rt 
defired a trial, and my lord expefted a fubmiflion. Whereupon Mr. 
Eaton came to me and told me all : upoa which he concluded I mull 
die in prifon, except I acknowledged a fault, and earneftly preffed nue 
to try what 1 could fay. I replied I would never be a knave upon re- 
cord under my own hand, being innocent. If I had offended, w;hy was 
Jnotqurftoned ? He faid it would never be ufed to niy prejudice. Upoa. 
which I writ to his excellency the lord Fleetwood as folio wetlu 

My Lord, 

Mr. EATON came to me this morning, and gave me a fad atcount of 
tfic diflike conceived againft my petition. 1 he reafon of my drawing ef it 
in that form (having none to advife me) was, becaufe 1 thought hia 
highnefs and council did defire to fee me cleared of fuch afperfions as 
fv^ere by others caft upon me, efpecially in a printed paper which they 
fvere pleafed to fupprcfs, and imprifon the printers befidcs I hear lomc 
others do intend a charge againft me, and, fhould I acknowledge my- 
felf guilty of what that paper or they fay, I Ihould wrong my confcience 
and caufe, and alfo exclude nlyfelf from all other plea in my own de* 
fc nee ; but though it has difgufled, yet it was not fo intended, and I am 
not a litilc forry that it was contlrued otlierwife than what was my aim 
and end. But what is charged upon me as a fault, viz. my return home^ 
I Ihall in that particular throw myfelf at his highnelfes feet, fo far as 1 ad: 
not ogainft conjcieme (which 1 hope is notdelired), and wave all argu<» 
rrx nls which I alK dge in my own behalf. I do confefs my heart di^ 

tuu bouit^wardb^ ia icgard ttatf lifter aear four months XxiiXi 1 grew daily 


< 7© ) 

worfe and nearer death. 2ndly. The great wants of the army; and my 
unufefulnefs there, yet judged I might do more good here. Sdly, The 
great diforder and wickednefs in the army, which, though I endeavour- 
ed by all means to fupprefs, yet, 4thly, The officers were fo far from 
afTifting, that they rather indulged the foldiers, never punifhing fwear- 
ing nor drunkennefs, but admonifliitig. Am moft heartily grieved that 
I ihould do no better fervice there, and have offended his highnefs by 
my return, whofe fervice your excellency knoweth I defire to promote^ 
though reftrained; and whofe profperity with fuccefs to the caufe of God 
in his management is by none more unfeignedly prayed for than, my lord^ 

Your excellency's very humble obliged fervant. 

Tower J October 26, 1655. 

I alfo drew up this enfuing petition* 


To his highnefs the lord protector of England^ Scotland^ and Irelafid. 

The humble petition of RiciTard Venables. 

Shem(eth, ^ 

- THAT your petitioners being made fenfible of your highnejfes difpleafure^ 
conceived againft him for his return home without your highnejfes licence {his 
dijiemper depriving him- of ability fo maturely to confider the tiling as the 
weight of the matter did require)^ he cannot in confcience but endeavour to 
remove the great prejudice your highnefs hath contracted againji him for that 
incon/tderate act^ but moji humbly implores that your highnefs in clemency 
would be pleafed to commiferate his fad weak condition andfufferingSj and to 
wave your highnejfes indignation{pccaJioyied by that indijcreet act) againji hiJUy 
and grant him enlargement from his fad corifinement ; and,, as in duty bound, 
Jiejhall not only endeavour j but ever pray j &c. 

Richard Venables^ 

IT is evident this petition owns no fault, fave the hand of God upoa 
ue^ depriving me of snyf enfes, and tiiat Xcame away in that condition ; 



( 80 ) 

but what I hndto plead in my juftification /hall follow? fof this wa« ex* 
torted from me, and Mr. Eaton, whom I ever honoured as my chiefeft 
friend^ ovcr-cntreated that from me which all other perfuafions, befides 
threalcningSi could not induce me to yield to. This petition Mr, Eaton 
delivered, and folicited the fame fome few days ; but, having ftayed 
about three weeks in London, and difpatched all his own occafions, he 
came to me and took leave of me. I defired his ftay a few days, but he 
would not ; yet did not doubt but God would appear for me, and deliver 
jne thence, and clear my innocency : upon which I moved the right 
honourable lady vifcountefs Kanelagh and fir John Clotworthy, who io 
two days brought my difchar^e, of which here foUoweth a copy ; 



Oliver, Protector, 

THESE are ta will and require you forthwith to rekafe andfet at liberty 

the body of Richard Venables^ now prifoner under your charge, in our tower 

of London^ our former warrant for his commitment to your cujiody fiotwith'^ 

Jlanding^ Hereof your are not to fail, as thisjhall be your fufficient warranto 

Given at Whitehall this thirtieth day of October^ 1655. 

, To John Barkstead, efq. lieutenant of our tower of Lo7ido7i. 

WEDNESDAY the 5 \Jl of October, 1655, at the council at Whitehall^ 
upo7i reading a letter from general VenabkSj directed to. the lord prefident^ 
taking notice that he hadfeen the counciVs vote of yejlerday concerning hit 
enlargement^ aridjignifying his readintfs to deliver up his commiffion as gene^ 
raly and to give a rejignation of his Irijh command^ in regard he hath not 
the commijjion with him. 

Ordered, That upon his delivery into theha7idsof Mr. Jejfophis commiffion 
as general^ and a reJig}iation of his command in Ireland in writings contain^ 
ing wit hall an undertaking to deliver up the commijjion itfelf fo foon as he 
can get it with conveniency into his power^ the warrant for his enlargement 
fliall be delivered and put in execution ; and that as foon as may be he do alf» 
deliver up his faid commi^onfor his command in Ireland^ according tofuch 
his undertaking. 

UfiMiiY ScOBSLL^ clerk of the council. , 



( 81 ) 

OCTOBER Sljf^ IGSS.'^^T have this day received from general Richard 
Venableshis highntjes commiffion^for confiituting him commander-in-chief 
under his highnefs^ for the army and forces raifed for the expedition to the 
Wejl- Indies^ bearing date the ninth December^ 1654- ; asalfo a?i iyiftrument 
under his hand for furrendering his command as colonel of a regiment of 
foot in Ireland^ commander-in-chief of the forces in Ulfter^ and com-- 
tnajider of the town and cajlle of Ca)rrickfergus^ according to the purport 
of the honourabie counciCs above-mentioned order. 

William Jessop. 

/ do hereby certify, that the above-mentioned is a true copy of the coun-^' 
til* s order; a?id the commijjton therein inentioned was accordingly delivered 
to the faid Mr. Jejfopj together ttith the reJignatioTi abovefaid, for xchick 
the receipt above-mentioned ig a true eopy. 

John Barkstead. 

Dated at the tower of London^ Nov. 2, 1655. 

BUT I have omitted one thing. During thefe tranfa<?lions, general 
Penn deiired me not to yield to acknowledge any fault or fubmit, and 
promifed me he never would. I had not reafon to truft his word^ yet I 
told him I would not ; for I knew no fault I was guilty of, and therefore 
could confefs none, neither would I fo much prejudice my own inno* 
cence as unjuftly to charge myfelf. Yet he did, and fo got liberty^ a 
week before me. Alfo I grew very weak and fickly in that timp, by 
jeafon I was lodged over a great draw-well, which fent up unwholefome 
vapours and damps, which much diftempered my weak body. Wherc- 
iipon J deiired the lieutenant of the tower to change my lodging, and 
named fometo him. Herefufed, and told me his officers mufthave them. 
1 replied they might have thofe I was in, which they might well endure, 
but I could not; but was delayed, and at lad denied all ; which, with 
thercfufal of a veflelto bring me by Tea from Portfmouth, to take fe- 
curity for my appearance, that I might ufe phyfic ; the putting me into 
a chamber where I durft not take phyfic ; and keeping me there, gaufed 
me to remember fome words fpoke to me by fome friends before I left 
England, which were, That I was fent to be dejiroyed not to do fervice, 
that J was popular in Ireland^ had too much intcrejl there^ and that they 

inem nof how td di/phree fwe, or free them/elves /rom me, hut 5y fueh a rl^ 
momlas might occajion death. I looked upon all this as malice to difguft 
mc againll the ftate, and therefore regarded it not ; tliough, for my place, 
fome friends can teftify that I was weary of employment, and defired a 
private life ; and this voyage, being only to iettle a colony, (which was 
cft'e^ed), I might then retire without prejudice to myfelf, or raifing a 
difpute or jealoufy in the ilate, (which would follow), if I gave up my 

Having given a true relation of things as they were done, I fhould have 
inade an end, but the light of a Ihort but ilanderous pamphlet caufeth 
me to take occaiion to anfwer fome things mentioned in the fame, which 
are ignorantly or rather malicioudy related. Thou^ his highnefles impri* 
Ironing the printers and ielicrs of tl^ fame might ferve for a coi^futation 
of it, wherein the ftate is concerned, yet I conceive that will not excule 
me, and my filence might be judged a guilt or inability to vindicate my<* 
jTelf^ I Oiall therefore track him in his own path } and here I mud apo- 
logize that the author, not owning it by his name, might juflly excufe 
iny (ilence, and alfo his (peaking in fuch general terms that no man of 
reafon ought to judge him peccant who is not perfonated; yet, that I 
may not prejudice the truth in not difcfovering his uncharitable cenfures^ 
nvhich unle(s dete6led might miflead fome, I take myfelf engaged to re* 
ply to his clofely infintiating afpertions. And, feeing he lays down a& 
fiis method of proceeding three grounds^ I ihall take him ia his own 

^Xfi. Stt^rf.— Whether the fetting forth of this army was really intend^ 
ed for the glory of God and propagation of the gofpel. 

Anfwer. — Except this fynonymus durftbe fo fhamelefe as to charge t'.e 
fupfeme authority with hypocrify, I fuppofe he might eafily have aniwjr- 
cd himfdf in the affirmative ; for, firft, it is granted, from grounds ojP 
reafon and fcripture, that to punilh offenders and offences doth advantage 
theglory of God; for all juft wars are for the revenging or repealing ojt 
wrongs done or offered to fuch over whom God hath given authority.— 
Magillracy is for the puniihment of levil-doers, and for the praife of them* 
that do well ; which duty^ if the magilbate do not difcharge, he bean». 
the fword in vain, or at the heft doth not make that ufe of it which Gotl- 
and the nature of authority require from him. And what wrongs the 

Coj^Uia have fufiercd from the Spaniards in thofe weiiern parts his^hiq!> 

f 8» > 

acfe, in his declafation concerning the war, doth fet forth, and were pu-* 
biickly known almoft to all men, and no reparation made ; and if the Lord' 
ihould pleafe to give thefe Countries into the pofleflion of a proteftant 
nation (except Mr. J. S. judge the proteftant religion will not propagate 
the gofpel and advance the glory of Qod), I fuppofe the glory of God? 
and the gofpel muft undeniably be promoted. But the calumniator tacit-» 
ly blafteth the Hate (who had fo ftrong provocations and juft grounds o§ 
war) with this clofe infinuation, page 5d. — To conclude the didgn to be 
altogether grounded upon a tvrong and corrupt principle were to accufe our 
^randees^ &c. Where he doth infer that they did not aim at either of 
thofe ends, and gives reafon drawn from the inftrument ; and, becaufa 
fome did lye open to juft exceptions, he concludes againft all ; and a lit-» 
tie before he tells us the fecrecy of the defign caufed honeft men to defert 
it, which is not true ; for fome, not out of canfcience, but for other 
enlargements and employments, or the diffaufions 6t friends, or difguft 
againft his highnefs, did decline that voyage, but not in reference to the 
injuftice of the quarrel that I know of, who have more reafon to know 
it better than this man ; but I fuppofe he would have all proteftant defigns 
made public, that each private man that engages in the fervice might 
bave his confcience informed, or indeed the public popifti enemy ac- 
quainted, to prepare for refiftance. As for the officers, fo many that 
fcrupled were fatished in the juftice of the quarrel, and indeed this J. S% 
gives enough to anfwer himfelf, vizj the Spaniards wrongs to ourplanta*^ 
tations^ and that no articles of peace extended to the fouth of the tropic^ 
But becaufe he was not confulted, belike that he might' not be a ghoftly 
father to the foldiers, to counfel them, he concludes that all men that ' 
went were men of no confcience, and to pin their faith on other men*s 
fleeves, but all rational men know that to difcover a defign is to over- 
throw it. 

Next he comes to the good intent of the caufe, upon which he gives 
his opinion from the ill fuccefs of the a6lion. A good argument learned 
hy him out of the Turkiih Alcoran. Had he read over the 22d of Judges^ 
he might have found the Ifraelites, who profecuted a good quarrel, and 
by the exprefs command of God, yet fell twice before the Benja* 
mites. But he then covers this unhandfomely by the fervants difobeying 
their mafters, but Ihews not wherein ; pretends fafe fceking, but gives, 
no inftance ; and cafts blemifhes without caufe or ground . upon all. It 
nay be^ fome might be perfons that came upon the^account of fpoil and 
^ . L 2 pillagQ. 


pillage, but he fhould Tiave been fojuft, if an ocular wltnefs, fa«h-n(K 
fclf faith) to have inftanced in fome who gave moft evident iigns, or 
cxprefl'ed fo much in words, and not have blafted all for the fault of 
fome who could not he unknown. — ^Ihen he falls back to tlie juftice 
©f the quarrel, and gives four reafom; the firft and laft fitter for the 
the mouth of apapift or atheift than (what he would be thought) a pro* 
teftant, the fecond and third gave me grounds to engage in the defign^ 
^ith what I alledged at the tiril. 

After this he difputes the legality of the caufe, but mnkes it no argu<* 
mcnt of the good intent, nor do 1 ; but if the juftice of the caufe be 
cleared to me, the intent of the defigners is not to be any fcrupleto 
know, but my own intent in acting, of which my own heart accufes me 
not. Then he leaves all with a confufed mixing of good and bad, but 
in the conclufion excufes no man, and therefore condemns all, and con- 
eludes the aimy fo bad that no good could be expected from them, f 
do not plead for the army's piety, neither officers nor foldiers almoll 
known to me before I was engaged in the defign. I craved my owa 
regiment for one, and that the reft might be drawn out of the Irilh army, 
feafoned with hardihips and hazard ; but the defign feemcd to be laid 
afide, and at laft came on again fo faft that my requeft was denied, as 
not to be done in time ; yet no officers were taken on, but fuch as had 
the commendation of fome of his highnefies, council, chief minifters of 
flate, or officers of the army. 1 he private foldiers were promifed out of 
tiie old Engliih army, but I confefs riot performed, fave as this namelefs 
author relates ; and if any were proved unworthy among the officers. But 
tvhp ever faw an army confifting wholly of (and I confefs this had too 
few) religious men in it. But, neverlhelefs, let this author or any man elfc 
inftance th(^ir rapes, murders, plunderings, 8Cc. either in England or 
Barbadoes (though I know tew armies where fuch offences are not com* 
mitted); yet I never heard of any in either of thete places that I remem* 
ber, and I am certain none that 1 heard of efcaped unpunifhed. But 
though he cannot inftance any one of thefe offences in the army, yet he 
prefers the Spaniards before us, as lefs wicked. And here I fuppofe he 
muft confefs himfelf a papift, or a very mean hiftorian, or exceeding for» 
gptful, who hath read the Spaniards cunquelts of thofe parts (fet forth by- 
th(Mr own countrymen), and his ears glow not at the horrid cruelties^, 
and more tlian barba mis inhumanities, pracFtifed by the Spaniards (out of 

a wanton bloody humour) upon the poor natives i or can he forget hu 


( 85 ) 

IiighriedR^s late declaration of the date of of the groimds of the war 

with Spain, and can read of the maflacrcs of the Enghih, and yet prefer 
thofe men before the Englilh army, who were protellants, though very 
loofe and debauched, yet by difciphne reftrained from thofe outrages ; 
but he hath no mind to fpcak one word in the army's defence, which 
iliews him to be of Cahi's lineage, defirous to trumpet to the utmoft of 
his maHce his countrymen** infirmities. But though I do not excufe the 
common foldiers of the army from prophanenefs, which indeed had too 
many debauched perfons in it, as confifting of the word men either of 
England or the plantations, yet, as I faid, outrages wereiK>t afted by them; 
and for the officers there were fome godly perfons, eminent for their 
piety, valour, and fervices, in their country, as major-general Haynes, 
who is the only one he gommends, and colonel Fortefcue, afterwards 
major-general, much efteemed by godly men, minifters, and others, for 
his piety, conduct, and valour, declared in feveral fervices in England; 
with captain Howe and feveial of my own regiment ; yet he takes np 
notice of them at all, not confiderihg the denomination is given from the 
better and ruling part in fcripture, where a godly reforming king brings 
his people to be reckoned as religious, he caufing them to ferve the Lord; 
and indeed the major part of the officers were civil, though not able 
and fit for employment, which could not be known to me, who was a 
. ilranger to them, until trial was made, though they had good men to 
recommend them, as it is faid, and had ferved the ftate. But he nientions not 
adjutant-general Jackfon, a prophane drunkard and whoremafter, a man 
that flood cliarged (and the charge proved) of peijury and forgery; con- 
cerning whom, as being known to me, I had with major-general Worfley 
moved his highneis, but he was notwithltanding forced upon us; nor co- 
lonel Buller, who never yet cleared himfelf about the lofs of Sicily ; 
l)ut for the generality of the foldiers take the opinion of major-general 
Daniel (which was the opinion of others) in a letter to me whilil in pri* 

fon. 1 hat part of the letter followeth : 


^* I wonder not that you fell under the extremity of difficulties, conflder- 
ang (except fome few trufly officers) that you carried with you the very 
Iweepings of fome part of England; and though I know God is not li- 
mited to inflrumentsy yet his name is moll principally engaged with his 

Hibiccond quexy he pafTctb over, refcrriiigus to what bath been faid and 


%«r!iat foncx^reth, and fo fhall I refer the reader alfo as he doth to mf 
ftnfwers before^ and which follow^ 

His third tells us of the g^eat preparations and flrength of the armv^ 
and God oppofite to them. As to the fuccefs, I anfwer that we efFe6led 
what we were fent about, the fixing of a colony, though we failed in the 
firft place whicli we attempted ; not through the value of the oppofers^ 
but forced away through want of water, and carriages to take along with 
lis all convcniencies; and, though we were well provided tor, yet thefe 
provifions flaying behind (not by our fault who would have flayed 
for them but were not permitted) we were conftrained to leave Barba- 
does, having almoft eaten them and our fmall ftores which came up virith 
i!S, and fo could not flay longer for them, left we had perifhed our- 
felvcs and deftroyed the plantations ; and our neceflity enforcing us to 
go with what we had,, we were as perfons without accommodations of 
arms, ammunition, or provifions. And that it Ihould be, as he faith, mar- 
vellous to fee perfons peri(h of thirfl in thofe torrid regions^ 1 fee not. It 
moy be he will fay, that we might liavc landed nearer to the city. I have 
anfwcred that already, and refer the reader to judge whofe fault it was, 
the feamen's orour's, who were carried ir far off agamrt our wills, and 
thereby ruined; being expofed to hunger, thirfl, and all inconveniencies 
>vhich that climate could inflicft upon our men ; whereby we were wea- 
kened, as alfo with bad and fcant diet, as is before related, and the 
enemy had time thereby given him to call in all the flrength he could 

Next he gives tlie journey itfelf, and begmeth with the armies, relating 
of what nlanner of men they were formed. I fliall not fay arty thing 
•ow, having fpoken my thoughts before, and confefs he fpeaks too much 
truth; and Ihall mention nothing till we come to Hifpaniola, where he gives 
us that number of the army, in whofe number he is miflaken fome hun- 
dreds; for the mufter rolls make them fix thoufand five hundred andfifty^ 
one, and he feven thoufand, and faith they had three day's provifions at 
their landing; but it being delivered out two days before they landed, 
the feamen caufed the reft of them (which I knew not till "we were 6n 
fhore) to feed on that allowance before landing, fo that the moft of them 
had but one day's provifions to live upon when they landed: too fmalfa 
proportion for them, if we had landed at Kine River^ much more difpro- 
portionable to fo^ng and tedious a marcb«« . . • 


C 87 > 

Next fie mentions t!ie prociar)atioi> againfl plunder, tfte rcafon of 
^'liich and my oplition Willi my a<51ings I have given before^ and refer the' 
reader to the faaje^ it bciig tlie coiumKrionere a<9:, not mine; though 
they faw tlie difcoutent it raifed in the armv^, yet perflated in it. Ai 
to the avarice of perfons let them bear the blame that defcrve it ; yet 
to fpeak conje^tur:iUy (1 fjpj3ofe) thofe that were more pertinacious to 
have it, or refufed the army pillage, and yeJt gave them no pay, (and 
low can men fubfift without pay or pillage), and refufed the army hberty 
to liave any infpc^ion into the aiaiiagement of it, or a fubfiltence out of 
it, are moft likely to feek their own advantage by it ; and of aiiy of 
thefe no man can charge me, or, if they do, my own tranfadlions will 
plead my excufe and vindicate my innocency. 

Next he tells the army had no oppofition hi landing, except the excef-* 
live heat of the fun, and intolerable drougiit, which was fo great that 
fome drank their own urine, others died. I would here <}uery af him 
what oppofition would be worfe for us than our want of provifiions (as 
brfore related) to have heat and thirft in the extremity. What greater 
^itficuitie« than hunger, heat, and thirii, (raifcries not to be overcome) 
could an enemy call in our ways or wifh to befall us? Yet Ihefe he 
palfeth over with a flight expreflioii, of nothing but beat and third ia 
the extremes* 

Next he brings us to the River Hine, and tells us of our fhort ftay 
♦efrelhment, which was (hort indeed ; for no other refrefhment had we 
after two day's failing fave a little water^ and half an hour's iitting upoa 
the ground, though our purpofe was to have got more. We were told a> 
ford a little higher would give us a paliage over to conue to our (hips, ta 
teceive our neceffaries; but it proved fo far off that we were that night 
without meat and drink, and caufed us to lall near forty liours long^r.-^ 
Then he relates a ^mall flcirmifh, which was oceafioned a.^ is before re« 
lated. MVe jnet with colo&id BuU^ and Cox our giiide, whapramtfed 
to bring us to water^ which was joyful news to our fainting men j and 
lying near to the Fort, I fent fome officers to view it. Some reported it 
low, weak, ami unflanked. Finding them differ in o{>inioa^. 1- fent the 
engineer, who then came to ^s, and aiTured me it was a regular wcli 
fortified (but fmall} piecei . Having got a littie ^rength by reiitUig tne^ 
*nd eicceedingly t«>ubled with a violent flux, I went myfelf ; and if my 

^Gs were abk to ie^t it wafi a iiart about ^wea|y-&ve yards f^uare, and 
. .. ifive4 

( »8 ) 

feven or eight yards high at leaft. I fent fome into the woods to fearctr 
for ambufhes, and, the officers being generally very weary, I went my- 
felf with the guide to fee that done, which 1 could not procure others to' 
do, and (o fell upon the ambufh, but not into it; for we difcovered them 
before they moved towards us, and the forlorn fired, but fpent their fire 
over nimbly, which gave the enemy advantage to fall in with their" 
lances before they could charge again, and fo routed them, whereby Z 
was endangered ; which moved the officers to prefs me not to march (as . 
I ever ufed) in the van, if not with the forlorn ; and this I fpeak to vin- 
dicate myfelf from the huputation of raihnefs, which fome charged me 
with, though I did nothing but upon neceffity, and what I could not 
procure to be done by others; and alfo to Ihew the i*eafon why I was not in. 
the van the fecond time, it being the very earncft preffing defire of all the 
colonels. But whereas this ocular witnefs faith, they routed the firft regi- 
ment, I reply I faw no man run but the forlorn, which confifted of fea- 
jnen, and the fea regiment relieved their fellows^ who had no pikes, and 
therefore routed and beat back the enemy prefently, and purfued them 
within cannon fliot of the town ; and then we, as before related, for the 
Tcafons allcdged, retreated to our fhips for to rcfrelh our men, wl.o had 
moft of them fafted four days, except what fruits they had found in the 
woods, which were generally oranges and lemons, 

Againft our next advance we made all the provifion we could to carry 
water and brandy, but all we could do was too ftiort tofupply our extreme 
want. The fight I have before related, and fiiall not now repeat any 
thing, only I can but confefs with him, to my grief, the unworthy tail 
of major-general Haynes; but muft contradi(5l thisr relator as to the num- 
ber of the Spaniards. Gentlemen of credit and judgment who were ovt 
board affirmed to me, they faw at leaft three thoufand march out of the 
town; but Ais fpe6tator faw but fifty. We were alfured by Cox our • 
guide, who had lived twelve years amongd them, that they could bring 
into the field five thoufand men. They had time to draw them together, 
and no man will conceive they would lie ftill and only fend out fifty to 
iight ; but I fay further, that in thofe. continual woods or wilderneflrs, 
where not above fix could march abreaft, few could be feen either in the 
rear nor thofe in the woods, ^ur forlorn were four hundred, and the 
enemy fired upon them in van and flank at once; and if fifty could do 
this let any man judge, and fo many as three thoufand drawn out of the 
city, it is probable they could not all iiand idle« He iaid alfo half tl)e 

( w > 

army wat routed; — an utter untruth* Two regiments were only routes?, 
and the enemy beaten back, and retreated not until forced awp.y by the 
fea regiment, led on by vice-admiral Goodfon xmd myfellV and about a 
iiundred of major-general Hayncs's men we ftayed from running; and wlio 
ever knew the Spaniard fo much fool or coward as not to follow fuccels 
to the utmoft, when a fair advantage offered itfelf. For the number of 
the (lain, he reckons fix hundred, after two hi^ftdred loift in the woods, 
and three hundred wounded, that nioft of them died, as he faith ; and, 
though we never had more blows at our leaving Hifpaniola, he makei 
our lofs one thoufand feven hundred, whereas I am certain, as before I 
related, we were never more (if fo many) than fix thoufand five hundred 
and fifty-one, and after all the deaths at Jamaica for ten weeks, which 
u as our firft muHer, we were above five thoufand eight hundred ; and 
therefore the deaths there, as is related before, and the lofs at Hifpaniola, 
could not be above feven hundred, io that he gives the Spaniards a thou- 
fand to grace there fuccels with, and all the fick at Jamaica that died 
there to mat^ up the number he allows them, page 15. He relates, 
that we drew up after this fight near the fort, S/^c. feveral untruths aue 
contained in this relation, for, as before, we beat the enemy back, reco- 
vered our flain, and the night being at hand kept the ground all that 
iught. A council of officers being called, did advife to try the mortar- 
piece upon the fort, if it could play by fuftrife, olherwife draw off, left 
wc fhould perilh by thirft ; and this.was the reafon why the mortar-piece 
was drawn off, and known to them that advifed it; but if not known to 
all, it was not ufual to tell our refults. The engineer was called, but, 
as before^ none would work, and the place was unfure; for feveral can- 
non ihot fell within fome few yards of the place, took ffx, feven, and 
pine, men away at a fhot, fo that the enemy's guns could bear upon the 
place, which was as open as the ground the men ttood upon. Arid I am 
perfuaded if there had been an offence worthy of puniihment, thofe who 
had the power would not leave the matter altogether unqueftioned. — • 
The officers, finding theif men fo bafe, and the danger of periihing by 
^irft fo unavoidable, voted a retreat; and I think it was better to bring 
•ff the mortaf-piece than to leave it behind us. For the reft that follow- 
cth, let the feamen anfwer, whom it ehargeth with fo much cruelty as 
to deny ns food, which brought them to eat dogs, alies, horfes, and in* 
4eed whatevef they could j^t though unheakhfuL 

We now follow hiitf tc Jamaica. .His 20th page begins with the procla- 
*|ttatia» he linentions againft running away, tclhn^ us fcoffingly it might 

M have 

( so ) 

lia%'c dpnc well, if ma<!^ before we landed at Hifpamola, and fo I think 
i^Ho ; but v/c could not imagine our men would have proved fo bafe, and 
the old adage might have anfwered him, good laws have their rifefj-om 
evil maiiners ; and alfo at our landing he tells us the weak oppofition that 
was made; but the number of the enemy is untruly related. We were 
arthrcd there were upwards of three thoufand in the country, and gene** 
rally all of theni living in or near 1o the town, in which were four or fix 
churches, and houfes to have quartered twenty thoufand men; and if, 
bcfidcs thofe in the country, all could make up but five hundred, let 
any man judge; and all were drawn down to oppofe our landing, for we 
iaw their fifes made to give notice of an enemy approaching the day be- 
fore we landed, and I do believe were generally drawn to the fcafide for 
their defence. 

Next he mentions of. number feven thoufand. When he muftered u» 
tit firfl:, page 12, he made us but feven thoufand, though, as before, our 
greatcll number was but fix thoufand five hundred and fifty-one; and, of 
the fevQn thoufand he mentions, to be Hilpaniola, one thoufand 
two hundred were feamen, regimented under vice-admiral Goodfon; and 
of thofe he cuts ofi^ one thoufand feven hundred as loft, pages JIG and 17, at 
Hifpaniola. Sure pur men were like bees, that after a ftiower (if over- 
taken with it) lie dead, but revive again with the next breaking out of 
the fun beams, or elfe he is a very falfe mufter-mafter, and an egregious 
liar. As for their outwitting us, he fure thought us fools, becaufe we 
admitted! of a treaty, and thereby had cows brought in, which otherwife we 
muft have wanted ; and had alfo hoftages, men of quality and worth, as 
their chief major and Don Acofi:a, one of the beft men amongft them ; 
and yet if they ftood ouJt, wc were at no lofs, we had our army to reduce 
them, which muft have been the way "if we had never treated; and fo 
were at no lofs, and yet got refrefhment and freih meat for our men with- 
out blows or trouble, which elfc we miift have' wanted. And now let any 
man judge how we are over-reached, and what fimple fouls we were, 
eafy to be abuled by any, and yet when they broke, we got hoftages, 
and in the interim gained knowledge of the country, and fct divifion 
among themfelves. As for their goods, it now appears who coveted 
plunder and fpoil, becaufe the army was not marched all night in'ao 
•unknown country, all wood, without guide to direft them, to pof* 
fefsan open town, where little I believe vras to be got,. (for there was 
/lot almoft any thing when Jackfon took the ifland formerly), and the 


tnoney, and plate^ and richcft moveables, were, X fuppofe, eafried away 
upon the firft notice of our approach; and yet he complains of our iim* 
plicity in lofs of the pillage, and, as he faith, they drove away their 
horfes, cattle, &Cc. I anfwercd this before, and in two days we recovered 
them again. As to the order againll killing cows by fingle perfons, the 
reafon is given before, to which I refer the reader, and muft needj? fay 
that our men*<? mifery and wants proceeded from the want of food from the 
fleet, who refuted to fupply us, as is already before related very largely, 
under the hands of feveral perfons of honour and credit. And thus have 
I doiie with this malicious traduccr, but that thofe who are under the 
ftates frowns fhould meet with bafe language from flanderous tongues is 
no news, envious fpirits taking that opportunity to vent their malice. 

There remain fome obje6lions, which may feem to be yetunanfwered, 
which I Ihall refolve, and leave all to the candid judgment of the inge* 
jnious and unbiafled reader. 

Huejlion 1 ll. — Why would I go before my (lores ? 
. Anjwer., — I declared my diflatisfaftion in that particular, and was pro- 
mif^d they ftiould meeit me at Portfmouth ; and there I was ordered to 
ftay for them at Barbadoes, and peceflity forced uS thence before they 
came, except we fhould have eaten up aijd devoured that ifland, and fo 
deftroyed it and ourfelves. 

Q^ueftion 2d. — Why did I go with fuch a rafcally rabble of raw and 
unexperienced men, never difciplined ? 

Anfwa — I defired my own regiment and the reft out of the Irifh army 
feafoned with hardihip and hazard ; and after. that, (the defign was laid 
afidc as pretended) was hafted away, arjd proriiifed men out of the Eng* 
lifli and Scotch forces, who had, unknown to me till after, inlifted the 
labble, and put them'to us, and kept back their old foldiers ; and we 
were not permitted to ftay to try tliem what they were* 

fluejlmi 3d. — ^AVhy did we not keep them in better difcipKne ? 

Anfwer. — Who ever read of an army, though beft difciplined, kept 
in order, which had neither pay, pillage, arms, nor proviftons, much 
more was I unable to do it amongft atcompany who neither knew, what 
order or civility meant, and when the officers indulged them, never pu- 
niitiing almoft any offence, fave by admonition ; and my commiflion did 
fiot permit me to punifti myfelf, but by a court-martial* 

M 2 Slue/lion 

( 9« ) 

^uefiion Mh. — ^Wliy fliould I go on a defign I knew net the reafonf; i>f ^ 

Anfwer. — rl was acquainted fo tar with it as to know the lawiuhiefs of it ; 

and the reft (though I defired to know the fame) was the ftate's part not 

mine^ they being accountable for that, not I, yet the officers that fcru- 

pled any thing had their doubts anfwered. 

fiueftion 5th, — ^Why would I go fo l^ounded with inftru^'ons and ma* 
nacled by commifTioners ? 

Anfwer. — I did propound to Mr. Secretary Thurloe (to whom I wa« 
commanded to make my addreifes) that I might not have my friends 
(by ftrift inftru6tions) made more terrible to me than my enemies; for 
whoever attempted any thing refolutely (if it failed) was in danger of 
life to them that employed him, and therefore needed all encourage* 
inents, the difficulties of the fervice being fufficient to engage againft ; 
I was promifed 1 fhould not, my commiffion was large enough, and my 
inftru6tions, fave in one claufe, (which all commiffions have in themy, 
that referred to all other orders, which I conceived related to all further 
intelligence upon tranfadtions, not to the commiffioners inftru6tions, who I 
fujtpofed were only to deal (as thofe fent me into Ireland by the parlia- 
ment and after by his highnefs) in civil affairs ; which I was pleafed with, 
in regard that burthen would be taken off my ihoulders, which had in 
Ireland fo much opprefled me. And to confirm me in this opinion, 
there was a claufe in my commiffion, authorizing me to take and follow 
the advice of my officers, as occafion was offered ; but, when the com- 
fnifTioners inftru6tions were broken up at fea, they annulled ail this» 

Huefiion eth. — But why would I fufTerthe feamen fo to ufe me in 
provifions and arms, S(c. which were put on board for our ufe as well as 

Anfwer. — ^There were few or no foldiers aboard the frigates, who awed 
the whole fleet, and therefore the power was in the fea officer's hands, and 
1 had n# means to help myVeif by force ; and therefore ftood at their 
mercy, being only aWc to fhew my wants, and to advifc and require fup- 
plies, but notable to relieve myfelf. . . 

SfUeJion 7th, — ^Why fhould I go with fuch commiffioners^ fo unfit and 
unexperienced men ? 

Anfwer. — I looked not upon them as having any thing to do in mili- 
tary affairs, and in civikthey were accountable for their a6tions, not I, and 
i£ my own afl'airs fuccccdcd I was welt 

( 95 ) 


iiueflion 8th. — ^Why did I take my wfte and foldler's wives wltli me * 
Anfwer. — Firft, I acquainted his highnefs, I refolved to take my wife 
with me; and it is probable, if his highnefs had declared his diflike, I 
hud either left her or not gone myfelf. Befidcs his highnefs did only in- 
tend a plantation where women would be neceflkry, and this proves alfo 
that I told his highnefs, before I went, that I propofed, if the climate was 
,not my enemy, toflay there ; and had fo done, but that the hand of God 
iorced me back. Some officers (as colonel Humphrys) did afterwards 
take their wives with them, without hindrance or blame ; and for fol- 
dier's wives, whoever have obferved irf Ireland, knew theneceflity of hav- 
ing that fex with an army, to attend upon and help the fick and wounded, 
which men are unfit for. Had more women gone, I fuppofe that many 
had not periihed as they did for want of care and attendance. 

§lue/lion 9th. — ^Why did I return home? 

Anfwer. — I djd propound to Mr. Secretary Thurloe before I went, iac 
cording to his high neifes command, that if the air agreed not with me I 
might thereupon return home, and that in fuch a cafe my command in 
Ireland might be kept for me. He anfwcred, God forbid we iliould 
fend men to die, and not to do fcrvice, and for that reafon my command 
in Ireland and my pay in the interim fhould be referved for me, which 
accordingly was performed, and I received part of the money in the 
tower. — 2d. The jAyficians advifed my return, as not poflible to live 
there, they having tried all means, and found that what flopped my fluX: 
-heightened my fever, and what abated my fever increafed my flux ; and 
I flayed fifteen weeks expc6^ing recovery, and was conveyed on board 
in a diftrafted ccmdition, which I had been in for a month. — 3d. The 
©fficcrs voted and defired my return to folicit their affairs, as being un- 
able to do any fervice there; and, doubting I fhould not live to come 
ftome, they joined another with me in commiffion to folicit for them. 
The vote was pafled in a council of war, gathered againft my will, 
^ before is related, and I flayed fix weeks after it. — 4th A colo* 
ny, the work I was fent about, was effected, and no pnemy ap- 
peared fav^like Irilh tories, and "no man will fay that Ireland is not re- 
duced. — 5th. — ^There were three commiffioners left befides myfelf, and 
one voted my return, another figned the warrant for the fiiip to bring me 
home, only one refufed. — 6th. His highnefs had figned and fealed a dor- 
mant commiffion, thus indorfed, not to be opened but in cafe of the deaths 
difability^ or abfence^'of one or both the generals ; and thofe words were in 
the body of the commiffion, which was broken open, ajud another general 


< ^ 

ctiofenmtnyplace^andliiscommiffion figned ; and liedifclTargedhiBpiacc 
iov a month before 1 left Jamaica, The word abfence implies an an- 
fwer. to my defire to fecretary Thurloe for my return ; for, except I re- 
turned, I could jiot be abfent from the army, and difability feemetli i6 
me to be inferted on purpofe, as well as abfence, to authorize and war- 
rant my com iiig home without danger, according- to my propofals to Mr* 
Secretary Thurloe; for why. fhould another be chofen and commif- 
fionated, and put in my place, without any crime, and yet I required to 
ftay there? In my eye and (I believe) in any rational man's judgment, 
it is inconfiftent or unjuft to fet a man afidc without any fault, fave th^ 
hand of God in his diftemper, (which was my afflidlion not my fault) 
and another to be put in his place, except hereby a licence to return was 
civilly confented unto, and hereby implied. Befides captain Butler, one 
. of the commiflTioners, did, againft^the exprefs declaration of raajor-gener 
ral Fortefcue, in the name of the army, again ft his return home, as de- 
ftructiveto his highnefles fervice, come thence, yet was never queftioned, 
though I offered tq prove high debauchednefs ami fomenting of mutinies 
againfi: him. General Fortefcue's letter to his highnefs of this return ot 
li is folio weth: - . 

Mat/ it pleafe your highnefs^ 

ALBEIT by other letters I certified your highncis what I had faid t^. 
commifliorjer Butler, yet that not being fatisfa6tion to me, becaufe what 
palled was between him .and me, 1 took .this occaiion this morning, m 
prcfence of admiral Goodfon, colonel Buller, and this gentleman, rear- 
admiral Blagge, to tell the commiffioner that I conceived, according to 
the duty of his place, he ought to tarry with us, and therefore protefted 
againft his going; in regard your highnefles fervice ihould in all proba** 
bility receive damage by it, if that the two commanders in chief of the 
fleet and land forces, impowered by your highnefles inftru6tions to a6t ds 
commiffionci^, could not in fome cafes a6t without a tliird perfon. I alfp 
defire^ iiis concurrence with the general, in nominating and appointiog 
7L commander-in-chief of the army in the geoerars abfence, but he ut» 
terly refufed, faying the ftate of things was now much altered, and he 
could not, nor would not, allow of admiral Goodfon and myfelf to be 
commiffioners, nor confent that I fliould be .commander-in-chief in the 
generars abfejtce, nor appoint any other, nor Hay to order and govero 


(' 9S ) 

things witfi the comtnifiioners : all which rear-admiral Blagge can jiif^ 
tify, <md I counted it a duty to be certified to your highnefs by» 

* • 


Your highneffes moft humble fervant. 

Jamaica Harbour y Juh^SS^ 1655. 

Richard Fortescue* 

I sHALi, conclude all with a moft thankful acknowledgement of the 
mercies of God to me, in feveral eminent deliverances both from ihe 
fword and ficknefs,. to that I may truly fay, I never faw more remark- 
able providences as to my pcrfonal. prefervation, nor met with more 
lets, impediments, and crofs providences, in the management of the 
public concerns in all my life. 







ARTICLED wti mititttry Jbws fet forth by his excellency fir Thama\ 

Modi/fordj hiighi and baroneU governor- general of his majejiy^s ijland 

cf Jamaica^ and vice-admiral to his royal highnefs the duke of Vorkf by 

advice of his maje/iy^s council here ejiablijhedy for the better ordering an4 

^gvverning hi^ majejiy* s forces belonging to his f aid ijland^ &c. 

TO the intent that the harms of bur neighbours might make us wary;, 
and in a pofture ready to prevent or refift the attempts of our enemies 
in^thefe times of fo great danger, his excellency hath thought it necef- 
fary, by the advice of the council, to ordain that this colony be in the 
moil warlike and fecure pofture poffible, and that thefe laws militiiry 
hereafter enfuing be <jbferved and put in execution by all officers, foldiers, 
and inhabitants, ofthisifland: 

Imprimis* — That the courts of juftice, and proceeding at the common 
laws, be from and after the next fitting adjourned without day, and 
not to be reaffumed without new and exprefs orders from his excel* 
len^y ; and that, in lieu thereof, courts martial (hall be held within 

* thfe precinAs of every, regiment, and a general court martial where his 
excellency Ihall appoint, for puniihing of all blafphemers of God*s 
holy name, fwearers, curfers, drunkards, and other enormous ofienderd, 
according to the dire6tion of the faid court, and alfo for putting the 
laws enfuing in execution. 

Second.— That all men within this Ifland, imder the age of fixty 
years and above twelv e, Ihall, within fix days after publication hereof, 
prefent themfelves io be inlifted either in horfe or foot in the company 
where they refide, under the penalty of five pounds, orfuch corporal 
punifhment as at a court-martial (hall be thought fit; and all maftersr 
Witiiin this iiland ihall prefent, in the time afurefaid^ their fervants of 


( 9t ) 

3il)ovc twelve and under fixty years old, lo be Inliftcil in tlie foot com# 
panies where they re fide, iaider the penalty of five pounds, or cor* 
poral punilhment ds the coiirt-majllal ihall tirink reafonable. The 
age of the faid perfons to be adjudged by the infpe6lioo of the coxix^ 
iiiander in cliiel of that precinc^l. 

Third. — The Hiid perfons, named in thencxt articles, are not to be 
received among the horfe without they alfo prefent a good horfe, fad« 
die, and pillols, fit for fervipe, but ihall be all compelled to carry muf-' 
Kets or fuzees, while to be had, and when not, then to prepare lances; 
' and with them to appear, when commanded, upon pain, for their ref- 
pe6live neglects, to be puni(hecl at the difcretion of the court-martiaK 

Fourth. — ^That all commiffioned officers and commanders fliall duly 
exercife their refpe6live companies, as often as they fhall be thereunto 

. commanded by their fuperiors, upon pain of being puniftied atthedif*- 
cretion of a general court-martial; and the other officers and foldiers, 
if. they do not appear in complete arms, with ammunition and all 
things needful, to be punilhedat the difcretion of their own regimentaj 
■court-martial, or at the general court-martial if the cafe require. 

Fifth. — Whofoever fhall negle(5t to attend fuch guards ^f horfe or foot 
as fhall be thought fit to be appointed, or \vithdraw from the famebe* 
fore he be relieved or otherwife commanded, Ihall be puniihed witb 

Sixth. — What fentry or perdue ftiall be found afleep or drunk, or for* 
•fake his poll before drawn off, ihall die without mercy. 

Seventh. — No perfon (hall depart from his colours without licence, upon 
pain of death. 

Eighth —Whofoever abfents himfelf when there is occafion of fervice, 
as to fet the watch or the like, Ihall be puniihed at difcretion, V. L, 
wooden horfe or the like. 

KiNTH. — Whofoever makes known the watch-word without order, or 
alters tlie fame^ ihall die tor it. 



< 0» ) 

Tenth,— All fuch as pra<?life or entertain any intelligence with the 
enemy, direcftly or indirectly, ihall die without mercy, 


Eleventh. — If the commander-in-chief of any fort, pafs, or placCt 
appointed to be defended, yield the fame without the utmoft necef- 
lity, he fhall be punifhed with death ; but if the foldiers under his com- 
mand forced fiiim to it, every tenth man fhall die. 

Twelfth. — Whofoever fhall prefume to violate a fafe-guard fhall die 
without mercy. 

Thirteenth. — ^AVhofoever fhall come from the enemy without trumpet 
or drum, after the cuflom of war, or without a pafs from his exccU 
lency, Ihall be hanged up as a fpy. 

FoiTRTEENTH.— Whofoever fhall ufe any word tending to the death of 
auy commander-in-chief fhall be punilhed with death. 

TiF.TEENTH. — Whofocvcr fhall prefume to quarrel with or give unfeemly 
language to his fuperior officer fhall be punifhed at difcretion, and who- 
foever fhall be fo heady as ^o flrike, fliall die for it. 

Sixteenth. — Whofoever fhall refifl, draw, or lift, or offer to drawbr lift, 
any weapon againfl his officer, corrc<5^ing him orderly for his offence, 
fhall die for it. 

Seventeenth. — ^^Vhoforvcr refifls the provofl-marflial or any other offi- 
cer in the execution of his oihce, or ihall break prifon, fhall die for it^ 

Eighteenth. — Whofoever fhall utter any feditiousor mutinous difcourfe, 
or fhall make any nnitinous alfemblies, or be prefent at them, fhall die 
for it. 

KiNETEENTH, — Whofocvcr lieareth fuch words, or of any fuch meetings 
and doth not forthwith acquaint his commander with the fame, fhall be 
* heavily punifhed at a court-martial. 

Twentieth.— --No man fhall take his own fatisfa^lion for any Injury, upon 
pain of being punifhed at difcretion ; but, upon complaint made to 


the court-raartxa!, Aall have fuch reparation as fliall be thought fittiog 
and ju{l« 

TwENTY-FXRST, — ^AVhofoevcr fliall wilfully kill another Ihall die for it. 

Twenty-second^' — Every man fhall appear vi^ith his arms duly fixed and 
decently kept, upon pain of death CCT/wre, and w^hofoever Ihall emhcz- 
2le them, or willingly make them unferviceablc, or throw away his 
ammunition, Ihall die for it. 

TwENTY-THiliD. — Upon a maich none (hall extort victuals or other 
iieceliarics from any planter, upon pretence of any want wtiatfoever^ 
upon pain of death. 

Twenty-fourth,— None fhall draggle from histroopor company, ormarcb 
out of his rank, or plunder, or tire any houle, upon pain of death. 


Twenty-fifth. — Upon encamping, none Ihall prefume to go a milefrom 
the camp, upon pain of death. 

Twenty-sixth. — No man fhall draw his fword, or fire again after Ihft 
watch is fet, without lawful caufe, upon pain of death. 

Twenty-seventh.-p-No man Ihall fail to repair to his colours, upon ai| 
alarm given, upon the pain of jdeath. 

Twenty-eighth. — ^No man (hall abandon his colours, or fly away in 
time of battle, on pain of death; and k ihall be lawful for any maa 
to kill him who turns his back. 

TwBNTY-NiNTH.-i— No man (hall kill an enemy who yields and throws 
down his arms, upon pain of arbitrary punishment 

Thirtieth.'— No man (hall fave an enemy while he ha^ o&afive arms io 
his hands, upon pain of lofing his prifonen 

Thirty-first^ — ^In cafe of i4<^ory, no man (hall pillage theenemy befoi* 
a f^ given foriicenoe io to do, upon pain of death* 

N 3 Thirty 

*•( 100 Y 

Thirty-second,-— Every regiment or company of horfe or foot that 
chargeth the enemy, ajnd retreats before they come to hand-ftrokes, 
fhall anfwer the fame before a council of war; and^if the fault be 
found in the officers, they ftiall be difplaccd and ferve as private fol- 
diers in the company they commanded, if in the foldiers, then every 
tenth man by lot Ihall be puniflied at difcretion of the court. 

Thirty-third.— No perfon fliall prefume to fight a private duel, upon 
pain of death. 

Thirty-fourth. — ^What officer foever Ihall come drunk to his guard, or 
commit any diforder in the camp-quarters or march, fhall be difplaced 
without mercy, and ferve as private foldiers in the fame company, and 
the next officer under him, whofc due it is, fhall have his place. 

Thirty-fifth. — ^The like punifhment on a captain or other officer, that 
fhall be negligent in framing and governhigthe company. 

Thirty-sixth. — All officers of what condition foever are hereby au- 
thorized to part quarrels, frays, and diforders, between foldiers, though 
of any other company, and to commit the difordered to prifon for the 
prefent,untiUheir proper officers are'acquainted therewith; andwhatfol- 
dier foever ihall refiil, difobey, or draw his fword againfl fuch an 

• officer, although none of his own, fhall be punifhed with death. 

Thirty-seventh. — If any officer fhall grofsly negledl any opportunity 
wherein he might have done fervice on the eiiemy, he fliall be punifhed 
at the difcretion of a court-martial. 

Thirty-eighth. — ^Every inferior officer and private foldier fhall be 
obedient to the utmofl to execute the commands of their fuperiors, 
and whofoever fhall fail herein, ihall, according to the nature of the 
offence, fuffer fuch punifhment as by difcretion of a court-martial fhall 
be appointed, whether to lofs of life, limb, or other inferior punifh- 

Thirty- ninth. — All officers who fhall fend any prifoners to the mar^ 
ibal-general, or his deputies, fhall, in twenty-fours aUer,fend the caufe 


( ^01 ) . 

• ard reafon of their imprifonment, without which tlie marflial Is not 
to keep the prifoner longCF in cuftody, 

Fortieth. — The caufe of commitment of every prifoner is, by the faid 
. mar/hal, within forty-eight hours after commitment, to be delivered 
to the king*^ advocate, othervvife the prifoner to be releafed. 

Forty-first. — ^That the advocate or his deputy do give every prifoner a 
copy of his charge twenty-four hours before he comes to his trial. 

VoRTY-SECOND. — No man fliall prcfume to ufe any braving, or meaning 
words or geflures, while the court-martial is fitting, upon pain of death* 

Forty-third, — If thc*marfhal-genet'al,or any of his deputies, fhall dif- 
mifs any prifoner committed to his charge, or fufl'cr him to make an 
efcape, fuch marlhal fhall be liable to the fame punilhmcnt due to 
the difmiffed or efcaped ofibnder. ^ , 

Forty-fourth. — All other faults, diforders, and offences, not particularly 
mentioned in thefe articles, fhall be puniilifed according to the gene- 
ral cuftoms and laws of war, by which our fovereign lord the king,* 
by his general, the king of Sweden, and other renowned princes, hav.e 
governed their armies. 

Lastly.-t-To the intent no perfons plead ignorance, it is ftri^tly ordered » 
that thefe laws military be published at the head of every troop and 
company of horfe and foot at their firft meeting after the date hereof, 
and once a month at leaft ever after, until orders to the contrary. Given 
under my hand and feal, this firft day of January, 1666. 

All thefe articles of war allowed by 

JHoxch 18, 1672-3. 

SiA Thomas Lynch, GentraU ^ 

/^ w <^'. 


«i:;?R^*^^ proceedings 


THE oath of Tofeph Ijfapman^ commvider of the Jamaica Mercha^itj now 
at anchof in Part-Royal Harbour ^ ii Jafnaicay taken the I2lh ^'Angiijl^ 

"VrOU (hall fwear, that you will ufe your utmoft endeavoiir, as com* 
X mander of this fhip, to bring home prifoner the perfon of fir I ho^ 
mas Modyford, and him fee delivered to his majefty's order, and ih\t 
you will by no means directly or indirectly permit his efcape. So help 
you God^ &c. 

Joseph NAPM^ar* 

Sworn before me^ on board thefaidjhip^ this day above faid^ 
IVitnefsy Robsrt FREEMANf fec^ Thomas I^ykcHit 

JOHN COSTER, William Parker, mates of the Jamaica Merchant ; 
William Pickfon, boatfwain ; Thomas Milliard, carpenter; Daniel Free- 
man, gunner; William Wife, Jofeph Darton, Robfert King, Jofeph 
Purner, James Neale, Richard Hale, George Wins, Richard Floid, Jonas 
jGibfon, John Hodges, Henry Pilgrim, Hugh Blake, Robert Browme- 
jfleets, Marc SwafFen, Thomas Downes, Philip Pendry, John Stevens, 
John Biles, Leonard Smcathy, and Robert Thory, chirurgeon — You fhall 
fwear that you, nor any of you, diteC^ly or indirectly, fhall permit the 
efcape of fir Thomas Modyford, but ihall obey all orders for the fecuring 
Lim, and bringing him prifoner to his maje(^'s prcfcnce. So help you God. 

Sworn before me thi^ IQth Augufi^ 161 1, aboard thefaidfliipy 

Witnefs^ RoBEkT Freeman, fee. Thomas Ltnch« 

WHEREAS I have orders from his facred majefty to fend prifoner for 
England fir Thomas Modyford, the late governor of this ifland, I have 
put faid fir Thomas Modyford aboard the Jamaica Merchant, that is 
ready to fail; and have, for the^ better fecuring him, put twelve of his 
teajefty's feamea tliere on board ; aevertbciefsy 1 comoiaQd and appoint 


you to watch every mght on board, and moor your pinnace with a guard 
on ftern, and put fuch fentinels, and take care that the faid prifoner 
cfcape not during his (lay in this port, whereof none of you are to fail 
at your utmoft perils. Given under my hand this 14th of Auguft, 161 U 

Thomas Lynch. 


T^Q Capt. JofephWelgreefey commander of his majefiy's Jliip Welcome *y 
Lieut. Jofeph KeenCj licut. Ijles^ lieutenajits of his majejli/s frigate 

Ajfi/iance^ — and 
Mr. Hawkinsy mqjler of the faid frigate. Theft 


SIR THOMAS LYNCH ^ knight ^ his majejlys lieutaiant- governor and 
* commander-in-chief of this his majeflifs ijland of Jamaica^ and the domi- 
nions thereunto belongingy and vice-admiral to his royal highnefs the duke 
of York. 

H "WHEREAS, by fpecial order and dircdlions from his facred majefty, 
I am commanded to fend prifoner into England vmder fafe guard fir Tho- 
mas Modyford, bart. late governor of this his majefty's ifland, thefc are, 
therefore, in his majefly's name, to authorize and impower you, lieute 
nant John Buck, to take into your charge and cuftody the perfon of thc5 
faid fir Thomas Modyford, and to take with you eleven of his majefty's 
feamen out of the Afliflance frigate, who are hereby ftriclly commanded to 
obey you in all things, in ordbr to the fecuring of the faid fir Thomas 
Modyford; and in cafe of the death or difability of the faid lieutenant 
John Buck, I do hereby appoint Mr. John Fogg to fucceed in the care 
and command. And I do hereby require all the aforefaid fcamen to 
pbey him. And you are hereby further commanded and impowered to 
go on board the Jamaica Merchant, now at anchor, with the faid fir 
Thomas Modyford, were you fliall keep ftrict watch and guard over his 
perfon, as well here as in England or any other part where you fliall be 
iieceffitated to arrive, and you are to follow fuch further inftructions as*! 
herewith give you affixed .to this coftimilfion. Given under*my hand and 
feal at Port-Royal, this 14th day of Auguft, in the twenty-third year o£ 
Jfeiis majefty^ reign, that now is annogue domini \Q1\. 


( 10* ) 

fNSfRUCTIO WS andordersfor lieutenant John Buck and Mr, John Fogfft 

for the fecuring of fir Thomas Modyford, 

Jamaica,^ Augtiji 14, 1671. 

YOU ihall go on board the Jamaica Merchant with the feamen under 
your command, and fet a diligent watch and guard that the faid prifoner 
cfcape not. 

AVhereas I appoint one of the officers of the frigates to ^watch here in 
port, you arc to obey them for thefe few days they fhall be here. You 
muft take the oath with you which the commander, jall his officers and 
company, hare taken, to bring home the faid prifoner and not to permit 
his efcapc. 

You are to take fpecial care that the men do not hinder the faid cap^ 
tain or company in doing the fhip's builnefs. 

You fhall take care that the faid fhip goes to rights to the rivec of 
Thames, without touching at any place whatfoever, unlefs forced by dif* 
trefs of weather* 

At the firft place you touch at in England, you rftuft fend my fmall 
letter to my lord Arlington by the poft. 

