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JESUIT EDUCATION AND THE JESUIT THEATRE 
THE RATIO AND SELF-ACTIVITY 
ANALYSIS OF NATIONAL STATISTICS 1948-1949 



«K VOL. XI, No. 3 jmmmmmm 

(FOR PRIVATE CIRCULATION) 



Contributors 



James W. Culliton, Ph.D., is now Associate Professor of Business 
Administration at the Graduate School of Business Administration at 
Harvard University. Having graduated from Canisius College and done 
graduate work at Harvard, he spent three years in business and four years 
on the Harvard staff before writing his article. 

Father Joseph C. Glose, Province Prefect of Studies for high schools 
of the Maryland Province, focuses attention on the dominant character- 
istic of the Ratio, self -activity. 

Victor M. Hamm, Ph.D. of Marquette University's English depart- 
ment attended a special meeting on the liberal arts at the invitation of 
the Association of American Colleges and in a commentary on the pro- 
ceedings of that meeting points out topics of significance to Jesuits. 

Father John F. Lenny, Headmaster of Scranton Preparatory School, 
has succeeded in combining the best features of group and individual 
guidance in a program worthy of study. 

Father Charles M. O'Hara of Marquette University again analyzes 
trends in the growth of Jesuit high schools, colleges and universities. 

Father John W. Paone of Canisius High School, in addition to 
teaching regular classes, has had considerable success with remedial work 
in reading. 

Father John P. Porter is Dean of the Graduate Department of 
Canisius College and acting head of the department of History. 

Father John H. Taylor, Dean of St. Francis Xavier Novitiate, 
Sheridan, Oregon, calls upon a broad knowledge of history of education 
and culture to review a comprehensive study of the liberal arts. 

Walter H. Turner, Ph.D., of the faculty of Philosophy at the 
University of Detroit, gives a setting to the work of an outstanding 
Scholastic philosopher. 

Father Victor R. Yanitelli, formerly of the Department of 
Romance Languages at the University of Scranton, is completing his 
fourth year of Theology at West Baden College. 



Jesuit Educational Quarterly 

January 1949 



CONTENTS 



Contributors 130 

Jesuit Education and the Jesuit Theatre 

Victor R. Yanitelli, S.J 133 

The Ratio and Self-Activity 

Joseph C. Glose, S.J 146 

The Place of Letters in Liberal Education 
Commission on Liberal Education Association of 
American Colleges 153 

Notes on the Commission's Report 

Victor M. Hamm, Ph.D 158 

Guidance at Scranton Prep 

John F. Lenny, S.J. . 161 

An Analysis of National Statistics 1948-1949 

Charles M. O'Hara, S.J 167 

A Challenge to Catholic Colleges 

James W. Culliton, Ph.D • . 174 



BOOKS 

The Nature of the Liberal Arts, By John E. Wise, 
S.J. (Reviewed by John H. Taylor, S.J.) . . 179 

Introduction to Philosophy, By Louis De Raey- 
maeker (Reviewed by W. H. Turner, Ph.D.) . 180 

Whither American Education? Edited by Allan P. 
Farrell, S.J. (Reviewed by Albert I. Lemieux, SJ.) 182 

Handbook for Remedial Reading, By William Kott- 
meyer (Reviewed by John W. Paone, S.J.) . . 183 

A History of Boston College, By David R. Dunigan, 

S.J. (Reviewed by John P. Porter, S.J.) ... 184 
News from the Field 187 



The Jesuit Educational Quarterly, published in June, October, 
January, and March by the Jesuit Educational Association, represents the 
Jesuit secondary schools, colleges, seminaries, and universities of the 
United States, and those conducted by American Jesuits in foreign lands 

EDITORIAL STAFF 

Editor 
Edward B. Rooney, S.J. 



Managing Editor 
William J. Mehok, S.J. 



Advisory Board 

An editorial advisory board is composed of the regional directors of 
education in the several Jesuit provinces: 



Oscar F. Auvil, S.J. 
Edward B. Bunn, S.J. 
Hugh M. Duce, S.J. 
Joseph D. Fitz Gerald, S.J. 
Joseph C. Glose, S.J. 
Wilfred M. Mallon, S.J. 
Julian L. Maline, S.J. 
John J. Nash, S.J. 
Lorenzo K. Reed, S.J. 
Arthur J. Sheehan, S.J. 
Andrew C. Smith, S.J. 



Oregon Province 
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ADDRESS COMMUNICATIONS TO THE EDITOR 
49 EAST 84th STREET 
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Copyright, January 1949 
jesuit educational quarterly 



Jesuit Education and the 
Jesuit Theatre 

Victor R. Yanitelli, S.J. 

The roots of Jesuit drama go deep into the origins of the Order. They 
evolve through the stages of its early apostolate and finally flower with 
the first of its educational schemes. It is interesting to note that the 
founding fathers of the Society of Jesus, Ignatius Loyola, Peter Faber, 
Francis Xavier, James Lainez, Alonso Salmeron, Nicholas Bodadilla, Simon 
Rodriguez, Claude La Jay, Jean Codure, Paschase Brouet, all of whom 
pronounced their first vows of Povery and Chastity in a little chapel at 
Montmartre, Paris, on the Feast of the Assumption, August 15, 1534. 
pronounced also a vow to go to the Holy Land within two years time. 
The vow was taken for the purpose of imitating the Christ who travelled 
the Levant in an effort to bring salvation there; their aim was one of pure 
evangelization. That pilgrimage, which, incidentally, never was realized, 
may be said to have been the first purpose for which the primitive Society 
was founded. 

However, after waiting fruitlessly for three years in Rome, these men, 
several of whom had scattered meanwhile among the university towns of 
Italy, offered their services to the Farnese Pope, Paul III, for him to use 
*as he saw fit in the interests of the Church. It was with this offer and 
the Pope's acceptance that the work of the Society of Jesus officially 
began. 

The history of the Society as an ecclesiastical organization begins with 
the Constitutions written by St. Ignatius, and their final acceptance on 
September 27, 1540; as such, it has little place here. What is of moment 
though, is the fact that the fourth part of these Constitutions entitled 
De nostrorum institutione in studiis aliisque mediis iuvandi proximum 
atque de institutione iuventutis, defined the Society's first program of 
education as being purely catechetical, limiting its scope to the teaching 
of Christian Doctrine in the classroom and from the pulpit. 1 In fact, the 
first title, unofficial, of the founding fathers was "Theologians of Paris." 2 

1 It was already decided in the "Deliberationes" of May, 1539, "Quod docendi erunt 
pueri vel alii quicumque ipsa mandata." See Monumenta Historica Societatis lesu 
(MHSI), Constitutiones, I, 19; also C. Gomez Rodeles, S.J., La Compafiia de Jesus 
catequista, Madrid, Blass, 1913, ch. I. 

*See Simon Rodrigues, Comment arium de origine et progressu Societatis lesu, in 
MHSI, Epistolae P. Roderici, p. 486. 



133 



134 Jesuit Educational Quarterly for January 1949 



It is rather startling to fin'd that education, in the sense of a definite aim 
in teaching the Humanities, was not a part of the first pedagogy of the 
Society of Jesus, although it was not long in becoming so. 

The founders of the Society came without exception from a university 
environment and all held the degree of Master of Arts. Nevertheless, it 
would be an error to imagine Ignatius at Paris mulling over programs of 
study and planning the foundation of colleges. He did not do so even 
during the early years of his generalship over the Society. 3 

The first step came when, as General, he had to choose the course of 
training for his future priests after their spiritual formation had been 
completed in the Exerc'ttia? and in the novitiate. In making this all- 
important choice, Ignatius preferred the humanistic course, according to 
the ideals of Lebrija, Vives, and Erasmus, 5 rather than the medieval ideal 
of a clear, intellectual but inelegant Latin which would serve as a prac- 
tical preparation for Dialectic and Scholastic philosophy. Ignatius was 
very definite on this point. His talent for action and organization showed 
itself in the unhesitating manner in which he charged superiors and 
obliged students to follow none but the humanistic way of studies. They 
were to do this: "without hurry, without shortcuts or confusion of 
courses, and without succumbing to the attractions of theology." 6 

The logical sequence to this decision was the foundation of colleges 
exclusively for students of the Order. This step was taken at the sug- 
gestion of Father Lainez 7 with the result that Jesuit colleges came into 
being at Paris, Louvain, Padua, Coimbra, Alcala, and Valencia, right in 
the shadow of many famous universities. There were no Jesuit professors 
attached to these colleges, because the men attended the lectures at the 
universities with which they were affiliated. 8 The advantages of such a 
system were remarked by secretary Polanco who emphasized the progress 
that the Jesuit students were making at Coimbra because they shared both 
the benefits of community life and the advantages of the lectures given 
by the famous professors of that university. 9 

St. Ignatius still was not satisfied. Something more was wanting. His 



3 See J. Quicherat, Histoire de Sainte-Barbe: colleges, communautes, institutions, 
Paris, 1860, p. 231. 

4 See Exercitia spiritualia S. P. Ignatii de Loyola, Brussels, De Brouwer, 1932. 

5 "Litteras amas. Recte,, si propter Christum"; wrote Erasmus in his Enchiridion 
militis christian}, Basle, 1519, p. 45. See also M. Bataillon, Erasme et VEspagne, Paris, 
1937. 

9 MHSI, S. Ignatii epistolae, TU, 502; see also Constitutiones, I, 177; and Script a de 
S. Ignatio, I, 448, 262, 281. 

7 "Quien invento los Colegios? R. Lainez fue el Primero que toco este punto." In 
the "Memorial" of G. de Camara, n. 138, MHSI, Scripta de S. Ignatio, I, 220. 

8 The "Deliberationes" of 1541 had decided: "Hacer colegios en Universidades. . . . 
No estudios ni lectiones en la Compania." MHSI, Constitutiones, I, 47. 

9 See MHSI, Poland chronicon, I, 157. 



Jesuit Education and the Jesuit Theatre 



135 



practical vision extended further to a Jesuit college, for Jesuit students, 
complete with Jesuit faculty. His dream was realized as early as 1545 
through the beneficence of one Francis Borgia, the Duke of Gandia, who 
later became a Jesuit himself, General of the Society and finally adorned 
the altars of the Church as a saint. 10 His foundation was called the College 
of Gandia after the municipality in which it was located. 

In the year following the establishment of Gandia, 1546, St. Ignatius 
opened more of these colleges to extern students, though he did not do 
this entirely on his own initiative. Rather, he was persuaded to this step 
by the influence of externs who wanted the youth of their town to share 
in the advantages of the knowledge and virtue they perceived in the new 
religious. 11 Jesuits had already been employed as instructors of externs in 
India and in Germany, because paganism and heresy had made the need 
for Christian instruction imperative in those places. To the College of 
Diego de Bourba in Goa, Xavier sent some of his all too few missioners, 
while to Inglostadt, Ignatius sent four Theologians, of whom we know 
three by name, Lainez, Salmeron and Claude Le Jay. 12 

Colleges destined exclusively for externs were not sanctioned until the 
Sixth General Congregation convened under Father Aquaviva in 1608. 
This had not been done sooner because it was the Society's first care to 
assure herself of new recruits and it was rightly thought that these could 
be more easily drawn from the Seminary-College type of Institution, that 
is, from a college in which young Jesuit aspirants to the priesthood studied 
side by side with extern students. 13 

In such a college, the Jesuit students lived apart from the others and 
were referred to as "scholastici nostri." At the same time, classes were 
attended by all in common, both Jesuit and non-Jesuit students. Here 
again, the Jesuit scholastics sat in a separate group by themselves. 

The extern group was made up of four different classes of men. The 
"alumni" were non-paying students who were accepted "... si pacta 
cum Fundatoribus inita id exigent, siquidem ad finem, quern sibi praefigit 

10 See MHSI, Epistolae mixtae, I, 315, II, 102; and Monumenta lgnatiana, series la, 
I, 698. 

11 "Por la misma Razon de caridad con que se aceptan colegios, y se tienen en ellos 
escuelas publicas para la edificacion en doctrina y vida, no solamente de los Nuestros, 
pero aun mas de los fuera de la Compania, se podra ella extender a tomar asunto de 
universidades, en las cuales se extienda mas universalmente este fruto ... a gloria de 
Dios Nustro Senor." Jose Manuel Aicardo, S.J., Comentario a las constituciones de la 
Compania de Jesus, 6 vols., Madrid, Blass, 1918-1932, III, 114. See also J. B. Herman, 
S.J., La pedagogie des Jesuites an XVIe Steele, Paris, Picard, 1914, pp. 13-15. 

12 For Goa see F. Tournier, S.J., "Monseigneur Guillaume de Prat au Concile de 
Trente," Etudes Religieuses, Philosophiques et Litteraires, IIC (1904), 479, and A. P. 
Farrell, S.J., The Jesuit code of liberal education, Milwaukee, Bruce, 193 8, pp. 16, 21. 
For Ingolstadt see MHSI, Poland chronicon, I, 113, 132, 152-153. 

13 See Herman, S.J., op. cit., p. 13. 



136 



Jesuit Educational Quarterly for January 1949 



Societas, cum hujusmodi conditionibus Collegium admittere utile cen- 
sebitur vel ob causas alias raras et non levis momenti." 14 The "convictores" 
came from rich and noble families and lived in the college as pensionna'tres. 
They were also known as "commensales." Poor students, whom Stoekius 
calls "die geistlichen Zdglinge," received the appellation of "stipendiati" 
or "pauperes," but were most frequently confused with the "alumni" and 
known as such. The only non-boarding group was composed of the day 
students whose residence was with their families in the town. These were 
known simply as "externi." 10 This was the basic organization of the con- 
stituents of the Jesuit college until 1608, but the program of education, 
already existing in seed, needed to be developed into its full flower. 

It was really the foundation of Messina in 1548 that unfolded to 
Ignatius the broad horizons of the educational possibilities of his Order. 
This College was opened at the request of the Municipality of Messina, 
led by Don Juan de Vega, vice-regent of Sicily, and his two aides, Doctor 
Ignatius Lopez and Diego de Cardona. 16 By 1549 Messina had inspired 
Ignatius with the plan of the Collegio Romano, which shortly afterwards 
was to be converted into an international center of knowledge and virtue, 
and, under the guardianship of the Pope, was to be transformed into a 
model for all the other colleges of the Society. 

When this plan had taken shape, Ignatius sent a circular to the whole 
Society dated December 1, 1551, officially advising all communities of 
the new form of apostolate, recommending that similar colleges be opened 
all over Europe, and transmitting the basic norms for the system of 
teaching to be adopted wherever such a college was founded. 17 In 15 52 
the Collegium Germanicum was started in Rome, and by 15 56 a swarm 
of colleges dotted the boot of Italy and the rest of the Continent. There 
were colleges in Palermo (Nov. 1549), Tivoli (1549), Venice (Easter 
1551), Ferrara (June 15 51), Bologna (Oct. 1551), Florence (Jan. 
1 5 52), Naples (Jan. 15 52), Perugia (June 1 5 52), Padua (Sept. 1 5 52), 
Modena ( 1 5 52), Gubbio (Nov. 1 5 52), Vienna (beginning of 1 5 53 ), 
Lisbon (Feb. 1 5 5 3 ) , Monreale (July 1 5 5 3 ), Cordova (Dec. 1 5 53), Genoa 



14 G. M. Pachtler, S.J. Ratio studiorum et institutiones scholasticae Societatis Jesu, 
4 vols., Berlin, Hofmann, 1894, I, 21. 

15 H. Stoekius, Studien iiber die Padagogik der Geselhchaft Jesu im 16 Jahrhundert, 
Erste tuck, Prinzip der Trennung, Nordlingen, Beck, n.d., pp. 1-7. See also Aicardo, S.J., 
op. cit., III, 129, for "alumni"; 144-145 for "convictores." August Oswald, S.J., Com- 
ment arium in decern partes constitntionum Societatis Jesu, Limburg, De Brouwer, 189 J, 
pp. 680-681 gives the various opinions on whether the "convictores" could properly be 
called "familiares" of the Society. He interprets the Council of Trent in the affirmative 
on this point. The new Codex Juris Canonici, c. 514, par. 1, promulgated May 19, 1918, 
has made this a law. 

16 See MHSI, Poland chronicon, I, 242. 

17 See MHSI, S. Ignatii epistolae, IV, 5, 648. 



Jesuit Education and the Jesuit Theatre 



137 



(Nov. 15 54), Loreto (Easter 1 5 5 5 ), Burgos (Sept. 1 5 5 5 ), Coimbra 
(Oct. 1 5 5 5 ), Bibona in Sicily (Jan. 15 56), Galicia (April 1 5 56), Siena 
(May 1556), Prague (July 1 5 56), Cologne (Aug. 1 5 56), Catania 
(autumn of 15 56), and others less important. 

Such growth could not be allowed to continue unbridled. It had to be 
stopped somewhere lest the Colleges, grown too numerous, devour the 
Society. Hence, it is not surprising to read that by 1600 Aquaviva was 
refusing requests to open colleges for the simple reason that they could 
not be adequately managed. It seems that after a period in which he had 
been induced to open twelve colleges in one year, he realized a halt was 
necessary in order to consolidate the foundations already under the 
Society's care. 18 To growth and expansion he added the elements of 
balance and control. 

St. Ignatius, foreseeing something of this marvelous development as 
early as 1549, now endeavored to endow the new apostolate with that 
canonical basis which was lacking, at least in explicit form, in the Bull 
that constituted the Order. Pope Paul III acceded to his request in a new 
Bull Licet debitum, on October 23, 1549, which contained the following 
clause: "Praeposito Generali eiusdem Societatis, ut quos de suis idoneos 
iudicaverit ad lectiones theologiae et aliarum facultatum, alterius licentia 
ad id minime requisita, ubi libet deputare possit . . . concedimus et 
indulgemus." 19 Jesuits now had canonical permission to teach theology 
and whatever subjects might be included under the indefinite phrase 
"aliarum facultatum." 

Once approved Jesuits were granted permission to teach, confirmation 
of the Society as a teching Order soon followed as an explicit fact in the 
Bull of Julius III, Exposcit debitum, of July 21, 15 50. This Papal letter 
of approbation included for the first time the word "lectiones" in its 
description of the purpose for which the Order was established. 20 

Legislation for these colleges was an obvious necessity. Order and unity 
were indispensable. Yet it had to be order and unity with flexibility, a 



18 See Antonio Astrain, S.J., Historia de la Campania de Jestis en la Asistencia de 
Espaita, 6 vols., Madrid, "Sucesores de Rivadeneyra," 1902-1913, IV, 774-775. 

