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PURCHASED FOR THE 

University of Toronto Library 

FROM THE 

Jose'ph and Gertie Schwartz 
Memorial Library Fund 

FOR THE SUPPORT OF 

Jewish Studies 






PREFACE 

New York City is the heart of American Jewry. Here 
are gathered a million and a half Jews, one-half of all 
the Jews in this country. Here is a vast community 
growing vaster every year. Here is a community life, 
already rich in achievement, and growing more promis- 
ing with every new object achieved. 

And yet the one essential to make permanent the gains 
thus far made, and to ensure progress in the future, is 
sorely lacking — the community is not sufficiently con- 
scious of itself. The community" does not really know 
itself. 

No person or group of persons has thus far been able to 
present a comprehensive account of the bewildering num- 
ber of communal activities carried on by the Jews in this 
city. No person or group of persons has thus far been 
able to give an accurate statement of the vast expenditure 
of money for these activities, and certainly no person or 
group of persons has thus far attempted to make clear 
the profound meaning for the Jew and for America of 
all these communal efforts on the part of the Jewry of 
the greatest city in the world. 

What, then, is the first duty of those who would bring 
order out of chaos in the communal life of the Jews in 
New York City? What is the immediate obligation of 
those who are eager to point the way for a sound and 
constructive policy of Jewish communal development in 
the years to come ? Their first task, it would seem, is to 
help the community to know itself as it is at present. 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 

To perform this indispensable service for the Jews of 
New York City, **The Jewish Communal Kegister" has 
been projected and published. Two principles have 
guided the editors in their work. A Jewish communal 
directory, to be of genuine service, must, on the one 
hand, present as complete a list as possible of Jewish 
communal activities. It must be, so to speak, a communal 
stock-taking, not only of all the communal enterprises 
that are being conducted, but also of the men and women 
who in a spirit of genuine public service, are devoting 
their time and best energies to the successful maintenance 
and progress of Jewish work in this city. On the other 
hand, the Register must be more than a mere directory 
of names and addresses. It must interpret as well. If 
the vast array of facts and figures gathered together with 
great labor is to be anything more than a mass of mean- 
ingless stuff, it must be made to yield its meaning for 
Jewish communal life in this city. Out of this material 
must be molded a comprehensive community program. 
It is clear that such a program will be of inestimable 
value, not only because through it attention will be fo- 
cused on the more urgent needs of the community, and 
in general, an harmonious development of its activities, 
encouraged, but also because Jewish men and women 
eager to help, will be in a better position to determine 
for themselves in what direction they could serve most 
effectively. Both of the requirements described above 
have been only partially met in this publication. Only 
in the course of time will it be possible to publish a com- 
plete Communal Register. To insure completeness under 



PREFACE 

present conditions, all available material was divided 
into nine parts, and a systematic attempt was made, 
through every means of investigation, to verify and com- 
plete the data. These parts are : 

Part I. Religious Agencies. 

Part II. Educational Agencies. 

Part III. Recreational-Cultural Agencies. 

Part IV. Economic Agencies. 

Part V. Philanthropic Agencies. 

Part VI. Correctional Agencies. 

Part VII. Research and Codrdinating Agenies. 

Part VIII. Central and National Agencies. 

Part IX. National and International Agencies. 
To make the Register more than a dry directory, a 
large number of appropriate illustrations has been in- 
cluded, together with introductory articles to the various 
parts and sub-divisions, prepared by representative Jew- 
ish workers in their respective fields. These articles 
summarize the general problems facing the Jews in this 
city, describe what has already been achieved, and in 
what direction future development is to proceed. These 
statements, taken together and as a unified whole, are 
the first attempt at a comprehensive interpretation of 
Jewish communal life in this city and the first sketch of 
a plan of community action. They make clear that the 
Jews of this city form a community, that this community 
has already developed a vast network of activities, that 
these activities can be fully understood only when viewed 
as phases of a unified communal life, and finally, that 
if these activities are to grow in usefuLuess and efficiency 
they must be coordinated from the broadest communal 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 

point of view, and new work lie planned and started with 
all the needs of the community in mind. 

The ''Jewish Communal Register" will then serve two 
great purposes. It will help the individual Jew and the 
Jewish Community to see themselves as they really are 
in relation to each other, and will thus be the first step to 
a full realization of Jewish life in this city. It will add 
to the progress of the general community and of the 
country as a whole by furnishing the proper materials 
and^ the proper view-point for a true understanding of 
the efforts the Jews in the foremost city of America are 
making to contribute their share to the fulfillment of the 
best ideals of American life. 

A final word of appreciation must be added. That the 
Jewish Communal Register for 1917-1918 has been com- 
pleted successfully, is due in a large measure to the 
splendid cooperation of the contributors of the special 
articles, and particularly to the generous and unremit- 
ting help, a labor of love in the truest sense of the phrase, 
of Mr. Harry Sackler, Administrative Secretary of 
the Kehillah, of Mr. Julius Drachsler, Secretary of 
The School for Jewish Communal Work, and of 
Messrs. Alexander M. Dushkin, Samuel Ginzberg, Meir 
Isaacs, and Dr. S. Margoshes, all of the Bureau of Jewish 
Education. Thanks are also due to Miss Lotta Leven- 
sohn. Miss Rebecca Aaronson, Miss Hajnalka Langer, 
Miss Leonora Hauser, and Miss Leah Klepper, who were 
good enough to read proof for the Register. 

KEHILLAH (Jewish Community) 

December 24th, 1917. «* ^^^ ^"""^ ^"^^ 

vi 



CONTENTS 



FRONTISPIECE— 

Map showing comparison between Jewish population of 
New York City and the combined populations of the coun- 
tries of Western Europe, South America, Canada and 
Palestine. 

PREFACE iii 

CALENDARS 17 

A. Monthly and weekly calendar for the Jewish year 
1917-1918 19 

B. Table showing dates on which Jewish holidays and fes- 
tivals occur in 1915-16 to 1926-27 32 

C. Anniversary and Bar Mitzvah Tables for the years 
1870-71 to 1917-18 - - 34 

D. Time of Sunset and Sunrise in the latitude of New 
York City 42 

THE KEHILIiAH (Jewish CommuDity) 43 

A. A Brief History of the Kehillah of New York City, by 
Harry Sackler, Administrative Sec'y of the Kehillah - 45 

B. Charter of the Kehillah, an Act passed by the Legisla- 
lature and approved bv the Governor, April 5, 1914 - 57 

C. Constitution adopted by the Kehillah on Feb. 28, 1909 - 59 

D. Plan of representation and organization proposed and 
adopted at the Special Convention of the Kehillah on 
Sunday, January 13th, 1918 63 

Diagram showing plan of Kehillah Organization and 
Representation facing p. 64 

E. Members of the Executive Committee of the Kehillah - 72 

JEWISH POPULATION OF NEW YORK CITY - - - 75 

A. A Statistical Study of the Jewish Population of New 
York City, by Alexander M. Dushkin, Head of Depart- 
ment of Study and Appraisal, Bureau of Jewish Edu- 
cation 75 

B. Map of New York City showing division into Districts 
and Neighborhoods as basis of representation and 
administration of the Kehillah (Jewish Community) 

of New York City facing p. 75 

C. Map of New York City showing density of Jewish 

1 



population by Districts and Neighborhoods of the 
Kehillah (Jewish Community) of New York City, 

facing p. 81 
JEWISH COMMUNAL AGENCIES IN NEW YORK 

CITY 91 

A. How the Jewish Communal Register was Compiled, by 
Meir Isaacs, Bureau of Jewish Education .... 91 

B. Table showing number of organizations per 10,000 Jews 
in the eighteen Districts of the Kehillah (Jewish Com- 
munity), New York City, and the Classification of these 
organizations into Religious and Cultural, Philanthropic 
and Correctional, Economic and Mutual Aid, and 
Miscellaneous 99 

Graph showing the above 101 

C. Table giving an estimate of the approximate amount of 
money which Jewish Communal Agencies in New York 
City spend for Jewish purposes 103 

Graph showing the above 105 

Graph showing how every dollar spent by the Jewish 
Community is distributed among the various com- 
munal activities 107 

D. Table giving salient facts of 2,000 biographical notes 
of presidents of Jewish organizations in New York 
City - - facing p. 108 

RELIGIOUS AGENCIES 109 

Introductory Remarks on Religious Ag:encies, by 
J. L. Magnes, Chairman, Executive Conmiittee of 
the Kehillah (Jewish Community) of New York - 111 

A. THE SYNAGOGUE 117 

Afi&liation with the Synagogue, by M. M. Kaplan, 
Professor of Homiletics, Jewish Theological Seminary 

of America 117 

Table showing the distribution and salient charac- 
teristics of Synagogues in the eighteen Kehillah 

Districts facing p. 123 

Graph showing proportion of seats available during 
holidays for every one hundred Jews (excluding chil- 
dren and invalids) for whom Synagogue seats should 
be provided in the various Districts of the Kehillah 123 

Illustrations of Synagogues 125 

Table of Provisional Synagogues - - - - facing p. 144 
List of Congregations in Manhattan and the Bronx - 145 
List of Congregations in Brooklyn, Queens and Rich- 
mond 251 

2 



B. RELIGIOUS FUNCTIONARIES 287 

The Va'ad Horabbonim, by Rabbi J. Eskolsky, 

Secretary 287 

Members of the Va'ad Horabbonim 292 

The New York Board of Jewish Ministers, by Rev. Dr. 

D. de Sola Pool, Former President 294 

Members of the New York Board of Jewish Ministers 298 
The Cantors and Their Problem, by Rev. N. Abramson, 

President, Jewish Cantors^ Association of America - 301 

Jewish Cantors' Association of America 305 

Members of Jewish Cantors' Association of America 

residing in New York City 305 

List of Shochetim 308 

C. RITUAL INSTITUTIONS ----- - - - - 312 

A Few Remarks on Kashruth 312 

The Milah Board of the Jewish Community, by Rev. 

Dr. M. Hyamson, Chairman 321 

Agudath Hamohelim 328 

List of Licensed Mohelim (Members of the Agndath 

Hamohelim) 328 

The Jewish Sabbath Association, by Rev. Dr. Bernard 

Drachman, Chairman 330 

List of Free Burial Societies in New York City - - 334 

List of Jewish Cemeteries in New York City - - - 336 

niustration of Jewish Cemetery on West 21st Street - 339 

D. CHASSIDISM IN THE NEW WORLD, by Isaac Even 341 



EDUCATIONAL AGENCIES 347 

A. JEWISH RELIGIOUS SCHOOLS 

Present Status of Jewish Religious Education in New 
York City, by S. Benderly, Director, Bureau of Jewish 
Education 349 

Table I, showing number ^f children receiving 

Jewish instruction 358 

Graph showing the same 359 

Table II, sho\Ving types of Jewish school accommo- 
dation 360 

Graph showing the same 361 

Table III, showing the size of the Jewish Schools - 362 

Graph showing the same 363 

Table IV, showing auspices under which Jewish in- 
struction is given - - - - - - - 364 

Graph showing the same 365 

3 



Graph showing proportion of children receiving in- 
struction in Jewish schools in the eighteen Districts 
of the Kehillah (Jewish Community) of New York 

City 366 

Prefatory Notes on the Jewish Educational Agencies of 
New York, by Alexander M. Dushkin, Head of Depart- 
ment of Study and Appraisal, Bureau of Jewish Educa- 
tion - 367 

Supplementary Weekday Instruction 368 

List of Weekday Communal Schools in Manhattan 

and the Bronx - - 370 

List of Weekday Communal Schools in Brooklyn, 

Queens and Richmond 377 

List of Congregational Weekday Schools, Manhattan 

and Bronx 380 

List of Congregational Weekday Schools in Brook- 
lyn, Queens and Richmond 384 

List of Institutional Weekday Schools, Manhattan 

and Bronx 386 

List of Institutional Weekday Schools, Brooklyn - 387 
List of Private Weekday Schools, Manhattan, Bronx 

and Brooklyn 388 

Sunday School Instruction 389 

List of Congregational Sunday Schools in Bronx and 

Manhattan 390 

List of Congregational Sunday Schools in Brooklyn, 

Queens and Richmond 391 

Parochial Education 394 

List of Parochial Schools 395 

Cheder Instruction 396 

Private Instruction in the Home 399 

Illustrations of Jewish School Work 401 

B. TEACHERS' TRAINING SCHOOLS AND ASS'NS - - 451 

Teachers' Institute of pie Jewish Theological Seminary 

of America 451 

Teachers' Institute of the Mizrachi 452 

Hebrew Teachers' Union (Agudath 'Hamorim) - - 454 

New York City Members of the Hebrew Teachers' 

Union 455 

Jewish Teachers' Association 459 

Members of the Jewish Teachers' Association - - 459 

Jewish Religious School Union 461 

Hebrew Principals' Association ------- 462 

Members of the Hebrew Principals' Association - - 462 



RECREATIONAL AND CULTURAL AGENCIES - - 4«7 

Recreation in the Jewish Community of New York 
City, by Julius Diachsler, Secretary of the Faculty, 
School for Jewish Communal Work 467 

A. THE AVORK OF YOUNG MEN'S HEBREW AND 
KINDRED ASSOCIATIONS IN NEW YORK CITY, by 

I. E. Goldwasser, Chairman, Advisory Committee of 
the National Council of Young- Men's Hebrew and 
Kindred Associations --------- 475 

List of the Young Men's Hebrew Associations - 483 

List of Young Women's Hebrew Associations - - 486 

List of Settlements 487 

Young Men's Hebrew Association, 92nd Street and 

Lexington Avenue 489 

Illustrations of Y. M. H. A. 491 

Young Women's Hebrew Association, 31 W. 110th St. 503 

Illustrations of Y. W. H. A. 505 

Educational Alliance, E. Broadway and Jefferson St. 529 

Illustrations of Educational Alliance 531 

Hebrew Educational Society, Hopkinson and Sutter 

Avenues, Brookl^Ti 547 

Illustration of Hebrew Educational Society - - - 549 
List of Professional Workers in Young Men's Hebrew 

and Kindred Associations 551 

List of Social and Literary Societies 557 

List of Jewish Clubs 562 

Hebrew-Speaking Clubs in America, by Z. Scharfstein, 

Bureau of Jewish Education 564 

List of Hebrew-Speaking Societies in New York City 571 

B. THE YIDDISH THEATRE, by David Pinski - - - 572 

List of Yiddish Theatres 577 

Illustration of Grand Street Theatre 579 

C. YIDDISH LITERATURE (IN THE OLD WORLD 
AND THE NEW), by Joel Enteen 581 

D. THE JEWISH PRESS IN NEW YORK CITY, by 

Samuel Margoshes, Bureau of Jewish Education - - 596 

Table I, showing radius of influence of New York 

Yiddish Dailies 617 

Table II, showing the complexion of the Jewish 

Press in New York City 618 

List, of Jewish periodicals published in New York 

City previous to 1917 619 

List of Jewish periodicals appearing in New York 
City in 1917 628 

5 



Composite picture of the headings of the principal 
Jewish newspapers and periodicals published in New 
York City 633 

ECONO^nC AGENCIES - - 635 

The Industrial Problem of the Jew in New York 
City, by Paul Abelson, Director, Bureau of 
Industry _-_ 637 

A. NON-COMMERCIAL, EMPLOYMENT BUREAUS IN 
THE JEWISH COMMUNITY OP NEW YORK CITY, 

by Joseph Gedalecia, Manager of the Communal Em- 
ployment Bureau for the Handicapped ----- 641 
Table showing the number of placements made by the 
Jewish Non-Commercial Employment Bureaus in the 

course of one year 545 

List of Jewish Non-Commercial Employment Bureaus 

in New York City - - - 647 

B. VOCATIONAL. SCHOOLS ESTABLISHED AND MAIN- 
TAINED BY THE JEWISH COMMUNITY IN NEW^ 
YORK, by J. Ernest G. Yalden, Superintendent, Baron 

de Hirsch Trade School 648 

List and Description of Vocational Schools Main- 
tained by the Jewish Community of New York - 653 
Hebrew Technical Institute (for Boys) - - - - 653 

Hebrew Technical School for Girls 654 

Baron de Hirsch Trade School 655 

Clara de Hirsch Home for Working Girls - - - - 656 

Illustrations of activities of above schools - - - 657 

C. FREE LOAN SOCIETIES, by Samuel Seinfel, Man- 

ager, Hebrew Free Loan Society ------- 689 

List of Free Loan Societies 691 

Illustration Hebrew Free Loan Society Building - - 695 

D. JEWISH LABOR ORGANIZATIONS, by Prank F. Ro- 
senblatt, Chief of Staff, Bureau of Philanthropic Re- 
search ---------------- 697 

List of Local Jewish Labor Organizations - - - - 700 

Fur Industry 700 

Garment Industry 701 

Men^s Clothing 701 

Women ^s Clothing 704 

Headgear Industry - - - 707 

Miscellaneous 708 

E. EMPLOYERS' ASSOCIATIONS IN JEWISH TRADES, 

by Paul Abelson, Director Bureau of Industry - - - 7I6 
List of Employers' Associations 718 

6 



List of Trade Associations 722 

List of Professional Workers in Economic Agencies - 724 

MUTUAL AID AGENCIES 725 

A. THE CREDIT UNION MOVEMENT AMONG THE 
JEWS OF NEW YORK CITY, by Hyman Kaplan, for- 
merly of the Bureau for Jewish Philanthropic Re- 
search 727 

List of Jewish Credit Unions in New York City - 730 
Table giving Main Features of Transactions of Jew- 
ish Credit Unions in New York City - facing p. 730 

B. 3IUTUAL. AID ORGANIZATIONS, by Frank F. Rosen- 
blatt, Chief of Staff, Bureau of Philanthropic Re- 
search ---------------- 732 

Table of Mutual Aid Societies 735 

List of Mutual Aid Societies in Manhattan and the 

Bronx 736 

List of Mutual Aid Societies in Brooklyn and Queens 856 

C. JEWISH FRATERNAL ORGANIZATIONS, by Leo 

Wolfson, First Vice-Grand Master (in New York), 

Independent Western Star Order - 865 

Table showing Salient Features of Jewish Orders in 

New York City 869 

Arbeiter Ring 871 

List of Branches in New York City - - - - - 872 

Independent Order B'nai B'rith - - - - - - 885 

List of Lodges in New York City 886 

Independent Order B 'rith Abraham - - - - - - 888 

List of Lodges in New York City ------ 888 

Independent Order B'rith Sholom - - - - - - 935 

List of Lodges, in New York City 935 

Independent Order Free Sons of Israel 950 

List of Lodges in New York City - - - - - - 950 

' Independent Order Sons of Benjamin ----- 956 

List of Lodges in New York City - - - - - 956 

Independent Order of True Sisters - 957 

List of Lodges in New York City - - - - - - 957 

Independent Western Star Order 958 

List of Lodges in New York City - - - - ^ - - 958 

Jewish National Workers ' Alliance of America - ' - - 961 

List of Lodges in New York City 962 

Order B'rith Abraham 965 

List of Lodges in New York City 965 

Order Sons of Zion 980 

List of Camps in New York City - - - - - - 980 

7 



Order of the United Hebrew Brothers 984 

List of Lodges in New York City 984 

PillLANTHROPIC AGENCIES 987 

Jewish Philanthropy in New York City, by Morris 
D. Waldman, Executive Director, Fedei*ated Jew- 
ish Charities of Boston ---- 989 

A. RELIEF SOCIETIES 984 

United Hebrew Charities of the City of New York and 
Subsidiary Relief Agencies, by Abraham Oseroff, 

Executive Secretary 944 

Illustration of United Hebrew Charities Building - 997 
List of Je\Yish Relief Societies in New York City - 999 
The Federation of Sisterhoods, by Abraham Oseroff, 
Executive Director, United Hebrew Charities - - - 1012 

B. HOSPITALS 

List of Jewish Hospitals, Sanitaria and Convales- 
cent Homes 1014 

Illustrations of Jewish Hospitals 1025 

C. JEWISH DAY NURSERIES IN NEW YORK CITY, by 

Abraham Oseroff, Executive Director, United Hebrew 

Charities 1033 

Table giving Salient Facts of Jewish Day Nurseries 1037 
List of Jewish Day Nurseries in New York City - - 1039 
Illustrations of activities in the Day Nurseries - - 1045 

D. PRESENT STATUS AND NEEDS OP JEWISH CHILD 
CARE IN GREATER NEW YORK, by Ludwig B. 
Bernstein, Superintendent, Hebrew Sheltering Guar- 
dian Society, Pleasantville, New York 1051 

List and description of Orphan Asylums in New York 

City 1057 

Illustrations of activities in the Orphan Asylums - 1065 

E. THE JEWISH HANDICAPPED, by Rabbi A. J. 
Amateau, Manager of the Society for the Welfare of • 
the Jewish Deaf 1089 

List of Institutions for Defectives 1095 

Illustrations of Activities of the Society for the Wel- 
fare of the Jewish Deaf 1099 

P. HOItIE:s POR THE AGED, by Albert Kruger, Super- 
intendent of Home of the Daughters of Jacob - - - 1109 

List of Homes for the Aged 1112 

Illustrations of Building and Synagogue of the 

Home of the Daughters of Jacob 1115 

List of Professional Workers in Philanthropic Agen- 
cies 1119 

8 



CORRECTIONAL AGENCIES 1131 

Problem of Delinquency in the Jewish Community 
of New York City, by Alexander H. Kaminsky, 
Managing Director, Jewish Big Brother Ass'n - - 1133 

List and Description of Jewish Correctional Agencies 

in New York City 1136 

List of Professional Workers in Correctional Agen- 
cies 1143 

COORDINATING, STANDARDIZING AND RESEARCH 

AGENCIES - - - - 1147 

Coordinating, Standardizing and Research Institu- 
tions in New York Citj% by Julius Drachsler, Sec- 
retary of the Faculty, School for Jewish Com- 
munal Work 1149 

The Bureau of Jewish Education 1153 

The Council of Young Men^s Hebrew and Kindred 

Associations 1156 

The Bureau of Industry 1158 

The Bureau of Philanthropic Research 1160 

The Bureau of Jewish Statistics and Research - - - 1162 

The School for Jewish Communal Work 1163 

The Association of Jewish Communal Students - - 1164 
Professional Workers in Research Institutions - - - 1165 

CENTRAL AND NATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS HAV- 
ING OONSTITTJENCIES IN NEW YORK CITY - 1167 

A. RELIGIOUS 

The Central Conference of American Rabbis, by Rev. 

Dr. Samuel Schulman 1169 

List of Members of the Central Conference of Ameri- 
can Rabbis residing in New York City 1175 

Eastern Council of Reform Rabbis, by Rev. Dr. Joseph 

Silverman, President 1177 

List of Members of the Eastern Council of Reform , 
Rabbis residing in New York City - - - - - - 1178 

Agudath Horabbonim (Union of Orthodox Rabbis of 

the United States and Canada), by Rabbi M. S. 

Margolies, President 1180 

List of Members of the Agudath Horabbonim, resid- 
ing in New York City 1187 

Agudath Horabbonim Hamatiffim (Jewish Ministers* 

9 



Association of America), by Rabbi S. L. Hurwitz, 

Secretary 1189 

List of Members of the Agudath Horabbonim Hama- 

tiffim, residing in New York City 1191 

Cantors' Association of America 1192 

Union of American Hebrew Congregations - - - - 1193 

Constituent Synagogues in New York City - - - 1193 

Department of Synagogue and School Extension - 1194 

Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations - - , - - 1195 

Constituent Synagogues in New York City - - - 1195 

United Synagogue of America 1196 

Constituent Synagogues in New York City - ■ - 1196 

B. EDUCATIONAL. 

The Bureau of Jewish Education - - 1197 

The Board of Jewish School Aid 1197 

The Jewish Theological Seminary of America - - - 1198 

The Rabbinical College of America 1201 

The School for Jewish Communal Work 1203 

C. SOCIAL AND CULTURAL 

The Jewish Board for Welfare Work, by Chester J. 

Teller, Executive Secretary 1204 

The Council of Young Men's Hebrew and Kindred 

Associations' 1210 

Intercollegiate Menorah Association 1211 

List of Menorah societies in New York City - - - 1213 
The Hebraic Movement in America and fhe Histadruth 

Ibrith in New York, by Reuben Brainin - - - - ' - 1214 
The Society of Jewish Social Workers of Greater New 

York - 1221 

List of Members - 1222 

The National Association of Jewish Social Workers - 1228 

List of Members residing in New York City - - - 1228 

National Council of Jewish Women 1231 

D. ECONOMIC 

The Baron de Hirsch Fund 1233 

National Jewish Immigration Council - - - - - 1235 
Jewish Immigrant Work, by Samuel Joseph - - - - 1237 
The Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant Aid Society of 

America 1241 

Illustration, Building of Hebrew Sheltering and Im- 
migrant Aid Society .-.------- 1243 

Naturalization Aid League - - - - - * - - 1245 

10 



The Industrial Removal Office -------- 1246 

Institutions for Promotion of Agriculture Among the 
Jews in the United States, by J. W. Pincus, Secretary, 
Federation of Jewish Farmers 1248 

List of agricultural societies 1254 

The Jewish Socialist Federation of America, by Frank 
F. Rosenblatt, Chief of Staff, Bureau of Philanthropic 
Research . - i256 

List of Branches in New York City 1262 

Young People's Socialist League 126S 

List of Circles in New York City 1263 

Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, by Joseph 
Schlossberg, General Secretary 1264 

List of locals in New York City 1268 

International Fur Workers' Union of United States 

and Canada . . . 1269 

List of locals in New York City 1269 

International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union, by 
Benjamin Schlesinger, President - 1270 

List of locals in New York City 1275 

The United Cloth Hat and Cap Makers' Union of 
America 1276 

List of locals in New York City - 1276 

The United Hebrew Trades, by Frank F. Rosenblatt, 
Chief of Staff, Bureau of Philanthropic Research - - 1277" 

List of locals in New York City 1279 

E. MUTUAL. AID 1280 

Federation of Jewish Cooperative Societies of America 1280 
List of Constituents in New York 1280 

F. PHILANTHROPIC 

Federation for the Support of Jewish Philanthropic 
Societies of New York City, by I. E. Goldwasser, 

Executive Director 1281 

List of constituent societies - - - ■• - - . - 1294 
The Federation Drive for Increased Membership (Jan- 
uary 14th to January 27th, 1918) 1304 

Brooklj-n Federation of Jewish Charities - - - . 1312 

List of constituent societies 1312 

National Conference of Jewish Charities - . . . 1313 

List of constituent societies in New York City - - 1314 

National Federation of Temple Sisterhoods - - - - 1316 

List of constituent societies in New York City - - 1317 
The Jewish Consumptives' Relief Society (Denver 

Sanitarium) 1317 

Family Desertion as a Community Problem and Its 

11 



Treatment, by Charles Zunser, Acting Secretary, 

and Counsel, National Desertion Bureau 1318 

National Desertion Bureau 1327 

G. L.ANDSMANNSCHAFT ORGANIZATIONS 

The Verband Movement in New York City, by Samuel 
Margoshes, President, Federation of Galician and Buco- 

vinean Jews of America 1328 

American Union of Roumanian Jews 1337 

Federation of Bessarabian Organizations - - - . 1337 
Federation of Galician and Bucovinean Jews of 

America 1337 

Federation of Oriental Jews of America - - - - 1339 
Federation of Roumanian Jews of America - - - - 1339 
Federation of Russian-Polish Hebrews of America - - 1339 

H. ZIONIST ORGANIZATIONS 

Federation of American Zionists, by Louis Lipsky, 

Chairman, Executive Committee 1340 

List of constituent organizations in New York City - 1344 

Zionist Council of Greater New York 1344 

The Mizrachi, by Dr. Meyer Waxman 1350 

List of constituent organizations in New York City 1357 
The Hadassah, the Women's Zionist Organization, by 

Lotta Levensohn 1359 

Order Sons of Zion 1373 

The Poal-Zion Movement, by A. Kretchmer-Isreeli - - 1374 

The Jewish Socialist Labor Organization, Poale Zion 1384 

List of constituent organizations in New York City - 1384. 
The Socialist Territorialist Labor Party, by A. Glanz, 

Member of the Central Committee 1386 

List of constituent organizations in New York City - 1394 

Intercollegiate Zionist Association 1394 

List of constituent organizations in New York City - 1394 
Young Jj^dsea, by Joshua H. Neumann, Editor of 

''Young Judaean'' 1396 

' List of Circles in New York City 1402 

AMERICAN ORGANIZATIONS CONCERNED WITH 

INTERNATIONAL JEWISH AFFAIRS - - - - 1411 

A. The American Jewish Committee, by Louis Marshall, 
President - - 1413 

List of members of the American Jewish Committee 
residing in New York City 1426 

B. The American Jewish Congress, by Bernard G„ 
Richards, Executive Secretary 1429 

12 



List of Delegates to the American Jewish Congress, 
elected in New York City 1443 

C. National Workmen's Committee on Jewish Rights, by 
Frank F. Rosenblatt, Chief of Staff, Bureau of Phil- 
anthropic Research 1445 

Central Verband of the Bund Organizations of America 1455 

D. Provisional Executive Committee for General Zionist 

Affairs, by Jacob de Haas, Secretary 1456 

Jewish National Fund Bureau for America - - - - 1461 

E. The Jews of New York in the Relief Work, by Henry 
Goodman 1462 

Central Committee for the Relief of Jews Suffering 

through the War 1473 

American Jewish Relief Committee 1473 

Jewish People's Relief Committee of America - - 1474 
The Joint Distribution Committee of the American 
Funds for Jewish War Sufferers 1475 

P. THE FIVE MILLION DOLLAR CAMPAIGN 

Appeal by Jacob H. Schiff 1479 

Copy of Cablegram received by the State Department 1481 
Cartoon: ''Will the Finger of Scorn Point You 

Out?" 1483 

Report in the "New York Times," Sunday, Decem- 
ber 16, 1917 1485 

List of Teams with their Captains 1491 

>nSCELLANEOUS 1501 

List of Books and Articles on the Jews of New York, 
compiled by Samuel Margoshes, Bureau of Jewish Edu- 
cation 1503 

INDEX 1525 



13 



LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS OP SPECIAL ARTICLES IN 
THIE JEAVISH COMMUNAL REGISTER. 

ABELSON, PAUL, Director, Bureau of Industry. 

Employers' Associations in Jewish Trades 716 

The Industrial Problem of fhe Jew in New York City. . 637 

ABRAMSON, REV. N., President, Jewish Cantors' Association of 
America. 

The Cantors and Their Problem 301 

AMATEAU, RABBI A. J., Manager of the Society for the Welfare 
of the Jewish Deaf. 

The Jewish Handicapped 1080 

BENDERLY, S., Director, Bureau of Jewish Education. 

The Present Status of Jemsh Religious Education in 

New York City 349 

BERNSTEIN, LUDWIG B., Sup't, Hebrew Sheltering Guardian 
Society, Fleasantville, New York. 

Present Status and Needs of Jewish Child Care in 

Greater New York 1051 

BRAININ, REUBEN. 

The Hebraic Movement in America and the Histadruth 

Ibrith in New York 1214 

DE HAAS, JACOB, Secretary. 

Provisional Executive Committee for General Zionist 

Affaiis 1456 

DRACHMAN, REV. DR. BERNARD, President. 

The Jewish Sabbath Association 330 

DRACHSLER, JULIUS, Secretary of the Faculty, School for 
Jewish CommunaJ Work. 

Coordinating, Standardizing and Research Institutions 

in New York City 1149 

Recreation in the Jewish Community in New York City. 467 

DUSHKIN, ALEXANDER M., Head of Department of Study and 
Appraisal, Bureau of Jewish Education. 

A Statistical Study of the Jewish Population of New 

York City 75 

Prefatory Notes on the Jewish Educational Agencies of 

New York 367 

Supplementary Weekday Instruction 368 

Sunday School Instruction 389 

Parochial Education 394 

Cheder Instruction 396 

Private Instruction in the Home 399 

14 



ENTEEN, JOEL. 

Yiddish Literature (In the Old World and the New) ... 381 

ESKOLSKY, RABBI J., Secretary. 

Va'ad Horabbonim 287 

EVEN, ISAAC. 

Chassidisra in the New World ; 341 

GEDALECIA, JOSEPH, Manager of the Communal Employment 
Bureau for the Handicapped. 

Non-Commercial Emplojoneut Bureaus in the Jewish 

Community of New York City 641 

GLANZ, A., Member of Central Committee. 

The Socialist Territorialist Labor Party 1386 

GOLDWASSER, I. EDWIN, Executive Director. 

Federation for the Support of Jewish Philanthropic 

Societies of New York. '. 1281 

The Work of Young Men's Hebrew and Kindred Asso- 
ciations in New York City 475 

GOODMAN, HENRY. 

The Jews of New York in the Relief Work 1462 

HURWITZ, RABBI S. L., Secretary. 

Agudath Horabbonim Hamattifim (Jewish Ministers' 

Association of America) 1189 

HYAMSON, REV. DR. M., Chairman. 

The Milah Board of the Jewish Community 321 

ISAACS, MEIR, Bureau of Jewish Education. 

How the Jewish Communal Register Was Compiled. ... 91 

JOSEPH, SAMUEL. 

Jewish Immigrant Work 1237 

KAMINSKY, ALEXANDER H., Managing Director. Jewish Big 
Brother Association. 

The Problem of Delinquency in the Jewish Community 

of New York City 1133 

KAPLAN, HYMAN, formerly of the Jewish Bureau of Philan- 
thropic Research. 

The Credit Union Movement Among the Jews of New 

York City 727 

KAPLAN, M. M., Professor of Homiletics, Jewish Theological 
Seminary of America. 

Affiliation with the Synagogue 117 

KRETCHMAR-ISREELI, A. 

The Poal-Zion Movement 1374 

15 



KRUGER, ALBERT, Sup't, Home of the Daughters of Jacob. 

Homes for the Aged 1109 

LEVENSOHN, LOTTA. 

Hadassali, the Women's Zionist Organization 1359 

LIPSKY, LOUIS, Chairman, Executive Committee. 

The Federation of American Zionists 1340 

M AGNES, J. L., Chairman, Executive Committee of the Kehillah 
(Jewish Community) of New York City. 

Introductory Remarks on Religious Agencies Ill 

MARGOLIES, RABBI M. S., President. 

Agudath Horabbonim (Union of Orthodox Rabbis of the 

United States and Canada) 1180 

MARGOSHES, SAMUEL, Bureau of Jewish Education. 

The Jewish Press in New York City 596 

List of Books and Articles on the Jews of New York. . . 1503 

The Verband Movement in New York City 1328 

MARSHALL, LOUIS, President. 

The American Jewish Committee 1413 

NEUMANN, JOSHUA H., Editor of "Young Judaean." 

Young Jud^a 1396 

OSEROFF, ABRAHAM, Executive Director, United Hebrew 
Charities. 

Federation of Sisterhoods 1012 

Jewish Day Nurseries in New York City 1033 

United Hebrew Charities of the City of New York and 

Subsidiary Relief Agencies 994 

PINCUS, J. W., Secretary, Federation of Jewish Farmers. 

Institutions for Promotion of Agriculture Among the 

Jews in the United States 1248 

PINSKI, DAVID. 

The Yiddish Theatre 572 

POOL, REV. DR. D. De SOLA, former President. 

The New York Board of Jewish Ministers 294 

ROSENBLATT, FRANK F., Chief of Staff, Bureau of Philanthropic 
Research. 

Jewish Labor Organizations 697 

Mutual Aid Organizations 732 

The Jewish Socialist Federation of America 1256 

The United Hebrew Trades 1276 

16 



RICHARDS, BERNARD G., Executive Secretary, Executive Com- 
mittee for an American Jewish Congress. 

The American Jewish Congress 1429 

SACKLER, HARRY, Administrative Secretary of the Kehillah. 

A Brief History of the Kehillah 45 

SCHARFSTEIN, Z'VI, Bureau of Jewish Education. 

Hebrew Speaking Clubs in America 564 

SCHLESINGER, BENJAMIN, President. 

The International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union... 1269 

SCHLOSSBERG, JOSEPH, General Secretary. 

Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America 1254 

SCHULMAN, REV. DR. SAMUEL. 

The Central Conference of American Rabbis 1169 

SEINFEL, SAMUEL, Manager, Hebrew Free Loan Society. 

Free Loan Societies 689 

SILVERMAN, REV. DR. JOSEPH, President. 

Eastern Council of Reform Rabbis 1177 

TELLER, CHESTER J., Executive Secretary. 

Jewish Board for Welfare Work 1204 

WAXMAN, DR. MEYER. 

The Mizrachi 1350 

WALDMAN, MORRIS D., Executive Director, Federated Jewish 
Charities of Boston, Mass. 

Jewish Philanthropy in New York City •. . . 989 

WOLFSON, LEO, First Vice-Grand Master (in New York), Inde- 
pendent Western Star Order. 

Jewdsh Fraternal Organizations 865 

YALDEN, J. ERNEST G., Sup't, Baron de Hirsch Trade SchooL 

Vocational Schools Established and Maintained by the 

Jewish Community in New York 648 

Hebrew Technical Institute (for Boys) 648 

Hebrew Technical School for Girls 649 

Clara de Hirsch Home for Working Girls 650 

Baron de Hirsch Trade School 651 

ZUNSER, CHAS., Acting Secretary and Counsel, National Deser- 
tion Bureau. 