When you arrive in the Downs, fend Iffr, Fogg, or fome perfon yoa 
can truft, to my lord Arlingto nor Mr. Williamfon for orders; which, that 
you may have money to do, I have given you five pounds and Mr. Foggthree* 

When you (hall come into the river, you (hall permit no boats but the 
king's to come on board, nor (hall you upon any terms permit any of 
the feamen to go a(hore, until you have hismajefty*s order concerning the 
fsiid prifoner- Hereof foil not at your utmolt peril. Given under m/ 

hand and ieali this i4Ui day oi Auguft» at i^ort £LoyaU 1671. 




t 105 ) 




My Lord, 

I SMALL not prefume to trouble your lordfhip with any defcription of 
Jamaica, in thofe particulars which can only prove mere repetitions 
of every man^s relation that has been there, farther than what is necef* 
fory to explain my thoughts of the improvement and advantage, public 
or private, that has or may be made of the place, with the obftruc- 
tions and dangers, whether cafual or natural, which feem to threat- 
en it. The largenefs of the ifland, the many and good harbours, with 
the abundance of wood therein, are taking praifes with fuch as only 
think of it in comparifon with populous countries, that are defective 
in the like; but I am very fure they will foon fall under your lordfliip^s 
' confideration asfome if not tlie greatell inconveniencies that belong to 
it. An idand of about three hundred miles compafs, as this is, with not 
above ten thoufand inhabitantsj belides flaves, in it, muft needs have thole 
few difperfed at great diftances, if they plant round the fea coaft only ; 
this makes it difficult, and of great inconvenience to the inhabitants in 
their domeflic affairs, to unite for their common fafety againil any inva- 
der, whilft the harbours at the fame time, being too many to be fortified 
or defended, leave fuch invaders fafe paffage in and out' to deftroy their 
difperfed plantations. The woods too, in tlie abfence of the mailers^ 
become inviting receptacles to the flaves, who, by reaibn of the mifcries 
they continually fuffer, will never be unwilling to improve fucban^op« 
portunity. Thefe are not mifchiefs like the common accidents (rfEu* 
ropean nations when invaded, which, after fome recefs, foon return int(» 
•rder again ; but, happening there, mull bring alTured ruin, becaufe its 
nourifhment and fi!ipport in people and trade, depending upon the repu* 
tation the ifland has at home, that deflroyed, the place is conlequently 
fo. And this I remember, upon difcourfe of it there, fir Henry Morgan 
lUd allowy faying to ooloiiel Byndlofs nien wit& us, that, if be were now 

U a pri** 


. u privateer for the Spaniards, as he had been agamft them, he wouldf not 
doubt to ruin the whole country, by burnuig and deftroying the fea cbaft 
^plantations, and though it cannot be the Spaniards intereft in thofe 
parts, if we let them be quiet, to ftir up a neft of hornets and force 
them upon privateering again, yet the French, having little to iofe, and 
many poor rafcals to employ in the lortugas, do not want knowledge of 
the iflJmd of Jamaica, nor will enough, 1 Tear, in cafe of war, to put it in 
extjcution, fince it is certain the planting part once difcouraged, the pri- 
vateering trade muft fubfift by devouring the Spaniards as formerly, which 
produces another benefit to the French, by dillurbing their hereditary 
enemy. So that fo far I concur with fir Thomas Lynch in faying, that 
planting and not privateering is the true intereft of England in that iiland, 
yet I cannot but think, tliat the greateft miftake could have happened in 
d*oing it was the forcing tlic planters, for want of convenience, to run 
to the north fide of the ifland ; and, where ground may be had at 
three pounds an acre ; although I allow the ground to be as good 
for canes, when.with great charge and labour cleared, yet the vaft ex*. 
pence, for want of lavannas, in tbrcing a competent quantity of pdfture 
for cattle, is a burden for cattle fcarce fiipportable, befides the open 
condition they arc in, to all invafions and revolts of the negroes. A tafte 
of the latter of which mifchicfs they had the laft year, when many fami- 
lies were murdered by fome few blacks that went out, and the whole 
ifland alarmed and difturbed with fears and apprehenfions of the reft. — 
My lord, I have infifted the more upon this particular, becaufe it has 
been occafioned by the manner of the former governors proceedings, infet- 
ting out thefavannas and othei" lands on the fouth fide, which, had tliey been 
. hut granted in moderate and improvable portions, would have proved a 
greater quantity than the incrcafe of the people for many ages could hav^ 
employed by planting; but, on the contrary, feveral particularfirft comers, 
having obtained title to fix, ei^ht, ten, nay fome twenty, thoufand acres a 
man, have left no room for neighbourhood on that fide, where thofe delicate 
favannas, if divided into proportionable pa'rcels, had given a comfortable 
fu^poTt to the planters family by cattle, fife, without the charge of clear- 
ing, whilft his neighbouri^ig plantation had been going on in its improve- 
Inents. This, my lord, forefcen and pradlifed, had perhaps given a fe- 
curity in the beginning to the moft improvable and beft fituated colony 
we have in the Indies, both for the commodities it produceth, and the 
Annoyance it might give to any of our trading enemies that have domi* 
hion in thofe parts ; xior had it then been fubje<5t to foreign difturbance. 

( 107 > 

t?ie people Wing united to rcfift them^ and the enemy Tanding on tlie 
noith fide woulc: have foimd nothingof value to deftroy, norufelultocarrjr 
away, befides frefh water ; and this I ana perfuaded might yet, by your 
lordihip's wifdom, be remedied, if you would obtain a law for efoheating 
all lands that have paid no quit-rents, and are not likely to be improved 
by the owners on the fouth fide, or at fome additional rent certain to 
the prefent improving properties; free farmsy or the like titles, for a loi?g 
term of years, might by law be compelled to be grai>tcd to the real plan- 
ters who fhould requeil it. 

Tjie next thing to be wiflied for in that world is a trade with the Spa* 
Biards, but will lind fo many obllrucSlions from their jealoufies and inte- 
refts in the beginning, that will require a more than ordinary care in 
conducing it, and fome affiftance here at home, by making it practi- 
cable. Itxis not to be thought that the Spaniards can quickly forget all 
the mifchiefs continued upon them by us in thofe parts; mifchiefs, in* 
deed, of fuch a nature tliat, had not the particular interefts of private 
adventurers, that carried on depredations there, made all the rumour of 
cruelty run'againft that nation, mull long ago in policy have been pre- 
Tented ; for it may be truly faid, that though it has been the Spanifli na- 
vigation, yet was it the Englifh trade, that has been difturbed by priva- 
teering in thofe parts; and it is not unlikely that we, inftead of the Flem- 
ings, had been the convoys and iharers in their rich flotas, if we had 
given them no frequenter caufe of enmity to us in thofe parts than the 
Dutch have done. But, my lord, to gain a trade with them, 1 cannot 
but think the like liefl way would be, firft, to make fome new contra6t 
with the undertakers at Madrid for fupplying the Spaniih Wcft-lndies 
with negroes, and this I am confident would be eafy to be done, it your 
lordfhip would induce his royal highnefs and the African company to 
endeavour it ; fmce I once tcicd the matter and tound, by advice from 
Spain, that they were very ready to treat with us, and to break with the 
Hollanders, who fupply them at prefent from Curacoa. 1 he method 
then thought of for cairying on the work, if your lordihip pleafes, fhall 
be prefented to you. Anotht ^ great and cfFe6lual ftep to a trade with 
them, would be for us heartily to endeavour to make the navigation in 
thofe parts fafc; forfincfe we have left dlfturbing the Spaniards ourfelves, 
and getting* the little profit that accrued tliereby, it fhould be our inte- 
refl, mcthinks, not to fufFer any others to do it, and leaft of all the 
Vrencb^^ wbo^ fin^e fas Henry Morgan fliewed them the way to take Pana.* 

* O 2 ma^ 

( 'o« ) ^ 

inft, are the only people in the world who^ hi tllofe parts, wefliould fear^ 
whilft our privateers wear away or are drawn ofF to planting. And E 
iniift confefs I think there is no diflTcrcnce between our being at war 
tlierc with Spain, and futFering' others cffe6lually to be fo; for, ihould 
Panaraa lall to the French hands, the manut'a^lures of France would 
fupply the South Sea, and all the riches of the world would be theirs^ 
nor could aU the llrength of Europe ever recover that place, wheli once 
fortified by them. I fear I fhall trouble your lordfhip too much with 
poHlics, but yet I cannot but think that a trade with the Spaniards would 
.be worth all the coft of reduchig the French to nothing on Hifpaniola 
and the Tortugas, if a breach with them fhould ever happen to give op- 
portunity for it; and I am very confidentthat the government of Jamaica: 
tor the time being wbuld iind the SpaniOi ports open to all the fhips com- 
mirfmncd to that end; fo that private trade would more than recompence 
the charges of the. war, and open the way in the end for a public one, 
under fomc regulations of pcrpetuivl guarding thofe feae againll privateers, 
who, as long as they have protection from France, will otherwife 
forever infcft them. . Mt 

This true mahitaining of the peace would, leave the'Spaniards without 
€xcufe for their perpetual injuries in the Gulph, and make them difarra 
Ihofe privateers they nov/ have juft caufe to keep at the Havannah, which 
place is fituatedat the entrance of the channel, that it will be impbfTible to 
avoid their fearches by all the force that could be placed in flation there, 
to guard the pafl'age through the Gulph of Florida. But fome do pro- 
]e6l that the taking of the Havanna is practicable, which I will nofdeny,^" 
but necelfary I can never admit it; for, when we (hould attempt it, a 
war with the Spaniards in thofei parts muft again break out, and then' 
an end to the improvement begun and defigned at Jamaica ; befides, if 
rightly confidered, except that ifland, the Barbadpes, Bermudas, ^nd 
jour confiderable North- Weft plantations^ we have too much in that 
world already. Then if the French fhould take it and make it one of 
their ftations, what would be the confequence of fuch a bridle in our jaws, 
and the reins in the'French hands — no iefs than the total lofs of the trade 
to Jamaica; for, in any rupture betweeo the two crowns, the Tortugas 
on the coaft of Hifpaniola, and the Havanna upon Cuba, would leave no 
paflage from Jamaica but through their very mouth, and thwifarewel to 
tlie trade of logwbod, fo much contended for by us, and fo much infilled oa 
by the Spaniards i atradc^ indeed| though profitable, that ihould eitliei 

( 109 ) 



"he adjuded or deTcrted*; for as the injuries done them by Englitlimon dal- 
ly, under French commlffionf, provoke them to eflccm us tliicvcs and 
truce-breakers, and caufc them to arm upon that coaft, fo the logwood 
they find on board is the pretence and private excufc for their rapinb in 
making us pnzcs when they take us carrying itin our Ihips. And no\^, my 
iord, I will prefume humbly to ofl'er your lordfhip my opinion upon the 
fcveral foregoing particulars, and it is briefly thus: fir/l, that pc:>LC wilh 
the Spaniards in thofe parts is to be preferred to war. Secondly, that 
we have inch peace, it is abfolu.tely nece^ary to prevent the French 
making war lapon them there; for, othcrv^ife, whilll wegrovv v/eak ihcy 
^row ftrong, to our hazard and lofs, as much, if confidcrcd on all fides, 
as that of the Spaniards. Thirdly, that an abfolute quieting of thofc 
feas is not only very neceffary and feafiblc but very cafy. Fourthly, that 
tne doing of it would produce private trade, and perhaps in the end in- 
troduce public. Fifthly, that before this can well be done it is abfolutcly 
neceflary toend thecontroverfy about cutting wood at Campeche, ST c. either 
by faying it isplainly ours, or by difclaiming it to the peril of the cutters. 
Much of this which I hare faid will I believe appear fupcrfluoiis and un- 
neceflary, yet it is in your lordihip's power, by neglecting it, to prevent 
its being troublefomc; but, having made fuch remarks, I could not 
j>erfuade myfelf to omit putting them in writing, and waving much more 
that might be faid. Concerning this colony, as it ftands in oppofition or 
conjunction to foreign trade and intereft, I Ihall prefume to enlarge 
fomething further, and fpeak of it as 1 tliink it bears to this nation or te 
itfelf. As for the thriving and lalHng commodities we can expe6l from 
the growth of it, they are only fugars, ginger, cottons, indigo, annotta; 
foriasto that pleafant fpice called pimento and cocoa, the tirftofthem 
jmuft needs be exhaufted, fmce the trees from whence it is gathered are^ 
without hopes of replanting, always cut down for it; the fecond, I fear, 
is as unlikely to thrive, notwithftanding the daily hopes and attempts 
about it, and it will not be impertinent for me to offer the reafons I have 
for my opinion in this particular, if it were only to prevent your lordlhip's 
wafting money and time about it, ihould you be perfuaded like others to 
try, till fome of them firft fucceed. The Spanifli negroes who came in after 
our cbnqueft of the illand, and of whom fome yet remain free there, did 
ftill forebode that no cocoa which the Englifli planted would thrive^ 
which hitherto has proved prophecy, though the reafons for it be only 
f uperftitious ; for, upon examination, they impute the good fuccefs the 
4S^aniards had in that plant to the religious ceremonies ufed at the firft 



( no > 

putting it into the ground, which was always done with great procefilonir 
of friars and other religious, who confecrated the walk tp that purpofe; 
but, confidering the Spaniih policy m concealing the way of. making 
cochineal, curing vanillas, and managing theu* other profitable produc- 
tions in the Indies, not hitherto with all the induftry of their envious- 
neighbours difcovered, together with the ill fuccefs the Engliih have ta 
this time in their cocoa walks, as the negroes have foretold, I am of opinion 
that, under the ceremonies of religion, the Spaniards hid from theic 
ilaves fome ncceflary (ecret in its planting ; and I am fo the more, foi^ 
that it is no native plant of Jamaica, but firft brought thither from 
the Carracas, a remote province at the bottom of the ifland, fca, or gulph^' 
of Honduras, from whence perhaps they from time to time revived their 
plants,\vith the private way of fcttlng and cultivating of thera. I fubmit 
this conjicdlure ot< mine to your lordlhip's confideration, and fliall pro* 
ceed to acquaint your lordfliip that, befides the aforefaid commoditiesp, 
which 1 conclude as lafting as their ufefulnefs, there may alfo in time 
arifc great profit by hides to the Englifh, as formerly did to the Spani* 
ards ; and 1 have known fir Thomas Lynch account his favanna lands in 
that country, of which he hath a great quantity, a fufer interejft there 
than his plantations though confiderable, by reafon of the great number 
of beafts that may be bred upon them. The next thing, my lord, I IbaJl 
take notice of is the government of that place, which his majefty has 
been pleafed to manage hitherto by a governor poflbiied as to the execu- 
tion P^rt of all powers ecclefiaftical , civil, military, and marinary, ailiiled 
by twelve councilors, who being appointedhere without his advice, he is in 
fome cafes leftrained. Thefe, in time of their petty parliaments, called 
aflemblies, fupply the place of a houfe of lords as to the legillative part, 
but are no court of judicature nor of appeal, neither then or at other time; 
and though tht-ir povver be not much, yet by the title they hold their 
places, which is an immediate^ nomination from his majefty, either in 
the governor's patents or .by particular figns, they have a confiderable 
influence over the people, and can almoft with impunity, if not well 
pleafed, vex and difturb the governor in moft things he attenipts or does; 
10 that before your lordfliip takes out your warrant for your patent, no» 
thing is more necelFary to be confidered than the men to be appointed 
of your council ; for being not of your own choice, nor fuch as caa 
piece in one intereft for the king's and your lordfliip's lervice, you will 
find you rfelf always made uneafy by them ; but, being fuch as you may 
for principles confide in, you will find every thing beiides facile. I pi ay 


( HI ) 


pardon me, my lord,* if I prefume to go further, and fay that it is abfo-. 
lutely neceffary they fhould, as is prk6licable, be all of one intcrelt, fo it 
is truly fo that they be not of fome men's intcreft that have governed 
there already; of whom, in the firft place, fir Thomas Modyford's peo- 
ple are to be avoided moft, not that he has many there, being a man fo 
univerfally hated, that coming back in full cry with my lord Vaughan 
to that iiland, a fuppofed triumpher over the court here and their gover- 
nor's undoubted prime counfellor, if not governor, yet he could not, lipon 
his attempting it, get himfelf elccl:ed aflembly man in any one precincf, 
fo much are his immoralities known and dreaded by the iflanders. This 
though true may feem ftrange, when we fuppofed him here to have fb 
great an intereft that a revolt of the iflanders for him might be feared at 
his return thither, which is a thing has often been fuggelled and believed. 
The occafion of this opinion was a petition fent to his majefty, fubfcribed 
by moft of the confiderable men of the ifland, for his return to them as go- 
vernor, when he lay in the tower charged and truly guilty of divers ca- 
pital raifdemeanors, as fome papers I have by me will make appear, be- 
sides great fumsof money which he did and doth owe to his majefty ; but 
the petition was neither procured- nor figned by his intereft nor for the 
love of him, but at another's requeft, and in oppolltion to fir Thomas 
Lynch^ who for difcouragmg privateering was at his firft arrival there 
very odious to them all; and I cannot forbear letting your lordfliip 
know, before I leave this point, that fir Thomas Modyford's advice 
has been the caufe of all or moft of the diflikes and hatred that have 
attended my lord Vaughan, both here and there. He firft put him 
upon mercenary tricks of felling his fervants and his own honour 
together, then of running to Cape de Verd and employing a floop of 
his majefty to interlope for negroes, contrary to his folemn promifcs 
to his royal highnefs and the African company ; and his underhand 
joining with others to interlope from Holland, to the advantage of fir 
Thomas Modyford, and not of himfelf, who, by fuch infinuations and ad- 
vices as he thought propereft for my lord's nature, got into him, pretend- 
ing to fumifh him with houfe-room, meat, drink, and fruit ; but, when 
he had gained his point thereby, and found that my lord grew hated 
there and fli^Hited here, then he charsjed him with a bijl of ft^me thou- 
fand of pounds for fuch petty -convenicncies, at moft exceffive rates, having 
got his money before hand into the cuflody of his fon, Charles Modyford^ 
whom, by falfe pretences and promifes, he had procured to be made by 
4py lord hiftfole agent, truftee, aud ta6lor, here ; the doing of which, as 
•' ^¥eU 

( **^ ) 

tvell a? alt other things, he advifed not jny lord of, and' has thcreupott' 
tiiken from him the chief-jufticc*s. place of the illand,- which I do verily 
believe he could not have put into a worfe man's Tiands ; for, befides his 
declared and avowed antimonarchial principles, he is the openeflr atheift 
and mod profeft immoral liver in the world, as your lordfhip'will fooa* 
idifcover if ever you have to do with him ; fo that I am confident it would 
be neceflary for your lordship not only to be careful, to avoid mixing with 
him, but likewife to get fome particular inftru6lions to call liira to ac- 
count there for his former ai^lions, whereby your lordfhip will make him 
jnore yours than all the obligations in the world can do, for he dare pro* 
fefs himfelf an avowed enemy to all gratitude and other laws of humani* 
ty. 1 fliall make mention in the next place of the lower Iwufe of aifcm* 
bly, which confiftsof about thirty-fix members, elefted by the freehold- 
ers of the feveral towns and precindls, two for each; and thefe, as much 
as they can, ftrive to imitate our Englilh houfe of commons, asd when 
they are not in humour can be as troublefome ; for the revenues of the 
ifi .nd bemg to be raifed by their ^6^^ they are fo jealous that they will lay 
no taxes but from two years to two years, becaufc an inftruAion hath hi* 
therto been given to the governors, and indeed is made a kind of funda* 
mental policy here, to keep a hand over them, that their laws, of what 
nature foever, ftiould laft no longer than that time, except ratified under 
his majefty*s great feal and fent back. This point is worth your lordfliip'$» 
fcrious confideration, and may admit of alterations ; for, inftead of keep« 
ing the people in due obedience, it is the main fpur to difloyalty. Some 
laws, in my opinion, being abfolutely neceflary in all communities to 
be fundamental and no ways fubje6t to accidental dilfolution or change,--* 
as to inftance only in few : firft, fuch as require obedience to the fove* 
reign authority ; next, thofc that refpe6t poflcffion, fucceffion, or inheri-^ 
tence; and laflly, fuch as have a regard to the ordinary ftipport of the 
government and the defence of the whole againft foreign or domefticdif* 
turbances; but in all thefe is Jamaica wholly defective, and confequent- 
3y very fubje6t to troubles and mutations. This might eafily be remedied^. 
if fome laws were firft confidered of here that might provide for all thoitf 
feveral heads, and be fent thither under the great feaJ, to be the founda* 
tion of their government, and guides to their proceedings in their aflem* 
blies. Without ibme fuch way, that place may foon have tiie like con^ 
. vulfion as Virginia hath lately had; for, let us confider the time that (if: 
Thomas Modyford governed there, being^. about five years, during three. 

of tiiufe tiiat place had no law$ at all,, he having held but one airembly^ 


( IM ) 

and ttiat at his firfl coming ; whofe laws, for two years, lie tranfmitted 
here, pretending to have them ratified, but fo contrived that my lord Cla- 
rendon, their chancellor, fhould be the peribn fhould take care of doing it ; 
which, being neglefted, as it was not unlikely it would be amongft his 
greater concerns, fir 1 homas made by that means his will his law, govern- 
ing by that in his own breaft ; and to this day they have had no proceed- 
ings of his during that time either ratified here or there. Another thing 
ef pernicipus confequence to that plAce, has been a law he at firft intro- 
duced, and hath ever fince continued by thofe that get by it from two 
years to two yeai^s, which is, that ail the laws in force in England are fo 
here too : A thing ridiculous in itfclf, and extremely troublefomc in its 
confequence ; for why ihould a miglity volume of liatutes, one. half of 
-which are either ufelefs 0r vexatious to ourfelves here, be at one time in- 
troduced there, where in an hundred years they cannot be coniiderable 
enough in number to have occalion for the hundredth part of them. But 
this fir Thomas Modyford invented, that he might encourage a parcel of 
petty-foggers to let the people together by the ears, in the endlefs laby- 
rinths 4)f law, whilfl he, having a 1 mattering therein more than the reil, 
might become the fole oracle to them and the whole colony. This, my 
lord, he did to euicourage vexatious and troublefomc proceedings, that 
the whole wealth of the ifland came into the hands of attornies and fo- 
licitors, and' became fo grievous that the aifembly, in fir Thomas LynchV 
time, made a law that every man fhould plead hi3 own caufe. This did 
rather hurt than good^ for the lawyers fupprefTed, and the laws^ continuing 
as voluminous as before,the cunningeft knave carried all before him ; and, 
indeed, none but fuch as mtended to cozen every body durft or did be-, 
eome adminiflrators to the dead, or guardians to children, fo that, perceiv- 
ing the wolves increafe, they were forced to let go the tamer devourers the 
lawyers* My lord, tliis js worthy yourlordfhip's confideration; and fuch 
ilatutes as might be adapted to the placyr^ight be called out here, and 
ratified amongfl the fundamental inftruitrons that are neceffary to be fent 
under the great feal, for the perpetual governing of that cpuntry, by whjch 
means noiatters will be not fo intricate as they ire now, nor the colony dif- 
couraged by the litigioufnefs of knaves. Beiides, my lord, if fome laws 
of the feveral kinds aforefaid were perpetuated, then might a governor 
aft for the feryice erf his majelty and good of the colony without fear, 
which he can never do till fome revenue for the neceffary fupport of him- 
fclf be made perpetually ; for, to be at the mercy of the rabble every two 
IS for what fhall defray his cxpences, is a trouble not ,to be fupportcd 

P by 


» • 

]by a geiifcvous'anfl gTcat mind, aiid forces the governor upoh little popiflar- 
tricks to infinuatc by, and gives difcontcnt here. My lord, I cannot chule 
i)ut think oncelnoic it is nccetVary to bcfaid of this matter, though I con- 
fcfs too that whici) isheredifcourfed by me may .feem impertinent, fince 
iit is ilkcly your lordfhip has had better information concerning things from 
other hands than I am able to give ; but ncvcrthelefs, fince I have gone fo 

^ar, I will proceed to take further notice of the government there, which, 
according to inftrucVions from hence, hath u great if not too much con- 
formity wildi the prafticc of this kingdom. There is -firft a court of chan- 
cery, winch is held by the keeper of the great feal of the ifland, who is 
.at prefentthe governor, and I fuppofc will lUU^.be fo. The proceedings 
there in equity are much of the nature of oars; but.befides that the go- 
vernor Is by the keeping of the feal chancellor, he hath thereby the 
granting all lands with a fee belonging to it, as alfo the naturalizing all 
itrangers, as weH Jews as others, having for every Jew upon his natura- 
lizing, I remember, one hundred and twenty pounds. He likewifc 
•thereby grants cure of fouls^ /adminillrations, guardianfliip of children, 
probate of wills, licenfes for marriages, and other matters ecclefiaiiical. 
So much, my lord, in fhort, for the feal. The next^court is that they 
call the grand \:ourt, which hath a chief-juftice, affiiled with three <^r 
four more other judges, at the pleafiare of the governor; out of this 
court ifliie all original writs >and procefs, dire6ted to the marftial-general 
or his deputies, -who fupply the place oflheriflfs all over the ifland. This 
place fir Thomas Lynch hatii by patent for life* Xhe grand court hath 
all the jurildicftion executed here in the king's bench, common pleas, 
and exchequer, and is held by way (^ grand feflions or terms at the town 
of St. Jago de la Vega. Sir Thomas Modyford was chief-juftice, and 

' his creatures his fellow-judges there, until of late, when my lord Vaughan 

dividing with him took the place away. The fiext cojtirt confiderable is 

one of common pleas, held alTUje town they called the Point, by judges 

certain, who can only hold plea under ftve pounds, receipt by writ of 

jufticiary, iffued from the chief-juftice of the ifland. There are three 

Tother courts of the like nature with this. Befides thefe, there are quar- 

ter-feflions held in every precinft of the fame power with tiiefe in thig 

Ifcingdom, having cuftos rotulorum, clerk of the peace*, jfc There i» 

alfo, befides thefe comin<m laW courts, a court of admiralty held by oije 

or more 5**^ges, wherein my lord Vaujghan placed fir Henry Morgan^ 

cofonel Byndlofs, i(c. which court exercife all power that the admiralty* 

(an d6 h^K^ Thefe are all the ordinary courts of the ifland ; but^ upon 



f#ccafions, criminatcourts of the oyerand terminer arc by tliegov^ 
fed where they have been pleafed. Some of them upon extraordinary defign, 
to hang a man, do fit judgesthemfelves. For the mihtary power, it has 
ijfually been in the hands of the governors, aflilled by a lieutenant-generaU 
Atprefent,fir Henry Morgan, who Is likewife by patent lieutenant-general, 
and a major-general at prefent^ vacant by the deatli of major-general 
Banifter. The office of the laft, befides the command that the title im* 
plies, hath been in fome fort commiflary-general of the mufters^ which 
3sa place abfolutely neceffary, and of great ule for the fl:ri6t obfervingthat the 
•proportions of whites be kept up according to the law, in which confifts a 
great part of the fucurity of our lives ; but of this much will fall under your 
Jordiliip's confideration, when you Ihall think of the African company's 
Jntereft in that ifland, and the way to prevent interloping, which, vvhijil 
fufFered, will infallibly produce* clamour and trouble to the governor ; 
for, if it be his Qare only to fupprefs them, then he wiU lofe the good 
will of his people if he be zealous in it, and if he be not he has undoubt* 
edly loft the friendship of the company, and confequently of his royal 
highnefs, which will make him more uneafy at court. But this well ad« 
julted, authorized, and put under the infpe<3;ion of a maj )r-gcneral, will 
prevent all miftakes and clamours againft the governor, and be five times 
the profit to him, than joining in interloping (as fome governors have 
done) can be^ I (hall not enlarge upon this without your lordfhip's fur* 
ther commands, but proceed to acquaint your lordihip, that the number 
of men in arms there, being all whites above fixteen years of age that 
are one month rcfident in the place, amount to above five thoufand, un^- 
der colonels, S(c. much in the nature of a militia, but upon ©ccafion a 
little more fubjedt to martial laws; and befides thofe at the Point, do ia 
their, turns keep guard at the- fort there, and alfo ferve inftead of con- 
ilabfes and watches to keep the ftreets quiet at night. The ofl5cers in pay 
are only a governor of the fort, and one or two more. This, befides exer- 
-<ife, is all the duty of the foldiers, except that a fquadron of the gover* 
nor's own troops, commanded at prefent by one captain Hiender Molef* 
worth, one of the council, dpes mount every Sunday to wait on the gor 

tumor's coach to church, if at St. Jago* The colonels are generally of 
e council, but all at the difpofal of the governor, as indeed are all other 
\j61aces both military and civil, except the two general officers, the twelve 
^^oimcillors, and patentee places. The next thing I (hall obierve to yo.ur 
Uordfliip is the revenue, which arifes principally by the cuftomsor imi' 
;|)ofitions upon wincs^ brandies, beer, ale, and all otht;r imported cem- 

.F 2 tnujdiueff 




^» <» 

( 11^ ) 

tnodities, impofed by aft of aflembly from two years to two years, for 
longer they will not trull the governors to omit the neceflity of calling 
of them ; left fuch laws as are fent home for ratification, which are for 
theit interefts and fafety, ihould become void for want of fuch meetings; 
and'fo, for the future, they might be forced to live under fuch only as 
the king's royal pleafure ihould appoint them. This revenue is not much, 
but fufficient at prefent to pay the governor two thoufand pounds pef 
annum^ a lieutenant-governor fix hundred pounds per annum^ befides 
their eftablifhments in England ; thechief-julticc haslikewife a hundred 
and twenty pounds per annum out of it, with fome falaries to the go- 
vernor of the fort and other officers of the fort, cuftoms, ^c. befides a 
little furplufage for fortifications and other incidents, fb that indeed it is 
or ought to be, by the ellabliihment upon it, at leaft three thoufand five 
hundred pounds pei' annum. There are alfo his majefty's rents for the 
lands granted, which,, were all paid that were due, would amount to near 
two thoufand ^oundis per annum \ this might however be remedied by a 
ncceffary law and an efcheat. This quit-rents have been hitherto a per-^ 
quifitc of the governments; for, by reafon, that his majefty, by his origi- 
nal charter oi fettlement of that ifland, was ple^fed to free it from an- 
fvyering any profits to the crOwn for a certain number of years, feven or 
eight whereof are unexpired, no account is demanded hither from 
tlience, and they have been wife enough not to let the country call 
'them to an account for the rents of the land, which they, as ftewards to 
his mnjefi:y, have a right to receive. Something further is worth your 
confidering upon this fubjecl, which I fhall at your lo'rdftiip's requeft 
communicate my thoughts of. My lord, this is all I can properly call 
revenue, though there are other profits that accrue to the governors di- 
vers ways, as by the feal of admiralty, forfeitures, STc. But,- not to 
make my account longer tlian the matter requires, I fhall in fhort de- 
clare that which I believe, that government is uprightly at prefent woitfi, 
not mentioning the cafual profits fuch a place may bring in, between 
five and fix thoufand pounds per annum^ which I reckon by thefe 
branches: — One thoufand fix hundred pounds from England, per annum; 
two thoufand from the country's eftabli(hment, the quit-rents ; one thou* 
fand and the profits arifing from the feal by naturalization, 8Cc. about a 
thoufand two hundred, or a tlioufand three hundred, pounds per annum. 
This is truly ncarthe matter, though fome will undervalue it, and reckon 
it much lefs ; others again ai-e as extravagant in their computations, cal- 
' ling it ten or tv.clve thoufand pounds per annum. I muft confefs I be- 

( 11' ) 

lieve a governor of your lordfhip's qualities and qualifications would foon 
find it increafcd by the country's kindnefs, nor would any man, I hahi- 
bly conceive, in this nation find fo eafy as your lordfhip would do, whofe 
name, by honeft fir Henry Morgan's means, is as generally mentioned with 
honour and good wilhes in their healths as if they had found the good 
efFe6ls of your lordfhip's government there already; and, next his m.a- 
jefty's and his royal highnefles, no health fooften drank, efpeci^lly at his 
and his brother's in law colonel Byndlofs's tables, and thefe are i\\e two 
men indeed who have thetrue and moft prevalent intereftin the country; 
fir Henry from his eminent and famed exploits in thofe parts, together 
with his generous and undefigning way of converfing with them, colonel 
Byndlofs by the fame gencrofity andfranknefs of converfation, mixt with 
one of the mod able undcrftandings that j[ ever yet met with; and, were 
my judgments confiderable to your lordfhip, I fhould not ftick to own I 
think, copfidering every thing, few clearer thinkers are to be found in 
the world, though having a plentiful fortune, which he has acquired 
there by his induftry, he does not bend himfelf to flattery and other little 
arts, but plainly and above-board offers counfcl, which, if accepted, no 
man more zealous by labour to make his advice fucceed ; but, if not, 
then his flandin§ but by, and retiring without one word of difcontent, 
being more jolly than envious in his temper, yet is that fuflScient to in- 
fluence things to go uneafy with any man that has ufe of thofe people^ 
as my lord Vaughan to his great lofs in the aflcmbly he called, for clofing 
,with fir Thomas Modyford and negledling fir Henry Morgan and Ills 
brother Byndlofs, all things went heavy that concerned him there, and 
forced him upon little violences, which have aggravated matters againft 
him. This I have the more enlarj^ed upon, knowing fome perfons here 
may give a contrary character of the men, it being their interefl:s to do 
,io. When I refle6t, my lord, how tedious 1 have been, I am afliamed, 
yet I hope your lordfhip will excufe it, fince it proceeds from a difin* 
terefled zeal to your fervice, though I mufl confefs there is no man's m 
th^ world, except the king's commands and bufinefs, fhould be fo em- 
braced by me; for, like every body elfe that has jiad the honour of 
knowing your lordfliip, I am one of your true admirers, and ihall upon 
-all occafions endeavour to exprefs myfelf^ my lord, • 

■ m 

Your lordfhip's mofl humble and mofl obedient fervant, 




< »1« •) 

YHE earl of CARLISLE'S speech 

1*0 THE ^' 




HAT he would not fay the body of laws which he had now brought 
were altogether the iame which were fent home the laft time, the 
council of plantations having |jjad but one day of meeting after they 
came ; neither could he anfwer for the exa<ftly true writing of them, 
becaufe the great feal was affixed to them but two days before he came^ 
away, and fo had no time to c6mpare them* 

Thofe he faid that were prefent, when his commiflion was pubUfhed, 
might obferve fome alteration in the model of the laws, the ftile and 
title being changed to the king and aflfembly, which we had no reafon 
to be difpleafed at, it being a greater honour than any plantation eves 
yet had. 

That the laws which were to be made for the .future were to be made 
like as they are made in Ireland^ 

That we were under great Obligations to his majefty for his particular care 
and extraordinary charges in maintaining this ifland, and therefore he 
hoped it would oblige us to fuch fuitable returns as his majefly might be> 

pleafed with. . 

■ » 

That the king looked on this ifland as his darling plantation, and hat 
'taken more pains to make this ifland h^ppy tllan any other of his colonies. 

That among other a<Ste he fhould fend us to-morrow, the firft would 

Sbe the a6t of the revenue, and that there was a necefiity,of making fome 

difpatchof it, becaufe of arrears due to the officers and torts lately buitt^ 

/or whi6h people were yet unpaid; for the building whereof we ftood 

^ligcd to fir Henry Morgan f<M: iu$ care and pains. 

^^ . That 

TliattTiismajeily was Hlfpleafed with us forpalifing fome b<SIs m Formdt 
aflemblies, without ufing his name, and that never yet any fuch thing 
was done in any of liis plantations or dominions. That, in the adls of 
militia laft made, there was a claisfe left out faving ^he governor's power^ 
but he hoped none would be willing to derogate from the power his 
majefty gave his governors in his commiffions, and that lie lioped if 
fcruples did arife amongft us we would repair to him before wc pafled 
Any vote, that he might fatisfy us. , ^ ' 

That he mnoli coveted lliings might be fo managed that. the king 
might be fully fatisfied with us; that the reftraint that both he and we 
lie under in the new laws he brought over cannot be altered, for that be 
had no power to do it, but fhould be glad if he had. 

• That he always liad been accounted a man of property, and was in 
nothing more afFe<5led than to do good to this place, and came with an 
intent To to do, and therefore would not by bis power lead us mtoincon- 
ireniences or our pofterity* 


< \90 ) 

A H E P O R. T 



v. OR 


dt the Court &f Whitehall the Z%th <^ May, I619i, 


The KiNG*s mqfi. excellent majesty,, 

tiOrd Archbijhop of Cantabury^ 
Lord Chancellor^ 
Lord Prcjidenu 
Lord Privy SeaU 
t>uke #/* Newcaftle^ 
Duke of Lauderdale^ 
Earl of Efcx, 
Earl of Bath, 
Vifcount Faulconbridge^ 
^iffou^ Halifax, 
Lord Jbifliop of London^ 
Lord Robef is. 

Marquis if Worcefler, 
Marquii of Winchejier^ 
Lord Chamberlain^ 
Earl of SaUjbury, 
Earl of Bridgwater^. 
Earl of Sundcj land^ 

Lord Riiffelj \ 

I^rd Cavendijh; 

Mr. Secretary Coventry^ 

Sh' Hairy Capel, 

Sir William TSmplc, 

Mr. PowelU 

Mr. Seimore, mafier of the ordnance. 

WHEREAS there was this day read at the board a report from th« 
right honourable tlie lords of the committee ibr trade and plan* 
tions, in the words following ; 

< Ifl ) 

• - • ^ 

Mat it please your majzzty^ 

WE have, in obedience to your majefly^s comniancfsf, entered into t1^ 
#on(ideration of the prefent fiate of your majclty's iiland of Jamaica, in 
order to propofe fuch means as may put an end to the great difcourage^ 
irients your.majcily's good fubjc6b there lie under, by the unfettled 
conditon thereof ; occalioucd by the refufal of the laws 4ately offered by 
the earl of Carlille to tlie AfTcmbly for their ronfent ; at which proceed- 
ings difatisfaftion appears to hiive ri fen in the manner following: By the 
conimiffion granted by your majefty unto the lord Vaughan and feveral 
preceding governors, it was your majefty's royal pleafure to intruft the 
allcmbly of Jamaica with a power to frame and enael laws, by the advice of 
the governor and council; which laws were to continue in for(?e forthefpace 
of two years and no longer : but fo it hath happened, that your majefty, 
finding the inconveniences that did attend that power and manner of 
making laws, by the irregular, violent, and unwarrantable, proceedings 
of the affembly^ was plcafcd, with the advice of the privy council, to 
provide, by the earl of Carlille's conimiffion, that no laws fhouldbe ena(5ted 
in Jamaica, but fuch as, being framed by the governor and council, and 
tranfmitted unto your majefty for your royal approbation, were afterwards 
remitted unto Jamaica, and confented unto by the aflembly there ; and, 
in purfuance thereof, the earl of Carliflc carried over a body of lawt under 
the great feal of England; which laws, upon his lordlhip's arrival there^ 
have been rejeded by the general aflembly, upon grounds and reafons 
contained in an addrefs to your majefty's governor, and in divers letters 
received from his lordfhip in that behalf, 

lft,-r— In the firfl place, we find, they are unfatisfied with a cHaufe ii^ the 
militia bill, whereby it is provided, that the governor may upon alloccafiona 
♦r emergencies aft as governor-in-chief, according to and in purfuance 
of all the powers and authorities given unto him by -your majefty '3 com* 
fniftion ; fearing that thereby they fhall make ijt legal to execute all 
iuftru6lions that either are or ihall be fent unto your majefty's g6vemor« 

fd. — They have likcwife reje^led the bill for raifing a public lerenue^ 
as being perpetual and liable (as they fay) to be diverted* f 

Sd.—- It is obje^ed, tlut the faid laws contahi Sitn attd lindiunental 

( H9 ) 

4tli.— That they were tiot compared with and amended by.tlie la# 
laws fent^ycr by the lord Vauglian. 

5th. — That the diilanc^e of place renders the prefent method of tAakii^ 
cla .vs V. holly imjpradlicaUe. 

• > 

6th- — That the nature of all colonies ris changeable, and confequentl|^ 
the laws muft be adapted to the interell of the place, and mud alter with it* 

7th. — ^That thereby they lofe the fatis£si6tioa.of d deliberative power m 
making law&i 

J8th. — ^That ihk form of government renders your governors al^oluttf* 

Sth. — ^That by the former method of making laws -yonr majefty^s * 
prerogative was better fecured. 

Thcfe .being the objections and pretenfions upon which the aflembly 
iavcy with fo tnuch animofity, proceeded to reject thofe bills tranfmitted 
by your, raaj eft y, we cannot but offer, for your information and fatisfac- 
tion, fuch a (hort anfwer thereunto as may not only give a teftimony olT 
Ihe. iinreafonablenefs of their proceedings, but alfo furniih the governor, 
when occafion Ihall lerve, with fuch a^uments as may be fit to be ufed 
injuftificationofypurmajefty's comnuUionandpo\vers granted untohinu 

Ift. — Jt is not without the gr^atetl: prefumption that they go about to 
qucftion your majefty's power over the militia in that ifland, lince it hath 
Jbeen allowed and declared, even by the Jaws of this your kingdom, that 
Ihe fole fupreme government, Command, and difpofitioh, of the militi;^ 
jand of all forces by fea and land, and of all forts and places of ftrength, i^ 
TQjGding with your majefty, withia all your majefty's realms and dominion^ 

2d. — ^The /obje<5tiQn made agiinfi the bill for the public revenue hath 
•TO little grounds fince its being perpetual is no more than what was former- 
ly ofiered rby .them unto your majefty, during the government o£ fir 
Thomas Lyjich, in ihe fame meafureand proportion as is now propofed; 
nor can it be diverted, fince provifion is thereby cxpreffly made, that tht& 
'faipe fhalj be for thejoetter fupport of that government; beiides, that it 
18 npt ijuitabje to tlie duty and »odelly of fubjecls to fufped: your v^-^ 

jtefty^s juftice or care for the government of that colony, whole fet-^ 
tlement and prcfervation hath heen moll particularly carricil on by your 
majefty's tender regard, and the great cxpencc of your own treafure. 

3d.— It cannot with any truth be faid, that fhefe laws contain many 
and great errors, nothing having been done therein but in purfuJinoe of 
former laws, at divers times cnad:ed by the aflembly, and with the ad-- 
vice of your majefty's priyy-council, as vvelf as the opinion: and approba- 
tion of your attorney-general, upon perufal of the fame* 

4th. — ^To the fourth obje<?Vion it may be anfwered, that, if any thing 
had been found of moment or importance in the laft parcel of laws 
tranfmitted by the lord V^aughan, your majefty's tender c-are of your fub- 
je6ts welfare would have been fucb as would not have fent thofe bills im- 
perfe6t or defedlive in any neceliaiy matter, 

5th. — ^Asto the diftance of pkce, which genders, as they fay, the prefcnt 
method of making taws altogether impracticable, your majefty having bcea 
jpleafed to regulate the fame by the advice of your privy council, according 
to the ufage of Ireland, fuch care was then t-aken that no laws might be- 
tvanting which might conduce to the well being of that plantation, and 
that nothing might be omitted which in all fornxer governments' had been 
'thought neceflary; nor is it likely that this colony is liable to greater ac- 
cidents tlian your kingdom of Ireland, fo as to require a more frequent 
or fudden change of laws in other cafes than fuch as are already provided 
for upon emergencies, or in other manner than is diredled by your ma- 
jefty, whereby the inhabitants have free accefs to make complaints to 
your governor and council of any defeat in any old law, or to give rea- 
ibns for any new one, which being modelled by the governor and coun- 
cil into form of law, and tranfmitted unto your majefty, if by your ma-* 
|efty and council found reafonable, may be tranfmitted back thither t6 
^ enacted accordingly. 

6th* — It was fufficiently apparent to your majefty, that lav^^ muft alter 
^ith thcintereftof the place, when you were gracioufly pleafed to lodge 
fuch a power in that government as might not only from time to tinrie^ 
with your majefty 's approbation, and by advice both of your privy coun* 
cil here, and of your governor and council there, enable the aflembly 
te enad jiew laws anfwerable to their growing, necefllties^ but even upoa 

Q ^ urgcftt 

t i fgent oocaficfts to f aife money for the fecurity of tlie iflaruf^ widuHit 
attending your maje(ly'« order and confent, 

,*Ith^ — ^It Is not to be doubted but the aflcmbly have endeavoured ta 
grafp all power, as well as that of a deliberative voice, in making; 
but how far they have thereby intnenched upon your majeily's peroga- 
tivc, and exceeded the bounds of duty and loyalty upon this pretence^ 
may appear by their late exorbitant and unwarrantable proceedings during 
the governQtent of thalord Vaughan, in ordering and figning a warrant 
unto the marfhal of the ifland, your majerty's officer of juftice, for the 
"ftopping and preve«ting the execution of a fentence, pafled, according te 
the ordinary forms of law, upon a notorious pirate and difturberof your 
majefty's peace. And they have farther taken upon them, by virtue of 
this deliberative power, to make laws contrary to thofe of England, and 
to imprifpnyour majefty*s fubjefts; nor have they forborne to raife money 
by public a<fts, and to difpofe of the fame according to their will and 
pleafurc, without any mention made of your majefty, which hath never 
in like cafes been pra6lifed in any of your ma jelly's kingdoms* How far, 
therefore, it is fit to intruftlhem with a power which they have thusabufed, 
and to which they have no pretenfions of riglit, was the fubje^l of your 
majefty's royal comniiffion, when you were pleafed to put a reftraint 
^iipon their enormities, and to take the reins of governnn^nt into your 
-own hands, which they, in expreft woids, aga'mft their duty and alle- 
giance, have challenged and rcfufed to part witlo. 

8th. — It cannot with any truth be fuppofed, bythe prefentform of govera- 
ment, tlut the governor is rendcrrd abfolute, fince he is now, more than 
ever, become accountable to youi majefty of all his moft important deli/- 
berations and actions, and is not warranted to do any thing. but according 
to law and your majefty*s commiffioa and inilrudtions, given by advice 
4)f your privy council. 

Sth.---Atid whether your majefty^s perogative » prejudiced by the 
prefent conftru^^ions, is more the concernment of your majefty and tire 
/ubje^l of your o\v« care, than of their confederations. 

Arid laftly, and In genera!, we humbty conceive that it would be a great 
fatisladlion to your fubje<5ts there inhabiting, and an invitation to flrarigers^ 
wjben they ihall know wjbat laws they are to be governed by, and a grejit 


( 1«5 ) 

•safe to fhe planters ndt to he oontmaally attending tlie aflcmWles, to re^ 
ena6l old laws, which your majefty hati fiow thought fit in a proper form 
to afcertaia and eftabliih; whefeas the late power of making tempo- 
rary laws could be underftood to be of no icmger continuance than un- 
til fuch tinae laws, founded upon fo aiaany years experience, Should be 
agreed on by tlie peopk^ and fitiaWy ^oa6ied by your majeity^ in fuch 
onanner as hath been pra6tifed in other your majefty's dominions to vv^Jiich 
your Englifh fubjetSls have tranfported themfclves. For as they cannot 
"pretend to greater privileges tiiata hav^ been granted to them, either by 
charter or fome folemn ac^ under your great feal, fo having, from the 
^rft beginning of that plantatiou, been governed by fuch in(h'u6lions as 
^were givett by your majefty unto youc governors, according to the power 
your majeily had originally over them, which you have by no one aifthen- 
tic aft ever yet parted with, and having never had any other right to 
aifemblies. tliaa by permiffion of the governors, and that only temporary 
and for probation, it is to be wondered bow they fhould prd'ume to pro* 
voke your majefty, by pretending a right to that wliich hath been allowed 
them merely out of favour, and difcourage your majefty from future 
favours of that kind, when. what your majefty ordered for a temporary 
experiment, to fee wl^t form would fuit beft with the iafety and in- 
tereft of the country, Ihall be conttrued to Hbe a total refignation of the 
power inherent in yo«r majefty, and a devolution of it to themfelvcs and 
their wills, wiUiout which neither the law nor the government, the 
cflential ingredients of their fuhfiftence and well-being, may take place 
among them. Since, therefore, it is evident that the aflembly of Jamaica 
have, without any juft grounds, and with fo much animofity and unduti- 
fulnefs, proceeded to feje6t the marks of your majefty's favour towards 
them, and that your majeily's refolutions in this cale are like to be tlxe 
meafure of refpe6t and obedience to your royal pommands in other colo- 
nies, we can only offer, as a cure for irregularities paft, and a remedy 
^gairtft further inconvcniencies, that your majefty would plcafc to autho- 
rize and impower your g'ovej>nor to call another aflembly, and tp reprefent 
to them the great 'convenience and expediency of accepting and confcnt- 
ing unto fuch laws as your miijefty has under your great feal tranfmittcd 
unto them, and that in<^fe of refufaU bis lordfhip be furhiihed with fuch 
powers as were formerly given to colonel Doyley your firft governor of 
Jamaica, and ftnce to other governors, whereby his lordfhip may be 
caabled to govcrji according to the Jaws of England, whera the different 



( t5W ) 

nature ancf conftitution of that colony may conveniently permit the fara% 
and in other cafes to a6l with the advice of the council in fuch manner as 
fhall be held neceflkry and proper for the good government of that plan* 
tation^ until your majefty's further orders; and that by all opportuhitics 
<>f conveyance the governor da give your majefly a'conilant and particular 
account of all his proceedings, inpurfuance oi'your majeily's initru6tian$ 

Upon reading which report, ajid full debates thereupon, his majefty wns 
pleafed to approve the fame, and the right honourable Mr. Secretary 
Coventry is hereby dire<Sted to prepare fuch fuitable orders and in- 
Amnions as may aafwer the feveral parts and advices contained im 
this report. 


^- ■■ -^ 


* '.. 

( ^^t y 


t)P THC 




TTo his excellency Cliarles earl of\CarliJle^ &c. captain general^ govern$r^ 
and commander^in-^hiefj of this his majejiys ijland of Jarfiaica. 

The humble addrefs^f the ajembly of this his majefly's ijland of Jamaicay in. 
anfwer to the 7'eport of the right honourable the lords qfihe committee of 
trade and plantation^ made to his maje/iy and council^ wAich we entrfat 
your excellency may be humbly prefented tq his muftf acred majejty and 
council: . 

May it please your majesty, 

WE, your majefty's moft loyal and obedient fubjecSh, the aflembly 
of this your majefty's ifland of Janiaica, cannot without infinite 
grief of mind read the report made to your majefty by the right honour- 
able the lords of the committee for trade and plantations, wherein, by 
the relations made by their lordfhips unto your majefty, Ihey have re- 
prefented us as a people full of animofity^ unreafonable, violent, irregular, 
Tindutiful, and traufgreffing both the bounds of duty and loyalty ; the 
Intterqefs of which ch^rafters were we in the leaft part confcious to have 
dcferved we fliould, like Job, have faid, Behold we are vile :^ what Jhalt 
lue anfwer ? wf will lay our hands iqwn our mouths. But left our filenqe 
ihould argue our guilt, we fliall, in all hunaility, endeavour to make 
appear that we have always demeaned oyrfelves as becomcth good and 
obedient fubje<5ls, xmd thofe who acTcnowlcdge and are truly fenfible of 
the many favours received froni yovir majefty. The truth of this refting 
^nly on matter of fa<?t being related, and the falfe colours which liitherto 
""Iwive been ihrowa on us -being waftied off, we iliall not doubt but youp 



( 128 ) 

Wjefly will entertam a better apiViion of his f^bje^s of this ifiand. We . 
mull therefore humbly beg your majefty wiU with patiencci be pleafed to 
hear the account of our proceedings, which, truly to manifeft, we muft 
he forced to look back fo far as lir Charles Littleton*^ and fir Tliomas Mody- 
ford's entrance upon their government; at which time we humbly con- 
ceive the iAand really began to take up the form of a civil government, 
and wholly to lay afide that of an army, which, uatit that time, wife deemed 
the fupreme authority; when, after, upcm their leveral arrivals^ by order 
from his majefty, and according to the method of his majefty's molt 
antient plantations, they called an aliembly, and fettled the government 
of the illand in fuch good form that, until his excellency the earl of 
Carlifte*s firft arrival, your rftajefty thought not fit to alter it, though 
feveral governors in that time^were changed, which muft neceflarily infer 
the goodnefs and reafon of it, a^ well as the fatisfa6tibn of the people ^ 
fince from that time they betook themfelvesto fettle plantations, efpeci- 
ally the merchants ; by which means the eftates here are wonderfully 
increafed, as is evident by the great number of fliips laden here by 
the induftry .qf the planters, and the fatisfa6tion they received by thofe 
wholefome laws then begun, and until that time continued ; the change 
of which laws we had no reafon - to expert, being done on fuch maturo 
deliberation from home* But, to return to our anfwer, the firft thing 
their lordfhips are pleafed to accufe us of, is our prefuming to queftioii 
your majefty's power oyer your militia, which how much they arc mif- 
informed in it, will hereunder appear; but we muft firft repeat the claufe 
tigainft which we humbly conceive we had juft reafon to take exception, 
which is as followeth, viz. Provided always^ a?id it is hereby further enaEled 
end declared by the authority aforcfaid^ that nothing in this aGt contained be 
expounded^ conjirued^ or underjioody to diminiyh^ alter, or abiidgCj thi 
power of the goverrior or commarhder-in-chief for the time beings but that in 
all things he may^ and upon all occajions or exigencies ^ atl as captain- general 
and governor 'in- chief according tOy and hi purfuance of all thepoivers and 
authorities given unlo him by his majeflys commij/iony any thing in this aU^ 
Or in any others to the contrary in any wife noticithjlanding. In their lorcl* 
fhip's obfervations, in which they take ho notice that the power given by 
that claufe extends as well to the governor as captain-general, nor of the 
words, any thing in this adt or any other to the contrary nofuithjlanding ; which 
Words, beingplain, need norefci'enccstoexpound them, and, being confented 
unto, there is no occafion for making any other law, hecaufc that makers 
all Uie poweri> and authorities given by his majefty's comnuftioo, and hy 


( 12^ ) 

Ibat commiffion tlie infl:ru6lions which fhall be iifter given to him,- to bft 
law, though it !)e the nulling of any beneficial law made either here or 
in England, by which we are fecured both in life and eftate; the Ukc of 
which was never done in any of your majefty's dominions whati'ocvc r, 
tind in efFe6t is to ena6l will to be law, and will be conftrucd, we fear, 
te bind us by the old rule of the law, that every man may renounce his 
own right. And if their lordlhips had bcenplcaicd as well to have re- 
membered the other clauies of the aft of the militia, we cannot think 
they would have faid we had t|ueftioncd your majefty's power over it; 
for no aft of England gives your majelly the like power over the militia 
as ours doth; for, ott any apprehenlion of danger, the' general with Lis 
council of officers, have power to put the law martial on foot for what 
time they pleafe, and to command. us in our own perfons, our fcrvants, 
negroes, horfes, even all that we have, to your majefly's fervice, which 
having been fo often put in praftice, will need the Icfs proof: but how 
readily and willingly we have obeyed, and in that faith is bt ft jul titled 
by works, Jt will not be amifs to iuftance fometimes, and what hath 
- been done in thofe times by the charge and labour of your majcfty's 
fubjefts here, under the feveral governois, none of wliicli have left un- 
experienced the ftrength of your majefty's commiflion, and the virtue 
and force of the aft upon the leaft fceming occal^oiu ^ 

In the government of fir Thomas Modyford, in the years 16G5 and 
1666, the whole ifland was put under law martial^ for many months 
together, in which time, by the inhabitants and their blacks, Fort-Charles 
was made clofe, which to that time waifted a whole line ; and alfo a 
breaft work at Port-Royal was built, with very fmall charge toyour majefty. 

In the time of fir Thomas Lynch, in the year 1^73, the law martial 
was again fet on foot. Fort-James built by the contributions of your 
jnajcfty's council and aflenibly, and feveral other your majefty's fubjefts 
in this iiland, which amounted to a very confiderabl6 fum of money; 
a bread work thrown up at Old. Harbour and feveral other jplaces^ and 
guns mounted and a platform laid atPort-Morant. ' 

In the lord Vaughan V tirtie, though there was no probability of war^ 
♦yet he wanted not the trial of his power alio in the militia, and our obedi- 
ence to it; for he commanded out a company of the inhabitants in fearch 
of ^Spanifh bar qualongg^v/howzshid tohaverobbed a floop belonging to this 
ifland upon the coaiiof Cuba; he likewife, in favour of the royal com* 

R paq^ 

N . 

( 130 ) 

pany, commanded out to fea two veffels witfe a eompany of the militia 
and theirxaptain from Port-Royal, to feize an interloper riding in one of 
your majefty's harbours, and tliere by force feized her. 


In the time of fir Henry Morgan being commander-in-chief, we were 
again put under martial law; in wliich time Fort Rupert^ Fort Carlifle^ 
and a new line at Fort James, were built. 


Laftly, in his excellency the earl of Carlifle's time, our prefent gover- 
nor, the law martial was again put in force for above three months; in 
which time Fort Morgan with its platform, and another line at Fort 
^Xames, and the bread work reinforced very confiderably in thicknefs. 
and heighth, and new carriages were made for the guns, thofe that came 
out of England not being fit for land fervice ; all which fortifications are 
fubftantially built with ftonc and brick, wholly at the charge and labour 
of the country; neither have we ever been wanting in due refpeft to 
your majefty's governors, the militia having always waited on them to 
church, in their progrefles and all public occafions; and we niay fafely 
athrm with truth, that no militia in your majelly's domimions undergo 
the like military duty as your majefty's fubje^ls in Jamaica, as is 
evident to alimen that ever fet foot in Port-Royal, which cannot be dif- • 
tinguiihed from a garrifon cither in peace or war, but by their not being 
paid for their fervice. 

Secondly, to anfwer their lord/hips objc^lions to the bill of revenue^ 
wherein your niajerty's name -was- left out: there are feveral members of 
the adbmbly now fitting, that vverc members when that bill pafled three 
times in form in the alTcmbly, and, ihpon the befl: recolledling of their 
memories, they arc fully perfuadcd and do believe the bill was again fent 
down with that amendment from the governor and council, according as 
it palled at the laft; but, fiiould it have rifen in the afiembly, they are 
very unfortunate if they bear the cenfure of all millakes that i"jiay hap- 
pen in prefenting laws to be pafled, when both the council and governor 
have their negative voices, which had either of them made ufc of in this 
point would have been readily confentcd to by the allenibly, as they had 
formerly done, both under the government offir riiomas Modyford and 
fir I'iiomas Lynch, before whole time it had been railed without mention-* 
ing your majcfty's name, and that without check; and we always con- 
cluded the governor's name in the enacHnj:^ part to be of the fame effect 
a$ your majefiy's ii^ ^iu England, whom he iu thib particular fecms rather. 




topcrfonatc t1i!!TvrcpTc{ent. For which rcafons, wc liopf, it onglitr not 
to havq been imputed to the ailcmbly as their crime altogether, beiii^^ 
confentcd unto by your majefty's governor, without any debate, and all 
npphcd by the acSl: whereby it was raifcd to the very fame pubHc ufc 
your majcfty directs; and wc are certain no inftance can be given of anv 
money difpofed of to any private ufe, but was always illUed by the go- 
vernor's warrant, forthe payment of his own and other general officers 
falaries'inthis ifland, with fome fmall coptingent chargesof the government. 

Their lordfliips alfo affirm, that the aflfembly offered this bill, in the 

' fame meafure and proportion as it is now propofcd, unto fir Thomas 

Lynch: in wliich their lord^hip^ ^^^ mifmformed; for your majefrv^s 

inftru6lions were, that the laws fliould be in force for two years and no 

longer, which their lordlhips alfo acknowledge in the prior part of the 

report ; fo that the aflcmbiy needed not to have expreifed any time, and 

the particular ufes therein appointed: but had their lord ffiips known how 

great fums of money have, been raifed here, and how fmall. a part hath 

. been applied to your majefty's fervice for the deferice and ftrengthenino- 

the ifland, we humbly conceive their lordihips would have been of 

» opinion, that we have no reafon to bar ourfelves to perpetuity, and pafs 

the faid ad without limitation of j.iles or time ; nor can we be fo prefump- 

tuous as to imagine your majefty can be hindered from making fuch ufe 

of your own money as you ihall think fit, and apply it. where you think 

xnoft necefiary. 