19 See MHS/, Constitutiones, I, 367. 

20 Here are the two formulae: 

1540 1550 
M . . . Societas ad hoc potissimum instituta, "... Societas etc. ut ad fidei propaga- 
ut ad profectum animarum in vita et tionem per publicas praedicationes, lec- 
doctrina Christiana, et ad fidei propaga- tiones et aliud quodcumque verbi Dei 
tionem per publicas praedicationes et verbi ministerium etc." 
Dei ministerium, spiritualia exercitia et 
charitatis opera, et nominatim per puerorum 
ac rudium in christianismo institutionem, 
ad christifidelium in confessionibus audien- 
dis spiritualem consolationem praecipue 
intendat." 



138 Jesuit Educational Quarterly for January 1949 

quality provided for in Part IV of the Constitutiones, whereby every 
college was left free to make the rules and regulations that best suited its 
own circumstances of personnel and locale. These variations, however, had 
to follow in principle the rules established for the Roman College in so 
far as this was feasible, since the latter was meant to serve as a model for 
all the others. 21 "With experience and with the modifications suggested by 
use, it would be possible in time, adds St. Ignatius, to outline a more 
general and uniform statute.' 22 ' 

There had been plans of study aplenty before the definitive edition of 
the Ratio Studiorum appeared. The Constitutions laid down the basic 
foundation for studies, the make-up of college faculties and curricula, 
but stated nothing specifically with regard to the theatre. 23 That the idea 
of public exhibitions as a pedagogical means of stirring up interest 
occurred to St. Ignatius in those early days of Jesuit education, cannot 
be doubted. In 15 56 he sent a memorandum to Polanco regarding the 
college of Ingolstadt, which read: 

Si accetteranno nelle schuole ogni sorte de persone, che vogliano 
servar la modestia et disciplina conveniente, et per animarli piu, 
et consolarli et anche li parente loro, fra Panno alcune volte si 
faranno pronunciare alcune orationi, et versi, et dialogi, al modo 
di Roma, del che etiam crescera Pautorita della schuola. 24 

Just what these "dialogi al modo di Roma," "dialogues in the Roman 
manner," were is somewhat sketchily outlined for us in one of the 
Epistolae written to Ignatius by Polanco in the previous year, 15 55. 
Polanco was in Rome at that time, and he summed up the substance of 
the "dialogus" as a piece which "actus est a pueris qui in collegio nostro 
instituntur . . . iucundissimo utilissimoque argumento, et actus duabus 
horis . . . " 25 From this it can be deduced that the "dialogus" was just what 

In addition to Father FarrelPs The Jesuit Code of Liberal Education, two of the best 
treatises on this question of the origin and development of the Ratio Studiorum are to 
be found in the articles of Alban J. Goodier, S.J., "The Society of Jesus and Education," 
The Month, CVTII (1906), 457-470, 585-600; CIX (1907), 8-23, 136-150, 391-406; 
CX (1907), 270-284, and of the Mario Barbera, S.J., series on "La Ratio Studiorum," 
Civiltd Cattolica, XC (1939), I, 428-436; II, 135-145; III, 405-413; IV, 163-171; 
XCI (1940), I, 116-122; 362-369. 

21 Cf. MHSI, Const., Pars. IV, c. 7, n. 2, Declaratio C. 

22 Ibid., c. 13, Declaratio A. The future Ratio studiorum. 

23 See MHSI, Constitutiones, Pars. IV, cc. 1-17. For a more thorough treatment, cf. 
Farrell, S.J., op. cit., pp. 142-149. 

24 Pachtler, S.J., op. cit., Ill, 472. See also Epistolae et instructiones, X, 421. 

25 MHSI, Monumenta Ignatiana, epistolae et instructiones, X, 421. 

"Our schools will accept persons from every walk of life provided they wish to observe 
modesty and ordinary discipline. And in order to arouse their enthusiasm a little more 
and to give them and even their parents a little consolation, let them present, several 
times a year, a public recitation of orations, verses, and dialogues in the Roman manner, 
whereat even the good standing of the school will be increased." 



Jesuit Education and the Jesuit Theatre 



139 



its name implied: a rudimentary form of drama in which a simple fact 
or incident was discussed or portrayed by two or more alternating 
speakers. The argument, lasting about two hours, was intended to be 
pleasing but it also had to be instructive, for the Jesuits subordinated 
always the "art for art's sake" aesthetic to the moral values involved in 
educating a man for his ultimate destiny. 

Thus, the "dialogus," was the door through which drama entered the 
Jesuit college. By 1566 Rome was sending out similar memoranda in 
which the instructions specified "... habeantur orationes latinae, graecae 
et habraicae, et recitetur dialogus, tragoedia aliqua vel comoedia . . . " 28 
The simple "dialogus" had been formally expanded into "tragoedia aliqua 
vel comoedia." 

The appointment of Father Ledesma by Lainez to prepare a plan of 
studies for the Roman College, resulted in the De ratione et ordine 
studiorum Collegii Komani, a document whose inception goes back to the 
preliminary and experimental plans worked out between 1560 and 1570 
by Fathers Perpinian and Nadal, and the other members of the various 
committees that worked under Ledesma's direction, but which the director 
himself did not live to see completed. 27 Among the rules for teaching, 
holding repetitions and recitations, there appeared a section entitled, "De 
dialogis, comoediis seu tragoediis exhibendis." 28 Herein certain definite 
rules for the management of dramatics were outlined officially for the 
first time. Plays were to be given only once a year either in the college 
itself, in a church, or even in a theatre, if there happened to be one 
available. 

In the Roman College they were to be produced only once a year, at 
the opening of studies. However, in the German College, it was decided 
to present their single play at Carnival time. 29 This occasion was chosen 
in order to keep the students under a careful tutorial eye during a season 
of bacchanalian festivity. The plays, of course, were to be edifying, 
usually with a strong moral lesson attached, and were not to treat of 
mythical subjects, i.e., were not to personify the gods and, a fortiori, the 
goddesses; the same held for demons and spirits of the nether world. 
Females and female costumes were to be eschewed, but if such costume 
were needed to represent "religio, acclesia, virtus et similes," the actors 
were to play the part in a cassock, "non vero muliebri veste, praesertim 
caput aut pectus, cum experientia ostendat nocere spectatoribus et 



Pachtler, S.J., op. cit., "Gubernatio Collegii Romani," I, 194. 

See MHSI, Monumenta paedagogica, pp. 150, 141-149; 150-163. 

The full text is contained in MHSI, Monumenta Paedagogica, pp. 372-373. 

See MHSI, Monumenta paedagogica, pp. 372, 373. 



140 



Jesuit Educational Quarterly for January 1949 



actoribus quoque ipsis." Both costuming and scenery were to be simple 
and moderate rather than excessively elaborate. 250 

The first Ratio of 15 86 prescribed definitely that the Provincial super- 
vise the theatre in Jesuit colleges, imposing upon him the command that 
he should permit the performance of comedies and tragedies but on very 
rare occasions, and even then he was to see to it that they were recited 
only in Latin and after strict censorship — necessited, no doubt, by the 
low state of the Renaissance theatre then in Italy. 31 Yet the same docu- 
ment states, somewhat coyly it seems, that plays are a help in winning 
the favor of parents to the Society, since the latter are made so proud by 
watching their offspring perform in public. The same lengthy comment 
now takes care that the work of producing the play be divided in order 
to save the health of the author, a clear reference to the fact that Jesuits 
had been writing their own plays for production. It also suggests very 
wisely that eclogues, dialogues and detached scenes should be put on in 
the Humanities classes in order to keep the boys in practice and most of 
all because without this practice, "... poesis pene omnis friget ac 
iacet." 32 

In 1591, a second Ratio, now known as the Ratio intermedia, came off 
the presses of the Collegio Romano. It was the last step towards a defini- 
tive plan of studies that was to come into being eight years later. In it, 
a chapter on the "incitamenta studiorum" directs that plays be offered 
at the end of the year to celebrate the occasion of the distribution of 
prizes. This meant that plays could be held twice a year, once at the 
opening of school and again at the closing. Here again, a constant contact 
with the drama is recommended, and again the reason is because "friget 
enim poesis sine Theatro." This document is noteworthy for two things: 
the first is that together with the usual admonition against female 
characters and female attire, it added the hitherto unspoken admonition 
forbidding even the attendance of women at the plays. "Neque quo vero 
loco dramata exhibentur, aditus sit mulieribus." 33 The second appears 
in two later chapters entitled "Scholarum adiumenta," and "Scribendi 
certamen," in which an exception is made to permit womanly dress, if 
the director should deem such costume necessary. 34 

The definitive Ratio Studiorum of 1599 ascribes to the Rectors of 

30 Ibid. 

31 "Regulae P. Provincialis," n. 58, in Ratio atqne institutio studiorum per sex patrei 
ad id iussu R. P. Praepositi Generalis deputatos conscripta, Romae, in Collegio Societatis 
Iesu, Anno Domini MDLXXVI, quoted in Pachtler, S.J., op. cit., I, 129. 

32 The official document is quoted in Corcoran, S.J., Renatae litterae, Dublin, 1927, 
pp. 174-175. 

33 Ratio atque institutio studiorum, Romae, in Collegio Societatis Iesu, Anno Domini 
MDXCI, also cited in T. Corcoran, S.J., op. cit., p. 19 5. 

3 < Ibid., pp. 202-203, 214. 



Jesuit Education and the Jesuit Theatre 



141 



Colleges the same rule that was formerly directed to the Provincial in the 
first Ratio?* By this time, dramatic recitation had become a definite part 
of the curriculum for the Academies of Rheotoric and Humanities. This 
is the most concise of the three Ratio's and it withdraws the exceptional 
authorization of feminine accoutrement made above when it states simply, 

. . . nec persona ulla muliebris vel habitus introducatur." 36 

The Ratio used today with certain modifications, was published in 
1832. In it, the last rule is entirely omitted. In its place there is added 
an admonition to the Rector that he take care to put in his library a copy 
of all publications of Jesuit authorship including plays. 37 Otherwise, the 
dramatic recitation preceding the distribution of prizes continued to hold 
its place in Jesuit scholastic custom. 38 

The documents just under consideration have been, for the most part, 
of the official, inviolable type, applying to the Society in every part of 
the world, to every college run by the Society and to every superior in 
the Society. As time went by, Generals and their vicars were forced by 
circumstances to make a special interpretation of a rule or to define it 
more accurately for the sake of some peculiar situation arising in one or 
other of the colleges under their care. 

Thus Father General Everard Mercurian in 1577 insisted on the rule 
concerning the rarity with which tragedies and comedies were to be 
presented, and then he added that an exception might always be made if 
the ruler of a country should request such a production of one of the 
colleges in his domain. 39 Then in 1602, Father General Claudius Aquaviva 
allowed exception to the rule forbidding the impersonation of female 
characters, but with this condition that the ladies represented be 
"gravesque et modestae." 40 

Drama was definitely permitted in the vernacular by 1829 when a 
prescription was sent out from Rome stating that it was far simpler to 
preserve the laws of decorum in the vernacular rather than in Latin 
because of the times, and the fear of popular odium. 41 However it must be 

35 See Pachtler, S.J., op. cit., II, 272. 

36 Pachtler, S.J., op. cit., II, 272. 

37 "Servandum curet Rector quod est in regulis Praefecti bibliothecae de referendis 
in codicem his rebus, quae publice exhibentur, scribunturque in Collegio 6eu extra 
Collegium a nostris, i.e. dialogis, oratonibus, versibus et aliis hujusmodi ..." Pachtler, 
S.J., op. cit., II, 272. 

38 Ibid., II, 366. 

39 si tamen Principes aliquando serio urgeant, poterit Provincialis uti epicea 
(leni indulgentia) Pachtler, S.J., op. cit., I, 274. 

40 C. Aquaviva, S.J., Proposita circa rationem studiorum, in Pachtler, S.J., op. cit., 
II, 488. 

41 The phrase used is "alioquin in odium abolitionis incidimus." See De ration e 
studiorum nostris temporibus accomodanda Annotationes, ibid., IV, 3 87-3 88. This was 
sent out in 1829 as a preliminary to the formation of the new Ratio of 1832. Cf. also 
p. 479. 



142 Jesuit Educational Quarterly for January 1949 

realized that such plays had appeared, and with at least the silent appro- 
bation of Rome, long before this date. 42 

While this fluctuation in the rules was taking place, a gradual but 
constant growth carried the Jesuit theatre to greater heights on the Con- 
tinent during the Eighteenth Century. There are extant notices of 
tremendous pageants, of stage scenery weighing tons, of forests imitated 
in perspective, of a hundred palaces aflame, reduced to smoke and ashes, 
machines for deities to descend and disappear into clouds, of a saint 
coming down from heaven and setting fire to a chateau filled with 
fireworks. 43 

Felix Hemon reviewing Boysse's book on the Jesuit Theatre, emphasizes 
that the stage equipment at the college of Louis-le-Grand was greater 
and more complete than that of the Comedie Franchise; that one play 
alone required a wardrobe of 203 costumes. 44 The German Province had 
been producing monster pageants as early as 1600. Father Duhr quotes 
the description: 

Es Ziehen in den verschiedenen Teilen des Zuges alle handelnden 
Personen auf, ferner Riesen, Juden, 160 gerustete deutsche und 130 
apanische Pferde, 230 gerustete Mannen zu Fuss, Trommler, 
Pfeifer, Triumphwagen, Schlitten, Teufel, Menschen mit Lowen- 
kopfen, Neptun, ein Elefant mit Mohren, wilde Manner, Delphine, 
ein Tiger, ein Wolf, ein Lindwurm, den zwei Jungfrauen fuhren, 
Gotzendiener, Jager, ein Wagen mit Werwundeten, Janitscharen, 
artilleria mit ihren Pyxenmaistern, Zauberer, Henker, Liktoren 
usw. 45 

The natural reaction to such elaborate excess was an effort towards 
moderation as expressed in the Ratio of 1832. Once again the law against 
"persona muliebris vel habitus," was promulgated, and together with it 
a whole list of anathematized representations, such as demons, wanton 
boys, drunkards, gamesters, speakers of impiety, dances, and spectacles of 

42 Giovanni Granelli, S.J., and Saverio Battinelli, S.J., published their tragedies in 
the "volgare" in 1761 and in 1788 respectively, to mention only two of the better known 
Italian Jesuit authors. 

43 See E. Boysse, Le theatre des Jesuites, Paris, Vaton, 1880, p. 142. Cf. also L. V. 
Gofflot, Le theatre an college, Paris, Champion, 1907, p. 97, and Lee Simonson, The 
stage is set, New York, Harcourt Brace, 1932, pp. 199-204. Renee Fiilop-Miller, Macbt 
und Geheimnis der Jesuiten, Leipzig, Grethlein, 1929, pp. 469-474, tells of a pageant 
in Munich (1575) in which four hundred horsemen in Roman armor appeared; 
apparitions achieved by use of the magic lantern appeared, and he holds that the Jesuit 
Father Kircher was one of the first to experiment with this device. 

44 Felix Hemon, "Le comedie chez Jesuites," Revue Politique et Litteraire, XI (1879), 
529-534; XII (1880), 867-874. 

45 Bernard Duhr, S.J., Geschichte des Jesuiten in den Ldndern deutscber Zunge, 4 
vols., Freiburg im Breisgau, Herder, 1907, I, 345. "In the various parts of the pro- 
cession there marched all kinds of characters, strange giants, Jews, 160 German and 130 



Jesuit Education and the Jesuit Theatre 



143 



the shades from the nether world. Magic fire and certain types of guns 
referred to in the Jesuit epistolary Latin as "displosae fistulae," gladia- 
torial combat and exhibitions, all diversions of arms, were absolutely 
forbidden — unless the superior permitted their use for some grave 
reason. 46 

It seems though, that the magnitude and importance of such a theatre 
had been perceived within the Society long before the dramas had reached 
their apogee before the public of the Eighteenth Century. Evidences are 
found in the prescription that the "Decanum" be put in charge of the 
dressing and costume rooms, which must have been quite large affairs 
since he received explicit instructions as to how he should keep his books. 
Bearing the responsibility for all the valuables therein, he was obliged to 
make a duplicate list of all the properties used, especially those "quae 
pretiosiora sunt," and he was to see to it that nothing went out of the 
property room without the permission of the Rector. It was his duty also 
to make sure that whatever went out of the room was returned in good 
order. 47 

The pageantry and spectacle together with the increasing size of the 
theatrical equipment bespeaks a drama whose running time was exceed- 
ingly long. As early as 1593 (before the final and definitive Ratio 
appeared) , colleges had been warned not to bore the audience with these 
excessively extended presentations. Rome advised cutting down on the 
running time of all public performances, and in order that there be 
moderation in all things, a golden mean was prescribed that limited 
Comedies to a mere four hours playing time, and dialogues, briefest of 
all dramatic types, were restricted to one or two hours depending upon 
the subject. 48 Deans and superiors were also admonished to beware of 
putting on too great a show, lest the time, weeks, even months, spent on 
the production of a long play, prove to be harmful both to the director 
and to his charges, by causing both to neglect their class work. 49 

Spanish fully equipped war-horses, 230 footmen fully armed, trumpeters, fifemen, 
triumphal chariots, sleigh carriages, devils, men costumed in lion heads, Neptune, an 
elephant accompanied by Moors, savages, dolphins, a tiger, a wolf, a dragon reined by 
two maidens, idolaters, huntsmen, a carriage laden with the wounded, janissaries, artil- 
lery with attendant cannoneers, magicians, executioners, lictors, etc." 

46 See De exercitatione extraor dinar ia, 1736, in Pachtler, S.J., op. cit., IV, 143-144. 

47 See Liber statutorum facultatis artisticae Ingolstadii recognitus, in Pachtler, S.J., 
op. cit., IV, 274, 344. 

48 It was the German Province that received the warning: "Omnino curandum est, 
ne longitudino comoediarum et dialogorum spectatoribus molesti simus. Longitudinis 
autem videtur comoediis plus satis esse 4 horas; dialogis vero pro ratione materiae una 
aut alter." Pachtler, S.J., op. cit., I, 313. 

49 "Modus nempe adhibendus in omnibus; neque ita id genus ludis, licet eruditis 
maxime atque ad dignitatem Uteris concoliandam perappositis, indulgendum, ut, dum 
populari servimus aurae, schlolam interea negligententius geramus." Pachtler, S.J., op. cit., 
IV, 144. 



