JESUIT EDUCATION AND THE JESUIT THEATRE
THE RATIO AND SELF-ACTIVITY
ANALYSIS OF NATIONAL STATISTICS 1948-1949
«K VOL. XI, No. 3 jmmmmmm
(FOR PRIVATE CIRCULATION)
James W. Culliton, Ph.D., is now Associate Professor of Business
Administration at the Graduate School of Business Administration at
Harvard University. Having graduated from Canisius College and done
graduate work at Harvard, he spent three years in business and four years
on the Harvard staff before writing his article.
Father Joseph C. Glose, Province Prefect of Studies for high schools
of the Maryland Province, focuses attention on the dominant character-
istic of the Ratio, self -activity.
Victor M. Hamm, Ph.D. of Marquette University's English depart-
ment attended a special meeting on the liberal arts at the invitation of
the Association of American Colleges and in a commentary on the pro-
ceedings of that meeting points out topics of significance to Jesuits.
Father John F. Lenny, Headmaster of Scranton Preparatory School,
has succeeded in combining the best features of group and individual
guidance in a program worthy of study.
Father Charles M. O'Hara of Marquette University again analyzes
trends in the growth of Jesuit high schools, colleges and universities.
Father John W. Paone of Canisius High School, in addition to
teaching regular classes, has had considerable success with remedial work
Father John P. Porter is Dean of the Graduate Department of
Canisius College and acting head of the department of History.
Father John H. Taylor, Dean of St. Francis Xavier Novitiate,
Sheridan, Oregon, calls upon a broad knowledge of history of education
and culture to review a comprehensive study of the liberal arts.
Walter H. Turner, Ph.D., of the faculty of Philosophy at the
University of Detroit, gives a setting to the work of an outstanding
Father Victor R. Yanitelli, formerly of the Department of
Romance Languages at the University of Scranton, is completing his
fourth year of Theology at West Baden College.
Jesuit Educational Quarterly
Jesuit Education and the Jesuit Theatre
Victor R. Yanitelli, S.J 133
The Ratio and Self-Activity
Joseph C. Glose, S.J 146
The Place of Letters in Liberal Education
Commission on Liberal Education Association of
American Colleges 153
Notes on the Commission's Report
Victor M. Hamm, Ph.D 158
Guidance at Scranton Prep
John F. Lenny, S.J. . 161
An Analysis of National Statistics 1948-1949
Charles M. O'Hara, S.J 167
A Challenge to Catholic Colleges
James W. Culliton, Ph.D • . 174
The Nature of the Liberal Arts, By John E. Wise,
S.J. (Reviewed by John H. Taylor, S.J.) . . 179
Introduction to Philosophy, By Louis De Raey-
maeker (Reviewed by W. H. Turner, Ph.D.) . 180
Whither American Education? Edited by Allan P.
Farrell, S.J. (Reviewed by Albert I. Lemieux, SJ.) 182
Handbook for Remedial Reading, By William Kott-
meyer (Reviewed by John W. Paone, S.J.) . . 183
A History of Boston College, By David R. Dunigan,
S.J. (Reviewed by John P. Porter, S.J.) ... 184
News from the Field 187
The Jesuit Educational Quarterly, published in June, October,
January, and March by the Jesuit Educational Association, represents the
Jesuit secondary schools, colleges, seminaries, and universities of the
United States, and those conducted by American Jesuits in foreign lands
Edward B. Rooney, S.J.
William J. Mehok, S.J.
An editorial advisory board is composed of the regional directors of
education in the several Jesuit provinces:
Oscar F. Auvil, S.J.
Edward B. Bunn, S.J.
Hugh M. Duce, S.J.
Joseph D. Fitz Gerald, S.J.
Joseph C. Glose, S.J.
Wilfred M. Mallon, S.J.
Julian L. Maline, S.J.
John J. Nash, S.J.
Lorenzo K. Reed, S.J.
Arthur J. Sheehan, S.J.
Andrew C. Smith, S.J.
New England Province
New York Province
New York Province
New England Province
New Orleans Province
ADDRESS COMMUNICATIONS TO THE EDITOR
49 EAST 84th STREET
New York 28, N. Y.
Copyright, January 1949
jesuit educational quarterly
Jesuit Education and the
Victor R. Yanitelli, S.J.
The roots of Jesuit drama go deep into the origins of the Order. They
evolve through the stages of its early apostolate and finally flower with
the first of its educational schemes. It is interesting to note that the
founding fathers of the Society of Jesus, Ignatius Loyola, Peter Faber,
Francis Xavier, James Lainez, Alonso Salmeron, Nicholas Bodadilla, Simon
Rodriguez, Claude La Jay, Jean Codure, Paschase Brouet, all of whom
pronounced their first vows of Povery and Chastity in a little chapel at
Montmartre, Paris, on the Feast of the Assumption, August 15, 1534.
pronounced also a vow to go to the Holy Land within two years time.
The vow was taken for the purpose of imitating the Christ who travelled
the Levant in an effort to bring salvation there; their aim was one of pure
evangelization. That pilgrimage, which, incidentally, never was realized,
may be said to have been the first purpose for which the primitive Society
However, after waiting fruitlessly for three years in Rome, these men,
several of whom had scattered meanwhile among the university towns of
Italy, offered their services to the Farnese Pope, Paul III, for him to use
*as he saw fit in the interests of the Church. It was with this offer and
the Pope's acceptance that the work of the Society of Jesus officially
The history of the Society as an ecclesiastical organization begins with
the Constitutions written by St. Ignatius, and their final acceptance on
September 27, 1540; as such, it has little place here. What is of moment
though, is the fact that the fourth part of these Constitutions entitled
De nostrorum institutione in studiis aliisque mediis iuvandi proximum
atque de institutione iuventutis, defined the Society's first program of
education as being purely catechetical, limiting its scope to the teaching
of Christian Doctrine in the classroom and from the pulpit. 1 In fact, the
first title, unofficial, of the founding fathers was "Theologians of Paris." 2
1 It was already decided in the "Deliberationes" of May, 1539, "Quod docendi erunt
pueri vel alii quicumque ipsa mandata." See Monumenta Historica Societatis lesu
(MHSI), Constitutiones, I, 19; also C. Gomez Rodeles, S.J., La Compafiia de Jesus
catequista, Madrid, Blass, 1913, ch. I.
*See Simon Rodrigues, Comment arium de origine et progressu Societatis lesu, in
MHSI, Epistolae P. Roderici, p. 486.
134 Jesuit Educational Quarterly for January 1949
It is rather startling to fin'd that education, in the sense of a definite aim
in teaching the Humanities, was not a part of the first pedagogy of the
Society of Jesus, although it was not long in becoming so.
The founders of the Society came without exception from a university
environment and all held the degree of Master of Arts. Nevertheless, it
would be an error to imagine Ignatius at Paris mulling over programs of
study and planning the foundation of colleges. He did not do so even
during the early years of his generalship over the Society. 3
The first step came when, as General, he had to choose the course of
training for his future priests after their spiritual formation had been
completed in the Exerc'ttia? and in the novitiate. In making this all-
important choice, Ignatius preferred the humanistic course, according to
the ideals of Lebrija, Vives, and Erasmus, 5 rather than the medieval ideal
of a clear, intellectual but inelegant Latin which would serve as a prac-
tical preparation for Dialectic and Scholastic philosophy. Ignatius was
very definite on this point. His talent for action and organization showed
itself in the unhesitating manner in which he charged superiors and
obliged students to follow none but the humanistic way of studies. They
were to do this: "without hurry, without shortcuts or confusion of
courses, and without succumbing to the attractions of theology." 6
The logical sequence to this decision was the foundation of colleges
exclusively for students of the Order. This step was taken at the sug-
gestion of Father Lainez 7 with the result that Jesuit colleges came into
being at Paris, Louvain, Padua, Coimbra, Alcala, and Valencia, right in
the shadow of many famous universities. There were no Jesuit professors
attached to these colleges, because the men attended the lectures at the
universities with which they were affiliated. 8 The advantages of such a
system were remarked by secretary Polanco who emphasized the progress
that the Jesuit students were making at Coimbra because they shared both
the benefits of community life and the advantages of the lectures given
by the famous professors of that university. 9
St. Ignatius still was not satisfied. Something more was wanting. His
3 See J. Quicherat, Histoire de Sainte-Barbe: colleges, communautes, institutions,
Paris, 1860, p. 231.
4 See Exercitia spiritualia S. P. Ignatii de Loyola, Brussels, De Brouwer, 1932.
5 "Litteras amas. Recte,, si propter Christum"; wrote Erasmus in his Enchiridion
militis christian}, Basle, 1519, p. 45. See also M. Bataillon, Erasme et VEspagne, Paris,
9 MHSI, S. Ignatii epistolae, TU, 502; see also Constitutiones, I, 177; and Script a de
S. Ignatio, I, 448, 262, 281.
7 "Quien invento los Colegios? R. Lainez fue el Primero que toco este punto." In
the "Memorial" of G. de Camara, n. 138, MHSI, Scripta de S. Ignatio, I, 220.
8 The "Deliberationes" of 1541 had decided: "Hacer colegios en Universidades. . . .
No estudios ni lectiones en la Compania." MHSI, Constitutiones, I, 47.
9 See MHSI, Poland chronicon, I, 157.
Jesuit Education and the Jesuit Theatre
practical vision extended further to a Jesuit college, for Jesuit students,
complete with Jesuit faculty. His dream was realized as early as 1545
through the beneficence of one Francis Borgia, the Duke of Gandia, who
later became a Jesuit himself, General of the Society and finally adorned
the altars of the Church as a saint. 10 His foundation was called the College
of Gandia after the municipality in which it was located.
In the year following the establishment of Gandia, 1546, St. Ignatius
opened more of these colleges to extern students, though he did not do
this entirely on his own initiative. Rather, he was persuaded to this step
by the influence of externs who wanted the youth of their town to share
in the advantages of the knowledge and virtue they perceived in the new
religious. 11 Jesuits had already been employed as instructors of externs in
India and in Germany, because paganism and heresy had made the need
for Christian instruction imperative in those places. To the College of
Diego de Bourba in Goa, Xavier sent some of his all too few missioners,
while to Inglostadt, Ignatius sent four Theologians, of whom we know
three by name, Lainez, Salmeron and Claude Le Jay. 12
Colleges destined exclusively for externs were not sanctioned until the
Sixth General Congregation convened under Father Aquaviva in 1608.
This had not been done sooner because it was the Society's first care to
assure herself of new recruits and it was rightly thought that these could
be more easily drawn from the Seminary-College type of Institution, that
is, from a college in which young Jesuit aspirants to the priesthood studied
side by side with extern students. 13
In such a college, the Jesuit students lived apart from the others and
were referred to as "scholastici nostri." At the same time, classes were
attended by all in common, both Jesuit and non-Jesuit students. Here
again, the Jesuit scholastics sat in a separate group by themselves.
The extern group was made up of four different classes of men. The
"alumni" were non-paying students who were accepted "... si pacta
cum Fundatoribus inita id exigent, siquidem ad finem, quern sibi praefigit
10 See MHSI, Epistolae mixtae, I, 315, II, 102; and Monumenta lgnatiana, series la,
11 "Por la misma Razon de caridad con que se aceptan colegios, y se tienen en ellos
escuelas publicas para la edificacion en doctrina y vida, no solamente de los Nuestros,
pero aun mas de los fuera de la Compania, se podra ella extender a tomar asunto de
universidades, en las cuales se extienda mas universalmente este fruto ... a gloria de
Dios Nustro Senor." Jose Manuel Aicardo, S.J., Comentario a las constituciones de la
Compania de Jesus, 6 vols., Madrid, Blass, 1918-1932, III, 114. See also J. B. Herman,
S.J., La pedagogie des Jesuites an XVIe Steele, Paris, Picard, 1914, pp. 13-15.
12 For Goa see F. Tournier, S.J., "Monseigneur Guillaume de Prat au Concile de
Trente," Etudes Religieuses, Philosophiques et Litteraires, IIC (1904), 479, and A. P.
Farrell, S.J., The Jesuit code of liberal education, Milwaukee, Bruce, 193 8, pp. 16, 21.
For Ingolstadt see MHSI, Poland chronicon, I, 113, 132, 152-153.
13 See Herman, S.J., op. cit., p. 13.
Jesuit Educational Quarterly for January 1949
Societas, cum hujusmodi conditionibus Collegium admittere utile cen-
sebitur vel ob causas alias raras et non levis momenti." 14 The "convictores"
came from rich and noble families and lived in the college as pensionna'tres.
They were also known as "commensales." Poor students, whom Stoekius
calls "die geistlichen Zdglinge," received the appellation of "stipendiati"
or "pauperes," but were most frequently confused with the "alumni" and
known as such. The only non-boarding group was composed of the day
students whose residence was with their families in the town. These were
known simply as "externi." 10 This was the basic organization of the con-
stituents of the Jesuit college until 1608, but the program of education,
already existing in seed, needed to be developed into its full flower.
It was really the foundation of Messina in 1548 that unfolded to
Ignatius the broad horizons of the educational possibilities of his Order.
This College was opened at the request of the Municipality of Messina,
led by Don Juan de Vega, vice-regent of Sicily, and his two aides, Doctor
Ignatius Lopez and Diego de Cardona. 16 By 1549 Messina had inspired
Ignatius with the plan of the Collegio Romano, which shortly afterwards
was to be converted into an international center of knowledge and virtue,
and, under the guardianship of the Pope, was to be transformed into a
model for all the other colleges of the Society.
When this plan had taken shape, Ignatius sent a circular to the whole
Society dated December 1, 1551, officially advising all communities of
the new form of apostolate, recommending that similar colleges be opened
all over Europe, and transmitting the basic norms for the system of
teaching to be adopted wherever such a college was founded. 17 In 15 52
the Collegium Germanicum was started in Rome, and by 15 56 a swarm
of colleges dotted the boot of Italy and the rest of the Continent. There
were colleges in Palermo (Nov. 1549), Tivoli (1549), Venice (Easter
1551), Ferrara (June 15 51), Bologna (Oct. 1551), Florence (Jan.
1 5 52), Naples (Jan. 15 52), Perugia (June 1 5 52), Padua (Sept. 1 5 52),
Modena ( 1 5 52), Gubbio (Nov. 1 5 52), Vienna (beginning of 1 5 53 ),
Lisbon (Feb. 1 5 5 3 ) , Monreale (July 1 5 5 3 ), Cordova (Dec. 1 5 53), Genoa
14 G. M. Pachtler, S.J. Ratio studiorum et institutiones scholasticae Societatis Jesu,
4 vols., Berlin, Hofmann, 1894, I, 21.
15 H. Stoekius, Studien iiber die Padagogik der Geselhchaft Jesu im 16 Jahrhundert,
Erste tuck, Prinzip der Trennung, Nordlingen, Beck, n.d., pp. 1-7. See also Aicardo, S.J.,
op. cit., III, 129, for "alumni"; 144-145 for "convictores." August Oswald, S.J., Com-
ment arium in decern partes constitntionum Societatis Jesu, Limburg, De Brouwer, 189 J,
pp. 680-681 gives the various opinions on whether the "convictores" could properly be
called "familiares" of the Society. He interprets the Council of Trent in the affirmative
on this point. The new Codex Juris Canonici, c. 514, par. 1, promulgated May 19, 1918,
has made this a law.
16 See MHSI, Poland chronicon, I, 242.
17 See MHSI, S. Ignatii epistolae, IV, 5, 648.
Jesuit Education and the Jesuit Theatre
(Nov. 15 54), Loreto (Easter 1 5 5 5 ), Burgos (Sept. 1 5 5 5 ), Coimbra
(Oct. 1 5 5 5 ), Bibona in Sicily (Jan. 15 56), Galicia (April 1 5 56), Siena
(May 1556), Prague (July 1 5 56), Cologne (Aug. 1 5 56), Catania
(autumn of 15 56), and others less important.
Such growth could not be allowed to continue unbridled. It had to be
stopped somewhere lest the Colleges, grown too numerous, devour the
Society. Hence, it is not surprising to read that by 1600 Aquaviva was
refusing requests to open colleges for the simple reason that they could
not be adequately managed. It seems that after a period in which he had
been induced to open twelve colleges in one year, he realized a halt was
necessary in order to consolidate the foundations already under the
Society's care. 18 To growth and expansion he added the elements of
balance and control.