Thirdly and fourthly, it is very true the laws contain many and great 
errors, which their lordftiips may fee by the afl^embly*s journal ; fo that 
were the affembly as much petitioners to your majefty for this new form 
as they are to be.reftored to their old, above half the body of thefe laws, 
without amendments, would never be reafonable to pafs. As, to inftance 
fome iiSff amongft many : Firft, in the a<a: for preventing damages by 
fire, any fingle juftice of the peace hath power of life and death : Secondly^ 
and the a6t of the militia impowers the governor and council to lay a tax 
on the whole ifland: Thirdly, and in the a<a: dire6ting the marflial's pro- 
ceedings, there is a claufe that makes it felony for any perfon to conceal 
, his own' goods, left in his own pofleflTiony after execution levied by that 
law, fo that a man may be hanged for being poor, which, thouo-h Incon- 
, venient, was never till then accounted capital ; with many others tdo 
*, long to be repeated. And whereas their lordfliips are pleafed to fey, 
J ihal there is nothing imperfiaft or defective in thefc bills tranfmitted 

I^ * hither; 


( 132 ) 

Mttier : yet we humbly conceive, that no notice being taken in this bocfy 
ef laws how or in what nature we are to make ufe o( the laws of England, 
either as they have reference to the prcfervation of your majefty's pre- 
rogative or the fubjcfis rights, we ouglit not in reafon therefore to coiv 
fent to thofe bills; for, nothing appeajing to thccontniry, the governor 
is left, <id libitum^ to. ufe x)r refufe as few or as many as he pleafes, and 
f uit with his occafions ; there being no dire6lions in them how to proceed 
according to the laws of England, either in caufcs criminal or tellamcri- * 
tary, and in many other cafes which cencern tbe fubje6l both in life and 
€ftate« Fifthly^ we conceive alfo, that, whatfoever is faid to the /con- 
trary by 4:heir lordihips, in anfwer to the diftance of places, this very laft 
experiment is fufficiently convincing of the truth of that allegation; it 
being a year fince this model came over and was debated before their 
lordfhip's rjeport came back, notwith (landing one of the advices went 
home by an exprefs.. And, whereas their lordihips fay we cannot be fub- 
je6l to more accidents than your majefty's kingdom of Ireland: To that 
weobjed, that advices and anfwers thence may be had in ten or fourteen 
days, and that kingdom is already fettled, and our plantation bat begin* 
ing: And further we cannot imagine that Iriih model of government was 
in principio ever intended for Engliftimen: Befides, their lordfliip's can* 
not but know, that that model was introduced amonglt them by a law 
made by themfelves in Ireland, and fo confequently bound them, which 
being now generally known to all thofe who remove thither, they have no 
reafon to repine at, that being their own choice to live under it or ftay away 
from it, and was made fortheprelervationofEnglifh againft the Irifh fac- 
tion. As there is not the fame caufe, fo there is not the fame reafon^ 
for impofing the fame on us, unlefs we, as they did, do it* ourfel ves, vrho 
are all your majefty*s natural born fubjeils of your kingdom of England: 
which is the reafon the parliament give, in all their a^s which concern 
the plantations, for obliging us by them to what, and with whom, and m 
what manner, we may trade, and impofe a tax on us here in cafe of trade 
from one colony to another; audit is but equity then, that the fame 
law fhould have the fame power of looling as binding. Sixthly, your 
ttiajelly giving power on urgent occafions to raife money the old way^ 
only fecures your majeity's officers their falaries, which clfe they had been 
difappointed of ; thea6tof the militia, which was heretofore confentod 
to, ever providing, that, on alarm or invafion, the commander-in-chief ihall 
have unlimited power over all perfons, eftates, and things, neceflary dti 
fach urgencies. Scvcnthlv^, as to the feventh, the alfem )ly fay* th' y 
never defired any power but what your majerty*b gjveniorir aifaied thv:ri 


f 133 ) 

was their birtTi riglits, and what they fuppofcJ your inaljc(ly*s moft gra- 
cious proclamatioii allowed them : alfo yonr majcfty wasgracioufly plcafcd 
to write a letter to your governor fir Thomas Lynch, after the double trial 
of one Peter Johnfon, a pirate, fignifying your diAike that any thing 
Should be done that ihould caule any doubt in your fubjti^ts, of hot en- 
joying all the privileges of your fubfec^s of your kiiigdojii of England, 
or to that effect* But as to the obftrucling of juftice agaiaft Brown, a pi- 
rate, what they did, though not juftifiable in the manneF, was out of aa 
affurance, that there was no law in force here to declare the lord chan- 
cellor's power in England, and our chancellor's here equal, in granting 
commiftions in purfuancc of tlic tlatute of Henry ^ III. which alfo your 
jnajeily and council perceiving, have, in this new body of laws, lent one 
toiupply that want: And if they, not medling with th^ merits of the 
caufe, endeavoured to preferve the form of jullice, and juftice itfelf, and 
after denial of fcveral petitions, joined with the council, were led beyond 
theirduty (for which they were (harply reprimanded by the then govcrnor)^ 
they do hope for and humbly beg your majefty's pardon* And, as for the 
a6t by which he came in, it arofe not in the aflembly; but was fent from the 
council, to be confented unto by them, which was accordingly done. — 
And as to the imprifonmcnt of Mr. Thomas Martin, one of their njembers, 
for taking out procefs in chancery in his own private concern, againft feveral 
other members, and one of the council, the ajQfembly then fitting, and 
for other mifdemeanours and breach of the rules of the houfe : they hope 
it is juilifiable, your majefty's governor " having affured them, that tl|cy 
had the lame power over their members which the houfe of commons 
have, and all fpeakers here praying, and the governors granting, the ufual 
petitions of fpeakers in England. Eighthly, feeing the governor hatb 
power to turn out a councillor, and turning out incapacitates him from 
being an aflembly man^ no councillor dares give his opinion againft the 
governor, under danger of lefs penalty than lofing that which he thinks 
his birthright: alfo, a governor being chancellor, ordinary, and admiral^ 
. joined with his military authority, lodges fo great power in him, that 
bring united and executed in one perfon makes him iotum in qualibet parie^ 
fo ihat he may at any time invalidate any thing done under his own com* 
miftion. J«iinth]y^ there is no doubt but, by this new way, it is in the 
. aflembly's power to conient to and perpetuate fuch laws as are wholly of 
, bene fit to them, and leave unpafl'ed all that may be thought of bcnetit 
to your majefty; which advantage, they not laying hold on, liope it 
vill he an evidence that they are careful of your majefty's pierogative, 
aa il Li thw duty oi every ^ood lirbjett to to be. It is without controverfy^ 


( IS* )' 


l1l."\t tlic old. form of government, which was rfrdercd fo mucKlfke y^vtt 
majcfty's kingdom of England, nMill ofconfcqucnce be of greater one )U- 
ragementto all your majcfty's fubjecls, as well as Itrangers, to remove 
thcmfelves hither. Upon your majclty's gracious proclanlation, in my 
lord Windfor*s time, and by thofc gracious inllructions given to fir Thomas 
Modyford, all or mod part of the fugar plantations have been fettled ; 
and the major part of the faid planters, being fuch who arrived here and 
fettled upon the general liking of the model firft conftituted, and in belief 
that they loll not any of the privileges of your majcfty's fubjefts of yoiir 
majcfty's kingdom of England by their removal hither, and having by no 
a6l, as we believe, either provoked your majcily or forfeited our rights, 
or ever defiring or attempting to leflen or queftion your majefty's prero- 
gative, the prefervation whereof we ever efteemed the l)eft means of pre- 
ferving our own privileges and eftates, we fhall prefume to hope for 
the continuation of your majefty's favours, which it is impoffible for xis 
ever to forget. And whereas their lordlhips are pleafed to offer their 
tidvicc to your majefty, to furnifh your governor with fuch powers as were 
formerly given to colonel Doyley and others, in whofe time the then 
jiccountcd army was not difbanded, but fo continued to the lord Windfor's 
arrival, who brought over your majefty's royal donative, and order to 
fettle the civil government: We hope their lordfliips intend not that we 
arc to be governed by or as an army, or that the governor be inipowered to 
Jay any tax by himfelf and council ; fince your, majefty, having difcharged 
yfcurfclf and council, by an acl of parliament, of any fuch power over any 
of yo\ir fubje<5ts of your kingdom of England, as we undoubtedly are, it 
will be veiy hard to have any impofition laid on us, but by our own con- 
fents ; for their locdfliips well know tliat no derived power is greater than 
the primitive. However, if your moft gracious majefty fhall not think* fit 
to alter this model, but that we arc to be governed by the governor and 
council, according to their lordfhips advice, yet we humbly befeech your 
majefty to do us the grace to believe, that we are fo fenfible of our duty 
and allegiance, that, our fubmiffion to, and comportment under, your 
majefty's authority, Ihall be fuch as, that, we hope, you, in your due time^ . 
will be gracioully pleafed to reftore unto us our antient foriji of govern- 
ment, under which rt hath pleafed God hitherto to profper us: Ending 
with our hearty prayers for your majefty's pardon of all our errors and 
miftakes, and a gracious interpretation of this our anfwer, protefting, 
from the bottora^of our hearts, that we arc and refolve to live and die 
your majtfty's true, loyal, and obedient^ fubjedfe. 


( I»5 *> 



A P R O C L A M A C O N 

BIS majesty's island OFJAMAICAi 


WEE, being fully fatjsfied that our ifland of Jamaica, being a pleafant 
and moit fertile foyle, and fcituate moil commodioufly for trade 
and commerce, is likely, through God's blciFmg, to bee a greate benefitt 
and advantage to this, and other our kingdomes and dominions, have 
thought fitt, for encouraging of our fubje6ts, as well fuch as are already 
upon the fald ifland, as all others that fhall tranfport themfelves thither, 
and refide and plant there, to declare and publifti, and wee do hereby dc* 
clare and publiih, that thirtie acres of improyeable lands ihall be granted 
and allotted to every fueh perfoh, male or female, being twelve years 
old, or upwards, who now refides or within two years next enfiiing ihall 
refide upon the faid ifland, and that tlie fame Ihall bee affigned and felt 
out by the governor and councell, within fix weeks next after notice fl|fili 
be given, in writing, fubfcrilKd by fuch planter or planters,. or fome of 
them, in behalfe of the rcll, to the governor, or fuch officer as hee fliall 
appoint in that behalfe, fignifying their refolutions to plant there, and 
when they intend to bee on the place ; and, in cafe they doe not goe thi- 
ther, within fix months, then next enfuing, the faid allotment Tliall be 
^oid, and free to be afligned, to any other planter ; and that ever}' perfon 
apd perfons, to whom fuch affign men t lliall bee made, fiiall hold and cn^* 
joy the faid lands, foe to be affigned, and all houfeg, edifices, buildings^ 
and inclofures, thereupon to be built or made, to them and to their heirs 
for ever, by and under fuch tenures, as is ufual in other plantations fubjeCt 
to us. Neverthclcire,they are to be obliged to ferve in armes,upon any inlur- 
reccon, mutiny, or forraine invafion, and that the faid affignments and aU 
lotments Ihalbce made and cunlirmedj uudcr the publique fcale of the faid 


tflan<3j with power to create any mannor or manners, and with fuch con- 
venient and fuitable priviledgcs and imunities as the grantee (hall reafon- 
ably defire and require; and a draught of fuch affignmeiit fhall bee pre* 
pared by our learned councell in the iawe, and delivered to the governor 
to that purpofe; and that allfifliings and pifcharies, and all copper, lead, 
tinn, irons, coales, and all other mines (except gold and filver) within 
fuch refpe6live allottments, fhall bee enjoyed by the grantees thereof, re- 
ferving onely a twentieth part of the product of the fald mines to our 
tjfe; and wee doe further publifh and declare, that all children of any' 
of our naturall borne fubje6lsof England, to bee borne in Jamaica,, ftiallt 
from their refpe6live births, bee reputed to bee, and fhall bee, free de- 
nizens of England, -and fhall have the fame priviledges, to all intents and 
purpofes, as our free borne fubje6lsof England, and that all free per* 
fons (hall have the libertie, without interruption, to tranlport themfelves, 
and their fam)iits, and any their goods (except onley coyne and bul- 
lion), from any our dominions and territories^ to the faid ifland of Ja* 
malca; and weedoe flri6lly charge and command all planters, foldiers^ 
and others, upon the. faid ifland, to yield obedience to the lawful! com- 
mands of our right trufty and well-beloved Thomas lord Windfor, now 
Qur governor of our faid ifland, and to every other governor thereof, for 
the tyme being, under paine of our difpleafure, and fuch penalties 94 
may be inflicted thereupon^ driven at our courte at Whitehall, the foQr<* 
fteath day of December. 


• fc 

( 137 ) 


T 6 T H E K I N G, 

♦TPHE alteration of the fintn of government in this your majefty^s ifland 
■*• of Jamaica unto tliat ot your kingdom of Ireland, which your ma- 
jcfty, the beft and greatett of kings, l]ath gracioufly commanded us to 
fubmit to and own, we your majefty's truly loyal and dutiful fubjedls, 
hitherto have and yet do, by a willing readinefs, and ready wilHngncfs, 
declare our entire obedience and hearty conformity thereunto, becaufc 
your majefty commands. And although your majelly's great perfpicuity 
and truly royal prudence is beft able to determine what government is 
fitteft for your fubjedls in this ifland, yet with all due fubmiirion, in all 
•humility, we beg leave to reprefent to your majefty the great inconveni- 
encies attending the prefent form in tranfmitting our laws home. The 
vaft diftance of place will of neceflity caufe a great expence of time be- 
tween the firft framing of our laws here and tranfmitting and returning of 
them hither again ; fo that, before they can be paffed into laws by the 
confent of the aflbmbly here, there will probably as great caufe arife to 
alter as there was at firft to make them. And, with due fubmifllon, we 
judge it even impoffible to adapt laws to the prefent conftitution, fo as not 
to admit of often and great alterations ; for, according to our experience 
hitherto,- we have found urgent occafions to alter and amend the laws 
that more immediately concern us here, at the leaft every two. years, 
and we cannot forefee but we ihall be under the fime neceflity ftill ; fo 
^that if your majefty gracioufly pleafe to take it into your princely con- 
iideration, and either reftore to us the former power and way or method of 
making laws, or at leaft remit that part of the prefent method of making 
laws, which only concern us here, as they may pafs without tranfmitting 
the/amc, we hope, by our peffe6t fubmiiflon and entire obedience to all 
your laws here, your majefty will be a glorious prince and your fubjecfts 
here an happy people. And whereas the gentlemen of the aflembly, in 
their addrefs to your majefty, read herein council the 15th of November, 
1679^ do declare, as to the bill of revenue, wherein your majefty 's name 
was left out, that there are feveral members of their alfembly now fitting 
who were members when that bill paflbd three limes in form in the 
Humbly, andyupoo the beft recoUcdlion of tlieic memories, they are 

( YSt )• 

Tiiliy perfuadcd.and dq believe that the bill was again.fcnt down, with tliatr 
amendment fronithe governor and council according as the a6t paffed.-*- 
We, the gentlemen of your majefty's council here prefent at the pafiing 
of the bill, do moft humbly, witli^ all fubmifiion^ aver and declare, that ^ 
we were fo far from conferiting that the faid bill fhould pafs without your 
majefty's name in it, that we do not remember that it was ever debated 
or mentioned in council; further, to the beit of our refpeftive knowledge^^ 
than that it was read three times, and paffed the commons hoard with 
your majefty*s name in it : and are the rather induced to thisouF confidence 
becaufe we find the original aft was erafed by the then fpeaker- s own hand ; 
moreover, the feveral amendments of the faid bill, that were made in • 
council, were all taken noticeof in the minutesof our council-book, and 
no mention made of this. The gentlemen of the allembly do produce 
nothing out of their journals to juftify their refle6lion on uSj therefore it is 
to be prefumed they cannot; and we do therefore humbly and unanimoufly 
declare, we never did at any -time, either jointly or fevcrally, make any 
complaint to the affembly, or any of them, of the power given by your 
majefty unto his excellency our prefent. governor to fufpend any of youf 
majefty's council; therefore, as we have hitherto yielded all due obedi^* 
cnce and fubmiffion to your majeily's foyal will and pleafure concerning 
us, fo we hope we ihall ftill approve ourfelves fuch, and, as in duty 
bound, ever pray for your majefty's long life^ an^ that you may {)rx>fper*» 
oufly and triumphantly reign .over U9k 

This was tinanimoiijly agreed to in comicH by the refpeElive members ihere^- 
of who wei^e prejait at the paj/ing the bill of revenue. Colonel' Thomas 
Ballardy colonel John Cope^ colonel Robert Byfidlofsj colo7iel Thomas 
Preeman^ colonel William Joj/y colonel Thomas Fuller^ John Whitf^ 
ef quires; and confented to by the whole council^^ excepting lieutenants^ 
colonel Samuel Long* 


I -^^ 1 







IN \66\ colenel Delahoide had a commlffion to govern, and, having 
difbarided the army, to ere6l a civil government, and to a6l by ad- 
vice of a council confifting of about twelve chofen by the country, ia 
the nature of their reprefentatives ; which government lafted about eight 
^rten months. 

My lord^Windfor fucceeding, in 1662, he carried over a proclamation 
to give thirty acres to all fettlers, and a promife to them and their chil- 
dren of denization and freedom as natives of England. Hehkewifewas 
impowered to call affemhlies, and to make laws not repugnant to thofe 
of England, to which the government was affimilated* His council was of 
liis own eie^lion. 

- Sir Charles Lyttleton fuccecded my lord Windfor, who flayed about 
twenty months ; he governs as his deputy, called the firft afTembly that 
made a body of laws and an.a<5t for raifing of money, which was difpofed 
of to the public ufe of the ifland, and received by a coUedlor of their 
own, and never accounted for here. He had, as my lord Windfor, a 
council of about twelve chofen by himfelf, and governed about twelve 
months. . 

He left the council, and fir Thomas -Lynch as prefident, to govern 
until fir Thomas' ModyTord, in May, 1 664, ' came with commiffion and 
inilrudlions to eredt a judicature and call aiTemblies to make laws that 
wer£ to bd -of force twp years, and no longer, unlefs the kin^ approve^ 

S 2 them : 

( 1*0 ) 

tliem, after the manner of the Windward iflands ; to affimilate the Iaw«^ 
to thofe here, and not take away any body's liberty or freehold, -but by 
fuch or the like laws. He had a council like fir Charles Lyttleton, and 
called an aflembly that re-ena6led and enlarged his laws, and' raifed a: 
revenue by an import on ftrong liquors, that was called the king's for the 
public ufe of the ifland, mentioned ih tlie a6l. They were fent hoioe, but* 
not being returned approved, he, by order of his council, continued them ta* 
the end of his government ; which peeple readily enough obeyed, con- 
iidering them as' rather made by themfelves than received from his 
council ; for that governor had much more power than his fucceflbrs^/ 
and, being well fupported here and the colony young, and pbor^ nobody 
queflioned any ihing. 

In 1671, fir Thomas Lynch came with the fame commiffion and title* 
of commander-in-rchief, and inftrudlions to the fame purpofe, and to 
encourage the colony. . Soon after his arrival he called an allembly, that 
altered and enlarged fir Thomas Modyford's laws, palled the a6t of reve- 
nue t^ the king, indefinite, for the ifland's ufe^ mentioned by the a6t, 
and received by collectors which he nominated, and that the councit* 
approved of. Two years after, tfaefc laws not being confirmed, they 
were again ro-ena6ted by the aflembly, and then the revenue was made 
for two years, and all the officers to account to the governor or council^ 
that the affembly or an^y particular perfons might fee the money was- 
employed to needful and public ufes- 

In March, 1675> my lord Vau^an arrived: his commtflion named 
his council, and diredled he (hould call alfemblies according to the 
cuftom of the iflaad, which fhould be deemed the people's reprefcnta- 
tives, and were to make laws asf the former governors to prefervc pro^ 
perly, and to give encouragement to planting, . He called an^s^mbly 
that pafled all the former laws which vwre fent for England to be coa* 
firmed, except the aft of revenue; and, not being returned at the twa 
years end, called another, which re-enat3:ed the fame laws, but the a<9: 
of revenue my lord rejefted ; and ib my lord and the ifland were a year 
without revenue* 


About two years ago, the earl of Carlifle was fent governor' with my 
lord Vaughan's firll laws, and an a6t for a perpetual revenue, as they 
were modelled bcre'> which^ as I hav^ heard thp pouacil tbece jvas not 
• to 


«fo rxntn'nc, but a general aflembly to pafs entirely; no aflembly to iMi 
railed but by order irom hence, or an extraordinary emergency, nor 
tlicv never to deliberate on new laws or amendments, but fuch to be 
framed by tlic co^^nrir tli(,Te, and thence remitted to his* majefty ; and 
after his proibatioh to be returned to be pafled by a general alfembly:^ 
after the mi.nner of Ireland ; wliich they have found fo grievous and in- 
co: \cnlent, that they rejeftod them?, and made an addrefs to my lord 
Garlilk to iiitercede \\iLh his majoily for a change of thofe orders; which 
1 hear my lords of his majefty's council have anlwered, and on their report 
, his majefty has again ordered the fame laws, and an ^aSt of revenue, to be 
returned and oftcred them;. and, as I hear in difcourfe, they fay they 
can never give their confents to. arts they have not deliberated, which 
frems contrary to the methods of government eftablifhed by his majefty'y 
grace and feveral commilTions, and pra6lifed for fomany years, yet that 
they .will dutifully obey whatever his majefty orders; they feem to have 
^IIk fe following rcafons> as 1 gather by what fomc have writ from thence 
and others laid here : 

1ft. — ^That; being Englifti, they have a right to be governed as fuch, 
and to have their liberty and property fecurcd by the laws of England, or 
•thers of their own making, 

■ . ■ • 

2d, — ^They believe in that proclamation iny lord Windfor carried 
over, the king is gracioufly pleafed to grant freedon and denizen as encou^ 
ragement to tranfport. 

Sd. — His majefty has been pleafed, by his fevtral commiftions to his 
governors, to declare it ; w?iich commiffions arc recorded f«r the people's- 
iatista6iion and encouragement; and they have tor fixteen oreightceo 
years been governed by laws of England. 

. « 

4th. — ^AU other colonies-have and ever had affemblies, zmd their laws- 
take original from them^ 

5th, — They conceive the Irifli way of making laws will be too tedious, 
^caiife of the vaft diftance and of the frequent changes of planters intereftsi 

6th.. — They fay that way was defired by the Englifh to fupport them 
«|^init tbo Ix'iihy but that tbey^arc all Englilh, and the conquerors as- 



^Avdtl as the .planters of the fjextile -iflaad^ and .that th^ peyli^e a1>Qye^ 
:fixth of what they prod uce there. 

Tth* — ^That they fear a nbife (3f any fuch change of government may 
..make many defert the ifland, apd the merchants here forbear trading* 

8th.— If the king's commiiTions haye appointed them there, and if 
. they have been conltituted in the colonies from their firftfettlement fixty 
years ago as a gQverem€;nt moll juft ai)fl like this of England^, then they 
"hope that they alone of all the colonics ftiall not be retrenched any the 
privileges natural to fucli affemblies;^ but that, if particular perfons have 
offended and .caufed this change, they fuffer, and hot the colony. 

9th.— They hope his majefty wHl be pleafed toeonfider that his intereft, 
and that of trade, is l)Oimd up with that of theirs; for it is the planters 
mull defend and iniproye the colonies, and their agreeable Jaws will belt 
aiiake them do it. 

Farther confiderations qn the prefent flate of the government : It is 
probable the aflembly will reje6l the laws thus offered them. It is certain 
there is jm abfolute neceffity for a revenue, for the public charges are 
great, and the doubts inany. It is polTible the council may join with 
;ny lord to order the laws for the govenjment to be continued, but I 
verily bdieve they will not continue the revenue-bill; for that they 
think helpings particularly to the aflembly^ and if they cannot, it would 
not be without procefs, and I doubt the Judges, Kc\ would quit, and 
juries conftantly give it againll the officers. Jt would be the fame or 
worfe if any ordei: went hence to that purpofe, and give llrange umbrage? 
to the reft of the colonies, that are under too many difcouragements 
-already,, by the cheapnefs of their commodities, the growth and trade of 
the French power, and the plantations feem more needful now than 
/orxnerly. A]l which I humlply fubpiit. 


t 143 ) 




^Humbly Shtwethy 

THAT the earl of Carlifle, witliout any juft' caufe, imprifoned 
your petitioner in Jamaica, and forced hinr hither to anfwcr an 
afpcrfion of treafoh, as he pretended: by rcafon whereof your petitioner 
hath not only luftered in his reputation, but hath fpent a confiderabJe' 
part of his eftate, and may be ruined by being forced from his interell : 
and whereas the faid' earl both refufed to make your petitioner any fatis- 
faction, or to wave his privilege, although before your majefty's privy 
council, after your petitioner had anfwered his charge there given> he 
conteflTed your petitioner was an honcft man- in hijs ttealings, a jtiltjudge^,- 
.and one that had been and might be very ufeful to his country; and 
whereas your petitioner hath been already denied a habeas corpus by the 
faid earl, as chancellor, and* by the chief juftice of Jamaica ; fo that frofa 
.the faid earl or any.minifter under him your petitioner can expeft nothing: 
but evil, and it may be his total ruin, unlefs your majefty gracioully be 
pleafed to commiferate your poor petitioner ; wherefore he mod humbly 
jcafts himfelf at your majefty's feet, hoping you will not fufFer him to be 
fpoiled of his credit or eftate, but provide fuch remedy as to your grc^ 
wifdom may feem tit; and your petitioner, as in duty bound, ihall c^er 
pray. A true^copy. 



YOUR majefty and council did think fit to diredl a new model for the 
:bcl er fettlement of the laws and government of the ifland of Ja- 
««iaica,, with inftrudtiofis to nic to put the fame ia executioa at my arrival 

I 144 ) 

tlicre, fori:he efFe(?ling thereaf : I did confult thore tliat were in the chlefeft 
employments in the ifland, particularly lieutenant-colonel Lo-.g, whont 
I^found chief-juftice, alfo of the^ouncil ; but, inftead of his compliance, 
which I had reafon to expc 61, he did not only declare iiimfelf very op- 
pofite to thofe your majelly's dire6tions, but continued violently to per- 
fevere therein, and by all the artifices and initigations he could ufe did 
perfiiade and encourage.' others to his opinion, notwtthftanding his pro- 
mifc to me of contrary behaviour ; and therefore he may be well allured 
,the character, wjiich he fays in his petition I gave him, did not refped 
him as a publici but as a private man; for he proved himfelf a great in^ 
ilrument to render that fcttlement ineftedlual, which your majefty ia 
council had dirc6lcd, and preiied upon me by repeated orders. I did for 
fome time hope to reclaim him by fair means, but, perceiving his temper 
very little wrought upon by fuch kind methods, and moreover obferving, 
upon the perulalof the bill in my lord Vaughan's time, that yoftr majef- 
ty's name had been rafed out, and the bill afterwards interlined, whicfe 
the council unanimously xleclared was fairly infcrted when it palled them^ 
and there being an interline in the bill, and owned by lieutenant-colond 
Long to be written with liig own hand, but would not confefs who rafed 
out yourmajefty's name; this inclined me to believe it was himfelf, and 
the rather becaufe, when he was clerk of the alfembly in the time of lir 
Thomas Modyford being governor, he did perfuade and endeavour as 
jnuch as^ lay in his power to have his majefty's name left out of a bill 
which was then paiTed; for which he was laid by the heels. AU which, 
together with his pra<5tices when he was cliief-jultice, particularly in 
granting a writ of habeas corpus on behalf of one Brown a condemned 
pirate, for whofe execution the marlhal had a legal warrant: But the af* 
i^embly, by the faid lieutenant-colonel Long's infligations, as 1 was in- 
formed, did much efpoufe his manner of proceeding; that purfuant to% 
vote of theirs one lieutenant-colonel Beefton, who was their fpcaker, 
iigned a reprieve for Brown, and commanded obedience ta their wrifc^ 
which was. done in fo diforderly a manner that the governor thought fit 
to diflblve the affembly. Thofe juft complaints againft him gave me 
reafon to obferve his ill carriage and temper the more cautioufly, and upon 
the whole did believe thofe matters very punilhable in England, with 
your majefty's gracious power to renait them; whereupon, I divefted him 
of all public employments, and thought it was advifeable to appeal to 
your roajefty's council to do therein as you Ihall fee fit, and took recog*- 
Aizance of thpfaid Long to appear belbre y«u, wluch readers the covoh 


( 1*5 ) 

jpTaint in the petition of being denied a writ of habeas corpus very unrea- 
fonablc, becaufp, by his entrance iijto recognizance to appear, he wa> not 
continued in cullody, and therefore needed no fiich writ. However I 
would willingly have delayed this proceeding until I had obtained your 
majefty's particular orders therein, but diftance of placeand the conjunC' 
ture of affairs at that time would not admit of fuch delays, efpecially 
fince I could not but think the peace of the ifland to be^n great danger 
if I had left him behind me. All which confiderations, being fecohded 
by a letter 1 received from Mr. Blaithwaitc near my coming 
away, that the committee of plantations had refolved to report to your 
majefty in council that I might be dire6ted to fend him home, to anfwer 
what was laid to his charge, will I hope prevail with your majefty to ap- 
prove of my proceedings in this matter. 

As to the objection of taking money of one Ilcwit for a pardon, which 
is only circumftantially alledged, l.fay, in anfwer thereunto, that I took 
no money diredlly nor. indiredlly for granting the fame; but, having 
been moved on behalf of the faid Hewit, and having thereupon advifed 
with fome of the council about it, who told nie they thought him a lit 
obje6t of mercy, I did thereupon grant' him a pardon, and told him he 
would do well to give fifty pounds towards building the church at Port- 
Royal, which was then in hand, but was delayed for want of money to 
carry it on ; and the faid fifty pounds was paid to captain Beckford one of 
the deponents, and not to me or any fervant of mine, and afterwards paid 
by Beckford to colonel Molefworth, churchwarden of the faidparifti, for 
the ufe aforefaid: and whereas it feems to be fuppofed that this fifty, 
pounds had been paid in lieu of fifty pounds fubfcribed by me towards the 
building of the faid church, I wholly deny it, and lay, I always intended 
and ftjll do to pay the fifty pounds I fubfcribed, which never had any 
f limited time, and will come as feafonably for the finilhing of it as th^ 
•tBer ^d ibr building the walf^^ 


c »^ > 



JANUARY ^J8,. l(J8h 


1ft. — TpO prove the earl of Carlifle impofed a teft; fee the oath of 
•*■ Samuel Long, colonel Bccfton, Mr. Bathurft. 

2nd. — ^To prove judges turned out — none "have fworn, but the witnefles 
i;an if denied, and prove the naval officer turned out tor doing his duty. 

3d. — ^To prove the earl upheld officers in adlion of fees; fee the oatb 
<9f Beefton, alfo captain Wilfpn's papers. 


4th. — ^To prove the carl of Carlifle prejQTcd the council to coin or 
flamp money; fee captain Knapraan's oath, alfo Samuel Nath's. 

5 th. — ^To prove taking of feizures ; fee the oath of Long concerning en- 
couragement to privateers, alfo captain Wilfon's papers, alfoBeefton'soatli. 

6th. — ^To prove the earl knew of pirates goods, and caufed them to 
enter ; fee Eaftaugh's oath, th» aflembly's addrefs, and a vote in their 
journal, Peter Beckford'g oath, S.'Nath% Beefton's, S, Long's, J. Afliuriri^ 
J. Bathurft's. 

7 til. — ^To prove the accefs to the earl and his deciding fome of their 
diftercnces; fee S. Long's oath, Beefton*% ^. Nath's. My lord in council 
owned his feeing two of their captains who came to him by his leave. 

8th.— To prove the earl encouraged the privateers, aflerting they.dij 
igood and enriched the illand; fee S. Nath'soath, J. Bathurft's, fieclloii*!^ 
4Uid Long's. 


To this article the earl hath not yet pretended any orders for imprifon^ 
tng Samuel Long; whether he fent the addrels, or had orders to Icavc^ 
the ifland, is known' to his majelly; befides what is proved, the eaii 
owned he had taken money for pardoning, in obedience to an order ot 
couuciK ' The foregoing is prefented by mc Samuel Long. 

d Imecopy, Phiup Lovn. 


{ U1 ) 





Art. 1.' — A S *^ ^y coffering a tefl, all I did therein was In regard of 

JlJl. the difficulty made in the aflembly of fubmitting to the 
new model of government, dire6ted by his majefty in cpuncil, and fent 
over by me; I therefore defired, firft of the council in Jamaica, and 
afterwards of feveral who had been of the aflembly, to declare by word of 
mouth, that they would fubmit and acquiefce to the faid form of govern- 
ment until his majefty*s further pleafure ihould be known concerning the 

Art. 2, — ^To the fecond article I anfwer, that three judges were re- 
moved, viz. Long, Barry, and Back. Long for the fame reafons which 
induced me to bring him hither. Barry, was a young man, not bred to tlic 
law, a ftiff oppofer of any compliance with the king's orders, and would 
never account for his quit-rents, and therefore unlikely to do his majefty 
rig*ht. Back made it his own rcqueft to be difcharged. The judges put 
in were colonel Theodore Cary and major Nccdham : colonel Gary is a 
very honeft gentleman, liatJi a good eftatc, was a judge in that ifland- 
feveral years, and colonel in the late king^s army. Alajor Needham is a 
very honcft gentleman, hatfa a very profperous plantation, and is of good 
parts and underiianding. 

Art. 3. — ^To the third article I anfwer, that I utterly deny that I did 
€ver uphold any officer in exacting unjuftifiable fees, defiring whofoever 
complained that they would fue the officer, there being a penalty to be 
recovered, impofed by the adl that regulates them. 

Art. 4. — ^To the fourth article I anfwer, there was no difcourfe of 
coining, only ftamping fome figures upon pieces of filvcr of the weight 
an^ value of pieces of eight, to pafs between traders, there being a great 
Aant of money ; but this ended in difcourfe and waa never put in execution. 

T2 As 

f 148 ) 

As to what is alledged concerning fome cocoa feized by Wilfon tfie 
fiaval officer, — it was feized not long after my arrival upon the ifland, 
and before there were complaints made to me of privateers; and what 
parted between* Wilf(5n and me was to this effect, that notwithflanding 
his alledging the profit that would accrue to me by his feizure, 'I would 
not anmiate him to proceed to profecution upon that acxount, but neither 
would nor did hinder him from profccuting upon his own. 

As to what is alledged againft me for difplacing Wilfon the naval 
officer for doing his duty,. I deny it; for, though it was in my 
power to difplace when I would, yet till 1 found he was very unquiet 
with Mr. Martin the receiver of the cuftoms, who holds his place by 
patent from the king, fo that thereby his majefty's fervice was very 
much prejudiced and delayed, I did not remove him ; moreover he was 
accufed to me of prevaricating his oath upon a trial before the judges of 
the admiralty ; and only for thefc three reafons I difplaced him, and not 
tor the caufes alledged againft me,, nor was he removed until a conflder^ 
able time after he had feized the cocoa before mentioped. 

Art. 5. — Concerning encouragement to privateers. — Firft, taking off 
Seizures of privateers goods, to which I anfwcr, and deny that I ever 
difchargcd any feizures for fuch goods. Next it is alledged {igainft me» 

- concerning caufing privateers goods ta be entered at the cuftom-houfe,— ♦ 
to which I anfwer, and deny that I did caule any hich goods to be 
entered, nor do I remember I was ever Ipoken to about entering of goods 
above twice or thrice j in one of which cafes I did, in compaffion to Dr^ 
Eaftaugh, who was a planter, write a letter to the officer of the cullom- 
houfe, becaufe I was informed it was an honeft cafe; but the officer took 
no notice thereof, but went to a trial at law for the forteiture and waa caft^ 
as Eaftaugh fwears in his affidavit. And, in another cafe, viz. that men* 
tioned by Long, where he faith that one Pindre, purfer of the Succe& 
frigate, brought the mailer of boats or vcflels to me at fir Henry Morgan's, 
and that I allowed, declared, and ordered, the mafter to enter his cocoa 
and pay cuftom, and called the purfer and other officers to acquaint thent 

. with my pleafure; the faid Pindre hath pofiti'vely fworn in his affidavit^ 
that he did not at that time bring any mafter of a velFcl to me, and if I 
did fpeak any thmgthere concerning entering of goods, I refer them to the 
Jking^s officer of the cuftoms, to whom I neither feut any meffage or di- 
jreftions concerning that matter* 

( 149 ) 

As to wliat Beeflon objc6ls, that there were many privateer.^ in St, J^^m 
c?e k Vega about February and March, 1679, and thatit were publicly id 
tiiey were going to lake Porto-Bello, — I anfwer, that there were ojuers 
from time to time given out by me to all officers to feizc" and apr^rehen J 
wluit priv')*eers they could find, and I do afiirni that I nrver dirc(51[y of 
indirecftly kuew of a defign to take Porto-Bello, but, if I had^ would have 
done all I could to prevent it ; and, if Beeilon knew they were in thofe 
towns, and that the difcourfe of their deiign was fo public as he fays, it 
^as his duty to have fecured them and acquainted methercwith ; for hewas 
at that time Ueutenant-colom lofthc regiment at Port-Royal, chief judge 
of tiie court held there, and jufticc of the peace: As to what he fa^ys in 
bis afftdavit againft me concerning Sharpe, I was willing to fpeak wltli 
him upon parole, that he fhould come and go fafe, as I was at another 
time with one Coxon, fuppoiing it might contribute to his majefty's fer- 
wice,. by perfuading them to come in by fair means, or for the better dif- 
covering their defigns; and for Sharpens men, the reafon I did not apprehend 
them at that time was, lell I might alarm feveral other more notorious, 
whom I had hopes to feize upon ; but I was fo far from giving them any 
countenance, that I did very much reprove them, and, when I was free 
of my prom ife upon parole, I gave out particular orders to the officers of 
the ifland to make all diligent fearch for the faid Sharpe by name, and for 
ail other privateers they could find, and to apprehend them. 

Whereas the faid Beefton, in his affidavit, fays, that one Cooke cime 
in old cloaths, with whom 1 fpoke ; — it is true I faw him in a very poor con* 
dition, telling me he had been twice undone, which made me believe he 
came to prefent himfelf to me as an object: of charity, being accounted at 
that time an honeft pQor man ; but, as to what he faid of a barge feized 
i)y him and feveral other things, 1 knew nothing of it. 

As to what Afhurft fays in his affidavit, that I was often advifed that 
the indigo was piratically taken, yet neverthelefs permited to be entered, 
there was never any proof made tome of the truth of fuch advices as he 
calls them ; if he knew it to be fo, it was in his power to have feized upoj) 
a tliird, being his if condemned. 

As to the addrefs of the aflembly, which was made to me to prevent 
privateering, I had prepared my orders to the captain of the Succefs 
frigate, the Huoter being then at fea, to mak^ all polTible difpatcb to 

' fail 

< 150 ^ 

fail to the Keys of Cuba, upon intelligence that a privateer liad nexulf 
taten a Dutch (hip there; which faid orders were ready before I heard 
Any thing of the addrefs, but I told them, in anfwer to that^ I would be the 
more fpeedy in difpatching the frigate to fea ; which I did forthwith, and 
renewed my orders to all officers and others to feize privateers both at fea 
jand on iliore.^ 

NATHANIEL EASTAUGH, of Cabarito in Jamaica, gentleman, aged 
about fifty years, maketh oath that, in or about the month of October, in 
the year of our lord 1679, he bought of one Thomas Middleton and 
anotlicr man thirteen chcfts of indigo; about eight or ten days after, Mr. 
Thomas Martin, the king's c6lle6tor and receiver-genei-al, having obtained 
an order from the earl of Carlifle to fearch tor .and feize all the indigo he 
could find that was not entered to pay cullom ; and the faid Eaftaugh/ 
fearing that the pcrfons whom he had bought the indigo of had not entered 
it, becaufe the order particularly mentioned him, rode one hundred and 
forty miles to the carl or governor, to alk his advice what was befl to h& 
done. The carl advifed him to enter prefently. Eaftaugh defired the 
carl's letter to Martin, becaufe Martin was known to give trouble to every 
man in any wife concerned with him in like kind. Ihe earl did write to 
him accordingly; but Martin refufed to admit the faid Eaftaugh toenter^ 
nor would I.e take notice of the governor's letter, unlefsthe faid Eaftaugh 
would give him a bribe, viz. twenty Ihillii^gs p£r cheft, as this deponent 
underrtood from others that paid it; and alfo give under his hand to 
forgive the three pence per pound for exportation, as the aft of this coun- 
try provides. Eaftaugh upon this refolves to take care of his indigo, and 
to difpofe of it as foon as he could ;^ but Martin, in the next Fcbiliary 
court, fucs the faid Eaftaugh for the whole of the indigo in the king'^ 
name and in his own name. The court was of opinion that Eaftaugh was 
not the importer, nor the goods liable, unlefs leized; fo it went againft; 
the king. The May Ibllowing, M'^utiii caufed s^nothcr action to be 
brought. for the king againft Eaftaugh for non-payment of the cuftoms, 
which he pretended Eaftaugh promiled ,to pay to Martin by a conditional ' 
promifc ; fo the jury found for the defendant. 


y/i/^ depojition was taken this Qth day ^f June^ before me, Robert Bynd-^ 
iofSf€/'q, chief jujiice of this ifland^ Mr. Thomus Martin being then prefcnt. 

A true copy 

PmLlJ^ LOYI>. 


THE clepofitlon of Jouatlian Afliurft, aged tliirty-ffrw years or "(h^f^m 
abouts, that captain Cooke told the faid deponent the wliole flory of h'rf 
lofing his fliip, and taking a Spanilh barque loadcn with cocoa ; but the 
faid deponent^i not thinking he Ihould ever be called to teftity the fame, di(J 
rot bear the fame fo particularly in mind; 1 he fubllance was, that liis 
men, after his lofs of his fhip, having pofrefled themfekes of a Skpanilh 
barque loaden with cocoa without his knowledge, as he fard, they came 
to him and profered him a (hare if he would carry them up to Jamaica ; 
accordingly he did, and fold his cocoa at Port-Royal, entering the 
fame at the cuftom-houfc ; and, as I underftood, imported it in lloops 
belonging to the illand from a near place to Port-Royal, and there burnt 
llic barque, that it Ihould never witnefs againft him* 


The- faid deponent undcTftood that feveral parcels of Spanifh indigo wasr- 
landed in remote places of theifland, fome of which the king's receiver^ 
^^r. Martin, did feize. The lord Carlifle being afterwards advifed it wa$ 
particularly taken, the indigo was permitted to be entered at the cuftom- 
loufe ; upon which encouragement feveral hundred chefts o( indigo were 
brought into Port-Royah The faid deponent being at the houfe of tlie 
faid Thomas Martin when one was enteringand paying m»ney tor cullonj 
of indigo, and with him came a man that told the whole ftory of taking 
the indigo from the Spaniards, and that indigo which was then entered- 
had belonged to him, and that he was at the taking of the indigo. 

The faid deponent faith he faw a man committed to prifon for burglary.; 
and fome months after, feeing the fame man at liberty, the deponent a'k- 
ed the jufticcthat committed him how the man was cleared; who told 
the deponent thftt the prifoner was fent for to the lord Carlifle from prifon^ 
arid, after fome montlis working at tiie lord eaxiifle's houfe, he was fct 
at libertjf. 

SAMUEL LONG, of Jamaica, tiged forty-two yearsr or thereaboutft 
maketh oath that, in Jamaica, at the timeot* a felTion of an alfembly, he, 
as one of the members of the council, was by the earl of ( arliflc*, go*^ 
vcrnor, offered a teft to thiseffe6l: Do ymtfubmit and con/enf to the frame 
^f gwemtnent as it is now e/iubUJhcd by his majcjly^ ^cQmmiJfiQn to iheeay^l of 


C 15« ) 

Carlijlef to which the faid deponent refufed to this effe6l: I have and 
ever will fubmit to authority ^ and have taken the oaths of allegiance and fur 
premacy^ and fuppofe nothing more can be impofed on mc^ unlefs a teji were 
lawfully made; but^ if my confent and diljent Jignified any things I then 
declared I would at all times and places convenient petition againjl the new 
cndfor^ the antient form &f government^ and alfo argue ajid give reafons W 
thepiirpofe. Upon which anfwer, I was by the; earl commanded to with* 

draw^ and was excluded from fitting as a councillor, 


The fiiid deponent remcmberetli that the furveyor-general, Mr. Fel- 
gate, at the earl of Carlifle*,s, in his prefence, difcourfmg of the rights of 
his patent, affirmed he might take higher fees than the act of the country 
allowed him ; to which this deponent replied he would come under the 
penalties of the a6l if he did, and if he ftpod a- trial on that point, doubt* 
lofs he would be caft. The furveyor replied and iaid, he would venture 
that, if any would eonteft with him. And further, the deponent doth 
remember that in Jamaica there was a general murmuring and complaint 
againft the faid furveyor-general and the king's receiver, butthis deponent 
<iloth not remember the particulars, or that the faid earl ever examined or 

regulated any of the fees. 

» - • ■ 

The faid earl, foon after his communicating to the council his majef- 
ty's pleafure, together with the report from fome officers of the mint, 
preflTed the council to join in making an order to ftamp pieces of eight, 
having, as he affirmed, treated with a goldfmith of the terms, and being 
advifed that amongft the French privateers there were divers pigs of filver 
and fome already brought to Jamaica ; to which the council, and parti- 
. cularly this deponent, rephed that they neither durft nor would advife 
^im to break his majefty's inftru6tions fo lately received on that point; 
to which the faid earl replied, what hazard Ao you run, I will bear all 
the blame ? to which this deponent replied, that cpuld not be unlefa he 
did it without the confent or advice of the council ; for, fhould it be done 
^nd ill taken in England, they doubted that, as other generals had laid 
their fault on the council or aflembly, fo he to eafe himfelf would lay it on 
the council. Many other arguments were ufed on both fides, but the 
council would not be brought to confent ; at which the laid earl iheweda 
i;reat ideal of difcontent. 



% . ' 

IPtort-Tloyal, where onePindre, purfer- to one of his majeTly^»s Trlg^^s,, 
came to the earl and acquainted hitn that he with the kin^^s boat, 

^as I remember, had feizcd a boat or veflel with fome cocoa and brought 

the mafter, whom he prefented to the earl of Carlifle.; who citlled th6 

.mafterto him^ and carried him into a little clofet; and, after a very ihott 
time, the earl came out again with the mafter, and aloud declared 
that he ordered the mafter to enter his cocoa and pay cuftom, and 

.^called to the purfcr and other officers to acquaint them with his plcafure:; 

.at which the purfer, who came as if he had done fome great matter, went 

jftway as feemingly abafhed as the .matter pleafed. 


This deponent was once at cards with the faid earl, his countefs, and 
-others, when there came to the faid earl about twenty perfons, with whoM 
the faid earl went into the next room, leaving fomebody to play his cards, 
•J overheard fo much of their bufinefs, the doqr being open, as I under- 
itood they were privateers that had brought in indigo or other plunder, 
and I believed they belonged to one Bartholomew Sharpens cfew; that, fome- 
where about Jamaica as I tliink, one of the frigates coming near their 
veflel, fome that now complained run a-fhore or away for fear, declaring 
4hey shad rather lofe their purchafe than their livea; but, finding ^othcr 
ufage, they now claimed their fhare, 'which the others refufed to give 
them, ^Hedging they Jiad rehnquifhed their right; this diflbrencc the 
'Carl ;lieard and I believe decided, but what was his direction I do net 
know, in regard 1 ftill played and could not hear fo well the earl as the 
privateers, who .were very loud; but they went away feemingly pacified 
and contented. 'I overheard, as I remember, an expreffion from the earl 
to thi&purpofe. When l^he difpute was hotteft: — If you xcill be iinrtdi/^ I 
fiknow /lOWMnd have hampered as mad fellows as any ofyati ; hit if you will 
ie orderly ana governed you /hall be tifed like men. I have feen one captain 
Prince, who is faid to be a proclaimed pirate, with others faid to be pri- 
T'ateers, leading each his wojpan by the faid earl as he fat in his coach 
viewing affairs ; many of the council and aflembly ftanding by the faid 
carl, making fome conament on them aslhey pafied. 1 perceived he i)otJi 
jfeiw and knew who they weise. ♦ 

This deponent further faith, that tlie'faid carl feveral times, and aft 
'fome times in the prefence of four op five of the council, and at fome- 
^mes to other councillors, i;i my prefence, endeavoured to convince us 
#«i'4»ui crror^ as he called itj ia affirnrung the privateers injured Jamaica 

• 4J 4y 

"( 154 y 

■gy 1 .jppjpg ftplcngooc]?, thereby deprefling the planters goods, hindering 
li»c ^p;u;lih tr:ul(s weakening the iiland by taking otf many of the bell 
inrn\«^ iiVinds iVom phinling; the faid earl on the contrary aflirming, that 
whatever the privateers brought to tlie iiland was (o much added to th« 
riches of the ifland, andmercharfts by good bargains encouraged tlie men , 
kept, who, if ieverity were ufedv would goto tfae French^ 

7 his deponent further faith, that vvhen the aflfembly had' addrefled the 
earl againft privateers, he particularly defired his excellency to do as they 
defired, and informed that many or moft of the privateers were about the 
iiland ; and if they were flopped and fuch fecurity as by law I, thought 
might he taken foir them and tbeix veilels, it would be a great ilep to their 
fuppreffion* . 

This deponent further faith, that he hath not only petitioned the faidt 
carl not to bring him per force, having no orders from his majefty, but 
alfo told him he was certain he fliould do him no kindnefs; for that if ho 
were examined he mull tell truth ; and if ever he had opportunity he 
would give fuch account as by that time each governor had taken his due 
part of t^iat laid to the people's charge, this deponent, would undertake 
to bear the reft without reproach, or to tliat eflcc^; 

This deponent further faiths that he propofed to fwear to hi? own inno-^ 
cency as to what is laid to his charge about rafing the king's name, as 
alfo that in no public capacity whatever he had not done any unjuft^ 
clandeftine, or evil, thing willingly or knowingly; ajnd that if he thould 
be difpfoved he would fubmit to be punifhed as if perjured in a court of 
reward; or if the faid earl would offer any proof he would undertake by 
better to difprove it; and alfo told the faid earl, that he himfelf nor thof© 
Ihat told him could not beiieive it themfelves. 

This deponent further faith, that he advifed the faid earl hot td leave 
Jamaica without his majefty's orders, which he heard not, informing the 
faid carl that he lieard it had like to have gone ill -with my lord Vaughai^ 
for want of pofitive orders, had iiot his royal highneffes letter brought him 

This deponent further faith, that in his own houfe in Jamaica he hatt 
iome difcouife with Thomas Mariiii, tliekiug i» receiver, abaut (he piraiet 


( 155 ) 

^Tifl tlie money gained by cuftomofill gotten goods^ this depontnt telling 
the faid Martin he feared the ifland would be prejudiced by It ; and it 
may be thofe he thought he moft ferved by giving fuch encourage - 
ment to privateers: to which the faid M-artm repHed, 1 do fo order it that 
none but freeholders and inhabitants enter with me, and I'll warrant 
none Ihall come to any damage; I'llorder it that my books Ihall clear 
t1iem, or to fuch effect. And this deponent verily believes that the faid 
carl had fome fuch opinion of the faid Martin, ftill he was fo very earneft 
to bring him for England ; whereas, I conceive, had he come and fworm 
trjuth, it would have tended to his lordlhip'sdifadvantage in tliatparticular* 


The deponent further faith, that, being once at the earl of Carlifle*s, 
a diicourfe was moved about the manner of Ihipping fome of the Spanifh 
indigo, and it would not be ikfe to fliip it in the fame Veffel, lell: the 
Spanifh embafladors by tlie mark fhould caufe feizures in England ; on 
•which the , faid earl, fpeaking to his countefs,-. faid. Wife, do you hear 
this? youFs, I believe, is gone in the fame cherts: Alfo the faid Martin 
declared he had bought feveral cherts of indigo for the countefe, and the 
earl declared he had or would lay out three hundred poutKfs, or fome 
fuch fum, in the faid Spanifh indigOi The faid deponent further faith^ 
that ene John Butlin, clerk of the coirrt and peace in Clarendon, was 
turned out, and one Harvey put in his place; and the reafon given by 
the faid earl was, that he had promifed thefaid Harvey's mother, as this 
deponent remembereth, in England to be kind to him; and when it 
was tried, Butlin was a diligent, good, careful^ officer, and that was 
a loofe idle fellow: The earl' replied to this deponent, he believed by 
fome ill thing or- other the faid Harvey would forfeit his place, and then 
Butlin fhould be rertored; for then the faid earl ihould have diicharge4l 
his promife to the faid Harvey or his friends, or to fuch jefFe6t. 

This deponent further faith, as he was ufed to fit with the faid eafl 
Sometimes as councillor, fometimes as ordinary, he hath heard him in 
tliis deponent's opinion give very ftrange reafons for his judgments: The 
one is rich, the other very poor, or this was reprefentcd to me or othem 
as much incompetent; and when his jurifdidlion hath been demuAed, 
he would not determine it^ but caufe by his autliority lioth parties to leave 
it to him as an umpire* 

This deponent hath heard the faid earl declare he believed he might, if 
^ ju^ijeity lived, be goveinui of Jamaica as long as be iiv(;d« 

f 15« ^ 

TTiis deponent, as lie was chief-juftice, had a fee of one fhiHin^ antf 
three-pence from every procefs iflued out of the grand-court; but, vvheri^ 
his fucceflbr was commillioned, the faid earl, as he was credibly informed,^ 
being told that all the procefs dated before my fiicceffi)r's comraiflion muflr 
be ligned and bear teft in my name, and that other wife it would be errone- 
ous, my writ of eafe bearing date but two days before the return of thofe 
procefs ; yet he, as I was informed, ordered my name to be ftruck out» 
and Byndlofs's, my^ fuccefFor, inferted; by which means the clerk of Hie 
eourt informed me that torty-feven pounds, or thereabouts, was added to 
the profit of the faid Byndlofs and taken from, me; In favour alfo of th& 
fa id Byndlofs,: Ibe faid earl commanded one captain Brayne, as Brayne 
bimfelf told me, to renew an obligation by which the faid Byndlofs was^ 
indebted to the faid Brayne -in others right in about five hundred pounds, 
to the end the faid Byndlofs might give a new obligation, and to fave 
fome years interefl, amounting to a confiderable ftmi, and threatened ta 
Jay the faid Brayne in prifonif he did not. Brayne afked my advice, I 
being his fecurity to his principals, advifed him rather to go to prifon- 
than be frighted out of that which he nuift afterwards make good out of 
•bis own pocket. 

This deponent rememhereth,* that one .Tbhn Hewit told him he hadf" 
gotten a plirdon from the faid earl, for havmg two wives, which coll hiiw 
about a hundred or a hundred and fix pounds, fifty whereof he faidnevee 
vexed him, becaufe the earl put it to a good ufe^ but the other one Mr* 
Ellis had, which, vexed him, or to that etledl,. 

This deponent remenrbereth one Pochin, one Cole, and one Camp, alF 
condemned for murder, and others for manllaughter, all whit,h as this^dc^ 
ponent is credibly informed are kept alive for mone^ to the earl or lome 
of his family; but this deponent knoweth it not to be truth in his owj» 

This deponent hath fome letters which fie received from Jamaica^ 
ready to be produced, one whereof mentions in a fhort lime five humlred 
uirn were gone off the ifland; the others give an account of twenty-foaf 
velfels taken per Sawkins, Coxon, and others, in the South Seas; whiclt^ 
CQxon, Sawkins, Cooke, Sharpe, Primier, and others,, as this deponent 19 
credibly informed, have all been in the faid earl's prefence and power*— 
And Uiis deponent verily believeth, by what kc hiilh heard audiecn, if the 


i i5-7 ) 


fib id earl and fir Henry Morgan had at feveral times fliut tbeir doors thr^y 
might have catchcd mort ot the chief pirates and privateers in tb<-hr 
houfes. And further at this time tlie deponent faith not, the iubftancjp 
jmd the very words of the aforegoing particulars I fwear to be the truth. 

» •• 

JSworn before rne lih January ^ 1(J80,- • Samuel .Lonq» 

rjriL IP XiOYD^ :^ J true copy. J 

Tlie depofltion of John Bathurff, aged tlnrty-eight years at thereabout^ 
depofetli as follows: That the faid earl of Carlifle hath been an eneouragcr 
-et privateers, both by his words and actions ; firft by difcourfe with me aa 
alfo others, affi'^ming. and menacing that the goods brought in by priva- 
rteere was tor the good and profit of the ifland, though I myfelf with fe^ 
vera! others told him feveral times it would prove the ruin of the ifland^ 
by the deftruc^ion of the trade, the poor planters, the goods produced 
jpcr labour being brought to fo low a price that it w^onld ruin them, tlieir 
wives, and children, and confequently his majefty's illand, as alfo his cuf- 
tom thereby accruing* This part of the'affidavit 1 thought not tit tomakjC 
life oC it proves there was always a trade in Jamaica for the merchants ta 
tuy and fell Spanifti indigo, being brought in lawful veflek. That, at tlie 
time of the fittmg of the laft aflembly, there came to your majeily*s de-» 
-'ponent^ being a member thereof^ feveral* perfons ef Withy wood who 
were planters of iudigo, making great and grievous complaint that they 
had been at Port-Royal, the place of the dlfpofal of their goods, and 
eouldfind no buyers except at a very low rate; and the merchants told 
l^cm that the rcafons ther of were that the pirates had brought in a very 
great quantity, and that they bought it at very low prices, and would not 
give them more, by reafon they wereobhged to fend home their employers 
returns to their greatell advantage; and faid alfo that they would wifh* 
tluTC was no goods brought in by privateers, knowing tliat at laft it would 
prove the ruin of the poor planters, and that if they ihould not fend returns- 
home, though bought of privateers, at low rates, others would buy them, 
/and they in confequencc (hould lofe their employment, favour, and buiinefs. 
Thcfe tw:> laft letters refer not to any part of the charge. Upon their 
complaint, your deponent did move the alfembly with others that a peti- 
tii J might be drawn up to the earl of Carlilie fer fupprefting privateers, 
-Mid iecuiity of the peace to be taken for tliofe that vver^ in. tlie illand re* 


( J58 ) 

^vrfed pnvatcewi, ttiat tlie .peace of your allies rniglit he inviolably Ic-epf^ 
your lubjeels pref^Tvcd, and your ifland rcftored to its. former flourilhiiig 
cliatc; anditmig'h't not be ellccmcd as a place protcrtin^^ pirates, aiid by 
coiifequence elteemed worfe than Algiers, we profeffing Chriftianity, and 
at fame lime^ robbing thofe tbat are at peace and amity witb us^ 

*\oitr deponent hatb further heard captain Primler and other privateer^s 
fay, that privateering now was. better than ever, thejc b^ing no tenths, 
vuor fiUeenths, nor charge of comir^ilTion ; affirming, though my lord Car- 
liile had one third part of the vahic of tbe indigo, they were well con- 
tented f and he was a perfon of .that worth, anxi fo kind to them, that they 
<lid not care if they gave him half; at the fame time curfing rny loixj 
Vaughan, for no other jeafons than that he did what in him lay to fuj^>- 
^rcfs privateering, 

• - Your deponent,' being another time in company with the earl of Caiw 
-lifle, fir Henry Morgan, fir Francis Watfon, and colonel Byndlofs, did ac- 
-quaint them that he was forry no care v^-as taken to fupprefs privateerings 
and that thefe things at home will be laid to the charge of the ifland, 
winch is only to the advantage of fome particular perfons, but detcfted 
Iby all jull and honeft men. My lord then anfwercd Jjicr^ had been no com- 
piamt made; to which I replied, what was the petition of theaifcmbly, 
-which I told him was the complaint of the jvhole ifland, they being their 
f eprefentation : and withall told him that .Coxon with .feveral others of 
-the ehic4 of them kept company with thofe that fliould take care* 
drefs fuch enormities and. violations. ; 1 further tolcf hira that colonel 
Cope, one of the council, had lately been^ the northfide, and at his re* 
turn lodged at my houfe, wheris enquiring fomething of him of one cap* 
tain Savvkins, he faid he hsd been in his company where he lodged at cap* 
tain Benjamin Smith's, andabput.fifty of his men were there, which he faid 
might eafily have been, taken ; but I aflcing him why it was not done?' 
he replied, that he thoughtjie was a good honell fellow; I was informed 
he received fome, prefcnts from hiqi ; unto which my. lord replied that 
captain Smith was oqe of the afleuibly that entertained them ; to which 
J anlwered that I knew none that gave them countenijnce but fuch as had 
-receitved his commilfion, and I thought it was the duty of every magi* 
.ftrate and governor not only to do jullice when complaint was made, but 
^alio to make infpec^ion into any public injuries done to the violation of 
tllie peace betwegn the king and hi$ alliegy c^nd to take all ways and means 

'( ^5® ) 


t6 fupprefs (lie Aime ; but he perfiftccl In the difcourfe that the complaint- 
were nothhii; to him oF general and not particulars, and that if the Spa- 
niards came and made complaints agairift any peribn, and could prove 
they had robbed and defpoiled them of their goods, they Ihould be pro- 
ceeded againll according to law; to which I replied, I thought that coulft 
jnot be done, and that by this means they could not be fupprelled. 