Family Desertion as a Community Problem and its 

Treatment 1318 



17 



Calendars 



19 



lot" 


'. Sop 


(.17- 


-Oct. 16] TISHRI 30 DAYS n^^lD 


nt^*n 








(n"tj'n) HD^^t^ ,riD^6^D 


Civil 
Montb 


Day 
of the 
Week 


Jewisb 
Month 


SABBATHS, FESTIVALS, FASTS 


D1» 




Sept. 




Tiibri 






ntrn 


17 


M 


1 


New Year njt^'H L'^Nm 'i< 


2 


1 


18 


T 


2 


New Year n^K'n t^XIT 'n 


i 


9 


19 


W 


3 


Fast of Gedaliah n^!^13 Q1V 


n 


3 


20 


Th 


4 




n 


4 


21 


F 


5 




1 ' 


5 


22 


S 


6 


^n1t^' nns^' ,i^''i 


T 


6 


23 


s 


7 




K 


i 


24 


M 


8 




n 


8 


25 


T 


9 




i 


9 


26 


W 


10 


Day of Atonement l^fiS QV 


1 


10 


27 


Th 


11 




n 


11 


28 


F 


12 




1 


12 


29 


s 


13 


):^fi^n 


r 


13 


30 


s 


14 




s* 


14 


Oct. 






^ 






1 


M 


15 


Tabernacles DI^D" ^fc< 


n 


15 


2 


T 


16 


Tabernacles niDDT 'n 


J 


16 


3 


W 


17 


' 


T 


17 


4 


Th 


18 




n 


18 


5 


F 


19 


-yiDH ^in- 


1 


19 


6 


s 


20 




T 


20 


7 


s 


21 


.sni «Ji;t3^in 


N 


21 


8 


M 


22 


Eighth of the Feast rn^Jl ^!^DE^* 


n 


22 


9 


T 


23 


Rejoicing the Law niVJ/ ""J^Ot^ 


: 


23 


10 


W 


24 


:n iiD« 


n 


24 


11 


Th 


25 




n 


25 


12 


F 


26 




1 


26 


13 


S 


27 


*jninn D^DniD ,n^t^'«nn 


T 


27 


14 


s 


28 




vS 


28 


15 


M 


29 




3 


29 


16 


T 


30 


New Moon tmn L^'KIl '« 


J 


30 



Adapted, with Permission, from American Jewish Year Book, 1917 1^18 



20 



101 7, Oct. 17— Nov. 15] HESHVAN 30 DAYS n"nn ,\)^n 

(r]"^2) no^^tj' ,nD"itj'Q 


CivU 

Month 


Day 
of the 
Week 


JewUh 
Month 


SABBATHS, FESTIVALS, FASTS 


Vinson 


DV 


Oct. 

17 
18 
19 
20 


w 

Th 

F 


Hesvan 
• 1 

2 
3 

4 


New Moon tJ^Tin {J^NII 'n 




1 

2 

3 

4 


21 
22 
23 

24 
25 

26 

27 


s 

M 
T 
W 
Th 
F 
S 


5 

6 
7 
8 
9 

10 
11 


1^1^ 




5 

6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 


28 
29 
30 
31 

Nov. 

1 
2 
3 


s 

M 
T 
W 

Th 
F 
S 


12 
13 
14 
15 

16 
17 

18 


Kl^l 




12 
13 
14 
15 

16 

11 


4 
5 

6 
7 
8 
9 
10 


s 

M 
T 
W 
Th 
F 
S 


19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 


tj'Tinn D^DinD ,ni6J^ ""^n 


n 


19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 


11 
12 
13 
14 
15 


s 

M 
T 
W 
Th 


26 
27 
28 
29 
30 


New Moon ^'])n {^«m 'N 


26 
27 
28 
29 
30 



21 



1917, Nov. 16— Dec. 15] KISLEV 30 DAYS n^i/ID ,1^DD 

(n"tr3) HD^^tJ^ ,nmtJ'D 


Cml 
Month 


Day 
of the 
Week 


Jewish 
Month 


SABBATHS, FESTIVALS, FASTS 




DV 


Not. 

16 
17 


F 
S 


Kislev 

1 

2 


New Moon fiJ'Tin {J^fe^ll '2 

nn^in 


1 
T 


1 
2 


18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 


s 

M 
T 
W 
Th 
F 
S 


3 
4 
5 

6 

7 
8 
9 


j?v^i 


n 

T 


3 
4 
5 
6 

8 
9 


25 

26 

27 
28 
29 
30 

Dec. 

1 


s 

M 
T 
W 
Th 
F 

S 


10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 

16 


n^K^^i 


2 

y 

n 
1 

T 


10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 

16 


2 
3 
4 
5 

6 

7 
8 


s 

M 
T 
W 
Th 
F 
S 


17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 


t^Tinn Doino ,n^>"i 


2 

n 
r 


17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 


9 

10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 


s 

M 
T 
W 
Th 
F 

s 


24 
25 
26 
27 

28 
29 
30 


Hannukah, Feast of Dedicationn^ljn 
New Moon tnin {J^«m 'X ,rpD 


2 

n 

r 


24 
25 

26 

27 
28 
29 
30 



22 



191- 


M)oc. 1(5— 


mis, Jan. in] TEBET 29 DAYS n^Vin 


.nit5 






(n"i^n) ^o^>:^' ,nD'iti'2 


CivU 
Month 


of the 
Week 


Jewish 
Month 


SABBA HS, FESTIVALS, FASTS 






Dec. 




Tebet 






nsu 


16 


s 


i 


New Moon c^-nn t^'t^Tl '2 


K 


1 


17 


M 


2 


Eighth Day of Hanniikah 


n 


2 


18 


T 3 




i 


3 


19 


W 


4 




1 


4 


20 


Th 


5 




n 


5 


21 


F 


6 




1 


6 


22 


S 


7 


■ m^) 


T 


7 


23 


s 


8 




K 


8 


24 


M 


9 




n 


9 


25 


T 


10 


Fast of Tebet r\2D2 r\'^^V D1V 


} 


10 


26 


W 


11 




1 


11 


27 


Th 


12 




n 


12 


28 


F 


13 




1 


13 


29 


S 


14 


^n^i 


T 


14 


30 


s 


15 




K 


15 


31 


M 


16 




2 


16 


Jan. 












1 


T 


17 




^ 


17 


2 


W 


18 




1 


18 


3 


Th 


19 




n 


19 


4 


F 


20 




1 


20 


5 


S 


21 


niDtr 


r 


21 


6 


s 


22 




N 


22 


7 


M 


23 




3 


23 


8 


T 


24 




3 


24 


9 


W 


25 




1 


25 


10 


Th 


26 




n 


26 


11 


F 


27 




1 


27 


12 


S 


28 


trnnn D^3nn» ,^1x1 


r 


28 


13 


s 


29 




K 


29 



23 



1918, Jan 


14— 


Feb. 12] EHZBAT SO DAYS n"V'\r) 


,D3tJ' 






(n"c'n) iirz 


^^K^ ,r]^)ii^^ 


Cml 

MoBtll 


o?Se 
Week 


Jewuh 
Mondi 


SABBATHS, FESTIVALS, FASTS 






Ja>. 




Skebat 






untr 


14 


M 


1 


NewMoou t^'Tin ^i't^l 


2 


1 


15 


T 


2 




i 


2 


16 


w 


3 




1 


3 


17 


Th 


4 




n 


4 


18 


F 


5 




1 


5 


19 


S 


6 


Nn 


T 


6 


20 


s 


7 




({ 


7 


21 


M 


8 




2 


8 


22 


T 


9 




J 


9 


23 


W 


10 




n 


10 


24 


Th 


11 




n 


11 


25 


F 


12 




1 


12 


26 


s 


13 


ni^t^ r\2i^ ,^^t^•3 


r 


13 


27 


s 


14 




K 


14 


28 


M 


15 


New Year/or Trees n'i:b"'i<bn:tJ>n C^KI 


2 


15 


29 


T 


16 


■ 


J 


16 


30 


W 


17 




1 


17 


31 


Th 


18 




n 


18 


Feb. 












1 


F 


19 




1 


19 


2 


S 


20 


inn^ 


T 


20 


3 


s 


21 




^< 


21 


4 


M 


22 




2 


22 


5 


T 


23 




: 


23 


G 


W 


24 




T 


24 


7 


Th 


25 


' 


n 


25 


8 


F 


26 




1 


26 . 


9 1 S 


27 


t^nnn doido ,D^^pt^' 'd ,D^iDBtj^D 


T 


27 


10 


S 


28 




28 


11 


M 


29 




2 


29 


12 


T 


30 


NewMuou ^iin :>^i<"n '}< 


: 


30 



24 



1918, Feb. 13— Mch. 13] ADAR 29 DAYS n"yin ,m« 

(n'Vn) no^^tj^ ,nDitj^D 


Gril 

Month 


oft?. 
Week 


Jewish 
Month 


SABBATHS, FESTIVALS, FASTS 




nv 


Feb. 
13 

14 
15 
16 


w 

Th 
F 
S 


Adar 

1 

2 
3 

4 


New Moon ^-[^n K^Xm 'n 

nnnn 


n 

T 


1 
2 
3 
4 


17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 


s 

M 

T 
W 
Th 

F 

S 


5 

6 
7 
8 
9 

10 
11 


mr ntj^iD ,nivn 


n 
1 

T 


5 
6 

7 
8 
9 

10 
11 


24 

25 
26 

27 
28 

March 

1 

2 


s 

M 
T 
W 
Th 

F 
S 


12 
13 
14 
15 
16 

17 

18 


Fast of Esther "IDDK DIV 
Purim, Feast of Esther nniD 
Shushan Purim D^ID \^*)^ 


n 

1 
n 

r 


12 
13 
14 
15 
16 

17 

18 


3 

4 
5 
6 

7 
8 
9 


s 

M 
T 
W 
Th 
F 
S 


19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 


n"nnD ^tj'iinn ntJ^iQ ,^i)p^-'>r]p'y 


2 

: 

1 - 
n 
1 

T 


19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 


10 
11 
12 
13 


s 

M 
T 
W 


26 
27 
28 
29 




n 

1 


26 

27 
28 
29 



25 



1918, Mch. 14— Apl. 12] NISAN 30 DAYS 


^"y^n^ID'': 


(n"^'2) HD^^tj^ ,nDr^Q 1 


Cml 
MoBtk 


of the 
Week 


JewUfa 
Meath 


SABBATHS, FESTIVALS, FASTS 




emnn 


March 




Nuan 






p'J 


14 


Th 


1 


New Moon ^im ^i^l 


n 


1 


15 


F 


2 




1 


2 


16 


S 


3 


t<1pn 


T 


3 


17 


s 


4 




K 


4 


18 


M 


5 




1 


5 


19 


T 


6 




:i 


6 


20 


W 


7 




1 


7 


21 


Th 


8 




n 


8 


22 


F 


9 




1 


9 


23 


S 


10 


^nin r\2^ ,iv 


r 


10 


24 


s 


11 




N 


11 


25 


M 


12 




2 


12 


26 


T 


13 




y 


13 


27 


W 


14 




1 


14 


28 


Th 


15 


Passover riDST 'i^ 


n 


15 


29 


F 


16 


Passover, First Day of OmernDQT '2 


1 


16 


30 
31 


S 


17 




t 


17 


s 


18 




N 


18 


April 






ny^on ^in- 






1 


M 


19 




2 


19 


2 


T 


20 




) 


20 


3 


W 


21 


Passover nDDI 't 


n 


21 


4 


Th 


22 


Passover IIDDT 'H 


n 


22 


5 


F 


23 


jn not^ 


1 


23 


6 


S 


24 


^Dnn DonnD /j^joti^ 


T 


24 


7 


S 


25 




« 


25 


8 


M 


26 




2 


26 


9 


T 


27 




i 


27 


10 


W 


28 




1 


28 


11 


Th 


29 




n 


29 


12 


F 


30 


New Moon tJ^llH tJ>fc<1"I '« 


1 


30 



26 



1918, Api. in~May 11] lYAR 29 DAYS n"y"in ,n^^N 

(^"t^'n) nc^^t^ ,nmtj'D 


"»"*•' i Week 


Jewifh 
Month 


SABBATHS, FESTIVALS. FASTS „°''jj,3 




April 

13 


S 


lyar 

1 


NewMoou n""n'3 ,i;TiVD-i;^nTn 


r 


1 


U 
15 
IH 
17 
18 
19 
20 


s 

M 
T 
W 
Th 
F 
S 


2 

3 
4 

5 
6 

7 
8 


D^tJ^np-nin nnt? 


n 

■ J 

n 

T 


2 
3 

4 
5 
6 

7 
8 


21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 


s 

M 
T 
W 
Th 
F 
S 


9 

10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 




2 

: 
r 


9 

10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 


28 
29 
30 

May 
1 
2 
3 

4 


s 

M 
T 

W 
Th 
F 
S 


16 
17 

18 

19 
20 
21 
22 


33dDayofOmer lOiya y'r 

Tipna-nna 


n 
n 
"I 

T 


16 
17 

18 

19 
20 
21 

22 


5 
6 

7 
8 
9 

10 
11 


s 

M 
T 
W 
Th 
F 
S 


23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 


t^'Tinn D^DinD ,ia-iaa 


2 

T 

n 
1 

T 


23 

24 
25 

26 
27 
28 
29 



27 



1918, May 12— June 10] S^VAN 30 DAYS 


n^y-in 


AVO 


{n"^2) HD 


^^^ ,nm:i'Q 


ClTil 

Montli 


Week 


Jewuh 
Month 


SABBATHS, FESTIVALS, FASTS 


nv 




M.7 




Siran 






]VD 


12 


s 


1 


NewMoou t>-nn ti'^n 


fc« 


1 


13 


M 


2 




3 


2 


14 


T 


3 




: 


3 


15 


W 


4 


1 


4 


16 


Th 


5 i 


n 


5 


17 


F 


6 Feast of Weeks niVntJ'l 'X 


"1 


6 


18 


S 


7 


Feast of Weeks niyntJ^T '2 


T 


7 


19 


s 


8 


m no^ 


X 


8 


20 


M 


9 




3 


9 


21 


T 


10 




: 


10 


22 


W 


11 


, 


1 


11 


23 


Th 


12 




n 


12 


24 


F 


13 




1 


13 


25 


S 


14 


i<^2 


T 


14 
15 


26 


s 


15 




K 


27 


M 


16 




n 


16 


28 


T 


17 




i 


17 


29 


W 


18 




n 


18 


30 


Th 


19 




n 


19 


31 


F 


20 




1 


20 


Jime 












1 


S 


21 


int'vnn 


T 


21 


2 


s 


22 




« 


22 


3 


M 


23 




1 


23 


4 


T 


24 




i 


24 


5 


W 


25 




1 


25 


6 


Th 


26 




n 


26 


7 


F 


27 j 


1 


27 


8 


S 


28 i ti^nnn D'Dino ,i^ n^sj' 


T 


28 


9 


S 


29 ; 


X 


29 


10 


M 


30 I New Moon i^^l^n {^«m '« 


n 


30 



36 



1918, June 11— July 9] TAMMUZ 2d DAYS n"nn JIDJl 

(n"^2) n^^'pii^ ^HDitJ'Q 


CitU 

Month 


.?3r. 

Week 


Jewicli 
MoBtk 


SABBATHS, FESTIVALS, FASTS 






June 

11 

12 

13 
14 
15 


T 
W 
Th 

F 

S 


Tamnz 

1 

2 
3 
4 
5 


New Moon tj^iin ^i^^M '3 


n 


non 
1 
2 
3 
4 
5 


16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 


s 

M 

T 
W 
Th 

F 

S 


6 
7 
8 
9 
10 

11 
12 


p^rnpn 


n 

n 

1 

T 


6 
7 
8 
9 

10 
11 
12 


23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 


s 

M 
T 
W 
Th 
F 
S 


13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 




n 
1 
r 


13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 


• 

Fast of Tammuz nona T"' D1V 


30 

July 

1 

2 
3 

4 
5 
6 


s 

M 
T 
W 
Th 
F 
S 


20 




n 

T 


20 

21 
22 
23 

24 
25 
26 


21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 


^i)nr\ D^3inD ,^yDtt-nrjD 


7 
8 
9 


s 

M 


27 

28 
29 




n 


27 
28 
29 



^ 



29 



1918, July 10— Aug. 8] AB 30 DAYS 


n"nn ,n« 






in"^:i) nr: 


••^tj' ,nDitj'fi 


CiTil 

Month 


of the 
Week 


Jewish 
Month 


SABBATHS, 


FESTIVALS, FASTS 






July 




Ah 








sx 


10 


w 


1 


New Moon 


t^mn tj^^n 




1 


11 


Th 


2 








2 


12 


F 


3 








3 


13 


S 


4 




ptn nnti> ,Dnm 




4 


14 


s 


5 








5 


15 


M 


6 








6 


16 


T 


7 








7 


17 


W 


8 








8 . 


18 


Th 


9 


Fast of Ab 


n«n r]V^r] di^ 




9 


19 


F 


10 








10 


20 


S 


11 




iDHJ nntj^ A:nr\i<) 




11 
12 


21 


s 


12 








22 


M 


13 




• 




13 


23 


T 


14 








14 


24 


W 


15 


, 






15 


25 


Th 


16 








16 


26 


F 


17 








17 


27 


S 


18 


npy 




18 


28 


s 


19 








19 


29 


M 


20 








20 


30 


T 


21 








21 


31 


W 


22 








22 


Ang. 














1 


Th 


23 


• ' 






23 


2 


F 


24 








24 


3 


S 


25 




t^-iinn D^Dnno ,n«i 




25 


4 


s 


26 








26 


5 


M 


27 








27 


6 


T 


28 








28 


7 


W 


29 








29 


8 


Th 


30 


New Moon 


K^Tin ti-'^n 'N 


•' 


30 



30 



1918, Aug. 9— Sept. 6] ELUL 29 DAYS 


a"ynn 


.^I^N 


(n'Vn) HD^^^ ,nDiK'c 


Civil 
Month 


Day 
of the 
Week 


Monih*! SABBATHS, FESTIVALS, FASTS 

1 






Aas. 




EIul 






SiSk 


9 


F 


1 


New Moon t^^"l^ ^i^'M '2 


1 


1 


10 


S 


2 
3 


D^oati' 


r 


2 


11 


s 




^s* 


3 


12 


M 


4 




1 


4 


13 


T 


5 




3 


5 


11 


W 


6 


' 


n 


6 


15 


Th 


7 




n 


7 


-16 


F 


8 




1 


8 


17 


S 


9 


«^n ^:d 


T 


9 


18 


s 


10 




10 


19 


M 


11 




1 


11 


20 


T 


12 




I 


12 


21 


W 


13 


* 


T 


13 


22 


Th 


14 




n 


14 


23 


F 


15 




1 


15 


24 


S 


16 


t<nn >2 


T 


16 


25 


s 


17 




K 


17 


26 


M 


18 




n 


18 


27 


T 


19 




:! 


19 


28 


W 


20 




T 


20 


29 


Th 


21 




n 


21 


30 


F 


22 




1 


22 


31 


S 


23 


I^^VD^VJ 


T 


23 


Sept. 










1 


s 


24 


Selihot nin^^D^ D^QOK^D 


N 


24 


2 


M 


25 




■a 


25 


o 


T 


26 




3 


20 


4 


W 


27 




n 


27 


5 


Th 


28 




n 


28 


6 


F 


29 


njE^n ^^'^ y\v 


"1 


29 



31 



191S 


, Sept. 7— Oct. 6] TISHRI 30 DAYS D"yin , 


nti^n 




0"nT) nnon ,niniyt3 


CiTil 

Month 


«?'fc« teh^ SABBATHS, FESTIVALS, FASTS 

Week 1 1 




nv 


Sept. 


Tishri 




ncn 


7 


S : 1 New Year nji^H K^t^ll 'S* 


T 


1 


8 


S { 2 , New Year nJC'n t^'«^"[ '2 


&< 


2 


9 


M 


3 


J'ast of Gedaliah pI^^T^ DIV 


2 


3 


10 


T 


4 




i 


4 


11 


w 


5 




1 


5 


12 


Th 


6 


n 


6 


13 


F 7 


1 


7 


11 


s I 8 1 nmtj' r\:i^ ,i:nNn 


t 


8 


15 


S i 9 1 


N 


9 


16 


M 10 


Day of Atonement ^ISD DV 


n 


10 


17 


T 


111 




:i 


11 


18 


W 


12 




T 


12 


19 


Th 


13 




n 


13 


20 


F 


14 




1 


14 


21 


S 


15 


Tabernacles DiaD"! 'i< 


T 


15 


22 


s 


16 


Tal)ernacles ni3D"7 '2 


s* 


16 


23 


M 


17 


r 


3 


17 


2+ 


T 


18 




i 


18 


25 


W 


19 


ivirzn "r^n] 


-I 


19 


26 


Th 


20 




n 


20 


27 


F 


21 


i^2i i^:vi^)r] 


T 


21 


28 


S 


22 


8th Day of the Feast nivy ""J^Dt^ 


T 


22 


29 


s 


23 


Rejoicing of the Law niin nnrot^ 


« 


23 


30 


M i 21 


;in nD« 


2 


24 


Oct. 












1 


T 


25 




: 


25 


2 


W 


26 




1 


26 


3 


Th 


27 




n 


27 


4 


F 


28 




1 


28 


5 


S 1 29 


{^iinn D^Dino ,n'':rxin 


T 


29 


6 


1 S 30 


New Moon p'^'n t^Hin tJ'N-n '« 


K 


30 



a 

M 

b 


§ n en - « 

r- 
^ - C /> ;^ ,^ ,^ C r ,- ,a n n ^^ . « 


5 r 
^ 2 3C 


S ^' ^' S S E-" S Eh- 

2" 2 gf ?i ^' "** '^^ ;f 

1 1 1 1 6 I'll 


• Eh ra pel ra to ra m 

; 5f ss §■ s" s" sf s" 


1 f 

2 ^f" 


J 


H^^HE^P^^^^ :^f=:^^^S 


s h- TjT o> o t«; t>r .^ ^* : eo" oT o CO eo ^" 


2 c 
2 1, 


*-" °»" S ?5 §S n S 52 : 2 S S ^ ^' 2 *«* 


22 c 

2 t 


^' 2 S -' « ** 2 S" ^- i S - V i:;' &• 2 


2 ^ 


§5 o t^- 2 2 § g ^' « i ^" 2 S S:f »-* g 


1 1 


=>■ =■ s" s s' - "" s" 


^ t^ S H' ^' H H 

2" 2 S' S '-" S «*■ 

S ^ < <3 ►? ►^ <- 


1 


- ^ S S S §5 S 


1 1 i 1 1 1 i i ^ 


23 1 

ii 


1 


iiiiii 


ll 


1 1 1 1 1 II 



& a 



r P S £ - ^ 



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IT »" •" ^ *■> *» 

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1 










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— I 00 CO O «-! ©« t^ 

(M C<1 »H »-( t-t C<l 



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8 -g 



H S Eh' ^ E-I H 



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02 O 



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Eh' H E- H E^ ^ S 



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S M M CQ 

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fa fa 

S I 
Q S 



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1 1 1 1 1 .1 II I ^ 1 1 1 1 L 







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34 











>,ZiiQ CUIL^ 


1 OOiOCS500iOOiOOiOa)OOiOOi 
1 CO (N ^ (M fO (N CO (N CO (M CO (N CO (N CO (N 




i 




Sept. 30 

Oct. 30 

Nov. 29 
Dec. 29 
Jan. 27 
Feb. 26 

Mch. 26 
Apl. 25 
May 24 
June 23 
July 22 
Aug. 21 


i 


to 


»o 

i 

T— ( 


(N <N O 05 !>. CO 00 CO CO Ttl -"tl C^ rH 


5: 

1- 


Tt< 




Sept. 22 

Oct. 22 

Nov. 21 
Dec. 21 
Jan. 19 
Feb. 28 

Mch. 19 
Apl. 18 
May 17 
June 16 
July 15 
Aug. 14 




1 


CO 

So 

1— ( 


CO<M rHrHOJOO Oi 00 t>- CO tO ''^ 

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to 


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1-H 


Sept. 26 

Oct. 26 

Nov. 25 
Dec. 25 
Jan. 23 
Feb. 22 

Mch. 23 
Apl. 22 
May 21 
June 20 
July 19 
Aug. 18 




a 


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Sept. 30 

Oct. 30 

Nov. 29 
Dec. 29 
Jan. 27 
Feb. 26 

Mch. 27 
Apl. 26 
May 25 
June 24 
July 23 
Aug. 22 


C lo 


T— 1 


Sept. 10 

Oct. 10 

Nov. 9 
Dec. 9 
Jan. 7 

Feb. 6 
Mch. 8 
Apl. 6 
May 6 
June 4 
July 4 
Aug. 2 
Sept 1 


Q CO 


8 

05 


Sept. 22 
Oct. 22 

Nov. 20 
Dec. 20 
Jan. 18 
Feb. 17 

Mch. 17 
Apl. 16 
May 15 
June 14 
July 13 
Aug. 12 


*% ^ 


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Sept. 24 

Oct. 24 

Nov. 23 
Dec. 23 
Jan. 21 
Feb. 20 

Mch. 21 
Apl. 20 
May 19 
June 18 
July 17 
Aug. 16 


•si 


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1 

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2 


Oct. 4 
Nov. 3 

Dec. 2 
Jan. 1 
Jan. 30 
Mch. 1 

Mch. 30 
Apl. 29 
May 28 
June 27 
July 26 
Aug. 25 


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fi i S iiiiliil 


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Sept. 26 

Oct. 26 

Nov. 25 
Dec. 25 
Jan. 23 
Feb. 22 

Mch. 23 
Apl. 22 
May 21 
June 20 
July 19 
Aug. 18 


C 00 


1 

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Sept. 9 
Oct. 9 

Nov. 7 

Dec. 6 
Jan. 4 

Feb. 3 
Mch. 4 
Apl. 2 
May 2 
May 31 
June 30 
July 29 
Aug. 28 


c l> 


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Sept. 20 
Oct. 20 

Nov. 18 
Dec. 18 
Jan. 16 
Feb. 15 

Mch. 16 
Apl. 15 
May 14 
June 13 
July 12 
Aug. 11 


09 

1-9 


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o 

6 


^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 






Tishri 1 

Heshvan 1 

Heshvan 1 

Kislev 1 

Kislev 1 

Tebet 1 

Shebat 1 

Adar 1 

Adar 1 

Adar Sheni 1 

Nisam 1 

lyar 1 

Sivan 1 

Tammuz 1 

Ab 1 

Elul 1 



41 






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(N C^ <N 05 (M 1-H 



02 



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<;Wt-5 piH ^ <t3 ^ t-s >-:, 1-9 <j 



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COlC^COC^ rH 



C^C<1 |»-H |r-<i-lr-t I 11— l»-lrHrH.-<»H 















oooot^ 

COC0<N(N 



O 4) 



00 l> CO lO TjH CO 



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42 



TIME OF SUNRISE AND SUNSET 
Latitude 40' North 
(For Southern New York, Connecticut, Rhode Island, 
Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York City) 



1918 


Dawn 
Begins 


Sunrise 


Sunset 


Twilight 
Eads 


trim Dv 












n"yin 


Jan. 1 . . . . 


5.46 


7.25 


4.43 


6.22 


nils 17 


Jan. 10.... 


5.46 


7.25 


4.51 


6.29 


nnta 26 


Jan. 20.... 


5.45 


7.19 


5.03 


6.38 


tsnty 7 


Feb. 1.. .. 


5.37 


7.10 


5.18 


6.51 


uniy 19 


Feb. 10.... 


5.29 


7.01 


5.29 


7.00 


tanty 28 


Feb. 20.... 


5.17 


6.48 


5.40 


7.12 


-n« 8 


Mch. 1.... 


5.03 


6.35 


5.51 


7.22 


m« 17 


Mch.lO.... 


4.49 


6.21 


6.01 


7.32 


-inN 2G 


Mch. 20.... 


4.33 


6.04 


6.11 


7.44 


]D<i 7 


Apl. 1 . . . . 


4.12 


5.45 


6.24 


7.56 


ID'J 19 


Apl. 10.... 


3.54 


5.28 


6.33 


8.08 


]D': 28 


Apl. 20.... 


3.36 


5.13 


6.43 


8.21 


V^H 8 


May 1.... 


3.16 


4.59 


6.58 


8.32 


1'>N 19 


May 10.... 


3.02 


4.50 


7.04 


8.45 


1'^N 28 


May 20.... 


2.46 


4.39 


7.14 


9.00 


]TD 9 


June 1 . . . . 


2.32 


4.31 


7.24 


9.23 


IVD 21 


June 10 


2.27 


4.28 


7.29 


9.32 


]VD 30 


June 20 


2.25 


4.29 


7.34 


9.36 


TIDD 10 


July 1.... 


2.28 


4.31 


7.35 


9.37 


T^on 21 


July 10.... 


2.38 


4.37 


7.33 


9.31 


nx 1 


July 20.... 


2.50 


4.44 


7.27 


9.21 


3« 11 


Aug. 1.... 


3.06 


4.56 


7.16 


9.06 


nN 23 


Aug. 10.... 


3.19 


5.05 


7.06 


8.50 


'71'?N 2 


Aug. 20. . . . 


3.34 


5.15 


6.53 


8.33 


b)bH 12 


Sept. 1.... 


3.50 


5.27 


6.33 


8.10 


'?l'7K 24 


Sept. 10.... 


4.00 


5.36 


6.19 


7.54 


ntrn 4 


Sept. 20.... 


4.12 


5.45 


6.02 


7.36 


nBTi 14 


Oct. 1.... 


4.25 


5.56 


5.43 


7.16 


nirn 25 


Oct. 10.... 


4.35 


6.05 


5.31 


6.58 


]itrn 4 


Oct. 20.... 


4.45 


6.15 


5.16 


6.43 


]wn 14 


Noy. 1.... 


4.57 


6.29 


4.59 


6.31 


]wn 26 


Noy. 10... 


5.09 


6.40 


4.49 


6.21 


^'7D2 6 


Noy. 20... 


5.17 
5.27 
5.35 


6.53 


4.39 


6.15 


l'?DD 16 


Dec. 1 . . . . 


7.05 


4.34 


6.11 


l'7D3 27 


Dec. 10... 


7.14 


4.33 


6.11 


nn: 7 


Dec. 20... 


i 5.41 


7.20 


4.36 


6.14 


nnta 17 



"The Jewish Encyclopedia." Copyright by Funk A WaanallB Company. 
N«w York »nd London 



i 



Kehillah 



THE KJSHILLAH (JEWISH COMMUmTT) 4ft 

THE KEHILLAH OF NEW YORK 

I 
A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE KEHILIiAH 

By Harry Sackler 
Administrative Secretary of the Kehillah 

1. The Kehillah Idea 

The Kehillah idea — that is, organized Jewish life with 
a Jewish community as its basis — is deeply rooted in 
Jewish tradition and in Jewish experience. During the 
many centuries of national disintegration, the result of 
persecution and dispersion, the Jews still managed to 
maintain their community life — the last vestige of 
autonomous existence. Wherever a group of Jews found 
refuge, even if it were only a temporary respite, they 
immediately began to look after their communal needs; 
a place to pray for the living and a place to rest for the 
dead. 

But while the primary functions of the traditional 
Kehillah were of a religious nature, it also took upon 
itself to care for many of the social and economic, as well 
as the political, needs of the Jewish group. Charity — or 
more properly ** Justice" (Zdokoh) — was one of its main 
tasks; and whenever the peace of the community or of 
any of its members was threatened by the powers that 
be, it devolved upon the leaders of the Kehillah to avert 
the blow or, at least, to mitigate its severity. And so, in 
the course of centuries, the Kehillah became the strong- 
hold of the individual Jew, and "Kahal" came to be 



46 COMMUNAL. KEGISTER 

looked upon by the non-Jewish world as the authoritative 
representative of Jewish interests. 

It would, indeed, have been rather strange and discon- 
certing if a tradition so deeply rooted in Jewish life and 
in Jewish experience, would have been discontinued in 
the new haven which the Jews found in the Western 
hemisphere. For a long time it looked as if American 
Jewry — and particularly in its greatest point of concen- 
tration, in the City of New York — would break with the 
old tradition and be content to remain a conglomeration 
of isolated, small congregations. For many years it 
looked as if there were small hope that the greatest Jew- 
ish aggregation in the world would make an effort to 
unite on a common platform and thus make possible a 
solution of both its external and internal problems. 
There were, indeed, many difficulties in the way of such 
an organization. The heterogeneous character of the Jew- 
ish population; its unprecedented growth, due to a 
constant influx of immigrants; the new-comers' natural 
distrust of the older settlers, who looked upon them from 
on high ; the strained relationship that existed for many 
years between ** Uptown" and ^'Downtown"; the eco- 
nomic adjustment which absorbed the entire attention 
of the vast majority of the new settlers and left little 
room for the higher, more spiritual needs; the **Lands- 
mannschaft" tendency to segregation — all these repre- 
sented, and in a measure still represent, the forces that 
kept the Kehillah idea in abeyance. But, fortunately, 
none of these difficulties was insuperable. The ** Melting 
Pot" process within the Jewish community has been 
going an slowly, but steadily, and the sporadic outbursts 



THE KEHLLlxA^H (JEWISH COMMUNITY) 47 

of external pressure greatly helped to weld Jewish inter- 
ests and develop community consciousness. 

Beginning with the mass immigration of Eastern 
European Jews, one generation ago, the problem of 
organizing the Jewish community in New York City 
became more acute from year to year. But the formative 
forces making for such an organization were continu- 
ally gaining strength, and it required only some external 
impetus to bring these forces into play and to precipitate 
the formation of a Kehillah or Jewish Community in this 
city. This external impetus was supplied by the Bingham 
incident, in the fall of the year 1908. General Bingham, 
who was then the Police Commissioner of New York, 
made a statement that the Jews contributed 50% of the 
criminals of New York City. This statement was after- 
wards retracted as the result of many meetings held by 
Jewish organizations, which protested vehemently against 
this unfounded accusation. While probably undue im- 
portance was attached to this incident at the time, it is 
certain that it sufficed to arouse community conscious- 
ness to a degree where the organization of the Kehillah 
became feasible. 

2, Organization and Programme 

The preliminary steps leading to the organization of 
the Kehillah were taken during the fall and winter of 
1908-1909. The conference held at Clinton Hall on 
October 11 and 12, 1908, decided that an attempt be 
made to form a central organization of the Jews of New 
York City. The breaking of the trail was entrusted to a 



48 COMMUNAL REGISTER 

Committee of Twenty Five, and after four months of 
preparation, the call for the * * Constituent Convention of 
the Jewish Community of New York City" was issued. 

On February 27, 1909, three hundred delegates, rep- 
resenting two hundred and twenty-two organizations, 
convened in the auditorium of the Hebrew Charities 
Building. The convention was called to order by Dr. J. 
L. Magnes, who was elected chairman. 

In his keynote speech, the chairman outlined the rea- 
sons for the calling of the convention and stated the aims 
of the contemplated organization. He emphasized the 
fact that * * at the present time there is no representative, 
authoritative, permanent organization that dare speak 
for the Jewish people ' ' and that * * any individual or any 
organization can claim to be the spokesman of the Jews, 
and as a result there is confusion worse confounded." 
He called attention to the chaos prevailing in our re- 
ligious affairs, to the sorry plight in which Jewish edu- 
cation found itself then, to our social and charitable 
problems and to the utter lack of Jewish statistics, as 
the prerequisite of any ameliorating effort. The remedy, 
he saw in the creation of a Jewish public opinion. 
' ' There is no such thing at present, and a central organ- 
ization like that of the Jewish Community of New York 
City is necessary to create a Jewish public opinion." 

The Constituent Convention held sessions on Feb- 
ruary 27, 28 ; March 6, 27 and April 10. Ultimately it 
adopted a constitution and proceeded to elect an execu- 
tive committee consisting of twenty five members and an 
advisory council of seventy members. 

The constitution adopted gave sufficient latitude to the 



THE KEHILIiAH (JEWISH COMMUNITY) 49 

work of the new organization by declaring that the pur- 
pose of the Jewish Community of New York City is * * to 
further the cause of Judaism in New York City and to 
represent the Jews of this city with respect to all local 
matters of Jewish interest. ' ' The apparent limitation to 
''local matters" was, in fact, a purely legalistic provi- 
sion. The relationship of the new organization to the 
American Jewish Committee gave the former ample 
scope for making its voice heard and its opinions felt in 
all questions affecting the Jews the world over. This 
broad field of endeavor was secured through the consti- 
tutional provision that ' * the twenty five members elected 
by the Jewish Community of New York City as the 
Executive Committee thereof, shall, at the same time, 
constitute District XII of the American Jewish Com- 
mittee. ' ' 

The proceedings of the Constituent Convention were 
followed with eagerness by the Jews of New York and 
the new Kehillah attracted a great number of followers. 
It is true, there were those who doubted the ultimate 
success of this new venture in Jewish organization. They 
based their lack of belief on the fact that no govern- 
mental authority could possibly be secured; in other 
words, that the Kehillah of New York could not hope to 
wield the same power, based on governmental coercion, 
as the Kehillahs of the old world. But the enthusiastic 
sponsors of the Kehillah felt that this apparent weakness 
was really a source of strength. They gloried in the fact 
that the new Kehillah would ultimately derive its 
strength from the purely moral and spiritual powers 
inherent in the Jewish people. 