St. Ignatius, foreseeing something of this marvelous development as
early as 1549, now endeavored to endow the new apostolate with that
canonical basis which was lacking, at least in explicit form, in the Bull
that constituted the Order. Pope Paul III acceded to his request in a new
Bull Licet debitum, on October 23, 1549, which contained the following
clause: "Praeposito Generali eiusdem Societatis, ut quos de suis idoneos
iudicaverit ad lectiones theologiae et aliarum facultatum, alterius licentia
ad id minime requisita, ubi libet deputare possit . . . concedimus et
indulgemus." 19 Jesuits now had canonical permission to teach theology
and whatever subjects might be included under the indefinite phrase
Once approved Jesuits were granted permission to teach, confirmation
of the Society as a teching Order soon followed as an explicit fact in the
Bull of Julius III, Exposcit debitum, of July 21, 15 50. This Papal letter
of approbation included for the first time the word "lectiones" in its
description of the purpose for which the Order was established. 20
Legislation for these colleges was an obvious necessity. Order and unity
were indispensable. Yet it had to be order and unity with flexibility, a
18 See Antonio Astrain, S.J., Historia de la Campania de Jestis en la Asistencia de
Espaita, 6 vols., Madrid, "Sucesores de Rivadeneyra," 1902-1913, IV, 774-775.
19 See MHS/, Constitutiones, I, 367.
20 Here are the two formulae:
M . . . Societas ad hoc potissimum instituta, "... Societas etc. ut ad fidei propaga-
ut ad profectum animarum in vita et tionem per publicas praedicationes, lec-
doctrina Christiana, et ad fidei propaga- tiones et aliud quodcumque verbi Dei
tionem per publicas praedicationes et verbi ministerium etc."
Dei ministerium, spiritualia exercitia et
charitatis opera, et nominatim per puerorum
ac rudium in christianismo institutionem,
ad christifidelium in confessionibus audien-
dis spiritualem consolationem praecipue
138 Jesuit Educational Quarterly for January 1949
quality provided for in Part IV of the Constitutiones, whereby every
college was left free to make the rules and regulations that best suited its
own circumstances of personnel and locale. These variations, however, had
to follow in principle the rules established for the Roman College in so
far as this was feasible, since the latter was meant to serve as a model for
all the others. 21 "With experience and with the modifications suggested by
use, it would be possible in time, adds St. Ignatius, to outline a more
general and uniform statute.' 22 '
There had been plans of study aplenty before the definitive edition of
the Ratio Studiorum appeared. The Constitutions laid down the basic
foundation for studies, the make-up of college faculties and curricula,
but stated nothing specifically with regard to the theatre. 23 That the idea
of public exhibitions as a pedagogical means of stirring up interest
occurred to St. Ignatius in those early days of Jesuit education, cannot
be doubted. In 15 56 he sent a memorandum to Polanco regarding the
college of Ingolstadt, which read:
Si accetteranno nelle schuole ogni sorte de persone, che vogliano
servar la modestia et disciplina conveniente, et per animarli piu,
et consolarli et anche li parente loro, fra Panno alcune volte si
faranno pronunciare alcune orationi, et versi, et dialogi, al modo
di Roma, del che etiam crescera Pautorita della schuola. 24
Just what these "dialogi al modo di Roma," "dialogues in the Roman
manner," were is somewhat sketchily outlined for us in one of the
Epistolae written to Ignatius by Polanco in the previous year, 15 55.
Polanco was in Rome at that time, and he summed up the substance of
the "dialogus" as a piece which "actus est a pueris qui in collegio nostro
instituntur . . . iucundissimo utilissimoque argumento, et actus duabus
horis . . . " 25 From this it can be deduced that the "dialogus" was just what
In addition to Father FarrelPs The Jesuit Code of Liberal Education, two of the best
treatises on this question of the origin and development of the Ratio Studiorum are to
be found in the articles of Alban J. Goodier, S.J., "The Society of Jesus and Education,"
The Month, CVTII (1906), 457-470, 585-600; CIX (1907), 8-23, 136-150, 391-406;
CX (1907), 270-284, and of the Mario Barbera, S.J., series on "La Ratio Studiorum,"
Civiltd Cattolica, XC (1939), I, 428-436; II, 135-145; III, 405-413; IV, 163-171;
XCI (1940), I, 116-122; 362-369.
21 Cf. MHSI, Const., Pars. IV, c. 7, n. 2, Declaratio C.
22 Ibid., c. 13, Declaratio A. The future Ratio studiorum.
23 See MHSI, Constitutiones, Pars. IV, cc. 1-17. For a more thorough treatment, cf.
Farrell, S.J., op. cit., pp. 142-149.
24 Pachtler, S.J., op. cit., Ill, 472. See also Epistolae et instructiones, X, 421.
25 MHSI, Monumenta Ignatiana, epistolae et instructiones, X, 421.
"Our schools will accept persons from every walk of life provided they wish to observe
modesty and ordinary discipline. And in order to arouse their enthusiasm a little more
and to give them and even their parents a little consolation, let them present, several
times a year, a public recitation of orations, verses, and dialogues in the Roman manner,
whereat even the good standing of the school will be increased."
Jesuit Education and the Jesuit Theatre
its name implied: a rudimentary form of drama in which a simple fact
or incident was discussed or portrayed by two or more alternating
speakers. The argument, lasting about two hours, was intended to be
pleasing but it also had to be instructive, for the Jesuits subordinated
always the "art for art's sake" aesthetic to the moral values involved in
educating a man for his ultimate destiny.
Thus, the "dialogus," was the door through which drama entered the
Jesuit college. By 1566 Rome was sending out similar memoranda in
which the instructions specified "... habeantur orationes latinae, graecae
et habraicae, et recitetur dialogus, tragoedia aliqua vel comoedia . . . " 28
The simple "dialogus" had been formally expanded into "tragoedia aliqua
The appointment of Father Ledesma by Lainez to prepare a plan of
studies for the Roman College, resulted in the De ratione et ordine
studiorum Collegii Komani, a document whose inception goes back to the
preliminary and experimental plans worked out between 1560 and 1570
by Fathers Perpinian and Nadal, and the other members of the various
committees that worked under Ledesma's direction, but which the director
himself did not live to see completed. 27 Among the rules for teaching,
holding repetitions and recitations, there appeared a section entitled, "De
dialogis, comoediis seu tragoediis exhibendis." 28 Herein certain definite
rules for the management of dramatics were outlined officially for the
first time. Plays were to be given only once a year either in the college
itself, in a church, or even in a theatre, if there happened to be one
In the Roman College they were to be produced only once a year, at
the opening of studies. However, in the German College, it was decided
to present their single play at Carnival time. 29 This occasion was chosen
in order to keep the students under a careful tutorial eye during a season
of bacchanalian festivity. The plays, of course, were to be edifying,
usually with a strong moral lesson attached, and were not to treat of
mythical subjects, i.e., were not to personify the gods and, a fortiori, the
goddesses; the same held for demons and spirits of the nether world.
Females and female costumes were to be eschewed, but if such costume
were needed to represent "religio, acclesia, virtus et similes," the actors
were to play the part in a cassock, "non vero muliebri veste, praesertim
caput aut pectus, cum experientia ostendat nocere spectatoribus et
Pachtler, S.J., op. cit., "Gubernatio Collegii Romani," I, 194.
See MHSI, Monumenta paedagogica, pp. 150, 141-149; 150-163.
The full text is contained in MHSI, Monumenta Paedagogica, pp. 372-373.
See MHSI, Monumenta paedagogica, pp. 372, 373.
Jesuit Educational Quarterly for January 1949
actoribus quoque ipsis." Both costuming and scenery were to be simple
and moderate rather than excessively elaborate. 250
The first Ratio of 15 86 prescribed definitely that the Provincial super-
vise the theatre in Jesuit colleges, imposing upon him the command that
he should permit the performance of comedies and tragedies but on very
rare occasions, and even then he was to see to it that they were recited
only in Latin and after strict censorship — necessited, no doubt, by the
low state of the Renaissance theatre then in Italy. 31 Yet the same docu-
ment states, somewhat coyly it seems, that plays are a help in winning
the favor of parents to the Society, since the latter are made so proud by
watching their offspring perform in public. The same lengthy comment
now takes care that the work of producing the play be divided in order
to save the health of the author, a clear reference to the fact that Jesuits
had been writing their own plays for production. It also suggests very
wisely that eclogues, dialogues and detached scenes should be put on in
the Humanities classes in order to keep the boys in practice and most of
all because without this practice, "... poesis pene omnis friget ac
In 1591, a second Ratio, now known as the Ratio intermedia, came off
the presses of the Collegio Romano. It was the last step towards a defini-
tive plan of studies that was to come into being eight years later. In it,
a chapter on the "incitamenta studiorum" directs that plays be offered
at the end of the year to celebrate the occasion of the distribution of
prizes. This meant that plays could be held twice a year, once at the
opening of school and again at the closing. Here again, a constant contact
with the drama is recommended, and again the reason is because "friget
enim poesis sine Theatro." This document is noteworthy for two things:
the first is that together with the usual admonition against female
characters and female attire, it added the hitherto unspoken admonition
forbidding even the attendance of women at the plays. "Neque quo vero
loco dramata exhibentur, aditus sit mulieribus." 33 The second appears
in two later chapters entitled "Scholarum adiumenta," and "Scribendi
certamen," in which an exception is made to permit womanly dress, if
the director should deem such costume necessary. 34
The definitive Ratio Studiorum of 1599 ascribes to the Rectors of
31 "Regulae P. Provincialis," n. 58, in Ratio atqne institutio studiorum per sex patrei
ad id iussu R. P. Praepositi Generalis deputatos conscripta, Romae, in Collegio Societatis
Iesu, Anno Domini MDLXXVI, quoted in Pachtler, S.J., op. cit., I, 129.
32 The official document is quoted in Corcoran, S.J., Renatae litterae, Dublin, 1927,
33 Ratio atque institutio studiorum, Romae, in Collegio Societatis Iesu, Anno Domini
MDXCI, also cited in T. Corcoran, S.J., op. cit., p. 19 5.
3 < Ibid., pp. 202-203, 214.
Jesuit Education and the Jesuit Theatre
Colleges the same rule that was formerly directed to the Provincial in the
first Ratio?* By this time, dramatic recitation had become a definite part
of the curriculum for the Academies of Rheotoric and Humanities. This
is the most concise of the three Ratio's and it withdraws the exceptional
authorization of feminine accoutrement made above when it states simply,
. . . nec persona ulla muliebris vel habitus introducatur." 36
The Ratio used today with certain modifications, was published in
1832. In it, the last rule is entirely omitted. In its place there is added
an admonition to the Rector that he take care to put in his library a copy
of all publications of Jesuit authorship including plays. 37 Otherwise, the
dramatic recitation preceding the distribution of prizes continued to hold
its place in Jesuit scholastic custom. 38
The documents just under consideration have been, for the most part,
of the official, inviolable type, applying to the Society in every part of
the world, to every college run by the Society and to every superior in
the Society. As time went by, Generals and their vicars were forced by
circumstances to make a special interpretation of a rule or to define it
more accurately for the sake of some peculiar situation arising in one or
other of the colleges under their care.
Thus Father General Everard Mercurian in 1577 insisted on the rule
concerning the rarity with which tragedies and comedies were to be
presented, and then he added that an exception might always be made if
the ruler of a country should request such a production of one of the
colleges in his domain. 39 Then in 1602, Father General Claudius Aquaviva
allowed exception to the rule forbidding the impersonation of female
characters, but with this condition that the ladies represented be
"gravesque et modestae." 40
Drama was definitely permitted in the vernacular by 1829 when a
prescription was sent out from Rome stating that it was far simpler to
preserve the laws of decorum in the vernacular rather than in Latin
because of the times, and the fear of popular odium. 41 However it must be
35 See Pachtler, S.J., op. cit., II, 272.
36 Pachtler, S.J., op. cit., II, 272.
37 "Servandum curet Rector quod est in regulis Praefecti bibliothecae de referendis
in codicem his rebus, quae publice exhibentur, scribunturque in Collegio 6eu extra
Collegium a nostris, i.e. dialogis, oratonibus, versibus et aliis hujusmodi ..." Pachtler,
S.J., op. cit., II, 272.
38 Ibid., II, 366.
39 si tamen Principes aliquando serio urgeant, poterit Provincialis uti epicea
(leni indulgentia) Pachtler, S.J., op. cit., I, 274.
40 C. Aquaviva, S.J., Proposita circa rationem studiorum, in Pachtler, S.J., op. cit.,
41 The phrase used is "alioquin in odium abolitionis incidimus." See De ration e
studiorum nostris temporibus accomodanda Annotationes, ibid., IV, 3 87-3 88. This was
sent out in 1829 as a preliminary to the formation of the new Ratio of 1832. Cf. also
142 Jesuit Educational Quarterly for January 1949
realized that such plays had appeared, and with at least the silent appro-
bation of Rome, long before this date. 42
While this fluctuation in the rules was taking place, a gradual but
constant growth carried the Jesuit theatre to greater heights on the Con-
tinent during the Eighteenth Century. There are extant notices of
tremendous pageants, of stage scenery weighing tons, of forests imitated
in perspective, of a hundred palaces aflame, reduced to smoke and ashes,
machines for deities to descend and disappear into clouds, of a saint
coming down from heaven and setting fire to a chateau filled with
Felix Hemon reviewing Boysse's book on the Jesuit Theatre, emphasizes
that the stage equipment at the college of Louis-le-Grand was greater
and more complete than that of the Comedie Franchise; that one play
alone required a wardrobe of 203 costumes. 44 The German Province had
been producing monster pageants as early as 1600. Father Duhr quotes
Es Ziehen in den verschiedenen Teilen des Zuges alle handelnden
Personen auf, ferner Riesen, Juden, 160 gerustete deutsche und 130
apanische Pferde, 230 gerustete Mannen zu Fuss, Trommler,
Pfeifer, Triumphwagen, Schlitten, Teufel, Menschen mit Lowen-
kopfen, Neptun, ein Elefant mit Mohren, wilde Manner, Delphine,
ein Tiger, ein Wolf, ein Lindwurm, den zwei Jungfrauen fuhren,
Gotzendiener, Jager, ein Wagen mit Werwundeten, Janitscharen,
artilleria mit ihren Pyxenmaistern, Zauberer, Henker, Liktoren
The natural reaction to such elaborate excess was an effort towards
moderation as expressed in the Ratio of 1832. Once again the law against
"persona muliebris vel habitus," was promulgated, and together with it
a whole list of anathematized representations, such as demons, wanton
boys, drunkards, gamesters, speakers of impiety, dances, and spectacles of
42 Giovanni Granelli, S.J., and Saverio Battinelli, S.J., published their tragedies in
the "volgare" in 1761 and in 1788 respectively, to mention only two of the better known
Italian Jesuit authors.
43 See E. Boysse, Le theatre des Jesuites, Paris, Vaton, 1880, p. 142. Cf. also L. V.
Gofflot, Le theatre an college, Paris, Champion, 1907, p. 97, and Lee Simonson, The
stage is set, New York, Harcourt Brace, 1932, pp. 199-204. Renee Fiilop-Miller, Macbt
und Geheimnis der Jesuiten, Leipzig, Grethlein, 1929, pp. 469-474, tells of a pageant
in Munich (1575) in which four hundred horsemen in Roman armor appeared;
apparitions achieved by use of the magic lantern appeared, and he holds that the Jesuit
Father Kircher was one of the first to experiment with this device.
44 Felix Hemon, "Le comedie chez Jesuites," Revue Politique et Litteraire, XI (1879),
529-534; XII (1880), 867-874.
45 Bernard Duhr, S.J., Geschichte des Jesuiten in den Ldndern deutscber Zunge, 4
vols., Freiburg im Breisgau, Herder, 1907, I, 345. "In the various parts of the pro-
cession there marched all kinds of characters, strange giants, Jews, 160 German and 130
Jesuit Education and the Jesuit Theatre
the shades from the nether world. Magic fire and certain types of guns
referred to in the Jesuit epistolary Latin as "displosae fistulae," gladia-
torial combat and exhibitions, all diversions of arms, were absolutely
forbidden — unless the superior permitted their use for some grave
It seems though, that the magnitude and importance of such a theatre
had been perceived within the Society long before the dramas had reached
their apogee before the public of the Eighteenth Century. Evidences are
found in the prescription that the "Decanum" be put in charge of the
dressing and costume rooms, which must have been quite large affairs
since he received explicit instructions as to how he should keep his books.