Further, thi- deponent Auth, that, at tlie diflblution of the aflembly, 
the lord Carlifle iilked thq faid deponent, — Will you obey the king and his. 
'governor, according to the new form and model of government which has 
now been fent over? To which I anfwered I would obey the king and hfs 
lawful commands. To the which he replied, then you intend to be judge 
thereof, and* ordered my name t6 be placed at the left hand ; but I de-^ 
fired I miglit be the explainer of my own words, which were to this effect, - 
that I fiippofed the law was the medium between the king and the peo- 
ple, otherwilc no man could bcfafe, - And further your deponent I'aitlj^ 

.The mark of {^ John Bathurst* 

A '^ true CQpy^ 

Su)orn to the hmth of the co7ite?its hereof before rne^ 
. the lih January^ \6%0-\. 

Philip Loyd. 

Philip Loyd. 

Londony Januajy 6thj 1680-1. 

J(1SEPH* KNAPMAN, commander of the (hip Loyal Merchant, 
ufing the trade of Jamaica, faith that he was In Jamaica in the year 

pound and twelve fhilling^ 
money, belides the powd(T;. and this year, 1680, the faid Knapman be* 
ii?g in lamaica with the fan officers, they demanded one' pound ei^h* 
lirn (hillings and lixpence; the faid Knapman, obf(»rving the fees to rife ' 
eMMv \ear. made enquiry whether their fees had been raifed by any law (^f 
t* t < ountrv or not, and. being informed that they were not, the faid 
jKnapmau ifcrupled to pay the tees* the nay^al cTaicer demanded ; bnt thb 

. gfficcr^Z. 

;( ISO ^ 

loflicer, 4iamed captain 'Hoflcins, or fome fuch Tiame,'1:dld the fai'd Knap*- 
,man he fcorned to demand more than his due, for which he had my lord 
of Carhfle's order, and pulled a paper rOut of his pocket, which be told 
.tne was my lord's order, by which he ^demanded the money atiight ; pp 
:^ich the /aid J^napman fubmitted and paid, the money. 

A .true copy^ 



THE depofition of Samuel Nath, aged thirty years, late of Jamaica, 
^merchant, viz. I this deponent aver, that demanding of ThomJis Martin, 
efq. collector of his majefty's cuftoms, why he made fuch a buftle and 
,d(tir to feize the Spanifli indigo landed in the leeward part of the ifland? 
Ihe faid Martin replied and (aid, oh! it not for importation, for they 
liad the governor's leave, but for their endeavouring to fave the fixpence 
^^ pound cuftom, which is very confiderablc to the governor. About 
ten, days ejfter, this deponent being earnrli to weigh off fume goods 
which lay upon the wharf where the faid Thomas Martin was receiving 
Sundry parcels of indigo on fhore-, the faid Thomas Martin told thi^ de- 
ponent that he muft (lay, foV that the governor ought and fhould be lerved 
i^rfl, part of tlic indigo being his, 

Alfo this 'deponent faith, that at clearing the fhip Judith, -Robert 
Kingfland, mailer, he tendered Thomas Hodgkins, naval officer, the 
acx^ullomed fees, whichhe.refufed to accept, and repUcd he had anella^ 
'Jblifhment of fees under the , governor's band; made. me pay, to my beft 
jemembrance, about a third part more than fome. years before I had ever 
inown paid. Alfo this deponent, mectii^gone Coxon, an old noted pri- 
-Jrateer, afked him the meaning of his fudden brifknefsj he anfwered he 
tJiad great reafon to be fo, for the beft man in the ifland was now become 
.4iis friend, and that he doubted not in a little time to go for rriore logwood^ 
,A national title for privateering, for jt may be fuppofed he meant more 

. This Is ^TH>t referred to any part of the cliarge* The governor fo ma^ 
^aged his arbitrary power, that aftpr this deponent had landed fom^ 
jiegroes at the northfide ot the ifland, out of an honeft Englifli mer- 
>rhant ftiip, vulgarly c^ed an interloper, and conveying them to thp 
iouthfide nev Spaniilr^lgwiH tte dejpo^pnt wae purfued io » 010ft barba* 


!f6us and lioftile manner !l>y fevcralof the governor'-sou'n troopers, arme^ 
to feize the (aid negroes:; uiwch Illegal proceedings this deponent boing 
informed of, and to ,prevoirt the ill confcquences that might Jiappen, con- 
trived the prefervation of himfelf and negroes from fuch land forces; af- 
ter which the governor not attaining his ends, this deponent was by his 
inllruments threatened to have his commiiTion taken from him: And 
Avhen this deponent by his attorney brought his action at common law a- 
gainft fir Henry Morgan for a jull debt, and of four years ftaixling, he 
received abundance of hard words from the governor, and was -oi'deied to 
<U'ithdraw his a<5tioru 

Samuel Nash^ 

^ tnie ci)py^ . Ph il rp Lo y d* 

£iQorn ifcfore mc^ io the truth of the contents 

harefj V2th January^ 16S0. Philip Ldyd. 

THE clepofition of Peter Beckford, aged thirty- fcven years or tlicrea- 
l)Gut, that the faid deponent was in the ifland of Jamaica when the cart 
^f G»rlifle arrived th ere, and remained in the faid ifland until the faid 
jfearl def)arted thence; and that the faid earl, in the time of his govern- 
tnent, called two afiemblies, and fliewed them a body of laws fent from 
his facred anajelly under the broad feal of England, which they rejected, 
but yet raifed an a<5t of revenue, for the fupport of government, which 
the faid earl pafled ; and, after the diflblution of one of the aflembliCwS 
the faid earl did firft afk the fpeaker if he would obey the king and his 
government as it was now eftabliihed by his majefty's commiflion to the 
earl of Carlifle ; ,to which the fpeaker anfw.cred he would always obey the 
king; the form of government he did not underftand, oi^ to that ef- 
feft, T he fame quellion, or to that purpofe, he alked feveral others, and 
fome he only alked, if they would obey the king, to which they made 
feveral anfwers ; but all that were prefent faid they would obey the king; 
the iaid earl further added, to the beft of this deponent's remembrance, 
that fuch as would not obey hismajefty under (his form of gdvcrnment 
were not fit to bear an office either military or civil. 

This deponent, further faith, he. did fee a patent under the broad fcal 
of t.ngh;nd, granted to the pirifti of Port- Royal by fir Thomas Lynch, 
f&i aauarkd tlierc; and, to the beft of this deponent's memory, to put a 

clerk, which the (aid pariih made fome ad^anbeje of; which the faid 
*earl granted away, as this deponent was lat'ormed, to the counters. la 
the time of the abovefaid aflrmbiy fitting, this deponent was of the com* 
mittee that were ordered to perufe the accmmts of Thomas Martin, efq. 
• receiver-general, to fee what money was then in the treafury, where w:i$ 
found entered in the receiver*s books fo much indigo and cocoa as the cuf- 
torn amounted to above two thoufand pqunds, to the; be(l of trus depo* 
nent's memory. Which the faid committee had orders from the airenihly 
to take no notice of, becaufe they faid it was pirates goods. He this de* 
ponent was in the aflembly when the faid earl came with fome of hit 
council into their houfe, and took his chair, fetting the fpeaker by him, 
and would have had them debate thinga in his prefence. 

He thk deponent knew of one hundred pounds paid bv one T^hii 
r Hewit for a pardon for having two wives, fifty paid to one Ellis a fervimt 
to the earl, and fifty to major Molefworth, a churchwarden of Uie piri hi 
of Port-Royal, which fum this deponent was told the earl had fubfcribod 
towards the building of the church at Port-Royal. The faid earl a<k:^d 
this deponent if he thought bringing in the indigo would not be an ad* 
vantage to the ifland, or to that efte6l : 1 his deponent anfwcrcd that h« 
thought the proper queftion was, whether his majelly would be pleafed at 
it or not (the Spaniards being our friends). The earl faid the Spaniard 
had committed many depredations u|X)n us. 


He this deponent, after the provoft*marfhal had taken into his cuftody 
one lieutenant-colonel Samud Long^ per a warrant under the hand of tlie 
governor, went to the faid earl and d( fired in behalf of the faid Long a 
habeas corpus^ as he the faid earl was chancellor, which he refufed ; then 
this deponent went to the chief-julUce and made the fanae demand, who 
likewife refufed, faying the laid Long was committed for treafon. 

He this deponent, in the time of the lord Vaughan's government, went 
by the command of the faid lord aboard of one captain Rymer, and de- 
clared him a pirate. He this deponent was told by divers in Jamaica that 
om Pochin was condemned tor murder and reprieved, ancl had im liberty 
abroad. And further this deponent faith not. 



Sworn to tlic truth of the contents before me^ Philif Loyd. 


( 163 ) 

» • 

Jamaica^ January Tthj 1680. 

CAPTAIN Nicholas Daniel, aged forty-fix years or thereabout, 
declared upon oath, that, being in company with Mr. Thomas Martin and 
captain Bartholomew Sharpe, about the middle of ()<5lober laft, 1679^ 
tlie faid Sharp being entering a parcel of Spanifli indigo which he had 
taken from the Spanifh (hore, told Mr. Martin that they had left behind 
them where they took that, feveral hundred chefts more, which they could 
not take in: Mr. Martin replied, that if they brought it all, or if they 
could go again apd fetch the remainder, they fliould come to no more 
damage than they did now ; fo that they paid the cuftom of it, or to that 
eflfeiSt ; and further faith not. 

« ■ 

Nicholas Daniel. 

Sworn at Port- Boy al^ Jamaica^ by Captain Nicholas 
Danidy this ISth day of JunCj 1680, coram, 

A true copy J William Beeston. 

ABOUT five months fince, being with captain Rives and Mr. Martin 
iat Yallow's Bay, in difcourfe, /captain Rives aflced Mr. Martin to tell him 
on what.defign or where the privateers were gone; Mr. Martin told him 
he could not tell, but hq fuppofed like fools to be knocked on the head; 
but if they would have taken his counfcl they, fliould have gone to have 
fetched the reft of the indigo, which they might have done eafily and 
made a quick return, and this was the fubftance, but I cannot tell exa6tly 
the words of liis d/fcourfe. 

John Lynb. 

♦ * 

'Xwentitth May^ IffSO, John Lyne appeared before me^ and 
voluntarily dtpofed to the truth of the above writing. 

^ true copyj Francis Hansoit. 

Xt ' iftf> 


( 164^ ) 

May Gth^ iSS'Q. 

IN* the floop Primrofc, Jolin Griffin, mailer, from Munnatee Bay, one 
liundrcd and ninety bags of cocoa, containing about twenty-thrtic thot\- 
fand pounds of cocoa, which parcel of cocoa captain Wilfon naval otficcr 
would not fuftcr the mafter to deliver until he had acquainted the t>ovcP* 
•nor, and gave an order to the marflial to fee that none was delivered until 
he came fromthc governor; but at the fatnfe time Mr. Martin, tlic king'^ 
receiver, ivas upon the wharf with a groat crowd to receive the cocoa, and 
commanded the mafter to deliver the cocoa, and told him he would favc 
himharmlcfs. But, when the faid Wilfon had acquainted the govcinof 
- with it, the governor wa^ an^ry with him, and told him thatfir Henry Miir- 
gan and Mr. Martin had acquainted him with the importation of the co- 
coa, and that he had given leave for it ; and foon after this faid WUfon 
\va3 turned out, 1^79, captain Edmund Cook and his comp uiy did pur* 
fuc a fmall Spanifli barque and killed fomc of their men about the iljand 
of Cuba; the faid barque was laden with cocoa and brought here and en- 
tered with Mr. Martin, but the faid Cook, as lie declared, was ordered not 
to bring the barque into the harbour, but to fend out (loops for the cocoa, an'd 
toburn the barque, which was done, there being eighteen thoufami pounds 
of cocoa. Cooke had no commiffion. In the aforementioned floop Prim- 
rofe, at another time, was brought to the ifland two thoufiind pounds of 
cocoa. Thomas Martin demanded of all that entered indigo twenty fliiU 
lings per cheft, to allow their entering, and bought a great quantity ot the 
indigo for himfelf and others. Such proceedings as above miglit be 

A true cop^f .Philip Loyd, 





THAT, on the firft of December, 1678, his exQpllency, thinking 
fit to diflblve the aflembly then fitting, fent 'for them, and, having 
pall the revenue bill, told them he did diliolve them and they were dif- 
folved : On which they all oftered to go away, but he called them all 
back, and told them that he had fomething to fay ; which was, that many 
>thiu^^ had been faid and done iu tU^t ailbaibly, which did not fee m to 
'^ / " " tender 

( 1^5 ■) 

pm]orthemTiic]V(lu.riful rubjccts that h^ might put'liis mnjc^^ry's ivtift ifli-' 
to their Jvand.s and therefore dcfired we would give/oiiie furli^er ma* 
rifelhition of our obedience, and applied himfclf to me; anil, fir, I be- 
gin Willi y<^u tiril: : will you obey the king and his governor -to the ne\v 
form of go\»t?riHiient wliich has been novvfent over ? To which I replied^ 
mv lord this is a tlving =fo new and fo fudden to me, that I defirc fomc time 
to confiderof it before I give my.anfwer. But Inst excellency faid I. mult 
do it prefently, and ib -mull we all. 'Iheu I faid, my lord, I have ev(?r 
been and will ever continue a faithful fubjeft and fervant to his majelty^ 
1 have taken the oaths of allegiance and fupremacy often times, and I 
know no other way that the law appoints his majelly's fubjerls to make 
a farther manifellation of their duty and obedience to their kinj;, but by 
this ; if there be any law requires more I will obey -it, and in* the mean 
^time will domyutmoil to obferve my duty .according to thofe others; 
raore,jrtiy lord, I cannot fay. On this liis ^excellency replied upon mc\ 
then you will not obey the king? Yes, my lord, faid I, as long as I liv^Ci 
But^ faid^HS lordfliip, you will not obey him according to his new modeU 
I anfvvcred, my lord, I do not know what it is, but,:asfar as I know it, 
I do not like it; therefore cannot vohmtarily (finec hisinajelly has not 
pofitively commanded it") give my confent to it. His loF^fhip replied, [ 
did know it; for I had feen his commillioa. Yes I had4J:>ut I had not 
i'een his inflru6lion<, which were appendixes to nis majcily's.commiffion, 
and therefore I did not know it, and could give no other anfwer^ fo I was 
Ordered to be put down on the left hand of the paper, as one n^t-fit to be 
trufted to ferve his majcfty* 'lheu;hi$ lordlhip proceeded to aflc the red, 
fomc this quclbon, and others on! Vj ti^iU you obey the king? according as 
he was pleafed to favour fome more tlum others. In this aflembly and the 
other that followed, his lordlhip was pleafed very often, on feveral occa- 
fions^ to call them fools, ailbs, beggars, cowarde, and many other appella- 
tions; which management they took fo ill from a wife:lord, confidering 
the capacity they were then in, doing their king and ^country fervice, 
that it fct their hearts mucii againlt him, and did no goc^ to the public 

In the government of fir Thomas Lynch, the pariili of Port-Royal ob- 
tained from him, towards the defraying the great charge that pari(h is at, 
m patent in the name of churchwardens to the ufc ot the parilh for the 
clerk of the market-place, which is worth about fifty pounds per a?uu/mi 
lud a growing: profit. This his excellency took away by his own will fr«>n 

• tliC 

( rtffi ) 

tlx* pari/li, tliou2:li the patent was recorded, and gave the place, a?? wai 
iaid, to the countefs; though in that I cannot be pofitive; but, whofo- 
cver hiul It, it was taken from the parifh ; by which they not only loll fo 
much per aiuuun^ but it gives fo great occafion for people to fuf pe(5t that, 
if a governor can take away by his own will one patent, if he pleafe may 
take away another, and therelore no man's freehold in the whole ifland - 

That in July or Auguft, 1679, one Jacobs, a Dutchman, brought into 
fome part of this ifland^ where he privately lay, a. parcel of cocoa and 
fbme other things, taken as they were faid from the Spaniards; which' 
were brought into the harbour of Port- Royal in the illand-boats, entered 
in the cultom-houfe, and were publicly landed and ftored by the priva- 
teers. Thefe goods attheir importation were feized on by captain Wil- 
fon the naval officer, but were, foon difcharged, and he in a f^ort time 
turned out pf his place. 

That, in the month of October, 1679, one Cooke, having with his 
company near the illand of Cuba feized a Spanifh barqt^e, in which at* 
tempt ibme of the Spaniards, as was credibly reported, were killed; which 
barque and goods he brought to a place called Yallah*s, of Jamaica, and 
thence came in old cloaths himfelf to the governor, with whom having 
fpoken, the faid Cooke and his men carried the faid barque mto Old-Har- 
bour ; from whence the goods, which were cocoa, fkins, Xc. were brought 
in the ifland-boats to Port- Royal, and landed and ftored in the day-time, 
as this informer knows; and the faid barque, as was credibly repprted^ 
burnt by advice in Old-Harbour, when the goods were taken out. 

That, in November, 1>679, Coxon, Sharpe, Seedall, and other of the 
privateers, brought four or five hundred chefts of indigo, which they 
robbed from the Spaniards out of a ftore-houfe in the gulph of Amatique, 
.as was often told by themfelves, many or moft of thefe were brought 
by tlie ifland-boats info. Port-Royal, there paid cuftom, and were freely 
enjoyed by the privateers. 

1 hat, in February or March afterwards, the privateers being many of 

them in Port- Royal and *>t. J ago, though their (hips wer^ in other 

places, yet it was publicly faid, that they were going to Portb-Bello^ 

•V hieh a( cordingly they did, without any notice taken of them or bin- 

•cLratice ufcd. 



( 167 ) 

Thnt, fince, thryhave, by the helpof the Indian*?, goff pn in*othe fou^h 
feas ; where, by report^ they have killed many SpamarcLs aad gouea rauch 

That it was commonly faid'bv the privatoers in Jamaica, that priva- 
tet*ring was now much hetter and cheaper than when thoy had commif* 
funs ; for now it was only to land their goods and pay the cuitom, and 
the roll was free, whereas before thcTe were cliar^es for cominiilion, tenths^ 
nnd lifteenthh, and the cx)ndemnation in the admiralty. 

That this informer was prefent in the eail of Cu liOr^fi houfe, whon th^re 
came betore him three men t) complain that their captain, Bartliolo-nevv 
feharpc, one at the privateer's captains^ denied th'in the ir jhares'of the 
indigo. The captain rfeplied they left the fhip and their <h ires near »a* 
naica, fearing they fhould be apprehended for pirUes; hut, hndin^; no 
fuch thing, they came to claim again what, he thovjght thev ought not Ui 
do, having rclinquirtied it already. 1 his difference^ n>y lor i heard, anvi 
eiid^avonred to coaipofe betwixt them, but whether he did it fully or not 
^ I cannot fay. 

That, at two feveral times, difcourfing with hi* excellt^ncy about the 
privateers what an injury and difrtputation it was to the couniiy, anl 
ti <it it would have been more for his majelly's fervice and his lord h id's 
own profit, if he had feized all the privateers good> ; by which he lO .d 
have anfwered it to his majdty, and made feme reparation to the i:.,:.t 
owners, if ever they came to claim it, and have kept the i(*ll to nnnlf Jf : 
his. lordfhip anfwered, in fome anger, that he never propofed any gooil ivi 
the country but we were againit it, and that thefe privateers goods Ihould 
be fent to Englajud^ and llic value returned in goods i'or the uit^ of the 
iiland, afa. ' 

William Beeston. 
4iwom to the truth of the contents hereof, btfort me, the Hh January, 1680* 

A true copy. 

Philip Loyd* 


J.. ,.4 

* ' 4- 

N . 

< ^(9S ^ 






uC/farles; the Second^ 5y ihe grace cf Go(U (f Eiighind^ Scottand^ France^ ani\ 
Ireland^ k'nig^ defender of the faith^ &c. To all to whom tkeje prtfcnts 
/hall come greeting: 

KNOW yc, tliat \vc, out of our royal care of Jthe good government 
an.d direction of our afl airs in ihc remoter parts of the world, and 
particularly taking Into our princely confideratioo bow tieceffiiry it is for 
us to fettle our revenue^ arifing within and from our feveral foreign domi- 
nions, iflands, colonies, and plantations, in America ; and how much it 
would tend to the advantAge of our fernce, and benefit of our fubjeols^' 
to make fo me better pro vifion for thexlue payment to us, our heirs and 
fuccellbrs, of our faid revenues ; and for the du.e and orderly taking, exa-. 
mining, andftating,the accounts of ail and every the collecRioi's, receives, au» 
ditors,treafurers,fub-colle6lors, and other inferior officers, minifter6,and per* 
ions,towhdm'it(l;iall or may appertain or belong, to aiFt or intermeddle in or* 
willitliecollecVmg,levying^iGrreceiWiag, of any otthe funis of money growing- 
OF arifing, and due arfd payable, unto us, in and trom any of our foreign, 
jdominions in America, wImcIj be beft etlecled and brought to pafs "by"^ 
^Meeting an office for die infped^ion, examination, and audit, of all and 
iing'dar accounts of all monies arifing and growing duc'and payable unto 
U-, and uecruing within our faicj (Jominiqus and coLjuies.; have, for the, 
cauf(*s and reafons aforefaid, asaliT* for divers other gfcat and 'weight)^ 
caufes and confideration.^ us hereunto cfpecially moving, cieatcd, erected, 
and efiabhlhed, and by thefe prcfents, tor us our heirs and fuccelibrs, do 
create, ere6t, and eftabhfh, an office of genenil infpec^ion, examination, 
and audit, ot all and fingnhir accounts, of all and every fum and funis of 
n>uncy arilii^ and grownig due and payable to Ub, and accruins;, .or 




which fliaH arlfe, grow, and become due, and payaLble,to xw, and accrue rn-w 
from any of our foreign dominions, colonies, and plantations, in American 
and the chief officer thereof ihall be ftiled and called the furtey^r midi- 
tor-general of all our revennes arifiyigin. America : And know ye farther^ 
** that we, xepofuig efpeciai truft and confidence in the faithfdhiefs, abili- 
ties, and circumfpeftion, of our trufty and well beloved fubje<?i: William 
Blathwaite, efq. and for divers other good caufes and <x)niiderations ais 
thereunto efpecially moving, -^f our efpeciai grace, certain knowledge, 
and mere motion, have given and grarbtcd, and by thefe prefents do giv# 
and grant, unto him the faid William Blathwaite, the faid office of fur- 
ireyor and auditor-general of all our revenues ariiingin America ; and we 
-do alfo give to him, the faid William Blathwaite, fuli power and autho- 
rity to infpe6t, examine, ftatc, and audit, and with the allowance, autho- 
rity, and confent, of the lord high trcafurer, commiffioners of our trea- 
fury, and chancellor of the exchequer for the time being, to determine 
all and lingular accounts of all fuch rents, revenues, prizes,iinck, efcheats, 
forfeitures, duties, and profits, whatfoever, as are by reafon or 'caufe of 
any matter or thing happened or fallen iince the beginning of the firft * 
war that was between us and the ilates-general of the united Netlier- 
lands, iince our reftoration, and not before ; and which ihall at any time 
hereafter happen, fall, become, or be due, payaWe, or accruing, unto usp 
our heirs and fucceflbrs, tluring tlie continuance of this grant, in or from 
all or any of our faid foreign dominions, iflands, colonies, and plantations, 
in America ; as alfo by all lawful ways and means to caufe to be recovered 
and paid to the proper officers, to our ufe, all fuch rents, revenues, fines, 
efcheats, fiDrfeitures, duties, and profits, as are now and Ihall be hereafter 
Jue or owing to us, our heirs and fucccflbrs, within or from our faid foreign 
dominions in America ; and to do and perform all and every fuch other 
inatter, caufe, or thing, in rdation to the faid accounts and revetmes, 
^hich to the office or place of our furveyor-gcneral, or any our auditor 
cf our exchequer in England, doth, or may bcloii;^ or appertain, as to cur 
accounts and revenues in England ; and him the faid William Blathwaite, 
Purveyor and auditor-general of all the rents, duties, revenues, prizes^ 
^nes, forfeitures, efclicats, and profits, aforefsdd, we do, for lis, our heirs 
and fucceflbrs, make, ordain, and conflitute, to have, hold, enjoy, and ex- 
crcife, the faid office of furveyor and auditor-general unto him the faid 
WilHam Blathwaite, by himfelf or his fufficient deputy or deputies, for 
Mftd 4iwiDg Uie timf:^ And io long as he fhall well behave himfelf in the 

Y C9id 


( no 7 


fa'd ofTicf^l And, for t!>e better encouragement of liinfl the faid Willlant, 
Elatlnvaite^ diligently and faithfully to exercile the Uiid office and em- 
ployment of furveyor and auditt)r-general, as aforefaid, vvc have given 
as! i2:r:itited, and by thefe prcfents do give and grant, for us, our heirs and 
fucccflbrs, unto the faid William Blathwaite, the annuity or yearly fa- 
1 jy of tivc hundred pou-nds fterling ; to have, hold,, r^^ccive, and cnjoy^ 
tie faid annuity or yearly falary ot five hundred poimds flerling^ 
to him the faid William Blathwaite, during his good behaviour in the laid 
ofTicc, out of the faid rents, revenues, prizes, fines^ forfeitures,, efcheats, 
dutiesy and profits, arifing or growing due or payable as aforefaid, in and 
from our faid dominions, colonies, and plantations, in America, by the 
hands of our treafurers, reocivers, coUeftois, and other officers or perfons, 
for the time being, out of fuehof our treafure'as (hall be remaining ia 
their hands, aft^r and according to the proportions following : that is to 
fay; out of all or any of the rents and other the duties and profits afore* 
faid, arifing in or from our dominion and colony of Virginia, tlie fum of • 
one hundred pounds ; out of our iiland of Barbadoes, the fum of one hun- 
^ dred and fifty pounds; out of our iflands, commonly called the leeward 
.Carribec Iflands, the fum of one hundred pounds; and out of our [(land 
of Jamaica the fum of one hundred and fifty pounds ; to be allowed to 
them on their rcfpe6live accounts, and to be received by the faid William 
Blathwaite, as aforefaid, quarterly, at the four moft ufual fealtdays in the 
year, by even and equal portions ; and the faid payments to beg^n from 
the feafl of the annunciation of the blefied Virgin IVlary laft pafl: and wc 
do hereby authorife, will, and dire6^, all officers and perfons whom it ma)f 
concern to make due payment and allowance of the faid annuity or la* 
lary of five hundred pounds fterling, in manner as aforefaid, according t(^ 
the purport, true intent, and meaning, of thefe prefents ; for which the 
acquittance ©f the faid William Blathwaite, his executors or adminiflra« 
tors, fhall be unto fuch officers and perfons a fufficient difchargg. And^ 
to the end the faid office of our furveyor and auditor-general may be 
duly and rightly executed^ we do hereby will and command the faid Wil-* 
liam Blathwaite and his deputies to be bbedient to and to obferire fuch or* 
ders, rules, and diredtions, for and concerning the /ame, and relating 
thereunto, as the high treafurer of England, or the commiiFioners of the 
treafury, and the chancellor of the exchequer for the time being, Ihall 
from time to time direft and appoint ; which directions arid orders fhall 

uiitu him the faid Williaai Blathwaite at aU Umes a|;9ad audiutfici^^at 

( 171 ) 

» / 

-warrant and dlfcliarge; and that he do deliver unto them rerpec^lvcly^ 
-from time to time, a fair and juft ftate of all fuch accounts as he fliall re- 
ceive from the refpeftive officer?* fettled or eltabliflied, or to be fettled or 
eftablifhed, within our faid plantations, colonies, and dominions, in Ame- 
rica, as aforefaid : And that the faid William Blathwaite do alfo, from time 
to time, offer and prefent to our high treafurer and commilfioners of the 
treafury for the time being, fuch propofals and obfervations<:oncerning our 
faid duties and revenues as may any way tend lo our fervicc. And, for 
the more effecflual execution and performance of the premifes, we do 
hereby further impower and authorife the faid William Blatlnvaite, from 
time to time, to conftitute and appoint, by any writing under his hand 
and feal, fuch inferior officers for the better expediting and carrying on our 
fervice, in relation to the faid office, as by nomination, warrant, and di- 
rection, from our high treafurer of England, or commiffioners of our. trea- 
fury, for the timeheing, the faid William Blathwaite fliall be dketted, 
and them from time to time to fufpend, remove, or difplacc, as to htm 
the faid William Blathwaite, with the diredtion of the lord treafurer, or 
commiffioners of the treafury for the time being, -ftiall be thought necef- 
fery.and expedient. And whereas there is an auditor-general eliablifhed 
hy our authority within our colony of Virginia, we do hereby efpecially^ 
provide and require^ that the auditor-general of Virginia, for the time 
being, do, from tinae to time^ tranfmit and deliver unto the faid VViHiam 
Ulathwaite, his deputy or xleputies, from time totmie, and at all times 
'hereafter, the full and particular ftate of all accounts of monies arifmg or 
payable within our faid colony, as he the faid auditor of Virginia (hall and 
ought to receive the fame from the refpe6tive coIle6tors, receivers, and 
other officers, lawfully appointed to colled:, receive, and manage, our faid 
jevenue ; ^d after the determination of tiie prefent grant or grants of the 
faid office of auditor-general of Virginia, the faid office is to be annexed, 
and we do hereby annex the fame, to the office of furveyor and auditor- 
general hereby ere<?led ; and the faid William Blathwaite, and his fuc- 
ceflbrs rn the faid office hereby erected, ihall do and perform by them- 
i€ ives or deputies all the powers and authorities which are or ought to be 
executed at this prefent by the faid auditor- general of Virginia : And fur- 
ther, it is our exprefs will and pleafure, that, hy the name and| title of jrenb^ 
revenues, prizes, fines, efcheats, forfeitures, duties, and protils, ariling due 
^nd payable unto us, within our faid dominions, be underftood and 
<Qmprucdj^ to all intents and purpofes, am'ongll other things, all and all 

\ £ xnannec 



^manner of arrears oTmoriies, rents, revenues, prizes, ^n3 pr4ze-goo(?% 
=tines, forfWtu res, efcli eats, duties and profits, which have rifen within 
our faid dominion*} of America, and vyhich are due, payable, and 
accountable, unto us, our heirs and fucceflbrs, by any perfop or pe»fons 
whatfoever, by caufeor reafon of any matter or thing happened or done 
fuice the beginning of the firft war which vt^as between us and the Hates- 
general of the United Netherlands, fince our relloration, and nut before j 
and all that fhall hereafter happen, fall, or become, due to us, our heiii 
^nd fucceflbrs, during the continuance of this grant, and alfo all feizures 
and, forfeiture's fince that time lawfully belonging, or which fhall at any 
time hereafter belong, unto us, our heirs and fucceiFors, by virtue of any 
Jaw or flatuteof our kingdom of England, or other law which is or ihall 
be in force- in any of our faid dominions in America refpedj^ively, or by 
reafon of any fpecial licence, grant, or charter, held of us, whether the 
fame be made on land or upon the fea, in any part or parts whatfoever, 
lying or fituate or commonly accounted to be lying or fituate within the . 
limits and bounds of America aforefaid. And we do hereby, for us, our 
iieirs and fucceflbrs, require ai>d command all governors, deputy go- 
vernors, councils, and commanders in chief, and their and every of their 
fubordinate officers and minifters refpe6lively, and all and every collector, 
receiver, treafurer, and all dther officers and perfons whatfoever, of, in^ 
or appertaining to, our faid colonies and dominions in America, from 
time to time, to obferve, fulfil, and obey, our will and pleafure ia 
all things concerning the premifes, and to be aiding, affifting, and 
favouring, to the faid William Blathwaite, his deputy or deputies, in 
the due execution thereof; and we do by thefe prefents, for us, oiur 
Tieirs and facceflors, grant the faid William Blathwaite that thefe our 
letters patent, or the enrollment or exemplification thereof, ihall be 
good and effectual in the law, and fhall as well in all courts of record 
or elfewhere within our realm of England, as alfo within any of our faid 
iflands, plantations, territories, and dominions, whatfoever, tor his the faid 
Willianl Blathwaite having, 4*xerciflng, and enjoying, the faid oflfice and 
annuity or falary according to their purports and true intent of thefe 
prefents, without any further or other warrant in that behalf: And, lallly^ 
jt is provided, intended, and declared, that thefe prefents, or any thing 
herein contained, ihall not extend, or be conflrued to extend, to impowex 
the faid William Blathwaite, or any other perfon or perf6ns,to aft or inter- 
meddle in or with the cuiioms, impoit, or duties, arifm^; here in Englan^^ 

i r73 ) 

Tor or Upon any:goods and rncrchandlzes imported into tlvis'kingdomfi?o^ 

our fa^d iflands, colonies, and plantations, in America, pr with any bond, 

or obligation taken or to.bc taken in purfuauce of any a6l of parliament 

at anv time heretofore made in Ent^land, or at any rates or duties payst^ 

^ble unto us for .goods tranfported from one plantation to another, by 

•urirtup of an aft of parliament made in the five and twentieth year o£ 

;i)ur reign ; any thing herciji contained to the contrary notwithftand** 

Jng. Although exprefs mention ot the true yearly value of the premifes, 

jDr of any ot them, or of any other gifts or grants by us, .or by any of 

fOur progenitors or predeceiibrs, heretofore made to the i'ame Williani 

JJiithwaite, in thefe prefents, is not made, or any ftatute, ordinance, pro* 

^'ifion, proclamation, or reltitution, heretofore had, made, ena6led, or*- 

«dained, or pro*^ided; or any other matter, caufe, or thing, whatfoever to the 

.contrary m any wife, notwithftanding. In witneis whereof, we have caufeil 

thcfe our letters to be made patent. Witneis ouifelf at Weftnxinfter, ihj^ 

snineteeBili day of Ma^, in thie thirty-fecoixd year of our reign. 

JBy writ of prwy Jcaly 



( n* ) 

A P I A L O G U E 







WELLj hoAv do you Mke this putting it oflf /ox a day or two 

Cofi. — Not afe all, for we have done nothing thefe fix months but put 
^flf, adjourn, and the Gpd knows what! Wheji do you think we fhall make 
an end at this rate ? 

Pro.^^Thls is the way to make an end ; for, if this revenue-bill be not 
well adjulled, all we have done already fignifies nothing; and about fix 
months lience we may expe<5t to begin again, and then I hope all that 
are fo fond of the frequent n>eetings of alfemblies will have their bellies 
full ; for my part,' I am lull of it alieady. 

Con. — What do you mean by well adjufting it? 

Pro. — I mean agreeing upon it in fuch terms and conditions ^ 
may not obftru6t it** pafTmg with the governor, and yet be fafe and pro- 
l^\)\9 (j>^ the country; fo as the forts now ready to fell may be repaired 
and kept in good condition, and «no mifapplication of the money to any 
other ufe whatfoever than for the fupport of the govcniraent and contin* 
gK nt chargers then*of ; and further to fecure unto us a wholefome body of 
laws, without which neithej property nor liberty can be fafe. 


Con. — And do you think that all this may be done^ or that the gl^ 
yeiuor will conient to any tlung like iti 

jPpo. — ^^1 not crilv fl)lnk it, but am in a manner- afluicd of it, frotn ''fiKvlji 
as^ are acquainled with his inltructions in tl)jefe points; to unclerlland vvhicfe 
is ihc bulincis of our frequent conft^Ting with fome of the gentlemen 'f 
ti e other houfe, whofe intercft differs *in no point from ours, uhatevcx 
ti.ey may appear in their public cajiacity; ^ind when we come to reafon 
tlHni;s together, wherein the good of the ifland is concerned, you will 
fir.d them to be the fame with us, and that wc all aim at the fame €nd, 
ttough fometimes we mav differ in the nv?ans of obtaining it; in the 
areuins when of I have uh^a\s obferved them fo be as ready to yield 
unto us, when reafon hath fo required, as they can defire we ihould br ta 
'Condcleend unto them, when the Itrength of argument Ihall be on their fidc» 

V . 


Co?i, — Now I perceive you are one of the cabal, and pretended to be 
:a manager th(r(ot, 1 will have nothing more to fay to yotj, only that, 
ji iwilhiiandii g all the^ arguments you can bring, I am and fliall be a^- 
iiiuchagainll the fevcn years bill as you can be for it,andfo farewel to you^^ 

Pro. — Pray be not fo haffy. Hear me firft. I am none of thofe vou 
:inean, nor was 1 with them you call caballers laft night, wiiich by the 
way is but an ill term upon men of fuch a good intention towards thp 
public. For my part, I have been inclined to the lame opinion 1 nov/ 
am of a good while, and am the more confirmed in it the more I coniider 
of it. 1 hey that were there of our houfe laft night are fuch as have all 
along !)een of the conjti^ary opinion, who likemenof pfudenceand good con- 
fcience, before they would proceed upon the material point wliich feeing 
fo much to influence the future good or hurt of Jamaica, were wilHng ta 
hear the reafons of fuch as differed from themfelves in opiniiin, though 
not in interelt, that, by comparing them with their own, they might after* 
wards refolve upoB that which fhould carry with it the faireft probability 
<)f advancing the common good. 

j[>^7e.— And they came away without doubt very good converts? 

pro. — I hear nothing like it, only that they were not fo pofitive as 
they were beiore; which I take to be the reafon that fome moved for 
putting oft the debate a day or two longer, for further conliderations,, 
though this morning was appointed Li it. 

Con. — I know not what tlieir reafons may be, but i bcfieve I fliall hard- 
ily depart from my tirli opinivu. 

< ;i7<f ) 

■ « • « 

P/'^.r^For my -part, 1 am never fo wedded to my t)wn fenle butT can 
Ircar anotlier man's and .embrace it, if he can fhevv mc better reafous for' 
Abe maintainmg his opinion than I give for mine; and, therefore, fmce 
-you feem to be fo pofitive agalnft the fevcn years bill, J defirc you wowl4 
let me kno-w thc4*eatons why you are /a. 

Con. — ^Becaufe, when once we have fettled the Tevenue-bill for foven 
years, the governor will have .no more occalion to call us together again; 
fo we fhall never get any more laws paiVcd, or have any grievances reme- 
idied within that tinie, unlefs we pay or compound for the fame. 

Pr^. — ^It is'to be fuppofed that, before the paflBngthat bill, thewholfc 
t)ody of laws is to be fettled, efpeciaU)^ all thofe between the prerogative 
and the fubje6l; which being done^ there will not be the fame occafioa 
for public airerablies as there hath been. ButinK:afe it (hould be thought 
jieedful to make or dter any temporary law which concerns ourfelyes^ 
the matter of it will always be of fuch indifference to the king, that we 
can have iio reafon to fufpc6l his governor will r( fufe to pafs it, when it 
i^all came before him in a parliamentary way frona both hoafes* I am of 
opinion to offer a bill, or put in a claufe in the revenue-bill, to this effe6l^ 
to have an aflembly called once in two years at leall (dt ait in diemjy ta 
jconfidej of what ihall come before liieju. 

Con. — ^But, / Cuppof e the governor fhould not call the aflembly by the 
time appointed by the ad, what remedy have we then ? 

Pr^. — ^That may be provided for by the a6t, as thus, that if the go- 
vernor do not ifllie out the king's writ by fuch a time for calling a new 
aflembly, then the aflembly that was laft in being (hall be revived, and 
iit and 2i&. for fo many days, with the fame authority as they did whcA 
they were firft convened. 

OiTu— But what afludllBe can we have ttiat any grievance will be re** 
xiedied in that time, in cafe they fhould (It and take cognizance of any 
fuch, when we have neither money nor bribe to procure it? 

Pro. — For that we muft truft to the govemor*6 prudence and juftice^ 
Vhich will oblige hkn to giwe us a convenient remedy; fisr^ fliould he 

rfefrife to cb rt, we fliall have opportunity wHlfl: we fit to addrcfs auS. 
xexDQjniirate, which bo pfudeat governor will ever give occalion for. 

*Co«.— But, flo you think that if fuch a bill or claufe for the meeting 
of aflemblies were loflfered by us, would it be confented unto by the 


'Pro. — Who can tell that? But I never heard he had any inftrudions 
^gainft it, and, from the nature of the bill, can judge of ho reafon he can 
bave to refufe it; however, if we think it a good hill, it is our duty to offer 
it, and, provided we pafs the other for feven years, we need not doubt 
the paffing of that; but for us to part with our money for fp Jong time 
together, and have our forts neglecSed and fall to ruin, as by lad experi- 
ence we have found almoll in all governors* times, will accufe us of too 
much eaiinefs and too little circumfpeftion into the country's concerns. 

• It is to provide againft fuch evils that makes me be fpr the feven years 
bill, becaufe under that condition we .fljiill^have liberty of ^plying a 
thoufand pounds per annum certain to the Torts, befides the ^ody of laws 

' that depends upon it; and we ihall not only have all the money we raife 
by that a6t fecure to the public ufes of the illand but the quit-rents alfo, 
which is as much more, and the king might give it away to whom he 
^leafed; whereas, in any of our two years bills, no fuch conditions could 
be ever granted ; and you know how that from two years to two years we 
have gone on giving without any fcruple, or care how to have it applied, 
and fo fhouW proceed ad infinitum^ not confidering how much better it 
.would be for us to give a feven years bill under fo «iany cautions and con- 
ditions as now we may. Befides, a two years bill hath naturally this evil 
in it, that being fhort lived and yery uncertain m its raifing again, fo that 
©nee in two or three years it frequently happens we have none at all for fix 
-or nine months togetlier, the governor, though he ihould have one 
year's money to fpanc, and of liimfelf be well enough inclined towards 
the forts, yet he dur(l not lay it out for fear ,§f wanting it himfelf the 
next; whereas when the revenue is fettled for a longer lime, and money 
.applied to that ^fe, he will have -no reafon upon like apprehcnfion to go 
.about to divert it, becaufe that, if money 4*all Ihort one year, he may expc^' 
it will come in tlie nejct 

Con> — But you know the forts have always been made the pretence for 
«aifiiig of money^ and. never .any laid out upon them lor divers ^ carbj .^ind 

Z . ' ' ' itiovf 

ih'ow do welcnow that, having paffed this bill for ie^^en years, 'we fti^* 
anot be forced to repair ind keep up the forts ourfelves? 

pjv. — ^Becaufe we intend to provide againft it in the bill itfelf as ftron^* 
1y as words can bind it; by the applying of a thoufand pounds per annum: 
ito that nfe, which if laid out accordingly may fufficientiy fecure us froq^ 
4hat fear* 

Con. — But fuppofe it (hould not be laid out upon the forts, notwith* 
^landing our applying of it, who Ihall fuef the governor, or what remedy 
lihall we have ? 

* Pro--— That we muft provide for as well as we can ; but at'leaft we 

Tiave this remedy, that it will come under the cognizance of oqr tvv« 

years aflembly, if that bill be paffed, and fo be reprefented as an agriev* 

ance; befides which, we (hall be furniihed with a very good excufe tm 

deny the giving of any more money in cafe it iheuld be aflced ©f us; but, 

liowever that happens, thus much we may conclude from it, that the 

feven years bill is in all probability the beft proviiion we can make for 

"the fupport of the forts, and if we have no fevQn years bill there is all the 

probability in the world that they imuft and will fall to ruin, in regard 

there will not be money to maintain them; for you know very well it 

v^muft be a feven years bill or,none at all. 

Con. — But, whilft a feven years bill is fo much infifled upon, that non« 
'^under that time will be accepted, is it not an impofing upon the fireewiH 
•of the iubjedt, who ufes not to be dire6tcd what or how to give ? 

Pro. — ^f cannot imagine any fuch intention as impofiag upon us in It* 
•and they mufl be prejudiced in it that take it fo; for moll certainly it is 
for nothing elfe but that the king and the minillers, having found as well 
as ourfelves fo much trouble in the frequent occafions of new inJtiry£tions 
and orders concerning this government, upon every meeting of affembiy^ 
^hey propofe this method only for their eaft'; and concerning which I 
, think will be as much our own, and thefeveral advantages we ihall receive 
thereby are too confiderable, 1 hope, for us- to fuier any fuch ob|e6iio£Hi 
to take place againft it« 

XV^TL— But why might not a kis time than feven ^ats doi 



IPw. — tiecaufe the gOTernor's inftru(5iions are fucli, -nncVhe cannot vary 

tfyomthem, and which the governing minifters v^'ill not alter^ conchiding 

we have all the reafon in the world to comply therewith for our ovra fakes, 

as well as in duty and gratitude to the king, after his jiiajefty hath, upoa 

our humble addrefs, Jbeen gracioufly plcafed to reftore us to ou-r beloved 

'ibrmx)f maiking laws, wherein We enjoy beyond all difpute all the deli* 

berative powers that tlie h'oufe of commons in England does; and hath 

further condefcended to our applying the veiy quit -rents, which is a» 

much -money given out of his purfe, to the public ufes of the illand ; 

iefpecially when it fhall be ^lonfidered whofe the money is that we do 

give, and to what wfes it is given ; the money is not the country's, but 

foreigners, Jbut the ufes it is given to is the ifland's, and tlie advantages 

thereof our own ; fo that certainly wc ihall be a very happy people, if 

Hhus, by the help of other men's purfes, we oan fdjpport the government, 

"maintain- our forts, and fecure our eftates, without any charge to our- 

fclves; a condition that hardly any other iiation in the world can boaii 

^f ; and all indifferent men in the world would think us either mad or 

bewitched, ihould we lofe fo good anoccafion as this is of eftabliihing our 

happinefs, when it is to bje done itpon fuch eafy tern>s* 

Con. — But it is believed the new governor that is coming may bring 
other orders with him, fo that a bill for a fhorter time may bc^ao* 
cepted, and we have all the fame advantages with it. 

Pro. — Of that I am fully affured to the contrary, by a letter I have feea 
from him of the lateft date of any that came by the laft (hipa, wherein he 
vrite^, that, having laboure<l and done all that was poflible for him to do 
or fay, for the obtaining of fome alteration in that point, he could not 
find that any one o/the lords of the council could be perfuaded to advifc 
the king unto it, but were all of them very pofitive that the bill ought to 
be for feven years at leaft^ 

Can. — But fuppofe, for all this, that we fhould not confent to it for 
feven years^ what then ? 

Pro.—It is impoflible for me to reckon up all the inconvertiencics that 
may ' attend us by it, for who knows what meafures will afterwards be 
taken with us; but of this we are but too well aifured, that feveral of our 
SM& bejoeficiai law« cwnot be pafled heie^ and the fofts mud unavoidably 

Z 2 |B» 

go to rum, ajid poflTibly fo far as to be pad recovery, hy fuch a revenues- 
bill hereafter, and then what can follow, but that they muft be rebuilt at 
tlie country's charge; for after this we muft never expe6t again to have 
the quit- rents by any law to be appropriated to the ufe of the iftand ; be- 
fides which, alt the pains and charge we have been at thefe feven months 
together with our more precious time, in making of fuch laws as'.are 
already pal'fed here, wUl, in all probability, be quite loft, and the. laws 
rcje6led at home, when it fliall be. known to the king that we have refufed 
him the feven years bill ; yet never was there avbetter body of laws framed 
for the good of Jamaica than thefe that now are, and others that may be 
pafled ; fa that we fhould be extremely unhappy in fuch a difappoint* 
ment, which being drawn upon us by our own wilfulnefs, we Ihall rather 
be expofed to contempt and fcorn than pitied by our fellow fubjedts. I 
.have too much rcafon to fear we fhalV never have the fame opportunity 
again, at leaft I am fure it is no prudence to truft to it, whilft it is in our 
power to make fure of this we have, efpecially when it is to be done, as 
I told you before, at the fole charge of foreigners^, withaut one penny of 
jeal money of the ifland.. 

Con. — That, I muft confefs, weighs more with me than any thing elfc 
you have faid^ but I fhall confider both of that and the reft, with foms 
.other of our friends ; and God Almighty direct us all to do for the beftL 

Jprawn by colonel Render Molef worth, 1(J82, upon the pafllng the IS"*- 
.venue bill void of clogs, the firft of iir Thomas Lyncb^ 

* . 

• i • 

€ ^^ > 





At the cmirt at Whitehall the twenty-third February^ 1582, hy tht 
kings mojl excellent majejly^ and the tords of his majejiys privy councih 

WHEREAS, by the powers given unto Charfes, earl of Carlifle, late 
governor-in-Ghief ot' the ifland of Jamaica, and, in his abfence, 
io the commander-in-chief thereof for the time being, dated the third 
day of November, in the thirty-fecond year of his majefty's reign, his 
majefty ha& been gracioufly pleafed to authorife and empower the gover* 
#jior, council, and affembly, of the faid ifland, to conftitute and ordaia 
laws, which arc to be in force until \m majefty's pleaftine* be iigniHed to 
the contrary ; and forafmucb as, in purfiiance of the faid powers, an ac!^ 
has been paifed atan alFcmbly in the faid idand, oh th twenty-eighth of 
-©clober, 1681, entitled, * A7i a£l declaring the laws of England in forced 
his majelly is pleafed to iignify his diflktisla6lion and difallowance of the 
.•feme; and, according to his. majelly's pleafure thereupon exprelled, thp 
" ' * law is hereby repealed 9 void, and of no cfiedt, 

JoKN Nicholas." 


,( 182 ^ 

^ H E O V ^ R N O R • 5 :S P E B C H 


A S S E M B L V O F J A M A I C J. 

SINCE all colonies need, anci all peopile deiire, ecrtain and knovvli 
laws, and that wc have here laboured above twenty years in compof- 
ing a body of Uiem, ^nd fincc we may believe ihis feffions will give the 
finifliing ftroke to fo great and needful a thing, it mull tlierefore follow^ 
^t will not only be agreeable to us but profitable to them that come after 
lis. It is truf forjner allemblies have met generally out of temper^ fome 
of them liavebeen prejudiced, others jealous, thebert fo anxious^ that 
all have been .rendered impracticable; but you^ gentlemen, have takea 
.better methods, and the laftfeffions given fuch inllances of your duty and 
Joyalty to the kUig, and zeal and afietlion to the interrd of this flourifh- 
ing colony,thatthe people canjiot enough value nor enough praifeyou; for, 
without flattery, it is yxHur prudence and moderation that have e(Ubli:hed 
our peace, promoted our interefts, aijd given fuch fandlion to the meet* 
ing of alTefnbliee, that 1 dare fay, now you have made them^eafy, they 
will for the future become frequent. From your laft feffions, gentiemen, we 
may begin to date the prof perity of the ifland,for it was then you gave hig 
majefty all the teftimojiies of duty you were capable of, by entire-' 
ly fuhmitting all your concerns to his facred will, ajid by your r^dy 
and cheerful taking every oftenfive claufe out of the a6l of 
his revenue: It was then you framed your moft feafonable pe- 
tition and difcrcet addrefs, wherein y6u acknowledged that duty, and 
prpfefled that gratitude, which is due to fo great a benefador, fo exadl a 
prince, as our king: It was then, likewife, you made fuch prudent and 
hiunblc applicatipn to our lords at home-, that I may fay without hyper- 
bole, if I could without prefumption, it has rendered them fo favourable 
that they feem concerned for us as advocates, kind to us as guardian angels; 
the happy confequeoces thereof are fo obvious, I need fay nothing, for 
who does not know how gracious the king iS, how obliging the lords have 
been, how great our credit abroad^ how perfe6l our union here, all man« 
kind agrees in it, and fee heaven feems plea'fed as well as the king. For^ 
if the lali year h appeared brais^ this it melts ioto iliowciSi to rain blef« 

.^ingfSonus; l&r who has ever fcen Port-Royal fo full oPiliipg, or known, 
•itlie planters have fold their goods fo dear. If we have had loifes at fea, 
have they. not been borne with that equanimity and filcnce that becomes 
mercliants and reafonable men, and our trade is ;ievcrtlielcfs encrealed, 
fo that we have more feamen and yelfels than any king's colonies ia 
thcfe Indies ; a«d are not you aU my witnelfes that, wjtiiin fifteen months, 
•every man's freehold througliout this great ifland is almoft rifen in value 
from fifty to tw(^ hundred per cent^ fo that we have a<5tually experi- 
mented what is commonly fa id, concordia parve res cre/'cunty 8Cc. peace 
and agreement make little and young colonies thrive, whereas dif- 
cord and quarrels ruin thofe tliat are great and profperous; I mu(l there* 
fore again fay, and wave my part in it, your conduct has dtDue th:s, and^ 
vfnch is more valuable, it has procured us a moll particular mark of the 
Iviug^s grace and favour. This, gentlemen, appears beft in his majelly's 
own Iptter. I dare not prefume to -tally it with any comment, tor it is 
all the king, every fylhible i*^ good, every period infinitely gracious. The 
gentlemen of the council have entered it in their book; here it is for you 
to record, not only in your journal, but in your memories, fo that you 
may difcourfe it to your cliildrcn, they to their pollerity, that the gene- 
•rations to come may know it, hlefs God for it, and recur to it as another 
..kind of ma^na charfa. You have, gentlemen, that claufe in the charter 
of the governor that continues affemblies, declares their laws mult depencj 
.on the king's plealure; >ou muft needs have heard tlifofe of Virginia, Bar*» 
dadoes, i(c. do to this day, yet they are ancient colonies, have coil the 
king nothing, but have and do render confiderably both to him and ll\e 
nation; notwithllanding this, and that wife and jull princes manage their 
prerogative, yet ours has been fo Angularly gracious to us ab to relax his* 
pafs your laws, and here they are in your .own words ; by which a<^ ana 
•grace his piajelly is ple^ifed for feven years to foreclofe himfelf the ufe of 
that power which all divine and human rights veft him with; and this^ 
gentlemen, is a, confiderat ion fo extraordinary, a grace fo obliging, that 
you can better comprcihend than I exprefs it^ certain it is, another kind of 
of prince, in Inch kind of juncture, would haye .made no fuch conccifion^ 
nor when preffed for money, on report <only of our loifes by pirates, been 
at the charge to fend us another freight. Thefe things are extraordinary, 
fo is all that the king has d'^ne for us, ^nd by it you fee princes fouls, or 
the perfe6t reprefentative God has on earth ; you can no looner ihew your 
fubmiffion and dependence, but you ihall receive good and have protec- 
ition. Poilibly, gentlemen^ fame fcrupulous And ill informed people. 