144 



Jesuit Educational Quarterly for January 1949 



These, then, are the outlines of the size, growth and importance of the 
Jesuit Theatre as manifested within the Society itself, and as expressed 
in the formal and official documents of the Jesuit archives. 50 

It would be well to keep in mind the fact that even at the peak of its 
greatest glory, the Eighteenth Century, Jesuit theatre in Italy was never 
an end in itself. Be the pageantry and alarums ever so elaborate, the 
action ever so vast, Jesuit theatre remained an instrument in the hands 
of its masters, a creature to be used "Tantum Quantum" unto the good 
of souls. From the very beginning of the Society, Saint Ignatius wanted 
only this. In fact, he did not even consider the apostolate of education 
until he had caught a glimpse of the vast benefit such a work would 
offer to humanity. From the work of education was born the theatre, and 
again this would never have been permitted to function by Saint Ignatius, 
if he had not realized its value as an aid in achieving the ultimate goal 
which was always the salvation of souls. It is one of the sadder facts in 
the history of the Jesuit theatre, that the very system which had 
engendered it, was forced also to keep it subordinate to a higher end, to 
suppress it lest primary purposes be forgotten and what was once a means 
become a goal sufficient unto itself. So thorough was this standard kept 
that even the skeptical Fulop-Miller was forced to remark on the corre- 
spondence between the Jesuit theatre and the "Spiritual Exercises." He 
says: 

In ganz unverkennbarer Weise entsprechen Tendenz, Stoff, 
Dramaturgia und Regie des Jesuitentheaters der von Ignatius in 
den Exerzitien vorgezeichneten Hollen-und-Passionsdramatik. Es 
ist als hatten die Dramaturgen und Regisseure dieses Theaters 
bewusst alles das, was Ignatius in der Phantasie seiner Junger mit 
sinnfalliger Ausschaulichkeit zu erwecken gesucht hatte, nunmehr 
mit Hilfe von effektvollen Dekorationen, Kostiimen und Maschi- 
nieren auf die wirkliche Biihne gestelt. 51 

50 Much of this primary material has been derived from Pedro Leturia, S.J., "Perche 
la Compagnia di Gesu divenne un Ordine insegnante," Georgorianum, XXI (1940), 3 50- 
3 82, and also from Alban J. Goodier, S.J., "The Society of Jesus and education," The 
Month, CVIII (1906), 457-470; CIX (1907), 8-23, 136-150, 391-406; CX (1907), 
270-284; and Mario Barbera, S.J., "La Ratio Studiorum," Chiltd Cattolica, XC serie 
la (1939), 428-436; serie 2a, 135-145. serie 3a, 405-413; serie 4a, 163-171. 

51 R. Fulop-Miller, Macht und Geheimnis der Jesuiten, Leipzig, Grethlein, 1929, 
pp. 469-470. "In quite an unmistakable manner the purpose, substance, dramaturgy and 
management of the Jesuit theatre corresponds with the dramatic technique used by 
Ignatius in the Spiritual Exercises on Hell and the Passion. It is as if the dramatists and 
producers of this theatre had realized what Ignatius tried to awaken in the imaginations 
of his disciples by means of easily perceptible pictures for the mind, and had thenceforth 
represented the same on the actual stage with the help of effective decorations, costumes, 
props and apparatus." 



Jesuit Education and the Jesuit Theatre 



145 



For the Jesuit College did not come into being in order to perform the 
function of a storehouse of knowledge; but rather to develop the per- 
sonality of its charges in a balanced corporal and spiritual completeness. 
Learning and knowledge are but the raw materials through which ability 
is nurtured and capacity developed and broadened. Studies, the Humani- 
ties, the whole classical curriculum, serve only as a basic theory which 
must be transferred to practice according to the fullness of every indi- 
vidual's capacity. 

The Jesuit College theatre, though more limited in scope, stands even 
now as it did in its more famous days, an instrument, a means for 
educating men to the objective realities of life, to a sense of values, to 
standards and norms of action compatible with the greater importance 
of the life to come, and like the higher educational system of which it is 
an integral part, it has dedicated itself to use, as a means to achieve this 
end, together with the Humanities, all the artistic and cultural pursuits. 



The Ratio and Self- Activity 



Joseph C. Glose, S.J. 1 

In his book entitled, The Jesuits and Education, Father McGucken 
wrote: "The Ratio Studiorum is neither a pedagogical treatise nor a theory 
of education. It merely mirrors, by way of rules, the methods and prac- 
tices of Jesuit educational establishments of the sixteenth century." 2 In 
a set of notes on the Ratio, Father Farrell expresses a like thought: "The 
Ratio was an educational code, i.e., general and particular aims and 
principles reduced to a set of rules or prescriptions governing: a) adminis- 
tration; b) curricula; c) methodology; d) teaching techniques; e) dis- 
ciplinary matters." 3 In his recently published book, The Nature of the 
Liberal Arts, Father Wise reiterates these opinions when discussing St. 
Ignatius' influence upon the Ratio Studiorum: "The Exercises (of St. 
Ignatius) are to be made, not read, and this is the clue to the study of 
the Ratio, which emphasizes ends and means as affecting practice, and is 
not the exposition of an educational theory, as found for example, in 
Newman. But certain principles are stated in the Exercises almost without 
interpretation. As for self-activity, the work of the learner is emphasized 
above that of the teacher." 4 

From these statements two pertinent facts emerge. First of all the 
Ratio is not a treatise on education. It is not a speculative or theoretical 
discussion of education but, like the Code of Canon Law in Church 
discipline, it gives the rules and regulations of Jesuit educational practice. 
Yet principles are implicit in the regulations of canon law. The same 
must be said for the Ratio. This brings us to the second fact that emerges 
from the statements quoted above. Though the Ratio emphasizes ends and 
means of affecting practice, certain pedagogical principles are implicit in 
the rules of the Ratio. One of these is self -activity or preferably student 
activity. 

That this principle is implicit in the Ratio is clear both from intrinsic 
and extrinsic evidence. The principle of self or student activity is written 
into the prelection; it is written into the rules for oral and written work. 

1 This paper was prepared for and read at the Annual Meeting of the Jesuit Educa- 
tional Association, San Francisco, California, March 29, 1948. 

2 W"m. J. McGucken, S.J., The Jesuits and Education, Milwaukee, The Bruce Publish- 
ing Company, 1932, p. 34. 

3 Allan P. Farrell, S.J., Ratio Notes — The Jesuit Code of Liberal Education, An 
Outline, p. 2. 

4 John E. Wise, S.J., The Nature of the Liberal Arts, Milwaukee, The Bruce Publish- 
ing Company, 1947. pp. 120, 121. 



146 



The Ratio and Self -Activity 



147 



It is the principle which gives point to the honest rivalry so highly recom- 
mended in the class room repetitions. It is the principle which sponsors 
interest and individual progress in the academies or seminars. 

The extrinsic evidence is quite as clear. The makers of the Ratio con- 
fessed their dependence upon the Constitutions of the Society drawn up 
by St. Ignatius, especially upon the fourth part of the Constitutions* 
where the Saint treated education both of Jesuits and externs, and where, 
in an explicit statement, he anticipated the preparation of the Ratio. 
Now St. Ignatius evidently wrote the fourth part of the Constitutions 
with the great educational principles of the Spiritual Exercises uppermost 
in his mind. He had learned the value of self -activity as a principle of 
self perfection. In the second Annotation of the Spiritual Exercises he 
wrote: "He who gives to another the method and order of a meditation 
or contemplation ought faithfully to narrate the history of the contem- 
plation or meditation, going through the points however only briefly, and 
with a short explanation: because when the person who contemplates, 
takes the true groundwork of the history, discussing and reasoning by 
himself, and meeting with something that makes the history clearer and 
better felt (whether this happen through his own reasoning, or through 
the enlightenment of his understanding by Divine grace), he thereby 
enjoys greater spiritual relish and fruit than if he who gives the exercises 
had minutely explained and developed the meaning of the history; for it 
is not to know much, but it is to understand and savour the matter 
interiorly, that fills and satisfies the soul." 

Here the Saint reveals his mind on the subject of self perfection and 
the concomitant training process. The nature of the training process is 
one of self -education through self -activity. The retreatant with the assist- 
ance of Divine grace makes his own conclusions and applications. 

This principle, implicit in the Ratio, is all important in training youth. 
It is the basis of all learning. Students, for example, will learn to think 
reflectively only by going through experiences of reasoning. So much of 
school work is apt to be mere repetition of what has been read or heard, 
and involves little of real thinking. A student learns through his own 
activities or as the Boy Scout manual and the progressive education pro- 
gram would put it: "we learn by doing." This is a very ancient truth in 
education. Aristotle expressed this truth by saying that the intellect is 
perfected by activity. St. Thomas put it this way in his tract, "De 
Magistro": "Sicut ergo medicus dicitur causare sanitatem in infirmo 
natura operante, ita etiam, homo dicitur causare scientiam in alio 

5 Allan P. Farrell, S.J., The Jesuit Code of Liberal Education, Milwaukee, The Bruce 
Publishing Company, 193 8, p. 225. 

6 Constitutions, IV. 13. 2. 



148 Jesuit Educational Quarterly for January 1949 



operante rationis naturalis illius; et hoc est docere," 7 Just as the doctor 
is said to bring back health to the sick person through the operation of 
nature, so also man is said to cause knowledge in another through the 
operation of the learner's natural reason; and this is to teach. Father 
Cunningham in his book The Pivotal Problems of Education gives a 
modern expression of this truth. He quotes a university president as 
follows: "A student learns through his own activities, not by being 
sprayed with ideas." 9. 

All of this sums up to the well known fact that in learning we acquire 
intellectual and moral habits which is a most personal process. Each 
student must develop his own habits. They are not handed over to him 
ready made. He may be pleased or displeased with the intellectual and 
moral habits he observes in another. If pleased, he may be tempted to 
imitate them, but the imitation, which results in student learning, is the 
sole effort of the student. The teacher can at best present patterns for 
imitation, he can give plenty of motivation for student activity and he 
can demand achievement; but it will be only by co-operating with the 
teacher in the last of the three steps that the student will be really 
learning. 

Having refreshed our minds about the top ranking of self-activity in 
the process of learning and about its pivotal status in the Ratio, we are 
ready to analyze some of the special means of self -activity proposed in 
the rules of the Ratio. Since Father Britt devoted a whole paper to the 
prelectio, I shall not trespass upon his acreage. 9 My references are taken 
from the translation of the Ratio of 1599 found in Edward A. Fitz- 
patrick's book, Saint Ignatius and the Ratio Studiorum. 

In rule 19 of the Rules Common to Professors of the Lower Classes 
mention is made of the exercise of memory. According to this rule, 
memory was to be a serious matter. The teacher was to seek out the lazier 
ones especially, lest they escape the rigor of the daily lesson and fall 
behind in their assignments. The memory lesson was to be cumulative. 
The past lesson was to be added to the new lesson and this accumulation 
might continue for several weeks depending, I dare say, upon the nature 
of the assignment. Occasionally someone was to be chosen to recite a 
lengthy piece and at times publicly. For this a reward was to be given. 
Memory is an important part of school learning. The rule of the Ratio 
tells us how well its makers sensed this fact. To be of value memory train- 
ing should include the learning of the spelling of words, the accurate 
learning of vocabularies, dates, symbols, formulas, facts and events; the 

7 St. Thomas, De Veritate, Quaestio XI, De Maghtro, Articulus Primus. 
8 Wm. F. Cunningham, C.S.C., The Pivotal Problems of Education, New York, The 
Macmillan Company, 1940, p. 138. 



The Ratio and Self -Activity 



149 



memorizing of prose and poetry, rules, definitions and principles. These 
form the raw material we use in thinking and writing. Unless we insist 
upon accuracy and an abundance in memorizing we cannot expect that 
automatism which is so helpful in accomplishment. "Memory maketh a 
ready man." Abundant memory exercise makes the mind so ready and so 
apt in quotation, so sure and sound in statement, so full and so rich in 
potency. To take but one example of the worth of memory lessons — the 
ready and extensive knowledge of the Bible, common to so many educated 
Protestants. 

Memory is a self-activity which makes the student more ready and 
more thorough in his intellectual habits. And yet it is one of the Ratio 
rules which does not always receive as much attention as it should. Some 
teachers seek a bare minimum of achievement in this process of learning, 
looking upon it as of very minor importance in the training of the 
student. Others make no attempt to show the student how to memorize 
profitably and with less effort. It is little wonder, then, that we so seldom 
find among our students those who can quote at length from the classical 
and other authors. 

Rules 20-24 (inclusive) of the Rules Common to the Professors of the 
Lower Classes give a set of instructions for written work. They apply to 
all different types of composition work. They contain some interesting 
hints for developing student activity. The composition should be a daily 
event, as also should the correction. The method of correction should be 
such as will arouse mental activity and reflection on the part of the 
student. Mistakes should be corrected publicly as well as privately, and a 
revised version of the written exercise should be required. There should be 
great variety in the assignments lest monotony kill the ardor of the 
student. And lastly, in the special rules proposed for the teachers of the 
different classes there is much stress put upon the application of these 
written exercises to the acquiring of elegance of style or of familiarity 
with the rules of grammar. 

All of these points are excellent means of learning. Were the student 
compelled to observe them faithfully, there can be no doubt that he 
would make great progress. It was this type of student activity which 
produced such exceptional results in the early schools of the Society. 
There is no better means of developing sound reasoning and cultivated 
expression. At present the variety of subjects and the burden of many 
assignments makes the task more difficult. Yet it would seem practicable 

9 Britt, Laurence V., S.J., "The Prelection Method," Jesuit Educational Quarterly, 
Vol. XI, No. 1, pp. 49-57. 

10 Fitzpatrick, Edward A., St. Ignatius and the Ratio Studiorum, New York, 
McGraw-Hill Book Company, 193 3. 



150 Jesuit Educational Quarterly for January 1949 



to insist upon all of these elements of self -activity in at least a lesser 
degree. There is no good reason for omitting a daily assignment in Latin 
composition. It need not be long. Nor is there any reason for omitting 
a public correction of this exercise where a discussion of the reasons for 
particular forms and expressions can be had. Variety can be secured by 
individual teacher effort. Sentences and specimens of continuous discourse 
must be worked up anew annually or oftener. Teaching can easily be made 
more functional by encouraging the students to assist in formulating 
sentences which examplify rules of grammar and points of style. And 
what has been said of Latin composition can be applied to all composition 
and even in the exercises of other classes. Mathematics, above all other 
subjects, lends itself to intensive student activity. Where the teacher of 
mathmatics gives plenty of class assignment, and devotes most of his 
time to directing the students rather than exhibiting his own knowledge 
of the subject, the students grow increasingly interested and successful 
in the subject. In this way also the home work of the student can be made 
part of the class work. It saves the teacher giving long written assign- 
ments to be done at home. 

In rule 25 of the Rules Common to the Professors of the Lower Classes 
directions are given for the recitation or repetition. I shall touch but 
briefly upon this rule though its skillful use shows the master teacher. 
Two instructions are important for self -activity. Only the repetition of 
the most important and useful points should be asked, and, secondly, the 
students should be made to answer in continuous recitation or else in one 
interrupted by questions. The aim of the recitation or repetition is not 
to seek a photographic report of what the student heard or read. This 
would stultify the learning process. The student must be made to sense 
that, unless he can answer the guiding questions of the teacher, he is not 
grasping the salient parts of the lesson and their integration with the 
whole. The teacher must lead him on until the student is moved to see 
that there is much matter for thought in the lesson, that he has perhaps 
attacked it wrongly, and must correct his way of approaching a lesson, 
and above all that in the lesson there is much of beauty and truth which 
he missed and now ought acquire. The other instruction helpful to self- 
activity is the suggestion of the rule to have the student answer in con- 
tinued recitation. Here the teacher treats with the student who wishes 
to go off on his own. He gives him free rein and checks him only when 
he is leaving the subject or is becoming too verbose. He usually proposes 
to such student a topic for discussion and watches the student's progress 
in precision of expression and use of vocabulary and particularly in his 
reflective thinking. Such a student is always a challenge to the teacher, 
but when handled skilfully gives stimulus to the whole class. The recita- 



The Ratio and Self -Activity 



151 



tion or repetition affords the greatest opportunity for self -activity when 
properly used. Teachers should be urged by every means to cultivate this 
talent. It is difficult of achievement but pays the highest dividends in 
student progress precisely because it gives the greatest play to self- 
activity. 

The contests and public exhibitions explained in rules 31-36 of the 
Rules Common to the Professors of the Lower Classes are a sure method 
of inciting the students to study and self -activity. The rule tells us that 
contests are to be highly esteemed by the teacher and employed as often 
as time will permit. The public exhibitions are also declared to be very 
useful. However only the well prepared ought to give exhibitions and this 
preparation is to be of their own doing. The teacher may correct and 
suggest, but the drudgery of accomplishment is to be the task of the 
student. Other instructions are given for the contests and the public 
exhibitions. They need not be mentioned because they are irrelevant to 
our purpose. The points given are sufficient to clarify the position of the 
Ratio on these excellent means of motivating boys to study. The rivalry 
which is the basis of these rules is ingrained in nature. If it is kept on an 
honorable plane, it is the best incentive to learning. Despite the objections 
urged against its validity, it has become the common practice in educa- 
tional circles over the whole world. Contests and public exhibitions in 
every field of learning have become the heritage of modern man. Science, 
literature, philosophy offer generous rewards for the merit of accom- 
plishment. 

Yet, strange to say, there seems to be a lessening of these practices in 
our schools. A few may be encouraged to try for national awards, but 
the great bulk of the student body is not given much opportunity to 
exercise honest rivalry. What is so valuable in itself and so highly praised 
by the Ratio ought not be neglected. The plea of too little time is the 
usual excuse. This is hardly justifiable when the results can be so 
exceptional. When well organized and well conducted, the "concerta- 
tiones" can make the students apply themselves and exercise ingenuity as 
no other exercise is able. All of us, at one time or other, have had occasion 
to see even college students work and discuss and think as never before 
when preparing for one of these contests or public exhibitions. Boys will 
go beyond themselves on occasion on the playing field. They will do the 
same in the class room and with no harm to their character training 
provided they are taught to keep their eyes fixed not on the defeat of an 
opponent, but on the possibility of self -improvement and outdoing 
themselves. 