50 COMMUNAL REGISTER 

The first year of the Kehillah was crowded with many 
experiences. ''Each day has brought us new proofs of 
the need of a Kehillah," declared the Chairman of the 
Executive Committee, in his report to the first annual 
convention. The magnitude of the internal problems 
first revealed itself. New problems were cropping up 
continually, clamoring for immediate attention. 

Meanwhile, the Vaad Horabbonim or the Board of 
Authoritative Rabbis was established for the regulation 
of Kashruth, of Marriage and Divorce, Circumcision and 
Ritual Bath. The Board was also to cope with the prob- 
lem of Sabbath Observance and to establish a Beth Din 
or Court of Arbitration. 

The problems of education and of social and philan- 
thropic work received particular attention. A report on 
the educational situation, embodying the findings of a 
comprehensive investigation, was laid before the first 
convention, simultaneously with the announcement that 
a fund of $75,000 had been given by Jacob H. Schiff 
and the New York Foundation for the purpose of pro- 
moting and improving Jewish education. The establish- 
ing of an Employment Bureau for handicapped Jews 
was recommended. The regulation of the collections for 
Palestinian poor, known as *'Chalukah," the repudia- 
tion of ''White Slave" charges made by an unfriendly 
magazine, intercession in behalf of Jewish employees in 
the various Municipal departments who wished to be 
excused for the High Holidays, and the conducting of 
four model provisional synagogues for the New Year 
and the Day of Atonement, were the more important of 
the numerous activities which engrossed the attention of 
the Kehillah during its first year of existence. 



THE KEHllAiAH (JEWISH COMMUNITY) 51 

3. The Keliillah at Work 

The founders of the Kehillah showed foresight, when 
they defined its main task to be the formulation of our 
communal problems and the coordination of the existing 
communal instruments in order to call into being a con- 
scious, organized and united community. The Kehillah 
would surely have followed this clear-sighted policy, were 
it not for the fact that many of the vital needs of the 
community had been entirely neglected. A careful sur- 
vey of the field disclosed the imminent necessity of creat- 
ing several new communal agencies, simultaneously with 
the coordination of those already existing. The Kehillah 
then set to work with unparalleled determination and 
perseverance, and the next seven years saw the birth of 
several of the most important communal instruments. 

In 1910, the Bureau of Education was organized, for 
the purpose of standardizing the methods of Jewish edu- 
cation. This Bureau was also to find ways and means of 
providing Jewish training for all the Jewish children of 
school age in this city. In the seven years of its existence, 
this Bureau has grown to astonishing proportions, and 
its activities, as an educational factor, have long since 
extended beyond the city limits. The work is conducted 
through nine departments, a description of which will be 
found elsewhere in this volume. 

The work of surveying and charting the communal 
assets of New York Jewry was undertaken in 1911 and 
the results published in the Jewish Communal Directory, 
the first attempt of its kind in this city. 

The Employment Bureau for the Handicapped began 



52 COMMUNAL REGISTER 

its activities iii November, 1911, and has since helped to 
find employment for thousands of Jews suffering from 
disabilities of many sorts. 

The work of securing employment for handicapped 
Jews, brought the Kehillah face to face with one of the 
industrial problems affecting Jewish life, and it was in- 
evitable that ere long many other phases of the indus- 
trial problems would present themselves. The leaders of 
the Kehillah were frequently called upon to settle labor 
disputes, where both sides were Jews. The record of the 
organization abounds with many successful arbitrations 
of big strikes. This gave rise to the idea that the 
Kehillah ought to establish permanent machinery looking 
to the adjustment of all industrial disputes in the Jewish 
community. This idea was realized in 1914, when the 
Bureau of Industry was established. Its scope was de- 
fined as an ** endeavor, on the basis of a comprehensive 
knowledge of industrial conditions, to direct vocational 
training, to provide employment for the handicapped, as 
well as for the highly skilled, and to work out methods 
for the maintenance of peace in industries where Jews 
preponderate. * ' 

The suppression of improper moral conditions, so far 
as they affect the Jews in this city, was undertaken by 
the Welfare Committee of the Kehillah as early as 1912, 
following certain shocking revelations which had cast a 
sinister shadow on the good name of our people. A dis- 
creet but effective activity was carried on to stamp out 
the shame from our house, and the work met with unusual 
success. Judge Gaynor, who was then Mayor of New 
York, expressed his approbation in a letter in which he 



THE KEHILLAH (JEWISH COMMUNITY) 53 

said, ''nobody has done so much work to better moral 
conditions in this city, during my time, as you have 
done." 

An attempt to supply the dire want of scientifically 
trained communal workers was made through the estab- 
lishment of the School for Communal Work, while the 
Bureau of Philanthropic Research — having as its aim, 
the scientific study of the charity problem of New York 
Jewry, from a communal point of view — was organized 
by the Council of Jewish Communal Institutions in con- 
junction with the Kehillah. 

The maintenance of these communal agencies was a 
source of constant anxiety to the leaders of the Kehillah. 
The great mass of the people was not sufficiently alive to 
its obligations and failed to supply the necessary funds. 
But the Kehillah was undaunted. Neither indifference 
nor open hostility, could deflect it from the determined 
goal, to arouse the Jews of New York to a full realization 
of their communal needs and their communal responsi- 
bilities. 

4. Deniocratization 

Intensive work, carefully planned and well directed, 
marked the first seven years of the Kehillah 's existence. 
In the annals of the organization, this its first period, 
may well be designated as one where the use of the so- 
called "scientific" method was in the ascendency. This 
method was summed up by the Chairman of the Execu- 
tive Committee in his statement to the Eighth Annual 
Convention, as an effort "first, to secure exact, system- 
atic, comprehensive knowledge concerning the Jewish 



54 COMMUNAL. KEGJISTEH 

Commimity of New York City, and the Jewish problem 
in all of its phases; second, to engage upon as many 
experiments as possible through first-hand experience of 
the various phases of the problem; and, third, to point 
out the paths along which the community might develop 
in order to become in fact a conscious, organized, united 
community." 

But aside from the creation of this communal machin- 
ery, and the work of specialization that this entailed, the 
Kehillah has rendered a far greater service to the Jews 
of this city, by emphasizing the fact of the existence of 
the community. Its sheer existence had been a constant 
reiteration of this fact. Its activities have shown the 
way leading to the ultimate development of an organized 
community. 

The work of coordinating the existing communal 
agencies was in many instances successfully carried out, 
in spite of heated opposition. It was quite evident that 
whatever opposition there was would ultimately give way 
before an awakened Jewish public opinion. Moreover, 
the opposition was never organized and never advanced 
a communal theory differing from the one held by the 
Kehillah. It is safe to say that it was generally actuated 
by the simple motive of protecting its ** vested interests" 
lest they come to harm in an enlightened, well organized 
community. To be sure, there was also honest opposition. 
But this may be traced to the innate distrust that many 
people have for everything new and uJiusiiaJ. One of 
the greatest gains of the Kehillah in the eight years of its 
existence was the dissipation of this distrust, of this 
Kehillah-phobia. The complexion of the Jewish com- 



THE KEHILLAH (JEWISH COMMUNITY) 55 

luunity has materially changed during these years, and 
all Jewish work is now carried on on a much higher 
plane than it was carried on prior to 1910. The Federa- 
tion for the Support of Jewish Philanthropic Societies, 
a project insistently advocated by the Kehillah, may 
fairly be pointed out as an example of the awakening 
communal consciousness. 

However, one phase of the Kehillah 's work receded 
into the background, owing to the all-absorbing activity 
of communal experimentation ; namely, the expansion of 
the Kehillah organization from the point of view of 
numbers. The great mass of New York Jewry, while 
tacitly approving the work of the Kehillah, has not 
displayed an active interest in the formation of its policy 
and of its programme. This indifference on the part of 
the Jewish mass may be traced to a somewhat defective 
system of representation which considered the Jewish 
society as the only unit from which representation was 
allowed to the annual convention. The distribution of 
the Jewish population in Greater New York, creating 
densel}^ populated Jewish districts at points widely re- 
mote from each other, was another contributing factor. 
As a central organization, the Kehillah was too far re- 
moved from the simpler elements of our population, who 
are impressed only by a concrete, visible fact. Many of 
them had only heard of the existence of the Kehillah and 
most likely considered it as * * one of many good organiza- 
tions. * * 

At the last annual convention, this phase of the prob- 
lem was carefully gone into and the thorough-going 
democratization of the Kehillah decided upon. To afford 



56 COMMUNAL REGISTER 

the Kehillah an opportunity for doing the work of 
democratization without let or hindrance, it was deemed 
best to sever the Bureaus from the Kehillah and to give 
them an independent existence, so that all the energy of 
the Kehillah could be devoted to its main task: namely, 
the formulation of our communal problems and the co- 
ordination of the existing communal agencies which will 
bring about a conscious, organized and united com- 
munity. 

The plan of representation, appended to this review, 
was the result of a careful study of the various constitu- 
encies which would make the Kehillah representative of 
New York Jewry in the widest sense. It is based on the 
experience of the Kehillah since 1908, in addition to a 
careful and searching survey which extended over six 
months of investigation, from July, 1917, to January, 
1918. The compilation and the interpretation of these 
facts are submitted in this volume. 



57 
II 

CHARTER 

OF THK 

KEHILLAH (JEWISH COMMUNITY) 
OF NEAV YORK CITY 

AN AC T 

To Incorporate the Kehillah of New York City. 

The People of the State of New York, represented in 
Senate and Assembly, do enact as follows: 

Section 1. Judah L. Magnes, William Fischman, Joseph 
Barondess, Louis Borgenicht, Samuel Dorf, Bernard Drach- 
man, Israel Friedlaender, Harry Fischel, Samuel I. Hyman, 
Morris Jarmulowsky, Philip Klein, Leon Kamaiky, Adolph 
Lewisohn, Moses Z. Margolies, Louis Marshall, H. Pereira 
Mendes, Solomon Neumann, Jacob H. Schiff, Bernard Semel, 
Joseph Silverman, Pierre A. Siegelstein, Solomon M. 
Stroock, Cyrus L. Sulzberger, Israel Unterberg and Felix M. 
Warburg, and their associates and successors, are hereby 
constituted a body corporate in perpetuity, under the name 
of the Kehillah of New York City, and by said name shall 
possess all of the powers which by the general corporation 
law are conferred upon corporations, and shall be capable 
of taking, holding and acquiring, by deed, gift, purchase, 
bequest, devise or by judicial order or decree, any estate, 
real or personal, in trust or otherwise, which shall be neces- 
sary or useful for the uses and purposes of the corporation, 
to the amount of three million dollars; and to act as one of 
the constituent bodies of and to cooperate with the Ameri- 
can Jewish Committee, a corporation organized under chap- 
ter sixteen of the laws of nineteen hundred and eleven. 

Sec. 2. The objects of said corporation shall be, to stimu- 
late and encourage the instruction of the Jews residing in 
the city of New York in the tenets of their religion and in 
the history, language, literature, institutions and traditions 
of their people; to conduct, support and maintain schools and 
classes for that purpose; to publish and distribute text-books, 
maps, charts, and illustrations to facilitate such instruction; 
to conduct lectures and classes in civics and other kindred 
subjects; to establish an educational bureau to further the 
foregoing purposes; to conduct religious services and sup- 
port, maintain and establish temporary as well as permanent 
synagogues; to adjust differences among Jewish residents 
or organizations located in said city, whenever, thereunto 
requested by the parties thereto, by arbitration or by means 
of boards of mediation and conciliation; to maintain an 
employment bureau; to collate and publish statistical and 



58 COMMUNAL UEtJISTEK 

Other information concerning the Jewish inhabitants of said 
city and their activities; to study and ameliorate their so- 
cial, moral and economic conditions, and to cooperate with 
the various charitable, philanthropic, educational and re- 
ligious organizations and bodies of said city for the promo- 
tion of their common welfare. 

Sec. 3. The business and affairs of said corporation shall 
be conducted by a board of twenty-five members to be known 
as the executive committee, and the persons named in the 
first section of this act as incorporators shall constitute the 
first executive committee of said corporation. At the first 
meeting of said executive committee held after the passage 
of this act, the members thereof shall be divided into three 
classes, the first of which shall hold oflfice until the installa- 
tion of their successors, who shall be elected at a convention 
held by the members of said corporation as herein provided, 
and such successors shall hold office for a period of three 
years from date of their installation; the second class shall 
hold office for two years after the holding of said conven- 
tion, and the third for one year thereafter, or until their 
respective successors shall be elected. At the expiration of 
the term of any member of the executive committee his 
successor shall be elected for a term of three years. All 
vacancies which may occur in said committee shall be filled 
until the ensuing election by said committee. An annual 
election for members of said committee shall take place at 
a convention of the members of said corporation to be held 
at such time and in such manner as shall be fixed by the 
by-laws to be adopted by said executive committee, or by 
the members of said corporation in convention assembled. 
At all meetings of the executive committee one-third thereof 
shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business, 
but no by-law shall be adopted, amended or repealed with- 
out the presence of a majority of the members of said com- 
mittee for the time being. 

Sec. 4. The members of said corporation shall consist of 
the persons who shall be designated and chosen as delegates 
to the annual convention of said corporation by such method 
or methods and by such organizations, societies, nominating 
and constituent bodies as shall be provided in by-laws to be 
adopted for that purpose by the executive committee, such 
by-laws being, however, subject to alteration, revision or 
amendment at any regular convention of said corporation 
or at a special convention called for such purpose, provided 
that thirty days' notice be given of the proposed change. 

Sec. 5. This act shall take effect immediately. 

This act was signed by the Governor April 5, 1914. 



59 



III 
CONSTITUTION 

OF THE 

NEW YORK JEWISH COMMUNITY 



(Adopted February 28, 1909) 



I. Name 

The name of this organization shall be the Jewish Community 
of New York City. 

II. Purpose 

The purpose of the Jewish Community of New York City shall 
be to further the cause of Judaism in New York City, and to 
represent the Jews of this city with respect to all local matters of 
Jewish interest. 

This organization shall not engage in any propaganda of a 
partisan political nature, or interfere with the autonomy of a 
constituent organization. 

III. Membership 

The Jewish Community of New York City shall be constituted 
in the following manner from among the Jewish organizations and 
societies of New York City. 

1. Every incorporated SjTiagogiie with not less than 50 or 
more than 250 contributing members or seat-holders — one delegate. 
For every additional 250 contributing members or seat-holders or 
fraction thereof — one delegate. 

Incorporated Synagogues with less than 50 contributing 
members or seat-holders may unite for purposes of election on the 
above basis. 

2. Every incorporated local Federation of .Jewish Societies — 
one delegate for every ten constituent societies. 

3. Every incorporated Jewish Society, or chartered Lodge, 
in sympathy with the objects of the Community, with not less than 
100 members, and not affiliated with any local federation, under 



60 COMMUNAL REGISTER 

paragraph 2 above, one delegate, and one additional delegate for 
each additional 1,500 members. 

Such Societies with less than 100 members may unite for 
purposes of election on the above basis. 

Junior and Auxiliary Societies shall not be represented. 

4. Societies of Rabbis, Cantors or Social Workers, and 
Faculties of Jewish Colleges — one delegate each. 

5. No organization shall have representation in this Com- 
munity unless it shall have been established at least one year 
before the date of the application for representation; except 
federations of such societies as have been in existence for over a 
year. 

6. The Executive Committee of the Community shall have the 
power to decide on the eligibility of organizations and delegates; 
subject, however, to the right of any organization or delegate to 
appeal to the convention from the decision of the Executive 
Committee. 

7. No person shall be eligible as a delegate, unless he be an 
American citizen. 

8. Delegates shall be chosen for one year and shall serve 
until their successors are elected. 

9. Political organizations shall not be eligible for member- 
ship. 

IV. Meetings and Officers 

1. At the first meeting of the Jewish Community of New 
York City, there shall be elected an Executive Committee of 
twenty-five, and at each annual meeting thereafter, five members 
shall be elected for a term of five years each. Immediately after 
the first meeting, the Executive Committee shall divide itself by 
lot into five classes of five members each, to hold of&ce for one, 
two, three, four and five years, respectively. 

2. The annual meetings of the Jewish Community of New 
York City shall be held during Succoth Week, unless the Executive 
Committee at their discretion determine otherwise. 

3. An Advisory Council of Seventy shall be elected at the 
annual meeting of the Community, who shall serve for one year 
and until their successors are chosen. They shall aid with their 



THE KEHILLAH (JEWISH COMMUNITY) 61 

advice and cooperation the Executive Committee from time to 
time. 

V. Relationship to the American Jewish Committee 

1. ' The twenty-five members el'^cted by the Jewish Community 
of New York City as the Executive Committee thereof, shall at 
the same time constitute District XII of the American Jewish 
Committee. 

2. The American Jewish Committee shall have exclusive 
jurisdiction over all questions affecting the Jews generally not of 
a purely local character. 

3. The Executive Committee of the Jewish Community of 
New York City shall have jurisdiction over all questions of a local 
character, or which shall specifically affect the New York Com- 
munity itself, subject, however, to the right of any two members 
of the Executive Committee, who shall at the same time be 'mem- 
bers of the Executive Committee of the American Jewish Commit- 
tee, to appeal to the latter from any action determined upon, if 
they shall certify that in their opinion the action proposed to be 
taken shall infringe upon the jurisdiction of the American Jewish 
Committee, in which event a special meeting of the Executive 
Committee of the latter shall be held within ten days to consider 
such appeal. All action by the New York Community as to the 
subject matter of the appeal shall be suspended until the decision 
of the appeal, which decision shall be final. 

4. It shall not be within the province of any member of the 
Executive Committee of the American Jewish Committee chosen 
from any other district, to take such appeal or to interfere with 
the action of the New York Community. 

5. Any person, who shall have been elected a member of the 
American Jewish Committee, shall continue to complete his term 
of ofl&ce in that Committee, and as ex-officio member of the Execu- 
tive Committee of the Community of New York City, notwith- 
standing the fact that he may not have been re-elected a delegate. 

VI. Dues 
Each organization shall pay dues of five dollars ($5) per annum 
per delegate, and any deficiency shall be covered by an assessment 



62 COMMUNAii KEGISTEK 

upon the constituent societies in proportion to their representation, 
such additional assessment in no year to exceed five dollars ($5) 
per delegate. 

VII. Special Meetings 

Special meetings shall be held upon written request of one- 
fourth of the delegates of the Community, or may be called by the 
Executive Committee of its own motion. 

VIII. Quorums 

1. One-fourth of the total number of delegates shall con- 
stitute a quorum for the transaction of business at a meeting of 
the Community. 

2. Eleven members of the Executive Committee shall con- 
stitute a quorum for the transaction of business at a meeting of 
the Executive Committee. 

IX. Amendments 

This Constitution may be amended by the vote of two-thirds 
of the delegates at any meeting, provided that three months' previ- 
ous notice of any proposed amendment be submitted to the con- 
stituent organizations, and provided that in no event shall any 
amendment be made to Article V, without the concurrence of the 
American Jewish Committee. 

Individual members, or members at large, and contributors to 
the Kehillah paying one dollar and more per annum, shall have 
the right to assemble and elect one delegate to the Convention for 
every two hundred of such members or contributors, and one 
additional delegate for each additional five hundred of such mem- 
bers and contributors. 



63 



IV 



OUTLINE OF PLAN OF KEHILLAH 
REPRESENTATION 

(Proposed and adopted at tlie Special Convention of the 
Kehillali, held January 13, 1918) 



Geographic 
Basis of 
Representation 



II. KehiUab 

Constituencies 



The City of New York shall be divided into 
18 Kehillah Districts which shall comprise a 
total of 100 Kehillah Neighborhoods appor- 
tioned to each in accordance with (the num- 
ber of) its Jewish population. 
Three (3) of these 18 Kehillah Districts 
shall be designated as Suburban Kehillah 
Districts, the Borough of Richmond consti- 
tuting one Suburban District, and the Bor- 
ough of Queens being divided into two (2) 
Suburban Districts. 

The Districts shall be designated by names 
and the Neighborhoods by numbers. For 
example : 

North Bronx Kehillah District, Neighbor- 
hood 5. Yorkville Kehillah District, 
Neighborhood 31. 

The Delegates to the Kehillah Convention 
shall be elected by the following constituen- 
cies: 

1. Kehillah members in good standing, 

2. Synagogues, Organizations and Institu- 
tions affiliated with the Kehillah. 

3. Existing Central Organizations, such as 
Federations, Orders, etc., of Greater New 
York, whose constituent societies are af- 
filiated with the Kehillah. 



64 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



III. 



Number of 
Delegate* in 
the Kehillah 
Convention 



IV. 



Allotment of 
Delegates 



The total uiunber of delegates to the Kehil- 
lah Convention shall be 550. 
The maximum number of delegates based 
upon the full representation of all the 100 
Kehillah Neighborhoods from the 18 Kehil- 
lah Districts, shall be 500. (Each Kehillah 
District is entitled to five times as many 
delegates as there are Kehillah Neighbor- 
hoods in the District). All the central 
organizations, such as Federations, Orders, 
etc., shall be entitled to a maximum number 
of 50 delegates, allotted equally. 

The delegates to be elected in each Kehillah 
District shall be divided as follows: 

1. Two-fifths of the delegates to be 
knovni as Membership Delegates shall 
be elected by the members of the 
Kehillah, residing in the Kehillah 
Neighborhoods, two delegates for each 
Neighborhood. 

2. Two-fifths of the delegates to be 
known as Organization Delegates shall 
be elected by the Synagogues, Organiza- 
tions and Institutions which have their 
meeting places in that Kehillah District, 
and are affiliated with the Kehillah. 

3. One-fifth of the delegates to be known 
as Kehillah District Delegates; one- 
half of these delegates allotted to each 
District are to be elected by Kehillah 
members in that District and the other 
half should be elected by the District 
Assembly composed of Synagogues, 
Organizations and Institutions in that 
District which are affiliated with the 
Kehillah. 



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THE KEHILLAH (JEWISH COMMUNITY) 65 

To illustrate: The Central Manhattan 
Kehillah District comprises 4 Kehillah 
Neighborhoods and will therefore be entitled 
to elect twenty (20) delegates to the Kehil- 
lah Convention; the delegates to be elected 
in the following manner: 

A. The Kehillah members in each one 
of the four Neighborhoods elect 2 
delegates, giving a total of 8 

B. All of the Kehillah members of the 
District elect one-half of the Dis- 
trict Delegates, or 2 

C. The Kehillah District Assembly, con- 
sisting of representatives of the local 
organizations affiliated with the 
Kehillah, will elect two-fifths of the 
entire District allotment, or 8 

D. The Kehillah District Assembly, con- 
sisting of representatives of the local 
organizations affiliated with the 

' Kehillah, will elect one-half of the 

Kehillah District Delegates, or . 2 

Total 20 

Methods of 1. ELECTION OF Membership Delegates 

Election ^^ ^^^^ Kehillah Neighborhood, the mem- 

bers shall assemble at a date fixed by the 
Kehillah District Board (See Section VIII) 
for the purpose of voting. 

A. For two membership delegates. 
(Note: Voting in any Neighborhood shall 
take place only after there are residing in 
the Neighborhood fifty Kehillah members in 
good standing. For the first fifty Kehillah 
members, the Neighborhood shall be entitled 
to vote for one Membership Delegate to the 



i»6 V COMMUNAL tiEGlST£U 



Kehillah Convention. Neighborhoods which 
shall have 150 Kehillah members, or more, 
shall be entitled to two Membership Dele- 
gates. A Neighborhood, which, at any given 
election will have less than fifty Kehillah 
members, shall be combined with one or more 
Kehillah Neighborhoods for the purpose of 
voting). 

B. For one-half of the allotment of Dis- 
trict Delegates. 

2. Election of Organization Delegates 

(Indirect Representation) 
A. Kehillah District Assemblies. 

a. Organization of Kehillah District 
Assemblies. 

Every Synagogue, Organization and Institu- 
tion which is affiliated with the Kehillah 
shall be entitled to send not less than one 
representative and not more than five rep- 
res-entatives to the Kehillah District Assem- 
bly to which it belongs, according to the 
following scale: 
Those having — 

25 to 149 members 1 representative 

150 ' * 299 " 2 representatives 

300 '' 599 '' 3 <' 

600 '' 999 " 4 " 

1000 members or more 5 " 

(Note: Seat-holders in Synagogues shall 

be counted as members for purposes of 

representation.) 

The Kehillah District Boards shall fix the 

date and place for the gathering of the 

Kehillah District Assemblies. 

b. Functions of the Kehillah District 
Assemblies. 



THE KEHll.I^VB (JEWISH COMMUNITY) 67 

1. The Kehillah District Assembly shall 
elect the Organization Delegates for 
that District, constituting two-fifths 
of the delegates allotted to the 
District. 

2. The Kehillah District Assembly shall 
also elect one-half of the Kehillah 
District Delegates allotted to the 
District. 

3. Election of Kehillah District 
Delegates 

The Kehillah District Delegates (one-fifth 
of the total number of delegates allotted to 
the district) shall be elected as previously 
indicated. (See Section V. par. IB and 
2b2). 

4. Election of Kehillah Delegates by 

Central Organizations 

The delegates who shall be designated as 
I Central Organization Delegates shall be al- 

lotted, equally, to the existing central organ- 
izations of New York City whose constituent 
societies are affiliated with the Kehillah and 
shall be elected by them. The method of 
election shall be left to the discretion of 
each of the central organizations. 

5. Election of Delegates for Suburban 

Kehillah Districts 

In the Suburban Kehillah Districts of 
Queens and Richmond, the methods of elec- 
tion shall be the same as in the City Kehil- 
lah Districts, except that the District Dele- 
gates shall be elected wholly by the Kehillah 
memberg in those districts. 



68 COMMUNAL REGISTER 

6. Substitute Method of Election in 
Kehillah Districts not Ade- 
quately Organized 

In Kehillah Districts, where for some reason 
satisfactory to the Kehillah Board of Elec- 
tions, no District Assembly can be held, the 
Synagogues, Organizations and Institutions 
of that District, affiliated with the Kehillah, 
may elect their delegates directly to the 
Kehillah Convention according to the old 
plan of representation. The total number 
of delegates elected by all these organiza- 
tions shall not exceed the number of Organ- 
ization Delegates allotted to that District. 

VI. Nominations 1. FoR Kehillah Membership Delegates 

A. Through Committees on Nominations. 
Each Kehillah District Board (see Section 
VIII) shall appoint from among the dele- 
gates elected to the previous annual Kehillah 
Convention, one delegate from each Kehillah 
Neighborhood to act on the District Nomina- 
tion Committee. The Board of Elections of 
the Kehillah (see Section IX) shall appoint 
an equal number from the delegates residing 
in the District. These two groups shall 
jointly choose a chairman. The committee, 
constituted in this manner, shall nominate 
the Membership Delegates who are to be 
elected by the Neighborhoods of that Dis- 
trict. 

B. Through Independent Nomimations. 
One-tenth of the Kehillah members in any 
given Neighborhood, who have been in good 
standing for the previous six months, may 
file a petition with the District Committee 
on Nominations, to place on the Ballot of 



THE KEHILLiAH (JEWISH COMMUNITY] 



69 



that Neighborhood a candidate designated 
by them. 

2. For Kehillah Organization Delegates 
The chairman of the District Assembly shall 
appoint the Committee on Nominations for 
the Organization Delegates to be elected at 
the Kehillah District Assembly. 
Nominations from the floor shall be per- 
mitted. 

3. For Kehillah District Delegates 
The Kehillah District Delegates shall be 
nominated by the Board of Elections of the 
Kehillah. 

VI i. District Rep- Whenever a Kehillah District is not reprq- 
resentation in sented on the Executive Committee of the 
the Executive Kehillah, the Executive Committee shall 
Committee of elect from such District a representative to 
the Kehillah the Executive Committee to serve until the 
next annual convention, though it become 
necessary to exceed the number of 36 mem- 
bers on the Executive Committee. 



i 



VIII. Kehillah 
District 
Boards 



A. Organisation of Kehillah District Board 

Immediately following the Kehillah Conven- 
tion, the Chairman of the Executive Com- 
mittee of the Kehillah shall select from 
among the District delegates of each District, 
a Kehillah District Board, to consist of not 
less than ten, and not more than fifteen 
members; (except in the Suburban Districts, 
where it shall consist of five members). The 
rule applying to the Executive Committee of 
the Kehillah, that a member of the Execu- 
tive Committee must not hold any salaried 



70 (30MMUNAL REGISTER 



elective public office, shall apply to the 
Kehillah District Boards. The Chairman of 
this Board shall be that member of the 
Kehillah Executive Committee, who repre- 
sents the District. In case there should be 
two or more members of the Executive Com- 
mittee residing in the same District, the 
chairman of the District Board shall be 
elected from among the Executive members 
of the Kehillah, by the members of the 
District Board. All members of the Kehil- 
lah Executive Committee residing in a given 
Kehillah District, shall ipso facto be mem- 
bers of the Kehillah District Board. 

B. Functions of the Kehillah District Board 

a. The Kehillah District Boards shall ad- 
minister Kehillah affairs in their respec- 
tive districts in accordance with the 
policy and principles of the central 
organization. 

b. The Kehillah District Boards shall have 
supervision of the Kehillah District As- 
semblies in their respective Districts. The 
Chairman of the Kehillah District Board 
is to act as the chairman of the Kehillah 
District Assembly in his District. 

c. The Kehillah District Boards shall have 
charge of the Membership Campaign to 
obtain members for the Kehillah in their 
respective Districts. 

d. The Chairman of the Kehillah District 
Board shall appoint one representative 
from the District to each of the sub- 
committees of the Kehillah. 



THE KJiHJLLl>AH (JBWISU COMMUNITY 



7] 



IX. Kehillah The conduct and supervision of all Keh^llah 

Board of elections shall be in charge of a Kehillah 

Elections Board of Elections, which shall be consti- 

tuted as follows: 

The total number of members on the Board 
shall be twenty- one. It shall consist of the 
eighteen chairmen of the Kehillah District 
Boards, the Chairman and the Secretary of 
the Administrative Council, and a chairman 
of the Election Board to be appointed by 
the Chairman of the Executive Committee 
of the Kehillah. 



V 



12 



COM M U N A L REGISTER 

V 



EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 1917-1918 

J. L. Magnes Chairman 

Cyrus. L. Sulzberger - - Vice-Chairman 
William Fischman - - - - Treasurer 
Jacob Massel Secretary 



Isaac Allen 
Joseph Barondess 
S. Benderly 
Louis Borgenicht 
Elias a. Cohen 
Julius J. Dukas 
Samuel Dorf 
Mrs. William Einstein 
Harry Fischel 
Israel Friedlaender 
H. M. Goldfogle 
Jacob Kohn 
David Kornblueh 
Herbert H. Lehman 
Leo Lerner 
Adolph Lewisohn 



William Liebermann 
Louis Marshall 
H. Masliansky 
H. Pereira Mendes 
Eugene Meyer, Jr. 
Leon Moisseiff 
S. Neumann 
S. Rottenberg 
Leon Sanders 
Jacob H. Schiff 
Bernard Semel 

P. A. SlEGELSTEIN 

Joseph Silverman 
I. M. Stettenheim 
Israel Unterberg 
Fellx M. Warburg 



Jacob Wertheim 



THE KEHILLAH (JEWISH COMMUNITY) 73 

ADMINISTRATIVE COUNCIL 

S. Benderly - ^ Chairman 

Harry Sackler Secretary 

CHAIRMEN STANDING COMMITTEES 

Correctional Affairs 

Discrimination ------ Leon Moisseiff 

Education 

Finances William Fischman 

Industry 

Information and Service - - - Bernard Semel 

Legislation Louis Marshall 

William Liebermann, Vice-Chairman 
Membership and Organization - - S. Rottenberg 

Publicity 

Recreation Elias A. Cohen 

Religious Affairs - - - - - - Isaac Allen 

War Emergency . . - - Henry M. Goldfogle 



Address all communications to 

KEHILLAH (Jewish Community) 

OF NEW YORK CITY 
356 Second Avenue. Telephone: Gramercy 7170 



I 



MAP OF 

NEW YORK CITY 

SHOWING DIVISION BY 

DISTRICTS AND NEIGHBORHOODS ' 

AS THE BASIS OF REPRESENTATION 

AND ADMINISTRATION OF THE 




JEWISH POPULATION OF NEW YORK CITY 75 

A STATISTICAL STUDY OF THE JEWISH 
POPULATION OF NEW YORK 

By Alexander M. Dushkin 

Head of Department of Study and Appraisaly 
Bureau of Jewish Education 



From the viewpoint of communal organization, it is 
important to determine the number of Jewish inhabitants 
of New York City. Within the lifetime of one generation, 
the New York community has grown into the largest 
Jewish center in history. Whatever attempts are made 
to organize this colossal ** congregation " of Jews should 
be based upon an accurate knowledge of the size and 
distribution of t>he population. How many Jews are ther^ 
in the American metropolis and where do they live ? The 
answer to these questions will indicate not only the size 
of the communal problems involved, but also the methods 
of organization which may be employed, as well as the 
material and spiritual resources that are available for 
the solution of the community's problems. For construc- 
tive communal work, a general estimate of the population 
is not sufficient. It is necessary to know how the Jewish 
population is distributed, because within the area of 
Greater New York, there are more than a dozen large 
Jewish settlements. Densely congested Jewish districts 
alternate with sparsely settled areas. If the Jewish com- 
munity is to enlist the interest of all of its members, and 



76 COMMUNAL REGISTER 

if it is to work on their behalf, it needs to know the num- 
ber of Jews living in each particular locality or neigh- 
borhood. 

The ideal method for answering these questions would 
be by means of an accurate house-to-house census enu- 
meration. But this is not possible. Since the United 
States government rightly abstains from asking questions 
concerning religious affiliation, we are not able to obtain 
an answer to our questions directly from the federal 
census. Any other canvass, undertaken by a non-govern- 
mental body, is bound to be inaccurate and inadequate. 

In want of this ideal method of direct enumeration, we 
must resort to estimates of the Jewish population. These 
estimates have in the past ranged from mere guesses, to 
careful judgments based upon elaborate statistical stud- 
ies. In the table appended at the end of this article are 
shown the successive estimates made of New York Jews 
from 1790 to our own day. Opinions of rabbis and other 
communal workers ; data gathered by means of question- 
naires; and computations based upon birth, death and 
marriage statistics, have been the most usual means of 
estimation. In the Jewish Communal Directory pub- 
lished in 1912, the late Dr. Joseph Jacobs presented a 
careful treatment of the problem. His study is as good 
an example as any, of the methods usually employed. 
Not only birth, death, and marriage rates, but also immi- 
gration figures, and the proportion of popular Jewish 
names (such as Cohen), are utilized for determining the 
Jewish population. In this article we wish to present 
another, and hitherto unused, method of estimating the 
number of Jews in New York City. 



JEWISH POPULATION OF NEW YORK CITY 77 

School Attendance on the Jewish Holidays 

It is a well known fact that whatever differences of 
belief and attitude may exist among the Jews, they are 
almost unanimous in observing the High Holidays, (New 
Year and the Day of Atonement). Practically all Jewish 
children refrain from attending public school on those 
days. The suggestion therefore presented itself, that if 
we could find the attendance in the public schools on 
these holidays, and compare it with the attendance on 
normal days, we should get a rather accurate estimate of 
the number of Jewish children in the public schools of 
New York. If we could then find the proportion of school 
children to the total population, we would be furnished 
with a ready means for determining the total Jewish 
population of New York. 

In connection with a study undertaken by the writer 
for Teachers' College, Columbia University,^ it was pos- 
sible to obtain reliable data concerning the attendance in 
the New York public schools on the Jewish High Holi- 
days, in the years 1913 and 1914.^ These were compared 
with the attendance on normal days ' during the same 
years. It was found that 40.5% of the children stay away 
from public school on the Jewish holidays.^ But in view 
of the fact that the non-Jewish attendance in the public 
schools is probably also affected by the Jewish High Holi- 



* "A Survey of Jewish Religious Education in New York City," 
dissertation submitted for the Ph.D. degree, Teachers' College, Columbia 
University, 1918. 

2 The information for 1915 and 1916 was not available, because in 1915 
the Jewish holidays occurred during regristration week of the public 
schools, and in 1916 the epidemic of infantile paralysis of that year 
vitiated all attendance figures. 

'For complete tables and detailed method, see: "A Survey of Jewish 
Religious Education in New York City," Part II, Chapter I, referred to 
above. 



78 CUMMUNAl. KEGISTEK 

days, the proportion of Jewish children in the entire city 
was reduced to 38%. ^ By boroughs, the proportion is as 
follows: Manhattan 48%, Bronx 40%, Brooklyn 38%, 
Queens 7%, and Richmond 5%.^ Since the total register 
in the public schools, 1915-1916, was 730,756, it would 
seem that there were in that year 277,244 Jewish chil- 
dren, in the eight grades of the New York public schools. 
Of these 133,603 were in Manhattan, 38,621 in the Bronx, 
100,251 in Brooklyn, 3,953 in Queens, and 816 in Rich- 
mond. 