•?tvifl>oiit\doors(we Iiere'know and <:aii judge better), -1?lay*'be^^©ck«3^at 
.^cven ^years^.and fancy the laws ihould have paikd indchnile; but thefe do 
.not cojhlider that place.^, times, and affairs, ^s well ^ men ^nd the rea- 
son of things, do all naturally change ; pray mark it, and that there is no 
. <:liffercnce betwixt making a tiling perpcUial and putti-ngitiiito^he train of 
being fo.; we do not think" the motions of a clock the lefs perfeA &r regu- 
lar becaufe it needs winding up, axid.if wc defire Allemblies Ihould lome*- 
limes meet, we, ought what may occasion it. Can any one judge it 
reafonable we fliould have fo great a concern I'oivour little triffling muni- 
<:ipai laws, \ancl. think the minillers at home ihould be fo fupine as to. have 
none at all for tlie great laws of the ftate, aiid what regards the king? Is 
jiot his revenue the rc^fon and balance, is it not rather the foiu :<» d 
.vitals? Can there be, motions, can there be life, in government without 
jnoney? The king then is very juft, and his jninifters Jiave been exceed- 
ing prudent, for. they have only joined with his powers what our good 
renders abiolMtely infeparable. If that does not entirely pleafe, yoij 
Ihould have done, or do yet, as wife nature for the noble parts, the 
. heart firft, and you may believe the body and members will proportion- 
ally have life, vigour, and duration^ I his book, gentlemen, does not 
contain all your laws, fome are returned to be amended, but ttiofe 
amendments are fo reafonable, you will no fooner hear them Jl>ut you will 
allcnt to them : one is the king is too humane to be paid for fhedding 
man's blood, ib you muftlind fome other way to reitrain tlve cruelty liif 
.mailers, more barbarous than their Slaves; another is, l>is majefty would 
have his peace obferved, and all bis fubjeds have their rights; his attor- 
ney he thinks an honeft and material officer herein, fo mutt not bedif- 
couraged, nor pay ojjier fees than in England. There are .fome other 
things like tljcfe, the detail of tliem you have in the letter of the lords, 
which I put into your hands, becaufe it will bell inform and direcSl you» 
And pray take jiotice if there be any thing in the a<5l already paifed lli<*t 
you will judge ought to be altered or amended, you may do. it and believe 
jf reafonable it will be read] ly alien t< d to by ii!e. The negro a<ft the king 
k( eps in his ou n power, either to fupprefsor continue as feems mod reafon- 
able to his majelty ; and this 1 think thebeli .for us, and that it was a millake 
to wave his majdly's ordcr^ that provided for the importation as well as 
d( teiinined the price. In trad(*, all relirictions and impolitiojis that are 
jiot very fupportal>lc prove prohibitions; it is againll reafon or the nature 
jot c(mim( rce lo put a perjM lual lt.Uidin^ price oA goods w* n cd, and tl ajt 
Uiic lo be imported, for tnide ought lo have liberty and encouragement^ 

I t 

%eing maturally Tub)e<?l *to all cafualtics'; we tliereroTe ice In all places 
^hereit is frecll there is greatell, and thofe that take away the merchant 
hopes, cramp all their defigns, for hope is as neceiFary for the barter of 
this world as for that which is to come ; but need fay no more, we agree 
in the end, which is to have negroes, and differ in the way to it; for, as 
you will chearfully humble to what the king orders, fo ihall I readily 
afl'ent to whatever you ihall advife or propofe to me in it. Your decla- 
ratory law, gentlemen, is fuppreffed, as you may fee, by the orders that 
fpeak the thing, but do not give the reafon of it; for my part, I cannot 
comprehend v^hv fome have fo violently afieclcd it, lince we are all 
E^nglifh, and neb >dy has denied us any native right, and that the king's 
•dominion ispei tonal as well as local ; fo we. may, without offending liis ma- 
jerty, claim futtable laws and protections, which all the world mull con* 
fefs we now have. 1 fuppofe none of you ever heard that any of the 
.other colonies pretend to garble, and cull the laws of Englifh war. Can 
you imagine the minillers would permit it, and pray vi'^ould you take all 
the laws of England together? Would they not, like the Romans, Ipcul, 
.deprefs, and ftifle, that filly criminal that coveted them? What if in dif- 
orderly times, and under a weak miniftry, any thing has been wreiled 
from the king that impedes the exercife of his juft authority; you are to© 
prude«it, too dutiful, to expeft he fliould transfer the margin ot it to ano- 
ther world; and, confider, does not reafon tell us now what Arillotle long 
iince told the world, and he was born a Greek, bred a philofopher, that 
as, he was a wife man in the country of liberty, yet faid, bojuis rex pre^ 
Jeendus optimiis legibus^ that a good king .is preferable to the beft laws, 
there being much more in the execution than in the precept. The Ro- 
man ftory feems to confirm this, for we read in it, the w^orld was eafy 
under Auguftus, Titus, Trajan, and thofe other juft and wife princes, 
^et their wills were edi6ts. In facred llory we read, the Ifraelites were 
^ferable^ and all utterly and eternally cxtinguiihed, under their ill 
tmgs, and yet they were or fhoirid have been under a divine law. 1 do 
not lay this to recommend what is arbitrary, but it 'is to advife that we 
cffeem and blefs God for our good prince, that, -like a wife and tender 
parent in this matter, only denied us what would hurt its. Let us therefore 
•deikeratheraptthan many laws, and remember Englandhad good laws un* 
<ler Henry VIL; yet fome too many then, much njore now; for this is one 
hundred and feventy years ago, and then Empfon Dudley, with other 
jraprnous officers, putting fupernumerary penal laws into execution, fo 
«£xttlie people Uiati as my 4ord Bacon fays, 4;hey turned law ^nd juilice 
' ' A a into 


into worm^^i^oocJ and rapme. *Some confideration like tfiis, made a dif^ 
erect Fi( ncliman fay, je plus vault lecode de que le pais cojigue/ie^ that i'^, 
France was obliged to the king, more for contrafting their laws than for 
enlarging his dominions,. whieh makes me fancy laws to young colonies- 
are like phyfic to the hod y, wherein not only the quantity but the 
tiature and due preparation of the medicine is confidered, for that onljf- 
which makes it fit makes it operate well ; but becaufe the beft of kings 
muft die, and good laws do remain, and fuch, if they are not ftrong bar- 
riers to bad governors, yet they are certain rules to good ones ; you have- 
therefore good reafon to <;jlefire them, and I doxomply with you in it, my 
fenfe as well as interell being bound up with yours in this and everything; 
that may be for your fervice and the common good, I therefore here ten- 
der you the draft of another law' that has fatisfied all I have ihewn it to,;. 
as I fuppofe it will you, for its the fame in fubllance though not in terms: 
If you like it, I doubt not but the king will gracioufty pafs it as youc 
amendments, and as he has done all the reft. I mull not end, gentla- 
men, before I tell you we have great obligations to our friends in England^ 
who have ingenioufly afted their parts, particularly fir Charles Lyttleioa. 
and colonel Beefton. By their letter and accounts, which I here put into 
your hands, you will fee how kind and folicitous they have been, 1 muft- 
therefore fay, it you are deftrous to exprefs your gratitude for his majeity's- 
grace and his minifter's favour to us, (you muft do ita6tually): Iftiall leave 
the method and confideration thereof wholly to you, for I would not by^ 
my advice or dire6lions leflen your merits, or anticipate any a6t of youfc 
duty, but would have all arife from your own fenfe, that your honour may be 
the greater, and my fatisfa^tion will not be the lefs, for I have no ambi* 
tion, not theleaft vanity. God has been.pleafed to put me under fucb 
fcjialcircumllances : pains and difeafes have taken away my health and 
limbs, and the unhappy voyage of my fons and their mother ; what is 
there then under heaven that 1 have to defire, but to lee you happy, tba- 
Ijiws fettled, and theifland profperous, which God Almighty grant! Sl Jago de la Vega j in Jamaica, the 5 th September, 1683. 


< m ) 





T/WE3 T^. 

3n/lmSions for our inifty and well- helox^ed fir Phillip Howard^ knigft\ 
oxo captain- general and gnvti nor-in-chitf in and over our ijland of Jamaica,, 
and other the territories depenuing thereon vi Amu v a: Gii\7i at our court 

\ -at Whitehall^ the 25 tk of NovemOa-, 1683, in the fnft year of our 

Ift. — TA7'^W thefe our inftruc^ions, ycu will receive our coinmifllon 
^ ^ under our great feal ot* Lngland, conftituting you our cap- 
tain-general and governor-in-chief in and over our illand of Jamaica, and 
cthei the territories depending thereon. 

'2d.— And you are thereupon to fit yourfclf with all convenient fpeed^ 
and repair to our faid illand. 

3d. — And, heing arrived there, you are to tnlce upon you the execu* 
tion of the place and trull repdfed in you, and forthwith to call together 
f uch members of our council in that illand as arc not under fufpcnfion, viz. 
Hendcr Molefworth, efq. lieutenant-governor, fir Francis Watfon, Tho- 
mas Freeman, John Cope, Ihomas Ballard, Thomas Fuller, John White^ 
eiiiirs. fir Thomas Modyford, bail. Theodore Cary, John Burdin, and Sa* 
nuel Barry, efqrs. 

4th. — ^And forafmuch as the late governor, fir Thomas Lynch, li^s^ 
with the advice ot the council^ fufpended fir Henry Morgan and colonel 
Byndlofs from attending our council, and removed them from all other of- 
fices and commands, as alfo difplaced Charles Morgan from being captain o'€ 
the chief fort, for their miibeliaviour m the government ; and that upon 
llieir application to his late majefty, our moft dearly beloved in councH, 
4h€fi ui4iA«lUi€A appe^ any caufe to alter any.thuig the governor and 

A a 2 couno^ 

( ^S8 ) 

^council had done therein ; and colonel William Guy (landing likewrfc 
fufpended by our prefent lieutenant-governor from our council there, yo* 
are not to reftore any of them to tlieir truft and employments until a fur- 
ther examination of ihefe proceedings, and a report thereof unto us, 
which you are to make with all convenient fpced ; you fhall receive our 
pleafure therein. • 


5th. — And you are, with a due folemnity, to caufe our faid commif!^ 
iion under our great feal of England, cbnftitu ting, you our captain-^enerat 
and gpvernor*in-chief as aforefaid, to be publtfhed af the faid meeting. 

6th.' — Which, being done, yoii are to adminifter unto each of the faid 
members as well the oaths of allegiance as aa oath for. the duejexecutioa 
of their place and truft. 

7th. — And to communicate fuch and fo many of our inftrufVions to the 
faid council,, wherein their advice and confent are mentioned to be re- 
quifite, as likewife all fuch others as at any time you (hall find convenient 
:fcr our fervice to be imparted unto them. 

8th,~-And alfo, as foon conveniently as ihay be after your arrival, you 
are to caufe proclamation to be made in the other parts of our faid. if- 
land of your bemg confiituted by us our captain -general and governor-^ 
ia-chief as aforefaid. 

9th. — ^And, that we may be always informed of the names of perfon* 
tit to fiipply the vacancies which (hall hap^x^n in our council of Jamaica^ 
you are to tranfmit to us and our committee of trade and foreigiv planta- 
tions the names and charad:ers of twelve perfons, inhabitants of our faid 
ifland, whom you fhall elleem the bell qualified for that triiil ; and fo 
from time to time, when any of them ihall die or depart out of our faid 
iflahd, or become otherwife mcapable, you are to fupply the firft number 
q{ twelve perfons, by nominating othess in iheip Oead* 

lOth. — And in the choice of members of our faid coimcif, as alfo of th^ 
great officers, judges aflillants, and juliices, you are always to take care 
thai they be men of a good life and well aflfedted ta the government^ of 
good eiUtes and abilities9 and not neceilitous people or much in debt« 

* ' 1 Uht*r^ 

^ "Mfh. — An3 ybu"are neTfher to augment nor climinini the number of oiif 

ifeid Council as it is hereby eltablifhcci, nor to, fuipcnd any of the piefeitt 

rmembers thereot without good and fufiicient caufe; and, ia cafe of fuf- 

'penfion oFany of them, vou are forthwltii to tranfmit unto us, and to tlwsr 

liordsvTof our privy councifappointedacommittee for trade and plantation^ 

the reafon of your fo doing, together with the charmss and proofs agauiik 

\hQ^.hid perlons,' and their anfvvers.thcFeuiitoir 

12th.— -And you are t© fignify our pleafure untaour council of Jaaiaicv 
•that if any of them fhall hereafter abfent themfelves without leave frora 
*Our governor for the time being tirll: obtained, or remain abfent for the 
fpace of two years, or the greater part of them, without leave given undef 
•our royal fignature, their place or places in our faid council Ihall imme* 
diately become void, and that we will torthwith take care others be ap- 
^pointed in their Head, 

13th. — A*nd you are from time to time to fend to us, and our faid com- 
*inittee of trade and plantations, the names and qualitiesof any members 
by you put into the faid council by the iirll convenience after your fo 
doing; yotr are to obferve, in paffmg lav^s, that the ftile of enading the 
fame by the go^'ernor, council, and alfembly, be henceforward ufecl,- 
and no other. 


And our exprefs wifl and pleafure Is, that you tranfmit Authentic 
copies, under the public feal, of our laws, ftatutes, and ordinances, that 
are now made and in force, or which Ihall be made and enabled within 
the faid illand, unto us and the lords of our privy council appointed a 
committee for trade and foreign plantatiops, within three months or 
fooner after their being ena^tcd^ together with duplicates thereot^ by 
the next conveyance, upon pain of our higheft difpleafure, and of the for*- 
feiture of that year's falary wherein you Ihall at any time, or upon any 
pretence whatfoever, omit to fejid over the laws and ordinances aforefaid 
within the time Kmsted. And, forafmuch as that we have taken notice, ui 
fcveral la vvs heretofore pafl'ed witliin our faid-ifland of Jamaica; tor levy* 
ing mojK*yand im|)o{ing fines and penalties, the faid jaws, fines, and penaU 
-ties, have been railed and appropriated to ieveral ufes, without any men- 
tion made of us in the grant or application of the fame ; our wUl and 
|>!eafure is, that no aA or ordor be palfed within that our illaqd, in any 
^afe for levy to^ money <{r impotui|g iines^aiid penukies^ whereby the fame* 
• * •*• Ihall^ 


■fliall noTt he mentioned to be rcferved to our lieirs nncf fiicce^ffors tbrilw 

public uies of tlut our iiland, and fupport of the i2;overnmen% as by the 

.acl and order (hall be dire'C^rd. And we particuhirly require and coin- 

m nd, that no money or value of money ivhaiioever be given or granted 

bv any a(?t or order of alTcmbly to anv governor, lieutenant- govcnior, or 

.-commander-in-chief, of our faid ifland, wliicii ihidl not, according to the 

flile of acis of parliament in Fnii;lap.d, be\ mentioned to bq givnx and 

granted unto us with the humble defire of fuch afleml^ly, that the fame 

|)e applied to the life and belioof of fuch i^overnor, lieutenatit governor^ 

or commander-in-chief, if we fhall fo think lit; or, if we IhaU not aj>- 

proveof fuch gift or application., that tbr faid money or vahie of money 

be then difpofed of and appropiiated to fuch other itUs as in the faid a<^ 

-or order fhaU be mentioned, and that lioni the time the fame be raiiei, 

4t remain in the hands of the receiver ol* Unit our iliaud untU our royiJ 

plealurc Ihall be known therein. 

And whereas great'prejudice may happen <o our ferrice by the abfencc 
•of our governor or commander-in-chiel*, witi)oul a furticient caufe, and 
elpecial leave iu council ; for prevention. thereof, you are not, upon any 
pretence whatfoever, to come unto England from that government with- 
out firft having obtained leave forfo doing from us in council; we hereby 
declaring, that our verbal leave, or other permiffion whatfoever, except 
fuch leave in council, fhall not be eftepmed a fufficient warrant for llie 
;Xame, as it is particularly fet forth and dire<!^ed by an order in council^ 
^ated the third day of November, 1680, Herewith delivered unto you. 


And you are not to fuffer any public money whatfoever to be iffued or 
difpofed of ptherwife than ^ by warrant under your hand; but you may 
fievertbeiefs permit the affembly, from time to time, to view and examine 
ihe accounts of money or value of money difpofed of, by virtue of any 
a6l made by them, which you are to lignify to them as ther^ Ihall be oc- 

And it IS our exprefs will and pleafure, that all laws whatfoever for the 
good government 4)f our faid ifland be made indefinite and without limita- 
tion of time, except the fam^^ be for a temporary end, and which will 
•expire and haye its fuHiCnd witiin a certain time; and therefore you fhalt 
jiot re ena6^ any law which Ihall be once ena<3^?'d by you, except upoo 
^^ent^^aiioii^ Jbut ill 09 cftf^ v»Wi kUaii 6iice;i without our exprefe 

( Y91 y 

€f>nfent ; you ftinfl not remit any fines or forfekures whatfoever above ttie^ 
ium of ten pounds be ibre or after fentcnce given, nor difpofe of any efr 
cheats whatfoever, or of any fine or forfeiture exceeding the fum of fifty 
pounds, until you fhall have firll fignified unto us the nature of the oflfencet 
or occafion of fuch fines, or forfeitures and efcheats, with the particular 
film or value thereof, which you are to do with all fpced unjto our high 
treafureror commiirioners of our Ireafury for the time being, until you 
have received our directions therein; but you may4n the time fufpend 
the payment of fuch fines and forfeitures^ and you are particularly not to- 
pafs any law or do any aft by grant, fettlement, or otherwife, whereby 
our revenue may be lelFened or impaired, witlu)ut our efpecial leave or 
command therein*. 


' And whereas information has been lately given, that great quantities 
ef goods and fumsof money, piratically taken away or belonging to pi«- 
ra^cs, hath been brought mtoand now remaining in our ifland, for the fei- 
iurc and confifcalion whereof no due enquiry or proc^fs had been yet 
made, or no account thereof as yet returned of iuch leizure and- con»- 
fi^cntion, we do therefore charge and conrvmand you^ with the advice 
aii<l affillance of our council, to make fl:ri6l enquiry, by the befl meai^s 
you can. where fuch goods or money piratically taken^ or belonging to pi- 
ratic, are now to be found, and give all fitting encouragements to all 
fuch as may be able to make difcovery thereof, to the end that all 
fuch concealments and embezzlements be brought to light, and to legai: 
profecution; and thereupon you tranfmit an account of your proceed- 
ings? in the profccution of thefe matters, in order to receive our- pleafure 

You are to require the fecretary of our ifiand, or his deputy, for the 
time being, to furnifh you with all fuch a6ts and public orders as fhall be 
made from time to time, together with a copy of the journal of the 
council, to the end the fame may be tranfmitted untaus as above dire6l- 
ed ; which he has duly to perform, upon paiii of incurring the forfeiture 
of his office; 

You fhall not difplace any of the judges^ juftices, or other officers or 
minilters, within our laid ifiand, without good and futficient caufe fignified 
'iinto us and to oiir committee for plantations; and, to prevent arbitrary 
removals of. judges and juflices of the peace, you are not to expreis any 
limitation of time ia the commiffions yot^ arie to grant, with tlie advice 

«»iSiConfent(of the 'Council, to ffit perTons for (heir *niploymetYts; tmc 
ifliall you execute yourl'ell:, or by deputy, any of the faid offices^ nor f af- 
jj[er,any perfon to execute any more offices thau oae by .dcjputy. 

You (hall not ^re6l any court or office of judicatxire, not l)efore ere^e^ 
jnor eftablifhed, nor diliolve .any court or office already erected or efta*- 
:blifhed, without! our fpecial order: there lore you ar^ to tT-anfmit imto ug, 
iwith all convenient fpccd ^I'tcr your arrival, a particular account ef aU 
♦eftablifliraents of -jurifdi61:ions, courts, offices, and officers, powers; autho* 
fities, feesj and privHeges, granted or .fettled A\ilhin our faid illand, to the 
vend you may receive our ;fpecial diretHons therein. ^ ou are likewife^t 
Aviththe advice and confent of the council, to regulate all falariesor ieep 
ibelonging to the place, or paid upon emergencies, that they be u^ithi^ 
4he bounds of moderation^ and tiiat no.exattiun be made ,on any occaiioQ 


* * 

And we do hereby require ancl command you, that no mart's life, mf^m^ 
1)er, or freehold, or goods, be taken away or harmed under your govern* 
jnent, but by eftabliihed and known laws not repugi^ant to, but as mucb 
43 convej>iently ^ikay be agreeable to, the laws of our kingdom of England. 

• * 

^You fhall admamfler the oaths of allesjiance to the members.and officem 
rfof the council and aflembly, all judges and jullices, and all other officers 
fthat bad any office in the ifland by virtue of .ar>y patent under our great 
deal of England or our leal of Jamaica, and you are to jx^rmit a liberty of 
x:onfcience to all perfons, fo they be contented with a quiet and peaceabli} 
lenjoyment of it, ^ot giving oftencc or fcandal to the government. 

You ihalUaikecarelhatallplanters and chriAian fervants he well and fitly 
./provided wjith arms, and that they be inlilled under officers, and, as oftei^ 
,as (hall bf^ thought fit, muftered and trained, whereby they may be in a 
better readinefsfor the defence of our faid ifland and territories under your 
.command; and you are to ufe your utmofl: endeavours that each planter 
•do keep luch a number of white fervants as by law is directed, and that 
ithey appear in arms at all fuch times astheylhajl be required. And you are 
to take efpecial care that neither the frequency nor unreafonablenefs of 
gemote marches, mufters, and trainings, be a hecefl^-ry impediment to 
jfne affairs of the planters. You fhall take, an inventory of all arms, amu* 
^^^itiotH; aiid ilores^ jrcmaiijiing in an^-of our magajioes or garritons in our 


fetid iflntid«Twferywjr<?omnmnd, and fend anncco-uM of tliem fartli'^'lli 
after your arrival, and thenceforward yearly, unto us and the Io;ds of th« 
council appointed a cominittee for trade and foreign plantations. You 
jfhall likewife<temand an account from the commander-in-clnef how the 
Arms, ,atnunition, and ftores, font from our office pf ordnance in this our 
kingdom, or lx)ught with any public money, have been employed; and 
whether any of them, and liow many, have l>een fold, fpent, loft, decay- 
ed, or difpofcd of, to v\h©m and to what ufes; and, for your informal 
tion herein, you Ihall herewith receive an account of what hath fince 
the month of December, i67(>, been iflucd out of, or fent from, the faid 
oftice of our ordnance. ; . . 

And, that we be the better informed of the trade of our faid ifland*, you 
are to take efpecial care that due entries be made in all parts thereof of all 
goods and comniodities, their fpecies and quantity, imported or exportedt 
with the names, burthens, and guns, of all (hips coming and going from 
the faid ifland, which the naval officer i« to furniffi you withal ; and yoa 
are to tranfmlt the fame unto us, and to the lords of our privy council ap- 
pointed a committee for trade and foreign plantations, quarterly, and du- 
plicates thereof by the next conveyance. 

And our will and pleafure is, that ^no minifter be preferred to any ec* 
<^^eflaf^ical benefice without a certificate from the right reverend the hi- 
' ihop of London of his being conforming to the doctrine and difciplin© 
cf the church of England, and alfo our ph afure is, that you give order 
forthwith, if the fame be not already done, that every minifter withia 
your government be one of the veftry in his refpedlive parifh, and that 
jioyeftry be held without him, except in cafe of ficknefs, or that aftef 
notice of a veftry fummoned he abfent himfelf. And you are to enquire 
whether there be any minifters within the government that preach and 
adminifter the facra.ments without being in due orders, whereof you 
are to give an account to the bifhop of London ; and you are to endea* 
▼our, with the affiftance of the council, that good and fufficient ftipends 
and allowances be made and afcertaincd unto the minifters of every pa* 
*ifh within your government; and, to the end the ecclefiaftical jurifdic- 
Hon of the faid bifhop of London may take place in that our ifland, as 
fcras may be convenient, we do think fit that you give all countenance 
atad encouragement to the exercife of the fame, excepting only electing 
to benefices, panting: licenfestbr marriages, and probate of wills, which we 
i^ve r^ervcd unto you our governor and the coimnander-in^chief for the 

JB i^ time 

' ♦ 

( 19* ) 

•tin-we "being? and tliat no perfon be permitted to come from England anS 
to keep fchool within our faid ifland \vithout the licence of the faid bU 
ihop; and that no other perfon being now in Jamaica, or that fhall come 
from other parts, be admitted to keep fchool without your licence firlj 
liad. \ou are to take efpecial care that a table of marriages, eftabli(hed 
by the canons of the church of England, be hung up in every churchy 
undduly obferved ; and you are to endeavour lo get a law paflfed in the 
ullembly for the ftri6l obfervation of the faid table. You are to carry over 
.a fufficient number of books of homilies, and books of the t wen tyr nine 
;irticl( s of the church of England, to be difpofed of to every church, and 
you arc to take care that they /be duly kept and ufed therein. 

You are to fupprefsthe engroffing of commodities tending to the pre* 
judicc of that freedom which commerce and trade ought to have, and te 
fettle fjLich orders and regulations therein, with the advice of the council, 
xis may be mod acceptable to the generality of tlie inhabitants. You arp 
to give all due encouragement and invitation to merchants and others wh^ 
Ihall bring trade unto our faid ifland, or any way contribute to their ad- 
yp.ntage, and particularly to the African company of England ; and, as 
we are willing to recommend unto the faid company that the faid ifland 
may have a conftant and fufticient fupply of merchantable negroes, at 
jnod^riite rates in money or commodities, fo you are to take care that 
payment be duly made, and within a competent time, according to their 
agreements. And whereas we are informed tnat permilfion is granted 
from Spain for the /hipping of that kingdom to come to that ifland of 
Jamaica, to buy negroes, which trade will probably be of bohfider*- 
able advantage to our fubjedls, and particularly to the royal African 
company, our will "and pleafure is, that^ for the encouragement of 
fliis delign, you take efpecial care that fuch fliips and perfons as fhali 
come to that our ifland be civilly treated, and receive all fitting en* 
couragement in this defign of buying negroes, provided they do nothing 
contrary to the ajft of navigation or the laws eflabliflied in that our ifland^ 
And, that the faid perfons may have fiee admiffion of bringing eitlier 
jnoney or goods of the product of any of the faid countries, we do re^ 
quire, that no other duties or impositions be exadted or demanded for the 
blacks or goods, more than the law doth appoint; and you are likewife^ 
upon the coming or departure of any fliip to or from our faid ifland, ta 
buy or carry away fuch negroes, to order thera to be convoyed by our 
iifjgates a3 far as you Ihdll had conducing to their fecurity, and encourage- 


( 195 ) 

'ment to the trafle. And it being reprefentcd unto u^ t^at the fald Icing 
mf Spain hath granted power to Balthafar Caymans of trade under a p:»- • 
♦ent, formerly granted to Nicholas Porlio, for imjx)rting negroes to the 
Spanifli Welt-Indies, and to take poilelfion of the eftate of Portio, for 
the benefit of his creditors, and that the faid Caymans hath impowiod 1 i- 
jcgo Maget'to fettle in our idand of Jamaica, in order to continue the 
•negro trade with our fubjefts in that iiland, you are therefore to pernii't 
the faid \laget to have the free benefit of the law, and to countenan^^e 
Jiim and all others concerned in the faid grant from the king of Spain in 
their proceedings there, fo far forth as may confift with tlie encouvage* 
ment of the negro trade in that ifland. And we do herdby command and 
enjoin you carefully to obferve all the articles contained in the late treaty 
for the compoling of differences, reftraining of depredations, and efta- 
blifhing of peace, in America, concluded at Madrid, the 18th July, I67»\ 
with the crown of Spain, an authentic copy whereof you fhall here* 
with receive. And, in cafe any private injury or damage (hatl be pftVred 
^r done to any of our fubje6ls in thofe parts by any of the lubje6ls of the 
Icnig of Spain, you fhall take care to give us aB account, with all conv( v 
Client fpeed, by one of our principal fecretary's of Hate or the lords ot 
^ur committee for trade and foreign plantations, and not t ) pe tnit or 
encourage reparations thereof to be fought in any oth r way ihan 
• 13 directed and agreed on in the faid articles of Madrid. 

And whereas we think fit, for the better adminiftration of juftice, that 
a law be pafled in the alfeiubly, wticrein fhall be fet the vajuc of men's 
^flates either in goods or lands, under which they Thall not be capable of 
fiTving as jurors ; our pleafure is, that at the firll opportunity you en- 
•<leavour the pafTing fuch a law. And our will and pleafure is, that appeals 
.be permitted in cafes ot error from the courts in Jamaica unto the gover- 
nor and council in civil cavfes, at the hearing of which appeals any three 
or more of the judges of the fupreme court are to be prelent, to inform 
and ailift the court, provided the funv or value appealed for do exceed 
three hundred pounds llerling, and that fccurity be tirllduly g'ven by the 
appellant to ahfwerfueU charges as Ihall be awarded in cafe the firft 1* n* 
tence be aftirmed; and if either party Ihall not refllatistied with thejudg* 
ment of the governor and council, that then they may appeal unto us in 
•CounciU provided the fum or y'alue fo appealed for unto us exceed five 
hundred pounds, and fuch appeal be made within one fortnight after fen- 
leuce^and good fecurity begiv^n by the appelia^^ that he ei^6tually pr(^ 

JB-b2 iecuie- 

{eciite the fame, and anfwer the condemnation, as alfo ptty fuch coffe antf 
damages as fhall be awarded by us, in cafe the fentence of our governm A# 
and council be affirmed, fo as execution be not fufpended by reafon of 
any fuch appeal unto us, 


You ihall endeavour to get a law pafled for the retraining of any inhuman 
fevetity, which, by reafon of ill mafters or overfeers, may be ufed towards 
their chriilian fervants or other flavcs ; and you are alfo, with the afTift- 
ance of the council and alfcmbly, to find out the beft means to facilitate 
and encourage the converlion of negroes to the chriftian religion. 

And whereas, amongft otlier laws pafled in Jamaica the 6th Septem* 
ber, 1683, an acl for regulating (laves was tranfmitted unto his late ma- 
jelty, who did not think fit to confirm the fiime, by reafon of aclaufe 
therein contained, whereby fuch as wantonly and wilfully kill a negro 
are only liable to a fine and tlirec months imprifonment; which penalties, 
pot being equal to the guilt, might encourage the wilful iheddingof blood, 
for which it is neceilary fome better provilion be made, to deter all per- 
fons from fuch a<5ls of cruelty, you are therefore to fignify the fame unto 
the next aflembly, and further to propofe to^ them the enacting a llri6ler 
^laufe in that behalf, which may be fit for our royal confirmation. 

You are to recommend unto the council and aflembly the raifing of 
ilocks, and building public workhoufes, in convenient places for the poor 
and indigent people. 

And whereas we are informed that a donation formerly made in St. An* 
drew's pariih, in that our ifland, has been diverted from the inten<led ufe, 
jOur will and pleafure is, that you make enquiry concerning the fame^ 
and to take care the faid donation be rightly applied. 


In cafe of any diftrefs of any of our plantations, you fhali, upon ap- 
plication of the relpe<ftive governors thereof to you, aflTift them with what 
aid th« conditii>a and fafety of the ifland under your governmeat can 

And yan are to eaufe a furvey to be tal^en of all the condderable land* 
^g places and harbours in the faid ifland, and, wit,h the advice of our, 

4^i4 (ftUDf^iU €^fi^ in wy oi tijis^wt fqch £or^c4ioA3 as iha4 be Aeceflaiy 

^tTie fecwiiy and advantage of the faid Hland^ which Ihall be done at 
the public ch#rge, not doubting of the chearful concurrence of the in- 
habitants thereunto, from the common fecurity and benefit they will re- 
ceive thereby. 

And whereas we are given to underftand there are feveral offices within 
cur faid ifland, granted under the great feal of England, and that our far- 
vice is very much prejudiced, by reafon of the abfence of the patentees, 
and by their appointing deputies not fit to officiate in their flead, you 
are therefore, upon your arrival in Jamaica, to infpe6t the' faid offices, 
and to enquire into the capacity and behaviour of the perfons exercifing 
them, and to report unto us, and to our committee of trade and planta- 
' tions, what you think fit to be done or altered in relation thereunto; and 
you fhali, upon mifbehaviour of any of the laid patentees, or their depu- 
ties, fufpend them from the execution of their places till you fhall have 
reprefented the whole matter unto us, and received our direction therein, 
appointing in the mean time fit perfons to execute the faid places; and 
you are to confider of a law like unto that in Ireland for abfentces, that 
the inconveniencies arifing thereby may be avoided. 

And whereas Matthew Maveril and Abraham Gill have, by their peti- 
tions, made complaint of certain proceedings of fir Thomas Lynch, you 
are, upon your arrival in Jamaica, to examine the faid petitions, and to 
tranfmit unto us a true flate of the matters complained of, with your 
opinion thereof for determination. 

And whereas complaint hath been made unto us, by the creditors oiF 
James Littleton of London, merchant, that they, having fued out a rta« 
tute of bankrupt here in England, againft the ellate of the faid Littleton^ 
they are nevertbelefs without any remedy, although there be a confider- 
able plantation and other efte6ls now in Jamaica, purchafed with the pe- 
titioner's money and credit by the faid Littleton, you are therefore to exa* 
mine the petitioner's dafe, and if the fame, with otlier cafes of likc*na^ 
ture, be not fufficiently provided for by law in that ifland,-you are to pro«^ 
jpofe an acft to be paffed in the aifembly there, whereby the petitioners^ 
and others the creditors of perfons becoming bankrupts in England, and 
having eftates in Jamaica, may be relieved and fatisfied for the debts 
^wing to them* 


^ ' And whereas Sarab Harjif«n hath likewife complained unio us, that a. 



'. ' .-V 


f '^8 > 

fyareel bf ,l!ancl with houfes belonging unto her, at Cag^way in Jamaicft|^ 
are uncler fcizure for the arrears of rent, referved upon thefaid lands unto 
us% humbly praying that they may be reftored unto her, upon paying the- 
fame arrears, you are therefore, upon your arrival at Jamaica, to examine 
tho petitioner's cafe,^ and tranfmit a true ftate thereof unto us for our 
determination.. ^ 


We do hereby authorize you to forbear, if you (hall think fit, the 
taking advantage of any penalty or forfeiture againtt any of the prefent 
planters or inhabitants of the faid ifland, for not manuring or planting of 
tlieir lands according to their time heretofore limited and appointed them 
for the fame, until you fhall have reprefented the true ftate of the affair 
wnto us, by one of our principal fecretary's of flate, or to. the lords of our 
committee for trade and foreign plantations ; which you are accordingly 
to do v/ith all fpeed^ in order to receive our further oommands and direc^- 
tions tkerein^ 

Our.wUl and- pleafure is, that all fervants that fhall come or be 
tranfported to our faid ifland fhall ferve their refpedlive maflers for 
the term of four years, from the time of their landing ; and every perfoa 
that fhall transport or carry fervants there, fhall, tor every fervantfo carried 
and tranfported, have fet out to him, upon the landing and employment 
of the faid fervant, thirty acres of land, to have and to hold unto him the 
iaid mailer, his heirs and afTigns, for ever ; and the faid fervant fhall, at 
the end of the faid term, have thirty acres of land fet out and afTigned 
tq every of them refpeftively, to have and to hold to them and every of 
iJbem,^ their heirs^. and affigns, for ever». 

Our will and pteafure is, that you take- unto yourfelf^ as governor, two 
tiboufand pounds flerling per anmtm out of the revenue, arifmg within 
tliat our ifland, and that you caufe to. be paid out of the faid revenue, to 
tlie chief-juflice, one hundred and twenty pounds per an?ium^ and to the 
Qtli£r judges, asalfo to the marfhal and clerks of the afTembly and other 
officers, their JTeverai allowances belonging to them ; to the captain, that 
commands the fort, there, fix fhillings per diemy and: to. the gunners aa4 
^natrofTes what hatli been formerly paid*. 

And whereas we are wilUng in the befl manner to provide for the fuf^i 
l^ct of our gpvernmcnt of Jamaica^ by Xetting apart fufficieut alio wances 


ibr fiich as (hall be our governor or commander-in-chief, refiding for Chfc 
t m^ being within the fame. Our will and pleafure is, tlxat^ when it^iall 
happen that you ftiall be abfent from that^our ifland, one full moiety of 
the lalary, and all perquisites and emoluments whatfoevor, which would 
Itherwife become due unto you, Ihall, during your abfence, Tje pai3 
and fatisfied unto fuch governor or commander-in-chief who ihall be re- 
4(ident upon the place for the time being ; we do hereby order and allot 
unto him, for the bettermaintenance or for the fupport of llie dignity of 
h^t go vernmeriL 

And we doliereby empower you to confent to a law for l^iiing money., 
\n order to the better carrying on the folicitation of tlie public aiffairs in 
England, provided fuch law do not exceed three hundred pounds llerling 
yearly ; but, in cafe you (hall not think fit to agree to i^ucli a law, our 
pdeafure is, that then the perfons defiring the fame may be permitted to 
tnake voluntary contributions for difcharging the expence of their folici- 
tations, provided fuch contributions do not exceed in one jear tliree hun* 
dred pounds fterling. 

And that, when any complaint fliall be intended agalnft you, notice be 
immediately given you thereof by the complainants, with the charge a-i* 
gainft you in writing, to tlje end you may make timely preparation fojf 
your defence* 

TLadly, If any thing ihould happen that may be of advantage and Xp^ 
curity t6 the f aid ifland, and other the territories depending thereon, which 
is not herein or by our commiffion provided for, we do hereby allow unto 
•you, with the advice and confent of the council, to talce order for the pre*- 
fent therein, giving us, by one of our principal fecretary's of ftate,- and 
our comniittee for trade and foreign plantations, fpeedy notice, that fo you 
may receive our confirmation, if we (hall approve the fame : Provided 
always, that you do not, by colour of any power oi authority hereby 
;given you, commence or declare war, without our knowledge and parti* 
<Cular care thereiut 

By his majeftjfs command^ 









May it pleafe your honour. 


. 'HE approbation thefe gentlemen give to the paft aflembfy, an4 
-*• the fame you arc pleafcd to pay to the former governors, makes me 
their fpeaker. 

• i 

This being the firfl time, fince his majeft/s happy acceflion to the crown 
that we have met in a body, I eftecmed it our obligation thus pubHcly 
to make profeflion of our duty and loyalty lo his majcfty before your ho- 
Jiour^s reprefentation, and that our joys cannot beexprefled for his peaceful 
pofleflTion of the throne of his royal progenitors ; maugre fome clouds which 
lince rofey but were foon dilFipated by the divine blefling, on his arms, to 
convince thofe that are not both obftinately and wilfully blind of the 
truth of that fcripture, that faith, hy him kings reigriy that though the 
fun fet^ yet might noobfcurity follow, but what tended to the further il- 
lultration oi' of his glory^ and his being the more immediately under the 
proteftion of heaven. 

Irhe late fevere accident of the rebellion of our flaves might eaAly make 
us infer the occafion of our calling, as well to rcdrefs the pad as obviate 
any furtlier evils of that nature, the reafonablenefs of it is but too appa- 
rent ; I cannot but hope^or a hearty union in all to do our own bulineis; 
we know that our lives and fortunes, and of thofe that is mod dear 
unto us, are all concerned, and fuch.interefl: feldom fails to fpeak the 
truth plainly to us; and mdeed in this cafe I may fafely fay, falus populi 
ought to be, if not prima et fuprema lexy which if well conlidered v\'e 
fhall eafily evade the chara6ter fixed on thofe that provide not for their 
families. We need not doubt your concurrence, you are fo well known 
to us all> and have for foraany years given fnch continued proofe of yojr 


( 201' » 


ctaiMfour, we may cijLpeA all things, from you that conduce to his majeftyV 
fcrvice, and^the good of thisifland, 

Laftly, fir, 1 am in the name of thefe gentlemen to crave the preferv4» 
tlon of their ufual priviledges, freedom of debate, and accefs to youi^ 
pcrfoa» to prevent mifconftru6lion8 ; and to your former private favours 
add this public one, your pardon of me, their fpeaker, whofe brevity 
eii^IU to have compounded for bis ill oratory. 


C f^, 






THE chief occafion of my calling you together at this time is, to acf» 
vife with you in a matter that is certainly of very high importance 
unto us, and therefore it was no fooner in my power fo to do, than I re- 
folved on it : It is how to fecure ourfelves and eftatcs (by fome better pro- 
Tifion than any hitherto made) againfl the barbarous treacliery of our 
own flaves, to keep them in due order and fubje6tion, as to render them 
truly ferviceable unto us, and us fafe with them; in cafe of any fudden 
infurreftion, to be provided with fuch ready means for.their reducing as 
may not only ferve to ^flfe<5t it fpeedily, but difcourage all others from 
joining with them or attempting the like by their example; the methods' 
whereof are referred to you. 

It. is ]3ut;^t0o well known unto mofl of 5^ou, what abundance of trouble 
and charge a few of tiiefe defperate villains have lately given us, befides 
the bloody mifchiefs committed on many poor families, which, though 
far (hort of what coipmon fame hath rendered it, yet might have been 
much more, had their courage been equal to their agility of body and 
the opportunities they had for it. But God Almighty was pleafed to 
reftrain them, whofe goodnefs we can never fufficiently acknowlcdgQ 
in it. 

I (hall not need to tell you what endeavours were ufed by the govern* 
ment for the fupprefling that unhappy rebellion, under the difadvantageous 
circumftances of no money, and crippled power over the militia, they 
were too notorious to want defence, and not enough iuccefsful to merit 
praife ; though, God be thanked, there are great hopes that we fhall ne* 
ver more be troubled with that enemy, 


What I have more particularly to recommend to you is, Ihat you would 
take care to repay tlie money borrowed and expended upou that occalion: 


( ^05 ) 


Tt) gratify the fefvices of fucli poor men as to their extreme detriment 
have been commanded out in parties, without any pay or other confidera- 
tion than what depends upon you : To reinftate fuch others in their fot- 
tlements as have been driven from them, and confider how to fecure them 
there for the future, in cafe of Hke accidents : To pay the little fcoresyour 
parties have run into the poorer fort of planters tor provifions, when they 
could not be otherwile fupplied : To confirm the rewards promifed by 
the council, and order performance where it is due : To enlarge the of'^ 
ficers power over the militia at all fuch times: And, further, to provide a 
certain fund for the anfwcring all fuch emergencies as may hereafter 

I have ordered the receiver-general to have all his accounts ready fot 
your perufal, that you may fee the llatc of the revenue, and be entirely 
fatisfied that the monies appointed for the forts have been duly applied, 
according to the diretftion of the a6t. The fortifications themfelves Ihew 
it as well as the accounts declare it* 

The captain of the fort hath order alfo to inform you, if you defire it, 
how he is provided with all forts of ftores and ammunition, whereof I 
doubt not but he will give you fuch an account as you will be very well 
pleafed with. 

And now, gentlemen, being met together, I have one thing more to 
recommend to you by fpecial dire<5lion from his majefty's command, 
which ftill is for our advantage ; that you will prepare an a6l for the af- 
ccrtaining the fervitude of the rebels lately fent from England for ten 
years, according to the confideration of their pardons, and take care tQ 
prevent all clandeftine releafements or buying out of their. time ; to the 
end that their punifhments, after fo great a mitigation, may yet in fomc 
meafure be anlwerable to th^ir crimes* 

It behoves us alfo to confider that the att for governing our flaves hath 
not palled the royal afibnt, as the rell of our body ot laws have done, 
though we have hitherto been permitted the ufe of it; yet hath it be. a 
poftponcd for no other reafon than becaufe his majefty and council do 
tu>t think the penalties therein mentioned to be fufficicnt for the wanton 
and wilful effufion of human blood, and therefore you are to tlunk of 
feme other expedient. 

C c 2 You 


• I 

( 204 ) 

You Hill 3o well alfo to confider the foUcitors fliall be fupplicd their 
charges borne, and the clerks paid, when the laws you now make fhall 
be fent home for the royal confirmation; befidcs intervening accidents 
that require a conftant ftockin their hands, as other plantations have; the 
whereof you may regulate as you thnik fit. 

I know you all to be too wife for me' to thijik voir into anything 1 would 
have you do, and I believe yoii too prudent to l)e talked out of what you 
•ought to do, and do not at all doubt but that there are fome who would be 
.glad to fee or make divifions amnngft us (there feems to have been pains 
taken for it), but good patriots know how to govern themfelves on fuch 
occafions, and wifdom is ever to be juftified by her children. 

Let it fuffice that I can fay for myfelf, I neither defire or expe<ft any 
thing from you, that I have been known amongit you twenty years, that 
1 am one of you, and that my intcrell Hands upon the fame f )undatioQ 
with yours; and therefore can have no delign in what I n^w offcTy but 
wherein I muft be equally concerned with you in the eventii 

Gentlemen, and brother planters, I have now put a fair opportunity 
into your hands of doing yourfelves good; if you make a right ufe of it, 
I ihall be very glad of the part I bear with you in it, but, if you fall into 
wrong meafurcs, to the fruftrating of the happy occafion now offered, it 
will rife up in judgment againd you, together with all the lad confe- 
rences that may happen to attend it. 

After you (hajl have proceeded to a full refdiution of the matter re- 
trommended unto you, and ihall have any further to propofe from your- 
iblves, I ihall readily entestain it as far as may be confident with my duty^ 

1 fay let his prerogative and royal order be ever facred to yoU, and Ibctt 
jou Mcd but tell lac what you^ vfoSd have me W doj iCs^ 


( 205 ) 


Mb. Speaker, 

THE ftate and health oF Jamaica, till within this fmall time, hath 
been very well known to moft of the gentlemen here prefcnt, by its 
vigorous and flourifhing condition, its wholefome kwsduly executed, and 
a current trade well fettled, encouraged, and maintained; it hath fince 
that fallen into a languifliing condition, and is now near expiring. 

Our moft gracious fovereign. In his princely care of, and kindncfs to, 
liis fubje(?ls, as the bell of kings and Ikilfullell of phyficians, hath at this 
time, without any regard tohimfelf, but folely to regahi our former Itale 
cf health and confirm it to us, called this general confultation. 


, Every member, therefore, of this infirm body ought faithfully to com- 
.plaln of its indifpofition, that the malady, though compouWlcd of ever 
to nwny ills, may by him be thoroughly underftood, and then experience 
teaches the application will be proper and the cure eafy, 

• That we have a complex of difeafes is moft certain; our faces are 
l)loated, our ftomachs are vicious awd full of bilious humours, our hearta 
ire as hollow as deceit itfelf. 

The only care of late hath been for the prefervatlon of head and heart, 
and a total negledt and flight of legs and arms; but. the little finger muft 
cither receive its due nourifhments, or the body becomes decrqpid and 
infirm. Jamaica, till of late^ hath not been known to want any things 
but now, with a great deal of forrow may it be thought of, and truly faid, to 
^ant all things, negroes, trade, and money ; on thefe three hang all the. 
.{ood aad ill of this ifland. By me kings reign and princes decree judgment. 

As I came not here to a6l any .thing malicioufly, or in^rejudice of any 
Man^ fo neither was I fent here to advance my particular eftate or pur-^ 
chafe to myfelf honour, by conniving at or confenting to any thing which 
IB my cbnfcience I judge not tbe true public intereft of Janxaica. 

yAy motion therefore, Mr. Speaker, fliall be, that this houfe woul4 
liruly and impartially coniider Jamaicans prefent affliction, and in a pro« 
jUMT aielbod it^ Uue icaeilY and M4^«i8« And let aU the jfepple fay amen. 


( .405 ) 



Jamaica, fl'. 
The examinatioii of Richard A mold j aged twtnly-fix years $r thereabouts^ 

THIS examinant liiitb^ that on or about the fixtecnth day of June, 
a7ino domini 1^84-, he went off this ifland on a voyage to the South 
Seas, under the command of one captain Peter Harris, being invited to 
that undertaking by one John Matthews, an acquaintance of the faid 
examinant, being the only man of all the company that went over with the 
faid examinant, who had been there before; and that the faid Arnold 
went off in a. floop, whereof one Daniel Smith was mafter, from Point 
Negri! to Grand Caymanas, and from thence to the Mufquito^s in another 
floop, where he was taken by the faid Harris on board his barque, and 
from thence tranfportcd to the Main near the Golden liland, where they 
landed and were muilered under the faid Harris, to the number of nine* 
ty-lix white men and three Indians, and there funk their velTels ; and 
that, on their arrival there, they were told by the Indians, that king 
Golden-Cap was dead, which troubled them for fome time, but were 
foon revived by the good news that one Jofepho, a great man amongfl 
them, whofpoke Spaniih, and who had fonie confiderable command and in- 
tcreft amongfl: the Indians, was willing to be their guide through the 
country towards the Stockadoes, whither they were defigned, being 
about thirty leagues diftant from their binding place : whereupon 
they fet forward under Jofcpho'^s condu^l, having with hun aboul 
twenty Indians, and fent others before t^m to prepare canoes fof 
ibem, about twelve leagues above the faid Stockadoes, and pcrforipcd 
their march in four days ; and there embarked into the canoes provided 
a€ aforcfaid, and fo came down that river, and landed within half a mile 
of the Stockadoes, having by the way, by the help of the faid Jofepho, 
got together about three hundred Indians; and early in the morning fell 
on the faid place and took it, where they fliared about a hundred fhares, 
at twenty-four ounces of gold diiit each ftiare, leaving the other grof^ 
plunder to llic Indians : that at thi« place they took a barque belonging 

. ^ ' •« • . ^ ' •» "to 

( $(J7 ) 

to his moft Catholic majefty of four pedcraroes, and thirty men, well 
armed with fmall arms, with about a thoufiind pounds ft<Tling in du(l gold, 
the reft of her cargo being Uquorsand lumber : here alfo the faid exami* 
najit faith, they took eight large canoes, on which they all embarked a- 
gain, leaving the Indians at the Stockadoes; alfo with their barques ani 
canoes went down the river Andriel to the mouth of it, where they took 
another veflel laden with provifions and fome wine, with which they pro- 
ceeded on their voyage for the Cays to the fouthward of Panama, about 
two leagues thence called the King's Cays, where they took about ten 
fail of pearl barques, having nothing on board them but and 

plantains, &^c. and with two of the beft of the faid barques, and the 
other barque of four pederaroes, being well fitted out of the other eight 
with all manner of neceflary rigging, they proceeded to Cape Clare to> 
the fouthward of Panama, to cruize for a fhip, leaving the other eight 
barques on the fhore on the Cays; from whence, having fpent fome time 
to no purpofe, they fleered away again to the welUvard near the place 
where they fitted, where they were attacked with five barques fitted out 
from Panama to take them, the admiral of which they laid on board, and 
fought board and board for an hour, but could not la<h him faft, by rea- 
fon they fo well defended themfelves with pikes^ and the night coming oii^ 
whilft the reft of his fleet lay to windward and faw fair play. In this en-' 
gag^ment they loft three men outright, and two more wounded, who 
died foon after; the Spanifh admiral above forty mea. From thence 
they ftood away further to the weftward for the river called Niciao,- in 
hopes of getting a bigger veffcl, being a place where the Spaniards built 
their ihips ; iillfight ot which place they fpicd a an anchor, to 
which they made, and fent their canoes on board to know who and what 
fhe was, which proved to be captain Swan in a fhip about a hundred and 
forty tons, fixteen guns, and twenty men, with whom they entered into 
an agreement for his fhip at ten fhares himfelf, his men two, and his boy 
half a fhare ; the bufinefs of the faid Swan before that time, as this exa- 
ininant believes, being only for trade. On which agreement, they 
manned the faid fhip and turned the lefTer barques adrift, retaining only 
that firft taken, and fo ftood away to the fouthward, to join themfelves with 
•ne captain John Cooke, who the faid Swan told them was come about in a 
Dutch fhip of thirty-fix guns, which he took with a fmall vefTel of three 
guns on the coaft of Gumica ; and at the Ifle of Plate found the faid fhip 
commanded by one captain Davis, and manned with feventy-five men, 
Ibe faid Cooke being dead ; on board of which fhip the faid Davis had a 


. ( 208 ) " 


prifoner who undertook to carry them to a rich town called G^iyaqtiilj 
oh which voyage they proceeded, and went up the river in their canoes, 
and landed about a. hundred and thirty about two leagues (hort of the 
faid town ; where, being landed and ready to march, on feeing many 
lights in the town, a difpute arofe between Swan an^ Davis, who then 
commanded the whole party.' Swan fuppoiing the fame to be lighted 
matches would not adventure to march farther, concluding they were de* 
fcried; whereupon they returned on board again, much difatisfied with 
Swan's condu6t, being well affured by their prifoner they might have 
made five hundred pounds fterling a man in gold. From this place they, 
proceeded tq another place called Payla, where they alfo landed about nine- 
ty men, and took, plundered, and burnt, it; where they were entertained 
with about a hundred and fixty men from Pura, a place they defigned to 
take by furprize; fo, finding themfelves defcried, and that city in arms 
for their coming, they returned on (hip-board again. On this bad fdccefe^ 
it was generally concluded .among them to Itand away to the weft ward 
again for the Cays, and to lay there for theSpanifh fleet then expeded 
from Callas, the Barkadera of Lima, where they continued* about five 
months; during which time feveiral parties came over land, as this exa- 
minant and his companions had done before them, and got to the faid 
Cays in canoes, viz. one captain Francis with about four hundred French, 
captain I^equi with about fifty, bqth which came together over land from Gol- 
den Ifland, asaforefaid; and, to welcome the faid Francis, tliis examinant 
faith, they gave him a ftiip of four hundred tons, which they had taketi 
whilil at the Cays, laden with flour, where alio they took about twelve 
barques with provifions, fowls, and other fuch like necellaries, bound for* 
Panama, all which barques they turned adrift, having taken their necef-. 
farics. After the arrival of the two firft parties, and difpofal of the faid^ 
great fhip, there came three other parties over land by way of Goldeoi 
ifland, m. captain Francis fownly, captain Leigli, and captain Brandy, 
with about three hundred and fixty men amongft them, moft Englifh^^ 
who in this voyage with their canoes took two fliips with provifions; wherer 
it was further agreed to carry on the dcfign againft the Spanifh fleet, and< 
that Davis fliould be admiral, having an antiquated FVench commiflion, 
^nd carry the flag at the main-top-maft-head, and that Swan ihould be^ 
vice-admiral, who utterly refufed to- wear French colours or fight under; 
any other colours than the king of; England's^ for that he had loft two; 
men in fair trade with the Spaniards, wore the union flag at fore*- 
top-maft-head; king's jack, ^a And timt captaiu Fj^ncis llMuld iecondii^. 


( «09 ) 

Bavis, who was to lay tlie admiral on board, captain Townly to fecond 
captain Swan, who was to board the vice-admiral, and that captain Leo- 
nard in a fire-barque (hould alfo attend on Davis, if need were, to burn 
the Spaniih admiral, and in that manner to engage the Spanifh fleet. In 
the interim of which, the Spaniih fleet Handing far oft' in the offing, 
pafTes unfeen, and lands their money at Level a, about ten leagues to weft- 
ward of Panama, and there takes in confiderable reinforcement of men, 
JTc. and comes to fca, confifting of about eleven fail and two fire-fhips ; 
the admiral having fifty-four guns, vice-admiral forty-fix, and rear-admi- 
jral thirty-fix, and from thence to twenty-fix and fixteen guns, comhig 
Unexpeded to the piivatecrs about the Cays from the weft ward, flood 
fight in upon them, which caufed them to weigh and ftand off", to clear 
and get the wind of them if poffible ; iipon which the Frenqhman, wh4) 
fliould have feconded Davis, veers away, and never offers to tack or come 
to their aflfiftance, whereby that day was quite fpent without any aftiou. 
The next day, they being to leeward of the Spanifli ffeet, the admiral and 
his fleet bore down on Davis,, who bore away to fpeak to Swan and Town- 
ly, to confult them what was beft to be done ; who, finding the Frencli 
had left them with their fire-ftiips, made a running figiit of it, having 
turned fome of their canoes adrift, and loft other fome by the Spaniards 
Ihot : went further to the weftward, to a place called Quibo, to build new 
canoes, where, in three weeks, they built ten new ones ; where it was 
concluded to go for Rio Leo and the city of Leon, which they took, 
plundered, and.burnt, having miflfed of the wealth, having been defcricd • 
ere thev entered the town, fo fliared no confiderable matter ; aftei; which 
they refumed their former refolutions for Rio Leo, which they took like- 
wife, plundered, and burnt ; the laft place affording noticing valuable to 
them, more than pitch and tar, being the produ6t of thofe places, and 
that place famous for building great fliips ; there alfo the Spaniards fet 
lire to two confiderable ftiips on the ftocks, one ready to^ launch, to prc4 
vent them falling into enemies hands. At this place the fleet divided, 
being ia or about the month of June, anno domini 1685, Swan and 
Townly directing their courfe farther to weft ward for Aqua Pulco and Cal- 
lifomia, to try their fortunes there, and from thence round the Phillipine 
Ifles to the Eaft-Indies, and fo home, as they faid ; captain Davis and 
his fire-ftiips defigning back again to the fouthward for Truxillo, a 
place fer to windward ; after which this examinant never faw or heard of 
Swan and Townly. In their defigned voyage for Truxillo, being in fome 
want of proviftonsi Davis, wkb whom the examinant iaiied^ touched at 

D d certaia 

( ito ) 

certain iflands called the Gallipoli, being informed by fome of the crew 
that captain Eaton had formerly left fome flour there ; and accordingly 
found it true, and took 'm feven hundred packs of flour and proceeded for 
Truxillo, but mifled it, the wind blowing fo hard that it was not poflftble 
for them to turn to windv/ard of it or row ahead with their canoes, and fa 
bore up for Samia, about twelve leagues to leeward of them, and landed 
at a barquadier called Chereby, and took, it with all the Indians belonging 
to that town, to prevent being defcried, and marched for Samia, being 
about fcven leagues up in the country, with two hundred and thirty men^ 
commanded by captain Dctvis and one captain Knight, in abarque of fifty*? 
five men, who fell in with them as they came from the weftward ; which 
town they took and kept three days, and plundered it, where they (hared 
About tliree hundred pieces of eight a man in money and plate. In their 
retiu-n, they found in a ftorehoufe about four hundred jars of wine, and 
ten thoufand pounds of indigo, but meddleil not with any thing but a little 
liquor, the feas running too high to carry off any heavy matter : After 
which they concluded to fall on another inland town called Pura, about 
ten leagues to leeward of Samia, and about the fame diftance in the coun- 
try ; and to that purpofe, being informed by their pilot of the fcarcity of 
water in the way, had fitted themfelves with calabaflies to carry every 
man's portion of water fit for the march ; biit they were defcried by an 
Iriihman, who was taken by the Spaniards as he was returning from Samia 
to the fliips, who confefled the defigns to the Spaniards, and never ac- 
quainted them with it, being let go again ; but fuffered them to proceed 
on it, and were going aftiore in their canoes for Pura, where by chance 
they took a fmall barque, the mafter of which told them they were be- 
trayed, and that town in arms ; fo they altered their purpofe, and fell on 
a place called Payla, which they formerly burnt, where the faid mafler told 
them were two fliips, one with nve hundred negroes, and the other withina- 
gazine goods and friars, and took the town and Ihips; but took not away 
above thirty-nine negroes and fome goods for cloathing; where the exami- 
nant alfo, with thirty-eight mord of their company, defired the faid captain 
Davis to fend them back agam ; on> which the faid captain Davis gave them 
two fmall baiques to carry them back intathe river Andriel; at the mouth of 
which river they left their barques and bought fix canoes of the Indians^, 
and embarked on them, having each of them a negro to carry their lug- 
gage over kiad; and, after fix days fpent in coming up the river, they 
arrived at the foot of the mountain above the Stockadoes, and from thence 
in two days maccUto a placis called Matauzc, bi^ins about eight leagues 


V *- 

( 211 ) 

from thefaid mountain, where they all divided again into fmall parties ; this 
txaminant and five other Engliftiitien, viz. John Mitchell, William Ruy- 
ler, Samuel Leigh, Willam Nevil, and Robert Dawes, betaking them- 
felves to canpes, being dillurbed by a Spanifh periagua fent thither on 
purpofe to interrupt their paflage, and fo defigned in their canoes for the' 
Mufquitoes; but off Point Blanco, about fifty leagues to windward of the 
Mufquitoes, they met with afloop,»one Peter Courtney mafter, with whom 
they agreed to be put on Ihore at Sa6l-Tartudos, but the wind overblow- 
ing, and not able to beat up to windward, flood up for Jamaica, where 
they landed at Manatee-Bay to leeward of Port*Royal. And this exa^ 
minant faith further, that he never faw captain Eaton, but was told that 
he went about by the Eaft-Indies about fix months before Swan left them ; 
neither did he hear any more of the French that deferted them : That 
he left about two hundred and fifty men under the command of captain 
Davis, amongft whom was Peter Harris, with whom the examinant.went 
over, who was related to Peter Harris that was formerly killed in thofe 
parts. The faid captain Davis, at the coming away of the deponent, de- 
figned to make an attempt upon a place aboutfeven leagues to the fouth- 
ward of Lima, after which it was refolved that he would fit |)is ftiip in 
order to return with fuch as would go with him through the ftreights. of 
Magellane, when the reft hav6 determined to return over land by way 
of Darien, for that it was the examinant's opinion that they will be all 
come away in lefs than four months from this time. And the examinant 
further faith, that they never fettled in any ifland or fortified the fame, 
as had been reported, and that he arrived here on Saturday night, beipg 
the 24th of July, 1686, and further laith not. 

Richard Aunolo* 


iSworn before the > ight honaurabte the governor^ 
the ^th Augt{/if I6i6. 


( 212 ) 


The humble petition of Samuel Barry ^ an aniient inhabitant of yovx 

mtyejli/s ifland of Jamfiiea. 