Bearing the responsibility for all the valuables therein, he was obliged to
make a duplicate list of all the properties used, especially those "quae
pretiosiora sunt," and he was to see to it that nothing went out of the
property room without the permission of the Rector. It was his duty also
to make sure that whatever went out of the room was returned in good
The pageantry and spectacle together with the increasing size of the
theatrical equipment bespeaks a drama whose running time was exceed-
ingly long. As early as 1593 (before the final and definitive Ratio
appeared) , colleges had been warned not to bore the audience with these
excessively extended presentations. Rome advised cutting down on the
running time of all public performances, and in order that there be
moderation in all things, a golden mean was prescribed that limited
Comedies to a mere four hours playing time, and dialogues, briefest of
all dramatic types, were restricted to one or two hours depending upon
the subject. 48 Deans and superiors were also admonished to beware of
putting on too great a show, lest the time, weeks, even months, spent on
the production of a long play, prove to be harmful both to the director
and to his charges, by causing both to neglect their class work. 49
Spanish fully equipped war-horses, 230 footmen fully armed, trumpeters, fifemen,
triumphal chariots, sleigh carriages, devils, men costumed in lion heads, Neptune, an
elephant accompanied by Moors, savages, dolphins, a tiger, a wolf, a dragon reined by
two maidens, idolaters, huntsmen, a carriage laden with the wounded, janissaries, artil-
lery with attendant cannoneers, magicians, executioners, lictors, etc."
46 See De exercitatione extraor dinar ia, 1736, in Pachtler, S.J., op. cit., IV, 143-144.
47 See Liber statutorum facultatis artisticae Ingolstadii recognitus, in Pachtler, S.J.,
op. cit., IV, 274, 344.
48 It was the German Province that received the warning: "Omnino curandum est,
ne longitudino comoediarum et dialogorum spectatoribus molesti simus. Longitudinis
autem videtur comoediis plus satis esse 4 horas; dialogis vero pro ratione materiae una
aut alter." Pachtler, S.J., op. cit., I, 313.
49 "Modus nempe adhibendus in omnibus; neque ita id genus ludis, licet eruditis
maxime atque ad dignitatem Uteris concoliandam perappositis, indulgendum, ut, dum
populari servimus aurae, schlolam interea negligententius geramus." Pachtler, S.J., op. cit.,
Jesuit Educational Quarterly for January 1949
These, then, are the outlines of the size, growth and importance of the
Jesuit Theatre as manifested within the Society itself, and as expressed
in the formal and official documents of the Jesuit archives. 50
It would be well to keep in mind the fact that even at the peak of its
greatest glory, the Eighteenth Century, Jesuit theatre in Italy was never
an end in itself. Be the pageantry and alarums ever so elaborate, the
action ever so vast, Jesuit theatre remained an instrument in the hands
of its masters, a creature to be used "Tantum Quantum" unto the good
of souls. From the very beginning of the Society, Saint Ignatius wanted
only this. In fact, he did not even consider the apostolate of education
until he had caught a glimpse of the vast benefit such a work would
offer to humanity. From the work of education was born the theatre, and
again this would never have been permitted to function by Saint Ignatius,
if he had not realized its value as an aid in achieving the ultimate goal
which was always the salvation of souls. It is one of the sadder facts in
the history of the Jesuit theatre, that the very system which had
engendered it, was forced also to keep it subordinate to a higher end, to
suppress it lest primary purposes be forgotten and what was once a means
become a goal sufficient unto itself. So thorough was this standard kept
that even the skeptical Fulop-Miller was forced to remark on the corre-
spondence between the Jesuit theatre and the "Spiritual Exercises." He
In ganz unverkennbarer Weise entsprechen Tendenz, Stoff,
Dramaturgia und Regie des Jesuitentheaters der von Ignatius in
den Exerzitien vorgezeichneten Hollen-und-Passionsdramatik. Es
ist als hatten die Dramaturgen und Regisseure dieses Theaters
bewusst alles das, was Ignatius in der Phantasie seiner Junger mit
sinnfalliger Ausschaulichkeit zu erwecken gesucht hatte, nunmehr
mit Hilfe von effektvollen Dekorationen, Kostiimen und Maschi-
nieren auf die wirkliche Biihne gestelt. 51
50 Much of this primary material has been derived from Pedro Leturia, S.J., "Perche
la Compagnia di Gesu divenne un Ordine insegnante," Georgorianum, XXI (1940), 3 50-
3 82, and also from Alban J. Goodier, S.J., "The Society of Jesus and education," The
Month, CVIII (1906), 457-470; CIX (1907), 8-23, 136-150, 391-406; CX (1907),
270-284; and Mario Barbera, S.J., "La Ratio Studiorum," Chiltd Cattolica, XC serie
la (1939), 428-436; serie 2a, 135-145. serie 3a, 405-413; serie 4a, 163-171.
51 R. Fulop-Miller, Macht und Geheimnis der Jesuiten, Leipzig, Grethlein, 1929,
pp. 469-470. "In quite an unmistakable manner the purpose, substance, dramaturgy and
management of the Jesuit theatre corresponds with the dramatic technique used by
Ignatius in the Spiritual Exercises on Hell and the Passion. It is as if the dramatists and
producers of this theatre had realized what Ignatius tried to awaken in the imaginations
of his disciples by means of easily perceptible pictures for the mind, and had thenceforth
represented the same on the actual stage with the help of effective decorations, costumes,
props and apparatus."
Jesuit Education and the Jesuit Theatre
For the Jesuit College did not come into being in order to perform the
function of a storehouse of knowledge; but rather to develop the per-
sonality of its charges in a balanced corporal and spiritual completeness.
Learning and knowledge are but the raw materials through which ability
is nurtured and capacity developed and broadened. Studies, the Humani-
ties, the whole classical curriculum, serve only as a basic theory which
must be transferred to practice according to the fullness of every indi-
The Jesuit College theatre, though more limited in scope, stands even
now as it did in its more famous days, an instrument, a means for
educating men to the objective realities of life, to a sense of values, to
standards and norms of action compatible with the greater importance
of the life to come, and like the higher educational system of which it is
an integral part, it has dedicated itself to use, as a means to achieve this
end, together with the Humanities, all the artistic and cultural pursuits.
The Ratio and Self- Activity
Joseph C. Glose, S.J. 1
In his book entitled, The Jesuits and Education, Father McGucken
wrote: "The Ratio Studiorum is neither a pedagogical treatise nor a theory
of education. It merely mirrors, by way of rules, the methods and prac-
tices of Jesuit educational establishments of the sixteenth century." 2 In
a set of notes on the Ratio, Father Farrell expresses a like thought: "The
Ratio was an educational code, i.e., general and particular aims and
principles reduced to a set of rules or prescriptions governing: a) adminis-
tration; b) curricula; c) methodology; d) teaching techniques; e) dis-
ciplinary matters." 3 In his recently published book, The Nature of the
Liberal Arts, Father Wise reiterates these opinions when discussing St.
Ignatius' influence upon the Ratio Studiorum: "The Exercises (of St.
Ignatius) are to be made, not read, and this is the clue to the study of
the Ratio, which emphasizes ends and means as affecting practice, and is
not the exposition of an educational theory, as found for example, in
Newman. But certain principles are stated in the Exercises almost without
interpretation. As for self-activity, the work of the learner is emphasized
above that of the teacher." 4
From these statements two pertinent facts emerge. First of all the
Ratio is not a treatise on education. It is not a speculative or theoretical
discussion of education but, like the Code of Canon Law in Church
discipline, it gives the rules and regulations of Jesuit educational practice.
Yet principles are implicit in the regulations of canon law. The same
must be said for the Ratio. This brings us to the second fact that emerges
from the statements quoted above. Though the Ratio emphasizes ends and
means of affecting practice, certain pedagogical principles are implicit in
the rules of the Ratio. One of these is self -activity or preferably student
That this principle is implicit in the Ratio is clear both from intrinsic
and extrinsic evidence. The principle of self or student activity is written
into the prelection; it is written into the rules for oral and written work.
1 This paper was prepared for and read at the Annual Meeting of the Jesuit Educa-
tional Association, San Francisco, California, March 29, 1948.
2 W"m. J. McGucken, S.J., The Jesuits and Education, Milwaukee, The Bruce Publish-
ing Company, 1932, p. 34.
3 Allan P. Farrell, S.J., Ratio Notes — The Jesuit Code of Liberal Education, An
Outline, p. 2.
4 John E. Wise, S.J., The Nature of the Liberal Arts, Milwaukee, The Bruce Publish-
ing Company, 1947. pp. 120, 121.
The Ratio and Self -Activity
It is the principle which gives point to the honest rivalry so highly recom-
mended in the class room repetitions. It is the principle which sponsors
interest and individual progress in the academies or seminars.
The extrinsic evidence is quite as clear. The makers of the Ratio con-
fessed their dependence upon the Constitutions of the Society drawn up
by St. Ignatius, especially upon the fourth part of the Constitutions*
where the Saint treated education both of Jesuits and externs, and where,
in an explicit statement, he anticipated the preparation of the Ratio.
Now St. Ignatius evidently wrote the fourth part of the Constitutions
with the great educational principles of the Spiritual Exercises uppermost
in his mind. He had learned the value of self -activity as a principle of
self perfection. In the second Annotation of the Spiritual Exercises he
wrote: "He who gives to another the method and order of a meditation
or contemplation ought faithfully to narrate the history of the contem-
plation or meditation, going through the points however only briefly, and
with a short explanation: because when the person who contemplates,
takes the true groundwork of the history, discussing and reasoning by
himself, and meeting with something that makes the history clearer and
better felt (whether this happen through his own reasoning, or through
the enlightenment of his understanding by Divine grace), he thereby
enjoys greater spiritual relish and fruit than if he who gives the exercises
had minutely explained and developed the meaning of the history; for it
is not to know much, but it is to understand and savour the matter
interiorly, that fills and satisfies the soul."
Here the Saint reveals his mind on the subject of self perfection and
the concomitant training process. The nature of the training process is
one of self -education through self -activity. The retreatant with the assist-
ance of Divine grace makes his own conclusions and applications.
This principle, implicit in the Ratio, is all important in training youth.
It is the basis of all learning. Students, for example, will learn to think
reflectively only by going through experiences of reasoning. So much of
school work is apt to be mere repetition of what has been read or heard,
and involves little of real thinking. A student learns through his own
activities or as the Boy Scout manual and the progressive education pro-
gram would put it: "we learn by doing." This is a very ancient truth in
education. Aristotle expressed this truth by saying that the intellect is
perfected by activity. St. Thomas put it this way in his tract, "De
Magistro": "Sicut ergo medicus dicitur causare sanitatem in infirmo
natura operante, ita etiam, homo dicitur causare scientiam in alio
5 Allan P. Farrell, S.J., The Jesuit Code of Liberal Education, Milwaukee, The Bruce
Publishing Company, 193 8, p. 225.
6 Constitutions, IV. 13. 2.
148 Jesuit Educational Quarterly for January 1949
operante rationis naturalis illius; et hoc est docere," 7 Just as the doctor
is said to bring back health to the sick person through the operation of
nature, so also man is said to cause knowledge in another through the
operation of the learner's natural reason; and this is to teach. Father
Cunningham in his book The Pivotal Problems of Education gives a
modern expression of this truth. He quotes a university president as
follows: "A student learns through his own activities, not by being
sprayed with ideas." 9.
All of this sums up to the well known fact that in learning we acquire
intellectual and moral habits which is a most personal process. Each
student must develop his own habits. They are not handed over to him
ready made. He may be pleased or displeased with the intellectual and
moral habits he observes in another. If pleased, he may be tempted to
imitate them, but the imitation, which results in student learning, is the
sole effort of the student. The teacher can at best present patterns for
imitation, he can give plenty of motivation for student activity and he
can demand achievement; but it will be only by co-operating with the
teacher in the last of the three steps that the student will be really
Having refreshed our minds about the top ranking of self-activity in
the process of learning and about its pivotal status in the Ratio, we are
ready to analyze some of the special means of self -activity proposed in
the rules of the Ratio. Since Father Britt devoted a whole paper to the
prelectio, I shall not trespass upon his acreage. 9 My references are taken
from the translation of the Ratio of 1599 found in Edward A. Fitz-
patrick's book, Saint Ignatius and the Ratio Studiorum.
In rule 19 of the Rules Common to Professors of the Lower Classes
mention is made of the exercise of memory. According to this rule,
memory was to be a serious matter. The teacher was to seek out the lazier
ones especially, lest they escape the rigor of the daily lesson and fall
behind in their assignments. The memory lesson was to be cumulative.
The past lesson was to be added to the new lesson and this accumulation
might continue for several weeks depending, I dare say, upon the nature
of the assignment. Occasionally someone was to be chosen to recite a
lengthy piece and at times publicly. For this a reward was to be given.
Memory is an important part of school learning. The rule of the Ratio
tells us how well its makers sensed this fact. To be of value memory train-
ing should include the learning of the spelling of words, the accurate
learning of vocabularies, dates, symbols, formulas, facts and events; the
7 St. Thomas, De Veritate, Quaestio XI, De Maghtro, Articulus Primus.
8 Wm. F. Cunningham, C.S.C., The Pivotal Problems of Education, New York, The
Macmillan Company, 1940, p. 138.
The Ratio and Self -Activity
memorizing of prose and poetry, rules, definitions and principles. These
form the raw material we use in thinking and writing. Unless we insist
upon accuracy and an abundance in memorizing we cannot expect that
automatism which is so helpful in accomplishment. "Memory maketh a
ready man." Abundant memory exercise makes the mind so ready and so
apt in quotation, so sure and sound in statement, so full and so rich in
potency. To take but one example of the worth of memory lessons — the
ready and extensive knowledge of the Bible, common to so many educated
Memory is a self-activity which makes the student more ready and
more thorough in his intellectual habits. And yet it is one of the Ratio
rules which does not always receive as much attention as it should. Some
teachers seek a bare minimum of achievement in this process of learning,
looking upon it as of very minor importance in the training of the
student. Others make no attempt to show the student how to memorize
profitably and with less effort. It is little wonder, then, that we so seldom
find among our students those who can quote at length from the classical
and other authors.
Rules 20-24 (inclusive) of the Rules Common to the Professors of the
Lower Classes give a set of instructions for written work. They apply to
all different types of composition work. They contain some interesting
hints for developing student activity. The composition should be a daily
event, as also should the correction. The method of correction should be
such as will arouse mental activity and reflection on the part of the
student. Mistakes should be corrected publicly as well as privately, and a
revised version of the written exercise should be required. There should be
great variety in the assignments lest monotony kill the ardor of the
student. And lastly, in the special rules proposed for the teachers of the
different classes there is much stress put upon the application of these
written exercises to the acquiring of elegance of style or of familiarity
with the rules of grammar.
All of these points are excellent means of learning. Were the student
compelled to observe them faithfully, there can be no doubt that he
would make great progress. It was this type of student activity which
produced such exceptional results in the early schools of the Society.
There is no better means of developing sound reasoning and cultivated
expression. At present the variety of subjects and the burden of many
assignments makes the task more difficult. Yet it would seem practicable
9 Britt, Laurence V., S.J., "The Prelection Method," Jesuit Educational Quarterly,
Vol. XI, No. 1, pp. 49-57.
10 Fitzpatrick, Edward A., St. Ignatius and the Ratio Studiorum, New York,
McGraw-Hill Book Company, 193 3.
150 Jesuit Educational Quarterly for January 1949
to insist upon all of these elements of self -activity in at least a lesser
degree. There is no good reason for omitting a daily assignment in Latin
composition. It need not be long. Nor is there any reason for omitting
a public correction of this exercise where a discussion of the reasons for
particular forms and expressions can be had. Variety can be secured by
individual teacher effort. Sentences and specimens of continuous discourse
must be worked up anew annually or oftener. Teaching can easily be made
more functional by encouraging the students to assist in formulating
sentences which examplify rules of grammar and points of style. And
what has been said of Latin composition can be applied to all composition
and even in the exercises of other classes. Mathematics, above all other
subjects, lends itself to intensive student activity. Where the teacher of
mathmatics gives plenty of class assignment, and devotes most of his
time to directing the students rather than exhibiting his own knowledge
of the subject, the students grow increasingly interested and successful
in the subject. In this way also the home work of the student can be made
part of the class work. It saves the teacher giving long written assign-
ments to be done at home.
In rule 25 of the Rules Common to the Professors of the Lower Classes
directions are given for the recitation or repetition. I shall touch but
briefly upon this rule though its skillful use shows the master teacher.