At the very end of the Ratio, eight rules are given for Academies of 
the Students of Grammar. Of these rules, the last is of the most im- 



152 Jesuit Educational Quarterly for January 1949 



portance. It reads: "Finally, such exercises should be assigned in sufficient 
variety as have besides their utility the additional value of combining 
pleasure and interest so that the members of the academy may joyfully 
and whole-heartedly draw therefrom a keen interest in their studies." 
Note the concluding words: "that the members of the academy may joy- 
fully and whole-heartedly draw therefrom a keen interest in their 
studies." That is the prime aim of the academy-intellectual activity. 
When extra-curricular activities in our high schools are so many and so 
varied and so frequently of mere propaganda value, a good academy can 
give a fine intellectual tone to a school. For here the more talented students 
give time and energy to deepen their knowldge of a subject and acquire 
scholarly habits of oral and written expression. It is a place to encourage 
initiative in intellectual life and exactitude in study. In the academies 
the students are expected to discuss the work of their confreres with sure- 
ness and elegance. As a result, members of academies invariably find 
themselves doing better work in the class room. It is only natural that 
this esteem for study inculcated in the academy should find its outlet 
in the class assignments. And what is best of all, this spirit of intellectual 
interest gradually comes to be the pride of the school. 

What a fertile field for student endeavor! It needs, however, much 
more cultivation than we seem to be giving it. Perhaps this is where 
courage and the teacher's self -activity is most in demand. While pre- 
paring this paper I found myself examining my conscience and noting 
my deficiencies in encouraging the Ratio's techniques for promoting intel- 
lectual self -activity among the high school students. I wonder if all the 
Principals and all the teachers in the high schools might not likewise 
make a profitable examination of conscience on this topic. 



The Place of Letters in Liberal 



Education 1 

Report of the Commission on Liberal Education 
of the Association of American Colleges 

I 

Literature, by its nature, has always been at the centre of liberal 
education. In the mid-twentieth century, when the individual and so- 
ciety are alike in crisis, the study of literature has become not less but 
more important. 

We mean by literature the great stories, plays, and poems that reveal 
human nature and give meaning to experience, that give notable ex- 
pression to men's varied responses to the world. Many expository writ- 
ings (e.g., biography, history, essays), when they are not merely and 
coldly factual, and when their form is an intrinsic part of their value, 
are also literature. 

The study of literature is central to liberal education because: 

1. Reading is an almost universal source of pleasure. The enjoyment 
of some reading (magazine fiction, detective stories, popular novels, 
and. the like) requires no study; but for the full enjoyment of the best 
literature of all epochs, study is necessary. 

2. Literature arrests the rapid flow of experience, holds it up for 
contemplation and understanding. It removes us momentarily to new 
worlds, and returns us to the familiar with fresh awareness. What 
was ours becomes more ours, and we recognize the familar for the first 
time. Literature reveals the complexity of human character — the work- 
ing of desires and motives, the traits in which men are alike and different. 
It explores the meaning of men's relations to one another; it reveals the 
connection of character and destiny. 

3. Literature makes real the continuity of past with present by help- 
ing to explain the societies that have existed at any time and how they 
came to be. 

4. In showing forth the various kinds of life, evil as well as heroic, 

1 Reprinted from Association of American Colleges Bulletin, Vol. XXXIII, No. 4, 
p. 692-697 (Dec. 19*7). 

Editor's Note: Because of the special interest of this report to Jesuit educators we 
have reprinted it here and asked Dr. Hamm, a guest of the Commission, to relate 
M>me of his impressions. 



153 



154 Jesuit Educational Quarterly for January 1949 



literature reveals the moral problems and meanings of experience. It 
therefore acquaints the student with moral choice and the consequence 
of action. Proper teaching, of literature should create in the student 
a resistance on the one hand, to corrosive cynicism, and on the other, 
to narrow and unenlightened fanaticism. It should make him aware 
of the variety as well as the constancy of moral responses to experience. 
The full understanding of a piece of literature entails the commitment 
of one's affections and sometimes even one's beliefs, and thus the effect 
of the intensive study of literature should be growth in the extent and 
clarity of one's allegiances. So literary study, both secular and religious, 
provides* moral enlightenment by making more elaborate and more firm 
the understanding of what it is to be human. 

II 

"Literature" does not mean merely literature in the English language. 
Its study therefore involves the problem of reading either in translation 
or in foreign languages. It will often be necessary to use translations. 
But this Commission believes that it is of utmost importance for students 
to pursue at least one foreign language, ancient or modern, until they 
have read some significant literature in that language. Not otherwise 
can the larger aims of literary study be achieved. Secondary schools 
can render great service by providing for relatively early study of 
language, and for fair mastery of a single foreign language, instead of 
allowing merely superficial training in more than one language other 
than English. 

Though the remark may sound austere, it is still true that the study 
of Greek offers the finest discipline that may be had in literature. This 
statement is suggested by the fact that masterpieces of Greek literature 
appear to be the largest common element in the "great books" and 
"humanities" courses. 

Ill 

Obstacles that hinder our bringing the values of literature into force- 
ful operation: 

1. Too few teachers are by gift and training competent to teach 
literature as it has been described in Part I. 

2. The study of literature is a discipline. In all civilized societies, 
it has been honored as one. Directors of our public schools show an 
increasing tendency to ignore this fact. As a result, too many students 
are poorly equipped, both in use of language and in capacity to read, 



The Place of Letters in Liberal Education 



155 



either for collegiate study of literature or for their own adult life. 
They turn away, therefore, from literature, to the kind of writing which 
is merely commercialized entertainment. In the opinion of this Com- 
mission, the chief responsibility for this situation belongs with those 
who direct and administer the system of secondary education and who 
have too readily accepted educational theories which make of literature 
something other than itself. The sentimental idea that literature is first 
and last a dreamland of desire has led many school administrators, under 
the impression that they are being progressive, to permit the old- 
fashioned hard work of grammar, language and letters to be displaced 
by* an elaborate picnic of adolescent emotions. Many a school board 
and school superintendent will agree that preparation for science means 
hard work in mathematics but are unwilling to admit that the com- 
parable disciplines of literature — grammar and language — are necessary 
to a liberal education. The conception of letters has deteriorated at all 
levels — among teachers, parents, the general public. Many school offi- 
cials find it especially easy to give in to the popular distaste for hard 
work, since to neglect the subtle and difficult disciplines of literature 
constitutes an economy in the budget. Something similar is true of 
college and university presidents. It is the opinion of the Commission 
that if more school and college administrators knew the importance 
of literary understanding to individual and group life they would see 
to it that human and financial resources are made available for the 
literary disciplines. 

3. Our society is preoccupied with activities that obscure, and in 
effect deny, the importance of knowing and understanding letters. This 
unhappy situation arises partly from technology's promise of great physi- 
cal comfort, partly from the material rewards most esteemed in a ma- 
terialistic society, and partly from the dangers of our time that seem 
to demand immediate and material solution. Young people therefore 
take inordinate interest in what they think is practical study, failing 
to realize that self-knowledge, which is indispensable to the most practical 
judgments, is the highest practicality. It has been said, with painful 
truth, that for many college graduates liberal education ends on Com- 
mencement Day. 

In colleges and in schools, some able teachers are doing admirable work. 
They deserve support and encouragement, for their task is made extreme- 
ly and needlessly difficult by the low esteem in which it is widely held. 
The popular imagination, captivated by achievements more spectacular 
than those of the teacher of literature, frequently regards him and his 
subject as inconsequential luxuries. 



156 



Jesuit Educational Quarterly for January 1949 



IV 

The faults in the teaching of literature and in the training of its 
teachers are the same. We believe that the present training of teachers 
of literature is ill calculated to produce the kind of teacher needed for 
the attainment of the ends proposed in this report. We do not, how- 
ever, propose a teaching degree nor any change intended simply to make 
for better teaching. We believe that once the problem of sound training 
for scholarship has been solved, the problem of sound preparation for 
teaching will have been solved. Fundamental progress will not- be pos- 
sible until preoccupation with mere historical processes has been cor- 
rected by the development of a well-rounded scholarship, including 
education in reading poetry, in the theory and practice of criticism, 
and practice in imaginative writing as well. For the attainment of 
this end, we recommend some discipline in fine arts, philosophy, and 
music. Too often the student is left to consider meanings all alone 
by himself and never in class. Meaning should not be an extra-curricular 
activity. Graduate schools must arouse in their students a sense of 
literature being read and written both in the present and in the past 
and a lively interest in teaching how to read and write. Once such 
an interest is generated, the present gap between high school and college 
teaching will begin to close. 

V 

Despite the deterrents to its proper study, literature is of first im- 
portance in twentieth century American education. Ours, we are re- 
minded, is a mass age; people are living and thinking in standardized 
fashion. Military censors observed during the war that all American 
soldiers wrote the same letters. In peace, not less than in war, the mass 
attitudes of a highly complicated society persist. The idea of the de- 
clining importance of the individual, already widespread in political 
and economic thought, is gaining acceptance in educational theory. 
The effect of many well-meant reforms in education during the first 
half of the century has been to magnify the importance of social wel- 
fare and efficiency and to minimize that of the individual. Attention 
to the group welfare has brought ways of thinking and teaching that 
deprive young people of the conceptions that mature the individual. 

These conceptions are best conveyed by the great and lasting stories. 
They are best communicated by words. Understanding of self and of 
society grows through many stages of aesthetic and ethical importance 
from Mother Goose to Sophocles and Shakespeare. In a period of tech- 
nological prodigies and of economic complexity, the crucial problem of 



The Place of Letters in Liberal Education 



157 



education is to sustain and develop the individual. If social and economic 
welfare are realized, we are told, the individual can take care of him- 
self. It is at least equally true that if an adequate numbei of individuals 
are unusually elevated, society can take care of itself. Education must 
be concerned both with man and with society. Its purpose must be 
to create a community of persons, not a mere aggregation of people. 
The distinctive value of literature is that it enables one to share intensely 
and imaginatively the rich, varied experience of men of all ages who 
have been confronted with human problems and conditions of life com- 
mon to men. It thereby leads to self -discovery and self-realization. 

To the unprecedented leisure which people now enjoy our society offers 
an enormous volume of entertainment. Much of that entertainment — 
the motion picture, the radio, periodicals, and books — is meagre, vulgar, 
and meretricious. Its primary effect is the debasement of taste, the 
creation of false standards of value, the blunting of the capacity to 
find strength and happiness in the ordinary course of life. Literature 
is public property; it can become a common body of experience. Its 
effective use in schools and colleges will certainly, though slowly, be 
followed by an elevation of public taste. The radio, motion pictures, 
and television cannot exploit their latent artistic capacities until genuine 
literary discernment is much more widespread in society that at present. 

This era of triumphant technology provides abundant means for better 
material living; it poses, perhaps more acutely than ever before, the 
problems of ends and values. Many men are bewildered. Modern youth, 
it has been said, are moved not by ambition but by anxiety. The great 
stories re-create powerful examples of human thought and conduct — 
show principles in action. There, the abstractions of philosophy become 
concrete and pertinent. The ends of life are their primary consideration, 
the values of experience, their essential matter. Literature has always 
been a powerful force for illuminating our true nature and for in- 
fluencing men in their separate and their social lives. Its study was 
never more necessary to education than now. 



Notes on the Commission's 
Report 

Victor M. Hamm, Ph.D. 

In the comfortable Princeton Inn, surrounded by the pleasant fields 
and splendid buildings of the Princeton campus, the embattled human- 
ists sat and pondered the plight of the humanities. We had gathered 
from all parts of the country, including California at the other end, 
to discuss the meaning and place of literature in the college. 

We are all united on fundamentals (though not on the ultimate 
issues), and had accordingly to spend little time convincing one another 
of the dignity of literature and its important place in education. It 
was rather on the precise nature of that dignity and that place that 
there was some debate. The ghost of Matthew Arnold hovered in the 
backrgound, and his name was even mentioned once or twice. (Indeed, 
Professor Trilling of Columbia University, perhaps the authority on 
Arnold in this country, was present and vocal.) No one quoted Arnold's 
remark that "most of what now passes for religion and philosophy will 
be replaced by poetry," and perhaps no one there thought so, but it 
was difficult for some of us to keep others of us from making literature 
in effect a substitute for the old philosophical and theological disciplines. 
The Puritan emphasis on individual morality, together with the deli- 
quescence of Protestant theology, both dominant factors in the intel- 
lectual climate of most American colleges, inclined many to the opinion 
that literature constituted the school of morals. (Mother Madaleva 
made her presence felt in this connection and helped to define the re- 
lation between literature on the one hand and religion and ethics on 
the other.) The purely aesthetic approach to literature as an art of 
rhythm and imagery rather than a human discipline had few pro- 
ponents. Mr. Robert Hillyer stands out in my recollection of this part 
of the discussion. It seemed to me that his poet's approach to the sub- 
ject did not get a fair hearing. We were all educators, and tended to 
think of letters only or at least predominantly in their educational aspect. 
Well, that was the purpose of the meeting. We were after all not trying 
to define literature as such. 

Part I summarizes our conclusions on the general topic of the nature 
and educative powers of literature, emphasizing its centrality among the 



158 



Note* on the Com mission's Report 



159 



instrumentalities of culture on five counts: aesthetic, intellectual, psy- 
chological, sociological, and moral. The order is significant. 

The narrow view of literary studies as exclusively English studies 
came next for discussion. It was felt that a broader base was required. 
Professor Foerster's explicit plea in favor of Greek was, however, by 
some considered impractical. It is true that Greek, both as a language 
and as a literature, is, absolutely considered, the principium et fons of 
humane letters, yet practical considerations might suggest the substitu- 
tion of Latin in its place at this time of few Greek scholars and of 
the virtual unavailability of students prepared in the elements of this 
subject. The general feeling that the study of English literature alone 
would provincialize culture and that a smattering of modern languages 
is a waste of time should encourage our conviction that the classical 
languages deserve a pivotal place in liberal education. Part II expresses 
the group's consideration of this aspect of the discussion. 

We came, then, to the matter of implementing our principles. Parts 
III and IV are devoted to a critique of contemporary educational ob- 
jectives and methods. Our statement on the obstacles that hinder bring- 
ing the values of literature into forceful operation in the schools would, 
it was realized, irritate some educators, particularly in secondary and 
teacher- training school. (It has already provoked dissenting opinions.) 
However, it seemed impossible and disingenuous to avoid stating the 
case as all of us without exception saw it; Here in fact, in incompetent 
teachers and indifferent or even hostile school administrators, are the 
concrete obstacles to making effective the report of the Commission. 
The Zeitgeist conditions and reinforces the depreciation of letters; our 
sensate and technological culture is unwilling and unable to understand 
the view that literature is one of the central and indispensable humane 
disciplines. It is significant that the Report devotes two of its five 
sections to this phase of the problem. 

Part V, stressing the role of literature in the development of the 
human individual, the person totus, teres atque rotundus, will strike a 
sympathetic chord in the souls of all Jesuit and Jesuit-trained teachers 
and readers. The reiteration of the ethical and generally humanizing 
power of letters, at the end of the Report, indicates the emphasis 
•throughout the entire discussion. A sounder and solider philosophy of 
education than some of us dared hope for inspired the conduct of the 
sessions. Here it is appropriate and agreeable to pay tribute to the 
genuine Christian humanism of the chairman of the Commission, Presi- 
dent Chalmers of Kenyon College, who kept the ends of the meeting 
firmly before us throughout the two days. No more understanding 



160 Jesuit Educational Quarterly for January 1949 



and able pilot could have been found for the specific purposes of the 
symposium. 

To most of us, I dare say, there was nothing novel in the conclusions 
to which we came, but we had at least been given the opportunity to 
come together and declare our faith in a body, and we found in this 
agreement an access of conviction in our educational principles. 

Whether a report such as that which emerged can really influence 
the future of the humanities in our high schools, colleges, and graduate 
schools, is another matter. Whether the declaration of humane prin- 
ciples can energize education without a deeper probing into the meaning 
of life and the end of man and an agreement not alone on fundamentals 
but on the ultimates, that is the question. Some of us are more than 
skeptical. Meanwhile the technological Juggernaut rolls on and the 
forces of tyranny gather menacing strength, and we are actively plan- 
ning ways and means of fleeing the terror to come. Humanism, it 
seems clear, is not enough. 



Guidance at Scranton Prep 



John F. Lenny, S.J. 

The remarks on guidance that follow have not been written by a master 
in this field. If special courses, summaries of studies and questionnaires, 
wide reading in the field and production of brochures make an expert in 
this particular phase of secondary education, then the writer does not 
qualify even as one of those quasi-specialists of Denver fame. Some 
unregenerate soul might bravely question the necessity of such a quasi- 
specialist. Some other gentleman with really amazing courage might even 
rebel at making our schools just one more departmentalized and experi- 
mental station along the testing highway. These are interesting and very 
debatable points but this article simply presents one school's efforts to 
help its pupils. There is no claim, even veiled, that Scranton Prep is 
superior in this area. This is just a presentation of facts. 

It might be well to begin with our idea of guidance. The secondary 
school pupil comes to us a child and leaves a young man. He is a groping, 
stumbling individual who needs and wants guidance in the free choices 
that are a consequence of our divinely-bestowed freedom and that deter- 
mine our ultimate end. Guidance then is the assistance given to the pupil 
to enable him to choose correctly and intelligently. Guidance is not dicta- 
tion — it is assistance. The child does the choosing — the counselor does 
not. Guidance is a deeply spiritual thing, alive with spiritual principles. 
Correct choice only comes when inordination is removed as an influencing 
motive in the election of an alternative. The guidance counselor assists 
in removing the inordination of the adolescent; inordination that is born 
of awakening passions, appalling (as we view it) ignorance, instability 
of purpose or insufficiency of reflection. The function of the counselor 
is primarily and fundamentally to assist the pupil to make an ordered and 
intelligent choice. 

A simple division of guidance would be into occupational, educational 
and moral. It is evident that these divisions overlap and a Counselor deals 
with a living individual whose motives and actions are complex. At 
Scranton Prep we follow the above division simply for clarity's sake. It 
affords an opportunity for a distinct presentation of the problems under 
each heading. It also seems to assure at least a brief glance over the whole 
field and its connecting links. 