THAT your petitioner hath lired under feveral governor's in the faid 
ifland, and hath always behaved himfelf dutifully and loyally to- 
wards your majcfty, and refpcdlfully towards the feveral governors your 
rtiajefty's royal brother hath been pleafed to fet over us; and, at the ar- 
rival of the prefent governor, was of the council : That, contrary to hil 
inftruftions (as your petitioner is informed) the governor, without the 
confent of the council, hath fufpended him the council, and hath brought 
an a6lion of fcendaL magnatum for a thouf^nd pounds, to be tried befoie 
judges of his own chooiing, and prevented your petitioner of the oppor- 
tunity of appealing, which has forced your petitioner to leave theifland^ 
tt prevent his utter ruin, as by the cafe hereunto annexed appears. 

May it therefore pleafe your majefty to dire6l the ancient judges to be 
reftored, or fuch judges to be appointed 'as are men of known wifdom^ 
integrity, aiid eflates, asboUrknowto do, and will do, equal juflice, or other-* 
wife to relieve your petitioner, as to your great wifdom, piety, and juf^ 
ticci (hall feem meet. 

And your petitioner fliallever pray, 8Cc. 


( 213 ) 




The humble addrefs of the council and affimbli^ of your majejli/s ijland of 
JafnaicUj convened under his grace the duke of Albemarle. 


TX7E, .your majefty's moft dutiful fubjefts of this new world, warmed 
^^ by the benign influence of your royal beams, from which no dif- 
tance of place can feclude us, do, in all humble and grateful manner, ac- 
knowledge unto Gjod and your majefty the many bleflings we enjoy under 
the profperous reign of fo auguft a prmce ; and morie elpecially do, with 
moft dutiful and thankful hearts, acknowledge the continuance of that 
lin parallelled blefling, the proteAion of the church of England, given us by 
your royal favour, at your happy acceffion to the crown, and alfo for the 
toleration and general indulgence of religion your majefty hath been 
pleafed to grant the reft of our fellow fubje6ls« 

Royal JiTj 

We cannot conclude here, without further acknowledging unto your 
majefty the tranicendant honour done to this infant colony, in appointing 
fo illuftriousa prince to govern us ; from whofe care and conduct, with 
the continuance of your majefty*s favour towards us, we may juftly hope 
for many advantages ; promifing on our parts, as we hereby do, never to 
be (haken in loyalty to your majefty, due obedience to his grace, and 
our hearty endeavours for the good and prefervation of this your majel- 
ty's ifland ; praying unto Almighty God for a long continuance of your 
iiappy reign over us, and that there may never be wanting of royal illiie 
to iit upon ^our throne from generation to generation.-^^ntm* 


( 2Ii ) 



T'o his gracc^ Chriftopher duke of Albeymrle^ lieutenant-genera^ and jr^-. 
7i€ral-sox^€i fhor of this Lis nujcfiy's ijUnd ef Jamaicay and territories 
ihercon depending. 

May it please your grace, 

npHE extraordinary benefits we have already received by your aciceffion t© 
•^ the government, and that we have of future happinefs under fo^ufpi- 
cious an influence, obHge ys, with the deepeft fenfe of gratitude, ,to exprefs 
and pubUfh our acknowledgments, and beg your grace will be pleafed 
favourably to receive thefe our hearty tenders of duty and affe6lion, 
which as well on the behalf of ourfelves tis the reft of the catholics of 
this ifland, we humbly offer ; and do therefore, illuftrious prirrce, return 
you our unfeigned thanks for your repeated alFurances of fafety and pro- 
te(5\ion to us, equal with the reft of his majefty^s fubjeiSls under your go- 
vernment, unlets the divine will, that directed his majefty to convey to us 
the blelTmgs and fatisfa6lions which the reft of his fubjedis enjoy at home^ 
by virtue of his late declaration, through the perfon of to good and gra- 
cious a prince; as we are confident there never was more mercy, never 
moregoodnefs and clemency, or more juftnefs and compaflion, contained 
in fewer expreflfions than is in his majefty's faid late declaration for U- 
beity ot confcience, fo we dare alSirm, there never was choice made of a 
more apt and proper minifter for the advancement and diftribution of 
thofe royal attributes than your grace, to whom moderation and tempe- 
rance, loyalty and conftancy, virtues inherent to that memorable and 
. princely ftock from which you are defcended, are fo natural, that, in 
compliance .with his niajetty'spleafureand commands, you do but fecond 
your own inclinations ; whereof, we being tlie proper objects here, have 
fufficiently tafted, and which gives us encouragement humbly to recom-* 
mend ourfelves to your grace*s favourable reprefentation of us to his ma- 
jefty, with this alFurance to our obedience and conformity to your grace's 

command and jgovemment, Ihall evidence both our ioyaltyjto the king 


( 215 ) 

an<J duty to his gotc?*nor, which, with^ur daily prayers for the profpeN 
ous and long contintanee of your grace's government over us in this 
ifland, concludes tlie iignal teltimony of our thoughts and intention9> 
and is fubfcribed by 

Your grace's 

Moft obedient and humble fervants, 

I'HOMAs Churchill, Chief pqftor #/ his majefiy^s ^atholit 

jubjt£l& of this ijland. 

John Jones, 
Fhancis- Thomas, 
Redmond M*Raugh,. 
William Linwood„ 
Bryan M*Gr AH, 
James Wate^ 

John Stapleton, 
George Pigot, 
Edward Anthill^ 
Richard Mor^on^ 
William Worley, 
James Lispenass^ 




C 21® ) 





J m 


May it please your grace, 

THAT you confirm the choice of the aflembly in their fpeaker, I con- 
clude tbe reafon is, becaufe your grace is willing to acquiefce in 
their opinion, rather than queftion their judgment. ^ I fhould have hardly 
prefurrted to fpeak to your grace in this capacity, which lefteem 
as the greateft honour of my life, could I have convinced myfelf whe- 
ther filence or an ill fpeech had been the more pardonable crime ; for, itt 
this cafe, my lord>it is not enough to iay, in fnagnis voluife fit efi, . 

My Lordf 

Amongft the multitude of favours conferred on us by his raoft hcred 
tnajefty, whofe goodnefs, like the fun, extends to the utmoft corners of 
his dominions, this laft hath tranfcended them all, in permitting your 
grace to condefcend to accept of this government, who could have no 
other inducement but what the famous Roman faith, that a great fortune 
can have nothing greater, nor a good nature nothing better, in itfelf, 
than to do good in abundance ; and that no way can be better done 
than by eftabliftiing wholefome laws on a firm foundation ; for thofe 
extend to our pofterity, and your grace remembers, that your glorious 
predeceflbrs are no lefs renowned for being good legiflators than great 
warriors, for both which your grace is eminent at home and in foreign 

I fhould never forgive myfelf, fhould I omit to mention that great ex- 
ample of conjugal affection, your moft noble confort, who, contemning 
the danger of the feas atid thd alteration of climates to accompany your 
gracci liath made it evident that God hath endued her with a foul equal 


( ilT ) 

lb tliat of illuflricus birth and hufband. It is an honour done by you 
toth to us which the opulent kingdoms of Mexico and Peru could never 
arrive at^^ndcTcn Columbus his ghpft would be appeafed for all the injuries 
lie, endured here from the feverity of the Spaniards, could it but know 
that his own beloved foil was hallowed by fuch footfteps: but this, my 
l«rd, is too fublime a theme for me to expatiate on. 

I Ihall not longer detain your grace, but hope you believe our hearts 
arc full of loyalty to his majeityi duty to your grace, and Audious for the 
welfare of this illand. 

1 do therefor?, in the name of thefe gentlemen, humbly beg the pre- 
servation of their privileges, freedom of debate, and accefiion to your 
perfon, as your more arduous affairs will admit; and in particular, my 
ford, yeur pardon of the errors of me thek fpeaker^ w^ wholly fubmiU 
])imfelf to your |;race*s clcmei^cy. 






William rex, 

Jnjiruaiom for our right trujly mid right well- beloved. couftTiy William^ 
earl of Inchiquin^ our lieutenant and goveriior *gef venal in (i»(ii^ 

ijlajid of Jamaica^ and other the territories </fpp?if/m j* t^l^f ^*^ ^^^^^^^^BKS^WQ^^.u^^ 
Gitfen at our court at Wliitehfill^ the 5th day of December^ i6S9^^Wif^^Z,. !y 
^rJi'yf&r of ow reign. 

WITH thefe our inftru6tions you* receive our commifTion, under our 
great {eal of England, conftituting you our lieutenant and gover- 
^nor-general in and over our ifland of Jamaica, and other our territories 
depending thereon in America; whereupon you are to fit yourfelf with 
all convenient fpeed, to repair to our faid ifland; and, being arrived 
there, you are to take upon you the place and trufl we have repofed iii 
you, and forthwith to call togetlier the members^ of our council in that 
ifland, viz. — Sir Francis Watfon, knight, Thomas Freeman, Thomas Bal* 
lard, Thomas Fuller, AVilliam Ivy, John White, James Walker, John 
Burdem, George Needham^ Peter Beckford, Peter Heywood, Thomas 
Ryves, efqrs. 


And you are, with due and , ufual folemnity, to caufe our faid com- 
inifTion, under our great feal of England, confiituting you our lieutenant 
and governor-general as aforefaid, to be read and publifhed at the faid 
meeting; which being done, you are to adminiiler unto each of the 
members of our faid council, as well the oaths appointed by a6l of 
parliament to be taken, iaftead of the oaths of allegiance and fupremacy, 
and the tefl, as an oath for the due execution of their places of truft; 
and alfo, as foon as conveniently may be after your arrival, you are to 
caufe proclamation to be made in the feveral parts of our faid ifland of 
your being commiflionated by us our lieutenant and govemor^general as 


»; k 

C 219 ) 

You are to communicate, from time to time, fuch tlwA fo many of 
our inftru6tions to our faid council, wherein their advice and confent is 
mentioned to be requifitc, as likewife all fuch others as at any time you 
ihall find convenient for our fervice to be imparted unto them. Our will ' 
and pleafure is, that the members of our faid council Ihall and may have 
. aj^d enjoy freedom of debate and vote in all affairs of public concern ; and, 
that we be always informed of the names of the perfons fit to fupply the 
' vacancies Vhat (hall happen in our faid council, you are to tranfmit unto 
us, and to the lords of our committee of trade and foreign plantation?, tho 
names and characters of twelve perfons inhabitants of our faklifland, whom 
you fh'all efteem the beft qualified for that truft ; and fo, from time to time, 
when any of them (hall depart out of our faid ifland or become othcrwifo 
unfit, you are to fupply the firft number of twelve perfons by nominating 
others to us in their ftead; and, in the choice of members of our faid 
council, as alfo of the chief officers, judges, affiftants, and julliccs, you 
are always to take care that they be men of good life and well affedted 
to tlie government, of good eftates and abilities, and not ncccflitous pco* 
pie andmuchin debt; and you are not to augment nor diminifh the number 
of our faid council, as it is hereby eftablifhed, nor to fufpend any of the 
prefent members thereof without good and fufficient caufe ; and, i a cafe 
of fufpenfion of any of them, you are forthwith to tranfmit unto us, and 
to our committee for trade and plantations, the reafons for your fo doingr, 
together with the charges and proofs againft the faid perfons,*" and their 
anfwers thereunto; and you are to fignify our pleafure to our faid council, 
that if any of them fiiall hereafter abfent themfelves without leave from 
you, or from the commander-in-chief tor the time being, firft obtained, 4 

or remain abfent for the fpace of two years, or the greater part of them, y^ 

without leave given under our royal fignature, their place or places in ^ 

our faid council Ihall immediately thereupon become void, and that we y' 

will forthwith take care that others be appointed in their ftead ; and you 
are, from time to time, to fend us, and our faid committee of trade and 
plantations, the names and qualities of any members by you put into thp 
iaid council, by the firft conveniency after youf fo doing. 

Tou are to obferve, in paflingof laws, that the title of ena<?ling^lhe 
Isuneby the governoTi council, and aifembly, be henceforth ufet)", and v^ 
BQOther. ^^ / 

.And m» viU and pleafure is, that you tranfmit authentic copi^, tm- 

Ee« der 

( 220 ) 

6cr tlio public feal, of all laws, ftatutes, and ordinaftces, tha^ are now' 
vMiic and in force, or wlucli fh;dl be made and cna6ted within our faid 
ill nd, unto us and our commiffioncrs for trade and foreign plantations, 
wit!. in thno months, or fooner, after their being enafted, together with 
dunlicates thereof by the next conveyance, upon pain of our higheft dif- 
pleafurc, and of tlie forfeiture of that year's falary, wherein you Ihall^ 
upon any pretence whatfoever, omit to fend over the faid laws and ordi* 
nances as atorcfaid within the time above limited. 

Our will and pleafure is, that no z6i or order be pafled within that our 
ifland, in any cale for levying money or impofing fines and penalties, 
whereby tb,e fame fhall not be mentioned to be referved to us, our heirs 
and fucceflbrs, for the public ufe of that our ifland, and fupport of the 
government, as by the faid act or order fhall be dire6ted.' 

And we do particularly require and command, that no money or value 
of money whatfoever be given or granted by any a6t or order of aflembly 
to our chief-governor, lieutenant-governor, or commander-in-chief, of 
our faid ifland, which fliall not, according to the iftile of a6ts of parlia* 
ment in England, be mentioned to be given and granted unto us, with 
the humble defire of fuch aflembly, that the fame be applied to the ufe 
and behoof of fuch governor, lieutenant-governor or commander-in-- 
chief, if we fliall fo think fit; or, if we fliould not approve of fuch gift or 
application of faid money or value of money, it be then difpofed of and 
appropriated to fuch other ufe as in the faid a6t or order fhall be men- 
tioned ; and that, from the time the fame fhall be raifed, it remains in 
the hands of the receiver of that our ifland until our royal pleafure fhall 
be known therein. 

You are not to permit any claufe to be inferted in any law for levying 
money or value of money, whereby the fame fliall not be accountable 
unto us here in England, or to our commiflTioners of our trcafury, or our 
high treafurer for the time being. * . 

And you are alfo to take care that fair books of accounts be duly kept, 
upon oath, of all the receipts and payments thereof, whioh fhall be 
tranfmitted here half yearly or oftener, with duplicates there€>f^b3^ tie 
nejxt conveyance, to the end that a due account may be rendered of the 
fame, and of the right application thereof unto our laid cottiiiiiiiaii^ of 
our treafury^ or our high treafuref fbr the time being, 



( 221 ) 


You are not td fuffer any piiblic money whatfoever to be i/lucd or Jlf- 
pofed of otherwife than by warrant under your hand by and with tl)c adv 
vice and confent of the council, and not otherwife ; but you may nevcrtlio* 
Jcfs permit the aflembly, from time to time, to view and examine the ac- 
counts of all money, or value of money, difpofed of by virtue of laws mad(J 
by them ; which you arc to lignify unto them as there Ihall be occafion* 

Our will and pleafure is, that all laws whatfoever for the good govern* 
ment of our faid ifland be made indefinite, and without limitation of time, 
except the fame be for a temporary eud, which (hall expire and have its 
full effe6l within a certain time ; and therefore you ftiall not re-cna6l: any 
law which fhall be enacted by you, except upon very urgent occalions^ 
but in no cafe more than once, without our exprefs confent. 

Our further will and pleafure is, that you do not permit any a6t or or-^ 
der to pafs in that out illand, whereby the price or value of current mo- 
ney within the government may be altered, without our particular leave 
or order for the fame ; and you are, upon your arrival in Janlaica, to con- 
sider what may be fit to be propofed unto us for the fettling the current 
coin of that ifland. 

And you ard particularly not to pafs any law, or to do any a6l by grant 
or otherwife, whereby our revenue may be leffened or impaired, without 
our efpecial leave or commands therein. ' 

You fhall not remove any fines or forfeitures whatfoever, above the funf 
of ten pounds, before or after fentence given, nor difpofe of any efcheats, 
until you fhall firfl have fignificd unto us the nature of the offence, or 
occafion of fuch fines, forfeitures, or efcheats, with the particular fumrf 
or value thereof, which you are to do with all fpeed unto our commif* 
fjoners of our freafury, or high treafurer, for the time being, until you 
fliall have received our directions therein ; but you may in* the riiean time 
fufpend the payment pf fuch fines and forfeitures^. 

You are to take the mofl effe6hial care for the difcovery of our quit^ 
Tents, and for the making a perfe6l rent-roll of the fame, by impowenng 
our receiver -general to adminifter an oath to all fuch as he fhall account 
«vith, what other lands they may have, either in their own right or in 
tight of others, unaccounted for, or by fuch other mean^ as you> with tho 
advice aforefaidi ihall t^nk mff& ^nd\icm^ to lhi& ferYMre*. # 

( 262 ) 

Tn cafe any goods, money, or other eflate^' of pirate*?, or pVatically 
tfuuMi, Ihall be brought in or found within our laid iftand of Ja:naica, oc 
taken on board any Ihips or veflbls, you urc to caufc the fame JO be feized 
and fecurcd in the hands of oUr offieers, until you fhall have given us ah 
account thereof, and received our pleafure concerning the difpofal of 
the fame. 

You are to require the fccretary of the idand, or his deputy, for the 
time being, to furnifh you with all fuch a6ts and pubhc orders as fhall be 
made from time to time, together with a copy or journal of the council, 
to the end the fame may be tranfmittcd linto us as above directed ; which 
he is duly to perform, upon pain ot incurring the forfeiture of his oi!ice# 

You (hall not difplace any of the judges, juftices, or other officers or 
mlnilters, within our faid ifland, without good and futficicnt caufe figni* 
lied unto us, and our committee for trade and plantations ; and, to prevent 
arbitrary removal of judgesand juftices of the peace, you are not to ex- 
prefs any limitation of time in the commifGons which you afe to grants 
with the advice and confent of the council, to lit perfons for thof2 
employments, nor ihall you execute yourfelf, or by deputy, any of tlie 
faid ofiiccs, nor fuifer any perfon to execute any more ol'tices than one 
by deputy. 

\ou /hall not ereft any court or office of judicature, not before erefted 
or eftablifhed, nor diflblve any court or office already erected or eftabhlh- 
ed, wittiout our efpecial order ; and therefore you are to tranfmit unto us^ 
with all convenient fpeed after your arrival, a particular account of all 
cftablifliments of jurifdi6lions, courts, offices, and officers, powers, au- 
thorities, fees, and privileges, granted and fettled within our (aid illand^ 
to the end you may receive our efpecial directions therein 

You are likewife, with the advice and confent of the council, to regu- 
late all falaries and fees belonging to places, or paid upon emergencies 
that they may be within the bounds of moderation, and that no other 
exa^ion be made on any occafion whatfoever. 

We do thereby require and command, that no man*s life, member, or 
freehold, or goods, be taken away or harmed under your government, 
but by eftablifhed and known laws, not repugnant to, but as much as may 
be agreeable witb^ the Uws4)f ouf kingdom gi MttglaiuL 


( 223 > 

' You ftiall adminifter the oaths appointed by a<St of parliament to 1^ 
taken inftead of the oaths of allegiance and fupremacy^ and the teft, ta 
the members and officers of ^tlie council and aflembly, all judges and 
juftices, and all other perfons that hold any office in that iiland by virtue 
9f any patent under our great feal of England*^ or our feal of Jamaica. 

You are to permit a. liberty of confcience to all perfons except pa;pifl:% 
fo they be contented with a peaceable and quiet enjoynjent, not giving 
offence or fqandal to the government. 

You ftiall take care planters and.chriftian fervants be well and fitly prd^ 
vided with arms, and they inlifted under officers, and as often as (hall be 
thought tit muftered and trained, whereby they may be in a better readi- 
nefs for the defence of our faid ifland and territories under your commands 

• • • 

And you are to ufe your utmoft endeavours that each planter do keep 
fuch a number of white fervants as by law is diredted, and that they 
appear in arm$ at all fuch times as they ihall be required. 

And you are to lake efpecial care that neither the frequency nor un- 
reafonablenefs of remote marches, mufters, and trainings, be an unnecef- 
fary impediment to the affairs of the planters. 

You fhalll^ke an inventory of all arms, ammunition, and ftores^ lenyiin* 
ing in any of ojjr magazines'^^garrifons in our faid iftand under your 
command, and fendran accouMtV>)f them forthwith after your arrival, 
and forwaid yearly iftito us and ^dui^committep for trade and plantations. 

You fhall likewife demand arij acc)$iunt from our prefident and council ^ 
how. the arms^ ammunition, and nores,-fent frojia the office of our ordnance^ 
in this our kingdom, or bought by any publfc money, have been employ^ 
cd ; and whether any of them, and how many, have been fold, fpent, 
loft, decayed, of and to whom and to what ufes; and, for your better 
information therein, you fhall herewith receive an account of what hath^ 
iince the month of December, J 67 6, been ifTued out or fent fr^m the 
affice of our ordnance. • \ 

Aod, that wexnay be'tbe better informed of the trade of o^ faid ifland. 



I . 

- "1" 

^u are to take efpecral care that due entries be made* in all parts 
thereof, ot all goods and commodities, their fpebies and quantities, im* 
ported or exported, with the names, burthens, and gutas^ of all ihipB 
Coming and going from the faid ifland, which the naval officer is to fur- 
nifh you withal; and you are to tranfmit the fame unto us, or to our 
high trcafurer or commiflioner of our treafury for the time being, and to 
#ur committee for trade and plantations^ quarterly, and duplicates there* 
H^ by the- next conveyance. 

You fhall take efpecial care that God Almighty be devoutly and duly 
^rved throughout your government, the book of common prayer, as by 
%w eftablilhed, read each Sunday and holiday, and the blcfled facrament 
^dminiflered according to the rites of the church of Elngland. 

You fliall be careful that the churches already built there, fhall be 
tvell and orderly kept, and more built as the colony (hall, by God's blef* 
fijig, be improved; and that, bcfides a competent ' maintenance to the 
minlfter of each orthodox church, a convenient houfe be built at the coni* 
tnon charge, for each minifter, and a competent proportion of land 
^ffigned to hini for glebe and exercile of his induftry: and you are to 
take care that tjhe pari/hes be limited and fettled, as you ihali find moi: 
convenient for tlie accomplilhing of this good work. 

Our will and pleafure is, that no minifter be |M*eferred by you to any 
ecclcfiaflical benefice, without a certificate from the right reverend father 

,in God, the bifhop of London, of his conforming to the doctrine and 
difcipline of the church of England ; and alfo, our pleafure is, that you 
give order fortliwith, if the fame be not already done, that every minif- 

• ter Within your government be one of the veftry in his refpedive parifh^ 
and that no veftry be held without him, except in cafe of ficknefs, or 
that, after notice of a veftry fummoned, he abfent himfelf. 

And you are to enquire whether there be any minifter within your 
government that preaches and adminifters the facrament in any ortliodox 
-tliuFoh, without being in due orders, whereof you are to give an account 
to the faid bifliop of London ; and you are to endeavour, with the af- 
fiftanc e of the council, that good and fufticient ftipendsand allowances 
the made and ascertained unto the minifters of every parifh within your 
. ^verni^ent ; and^ to the end the ecclefiat^cal jurifdidtion of the faid 


• - I 

{ Sin ^ 

f)ifliop of Loncfon may take place in that our ifland, as far as conveniently 
jnay be, we do think tit that you give all countenance and encouiag- ment, 
in the execution, of tire fame, excepting only the collating to henehce, 
granting licenies for marriages, and probate of wills, which we have referved 
to you our governor, and theeoramander-in-chief for the time being; and 
ive do further dire<5t, that no fci)oolmafter be henceforward permitted to 
come from England and to keep fchool in that our ifland, without the 
licenfe of thefaid bifhop of London ; and that nootlier perlbn, now being 
in Jamaica, or that (hall come from other parts, be admitted to keep 
School without your licenfe firft had ; and you are to take elpccial care 
that a table of marriages, ellablilhed by the canons of the churcli of 
England, be hung up in ev^ry orthodox x^hurch and duly obfcivcd ; and 
you are to endeavour, to get a law palied in the aiieuibly for the llrid o'o^ 
aervation of the faid'table. 

You are to fupprefs the engrof/mg ef commodities^ tending to the pre* 
judiceof that treedora which commerce and trade ought to have, and tO 
Jettle fuch orders and regulations therein, with the advice of the council, 
^s may be moll acceptable to tiie generality of the inhabitants. 

You are to give all due encoiiragrment to merchants who ftiaH bring 
irade unto our faid ifland, or any way contribute to the advantage there- 
of, and efpecially to the royal African company of England; and, as we 
-are willing to recommend unto the faid company that the faid ifland may 
have a conilant and fufficient fupplyof merchantable negroes, at mode- 
Tate rates, in money or commodities, fo you are to take care that payment 
be duly made, and within a competent time, ^cording to their agree- 


And we do hereby ilridlly charge and require you, that, tipon due in- 
formation exhibited before you^ or any of our judges or courts of jullice 
within your government, againfl any perfon or perfons who haye or fhall 
be concerned in any interloping fliip, or in any negroes or goods importc d 
contrary to our charter granted to the royal African company, or againll 
fuch as fliall be aiding and aililling to any interloper or their accomplices, 
or fhall in any manner whatfoever bring any negroes into any pan of 
your government, or purchafe any other than fuch as are imported and 
Jbrought in by our royal African company, their faftors or afTigns, you do, 
ia all fuch cafes, take ef^ccial care that iudl Cttxteizmtfs of our ro\ :il 

if ciiaiier 

C «2<5 ) 

cliartcr an<3 commands T>e feverely punifhed, by fine, imprifonment, oi 
fuch other penalties as the quality of their offence may require. ' 


We do hereby command and enjoin you carefully to obferve all the 
articles contained in the late treaty for the compofmg of differences, 
retraining of depredations, and the eftabhfhiiig of peace in America, 
concluded at Madrid the 18th of July, 1670, with the crown of Spain, 
ai> authentic copy whereof you fhall herewith receive. 

And in cafe any private Tnjury or damage fhould happen or be done 

to any of our fubjedts in thofe parts, by any ot the .fubje<a:s of the king of 

Spain, of of any other prince or Hate in amity with us, you fhall take care 

to give us an account thereof, with all convenient fpeed, by one of our 

principal fecretary's of flate, or the lords of our committee for trade and 

^plantations, and not to permit or encourage reparation thereof to be 

/ fought by any other way than what is directed and agreed on by the faid 

« articles of Madrid or treaties^ 

And you are particularly nolf to grant' commiffions of war, or reprifab 
to any perfon whatfuever, againft the fubje6ls of any prince or ftate in 
amity with us, without our efpecial command. 

Our will and pleafure is, that appeals be permitted to be made, in cafe 
of error, from the courts in Jamaica unto the governor and council in 
civil caufes ; at the hearing of which appeals any three or more of the 
judges of the fupreme court are to be prefent, to inform and aflfifl the 
court, provided the fum or value appealed for do exceed three hundred 
pounds ilerling, and fecurity be firfl duly given by tiie apellant to anfwer 
luch charges as fhall be awarded, in cafe the firfl feritence be afiirmed ; 
and if either party fhall not refl fatisfied with the judgment of the go- 
vernor and council,- that tlien they may appeal unto us in council, pro- 
vided the fum or value fo appealed for exceed five hundred pounds; and 
that fuch appeal be made within one fortnight after fentence, and good 
fe curity be given by the appellant that they will eftedlually profecute the 
fame, and anfwer the condemnation, as aifopay fuch cofls and damages as 
ihall be awarded by us, in cafe the fentence of our governor and council be 
adirmed, fo as execution be not fufpended by realon of any fuch appeal 
unto us. - s 

^Okx are alfo to permit appeals unta us in council, in all cafes of fines 


. I 227 ) 

impofed for mifdemeanors^ provided the fines fo impofed amount to or 
exceed the value of two hundred pounds, the appellant firfl giving 
good fecurity that he will efl'edtually profecute the fiinie, and anfwer ihe 
condemnation, if the fentence by which fuchfine is impufed in Jamaica 
ihall be affirmed. 

You (hall erideavour to get a law paffed for the reftraming of any inhu- 
man feverity, which by ill mafters or overfeers may be ufed towards their 
chriflian fervants or other. And you are alfo, with the aftiliancc of the 
council and aflembly, to find out the bed means to facilitate the con-^ 
verlion of negroes to the chriftian religion. 

You are to recommend to the council and aflembly the raifing of ftocks, 
and building of public workhoufes in convenient places, fur the employ* 
ing of poor and indigent people. 

And whereas we are informed that a donation, formerly made in St. 
Andrew's parifli, in that our ifland, has been diverted from the intended 
life, our will andpleafure is, that you make-enquiry concerning the fame, 
and take care that the faid donation be rightly applied. 

You fhall caufe a furvey to be taken of all the confiderable landing 
places and harbours in the faid illand, and, with the advice of our laid 
council, ere6t in any of them fuch fortifi( ations as fhall be neceifary for 
the fecurity and advantage of the faid illand, which ihall be done at the 
public charge, not doubting the chearful concurrence of the inhabitants 
thereunto, for the common lecurity and benefit they will receive thereby. 

Whereas we are given to underftand, that there are feveral offices 
within our faid ifland, granted under the great ft al of England, and that 
our fervicc is very much prejudiced by reafon of the ablence of the pa- 
tentees, and by their appointing deputies not fitly qualified tb officiate 
in their ilead, you are therefore, upon your arrival in Jamaica, to inlpe^t 
the faid offices, and to enquire into the capacity and behaviour of the 
j)crfons now exercifing them, and to report thereupon unto us, and lo 
cur committee of trade and plantations, what you think fit to l>e done 
or altered in relation thereunto ; and vou Ihall, upon mift>chaviourof any 
Cf the faid patentees, or their depuiic"^, iufpind th^mlrom ihc execution 
'ipf their places, till you ihall have reprc.H;ntcd the whole mailtr unio , , 

f t ti 

( 21?8 } 

firtid received our cUre<!n^ions therein, appointing In the mean time fit per^ 
Jons to execute the faid phices; and you arc to conddcr of a law lika 
unto that in Ireland for abfcntees, lliat the iuwavcuicncies ariling there- 
by may be avoided. 

You are likewife to propofe an a<^ to be paflcd in the aflcmbfy, whereby* 
the creditors of perfom becoming ixinkriipts in Fn^^laiid, and having ellates 
in Jamaica, mav be relieved and latisfied for the deots owing to them. It 
having been reprcfcnted unto us,, by the petition of Thomas Daniel, maf- 
terof the Ihip St. Ja^jo de la Victoni, that the laid liiip, with all her 
lading, hath been icized and contifcated in Jamaica, ui>on pretence of 
having traded contrary to ac^s of trade and navigation, our will and ple^-. 
fure is, that the petitioner be admitted to appeal from the fentence givea 
in Jamaica, againft the faid Ihip and her lading, to our governor and 
commander-in-chief and council, who are to give judgment in the caufe 
according to right ; after which, if the petitioner ihall delire to appeal 
from the judgment of our faid governor or comniander-in-clucf and 
council, unto us and our privy council, you are to admit him thereunto: 
In which cafe, you are to give order that authentic copies of the records 
and ppoceedingsinthe faid cafe be tranfmitted unto us, with fuch infor- 
mation as ihall be taken therein, upon oath; and we, being further 
pleafed to remit to the petitioner fuch part of the fliip and lading as^ 
by the fchedule given in Jamaica, is accruing unto us, and we do hereby 
remit the fame ; you are to take care that the two other thirds of the 
lading, accruing to the governor and council, be fecured in the hands of 
our receiverrgeneral'in Jamaica, until the determination of the faid ap» 
peal ; and, in the mean time, you are to caufe the faid ihip to be delivered 
to the petitioner or his procurator or attorney, upon his giving fecurity 
for the value of the two-third parts of the faid (hip, accruing to the go^ 
.Ternor and informer as aforefaid. 

Whereas it has been reprefented unto us, that feveral of our fubje^b 
ai'e kept in flavery, and barbaroufly ufed at Mexico, La Vera Cruz, and 
other parts of the Spaniih Weft- Indies, you are, upon your arrival in J%» 
sn lica, to feiid to the governors of thofe places, and to demand of thengt 
fu *h of our fubje^ts as are detained there, and to ufe your utmoil eodeap 
VoiWh that they be let at liberty. 

We do hereby authorife you to forbeVi if { you ihall thinly fit, (fut 

taking advantage of any penalty or forfeitures againft any of tho ^ve^ 
f nt planters or inhabitants of our faid illand, for not mamning or plant- 
ing of their lands, according to the time heretofore limiU:i or appointed 
them from the fame> \mtil you (hall hav6 reprefented the true Itate of 
that affair unto us, hy one of our principal fccretaiy^s of ftate, or the 
lords of our committee for trade and foreign plantations; which you are 
accordingly to do, with all fpeed, in order to receive ovir further com* 
mands and directions therein. 

Our will and pleafure is, that all fervants that ihall come or be tranf*^ 
ported to our faid ifland, (hall ferve their refpe6tive mafters for the term 
ot four years, from the time of their landing, and every perfon that Ihall 
tranfport or carry tervants thither ihall, for every perfon fo carried ortranf- 
ported, have fet out to him, upon the landing and employment of the 
laid fervant, thirty acres of land ; to have and to hold, unto him the faid 
mailer bis heirs and affigns, forever; and the faid fervants fhall, at the 
f nd of the faid term, have thirty acres of land fet out and afllgned to 
every of them refpedlively, to have and to hold to them and every of 
them their heirs and affigns for even 

Our will and pleafure is, that you take unto yourfelf, as governor, two 
thoufand pounds llerling per annum y out of the revenue arifmg within 
our faid ifland of Jamaica, from the day of your a:rrival, and during your 
refidence there ; as alfo what (hall be due to you out of the faid revenue, 
after the rate of one thoufand pounds per annunty from the date of your 
commifiion, to the day of your arrival ; and that you qaufe to be paid ta 
our trufiy and well-beloved fir Francis Watfon, Hnight, if^the fame her 
not already done, fuch fums as hath been due or accrued to him as pre- 
iident of the council, after the rate of five hundred pounds per annum^ 
from the day of the death of the duke of Albemarle to the day of youf 
arrival in Jamaica ; and that you caufe to be paid out of the faid reve^ 
Hue, unto the chief-juftice, ohe hundred and twenty pounds per annuni^ 
and to the other judges, as alfo to the marfhal; and clerks of the af<« 
iembly, and other officers, tlie fevera! allowances belonging unto them ; 
To the captain that commands the fort there, fix Hiillings p^ difmT^ an<l 
to the gunners matrolies what has been formerly paid. 

ktA we do further direft yoU| upon your aniTal in that our ifland, td 


«^ V *^ «»■>* *' N 

• %i 

( f30 ) 

f-^quire into an<! examine the behaviour of the faid fir Francis Watfon, 
fron; ihe time of his taking upon him the prefidentfhip of the council^ 
ill or^^icr to the fignification of our pleafure, whether the further fum of 
* five hundred pounds /?er annunij from the death of the faid dukeof Albe- 
m^ie, fhiU be allowed to him, in confideration of his fcrvice, efour 
royal bounty. 

And whereas we are willing, i;i the beft manner, to provide for the 
fupport ot our government of Jamaica, by fetting apart fufficient allow- 
ances to fuch as ihall be our general or commander-in-chief, refiding for 
the time being within the fame; our v^^ill and pleafure is, that, when it 
fhall happen that you fhall be abfent from that our ifland, one full moiety 
of your falary, and of all pcirquifites and emoluments whatfoever, which 
otherwife become due unto you, fhall, during your abfence, be paid and 
fatisfied unto fuch governor and commander-in-chief who Ihall be reli- 
dent upon the place' for the time being ; which we do . hereby allot unto 
him, for his better maintenance, and for the fupport of the dignity of 
that our government. 

And whereas great prejudice may happen to our fervice, by the abfence 
-of our governor or commander-in-chief, without lufficient caufe and ef- 
pecial leave from us ; for prevention thereof, you are not, upon any pre- 
tence whatfoever, ' to come into England from your government, without 
having obtained leave for fo doing from us, under our (ignet and fign ma« 
. nual, or by order in our privy council : but we do neverthelefs hereby 
|)ermit you, in cafe of ficknefs, to go to any of our plantations ia Ame?» 
rica for the recovery of your health* 

We do hereby empower you to confent to a law for the raifing of mo- 
ney, in order to the better carrying on the folicitation of the public af- 
fairs in England, provided that fuch levy do not exceed three hundred 
|)ounds ilerling yearly; but, in cafe you fliall not think tit to agree td 
luch law, our pleafure 4S, that then the perfons defiring the (ame may be 
permitted to make voluntary contributions for difcharging the expetices 
of their folicitations, provided fuch contributions do not exceed three 
hundred pounds Aerling per snnum* 

. And we do Uke^^rife think fit, that, when .any complaint ij^zll 1^ in* 
t^ec^ agaiiift you^ uQtig^ he immediately jivea you thereof by the 


( 2Sl ) 

complaihant, with the charge againft you in writing, to the end yop 
may make timely preparation for your defence. 

In cafe of any diftrefs of any of our plantations, you (hall, upon appli- 
cation of the refpe6tive governor thereof unto you, affift them with what 
aid the condition and fafety of our ifland under your government can fpare. 

Laftly,if any thing -ftiould happen that maybe of advantage and fecurity 
to the faid ifland, and the other tenitories depending thereon, which is not 
herein or by our conAmiflion provided for, we do hereby allow unto you^ 
with the advice and confent of the council, to take order for the prefent 
;4hereiD, giving us, by one of our principal fecretary's of ftate, and our 
fCommittee for trade aad foreign plantations, fpeedy notice, tliat fo you 
onay receive our confirmation, if we Ihall approve the fame ; provided 
,alwayst that you do not, by colour of any power or authority, hereby 
given you, commence and declare war without our knowledge and par* 
ticular commandst 

IBy Ids majefty^s command^ 




( «« ) 




WE, the firft grand jury at St. Jago de la Vega, this lafl: Tuefday m 
. November, 1690, for tlie body of this your majefly's ifland x){ 
Jamaica, in America, fince your majefty's happy accelHon to the throne^ 
cannot fdrbear rendering our humble thanks to Almighty God for his in« 
cftitnable goodnefs and mercy, in that when, according to the weak* 
jtiefs of our human uriderftanding, all hopes of enjoying any longer our 
religion, laws, and liberties, were taken from us, he was pleafed, in our 
utmoll diftrefs, to fhew his miraculous power in raiiing your majeity to 
he the glorious inftrument of our deliverance from that Phililtine bondage^ 
which had extended itfclf into thefe the remoteft of your majefty*s domi- 
nions; fo that the laws of your majefty's kingdom of England, and this 
ifland, which Ihould have been our fwords and fpears for the defence of 
our natural rights ^fid privileges, were not to be found amongft us; but 
4)ur talk-mafters, with an abfolute arbitrary power, attended with a tyran* 
nical oppreHion of all that duril adventure to be honefl, in order to com« 
plete our «"uin, would not allow us our freedom .of electing our r<*prefenta^ 
iives to make laws, but were refplved themfelves to be fmiths to forge them« 

Under thefe circumftances, we might ftill have lain, had not your ma- 
Jefty, in your great wifdom, fent his excellency, the earl of Inchiquin^ 
for our governor, who hath already, by his great experience, made fo 
4arge a progrefs in fettling our affairs, that we doubt not jbut he will im 
isKhort time accomplifh what is (o happily begun* 

The confideration of £he removal of all thefe afRic^ons, which, nert 
to the divine providence, we muft acknowleage to be due to the extraor« 
dinary courage and admirable conduft wherewith God hath infpired your 
amajetty, forceth from the bottom of our hearts an humble congratulatioa 
of your majefty*s fuccefles at home, unfeigned thanks for your majefty's 
extraordinary care of thefe your dominions abroad^ and incelfant prayers 
to the Almighty for the ever continuance and increafe of your majefty's 
profiprrity and glory; not doubting that, as our Saviour hath made you his 
great apoOle for rcftorii.g his church in this age, he will enable you to ef- 
4abliflj it upon him, the rock that neither the pope, with anti-chriilian 
principlt^s, nor his difciplrs, with their fjibtle dclufions^ Ihali ever impi« 
4^uily cadeavQur to prevail againlt it* 


i M ) 



Mat it please tour cxcellenct, 

WE, the grand jury for the body of this their majefty's ifland, being 
thoroughly fenfible of their majefties fpecial favour and high 
wifdom, in feledting your excellency as a phyfician, everyway fufficient 
for the extraordinary diftempers of this late miferable^ but now happy, 
ifland^ have thought ourfelves obliged humbly and thankfully to acknow- 
ledge the progrefs your excellency has already made, towards fixing us 
jn lading foundations of peace and jufiice; and, where the adminifh-ation 
is entirely juft and happy, we may have leave to initance, we gratefully 
©wn your excellency*s goodnefs and care in removing from the feats of 
J^iiice the late arbitrary inftruments of our opprefTion, as well as filling 
them with magiflrates which now at laft will only be a terror to the evil i 
and we are confident that the remaining precin6ts of this ifland, which^ 
by reafoo of the great variety and intricacy of their affairs, could not by 
your excellency (that is not by the greateft application imaginable) be 
yet fupplied, with affairs civil and military, will, in due time, join with 
us in an harmooiow applaufe of your exceUency's conduct and good 



■••• 4 wk 


w 1 V 


• *%. 



Y tS4 ) 

I * 




SINCE the king was pleafcd to honour me with the truft of this go- 
vernment, I thought it my duty to ufe my utmoil endeavours in the 
promoting of his fervice, and the intereft of his fubje6ts here, which I 
take to be infeparable; therefore, finding at my arrival that^ through the 
want of a due exercife of the law, and that, by the pr^6tice of fome 
turbulent fpirits, you were in fome diitra6tions, I applied mylelf as earijF 
as I could to the repairing of the breaches they had ca^ufed^ and which 
laid you open to all the evils that could happen to a place and people 
for whom I know the king has a great value, and whofe fervice and real 
advantages ihall be the chiefeft of my ftudy. i 


The firft of thofe breaches was repaired by the law being reftored tf 
its due courfe, as foon as it pould be ; in the others, I have laboured as 
much as in mc lay, but what progrefs I have made in it, will be beil 
known among yourfelves; I hope it wont appear to be inconiiderable, by 
letting the world fee you lay afide all private piques, and animoiities^ ta 
promote the public and general gqod of the ifla'nd. 


I had not been here many days, when I found you had iiichjdegen^ 
i:ate neighbours as might reafonably give appreheniions of ruin and 
deftru6lion to the fettlements near the fea-Hde, and that you know affects 
tlie whole; but, when I think of giving them the prote6tion they ought 
to have, I find a*treafury exhaufled, and a government greatly incum* 
bered with debts, infomuch that it now lies under the greated exigencjf 
that can be imagined ; fome injftances ^ou have ot it, by thefe walls I re- 
ceive you in^ amongil many other things which (hall be offered to you 
in due time« 

But, gentlemen, (ince^ for ymir oiwn prefervation, the general wel- 
fare, as well as the honour of the ifland, and their majefties immediate 
fervice, no cure can be had but from you in this didemper, I will -make 
no doubt of your taking thofe meafures by which one may effc^ually be 
wrought, efpccially when y6u confider the difference between your con- 
dition, and Uiat of their majefties fubje<^ in other parts* Oeildes a great 





{ tiS ) 

deal of blood that has been Ihed in and about England, there has beeit 
the vafteft expences of treafare that ever were heajd of in that nation: 
Scotland almoil ruined by rebellions and diftracJlions, arifing from differ- 
ence of opinions : the deplorable condition of Ireland I need not tell 
you of: New England at great expences in the late expedition i and in 
great danger from their ill neighbours: New York not long fince under 
great oppreflion by the ufurpation of the government : in Maryland and 
Virginia, rifing and differences between the governors and the people, to 
the great difquiet of both, and the uncafinefs of the government at home: 
and what have not the. inhabitants of St. Chriftophers and the other if^ands 
fuffered ? Many of thefc are now v/andering and feeking for new places 
of abode, whilft you fit under your own vines, and reap the fruits of your 
labour, without any confiderable difturbancc. Do you do what Ihall be 
requifite on your part, and nothing fhall be wanting on mine that can 
contribute to it. 

Gentlemen, I am commanded by the king to offer and recommend to 
your confideration the making an a6t, whereby the creditors of perfons 
becoming bankrupts in England, and having edates in this ifland, may 
be relieved, and the debts fatisfied out of the fame ; and, likewife, that, 
for the better management of public affairs of this iQand, a law be pafTed 
for raifing of three hundred pounds per annum for the folicitation of the 
fame in England. The lafl is eflfentially necefTary, that the public affairs 
may fuffer very much by the want of it; therefore, for your own fakes, 
I will hope for your concurrence in it, in the fame manner as it has been 
formerly allowed of. 

Gentlemen, fome grievances that you have lain under have been re- 
moved fince my coming among you ; if any yet remain, you fhall find 
me as ready, as far as in my power lies, to confent to fuch laws as you 
Ihall propofe for the redrefTing them, as you can be to afk it ; for I know 
the king intends you all the kindnefs you can reafonably dcfire, and 
therefore I hope you will, and muft command that you carry yourfelves 
toward him iti your debates, as well as upon all other occafions, with all. 
the duty and refpedt that is owing to a prince, whofe piety, wifdom, 
and valour, has redeemed our religion and our liberties, by breaking tlie 
meafures of them who defigned the ruin of both. 

Thefe, gentlemen, in my judgment, are the ways for you to become 
a happy people, and whenever you are fo, I (hall think myfelf a happy 
governor among you, 



< «3C ) 


T 6 T H E 


Gentlemen, * . 

,*T^HE chief ends of my calling yon together were, that you might take 
-^ due meafures for your own prcfervation in this troublefome time of 
war, and the indemnifying of the inhabitants of this ifland, who have 
fuflfered by the invafions of the enemy, which you are bound to do by 
your own laws; and to lay before you the exigency of the government^ 
in hopes you would have taken it fo far into your confideration as to have 
-enabled me to do fomcthing for your prote6tion, and towards the dif* 
charging of near eight thoufand pounds debt, incurred upon that account^ 
jnoft of it before my coming to the ifland, and fome lince: You have in- 
deed pafled a bill for railing four thoufand feven hundred and eighty odd 
pounds, towards the maintaining of a floop, and repairing the lodes of 
the fufferers ; biit, as it were in the fame breath, you vote and pafs a bill 
* in a. matter the king had taken into his confideration, which I take to be 
a great difrefpeft to him; that it entirely takes away -his revenue, tiiere 
not being any mention made, that I can hear of, in feven or eight weeks 
time that you have fat, for what was granted to the crown by the one 
and twenty years bill, or of any equivalent for it; only I underftand, by 
a meffage I fometime fince received from you, that you had once read 
and pafled a bill fdt* raifmg a duty of forty Ihillings jk?^- head dn negroM 
exported, and fomcthing upon wine imported. The firft is abfolutety 
repugnant to the commands I have received from the king, and, fhoul^ 
it pafs, would^ in my judgment, ^e highly prejudicial to the kingdotn 
of England and this ifland, it being the greatefl blow that can be given 
to trade, which is the life of this place, aad 1 am bound ta encourage and 
proteft, and will do it. And now you ffend me a meflage to defire the 
expediting of two bills, the one tending to the defl:ru6tion of the govern* 
ment, the other to the affronting of me, neither of which, in my opinion^ 
require fa much hafte as that for the relieving of the poor fufferers, and 
the preventing others from falling wider the fame iialamiuaj 'but that 

^ni, it feWh^, y6« think fit to lay afide till you fee ^what* I wiH do with 
* the others, though yellerday I fent you a mellage t9 preis the expeditiag 
i)f it, which you vouchfated to anfvver only with another mcflage. This 
Isluchaway of proceeding, that I cannot, in behalf of the king, of the 
government. 111 traders, and the generality of the planters, (who I have 
a v(Ty good opinion of), but highly refent. .\ou may rtand in need of 
that jultice and charity, which you have, by thefe meafures, withheld 
from your poor neighbours; but that God, which is a God of juftice as 
well as mercy, will avenge the caufe of the poor on them and theirs 
l^^ho have been the opprelibrs of them. 

• When I came to this ifland, I found a flame kindled amongyou, which 
I took fome pains to quench^ and had in a great meafure done it ; but, 
fmce your meeting, I find fome turbulent fpirits have added new fuel ; 
therefore, to prevent the increafe of a fire that may be fatal to the ifland, 
though you have a fpeaker and feveral others amgog you I highly efleem, 
and am perfuaded of their being very well affefted to the government ; 
fince I cannot fay fo much of the major part of you, I think it necef^ 
fary, in the king's and queen^s names^ to diflblv? you^and you are hereby 
accordingly dillblved» ' * h 

But now I have further to fay to you, gentlemen, tljat, fmce you did 
not think it fitting to make a congratulatory addrefe to fo gracious a king 
as you have, it is not fit for me to receive one from you j therefore^ tbere*» 
^our addrefs again. 

jlndU was throtm ai t'lem iitUh Jome iQniitm^p 

'^•*^ *• 


T I. i 


( ««» y 




To ^Ae/r moy? excellent and mojl f acred inajeflies kijig Willinm and qneeti 
- Maryy hy the grace of God^ of Erigland^ Scotland^ France^ and Ire^ 

* land^ king and queen^ of Jamaica^ in America^ lord and ladj/y def aiders 9f 
the faiths inc. 

fOF yoUR majesty's council, of JAMAICA AFORESAID. 

Mo/l dnead fove) eigns^ 

SINCE, by the death of your majefty^s late governor, and want of a 
commander-in-chief of your majefty's ifland aforefaid, and the efpe- 
cial truil: and confidence your majeftieshave been pleaied to repofe in us, 
the government thereof is now devolved on us, your majefties mofthura- 
ble,"loyal, and.obedknt, fubje6ts;' we, therefore, in the deepeft contempla- 
tion of your majeftiM moft tranfcendant goodnefs towards all your ma- 
*^efties fubjec^s, and the many great and marvellous things your majefties 

• have not only attempted, but brought to pafs for us, and more efpecially 
of your majeftiet princely care and particular providence of this place, 
moft humbly befeech your majefties, inftead of what we owe, but can 
never perform, gracioufly to accept of what we can .and are willing and 
xeady to do, which is the laying'down our lives and fortunes at your facied 
majefties feet, in defence of your majefties royal perforis, prerog;ative, go- 
vernment, and fucceftion, as by law eftabliftiedy as the b^ means to make 
your majefties great and ourfelves happy. 

Moji gracious fovereignSf 

We have great reafon to fear, that we unhappily labour under your 
majefties moft gracious dtfpleafure, through the endeavours of the laft 
'aflembly, as they reprefented the oommunion of the ifland, to repeal and 
annul the laws made in the late defpotic reign and government; but moft: 
humblv hope, and heaftily implore your majefties, that no miftaken me- 
thods or uniuccefsful meafurcs may eclipfe and darken the royal bearafi^of 
your majefties .moft gracious favours, which have hitherto ftione fo illuf« 


( 239 ) 

rioufly in this our weftcrn liemifphere; and, fince It appears to the world 
to be your majeftics royal opinion in your majellies moft princely de- 
claration, at your majefties moft happy arrival, that it is moft certain and 
evident to all men, that the public peace and happinefs of any ftate or 
kingdom cannot be prcferved where the laws; liberties, and cuftoms, efta- 
blifhed by^the lawful authority in it, are openly tranfgrefled and annulled ; 
more efpeclally where the alteration of religion is endeavoured, and a re- 
ligion which is contrary to law is endeavoured to be introduced; and that it 
cannot be pretended that any kings ever reckoned it a crime for theif fub- 
je6ts to come in all fubmiffion and refpe6t, and in due number, not ex* 
.ceedingi the limits of the law, and reprefent to them the reafons that 
jnade itimpofTible for them'to obey their orders ; and that your majefties, 
ID further confirmation thereof, in the firft year in your auguft n'ign, hav^ 
been gi*acioufly pleafed to pafs it into a law, that it is • the right of the 
fubjed to petition the king ; and elections of members of parliamc nt 
ought to be free, and exceftive bail ought not ta^be required, nor ,excef- 
five fines impofed, nor cruel punifhments inflidled; and that jurors ought 

* to be duly impanelled ind returned ; we, in all humility, moft humbly 
prefume ourfelves within the bounds of your majeftie* royal grace, fa- 
vour, and prote6lion, and in the moft fiumble\Yife, ,|n behalt of ourfelves 
and the reft of your majefties fubjefts belonging, tp this your majefties 
ifland, with all manner of fubmtffion, duty, and refpe6t, moft humbly 
beg leave to lay before your majefties how much and wherein our laws, 
liberties, and cuftoms, have been tranfgreffed and annulled, and a religion 
contrary to law endeavoured to be introduced amongft us, and why we can- 
not with due cheerfulnefs fubmit to their laws; and moft humbly befeech 
your majefties, whom it hath pleafed God to make the glorious inftrument 
of our deliverance from popery and arbitrary power, that your majefties 
,will be gracioufly pleafed to favour us with an hearing before your majef- 
ties in council againft the unfree elections and proceedings of that aflfem* 
bly, in that your majefties will in no otherwife perfe<Sl our deliverance, 
fo far advanced by your majefties, by annulling thofe laws, than the real 
truth of the violation of the freedom of our elections and the often tranf- 
greffmgand annulling our laws, liberties, and cuftoms, and the introduction 
of religion, which was contrary to law was endeavoured on us, fhall be fully. 

. proved and made appear before your moft gracious majefties in council. 

And, according to our duty and intereil, we ihall always pray for ygur 
majeilies long and profperous reiga Over us. 
April 28, 4692. 




CM ) 





S 1 H S, 

THE general fatisfa(5lion this iflancf hath received of you, by your 
generous foliciting our aftairs at court, hath encouraged us to defirfc 
Ihe continuance of your endeavours in the like nature for the future^ iH 
which you have already fo exceedingly fatisfied and obliged us. 

Y6U will herewith receive the copy of an a6t, which their majefties 
liave been gracioufly pleafed to promife their royal aflent unto, entitled. 
All aSl for foliating the affairs of this ijland iti England^ in the body of 
which, by the unanimous confeijt of us, the council and ailembly of 
Jamaica, you have been chofen, and therein named, to be our folicitor 
at the court for obtaining, from time to lime, luch matters as ihall occur 

for the benefit of this ifland in general. 

. ■ t 

And it is our requeft to you at *prefent, that you folicit the confirming 
fuch laws as are herewith fent you, paffed here by their majefly *s lieute* 
nant-govemor, the right honourable fir William Beeiion, and Uich othen 
as (hall be hereafter tranfmitted unto you. 

That you endeavour to prevent the confirming of the laws pafled hece 

in the government of the late duke of Albemarle. 



That, in the beft manner you can, you will pleafe to prefent our acl» 
drefles to theix majefiies. 

That, as much as in you lits, you will encourage a trade for Scotland^ 
that we may have white people from thence, as alfo cloathing and pro- 
vifions neceflary for them, and alfo a trade with Wales may be obtamedi 
fos white people, provifionsy suid li^uois, 


( «41 ) 

That you ufe fuch meafures, as to you fhall feem expedient, for the 
(ending us fervants and freemen, efpecially tradefmen, and remind their 
snajefiies of one hundred, men the king was pleafed topromifefir William 
' Beefton, upon his coming to this government 

And that you fend copies for the «ncouraghig the importation of white 
'people into all countries that you Ihall think fervants and others may be 
obtained from, whether home-bred or foreigners. 

Thai you endeavour to procure as many merchant-men yearly as pof- 
iibly you can, whereby the produ6t of this ifland may be better remitted 
home, f6r the encouragement and increafe of their majellies cuftoms, 
and the planting intereil of this ifland. 

That you get two or three fmall light frigates, that can go into llioal 
water, and can follow the enemies barqua luengos, to cruize to anrd froift 
the ifland, to prevent the many depredations and robberies daily CQra- 
mitted about the co^As of this ifland; and that the commiflion^rs of the' 
navy fend timely fupplies of provifions, ammunition, and flores, for the 
/rigates and fortifications ; and that there be alfo fupplies of men for the 
frigates, feafaring men running away, and fome dying ; and to lay before 
the commiflioners the great inconveniencies of preffing out of merchant- 
men abroad, by which means many are laid up and loft. 

. That what frigates are fent hither may be under the dire(?l:ion and com- 
mand of the governor reiiding here, and no other perfon in America^ 
otherwife their majefties fervice will be obftru6ted for want of a good 
^orrefpondencc and fit directions. 

That you endeavour to prevent the parting again the additional z6t 
<ipon fugarsj if the parliament fliould have thoughts of reviving that, or 
any other of the like nature. 

That you oppofe the contrivance of the royal company's planting of 
indigo at Gambo, and iho(e coails; which, if it flmould obtain, would 
prove much to the diicoiuragement of .this ifland in planting, trade, and 
fliipping; and that, if the company's patent be confirmed, you folicit 
their majefties that they fend hither yearly three thoufand negroes, to be 
fold ^o4.hc planters of thexountry, be/ore the Spaniards be fupplied with 

II h an^yr^ 

-» * 

, ( 242 ) 

any, tlie afliento now picking out all the choice negroes tliat are import- 
ed, and leaving to the planters only the refufe, which mull of necefTity 
ruin them and difpcople the country. 

That you folicit the parliament to hinder the feizure of any fhip of 
veflel that fhall bring from Scotland or Ireland any commodities, though 
prohibited in the a<5ls of navigation and trade^ as cloathing, candles, Xc. 

That you difcover to the lords the great difhonour done to their majef* 
ties^ and the hiconveniencies that happen to the reft of their majeltiea . 
plantations, by New England, New- York, Carolina, Providence, ST^v 
entertaining and encouraging pirates; whereby all profligate fellows flock 
thither, to be encouraged and fitted out for the Red and South Seas^ 
where they daily commit piracies and murders; and, although an aft has 
pafled I>ere to pardon debtors, and fome Ibrt of offenders, yet treafon an4 
murder is therein excepted. ♦ 

That you alfo get fome fettled order to be made by the navy boarcT^ 
ihe better to fecure the paymentof the bills charged hence for the fittings 
provifions, and careening, their majefties (hips of war ; elfe nobody wUI 
f urnifli them, and the ftiips will be iinferviceable* i 

And humbly to put their majefties in mind of onethoufand pomids th6 
king was pleafed to promife our governor towards the reparation and 
4)uilding their majefteis forts here, we having already almoit expended 
our all for the lecurity and defence of this ifland. 

We fend youthefe heads, as general inftru6tion$ for you, to fcliclt for this 
ifland, and pray to note private and peculiar complaints be folicited for 
^r againft any private or particular perfons of this ifland, but that all fo* 
licitations be made in their proper plages for tiie public good of this ifland.- 

And, that there may never want ^ fupply of able and proper 
perfons to folicit our public nffais in "England, we have agreed here, that 
yourfelves, whom yeu believe to be moft proper in cafe of the death, ab- 
ience, or refufal, of either or any one of you, fliall choofe fucb <^ec| 
«s may be fittbg and proper for fuch folicitations. 

And, upon any emergent ocoifioos that may happen bete^ abd where 

C «w ) 

thefe inftni6lions do not fully direct you, we defire you to follow fuch as 
Aall be given by the honourable Samuel Bernard and Nicolas Low, James 
Bradfhaw, AVilliam Hutchinibn, Tbomaa Clarke^ James Bamlter, and Mo« 
dyford Freeman» efquires. 