Two instructions are important for self -activity. Only the repetition of
the most important and useful points should be asked, and, secondly, the
students should be made to answer in continuous recitation or else in one
interrupted by questions. The aim of the recitation or repetition is not
to seek a photographic report of what the student heard or read. This
would stultify the learning process. The student must be made to sense
that, unless he can answer the guiding questions of the teacher, he is not
grasping the salient parts of the lesson and their integration with the
whole. The teacher must lead him on until the student is moved to see
that there is much matter for thought in the lesson, that he has perhaps
attacked it wrongly, and must correct his way of approaching a lesson,
and above all that in the lesson there is much of beauty and truth which
he missed and now ought acquire. The other instruction helpful to self-
activity is the suggestion of the rule to have the student answer in con-
tinued recitation. Here the teacher treats with the student who wishes
to go off on his own. He gives him free rein and checks him only when
he is leaving the subject or is becoming too verbose. He usually proposes
to such student a topic for discussion and watches the student's progress
in precision of expression and use of vocabulary and particularly in his
reflective thinking. Such a student is always a challenge to the teacher,
but when handled skilfully gives stimulus to the whole class. The recita-
The Ratio and Self -Activity
tion or repetition affords the greatest opportunity for self -activity when
properly used. Teachers should be urged by every means to cultivate this
talent. It is difficult of achievement but pays the highest dividends in
student progress precisely because it gives the greatest play to self-
The contests and public exhibitions explained in rules 31-36 of the
Rules Common to the Professors of the Lower Classes are a sure method
of inciting the students to study and self -activity. The rule tells us that
contests are to be highly esteemed by the teacher and employed as often
as time will permit. The public exhibitions are also declared to be very
useful. However only the well prepared ought to give exhibitions and this
preparation is to be of their own doing. The teacher may correct and
suggest, but the drudgery of accomplishment is to be the task of the
student. Other instructions are given for the contests and the public
exhibitions. They need not be mentioned because they are irrelevant to
our purpose. The points given are sufficient to clarify the position of the
Ratio on these excellent means of motivating boys to study. The rivalry
which is the basis of these rules is ingrained in nature. If it is kept on an
honorable plane, it is the best incentive to learning. Despite the objections
urged against its validity, it has become the common practice in educa-
tional circles over the whole world. Contests and public exhibitions in
every field of learning have become the heritage of modern man. Science,
literature, philosophy offer generous rewards for the merit of accom-
Yet, strange to say, there seems to be a lessening of these practices in
our schools. A few may be encouraged to try for national awards, but
the great bulk of the student body is not given much opportunity to
exercise honest rivalry. What is so valuable in itself and so highly praised
by the Ratio ought not be neglected. The plea of too little time is the
usual excuse. This is hardly justifiable when the results can be so
exceptional. When well organized and well conducted, the "concerta-
tiones" can make the students apply themselves and exercise ingenuity as
no other exercise is able. All of us, at one time or other, have had occasion
to see even college students work and discuss and think as never before
when preparing for one of these contests or public exhibitions. Boys will
go beyond themselves on occasion on the playing field. They will do the
same in the class room and with no harm to their character training
provided they are taught to keep their eyes fixed not on the defeat of an
opponent, but on the possibility of self -improvement and outdoing
At the very end of the Ratio, eight rules are given for Academies of
the Students of Grammar. Of these rules, the last is of the most im-
152 Jesuit Educational Quarterly for January 1949
portance. It reads: "Finally, such exercises should be assigned in sufficient
variety as have besides their utility the additional value of combining
pleasure and interest so that the members of the academy may joyfully
and whole-heartedly draw therefrom a keen interest in their studies."
Note the concluding words: "that the members of the academy may joy-
fully and whole-heartedly draw therefrom a keen interest in their
studies." That is the prime aim of the academy-intellectual activity.
When extra-curricular activities in our high schools are so many and so
varied and so frequently of mere propaganda value, a good academy can
give a fine intellectual tone to a school. For here the more talented students
give time and energy to deepen their knowldge of a subject and acquire
scholarly habits of oral and written expression. It is a place to encourage
initiative in intellectual life and exactitude in study. In the academies
the students are expected to discuss the work of their confreres with sure-
ness and elegance. As a result, members of academies invariably find
themselves doing better work in the class room. It is only natural that
this esteem for study inculcated in the academy should find its outlet
in the class assignments. And what is best of all, this spirit of intellectual
interest gradually comes to be the pride of the school.
What a fertile field for student endeavor! It needs, however, much
more cultivation than we seem to be giving it. Perhaps this is where
courage and the teacher's self -activity is most in demand. While pre-
paring this paper I found myself examining my conscience and noting
my deficiencies in encouraging the Ratio's techniques for promoting intel-
lectual self -activity among the high school students. I wonder if all the
Principals and all the teachers in the high schools might not likewise
make a profitable examination of conscience on this topic.
The Place of Letters in Liberal
Report of the Commission on Liberal Education
of the Association of American Colleges
Literature, by its nature, has always been at the centre of liberal
education. In the mid-twentieth century, when the individual and so-
ciety are alike in crisis, the study of literature has become not less but
We mean by literature the great stories, plays, and poems that reveal
human nature and give meaning to experience, that give notable ex-
pression to men's varied responses to the world. Many expository writ-
ings (e.g., biography, history, essays), when they are not merely and
coldly factual, and when their form is an intrinsic part of their value,
are also literature.
The study of literature is central to liberal education because:
1. Reading is an almost universal source of pleasure. The enjoyment
of some reading (magazine fiction, detective stories, popular novels,
and. the like) requires no study; but for the full enjoyment of the best
literature of all epochs, study is necessary.
2. Literature arrests the rapid flow of experience, holds it up for
contemplation and understanding. It removes us momentarily to new
worlds, and returns us to the familiar with fresh awareness. What
was ours becomes more ours, and we recognize the familar for the first
time. Literature reveals the complexity of human character — the work-
ing of desires and motives, the traits in which men are alike and different.
It explores the meaning of men's relations to one another; it reveals the
connection of character and destiny.
3. Literature makes real the continuity of past with present by help-
ing to explain the societies that have existed at any time and how they
came to be.
4. In showing forth the various kinds of life, evil as well as heroic,
1 Reprinted from Association of American Colleges Bulletin, Vol. XXXIII, No. 4,
p. 692-697 (Dec. 19*7).
Editor's Note: Because of the special interest of this report to Jesuit educators we
have reprinted it here and asked Dr. Hamm, a guest of the Commission, to relate
M>me of his impressions.
154 Jesuit Educational Quarterly for January 1949
literature reveals the moral problems and meanings of experience. It
therefore acquaints the student with moral choice and the consequence
of action. Proper teaching, of literature should create in the student
a resistance on the one hand, to corrosive cynicism, and on the other,
to narrow and unenlightened fanaticism. It should make him aware
of the variety as well as the constancy of moral responses to experience.
The full understanding of a piece of literature entails the commitment
of one's affections and sometimes even one's beliefs, and thus the effect
of the intensive study of literature should be growth in the extent and
clarity of one's allegiances. So literary study, both secular and religious,
provides* moral enlightenment by making more elaborate and more firm
the understanding of what it is to be human.
"Literature" does not mean merely literature in the English language.
Its study therefore involves the problem of reading either in translation
or in foreign languages. It will often be necessary to use translations.
But this Commission believes that it is of utmost importance for students
to pursue at least one foreign language, ancient or modern, until they
have read some significant literature in that language. Not otherwise
can the larger aims of literary study be achieved. Secondary schools
can render great service by providing for relatively early study of
language, and for fair mastery of a single foreign language, instead of
allowing merely superficial training in more than one language other
Though the remark may sound austere, it is still true that the study
of Greek offers the finest discipline that may be had in literature. This
statement is suggested by the fact that masterpieces of Greek literature
appear to be the largest common element in the "great books" and
Obstacles that hinder our bringing the values of literature into force-
1. Too few teachers are by gift and training competent to teach
literature as it has been described in Part I.
2. The study of literature is a discipline. In all civilized societies,
it has been honored as one. Directors of our public schools show an
increasing tendency to ignore this fact. As a result, too many students
are poorly equipped, both in use of language and in capacity to read,
The Place of Letters in Liberal Education
either for collegiate study of literature or for their own adult life.
They turn away, therefore, from literature, to the kind of writing which
is merely commercialized entertainment. In the opinion of this Com-
mission, the chief responsibility for this situation belongs with those
who direct and administer the system of secondary education and who
have too readily accepted educational theories which make of literature
something other than itself. The sentimental idea that literature is first
and last a dreamland of desire has led many school administrators, under
the impression that they are being progressive, to permit the old-
fashioned hard work of grammar, language and letters to be displaced
by* an elaborate picnic of adolescent emotions. Many a school board
and school superintendent will agree that preparation for science means
hard work in mathematics but are unwilling to admit that the com-
parable disciplines of literature — grammar and language — are necessary
to a liberal education. The conception of letters has deteriorated at all
levels — among teachers, parents, the general public. Many school offi-
cials find it especially easy to give in to the popular distaste for hard
work, since to neglect the subtle and difficult disciplines of literature
constitutes an economy in the budget. Something similar is true of
college and university presidents. It is the opinion of the Commission
that if more school and college administrators knew the importance
of literary understanding to individual and group life they would see
to it that human and financial resources are made available for the
3. Our society is preoccupied with activities that obscure, and in
effect deny, the importance of knowing and understanding letters. This
unhappy situation arises partly from technology's promise of great physi-
cal comfort, partly from the material rewards most esteemed in a ma-
terialistic society, and partly from the dangers of our time that seem
to demand immediate and material solution. Young people therefore
take inordinate interest in what they think is practical study, failing
to realize that self-knowledge, which is indispensable to the most practical
judgments, is the highest practicality. It has been said, with painful
truth, that for many college graduates liberal education ends on Com-
In colleges and in schools, some able teachers are doing admirable work.
They deserve support and encouragement, for their task is made extreme-
ly and needlessly difficult by the low esteem in which it is widely held.
The popular imagination, captivated by achievements more spectacular
than those of the teacher of literature, frequently regards him and his
subject as inconsequential luxuries.
Jesuit Educational Quarterly for January 1949
The faults in the teaching of literature and in the training of its
teachers are the same. We believe that the present training of teachers
of literature is ill calculated to produce the kind of teacher needed for
the attainment of the ends proposed in this report. We do not, how-
ever, propose a teaching degree nor any change intended simply to make
for better teaching. We believe that once the problem of sound training
for scholarship has been solved, the problem of sound preparation for
teaching will have been solved. Fundamental progress will not- be pos-
sible until preoccupation with mere historical processes has been cor-
rected by the development of a well-rounded scholarship, including
education in reading poetry, in the theory and practice of criticism,
and practice in imaginative writing as well. For the attainment of
this end, we recommend some discipline in fine arts, philosophy, and
music. Too often the student is left to consider meanings all alone
by himself and never in class. Meaning should not be an extra-curricular
activity. Graduate schools must arouse in their students a sense of
literature being read and written both in the present and in the past
and a lively interest in teaching how to read and write. Once such
an interest is generated, the present gap between high school and college
teaching will begin to close.
Despite the deterrents to its proper study, literature is of first im-
portance in twentieth century American education. Ours, we are re-
minded, is a mass age; people are living and thinking in standardized
fashion. Military censors observed during the war that all American
soldiers wrote the same letters. In peace, not less than in war, the mass
attitudes of a highly complicated society persist. The idea of the de-
clining importance of the individual, already widespread in political
and economic thought, is gaining acceptance in educational theory.
The effect of many well-meant reforms in education during the first
half of the century has been to magnify the importance of social wel-
fare and efficiency and to minimize that of the individual. Attention
to the group welfare has brought ways of thinking and teaching that
deprive young people of the conceptions that mature the individual.
These conceptions are best conveyed by the great and lasting stories.
They are best communicated by words. Understanding of self and of
society grows through many stages of aesthetic and ethical importance
from Mother Goose to Sophocles and Shakespeare. In a period of tech-
nological prodigies and of economic complexity, the crucial problem of
The Place of Letters in Liberal Education
education is to sustain and develop the individual. If social and economic
welfare are realized, we are told, the individual can take care of him-
self. It is at least equally true that if an adequate numbei of individuals
are unusually elevated, society can take care of itself. Education must
be concerned both with man and with society. Its purpose must be
to create a community of persons, not a mere aggregation of people.
The distinctive value of literature is that it enables one to share intensely
and imaginatively the rich, varied experience of men of all ages who
have been confronted with human problems and conditions of life com-
mon to men. It thereby leads to self -discovery and self-realization.
To the unprecedented leisure which people now enjoy our society offers
an enormous volume of entertainment. Much of that entertainment —
the motion picture, the radio, periodicals, and books — is meagre, vulgar,
and meretricious. Its primary effect is the debasement of taste, the
creation of false standards of value, the blunting of the capacity to
find strength and happiness in the ordinary course of life. Literature
is public property; it can become a common body of experience. Its
effective use in schools and colleges will certainly, though slowly, be
followed by an elevation of public taste. The radio, motion pictures,
and television cannot exploit their latent artistic capacities until genuine
literary discernment is much more widespread in society that at present.
This era of triumphant technology provides abundant means for better
material living; it poses, perhaps more acutely than ever before, the
problems of ends and values. Many men are bewildered. Modern youth,
it has been said, are moved not by ambition but by anxiety. The great
stories re-create powerful examples of human thought and conduct —
show principles in action. There, the abstractions of philosophy become
concrete and pertinent. The ends of life are their primary consideration,
the values of experience, their essential matter. Literature has always
been a powerful force for illuminating our true nature and for in-
fluencing men in their separate and their social lives. Its study was
never more necessary to education than now.
Notes on the Commission's
Victor M. Hamm, Ph.D.
In the comfortable Princeton Inn, surrounded by the pleasant fields
and splendid buildings of the Princeton campus, the embattled human-
ists sat and pondered the plight of the humanities. We had gathered
from all parts of the country, including California at the other end,
to discuss the meaning and place of literature in the college.
We are all united on fundamentals (though not on the ultimate
issues), and had accordingly to spend little time convincing one another
of the dignity of literature and its important place in education. It
was rather on the precise nature of that dignity and that place that
there was some debate. The ghost of Matthew Arnold hovered in the
backrgound, and his name was even mentioned once or twice. (Indeed,
Professor Trilling of Columbia University, perhaps the authority on
Arnold in this country, was present and vocal.) No one quoted Arnold's
remark that "most of what now passes for religion and philosophy will
be replaced by poetry," and perhaps no one there thought so, but it
was difficult for some of us to keep others of us from making literature
in effect a substitute for the old philosophical and theological disciplines.
The Puritan emphasis on individual morality, together with the deli-
quescence of Protestant theology, both dominant factors in the intel-
lectual climate of most American colleges, inclined many to the opinion
that literature constituted the school of morals. (Mother Madaleva
made her presence felt in this connection and helped to define the re-
lation between literature on the one hand and religion and ethics on
the other.) The purely aesthetic approach to literature as an art of
rhythm and imagery rather than a human discipline had few pro-
ponents. Mr. Robert Hillyer stands out in my recollection of this part
of the discussion. It seemed to me that his poet's approach to the sub-
ject did not get a fair hearing. We were all educators, and tended to
think of letters only or at least predominantly in their educational aspect.
Well, that was the purpose of the meeting. We were after all not trying
to define literature as such.
Part I summarizes our conclusions on the general topic of the nature
and educative powers of literature, emphasizing its centrality among the
Note* on the Com mission's Report
instrumentalities of culture on five counts: aesthetic, intellectual, psy-
chological, sociological, and moral. The order is significant.
The narrow view of literary studies as exclusively English studies
came next for discussion. It was felt that a broader base was required.
Professor Foerster's explicit plea in favor of Greek was, however, by
some considered impractical. It is true that Greek, both as a language
and as a literature, is, absolutely considered, the principium et fons of
humane letters, yet practical considerations might suggest the substitu-
tion of Latin in its place at this time of few Greek scholars and of
the virtual unavailability of students prepared in the elements of this
subject. The general feeling that the study of English literature alone
would provincialize culture and that a smattering of modern languages
is a waste of time should encourage our conviction that the classical
languages deserve a pivotal place in liberal education. Part II expresses
the group's consideration of this aspect of the discussion.
We came, then, to the matter of implementing our principles. Parts
III and IV are devoted to a critique of contemporary educational ob-
jectives and methods. Our statement on the obstacles that hinder bring-
ing the values of literature into forceful operation in the schools would,
it was realized, irritate some educators, particularly in secondary and
teacher- training school. (It has already provoked dissenting opinions.)