Jewish Names in tlie School Census 

In order to corroborate the proportion of Jewish chil- 
dren of school age obtained in our study of school at- 
tendance on the Jewish holidays, another method of 
estimation was resorted to. The Bureau of Attendance 
of the Board of Education keeps a continuous school 
census of the population of New York. Some million and 



^ There are two factors which affect the proportion of Jewish chil- 
dren; one tends to make it higher than 40.5%, and the other makes it 
lower. No doubt a number of Jewish children attend school on one or all 
the Jewish holidays. This would make the actual proportion of Jewish 
children in the public schools higher than 40.5%. On the other hand, it 
is equally certain that there are a goodly number of non-Jewish children 
who stay away from school on these days, because of the general 
"holiday," especially in the districts where the Jewish children are in 
the majority. By an elaborate method of checking, based upon the second 
method of estimation, which will be discussed presently, the proportion 
of Jewish children was put at 38%. 

* A check on our estimate is fvirnished by the data obtained in the 
investigation of the United States Congress Immigration Commission of 
1910. The method used by the Congressional Commission consisted in 
questioning children of the public schools concerning the nationality of 
their fathers. The per cent of children designating their fathers as of 
Hebrew nativity was 46.1% in Manhattan, 20.2% in the Bronx, 29.9% in 
Brooklyn, 3.5% in Queens and 2.8% in Richmond. Considering the fact 
that the figures of the Immigration Commission do not include the per 
cent of the Jewish children who designated their fathers as of American, 
Russian, German or other races, the similarity is significant. The largest 
discrepancy between these figures and those of our estimate is in the 
Bronx. But it is a matter of common knowledge that there has been a 
Tery large influx of Jews into the Bronx within tha past 8ev«n years. 



JEWISH rOl'ULATlON OF NKVV YOKK CITY 79 

a half cards are filed in the census division of the Bureau, 
each of which represents a complete family, parents and 
children. From these cards, 4,215 families were selected 
at random, representing a total of 10,332 children of 
school age. The names on these cards were judged as to 
whether they were Jewish or non-Jewish.^ About one- 
third, 33%, of all the children of school age, in the pub- 
lic, parochial, and private schools of this city were 
judged to be Jews. 

The results obtained by this method are in close agree- 
ment with those obtained by the school attendance meth- 
od. Since the 33% represents not only the public school 
children but also the children in private and parochial 
schools, we should add to the 730,756 (elementary public 
school register 1915-1916), the 200,000 children estimated 
to be in the elementary parochial and private schools of 



^ The method of selection and judgment was as follows: At intervals 
of about 350 cards, two cards were selected, the first cards forrning set I, 
and the second cards forming set II. The names were then judged by 
myself, and by Mr. Meir Isaacs, a graduate student of Columbia Uni- 
versity, as to whether they were Jewish or non-Jewish. In order to 
insure careful judgment, five categories were used: "Jewish; non- Jewish; 
doubtful- Jewish; doubtful non-Jewish; doubtful." In these judgments we 
were greatly aided by the information upon the cards, which gave: the 
first names of the father and mother and of all of thel children; the 
nativity of the parents and the children; the length of their stay in 
America; the year of their immigration; the country of their emigration; 
and the occupation of the father. It will be readily seen that these data 
furnish good clues for judging whether the family is Jewish or not. In 
most cases there was no doubt whatever in the judgment. In the case 
of German names, such as Bamberger, or Anglicized names, such as 
Brown, these data, while not equally certain, were also effective. Thus, 
if a child attended a Catholic parochial school, it would certainly be safe 
to assume the family non-Jewish. If in an immigrant family living on 
Canal Street, the son's first name was the same as his father's, it would 
be reasonable to assume the family non-Jewish, because it is not cus- 
tomary among Eastern European Jews to name their children after living 
relatives, especially after the father; etc. The data, furnished by the 
cards themselves, were so helpful in deciding the judgments, that only 
196 cases, or 4.6% of the cases were included in ANY of the doubtful 
categories. To guard against the temptation to call doubtful cases Jew- 
ish, ALL DOUBTFUL CASES WERE COUNTED AS NON-JEWISH. 
For greater accuracy, the judgments were made in two sets, and the 
average was used in computing the proportion of Jewish children 



80 COMMUNAL REGISTER 

New York.i This would make a total of 930,756 children 
of school age in New York, between the ages of 5 and 14, 
of whom 307,149 were Jewish children. 

By the school attendance method we computed that 
there were 277,244 Jewish children in the elementary 
public schools of New York (1915-1916). To this number 
should be added approximately 20,000 Jewish children 
in the private and parochial schools, making a total of 
297,244 children of elementary school age. The difference 
between the two methods is therefore about 9,900, or a 
difference of 3.0%. Considering the fact that not all of 
the Jewish children between the ages of 5 and 14 are at 
school,^ the agreement between the two methods is very 
striking. 

In accordance with these computations, we are forced 
to the conclusion that the number of Jewish children of 
elementary school age (i.e. 5 to 14 years), in this city, is 
nearly 300,000. Startling as this figure may appear, it 
is fully warranted by a consideration of the facts. To 
safeguard against the possibility of exaggeration, how- 
ever, we shall discard our estimate of the Jewish children 
in the private and parochial schools, and will make use 
only of the public school figures. We shall certainly be 
safe in placing the total number of Jewish children of 
elementary school age (5 — 14) as low as 275,000. 



1 Estimate of the Statistical Division of the Department of Education, 
New York State. 

* Some obtain their working certificates at the age of 13, and others 
are out of school temporarily. The per cent of children between 10 — ^14 in 
New York State, who attend school, is given as 94.4% (Federal Census 
1910, Population, Vol. HI, p. 214). 



MAP OF 

NEW YORK CITX 

SHOWING DENSITV OF 

JEWISH POPULATION 

BY Districts and Neighborhood; 

OF THE 

, KEHILLAH 

(JEWISH C0MMUNIT3^ 
OF NEW YORK 



PERSQMILE 


PERSOmOCH 


J -*: 


^m 0u^^3O0.OOO 


Ouor2/SO 


1 J 


laiOB 2oaooo-3oo.ooo 


I.430-2IS0 


If ^ 


^^ 100.00p-200.000 


7/S-/.t30 


i 1 


^^ saooo-ioaooo 


jse -7/3 


^ JL 


g^i loooo-saooo 


72-356 


1 w» 


1 1 1 1 II BeIowK).000 


B^low TZ. 


f f^' 



^ 



i 





Borough of Richmond not shown 



JEWISH POPULATION OF NEW YORK CITY 81 

Estimate of Jewish Population 

With this figure in mind, we can proceed to our esti- 
mate of the total Jewish population. The proportion of 
children between the ages of 5 and 14 to the total popu- 
lation is approximately 18%.^ But it is difficult to esti- 
mate whether the proportion of children to adults among 
Jews is lower or higher than it is in the general popula- 
tion. On the one hand, the probability is that there are 
more children of school age in the average Jewish family 
than in the average non-Jewish family.^ This would 
make the proportion of children among Jews slightly 
higher than it is among non-Jews. On the other hand, 
the fact that New York Jews are so largely composed of 
foreign-born immigrants, would tend to make the pro- 
portion of children lower than in the general population.^ 
We shall therefore not be far wrong in assuming that 
the proportion of children among Jews is also about 18%. 
Upon the basis of the 275,000 children of elementary 



1 In the United States Census of 1910, Population, Vol. Ill, p. 220, out 
of a total population for New York City of 4,766,883, the number of 
children from 5 to 14 is given as 860,694, or 18.0%. This would make the 
ratio, 1:5.55. 

' From a study of over 4,000 families selected at random from the 
census cards of the Bureau of Attendance of the Board of Education, it 
was found that the average Jewish family has 2.5 children at school, 
whereas the average non-Jewish family has 2.35 children at school. This 
would make a difference of .15 children per family, or 15 children per 100 
families. Assuming 5 to 6 individuals per family, this would mean a 
difference of from 2.5% to 3% in the proportion of children. 

s In the United States Census of 1910, Population, Vol. Ill, p. 220, the 
proportion of children between 5 and 14 years in the native population is 
26.0%, whereas among the foreign-born whites it is as low as 7.0%. But 
as the Jewish immigration is largely a "family immigration," the propor- 
tion of children among them is probably twice as great as among other 
immigrants. Thus, Samuel Joseph in "Jewish Immigration to the United 
States," p. 180, shows that whereas the age group "under 14" (which 
includes also children below 5) is 12,3% for all European immigrants, it 
is about twice as large, 24.8%, among the Jews. If, therefore, we estimate 
the proportion of school children (5 — ^14) among immigrant Tews to be 
about 14%, it would still be 4% lower than in the entire population. 



82 COMMUNAL REGISTER. 

school age, this would give New York a Jewish popula- 
tion of 1,527,778, or approximately 1,500,000. 

No doubt this figure will cause astonishment to many. 
One million and a half Jews is an extraordinary com- 
munity. The next largest Jewish community in the 
world, that of the city of Warsaw, is estimated to have 
been between 300,000 and 330,000 Jews, about one-fifth 
as many as we estimate for New York. All of the coun- 
tries of Western Europe, together with the countries of 
South America, Canada and Palestine combined, do not 
have as many Jews as live in this city. (See map frontis- 
piece. ) If we accept the estimate of the number of Jews 
in the world as about 14,000,000, one Jew out of every 
ten resides in New York. 

Distribution of Jewish Population 

How is this large population distributed? It is well 
known that all immigrant populations congregate in par- 
ticular neighborhoods. This is also true of the Jews. By 
the methods of estimating the population in the past, we 
have been unable to obtain the desired information con- 
cerning the distribution of the Jews. But it can readily 
be seen that by the method of school attendance, we can 
determine with a fair degree of accuracy the number of 
Jews in each locality. Our estimate for the boroughs is 
as follows: 

Manhattan 696,000 

The Bronx 211,000 

Brooklyn 568,000 

Queens 23,000 

Richmond 5,000 



JEWISH POPUIiATION OF NEW YORK CITY 83 

But for the purposes of communal organization, these 
units are too large. Smaller working units are needed. 
The city was therefore divided into fifteen districts, each 
having approximately 100,000 Jews; and each district 
was further subdivided into neighborhoods of approxi- 
mately 15,000 Jews.i The following table, together with 
the accompanying map show these divisions and their 
estimated population i^ 

District I : North Bronx District^. . . .103,000 population 

Boundaries: All of Bronx north of the line running 
along West 168th, East 167th and Home Streets to the 
Bronx River. 

Neighborhood 1—10,000 Neighborhood 5—17,000 

2—10,000 '' 6—18,000 

3—18,000 '' 7—15,000 

4—15,000 



District II : South Bronx District . . . 108,000 population 

Boundaries: All of Bronx south of the line running 
along West 168th, East 167th and Home Streets to the 
Bronx River. 

Neighborhood 8—18,000 Neighborhood 12— 13,000 

9—17,000 " 13—15,000 

10_14,000 '* 14^16,000 
11—15,000 



* Besides the fifteen districts in Manhattan, Bronx and Brooklyn, 
three "suburban" districts were made of Queens and Richmond. 

* The method pursued in computation consisted in taking the attend- 
ance figures for each individualpublic school, and combining the area, so 
as to make groups of some 2,700 children, or approximately 15,000 Jews. 

^ For boundaries of Districts and Neighborhoods, see accompanying 
map, facing page 75. 



84 COMMUNAL REGISTER 

Dist. Ill : West Side and Harlem Dist. 97,000 population 

Boundaries: Manhattan north of the line running along 
West 86th Street, Central Park West, Cathedral Parkway, 
Fifth Avenue, Mount Morris Park, and East 122nd Street 
to the Harlem River. 

Neighborhood 15—10,000 Neighborhood 19—12,000 
16—14,000 '' 20—18,000 

17—15,000 '' 21—18,000 

18—10,000 
District IV: East Harlem District 99,000 population 

Boundaries: East 101st Street, Fifth Avenue, Mt. 
Morris Park, East 122nd Street and East River. 

Neighborhood 22—13,000 Neighborhood 26—15,000 
23—13,000 '' 27—15,000 

24—13,000 ** 28—15,000 



25—15,000 



District V: Yorkville District 76,000 population 

Boundaries : East 59th Street, Fifth Avenue, East lOlsl 
Street and East River. 

Neighborhood 29—14,000 Neighborhood 32—17,000 
30—14,000 '' 33—18,000 

31—13,000 
District VI : Central Manhattan Dist . . 57,000 population 

Boundaries: West 86th Street, Central Park, East 59th 
Street, East River, East 10th Street, Avenue A, East 9th 
Street, Broadway, East 14th Street, West 14th Street 
and Hudson River. 

Neighborhood 34^12,000 Neighborhood 36—17,000 
35—13,000 '' 37—15,000 

District VII : Tompkins Sq. District . . 101,000 population 

Boundaries: West 14th Street, East 14th Street, Broad- 
way, East 9th Street, Avenue A, East 10th Street, East 
River, East Houston Street, Orchard Street, Stanton 
Street, Bowery, East Houston Street, West Houston 
Street and Hudson River. 



JEWISH POPULATION OF NEW YORK CITY 85 

Neighborhood 38—17,000 Neighborhood 41—16,000 
89—16,000 ** 42—18,000 

40—16,000 ** 43—18,000 

District VIII : Delancey District 134,000 population 

Boundaries : Bowery, Grand • Street, Orchard Street, 
Delancey Street, Norfolk Street, Grand Street, Cannon 
Street, Delancey Street, East River, East Houston Street, 
Orchard Street, Stanton Street. 

Neighborhood 44r— 18,000 Neighborhood 48—14,000 

45—17,000 '' 49—17,000 

46—17,000 '' 50—17,000 

47—17,000 '' 51—17,000 



District IX: E. Broadway District .. 132,000 population 

Bmindaries: Manhattan south of line running along 
West Houston Street, Bowery, Grand Street, Orchard 
Street, Delancey Street, Norfolk Street, Grand Street, 
Cannon Street, Delancey Street, to East River. 

Neighborhood 52—17,000 Neighborhood 56—17,000 

53—18,000 *' 57—15,000 

54—16,000 " 58—18,000 

55—16,000 " 59—15,000 

District X : Williamsburg District . . . 107,000 population 

Boundaries : Grand St., Driggs Ave., Broadway, Flush- 
ing Ave., Eastern Borough Line and East River. 

Neighborhood 65—17,000 Neighborhood 69—16,000 

66—14,000 '' 70—17,000 

67—11,000 ** 71—18,000 
68—14,000 

District XI : Bushwick District 96,000 population 

Boundaries: Flushing Ave., Eastern Borough Line, 

Evergreen Cemetery, Eastern Parkway, Albany Ave., 

Sumner " Ave., Lexington Ave., Tompkins Ave., Pulaski 
St., and Broadway. 



86 COMMUNAL R£GISTI» 

Neighborhood 72—15,000 Neighborhood 77—15,000 
73_16,000 '' 78—17,000 

76—17,000 '' 79—16,000 

District XII: Central Bklyn. District . 89,000 population 

Boundaries : Grand St., Driggs Ave., Broadway, Pulaski 
St., Tompkins Ave., Lexington Ave., Sumner Ave., 
Albany Ave., Eastern Parkway, Carroll St., 4th Ave., 
Gowanus Canal and Upper Bay. 

Neighborhood 60—14,000 Neighborhood 64—14,000 
61—15,000 '' 74—17,000 

63—13,000 '' 75—16,000 

District XIII : Brownsville District . . 102,000 population 

Boundaries : Eastern Parkway, Atlantic Ave., Van Sin- 
deren Ave., Lott Ave., Church. Ave., and Albany Ave. 

Neighborhood 85—18,000 Neighborhood 88—16,000 
86—17,000 " 89—17,000 

87—18,000 '* 90—16,000 

District XIV: East New York Dist. .108,000 population 

Boundaries: Evergreen Cemetery, Eastern Boundary 
Line, Jamaica Bay, Paerdegat Creek, Paerdegat Ave., 
Albany Ave., Church Ave., Lott Ave., Van Sinderen Ave., 
Atlantic Ave., and Eastern Parkway Extension. 

Neighborhood 80—15,000 Neighborhood 84^—15,000 



81—15,000 


(< 


91—15,000 


82—18,000 


i i 


92—15,000 


83—15,000 







District XV : Borough Park District . . 66,000 population 

Boundaries: Gowanus Canal, 4th Ave., Carrol St., Pros- 
pect Park, Eastern Parkway, Albany Ave., Paerdegat 
Ave., Paerdegat Creek, Jamaica Bay and the Waterfront 
to Gowanus Canal. 



JEWISH POPULATION OF NEW YORK CITY 87 

Neighborhood 62—13,000 Neighborhood 95— 7,000 
93— 7,000 ** 96—15,000 

94r-10,000 ** 97—14,000 

District XVI: West Queens District. .10,000 population 

Boundaries: Flushing Bay, Flushing Creek to 71st St., 
straight line to Central Ave., to Long Island Railroad, 
Myrtle Ave. and Western Borough Line. 

Neighborhood 98—10,000 
District XVII: East Queens District .. 13,000 population 

Boundaries : All of Queens not included in District XVI 
(West Queens Kehillah District). 

Neighborhood 99—13,000 
District XVIII: Richmond District 5,000 population 

Boundaries : The entire Borough of Richmond. 

Neighborhood 100—5,000 

While it is not claimed that this distribution of the 
Jewish population is accurate in the sense that a census 
enumeration would be, the divisions here suggested 
should be useful for practical work. No doubt in par- 
ticular localities, especially in sections which have been 
recently built up, our estimate may need correction. But 
in most of the neighborhoods, the figures are as near the 
truth as we can have them at present. 

The most striking fact presented by our map is the 
variation in the size of the neighborhoods. Some of th« 
neighborhoods include only a few blocks, whereas others 



88 COMMUN All REGISTER 

extend over large areas. We can see at a glance the 
localities where the Jews live in large numbers. To rep- 
resent this fact graphically, we have drawn a map of 
New York, on which the varying densities of Jewish 
population are represented by corresponding densities of 
shade. (See map facing page 81.) There are ten neigh- 
borhoods in which the density of the Jews is over 300,000 
per square mile, (that is, over 2,150 to the usual square 
city block) ;^ nineteen neighborhoods in which the density 
is over 200,000 to the square mile (1,430 to the square 
block) ; and thirty-six in which the density is over 100,- 
000 to the square mile (715 to the square block). The 
average density of the general population for New York 
City, (Jewish and non-Jewish) in 1915 was about 16,000, 
to the square mile, or 107 to the square block. More than 
one-third of the Jews (38%), that is about 570,000 Jews, 
live on one per cent (1.2%) of the area of New York. If 
all of New York were populated as densely as is the 
Jewish population in the congested districts. New York 
would have almost as many inhabitants as the entire 
United States, or about ninety-five millions. As may 
have been expected, the congested neighborhoods are 
situated on the East Side, in East Harlem, in parts of 
the Bronx, in Williamsburg, Brownsville and East New 
York. 



* By "usual square city block" is here meant one in whicn the front- 
age would make twenty blocks to the mile, and of which the depth it 
three times the frontage. 



JEWISH POPULATION OP NEW YORK CITY 89 

ESTIMATES OF JEWISH POPULATION 
(1790—1917) 

YEAR NEW YORK AUTHORITY 

1790 385 * United States Census Bureau. 

1812 400 Eev. Gershom Mendes, quoted in 

History of Jews, 1812; Hannah 
Adams. 

July 1826 950 * S. Gilman, article in North Ameri- 

can Beview. 

1846 10,000 Rev. Isaac Leeser. 



1848 12,000 to 13,000 M. A. Berk: History of the Jews 

up to the Present Time. 

1880 60,000 Census of Board of Delegates of 

American Israelites, and Union 
of Hebrew Congregations; Will- 
iam B. Hackenberg of Philadel- 
phia in charge. 

1888 125,000 Isaac Markens: The Hebrews in 

America. 

1891 225,250 Charles Frank, Secretary, United 

Hebrew Charities. 

Jan. 1892 East of Bowery Richard Wheatley: Article on 
and South of 14th ''Jews in New York," Century 
St., 135,000; scat- Magazine. 
tered through the 
city, 40,000 more. 

Feb. 1897 250,000 Richard Wheatley in Harper's 

Magazine. 
April 9, 

* For New York State. 



90 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



YEAR NEW YORK 

1897 350,000 



1897 



350,000 * 



AUTHORITY 

Jacob H. Schiff: Address before 
Anglo- Jewish Ass'n in London. 

David Sulzberger, in Proceedings 
of Amer. Jewish Historical Soc. 



1905 672,000 Joseph Jacobs. 

1907 600,000 Henrietta Szold, American Jewish 

Year Book. 

1910 861,980 *• United States Census Bureau. 

1911 900,000 Joseph Jacobs, Jewish Communal 

Directory, 1912. 

1912 975,000 Joseph Jacobs, American Jewish 

Year Book, 1914-15. 

1912 1,550,000 Walter Laidlaw, Census of Feder- 

ation of Churches. 



July 1918 1,330,000 



1917 



1,500,000 



American Journal of Statistics, 
July, 1913 : ' ' Jews in New York 
City,^' Professor Chalmers of 
Cornell. 

Estimate of writer based upon 
study of Jewish children in pub- 
lic schools. 



• For New York State. 
•* Yiddish Speaking only. 



91 



HOW THE JEWISH COMMUNAL 
REGISTER WAS COMPILED 

By Meir Isaacs 
^ Bureau of Jewish Ediccation 

The need of Jewish statistics as the first essential to 
community planning and organization, was advocated by 
the Kehillah from the very first day of its existence. It 
may appear strange that anything so self-evident in all 
modern undertakings of a social or political character 
should have required a special brief in its favor when 
applied to Jewish communal affairs. Nevertheless, this 
was the case in 1909 when the Kehillah was first organ- 
ized. 

Of course, statistics about a number of things Jewish 
were extant even then. But then these facts and figures 
were, in almost all cases, compiled with an eye to some 
particular phase of Jewish endeavor. They were to serve 
a special purpose. The larger aspect, the broad com- 
munal point of view, was almost always missing. When 
the Kehillah set out to work, the need of such a com- 
munal inventory became imminent, and the Kehillah 
has been striving ever since to supply this deficiency. 

It must be admitted that, in spite of all honest effort, 
no high degree of excellence could at any time be attained 
in this particular branch of Kehillah work. But then 
one must bear in mind that there are several nearly in- 
surmountable obstacles in the path of the communal 



92 COMMUNAL REGISTER 

statistician. Chief amongst these are the lack of police 
power for census-taking and the scant supply of trained 
workers. People are seldom willing to give information 
when they are not compelled to do so. This could be 
partly overcome by the highly skilled enumerator who 
knows how to plead his cause and elicit the information 
from his unwilling subject. But this degree of skill can 
hardly be found for specifically Jewish work. 

When the publication of this volume was decided upon, 
the previous experiences of the Kehillah in census-taking 
served us in good stead. We were aware of the difficul- 
ties, and a great deal of careful planning was done to 
obviate them. Our aim was to give the Jews of this city a 
large, comprehensive outline of their communal life, 
based on facts. We wanted to present to them in the 
clearest possible manner, the assets and the liabilities of 
the community, hoping that a thorough appreciation of 
these will ultimately lead to an awakening of communal 
consciousness, to a well-ordered, well-organized Jewish 
community. 

The enumerating of Jewish organizations, the most 
important asset of this community, was the first step. 
But right here a two-fold problem presented itself. 
First, how are we going to find them ; second, how obtain 
the detailed data about them when found? To accom- 
plish this, the following procedure was decided upon: 

First of all a nucleus was needed. This was obtained 
in the form of a great variety of lists of Jewish organi- 
zations. It is true, none of them was in any way perfect. 
Most of them were rather superannuated. But we had 



JEWISH ORGANIZATIONS IN NEW YORK CITY 93 

at least something to start with. The next step con- 
sisted in copying these names on cards, arranging them 
in a definite order and proceeding to verify them. 
Simultaneously with the process of verification of those 
listed, we were also able to discover new organizations; 
that is, organizations that did not appear in any of the 
old lists. 

For this purpose, Greater New York was divided into 
one hundred districts. A copy of our lists was made and 
arranged in geographic order ; and then about fifty can- 
vassers were sent out to verify the listed organizations, 
as well as to locate the new ones. In passing, it may be 
said that our staff of investigators consisted mainly of 
young Jewish students. They were picked with an eye 
to good appearance, personality and a fair knowledge of 
things Jewish. We felt that mercenary motives alone 
would not bring the results desired and we tried to re- 
cruit men who in one way or another have displayed 
an interest in Jewish work. 

The canvassers were instructed to go through every 
street of Manhattan, Bronx and Brooklyn as well as 
through the Jewish sections of Queens and Richmond, 
and to look for signs of Jewish organizations. They were 
to read carefully all Yiddish and Hebrew signs and ask 
proprietors of halls and meeting places for lists of the 
societies meeting in their halls. As a precaution against 
any possible oversight they were also to inquire of Jew- 
ish butchers and grocers whether they knew of any Jew- 
ish synagogues, schools or other organizations in the 
neighborhood. At the same time the investigator would 
check up and verify the correctness of the names and 



94 COMMUNAL REGISTER 

addresses of all organizations in the district which were 
already entered on the original lists. 

This process of verification and location was about 
the best to insure completeness. We do not flatter our- 
selves that we were entirely successful. There were too 
many obstacles; but we tried hard and took many pre- 
cautions to that end. One of them was extensive adver- 
tising in the Yiddish and Jewish-English press, in which 
we appealed to all societies to send us their names and 
addresses in case our investigator failed to reach them. 
Nevertheless, we feel that it would take several years to 
win the cooperation of all the Jewish organizations for 
this purpose. There is no doubt that the future editions 
of this volume will be more gratifying on this score. 

A source of even greater anxiety than the fear of 
incompleteness was the fear of duplication. The alpha- 
betical and geographical arrangement of the lists helped 
us to eliminate many of them. But this did not solve the 
problem entirely. Here is one of many cases that we had 
to cope with. An organization is found listed as *' Con- 
gregation Sons of Israel." It is also affiliated with one 
of the Federations and appears there as * * Congregation 
B 'nai Israel. ' ' Our canvasser finds it and copies the sign 
as ''Beth Hamidrash B'nai Israel." In response to our 
advertisement the secretary writes and gives us the name 
as * * Chevrah B 'nai Israel. ' ' It took a great deal of trou- 
ble to discover that they were all one, and this was 
accomplished only after our second canvass was made 
for the purpose of obtaining data. 

Before the second canvass was started, a third classifi- 
cation was necessary. Our plan was to present the vari- 



JEWISH ORGANIZATIONS IN NEW YORK CITY 95 

ous phases of Jewish life in distinct groupings or pic- 
tures, and the new classification was made according to 

the different types of organizations: religious, educa- 
tional, recreational, industrial, philanthropic, correc- 
tional and a number of nondescript items which always 
make up the rear under the convenient term of miscel- 
laneous. 

Now the tremendous task to obtain data was at hand. 
Information by mail and information by personal inves- 
tigation were the two methods employed. We knew that 
only the very large organizations, those maintaining 
offices and a regular staff could safely be reached by the 
first method, while the host of smaller organizations, 
numbering almost 4,000, would have to be reached 
through personal investigation. 

We then began to select the special staff of canvassers. 
This was done by carefully sifting the first staff, choosing 
those who had shown themselves to be apt and willing 
workers. Elaborate questionnaires, covering every pos- 
sible phase of communal interest were prepared for the 
various types of organizations. Careful instructions were 
given to canvassers, and the office held itself in readiness 
to assist the canvasser whenever he encountered too many 
difficulties in obtaining the information desired. 

Then came our elaborate mailing system. Hundreds 
of letters were sent daily to societies, asking for informa- 
tion; to presidents, asking for their biographies; to in- 
vestigators, amplifying instructions and accelerating 
their work ; and again to societies asking for supplemen- 
tary information when the first statement was inade- 
quate. Many societies answered our letters ; many more 



96 COMMUNAL REGISTER 

did not. The latter were written to again. This resulted 
in a few more answers, and ultimately the reluctant ones 
had to be shifted to the ''Personal Canvass Depart- 
ment. ' ' 

Needless to say, personal canvass was far more costly 
than getting information by mail. But then it produced 
far better results. But even this method was not in all 
cases successful. Quite a number of societies actually 
succeeded in withholding the information from us. The 
history of this huge canvass is full of episodes which are 
of great interest to the communal student. Here is a 
typical case. A congregation in Williamsburgh is writ- 
ten to for information. No answer. It is written to again, 
with the same result. A canvasser is detailed to the job. 
He finds the beadle and states his errand. This dignitary 
is non-committal. An inquiry for the home address of 
the president elicits the doubtful information that he, 
the beadle, does not know it. The card is then returned 
to the office with the brief narrative. A special investi- 
gator is sent. He uses strategy, spends an hour in fra- 
ternizing with the disgruntled old beadle, treats him to 
an extra fine brand of tobacco and finally obtains the 
address of the president. This gentleman is too consci- 
entious to impart any information whatsoever without 
the consent of his fellow-members. After the next meet- 
ing the information will be forthcoming. But it was not. 
The congregation fears a trap. You may fool some people, 
but you cannot fool them. The congregation, is ultimately 
listed among those marked "no information available." 

There were other societies which, in spite of all assur- 
ances to the contrary, were afraid that giving the inf or- 



JEWISH ORGANIZATIONS IN NEW YORK CITY 97 

mation would entail an expenditure on their part. Others 
balked because they could not see why anyone should be 
interested to find out anything about them. Some people, 
to appease their conscience, simply sent back the stamped 
envelope, empty, not even honoring us with a written 
refusal. 

And while we were tugging hard and fast to complete 
our work within the time-limit set for it, the High Holi- 
days approached and we were confronted with a new 
task — a survey of the provisional synagogues. The main 
difficulty in this piece of work was the fact that it 
brooked no delay. The provisional synagogues spring up 
a few days before the New Year only to disappear at 
eventide of the Day of Atonement. To locate them and 
obtain all data, you must do it at top speed. This necessi- 
tated the mobilization of all our resources. Every avail- 
able man was employed. The city was gone over again. 
New questionnaires, new instructions, a new checking 
system and new piles of cards and papers. Finally, the 
first tangible result of the Eegister — a table of figures 
showing Jewish religious life at its high water-mark. 

This special canvass over, the work was begun anew 
and after several more weeks of hard pulling, the canvass 
was over. The preparation of manuscript, the tabulation 
of figures, the preparation of graphs, maps, illustrations, 
was another huge piece of work. Great pain was taken 
with the reading of proofs and in order to insure the 
highest degree of correctness, the printed proof was 
mailed to the organizations for further verification. 

Now that this essential piece of communal work has 
taken shape and is at the point of being submitted to the 



98 COMMUNAL REGISTER 

public, we feel that it was worth while, in spite of its 
imperfections and shortcomings. It is not only a volume 
containing much valuable information, but it also pre- 
sents a clear picture of our communal life. The process 
of preparation alone was a valuable factor in disseminat- 
ing the idea of an organized Jewish community. Thou- 
sands of persons were, for the first time, apprised of the 
necessity of a Kehillah, through the oral and written 
propaganda made incidentally while obtaining informa- 
tion for the Register. That this information, classified 
and interpreted, will accomplish much more in this di- 
rection, is the fond hope of the men who have labored at 
this task. 








Mis- 
ceUa. 
neoua 
Agen. 
ciea 

loTooo 

Popu- 
lation 


^ ' (m" (m' ci -^ w 


US « CM CO .* .^ 00 «o o ^ 

^" e<i e^ .-<»-< ' *«" c* 










00 


Mis- 
cella- 
neous 
Agen- 
cies 
Total 


^«SSi::?3Si5^?3''2;2«'J:<^'^ 








111 






s 


■« 


Cen- 
tral 
Organ- 
ize^ 
tions 






•^ 


"-**'"' : 
















5 


CO 


Philanthropic 

and 

Correctional 

Agencies 


Phil- 

au- 

throp- 

ic 

and 
Cor- 
rec- 
tional 
Agen- 
cies 

10,000 
Popu- 
lation 


to->*iM»o<Mr-oeoco'*<ooo»Heo»H 
_; "esi.-I^eoi-I w-*^ ',-1 ',-i 


CSIO 




^ 




2^S2*S2^J::2:'«^S«"' 


c<ie^ 


2 




Number of Mutual Aid and 
Economic Agencies 


Mutu- 
al Aid 
and 
Eco- 
nomic 
Agen- 
cies 
per 
10,000 
Popu- 
lation 


-HO"S»Oe<350C6050lrt(M_tO<35«OTtt 

e^ -^ ■^ -* eo »-H 






•"*< 
■* 


Mutu- 
al Aid 

and 

Eco- 
nomic 

Agen- 
cies 

Total 


S3l^§SSS||g§2g3g22 


eo-i 


S 
M 




Eco- 
nomic 
Agen- 
cies 


iO'-<(MTt<t>.ooo5>oi«.^e>:)Oe<tec 








i 


CO 


1 

2 


2Sg^2§ggg:^°°§^=3;:: 


CMi-i 




50 


Mu- 
tual 
Aid 
Soci- 
eties 




JHCOC, 


- 




o 
o 


CO 


1, 
ll 


Relig- 
ious 
and 
Cul- 
tural 
Agen- 
cies 
per 
10,000 
Popu- 
lation 


eot*t>.t~eocoo»<oo5t-»oot>.OMOOO 
ci .^' t>: .*■ ec i/^ oo' 00 » us ^ .*■ ui CO ui ^ ^ 00 






Relig- 
ious 
and 
Cul- 
tural 
Agen- 
cies 
Total 


t^oot~t^>o(Ma>oO'*<t^O«ooooi«-^eoTj< 

e^ i-< (^ ■* (M CO 00 rH C^ lO -H CO U3 eo CO -H 


i 




Recre- 
ational 
and 
Cul- 
tural 
Agen- 
cies 




NOjoeo'^ooio^-' — s^to 


o 








o 


t- 


1 
1 


eoioOio-^-^-tot-OJOo 


totoc^c* 


^©« 


§ 


^ 


all 


^^^Sfssssis^^s^ss^-^a^ 


oc 


ui 


No. of 
Organ- 
iza- 
tions 
per 
10,000 
Popu- 
lation 


00»O(MCa OJ «0 U5 OO N 00 1-1 CO Tjt us 

t>^ ■*" CO ^' o » tj^ ^ j^' d CO 00 us «o ^' eo' -^ ^ 




■V 


Total 
No. of 
Organ- 
iza- 
tions 
in Dis- 
trict 


»HOi(MOO«US05000100»-lOO-*t^«SeOOl- 

°°'*?o2!'^2E;oot^S'^*^2""^ 


i\ 


Estimated 
Popula- 
tion in 
District 


103,000 
108,000 
97,000 
99,000 
76.000 
57,000 
100,000 
134.000 
132,000 
107,000 
96,000 
89,000 
102.000 
108.000 
66,000 
10,000 
13.000 
5,000 


1 

• 1 








« 


Im 


•• 


«a 


c 


tx 


ob'si 


o^ 


2 


,viz 


M 


• 


»« 


M 




1 




III 

111 
SS-i 



UMBER OP JEWISH ORGANIZATIONS PER 10,000 JEWS 
IN THE VARIOUS DISTRICTS OP THE KEHILLAH 
(JEAA^SH COMMUNITY) OP NEW YORK 

1— North Bronx K^g-; 

2 — South Bronx 



3 — West Side and 
Harlem 



4 — East Harlem g 
5 — Yorkvllle 



6 — Central 
Manhattan 



7 — Tompkins 
Square 



8 — Delancey 

9 — East Broadway ^S 

— Williamsburg 

1 — Bushwick 



2 — Central 
Brooklyn 



3 — Brownsville 
4 — East New York 
5 — Borough Park 
6 — West Queens 

7 — East Queens 
8 — Richmond 



Religious 

and 
Cultural 




Average: 24 Organizations 



Mutual 
Aid and 
Economic 



Philanthropic 

and Miscellaneous 

Recreational 



s 



'A 



i ♦ 



oooo 
oooo 
oooo 
oooo 

0U30U» 

t-c^o 
ca CO 



c e 
oo . • 

CO "S'S . . 

n u u . 
^ bCbO _ 

o * S '-'3 



oooo 
oooo 
oooo 






h-iW . .-iJ 
Ha ^ 

do -2^ 

M I' O O C 
<J i> CO o ™ 

H 



oo 

oo 

oo 

lOO 

coo 
■*o 






O 

^|. 

oS 

g§ • 

QJXJ • in 
" «> 0) 

?H ra « S 



-J bfitn » ^ 



ooooooo oooooo 

0000000 oooooo 

0000000 1 oooooo 

OiaiOCqOOO U50U3000 



Ho « o 

m2 2 o «> o 
y f" e o 13 cStj'O 

u 



! 4>r 









M 




w 




M 




o 




^ 




w 









< 




w 




o 


' 


tf 




<i 


w 


w 


w 


73 


o 


W 
tf 


H 


n 




< 


< 


< 





o 


H 






W 


Q 


« 


« 


tf 


:0 


O 


O 


u 


O 



AMOUNT SPENT BY THE JEWISH COMMUNITY OF 

NEW YORK ANNUALLY UPON THE VARIOUS 

FUNCTIONS OF COMMUNAL LIFE 

^ $JOOfOOO 

Coordin^img and Research Institutions 






Re/i^ jo us Educa tton 

,000 

Cultura/ and Recreational Activities 




^3,^00,000\ 



Industrial and Economic Actii/ities 




Philanthropic and Correctional Institutions 



/ i 



*i'"C 



'eogp,ooo 

Religious Affairs and Institutions 



107 



HOW THE DOLLAR SPENT BY THE 
JEWISH COMMUNITY OF NEW YORK IS DIVIDED 

(Showing the Community's Expenditure for the 
Various Activities of Communal Life) 



<SS-S^ 




^^r^^"^ 
<# 



COiiRDINAnN6&RE5£ARCH INSTITUTIONS -|? 