•We pray you to reprefent to their lordfhips of the committee of trade and 
plantations, how detrimental it will be to their majeiiies and their fubje6ts 
to make any new fettlements in any part whatfoever, when thofe already 
fettled are too large for the people, whereby every place becomes fo weak 
Ihat they may become a prey to the enemy, 

^ That you take care, as much as in you lies, fo to prevail with their lord-* 
ftips that our council may net be made more numerous than .hitherto 
(as been> our people being decreafed ; and, if it fhould be done notwith-« 
landing, you make it your enddiivour that no lefs than half the number 

fsfid the cmmcif^ 

Andrew Lanole, Speaker. 

Sbw>K9 Bag vibhtoM^ Clerk to CouneiK 



( «44 ) 










nPHE.late duke ©f Albemarle, at his firft arrival in Jamaica^ called aa 
^ aflembly, which was duly eledted; but Needham, one of his advifers^ 
having and truly charged words fpoken in the aflembly by one of ftie 
members, viz. Salus pQpuli fuprcma lexj and the faid affembly juftifying 
and prote6ling the faid member, they were diflblved, and that member 
was taken into cuftody, and forced to enter into four thoufand pounds re- 
cognizance, and was afterwards indifted and fined fix hundred pounds for 
. the faid words ; wiiereas his prefent majefty, being informed, was pleafed 
to vacate that unjufi: fentence* After the diflblution of the faid aflfembly, 
the judges and moft df the principal oflScers in the faid ifland, were dif- 
placed, without any caufe afligned ; and particularly the provoft-mar-* 
ihal, whofc office is. to make all the returns for the aflembly, and one 
Waite an indigent perfon put in iiis place; one father Churchill, a Romifh 
prieft, being a bufy man in thefe regulations: and colonel Molefworthr 
was forced to give a hundred thoufand peufids ,fecurity to appear anc^ 
render himfelf in England, wherein feven of the principal inhabitants 
were bound, who thereby became obnoxious to the duke and hi» advifers; 
but that bond was afterwards vacated by the late king. 

That a new aflembly was called by the duke, and the freedom* of thb 
election for members to ferve in the faid affembly wiis then violated, b^ 
making troopers, fervarits, feamen, and difinterelled perfons^ freeholders^ 
and carrying them from place to place to vote, and putting the namai 
0t ieveral perfons to papers of ei(idtions^ and by impriiooing divers confix 

( 245 ) 

^erable gentlemen, upon pretence of a riot at an cledlion ; impofing fin^ 
on them to the value of two thoufand two hundred and forty pounds, ini*' 
prifoning and threatening to whip two gentlemen, viz. Mr. Gloflfe ancj 
AntiH, only for moving for a /?rti{'tf^*<:or;;?^5' for their friends, when they 
wei^ committed ; and making do6lor Rofe give ten thoufand pound3fe^ 
fcurity, only for words fpoken concerning the ele6lion, and of the ne\^ 
chief-juftice telling the peopltr in open court they Ihould be ruled with 
rods o( iron, which caufed many of the beft and tibltft by thefe griev- 
ous oppreffions, to get privately from thence to England, to feek protec* 
lion there, the people were frighted^ 

The new made provoft-marfhal made fuch returns of members of the 
aflembly ashepleafed, and by indireft means, thofe that were the fitteil 
to ferve the king and country in the aflembly, and fuch as the true elec- 
tors had and would have, were kept out. 

This aflembly made feveral laws, which were fent to England to be* 
confirmed by king James, and father Churchill came over there as foli^*- 
citor ; but that king having withdrawn himfelf, father Churchill durft not 
appear. Yet thefe laws were preiented to his prelent majefty by another 
perfon, againft thepaffing whereof all perfons concerned in Jamaica were 
heard by the counfel learned in the law before his majefty, who, as they^ 
iin^rftood, was gracioufly pleafed to remit the confideration of the faid 
4aws, and the illegality of the faid aflembly, to the next aifembly in the 
fald ifland; and feveral of the wealthieft inhabitants, with a great many^ 
witnefles, whp came from Jamaica, did return thither^ 

That the late king James and his prcfent majefty, being informed and 
fnade fenfible of the faid irregularities and oppreffions, were pleafed la 
Ceftore the judges and all the^ principal officers to their relpe<3:ive place s 
wherein they were, when the duke ot All)emarle arrived at Jamaica, and 
femitted th^ unreafonable lines impofed touching the matters atbrefaid. 

That, upon the lord Inchiquin's arrival, another aifembly was called and 
^uly elected, whofe firft.bufinefs was to draw up and prrfcnt 'o ihc f tid 
%)rd Inchiquin, as governor, a bill to tlie laws made by the above men* 
^oned duke ot Albemarle's aflembly. 


By »11 which it fully appears, that it is unanimoufly dofirrd by all \ht 

ycople^of and concerned in Jamaica,^ that the faid luvv:> iliuuid lioi { 


( ^4tf > 

And they, Iiavmg joyfully beheld his majefl/s glorlouft undertaking^ 
f nd happy fuccefs in the reftoration of thefe kingdoms to their ancien^ 
^ight, and in particular to the important affair as to the freedom of eleCf^ 
^ons, they do humbly hope his majefty will be gracioufly pleafed to heaf 
V^eir petition^ ^ind not to pafs the faid laws, or at leaft fufpend the fam^ 
imtil the petitioners can have the depofitions of their witnefles froisi 
Jamaica, to which •placQ they returned imcQ the jpetitioncrs itfft aj^pl^pil* 
lioii a^ainA ^6 iai4 ^iqbly and bwfti 

» « 






» _ ■ 


y7> the iiiig and queen^s mqfi excellent majejliesj William and Mary^ by tfi§ 
' grace of God, of Englandj Scotland, France^ and Ireland^ king Und 
queen^ and of Jamaica lord and lady, defmders of thcfaith^ &c. 



May it pleafe your majefiies^ 

•T^HE great and dreadful calamities this ifland lias of latf^ TufFered un^ef 
^ had obhged u§ to feek a new habitation, had we 't,een lubje<5^s to any 
l>ut your niajefties, to whom, under God^ tl» greateft part oi Chriftea- 
dom owes its prefent profperity. ^ ^ 

It has pleafed God t^ make your illuftrious anceftors^ whofe virtues are 
tomplicated in yo»jr fmgle perfon; the inftrumentsof hi» grace and favour 
to the nation m which Siey lived, to d^ver then* fropi tyranny aad 9]f^ 
prefTion, and. to procure to them peace and plenty. 

• And «>e have feen three kingdoms refcued by youf majefty, at a time 
when there was no ground to hope for human affiftance ; and one of 
th^'m, whofe raiferies have been equal to our own, though not brought 
Ko pais by the fame means, reftored to a firm peace^ and in ali likelihood 
4f flouriihing as well as even 

This gave us the aflurance, that, when it pleafed God to fiay his handt 
from puniihing, yours would be applied to healing, and that this ifland^ 
of fo great concernment to youi niajefty^ would quickly revive undcsr 
your royal influeoce^ 

Nor were we in the leaft miftaken, fince it was your firft eare to fend 
us a governor, whp, by the fhare he has had of our fufferi Ags, is rend wed 
the fitteft perfon to efltedt the recovery of our misfortunes. 

For this yi)ur grace and favour, ^nd the feafonafclle fupply of fhips, 
Ai*ms, and amniunition, we moft humbly prostrate ourfelves before your 
majeflies, . and ftiall, -by our future behaviour, endeavoiir to evidence to 
the world our fenfe of your majeflies goodnefs, .and our happinefs under 
your aufpicious government, which we befeech the Almighty to continue 
long over us, and grant that fuch fuccefs may always attend your armsJH 
AW due to fo Juft « caufe as he has b^en pleafed to engage you in» 


t V 






A Brief account of what happened in their majefties ifland of Jamaica^ 
during the time the French were preparing to attack that ifland^ 
and remained upon and about it in 1694; in which I fhall be obHged to 
make fome fhort digreffions, becaufe I fhall have occafion, in this relation, 
to mention fome perfons> without which all thinga will not otherwife be 
fo well underitood. 

Privateering having been for fome years paft difcountenanced in this 
ifland, and encouraged amongll the French at Hifpaniola, many of our 
people, who cared not to lead any other fort of lives, went over to them, 
and by times became their people; others, foPxie Roman catholics by 
religion, fome of -,the Irifli nation, fome much inclined lo think they 
were obliged that way to ferve king James, and others through diflatis- 
fa6Vion, and being in debt, ran away to them ; by which means they were 
flrcngthened, and we \yere weakened, 


The chief of thefe rogues was one Grubbin, who was born here of Ens^* 
liAi parents, and who, knowing all parts of the illand, has done much 
milchief, by landing in the night upon lone fettlements, near the fea, and 
robbing them of all they had, and away agam before any notice could be 
given for any fljength to come againft him* 

Stapleton and Lynch, two Irilhmen, who have, fince my coming hi-- 
ther, proved very^ inveterate ; the tirfl: came from the windward iflands, 
and brought his wJfe and children, and was kindly received about Port- 
Morant ; the other, I guefs, came in a floop for a fpy to him. I tendered 
the oaths, but he refufed them, and got out of the way before I could 
have him apprehended; after him I frnt warrants all over the ifland, but 
major Kelly found a way to ierid them off in a floop, that he pretended 
was to goto Curracjoa to get failors (whither many of our feamen had re- 
ibrted, becaufe they would not be prefled inig their majeities (hips) for a 

li greajt 


great Dutch ftiip he had brought here, and probably that was part of h1^ 
defign ; but he put in the floop about a thoufand two hundred pounds worth 
of indigo, and fent it privately, contrary to the a6lof navigation. And, 
about this time, he was killed alone by the French, who had landed a 
party at Cocoa- Bay, to plunder thereabouts, as he was riding up to Port- 
Morant to difpabch thisiloop.' Soon after the floop failed^ and thefe two 
in her, who, in requittal to him for his kindnefs, ranaway with the floop 
und idl the indigo to the French ; and there thefe. men, as I have been 
fince informed^ told monfieur Ducafs, the governor, that this ifland was 
eafily taken; the fortifications at Port-Royal were out of order, andfe^y 
men there, fo that two hundred men would take that place, and two hun- 
dred more would march in any part of the country, the people were fo 
thin and fo little ufed to arms ; and Stapleton wrote to his wife, who he 
had lodged near the fea,in St. Thomas's parilh, to that end, that he wou'd 
come aud fetch her and fome company, meaning negroes,, with her; and 
other difcoverjes he made therein, but by chance the letter came to my 
handj and I fecured llis wife^ for flie was their majefl:Les liege fubjecSt. 

Some time in April, one 6aptain Elliot, whom I {hall have occafion to 
mention, was fent in the Pembroke floop, with a cargo of eight or ten 
thoufand pounds, to trade upon the coafts of CarthagenaandPorto-Bello; 
and there, in a bay, was taken by two French privateers, and carried t© 
Petit GToave. \ 

About the fame time, vvlth much ado, 1 had got the Falcon manned, 
and, to keep off the frtaall privateers that landed often in feveral places of 
the out-ports, where the fettlements were thin, and did much mifchief to 
the people, I gave orders to captain Bryan, the commander, to cruife 
about feven or eight leagues to the windward of this ifland, to prevent 
thtm what he could from <x)ming down upon us; which he performed 
with great diligence^ and made two or three cruifes there ; but, about the 
middle of April, met with fix privateers, who had aboard them five hun- 
dred men, who were dcfigned to land at St. Thomas's and St* David's, and to 
rob thofe pariihes: 1 owards thefe the Falcon made fiil ; on which, as we 
heard after major Beauregaurd, who commanded, called a council of 
war, and would have fought the Falcon, but the captains of the privateers 
refufed, and laid at beft they fliould get only broken bones, and fpoU 
their men for any other defign ; on which they all ran and out* failed the- 

iyiicQSki but there wa& with Uiem a ihip that they had taken the day be* 


fofe, that was bound hither from New England with provifions, fhe tT>e 
Falcon out-failed, and took and broiiglit her prefently in with the men ; 
but I, fearing thofe privateers might get together again, and profecutc 
their dcfign, got the Falcon wood, water, provilions, and fome more men, 
and fcnt her out again in forty-eight hours, to cruife in the fame pafs ; 
whither fhe went accordingly. At this very junfture, arrived at Petit 
Goave from France fome merchant fhips, and three large men of war 
of fifty and fifty-four guns* The governor being told by the privateers 
where the Falcon lay, thefe fliips were prefently fent out, and with them 
another fmallcr of twelve guns to take her; and, as it afterwards appear- 
ed, foon met her, fought her, and were too many for her. But all our 
men of war flooi:)s belonging to. the ifland had been on the coafl of Hi* 
fpaniola, and there on the fhore accidentally met with Grubbiii's wife, a 
Frenchwoman he had married there : they would have left her there 
where they found her, but fhe earneftly defhed to go with them, and be 
quit of her hufband, becaufe, as ihe faid, he ufed her very ill; therefore, 
by her dcfirc, they brought her hither, from whence, being a Frenchwo- 
man, I would have fent her again, but flie earneflly defircd to flay and 
to have protection ; and as it was a flated agreement between Ducafs and 
myfelf, that what of their nation were with us, and defired to continue 
fo, Ihould not be obliged to be fent away againfl their wills, and the like 
with ours that were with them; therefore when they had a flag of truce 
here, I would have had her gone with monfieur Lepafs, who came here ' 
to exchange the French prifoners, but fhe refufed, and by the agreement 
betwixt us I would not force her away; neverthelefs, Grubbins, in re** 
venge, took the opportunity to tell the people, when he landed and plun- 
dered, and to write me, that, if I did not fend off his wife, he would 
carry away every woman he could meet with till he had his wife again ; 
and, accordingly, one night, landed at a lone hoyfe at St. Elizabeth's^ 
one Mrs. Barrow, a miniller's widow, plundered aH her negroes, houfc* 
hold goods, and all /he had; tortured her to confefs if fhe had any money, 
and then took away with him her maiden daughter, Mifs Rachael Barrow, 
of about fourteen years old, and carried her to. Petit Goave. This pallV'i 
a hundred miles from me, fo that I heard not of it prefently, Muci% 
about the fame time, other privateers had Ijcen at the northfide of this 
ifland; there they took major Terry and his wife, carried them aboud 
their vefiel, flripped her to her fliift, and beat her; at length, for ranfom, 
made him give bond to pay a certain fum to whom they fhould fend for 
it. Alio, there they took a floop belonging to one captain Robiafon, and 

1 i 2 anotiief 

X 252 > 


another belonging to Richard Nicholas ; thefe two came over land to me> 
and defired leave to go to Petit Goavc, to buy their veflels and lading, 
vi'hich I accordingly gave them, and writ by them both, in two feveral 
iloops, to the French officers, and defired fafe condu6l in theii going and 
coming, and they went away accordingly, 

Soon after Mrs. Barrow had travelled hither, and carae to me fuH oi 
prayers and tears in behalf of her maiden daughter, and earneftly begged 
me to help her. I then confidered thele were inhumanities beyond the 
common cuftom of war ^mongft Chriftians, and therefore fetit major Low, 
one of the council, and with him, for the better port, lieutenant-colonel 
Clarke, with a flag ©f truce, and. a letter to monfieur Ducafs, to complain 
of thefe infolencics, .and many others committed by their privateers, and* 
to require puniihinent on the offenders, or elfe to tell him that I would 
make fatisfa6tion to ourfelves on any of their people that we met with; 
but the two (loops mentioned before, and this, with major Low alfo, as 
foon as they came' on the coaiis, they feized and plundered of what they 
liad^ and detained them all asprifoners. 

Some time pafled away, and I heard nothing of the Faulcon, wfiofe li- 
mited time was out, nor of any of thofe (loops; and not knowing the French 
had any recruits of Ihips from France, and therefore but only one of. 
forty-four guns with them, at Petit Goave, I could not think the Faulcoii 
was* taken, but doubted fhe muft fpring a but-head and fo be foundered 
or accidentally (ired in the fea, and all loft that way: but time going 
away, I was very uneafy, and began to doubt they had fome defign 
againftus, and the rather becaufe, about a month before, I had a letter 
from Curra9oa, from a gentleman I know not, which told me that the 
French were pieparing a great ftrength to take Jamaica, but when or 
from whence he named not; fo that I concluded it only a rumour, and 
the rather becaufe I thought the French at Hifpaniola with one man of 
war only, of their king's, of forty-four guns, could not, with all their 
jprivateersy attempt any fuch thing as the carrying the whole ifland. 

%Vhilft I was under fome doubts and concernments, which daily in- 
^reafed upon me as the time pzffed away, on 1 hurfday, the lad day of 
May, in the evening, as I wa6 fitting with fome gentlemen, comes mto 
my houfe captain Elliot, whom 1 have before mentioned to have been 
1||ke& hy U)e i^jfioch^ in a very xnean habit^ ^and wiitb a meagre weather* 


if 253 ) 

beaten countenanfe'5, and told me, that, for the fafety of the ifland, he 
and two more had ventured their lives to the will of the fea in a fmall canoe, 
that would carry no more than them three that were in her, and had the 
Saturday night before ftolen away from the enemy, to let me know that 
the French, had recruits of men and men of war from France and Mar- 
tinique; that they had taken the Faulcon, the manner how; that they 
had drawn up all their ihips and force together, had twenty fail of fhips 
and veflels, and three thoufand men, and were defigncd to take this 
ifland ; and in order to it, monfieur Ducafs the governor was coming with 
them: that Stapleton, LynCh, and others of the rogues that had deferted 
from us, had told him he would meet with but little difficulty in the 
€nterprize, for the fortifications at Port- Royal were down fmce the earth- 
quake, and two thoufand men would take that place ; that they were 
very weak; that upon the iiland there were at lead five hundred men, 
fome Roman Catholics, and others affefted to king James, that would 
come in to them, and that a fmall number of men might march through 
the country; that they were ready to fail when he came away, and 
fnight be expected in two or three days ; that they hoped to be witli us 
tefore we had any intelligence of their coming, which would make their 
conquell of the place more eafy. 

This was furprifing news, but the council and aflfcmbly being then 
together here, I prefently fent for the council, and fdon after for the 
ipeaker, and concluded he ftxould call the affembly together and adjourn 
for one month, which was accordingly done; and a council of war of the 
officers immediately called together, and martial law proclaimed, and 
*every officer ordered to his poft. At this time one of the baftions of 
fort-Charles at Port- Royal was built but up to the fills of the port; but 
colonel Beckford, who commanded that fortrefs and Port-Royal, did io 
induftrioufly apply himfelf to the fecuring of the place, that he got th^ 
badion built, the platform laid, the guns mounted, and all the fort into 
excellent order ; then laid a linie of nineteen calvcrin to the eaft of the 
fort and five to tlie weft, and in the mean time we bought a Ihip and 
jfitted her very well, though at a great charge, for a fire Ihip; laid the 
Advice to fecond the fort, drew all the merchant fhips into a line, and 
iyarricaded all the ftreets leading to the fort, and lined them with great 
£uns, and put every thing there into as good a pofture as could be done in 
the time ; and, to ttrengthen him, I fent him fifty white men and fifty blacks 
^OBi bt* Calherine's, and as many from St. Andrev/'s and Kingflon, and 


( 254 ) 

put (i'ly blacks on board the Advice. In the mean time, colonel Lawc; 
at St. Andrew's and Kingllon, d/ew lines where there was occafion, . 
fecured a narrow pafs where they might be afraid to break in at the 
eaftcrmofi: part of Kingfton ; and fir James Carlifle having garrifoned and 
provided his houfe, which was well walled and gunned for a defence; alfo 
they built a regular fort in the parade at Kingfton, and put themfclves in 
very good order. At St. Catherine's fide we likewife made very good 
bread works, and planted guns where there might be danger of their 
landing, and the like was done at Old-Harbour and Carlifle-Bay, and put 
ourfelves into the bcft pofture we could to receive them ; and, becaufe 
the illand is very large, and impoffible to be defended in all parts, with- 
out very much more ftrength than we have, I was willing, if poflible, ta 
defend what was ftrongejl, and therefore I fent for all the forces from the 
out-parts and drew them near together into St. Dorothy's, St. Catherine's, 
St. Andrew's, and Port-R oyal ; from which places, whenever we were attack- 
ed, we ^ould affift one another ; and fome few I left to defend the brealU 
work at Carlille-Bay, but that was above thirty miles off. The people of St. 
Tliomas's and St. David's, the eallermoft parts of the ifland, and moft 
obnoxious to the cnenjy, I ordered all in, and to bring to St. Andrew's 
and Kingfton their wives, children; negroes, and all they had, becaufe 
that in five and twenty or thirty miles fpace there were not above a hundred 
and thirty men. of all forts, and therefore not poflible in any wife to de- 
fend theijnfclves, but would all have been a prey, with all they had, to 
the enemy. Accordingly the.greateft part came away, and brought all 
they could, but fome trufted to the good nature of the French, as I 
doubted they would by fome letters they met with, and loft what they 
left behind. At Fort- William and Port-Morant 1 ordered the guns to be 
fpiked up, tlie fhot to be buried, and the powder brought away, as being 
in no capacity of ftrength or men to defend itfelf againft fuch a force. — 
"We alfo drew from all parts of the ifland as many able men negroes as 
could be trufted, and put them in arms, where many did good fervicci^ 
as well as in the laborious part of building breaft-works, SCc. and w^ 
flored ©urfelves as well jas we could with fait provifions, of which and 
liour we had the good fortune to be pretty well ftocked. 

According t6 our daily expedVation, on Sunday morning, the feven* 
teenth of June, their fleet came in fight with a frefli gale, and we ex* 
pe6lcd they would have come diredlly into Port- Royal, but they had 
met with no iutelligence^ and therefore eight fail ftayed about Port- 


( 255 ) 

Morant, and fourteen of them went to an anchor in Cow-Bay, fix or feven* 
leagues to the windward of Port-Royal, and where if I had not removed the 
people from St, David's and St. Thomas's they had fecurcd them all from 
coming to us, or we from fending any fuccour unto them.* Here a negro 
man prefently came to them, as 1 am advifed, and told them, captain 
Elliot was arrived fomctime fmce, and we had notice of their coming ; 
the people were all called together from the out parts and Port-Royal for- 
tified ; neverthelels monfieur Ducafs would have come in, but many were a- 
gainft it, and monfieur Rollon, who commanded the Temerare of fifty- four 
guns, and was admiral, told monfieur Ducafs he would not venture the 
king's fhips into any harbour, where if they did not prevail there was no 
coming out again. Then they fell to landing their men, plundered, 
burnt, and deftroyed, aU before them eafhvard, killed all the cattle of 
all forts, and all fowls; drove flocks of fheep into houfes and then fired 
them, burnt the canes, pulled up the very herbs, and cut down the very 
fruit-trees. Some of the flraggling people that were left behind they 
tortured, particularly Charles Barber; and James Newcaflle they mur- 
dered in cold blood after a day's quarter: Some women they fuffcred the 
negroes to violate, and dug fome out of their graves, fo that there were 
never more inhuman barbarities committed by any Turks or infidels in 
the world ; and what they could not carry away, they totally deflroyed, 
and left that part of tl:ie country wholly devoured and deflroyedt There 
they were at their own liberty, for it was too far for us to fend fuch a 
force as could repel them ; befides they had Secured the pafs at Cow-Bay, 
and alfo thf y watched but when we would divide our force, and then 
they would have been upon us in few hours with their fhips, and would 
have put the whole ifland in great danger, which I was refolvedto defend 
if pofTible. When they had cleared before them from Cow-Bay to Port- 
Morant, which was about five and twenty miles, and whither fometime 
before tJiey had removed all their fhips, they thought they fhould do the 
fame in all parts of the ifland without interruption; and therefore, during 
their flay at Port-Morant, they fent forty-five veflTds to the >;orth-Cde, 
and at St. Mary's and St. George's burnt fomc plantations; but, on the 
appearance of lome forces which' we fent thither, they withdrew and 
returned to their fleet; alfo the Ihurfday after they came firfl to Cow- 
Bay, the wind blowing very hard, and the admiral's fhip, monfieur 
RoUon, riding in deep water, his anchors came home, and he was driven 
^ with another in his company, and could not get up to his fleet any 
triore ; kit, for want of wat^r, bore away to filue-Field's-Bay, towards 


( 25<S ) 

the weft end of this ifland, where he landed about fixty men ; but major 
Andrefs, who was left there with a few men to take care of thole parts, 
fell on them, where was a fmall encounter, in which we had one man. 
killed and two wounded, and they loft fome; but, on the hearing the. 
fmtill arms, the admiral fired a Ihot over their heads, whicli was a fign to 
them ; for on it they ran a-board in fuch a hafte that they left their meat 
they had killed, and fome cattle they had tied up to carry a-board, and 
their bread and fait, and failed away as foon as they could get up their 
anchors. TJie fleet having done all the mifchief they could at Port- 
Morant, and the country thereabouts, beat down all the walls of Fort- 
"William, burnt the carriages ot the guns, and, leaving nothing they 
thought might be ufeiul to mankind, on Monday, July the fixtecnth, their 
whole fleet failed from thence, and on Tuefday morning the feventeenth 
fome of them came in fight of Port- Royal, and in the afternoon all the 
reft;, and went to an anchor again in Cow-Bay; and, toamufeus, landed 
their men very faft, and made fires 'along the bay, which gave us caufe 
to think they defigned to try to force the pafs into St. Andrew's; for fear 
of which, I fent thither from St. Catherine's about a hundred men to 
reinforce therti, but ftill doubted a trie k, and io it happened; for, as foon 
as it was dark, they took all ti.eir men a boird again, and failed all but three 
of their biggeftfhips, which ftill kept m Cow- Bay to amufe us, fo that 
the eighteenth in the morning we faw feventeen of them*from our look- 
outs in the country, and from Port-Royal, Handing to the weft ward, and 
then I concluded their defigp was to lurprize Carlille-Bay, in Vere, be- 
fore we could fend to their aftiftance, it beuig about thirty-fix miles from 
us in St. Catherine's; but I prefently fent two troops of horfe, and part of 
the regiment of St. Catherine, and part of the regiment of Clarendon^ 
which were in town, and part of the regiment of St. Elizabeth, which lay 
in the way at St. Dorothy's, to march ; to mount what part ot the foot they 
could get liorfes for, and by evening they were all marched on their way. 
The horfes and they that were mounted got thither by night, and the 
reft marched fo hard that they got thither by ten the next morning.— 
Ihe enemy came all to an anchor in that bay, the eighteenth in the 
afternoon. There lay a fliip come from 'Guinea, whi?h landed her 
negroes there, and could not for the hard breeze^! come up to Port- Royal; 
of this ftiip captain Uaniel was comrnander, who, feeing he could not 
fave her, fet her on fire, that the enemy might not have her, and with 
his men went on fhore into a breaft- work on the bay, where they did very 
good fervice^ and where fix of his men were killed and more wounded.— 

( 257 ) 

, • - ' 

Into this brftftft-work were gotten two huncTred and fifty men, l)erides 
blatks, being thofe of the feveral regiments they got down iiril, and 
colonel Sutton of Clarendon, was the chief otficer, and had been llic 
l^uilder of this work; but it was ill made, and. worfe contrived; on the 
fouth was the fea, on the weft a large rker, pn the north a vilhige of 
houfes, and on the eaftthcy had left a wood ftanding,and made noprovilions 
for the men, either meat or drink, or horfe meat, liuirfday the nineteenth, 
fome hours before day, the French in all their fleet made (igns for laiioing, 
:ty throwing up in every veflel fmall balls of wild-lire, and by day light 
kad by efti mat ion landed about fourteen or fifteen hundred, but avoi(i.vd 
the breatt-work, and landedabout a mile and a half to tlie eaftward o( it, 
lehere were fmall guards to watch them,- who fired on them as they ap- 
J)ro^ched the fliore, and retreated about nine or Jten in the morning, they 
jhaving very good guards come down the wood oh the calt fide, and feU 
tery hotly on the breaft-work, where a great iire was made, and the 
French officers forcing on their men, ours gave way and fled to the weft- 
^'ard, where many got over the river and were faved, others bogged and 
drowned ; many of the oflftcers and moftof the men fought bravely, and 
Jlilled piany of the enemies before they were forced .to retreat. Colonel 
Claybourn, of the regiment of St. Klizabeth's, and hig captain-lieutenant 
Vaflel, were killed dead ; lieutenant*-colonel Smart of the regiment of 
Clarendon, lieutenant Dawkins and others killed ; and captain Dawkins. 
^nd captain Fifher, and many others taken prifouers, and about 
four of their colours loft, and all their horfes, which were tied 
thereabouts. Juft as the French forced the breaft-work, three or 
four companies of the regiment of St. Catherine, and one of St. Eli- 
zabeth, and fome horfe, came in after a march of about thirty miles that 
•nighty weary, lame, and hungry, yet fell on bravely, on the right of the 
€nemy, and charged them fo warmly that they could not follow our men 
that took away over the river, elfe they had all been cut oft. Here both 
officers ajid men behaved themfelves with that gallantry, that they made 
the enemy retire, and ours then being very much fatigued, did the like 
to recruit themfelves. Here captain Rakeftead and fome others were 
Vounded, and fome killed ©n our fide; and many of the French, who, 
us foon as the rencounter was over, fell, according to their wonted barba- 
rity, to burn and deftroy all they came near, and made no other advance 
Ibwards our forces, nor we towards them, but in feveral Ikirmilhing par- 
ses, till Sunday the twenty-fecond ; then they marched upwards, and 
(fame to a brick houfe of one Mr. Hubbard-s, who had gottoii about five 
Itod twenty men into it^ well provided with arms, ammunition, water, and 

K k couveniencies ; 

( 2*8 ) 

conveniencies; on this houfe they fell fmartly, but they from within ap* 
plied themfelves fo to their defence, that they killed many and wounded 

more, and of thefe feveral of their confiderable officers. Major -— , 

hearing their difpute, made with fome horfe and foot to their afliftance/ 
and came in time enough to help to beat them off, and plunder the dead ; 
but here we loft feme men ; alfo-our fcouts' and fpies brought news this 
evening that the enemy were providing great guns againll the nett day^ 
and then refalved to batter and attack the houfe. In this time fome of 
the chief of our officers, not being fo bride, nor managing with fuch con- 
du6t, as the cafe required, the commiflioned officers at a council of war 
unanimo'ufly chofe major Richard Lloyd, major to myfelf, of the regi- 
ment of horfe, to direct and command all the force there, which then w;i9 
about fcvcn hundred, aiyi fent an exprefs to me to confirm it, which I 
did for the better management of the whole. The next day, being Mon- 
day the twenty-third, major Lloyd put about fifty men into Mr. FJubbardV 
houfe and laid the reft of the forces in an excellent ambufcadc, expecting 
the enemy to come on as they had reported; which, had they done, fe^r 
had returned alive ; but they, being privateers, and finding (o many of 
their men killed and wounded, and amongfl them feveral of their bcft 
olficf^rs, and finding they could make no advance on the country, that 
ni^jjht fired all the iraall town of Carlifle, flopped up the great guns, did 
what mifchief they could, left the prifoners. they had taken there, and 
went all aboard their Ihips, At their (irfl: coming, they boafted mucb 
tliat they would fire and deftroy all the country before them till they came 
to St. Catherine's, then plunder and burn that, then cut off the water 
from Port-Royal, and ftarve that, and fo fecure the whole country to them- 
felves ; but withal took care, by fome rogues, to tell our people who 
would fubmit to the king of France, or declare themfelves tor king 
James, Ihould hav\3 all they had preferved to them, but few believed 
them ; and they, having met with iio refufal in St. Thomases and St. David's, 
believed they fhould march as freely in other parts of the country, and 
meet with no confiderable oppofition. On Tuefday their whole fleet fail- 
ed, and for fear they fhould fall into Old-Harbour, wlrich is between St. 
Ciitberine^ and Carlifle, and land there, and thereby cut our forces that 
were at Vere from joining. thofe here, and fo have fallen on this town and 
cn^langcred the whole, I had given order before to major Lloyd that, it he 
l.w them remove, and fail to windward, he fhould immediately march 
tic torccs to St. Dorothy's, leaving only a guard at Carliilc-Bay, which he 
did accordingly; and, to prevent Uieir delign in this place,- when 1 fent 



( 259 ) 

the forces that were here away to Carllfle, I called from Port-Royal and 
St. Andrew's, which were then fafe, when the enemy's licet were to lee- 
ward, about four hundred and fifty men, befides blacks, fo that we had a 
good ftrength here, had they put that trick on us; befides there h an open 
plain country fix miles to the weftward of this town, through which they 
muft have pafled, and then the horfe would have done us good fcr\ ice, 
which they could not do in that inclofed country of Vere, which is all 
hedged, and wc had alfo five very good field-pieces well mounted, and all 
things in order, lo that I doubt not we fiiould have given them fuch a 
reception as they woul not be well 'plcafed with ; but they made all 
hafte homewards, and had favourable weather to do it. Monfieur Du- 
cafs and two or three fliips made the bed of their way, and frayed not 
anywhere, but about feventeen fail went into ^ort-Morant to wood and 
water, which they did with all the fpeed they could. On Saturday the 
twenty-eighth in the evening, they- put afiiore moft of the prifoners 
they had taken whilftthey were about the country, and that night failed 
all homewards, as we guefs, fincc we have heard nothing of them from 
that time. 

I cannot yet procure a certain account of the lofles of either fide; 
but, according to the heft conjecture we can yet make, we have had on 
our fide about fixty killed and wounded fince they came firft to the coun- 
try, and, as we can gather from our prifoners come from them, they have 
bad killed and wounded above three hundred and fifty men, befides many 
died with fickncfs in their fiiips, fo that when they come home and 
confult their lills, it is fuppofed feven hundred will be found wanting, 
from their firft fetting out. It appears by what I have known fince, that 
Mr. Hubbard's houfe was garrifoned the firft time by order of major 
Lloyd, and an officer put in to command them ; that we have had on our 
fide killed and wounded about a hundred men of all lorts, Chriftians, 
Jews, and negroes, and that fifty fugar works have been deftroyed, befides 
many plantations in St. Thomases, St. David's, and St. Mary's, and above 
a hundred burnt befides, in the pariflies of Vere and St. George's, befides 
all other fpoils, and about a thoufand three .hundred negroes, as we can 
yet compute, carried ofl, fo that the value is very great, and cannot yet 
.be computed* 


( 260 ) 



AFTER our very hearty commendations, her majefty havhig recejvei^ 
an account, from yourJetters of the 2Sd of June laft, that the French* 
have appeared before the ifland of Jamaica with a confiderable force in 
fliips and men, and on tlie fevcnteenth of thr fame month landed a great 
number of men upon the windermoft pail of the ifland, where they 
were plundering, ravaging, and burning, all before them, and were daily 
cxpc<R:ed to fall upon St. Jago and Port-Royal, wheie you had got all 
the force of the ifland from the out-parts, and had got all things 
into as good a pofture as you could to defend the place, till fuch 
time rehef of Ihips and men might be fent from England, to* enable you 
to encounter the enemy, both by fea and land, and to beat them off front 
the coafts of Jamaica; and further reprefenting, that, in ten ^ays after 
the date of your faid letter, you intended to fend another exprefs, with 
^n account of the pofture and proceedings of the enemy ; which exprefe 
is now very foon expe6led. Her majefty in the mean time, taking 
nothing more to heart than the relieving and preferving to the crown of 
England the ifland of Jamaica, as a place of the greateft importance to 
the trade and commerce of this kingdom, and prote61:ion of their majef- 
ties good fubjedls in that ifland in their pt^rfons and ertates; we have re- 
-ceived her majefty's command to let you know, that her majefty, relying 
very much upon yaur vigilance, courage, and prudent condu6l, together 
with the known loyalty and fidelity of their majefties fubje<?ts in Jamai* 
ca, for the refifting and withftanding the further attempts of the enemy^ 
and defending and preferving the ifland from falling iirto their hands^ 
until fuch tkne as fuitable relief may be fent to repel them from thence; 
*her majefty has been gracioufly plcafed to give exprefs orders for the 
preparing, with all the diligence that may be, for the fpeedy fending to 
Jamaica fuch ftrength in fliips of war and land-forces as may be able not 
only to free the ifland from the ihfults of the enemy for the prefent, but 
to reduqe the French in the neighbourhood of Jamaica to fuch a condi- 
tion as may put them out of capacity £br tlie future to moleft the inhabi- 


■( mi ) 

etants of Ihat iflanrf, or to difturb th« trade or Gommercc of their mafet* 
tics fubje6ls in thofe parts. Hermajedy having alfo referred to oiir care 
the fending away the faid fhips and land forces, with fiich expedition as 
the emergency of the occafion and their majellies purpofe for the protect 
tion of their fubjedts, and the prefeivation of that ifland from falling into 
the hand# of the enemies, you are to alfure tlie inhabitants of Jamaica 
that we have the fame under confideration^ in fuch manner that the faid 
j-elief and afiiftance may 5e fent in good time to tlieir fatisfiction, for their 
proteftion in their perfons and eftatcs upon the ifland, and that the fame 
-may render them for the future hie and fecure from the infults of their 
majeliies enemies in thofe parts. 

^ And fo, not doubting of your utmoft care and endeavour in the ^meaat 
4ime for the defence of the ifland, and the protection of their majellieg 
4rubjc6ts there, all that in you lies, we bid you very heartily farewell.. From 
the council-chamber, at Whitehall, this 23d of Auguft, Iff^*, in th« 
rfixth year of their raajefties reign. . 

Your very loving friendsj^ 









Charles MonxA6V^ 





To the right honourahle William Bee/ion, knight'^ their majt flies lieutenant^ 
go.^n-nor^ and commander-ih-chief of this their majejiies .ijland oj Ja^ 
7n.uxaj and the territories iheneon dcpaiding^ &iQ. 



May it pleafe your honour^ ' • 

HVVING taken into our fcrious confideration, tliat your hoiiour 
communicated by the fpeaker to the houfe, relating to the better 
iecuring this iiland, do moft humbly pre fume to acquaint your honour, 
th it notwithftandingthey have met with fome difappointmenl in the im- 
jnrdiate affiilance expecled from the king's fhips, for the fecurily and de- 
fence of this ifland, and tlie diforder and unwillingnefs of the failors era- 
p!o\ ( d in the lloop to continue and proceed in the fervice, arifing from 
the fo great difproportion in fliaririg what is taken in the frigates among 
tM'^ai, which we fear in fome mieafure hinder the fuccefs hoped for. 
Yet, as an inftanceof ^their readinefs to preferve their mafter's honour and 
tht' lately and vveUarcof this ifland, have unanimoufly voted a fupply of 
forty men, for the better enforcing the floop now in the country's lerviee. 
They alfodefirethat they may have leave humbly to offer, that, confider- 
ing iheSpariifh trade is of fo great importance, and confiderable advan- 
tage to ♦perforis trading that way, it is undoubtedly capable to bear its own 
charge, without the frigates for fecurity and convoy; and the perfons con- 
cerned to raife a fund of money to hire other velfels and men, and their 
mailer's frigates attend and guaid the coall of this ifland, and be employ^ 
cd againft:the enemy, and maintain their honour and inteireft in thefe 
parts, and alfo, that the floop of \yar fitted out by the country may be 
employed for its immediate fervice upon the coalt thereof. 

As to other matters your honour hath been pleafed to intunate, of 
great concern and confequence to the ijitereft of this ifland, the houfe 
has refolved, a*? the circumllmces of affiirs (hall admit, to take into their 
immediate confiderat on the. expediting thereof; and, as the neceffary 
d fence of the iflmd ferms at prefent to call for immediate aififtance^ 
tp^rrfore the houfe thinks tit to enter upon nothing until what hiis rela- 
tion thereto fliall be difpatched ; and hop<s for their encourag nnent, to 
in et vvith alFurmce from your honour, that what they have requclhd in 
tiicu' humble addrefs will be graated . 




THE 8th FEBRUARY, 1695-6. 


The right hovourable Wix.Li am Beeston, knight^ his majcflys lieutenant^ 

governor and commander-in-chief ^ PRESiDExvr, 

Col. John Bourden , Lieut. Col. Thomas Clafki?:, 

Col. Nicholas Lawes^ Lieut; Col. Sadli.r, 
Col. Henry Lowe, Major James Mansey, 

Col. Charles Knights, M^ajor Lancelot 'Ialbot. 
Lieut. Col. Richard Lloyd,. 

Agreed I. TTH AT if the enemy endeavour to force the pafs nito 

^ Liguanea, then, on the hi It n'^tice, the troop of h^rfc 
and three or four companies of foot be fentfrom town tp ailift them; and, 
for a fign. 

Ordered, That coloneJ Lawes caufe three guns to be diftinc^Hy fi»^el 
at the breaft-work, and three at Kingfton, and that they be anfw .cd 
by one from Port-Royal fort. 

. * 
Agreed 2. if the enemy pafs Port-Royal on the outfide of the Ke\% 
then the troop of horfe and three or four companies or foot of Liguanea ta 
march immediately, without further order, to ht. Jago, and three ccv - 
panics of the foot at Port-Royal to come over by Salt-Ponds, and mai v h 
to St. Jago with all the expedition tliat may be. 

Agreed, That if theenemy attempt Old-Harbour, which will foon be 
known, if they are fecn lailing in there, then the maj>r part of tho lu -fe 
and foot to march from St. Jajjoto St. Dorothy's, anH the regime!. «f 
Clarendon and Vere to da the like, leavijng^ ottiy one coiupany for agu rd 
at Carlisle. 

• m 

Ordered, That, upon the approach of any fiiipsto Old Warnninv they 
efficers there immediately fend exprelFes to Carl ifle- Bay, ;u d Liud 
there; then his majofty's troops and all the forces liorieand root, lo draw 
down about Mr. Iveys, and there itay till they are reinforced, and not 
fall on in fmall parties, Icllthcy he baffled; and the forces of St. Doro- 

low as fall as they are able, and ji;in the forces at Verc 

Ordered, 1 hat the Clarendon and Vere troops come to town imme-» 
^lately, leaving only fix troopers to ride the patrole there. 

It Ts the unanimous opinion of this board, that the forces from wind-* 
ward be immediately drawn down to Liguanea, and from all other parts 
of the ifland, l^ort-Royal excepted, to bt. Jago de la Vega aiul St., 

Ordered, That colonel Knights take up two fuch fhips or veflels $i 
YttU be moft c^onvenient to make fire-fhips, and fit them immediately* 

" Ordered, That all the reformades in this ifland join and exercife i<i 
Ihe fcveral troops of bolfe^ vx tl^e refpe6Uve precindte wheie they live. 

T^wa Coj^im 

Thomas Nicholas^ 5ec« 




C.\PTAIN general Selvvyn arrived In this government the twci>ty-firft 
of January, 1701. He foon or immediately iirucd out a writ to 
call an alFembly to meet on the fevcnt(*enth of March ; this aflembly fat, 
and continued to make laws until the 25th of May, at which time notice 
came of the deceafe of the king on the eighth of March, 

Q^ueiy \Jl. — Whether that aflembly, convened after the dontli of the 
king, be lawful, and the laws made by them befoie kich notice be good 
and in force ? 1 he a(5\s of an alicmbly making of Icuvs, I think, are 
not to bo compared to tlie aci'ts of particular pcrfons, as juitices of alfize, 
or other commiffioncrs acting by virtue of the king't> commiflion. A6is 
done by fuch juliict s or commilUoners alter their commillionb are fupcr- 
ceded, ^c, and betore notice thereof, are valid* 

Anfwer. — But an aflembly, in nature of a parliament, I take to be 
diflohed immediately upon the denufe of the king, unlefs otherwife pro- 
vided for by fome Jaw. Hawever the alfembly, until notice, was un- 
doubtedly a legal aliembly ; but, nevertbclels, 1 conceive the laws they 
made after the deceafe of the king want conhrmation. Colonel Beck-* 
ford had a dormant commiflion for lieutenant-governor of an old date, 
under the privy feal, to commence or take place on the death or abfence 
of any captain-general or commander-in-chief. Captain-general Selwyn 
died on the fifth of April, and the fame or the next day that commiliioa 
was publilhed. 

§luery 2d. — Whetlier that commiflion is made good to all intents and 
purpoles by the ftatute of the 7th and 8th of the king, ;/o/. 565, he 
not being pofl'efl'ed till after the death of the king. Had the commiflion 
to colonel Beckford been good and in force at the time of the demife of 
the late king, the above mentioned ftatute, and ftatute in this late par- 
liament for explaining a claiile made in the faid flatute 7th and 8th oC 
the late king, would have preferved that conuuiffion fw fix months, un- 
kfs fooner lupercedcd ? 

1. 1 Anjwer.^'^ 

Anfxi)er. — ^Biit I conceive colonel Beckford's commlflTion, if it was ever 
good, determined by the grantinsj the commiffion to colonel Sclwyn, and 
was not ]x\ force at the dcmtfe of the late king, and confequcntly not 
prefervcd by the faid a6ts. 

QMtry 5d. — Our writs of fummons here, which arc of the nature of 
original writs in England, bear date the hift court, and are returnablie 
the next; the death ot the king happens between thofe courts, whether 
thofe fuminons executed by fervice before notice of luch deceafe be good 
and lawful? 


Anfwer. — I conceive thofe fummons are good, and may be returned 
and proceeded on by virtue of the aft made in the laft parliament, for 
explaining a claufe of the aft made 7th and 8lh of the late king, for the 
lietter fecuring his majefty's perfon, and government. 

This is a true copy^ 

ISiM. HakcqVI^X 


^tember 21^ 170!l« 

• • ;■ 

:.S). i 

f./i \ 



( 5^7 ) 




Mr. Speaker f aiid you s^entlenien qfthe ajfembljff 

I HAVE called you together with all the difpatch I could, and hope to 
find every man in a temper fuitable to the necelFity of the affairs. I 
n^ed not tell you the eftate of tlie revenue, referring that to your infpecr 
tion; but I am very forry, for your own fakes, it is fo far leflened, at a 
time when your defence requires- it Ihould be much greater than ever. 

The main blifinefs I havr to recommend to you is, the care of your- 
felves and of thofe gentlemen who are fent to defend you; I meaa 
building fortifications and barracks, which is the eafieft and mod ufeful 
way of quartering foldiers. On thefe two points 1 Ihall be always ready 
to advife with you, the matters and methods being of too large an extent 
for a fpeech, and likewife whatever elfe you Ihall think for the ferviceof 
the king and country; only I muft dcfire your immediate applicatioa 
to the former, left the vigilancy of our enemies force us. to our arms^. 
whilft you are dcliberatmg upon a law. 

With the advice of the admiral and council, I have taken up two veflels 
fdr fire-<hips, which account fhiU be laid before you, wherein you will 
fee how much care has been taken to make the charge eaiy to the. 
country. . 

1 have reviewed the greateft part of your regiments and troops, who I 
find are generally good men; but I hope you will take my advice in fom©- 
amendments to ,the militia a6t. 

It may be expelled 1 fhould fay fomething as to your civil rights : I 
therefore, being a ftranger, will unravel myfeif, fo that every niian may 
fee what he is to expedl from me* 

IKben any re^l grievances are duly reprefeatcd^ I fliall readily concur 

' .K ' *' 

( 268 > 

with you in>edre/ring them; but hope no imaghiary ones will difturfo 
the public peace or bufinefst 

Liberty and property I know is the foundation and blefllng of our cop- 
ftitution, and I would no more invade cither than 1 would facrifice my 
fon ; nor will I leflen the king's prerogative any more than 1 would be- 
tray my father; and, whenever his fervice or defence of this country re- 
quires it, I am ready to expofe myfelf to any fatigue ^nd danger. . 

It was in perfed' obedience to his majefty's commands that I rcame 
hither, whofe goodnefs to you and care of you was my greateft ^jpcou- 
rao^ement; the particulars of whicli^ being too many to enumerate, Ihall 
be^laid before you during my flay. Juftlce in all things /liall be my rule, 
and, at my return, Jiis majefty's gracious acceptance of my fniali fer- 
vice, will be at lead an honourable reward for the hazards of this climate: 
Ii>the mean time I Ihall expe6l a juft defence Xo my authority^ and as 
much confideratioii, ii> every refpeft, as has beeo ihewn to any of my 

I will add no more, but to defire you wilU withoilt any lofs of time, 
heartily apply yourfelves to th^ public bufioef^ that we oaiay have a 
^r-t and happy feffion. 




( 2<J9 ) 



KING C H A R L E S 11. 



WHEREAS his ma^ft excellent majefty hath been gracioufly 
pleafed to fend unto the late foldicrs of this ifland his royal gift, 
•onverted into feveral goods and commodities, I do hereby acknowledge 
to have recevcd the fhare, proportion, and dividend, for the officers and 
foldiers in the late ^'cgiment under my charge and command, amounting 
in money to the funi of two thoufand fix hundred and fifty-two pounds, 
five Shillings, and feven^pence, fterling; and, in purfuance of his majef- 
ty *s inftru<9;ions, 1 do promife, according to the late multer taken, and 
the peribns now living, to diftribute the fame, Witnefs my hand, this 
-ITthpf.Oaober, 1662. 

Samvel Barry. 

WHEREAS his moft excellent majefty hath been gracioufly pleafed 
to fend unto the late foldiers of this iflaiid his royal gift, converted into 
feveral goods and commodities, I do hereby acknowledge to have, receiv- 
ed the fliare, proportion, and dividend, for the officers and foldiers in 
the late regiment, under the charge and command of colonel Edward 
Doyley,*' amounting in money to the fum of Jtwo thoufand five hundred 
and eighty-two pounds, four ftiillings, and a penny, J[l:erling; and, in 
purfuance of his majcfty's inftru6tiohs, I do promife, according to the 
late mufter taken, and the perfons now living, to diftribute the fame.— 
Witnefs my hand, tliis 17th of Oiftober, 1662. 

. Thomas Lynch^ 

WHEREAS his moft excellent majefty hath been gracioufly pleafed 
.'to /ei}d unto the late foldiefs of this iil(in4 his royal gift^ converted into 


( 270 ) 

feveral goods and commodities, I do hereby acknowledge f o have receivecl 
the ftiare, proportion, and dindend, for the officers and foldiers in th^ 
late regimeat, under the charge and command of colonel Francis Barring- 
ton, deceafed, amounting in money to the fum of two thoufand eight 
hundred foi:ty-five pounds, twelve fhiilings, and fix-pence, fterling; and^ 
in purfuance of his majefty's inftru6tions, I do promife, according to the 
late mufter taken, and the pcrfons now living, to diftribute the fame.-^ 
Witnefs my hand, this 17th (^f p6lpber, 1662. 

Cornelius BuRRauoHSi 

WHEREAS his moft excellent majefty hath been gracioufly pleafed 
to fend unto the late foldiers of this ifland his royal gift, converted into 
fcveral goods and commodities, I do hereby acknowledge to have received 
the iOiare, proportion, and dividebd, for the officers and foldiers in the 
late regiment, under the charge and command. of colonel Philip Wardj^ 
decefifed, amounting, in money to the fum of two thoufand fix hundred 
feventy-one pounds, three Ihilhngs, ilerling; and, in purfuance of hie 
majefty's inftructions, I do prpmife, according to the late muller ta^en, 
and the perlons now living, to dillribute the /ame. Witnefs my hand^ 
this 17thof Oaober, 1662, 

TfiioMAs Barry« 

WHEREAS his moft excellent majefty hath been gracioufly pleafed to 
fend unto the late foldiers of this ifiand his royal gift, converted into fe- 
veral goods arid commodities, I do hereby acknowledge to have received 
the fhare, proportion, and dividend, for the officers and foldiers in the 
late troop of horfe, under my charge and command, amounting in mo-^ 
ney to the fum of one thoufand five hundred twenty-feven pounds, fif-r 
teen fliitlings, fterling; and, in purfuance of hi6fmajefl:y*s inilru6lions, . £ 
do promife, according to the late mufl:er taken, and the perfons now li- 
ving, to dillribute the lame. Witnefg my hand this 17th of OiSlobcr^ 

R. N£LSON«^ 


( S71 ) 



WHAT -was truly afl:ed from the taking of the ifland, to the 27lh 
of April, 1660, (which was the day I arrived there,) I am not 
certain; but, as 1 gathered from thofe who were Jtliere before mc, this 
following is the fliort account which^ though perhi^ps not certainly per- 
fect, yet may put your excellency in mhid of fome things that ^lay be 
aeceflary, and which you yourfelf can better methodize. 

Soon after the defeat of the army at Hifpaniola, this ifland w^as on the 

tenth of May, 1655, taken from the Spaniards by the army commanded 

by general Venables, and the fleet then commanded by general Pcnn. 

Some few months alter the ifland was taken, great part of the fleet went 

for England, and, after the two generals left the ifland, the government 

fell alternately to the chief officers, who foon, fearing fupplies, ihiit up 

theftoresof provilions, whicJi, with tiae havock that had feeen made of 

the cattle, brought great >vant on the foldicrs ; and that and living upon 

Cmits only, or fuch other hard fare as they could get, brought a great 

Mortality. Ihe Spaniards and Span ifh negroes alfo lay lurking about the 

woods, and deftroycd many as they rambled for food tp fuftaih their hun- 

tgry appetites : Thus they /continued till the death of major-general For- 

'tefcue, Mr.Aylefl^ury, STc. Then arrived major-general Sedgwick with 

recruits, who, feeing the foldiers' wants, opened the old fl:ores ; but in a 

few months he died. Then came the command into the hand of colo- 

jiel Doyley, asprefident. Not long after which, arrived general Brayne, 

a man, who, had he lived, might have been very advantageous to the in- 

tereft of the country, for he animated them to planting, hunting, and to 

snake benefit of the ifland ; but, in three or four months, he died alfo, 

^nd then the command again returned to colonel Doyley ; after which the 

place began to mend, provifions to be more plenty, the people to be 

more induHrious, and merchants' fhips began to frequent the place ; but 

the fcattered Spaniards began to gather together at Ochorios, where they 

^l^iiilt a palUfade fort, but were hgrdly fettled before they were defeated. 


and their fort razed by the Englifti ; yet, not long after, forces were fent 
from 4<^ew Spain, Cuba, &^r. oto redtfce >tHe ifland, and landed at Ri6-'N#- 
va, where they built a good fort, with chapel, and houfes; But thithei^ge- 
iieralDoyley went by fea in perfon, and with the men he carried with him 
l)ravely fought the Spaniards, took their fort, and killed and took moft of 
them; after which the Spaniards headed no more, but lay fculking in 
the woods, and, with the athftance of their negroes, killed many Eng- 
lifh as they travelled the roads; but at length a party of the negroes came 
in to the Enghih, and Toon attcr a detached party of the Englifh were 
fent out, who totally took and routed the Spaniards in the woods, and a 
few got off to Cuba ; and the Englifh remained indiiFerently quiet. Du- 
ring thofe times, captain Muins, in the Marflon Moor, with fome other 
flii4)s in his company, took many prizes, pillaged and burnt many towns 
on the Main, and returned viftorious, but was emulated for his fuccefs^ 
and not long after was fent by colonel Doyley for England. 

/What follows is after my arrival, and from mv own krM>wledge ; in 
which I have only as a journal continued along the heads of things as 
they have happened in time, knowing y^^ur excellency is more able to 
enlarge of the particulars. 

April 27, 1660. — At my arrival the people were ftiH as an army, but, 
without pay, commanded by general Doyley, under whom, as chief 
niinifters, were major Fairfax and captain Burroughs; the government 
was only by a court-martial, held once a month at St. Jago, and what 
difputes general Doyley felf, who lived very near an 4 

private, did not by any means love planting, but hindered thofe that were 
willing to plant, by telling them they would be all called off. The people 
were now healthful, and provifions began to be plenty, and trade to \x^ 
creafe; the privateering was carried on, and good prizes often brought in by 
them; thisfummer a party of Spanifti negroes, commanded by Juan de 
Bola, came in and furrendered themfelves, who were all made free, and 
captain Juan de Bola had commiffion given him to command them; 
yet there was another party of negroes itill abroad, called the Verraahollig 
negroes, after whom captain Ballard was fent with a party, who took 
moll of them, fo that now there were not above thirty out negroes left ia 
the country, who by degrees were all picked up, and tlie illand left g^uiet 

to the Englifh. • 

About J 

( 273 ) 

About this time, the rump parliament being again lip ; in England, no 
leciiiits came for the army, and they had no pay, which made the foU 
fhers deem themfelvcs neglefted, and a general expcftation there was 
that all would be called off, and the ifland deferted, there being no news 
4?f his majefty's happy reftoration ; this gave occafion to one of the regi- 
ments at Guanaboe, and> formerly commanded by colonel Barrington, 
but now by lieutenant-colonel Tyfon, who being fet on by a difcontcnted 
reformed officer, called lieutenant-colonel Raymond, who lived near 
him, began to mutiny and fet up foi themfelves, faying, they would live 
no more as an army. And, accordingly, Auguft 2d, they declared they 
would have the ifland fettled in colonies, and make conftables and civil 
©fficers. Thefe geneial Doyley not being able to appeafe with words,, 
drew fome forces to St. Jago to appep.fe them, but was cautious, not be- 
ing certain but that thofe he brought, if it came to the pulh, wouH fail 
him, and be of the mind of the others; and, therefore, he ordered a fhip 
of Southampton, called the Mary, captain Richard Tylar commander, 
to lay ready without the fort, that, if he faw things grow defperate, he 
might embark and leave them; but, by fending fcveral mellengcrs to 
them, and at length major Richard Hope of the Liguanea regiment, he 
fo prevailed with them, telling them the danger if they perfifted, and, 
jon the contrary, that if they delivered up the two lieutenant-colonels 
they Ihould all be pardoned, that they promifcd the next morning to de- 
liver up their officers. Accordingly, in the morning, the foldiers brought. 
down the two lieutenant-colonels, and delivered them up; on whom 
there prefently fat a court-martial, who adjudged them worthy of death; 
and accordingly, in a very fhort time, in fight of both parties, they were 
Ihot to death* Then the foldiers were all ordered to their feveral quarters, 
but wrre grown fo infolent, that the general was forced to give them 
leave to plunder the houfes of Tyfon and Raymond in St, Jago, which 
flufhed them to plunder more, even any that they could pretend had any 
correfpondence with tliofe men; and yet, after all this, and all the fair 
Words that were given them, it was as much as the general and their of- 
ficers could do to keep them from mutinying, and to get them to return 
io their precin6ts. 