Before narrating our efforts, it might be well to present a few 
cautionary remarks. First of all, Scranton Prep is a small school and what 



161 



162 Jesuit Educational Quarterly for January 1949 



is possible here may not be feasible elsewhere. Secondly, the problem of 
vocational and educational guidance is not quite as complicated as might 
at first appear. Of last year's graduating class (our first) 92% went on 
to College. This year will probably show a similar proportion. Hence 
vocational and educational guidance is rather circumscribed in extent. 
The urgent problem of job-getting doesn't have an immediate impact 
on the student. The outlook is rather toward the choice of further educa- 
tional preparation for a subsequent remunerative opportunity in a certain 
general field. This fact, of course, renders comparatively useless several 
excellent monographs on various jobs. Thirdly, in contrast to much expert 
opinion, we don't even begin to think that we can line up our pupils 
and after a series of tests and interviews pick out for them their exact 
peg in life. Finally, we don't like the name, guidance. It seems to savor 
too much of leading-by-hand and professional uplift efforts. Actually, I 
suppose, very little can be done about terminology except to wince when 
you use it. 

Division is an old rhetorical device so we will divide our remarks into 
two sections. The first part will deal with the general Guidance offered 
to each boy as he plods through the course. Every school more or less 
follows this pattern. Our second part will present what may or may not 
be unique in our program — the Guidance Period. 

The best way to present the over-all picture appears to be a summary 
of the facts. In passing it might be apropos to note that everything is 
really done with a purpose. Nothing is done just to say it has been done. 
This might be unique. Glancing over six pages of mimeographed notes 
on our Guidance Program (given to each teacher), our little student 
knowingly or unknowingly will go through the following steps. Before 
entrance he and his parents usually come in for a talk with the Head- 
master. After qualifying for entrance through the medium of three 
exams, an I.Q., an English and Arithmetic test (these last two not 
standardized), our lad enters his first class. Each year soon after school 
opens he has an interview with the Headmaster to discuss studies and 
participation in extra-curricular activities. Membership in the Honor 
Society is immediately presented to him as an objective of his four years' 
work. In the second semester of each year he fills out an activity and 
and informational blank which includes discussion of his vocational and 
educational plans. It is hoped, perhaps naively, that this will make the 
young man give some serious thought to his future right from his early 
days. Each year as the choice of Greek and a modern language comes up, 
personal interviews follow the general presentation of the question. In 
fourth year a special effort is made to set the boy's mind on his future. 
Three distinct talks are given early in the year, one on the Priesthood, one 



Guidance at Scranton Prep 



163 



on Marriage and one on Colleges and Catholic Colleges. These are followed 
by two tests, the A.C.E. Psychological Examination for high school 
seniors and the Kuder Preference Record. At least two personal interviews 
are held with each senior during this time. The results of these tests 
togther with the record of his vocational and educational choices through- 
out his four years in addition to his recorded I.Q. in first and third years, 
present a fair picture of the boy, his desires, and capabilities. The head of 
the Federal Employment Bureau comes in to explain the many functions 
of his office and the local opportunities. This session is followed by a 
series of talks by representative professional and business men, ranging 
through teaching, medicine, law, engineering, social service, salesmanship, 
and other fields. Special follow-up tests are given in particular areas when 
this seems indicated by the results of the previous tests. 

All through his four years a systematic effort is made to check on the 
boy's scholastic progress. Marks are given ten times a year and 'after each 
marking period a boy who has failed in any subject is interviewed by the 
Headmaster. Causes are examined and remedies sought. Each teacher must 
hand in a slip for each failure explaining its causes and the remedies 
attempted. These slips are then mailed home. Follow-up work is continued 
through the monthly meetings of the Mothers' Club (after each report 
his been distributed) and through personal letters to parents which are 
sent out about four times annually. The Library keeps an up-to-date file 
of Catholic college catalogues and has a special section on occupations 
and vocations which is constantly brought to the attention of the boys. 
The catalogues of non-Catholic colleges are kept in the Headmaster's 
office. 

In the realm of moral guidance we are particularly fortunate for our 
Student Counselor is also the religion lecturer for all classes and thus 
comes in normal contact with all the pupils. (Lest someone quibble about 
the word "fortunate," it is to be noted that our entire school has only 
seven classes.) After studying the confidential questionnaire that each 
student fills out for him, the Student Counselor begins his own inter- 
views. He sees each boy personally twice a year. Of course he is in charge 
of all those spiritual activities so distinctive of Jesuit schools and so essen- 
tial in moral guidance, such as Rereats, weekly Confession and Com- 
munion, May talks, etc. 

Our monthly assemblies (with programs and student direction), our 
Student Council, class meetings, class outings, school dances, debating 
societies, etc., are all pointed toward that supreme goal of modern educa- 
tion: preparation for democratic and meaningful living in a democratic 
society. But, to be serious, the real values of these activities. and functions 
are stressed and a sincere effort is made to achieve them. 



164 



Jesuit Educational Quarterly for January 1949 



When I look back over the preceding paragraphs, they just seem a 
conglomeration of things that are done in every school. Maybe they are. 
Maybe they aren't. But anyone who wishes further information is welcome 
to our mimeographed notes on this phase of the program. 

All the above items and practices refer to the guidance done by the 
Headmaster and the Student Counselor and that guidance which is defi- 
nitely aimed at through various activities, which, though perhaps unknown 
to the student, are basically planned with these values in mind. However, 
the Jesuit system of education is built upon the Class and the Class 
Teacher. In practice such a procedure may not be followed. Real hewers 
to the letter will tell you that you won't find it in the Ratio. But the 
whole deposit of faith isn't in the four Gospels. I have never thought 
there is much argument on this point. That may be a rather cavalier 
fashion of disposing of objections but at least from the standpoint of 
tradition and better practice it seems that our system is predicated on a 
Class and a Class Teacher. (At the moment I am only discussing what 
we term secondary education in modern America.) The class is a unit of 
about twenty boys (in our school), who progress in their studies as a 
unit, take the same subjects, take these subjects together and have a real 
and intimate life as a class. It is a distinctive and distinguishing feature 
of Jesuit education — or was. It is not a home-room, for the class is a 
perpetual home -room. 

Over this unit, as the chief responsible party, the Jesuit system places 
a man known as the Class Teacher. The boys in his class are in a special 
way his class, his boys. He takes care of their class functions; he is coach 
or moderator of their class teams; he is their main source of help in diffi- 
culties. The Headmaster and Student Counselor do not, cannot, and are 
not intended to displace this Class Teacher as the guide of the class. His 
is the constant and daily job; his is the important work. He meets them 
as teacher for at least two periods per day. They know him. He makes 
himself a part of their normal school lives. He is the personal, constant, 
fatherly guide providentially given to these boys. His is the most essential 
task in the whole guidance program for it crosses into all divisions of 
the program and embraces all its angles. 

"Tempora muntantur" and the changing times are well on the way to 
eliminating the most valuable features of our old and remembered Class 
Teachers — their moral digressions, their disquisitions on the recreational 
and leisure aspects of our lives, refinement and good manners, their 
personal direction of our reading, their human interest in us as indi- 
viduals and all the other informal but important educative processes that 
gave us our bearing for the life of youth and the life of older years. 
Though I have my own ideas concerning the causes for this lapse from 



Guidance at Scrauton Prep 



165 



ancient practice, the fact can scarcely be questioned. To try to regain 
some of the vanished glory we originated a Guidance Period. It runs for 
fifteen minutes every morning from Monday through Thursday. The 
class teacher, of course, is the guiding hand in this period. It is supposed 
to be a happy combination of individual and group guidance. Each 
teacher is to interview his boys individually at least every six weeks. 
Don't immediately conclude that we expect the impossible, that we 
envision each lad opening his heart and soul at the teacher's desk. We 
don't expect that, nor do we wish it. The real idea behind these personal 
interviews is twofold. First of all it forces a teacher to know his pupils 
personally. Don't reveal your real naivete by thinking they all do. 
Secondly, we hope that the pupil will come to see his teacher as a human 
being sincerely interested in him. When real problems come, there is hope 
that he will seek this teacher out and find the answer before his problem 
becomes a gigantic difficulty. It gives two personalities an opportunity to 
meet each other on almost common ground — and discuss the varying 
problems that arise at home, in class, and at play. 

What is meant by group guidance is rather clear from the term itself. 
A long list of topics, far from complete, has been prepared for the 
teachers. The list is constantly receiving accretions. Methods of presenta- 
tion to the class and ways of accomplishing interested and animated class 
participation are studied and discussed. There is no space here to outline 
these topics and these methods, but the offer made earlier in this paper 
still stands. This brief outline should bring out one point. This writer, 
at least, believes in the old Jesuit system with little departmentalization 
and much human contact. He believes that boys really hunger for this 
personal touch, this manly and fatherly help, this sensible camaraderie 
that carves a lad's character and etches his memory for life. The guidance 
period is a sincere effort to recapture this old class spirit that gilded the 
days of my own youth and that modern practices somehow or other seem 
to have rubbed away. Take it, if you wish, as a small rebellion against 
standardization and mass education. 

Before concluding it might not be amiss to attempt an evaluation of 
the strong and weak points of the program as two years of experience 
have discovered them. 

On the debit side there can be a complaint of too little time. That is 
debatable. It is rightly claimed that the program requires intensive prepa- 
ration — and this will always be distasteful to some. A lazy man surely 
can't operate this class. There must be progression in topics from year 
to year. That contention is true and such a progression is being prepared. 
The period is used often enough for class meetings and discussion of the 
Minutes of the Student Council Meetings. Therefore what? Do you have 



166 Jesuit Educational Quarterly for January 1949 



to stretch the term to call this good group guidance? Finally on the red 
side of the ledger we meet the same stumbling block that falls before our 
feet in the question of teaching. All men can't teach. And all men can't 
be Guidance Directors. A serious effort is made to choose wisely and until 
men become angels (I wonder is that the solution) that is about all that 
can be done. 

On the good side some excellent points do come into focus. Our whole 
reading program has been stepped up. Personal questionings on reading 
have uncovered some amazing facts and the teachers have made an 
immediate effort to correct the difficulty by proper direction. The movie 
problem (and it is a problem) has been honestly and carefully discussed. 
The Legion of Decency List is now generally used by the boys. Proper 
methods of procedure in teacher-pupil difficulties have been explained 
and put into practice. First year boys have found their adjustment to 
high school made easy and pleasant. Some scholastic problem cases have 
been corrected — but not all. At the close of last year when the option 
was given to the teachers of dropping this period, they voted to retain it. 
That is the most heartening sign. 

All these little benefits are truly but small straws in the wind. There 
is nothing conclusive. Maybe there never will be. All that can be claimed 
is that a sincere effort is being made to help these boys, to educate them 
in the true sense of the word. There will always be a bit more to life than 
Latin and Greek. 



Enrollment, 1948-1949, Jesuit Colleges and Universities 







Commerce 










u 




Law 








3 




Totals 






w a 






Summer 




Liberal 
Arts 


Day 


Night 


Dentistry 


Divinity 


Education 
Univ. Colli 




Engineers 


Graduate 


Day 


Night 


Medicine 


Nursing 


Pharmacy 


Miscellanei 


Full-Time 


Part-Time 


Full & Pan 


Extension, 


Short i.,our 
Low Tuitio 


Grand 
Totals 


Veterans 


Graduate 


Undergrad. 


Boston College 


3,339 


1,369 






109 








475 


504 


165 




429 




813 


6,179 


1,024 


7,203 




1,530 


8,733 


3,554 


320 


1,101 


Canisius College 


1,176 


690 


213 












286 








44 




912 


2,138 


1,183 


3,321 


136 




3,457 


1,368 


143 


575 


College of the Holy Cross 


1,836 
















6 






; • 






1 


1,843 


0 


1,843 




134 


1,977 


802 






Creighton University, The 


1,109 


665 




129 










89 


1 77 




254 


278 


143 




2,70 1 


143 


2,844 




110 


2,954 


1,702 


238 


945 


Fairfield University 


$41 






























541 


0 


541 






541 


178 






Fordliam University 


2,569 


1,297 


561 






2,511 






978 


422 


286 






419 


734 


7,134 


2,643 


9,777 


167 




9,944 


4,052 


623 


2,383 


Georgetown University 


1,693 






278 










516 


48 5 


432 


3 89 


137 




1,699 


4,21 1 


1,418 


5,629 






5,629 


3,180 


692 


1,319 


Gonzaga University 


683 










111 




327 


42 




296 




238 




361 


1,988 


70 


2,058 


403 


150 


2,611 


1,057 


49 


433 


John Carroll University 


1,948 


266 


46 












25 














1,942 


343 


2,285 






2,285 


1,258 


46 


884 


Le Moyne College 


1,030 






























856 


174 


1,030 


200 


136 


1,366 


418 






Loyola College, Baltimore 


738 


263 


211 
























307 


1,073 


446 


1,519 






1,519 








Loyola Univ., Chicago 


1,345 


1,097 


1,033 


317 


83 


1,498 






456 


221 


112 


292 


824 




417 


4.717 


2,978 


7,695 


600 


. .E 8,295 


2,625 


287 


1,896 


Loyola Univ., Los Angeles 


683 


681 












160 
















1,524 


A 


1,524 


207 




1,731 


690 




572 


Loyola Univ., New Orleans 


1,182 


470 


223 


150 












136 


47 






237 


152 


1,959 


638 


2,597 




501 


3,098 


1,600 




1,138 


Marquette University 


2,404 


1,357 


1,255 


331 








,300 


410 


3 5 0B 




350 


500 




427 


7,276 


1,408 


8,684 




100B 


8,784 


4,675 


539 


1,85 1 


Regis College 


637 






























53 5 


102 


637 






637 


265 




130 


Hockhurst College 


525 


280 


304 


























790 


319 


1,109 




200B 


1,309 


649C 




433 


St. Joseph's College 


2,325 






























1,674 


651 


2,325 




270 


2,595 








St. Louis University 


2.678D 


1,491 


1,374 


246 


143 


1,128 




464 


600 


246 


139 


436 


476 




552 


8,032 


1,941 


9,973 


42 




10,015 


4,930 


847 


3,178 


St. Peter's College 


841 


341 


530 


























1,541 


171 


1,712 






1,712 


951 




45 


Seattle University 


1,236 


471 


78 






15 




296 


10 








419 




182 


2,424 


283 


2,707 


180 


250 


3,137 


1,287 


400 


785 


Spring Hill College 


803 






























702 


101 


803 






803 


290 




347 


University of Detroit 


2,996 


1,830 


1,289 


198 






2,787 


221 


354 


112 










7,570 


2,217 


9,787 






9,787 


5,650 


175 


1,679 


UWsity of San Francisco 


1.041F 


835 


437 














316 


134 




48 




233 


2,213 


831 


3,044 




134 


3,178 


1,840 




1,127 


University of Santa Clara 
University of Scranton 


464 


322 


141 










319 




118 












1,223 


141 


1,3 64 






1,3 64 


681 






1,499 


563 


521 
























132 


1,989 


726 


2,715 






2,715 


1,950 




858 


Woodstock College 


150 








147 






















297 




297 






297 








gvier University 


1,347 


671 


819 












125 












467 


1,938 


1,491 


3,429 






3,429 


1,556 


206 


703 


Totals 1948-1949 
J^alsl9 47 _ 1948 


38,818 14,959 


9,035 


1,649 


482 


5,263 


5,653 


4,239 


3,329 


1,723 1,721 


3,393 


799 


7,389 


77,010 


21,442 


98,452 


1,935 . 


,515 103,902 


47,208 


4,565 


22,382 


38,405 15,144 


8,973 


1,482 


478 


3,779 


5,787 


3,944 


3,479 


1,675 1,680 


2,926 


753 


5,553 


73,824 


20,234 


94,058 


883 : 


,012 


96,953 


49,665 


4,161 


25,494 


J^ff^or Decrease 


413 


—185 


62 


167 


4 


1,484 




-134 


295 


—150 


48 


41 


467 


46 


1,836 


3,186 


1,208 


4,394 


1,052 


,503 


6,949 - 


-2,457 


404 - 


-3,112 



in Entire School; B) Estimated; C) Day and Evening Classes Only; D) Includes Corporate Colleges; E) Included in School Enrollments; F) 233 Science Students Included Under "Miscellaneous." 