TABLE SHOWING 


A STUDY 


OF 


2000 BIOGRAPHIC 


NOTES 


OF PRESIDENTS OF JEWISH ORGANIZATIONS 


IN NEW 


YORK CITY 






























1 


Sex 


A,M 




>„^. 


DjTii OF Arrival m Uhitbd Statis 


'^d^^^- 


Yrar. ,n Omcs 


0„.a™. 


Ttpb op OnaiNiMTios 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 
§5 

S 
S 


1 

s 


1 


1 

s 


1 


1 


1 

i 


1 
1 


1 


1 


1 


j 


1 
J 
1 


1 


i 




1 


1 

s 

i 


i 

s 

i 


i 

s 

i 


i 
i 


i 


1 


i 

"1 


1 
1 


1 

s 


1 


1 


1 


1 
1 


1 


1 


! 

i 


1 




JJ 


if 




II 


Ij 


*! 


11 


if 


1 






m 


6S.5 






7 


10 


114 


234 


317 


10 


415 


201 


23 


19 


14 


2 


4 


5 


12 


23 




215 


158 


145 


49 


16 


2 


49 


23 


41 


154 


421 


66 


218 


308 


8.1 


.34 




21 




46 






43 


103 


5 


g 


224 




54 




66 


48 








2 


14 


17 


17 


5 


28 


6 


12 


3 


1 


4 






2 


12 




17 


12 


3 




2 




4 


12 


8 


22 


10 


4 




24 


14 


3 




, 




i 












^ 


~ 


~7 













Mutual Aid Societies 


556 


501 






27 


53 


175 


174 


116 


9 


326 


182 


,2 


25 


5 


1 




8 


2 


12 




111 


138 


170 


77 


27 




17 


12 


40 


198 


296 


10 


311 


186 


29 


10 




4 




42 


.87 


15 




32 


5 


27 


124 




54 




46? 


453 




9 


19 


27 


108 


171 


102 


26 


216 


119 


44 


35 


34 







J 


8 


44 




138 


93 


123 


25 


11 


2 




44 


63 


114 


207 


34 


182 


206 


35 


g 




20 




65 


152 


52 




15 


.^ 


16 


60 




49 


OlhK Eeoiomc Ageneiis 


62 








3 


8 


19 


18 


10 


3 


31 


15 


9 


2 


1 






2 


2 


9 




21 


10 


6 


10 


1 






9 


12 


20 


„ 






23 


8 


3 








^ 








2 






„ 


~r 


~r 


PM.ntlOT,»c and Coneclional Ageraiee ... 


82 


45 






1 


1 


„ 


27 


33 


8 


20 


7 


41 


4 


7 


2 




1 




4. 




19 


6 


4 


1 








41 


13 


13 


13 






34 


20 


3 




8 




9 


2 


17 




, 




3 


37 












MiscellmeoiB 


47 


44 






1 


2 


12 


15 


16 


I 


23 


e 


„ 


2 


2 


, 






1 


11 




„ 


9 


6 


2 




1 




„ 


12 


10 


.3 






26 


7 


I 








8 


4 


23 








, 


, 






ToTiL 


1968 


1843 


115 


„ 


58 


103 


453 


656 


611 


62 


1054 


536 


152 


90 


64 


,7 


4 


18 


25 


152 




532 


426 


457 


101 


57 


6 




152 


189 


53. 


977 


111 


759 


807 


196 


63 


81 


64 


179 


175 


4«3 


165 




153 


.3 


58 


476 


44 


ni 


C 0, Total 




JL 




^ 


JL 


^ 


= 


33.4 


31.2 


3.2 


63.7 


27,3 


7.8 


4.6 


3.3 


' 


_1 


_l 


Jl 


=JL 


JL 


27.1 


^ 


J» 


JL 


JL 


^ 


4.3 


7.8 


9,6 


23.2 


49.9 


6.7 


35.4 


41.7 


.0.3 


3.4 


4.3 


2.9 


9.1 


8.9 


23.4 


8.4 


.. 


J± 


^ 


J= 


^ 


JL 


8.7 







Religious Agencies 



Ill 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS ON 
RELIGIOUS AGENCIES 

By J. L. Magnes 
Chairman, Executive Committee of the Kehillah 

It will be clear from a mere glance at the table of 
contents of this Department that the Religious Affairs 
of the Jewish Community of New York City are varied, 
picturesque and complex. They are varied because we 
have Jews of differing religious views and practices — the 
Orthodox, the Conservative and the Reformed. They are 
picturesque because we have Jews from all parts of the 
world who have tried to create here replicas of the re- 
ligious conditions of the old homes. They are complex 
because, in addition to the difficulties besetting all re- 
ligious activities in modern times, the Jews of New York 
have permitted the problem of their Religious Affairs to 
grow wild. They have not even gathered adequate data 
concerning their religious life and institutions, much less 
formulated or carried into effect a solution of the prob- 
lem of their Religious Affairs. 

From the point of view of communal organization our 
Religious Affairs have three main elements: The Syna- 
gogues, the Religious Functionaries and the Ritual Insti- 
tutions. 

I 

The problem of the Synagogue is not so much an 
economic question or one of organization, as it is spirit- 
ual. It is, in common with the religious problem of all 
peoples, essentially one of doctrine, and of the revival 



112 COMMUNAL REGISTER 

of religious enthusiasm. This cannot be met through 
mere communal organization alone. 

Yet the strengthening of the economic situation 
among the synagogues, the cleaning out of all abuses, 
greater efficiency in cooperation among them, can be 
of material assistance in the solution of their spiritual 
problem. 

The Synagogues may be classified into various 
groups. They are incorporated, and unincorporated, 
with and without their own buildings, with and without 
cemeteries, with and without schools or libraries or other, 
activities, with and without preachers. They may also 
be grouped in accordance with the social status of their 
members (some are conducted and maintained entirely 
by workmen), or in accordance with Landsmannschaf- 
ten, or in accordance with the texts of their prayers and 
their religious observances (Chassidim, Anshe Sfard, 
Sephardic, Ashkenazic, Conservative, Reformed). There 
are many lodges and organizations established for mu- 
tual benefit and other purposes which have a Sefer Torah 
and where the members and neighbors daven. Then 
there are the provisional synagogues which may be 
grouped into those conducted for the benefit of religious 
organizations and those conducted for the profit of in- 
dividuals. 

The goal to be reached in the communal development 
of the Synagogues is a Federation of Synagogues. 
There would probably have to be a Federation of Re- 
formed Synagogues, a Federation of Conservative Syna- 
gogues and at least one Federation of Orthodox Syna- 
gogues. The various Synagogue Federations might 8p 



RELIGIOUS AFFAIRS 113 

point representatives to a Joint Council whose function 

it would be to coordinate the activities of all the Fedei • 
tions in meeting the many problems which all have in 
common. 

II 

The Religious Functionaries of the community are 
all called superficially and indiscriminately by the title 
of Rabbi, or Reverend, or Reverend Doctor. As a matter 
of fact their functions are quite varied. The fact that 
there are in New York at least four Rabbinical Associa- 
tions and a number of other associations whose mem- 
bers are known as Rabbis, indicates not alone that the 
number of functionaries is large (one thousand would 
be a fair estimate), but also that they are grouped 
according to their various schools of thought and ac- 
cording to the ritual functions they perform. 

A commonly accepted definition of who is a Rabbi or 
a Rav has not yet been achieved. As a consequence the 
whole conception of Rabbinic authority is subject to 
confusion, and the Rabbinical status is very often 
brought into question to the detriment of the commu- 
nity's orderly development. 

Among the Reformed Jews, men having a diploma 
from a Theological College are accepted as Rabbis with- 
out question; and anyone without a diploma, but call- 
ing himself Rabbi or Reverend Doctor, and having a 
Congregation, is also taken at his word among the Re- 
formed Jews. 

But not only are the certificated and uncertificated 
Reformed Rabbis denied the title Rabbi among the Orth 



114 communaij register 

odox, but among the Orthodox themselves there is dis- 
agreement as to the status and functions of their own 
Rabbis. 

The Religious Functionaries among the Orthodox Jews 
may be grouped somewhat as follows : 

a) The Authoritative Rabbis, that is, Rabbis whose 
decision on questions of Jewish law and ritual 
are generally and publicly recognized. 

b) Rabbis who have the Hatorath Horooh (tradi- 
tional title of Rabbi) and who are of unquestioned 
religious fidelity, but who for one reason or an- 
other (often of a local character) are not gen- 
erally and publicly recognized as among the elect. 

c) Preachers and Lecturers (Maggidim and Mati- 
fim) who do not pretend to answer questions of 
law and of ritual. 

d) Chazanim (cantors) Shochetim (kosher slaugh- 
terers) and Mohelim who perform rabbinical 
functions in addition to those in which they are 
expei;t. 

e) Reverends who perform various rabbinical func- 
tions, especially at marriages, funerals and other 
family occasions. These Reverends are of all 
degrees of Jewish learning and piety. 

f) There is also a large number of men — generally 
of considerable learning and of pious habits — 
whose main occupation is in some secular busi- 
ness, but who act also as minor religious func- 
tionaries in Synagogues, Cemeteries, etc. 

The chief problem before the Religious Functionaries 
of the community is the establishment of greater clarity 
and unanimity as to what rabbinic authority is and who 
is entitled to exercise it. A further grave problem — par- 
ticularly among the Orthodox — ^is the economic question, 



rmjIoious affairs 115 

i. e., how to earn a decent living. It would amaze the 
community to know what a niggardly income some of 
the finest and most learned of the Rabbonim receive, 
and to what devices they are compelled to resort, much 
against their will, in order to eke out a precarious exist- 
ence for themselves and their families. It is not too 
much to say that progress in the Orthodox Community 
is in large measure halted because of the uncertain 
economic status of the Authoritative Rabbis. 

The various Rabbinical Associations will doubtless 
some day come to the conclusion that, whatever their 
differences, they have many tasks in common, and that 
active cooperation among them will greatly further the 
communal development. 

Ill 

Aside from the Synagogue, many of the Ritual Insti- 
tutions of Judaism have developed a kind of independent 
existence. Some of these Ritual Institutions are treated 
in the following articles. It will suffice for this intro- 
ductory statement merely to enumerate some of them 
with a few explanatory notes: 

a) Kashruth — The whole question of kosher meat 
plays an enormous role in the communal life, and, 
for this reason, if for no other, the importance of 
its regulation cannot be overestimated. 

b) Divorce — The Authoritative Rabbis grant divorces 
in accordance with the Jewish law. The utmost 
care is taken not to come into conflict with the 
State Law as to divorce. Conflicts do arise, how- 
ever, at times, with disastrous consequences for 
the rabbi, but more particularly for the deserted 



116 COMMUNAL REGISTER 

wife (Agunah), and for men and women who have 
unwittingly entered upon bigamous relations. 

c) Marriage — The circumstances in connection with 
marriage in public halls need correction. 

d) Burial — The problem of cemeteries should re- 
ceive careful study. The quick growth of the 
community has lead to a number of private real 
estate ventures of no advantage to the commu- 
nity. Furthermore the cemeteries themselves are 
often made the scenes of conduct harming the 
prestige of the whole community. 

e) Circumcision — Real progress has been made un- 
der the auspices of the Milah Board. 

f) Ritual Baths — These institutions have been en- 
deavoring to comply with the Department of 
Health regulations as to sanitation. 

g) Sahhath Observance — This comes under the De- 
partment of Industry as well as under that of 
Religious Affairs. It has been impossible to se- 
cure legislation permitting Jews who observe 
Saturday as a Sabbath, to go to business on Sun- 
day. 

It is essential that these Ritual Institutions and all 
others be brought under the control of a Federation of 
Synagogues and the Boards of Rabbis. 

The problem of Religious Affairs as one aspect of the 
whole Jewish problem of New York City can most cer- 
tainly be solved. It requires, first, complete knowledge 
as to the facts ; and second, a comparatively small fund 
for the initial steps of coordination. Such large sums 
are spent by the Jews for the various phases of their 
Religious Affairs that with a clear plan ahead and with 
closer systematization the specifically religious life of the 
Jews of the city can be made into a great source of mate- 
rial and spiritual treasure. 



117 



AFFILIATION WITH THE SYNAGOGUE 

By M. M. Kaplan 

Professor of HomUetics at the Jewish Theological 

Seminary of America 

Next to the Bible, the synagogue is the Jew 's foremost 
contribution to the spiritual life of mankind. It has revo- 
lutionized the mode of worship and of religious instruc- 
tion; it has enabled prayer to take the place of animal 
sacrifice, democratic spiritual leadership to supersede 
priestly castes, and articulate spiritual teaching to pre- 
vent ceremonial from becoming mere mummery. The 
synagogue, as a place of common worship and edification, 
seems to have acquired the character of an established 
institution during the 6th century B. C. E., among the 
Jews who were exiled to Babylon. After the Return its 
importance continued to grow. By the time the second 
Commonwealth fell, the synagogue had grown so strong, 
and so many of the Jewish spiritual forces had been 
mobilized therein, that it presented a second wall of de- 
fense against which all of Israel's enemies have since 
hurled themselves in vain. There were times, indeed, 
when, as in the days of the Crusades, the synagogue 
literally offered refuge to the Jews who fled to it for 
shelter from bloodthirsty mobs. But, at all times it 
served as a bulwark to hold off the hand of the marauder 
from Israel's sacred heritage. 

The function of the synagogue was not limited to that 
of defense. Like the medieval castles, which outwardly, 



118 oommunaij register 

with their bastions and moats, have all the appearance 
of fortresses, but which, from the inner courts, present 
the aspect of palaces intended to house and enrich a life 
of peace, so the synagogue not only protected the Jewish 
faith from a hostile world, but was also for the Jew a 
home for the development of his strivings and ideals. It 
was a house of prayer, a **beth tephillah," a house of 
study, a **beth ha'midrash," and a meeting house, where 
communal undertakings were formulated, and, where all 
plans for the communal good were discussed and adopted. 
The synagogue rendered possible the cultivation of the 
spiritual life in the Diaspora, and thus gave point to the 
truth that wherever the Jewish people went it was ac- 
companied by the **Shekhina," or Divine Presence. 

Establishing a synagogue, or being affiliated with one 
was not considered a matter of option. It was an accepted 
principle that wherever there were ten Jews, they were 
in duty bound to form themselves into a congregation, 
and to carry on all the customary Jewish communal ac- 
tivities. While the Jew is in a position to discharge most 
of his religious duties by himself, it was realized that 
detachment from communal life could not but eventually 
lead to complete severance from the faith. Hence the 
designation of **evil neighbor'* for one who, though liv- 
ing near a synagogue, kept aloof from it. That accepted 
principle, it was, which enforced by the sanction of 
public sentiment, brought every Jew within the in- 
fluence of the synagogue. 

What, then, has weakened the Jewish sentiment that 
was so strong a feature in the maintenance of the syna- 
gogue in the past? Many elements, undoubtedly, have 



RELIGIOUS AFFAIRS 119 

contributed to the undermining of that sentiment, but 
chief of all is the dwindling of Sabbath observance. 
Kept away from attendance at the synagogue on the 
traditional day of rest and common worship, the Jew 
finds little motive for being identified with the syna- 
gogue, and, when he finds himself out of touch with 
synagogue life it cannot be long before he becomes en- 
tirely cold to Jewish traditions and ideals. Hence, among 
the principal measures for the upbuilding of the syna- 
gogue must be the restoration of the Sabbath, a measure 
which cannot be brought about except by the united 
efforts of all elements in the Jewish Ck)mm unity. 

As a rule there is a transition stage between complete 
identification with the synagogue and complete severance 
from it. The force of age-long habit prevents the break 
from being sudden, and so there has sprung up what is 
known as the provisional synagogue. In most cases the 
provisional synagogue is an improvised place of worship 
to accommodate the large number of Jews, who, no longer 
connected with the regular synagogue, still want to wor- 
ship in common with the rest of the Jews on the two 
most important holidays of the year — Yom Kippur and 
Rosh Ha^shannah. These temporary synagogues are pri- 
vate undertakings entered into by a few persons for busi- 
ness ends. At least 100,000 Jewish men and women — 
that is, about one-fourth of the total synagogue attend- 
ance of Greater New York — are exploited in this way. 
What a wonderful opportunity is this for organized 
Jewish effort! The dormant Jewish will-to-live of these 
thousands ought not to be permitted to be made into a 



120 COMMUNAL REGISTER 

means of private gain. With proper organization, it 
could be impressed into the service of the communal 
cause, and developed into a living, active Jewish con- 
sciousness. 

The survey which follows is anything but encouraging. 
The pulse of the patient who undergoes a physical exam- 
ination flutters somewhat when the physician applies the 
stethoscope to the region of the heart. He is afraid that 
the life-giving organ of his body might be found unsound. 
The synagogue, according to our sages, is the heart of 
Israel. It has, throughout the centuries, supplied the 
Jewish people with its life-force. In approaching, there- 
fore, the survey of the synagogues of the greatest Jewry 
of the world, we naturally apprehend lest the findings 
be such as to darken the prospects of a Jewish future in 
America. Yet it is better that we know the truth and 
apply such immediate and drastic measures as might 
change despair into hope. 

What are some of the truths that stand out as signifi- 
cant? The first and foremost is the fact that the syna- 
gogue has lost hold on more than one-half of the largest 
Jewish Community in the world. The estimated 
Jewish population of this city is about one and a 
half millions, which is a very conservative figure. Not 
taking into consideration the 30%, who constitute the 
child population up to the age of fourteen, and allowing 
10% for adolescent Jewish girls who, unfortunately, have 
hardly any place in the synagogue, we should expect at 
least 900,000 seats to accommodate Jewish worshipers 
on the High Holidays, when the maximum attendance is 
reached. We find, however, the total seating capacity U) 



RELIGIOUS AFFAIRS 121 

be 381,363. If we add to that the 30,000 to 35,000 seats 
to be found in the 120 small synagogues not yet investi- 
gated, we see that out of 900,000 Jews only about 415,000 
are synagogue Jews. 

Secondly, we observe the remarkable unevenness in the 
percent of the population affiliated with the synagogue, 
when judged by districts. Whereas in the Delancey dis- 
trict 44% are synagogue Jews, in Bushwick and in Rich- 
mond only 7%, in West Queens only 2% worship in 
synagogues. It is evident that the density of population, 
economic conditions, and length of stay in this country 
have so rapid an effect upon synagogue affiliation that 
we cannot but infer that the synagogue owes its existence 
more to the momentum of the past, than to any new 
forces created in this country that make for its conserva- 
tion and development. 

Furthermore, it is signiJScant that out of a seating 
capacity of 217,725 there are only 39,260 seats in syna- 
gogues where English sermons are preached, where, in 
other words, some regard is had for the needs of the 
rising generation, to whom English is the only medium 
of interpreting the teachings of Judaism. Of these there 
are 11,737 seats in synagogues where the Orthodox ritual 
is used ; 16,374 where the conservative, and 14,053 where 
the Reform ritual is used. This means that less than one- 
fifth of the permanent sjmagogues have reckoned with 
the environment and have to some extent, at least, taken 
root in American life. 

One to whom the future of the Jews and of Judaism is 
an object of concern cannot but view with alarm the con- 
dition of the synagogue, as indicated by the cold figures 



122 COMMUNAL RBQIBTER 

in the statistical columns. They are indicative, more than 
anything else can be of the rapid disintegration of Jewish 
life, a process that cannot possibly be halted by 
sporadic efforts of any single organization. All the pos- 
sible material and moral resources of the entire Jewish 
community must be concentrated upon the aim of saving 
the synagogue from impending ruin. This is no time to 
allow theological differences to paralyze concerted com- 
munal effort. Ways can be found whereby the religious 
preferences of various groups can be met without at the 
same time imperiling the much needed cooperation of all 
elements in New York Jewry to rehabilitate the syna- 
gogue. 

In this country, as well as in all other countries where 
the Jews have been emancipated, the sjmagogue is the 
principal means of keeping alive the Jewish conscious- 
ness. The synagogue, with its historic background of over 
2,000 years, with its eternal appeal to the deepest relig- 
ious sentiments, with its inherent potentialities for all 
that can go to make up the regeneration of Jewish life, 
is the only institution that can define our aims to a world 
that would otherwise be at a loss to understand why we 
persist in retaining our corporate individuality. 



























TABLE SHOWING 


THE 


DISTRIBUTION OF 


SYNAGOGUES IN 


THE 


VARIOUS KEHILLAH DISTRICTS 


ANC 


ALSO THE SALIENT FEATURES 


OF 


THOSE SYNAGOGUES 


































i 


!J.«. OF Durmn 


P?=^ 


s=z 


,p,iSisL... 


,p™„^.T&..„, 


— 


P»^=&?KS.» 


- 


.™.o,,^„.„_ 


^:=:;j,^=;r 


SS=£ 


— •-— — 


li 


h 


.„„,0_™,._,8_., 


i 


1 


1 


J 


1 


1 


1 


M 


1 
1 


ill 


J 


1 


1 


J 


1 


i 


II 


11 


i 


ft 


s 


J 


i 


: 


1 


1 


3 


1 


1 


if 


1 


i 


3 


i 


1 


1 


1 


1 


3 


J 
1 


3 
1 


1 
1 


3 


I 


3 


j 


I 


11 


J 

,5 


i 

i 


1 


1 


3 


1 


3 


I 


1 


ll 




, 


"t. 


103.tK« 


5. 


80 


24 


8.2I 2.0 


2.3 




26. 


22 


78.3 


28,022 


8.27. 


14.752 


228 


80. 


.482 




33.3 


20 


0.7 


28 


93. 


, 


3.3 




3.3 


28 


088 


2 


.7 




126 


2, 


87.5 




23.3 


7 


30. 


3 .0 


2 


6.7 


.0 


88, 


1 


3.3 


1.154 


7.1 






, 


34 




23. 


J 


..7 


12 


40 


, 


~ 




^£. 


108,000 


45 


„ 


34 


4.2! 1.0 


3.2 




64. 




46.6 


31,22. 


6.297 


26.929 


2iO. 


48. 


2.9.9 


• 


455 





64.6 


10 


.9. 








... 


,0 


00 


1 






44.4 


6 


65. 




65. 


3 


883 











, 


44, 






1005 


„ 








9.1 




22.2 


, 


,8.2 


, 


1«1 


3 


~ 


3 


"a^;;^,™ 


>,.m 


88 


46 


43 


0..I 47 


.3 




82 




07.4 


87,782 


,0.10 


18.081 


389. 


196. 


,92. 


1. 


34.8 


30 


.6.2 


39 


8.. 


6 


1.1 






35 


796 





20.6 




84.0 


28 


03.1 




40., 


„ 


30.4 


2 


4.3 




.7.7 


25 


54. 


2 


4.8 


4.0. 


4.8 


, 


8.9 


10 


22.2 




.... 


, 


13.8 


, 


1... 


1! 


„, 




^u. 


«.m 


48 


27 


21 


4..! 27 


2.1 




22. 






20.632 


7.377 


13.166 


207 


74. 


132.9 




37 


17 


.U.3 


2. 


... 








3.7 


20 


«,.2 


1 


3.8 




1.5 


23 


88.5 




,4.6 


„ 




, 


18,5 




„. 


20 


74 


2 


7.4 


2.077 




1 


8.2 


, 


25.9 




.8.6 


, 


88.8 


J 


18 5 






, 




70.000 


31 


22 


, 


4.l| 20 






70. 




30 


13.07. 


9.403 


4.287 


.84. 


,28, 


6..1 




69.1 


9 


40.9 


18 


... 


3 


.3.7 




4.5 


,9 


80., 


8 


13.9 




4.4 


10 


66.. 




„ 


e 


27 


, 


456 






1. 


.3 






1.387 




4 


19. 


10 


.7. 




.5 






, 


10, 


, 


4.8 


e 


"r..... 


57.000 


4, 


24 


„ 


7.2I 4 2 


3.0 




26. 




76. 


23,920 


10.166 


13.155 


3.0, 


.88. 


230.9 






10 


4,7 


.7 


70. 


, 


.2.6 


4 


.... 


,8 


76. 


» 


26. 


8 


83.3 


.6 


...7 




60. 


, 


25. 








4.2 


16 


62 






3,2.8 




. 


25. 


4 


■0,8 




8. 


2 


8,. 


, 


20.8 




2..» 


, 


"s:t" 


101 ooo 


110 


07 


43 




4.8 




20. 




78. 


33,631 


.7.06. 


...480 


335. 


.70. 


IM.8 




1.7 


6. 


88.3 


M 


.7. 


2 


3 






.4 


,00. 








6.5 


68 


93.5 






.0 


14.9 


, 


13.4 




,7.9 


4. 


63. 


19 


2SA 


.,.26 




, 


1... 


25 


39. 




26.8 


4 


.3 


10 


16. 




,.. 


, 


D.).«e., 


1.000 


m 


200 


28 




2.1 




.4. 




80. 


67,.62 


47,»8 


.0,5.4 


44.. 


30.. 


80.3 




16. 


170 


86.6 


200 


.». 










,91 


,«,. 










.80 


,00. 






57 


285 


.5 


.32.5 




37. 


,82 


0,. 


27 


.8,5 


.8,m 




. 


39 


112 


57.7 




.7,5 


20 


10.8 


1. 






4.1 


, 


^b'„.„, 


.3!,.«, 


m 







12.2' .22 






18. 




81.3 


85.4«i 


36,4,.3 




28.. 


281. 






2.2 


.25 


75.8 


... 


.5. 


7 


4.3 






,57 


,00. 










.42 


99.2 






88 


53.3 


05 


57.5 




40. 


,6. 


.,. 


48 


29.. 


26.45, 


20,8 


12 


7.0 


.2 


57,. 




,3.2 


,7 


10.7 


10 


.3 




44 


.» 


Williniubutg 


107.000 


.0 


40 2. 




1.0 




82. 




.73 


28.06. 


.5,... 


7,035 


223. 


.49. 


74.6 




1..5 


4. 


83.5 


49 


.00, 










47 


,00. 








4.8 


46 


93.7 




2^ 


1. 


28.6 


7 


14.3 




.0.4 


4. 


8,. 


6 


12.2 


3.926 








17 


34,8 




1.5 


8 


1.6 


13 


262 




8.2 




Bu>li,mk 


.6.000 


„ 




. 




0.3 




«.. 




40, 


0.910 


3,380 


8.630 


72. 


35. 


3.7 




00. 


2 


40. 


3 


.0, 


, 


40 








80 


, 


20. 




40. 


3 


». 




«,. 


, 


». 








20. 


6 


,«.. 


, 


20 


663 




, 


20. 








4. 


, 


2. 


I 


20. 






12 


'^B^klyo 


80.000 


S2 


20 










88, 




„,, 


24.760 


15.886 


8.8.30 


173, 


.7., 


.9 8 




42,3 


,5 


.7.7 


23 


88 


,, 


,; 




3 8 


24 


02 3 


, 


7.7 




,32 


„ 


.3. 






12 


4..2 


, 


11.6 




7.7 


2, 


80. 


1 


8.8 


!..87 




2 


8. 


8 


32. 




20. 


7 


28. 


, 


4. 




8. 


„ 


B,.™rill. 


■rooo 


„ 


.8 


,, 


6»' 47 


,, 


.„ 


41 




6.7 




17 «0 


8.30 


,, 


.7. 


..7 


, 


HO 


„ 


85. 


.7 


100 










4, 


,„ 










47 


m 


, 


4- 


14 


■^, 


,, 


45 8 




70. 


37 


71 


, 


8 5 


3.93. 








,2 


26. 




8.3 


,8 


37.6 


5 


1... 




1... 


~ 


■^kWvo* 


108,000 


~ 


~^ 


~ 


~l ~ 


~ 


„ 


„j 




~, 




~ 


~ 


187 


82 


~ 


^ 


~, 


.0 


79.2 


"V 


~ 










~^ 


~ 










2.8 


~ 


~ 


~ 


» 


37.6 


, 


29.2 




4.2 


„ 


68. 






1.8.2 




, 


4. 


2 


8,7 




12.6 


11 


4... 


, 


1.7 




12.6 


13 


»»">•* !■■* 


0..(«) 


40 


27 


.3 


J 4.1 


1.9 




78, 




20.0 


16.166 


11.030 


4.226 


240. 


.82, 


64, 




61.9 


.3 


40.1 


.5 


55, 


, 


150 




,8,5 


„ 


.2.8 


10 


37,2 




62.8 


.0 


37.2 




..- 


. 


29.6 


1 


8.7 






,. 


68. 






2.170 


3,3 






8 


296 




7.4 


8 


2... 


5 


20. 




14.8 


1« 




10.000 


, 


, 




.0' 10 




, 


m 






.00 


,0 




-O 


-« 




, 


m 






, 


,01 










, 


,.9 






, 


100 






















, 


m. 






.0 


^, 












10. 














„ 


E»1Q.«. 




IS 


~ 


~ 


~i ;: 


~ 


~ 


~ 


~ 


~^ 


~ 


3, on 


~ 








~7 




~ 


80 




~To7 














" 


~ 


~ 


~ 


, 


70 


, 


» 


, 


60. 










, 


40 






0.3 


6.3 












20. 


4 


40. 


3 


»1. 


, 


10. 


IS 


,U^„j 


B.OOO 


, 


J 










100 






3,0 


,50 




70 






, 


50 


, 


50 


, 


100 










, 












, 


,00. 




.50 














2 


ICO 






100 2. 






2 


.00. 






















Tc«u 


,,.0..0» 


jJT 


784 


^ 


^1" 




^ 


30. 


^ 


00.8 


]Z4 




]^ 


^ 




J^ 


^ 


J^ 


^ 


j^ 


J£ 


^ 


_!!_ 


H 


Ji 


^ 


J^ 


05.2 


n 


IR 




_^ 


_^ 




_^ 


_^ 


_^ 


_^ 


Jl 


^ 


.88 


M. 


^ 


^ 


JL 


Jl 


70,180 1 5.3 


" 


''' 


= 


"" 


J!_ 


"' 


■"' 


J!l 


'" 


= 


= 


-^ 



M 



PROPORTION OF SYNAGOGUE SEATS AVAILABLE DURING 

HOLIDAYS FOR EVERY HUNDRED JEWS (EXCLUDING 

CHILDREN AND SICK) FOR WHOM SEATS SHOULD BE 

PROVIDED IN THE VARIOUS DISTRICTS OF THE 

KEHILLAH (JEWISH COMMUNITY) OF NEW YORK 

100 Persons 



District 
1 — North Bronx 

2 — South Bronx 



3 — West Side and 
Harlem 



4 — East Harlem 

6— Yorkville 

6 — Central 
Manhattan 

7 — Tompkins 
Square 

8 — Delancey 

9 — East Broadway 

10 — Williamsburg 

11 — Bushwick 

12 — Central 
Brooklyn 

13 — Brownsville 
14 — East New York 
15 — Borougrh Park 
16 — West Queens 
17 — Bast Queens 
18 — Richmond 



■i^^- 




■$$$$4$^^^ 




H^BV^^ 1 


■■■N^ 




1 




IHK>ssss^ 




1 




■■■^ 




1 1 




K 1 


1 


1 ! 





I Average Total Seats 42 

Average Permanent Seats 24 



Permanent 
Seats 



Temporary 
Seats 



125 




MONTEFIORB HEBREW CONGREGATION 
Macy Place and Hewitt Street, Bronx 



I 



127 




FIRST HUNGARIAN^CONOHEGATION OHAB ZEDEK 



129 




WASHINGTON HEIGHTS CONGREGATION 

510 West 161st Street 




131 



^§ 

CO ^ 

Pi *• 
Ǥ 
oo 



i 



133 




INTERIOR OP TEMPLE EMANUEL 
43rd Street and Fifth Avenue 



155 




BETH HAMIDRASH HAGODOL 
64 Norfolk Street 



137 




139 




FIRST CONGREGATION ANSHEI SPHARD 
4506 14th Avenue, Borough Park 



141 




OHEB SHOLOM 

136 Thatford Avenue, Brownsville 




CONGREGATION AGUDATH ACHIM B'NAI JACOB 
236 Wyona Street, East New York 







































TABLE 


OF PROVISIONAL 


S Y N A G 


O G U 


E S 












































Dbimct 


Na™o» 

DiSTMCT 


Ebthiatbd 

POPULA- 

Disraicr 


No. OF 
Prov. 
Stn.in 
DisTnicT 


MiNAOBMENT 




Sbatiho Capaoitt 


Peiobs 


Sakitation and Sarett 


GeMIIIAI. SANITAnON 




V.N™»m«« 


I. 


1 

1 


§1 

-1J 


i 


^%" 


■a 

.a 


W 


II 

is 


1 
1 


II 


1 


1 


I 


i 


1 


1 
s 


1 


1 


§ 

i 


i 


I 


1 


1 


1 


I 




1 


i 
i 


P 


1 


! 


^'s 


111 


1 


1 


< 


1 


1 


i 


1 


J 


1 


3 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


.h 


1 


1 




North Bronx 


103,000 


24 


15 


1 






2 


7 


12 








1 


1 








1 


14,752 






2 


4 


6 






1 


1 








600 


4 


16 


1.25 


2.50 


2.00 


15 


6 




1 




5 


7 




5 


16 


5 


J 


I 


12 


8 


3 


















II 


South Bronx 


108,000 


34 


25 


3 








14 


10 


3 


1 




2 


2 


1 




1 




25,929 






3 


4 


4 






1 




1 




1 


760 




30 


1.25 


3.00 


2.25 


20 


11 








3 


9 


15 


7 


23 


5 


~ 


6 


94 









ni 


West Side and 
Harlem 


S7,000 


42 


16 


4 








22 


3 


4 


5 




1 




2 


4 




1 


18,681 


2 




6 


7 


5 






2 




2 






439 


3 


18 


1.25 


3.00 


2.25 


32 


9 








8 


18 


10 


6 


32 


g 




1 


31 


8 







IV 


East Harlem 


09,000 


21 


16 


I 








8 


= 


2 


1 




1 








2 




13,155 


1 




4 


1 









1 










640 


2 


19 


.75 


1.25 


1.80 


3 


18 








6 


6 




, 


5 


9 


e 


J 


4 


16 








V 


Yorkville 


76,000 


9 










1 


8 




1 


















4,267 






2 


2 


1 










1 






470 




4 


1.25 


1.75 


1.60 


4 


4 








3 


3 






1 


5 














VI 


^jSattan 


57,000 


17 




2 








12 




4 










1 








13,155 






2 


2 


3 






2 




1 






780 


1 


14 


1.25 


2.25 


1.75 


14 


3 








, 


9 




J 


12 


2 




3 


II 


6 







vn 


Tompkins Square.. 


101,000 


43 


11 


19 








29 


2 


7 


3 




1 








1 




16,480 


4 




7 


3 


7 








2 






3 


410 




27 


.75 


1.25 


1.08 


16 


27 








19 


18 






11 


24 




3 


17 




2 

















1 


vin 


Delancey 


134,000 


28 




22 








15 


3 


6 






1 


1 






2 


1 


10,614 


1 




7 


8 


2 






1 








1 


391 




25 


.75 


1.25 


l.flO 


22 


4 








9 


11 




1 


21 


5 






20 


7 


^ 




IX 


East Broadway.... 


132,000 













































































































Williamsburg 


107,000 


20 


13 










9 


3 




5 




1 








1 




7,985 


1 




3 


2 










1 


1 




2 


440 


1 


15 


.75 


1.75 


1.25 


5 


14 








9 


2 






6 


12 




1 


8 


13 


"7 


~ 




















XI 


Bushwiok 


96,006 


6 












2 


2 




1 
















3,630 


1 
















1 








590 




5 


.75 


1.75 


1.25 


4 








1 


1 


2 








3 






4 


— 


2 
10 
































Central Brooklyn... 


89,000 


26 


17 










9 


6 


2 


6 








2 




1 




8,880 


2 




6 


, 








2 








1 


350 




19 


1.25 


1.50 


1.25 


V 


5 


12 


2 




9 


9 




6 


11 


5 


10 





10 


2 














xm 


Brownsville 


102,000 


23 


10 










11 


3 


1 


I 




1 


3 


1 








8,436 


5 




2 


3 








1 


2 


1 






380 




22 


1.25 


1.75 


1.50 


6 


9 








3 


11 




2 


7 


14 


2 




10 


12 


1 






















XIV 


East New York... 