However, it seemed impossible and disingenuous to avoid stating the
case as all of us without exception saw it; Here in fact, in incompetent
teachers and indifferent or even hostile school administrators, are the
concrete obstacles to making effective the report of the Commission.
The Zeitgeist conditions and reinforces the depreciation of letters; our
sensate and technological culture is unwilling and unable to understand
the view that literature is one of the central and indispensable humane
disciplines. It is significant that the Report devotes two of its five
sections to this phase of the problem.
Part V, stressing the role of literature in the development of the
human individual, the person totus, teres atque rotundus, will strike a
sympathetic chord in the souls of all Jesuit and Jesuit-trained teachers
and readers. The reiteration of the ethical and generally humanizing
power of letters, at the end of the Report, indicates the emphasis
•throughout the entire discussion. A sounder and solider philosophy of
education than some of us dared hope for inspired the conduct of the
sessions. Here it is appropriate and agreeable to pay tribute to the
genuine Christian humanism of the chairman of the Commission, Presi-
dent Chalmers of Kenyon College, who kept the ends of the meeting
firmly before us throughout the two days. No more understanding
160 Jesuit Educational Quarterly for January 1949
and able pilot could have been found for the specific purposes of the
To most of us, I dare say, there was nothing novel in the conclusions
to which we came, but we had at least been given the opportunity to
come together and declare our faith in a body, and we found in this
agreement an access of conviction in our educational principles.
Whether a report such as that which emerged can really influence
the future of the humanities in our high schools, colleges, and graduate
schools, is another matter. Whether the declaration of humane prin-
ciples can energize education without a deeper probing into the meaning
of life and the end of man and an agreement not alone on fundamentals
but on the ultimates, that is the question. Some of us are more than
skeptical. Meanwhile the technological Juggernaut rolls on and the
forces of tyranny gather menacing strength, and we are actively plan-
ning ways and means of fleeing the terror to come. Humanism, it
seems clear, is not enough.
Guidance at Scranton Prep
John F. Lenny, S.J.
The remarks on guidance that follow have not been written by a master
in this field. If special courses, summaries of studies and questionnaires,
wide reading in the field and production of brochures make an expert in
this particular phase of secondary education, then the writer does not
qualify even as one of those quasi-specialists of Denver fame. Some
unregenerate soul might bravely question the necessity of such a quasi-
specialist. Some other gentleman with really amazing courage might even
rebel at making our schools just one more departmentalized and experi-
mental station along the testing highway. These are interesting and very
debatable points but this article simply presents one school's efforts to
help its pupils. There is no claim, even veiled, that Scranton Prep is
superior in this area. This is just a presentation of facts.
It might be well to begin with our idea of guidance. The secondary
school pupil comes to us a child and leaves a young man. He is a groping,
stumbling individual who needs and wants guidance in the free choices
that are a consequence of our divinely-bestowed freedom and that deter-
mine our ultimate end. Guidance then is the assistance given to the pupil
to enable him to choose correctly and intelligently. Guidance is not dicta-
tion — it is assistance. The child does the choosing — the counselor does
not. Guidance is a deeply spiritual thing, alive with spiritual principles.
Correct choice only comes when inordination is removed as an influencing
motive in the election of an alternative. The guidance counselor assists
in removing the inordination of the adolescent; inordination that is born
of awakening passions, appalling (as we view it) ignorance, instability
of purpose or insufficiency of reflection. The function of the counselor
is primarily and fundamentally to assist the pupil to make an ordered and
A simple division of guidance would be into occupational, educational
and moral. It is evident that these divisions overlap and a Counselor deals
with a living individual whose motives and actions are complex. At
Scranton Prep we follow the above division simply for clarity's sake. It
affords an opportunity for a distinct presentation of the problems under
each heading. It also seems to assure at least a brief glance over the whole
field and its connecting links.
Before narrating our efforts, it might be well to present a few
cautionary remarks. First of all, Scranton Prep is a small school and what
162 Jesuit Educational Quarterly for January 1949
is possible here may not be feasible elsewhere. Secondly, the problem of
vocational and educational guidance is not quite as complicated as might
at first appear. Of last year's graduating class (our first) 92% went on
to College. This year will probably show a similar proportion. Hence
vocational and educational guidance is rather circumscribed in extent.
The urgent problem of job-getting doesn't have an immediate impact
on the student. The outlook is rather toward the choice of further educa-
tional preparation for a subsequent remunerative opportunity in a certain
general field. This fact, of course, renders comparatively useless several
excellent monographs on various jobs. Thirdly, in contrast to much expert
opinion, we don't even begin to think that we can line up our pupils
and after a series of tests and interviews pick out for them their exact
peg in life. Finally, we don't like the name, guidance. It seems to savor
too much of leading-by-hand and professional uplift efforts. Actually, I
suppose, very little can be done about terminology except to wince when
you use it.
Division is an old rhetorical device so we will divide our remarks into
two sections. The first part will deal with the general Guidance offered
to each boy as he plods through the course. Every school more or less
follows this pattern. Our second part will present what may or may not
be unique in our program — the Guidance Period.
The best way to present the over-all picture appears to be a summary
of the facts. In passing it might be apropos to note that everything is
really done with a purpose. Nothing is done just to say it has been done.
This might be unique. Glancing over six pages of mimeographed notes
on our Guidance Program (given to each teacher), our little student
knowingly or unknowingly will go through the following steps. Before
entrance he and his parents usually come in for a talk with the Head-
master. After qualifying for entrance through the medium of three
exams, an I.Q., an English and Arithmetic test (these last two not
standardized), our lad enters his first class. Each year soon after school
opens he has an interview with the Headmaster to discuss studies and
participation in extra-curricular activities. Membership in the Honor
Society is immediately presented to him as an objective of his four years'
work. In the second semester of each year he fills out an activity and
and informational blank which includes discussion of his vocational and
educational plans. It is hoped, perhaps naively, that this will make the
young man give some serious thought to his future right from his early
days. Each year as the choice of Greek and a modern language comes up,
personal interviews follow the general presentation of the question. In
fourth year a special effort is made to set the boy's mind on his future.
Three distinct talks are given early in the year, one on the Priesthood, one
Guidance at Scranton Prep
on Marriage and one on Colleges and Catholic Colleges. These are followed
by two tests, the A.C.E. Psychological Examination for high school
seniors and the Kuder Preference Record. At least two personal interviews
are held with each senior during this time. The results of these tests
togther with the record of his vocational and educational choices through-
out his four years in addition to his recorded I.Q. in first and third years,
present a fair picture of the boy, his desires, and capabilities. The head of
the Federal Employment Bureau comes in to explain the many functions
of his office and the local opportunities. This session is followed by a
series of talks by representative professional and business men, ranging
through teaching, medicine, law, engineering, social service, salesmanship,
and other fields. Special follow-up tests are given in particular areas when
this seems indicated by the results of the previous tests.
All through his four years a systematic effort is made to check on the
boy's scholastic progress. Marks are given ten times a year and 'after each
marking period a boy who has failed in any subject is interviewed by the
Headmaster. Causes are examined and remedies sought. Each teacher must
hand in a slip for each failure explaining its causes and the remedies
attempted. These slips are then mailed home. Follow-up work is continued
through the monthly meetings of the Mothers' Club (after each report
his been distributed) and through personal letters to parents which are
sent out about four times annually. The Library keeps an up-to-date file
of Catholic college catalogues and has a special section on occupations
and vocations which is constantly brought to the attention of the boys.
The catalogues of non-Catholic colleges are kept in the Headmaster's
In the realm of moral guidance we are particularly fortunate for our
Student Counselor is also the religion lecturer for all classes and thus
comes in normal contact with all the pupils. (Lest someone quibble about
the word "fortunate," it is to be noted that our entire school has only
seven classes.) After studying the confidential questionnaire that each
student fills out for him, the Student Counselor begins his own inter-
views. He sees each boy personally twice a year. Of course he is in charge
of all those spiritual activities so distinctive of Jesuit schools and so essen-
tial in moral guidance, such as Rereats, weekly Confession and Com-
munion, May talks, etc.
Our monthly assemblies (with programs and student direction), our
Student Council, class meetings, class outings, school dances, debating
societies, etc., are all pointed toward that supreme goal of modern educa-
tion: preparation for democratic and meaningful living in a democratic
society. But, to be serious, the real values of these activities. and functions
are stressed and a sincere effort is made to achieve them.
Jesuit Educational Quarterly for January 1949
When I look back over the preceding paragraphs, they just seem a
conglomeration of things that are done in every school. Maybe they are.
Maybe they aren't. But anyone who wishes further information is welcome
to our mimeographed notes on this phase of the program.
All the above items and practices refer to the guidance done by the
Headmaster and the Student Counselor and that guidance which is defi-
nitely aimed at through various activities, which, though perhaps unknown
to the student, are basically planned with these values in mind. However,
the Jesuit system of education is built upon the Class and the Class
Teacher. In practice such a procedure may not be followed. Real hewers
to the letter will tell you that you won't find it in the Ratio. But the
whole deposit of faith isn't in the four Gospels. I have never thought
there is much argument on this point. That may be a rather cavalier
fashion of disposing of objections but at least from the standpoint of
tradition and better practice it seems that our system is predicated on a
Class and a Class Teacher. (At the moment I am only discussing what
we term secondary education in modern America.) The class is a unit of
about twenty boys (in our school), who progress in their studies as a
unit, take the same subjects, take these subjects together and have a real
and intimate life as a class. It is a distinctive and distinguishing feature
of Jesuit education — or was. It is not a home-room, for the class is a
perpetual home -room.
Over this unit, as the chief responsible party, the Jesuit system places
a man known as the Class Teacher. The boys in his class are in a special
way his class, his boys. He takes care of their class functions; he is coach
or moderator of their class teams; he is their main source of help in diffi-
culties. The Headmaster and Student Counselor do not, cannot, and are
not intended to displace this Class Teacher as the guide of the class. His
is the constant and daily job; his is the important work. He meets them
as teacher for at least two periods per day. They know him. He makes
himself a part of their normal school lives. He is the personal, constant,
fatherly guide providentially given to these boys. His is the most essential
task in the whole guidance program for it crosses into all divisions of
the program and embraces all its angles.
"Tempora muntantur" and the changing times are well on the way to
eliminating the most valuable features of our old and remembered Class
Teachers — their moral digressions, their disquisitions on the recreational
and leisure aspects of our lives, refinement and good manners, their
personal direction of our reading, their human interest in us as indi-
viduals and all the other informal but important educative processes that
gave us our bearing for the life of youth and the life of older years.
Though I have my own ideas concerning the causes for this lapse from
Guidance at Scrauton Prep
ancient practice, the fact can scarcely be questioned. To try to regain
some of the vanished glory we originated a Guidance Period. It runs for
fifteen minutes every morning from Monday through Thursday. The
class teacher, of course, is the guiding hand in this period. It is supposed
to be a happy combination of individual and group guidance. Each
teacher is to interview his boys individually at least every six weeks.
Don't immediately conclude that we expect the impossible, that we
envision each lad opening his heart and soul at the teacher's desk. We
don't expect that, nor do we wish it. The real idea behind these personal
interviews is twofold. First of all it forces a teacher to know his pupils
personally. Don't reveal your real naivete by thinking they all do.
Secondly, we hope that the pupil will come to see his teacher as a human
being sincerely interested in him. When real problems come, there is hope
that he will seek this teacher out and find the answer before his problem
becomes a gigantic difficulty. It gives two personalities an opportunity to
meet each other on almost common ground — and discuss the varying
problems that arise at home, in class, and at play.
What is meant by group guidance is rather clear from the term itself.
A long list of topics, far from complete, has been prepared for the
teachers. The list is constantly receiving accretions. Methods of presenta-
tion to the class and ways of accomplishing interested and animated class
participation are studied and discussed. There is no space here to outline
these topics and these methods, but the offer made earlier in this paper
still stands. This brief outline should bring out one point. This writer,
at least, believes in the old Jesuit system with little departmentalization
and much human contact. He believes that boys really hunger for this
personal touch, this manly and fatherly help, this sensible camaraderie
that carves a lad's character and etches his memory for life. The guidance
period is a sincere effort to recapture this old class spirit that gilded the
days of my own youth and that modern practices somehow or other seem
to have rubbed away. Take it, if you wish, as a small rebellion against
standardization and mass education.
Before concluding it might not be amiss to attempt an evaluation of
the strong and weak points of the program as two years of experience
have discovered them.
On the debit side there can be a complaint of too little time. That is
debatable. It is rightly claimed that the program requires intensive prepa-
ration — and this will always be distasteful to some. A lazy man surely
can't operate this class. There must be progression in topics from year
to year. That contention is true and such a progression is being prepared.
The period is used often enough for class meetings and discussion of the
Minutes of the Student Council Meetings. Therefore what? Do you have
166 Jesuit Educational Quarterly for January 1949
to stretch the term to call this good group guidance? Finally on the red
side of the ledger we meet the same stumbling block that falls before our
feet in the question of teaching. All men can't teach. And all men can't
be Guidance Directors. A serious effort is made to choose wisely and until
men become angels (I wonder is that the solution) that is about all that
can be done.
On the good side some excellent points do come into focus. Our whole
reading program has been stepped up. Personal questionings on reading
have uncovered some amazing facts and the teachers have made an
immediate effort to correct the difficulty by proper direction. The movie
problem (and it is a problem) has been honestly and carefully discussed.
The Legion of Decency List is now generally used by the boys. Proper
methods of procedure in teacher-pupil difficulties have been explained
and put into practice. First year boys have found their adjustment to
high school made easy and pleasant. Some scholastic problem cases have
been corrected — but not all. At the close of last year when the option
was given to the teachers of dropping this period, they voted to retain it.
That is the most heartening sign.
All these little benefits are truly but small straws in the wind. There
is nothing conclusive. Maybe there never will be. All that can be claimed
is that a sincere effort is being made to help these boys, to educate them
in the true sense of the word. There will always be a bit more to life than
Latin and Greek.
Enrollment, 1948-1949, Jesuit Colleges and Universities
Full & Pan
College of the Holy Cross
Creighton University, The
John Carroll University
Le Moyne College
Loyola College, Baltimore
Loyola Univ., Chicago
. .E 8,295
Loyola Univ., Los Angeles
Loyola Univ., New Orleans
3 5 0B
St. Joseph's College
St. Louis University
St. Peter's College
Spring Hill College
University of Detroit
UWsity of San Francisco
University of Santa Clara
University of Scranton
J^alsl9 47 _ 1948
in Entire School; B) Estimated; C) Day and Evening Classes Only; D) Includes Corporate Colleges; E) Included in School Enrollments; F) 233 Science Students Included Under "Miscellaneous."
College of the Holy Cross
Creighton University, The
1,3 8 5
John Carroll University
Le Moyne College
Loyola University, Chicago
Loyola University, New Orleans
Loyola University, Los Angeles
St. Joseph's College
St. Louis University
St. Peter's College
Spring Hill College
University of Detroit
University of San Francisco
University of Santa Clara
University of Scranton
Increase or Decrease
Jesuit Educational Association— High School
Bellarmine College Preparatory, San Jose.... 217 163
Bellarmine High School, Tacoma 112 86
Boston College High School, Boston 411 342
Brooklyn Preparatory School, Brooklyn 342 2 57
Campion, Prairie du Chien, Wise 154 124
Canisius High School, Buffalo 272 23 3
Cheverus Classical High School, Portland... 122 72
Cranwell Preparatory School, Lenox 28 29
Creighton University High School, Omaha.. 141 126
Fairfield College Preparatory School, Fairfield 297 248
Fordham Preparatory School, New York. ... 172 1(
Georgetown Preparatory School, Garrett Park 56 44
Gonzaga High School, Spokane 116 123
Gonzaga High School, Washington, D. C. . . 184 121
Jesuit High School, Dallas 72 49
Tesuit High School, New Orleans 209 199
Jesuit High School, Tampa 50 45
Loyola Academy, Chicago 1-91 175
Loyola High School, Towson 165 133
Loyola High School, Los Angeles 228 198
Loyola School, New York 7 24
Marquette High School, Yakima 79 45
Marquette University High School, Milwaukee 207 185
Regis High School, Denver 90 8 6
Regis High School, New York 176 154
Rockhurst High School, Kansas City 83 87
St. Ignatius High School, Chicago 282 236
St. Ignatius High School, Cleveland 267 228
St. Ignatius High School, San Francisco. ... 291 243
St. John's High School, Shreveport 61 36
St. Joseph's College High School, Philadelphia 262 210
St. Louis University High School, St. Louis. . 202 193
St. Peter's College High School, Jersey City. 3 19 2 53
St. Xavier's High School, Cincinnati 164 167
Scranton Preparatory School, Scranton 6 5 34
Seattle Preparatory School, Seattle 116 114
University of Detroit High School, Detroit. . 269 206
Xavier High School, New York 351 357
TOTALS 1948-1949 6,830 5,733
TOTALS 1947-1948 6,831 5,900
DECREASE —1 —167
2 921 985
17 154 153
564 630 -
324 350 -
1 982 991 -
2 93 5 979 -
70 221 242
4 8 54 897 -»]
231 .. 23,632
An Analysis of National Statistics,
Charles M. O'Hara, S.J.