Freshmen 





Liberal Arts 


Engineering 


Commerce 


Totals 














On 


oo 


o\ 


00 


o 








on 




On 


On 


ON 


■* 

On 






On 


On 




On 














00 




OO 




00 
















on 




On 


ON 


On 


<* 

ON 






On 


o\ 




On 












Boston College 


806 


825 






416 


325 


1,222 


1,150 


+72 


Canisius College 


376 


411 






199 


216 


575 


627 


—52 


College of the Holy Cross 


474 


464 










474 


464 


4-10 


Creighton University, The 


320 


328 






156 


139 


476 


467 




Fairfield University 


541 


303 










541 


303 


+238 


Fordham University 


540 


803 






617 


5 82 


1,157 


1,3 8 5 


— 228 


Georgetown University 


530 


5 56 






380 


658 


910 


1,214 


—304 


Gonzaga University 


187 


64 


92 


124 


70 


'77 


349 


265 


-f-84 


John Carroll University 


708 


899 










708 


899 


— 191 


Le Moyne College 


430 


443 










430 


443 


— 13 


Loyola College 


1 52 


201 






98 


112 


2 50 


313 


—63 


Loyola University, Chicago 


614 


828 






2,257 


441 


2,871 


1,269 


4-1,602 


Loyola University, New Orleans 


310 


326 






261 


314 


571 


640 


—69 


Loyola University, Los Angeles 


164 


1 57 


53 


95 


171 


241 


3 88 


493 


—105 


Marquette University 


750 


761 


460 


450 


500 


5 50 


1,710 


1,761 


— 51 


Regis College 


205 


195 










205 


195 


+ 10 


Rockhurst College 


179 


194 






82 


98 


261 


292 


—31 


St. Joseph's College 


3 59 


739 










3 59 


739 


— 380 


St. Louis University 


906 


1,175 


288 


3 50 


801 


1,394 


1,995 


2,919 


— 924 


St. Peter's College 


223 


245 






260 




483 


245 


4-238 


Seattle University 


913 


153 


82 


120 


125 


161 


1,120 


434 


4686 


Spring Hill College 


218 


320 










218 


320 


—102 


University of Detroit 


789 


1,244 


526 


873 


665 


950 


1,980 


3,067 


— 1,087 


University of San Francisco 


240 


362 






187 


255 


427 


617 


— 190 


University of Santa Clara 


154 


134 


81 


93 


92 


81 


327 


308 


+ 19 


University of Scranton 


262 


314 


82 


93 


127 


183 


471 


590 


—119 


Woodstock College 


25 


26 










25 


26 




Xavier University 


441 


426 






206 


233 


647 


659 


—12 


Totals 


1,816 


12,896 1,664 


2,198 


7,670 


7,010 


21,150 


22,104 





Increase or Decrease 



—1,080 



—534 +660 



—954 



Jesuit Educational Association— High School 
Enrollments-1948-1949 













c 










reshm< 


>phom< 


iniors 


miors 










in 


a 

[/a 



ox 



Bellarmine College Preparatory, San Jose.... 217 163 

Bellarmine High School, Tacoma 112 86 

Boston College High School, Boston 411 342 

Brooklyn Preparatory School, Brooklyn 342 2 57 

Campion, Prairie du Chien, Wise 154 124 

Canisius High School, Buffalo 272 23 3 

Cheverus Classical High School, Portland... 122 72 

Cranwell Preparatory School, Lenox 28 29 

Creighton University High School, Omaha.. 141 126 

Fairfield College Preparatory School, Fairfield 297 248 

Fordham Preparatory School, New York. ... 172 1( 

Georgetown Preparatory School, Garrett Park 56 44 

Gonzaga High School, Spokane 116 123 

Gonzaga High School, Washington, D. C. . . 184 121 

Jesuit High School, Dallas 72 49 

Tesuit High School, New Orleans 209 199 

Jesuit High School, Tampa 50 45 

Loyola Academy, Chicago 1-91 175 

Loyola High School, Towson 165 133 

Loyola High School, Los Angeles 228 198 

Loyola School, New York 7 24 

Marquette High School, Yakima 79 45 

Marquette University High School, Milwaukee 207 185 

Regis High School, Denver 90 8 6 

Regis High School, New York 176 154 

Rockhurst High School, Kansas City 83 87 

St. Ignatius High School, Chicago 282 236 

St. Ignatius High School, Cleveland 267 228 

St. Ignatius High School, San Francisco. ... 291 243 

St. John's High School, Shreveport 61 36 

St. Joseph's College High School, Philadelphia 262 210 

St. Louis University High School, St. Louis. . 202 193 

St. Peter's College High School, Jersey City. 3 19 2 53 

St. Xavier's High School, Cincinnati 164 167 

Scranton Preparatory School, Scranton 6 5 34 

Seattle Preparatory School, Seattle 116 114 

University of Detroit High School, Detroit. . 269 206 

Xavier High School, New York 351 357 

TOTALS 1948-1949 6,830 5,733 

TOTALS 1947-1948 6,831 5,900 

DECREASE —1 —167 



173 
96 
314 
187 



160 
68 
371 
209 



713 
363 
1,438 
995 



630 
330 
1,585 
995 



105 
231 
61 
42 



99 
183 
49 
38 



482 486 

2 921 985 

304 280 

17 154 153 



116 
143 
50 
186 



129 
109 
51 
96 



486 501 

557 565 

222 222 

690 755 



35 
141 
114 
209 



23 
172 
126 
214 



153 
679 
538 



158 
675 
640 
890 



10 
53 
194 
84 



12 
48 
187 
64 



76 
225 
773 
324 



98 
215 
816 
342 



223 
213 



117 
73 
240 
225 



564 630 - 

324 350 - 

1 982 991 - 

2 93 5 979 - 



242 
28 
188 
179 



238 
26 
190 
181 



1,014 1,009 

70 221 242 
4 8 54 897 -»] 

755 743 



197 
174 
24 
77 



170 
204 



178 
186 




5,149 
5,535 



5,055 
5.135 



184 22,951 

231 .. 23,632 



An Analysis of National Statistics, 

1948-1949 



Charles M. O'Hara, S.J. 



The privilege of making the analysis of enrollment statistics in our 
Jesuit schools becomes annually more interesting, and also more compli- 
cated. It was easier during the war years. The high schools were in- 
creasing in size for reasons that were quite obvious. The colleges were 
decreasing for reasons equally obvious. Predictions from year to year 
could be made with a goodly measure of probability. Today many more 
factors that might affect the total may be seen beforehand, but the sum 
total of their impact on the final result can hardly be foreseen. 

Perhaps it is best, then, to start with the simple statement of compari- 
son of national totals for this year with last year. The high school total 
has dropped for the first time since the start of the war from 23,632 to 
22,951, a decrease of 681, or 2.46 per cent. This was expected. 

The colleges and universities national total has, however, increased. 
Last year the national grand total, exclusive of summer sessions, was 
96,953. This year the national total has risen over 100,000 for the first 
time in history. The figure is 103,902. Thus there are enrolled today 
in Jesuit schools in the United States 126,852 students. This is larger 
than the 1944 population of Spokane, Washington. The summer session 
count is given in the accompanying table and it is anyone's privilege to 
estimate how many are not duplicates and might be added to the grand 
total. It is hard enough to get duplicates out of the school year enroll- 
ment. Incidentally, note quite a drop in summer session undergraduate 
enrollment. 

The accompanying graph in Diagram 1 may be studied to gain an 
idea of the changes in enrollment in the past eight years. 

Father William J. Mehok, S.J., the managing editor of the Quarterly, 
very kindly compiled the general enrollment charts and the Interpreta- 
tive Notes again this year. 

As usual, this analysis consists of three parts: I. The High Schools; 
II. The Colleges and Universities, and III. Interpretative Notes to the 
Tables. 



167 



168 



Jesuit Educational Quarterly for January 1949 



130,000 



I 10 .000 



90,000 



70,000 



50,000 



30,000 



10,000 




41-42 



'42 -43 



43-44 



44-45 



45-46 



46-47 



47-4.8 -48-'49 



Grand Total All United States Jesuit Schoo/s 
Full-time College 



Grand Total Co/leges 
High Schools 



Diagram 1. 



Student enrollment in the Jesuit colleges, universities, and high schools in the United 
States. Grand total in all institutions; grand total in all colleges and universities; 
total full-time students in colleges and universities; total high schools. 



I. The High Schools 

There is a decrease in the high school enrollment of 681, or 2.46 per 
cent as compared to last year. 

The high school percentages of increase or decrease for the war and 
post-war years are as follows: 

1942- 43 8.52 1946-47 4.33 

1943- 44 8.12 1947-48 .58 

1944- 45 8.26 1948-49 —2.46 

1945- 46 4.25 

These percentages seem to present a definitely consistent pattern. 

It will be remembered that some of the increases of the earlier years 
were due in part to the founding of new schools. However, this year 
marks the first year of decrease since the war started. 



An Analysis of National Statistics, 1948-1949 



169 



We follow this with a percentage breakdown into the four high school 
classes since the largest freshman class, proportionately, 1944-45. This 
is the class that graduated last June. 



Freshmen Sophomores Juniors Seniors 

1944- 45 • 35.2 27.2 ' 20.7 16.3 

1945- 46 32.3 28.3 21.9 16.8 

1946- 47 28.8 26.7 23.7 19.6 

1947- 48 28.9 24.9 22.4 21.7 

1948- 49 ! 29.8 24.1 22.4 22.0 



Last June, 21.7 per cent of the high school total left the senior year. 
This is an abnormally large percentage for a senior class. This September 
16.1 per cent of last year's freshmen did not return, and 12.7 per cent 
of last year's sophomores. This is about normal, as indicated by the fact 
that the percentages of the sophomore and junior classes are about the 
same as last year. The real difficulty is the senior 21.7 per cent. Yet the 
freshman class increased only .9 per cent over last year. And right there 
is the statistical reason for the deficit. 

This September a large freshman class would have been necessary to 
keep the national total. But, as in the past two years, it did not reach, 
proportionately, 30 per cent of the total. One explanation is that class- 
rooms, still occupied by the large upper classes, are unavailable. This 
situation should be eased next year. But it also seems, from survey, that 
fewer freshman candidates applied. After all, more and more Catholic 
high schools are opening and others are enlarging. Our guess is that there 
will be a further relatively small decrease for at least one more year. 

For the past three years the number of our 3 8 high schools showing 
decreases were, respectively seven, twenty, and twenty-four. This year 
more than before, the decreases are to be found in the older, larger 
schools. A glance at the accompanying table of high school enrollment 
will verify this statement. Creighton with an increase of 22 might be 
called the only exception. The increases are in the newer, smaller schools. 

Boston is still far ahead with 1,43 8, now the only school in the 1,000 
class, but it also leads in losses with 147. The largest gains are reported 
by Fairfield with 87 and Bellarmine, San Jose, with 83. The next largest 
numerical increase is 3 3, at Bellarmine, Tacoma. 

II. The Colleges and Universities 
There is a total of 77,010 full-time students, and a grand total of 



170 



Jesuit Educational Quarterly for January 1949 



103,902 students registered in our colleges and universities this year. 

Note in the lower row of the following table the shrinkage in the per 

cent of increase in our colleges and universities since the war. Of course 
our numbers have become very large. 

1946-47 1947-48 1948-49 

Full-time enrollment 62,108 73,824 77,010 

Per cent of increase over previous year 179.87 18.9 4.31 

Last year our grand total was 96,953. Our increase this year amounts 
to 7.17 per cent. Last year the increase was 18.5 per cent. 

The "levelling off" tendency, so obvious last year, was expected to 
swing over into a deficit this year. But we have continued to gain. It 
was thovght that the great decrease in entering veterans and the smaller 
freshman classes would bring about this effect, especially as the grad- 
uating classes would be large. Many more must have returned to the 
intermediate classes than was expected. 

Last year the "levelling off" tendency was noted in Liberal Arts, 
Commerce, Dentistry, and Engineering. How did these schools fare 
this year? 

Liberal Arts: last year there was an increase (slight compared to the 
year before) of 7,743 or 25.2 per cent. This year the increase was 413, 
or 1.07 per cent. This is really "levelling off." Freshman classes are 
smaller, graduating classes remain large. Next year: decrease. The Arts 
figure is distorted because more than half the students reported by St. 
Louis University are in "corporate colleges," girls' schools, under no prac- 
tical control. 

Commerce: last year, an increase of 4,723 or 24.3 per cent. This year 
a slight, but actual, decrease, although the freshman class shows an in- 
crease of 660. This, however, is far more than accounted for by Loyola, 
Chicago's, tremendous freshman commerce enrollment gain from 441 
last year to 2,2 57 this year. Lewis Towers? Next year for the country: 
more decrease. 

Dentistry: last year there was an increase of 150. This year, a further 
increase of 167. The Dental schools are filling up fast, but there is prob- 
ably still some room for more, so there might be a slight increase next 
year. 

Engineering: last year there was a gain of 629. This year there is a 
decrease of 134. This is despite the fact that the Detroit freshman class 
has shown a gain of 347. However, engineering should remain rather 
stable around the present figure for about two years. 

As to the other schools and colleges, Law and Medicine have prob- 
ably become stabilized. The Law schools are apparently now filled for 
the first time since the war. The one shows a slight decrease, the other a 



An Analysts of National Statistics, 1948-1949 



171 



slight increase. It is gratifying to note that Nursing enrollment continues 
to increase in our schools. It is the profession in which there is a real 
shortage. 

Something of the future can be gleaned from a study of the special 
freshman tables. There is a decrease in the all-important Liberal Arts 
colleges of 1,080, or 8.4 per cent. This will have its effect in the future, 
and may be the forerunner of another smaller class next year. The engi- 
neering freshman figure shows a decrease of 5 34 or 24 per cent. The 
commerce figure would be a deficit, and a tidy one, were it not for 
Chicago. 

Our schools have grown very large. It seems that they will be some- 
what smaller next year, a situation which most will welcome. 

For national comparisons, the reader is referred to Dr. Benjamin Fine's 
analysis in the New York Times for November 22, 1948, pp. 1 and 17. 
As far as insight into the present situation is concerned, Fine is fine. 

In comparison with the comprehensive figures just released by the 
United States Office of Education, involving reports from 1,733 institu- 
tions of higher education out of the 1,788 in the country, and including 
estimates of those schools which missed the survey, our position remains 
definitely satisfactory. The national increase of this comprehensive survey 
is three percent, as compared with ours of 7.17 percent. 

III. Interpretative Notes on the Tables 

In the columns of college and university statistics, the Nursing column 
includes students registered in either the B.S. or R.N. curriculum. The 
breakdown is as follows: Boston College, 374 R.N., 445 B.S.; Canisius, 
44 B.S.; Creighton, 221 R.N., 57 B.S.; Georgetown, 95 R.N., 42 B.S.; 
Gonzaga, 231 R.N., 7 B.S.; Loyola, Chicago, 590 R.N., 234 B.S.; Mar- 
quette, 500 B.S.; St. Louis, 36 R.N., 440 B.S.; Seattle, 250 R.N., 169 
B.S.; San Francisco, 48 B.S. 

The Miscellaneous column includes: Boston College, social work 109; 
evening college of arts, sciences and business administration 704; Canisius, 
prenursing — day, 151; evening sessions 761; Holy Cross, special 1; Ford- 
ham, social work 339; adult education 395; Georgetown, foreign service 
— day 978; foreign service — night 721; Gonzaga, journalism 8, business 
administration 3 53; Loyola College, Baltimore, liberal arts — night 307; 
Loyola, Chicago, social work 213, public health nursing 204; Loyola, 
New Orleans, music 152; Marquette, journalism 275, dental technology 
72, medical technology 25, speech 55; St. Louis, social work 95, aero- 
nautical technology 457; Seattle, medical technology 3 5, music 36, social 
work 111; San Francisco, science 233; Scranton, pre-engineering 132; 
Xavier, liberal arts — evening 467. 

The Extension column includes: Canisius, extension 136; Fordham, 
extension 167; Gonzaga., extension 403; Lamoyne, industrial relations 200; 



172 



Jesuit Educational Quarterly for January 1949 



Loyola, Chicago, home study 600; Loyola, Los Angeles, extension 207; 
St. Louis, extension 42; Seattle, extension 180. 

The explanation of Low -Tuition or Short courses is: Boston College, 
institute of adult education 1,5 30; Holy Cross, labor 134; Creighton, 
labor 110; Gonzaga, labor 15 0; Le Moyne, labor 136; Loyola, New 
Orleans, labor 150; other 351; Marquette, labor 100 (estimated); Rock- 
hurst, labor 200 (estimated) ; St. Joseph's, labor 270; Seattle, cultural 
200, labor 50 (deduct 30 counted more than once) ; San Francisco, labor 
134. 

Part-time students, as well as they can be separated, total as follows: 

Boston College: liberal arts 2; graduate 312; law — day 1; law — night 
5; nursing — R.N. 287; social work 26; evening college of arts, sciences 
and business administration 391. Total 1,024. 

Canisms College: liberal arts 19; commerce — night 179; graduate 225 ; 
nursing — B.S. 34; prenursing — day 2; evening sessions 724. Total 1,183. 

Creighton: liberal arts 46; commerce — day 7; graduate 67; law — day 
1; medicine 2; nursing — B.S. 17; pharmacy 3. Total 143. 

Fordham: commerce — day 1; commerce — night 32; education 1,497; 
graduate 542; law — night 2; social work 215; adult education 3 54. 
Total 2,643. 

Georgetown: dentistry 6; graduate 281; law — night 43 2; foreign 
service — day 403; foreign service — night 296. Total 1,418. 

Gonzaga: liberal arts 5; education 4; engineering 30; graduate 2; law 
— night 8; business administration 21. Total 70. 

Jo/m Carroll: liberal arts 272; commerce — night 46; graduate 2 5. 
Total 343. 

Le Moyne: liberal arts 174. Total 174. 

Loyola College, Baltimore: commerce — night 177; liberal arts — night 
269. Total 446. 

Loyola, Chicago: liberal arts 34, commerce — day 9, commence — night 
847, education 1,212, graduate 395, nursing — B.S. 182, social work 126, 
public health nursing 173. Total 2,978. 

Loyola, Los Angeles: 14 part-time students in entire day school not 
counted in total. 

Loyola, New Orleans: liberal arts 340; commerce — night 223; law — 
night 47; music 28. Total 63 8. 

Marquette: liberal arts 83; commerce — day 25; commerce — night 905; 
graduate 270; journalism 5; nursing — B.S. 120. Total 1,408. 

Regis: liberal arts 102. Total 102. 

Rockhurst: liberal arts 12; commerce — day 3; commerce — night 304. 
Total 319. 

St. Joseph's: liberal arts 651. Total 651. 



An Analysis of National Statistics, 1948-1949 



173 



St. Louis: liberal arts 426; commerce — day 14; commerce — night 291; 
university college 727; engineering 5; graduate 267; law — day 1; law — 
night 11; medicine 1; nursing — R.N. 8; nursing B.S. 139; social work 51. 
Total 1,941. 

St. Peter's: liberal arts 17; commerce — night 154. Total 171. 
Seattle: liberal arts 136, commerce — day 71, education 5, engineering 
46, nursing — B.S. 19, music 6. Total 283. 
Spring Hill: liberal arts 101. Total 101. 

University of Detroit: liberal arts 993; commerce — day 29; commerce 
— night 639; engineering 337; graduate 162; law — day 15; law — night 
42. Total 2,217. 

University of San Francisco: liberal arts 260; commerce — night 437; 
law— night 134. Total 831. 

University of Santa Clara: commerce — night 141. Total 141. 

University of Scranton: liberal arts 421; commerce — night 305. Total 
726. 

Xavier University: liberal arts 94; commerce — day 4; commerce — night 
818; graduate 111; liberal arts — evening 464. Total 1,491. 



A Challenge to Catholic Colleges 



James W. Culliton, Ph.D. 

How well do Catholic colleges train men for business? My experience 
on the staff of a graduate school of business administration has enabled 
me to assemble concrete evidence on the performance of Catholic college 
graduates in competition with graduates of non-Catholic and non- 
sectarian schools. The inferences which flow from this evidence lead me 
to conclude that Catholic colleges are faced with a wonderful opportunity 
and a grave responsibility in the field of business education. 

My interest in comparing the graduates of Catholic colleges with those 
of other colleges was aroused by a professor at the Graduate School of 
Business Administration of Harvard University who, in a chat one day, 
asked me why it was that so few graduates of Catholic colleges became 
outstanding scholars in graduate business work. He admired the Catholic 
system of education and was disappointed that so few graduates of 
Catholic colleges distinguished themselves at the Harvard Business School. 