108,000 


29 


17 








2 


9 


7 


2 


2 






1 










11,334 


5 




4 


3 




3 




1 






3 




380 




28 


1.25 


1.75 


1.50 


12 


7 


10 






10 


9 




3 


10 


10 


9 




11 


7 


11 
























XV 


Borough Park 


66,000 


13 










1 


7 


1 














2 


2 




4,225 






2 


4 


















340 


1 


9 


1.25 


1.75 


1.50 


5 


7 








2 


5 




1 


7 


5 




1 


7 


5 


































XVI 
and 


West Queens 

and 
EastQueeos 


10,000 
13,000 


8 













3 


2 




1 












1 




2,315 


1 




3 











1 










200 


' 


5 


1.26 


1.75 


1.50 


6 


2 








^ 


4 






7 


1 






5 


3 






X^II 
































xvm 


Richmond 


5,000 

















































































































,602,000 


343 


164 


78 


39 


55 


6 


165 


69 


31 


26 


IS 


9 


8 


7 


6 


U 


3 


163,638 


23 


48 


62 


44 


39 


38 


28 


13 


7 


7 


36 


8 


483 


13 


256 








170 


126 


44 


3 


" 


S9 


123 


98 


32 


169 


114 


45 


16 


176 


122 



















East Broadway (District 9) 
NOTE— The proviaonal or 



was investigated 
tsfflpoiary 



No investigator ^ 
which come into ei 



I Richmond (District 18). 
iy, about the time of the Bi«h 



Holidays, were carefully investigated and the above table shows the more important features of the various a 



9 in the eighteen Eehillah districts. The figures in these columns indicate the number of synagogues i 



145 



LIST OF CONGREGATIONS 
MANHATTAN AND THE BRONX 



Cherrah Achel Grodno V'an- 

shei Stnputkln, 87 Eldridge 

j St. Orthodox. Org. 1892. 

Membership: 80. Seating 

j capacity: 350. Free Loan, 

j Cemetery, Study. Pres., 

Isaac Hazon, 225 S. 3d St., 

B'klyn. Sec'y, J. Kowalsky, 

131 Eldridge St. Rabbi, 

Abraham Chaim Karolinsky, 

444 Grand St. 

HasEon, Isaac, Pres. Chevrah 
Achei Grodno V'anshei 
Staputkin (87 Eldridge St.), 
since 1917. Term 6 months. 
Born 1872 in Russia. Came 
to U. S. 1895. Cutter: 47 
Division St. Res.: 225 S. 
3d St., B'klyn. 

Achei Jacob Anshei Senler, 85 

Monroe St. Orthodox. Org. 
1897. Membership: 12. Seat- 
ing: capacity: 100. Bikur 
Cholim, Cemetery. Pres. and 
I Sec'y, Rubin Friedman, 150 

Madison St. 

Friedman, Rabin, Pres. 
Achei Jacob Anshei Senier 
(85 Monroe St.), since 1913. 
Term 1 year. Born 1869 in 
Russia. Came to U. S. 1892. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Butcher. Res.: 
150 Madison St. 

Chevrab Achei Joseph, 193 

Eldridge St. Orthodox. Org. 
1897. Membership: 80. Seat- 
ing capacity: 140. Sick 
Benefit, Bikur Cholim, Cem- 
etery. Pres., Nathan Nathan- 
son, 84 Delancey St. Sec'y. 
F. Zokornlk, 109 E. 2nd St. 



Nathanson, Nathan, Pres. 
Chevrah Achel Joseph (193 
Eldridge St.), since 1903. 
Term 6 months. Born 1875 in 
Roumania. Came to U. S. 
1900. Received general Jew- 
ish and secular education. 
Neckwear: 140 Allen St. 
Res.: 84 Delancey St. 

Cong. Achlm Ahuvlm, 71 Sher- 
iff St. Orthodox. Org. 1899. 
Membership: 75. Seating ca- 
pacity: 200. Insurance, Free 
Loan, Cemetery, Study. 
Pres., Welvel Klrshenbaum, 
71 Columbia St. Sec'y, Solo- 
mon Raise, 193 E. 3rd St. 

Klrshenbaum, "Welvel, Pres. 
Cong. Achim Ahuvlm (71 
Sheriff St.); elected 1917. 
Term 6 months. Born 1868 
in Russia. Came to U. S. 
1897. Received general Jew- 
ish education. Tailor. Res.: 
71 Columbia St. 

Achlm Vrelm Anshei Bresdo- 
witz, 80 Pitt St. Orthodox. 
Org. 1898. Membership: 60. 
Seating capacity: 80. Ceme- 
tery. Pres., Max Gartenberg, 
272 Broome St. Sec'y, M. 
Weiss, 162 Ridge St. 

Gartenberg^, Max, Pres. 
Cong. Achim V'reim Anshei 
Bresdowitz (80 Pitt St.), 
elected 1917. Term 6 
months. Born 1875 in 
Austria. Came to U. S. 
1902. Received general 
Jewish and secular educa- 
tion. Painter. Res.: 272 
Broome St. 



146 



COMMUNAL RBGISTBK 



Cons. Adath Israel, 122 Mon- 
roe St. Orthodox. Org. 1880. 
Membership: 34. Seating 
capacity: 200. Cemetery, 
Study. Pres., Hyman Safer, 
2*40 Clinton St. Sec'y, Joa> 
eph Silver, 31 Market St. 
Safer, Hyman, Pres. Cong, 
Adath Israel (122 Monroe 
St.), since 1915. Term 1 
year. Born 1847 in Russia. 
Came to U. S. 1872. Received 
general Jewish education. 
Grocer. Res.: 240 Clinton St. 

Cong. Adath Israel, 89 Ridge 
St. Orthodox. Org. 1882. 
Membership: 45. Seating 
capacity: 200. Bilcur Cholim. 
Cemetery, Study. Pres., S. 
Silberstein, 455 B. Houston 
St. Sec'y, S. Rosshandler. 
135 W. 24th St. 
Silberstein, S., Pres. Cong. 
Adath Israel (89 Ridge St.), 
since 1916. Term 6 months. 
Born 1875 in Austria. Came 
to U. S. 1900. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. Silk.s 
Res.: 455 E. Houston St. 

%datli Israel (United Hebrew 
Community of New York). 
See under Mutual Aid So- 
cieties. 

Adatlt Israel Oonj?., 551 Ei. 

169th St. Orthodox. Seating 
capacity: 750, Sunday 
School, Cemetery. Pres., L. 
Pitzel. Sec'y, M. Nees. Rabbi, 
Meyer Kopstein, 736 Home 
St 

fong, Adath Israel Ansilnel 
BlrK, 28 Pikf St Orthodox. 



Org. 1892. MtsHjbershlp: 5u 
Seating capacity: 100. Ceme- 
tery, Study. Pres., Abraham 
Melamed, 55 Suffolk St. 
Sec'y, Solomon Michelson. 
827 Pox St 

Melamed, Abraham, Pres. 
Cong. Adath Israel Anshel 
Birz, (28 Pike St.). since 
1917. Term 6 months. Born 
1874 in Russia. Came to U 
S. 1906. Received general 
Jewish education. Clothing 
Res.: 55 Suffolk St. 

Adath Israel Anshel Gallcla 

99 Attorney St. Org. 1887 
Membership: 75. Seating ca- 
pacity: 110. Study. Pres. 
Abraham Schulder, 36 Ridge 
St. Sec'y, Moses Esner 
Rabbi, Mendel Peder. 
Schulder, Abraham, Pres 
Adath Israel Anshei Galicla 
(99 Attorney St.), since 1912 
Term 6 months. Born 1852 
in Austria. Came to U. S 
1882. Received general Jew- 
ish education. Sewing Ma- 
chines: 143 Broome St Res. 
,^6 Ridge St. 

Adath Israel An!<ihei Mixraeh 

415 E. 6th St. Orthodox. Org 
1889. Membership: 130 
Seating capacity: 800. Cem- 
etery, Study. Pres,, Samuel 
Turgovnik, 413 Grand St 
B'klyn, Sec'y, Chiel Gutman 

A.dath Jacob Anshel Slabodkc, 

193 Henry St Orthodox 
Org. 1885. Membership: 45 
Seating capacity: 275. Cem- 
etery. Pres,, J Mendolo 



OOiSaiiJSGATlONS 



147 



w^ltz, 162 Henry tSi. Sec'y. 
H. Simon. 1056 Findlay Ave 
Meudelowitz, J., Pres. Adath 
Jacob Anshei Slabodke (193 
Henry St.), since 1912. Term 
I year. Born 1867 in Rus- 
sia. Came to U. S. 1907. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Butter and eggs: 
155 Madison St. Res.: Ifi2 
Henry St. 

Adath Jacob Anshei Slabodke 
of Harlem, 18 West 114th 
St. Orthodox. Org. 1907. 
Membership: 75. Seating 
capacity: 300. Hebrew 
School, Cemetery, Study. 
Pres., Samuel M. Brody, 600 
W. 186th St. Sec'y, H. Simon. 
1056 Findlay Ave. 
Brody, Samuel M., Pres. 
Adath Jacob Anshei Slo- 
bodlce of Harlem (18 West 
114th St.), since 1911. Term 
I year. Born 1855 in Rus- 
sia. Came to U. S. 1881. 
Attended Kovno Yeshibah. 
Ladies' dresses: 39 Allen 
St. Res.: 600 W. 186th St. 

Chevrah Adath Jeshurun of 
Harlem, 324 E. 100th St. Or- 
thodox. Org. 1912. Member- 
ship: 45. Seating- capacitj': 
140. Pres., Abraham Litman, 
329 E. 94th St. Sec'y, Mr. 
Zaslavsky, 331 E. 100th St. 
Litman, Abraham, Pres. 
Chevrah Adath Jeshurun 
of Harlem (324 E. 100th St.). 
since 1916. Term 6 months. 
Born 1871 in Roumania. 
Came to U. S. 1904. Received 
general Jewish education. 
Tailor Res : 329 E 94th St 



Adath Jeshurun uf Harlem, 

112 E. 110th St. Orthodox. 
Membership: 18. Seating 
capacity: 3 0. Cemetery, 
Pres., Max Slomka, 31 W 
111th St. Sec'y, Julius Marsh, 
204 B. 109th St. 
Slomka, Max, Pres. Adath 
Jeshurun of Harlem (112 E. 
110th St.), since 1909. Born 
1860 in Russia. Came to 
U. S. 1886. Received high 
.school education. Leather- 
Goods: 39 Worth St. Res.: 
31 W. 111th St. 

</hevrah Adath K'doshlm An- 
shei Rozinol, 227 E. B'way. 
Orthodox. Org. 1908. Mem- 
bership: 80. Seating capac- 
ity: 150. Sick Benefit, In- 
surance, Free Loan, Social 
Center. Pres., Samuel B. 
Brass, 130 E. B'way. Sec'y, 
Ghaim Bauman, 179 Madison 
St. 

Adath Morom, 179 Stanton St 
Orthodox. Org. 1902. Mem- 
bership: 60. Seating capa- 
city: 60. Sick Benefit, Free 
Loan, Cemetery, Study. 
Pres., Isaac M. Schiller, 164 
Suffolk St. Sec'y, B. Wald. 
8 Attorney St, 

Schiller, Isaac Marcus, Pres. 
Adath Morom (179 Stanton 
St.); elected 1917. Term 6 
months. Born 1866 in Aus- 
tria. Came to U. S. 1905. 
Received Jewish and secular 
education. Mohel and Rabbi 
Res.. 16'4 Suffolk St. 

Adath Wolkowlsk, 28 Pike St 

Orthodox Membership 140 



148 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



Seating capacity: 450. In- 
surance, Free Loan, Bikur 
Cholim, Cemetery, Study. 
Pres., Isaac Schneierson, 119 
Wooster St. Sec'y, B. Alpert. 

Chevrah Adath Z'vi Yehudah, 

673 E. 11th St. Orthodox. 
Org. 1913. Membership: 13. 
Seating capacity: 70. Pres., 
Hirsh Leib Feintuch, 251 E. 
10th St. Sec'y, Susman Plot- 
slcy, 321 E. 12th St. 
Feintucli, Hirsh Leib, Pres. 
Adath Z'vi Yehudah (639 E. 
11th St.), since 1915. Term 
6 months. Born 1851 in Aus- 
tria. Came to U. S. 1892. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Retired. Res.: 
251 E. 10th St. 

Cong. Adereth El, 135 E. 29th 
St. Orthodox. Org. 1857. 
Membership: 35. Seating 
capacity: 400. Ladies' Auxil- 
iary, Cemetery. Pres., 
Simon Sumberg, 576 Ninth 
Ave. Sec'y, Nathan Albaum, 
608 2nd Ave. Rabbi, Chaim 
J. Klein, 36'4 E. 4th St. 
Sumberg, Simon, Pres. 
Cong. Adereth El (135 E. 
29th St.), since 1914. Term 
1 year. Born 1862 in Rus- 
sia. Came to U. S. 1887. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Liquors. Res.: 
576 9th Ave. 

Cong. Agndath Achlm, 107 W. 

100th St. Orthodox. Org. 
1913. Membership: 45. Seat- 
ing capacity: 225. Pres., 
Morris Rlchless, 3 W. 101st 



St. Sec'y, M. Dlelberg. 110 
W. 100th St. 

Richless, Morris, Pres. Cong. 
Agudath Achim (107 W. 
100th St.), since 1915. Term 
1 year. Born 1860 in Russia. 
Came to U. S. 1885. Received 
general Jewish education. 
Druggist: 775 Columbus 
Ave. Res.: 3 W. 101st St. 

Agudatli Acliim, 891 Freeman 
St. Orthodox. Org. 1916. 
Membership: 35. Seating 
capacity: 300. Pres., Alter 
Hornstein, 871 E. 170th St. 
Hornstein, Alter, Pres. Agu- 
dath Achim (891 Freeman 
St.), since 1916. Term 1 year. 
Born 1865 in Russia. Came 
to U. S. 1887. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. In- 
surance. Res.: 871 E. 170th 
St. 

Cong. Agudath Achim Anshel 
Barisoff, 209 Madison St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1891. Mem- 
bership: 100. Seating capa- 
city: 400. Ladies' Auxiliary, 
Cemetery. Pres., Wolf Blue- 
stein, 17 Rutgers PI. Sec'y, 
Nathan Griff, 78 Market St. 

Agudath Achim Anshel Brisk 
D'lLiita Cemetery. Org. 1915. 
Membership: 23. Meets 1st 
and 3rd Saturdays, at 80 
Norfolk St. Pres., Nathan D. 
Elephant, 42 Rivington St. 
Sec'y, Mordchai Mandelblatt, 
8 Willet St. 

Elephant, Nathan D., Pres. 
Agudath Achim Anshei 
Brisk D'Lita (80 Norfolk St.) ; 
elected 1917. Term 6 months. 



CONGREGATIONS 



149 



Born 1862 in Russia. Came 
to U. S. 1887. Received He- 
fa re w education. Res.: 42 
Rivington St. 

Aendath Achim Anshel Kupl- 
sihok, 56 Suffolk St. Ortho- 
dox. Org. 1892. Member- 
ship: 50. Seating capacity: 
50. Sick Benefit, Cemetery. 
Pres., Max Kaplan, 195 El- 
drldge St. Sec'y, S. Farber, 
1700 Washington Ave. 
Kaplan, Max, Pres. Agudath 
Achim A n s h e i Kupisihok 
(56 Suffolk St.), since 1912. 
Term 6 months. Born 1863 
in Russia. Came to U. S. 
1897. Seltzer dealer. Res.: 
195 Eldridge St. 

Chevrah Agudath Achim An- 
shel Kurland V'LIda, 175 

Eldridge St. Orthodox. Org. 
1901. Membership: 150. 
Seating capacity: 500. Free 
Loan, Bikur Cholim, Ceme- 
tery, Study. Pres., Beril 
Blaustein, 431 Bristol St., 
B'klyn. Sec'y, N. Geller, 20 
E. 112th St. Rabbi, Isaac 
Sudin, 279 Division St. 
Blaustein, Beril, Pres. Chev- 
rah Agudath Achim Anshei 
Kurland V'Lida (175 El- 
dridge St.), since 1910. Born 
1854 in Russia. Came to 
U. S. 1890. Received a thor- 
ough Jewish education. 
Clothing: 128 Broad St. 
Res.: 431 Bristol St., B'klyn. 

Cons'. Agudath Achim An.shei 
Kusnitza, 98 E. B'way. Or- 
thodox. Org. 1899. Mem- 
bership: 50. Seating capa- 



city: 100. Free Loan, Ceme- 
tery. Pres., Joseph Novick, 
51 E. 109th St. Sec'y, Sam 
Lipsky, 66 E. B'way. 
Novicl£, Joseph, Pres. Cong. 
Agudath Achim Anshei Kus- 
nitza (98 E. B'way), since 
1901. Term 6 months. Born 
1858 in Russia. Came to U. 
S. 1888. Received general 
Jewish education. Private 
school: 162 Madison St. Res.: 
51 E. 109th St. 

Chevrah Agudath Achim An- 
shei Peslc, 105 Hester St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1906. Mem- 
bership: 60. Seating capa- 
city: 100. Cemetery. Pres., 
Abraham Zabelinsky, 87 
Hester St. Sec'y, H. Gullen, 
105 Monroe St. 
Zabelinsky, Abraham, Pres. 
Chevrah Agudath Achim 
Anshei Pesk (105 Hester 
St.), since 1914. Term 6 
months. Born 1875 in Rus- 
sia. Came to U. S. 1902. 
Res.: 87 Hester St. 

Cong. Agudath Achim Anshei 
SchwiuKiane, 119 Norfolk St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1892. Mem- 
bership: 50. Seating capa- 
city: 80. Free Loan, Ceme- 
tery. Pres. Samuel Gins- 
burg, 30 Division St. Sec'y, 
Abbe Meyer Katz, 1066 Mor- 
ris Ave. 

Ginsburg, Samuel, Pres. 
Cong. Agudath Achim An- 
shei Schwinziane (119 Nor- 
folk St.), since 1914. Term 
1 year. Born 1857 in Russia. 
Came to U. S. 1902. Received 
general Jew^ish education. 
Butcher: 111/2 Bayard St. 
Res.: 30 Division St. 



15() 



OOMMUNAli REGISTER 



A-sndath Achlm of Harlem, 

169 W. 140th St. Orthodox. 
Org. 1902. Membership: 30. 
Seating capacity: 365. Ceme- 
tery, Study. Pres., I. M 
Shaine, 204 W. 138th St. 
Sec'y, Wm. Ash, 51 Convent 
Ave. 

Shaine, I. 31., Pres. Agudath 
Achim of Harlem (169 W. 
l'40th St.), since 1909. Term 
1 year. Born 1862 in Rus- 
sia. Came to U. S. 1897. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Clothing: 9 Bond 
St. Res.: 204 W. 138th St. 

.\srndath Achlm D'Plock, 51 E. 

104th St. Orthodox. Mem- 
bership: 125. Seating capac- 
ity: 250. Sick Benefit, In- 
surance, Ladies' Soc, Young 
Folks' Soc, Cemetery, Study. 
Pres., Charles Meisner. Sec'y, 
S. Kaufman, 51 W. 111th St. 

-Vgndath Achim MikracaTf, 

54 Pitt St. Orthodox Org. 
1867. Membership: 135. 
Seating capacity: 960. Pres., 
S. Berenkopf, 888 Fox St. 
Sec'y, S. Farber, 115 Ave. B. 

Con)?. A^ndath Achim Mis'dal 
Lovon, 159 Ludlow St. Or- 
thodox. Org. 1894. Mem- 
bership: 90. Seating capa- 
city: 125. Sick Benefit. 
Cemetery, Study. Pres., 
Jacob Ruthoser, 416 Grand 
St. Sec'y, Jacob Nuremberg, 
119 Henry St. 

Ruthoser, Jacob, Pres. Cong, 
A g u d a t h Achlm Mis'dai 
Lovon (159 Ludlow St.): 



elected 1917. Term 6 months 
Born 1864 in Russia. Came 
to U. S. 1891. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education 
Clothing Contractor: 51 Pik<=' 
St. Res.: 416 Grand St. 



Congr. A^udath Achim Oriental 
Aid Society, 105 Eldridge St 

Orthodox. Membership: 6(' 
Seating capacity: 125. Ceme- 
tery. Pres., Asher Levy, 5fi 
Eldridge St. Sec'y, Simon 
Fassy, 153 Delancey St. 

Levy, Asher, Pres. Cong 
Agudath Achim Oriental Aid 
Soc. (105 Eldridge St.). since 
1905. Term 6 months. Born 
1857 in Morocco. Came to 
U. S. 1898. Received gen- 
eral Jewish and secular 
education. Cigar maker 
Res.: 56 Eldridge St. 

Cong. Agudath Achim Y'lidel 
Roumania, 85 Forsyth St 
Orthodox. Org. 1902. Mem- 
bership: 180. Seating ca- 
pacity: 150. Sick Benefit, 
Life Insurance, Old Age 
Fund, Bikur Cholim, Ceme- 
tery. Pres., Ben Hymowitz, 
313 E. 9th St. Sec'y, Israel 
Bondel, 862 Hewitt PI. 

Hymowitz, Ben, Pres. Cong 
Agudath Achim Y'lidei Rou- 
mania (85 Forsyth St.); 
elected 1917. Term 6 months. 
Born 1878 in Roumania. 
Came to U. S. 1905. Received 
a public school education in 
Roumania. Electrician: 9 
W. 8d St. Res.: 313 B. 9th St 



CONGREGATIONS 



161 



.'icrudath Achtm. ot Yorkrllle, 

324 E. 91st St. Orthodox. 
Org. 1914. Membership: 70. 
Seating capacity: 150. Pres., 
Bernard Singer, 326 E. 91st 
St. Sec'y, Abraham Horo- 
witz, 334 E. 91st St. Rabbi. 
B. M. Klein. 415 E. 85th St. 
Singer, Bernard, Pres. Agu- 
dath Achim of Yorkville 
(324 E. 91st St.); elected 
1917. Term 6 months. Born 
1882 in Russia. Came to 
U. S. 1904. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. Res.: 
326 E. 91st St. 

A I? a d a t h Bachurel Chemed. 

122 Columbia St. Orthodox. 
Org. 1914. Membership: 40. 
Seating capacity: 80. Ceme- 
tery, Study. Pres., Isidore 
Lauer, 319 Stanton St. 
Sec'y, Isaac Diamond, 261 
Stanton St. Rabbi, K. Ber- 
ger, 122 Columbia St. 
Laner, Lsldore, Pres. Agu- 
d a t h Bachurei Chemed 
(122 Columbia St.); elected 
1917. Term 6 months. Born 
1894 in Hungary. Came to 
U. S. 1909. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. 
Monuments: 110 Forsyth St 
Res.: 319 Stanton St. 

Chevrah Agmdath Beth Achlm 
Anshel Stupitz, 26 Orchard 
St. Orthodox. Org. 1899. 
Membership: 50. Seating 
capacity: 100. Free Loan, 
Cemetery. Pres., Benjamin 
Rougitzky, 54 E. 1st St. 
Sec'y, Max Neufeldt, 150 
Madison St. 

Rou^tzky, Benjamin, Pres 
Chevrah Agud^th Beth 



Achim Anshei Stupitz (26 

Orchard St.), since 1911. 
Term 6 months. Born 1867 
In Russia. Contractor, 
skirts, 181 Ludlow St. Res.: 
54 E. 1st St. 

(.'ongr. Agudath Chaverlm 
Anshei Marmarash, 65 Co- 
lumbia St. Orthodox. Org. 
1902. Membership 206. 
Seating capacity: 500. Study. 
Cemetery. Pres., H. Koenig. 
129 Pitt St. Sec'y, W. Thau, 
115 Broome St. Rabbi, A. S. 
Pfeffer, 112 Ave. C. 
Koenig, H., Pres. Agudath 
Chaverim Anshei Marmar- 
ash (65 Columbia St.); 
elected 1917. Term 6 months. 
Born 1866 in Hungary. Came 
to tr. S. 1894. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. 
Leather. Res.: 129 Pitt St. 

Agudath Israel of N. Y., 1 W. 

113th St. Orthodox. Mem- 
bership: 10. Seating capac- 
ity: 500. Pres. and Sec'y, L. 
Sackowitz. 21 W. 114th St 

i^ong. Agudath Jeshorim, 113 

E. 86th St. Orthodox. Eng- 
lish Sermon. Org. 1892. 
Membership: 50. Seating 
capacity: 800. Hebrew 
School, Young Folks' Circle, 
Cemetery. Pres., E z e k i e 1 
Plonsky, 50 W. 88th St. 
Sec'y, Julius Gompert, 1476 
Lexington Ave. Rabbi, G. 
Lipkind, 112 Cathedral 
Parkway. 

Plonsky, E^zeklel, Pres. 
Cong. Agudath Jeshorim 
ai3 E, 86th St.). since 1902 



152 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



Term 1 year. Born 1847 In 
Russia. Came to U. S. 1865. 
Received general education. 
Mfgr. necliwear: 524 B'way. 
Res.: 50 W. 88th St. 

4^sudath Tiphereth Israel, 511 

E. 174th St. Orthodox. Org. 
191'7. Membership: 58. Seat- 
ing- capacity: 250. Study. 
Harry Estes, 511 E. 174th St. 
Sec'y, Samuel Mirchin, 486 
E. 172nd St. 

Estes, Harry, P r e s . Agu- 
dath Tiphereth Israel (511 E. 
174th St.); elected 1917. 
Term 6 months. Born 1872 
In Russia. Came to U. S. 
1905. Received general Jew- 
ish education. Jobber. Res.: 
511 E. 174th St. 

Cong-. Abavath Achim, 327 E. 

100th St. Orthodox. Org. 
1916. Membership: 40. Seat- 
ing capacity: 150. Free Loan. 
Pres., Joseph Wishnefsky, 5 
E. 105th St. Sec'y, Mr. Sil- 
verberg, 326 E. 100th St. 
"Wishnefsky, Joseph, Pres. 
Cong. Ahavath Achim (327 
E. 100th St.), elected 1917. 
Term 1 year. Born 1867 in 
Russia. Came to U. S. 1900. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Feed Store: 1930 
First Ave. Res.: 5 E. 105th 
St. 

Ahavath Achim An.shel Hun- 
gary, 30'4 B. 78th St. Ortho- 
dox. German Sermon. Org. 
1901. Membership: 50. Seat- 
ing capacity: 500. Cemetery. 
Pres., Morris L. Klein, 24 E. 
109th St. Sec'y, Moses Kohn, 



414 E. 77th St. Rabbi. Will- 
iam Kronowitz, 238 E. 82nd 
St. 

Klein, Morris, Pres. Ahavath 
Achim Anshei Hungary (304 
E. 78th St.), since 1912. 
Term 6 months. Born 1866 
in Hungary. Came to U. S. 
1892. Received general and 
secular education. Tailor: 
1714 Lexington Ave. Res.: 
24 E. 109th St. 

Ahavath Achim Anshei Hun- 
gary, 70 Columbia St. Or- 
thodox. Org. 1882. Mem- 
bership: 150. Seating 
capacity: 476. Cemetery, 
Study. Pres., Louis Hoch- 
man, 742 E. 9th St. Sec'y, M. 
Hecht, 281 E. 7th St. Rabbi, 
P. Freedman, 56 Lewis St. 
H o c h m a n , Louis, Pres. 
A h-a V a t h Achim Anshei 
Hungary (70 Columbia St.), 
since 1916. Term 6 months. 
Born 1879 in Hungary. Came 
to U. S. 1901. Received pub- 
lic school education. Grocer. 
Res.: 742 E. 9th St. 

Chevrah Ahavath Achim An- 
shei Krasna, 28 Ti'ke St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1887. Mem- 
bership: 80. Seating capaci- 
ty: 40. Sick Benefit, Insur- 
ance, Free Loan, Cemetery. 
Pres., Isaac R i n g e 1, 175 
Henry St. Sec'y, Isaac 
Schlessinger, 102 So. 1st St., 
B'klyn. 

Ringel, Isaac, Pres. Chevrah 
Ahavath Achim Anshei 
Krasna (28 Pike St.), since 
1907. Term 1 year. Born 



CONGREGATIONS 



153 



1861 In Russia. Came to U. 
S. 1887. Received general 
Jewish and secular educa- 
tion. Cloaks: 57 E. B'way. 
Res.: 175 Henry St. 

Chevrah Ahavath Achlm An- 
shel BohoslOTV and Korson, 

52 Orchard St. Orthodox. 
Org. 1898. Membership: 100. 
Seating- capacity: 300. Cem- 
etery. Pres., Zelig Wolf, 
260 W. 144th St. Sec'y, M. 
Reicher, 345 Madison St. 
Wo\t, Zelig, Pres. Chevrah 
Ahavath Achim Anshei Bo- 
hoslow and Korson (52 Or- 
chard St.), since 1916. Term 
1 year. Born 1867 in Russia. 
Came to U. S. 1899. Received 
general Jewish education. 
Painter. Res.: 260 W. r44th 
St. 

Ahavath Achlm Anshei 
Rodomyz, 15 Pitt St. Or- 
thodox. Org. 1893. Mem- 
bership: 50. Seating capac- 
ity: 115. Cemetery. Pres.: 
Harry Eiger, 33 Cannon St. 
Sec'y, A. Forshtenzer, 2 Pitt 
St. 

Eigrer, Harry, Pres. Aha- 
vath Achim Anshei Rodo- 
myz (15 Pitt St.); elected 
1917. Term 6 months. Born 
1877 in Austria. Came to 
U. S. 1902. Received gen- 
eral Jewish and secular 
education. Tailor: 10 Man- 
gin St. Res.: 33 Cannon St. 

Cong. Ahavath Achlm Anshei 
Tomashover and Pletrocov, 

1364 Fifth Ave. Orthodox. 

Org. 1894. Membership: 52. 

. Seating capacity: 290. Ceme- 



tery. Pres., Harry Green- 
wald, 215 E. 103rd St. Sec'y, 
Philip Fenderman, 63 E 
118th St. 

GreentTald, Harry, Pres. 
Cong. Ahavath Achim An- 
shei Tomashover and Piet- 
rocov (1364 Fifth Ave.); 
elected 1917. Term 6 months. 
Fruits. Res.: 215 E. 103rd 
St. 

Ahavrath Achlm Anshei Uzda, 

34 Pike St. Orthodox. Org. 
1887. Membership: 100. 
Seating capacity: 250. Ceme- 
tery, Sick Benefit, Free 
Loan, Study. Pres., Barnet 
Levine, 264 Henry St. Sec'y, 
Mr. Relka, 195 Madison St. 
Levine, Barnet, Pres. Aha- 
wath Achim Anshei Uzda (34 
Pike St.), since 1916. Term 
6 months. Born 1875 in Rus- 
sia. Came to U. S. 1903. 
Received general Jewish 
and secular education. Res.: 
264 Henry St. 

Ahavath Achim D'Mohilev, 206 

E. B'way. Orthodox. Org. 
1903. Membership: 113. 
Seating capacity: 250. Sick 
Benefit, Free Loan, Ceme- 
tery. Pres., Abraham Levine, 
276 Madison St. Sec'y, Hy- 
man Horowitch, 356 Hooper 
St., B'klyn. 

Levine, Abraham, Pres. Aha- 
vath Achim D'Mohilev (206 
E. B'way); elected 1917. 
Term 6 months. Born 1860 
In Russia. Came to U. S. 
1909. Received a thorough 
Jewish ed u c a t i o n. Fish 
store. Res.: 276 Madison St. 



154 



COMMUNAL BBGISTEB 



Cons. Ahavath Abraham B'nai 
Kolo, 48 Ave. D. Orthodox. 
Org. 1877. Membership: 180. 
Seating capacity: 350. Sick 
Benefit, Insurance, Free 
Loan, Bikur Cholim, Ceme- 
tery. Pres., Jacob Carlinger, 
299 B'way. Sec'y, Samuel 
Levy, 709 E. 9th St. 
Carltnger, Jacob, Pres. 
Cong-. Ahavath Abraham 
B'nai Kolo (48 Avenue D), 
since 1916. Term 1 year. Born 
1879 in Russia. Came to U. 
S. 1891. Received public 
school education. Builder: 
299 B'way. Res.: 104 2d Ave. 

Chevrah Ahavath Chalm An- 
shel Bilsk, 131 Essex St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1890. Mem- 
bership: 140. Seating capac- 
ity: 134. Cemetery. Pres.. 
Isaac Topolsky, 397 S. 4th 
St., B'klyn. Sec'y, Mr. Kopel. 
115 Allen St. 

Topolsky, Isaac, Pres. Chev- 
rah Ahavath Chaim Anshel 
Bilsk (131 Essex St.), since 
1914. Term 6 months. Born 
1870 in Russia. Came to 
U. S. 1902. Received general 
Jewish education. Carbon- 
ated Waters: 192 Broome St. 
Res.: 397 S. 4th St., B'klyn. 

Ahavath Cbesed Sha'ar Hasho- 
malm. 55th St. and Lexing- 
ton Ave. Refot-med. Sermon 
English. Org. 1844. Member- 
ship: 300. Seating capacity: 
1,500. Sisterhood, Religious 
School, Cemetery. Pres., 
Samuel B. Hamburger, 36 
W. 35th St. Sec'y, Max New- 
berger. 124 5th Ave. Rabbi, 
Dr. Nathan Krass. Rabbi 



Emeritus, Dr. I. S. Moses 
219 W. 81st St. 
Hamburger, S a m a e £ B., 

Pres. Ahavath Chesed 
Sha'ar Hashomaim (55th 
St. and Lexington Ave.), 
since 1908. Term 1 year. 
Born 1852 in U. S. Received 
a college education. Law- 
yer: 2 Rector St. Res.: :^ = 
W. 35th St. 

Cong. Ahavath Israel, 2018 
Amsterdam Ave. Orthodox 
Org. 1915. Membership: 40 
Seating capacity: 400. Sis 
terhood, Cemetery. Pres., M 
Rubin, 1969 Amsterdam Ave. 
Sec'y, J. Enkel, 572 W. 173rd 
St. 

Cong. Ahavath Israel Anshel 
S'phard, 188 Stanton St. Or- 
thodox. Org. 1888. Mem- 
bership: 45. Seating capaci- 
ty: 100. Cemetery, Study 
Pres. Aaron Grant z, 7.^ 
Sheriff St. Sec'y, J. Popper, 
164 Stanton St. 
Grantz, Aaron, Pres. Cong 
Ahavath Israel Anshel 
S'phard (188 Stanton St.), 
since 1916. Term 6 months 
Born 1876 in Austria. Came 
to U. S. 1892. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education 
Butcher. Res.: 75 Sheriff St 

Ahavath Israel of Harlem, 317 

E. 101st St. Orthodox. Org 
1904. Membership: 70. Seat- 
ing capacity: 150. Ceme- 
tery. Pres., Israel Sundler. 
330 E. 100th St. Sec'y, A 
Distelfeld, 318 E. 100th St. 
Sundler, Israel, Pres. Aha- 
vath Israel of Harlem (317 
B. 101st St.). elected 1917 



OONOREGATIONS 



165 



Term 6 months. Born 1883 
tn Russia. Came to U. S 
1904. Received general Jew- 
ish education. Boys' waists. 
1917 First Ave. Res.: 330 E 
lOOth St. 

Chevrah Ahavath Jonathan 
B'nai Jacob Anshei Fecheich, 

22 Ave. C. Orthodox. Org. 
1832. Membership: 40. Seat- 
ing capacity: 300. Insurance. 
Cemetery. Pres., Jacob Lipp- 
man, 298 E. 3rd St. Sec'y. 
B. Reich, 298 E. 3rd St. 
Lippman, Jacob, Pres. Chev- 
rah Ahavath Jonathan B'nai 
Jacob Anshei Pecheich (22 
Ave. C), since 1916. Term 1 
year. Born 1855 in Russia. 
Came to U. S. 1881. Received 
general Jewish education. 
Res.: 298 E. 3rd St. 



Gong. Ahavath Schlomo, 316 

E. 4th St. Orthodox. Org. 
1890. Membership: 85. Seat- 
ing capacity: 336. Cemetery. 
Pres., David Hartstein, 250 
Havemeyer St., B'klyn. 

.4.havath S h o 1 o m Monastlr. 

Sick Benefit, Insurance, 
Cemetery. Org. 1910. Mem- 
bership: 190. Meets 1st Sun- 
day at 98 Forsyth SL Pres., 
Isaac Pardo, 92 Allen St. 
Sec'y, Raphael Sarfati. 96 
Allen St. 

Cons. Ahavath Sholoni Anshei 
Wfnnltza, 92 Hester St. Or- 
thodox. Org. 1889. Member- 
ship: 70. Seating capacity: 
400. Sick Benefit, Insurance, 
Cemetery, Study. Pres., 
Abraham Shapiro, 93 Mon- 



roe St. Sec'y, Israel Klieger, 
17 E. 107th St. 
Shapiro, Abraham, Pres. 
Cong. Ahavath Sholom An- 
shei Winnitza (92 Hester 
St.), since 1914. Term 6 
months. Born 1872 in Rus- 
sia. Came to U. S. 1898. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Installment busi- 
ness. Res.: 93 Monroe St. 

Ahavath Vaehvath J a n i n a . 

Cemetery. Org. 1907. Mem- 
bership: 220. Meets once a 
month at 98 Forsyth St. 
Pres., Sabetal Menachem, 54 
Canal St. Sec'y, Jacob Zaf- 
fos, 54 Canal St. 

Chevrah Ahavath Zedek An- 
shei Jasklnovker. Sick bene- 
fit; insurance; cemetery. 
Meets 2nd and 4th Satur- 
days, at 232 Broome St. 
Pres., Arthur Graef, 143 W. 
111th St. Sec'y, I. August, 
231 2nd Ave. 