The privilege of making the analysis of enrollment statistics in our
Jesuit schools becomes annually more interesting, and also more compli-
cated. It was easier during the war years. The high schools were in-
creasing in size for reasons that were quite obvious. The colleges were
decreasing for reasons equally obvious. Predictions from year to year
could be made with a goodly measure of probability. Today many more
factors that might affect the total may be seen beforehand, but the sum
total of their impact on the final result can hardly be foreseen.
Perhaps it is best, then, to start with the simple statement of compari-
son of national totals for this year with last year. The high school total
has dropped for the first time since the start of the war from 23,632 to
22,951, a decrease of 681, or 2.46 per cent. This was expected.
The colleges and universities national total has, however, increased.
Last year the national grand total, exclusive of summer sessions, was
96,953. This year the national total has risen over 100,000 for the first
time in history. The figure is 103,902. Thus there are enrolled today
in Jesuit schools in the United States 126,852 students. This is larger
than the 1944 population of Spokane, Washington. The summer session
count is given in the accompanying table and it is anyone's privilege to
estimate how many are not duplicates and might be added to the grand
total. It is hard enough to get duplicates out of the school year enroll-
ment. Incidentally, note quite a drop in summer session undergraduate
The accompanying graph in Diagram 1 may be studied to gain an
idea of the changes in enrollment in the past eight years.
Father William J. Mehok, S.J., the managing editor of the Quarterly,
very kindly compiled the general enrollment charts and the Interpreta-
tive Notes again this year.
As usual, this analysis consists of three parts: I. The High Schools;
II. The Colleges and Universities, and III. Interpretative Notes to the
Jesuit Educational Quarterly for January 1949
I 10 .000
Grand Total All United States Jesuit Schoo/s
Grand Total Co/leges
Student enrollment in the Jesuit colleges, universities, and high schools in the United
States. Grand total in all institutions; grand total in all colleges and universities;
total full-time students in colleges and universities; total high schools.
I. The High Schools
There is a decrease in the high school enrollment of 681, or 2.46 per
cent as compared to last year.
The high school percentages of increase or decrease for the war and
post-war years are as follows:
1942- 43 8.52 1946-47 4.33
1943- 44 8.12 1947-48 .58
1944- 45 8.26 1948-49 —2.46
1945- 46 4.25
These percentages seem to present a definitely consistent pattern.
It will be remembered that some of the increases of the earlier years
were due in part to the founding of new schools. However, this year
marks the first year of decrease since the war started.
An Analysis of National Statistics, 1948-1949
We follow this with a percentage breakdown into the four high school
classes since the largest freshman class, proportionately, 1944-45. This
is the class that graduated last June.
Freshmen Sophomores Juniors Seniors
1944- 45 • 35.2 27.2 ' 20.7 16.3
1945- 46 32.3 28.3 21.9 16.8
1946- 47 28.8 26.7 23.7 19.6
1947- 48 28.9 24.9 22.4 21.7
1948- 49 ! 29.8 24.1 22.4 22.0
Last June, 21.7 per cent of the high school total left the senior year.
This is an abnormally large percentage for a senior class. This September
16.1 per cent of last year's freshmen did not return, and 12.7 per cent
of last year's sophomores. This is about normal, as indicated by the fact
that the percentages of the sophomore and junior classes are about the
same as last year. The real difficulty is the senior 21.7 per cent. Yet the
freshman class increased only .9 per cent over last year. And right there
is the statistical reason for the deficit.
This September a large freshman class would have been necessary to
keep the national total. But, as in the past two years, it did not reach,
proportionately, 30 per cent of the total. One explanation is that class-
rooms, still occupied by the large upper classes, are unavailable. This
situation should be eased next year. But it also seems, from survey, that
fewer freshman candidates applied. After all, more and more Catholic
high schools are opening and others are enlarging. Our guess is that there
will be a further relatively small decrease for at least one more year.
For the past three years the number of our 3 8 high schools showing
decreases were, respectively seven, twenty, and twenty-four. This year
more than before, the decreases are to be found in the older, larger
schools. A glance at the accompanying table of high school enrollment
will verify this statement. Creighton with an increase of 22 might be
called the only exception. The increases are in the newer, smaller schools.
Boston is still far ahead with 1,43 8, now the only school in the 1,000
class, but it also leads in losses with 147. The largest gains are reported
by Fairfield with 87 and Bellarmine, San Jose, with 83. The next largest
numerical increase is 3 3, at Bellarmine, Tacoma.
II. The Colleges and Universities
There is a total of 77,010 full-time students, and a grand total of
Jesuit Educational Quarterly for January 1949
103,902 students registered in our colleges and universities this year.
Note in the lower row of the following table the shrinkage in the per
cent of increase in our colleges and universities since the war. Of course
our numbers have become very large.
1946-47 1947-48 1948-49
Full-time enrollment 62,108 73,824 77,010
Per cent of increase over previous year 179.87 18.9 4.31
Last year our grand total was 96,953. Our increase this year amounts
to 7.17 per cent. Last year the increase was 18.5 per cent.
The "levelling off" tendency, so obvious last year, was expected to
swing over into a deficit this year. But we have continued to gain. It
was thovght that the great decrease in entering veterans and the smaller
freshman classes would bring about this effect, especially as the grad-
uating classes would be large. Many more must have returned to the
intermediate classes than was expected.
Last year the "levelling off" tendency was noted in Liberal Arts,
Commerce, Dentistry, and Engineering. How did these schools fare
Liberal Arts: last year there was an increase (slight compared to the
year before) of 7,743 or 25.2 per cent. This year the increase was 413,
or 1.07 per cent. This is really "levelling off." Freshman classes are
smaller, graduating classes remain large. Next year: decrease. The Arts
figure is distorted because more than half the students reported by St.
Louis University are in "corporate colleges," girls' schools, under no prac-
Commerce: last year, an increase of 4,723 or 24.3 per cent. This year
a slight, but actual, decrease, although the freshman class shows an in-
crease of 660. This, however, is far more than accounted for by Loyola,
Chicago's, tremendous freshman commerce enrollment gain from 441
last year to 2,2 57 this year. Lewis Towers? Next year for the country:
Dentistry: last year there was an increase of 150. This year, a further
increase of 167. The Dental schools are filling up fast, but there is prob-
ably still some room for more, so there might be a slight increase next
Engineering: last year there was a gain of 629. This year there is a
decrease of 134. This is despite the fact that the Detroit freshman class
has shown a gain of 347. However, engineering should remain rather
stable around the present figure for about two years.
As to the other schools and colleges, Law and Medicine have prob-
ably become stabilized. The Law schools are apparently now filled for
the first time since the war. The one shows a slight decrease, the other a
An Analysts of National Statistics, 1948-1949
slight increase. It is gratifying to note that Nursing enrollment continues
to increase in our schools. It is the profession in which there is a real
Something of the future can be gleaned from a study of the special
freshman tables. There is a decrease in the all-important Liberal Arts
colleges of 1,080, or 8.4 per cent. This will have its effect in the future,
and may be the forerunner of another smaller class next year. The engi-
neering freshman figure shows a decrease of 5 34 or 24 per cent. The
commerce figure would be a deficit, and a tidy one, were it not for
Our schools have grown very large. It seems that they will be some-
what smaller next year, a situation which most will welcome.
For national comparisons, the reader is referred to Dr. Benjamin Fine's
analysis in the New York Times for November 22, 1948, pp. 1 and 17.
As far as insight into the present situation is concerned, Fine is fine.
In comparison with the comprehensive figures just released by the
United States Office of Education, involving reports from 1,733 institu-
tions of higher education out of the 1,788 in the country, and including
estimates of those schools which missed the survey, our position remains
definitely satisfactory. The national increase of this comprehensive survey
is three percent, as compared with ours of 7.17 percent.
III. Interpretative Notes on the Tables
In the columns of college and university statistics, the Nursing column
includes students registered in either the B.S. or R.N. curriculum. The
breakdown is as follows: Boston College, 374 R.N., 445 B.S.; Canisius,
44 B.S.; Creighton, 221 R.N., 57 B.S.; Georgetown, 95 R.N., 42 B.S.;
Gonzaga, 231 R.N., 7 B.S.; Loyola, Chicago, 590 R.N., 234 B.S.; Mar-
quette, 500 B.S.; St. Louis, 36 R.N., 440 B.S.; Seattle, 250 R.N., 169
B.S.; San Francisco, 48 B.S.
The Miscellaneous column includes: Boston College, social work 109;
evening college of arts, sciences and business administration 704; Canisius,
prenursing — day, 151; evening sessions 761; Holy Cross, special 1; Ford-
ham, social work 339; adult education 395; Georgetown, foreign service
— day 978; foreign service — night 721; Gonzaga, journalism 8, business
administration 3 53; Loyola College, Baltimore, liberal arts — night 307;
Loyola, Chicago, social work 213, public health nursing 204; Loyola,
New Orleans, music 152; Marquette, journalism 275, dental technology
72, medical technology 25, speech 55; St. Louis, social work 95, aero-
nautical technology 457; Seattle, medical technology 3 5, music 36, social
work 111; San Francisco, science 233; Scranton, pre-engineering 132;
Xavier, liberal arts — evening 467.
The Extension column includes: Canisius, extension 136; Fordham,
extension 167; Gonzaga., extension 403; Lamoyne, industrial relations 200;
Jesuit Educational Quarterly for January 1949
Loyola, Chicago, home study 600; Loyola, Los Angeles, extension 207;
St. Louis, extension 42; Seattle, extension 180.
The explanation of Low -Tuition or Short courses is: Boston College,
institute of adult education 1,5 30; Holy Cross, labor 134; Creighton,
labor 110; Gonzaga, labor 15 0; Le Moyne, labor 136; Loyola, New
Orleans, labor 150; other 351; Marquette, labor 100 (estimated); Rock-
hurst, labor 200 (estimated) ; St. Joseph's, labor 270; Seattle, cultural
200, labor 50 (deduct 30 counted more than once) ; San Francisco, labor
Part-time students, as well as they can be separated, total as follows:
Boston College: liberal arts 2; graduate 312; law — day 1; law — night
5; nursing — R.N. 287; social work 26; evening college of arts, sciences
and business administration 391. Total 1,024.
Canisms College: liberal arts 19; commerce — night 179; graduate 225 ;
nursing — B.S. 34; prenursing — day 2; evening sessions 724. Total 1,183.
Creighton: liberal arts 46; commerce — day 7; graduate 67; law — day
1; medicine 2; nursing — B.S. 17; pharmacy 3. Total 143.
Fordham: commerce — day 1; commerce — night 32; education 1,497;
graduate 542; law — night 2; social work 215; adult education 3 54.
Georgetown: dentistry 6; graduate 281; law — night 43 2; foreign
service — day 403; foreign service — night 296. Total 1,418.
Gonzaga: liberal arts 5; education 4; engineering 30; graduate 2; law
— night 8; business administration 21. Total 70.
Jo/m Carroll: liberal arts 272; commerce — night 46; graduate 2 5.
Le Moyne: liberal arts 174. Total 174.
Loyola College, Baltimore: commerce — night 177; liberal arts — night
269. Total 446.
Loyola, Chicago: liberal arts 34, commerce — day 9, commence — night
847, education 1,212, graduate 395, nursing — B.S. 182, social work 126,
public health nursing 173. Total 2,978.
Loyola, Los Angeles: 14 part-time students in entire day school not
counted in total.
Loyola, New Orleans: liberal arts 340; commerce — night 223; law —
night 47; music 28. Total 63 8.
Marquette: liberal arts 83; commerce — day 25; commerce — night 905;
graduate 270; journalism 5; nursing — B.S. 120. Total 1,408.
Regis: liberal arts 102. Total 102.
Rockhurst: liberal arts 12; commerce — day 3; commerce — night 304.
St. Joseph's: liberal arts 651. Total 651.
An Analysis of National Statistics, 1948-1949
St. Louis: liberal arts 426; commerce — day 14; commerce — night 291;
university college 727; engineering 5; graduate 267; law — day 1; law —
night 11; medicine 1; nursing — R.N. 8; nursing B.S. 139; social work 51.
St. Peter's: liberal arts 17; commerce — night 154. Total 171.
Seattle: liberal arts 136, commerce — day 71, education 5, engineering
46, nursing — B.S. 19, music 6. Total 283.
Spring Hill: liberal arts 101. Total 101.
University of Detroit: liberal arts 993; commerce — day 29; commerce
— night 639; engineering 337; graduate 162; law — day 15; law — night
42. Total 2,217.
University of San Francisco: liberal arts 260; commerce — night 437;
law— night 134. Total 831.
University of Santa Clara: commerce — night 141. Total 141.
University of Scranton: liberal arts 421; commerce — night 305. Total
Xavier University: liberal arts 94; commerce — day 4; commerce — night
818; graduate 111; liberal arts — evening 464. Total 1,491.
A Challenge to Catholic Colleges
James W. Culliton, Ph.D.
How well do Catholic colleges train men for business? My experience
on the staff of a graduate school of business administration has enabled
me to assemble concrete evidence on the performance of Catholic college
graduates in competition with graduates of non-Catholic and non-
sectarian schools. The inferences which flow from this evidence lead me
to conclude that Catholic colleges are faced with a wonderful opportunity
and a grave responsibility in the field of business education.
My interest in comparing the graduates of Catholic colleges with those
of other colleges was aroused by a professor at the Graduate School of
Business Administration of Harvard University who, in a chat one day,
asked me why it was that so few graduates of Catholic colleges became
outstanding scholars in graduate business work. He admired the Catholic
system of education and was disappointed that so few graduates of
Catholic colleges distinguished themselves at the Harvard Business School.
First of all, to get some specific facts together, I made a survey of the
classes graduating from the Harvard Business School for a 10 year period.
The Harvard Business School grants Master of Business Administration
degrees; to its honor students it grants degrees "with Distinction"
(roughly corresponding to "Cum laude") and "With High Distinction"
(roughly the equivalent of "Magna cum laude"). Certificates are given
to men who have completed the course work but have not fully qualified
for a degree. From June, 1932, through June, 1941, 3,599 degrees and
certificates were granted. The division of honors among Catholic college
graduates and others appears in Table I:
Thus, while over 12% of the graduates from non-Catholic colleges
received honors upon their graduation from the Harvard Business School,
not even 2% of the Catholic college graduates distinguished themselves.
One inference that could be drawn from these figures is that Catholic
colleges and universities — insofar as training for business is concerned —
are inferior to the other colleges and universities. Even though this infer-
ence may not be wholly substantiated in fact and the record can be
explained, one's first and natural reaction upon looking at the record is
to suspect that something might be wrong with Catholic education. In
all fairness to the faculty and administrative staff of the Harvard Business
School, it should be stated without equivocation that they have not
accepted the obvious inference as a fact but have sought information and
A Challenge to Catholic Colleges
Division of Honors upon Graduation from Harvard Business School 1
Among Graduates of Catholic Colleges and of Other Colleges
Graduates of Graduates
28 Catholic of Other
Number c /c Number c / c
without honors 172 98.3 2,971 86.8
Distinction 1 .6 326 9.5
High Distinction 2 1.1 86 2.5
Total 3 1.7 412 12.0
Certificates — — 41 1.2
Total 175 100.0 3,424 100.0
Explanations and have developed an interesting hypothesis which might
explain the facts.