First of all, to get some specific facts together, I made a survey of the 
classes graduating from the Harvard Business School for a 10 year period. 
The Harvard Business School grants Master of Business Administration 
degrees; to its honor students it grants degrees "with Distinction" 
(roughly corresponding to "Cum laude") and "With High Distinction" 
(roughly the equivalent of "Magna cum laude"). Certificates are given 
to men who have completed the course work but have not fully qualified 
for a degree. From June, 1932, through June, 1941, 3,599 degrees and 
certificates were granted. The division of honors among Catholic college 
graduates and others appears in Table I: 

Thus, while over 12% of the graduates from non-Catholic colleges 
received honors upon their graduation from the Harvard Business School, 
not even 2% of the Catholic college graduates distinguished themselves. 

One inference that could be drawn from these figures is that Catholic 
colleges and universities — insofar as training for business is concerned — 
are inferior to the other colleges and universities. Even though this infer- 
ence may not be wholly substantiated in fact and the record can be 
explained, one's first and natural reaction upon looking at the record is 
to suspect that something might be wrong with Catholic education. In 
all fairness to the faculty and administrative staff of the Harvard Business 
School, it should be stated without equivocation that they have not 
accepted the obvious inference as a fact but have sought information and 



174 



A Challenge to Catholic Colleges 



175 



Table I 

Division of Honors upon Graduation from Harvard Business School 1 
Among Graduates of Catholic Colleges and of Other Colleges 
1932-1941 
Graduates of Graduates 
28 Catholic of Other 

Colleges Colleges 
Number c /c Number c / c 

M.B.A. Degrees, 

without honors 172 98.3 2,971 86.8 

M.B.A. Degrees, 
with honors 

Distinction 1 .6 326 9.5 

High Distinction 2 1.1 86 2.5 

Total 3 1.7 412 12.0 

Certificates — — 41 1.2 



Total 175 100.0 3,424 100.0 



Explanations and have developed an interesting hypothesis which might 
explain the facts. 

The record of Catholic college graduates is, I am certain, in no way 
influenced by the fact that they are Catholic college graduates. I attended 
Harvard Business School and was conscious of absolutely no religious 
discrimination, but only of an indifferentism toward religion. This does 
not mean that the Harvard Business School, as an institution, lacks an 
appreciation of its social responsibilities and of the social responsibilities 
of business, nor that the individuals who make up its faculty are either 
irreligious or anti-religious. The School does appreciate its responsibilities, 
and its faculty members are, on the whole, religious men. But since 
Protestantism and non-sectarianism insist upon the individual interpreta- 
tion of morals, no satisfactory group action results; what was intended 
to produce full freedom for religion has produced instead indifferentism 
toward religion. Yet, because in its practical effects indifferentism may be 
more dangerous than antagonism, it is this self -enforced religious indiffer- 
entism maintained by universities like Harvard in their studies of business 
that leaves such a responsibility on the Catholic educational system where 



1 The Harvard Business School is a graduate school accepting only men with 
bachelor's degrees or their equivalent; it offers a two-year course leading to the degree 
of Master of Business Administration. 

This table was prepared by the author of this> article especially for it and does not 
constitute a regular comparison made by the Harvard Business School. Permission for 
use of the figures was, however, granted by the Dean of the Harvard Business School. 



176 Jesuit Educational Quarterly for January 1949 



indifferentism can be put aside for certainties with regard to morals, 
duties, and rights. 

The professor who aroused my interest in the question of the perform- 
ance of the graduates of Catholic colleges also proposed a theory which 
goes a long way toward explaining the lack of outstanding scholars 
among the graduates of Catholic colleges at the Harvard Business School. 
He is of the opinion that the sample of Catholic college graduates attend- 
ing the Harvard Business School is not truly representative of the 
graduates of Catholic colleges. It is his theory that most of the better 
men graduating from Catholic colleges enter the professions, principally 
the clergy, the law, and medicine. I do not believe that any factual study 
has been made public about the correlation between the grades attained 
by, and the careers of, Catholic college graduates; but the deans of some 
Catholic colleges confirmed in personal conversation the theory as being 
generally true. 

On the other hand, there are other explanations of the figures shown 
in this article. Four deans of Jesuit business schools, the president of one 
of these, and a dean of another Catholic business school upon looking at 
the records of some of the individual students who had not made impres- 
sive scholastic records at the Harvard Business School explained them on 
various grounds: some were obviously poor students and probably should 
not have entered Harvard; some became overly interested in the students 
attending nearby women's colleges; while others stumbled for a variety of 
reasons, well understood by the Catholic schools, yet hidden in any group 
of statistics. 

One further explanation of the record may lie in financial reasons. 
Many Catholic families struggle hard to give their sons four years in a 
Catholic college and further study is extremely difficult. Since as yet it is 
not impossible to get a job in business without graduate training, Catholic 
college graduates entering the study of business in graduate schools may 
be relatively fewer than those entering upon study for the professions 
where graduate training is absolutely prerequisite. Thus, for financial 
reasons the ability of Catholic college graduates may not be fairly repre- 
sented in the figures presented here. 

Consequently, in itself the fact that few graduates of Catholic colleges 
received honors from the Harvard Business School may not be of any 
important significance to Catholic colleges. The figures from Harvard 
were used only to indicate, that so far as business training is concerned, 
there seems to be something lacking in Catholic education; per se, they 
do not prove anything and I do not intend to claim that they do. They 
do, however, point to some important areas for thought by the adminis- 
trators of Catholic colleges, especially if the theory is correct that the 



A Challenge to Catholic Colleges 



177 



better graduates of Catholic colleges do not enter business. 

For many years the Catholic educational system has stood firm in its 
insistence that "education" had to develop the whole man; it trained him 
first of all for life, but never neglected to train him further for profes- 
sional service. The Catholic system, while stressing philosophy and ethics, 
never neglected history and the arts, especially for the men who were to go 
on to further study for the priesthood and law; insisted on chemistry, 
physics, and biology for those who were going into medicine; and offered 
arts and science courses well suited to the development of teachers. But 
what about those who were going to enter business? 

A few weeks ago the president of one of America's foremost Catholic 
universities remarked that for too many years students in college gave no 
thought to their life's work until their senior year. When a senior was 
asked what he was going to do after graduation, too frequently the 
answer was: "Well, I guess I'll get a job, or go to law school." Many 
Catholic colleges are working on vocational guidance programs to over- 
come this evil of unplanned entrance into any walk of life. Yet, funda- 
mentally, as far as business is concerned, the required action is more basic 
than vocational guidance. 

Let us assume for the moment that the better graduates of Catholic 
colleges are attracted to the professions rather than to business. What does 
this mean? In a narrow sense it means just what appears on the surface: 
the men who have benefited most from the Catholic system of training 
for life have entered professions; as a corollary of this, those entering 
business, while having been exposed to Catholic education, can be pre- 
sumed to have got less out of it or to have less natural ability than those 
entering the professions (otherwise grading systems are useless). In a 
broader sense it probably means that the Church is attempting to get 
Catholic principles well established in business, indirectly through the 
pulpit, rather than directly through the well-trained businessman. 

I do not wish to argue that good scholars with religious vocations should 
be told not to enter the priesthood and urged to become missionaries in 
business. But I do suggest that the Catholic educational system has a 
wonderful opportunity, because of its fundamental training for life, to 
train men to be Catholic in business. More than having an opportunity, 
however, the Catholic educational system has a graver responsibility to 
get its principles into business by training businessmen. 

There is plenty of evidence that business needs Catholic principles: 
the Catholic press is filled with articles pointing out instances of the 
failure of business management to recognize the rights of labor and the 
principles upon which the right to unionize is based; of selfishness and 
dishonesty; of changing bases of right and wrong; and of principles of 



178 Jesuit Educational Quarterly for January 1949 



morality based only on the stigma of "getting caught." On the other 
hand, I also believe that business would be benefited by Catholic prin- 
ciples, for if they had been universally and effectively adopted, the 1929 
runaway boom, for instance, could not have occurred, the depression 
which followed would have been less severe, the suffering of labor would 
have been reduced, and, because there would have been less need for it, 
much of the governmental interfernce of which businessmen complain 
would have been avoided. 

Specifically, what do these generalizations mean to an individual 
Catholic college? I believe it is this: those schools which have the ability 
to do it well should include some fundamental business subjects in their 
curricula. Business courses should not be, as they have been sometimes in 
the past, the place where students who could not get through the arts 
and science courses, are put. In all probability, the regular requirements 
for philosophy and ethics should not be reduced but, just as students 
intending to study medicine are required to take chemistry and physics, 
so also men going into business should be taught fundamental business 
subjects. By fundamental I do not mean such frills as advertising copy 
writing, but the fundamentals of economics, of production, and of dis- 
tribution. Accounting and statistics are also desirable for they are 
important tools, but, on the whole, highly specialized courses, such as 
those training men to pass C.P.A. examinations do not develop the well- 
trained individual whom I picture as being able to put Catholicism into 
actual business. Those men should be well-rounded Catholics, trained for 
life, but not ignorant of the workings of the world of business into which 
they are going. 

The requirements of the social order demand that businessmen approach 
their jobs as if business were in reality "the newest of the professions." 
Business, however, is not as yet like medicine or dentistry where science 
has assembled a large number of laws and experiences that are universally 
accepted and where the mastering of such scientific knowledge is necessary 
for ethical and successful work. Business is still the "oldest of the arts" 
and as such the training for life which Catholic education gives a prac- 
tical training for business. Thus, Catholic education plus courses in the 
fundamentals of business should give to many men the equipment neces- 
sary to make themselves good businessmen, good Catholics, and good 
citizens. From many points of view, then, the job of the Catholic college 
is to continue training men for life, but not to neglect the opportunity 
and responsibility to teach the fundamentals of business to many of its 
students so that they can help themselves and society by getting Catholic 
principles more directly into business which, many recognize, is in dire 
need of them. 



BOOKS 



The Nature of the Liberal Arts. By John E. Wise, S.J. Milwaukee: 
The Bruce Publishing Company, 1947. Pp. 225. $3.50. (The Catholic 
Education Series). 

Father Wise here presents an analysis of traditional liberal studies and 
a defense of their usefulness in modern education. Eight chapters out- 
line the views of great writers: Plato, Aristotle, Cicero, Quintilian, St. 
Augustine, St. Thomas, the authors of the Ratio Studiorum, and finally 
Cardinal Newman. Three further chapters are devoted to formal train- 
ing, the propaedeutic function of the liberal arts, and the content of 
the liberal arts. The book is, thus, a broad study, ranging over the 
whole field of history, literature, psychology, educational theory, philoso- 
phy, and theology; and there is hardly a single aspect of the subject 
that is not treated or at least mentioned. Father Wise has read widely 
in all the various fields of his study, and presents copious documenta- 
tion in his footnotes. His judgments are balanced and sane. He ap- 
preciates scientific as well as literary studies, he recognizes many reason- 
able modern developments, and he shows how humanistic ideals and in- 
tellectual culture must be informed by the supernatural. 

The eight historical chapters, which present the substance of impor- 
tant works by means of summaries and quotations, are open to criticism 
in many places. There is no discussion of Plato's views on poetry or 
of Aristotle's attitude towards rhetoric. In the chapter on St. Augustine, 
which begins with a preliminary sketch of the transition from pagan 
to Christian culture, Father Wise gives, in all too brief compass and 
exceedingly obscure terms, a profound interpretation of Roman civiliza- 
tion, which only a careful study of Cochrane's Christianity and Classi- 
cal Culture could render intelligible. This chapter might have been 
more appropriately introduced with an account of the study of the 
liberal arts in the schools of the late Empire. Augustine's De Ordine 
and De Doctrine Christiana are analyzed, but there is no treatment of 
Augustine's criticism (in the Confessions) of his own literary training. 
The introduction of St. Thomas into the company of those who have 
written on the liberal arts is somewhat puzzling. The chapter on St. 
Thomas contains, besides a history of the saint's education, an analysis 
of his philosophy of learning and of his attitude towards empirical 
knowledge. 



179 



180 Jesuit Educational Quarterly for January 1949 



The best chapters of the book are Chapter IX, "Cardinal Newman," 
and Chapter X, "Formal Training." Newman's view of knowledge as 
an end in itself is carefully scrutinized and subjected to the proper dis- 
tinctions. The claims of formal training are justly evaluated in the 
light of recent discoveries and theories of the psychologists. But the 
quality of scholarship throughout the rest of the book is uneven. Little 
wonder that it is, for no one man could master all the subjects into 
which Father Wise has delved. Unfortunately he has not sufficiently 
limited his treatment but has tried to include within one small book 
almost everything that could be said on the subject of education. The 
style, too, leaves much to be desired. Obscure expressions, infelicitous 
diction, careless sentence structure might have been removed by a more 
careful revision before publication. John H. Taylor, S.J. 



Introduction to Philosophy. By Louis De Raeymaeker. Translated 
by Harry McNeill, Ph.D. New York: Joseph F. Wagner, 1948, pp. 
iii-297, 8, $4.00. 

To those already acquainted with the works of the noted Belgian 
scholar, Canon Louis De Raeymaeker, the title of the present work may 
give rise to some confusion. For Canon De Raeymaeker is perhaps 
better known for his Latin text Introdnctio General is ad Pbilosophiam et 
ad Thomismum, which first appeared in 1931. The present work, how- 
ever, is the translation of a French text, Introduction a la Pbilosopbie, 
which was published in Louvain in 1938. Omitting the introduction to 
Thomism, the French text reorganized the material of the General 
Introduction to bring into sharper focus the author's views regarding 
the nature of a general introductory text to the study of philosophy. 
The French text was then published as the introductory manual for 
the course in Philosophy of the Higher Institute of Philosophy in the 
University of Louvain. 

The authorized English translation, by Harry McNeill, himself an 
Agrege of the Higher Institute of Philosophy, was made from the second 
French edition, extensively revised by the author in order to bring the 
translation up to date. The work of translation, though literal, has 
been careful, and on the whole, faithful to the thought of the author 

Fundamentally the text is an effort to provide an adequate textbook 
for a beginner's course in philosophy. What should be the content of 
such a course? Is an "Introduction to Philosophy" merely an invitation, 



Books 



181 



a guide perhaps, or at the most an approach to philosophy? Does an 
Introduction carry us to the threshold of philosophy but no further? 
Or does an Introduction carry us over that threshold into the domain 
of philosophy itself? In this way it would be a beginning, a movement, 
within the science itself. Is it, as the Germans have asked, "Einleitung" 
or "Einfiihrung" in die Philosophie? 

The position of Canon De Raeymaeker on this fundamental problem 
is clear. The function of an Introduction is not "Einfiihrung" a be- 
ginning in the science itself. We do not cross the threshold; we stop 
short of philosophy itself: "Since this initiation is meant to be general, 
a stop is deliberately made at the threshold of philosophy" (p. v). It is, 
he holds, "Einleitnng" or "Inleiding tot de Wijsbegeerte y " merely a guide, 
an invitation, an approach to philosophy: "One must be satisfied with 
a summary outline of the material treated and with provoking discreetly 
the spirit of research. In this way the author hopes to arouse in the 
reader an effective desire for advanced philosophical study" (p. v). 

Granted an author's basic position, the problem now becomes: From 
what direction are we to approach the threshold? For philosophy is a 
structure of many sides. Three approaches have been tried to date: The 
doctrinal, the historical, the organizational. Some, using the doctrinal 
approach, review the principal problems of philosophy and the most im- 
portant solutions offered to them. Others, preferring the historical ap- 
proach, examine the birth and growth of philosophy, the more daring 
attempting a broad survey of the life-span of philosophy, the more 
conservative confining themselves to a more penetrating analysis of Greek 
philosophy. A very few, finally, content themselves with providing for 
the novice the technical accoutrements indispensable for a study of 
philosophy — Bibliographies, Biographies, Monographs, Philosophical Re- 
views, etc. 

Canon De Raeymaeker has sought to encompass all three methods 
within the confines of a single text, resorting to the simple strategem of 
a mechanical division into Part I doctrinal, Part II historical, Part III 
organizational. 

A work of such magnitude, confined within such narrow limits, must 
necessarily fall short of the ideal of its constituent parts. The ideal of 
the doctrinal approach is reduced from a review of the principal problems 
of philosophy and the most important solutions offered to them to simply 
a review of the principal problems of philosophy. By the same token, 
an historical approach, confined to the limits of eighty pages, yet pre- 
senting a continuous view of philosophy from its origins in Grecian 
antiquity to, and including, contemporary tendencies in philosophical 



182 



Jesuit Educational Quarterly for January 1949 



thought, must necessarily lose the penetration which the historical method 
demands. Finally, the value of the documentary part, though carefully 
reviewed by the author, suffers necessarily from the continuing dis- 
turbances created by the last war. W. H. Turner, Ph.D. 

Whither American Education? The Report of the President's 
Commission on Higher Education. Edited by Allan P. Farrell, 
S.J. New York, The America Press, 1948, pp. 95, $.25. 
Whither American Education? is a competently written and engagingly 
presented series of essays by leading Catholic educators on the report of 
the President's Commission on Higher Education. Out of the sprawling 
and repetitious six volume report, this little booklet of some 95 pages 
manages admirably to shift and succinctly to bring together the central 
problems and proposals of the report. The essays are constructive and 
their comments on implications to American higher education and, in 
particular, to Catholic education are sober, reserved and well reasoned. 
In a concluding essay the editor summarizes for us the essayists' appraisal 
of the strength and weakness of the report. The little booklet comes as a 
timely and valuable aid to all who are giving serious study and discussion 
to this important document which is bound to play an influential part in 
the steering educational policy in the United States in the years to come. 

Among the many recommendations of the Commission which the 
authors report for our sympathetic study are: its social emphasis; special 
and separate attention to the teaching function in the graduate school; 
the pattern of pre-service and in-service training for teachers; the stepped 
adult education program; the advisory, as differentiated from administra- 
tive, function of government in education; the leveling of economic and 
discriminatory barriers; and its federal aid through scholarships to 
deserving students. 

Aside from censuring the Commission's passion for tax supported 
education only which is revealed in its inequity in establishing two fiscal 
policies — one for private and another for tax supported universities — and 
its deliberate and unregretted exclusion of the non-tax-supported college 
from the expanded program, the other main point of criticism of the 
report made by the Catholic educators is the Commission's tendency 
(however indeliberate) toward a totalitarian religious interpretation of 
democracy to be spread and prosyletized through government controlled 
schools. The Commission views education dominantly in terms of democ- 
racy rather than in terms of the individual. Democracy, as is pointed out 
in the most provocative of the essays (II) , "instead of providing the fair 
field for cultivating the good life, turns democracy into the Good Life, 



Books 



183 



making it a religion, an end" and the public school, its church. The 
President's Commission has drawn the master plan for effecting "a 
democratarianism," another type of controlled culture or monopoly or 
slavery of thought. 