Ahavath Zedek An.<«hel Timko- 
witz, 89 Henry St. Orthodox. 
Org. 1892. Membership: 
200. Seating capacity: 300. 
Sick Benefit, Insurance, Free 
Loan, Old Age Pensions, 
Cemetery. Pres., Asher Gold- 
stein, 122 Sheriff St. Sec'y, 
S. Epstein, 11 Market St. 
Goldstein, Asher, Pres. Aha- 
vath Zedek Anshei Timko- 
witz (89 Henry St.), since 
1917, Term 6 months. Born 
1862 in Russia. Came to 
U. S. 1901. Studied at Slutz- 
ker Teshivah. Tailor. Res.: 
122 Sheriff St. 



156 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



Beth Hak'nesseth A h a v a t h 
ZIon, 66 Pike St. Conserva- 
tive. Org. 1891. Member- 
ship: 120. Seating- capacity: 
500. Free Loan, Study, Cem- 
etery. Pres., Barnet Arie- 
vitch, 233 E. 11th St. 
Arlevltch, Barnet, Pres. Beth 
Hak'nesseth Ahavath Zion 
(66 Pike St.), since 1912. 
Term 1 year. Born 1857 in 
Russia. Came to U. S. 1888. 
Received general Jewish ed- 
ucation. Real Estate. Res.: 
233 E. 11th St. 

Ajatarul Bukarestcr Hand- 
werker Cong., 192 Allen St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1905. Mem- 
bership: 35. Seating capa- 
city: 100. Ladies' Auxiliary, 
Cemetery. Pres., Jacob 
Cherniak, 123 St. Marks PI., 
B'klyn. Sec'y, Morris David- 
son, 606 E. 13th St. 
Cherniak, Jacob, Pres. AJu- 
t a r u 1 Bukarester Hand- 
werker Cong. (192 Allen 
St.), since 1914. Term 6 
months. Born 1867 in Rus- 
sia. Came to U. S. 1900. 
Received elementary religi- 
ous and secular education. 
Res.: 123 St. Marks Place, 
B'klyn. 

Anserlcan Ullnsker Gemllath 
Chesed, 106 Forsyth Street. 
Orthodox. Org. 1900. Mem- 
bership: 12. Seating- capa- 
city: 80. Pres., D. B. Berman, 
11 Gouverneur St. Sec'y, H. 
Shonis, 28 Orchard St. 
Berman, D. B., Pres. Ameri- 
can Minsker Gemllath 
Chesed (106 Forsyth St.). 



since 1905. Term 1 year. 
Born 1867 in Russia. Came 
to U. S. 1887. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. 
Plumber, 23 Gouverneur St. 
Res.: 11 Gouverneur St. 

Am Kedoshlm Anshel Bobrlka, 

125 Ridge St. Orthodox. Org. 
1895. Membership: 80. Seat- 
ing- capacity: 350. Sick Ben- 
efit, Insurance, Cemetery, 
Study. Pres., Harry Peiner, 
709 E. 9th St. Sec'y, S. Kar- 
ten, 156 Goerck St. Rabbi, 
L. Rose, 153 Suffolk St. 
Feiner, Harry, Pres. Am 
Kedoshim Anshei Bobrika 
(125 Ridge St.), since 1915. 
Term 6 months. Born 1867 
in Austria. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. 
Pants mfgr.: 171 First Ave. 
Res.: 709 E. 9th St. 

Anshei Achim E^Iizabeth^rader, 

214 E. 2nd St. Orthodox. 
Org. 1892. Membership: 420. 
Seating capacity: 800. Free 
Loan, Sick Benefit, Ceme- 
tery. Pres., Harry P. Weiss, 
125 E. 1st St. Sec'y, Alex 
Torgor, 8 E. 107th St. 
Weiss, Harry P., Pres. An- 
shei Achim Elizabethgrader 
(214 E. 2nd St.), since 1904. 
Term 6 months. Born 1866 
in Russia. Came to U. S. 
1887. Received general Jew- 
ish education. Tobacco. 
Res.: 125 E. 1st St. 

Chevrah Anshei Achim Krem- 
entshug- Ashkenaz, 1666 
Madison Ave. Orthodox. 
Org. 1905. Membership: 106. 



CONGREGATIONS 



157 



Seating capacity: 350. Sick 
Benefit, Insurance, Free 
Loan, Brotherhood, Sister- 
hood, Cemetery. Pres., J. 
Ronor, 990 Freeman St. 
Sec'y, Abraham Rabinowitz, 
417 E. 10th St. 
Ronor, J., Pres. Chevrah 
Anshei Achim Krementshug 
Ashkenaz (1666 Madison 
Ave.); elected 1917. Term 6 
months. Born 1875 in Rus- 
sia. Came to U. S. 1897. 
Grocery: 1160 Bryant Ave. 
Res.: 990 Freeman St. 

Chevrah Anshei Alt Konstan- 
tln, 136 Henry St. Orthodox. 
Org. 1894. Membership: 100. 
Seating capacity: 120. Sick 
Benefit, Insurance, Free 
Loan, Blkur Cholim, Ceme- 
tery, Study. Pres., Joel 
Shreibman, 316 Madison St. 
Sec'y, P. Nathansohn, 331 
Saratoga Ave., B'klyn. 
Shreibman, Joel, Pres. 
Chevrah Anshei Alt Kon- 
stantln (136 Henry St.), 
since 1917. Term 6 months. 
Born 1882 In Russia. Came 
to U. S. 1906. Received 
general Jewish education. 
Dealer in bags: 608 Water 
St. Res.: 316 Madison St. 

Beth Hak'nesseth Anshei 
Blalestok, 7 Willett St. Or- 
thodox. Org. 1905. Mem- 
bership: 150. Seating capa- 
city: 1200. Free Loan, He- 
brew School. Social Center, 
Cemetery. Pres., H y m a n 
Getls, 54 E. 1st St. Sec'y. J. 
Ly>n, 331 Alabama Ave.. 



B'klyn. Rabbi, Isaac Leib 
Epstein, 301 Broome St. 
Getls, Hyman, Pres. Beth 
Hak'nesseth Anshei Biale- 
stok (7 Willett St.), since 
1912. Term 1 year. Born 
1863 In Russia. Came to 
U. S. 1892. Received gen- 
eral Jewish and secular edu- 
cation. Diamonds. Res.: 54 
E. 1st St. 

Cong. Anshei Bobruisk, 203 

Henry St. Orthodox. Org. 
1892. Mem b e r sh i p: 270. 
Seating capacity: 250. Sick 
Benefit, Insurance, Free 
Loan, Ladies' Soc, Cemetery, 
Study. Pres., Morris Gold- 
man, 166 Essex St. Sec'y, 
Hillel Lipshltz, 84 Monroe 
St. 

Goldman, Morris, Pres. Cong. 
Anshei Bobruisk (203 Henry 
St.); elected 1917. Term 6 
months. Born 1872 in Rus- 
sia. Came to U. S. 1898. 
Received general Jewish 
and secular education. 
Grocer. Res.: 166 Essex St. 

Anshei Chasldel Vlshnltxe 
Austria, 375 E. 10th St. Org. 
1908. Membership: 30. Seat- 
ing capacity: 30. Cemetery. 

Pres., Gershon Finkelman, 
270 E. 10th St. Sec'y, Velvel 
Goldlnger, 132 Essex St. 
Finkelman, Gershon, Pres. 
Anshei Chasldel, Vlshnitze 
Austria (375 E. 10th St.), 
since 1909. Term 6 months. 
Born 1864 In Austria. Came 
to U. S. 1898. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. Veg- 
etable and fruit dealer: 375 



158 



OOMMUNAl^ KEGISTEH 



K. 10th St. Res.: 271) E 
lOth St. 

reinple Ansche Chesed, ib81 
Seventh Ave. Conservative, 
English Sermon. Org^. 1S95. 
Membership: 17 0. Seating 
capacity: 1100. Hebrew 
School, Sisterhood, Ceme- 
tery, Study. Pres., Meyer 
Goodfriend, 274 W. 113th St. 
Sec'y, Benjamin W. Jacob- 
son, 29 Wadsworth Ave. 
Rabbi, Jacob Kohn. 235 W. 
110th St. 

Goodfriend, x>l e y e r, Pres. 
Temple Ansche Chesed (1881 
7th Ave.), since 1909. Term 
I year. Born 1860 in N. Y. 
Graduated C. C. N. Y. Im- 
porter of pearls and preci- 
ous stones: 9 Maiden Lane. 
Res.: 274 W. 113th St. 

Chevrah Anshel Devin, 147 E. 

B'viray. Orthodox. Org. 1903. 
Membership: 80. Seating ca- 
pacity: 130. Sick Benefit, 
Free Loan, Cemetery, Pres., 
Ellas Eckhaus, 139 Eldridge 
St. Sec'y, Aklba Kaminsky, 
258 E. 7th St. 

Eckhaus, Ellas, Pres. Chev- 
rah Anshei Devin (147 E. 
B'way); elected 1917. Term 
6 months. Born 1865 in Rus- 
sia. Came to U. S. 1902. Re- 
ceived general Jewish edu- 
cation. Coal Dealer: 135 El- 
dridge St. Res.: 139 Eldridge 
St. 

chevrah A n h h e i Oallda of 
Harlem, 64 E. 104th St. Or- 
thodox. Org. 1907. Member- 
ship: 20. Seating capacity: 
130. Pres.. Barnet Sallngrer. 



ltiU4 Madison Ave. Sec'y. 
Mr. Wittner, 60 E. 105th St 
Sialini^er, Barnet, Pres 
Chevrah Anshei Galicia of 
Harlem (64 E. 104th St.); 
elected 1917. Term 6 months. 
Born 1857 In Austria. Came 
to U. S. 1909. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. Re- 
tired. Res.: 1604 Madison 
Ave. 

Cong. Anshei Gllniany, 65 Co- 
lumbia St. Orthodox. Org 
1902. Membership: 72. Seat- 
Ing capacity: 250. Free 
Loan, Cemetery. Pres., 
M. Boyka, 156 Goerck St. 
Sec'y. A. Shapiro, 82 Sheriff 
St. 

Boyica, M., Pres. Anshei 
Gliniany (65 Columbia St.). 
since 1916. Term 6 months. 
Born 1874 in Austria. Came 
to U. S. 1907. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. 
Furrier. Res.: 156 Goerck 
St. 

Chevrah Anshei Ivenlts, 30 

Market St. Orthodox. Mem- 
bership: 30. Seating capac- 
ity: 140. Cemetery, Study. 
Pres., Jacob Hamburger. 
Sec'y, Moses Bregman, B 
Fulton St., B'klyn. 

Heth Hak'nesseth Anshei 
Kolker U. V., 201 Broome 
St. Orthodox. Org. 1907. 
Membership: 65. Seating 
capacity: 100. Cemetery. 
Pres., Samuel Sherman, 2155* 
Pacific St., B'klyn. Sec'y, 
Hyman Mineck, 131 Boeruro 
St., B'klyn. 



tfONOKE(iATiON8 



159 



Slierman, ijamuel, Pres. Beth 
Hak'nesseth Anshel Kolker 
U. V. (201 Broome St.): 
elected 1917. Term 6 months. 
Born 1888 in Russia. Came 
to U. S. 1903. Received gen- 
eral Jewish and secular 
education. Certified Public 
Accountant: 200 Fifth Ave. 
Res.: 2159 Pacific St., B'klyn. 

luns. Anshel Krashnik Ubll- 
ner Gubernia, 92 Columbia 
St. Orthodox. Org. 1897. 
Membership: 107. Seating 
capacity: 300, Sick Benefit, 
Cemetery. Pres., Morris 
Bernstein, 359 So. 2nd St.. 
B'klyn. Hyman Wertheim. 
72 Columbia St. 
Bernstein, Morris, Pres 
Cong. Anshei Krashnik 
Ubliner Gubernia (92 Co- 
lumbia St.); elected 1917. 
Term 6 months. Born 1880 
in Russia. Came to U. S. 
1901. Tailor: 11 W. 17th St 
Res.: 359 So. 2nfl St.. B'klyn 

( ■ o n g r e ST a t I o n A n .«* h e I 
LebedoTve and Kadzllowe, 

245 Division St. Orthodox. 
Org. 1907. Membership: 110. 
Seating capacity: 200. Sick 
Benefit, Free Loan, Bikur 
C h o 1 i m, Cemetery, Study. 
Pres., Abraham B. Roossin, 
143 Ave. B. Sec'y, Nathan 
Perler, 136 Rivington St. 
Rabbi, Lieber Kohn, 124 
Monroe St. 

Roossin, Abraham B., Pres. 
Cong. Anshei Lebedowe and 
Radzilowe (245 Division 
St.), since 1907. Term 1 year 
Born 1862 in Russia Came 



to U. S. 1882. Received 
general Jewish education.^ 
Mfgr. soda fountains: 68 
Columbia St. Res.: 143 Ave 
B. 

A.nshei Lefler, 40 Gouverneur 
St. Orthodox. Org. 1902. 
Membership: 2 0. Seating 
capacity: 50. Sick Benefit, 
Life Insurance, Free Loan. 
Bikur C h o 1 i m , Cemetery 
Pres., Morris Swerdlon, 50 
Jefferson St. Sec'y, Leo 
Gordon, 220 Monroe St. 
Swerdlon, Morris, Pres. 
Cong. Anshei Lefler (40 
Gouverneur St.) since 1914. 
Term 1 year. Born 1855 in 
Russia. Came to U. S. 1910. 
Received general education. 
Retired. Res.: 50 Jefferson 
St. 

Betli Halt'aesseth Anaihei 
Lubavits VHomler, 169 

Henry St. Orthodox. Org. 
1888. Mem b e rs hi p: 140. 
Seating capacity: 200. Ceme- 
tery, Study. Pres., William 
Kalman, 112 Eldridge St. 
Sec'y, Benjamin Fineberg. 
145 W. 111th St. 
Kalman, William, Pres. Beth 
Hak'nesseth Anshei Luba- 
vitz V'Homler (169 Henry 
St.): elected 1917. Term 1 
year. Born 1880 in Russia 
Came to U. S. 1906. Received 
general Jewish and secular 
education. Mfgr. canvas: 93 
Hester St. Res.: 112 T51- 
dridge St. 

CJhevrah Talmud Torah Anshel 
Ma'arovi, 130 Manhattan St 



160 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



Orthodox. Org. 1911. Mem- 
bership: 25. Seating capac- 
ity: 100. Pres., Nathan 
Schwartz, 3089 B'way. Sec'y, 
Isaac Middleman, 3200 
B'way. 

Schwartas, Nathan, Pres, 
Chevrah Talmud Torah An- 
shei Ma'arovi (130 Manhat- 
tan St.), since 1916. Term 6 
months. Born 1863 in Rou- 
mania. Came to U. S. 1898. 
Tailor: 603 W. 122nd St. 
Res.: 3089 Broadway. 

Anshel Mielitz, 372 E. 4th St. 

Orthodox. Org. 1905. Mem- 
bership: 215. Seating capa- 
city: 650. Insurance, Ceme- 
tery. Pres., Adolph Ury, 323 
B e e k m a n Ave. Sec'y, I. 
Plonzzer, 444 Grand St. 
Ury, Adolph, Pres. Anshei 
Mielitz (372 B. 4th St.); 
elected 1917. Term 6 months. 
Born 1867 in Austria. Came 
to U. S. 1889. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. 'Res.: 
323 Beekman Ave. 

Beth Hak'nesseth Anshei 
Minsk, 105 E. 112th St. Or- 
thodox. Membership: 16. 
Seating capacity: 90. Study. 
Pres., Isaiah Levine, 15 W. 
118th St. Sec'y, Hirsch Be- 
dlck, 15 W. 118th St. 
Levine, Isaiah, Pres. Beth 
Hak'nesseth Anshei Minsk 
(105 E. 112th St.); elected 
1917. Term 6 months. . Born 
1854 in Russia. Came to 
U. S. 1910. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. Re- 
tired. Res.: 15 W. 118th St. 



Chevrah Anshei Mir U. V., 147 

E. B'way. Orthodox. Org. 
1890. Membership: 140. 
Seating capacity: 100. Sick 
Benefit, Cemetery. Pres., 
Isaac Gorodaisky, 47 Henry 
St. Sec'y, Sam Shafer, 354 
Beekman Ave. 
Gorodaisky, Isaac, Pres. 
Chevrah Anshei Mir U. V. 
(147 E. B'way); elected 
1917. Term 6 months. Born 
1873 in Russia. Came to 
U. S. 1902. Received general 
Jewish education. Tailor. 
Res.: 47 Henry St. 

Cong. Anshei Mozir, 636 E. 6th 

St. Orthodox. Org. 1903. 
Seating capacity: 500. Pres., 
J. Sasnofsky, 617 E. 12th 
St. Sec'y, H. Rosman, 627 E. 
11th St. 

Sasnofsky, J., Pres. Cong. 
Anshei Mozir (636 E. 6th 
St.); elected 1917. Term 6 
months. Born 1879 in Rus- 
sia. Came to U. S. 1903. 
Jeweler. Res.: 617 E. 12th 
St. 

Chevrah Anshei Nevarodok, 

101 Hester St. Orthodox. 
Org. 1891. Membership: 150. 
Seating capacity: 120. Free 
Loan, Bikur Cholim, Ceme- 
tery. Pres., Abr. Epstein, 
199 Forsyth St. Sec'y, Wolf 
Lew, 213 Clinton St. 
E] p s t e i n, Abraham, Pres. 
Chevrah Anshei Nevarodok 
(101 Hester St.), since 1916. 
Term 6 months. Born 1857 
in Russia. Came to U. S. 
1905. Received general Jew- 
ish education. Painter. Res.: 
199 Forsyth St. 



CONGREGATIONS 



161 



A n 8 h e I Novisielltzer Bess- 
arabia, 257 E. 4th St. Or- 
thodox. Org. 1916. Member- 
ship: 60. Seating capacity: 
25. Pres. Jos. Kanter, 214 E. 
13th St. 

Kanter, Joseph, Pres. Anshel 
ovisielitzer Bessarabia 
(257 E. 4th St.), since 1916. 
Term 1 year. Born 1865 in 
Russia. Received general 
Jewish education. Res.: 214 
E. 13th St. 

Beth Haknesseth Anshei Olshan 
V'Anshel Eveun, 63 Mont- 
gomery St. Orthodox. Mem- 
bership: 80. Seating capac- 
ity: 200. Free Loan, Ceme- 
tery, Study. Pres., H 1 11 e 1 
Schmukler. Sec'y, H. Lip- 
nltzlcy, 137 Monroe St. 

Chevrah Anshei Oshmineh 
V'Anshei Trab, 68 E. B'way. 
Orthodox. Org. 1889. Mem- 
bership: 140. Seating capa- 
city: 200. Siclc Benefit, In- 
surance, Free Loan, Ceme- 
tery, Study. Pres., Benjamin 
Cutler, 24 Forsyth St. Sec'y, 
Meyer Levin, 66 Canal St. 
Cutler, Benjamin, Pres. 
Chevrah Anshei Oshmineh 
V'Anshei Trab (68 E. Broad- 
way), since 1915. Term 1 
year. Born 1857 in Russia. 
Came to U. S. 1892. Received 
general Jewish education. 
Mfgr. pants: 2 Birming-ham 
St. Res.: 24 Forsyth St. 

Con?. Anshei Panedel, 225 E. 

B'way. Orthodox. Org. 1892. 
Membership: 60. Seating 
capacity: 125. Sick Benefit, 



Free Loan, Bikur Cholim, 
Cemetery. Pres., Isidore 
Sendelowich, 1572 51st St., 
B'klyn. Sec'y, M o r d e c a i 
Brown, 365 New Lots Ave., 
B'klyn. 

Sendelowich, Isidore, Pres.- 
Cong. Anshei Panedel (225 
E. B'way), since 1915. Term 
1 year. Born 1887 in Rus- 
sia. Came to U. S. 1895. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Shoes: 25 Canal 
St. Res.: 1572 51st St., 
B'klyn. 

Anshei Petrilcow, 349 E. 10th 
St. Orthodox. Org. 1915. 
Membership: 45. Seating 
capacity: 200. Cemetery. 
Pres., Israel Rothfeld, 210 
Ave. A. Sec'y, H. Leibman, 
418 E. 10th St. Rabbi, Jacob 
Melman, 631 E. 11th St. 
Rothfeld, Israel, Pres. 
Anshei Petrikow (349 East 
10th St.); elected 1917. 
Term 1 year. Born 1864 In 
Austria. Came to U. S. 1893. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Grocer. Res. : 
210 Ave. A. 

Con?, of Talmud Torah An- 
shei Poland, 169 Suffolk St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1917. Mem- 
bership: 250. Seating ca- 
pacity: 150. Hebrew school. 
Pres. Henry M. Greenberg, 
34 W. 119th St. Sec'y, 
Mendel Holtz, 1537 Fulton 
Ave. 

Anshei Ra?oIer, 106 Forsyth 
St. Orthodox. Org. 1898. 
Membership: 50. Seating 



162 



OOMMUNAl. RiSGISTKK 



capacity; So. F"ree Loai^. 
Cemetery. Pres., Isidore 
Adler, 176 2nd Ave. Sec'y. 
David Glasstein. 20 Rutgers 
PI 

Cong Anshel Sellb, 78 Allen St 
Orthodox. Org. 1904. Mem- 
bership: 90. Seating capa- 
city: 300. Cemetery. Pres., 
Sam Slonimsky, 16 Rutgers 
PI. Sec'y, D. Solomowitz, 11 
Eldrldge St. 

Slonimsky, Sam, Pres. Cong 
Anshei Selib (78 Allen St.). 
since 1916. Term 6 months. 
Born 1871 in Russia. Came 
to U. S. 1903. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education 
Paints. Res.: 16 Rutgers PI. 

C'hevrah Aushei Sholom Kal- 
denow. 33 Jefferson St. 
Orthodox. Membership: 130. 
Seating capacity: 400. Sick 
Benefit, Insurance, Ceme- 
tery, Study. Pres., Samuel 
Rakowitz, 26 Jefferson St. 
Sec'y, B. Smith, 127 Hester 
St. 

RakoTiiltz, Samuel, Pres. 
Chevrah Anshei Sholom Kai- 
denow (33 Jefferson St.). 
since 1906. Term 6 months. 
Born 1871 in Russia. Came 
to U. S. 1900. Received gen- 
eral Jewish and secular 
educa.tlon. Contractor. Res.: 
26 Jefferson St. 

\nshel Shzedrlner, 40 Gouver- 
neur St. Orthodox. Org. 
1902. Membership: 80. Seat- 
ing capacity: 50. Sick Bene- 
fit, Insurance, Bikur Cholim. 
Cemetery. Study. Pres., 



Nathan Rosenblum, 183 E 
7th St. Sec'y, Mendel Horo- 
witz. 217 S. 3d St., B'klyn. 
R.o»eiibium, Nathan, Pres. 
Anshei Shzedrlner (40 Gouv- 
erneur St.), since 1905. Term 
2 years. Born 1876 in Rus- 
sia. Came to U. S. 1902. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Auctioneer. Res. : 
183 E. 7th St. 

Beth Hak'nesseth Anshei 
Slutask, 34 Pike St. Ortho- 
dox. Org. 1907. Member- 
ship: 155. Seating capacity: 
700. Free Loan, Cemetery. 
Study. Pres., Wolf Ginan- 
des, 125 E. B'way. Sec'y. 
Morris Mazarowitz, 85 Hen- 
ry St. Rabbi, J. Eskolsky. 
256 E. B'way. 

Ginandes, Wolf, Pres. Beth 
Hak'nesseth Anshei Slutzk 
(34 Pike St.), since 1905. 
Term 6 months. Born 1864 
in Russia. Came to U. S. 
1890. Attended high school 
In Russia. Jeweler: 125 E. 
B'way. Res.: 110 E. B'way. 

Anshei Smorgrin B'nai Chaim 
Abraham, 37 Market St. 
Orthodox. Membership: 100. 
Seating capacity: 100. Ceme- 
tery, Study. Pres., Max 
Evenson. Sec'y, A. Cohen, 
314 Broome St. 

Ohevrah I^adisha Anshei Smot- 
rich Podolier, 169 Suffolk 
St. Orthodox. Org. 1916. 
Membership: 20. Seating ca- 
pacity: 80. Pres., Nathan 
Bedrlck, 116 Stanton St 
Treas., Z. Palatnick, 46 Ave 
B. 



L!UlS(iKlii(iA't'10iSrP 



16H 



liedrlck, Authaii, Pies. Chev 
• ah Kacli^ha Anshei Smotri-li 
Podolier (169 Suffolk St.) 
since 1916. Term 1 yeai 
Born 1871 in Russia. Came 
to U. S. 1909. Received 
general Jewish education 
Res.: 116 Stanton St. 

4'heTTah Kndisha Anshei So- 
chetchoT, 121 Ludlow St 
Orthodox. Org. 1904. Mem 
bership: 50. Seating capac- 
ity; 300. Free Loan, Ceme- 
tery. Pres., Solomon L 
Hershkowitz. 

Cong. Anshei Socol Belz, 6'' 

Columbia St. Orthodox. 
Membership: 100. Seating 
capacity: 125. Cemetery, 
Sick Benefit. Pres., Isidor 
Leitner, 536 New Jersey 
Ave., B'klyn. Sec'y, Jacob 
Pockart, 308 Delancey St. 

f'ong. Anshei S'phard of Har- 
lem, 240 E. 119th St. Ortho- 
dox. Org. 1912. Member- 
bership: 5. Seating capac- 
ity: 50. Pres., Elias Herman, 
151 E. 123rd St. 
Herman, Elias, Pres. Cong. 
Anshei S'phard of Harlem 
(240 E. 119th St.), since 
1912. Born in Austria. Came 
to U. S. 1887. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. Re- 
tired. Res.: 151 E. 123rd St. 

Chevrah Anshei Stuehln and 
Grayewa, 240 Henry St. Or- 
thodox. Org. 1912. Mem- 
bership: 138. Seating capa- 
city: 600. Free Loan, Ceme- 
tery, Study. Pres., Joseph 
Finkelstein, 28 W. 113th St 
Sec'y, J. Siegel. 63 E. 106t.h 
St. 



)<'iuk.elMtelu, Juseph, Free 

Chevrah Anshei Stuchin and 
Grayewa (240 Henry St.), 
since 1907. Term 1 year 
Born 1860 in Russia. Came 
to U. S. 1880. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education 
Tailor: 54 Canal St. Res.: 
28 W. 113th St. 

Anshei Torath C h e s e d , 197 

Henry St. Ortho'dox. Org 
1904. Membership: 75. Seat- 
ing capacity: 100. Free Loan, 
Cemetery, Study. Pres., H. 
Hurowitz, 197 Henry St 
Sec'y, I. Levitsky, 197 Henry 
St. Rabbi, S. Rafalowitz, 
257 Henry St. 

Cong. Anshei Ulanow und 
Umgegend, 56 Lewis St. Or- 
thodox. Org. 1897. Member- 
ship: 191. Seating capacity: 
300. Sick Benefit, Insurance. 
Free Loan, Ladies' Society. 
Old Age Fund, Cemetery. 
Pres., Max Birnbaum, 48 E. 
104th St. Sec'y, Hyman 
Wechselfeld, 63 Lewis St. 
Birnbaum, Max, Pres. Cong. 
Anshei Ulanow und Umgeg- 
end (56 Lewis St.); elected 
1917. Term 6 months. Born 
1867 in Austria. Received 
general Jewish education. 
Tailor: 199 Norfolk St. Res : 
48 E. 104th St. 

Cong. Anshei Yanov Lnblen- 

sky U. v., 84 Lewis St 
Orthodox. Membership: 150. 
Seating capacity: 150. Sick 
Benefit, Insurance, Free 
Loan. Cemetery. Pres., Louis 
Eilgarten, 182 So. 8rd St,, 



164 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



B'klyn. Sec'y, Aaron Zam- 
berg, 82 Columbia St. 
Ellgarten, Louis, Pres. Cong. 
Anshei Yanov Lublensky U. 
V. (84 Lewis St.), since 1916. 
Term 6 months. Born 1870 
In Russia. Came to U. S. 
1899. Received general Jew- 
ish education. Tailor: 96 
2nd Ave. Res.: 182 S. 8rd 
St., B'klyn. 

Anshei Yanover and Kablier, 

11 Suffolk St. Orthodox. 
Membership: 75. Seating 
capacity: 150. Sick Benefit, 
Insurance, Cemetery, Study. 
Pres., Wolf Bein. Sec'y, Wolf 
Alper. 

Ansfaiel Zolltiev T'vuatli Slior, 

87 Ridge St. Orthodox. Org. 
1894. Membership: 95. Seat- 
ing capacity: 80. Sick Ben- 
efit, Free Loan, Cemetery. 
Pres., W. H. Sehonbach, 33 
W i 1 1 e 1 1 St. Sec'y, Max 
Eliphant, 248 E. 3rd St. 
Scbonbacli, W. H., Pres. 
Anshei Zolkiev T'vuath Shor 
(87 Ridge St.); elected 1917. 
Term 6 months. Born 1869 
In Galicia. Came to U. S. 
1898. Received general Jew- 
ish education. Res.: 33 Wil- 
lett St. 

Congr. Atereth Cbiaint Haber- 
stam, 48 Sheriff St. Ortho- 
dox. Org. 1891. Member- 
ship: 40. Seating capacity: 
145. Cemetery., Pres. Chaim 
Augarten, 54 Cannon St. 
Sec'y, Isaac Gold, 147 
Goerck St. 

Angrarten, Chaim, Pres. 
Cong. Atereth Chaim Haber- 



stam (48 Sheriff St.); elected 
1917. Term 6 months. Born 
1875 in Austria. Came to 
U. S. 1909. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. Res.: 
54 Cannon St. 

Cong. Atereth Israel, 323 E. 

82nd St. Orthodox. English 
and German Sermons. Org. 
1882. Membership: 40. Seat- 
ing capacity: 400. Hebrew 
School, Cemetery. Pres., 
Charles Weill, 50 E. 89th St. 
Sec'y, G. Oberdorfer, 1826 
Washington Ave. Rabbi, 
Max Fried, 329 E. 79th St. 

Atereth Judnh Z'vi Mistretin, 

296 Stanton St. Orthodox. 
Org. 1902. Membership: 53. 
Seating capacity: 60. Ceme- 
tery, Study. Pres., Oscar 
Weiss, 86 Lewis St. Sec'y, 
Gershon Kien, 79 E. 109th 
St. 

"Weiss, Oscar, Pres. Atereth 
Judah Z'vi Mistretin (296 i 

Stanton St.), since 1914. 
Term 6 months. Born 1863 
in Austria. Came to U. S. 
1899. Received general Jew- 
ish education. Res.: 86 Lewis 

i 

Atereth Z'kenim, 238 Monroe | 
St. Orthodox. Org. 1910. 
Membership: 35. Seating 
capacity: 35. Cemetery. | 
Study. Pres., Joshua Erlich- 
man, 557 Grand St. I. Vol- 
kof, 312 Madison St. 
E^rliclunan, Joshua, Pres. 
Atereth Z'kenim (238 Mon- 
roe St.), since 1911. Term 1 
year. Born 1852 In Russia. 



CONGREGATIONS 



165 



Came to U. S. 1905. At- 
tended a Teshibah. Res.: 557 
Grand St. 

Atereth Z'vl, 121st St. and 
Madison Ave. Conservative, 
Org, 1887. Membership: 25. 
Seating capacity: 200. Pres,, 
Samuel Goldburger, 57 E. 
120th St. Sec'y, J. Eichner, 
328 E. 120th St. Rabbi, Dr. 
P. Light, 178 E. 108th St. 
Goldburger, Samuel, Pres. 
Atereth Z'vl (121st St. and 
Madison Ave.); elected 
1917. Term 1 year. Born 
1859 In Austria. Received 
general education. Real 
Estate. Res.: 57 E. 120th St. 

Cons, of Talmud Torah Au^- 
nstower, 122 W. 129 th St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1883. Mem- 
bership: 65. Seating capac- 
ity: '400. Ladies' Auxiliary, 
Hebrew School, Cemetery. 
Pres., Chas. Weinstein, 109 
W. 129th St. Sec'y, W. Met- 
zick, 39 W. 128th St. 

Austrian-Hung^arian A n s h e 1 
S'phard, 62 Cannon St. Or- 
thodox. Org. 1882. Mem- 
bership: 80. Seating capa- 
city: 450. B i k u r Cholim, 
Cemetery, Study. Pres., Jos. 
Hoenig, 64 Pitt St. Sec'y, 
Napthali Shapiro, 317 E. 4th 
St. Rabbi, Solomon Kan- 
arek, 118 Columbia St, 
Hoenig, Joseph, Pres. Aus- 
trian - Hungarian A n s h e i 
S'phard (62 Cannon St.); 
elected 1917. Term 6 months. 
Born 1876 in Austria. Came 
to U. S. 1888. Received gen- 



eral Jewish education. Cigar 
Mfgr. Res.: 64 Pitt St. 

Austrian-Polish Chevrah, 1420 
Wilkins Ave. Orthodox. Org. 
1916. Membership: 22. Seat- 
ing capacity: 180. Bikur 
Cholim. Pres., Louis James, 
1516 Charlotte St. Sec'y, L. 
Semel, 878 Jennings St. 
James, Louis, Pres. Austrian 
Polish Chevrah (1416 Wilkins 
Ave.), since 1915, Term 6 
months. Born 1862 in Aus- 
tria. Came to U. S. 1895. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Real Estate. Res.: 
1516 Charlotte St. 

Chevrah Bachurim Anshel 
Hungary, 1137 Prospect Ave. 
Orthodox. Org. 1890. Mem- 
bership: 85, Seating capa- 
city: 357. Ladies' Auxiliary, 
Cemetery. Pres., Jacob 
Cohen, 1386 Prospect Ave. 
Sec'y, S. Fried, 960 Prospect 
Ave. 

Cohen, Jacob, Pres. Chevrah 
Bachurim Anshei Hungary 
(1137 Prospect Ave.), 
elected 1917. Term 6 
months. Born 1872 in Hun- 
gary. Came to U. S. 1882. 
Received general Jewish 
education. White goods 
mfgr. Res.: 1386 Prospect 
Ave. 

Baligrader Chevrah Agudath 
Chaverim, 138 Columbia St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1912. Mem- 
bership: 75. Seating capa- 
city: 300. Cemetery. Pres., 
Shaie Kessler, 105 Goerck 
St. Sec'y, Israel Wenick, 264 
Sheriff St. 



166 



(50MMUNAL REGISTER 



Keasler, Sliuie, Fres. Ball- 
igrader Chevrah A g u d a t h 
Chaverim (138 Columbia 
St.); elected 1917. Term 6 
months. Born 1872 In 
Galicla. Received general 
Jewish education. Res.: 105 
Goerck St. 

«/hevrah Baiter Soc, 133 El- 

dridge St. Orthodox. Org. 
1908. Membership: 180. 
Seating capacity: 200. Sick 
Benefit, Free Loan, Ceme- 
tery. Pres., Aaron Cohen. 
85 Montrose Ave., B'klyn. 
Sec'y, Aaron Glazer, 725 E. 
9th St. Rabbi, Morris Green- 
berg 93 Orchard St. 
Cohen, Aaron, Pres. Chevrah 
Baiter Soc. (133 Eldridge 
St.); elected 1917. Term 6 
months. Born 1877 in Rus- 
sia. Came to U. S. 1906. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Res.; 85 Mont- 
rose Ave., B'klyn. 

Beth Aaron Anshei KaldonoT, 

141 Madison St. Orthodox. 
Org. 1907. Membership: 40. 
Seating capacity: 110. Study, 
Cemetery. Pres. : David 
Shapiro. 

Shapiro, David, Pres. Beth 
Aaron Anshei Kaidonov (141 
Madison St.), since 1916. 
Term 1 year. Born 1867 in 
Russia. Received general 
Jewish education. Trim- 
mings 

Ohevreh Beth Aaron Chanldlm 
D'Kaldonow, 148 Madison St 
Orthodox. Org. 1907. Mem- 
bership: 45. Seating capaci- 



ty: 100. Free Loan. Ceme 
tery. Study. Pres., Solomon 
Katcherdinsky, 172 Essex 
St. Sec'y, H. Edelman. 174 
Monroe St. 

Katcherdinsky, Solomon. 
Pres. Chevrah Beth Aaron 
Chasidim D'Kaldonow (148 
Madison St.), since 1908 
Term 1 year. Born 1857 in 
Russia. Came to U. S. 1897 
Received general Jewish 
education. Grocer. Res. : 
172 Essex St. 

Chevrah Beth Aaron Vlsrael 
Chasldel Stolin, 52 Orchard 
St. Orthodox. Org. 1892 
Membership: 75. Seating 
capacity: 150. Insurance. 
Free Loan, Cemetery, Study 
Pres., Isaac G 1 a t z e r, 83 
Chrystie St. Sec'y, Isaac 
Weber, 2 Attorney St. Rabbi. 
Aaron T i t e 1 b a u m, 71 E. 
119th St. 

Glatzer, Isaac, Pres. Chev- 
rah Beth Aaron Vlsrael 
Chasidei Stolin (52 Orchard 
St.), since 1916. Term 6 
months. Sorn 1867 in Rus- 
sia. Came to U. S. 1897. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Carpenter. Res.: 
83 Chrystie St. 

Chevrah Beth Abraham Anshei 
Dalhiner, 35 Montgomery St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1897. Mem- 
bership: 60. Seating capac- 
ity: 120. Sick Benefit, In- 
surance, Free Loan, Bikur 
Cholim, Cemetery. Pres., 
Sam Kosofsky, 112 Goerck 
St. Sec'y, M. Llfshitz, 235 
Henry St. 