The record of Catholic college graduates is, I am certain, in no way
influenced by the fact that they are Catholic college graduates. I attended
Harvard Business School and was conscious of absolutely no religious
discrimination, but only of an indifferentism toward religion. This does
not mean that the Harvard Business School, as an institution, lacks an
appreciation of its social responsibilities and of the social responsibilities
of business, nor that the individuals who make up its faculty are either
irreligious or anti-religious. The School does appreciate its responsibilities,
and its faculty members are, on the whole, religious men. But since
Protestantism and non-sectarianism insist upon the individual interpreta-
tion of morals, no satisfactory group action results; what was intended
to produce full freedom for religion has produced instead indifferentism
toward religion. Yet, because in its practical effects indifferentism may be
more dangerous than antagonism, it is this self -enforced religious indiffer-
entism maintained by universities like Harvard in their studies of business
that leaves such a responsibility on the Catholic educational system where
1 The Harvard Business School is a graduate school accepting only men with
bachelor's degrees or their equivalent; it offers a two-year course leading to the degree
of Master of Business Administration.
This table was prepared by the author of this> article especially for it and does not
constitute a regular comparison made by the Harvard Business School. Permission for
use of the figures was, however, granted by the Dean of the Harvard Business School.
176 Jesuit Educational Quarterly for January 1949
indifferentism can be put aside for certainties with regard to morals,
duties, and rights.
The professor who aroused my interest in the question of the perform-
ance of the graduates of Catholic colleges also proposed a theory which
goes a long way toward explaining the lack of outstanding scholars
among the graduates of Catholic colleges at the Harvard Business School.
He is of the opinion that the sample of Catholic college graduates attend-
ing the Harvard Business School is not truly representative of the
graduates of Catholic colleges. It is his theory that most of the better
men graduating from Catholic colleges enter the professions, principally
the clergy, the law, and medicine. I do not believe that any factual study
has been made public about the correlation between the grades attained
by, and the careers of, Catholic college graduates; but the deans of some
Catholic colleges confirmed in personal conversation the theory as being
On the other hand, there are other explanations of the figures shown
in this article. Four deans of Jesuit business schools, the president of one
of these, and a dean of another Catholic business school upon looking at
the records of some of the individual students who had not made impres-
sive scholastic records at the Harvard Business School explained them on
various grounds: some were obviously poor students and probably should
not have entered Harvard; some became overly interested in the students
attending nearby women's colleges; while others stumbled for a variety of
reasons, well understood by the Catholic schools, yet hidden in any group
One further explanation of the record may lie in financial reasons.
Many Catholic families struggle hard to give their sons four years in a
Catholic college and further study is extremely difficult. Since as yet it is
not impossible to get a job in business without graduate training, Catholic
college graduates entering the study of business in graduate schools may
be relatively fewer than those entering upon study for the professions
where graduate training is absolutely prerequisite. Thus, for financial
reasons the ability of Catholic college graduates may not be fairly repre-
sented in the figures presented here.
Consequently, in itself the fact that few graduates of Catholic colleges
received honors from the Harvard Business School may not be of any
important significance to Catholic colleges. The figures from Harvard
were used only to indicate, that so far as business training is concerned,
there seems to be something lacking in Catholic education; per se, they
do not prove anything and I do not intend to claim that they do. They
do, however, point to some important areas for thought by the adminis-
trators of Catholic colleges, especially if the theory is correct that the
A Challenge to Catholic Colleges
better graduates of Catholic colleges do not enter business.
For many years the Catholic educational system has stood firm in its
insistence that "education" had to develop the whole man; it trained him
first of all for life, but never neglected to train him further for profes-
sional service. The Catholic system, while stressing philosophy and ethics,
never neglected history and the arts, especially for the men who were to go
on to further study for the priesthood and law; insisted on chemistry,
physics, and biology for those who were going into medicine; and offered
arts and science courses well suited to the development of teachers. But
what about those who were going to enter business?
A few weeks ago the president of one of America's foremost Catholic
universities remarked that for too many years students in college gave no
thought to their life's work until their senior year. When a senior was
asked what he was going to do after graduation, too frequently the
answer was: "Well, I guess I'll get a job, or go to law school." Many
Catholic colleges are working on vocational guidance programs to over-
come this evil of unplanned entrance into any walk of life. Yet, funda-
mentally, as far as business is concerned, the required action is more basic
than vocational guidance.
Let us assume for the moment that the better graduates of Catholic
colleges are attracted to the professions rather than to business. What does
this mean? In a narrow sense it means just what appears on the surface:
the men who have benefited most from the Catholic system of training
for life have entered professions; as a corollary of this, those entering
business, while having been exposed to Catholic education, can be pre-
sumed to have got less out of it or to have less natural ability than those
entering the professions (otherwise grading systems are useless). In a
broader sense it probably means that the Church is attempting to get
Catholic principles well established in business, indirectly through the
pulpit, rather than directly through the well-trained businessman.
I do not wish to argue that good scholars with religious vocations should
be told not to enter the priesthood and urged to become missionaries in
business. But I do suggest that the Catholic educational system has a
wonderful opportunity, because of its fundamental training for life, to
train men to be Catholic in business. More than having an opportunity,
however, the Catholic educational system has a graver responsibility to
get its principles into business by training businessmen.
There is plenty of evidence that business needs Catholic principles:
the Catholic press is filled with articles pointing out instances of the
failure of business management to recognize the rights of labor and the
principles upon which the right to unionize is based; of selfishness and
dishonesty; of changing bases of right and wrong; and of principles of
178 Jesuit Educational Quarterly for January 1949
morality based only on the stigma of "getting caught." On the other
hand, I also believe that business would be benefited by Catholic prin-
ciples, for if they had been universally and effectively adopted, the 1929
runaway boom, for instance, could not have occurred, the depression
which followed would have been less severe, the suffering of labor would
have been reduced, and, because there would have been less need for it,
much of the governmental interfernce of which businessmen complain
would have been avoided.
Specifically, what do these generalizations mean to an individual
Catholic college? I believe it is this: those schools which have the ability
to do it well should include some fundamental business subjects in their
curricula. Business courses should not be, as they have been sometimes in
the past, the place where students who could not get through the arts
and science courses, are put. In all probability, the regular requirements
for philosophy and ethics should not be reduced but, just as students
intending to study medicine are required to take chemistry and physics,
so also men going into business should be taught fundamental business
subjects. By fundamental I do not mean such frills as advertising copy
writing, but the fundamentals of economics, of production, and of dis-
tribution. Accounting and statistics are also desirable for they are
important tools, but, on the whole, highly specialized courses, such as
those training men to pass C.P.A. examinations do not develop the well-
trained individual whom I picture as being able to put Catholicism into
actual business. Those men should be well-rounded Catholics, trained for
life, but not ignorant of the workings of the world of business into which
they are going.
The requirements of the social order demand that businessmen approach
their jobs as if business were in reality "the newest of the professions."
Business, however, is not as yet like medicine or dentistry where science
has assembled a large number of laws and experiences that are universally
accepted and where the mastering of such scientific knowledge is necessary
for ethical and successful work. Business is still the "oldest of the arts"
and as such the training for life which Catholic education gives a prac-
tical training for business. Thus, Catholic education plus courses in the
fundamentals of business should give to many men the equipment neces-
sary to make themselves good businessmen, good Catholics, and good
citizens. From many points of view, then, the job of the Catholic college
is to continue training men for life, but not to neglect the opportunity
and responsibility to teach the fundamentals of business to many of its
students so that they can help themselves and society by getting Catholic
principles more directly into business which, many recognize, is in dire
need of them.
The Nature of the Liberal Arts. By John E. Wise, S.J. Milwaukee:
The Bruce Publishing Company, 1947. Pp. 225. $3.50. (The Catholic
Father Wise here presents an analysis of traditional liberal studies and
a defense of their usefulness in modern education. Eight chapters out-
line the views of great writers: Plato, Aristotle, Cicero, Quintilian, St.
Augustine, St. Thomas, the authors of the Ratio Studiorum, and finally
Cardinal Newman. Three further chapters are devoted to formal train-
ing, the propaedeutic function of the liberal arts, and the content of
the liberal arts. The book is, thus, a broad study, ranging over the
whole field of history, literature, psychology, educational theory, philoso-
phy, and theology; and there is hardly a single aspect of the subject
that is not treated or at least mentioned. Father Wise has read widely
in all the various fields of his study, and presents copious documenta-
tion in his footnotes. His judgments are balanced and sane. He ap-
preciates scientific as well as literary studies, he recognizes many reason-
able modern developments, and he shows how humanistic ideals and in-
tellectual culture must be informed by the supernatural.
The eight historical chapters, which present the substance of impor-
tant works by means of summaries and quotations, are open to criticism
in many places. There is no discussion of Plato's views on poetry or
of Aristotle's attitude towards rhetoric. In the chapter on St. Augustine,
which begins with a preliminary sketch of the transition from pagan
to Christian culture, Father Wise gives, in all too brief compass and
exceedingly obscure terms, a profound interpretation of Roman civiliza-
tion, which only a careful study of Cochrane's Christianity and Classi-
cal Culture could render intelligible. This chapter might have been
more appropriately introduced with an account of the study of the
liberal arts in the schools of the late Empire. Augustine's De Ordine
and De Doctrine Christiana are analyzed, but there is no treatment of
Augustine's criticism (in the Confessions) of his own literary training.
The introduction of St. Thomas into the company of those who have
written on the liberal arts is somewhat puzzling. The chapter on St.
Thomas contains, besides a history of the saint's education, an analysis
of his philosophy of learning and of his attitude towards empirical
180 Jesuit Educational Quarterly for January 1949
The best chapters of the book are Chapter IX, "Cardinal Newman,"
and Chapter X, "Formal Training." Newman's view of knowledge as
an end in itself is carefully scrutinized and subjected to the proper dis-
tinctions. The claims of formal training are justly evaluated in the
light of recent discoveries and theories of the psychologists. But the
quality of scholarship throughout the rest of the book is uneven. Little
wonder that it is, for no one man could master all the subjects into
which Father Wise has delved. Unfortunately he has not sufficiently
limited his treatment but has tried to include within one small book
almost everything that could be said on the subject of education. The
style, too, leaves much to be desired. Obscure expressions, infelicitous
diction, careless sentence structure might have been removed by a more
careful revision before publication. John H. Taylor, S.J.
Introduction to Philosophy. By Louis De Raeymaeker. Translated
by Harry McNeill, Ph.D. New York: Joseph F. Wagner, 1948, pp.
iii-297, 8, $4.00.
To those already acquainted with the works of the noted Belgian
scholar, Canon Louis De Raeymaeker, the title of the present work may
give rise to some confusion. For Canon De Raeymaeker is perhaps
better known for his Latin text Introdnctio General is ad Pbilosophiam et
ad Thomismum, which first appeared in 1931. The present work, how-
ever, is the translation of a French text, Introduction a la Pbilosopbie,
which was published in Louvain in 1938. Omitting the introduction to
Thomism, the French text reorganized the material of the General
Introduction to bring into sharper focus the author's views regarding
the nature of a general introductory text to the study of philosophy.
The French text was then published as the introductory manual for
the course in Philosophy of the Higher Institute of Philosophy in the
University of Louvain.
The authorized English translation, by Harry McNeill, himself an
Agrege of the Higher Institute of Philosophy, was made from the second
French edition, extensively revised by the author in order to bring the
translation up to date. The work of translation, though literal, has
been careful, and on the whole, faithful to the thought of the author
Fundamentally the text is an effort to provide an adequate textbook
for a beginner's course in philosophy. What should be the content of
such a course? Is an "Introduction to Philosophy" merely an invitation,
a guide perhaps, or at the most an approach to philosophy? Does an
Introduction carry us to the threshold of philosophy but no further?
Or does an Introduction carry us over that threshold into the domain
of philosophy itself? In this way it would be a beginning, a movement,
within the science itself. Is it, as the Germans have asked, "Einleitung"
or "Einfiihrung" in die Philosophie?
The position of Canon De Raeymaeker on this fundamental problem
is clear. The function of an Introduction is not "Einfiihrung" a be-
ginning in the science itself. We do not cross the threshold; we stop
short of philosophy itself: "Since this initiation is meant to be general,
a stop is deliberately made at the threshold of philosophy" (p. v). It is,
he holds, "Einleitnng" or "Inleiding tot de Wijsbegeerte y " merely a guide,
an invitation, an approach to philosophy: "One must be satisfied with
a summary outline of the material treated and with provoking discreetly
the spirit of research. In this way the author hopes to arouse in the
reader an effective desire for advanced philosophical study" (p. v).
Granted an author's basic position, the problem now becomes: From
what direction are we to approach the threshold? For philosophy is a
structure of many sides. Three approaches have been tried to date: The
doctrinal, the historical, the organizational. Some, using the doctrinal
approach, review the principal problems of philosophy and the most im-
portant solutions offered to them. Others, preferring the historical ap-
proach, examine the birth and growth of philosophy, the more daring
attempting a broad survey of the life-span of philosophy, the more
conservative confining themselves to a more penetrating analysis of Greek
philosophy. A very few, finally, content themselves with providing for
the novice the technical accoutrements indispensable for a study of
philosophy — Bibliographies, Biographies, Monographs, Philosophical Re-
Canon De Raeymaeker has sought to encompass all three methods
within the confines of a single text, resorting to the simple strategem of
a mechanical division into Part I doctrinal, Part II historical, Part III
A work of such magnitude, confined within such narrow limits, must
necessarily fall short of the ideal of its constituent parts. The ideal of
the doctrinal approach is reduced from a review of the principal problems
of philosophy and the most important solutions offered to them to simply
a review of the principal problems of philosophy. By the same token,
an historical approach, confined to the limits of eighty pages, yet pre-
senting a continuous view of philosophy from its origins in Grecian
antiquity to, and including, contemporary tendencies in philosophical
Jesuit Educational Quarterly for January 1949
thought, must necessarily lose the penetration which the historical method
demands. Finally, the value of the documentary part, though carefully
reviewed by the author, suffers necessarily from the continuing dis-
turbances created by the last war. W. H. Turner, Ph.D.
Whither American Education? The Report of the President's
Commission on Higher Education. Edited by Allan P. Farrell,
S.J. New York, The America Press, 1948, pp. 95, $.25.
Whither American Education? is a competently written and engagingly
presented series of essays by leading Catholic educators on the report of
the President's Commission on Higher Education. Out of the sprawling
and repetitious six volume report, this little booklet of some 95 pages
manages admirably to shift and succinctly to bring together the central
problems and proposals of the report. The essays are constructive and
their comments on implications to American higher education and, in
particular, to Catholic education are sober, reserved and well reasoned.
In a concluding essay the editor summarizes for us the essayists' appraisal
of the strength and weakness of the report. The little booklet comes as a
timely and valuable aid to all who are giving serious study and discussion
to this important document which is bound to play an influential part in
the steering educational policy in the United States in the years to come.
Among the many recommendations of the Commission which the
authors report for our sympathetic study are: its social emphasis; special
and separate attention to the teaching function in the graduate school;
the pattern of pre-service and in-service training for teachers; the stepped
adult education program; the advisory, as differentiated from administra-
tive, function of government in education; the leveling of economic and
discriminatory barriers; and its federal aid through scholarships to
Aside from censuring the Commission's passion for tax supported
education only which is revealed in its inequity in establishing two fiscal
policies — one for private and another for tax supported universities — and
its deliberate and unregretted exclusion of the non-tax-supported college
from the expanded program, the other main point of criticism of the
report made by the Catholic educators is the Commission's tendency
(however indeliberate) toward a totalitarian religious interpretation of
democracy to be spread and prosyletized through government controlled
schools. The Commission views education dominantly in terms of democ-
racy rather than in terms of the individual. Democracy, as is pointed out
in the most provocative of the essays (II) , "instead of providing the fair
field for cultivating the good life, turns democracy into the Good Life,
making it a religion, an end" and the public school, its church. The
President's Commission has drawn the master plan for effecting "a
democratarianism," another type of controlled culture or monopoly or
slavery of thought.
To complement this valuable little booklet there is need now on the
part of Catholic educators for presentation of a more extensive and
searching analysis of the underlying concepts embodied in the report,
such as its inadequate concept of education, of the man it seeks to
educate, and the kind of society it is seeking to construct.
Albert I. Lemieux, S.J.
Handbook for Remedial Reading. By William Kottmeyer, Director,
Reading Clinic, St. Louis Public Schools. Webster Publishing Co. 1947.
pp. 179. $1.68.
In the introduction, the author says, in part: "This book is compara-
tively short ... it constitutes a sincere effort to be simple and practical."
We feel that the author's own description of his excellent book is apt:
for, it is not burdened down with page after page of case-history; tech-
nical terminology is restricted to the barest minimum and principles and
procedures and remedial material are offered in its pages.