To complement this valuable little booklet there is need now on the 
part of Catholic educators for presentation of a more extensive and 
searching analysis of the underlying concepts embodied in the report, 
such as its inadequate concept of education, of the man it seeks to 
educate, and the kind of society it is seeking to construct. 

Albert I. Lemieux, S.J. 

Handbook for Remedial Reading. By William Kottmeyer, Director, 
Reading Clinic, St. Louis Public Schools. Webster Publishing Co. 1947. 
pp. 179. $1.68. 

In the introduction, the author says, in part: "This book is compara- 
tively short ... it constitutes a sincere effort to be simple and practical." 
We feel that the author's own description of his excellent book is apt: 
for, it is not burdened down with page after page of case-history; tech- 
nical terminology is restricted to the barest minimum and principles and 
procedures and remedial material are offered in its pages. 

A very important principle is given due emphasis: "Reading instruction 
and reading materials must be adjusted to individual differences without 
regard for grade level placement of children." For, "when reading instruc- 
tion and reading materials are not beyond the level at which a student is, 
he may improve in his use of reading skills; if instruction and materials 
are beyond his level, he will not improve." 

After giving us "simplified descriptions" of eyes and their behaviour, 
the author explains the reading processes: fixations, return sweeps, regres- 
sions, recognition-spans. He also tells us that we receive a great deal of 
knowledge about reading from photography, through the eye-movement 
camera. Next, reading disabilities are discussed. They are divided into two 
categories — physical factors and reading readiness factors. Under this 
latter general heading, amongst other things, we are told "that a mental 
age of seventy-eight months is a desirable requisite for formal instruction 
in beginning reading." 

Reading skills are next discussed: word recognition, with a four-fold 
attack — general configuration, context clues, breakdown into syllables, 
sound blending; phrase reading — "At any rate, the ability to read printed 
matter by natural units of thought is a significant advance in devtlop- 
ment over word calling and marks a, second stage of progress towards 



184 Jesuit Educational Quarterly for January 1949 



skillful reading;" basic skills for longer unit reading — assimilative, loca- 
tional, recreational, critical; finally, rate and vocabulary. 

Methods, tests for diagnoses of reading disabilities are followed by 
individual, remedial tretament. Here we have a fine treatment, amongst 
other things, of sound blends, prefixes, suffixes and syllabication. 

There are many other features of the book which would provide 
valuable teaching material for one who has had little or no experience 
in the field, for example, suggested commercial readings, method of 
teaching correct usage of the dictionary, word meanings, prefixes, suffixes, 
roots — and especialy the last chapter on classroom organization. 

Briefly, then, this book with its clear and simple presentation of prin- 
ciples, procedures and materials should be accessible to all remedialists and 
especialy to those who are just beginning. Of course, different cases will 
demand different procedure and material. But here is excellent material, 
from which a judicious selection can easily be made to meet these vary- 
ing cases. John W. Paone, S.J. 

A History of Boston College. By David R. Dunigan, S.J. Milwaukee: 
The Bruce Publishing Company. 1947. pp. XXV 362. $6.00. 

It is not easy to put life into the few facts found in province or college 
catalogs, or into the formal reports sent every three years to Rome. The 
historian of a college finds it hard to put up with diaries of school 
activities lost, with administrator's correspondence destroyed, with 
memoirs and documents scattered. The gaps are many, the documents 
few. Hence, the story of an institution might turn out to be a pamphlet 
on the occasion of a century of growth and service, or worse an annotated 
list of names, places, curricula, and money appeals. 

Father Dunigan must have met the usual obstacles, but has cleared 
them in no usual fashion in his History of Boston College, the second 
volume in the Bruce Publishing Company's recent "Catholic Education 
Series" under the supervision of Dr. Francis M. Crowley of Fordham 
University. 

This scholarly account of Boston College gives no irreverent anthology 
such as Horace Coon's, Columbia, Colossus on the Hudson, nor in the 
opposite direction no unreadable chronicle as Jesse L. Rosenberger's, 
Rochester: The Making of a University. How Boston College won over 
the native Yankees of Commonwealth Avenue to an appreciation of its 
ideals and service to the community; how the Irish could pass over the 
burning of a convent in what is now Somerville — and is still called the 
Nunnery Grounds; how Father McElroy was frustrated by bigoted 



Books 



185 



citizens in his first attempts to buy land for the school is impassionately 
and interestingly told. Because not all Yankees were members of the 
Evangelical church, many prominent names on Beacon Hill publicly 
declared their sympathy for the land purchase. Bigots did elect on a 
Know-Nothing platform a Governor Gardiner of Massachusetts, but he 
was the first and last Know-Nothing governor. That the Irish quickly 
began the assimilation cycle is seen from their admission to Harvard and 
to Vassar, and now Jesuits cross the Charles to work for degrees in Cam- 
bridge. The complete cycle of assimilation is perhaps illustrated by the 
opening of a School of Social Work in 1936 by the late Father Walter 
McGuin. Father Bapst who was tarred and feathered at Ellsworth, Maine, 
just ten years before he was made the first rector of Boston College must 
smile at this fact. 

The men who made Boston College were rectors for a few years, and 
each brought to his task vision, courage, and faith. For thirty and 
forty years, other colleges had single guides and builders, as Seelye of 
Amherst, Butler of Columbia, Rhees of Rochester, so that their biog- 
raphies are the history of their respective colleges. One man, and one 
vision did not make a greater B.C., since some presidents of necessity were 
builders of stone, others were builders of curricula and of standards. 
All met the challenge of a current opportunity and problem so that their 
success more than meets the purpose set in the preface of the book. We 
hope that some of these leaders of Boston College will merit a detailed 
biography, since Father Dunigan has indicated source material. Too there 
must be many a learned "Jafsie" (Father J. F. X. Murphy) of Boston 
College, to depict as there is the "Kitteridge" of Holy Cross (Father 
Charles L. Kimball). 

Educators will welcome the splendid synthesis of the controversy con- 
cerning "Secular versus Jesuit Education" occasioned in 1899 by the pub- 
lication in the Atlantic Monthly of "Recent Changes in Secondary 
Education" by President Eliot of Harvard. The replies of Father Bros- 
nahan were refused space by Bliss Perry the editor. The Father then issued 
his now celebrated two pamphlets to professional educators — President 
Eliot and Jesuit Colleges, and Courses Leading to the Baccalaureate in 
Harvard and Boston College. Father Brosnahan could be rough, but his 
serene and impersonal analysis had educators smiling at Eliot. 

Other episodes have been exploited from meagre sources in an able, 
scholarly, and interesting way. A workable index, fine illustrations, and 
a bibliography of sources make this book worth the price of $6.00. The 
New England Province now has a competent authoritative account of 
both her major colleges. 

History is not supposed to be didactic, nor has the author pointed a 



186 



Jesuit: Educational Quarterly for January 1949 



moral. To presidents concerned with the financial and educational impli- 
cations of the recent Report of the Truman Commission on Higher 
Education, to faculty members bothered with a teaching load of too 
many heads, there is a moral in the story of how Boston College outgrew 
its site on Harrison Avenue to its present physical and cultural eminence 
on Chestnut Hill, with a distinguished campus, with a faculty of nearly 
one hundred Jesuits, and a student body of some 6,000. 

John P. Porter, S.J. 



NEWS FROM THE FIELD 



Central Office 

INSTRUCTIO-CONSTITUTION: Besides being reprinted in the 
October issue of the Quarterly, copies of the booklet containing the 
"Instructio Pro Assistentia Americae de Ordinandis Universitatibus, 
Collegiis, et Scholis Altis et de Praeparandis Eorundem Magistris," and 
"Constitution of the Jesuit Educational Association" has been printed and 
will be distributed to Fathers and Scholastics engaged in educational work. 

General 

D P PROFESSORS: Fathers Gerald G. Walsh of Fordham and Edward 
B. Rooney have returned from a long stay in Europe during which time 
they interviewed over 1,000 D P professors. A summary of their findings 
is now being compiled by War Relief Service and will be circulated among 
all colleges and universities in the country in the hope that they will sign 
contracts and thereby help these displaced persons come to America. 

CENTENARY: St. Mary's College welcomed many former boarding- 
school alumni to celebrate its hundredth anniversary. Archbishop Schulte 
and Bishops Byrne, Buddy and Donnelly were present. 

GUIDANCE: Handbook for Advisers to Students Planning to Enter 
Medicine by Dewey B. Stuit and Raymond J. Schlicher, Chicago: Asso- 
ciation of American Medical Colleges, 1948, pp. 34, $.50 is a useful 
booklet for counselors in directing students into the medical profession. 

FRANCIS SUAREZ was honored at an academic commemoration on 
the fourth centenary of his birth by students of Woodstock College, 
March 8, 1948. 

HIGHLIGHTS of the Latin Institute of the American Classical League 
as reported by Father Paul Izzo of Holy Cross were: "This may seem 
strange to us — teachers of Latin should have studied Latin. This was one 
of the big points they made. The suggestion was made that colleges grant 
an AB degree in Latin or Greek. This might lead to an increase of classical 
electives in Junior and Senior years. There was almost unanimous agree- 
ment on this fact — the classical education was still the best means for 
educating for life and character formation. There was general dissatisfac- 
tion with the so-called scientific curricula. Some of the contributing 
factors to the ineffectiveness of the Latin Course in High Schools — con- 



187 



188 Jesuit Educational Quarterly for January 1949 



fusion as to objectives, lack of sincerity on the part of the teachers, and 
in many cases actual cynicism." 

SUPREME COURT: The most significant article on several recent 
Supreme Court decisions on education is Corwin, Edward S. The Supreme 
Court as National School Board, THOUGHT, (December, 1948), Vol. 
23, No. 91. Dr. Corwin is Professor Emeritus of Constitutional Law, 
Princeton University and the most outstanding authority in the field. 
His stand is strongly critical of current decisions and thought. Reprints 
are available at $.25 for single copies and $.15 for quantities of 25 or 
more. 

COOPERATIVE PLAY BUREAU: During the past year, the Co- 
operaive Play Bureau, West Baden College, which began Christmas Week 
its fifteenth year of service, sent plays which aided 5 5 schools and 
seminaries in the annual task of selecting their plays. Included were 32 
one-act plays, and 120 three-act plays. 

SCHOOL FOR DELAYED VOCATIONS has received such wide pub- 
licity and enthusiastic support that another teacher and class have been 
added. 120 are enrolled of whom 80% are Veterans. 

Colleges and Universities 

PUBLIC AID: The court of Appeals of the State of New York handed 
down its unanimous decision favoring Canisius College in the disputed 
case wherein the right of the State of New York to make renovations for 
Veterans was brought into question. 

NEW ACCREDITING ASSOCIATION: Most important business at 
the Western College Association Meeting October 30th was its entry into 
the field of accreditation. 

NATIONAL SURVEY: John Carroll University was one of the six 
institutions in the Middle West and East singled out in a national sur- 
vey of remedial English being conducted by Northwestern University's 
School of Education. 

INSTITUTE OF GENERAL EDUCATION conducted by Loyola 
College, Baltimore, featured outstanding authorities including John S. 
Brubacher and Russel M. Cooper. 

COMIC BOOK committee of greater Cincinnati called upon the services 
of Xavier University staff members to evaluate and issue "Profile Charts" 
on the cultural, moral and emotional effects of each book. 

JESUIT CLASSICISTS comprised the majority of members on the pro- 
gram of the annual meeting of the Connecticut Section, Classical Associa- 
tion of New England, held at Fairfield University, October 16th. 



News from the Field 



189 



AQUINAS LECTURER for the Aristotelian Society of Marquette 
University this year is Robert M. Hutchins. 

VOCATIONS: Since its founding in 1887, Regis College and High 
School has given 191 alumni to the priesthood. 

PASTORAL PSYCHIATRY is a course conducted at St. Mary's Col- 
legt by five doctors from Winter Memorial Hospital under the direction 
of Father Gerald Kelly. 

NATIONAL PRESIDENT of the American Society of Engineering 
Education is Clement J. Freund, Dean of the University of Detroit, 
College of Engineering. 

WOODSTOCK COLLEGE was bequeathed $5 0,000 in personal prop- 
erty and $10,000 in real estate by Mrs. Margaret E. Maher. 

Creighton Development Fund $390,2 59 by November, 1948. 

St. Louis University School of Dentistry $5,000 for Cancer Control 
and Research by National Cancer Institute. 

Loyola University Chicago Dental School $4,800 for research. 

Loyola Academy, Chicago, $5,000 for scholarships and $7,000 for 
building. 

Georgetown Medical Center, $150,000 by U. S. Public Health Service 
for teaching in field of Cancer. 

Canisius College Fund Raising realized $25 5,000 by September, 1948. 

REMEDIAL READING aid, which is able to increase a person's read- 
ing speed from two to three times his normal rate, has been invented and 
patented by Father Vincent O'Flaherty, Marquette University. 

SCHOLARSHIP to Japanese students have been announced by three 
Jesuit Universities, Georgetown, Fordham and John Carroll. They will 
be made available as soon as travel to this country is permitted. 

HOLY CROSS ALUMNUS, Frank Carey, was named winner of 
$1,000 Westinghouse Award for 1948 in the newspaper class. 

CLASS OF 1908 of St. Louis University held its reunion June 1, 1948. 
Twelve living members, graduates of that class, received individual bless- 
ings from his Holiness Pope Pius XII. 

HAMLET made his first full-length radio debut in the western hemi- 
sphere when presented by Fordham University's WFUV-FM in a two 
and a half hour broadcast. 

FM RADIO: A change in FCC rules will make it possible for schools 
to go on the air with as low as 5 to 10 watts. Former regulations required 
150 watts or more, entailing expense out of the reach of many schools. 
An enlightening brochure on the subject is FM For Education, by Frank- 
lin Dunham, U. S. Office of Education, 1948, pp. 30, $.20. 



190 



Jesuit Educational Quarterly for January 1949 



ARMORY: Xavier University laid the corner stone to its armory 
dedicated to Peace and Justice and Charity June 9, 1948. 

High Schools 

PEPSI-COLA SCHOLARSHIPS: An interesting breakdown of past 
winners of the Pepsi-Cola annual scholarship shows that 133 came from 
Catholic schools. Five have entered or are preparing to enter religion or 
the seminary. About 10% of current winners came from Catholic schools 
and are attending, among other institutions, 17 Catholic Colleges and 
Universities. Among these, Jesuit institutions rank as follows: St. Louis 
University has 5, Fordham 4, Holy Cross and Xavier University have 
each 2, and Georgetown, Gonzaga and Marquette one. 

VISUAL EDUCATION AWARD given by National Education Asso- 
ciation to 100 of the nation's schools for outstanding work in visual 
education was given Campion this year. An article published in Audio 
Visual Guide describes Campion's program. 

SPELLER: Robert Gelin, St. Ignatius (Cleveland) Junior was awarded 
first place in the district elimination of the Cleveland Press Spelling 
Contest and all-expense trip to the National Capital. 

ULTRA-MODERN SCHOOL: Canisius High School moved to its new 
site on Delaware Avenue. Its new wing incorporates many features of 
most modern planning and installations. Significant are thermopane glass, 
all weather insulating windows; ceilings of sound proof cushion tone; 
lighting by 24 tubes 8 feet in length; and "Ezy-Rase" glass chalk boards. 

RADIO CONTACT was made by newly consecrated Bishop David 
Hickey with Father Knopp, Belize Mission Superior, over Campion's radio 
station W9BQZ. 

BING CROSBY whose three sons attend Bellarmine Prep, San Jose, 
entertained at a Barbecue there. He also provided that $5,000 of a benefit 
at the Civic Auditorium, San Francisco, be given the school. 

Varia 

DENTAL STUDENTS: A recent survey coming from the office of 
the dean of the School of Dentistry show that 1725 or 46% of the 3716 
members of the Chicago Dental Society who live in the Chicago area 
are graduates of the Loyola University Dental School. These figures were 
obtained from the latest official list of the members of the Chicago and 
Illinois Dental Societies published in August. 

Of the 5404 members of the Illinois State Dental Society, 2107 or 
39% are graduates of the Dental School. Other dental schools in the 



News from the Field 



191 



state are those of the University of Illinois and Northwestern University. 

CLASSICAL HONORS COURSE: Xavier University is introducing 
an Honors A.B. course based solidly on the Classics. Limited to the top 
10% students, the curriculum includes Latin, Greek, English, philosophy, 
mathematics and science. The method is based on the Ratio idea of the 
class teacher who is equivalently a tutor. Twenty-two students enrolled 
in the 1948-1949 term. 

SCHOLARSHIPS: Ten young men, graduates of the high schools of 
the Jesuit provinces in the United States have received the annual four- 
year "regional scholarships" to Fordham University and are pursuing 
their studies at Fordham College. Schools from which students were se- 
lected are: St. Ignatius, Cleveland; Jesuit High School, Tampa; Gonzaga 
High School, Washington, D. C; St. Joseph's; Boston College High 
School; Campion; Loyola, Los Angeles; Bellarmine, San Jose; Loyola, 
Baltimore; Jesuit High School, New Orleans. 



Note to Librarians 



We are extremely anxious to see that all libraries on the mailing list 
of the Jesuit Educational Quarterly have a complete file for their shelves. 
Realizing that, even with the most careful watching, an occasional copy 
can go astray and thus hold up binding a volume,, we invite all librarians 
to make an inventory of their files, send in a list of missing numbers and 
we will do our best to nil the need. 

On the other hand, we have our own problems of supply. Through the 
years our generosity (I hope it will not be construed as mismanagement) 
has led us to a position where our supply of certain issues of the Quarterly 
is almost exhausted. In fact, our supply of Volume 1, Number 1; Volume 
VII, Number 4; and Volume VIII, Number 4 is so low that we will be 
unable to fill any requests without your help. Should you have any spare 
copies of these, we would be most grateful if you sent them to us and 
will reimburse you for the cost and shipping. 

The supply of the following issues is also quite low and we extend the 
same offer for them: I, 2; V, 3; V, 4; VI, 1; VI, 2; VI, 3; VII, 2. 

Finally, your attention is directed to the ten year index of topics which 
accompanied the October 1948 issue. Additional copies are on hand for 
any that write for them. 



BOSTON COLLEGE 




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