AV69ST 15.^ — His Majefly^s fhip the captain 

commander, arrived from England, with the union jack flying, which 
gave all people great hopes his majelly was reftored to his throne, and was 
jivufiraMd when the ihip came into the harbour ; which news was received 

Mm witk 

( 274 ) . 

with great joy and acclamations, and the feventeenth was appointed for 
the folemn proclamation of the king, and then done with all the expref- 
fions of joy that the place could afford ; to help which, at the fame time, 
tlie Bear, another of his majefly's (hips, which came out with the 

was coming into the harbour, who, feeing the acclamations on the 
Ihore, fired all her guns as (he came along ; thefe (hips came away with- 
out orders their errand, for they could only 
fay his majefty was joyfully received by his people, but no particulars. — 
There being no dire6lions by thefe (hips, the people began to (ignify and 
report, that they (hould all be called off, and the ifland delivered up to 
the Spaniards; which fufpicion made them very idle, and not at all in* 
duftrious to fettle or plant the country ; and under thefe apprehenfions 
they continued without any certainty, till, on the 29th day of May^ 
1661, the happy day of his majefty's birth and reftoration, the Diamond 
frigate, captain Whiteing commander, arrived, and with her came out 
the Rofebufh, captain Brown commander^ who arrived not till June the 
2d ; thefe (hips brought a commiffion from his majefty to general Doyley, 
to be governor of the ifland, orders to dilband the army and encourage 
them to fettling the country, to eredl courts of judicature, alfo patentsL 
for the provoft-marfhal, fccretary, and furveyor generars places. 

June 5. — ^The governor caufed his commiffion to be publifhed, then 
proceeded to call a council, fettle the courts, caufe the oath of allegiance 
to be taken. The council, -with the governor, made laws for the prefent 
government of the ifland, and to lay a tax on all liquors imported ; fet- 
tled eight hundred pounds pei armum on the governor, and a hundred 
pounds per arnium on the chief judge, who was firft colonel Ward, and after 
his death colonel Barry. This pleafed the trading people, but not the foU 
diers, who could not forbear talking even to mutiny, for that the firft 
quarter feffions, which was July the fecond, one of them was hanged, tQ 
let them fee the law could do as much as a court-martiaL Yet, not- 
withftanding all this, general Doyley gave but little encouragement to the^ 
planting or trading part, (but the privateering, went on, and many con- 
liderable prizes were brought in), nor to the patentees, whom he difcou^ 
raged as much as he could, without abfolutely denying them the benefit 
qf them, either becaufe they wer^^ not officers of his own making,, or 
fuch as he had refpeft for, or becaufe he thought his government to be 
but (liort lived, and that in it he could have no benefit but by the priva- 
teers^ over whom he had an abfolute power, and would let none buy of 


( 275 ) 

them but liimfelf, or whom he pleafed to permit; he had indeed no re- 
gard or refpciSt to any, either planters or traders, but thofe who had been 
of the army* 

About Odober this year, there came a report that the Lord Windfor 
was coming to be governor in his place ; .this (though he pretended al- 
ways to be willing to quit the government and return for England) very 
much troubled him, infomuch that he fpoke very difrefpedtfully of that 
Boble lord ; difcouraged the traders, ufed all means to get money and in- 
rich himfelf; and the lord Windfor's arrival being prolonged from the 
time he was expefted in, made him almoft confident he would not come 
at all ; on which he began to threaten the abolilhment of the patents, 
and to new model the government* 

December 14. — His majefty's fliip, the Great Charity, captain Poole 
commander, arrived from England, with about two hundred paflengers; 
and the fifth of June the Diamond, who had been fent to the Windward 
iflands to fetch paffengers, arrived with about two hundred more from 
thofe iflands« 

April 24, 1662. — ^The Diamond failed for England, but in the voy- 
age the commander, captain Whiteing, died at the Caymanas. 

July 30. — ^The Griffin frigate, captain Smart commander, arrived, 
and brought news that they left the lord Wind for at Barbadoes, who 
might be expefted to arrive every 'day. 

August 7. — ^Arrived another of their fleet, the Weftergate, captain 
Hodges commander, which brought paflengers, ftores, and goods. 

August 11. — ^The Lord Windfor arrived in the Centurion, captain 
Miners commander; with him came firCharles Lyttleton, chancellor, and 
deputy governor, and with them a feal and mace for the ifland ; alfo then 
came colonel Mitchel, who was made judge of the common law, admi- 
ralty, S(c. and many gentlemen for preferment, and in hopes of. offices 
and employments. And. a donation the king fent to the army, which 
was a great refpe6t from his majefty, and in lieu of their pay, which the 
king had no obligation to give them ; but this being put into the hands 
fii fonje in England, they laid it out in feveral forts .of goods, and fo ma- 

M xn ^ naged 

( £76 ) 

naged it, that, by the lime it came to be divided amongft the foldiers, it 
was inconiiderable. 

Ceneral Doyley received the lord Windfor and general with fecming 
Itindnefs, lold my lord he doubted not but he would be told complaints of 
him, but they were falfe ; and by that time his lordfhip had been here 
one year, he muft expert the fame to be raifed on himfelf : However the 
lord Windfor ordered him to provide himfelf to be gone for England la 
a very few days, againft which he petitioned my lord, and afterwards llie 
council, but to no purpofe, 

September 10. — In the Weftergate he went away for England ; after 
which the lord Windfor calls his council, models the government, fettles 
the law again, which had flrpt about three months, conftitutes judg^ 
and juftices, pftablilhes the miUtia, and takes the regiment of Port- Royal 
to himfelf ; then begins to grant out the lands by patent under the great 
feal, in common foceage, and do all things that might encourage people 
to fettle and plant the country. Neverthelefs, rumours were raifed amongft 
the people, that he intended many great fees and taxes on the feal and 
land, and. on fugars and other commodities, infomuch that the old fol- 
diers were like to mutiny; to prevent which, fbme of the moft noted were 
fent to prifon, and a guard of thirty horfe, commanded by captain Ivy^ 
on the thirteenth September, appointed to watch at Paflage-Fort, and to 
Ujve two fhillings a day for each man's pay : Yet ftill the old foldiers 
muftnur, and threaten to relinquifh their plantations; on which my lord 
ifTues out commiflions for fettling the feveral regiments of the train bands^ 
and alfo, on the fifteenth September, publifhes a declaration throughout 
the ifland, wherein he manifefts his refpefts to the people, and tells them, 
the reports raifed about the feal and taxes was only done by incendiaries 
and difturbers of the peace, and that they were falfe and no fuch things 
appointed ; that he fhould confider the poverty of the country, and not 
burthen them more than was convenient. Soon after which, my lord and 
his council orders a war with the Spaniards, on this ground, that, havijig 
power in himfelf to make either war or peace, and being in Barbadoes» 
he had fent the Griffin frigate before to Porto- Rico and St. Domingo, to 
demand a trader which they refufed ; therefore a defign was formed 
againft St.. Jago de Cuba, and a fleet fitted, of which captain Miners ia 
the Centurion was admiral. The foldiery being poor, and wanting con- 
venlencies to fettle, they gladly embraced tliis opportuixity j fo that there 


were foon gotten together about 1300 men, who with eleven fall of flilps, 
fmall and great, parted from Port-Royal the twenty-firft September, .wilU 
great hopes of a large booty. AVhilll thefe were abroad, the militia was 
fully fettled, the commiflions all given out, and the regiments formed, 
fo that tlie fixth of 06tober the regiment of Port-Royal met completely 
officered and armed. About this time alfo, the dividend fent by his ma- 
jcfty to the foldiers was diltributed, as his royal gift for dilbanding the 
old army, and the council fat and made many acts, viz. One about fer- 
. vantsthat run away from their mailers, another' rating the commodities 
ef the country, how they ihould pafs in payment from man to man ; for 
though my lord had power to call an allcmbly to make laws, yet he put 
jt not in pra<^tice in his time. And now, whether through ficknefs, me- 
lancholy, or diflike to the place, or all together, my lord refolves to re- 
turn for England as foon as the fleet arrived from St. Jago, and orders the 
Bear to be forthwith provided for his tranfportation v/ith all expedition, 
and fettles his bufinefs in readinefs ; and, on the twenty-firlt October, ar- 
rives a ihallop from the fleet, which brought news they had taken St. Ja- 
go. On the twenty fecond arrived the fleet, with all their and 

phmder, having taken the town and burnt it, blown up the caftle, brought 
away the guns, taken feven fhips m the harbour, and wafted the country 
round about it, and brought with them abtmdance of fugar, hides, plate, 
wine, and much other plunder; and all this only with the lofs of fix men 
by the Spaniards, though there were about twenty more left by other acci- 
dents. And now the fleet being arrived, my Io'*d was impatient of his ftay, 
fo makes all the hafte he could to be gone, and fo expedites his bufmefs, 
that, on or about the twenty-eighth 06tober in the morning, he failed iii 
the Bear for England, leaving iir Charles Lyttleton deputy-governor, and 
colonel Mitchel chief over the fca iiftairs, and over all the courts. This 
fuccefs made the people quiet, the Centurion ftayed in harbour, but the 
privateers all went to fea for plunder ; yet fome Spaniards came, under 
pretence of trading, to the ifland, and were kindly received; but con- 
lultations Were had, whether the Spaniards, being enraged by this lofs of 
St. J ago, might not meditate revenge, and make fome attempt, on the 
jfland ; therefore what money was due to the king was called in, and in 
^November about forty men hired to work on the fort, which is now called 
Fort-Charles, with intent to finifli it, which hitherto lay open, with only 
a round tour of ftone, and banks of boards and fand towards the fea. On 
the firft of -December thele men began to work at it; on which day it 
jiappeiied that ail the planets in the lieavens were ia Mars afcendant of 


( 278 ) 

the Spanifli nation, and fuch a remarkable convention that does not hap- 
pen in very many years* About the twelfth of this month, there was 
again a confultation for another, defign againft the Sg)aniards, and the 
Centurion was prefently fitted for Campeche, and othc. fliips to go with 
her, and men Taifed, which were ready enough for all lucli enterprizes. 
In the mean time, the fort went on vigoroufly, infomuch that, by or a- 
boutthe thirtieth of December, the platform in the half-moo^ towards 
the fea was laid, and that day one whole cannon and three demi cannons 
of brafs were mounted on it, and, on Wednefday the thirty-firft, about 
one hundred and fifty volunteers wrought on it {^befides the labourers), who 
dug the trenches for the foundation almoft all round, and carried feveral 
turns of ftones to the work, and had then further profecuted it, but the 
death and burial of captain Con. Lyttleton, fir Charles, his brother, that 
day caufed them to dcfift for that time,, and alfo the prefent expedition 
of the fleet, by taking off captain Miners his failors, caufed the work 
to go on the more flowly ; and now on Friday and Saturday, the ninth and 
tenth of January, the foldiers being in all about fifteen or fixteen hun- 
dred, were embarked; and, on Sunday the eleventh in the morning, the 
Centurion with moft of the fleet weighed anchor, and failed out of the . 
harbour to the Cays,' and on Monday morning, the twelfth, they being 
in all twelve Ihips, fmall and great, failed away to fea, from whom there 
was no news for a long time. About the beginning of February, the 
deputv-governor and council made an order, that all the negroes which 
were yet abroad in the ifland in rebellion, being about thirty, or more, 
if they would come in fliould have twenty acres of land for each head 
that defired it ; and Juan de Bola, who had been formerly their comman- 
der in the woods, and had been come in fome time paft, as before, was 
appointed colonel of the black regiment in the militia. The fleet having- 
now been out fome time, and no news of them, the expectation of the 
people began to grow big to hear of their fuceefs; when on Saturday, 
February twenty-eighth, arrives a privateer called the Bleffing, captain 
Mitchell commander, who, having been cruifinginthe bay of Campeche, 
brings this relatioa: That, aboixt 90 leagues this fide of Campechc, he 
met three fail of the fleet, viz. Captain William James his Ihip, funk in 
th(* fea by foul weather, who was the bell fhip in the fleet next the ad- 
miral, and that many of their men in the fleet were dead. This Mitchell 
alfo brought news that the Spaniards in Campeche had timely notice of 
the Englilh defigning on them from St. J ago; to prevent which the)^ 
had fent their wivcj^, children, and goods, to Merida, an inland town 


( 279 ) 

hi^^enty leagues froro Catripeche ; that they had 1500 men in tlie town 
to oppoi\ their landing, and had unrigged all the (hips in the harbour, 
that they might not carry them away, and had hauled them on Ihore, 
and landed their guns on batteries; had fer^t one (Inp to windward and 
another to leeward, to give advice that no Ihips might come thither, and 
fet watches along the fea coafts, to give intelligence of their approach : 
wliich news fcemed very ill, and put the country in doubt of the fafety 
of the fleet, the mifcarriage of which would have been of ill confequence 
to the ifland, the moft confiderable ftrength both of fhips an<l arms bein^j 
there ; and, to add to this ill news, the next morning, being Sunday, MarcH 
the firil, arrives colonel Barry in a floop from Tortudo, who had been fent 
in the Charles of London, captain Robert Maunders commander, about 
fourteen weeks before, to reduce Tortudo, which was under the French 
government, to the EnglUh, and of which colonel Barry was to be go- 
vernor ; but, when they arrived there, the French ftood on their guard, 
which colonel Barry feeing, defired captair^ Maunders to- fire at them, 
but he refufed, though he had received a coramilTion and inftru6tions by 
his own defire to that eff'eft ; fo the defign being overthrown, captain 
Maunders fets colonel Barry and his men aftiore at Corydon, on Hifpani- 
ola, and goes away about his merchandize, and leaves the colonel and his 
men to get to Jamaica haw they could ; who at length arrived, with this 
ill news and worfe fuccefs, in a fmall boat, and charged captain Maun^ 
ders with the mifcarriage of the whole buiinefs- 

This twenty-four hours afforded variety of confiderable news ; for, be* 
fore the night of this day, came a report that a ketch, which parted here 
with the fleet, was arrived in Macary-Bay, in Jamaica, one Mumford maf* 
ter, who related, that, on the tliirtieth of January, (the fame day co* 
lonel Barry was defeated at Tortudo), our fleet took the town of Cam** 
peche with twenty fail of Ihips, which proved true; for^ on Monday^ 
March fecond, arrived lieutenant Hoy from on board the faid veflel, and 
gave the relation of all that had happened. The return of the fleet was 
much defired,,as well for the booty,, as that, for want of men and conve*^ 
niencies, the fort went not forward ; but about twenty-fifth of March 
the workmen that were there were put oflF, till more recruits of men and 
materials could be provided. 

On the thirty-firfl. of March his majefty's fliip, the Greatgueft, captaia 
fiecnaid commander, arrived irom London^ and brought iiai: Jews (with a 


( 280 ) ' . 


rich cargo), who pretended they came to dilcovcr a goU muic, known to 
tliem in the Spaniards government, but difiircd, for Tear it might bring 
enemies on a place io weakly manned as Jamaica was in the Spaniards 
time : But this was barely a pretence, i<>r their defign was only to inlinu- 
ate themfelves into the country for the fake of trade, and was managed 
by fir John Davidfbn, who fcnt with them* Mr. Watfon, a German, that 
managed all. 

This fhip alfo brought carriages for the guns, plank and other necef- 
faricsforthe fort. Soon after the arrival of this ihip, one of the great 
lights of the illand went down, colonel William Mitchell, who was judge 
pf the admiralty and common pleas, chief jultlce of the idand, and one 
of the council, whofe death, though not much iamf^nted by many in par- 
ticular, yet was a very great lofs to the illand, he being a difcreet man ia 
all aflairs, and of si public (pirit, who had very well fettled and modelled 
the privateersj the laws, and many other things beneficial to the place* 
On Monday, April thirteenth, the Centurion arrived from Campeche^ 
and foon after the red of the fleet, but Itraggling, becaufe coming from 
leeward every one made the bcil ^f his way. By them came the parti- 
cular relation of this expedition, which- was, that the town itfelf was as it 
were a caftlc, being a continued parcel of ftrong built ftone houfes, flat 
at top, and very beaulilul ; in it were three good forts, all which were 
taken, and much demolilhed, part of the town burnt, and about four- 
teen fail of great and fmall veifels taken, with much goods of many forts: 
Jn this attempt at the fecond fort, captain Miners was wounded from a 
great gun in three feveral places, and on the whole about thirty Engliih- 
men killed, and one taken prifoner, who was carried to Merida, where 
be was only examined, civilly treated, and fent back to his companions ; 
of the Spaniards about fifty or fixty killed, many taken prifoneis, wh# 
were releafed at the coming away of the fleet, 

/ • . • 

April 24.— About this time there was a report made by a PortuguezCji 

to a Spaniard that was here, that there was a great fleet at Carthagena, 
fdefigned for this ifland, which the Spaniard told to the deputy-governor ; 
but, upon examination, the Portuguese denied it: however, a. ihallop 
was fent to Carthagena, to make difcovcry ; and, on the ninth of May, 
flie returned with report, that flie faw thirty- five fail of galleons and other 
fliips in the harbour ; which put the ifland into4'uch an alarm, thai Sun- 
day the tenth, all went to work to £ill up the pUttMoi aini mount guns oA 
ii^e ioity but it proved noticing* 


( 281 ) 

JuNB 9.^~Captain Barnard Sperdipk failed for Orpf noqije with an In^ 
lent to take St, Thomas's, 

Captain Femes arrived on the twenty-ninth in the Bryan frigate, hav-p 
ing been to look for Prince Maurice ; and, on the firft July, he went away 
for England, and a little before this the Centurion aod Guid failed for 

July is.— Captain Burroughs the fteward-general died. 

AvGVsr 4. — In the Friendlhip, captain Wigget mafter, came a lette? 
Itom the king9 commanding all a6ls of hoftility againft the Spaniards 
Should ceaie ; and, accordingly, on the tenth, by beat of drum, a celFa- 
tion was proclaimed, Neverthelefs, the privateers brought in their prizes, 
jftnd particularly, on the nineteenth pf 06tQber, captain Cooper birjQuglft 
In the rich quickfdver prize* 

On the firft day of November the out-lying negroes met with Juan de 
Bola, and cut him to pieces, elf<; all things were quiet in the country ; 
Und, about the beginning of Pecember, writs were iiliied put tor the choof- 
ing the firft affembly that was ever called in the ifland, which alfembly 
met at St. Jago on the twentieth January, and chofe Mr. Robert Free- 
man their fpeaker, where they fat till the jtwelftH of February, and thei) 
adjourned till the feventeenth of May, at Port- Royal. This alTembly 
was very unanimous, and parted with all kindnefs and feafting, having 
made a body of laws as good a$ could be expecSked ^onj fuch young 

About the beginning of March, captain Colebeck was fent by fea' to 
endeavour the reducing of fome out-lyipg Spanifh negroes, which 
ftill did mifchief in the country; and the iixth March he returned, 
and brought one of them in with him to tre?it for the reft. Alfo the fame 
day arrived the fliips from Oroonoque, having taken and plundered the • 
iowti of St. Thoma,'the chief place in th^t river. 

May 7, 1664'. — Sir Charles Lyttleton the deputy-governor, with feveral 
Mhers failed for England in the St. John's Head, captain Qgle comman- 
der, and left colonel Lynch prefident of the council, and commander-in- 
ichief, there being a little before this time 9ew$ that fir Thomas Mody« 
^rd was cpniing governor of Jamaica. 

J^O According 

( 282 ) 

r • 

Arcorr'iT^g to adjournment, the feventeenth May the aflembly met at 
Port-H- y i,aiid began to confiderot fome things; but, on the eighteenth 
in t-v evening, we had notice that hismajefty's Ihip the Weftevgate was 

. on Liie coatt of the ifland. 


That fhip arrived on ttie nineteenth, and in lier colonel Morgan, who 
was lieutenant-governor to fir Thomas Modyford ; who, as foon as he 
came aihore, took the government into his hands, and diflblved the affem* 
bly. With him arrived the Swallow ketch of the king's, and the firft of 
June came the Bleffing, James Gilbert mailer, who brought four hun- 
dred people from Barbadoes; and, on the fourth of June, the governor^ 
fir Thon,ias Modyford, arrived in the Marmaduke, captain Stokes com- 
mander; and in this ihip came about two hundred people. So fooifi as 
he was arrived, he caufed his commifTionto be publicly read; difcourfed 
•11 the gentlemen that came to wait on him about the country, and in 
what manner the fettlement thereof went on, then called his council^ 
and began to fettle affairs with all expedition, but waved the calling an 
aflembly for feveral months; and, on the fixteenth, he caufed a procla- 
mation to be publicly made, that for the future all acSls of hoflility againft 
the Spaniards (hould ceafe from that time ;^ and the thirtieth Mr. Pugh 
was fent in the Swallow ketch, captain Enfom commander, to Carthage- 
na, to acquaint the governor of the arrival of fir Thomas Modyford, and 
of the proclamation he had iifued out for the ceafing of all hoAilities* 

July 27. — The Weftergate and Swallow ketch v^ere fent away for 
England, and the Griffin for Barbadoes, with the major-general J. Mo- 
dyford, and feveral gentlemen in her, to fetch the lady Modyford and 
the general's family. . The Swallow ketch, after five months hardfhips^ 
returned again to Port-Royalj but the other two were never heard of afr 
teiwards. Notwithllanding the proclamation, there were feveral prizes 
brought in, but fome of them were returned to the Spaniards. 

May^ 1668. — InAuguft, fir Thomas iflued out writs for the choofing an 
aflembly to meet on the eleventh October following, which accordingly they 
did, and fir Thomas AVhetftone was chofen fpeaker, more by the defire or 
lather order of the general than the ele6tion of the gentlemen, and Mr. 
Samuel Long was choien clerk. Thisfeemed to be contrived, fo that he 
might find faults with thr patentees, againft whom he defigned a total 
. extirpation of their au thority ; for he had already (becaufe major Poveyv 


( «88 ) 

who was fecretary of the ifland, was gone off before his arrival) taken 
away his office, and given it to the lieutenant-general's fon ; he alfo di- 
re6led the writs of eleftion for Port-^oyal to major Man, the fiirvcyor- 
general, who was ajuftice of the peace there, againft whom there was 
prefently -complaints for an undue ele^on and return, there being Beef- 
ton and Loveing returned. It was faid one Orchard fhould have been in 
place "Of Loveing, and whether major Man in that cafe was not particu- 
laror not, I will iiot determine, but he alfo made colonel Lynch (who 
Jiad'Uie provoft-marfhars patent) one of the council and chief-juftice of 
theifland, as it feemed on purpofe to find fomething againft him ; for 
iirft major Man was threatened for making undue returns, and many re- 
fle6tiens were ufed by the fpeaker againft the election of Port-Royal, 
which obftru(?ted all things, fo that bufinefs went not forward ; for, when 
any thing was moved, Becfton always ftood up, and faid that, till the elec- 
tions were allowed or voted undue; nothing fhould go on, fo that at laft 
■it was after two or three days put to thfe vote, and unwittingly, not 
whether Loveing's ele6tion only, but the election at Port-Royal, were 
legal or not, and voted in the negative ; which Beefton feeing, went im- 
mediately to' the 'bar, thanked the fpeaker and the houfe for freeing him 
from that -trouble and charge, and t«»ok leave ; but the fpeaker told him 
he was miftaken« the aflembly did not mean him but Loveing, and that 
he muft retur4i tohisfeaf ; and accordingly entered the vote in the jour- 
nal, contrary to the exprcfs words of it. Neverthelefs, Beefton \yent 
home, but was fcnt for again as legally elected, yet he refufed, ahd for 
his refufal, the eighteenth of Odoher, the fpeaker fent his warrant, by 
order of the houffe, to conimit him without bail or mainprize ; fo to pri- 
fon he went : but on the twentieth, it was fo ordered, that iir Thomas 
Lynch, being on the bench with the general, was ordered, as provoft- 
marihal, to go to Port-Royal and fetch Beefton before the governor and 
'Council, which he did; where, when Beefton came, he had a reprimand 
for being obftinate, and hindering the bufinefs of the country, and told 
that he was duly elected and mult return to his feat, which he did ; and, 
<:;orker being elected in the room of Loveing, bufinefs went on but like 
bells rung by boys, alL jarring, and every day caufed more ill blood ; for 
everyone faw what was defigned, and that the fpeaker was taught what 
he (hould fay s^nd do, and the general took this advantage of colond 
Lynch, and faid, fince he a6ted as provoft-marlhal, and went to fetch 
£eefton, he was not fit for chief-juftice, nor to fit with him in the coun* 
^cilt.and therefore, on the twenty-fourth in the morning, fent him his 

( 284 > 


^letus from all his hortouts ; and for major Man, he fo divided his cm» 

plovmcnt, that it \yas rendered of no value ; the which, as fome thought, 

ihoitened his life, for he died the eighteenth of November, which was 

foon after the aflTembly arofe. But thefe things being fo far over, the 

aflcmbly, with parties, great heats, and ill humours, weut pn, and by the 

twelfth November had ended what was thought fitting, and then broke 

iip and adjourned to the feeond Tuefday in Marqh. But, to make amends 

for their jangling, and to cement the rents which had been made, it was 

thought fit and refoived that they, by confent and a general purfe, fhould 

that day treat the governor and council with a dinner^ and accordingly 

ilewards were appomted, and a fplendid dijiner provided, with wme and 

mufic, and whatelfe might make it great. This held well till after din* 

Mer, till the plenty of wine made the old v/ounds appear, which were never 

wfeU clofed ; for then all went together by the ears, and in this unlucky 

<:onfli6t, honeft captain Rutter, a worthy gentleman of the aflembly, was 

killed by major Joy, who \ifas of the council, and had always been his 

fiiend, but the drink and other men's quarrels made them fall out. This 

adjournment of the aflembly was only to make the people think they 

would be frequently called, but it was only by degrees to be quite rid of 

them ; for when the feeond Tuefday in March came, and the aflembly 

met, they were the Thurfday following, withbut doing any things ad^ 

journed to the firft Tuefday in March the year after, but> never after this 

time met again in all fir Thomas Modyford^s government. In this af» 

. fembly, alfo, Mr. Long, the clerk of it, who had been in friendftiip with 

thofe of the former government, was, the third of November, for what 

<:aufe not remembered, taken out of the aflembly by the governor's war^ 

rant, and clapped in gaol^ and there continued fome time after the aflem« 

ily was adjourned. 

The twenty-third, notwitliftanding -the proclamation, captain Morris 
"Williams brought in a great prize with logwood, indigo, and filver, and 
feveral privateers went out, and Bernard Nicholas brought in a prize. 
Major Man being dead, on the twenty-eighth November, Mr. Byndlofs 
'tad a commiflion for major of Port-Royal, and, there lived and com- 
jnanded in x:hief ; and, abdut the beginning of Dcceniber, moft or all that 
-had been of tlie late aflembly were made juftices of the peace« 

-i December 4. — ^Aboutthis day appeared firfl: the comet which was 
the forerunner of the blafling of the cocoa, trees, and after which time 
4liey generally failed in Jamaicat Cuba^ and Hifpaniola* 


( 285 ) 

V Atoiit the twenty -firft, captain Munroc, who had a eomminion from 
Jamaica, turned pirate, and took the Englilh merchant fhips bound thither ; 
-after whom captain Enfom, in the Swallow ketch, was fent out, wiio mefc 
with him, fought him, killed many, and took the reft of his men, being 
thirteen, who were brought by him to Jamaica, and there condemned 
and hanged. 

February 7, 1665. — The royal company's fadors firft came to J*« 
tnaica, to fettle their negro trade there. 

About the feventeenth, the defign was framed for the taking of Cunu 
•^oa, and, in order thereto, an embargo was laid on all veflels not bound to 
Europe ; and, about the tvventy-iixth March, fome of the Ihips, being 
about five fail, (and the defign commanded by lieutenant-general Mor»^ 
^an) failed from Port-Royal, but in the end took only Euftatia and Saba, 
in one of wliich lieutenant-general Morgan died, and the fhips returned 
with a lofing voyage, the men mutinying after his death. Thefe fhips 
went before, but lieutenant-general Morgan failed not himfelf till the 
eighteenth day of April. At this time came the fhips from Carthagena 
for negroes, and were furnifhed by the royal company upon a contr.a6t 
xriade in Spain, which fur Thomas Modylord not liking, foon after broke* 
Thefe fhips were the Santa Cruz, captain Nicholas Redwigon, and the 
Sf, Fortimata, captain Pedro D'Oriofte, both which carried about eight 
liundred negroes. 

August 20. — Gaptaki Packman and others arrived from the taking of 
<he towns of Tobaftoe and Villa de Moos, in the bay of Mexico, and 
although there had been peace with the Spaniards not long fince pro* 
claimed, yet the privateers went out and inj as if there iad been an ac* 
tual war without conuniflion. 

But, about the tenth November, many of the privateers being gotten 
together, with an intent to fall on the town of St. Spinous in Cuba, and 
the governor doubting it might be of ill confequence, fent colonel Beef* 
ton with three oriaiir of the privateers fhips that were then in port, to 
find them out before they fell on the town, and to divert them, for that 
he had received orders and a proclamation from the king to keep peacff 
with the Spaniards ; but Beeflon, having been in iearch of them about fi^ 
WeekS) and not finding thein^ returi^ed.: However, in the mean time, they 


( 285 ) 


took' the town and plundered it. The proclamation from the king wag, 
^hat, fince there was peace with the Spaniards, none of his fubjefts fhould 
fail under other commiflions againftthem, for at this time were many 
Portugal commiflions, and copies by wliich the privateers failed. But 
llie defign Xn Thomas Modyiord would liavc put them upon (and- to 
which end he fent Beefton as a commiffioner to treat with them, and to 
conclude fully on it) was for them to go againft Curracoa, we having, 
then war with the 'Dutch ; but thefe parcel of privateers and ihips were 
.commanded by Manfell, and he cared for dealing witli no enemy but .the 
Spaniards, nor would go againft Curracoa, neither were any of them 
taken any notice of for continually plundering the Spaniards, jt being" 
what was defired by the generality, as well the government as privateers; 
for, on theii7th February, 1665, fir Thomas Modyford caufed a war a- 
gainft the Spaniards to be folemnly proclaimed by^beat of drum and prg- 
clamation at Port- Royal; the caufes and reafons mentioned in the pro- 
clamation I have forgotten, but poftibly may be feen in his papers or the 
council book; but forthwith commiflions were given out to all the pri- 
vateers. About the beginning of this month. Providence was taken by 
captain Manfell and major Sraifh, and a fmall party £ent with him, and 
he was left with about thirty-two men to command it, who not long after 
loft it again to the Spaniards. From this month I was abfent from the 
ifl^nd in England about one year, fo knaw not tl^e particulars of what 
fwasdone then, but I think there was nothing confiderabl6 that yean 

July 15, 1 667. — ^This^day fir James Modyford arrived from England^ 
and brought a<:ommiffion to be governor of Providence, and was alfo 
made by fir Thomas Modjrford lieutenant-general of Jamaica, captain of 
the fort, and governor of Port-R^^yal ; and at this time the private men 
of war went in and out^ and brought in prizes frequently. 

May, 1668. — About this time the privateers gatheredtogether^ under 
the command of general Morgan^ and on the fir ft of July attempted Porto- 
Bello, which they took, and in it much plunder, which they brought to Ja- 
maica about the feventeenth of Auguft. The Oxford frigate arrived 
from England October fifteenth, fent by the king to countenance thq 
, jvar with the Spaniards, and by the king to the governor, and 

whom he thought good to be partners with for fome yeaxs^they finding 
iridtui^ls, wear and tear* 


V ( 287 ) 

Tl'ECEMBiER lD.-«-About the beginning of this month, captain EdXrard 
Collier was made commander of the Oxford, and about the tenth ftil? 
fiiih^d from Port-Royal towards the rendezvous which were ap[X)inted at 
•the Ifle de V^ache, where the fhips all met, and admiral Morgan wa^ to 
command. 1 here they fcizcd a very fine French frigate, commanded by 
monfieur Vivien, and him they fent prifoner to Port-Royal, and on the 
fecond of January the captains all met on board the Oxford, and there 
xefolved to attenrj:>t Carthagena ; but, whilft they were at dinn^ r, by fome 
'unknown accident, the fhip blew up 'at once, and killed two hundred 
and fifty men: Admiral Morgan and thofe captains that fat on that fide 
the table he did were faved, but thpfe captains on the other fide all kill- 
•cd, and this accident faved the attempt on Carthagena^ 

February 7, 1669. — Arrived the Ifabella of Briftol, which brought 
news that the taking of Porto-Bello was not fatisfa^tory in England, and 
that therefore tlie governor, fir 1 bomas Modyford, was to be fent for to 

About the twenty-third the Satisfaftion (the fhfp taken from capt&in 
Vivien) was fitted out to go to the privateers, but they had been gone in 
a- body to the windward after the Oxford was blown up, but whkher we 
had no «idvice. 

May 17. — But this day they all arrived, having taken Grenada and 
Maracaiba, and burnt the Spanifh men of war^that were fent after them,' 
and. brought about thirty thoufand pounds value. 

June 14. — Peace, was publicly proclaimed with the Spaniard? ; never^ 
thelefsthe privateers kept on,. and went in an out, but not with com- 

J^LY 2, 1670. — In the morning' war wa?? again folemnly proclaimed 
at Port- Royal by beat of drum againft the Spaniards. 

August 12. — About this time thie privateers began again to fit out in 
a body. Admiral Morgan commanded in the Sati5i'a6Hon trigate, and the 
fourteenth the whole fleet failed from the Cays on the delign of l^anama, 

October 19. — Arrived the fhips that had takeu Grenada^ who were 
eaptains Prince, Harris, and Ludbury* 


( 2g8 ) 

Mahc* Ifl, l(J7t.— Major-general Banifler arrived with care of tlie 
©eople from Surinatn^ 

On the tweuty^feventh arrived a fmall veflel from . the fleet, whlclp 
brought news they had takei) Providence, Caga Caftle, and Panan^a^ baj; 
loft the Satisfa6tion frigaVe.. 

May 1!. — ^Arrived a veffel with Spaniards from St. Domingo, who 
iCanie to bring a4vice of the peape niade by fir \VUliaq[» Godolphin anc| 
ihe articles. 

June 15.-— •Arrived (Ir Thomas Lynch in the AfTiftance, fent governof 
^y hismajetty, and with )iiftru6lions to fend hoiijefir Thomas Mpdyforc)* 

July 6.- — Sir Thomas Lynch ordered the men of war tp provide U^ 
fail for Carthagena, and in them major Beefton and captain Reids, to carry 
the articles of peace, STf. aiid to bring away the Englifti prifoners. 

On the fixteenth tliefe Ihips failed, but Jhe comniander, captain Hub? 
bart, fell fick that morning, and died the nineteenth in the afternoon, iij 
the latitude of fifteen, and the twenticlli was buried in thje fea with great * 

On the twenty-third they arrived at Carthagena, and the twenty-fourth 
•went alhore, and were received with great refpe6l; and having in a few 
days fettled all things accordingly as tHe governor had directed, and rcw 
ceivcd the prifoners, tliey failed from thence the thirtieth July, and 
Jhe fevepth Auguft arrived at Port-RoyaJ. 

August 12.— Sir Thomas Lynch confined Sir Thomap .Modyford a- 
board the AfTiftance, in order to the fending him toEngland, out of whiclii, 
£hip he was removed aboard captain Knapman, with whoni the jtwenty- 
* iecond he failed for England. 

December §. — Sir Xhomas Lync4i turned out captain Wilgrefs from 
his command of the Afliftance, and the tenth gave a comtnifQon to ma* 
jor Beefton to commaiid her, and the (iicteentii (he fuled for Trinidad to 
get provifioiis, with whom went do6tor William Dunn, phyfician to the 
kings of JBngla^d and France^ .who died aboard the thirteenth, and on the 


( 383 ) 

fourteenth was burled m the fea, and the twenty-fecond the Affiflauce 
arrived again at Port- Royal. 

January 31, IG72. — ^The AfTiftance failed again to the South Cays 
of , Cuba after privateers and piratrs, by tlie defire of the governor of St. 
Jago; yet when fhe came there, he would not fufFer them to have pro- 
vifion for their money, nor would he let them come into St. Jago, though 
the captain brought and delivered him a I'hip he took from the pri- 
vateers (which belonged formerly to the Spaniards) without any charge ; 
therefore the eighteenth of March the Afliilancc again returned to Port- 

April 6.-r-Sir Thomas Lynch fent admiral Morgan for England in the 
Welcome, who failed this day.' 

On the eleventh, the governor fent the Affiftance to IIifj)aniola to 
look for privateers, and thence to the Havannah to fetch away tlie prhb- 
ncrs, from whence Ihe returned the fifteenth of June. 

July 10. — ^The governor having ordered the Welcome for England, 

i|jhe failed this day from Jamaica. ' From this time I was in England one 

year, fo know not wliat was done, but believe there was an affembly in 

that time, the particulars of which, and what elfe pafl^d in that year» 

your excellency knows better than 1 do. 

I : 

July 21, 1673. — ^This, day the Portland, captain Canning comman- 
der, and the Thomas and Francis, captain GoUop commander, arrived 
from Englarnl, to (lay lome time in Jamaica, for the fervice of the idand, 
there being now war with Holland. 

October 6. — Captain Canning brought in the logwood prize, after- 
wards called the Thomas. 

February 17, 1673. — ^There was an affembly, where Samuel Long^ 
#quire,«fivas fpeaken 

March 4. — Captain Gollop in tlie Thomas and Frances brought in the 
Dame Sufanna, a Dutch fiiip he had taken neajf Curra9oa^ wilh about iix 
jbuodrcd negroes^ i(c. 



{ 2d0 ) 

May 5, 1674- — ^The Portland, captain Canning, failed for England, 
and in her the lady Lynch, alfo the St. Thomas, captain Clark comman- 
der, and in her major-general Modyford, 8(c. 


June 6. — Captain Kent arrived from London, with news that the lord 
Vaughan was coming governor, and fy Henry Morgan lieutenant-go* 

July 1. — ^Captain Gollop failed for England, fo that now we bad ne 
man of war left in Jamaica. 

December 2. — Mr. Burford was tried and condemned, who, a little 
time before had killed major-general Banifter, and for which he was » 
fliort time after hanged. 

MARCH 5, 1675. — ^Sir Henry Morgan arrived lieutenant-^govemor, 
havin^ been caft away in captain Knapman's fliip at the Ifle de Vacca. 

On the fixth his commiffions for lieutenant-general and lieutenant- 
governor were read at Port-Royal. 

The feventh tlie council fat at St. Jag'o> and then Sir Thmtm Lyncd 
refigned the government to fir Henry Morgan. 

On the fourteenth lord Vaughan arrived in the Forefig^t, .captain Ds* 
bin commander, at eight o'clock at night 

In tlie morning of the fifteentli tie was fwom governor, and then th^ 
council was alfo fwom, and he took the government upon him, in the afi* 
ternoon his commiffion was publicly read, 

April 2, 1675.— Sir Henry Morgan, colonel Byndlofe, and Beeftofltt 
ivere made commiffioners of the admiralty. 

On the third the privateers were indemnified by proclamatioii for all 
depredations heretofore committed againft the Spaniards, 

The twenty-fixth the aiiembly met, captain Long, fpcaker, being the 
firftaflembly called by the lord Vaujghan; tliis affembly made forty-fivfe 

i «0I } 

*ft«, a«4 tha» were prorogued to the thirte«5nlb Deeember fpIjQwInft fcuf 
diflblved before that time. 

May 24.-«-Sjr Thomas Lynch failed from Jamaica m the St. ThoraaSf 
captain Knapman commander, and with him captam Molcfworth.. 

June 11. — ^The Forefight failed for the Havanna, and in her captain 
Brayn ; after which they went to Barbadx>es, and returned September 
twentieth, having done nothing. 


September 1. — Arrived feveral families from Surinam, about forty 

, families in one ihip, and the eighth arrived thq American, captain Paxtoii 

commander, and the Hercules, captain Broad commander, from thence, 

%vith about eleven hundred people, and Mr. Crarifield, who had been 

ientto Surinam by the king, to bring the Englilh from that colony. 

April 12, 1676. — ^The Forefight, captain Davis commander, failed 
ibr England, and left no man of war on the ifland but one. 

., June 23. — ^The Phoenix, captain Wright commander, arrived from 
England. During all this time there was no public commilfions given 
againft the Spaniards, nor privateering publicly countenanced, but many 
times things came in by ftealth, nor was there any things of confiderable 
note .happened, there being peace with all people, and the ifland quiet 
ivithih itfelf, 

InMarch,thebeginingof 1677, writs were again iflued out for an aflen^* 
bly to meet the ninth of April afterwards; and accordingly the aflembiy 
met, and lieutenant-colonel Beellon was chofen fpeaker. Ibis alfcmoly 
continued by (hort adjournments to the twenty-third of June, in winch 
tipie happened the buiinefs of Mr. Martyn, who tor his behaviour to my 
lord, SX'c. was committed to prifon, and on the twenty-third of June the 
alfembiy adjourned to the twenty-third of July, in which tini' Brow i hap- 
pened to bring in the negroes by a French commiftlon, as he laid, out was 
feized with his negroes, and he condemned fo uv han^ro; whom the 
ailt mbly endeavouring to bring to anotlu r trial before the chiet-junice^ 
p he had petitioned, were for fo doing diliblved in haile by my lord, ihe 
twenty-fixth of July. But in this fefllon before that adjournmeni, hi 
Junc^ twelve. a6ls were paflbd, and now bdfoie ihey were liilioivcd cigtil, 

Oo3 lu 

in all twenty. Now colonel Long is dead, I know not how you^ will havfr 
the true particulars of all this unlefs of Mr. Bernard. 

June 28. — ^The Phcenix, captain Wright commander, failed for Eng- 

July 26.— ^The fame day the affembly was diflblved/drrived oneFul- 
wood from London, who brought the news tlic earl of Carliflc was coming 
governor to Jamaica* 

JiTLY 27. — ^The council fat, and new writs were iffued out for an 
aflembly to meet on the fixth of September following, becaufe the laft 
had not perfedled the body of laws. 

August. — About this time the bifliop of Panama was brought to 
Old Harbour by the privateers, whom the lord Vaughan got froiii them, 
and furnifhed him with neCellaries, and fcjit him home the fixteenth of 

SfepTEMBER 6. — ^Accordingly the aflembly met; and lieutenant^colonel 
Bcefton was again chofen fpeaker. This alfembly finiihed all that wfe 
left undone in the afts by the laft; and on the twenty-fitxth arrived Mr* 
Chambers from I^ndon, with certain news tliat the earl of Cariille was 
coming governor^ 

September -28. — The laws being all finilhed, tlie governor figned 
them all, except fome few of little ufe, and the a6t for the revenue, and 
then dilfolved the alfembly, leaving the iiland, fir Hepry Mprgan hie 
iucceflbr, ^nd the lord, Carlifle, without any revenue. 

November IS* — By beat of drum it was proclaimed, that trade with 
the Spaniards for negroes or any other goods was free aiid open tor every 

March H, 1678. — ^The, lord Vaughan went for England in captain 
Nurfe's Ihip, and left the command of tlie iiland in the hands of fir Henry 
Morgan, lieutenant-governor, who on that afternoon publilhed an order 
for all officers, civil and military, to continue as they were till further 
order^ and ib he kept them without altering any commiffions. 

u« ■■«« 



March 2S. — Came news by captain Mofcly, wh6 arrived from Bar* 
badoes, that there was fucli apprehenfion of war with France^ that all 
thp windward iflands fortified thenifelves, and put thcmfelves in i\ pof- 
ture of defence; on which fir Henry ordered the guards to be doubled 
at Port-Royal, and guards to be kept in mort convenient places in the 
ifland, and the council to meet. — April third the council met, and then 
a council of war was ordered to meet the fifth inftant of the field officers, 
to confider of the prefent condition of the ifland, and to put it into a 
pofture to be defended. ' 

April 5.— Accordingly, the council of war met, where it was con- 
eluded that on' tl>e tenth inftant the civil'and common law fliould be 
laid by, and the articles of war be in force twenty days, and the illanci 
in a military pollure, and that in that time all poffible induftry ihould be 
ufed to fortify all parts of the ifland; for the doing of which every tenth 
negro in the country, and every fourth negro at Port- Royal, were to la- 
bour on the public works; and accordingly the tenth day it was put in 
cxecutionj and every one applied themfelvcs heartily to their bufinefs. 

April 13.— Captain Mingham arrived from London, ancf brought 
certain news there would be war with France, but that it was not yet 
proclaimed, and that therefore, when he came away, the earl of Carlifle 
was ordered to fail iji fourteen days. 

• April 15. — ^We began the lines with flone work on the eaft fide of 
fort St. James, and finilhed it by the twenty-third in the evening, 


April 24. — ^The lines of ftone work was begun at the prifon* and 
^uite finilhed by the fecond of May in the morning. 

April 25. — The council of war, by order of the lieutenant-general, 
tnet again, andbecaufe there was yet no certain account of the war with 
Fi-ance, nor of the French fleet, and that our fortifications went on very 
•vigoroufly, and were in a good method and profpe6l of being finiflied, 
therefore they voted, that the military authority fliould continue to the 
twentieth of June next. 

April 28. — At thiy time the negroes mutinied, and killed Mr, Duck 
^nd federal others* tliis day^ 



Mav l.^ — W^ began the line* flgatnft the fet by the breftil-worfet 
which in a (hort tim^ was finifhcd and the guns mounted^ 

May 10.'— Arrived one Mr. Hamlin from St. Chriftopher's, who told 
us the French fleet, under the command of count D'Eftrees failed from 
the iflands the twenty-feventh of April, and flood away fouth weft, by 
which we guefled they were gone on the coaft of the Main. 

May 22. — Mr. Pcnroy arrived from Guinea, who had ftopt at Barba- 
does, where they told him there was certainly war with France, and the 
twenty-fourth captain Woodfins came round then, who confirmed the 
fame news, though afterwardsit proved falfe. 

May 39. — Being the king's birth-day, and all the flags abroad upon 
all the forts, the great flag on Fort. Charles blew down, which we doubted 
was ominous, being fo noted a day, and on the moft noted fort, S(c. 

May 31. — ^The council fat, and embargoed all fliips for fourteen day% 
the lieutenant-general having fcnt a floop to the coaft of Hifpaniola, to dif- 
cover what news, and what elfe ftie could of the French, on the firft of 
June flic returned, with news that count D'Eftrees own ftiip of eighty-five 
brafs guns, and fix more of the heft of the fleet, and three private fliips of 
war, and two victuallers, were all caft away on the Ifle de and in them 
about four hundred men and three hundred and fifty brafs guns loft; and 
that D'Eftrees, with the remainder of the fleet, had been at Petit Goaves^ 
from whence he was lately failed for the windward iflands, and thence in- 
tended for France, which ended all our prefent fears of the French. 

June 6. — ^Tlic embargo was taken off from the fliips, 

July 19.-r-The earl of Carl ifle arrived in the Jerfey, captain Temple 
commander, and with him the Hunter, captain Tofier commander, and 
the Carlifle, captain Swan, in whom camte iir Francis Watfon, themajor'- 
general, and with whom came two companies af foot and many people^ 
kc. and twenty great guns, and feveral barrels of powder and ftores for 
th(' ifland, but no news of any war with France, The fame morning he 
landed with the foh^mnity of the artillery from the forts and (hips, and thet 
ri^i ujnt drawn up to receive him, and pre(entty called the council, and 
wa^ f ^orn governori^ aod Uien his committion was re^d ia the old church, 


( t95 ) 

anci thence to dinner; after which no more was done this day, t)nly^iu 
the evening the two companies of foot landed, which^ by my lord's 
orders, I quartered in the taverns till farther directions about them. 

July 20.— The council met again, and viewed the a6ls my lord brought 
ready out of England, according to the coniflitution of Ireland, which 
conflltution was defigned to be fet up here ; and then they agreed writs 
fhould go out for an aiiembly to meet the fecond of September next, — 
Alfo this day a proclaojation was i/Tued out for all officers, military and 
civil, to continue in their refpeftive offices till farther order, which tlie 
carl did not alter in a long time, fo that all held their employments by 
my lord Vaughan's commiflions, at leaftfive months after my lord Carliflc 

JvLY 24.-— They went all privately to town to fee their accommoda- 
iions^ wWcb they did not like- « 

August 1. — -They went all from Port-Royal to live at St. Jago, being 
feluted as they went ,oiF with all the guns, and attended at Palfage Fart 
with all the gentry and three troops of horfe, Sf c. 

September 2. — ^The aflembly m^t according to appointment, and 
Keutehant-colonel Beellon was chofen fpeaken 



September IS. — We had news of a general peace in Europe. 

September 15. — ^The Jerfey arrived from Hifpaniola, whither fhe 
had been fent to weigh the twenty guns, which were loft when captain 
Knapman was caft away ; which guns, by the help. of captain Clark, were 
weighed, and now brought in. During the feffion of this aftcmbly, there 
was nothing but oflfers made by my lord, and great prefling that we 
flibuld pafs the afts that were fent over, and to accept of that form of 
government; which was ftill modeftly oppofed, as being contrary to the 
government of England, of which country we were, 8(c. and defired to 
live under thofelaws; therefore my lord, feeing he could not prevail, 
and that there was now no revenue in the country, gave us leave to 
iipttlc the revenue for one year, which he iijg^ned^ and then on the ele- 
zenith of Ojftobef diirolvt:d us^ 

; , OwT03E» 

(296 ) 

©CTftBER 18. — Arrived captain Spiure, who with one Nevil, about 
three months fmce, and a hundred and fifty men, had taken Campeche, 
and with hlni he brought a prize; for all which he had his pardon, and 
leave to come in and fpend their pkmder. 

November. — About the beginning of this month, my lord refelved 
to fend Mr. Atkinfon to England, to negociate about .the public afl'airs; 
who being in readinefs, and all his difpatches prepared, he fell Tick on 
the fixteenth and died the twentieth of this month, and was buried at 
St. J ago the twenty-firft. 

May 1, 1679. — ^The Jerfey failed for England, and in her fir Francis 

July 9. — Count D'Eftrees' fleet appeared before the harbour, fent four 
gentlemen ailiore for leave to wood and water in Blue-Fields Bay, which 
being granted and a pilot, they failed away that evening, 

July 12.^ — ^The earl of Carlifle called the council at Port- RoyaF, and 
the fame day a council of war, who laid by the civil law, and put the 
martial law in execution till the tenth of Auguft, which was immediately 
proclaimed : About this time writs were again iflued out for an aflembly 
tG meet the ninteenth of Auguft. 

August IS.- — An order of the king and council was publiflied at Port- 
Royal, for tlie continuing of the laws made in the two lall two felfions of 
my lord Vaughan's afTembly, till his majefty's pleafure was further known 
therein ; and alfo a proclamation againft the Englifh cutting of any more 
logwood at or the Bay of Campeche. 

August 19. — ^The afTembly met, and lieutenant-colonel Beefton was 
again chofen fpeaker. 

August 20. — By letters to fir Thomas Modyford and others, it was 
reported the ifland was fold to the French, which much difcouraged all 

August 22. — My lord fent a committee, confi-fting of fome of the 
q?uacU aad foaae of the jUrembly, to Port-Royal, to conlider and report tQ 



( 297 ) 

him what more was fitting to be done for the fecurity of the place ; for at 
this time we were under great apprehenfion of the French, they having 
many Ihips and men in the Indies. 

^ I * 


August 26. — Arrived captain Buckman from London, who brought 
the order from the king and council about the Irilh model, with dirc6tions 
to my lord, that it ftiould again be offered to the affembly, and that, if 
they refufed it, he fhould govern by the governor and council till farther 

August 27. — My lord communicated thefe orders to the aflcmbly. 
Alfo this day, by proclamation, all the courts in this ifland were adjourn- 
ed to the twenty-eighth February, except that of Port-Royal, which was 
kept open for ftrangers. 

The aflembly, confidering that the circumftances they were under, of 
confirming ordenying the Irifh conftitution, and that at this time there 
were great appreheniions of the French attempting us; arid being willing 
that the officers now at the council and affembly fhould be difperfed to 
their commands, and alfo to gain time, in hopes that might breed fome 
alteration., or at leafl giv^ them leav^ to fludy the point, they made ufei 
of the prefent danger of the French, and made an a6l for theimpofl to 
continue fix months; which they prefented to my lord, and defired, by 
tiieir fpeaker, that his lordfhip would prorogue them for fome time, that * 
they might talce care to fecure the ifland, and confider of this great bufi- 
nefs; accordingly, on the twenty-ninth, his excellency figned the adjt forlix 
jBionths, and prorogued the affembly to the twenty-eighth of O6lobernext. 

And the fame day a council of war was held at SU Jago, to fettle the ' 
army in cafe of an attack, in known orders, rendezvous, and pofls. 

September 2. — Captain Clark returned (who had been fent on the 
^oalt of Hifpaniola, to ^.ifcover what he could of the French) and reported 
*/rom fome French, that the count de Bethune was with nine men of war 
.and two lire fhips, at Martjnico, and was to join the count D'Efirees at 
Petit Goaves, but their defignnot known; therefore this day martial law 
jl^as again proclaimed to be in force all this month. 

^PX^MBPJi ^•— We began to cut the graft without .the breafl work at 

V p Port' 

\ . •- 


Port-Royal, and fell t« repairing and finishing wfcat poflible of the work^ 
we could. 

September 22. — Arrived the Succefs frigate, captain Tyte comman« 
der, from England, who fell fick and died the twenty-feventh, and then 
the command was given to his lieutenant, captain Johnfon. 


On the tWenty-fixth a proclamation was agarn made, that the martial 
law fhould continue in force to the fifteenth day of O6lober, becaufe the 
danger of the French was not off, nor the fortifications finifhed. 

The twenty-ninth the breaft-work was doubled with bricks, the re» 
doubt finirtiedas'.it now is, and a powder-houfe built in it; alfo, a little 
before this time, the hulk and ftore-houfes at Honduras were taken by the 
privateers, and much indigo, and other goods, cocoa, hides, 8(c. was now 
brought in by leave, provided they entered fairly and paid the culloms: 
Alfo much filver was brought in by the French, taken out of a Spanilli 
barque that had fi(hed it out of a wreck at Ambrofia. 

On the thirtieth the Hunter, captain Tofier, was fent out to find the 
wreck, and to tifh up the plate, but could not meet with it; for which 
jny lord put the pilot (Paul Abney) in prifon* 

October 6. — ^The Succefs, captain Johnfon, commander, wa^fenttd 
the South Cays, to find the privateers who did not come in and enter, an4 
bring in the indigo, t^c. and pay the cuttoms. 

On the eighth captain Cook's men brought in a barque with cocoa an^ 
hides, which they took from a Spaniard at Aruba, and Janded all, pub** 
licly paying the cuftoms. 

^he fourteenth a proclamation was again made, that the martial l%w 
fhould continue to the twenty-feventh inftant,but that the juftcies Ihould 
a6t in all things as ufual. 

The twenty-eighth, according to the prorogation, the affembly met 
ugain, where we had many preflures from my lord to pifs the laws, an<l 
made as many delays ; at length, on the foin^teenth of November, we 
prefented him two addrelfes, one in anfwer to ihe lords of the council of 
trade's report, and the other about the privaiteers iteaiing goods, an J being 


( '299 y 

JiTlowed to bring them into Jamaica, at the laft of which he was much 
concerned ; the particulars I refer to the ailcmbly's journal. In this af- 
fembly alfo, an ad was made forr^ifing thirteen hundred pounds to pay 
the charges on the fortifications at Port-Royal, and another to continue 
th^ import to March fecond, 1680; but after many meetings of com- 
mittees, and waitings on the governor, and many delays, at length the 
whole body of laws fent from England were by degrees voted againft. 
!Notwilhftanding, when my lord faw perfuafions would not do, he ufed 
threats to fend fcveral to England, 

And, on the firft December, my lord fent for the affembly, and offered 
them an oatli of his own invention, which he told them he expedled 
they fliould take; but the fpeaker, to whom he offered it firft, told him he 
had often takt^n the oaths of allegiance and fupremacy, and was ready 
on all occafions to take them again ; that he knew no other oaths impofcd 
on hismajefty's fulyeifts by law, and therefore would not take this, for 
which there was no authority; witli him many refuled it, but fome few 
took it ; and then my lord dilFolved the afl'embly, but pafled the money 
bills. This day alfo came news that the Succefs Was caft away at Cuba, 
in her fearch of the privateers, by the ignorance ok miftake of captaia 
Daniel, the pilots 

, January 21, 1^80. — Captain Daniel was tried by a council of war^ 
aboard the Hunter, (where lieutenant-colonel Beefton was prefident), for 
lofing the Succefs, where he was ordered to receive feven lafhes aboard 
every commifTioned ihip, thrice, one day after another, 8(c. as by the par-* 
ticylars in the triah 

April 2S. — About this time the earl of Carlifle refolved to go to Eng^ 
land in captain Clapp^s (hip, and ordered colonel Long to go home, and 
intended others, but forced none elfe ; though he faid if colonel Beefton,, 
who was then defigned to go in captain Kapman, would not go, but on^ 
ipetended, he would ibrce him to go. 

And accordingly, on the twenty-fourth, he told me he was goir^g, and 
defired me to come to him as foon as I arrived in England ; but,, after be« 
ing told by fomebody that I was not in earneft, on the 17th ot May bf 
fent the attorney-fgeneral to tell me what he h^eard, and to tell me he ex^ 
pc6tc^ I ihould go, and that he defired to fpeak with me about it; ancl 
this day, fearing colonel Long would not go, committed hiixk 


' t 

( 500 ) 

May 27. — ^In the morning, the Exchange, captain Clapp, failed; in 
lier the earl of Carlifle, the countefs lady Catherine, and many others^ 
and the Hunter and many other fhips In their company: My lord having 
been perfuaded by fome that by his going home (wliich was without 
order or leave) he might get the government fettled on him for his life, 
and the reverfion on his fon Mr. Frederick, SCc. but it did not fucceed 
Siccordingly. And now the government returned again to fir Henry 
Morgan, as lieutenant-governor and lieutenant-general, 8(c. 

July 6. — I came from Jamaica in captain Knapman, and, after a 
pafl'age of eigtit weeks, the firft of September, we overtook the eari of 
Carlifle (who went from Jamaica fourteen weeks before) off Scilly, with 
his mafts all gone and miferably wrecked, with a weary paffage and no 
provifions, to whom we prefentcd fuch provifions aiid liquors as we had» 

"What pafled after I eame from Jamaica I have not the particulars, and 
what pafled here after our arrival is known to you ; but perhaps not much 
material to the ifland hiftory, more than the altering the government, 
the particulars in fir Henry Morgan's government there, thefe you can- 
not want: and, if in any of thofe particulars! have been toofliort, if you 
pleafe to advife in which, I will enlarge on them, but I guefs Mr. Ber*- 
jtiard and many others in Jamaica may be helpful; and for the plants 
('-unlefs the trees) there is yet little knowledge or experience of them^ 
the beft light you will have in them 1 believe may be trom Mr. Boucher. 
1 know not whether colonel Colebeck kept a journal in writing or no; If 
he did, - it may be ufeful, -elfe I know none that I can guefs at that I have 
not hinted, unlefs colonel Molefworth and colonel Bourden may have 
been fo curious. If any thing be wanting that I can fupply I (hall be very 
leady and willing to do it. 

* . ■ . . 

If you think it neceflary to the hiftory, I can fend the copies of all that 
paiied here after my lord Carlifle came home, till tlie government de- 
volved on yourfelf ; as a|fo the particulars at length of all things in the 
fecond aflembly in my lord Carlifle's government; but I conceive the. 
council books and the aflembly*s Journals will help much, and alfp that 
every one will givr you copies of their noteS| when they know you is? 
iefi4 fuch a wprk. 

^fN IS,