A very important principle is given due emphasis: "Reading instruction
and reading materials must be adjusted to individual differences without
regard for grade level placement of children." For, "when reading instruc-
tion and reading materials are not beyond the level at which a student is,
he may improve in his use of reading skills; if instruction and materials
are beyond his level, he will not improve."
After giving us "simplified descriptions" of eyes and their behaviour,
the author explains the reading processes: fixations, return sweeps, regres-
sions, recognition-spans. He also tells us that we receive a great deal of
knowledge about reading from photography, through the eye-movement
camera. Next, reading disabilities are discussed. They are divided into two
categories — physical factors and reading readiness factors. Under this
latter general heading, amongst other things, we are told "that a mental
age of seventy-eight months is a desirable requisite for formal instruction
in beginning reading."
Reading skills are next discussed: word recognition, with a four-fold
attack — general configuration, context clues, breakdown into syllables,
sound blending; phrase reading — "At any rate, the ability to read printed
matter by natural units of thought is a significant advance in devtlop-
ment over word calling and marks a, second stage of progress towards
184 Jesuit Educational Quarterly for January 1949
skillful reading;" basic skills for longer unit reading — assimilative, loca-
tional, recreational, critical; finally, rate and vocabulary.
Methods, tests for diagnoses of reading disabilities are followed by
individual, remedial tretament. Here we have a fine treatment, amongst
other things, of sound blends, prefixes, suffixes and syllabication.
There are many other features of the book which would provide
valuable teaching material for one who has had little or no experience
in the field, for example, suggested commercial readings, method of
teaching correct usage of the dictionary, word meanings, prefixes, suffixes,
roots — and especialy the last chapter on classroom organization.
Briefly, then, this book with its clear and simple presentation of prin-
ciples, procedures and materials should be accessible to all remedialists and
especialy to those who are just beginning. Of course, different cases will
demand different procedure and material. But here is excellent material,
from which a judicious selection can easily be made to meet these vary-
ing cases. John W. Paone, S.J.
A History of Boston College. By David R. Dunigan, S.J. Milwaukee:
The Bruce Publishing Company. 1947. pp. XXV 362. $6.00.
It is not easy to put life into the few facts found in province or college
catalogs, or into the formal reports sent every three years to Rome. The
historian of a college finds it hard to put up with diaries of school
activities lost, with administrator's correspondence destroyed, with
memoirs and documents scattered. The gaps are many, the documents
few. Hence, the story of an institution might turn out to be a pamphlet
on the occasion of a century of growth and service, or worse an annotated
list of names, places, curricula, and money appeals.
Father Dunigan must have met the usual obstacles, but has cleared
them in no usual fashion in his History of Boston College, the second
volume in the Bruce Publishing Company's recent "Catholic Education
Series" under the supervision of Dr. Francis M. Crowley of Fordham
This scholarly account of Boston College gives no irreverent anthology
such as Horace Coon's, Columbia, Colossus on the Hudson, nor in the
opposite direction no unreadable chronicle as Jesse L. Rosenberger's,
Rochester: The Making of a University. How Boston College won over
the native Yankees of Commonwealth Avenue to an appreciation of its
ideals and service to the community; how the Irish could pass over the
burning of a convent in what is now Somerville — and is still called the
Nunnery Grounds; how Father McElroy was frustrated by bigoted
citizens in his first attempts to buy land for the school is impassionately
and interestingly told. Because not all Yankees were members of the
Evangelical church, many prominent names on Beacon Hill publicly
declared their sympathy for the land purchase. Bigots did elect on a
Know-Nothing platform a Governor Gardiner of Massachusetts, but he
was the first and last Know-Nothing governor. That the Irish quickly
began the assimilation cycle is seen from their admission to Harvard and
to Vassar, and now Jesuits cross the Charles to work for degrees in Cam-
bridge. The complete cycle of assimilation is perhaps illustrated by the
opening of a School of Social Work in 1936 by the late Father Walter
McGuin. Father Bapst who was tarred and feathered at Ellsworth, Maine,
just ten years before he was made the first rector of Boston College must
smile at this fact.
The men who made Boston College were rectors for a few years, and
each brought to his task vision, courage, and faith. For thirty and
forty years, other colleges had single guides and builders, as Seelye of
Amherst, Butler of Columbia, Rhees of Rochester, so that their biog-
raphies are the history of their respective colleges. One man, and one
vision did not make a greater B.C., since some presidents of necessity were
builders of stone, others were builders of curricula and of standards.
All met the challenge of a current opportunity and problem so that their
success more than meets the purpose set in the preface of the book. We
hope that some of these leaders of Boston College will merit a detailed
biography, since Father Dunigan has indicated source material. Too there
must be many a learned "Jafsie" (Father J. F. X. Murphy) of Boston
College, to depict as there is the "Kitteridge" of Holy Cross (Father
Charles L. Kimball).
Educators will welcome the splendid synthesis of the controversy con-
cerning "Secular versus Jesuit Education" occasioned in 1899 by the pub-
lication in the Atlantic Monthly of "Recent Changes in Secondary
Education" by President Eliot of Harvard. The replies of Father Bros-
nahan were refused space by Bliss Perry the editor. The Father then issued
his now celebrated two pamphlets to professional educators — President
Eliot and Jesuit Colleges, and Courses Leading to the Baccalaureate in
Harvard and Boston College. Father Brosnahan could be rough, but his
serene and impersonal analysis had educators smiling at Eliot.
Other episodes have been exploited from meagre sources in an able,
scholarly, and interesting way. A workable index, fine illustrations, and
a bibliography of sources make this book worth the price of $6.00. The
New England Province now has a competent authoritative account of
both her major colleges.
History is not supposed to be didactic, nor has the author pointed a
Jesuit: Educational Quarterly for January 1949
moral. To presidents concerned with the financial and educational impli-
cations of the recent Report of the Truman Commission on Higher
Education, to faculty members bothered with a teaching load of too
many heads, there is a moral in the story of how Boston College outgrew
its site on Harrison Avenue to its present physical and cultural eminence
on Chestnut Hill, with a distinguished campus, with a faculty of nearly
one hundred Jesuits, and a student body of some 6,000.
John P. Porter, S.J.
NEWS FROM THE FIELD
INSTRUCTIO-CONSTITUTION: Besides being reprinted in the
October issue of the Quarterly, copies of the booklet containing the
"Instructio Pro Assistentia Americae de Ordinandis Universitatibus,
Collegiis, et Scholis Altis et de Praeparandis Eorundem Magistris," and
"Constitution of the Jesuit Educational Association" has been printed and
will be distributed to Fathers and Scholastics engaged in educational work.
D P PROFESSORS: Fathers Gerald G. Walsh of Fordham and Edward
B. Rooney have returned from a long stay in Europe during which time
they interviewed over 1,000 D P professors. A summary of their findings
is now being compiled by War Relief Service and will be circulated among
all colleges and universities in the country in the hope that they will sign
contracts and thereby help these displaced persons come to America.
CENTENARY: St. Mary's College welcomed many former boarding-
school alumni to celebrate its hundredth anniversary. Archbishop Schulte
and Bishops Byrne, Buddy and Donnelly were present.
GUIDANCE: Handbook for Advisers to Students Planning to Enter
Medicine by Dewey B. Stuit and Raymond J. Schlicher, Chicago: Asso-
ciation of American Medical Colleges, 1948, pp. 34, $.50 is a useful
booklet for counselors in directing students into the medical profession.
FRANCIS SUAREZ was honored at an academic commemoration on
the fourth centenary of his birth by students of Woodstock College,
March 8, 1948.
HIGHLIGHTS of the Latin Institute of the American Classical League
as reported by Father Paul Izzo of Holy Cross were: "This may seem
strange to us — teachers of Latin should have studied Latin. This was one
of the big points they made. The suggestion was made that colleges grant
an AB degree in Latin or Greek. This might lead to an increase of classical
electives in Junior and Senior years. There was almost unanimous agree-
ment on this fact — the classical education was still the best means for
educating for life and character formation. There was general dissatisfac-
tion with the so-called scientific curricula. Some of the contributing
factors to the ineffectiveness of the Latin Course in High Schools — con-
188 Jesuit Educational Quarterly for January 1949
fusion as to objectives, lack of sincerity on the part of the teachers, and
in many cases actual cynicism."
SUPREME COURT: The most significant article on several recent
Supreme Court decisions on education is Corwin, Edward S. The Supreme
Court as National School Board, THOUGHT, (December, 1948), Vol.
23, No. 91. Dr. Corwin is Professor Emeritus of Constitutional Law,
Princeton University and the most outstanding authority in the field.
His stand is strongly critical of current decisions and thought. Reprints
are available at $.25 for single copies and $.15 for quantities of 25 or
COOPERATIVE PLAY BUREAU: During the past year, the Co-
operaive Play Bureau, West Baden College, which began Christmas Week
its fifteenth year of service, sent plays which aided 5 5 schools and
seminaries in the annual task of selecting their plays. Included were 32
one-act plays, and 120 three-act plays.
SCHOOL FOR DELAYED VOCATIONS has received such wide pub-
licity and enthusiastic support that another teacher and class have been
added. 120 are enrolled of whom 80% are Veterans.
Colleges and Universities
PUBLIC AID: The court of Appeals of the State of New York handed
down its unanimous decision favoring Canisius College in the disputed
case wherein the right of the State of New York to make renovations for
Veterans was brought into question.
NEW ACCREDITING ASSOCIATION: Most important business at
the Western College Association Meeting October 30th was its entry into
the field of accreditation.
NATIONAL SURVEY: John Carroll University was one of the six
institutions in the Middle West and East singled out in a national sur-
vey of remedial English being conducted by Northwestern University's
School of Education.
INSTITUTE OF GENERAL EDUCATION conducted by Loyola
College, Baltimore, featured outstanding authorities including John S.
Brubacher and Russel M. Cooper.
COMIC BOOK committee of greater Cincinnati called upon the services
of Xavier University staff members to evaluate and issue "Profile Charts"
on the cultural, moral and emotional effects of each book.
JESUIT CLASSICISTS comprised the majority of members on the pro-
gram of the annual meeting of the Connecticut Section, Classical Associa-
tion of New England, held at Fairfield University, October 16th.
News from the Field
AQUINAS LECTURER for the Aristotelian Society of Marquette
University this year is Robert M. Hutchins.
VOCATIONS: Since its founding in 1887, Regis College and High
School has given 191 alumni to the priesthood.
PASTORAL PSYCHIATRY is a course conducted at St. Mary's Col-
legt by five doctors from Winter Memorial Hospital under the direction
of Father Gerald Kelly.
NATIONAL PRESIDENT of the American Society of Engineering
Education is Clement J. Freund, Dean of the University of Detroit,
College of Engineering.
WOODSTOCK COLLEGE was bequeathed $5 0,000 in personal prop-
erty and $10,000 in real estate by Mrs. Margaret E. Maher.
Creighton Development Fund $390,2 59 by November, 1948.
St. Louis University School of Dentistry $5,000 for Cancer Control
and Research by National Cancer Institute.
Loyola University Chicago Dental School $4,800 for research.
Loyola Academy, Chicago, $5,000 for scholarships and $7,000 for
Georgetown Medical Center, $150,000 by U. S. Public Health Service
for teaching in field of Cancer.
Canisius College Fund Raising realized $25 5,000 by September, 1948.
REMEDIAL READING aid, which is able to increase a person's read-
ing speed from two to three times his normal rate, has been invented and
patented by Father Vincent O'Flaherty, Marquette University.
SCHOLARSHIP to Japanese students have been announced by three
Jesuit Universities, Georgetown, Fordham and John Carroll. They will
be made available as soon as travel to this country is permitted.
HOLY CROSS ALUMNUS, Frank Carey, was named winner of
$1,000 Westinghouse Award for 1948 in the newspaper class.
CLASS OF 1908 of St. Louis University held its reunion June 1, 1948.
Twelve living members, graduates of that class, received individual bless-
ings from his Holiness Pope Pius XII.
HAMLET made his first full-length radio debut in the western hemi-
sphere when presented by Fordham University's WFUV-FM in a two
and a half hour broadcast.
FM RADIO: A change in FCC rules will make it possible for schools
to go on the air with as low as 5 to 10 watts. Former regulations required
150 watts or more, entailing expense out of the reach of many schools.
An enlightening brochure on the subject is FM For Education, by Frank-
lin Dunham, U. S. Office of Education, 1948, pp. 30, $.20.
Jesuit Educational Quarterly for January 1949
ARMORY: Xavier University laid the corner stone to its armory
dedicated to Peace and Justice and Charity June 9, 1948.
PEPSI-COLA SCHOLARSHIPS: An interesting breakdown of past
winners of the Pepsi-Cola annual scholarship shows that 133 came from
Catholic schools. Five have entered or are preparing to enter religion or
the seminary. About 10% of current winners came from Catholic schools
and are attending, among other institutions, 17 Catholic Colleges and
Universities. Among these, Jesuit institutions rank as follows: St. Louis
University has 5, Fordham 4, Holy Cross and Xavier University have
each 2, and Georgetown, Gonzaga and Marquette one.
VISUAL EDUCATION AWARD given by National Education Asso-
ciation to 100 of the nation's schools for outstanding work in visual
education was given Campion this year. An article published in Audio
Visual Guide describes Campion's program.
SPELLER: Robert Gelin, St. Ignatius (Cleveland) Junior was awarded
first place in the district elimination of the Cleveland Press Spelling
Contest and all-expense trip to the National Capital.
ULTRA-MODERN SCHOOL: Canisius High School moved to its new
site on Delaware Avenue. Its new wing incorporates many features of
most modern planning and installations. Significant are thermopane glass,
all weather insulating windows; ceilings of sound proof cushion tone;
lighting by 24 tubes 8 feet in length; and "Ezy-Rase" glass chalk boards.
RADIO CONTACT was made by newly consecrated Bishop David
Hickey with Father Knopp, Belize Mission Superior, over Campion's radio
BING CROSBY whose three sons attend Bellarmine Prep, San Jose,
entertained at a Barbecue there. He also provided that $5,000 of a benefit
at the Civic Auditorium, San Francisco, be given the school.
DENTAL STUDENTS: A recent survey coming from the office of
the dean of the School of Dentistry show that 1725 or 46% of the 3716
members of the Chicago Dental Society who live in the Chicago area
are graduates of the Loyola University Dental School. These figures were
obtained from the latest official list of the members of the Chicago and
Illinois Dental Societies published in August.
Of the 5404 members of the Illinois State Dental Society, 2107 or
39% are graduates of the Dental School. Other dental schools in the
News from the Field
state are those of the University of Illinois and Northwestern University.
CLASSICAL HONORS COURSE: Xavier University is introducing
an Honors A.B. course based solidly on the Classics. Limited to the top
10% students, the curriculum includes Latin, Greek, English, philosophy,
mathematics and science. The method is based on the Ratio idea of the
class teacher who is equivalently a tutor. Twenty-two students enrolled
in the 1948-1949 term.
SCHOLARSHIPS: Ten young men, graduates of the high schools of
the Jesuit provinces in the United States have received the annual four-
year "regional scholarships" to Fordham University and are pursuing
their studies at Fordham College. Schools from which students were se-
lected are: St. Ignatius, Cleveland; Jesuit High School, Tampa; Gonzaga
High School, Washington, D. C; St. Joseph's; Boston College High
School; Campion; Loyola, Los Angeles; Bellarmine, San Jose; Loyola,
Baltimore; Jesuit High School, New Orleans.
Note to Librarians
We are extremely anxious to see that all libraries on the mailing list
of the Jesuit Educational Quarterly have a complete file for their shelves.
Realizing that, even with the most careful watching, an occasional copy
can go astray and thus hold up binding a volume,, we invite all librarians
to make an inventory of their files, send in a list of missing numbers and
we will do our best to nil the need.
On the other hand, we have our own problems of supply. Through the
years our generosity (I hope it will not be construed as mismanagement)
has led us to a position where our supply of certain issues of the Quarterly
is almost exhausted. In fact, our supply of Volume 1, Number 1; Volume
VII, Number 4; and Volume VIII, Number 4 is so low that we will be
unable to fill any requests without your help. Should you have any spare
copies of these, we would be most grateful if you sent them to us and
will reimburse you for the cost and shipping.
The supply of the following issues is also quite low and we extend the
same offer for them: I, 2; V, 3; V, 4; VI, 1; VI, 2; VI, 3; VII, 2.
Finally, your attention is directed to the ten year index of topics which
accompanied the October 1948 issue. Additional copies are on hand for
any that write for them.
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