OONGRBGATIONS 



167 



Kosofsky, Sam, Pres. Chev- 
rah Beth Abraham Anshei 
Dalhiner (37 Montgomery 
St.), since 1909. Term 6 
months. Born 1889 in Rus- 
sia. Came to U. S. 1897 
Received general Jewish 
and secular education. 
Clothing? 338 Stanton St 
Res.: 112 Goerck St 

Beth Abraham Anshei Tres- 
tlna, 147 E. B'way. Ortho- 
dox. Org. 1901. Membership: 
100. Seating capacity: 100. 
Insurance, Cemetery. Pres., 
Louis Siegel, 59 Ames St.. 
B'klyn. Sec'y, H. Popkin, 87 
Monroe St. 

Siegel, Louis, Pres. Beth 
Abraham Anshei Trestina 
(147 E. B'way), since 1914. 
Term 1 year. Born 1875 in 
Russia. Res.: 59 Ames St., 
B'klyn. 

Beth Abraham of the Bronx. 

534 E. 146th St. Orthodox 
Org. 1901. Membership: 60. 
Seating capacity: 600. He- 
brew School, Cemetery. 
Pres., A. Susman, 501 E. 
140th St. Sec'y, S. Kanar- 
vogel, 2110 Honeywell Ave. 
Rabbi, A. Gallant, 508 E 
I40th St. 

Susman, A., Pres. Cong. Beth 
Abraham of the Bronx (534 
E. 146th St.), since 1913. 
Term 1 year. Born 1858 in 
Russia. Came to U. S. 1874. 
Received general education. 
Tailor: 233 Alexander Ave 
Res.: 501 E. 140th St. 

Beth Abraham Chasidlm 
D'SIonlm. 169 Henry St. Or- 



thodox. Org. 1897. Mem- 
bership; 38. Seating capa- 
city: 110. Free Loan, Ceme- 
tevy. Study. Pres., Morris J. 
Bernstein, 213 Henry St 
Sec'y, Harry Rajansky, 170 
Henry St. Rabbi, Oscar 
Werner, 62 W. 115th St. 
Bernstein, Morris J., Pres 
Beth Abraham Chasidim 
D'SlonIm (169 Henry St.), 
since 1913. Term 1 year 
Born 1872 in Russia. Came 
to U. S. 1895. Received » 
thorough Jewish education 
in a Yeshibah. Silks: 39 W. 
29th St. Res.: 213 Henry St. 

i'hevrah Beth Chasidim 
D ' P o I a n d, 410 Grand St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1899, Mem- 
bership: 90. Seating capa- 
city: 200. Free Loan, Bikur 
G h o 1 i m. Cemetery, Study. 
Pres., Isaac L. Cohen, 110 
Keap St., B'klyn. Sec'y, 
Mendel Yablinowitz, 410 
Grand St. 

Cohen, Isaac Li., Pres. Chev- 
rah Beth Chasidim D'Pol- 
and (410 Grand St.); elected 
1917. Term 1 year. Born 
1867 in Russia. Received 
education in Yeshibah. In- 
stallment peddler. Res.: 110 
Keap St., B'klyn. 

Beth David Anshei Ralcov, 225 

Clinton St. Orthodox. Org. 
1890. Membership: 50. Seat- 
ing capacity: 100. Sick 
Benefit, Insurance, Ceme- 
tery. Pres., Samuel Berman. 
2999 Marion Ave. Sec'y, B 
L. Rubinstein. 40 E. 117th 
St 



168 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



Bernian, Samuel, Pres. Beth 
David Anshei Rakov (225 
Clinton St.); elected 1917. 
Term 6 months. Born 1847 
In Russia. Came to U. S. 
1877. Received general Jew- 
ish education. Retired. Res.: 
2999 Marlon Ave. 
Congr. Beth David Anshei 
Romau Roumania, 97 Stan- 
ton St. Orthodox. Org. 1909. 
Membership: 85. Seating 
capacity: 200. Relief, Cem- 
etery, Ladles' Auxiliary. 
Pres., Louis W e i s s m a n , 
3081/2 Broome St. Sec'y, S. 
Brecher, 177 Norfolk St. 
W e 1 s s ni a n, Louis, Pres. 
Cong. Beth David Anshei 
Roman Roumania (97 Stan- 
ton St.), since 1916. Term 1 
year. Born 1865 in Rou- 
mania. Came to U. S. 1885. 
Received high school edu- 
cation. Optometrist: 310 
Broome St. Res.: 3081/2 
Broome St. 

Temple Beth-El, Fifth Ave. 
and Seventy-sixth St. Re- 
formed. English Sermon. 
Org. 1828. Membership: 480. 
Seating capacity: 2442. He- 
brew School, Sisterhood, 
Cemetery. Pres., Solomon 
Sulzberger, 73 E. 90th St. 
Clerk, Samuel Berliner, 4 E. 
76th St. Rabbi, Samuel 
Schulman, 55 E. 92nd St. 
Sulzberger, Solomon, Pres. 
Temple Beth-El (5th Ave. 
and 76th St.), since 1904. 
Term 1 year. Born 1838 in 
Germany. Came to U. S. 
1855. Received a public 
school education. Retired. 
Res.: 73 E. 90th St. 



Cong:. Beth Elijah, 9 Hester 
St. Orthodox. Org. 1898. 
Membership: 37. Seating 
capacity: 80. Bikur Cholim 
Soc, Cemetery. Pres., Morris 
Glicksberg, 28 Scammel St. 
Sec'y, H. Eidelsberg, 64 
Clinton St. 

Glicksbergr, Morris, Pres. 
Cong. Beth Elijah (9 Hester 
St.), since 1916. Term 1 
year. Born 1860 in Rus- 
sia. Came to U. S. 1887. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Tailor. Res.: 28 
Scammel St. 

Temple Beth Elohim, 961 So. 

Boulevard, Conservative. 
English Sermon. Org. 1914. 
Membership: 70. Seating 
capacity: 300. Hebrew 
School, Young Folks' 
League, Sisterhood. Pres., 
Wm. Oppenheim, 1057 Hoe 
Ave. Sec'y, S. Cassel, 1111 
Westchester Ave. 
Oppenheim, William, Pres. 
Temple Beth Elohim (961 
So. Blvd.), since 1914. Term 
1 year. Born 1864 in Russia. 
Came to U. S. 1880. Received 
general Jewish education. 
Real Estate. Res.: 1057 Hoe 
Ave. 

Beth Hamidrash Adath Jesh- 
urun, 238 E. 102nd St. 
Membership: 28. Seating 
capacity: 150. Cemetery, 
Study. Chairman, Mr. Long- 
friend. 

Beth Hamidrash B'nal Israel, 

335 E. 77th St. Orthodox. 
Org. 1897. Membership: 60. 
Seating capacity: 220. Cem- 



CONGREGATIONS 



169 



etery, Study. Pres., Moses 
Weinberg, 335 E. 77th St. 
Sec'y^ Oscar Barasch, 341 E. 
77th St. 

W^olnberg, Moses, Pres. 
Beth Hamidrash B'nal Isra- 
el (335 E. 77th St.), since 
1916. Term 6 months. Res.: 
335 E. 77th St. 

Cong:. Beth Hemldrasli Beth 
Isaac. 85 Hester St. Ortho- 
dox. Org. 1892. Member- 
ship: 70. Seating capacity: 
50. Insurance, Free Loan, 
Cemetery, Study. Pres., 
Israel Likwornick, 1538 
Minford PI. Sec'y, Abraham 
Berenson, 239 E. B'way. 
Liikwornick, Israel. Pres. 
Cong. Beth Hamidrash Beth 
Isaac (85 Hester St.); 
elected 1917. Term 1 year. 
Born 1855 in Austria. Came 
to U. S. 1897. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. 
Res.: 1538 Minford PI. 

Beth Hamidrash Beth Jacob, 

1484 Washington Ave. Or- 
thodox. Org. 1914. Seat- 
ing capacity: 130. Study. 
Pres. and Sec'y, Jacob 
Myer, 1484 Washington Ave. 
Myer, Jacob, Pres. Beth 
Hamidrash Beth Jacob 
(14 8 4 Washington Ave.), 
Born 1854 in Russia. Came 
to U. S. 1903. Received 
Rabbinical education. Rab- 
bi. Res.: 1484 Washington 
Ave. 

Beth Hamidrash Chasidel 
Anshel Bronx, 459 E. 171st 
St. Orthodox. Org. 1913. 



Seating capacity: 200. Pres., 
Abraham S. Weintraub, 
1520 Washington Ave. 
Weintraub, Abraham S., 
Pres. Beth Hamidrash 
Chasidel Anshel Bronx ('459 
E. 171st St.), since 1913. 
Term 1 year. Born 1850 in 
Hungary. Came to U. S. 
1892. Received general 
Jewish education. Hebrew 
teacher. Res.: 1520 Wash- 
ington Ave. 

Beth Hamidrash D'Sphardim, 

52 Orchard St. Orthodox. 
Org. 1873. Membership: 100. 
Seating capacity: 200. Ceme- 
tery, Study. Pres., Mayer 
Colin, 92 Attorney St. Sec'y, 
Pesach Zivyack, 36 Mont- 
gomery St. 

Colin, Mayer, Pres. Beth 
Hamidrash D'Sphardim (52 
Orchard St.), since 1904. 
Term 1 year. Born 1848 In 
Russia. Came to U. S. 1895. 
Received thorough Hebrew 
education. Res.: 92 Attorney 
St. 

Chevrah Beth Hamidrash 
D'Sphardim D'Harlem, '41 W. 

113th St. Orthodox. Org. 
1904. Membership; 33. Seat- 
ing capacity: 110. Cemetery. 
Pres., David Nechimias, 1357 
Fifth Ave. Sec'y, Abraham 
Greizman, 25 E. 112th St. 
Nechimias, David, Pres. 
Chevrah Beth Hamidrash 
D'Sphardim D'Harlem (41 
W. 113th St.), since 1912. 
Term 6 months. Born 1872 
in Austria. Came to U. S. 
1892. Received general Jew- 



170 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



Ish education. Dress goods. 
1357 Fifth Ave Res.: 43 W 
Ulth St. 

Heth Hamtdrash D'Sphardim 
D'Harlem, 8 W. 113th St 
Orthodox. Organized 1912 
Membership, 34. Seating.; 
capacity: 275. Sick Bene- 
fit, Cemetery, Study. Pres., 
Israel J. Greenspan, 20 W. 
113th St. Sec'y, Elias 
Schweit. 

Greenspan, Israel J., Pres. 
Beth Hamidrash D'Sphar- 
dim (8 W. 113th St.), elect- 
ed 1917. Term 2 years. 
Born 1857 In Russia. Came 
to U. S. 1885. Received 
general Jewish education. 
Retired. Res.: 20 W. 113th 
St. 

Beth Hamidrash Hechodoaih, 

911% E. 169th St. Ortho- 
dox. Org. 1914. Member- 
ship: 30. Seating capacity: 
430. School, Study. Pres.. 
I. Sherwin. 

Beth Hamidrash Hechodosh. 

937 E. 167th St. Orthodox. 
Seating capacity: 120. Pres. 
and Rabbi, Rev. Rubens, 
937 E. 167th St 

Heth Hamidrash Hagodol, t>4 

Norfolk St. Orthodox. Org. 
1812. Mem ber shi p: 110. 
Seating capacity: 1000. Cem- 
etery. Pres., Abraham Gran- 
owitz, 24 Attorney St. Sec'y, 
A. Kleinman, 293 Madison 
St. Rabbi. S E. Jaffe, 207 
E B'way 



GranotrltK, Abraham, Pres 
Beth Hamidrash Hagodol 
(64 Norfolk St.); elected 
1917. Term 1 year. Born 
1862 in Russia. Came to 
(J. S. 1891. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education 
Bakery supply: 190 Stanton 
St. Res.: 24 Attorney St. 

Beth Hamidrash Hagodol, 457 

E. 172nd St. Orthodox. 'Org 
1915. Membership: 30. 
Seating capacity: 300. Free 
Burial, Cemetery. Pres., 
Aaron Davidson, 1360 Bos- 
ton Rd. Sec'y, Mendel Holtz. 
1537 Fulton Ave. 
Davidson, Aaron, Pres. Beth 
Hamidrash Hagodol (457 E. 
172nd St.), since 1916. Term 
6 months. Born 1866 in 
Russia. Came to U. S. 1900. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Salesman. Res. : 
1360 Boston Rd. 

Beth Hamidrash Hagrodol, 829 

Forest Ave. Orthodox. Org 
1906. Membership: 75. Seat- 
ing capacity: 1000. Sister- 
hood, Hebrew School, Ceme- 
tery, Study. Pres., Bernard 
Bernstein, 960 Prospect Ave 
Sec'y» Frank Andron, 1051 
Boston Road. Rabbi, S- 
Olishefsky, 913 Longwood 
Ave. 

Bernstein, Bernard, Pres. 
Beth Hamidrash Hagodol 
(829 Forest Ave.), since 
1910. Term 1 year. Born 
1880 in New York City. Re- 
ceived general Jewish and 
secular education. Silks: 40 
W, 32nd St. Res : 960 Pros- 
pect Ave. 



OONQREOATIONS 



171 



Beth Hamldrash H a gr o d o 1 
Adath Isirael of Bronx, 1591 
Washington Ave. Ortho- 
dox. Org-. 1905. Member- 
ship: 80. Seating capacity 
5 0, Sick Benefit, Free 
Loan, Sisterhood, Cemetery, 
Study. Pres., B. S. Brody. 
940 Tiffany St. Rabbi, R. 
Winer. 15 8 9 Washington 
Ave. 

Brody, B. S., Pres. Beth 
Hamidrash Hagodol Adath 
Israel of Bronx (1587 Wash- 
ington Ave.), since 1914. 
Term 1 year. Born 1862 in 
Russia. Came to U. S. 1872 
Received general Jewish 
and secular education. 
Clothing: 69 5th Ave.: Res.: 
940 Tiffany St. 

Beth Hamidrash Hagodol 
Adath Jeshumn of th«* 
Bronx, 463 E. 14 5 th St. 
Orthodox. Membership: 60. 
S ea ti n g capacity: 1000. 
Cemetery. Pres,, D. B. 
Kaliski, 369 St, Ann's Ave. 
Sec'y, A. Ham, 524 E. 135th 
St. Rabbi, S. Grossheim 

Beth Hamldrash Hagrodol An> 
she! Hungary, 242 E. 7th St 
Orthodox. Org. 1877, Mem- 
bership: 110, Seating capa- 
city: 500. Cemetery. Study. 
Pres,, Menashe Tannenbaum, 
353 E. Houston St. Sec'y, M. 
Ehrenfeld, 310 E. 3rd St. 
Rabbi, Alter 8. PfefCer, 112 
Ave. C. 

Tannenbanm, Menashe, Pres. 
Beth Hamidrash Hagodol 
Anshel Hungary (242 E. 7tb 
St.). since 1916 Term 6 



months. Born 1848 in Aus- 
tria. Came to U. S. 1884. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Retired Res. 
353 B. Houston St 

Beth Hamidrash Hagodol An- 
shel Resha, 70 Willett St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1886. Mem- 
bership: 130. Seating capa- 
city: 470. Bikur Cholim. 
Cemetery, Study, Insurance. 
Pres,, Max Eisen, 520 W. 
151st St. Sec'y, Solomon 
Goldstein, 134 Cannon St. 
Rabbi, Simon Burstein, 122 
Goerck St. (Branch: 1364 
5th Ave.) 

Eisen, Max, Pres, Beth 
Hamidrash Hagodol Anshei 
Resha (70 Willett St,); 
elected 1917. Term 1 year. 
Born 1867 in Austria. Came 
to U. S. 1890, Received edu- 
cation in Yeshiba-h in Aus- 
tria. Rent collector: 257 E. 
Houston St. Res.: 520 W. 
I51st St. 

Beth Hamidrash Hagodol An- 
shei Resha, 1364 Fifth Ave. 
Orthodox, Org, 1911. Mem- 
bership: 60. Seating capac- 
ity: 300, Cemetery. Pres., 
Max Eisen, 520 W. 151st St. 
Sec'y, S. Goldstein, 134 Can- 
non St. Branch of 70 Willett 
St 

Beth Hamidrash Hagodol 
D'Sphardim, 385 Grand St 
Orthodox. Org. 1897, Mem- 
bership: 82. Seating capac- 
ity: 250. Free Loan, Bikur 
Cholim, Cemetery, Study. 
Pres., Jacob Fisher, 242 B 
I3th St. Sec'y, B Kellman, 
22 Norfolk St 



172 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



Fisher, Jacob, Pres. Beth 
Hamldrash Hagodol 
D'Sphardim (385 Grand St.), 
elected 1917. Term 1 year. 

Born 1868 in Russia. Came 
to U. S. 1905. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. 
Tailor trimmings: 8 E. 17th 
St. Res.: 242 E. 13th St. 

Beth Hamldrash Hagodol of 
Harlem, 110 E. 105th St. 
Orthodox. Membership: 150. 
Seating capacity: 850. Free 
Loan, Ladies' Auxiliary, 
Cemetery, Study. Pres., Sam 
Gordon, 8 E. 107th St. 
Sec'y, L Segel, 63 E. 106th 
St. Rabbi, S. Kovalsky, 7'4 
E. 105th St. 

Beth Hamidrash Nusach Ho- 

ari, 112 E. 110th St. Mem- 
bership: 20. Seating capac- 
ity: 240. Free Loan, Ceme- 
tery, Study. Pres., Moses D. 
Taubin, 541 E. 139th St. 
Sec'y, Mr. Goldfarb, 169 E. 
109th St. Rabbi, B. Hirsch, 
195 E. 113th St. 
Taubin, Moses D., Pres. 
Beth Hamidrash N u s a c h 
Hoari (112 E. 110th St.), 
since 1913. Term 1 year. 
Born 1866 In Russia. Came 
to U. S. 1903. Received 
general Jewish education. 
Res.: 541 E. 139th St. 

Beth Hamidrash Sha'arel 
Torah and Anshel Ratzk 
U'Matteh Levi, 80 Forsyth 
St. Orthodox. Org. 1855. 
Membership: 75. Seating ca- 
pacity: 500. Free Loan, 
Cemetery, Study. Pres., Max 



Tarshish, 23 E. 124th St. 
Sec'y, L. Friedman, 83 El- 
dridge St. Rabbi, J. Zuck- 
erman, 80 Forsyth St. 
Tarshish, Max, Pres. Beth 
Hamidrash Sha'arei Torah 
and Anshei Ratzk U'Matteh 
Levi (80 Forsyth St.), since 
1914. Term 1 year. Born 1869 
in Russia. Came to U. S. 
1895. Received general 
Jewish education. Clothing: 
173 Canal St. Res.: 23 E. 
124th St. 

Con?. Beth Hamidrash 
Sha'arei Zion, 798 Tremont 
Ave. Orthodox. English Ser- 
mon. Org. 1916. Member- 
ship: 150. Seating capacity: 
110. Hebrew School, Sister- 
hood. Pres., Julius G. Feit, 
785 Tremont Ave. Sec'y, I. 
M. Brody, 7'46 E. 181st St. 
Rabbi, Dr. J. Kaplan, 856 E. 
178th St. 

Feit, Julius G., Pres. Cong. 
Beth Hamidrash Sha'arei 
Zion (798 Tremont Ave.), 
since 1916. Term 1 year. 
Born 1880 in Austria. Came 
to U. S. 1900. Received gen- 
eral and secular education. 
Mfgr. Cloaks and Suits, 35- 
37 E. 20th St. Res.: 785 Tre- 
mont Ave. 

Chevrah Beth Hamidrash She'- 
arlth Israel, 120 Columbia 
St. Org. 1906. Membership: 
80. Seating capacity: 400. 
Hebrew School, Cemetery. 
Pres., Louis Frand, 319 
Stanton St. Sec'y, Joseph 
Fish, 295 Rivington St. 
Rabbi, M. Gottlieb, 120 Co- 
lumbia St. 



CONGREGATIONS 



173 



Fraud, Louis, Pres. Chevrah 
Beth Hamidrash She'arith 
Israel (120 Columbia St.). 
since 1916. Term 6 months. 
Born 1883 in Austria. Came 
to U. S. 1903. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. Res.; 
319 Stanton St. 

Chevrah Beth HiUel, 295 

Henry St. Orthodox. Org. 
19 13. Membership: 5 4. 
Seating capacity: 100. Sick 
Benefit, Insurance, Free 
Loan, Bikur Cholim, Ceme- 
tery. Pres. Morris Abra- 
hamson, 330 Cherry St. 
Sec'y, Jacob Dondes, 176 
Monroe St. 

Abrahamson, Morris, Pres. 
Chevrah Beth, Hillel (295 
Henry St.), since 1914. 
Term 1 year. Born 1865 in 
Russia. Came to U. S. 1902. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Grocer. Res.: 
330 Cherry St. 

Coug. Beth Israel, 252 W. 35th 
St. Orthodox. Org. 1885. 
Seating capacity: 6 0. 
Cemetery. Pres., Philip 
Liebman. Sec'y, Samuel L. 
Leithol. 



Coug. Beth Israel A u s h e i 
Galicia aud Bukawina, 3866 
Park Ave. Orthodox. Org. 
1911. Membership: 75. Seat- 
ing capacity: 500. Hebrew 
School, Ladies' Auxiliary, 
Bikur Cholim, Cemetery. 
Pres., B. Rauch, 1340 Brook 
Ave. Sec'y, G. Feldhammer, 
1341 Brook Ave. 



Chevrah Beth Israel Anshel 
Hlusk, 32 Rutgers St. Or- 
thodox. Org. 1906. Mem- 
bership: 115. Seating capa- 
city: 225. Sick Benefit, In- 
surance, Cemetery, Study. 
Pres., Harry Klein, 221 Clin- 
ton St. Sec'y, B. Schapiro, 
121 Orchard St. 
Kleiu, Harry, Pres. Chevrah 
Beth Israel Anshei Hlusk 
(32 Rutgers St.), since 1916. 
Term 6 months. Born 1879 
in Russia. Came to U. S. 
1898. Received general Jew- 
ish education. Operator. 
Res.: 221 Clinton St. 

Cons. Beth Jacob of Harlem, 

77 E. 107th St. Orthodox. 
Org. 1895. Membership: 15. 
Seating capacity: 100. Ceme- 
tery. Pres., Abraham Neb- 
enzahl, 35 W. 111th St. Sec'y, 
Max Levine, 34 W. 116th St. 
Nebenzalil, Abraham, Pres. 
Cong. Beth Jacob of Harlem 
(77 E. 107th St), since 1914. 
Term 6 months. Born 1857 
in Austria. Came to U. S. 
1879. Received general Jew- 
ish education. Res.: 35 W. 
111th St. 

Beth Jo.seph Anshei Rachfal- 
ovsky, 9 Rutgers PI. Ortho- 
dox. Org. 1905. Member- 
ship: 80. Seating capacity: 
100. Insurance, Bikur 
Cholim, Free Loan, Sick 
Benefit, Cemetery. Pres., 
Baruch Jagur, 260 Cherry 
St. Sec'y, M. Friedland, 245 
Henry St. 

Jag^ur, Barueh, Pres. Beth 
Joseph Anshei Rachfalovsky 



174 



COM M U N A L HKU ISTEK 



(9 Rutgers PI), since 1917 
Term 6 months. Born 1881 
In Russia. Came to U. S 
1913. Received general Jew- 
ish education "Res ■ 3fio 
Cherry St. 

< «ng. Bethlehem Judah B'nai 
Resitze, 98 Forsyth St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1895. Mem- 
bership: 120. Seating capa- 
«;ity: 150. Sick Benefit, In- 
surance, Free Loan, Ceme- 
tery. Pres., Samuel Rubin. 
221 Tompkins Ave., B'klyn. 
Sec'y, 1. Naishall, 202 Brook 
Ave. 

RubjLn. Samuel, Pres. Cong. 
Bethlehem Judah B'nai 
Resitze (98 Forsyth St.). 
since 1915. Term 1 year. 
Born 1887 in Russia. Came 
to U. S. 1900. Received gen- 
eral Jewish and secular 
education. Mfgr. garters: 
474 B'way. Res.: 221 Tomp- 
kins Ave., B'klyn. 

Cone, of Talmud Torah Beth 
Machseh L'y^somim Anshei 
Zitomir, 341 E. 4th St. Or- 
thodox. Org. 1912. Mem- 
bership: 450. Seating ca- 
pacity: 450. Hebrew school. 
Pres., Max Meyerson, 230 
W. Kenney St., Newark, N. 
•J. Sec'y, Joseph Wittles, 
171 E. 2nd St. Rabbi, David 
Saslowsky, 324 B. 15th St. 

Blkesh Sholom Anshel Os> 
trova, 32 Orchard St. Or- 
thodox. Org. 1900. Mem- 
bership: 100. Seating ca^ 
pacity: 100. Sick Benefit, 
Cemetery. Pres., Mr. 



Becker, 70 Forsyth St 
Sec'y, Max Glersfeld, 656 
Metropolitan Ave., B'klyn. 
Becker, Pres. Bikesh Sho- 
lom Anshei Ostrova (32 
Orchard St.), since 1914. 
Term 6 months. Born I860 
in Russia. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. Res.: 
70 Forsyth St. 

Chevrah Blkur Chollm Anshei 
Belehtow, 1344 Bristow St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1914. Mem- 
bership: 40. Seating capa- 
city: 120. Bikur Cholim. 
Study. Pres., Mendel Win- 
gleinsky, 1045 Hoe Ave. 
Sec'y, L. Bernstein, 907 Tin- 
ton Ave. 

Wingleinsky, Mendel, Pres 
Chevrah Bikur Cholim 
Anshei Belehtow (1344 Bris- 
tow St.), since 1916. Term 
6 months. Born 1865 in 
Russia. Came to U. S. 1897. 
Received general education. 
Trimmings: 56 W. 24th St. 
Res.: 1045 Hoe Ave. 

Bikur Cholim Anshei Blalla- 
tok, 246 E. B'way, Conser- 
V a t i V e . Organized 1897. 
Pres., Joseph Lipnik, 64 
E. 94th St. Sec'y, D. L. 
Rubinstein, 40 W. 117th St. 

Cons. Bikur Choilm Anshei 
Zormin, 66 Columbia St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1892. Mem- 
bership: 62. Seating capa- 
city: 140. Sick Benefit, Free 
Loan, Bikur Cholim, Ceme- 
tery. Pres., Meyer Green^ 
berg, 52 Cannon St. Sec'y. 
Joseph Rosens tein. 308 
Henry St 



OONORBtiATlONS 



175 



GreenberMT, Meyer, Pres 
(^ong-. Bikur Cholim Anshel 
Zormin (66 Columbia St.). 
sleeted 1917. Terra 6 months 
Born 1865 in Russia. Came 
to U. S. 1885. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. Res. : 
52 Cannon St. 



<'hevrah Blkur Chullm B'nal 
Israel Anshel BaranoTf, 630 

E. 5th St. Orthodox. Mem- 
bership: 115. Seating capa- 
city: 250. Bikur Cholim. 
Cemetery. Pres., Morris 
Kerber, 624 E. 9th St. Sec'y, 
Elias Friedman, 340 K. 4th 
St. 

Kerber, Morris, Pres. Chev- 
rah Bikur Cholim B'nal 
Israel Anshei Baranow (630 
E. 5th St.), since. 1916. Term 
6 months. Born 1874 in 
Austria. Came to U. S. 1892. 
Received general Jewish 
and secular education. Res. : 
62'4 E. 9th St. 



C'hevrah Blkur C'holiiu U'Bruni^ 
Anshei S'phard, 780 Union 
Ave. Orthodox. Org. 1917. 
Membership: 20. Seating 
capacity: .120. Bikur Cholim. 
Pres., Jacob W. Sussman. 
765 Jackson Ave. Sec'y, 
Isaac Blau, 807 E. 152nd St. 
Sussman, Jacob "W., Pres. 
Chevrah Bikur Cholim 
D'Bronx Anshei S'phard (780 
Union Ave.), since 1916. 
Term 1 year. Bern 1872 in 
Austria. Received general 
Jewish education. Carpen- 
ter Res.: 765 Jackson Ave 



Bikur Cholim liluath Uazedek 
First Chevrah, 263 Riving- 
ton St. Orthodox. Org. 1892 
Membership: 47. Seating 
iiapacity: 40. Cemetery 
Pres., A. Knoller, 323 B. 10th 
St. Sec'y, Boroch Mehler, 91 
Columbia St. 

Knoller, A., Pres. Bikur 
Cholim Linath H a z e d e k 
First Chevrah (263 Riving^ 
ton St.), since 1912. Term 6 
months. Born 1871 in Aus- 
tria. Came to U. S. 1894 
Received general Jewish 
education. Tailor. Res.: 323 
E. lOtb St. 

niaajlver Chevrah Degel Mach- 
nei E^phraim, 117 Lewis St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1893. Mem- 
bership: 70. Seating capa- 
city: 300. Cemetery. Pres., 
Jacob Gottlieb, 382 E. 3rd 
St. Sec'y, Nathan Landes- 
man, 100 Pitt St. 
Gottlieb, Jacob, Pres. Blazi- 
ver Chevrah Degel Mach- 
nel Ephraim (117 Lewis 
St.); elected 1917. Term 6 
months. Born 1874 in Aus- 
tria. Came to U. S. 1895 
Received general Jewish 
education. Cloaks: 337 Stan- 
ton St. Res.: 382 E. 3rd St. 

Chevrah B'nal Aaron Anshei 
Vilkomir, 26 Orchard St 
Orthodox. Org. 1888. Mem- 
bership: 60. Seating capa- 
city: 100. Sick benefit. 
Cemetery. Pres., I. Bulk, 536 
B. 13th St. Sec'y, Charles 
Ziff, 1571 Lexington Ave 
Rabbi, Samuel Ginsberg, 471 
Barbey St.. B'klyn 



176 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



Bulk, I., Pres., C h e v r a h 
B'nal Aaron Anshei Vilko- 
mir (26 Orchard St.), since 
1913. Term 1 year. Born 
1867 In Russia. Received 
g-eneral Jewish education. 
Res.; 536 E. 13th St. 

Chevrah B'nai Aaron Solo- 
mon Anshei T'hillim, K. U. 
V. Mij^ovrove, 197 Henry 
St. Orthodox. Org. 1898. 
Membership: 100. Seating 
capacity: 100. Free Loan, 
Insurance, Cemetery, Pres., 
Joseph Burstein, 413 Cherry 
St. Sec'y, Ab. Schlazer, 592 
Stone Ave., B'klyn. 
Burstein, Joseph, Pres. 
Chevrah B'nai Aaron Solo- 
mon Anshei T'hillim, K. U. 
V. Migovrove (197 Henry 
St.), since 1917. Term 6 
months. Born 1877 in Rus- 
■ sia. Came to U. S. 1909. Re- 
ceived general Jewish edu- 
cation. Operator. Res.: 413 
Cherry St. 

Cong. B'ual Abraham Alter, 

268 E. 78th St. Orthodox. 
Org. 1914. Membership: 78. 
Seating capacity: 265. La- 
dies' Auxiliary, Cemetery. 
Pres., Herman Schwartz, 
1504 1st Ave. Sec'y, Adolf 
Rosenfeld, 404 E. 74th St. 

Chevrah B'nai Abraham Anshei 
Oretshe, 15 Ludlow St. Or- 
thodox. Org. 1898. Mem- 
bership: 30. Seating capac- 
ity: 90. Free Loan, Ceme- 
tery. Pres., Jonah Dale- 
shinsky, 58 Henry St. Sec'y, 
Abraham I. Lazinsky, 161 
Madison St. 



Daleshinslcy, Jonah, Pres. 
Chevrah B'nai Abraham 
Anshei Oretshe (15 Ludlow 
St.), since 1914. Term 6 
months. Born 1885 in Rus- 
sia. Came to U. S. 1910. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Salesman. Res.: 
58 Henry St. 

Chevrah B'nai Abraham Bilcur 
Cholim of Harlem, 80 E. 
110th St. Orthodox. Mem- 
bership: 15. Seating capac- 
ity: 150. Study. Pres., 
Harry Efras, 101 E. 108th 
St. Sec'y, Mr. Borenstein. 
Efras, Harry, Pres. Chevrah 
B'nai Abraham Bikur Cho- 
lim of Harlem (80 E. 110th 
St.), elected 1917. Term 6 
months. Born 1873 in Rus- 
sia. Came to U. S. 1902. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Butcher. Res.: 
101 E. 108th St. 

Chevrah B'nai Abraham Sam- 
uel, 240 Madison st. Ortho- 
dox. Membership: 120. Seat- 
ing capacity: 200. Sick Ben- 
efit, Insurance, Cemetery. 
Pres., B. Kaplan. Sec'y, I. 
Cohen, 188 Madison St. 

Chevrah B'nai Abraham Sam- 
uel Anshei Ashisker, 28 Pike 
St. Orthodox. Org. 1891. 
Membership: 160. Seating 
capacity: 225. Sick Benefit, 
Insurance, Free Loan, Cem- 
etery, Study. Pres., Max 
FInebarg, 32 W. 111th St. 
Sec'y, Israel Cohen, 188 
Madison St. 

Finebarg, Max. Pres. Chev- 
rah B'nai Abraham Samuel 
Anshei Ashisker (28 Pike 
St.), since 1916. Term 1 



CONGREGATIONS 



177 



year. Born 1878 In Russia. 
Came to U. S. 1893. Received 
general Jewish education. 
Paper boxes: 93 Mercer St. 
Res.: 32 W. 111th St. 

Chevrah B'nai Adam, 100 W. 

116th St. Orthodox. Org. 
1860. Membership: 92. 
Seating capacity: 250. Sick 
Benefit, Cemetery. Pres., 
Solomon Phillips, 62 W. 
115th St. Sec'y, Henry 
Kronbach. 

Philips Soiomon, Pres. Chev- 
rah B'nai Adam (100 W. 
116th St.), since 1907. Term 
1 year. Born 1855 in Russia. 
Came to U. S. 1875. Received 
general Jewish education. 
Clothing: 712 B'way. Res.: 
62 W. 115th St. 



Cl»evrah B'nai Aryei AnsJiel 
Krasnopole, 260 Madison St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1883. Seat- 
ing capacity: 130. Ceme- 
tery. Pres., Meyer Levy, 327 
Madison St. Sec'y, Zelig 
Vartelsky, 253 Madison St. 

Levy. Meyer, Pres. Chevrah 
B'nai Aryei Anshei Kras- 
nopole (260 Madison St.), 
since 1916. Term 6 months. 
Born 1864 In Russia. Came 
to U. S. 1904. Received gen- 
eral Jewish and secular edu- 
cation. Res.: 327 Madison 
St. 



Chevralt B'nai Aryei Jndnh. 

436 E. Houston St. Ortho- 
ship: 48. Seating capacity: 
dox. Org. 1912. Member- 



120. Cemetery. Pres., Sam 
Schuchmacher, 100 Goerck 
St. Sec'y, Nathan Mandel, 
61 Columbia St. 

Scliuclunaclier, Sam, Pres. 
Chevrah B'nai Aryei Judah 
(436 E. Houston St.), since 
1917. Term 6 months. Born 
1887 In Russia. Came to 
U. S. 1912. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. 
Operator. Res.: 100 Goerck 
St. 

Cong. B*nal BenJ. Moses An- 
shei Bolechow, 328 E. Hous- 
ton St. Orthodox. Org. 1906. 
Membership: 25. Seating 
capacity: 150. Cemetery. 
Pres., Leiser Glatt, 734 E. 
9th St. Sec'y, G. Borkan, 
117 Ludlow St. 

Cons. B'nai David Anshei 
Charshel and Yanova, 96 

Clinton St. Orthodox. Org. 
1894. Membership: 63. Seat- 
ing capacity: 250. Insur- 
ance, Free Loan, Cemetery. 
Pres., Abraham Israel, 6'4 
Suffolk St. Sec'y, Israel 
Molasky, 31 W. 114th St. 

Israel. Abraham, Pres. Cong. 
B'nai David Anshei Char- 
shel and Yanova (96 Clinton 
St.); elected 1917. Term 6 
months. Born 1855 in Rus- 
sia. Came to U. S. 1882. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Res.: 64 Suffolk 
St. 

Chevrah B'nai Elieaser, 1973 
2nd Ave. Orthodox. Org. 
1904. Membership: 36. Seat- 



»78 



(>OMMUNAJL RBGISTBB 



inij capacity; 265. Cemetery. 
Pres., Louis Vnger, 1266 1st 
Ave. Sec'y, I. Grossman, 
1977 2nd Ave. 

linger, Louis, Pres. Chevrah 
B'nai Eliezer (1973 Second 
We.), elected 1917. Term 6 
months. Born Jn Hung-ary. 
Received general J ^• vr i s h 
education. Shoe storf. Ros : 
1266 1st Ave. 

<^hevrah B'nai JOlieaer Moshe. 

511 E. 139th St. Orthodox 
Org. 1913. ]Vlembershlp: 30. 
Seating capacity: 80. Ceme- 
tery. SevVy, Mr. Roth, 470 
E. 141st St., N. Y. C. 

Chevrah B'nai Hu.slivotiin Au- 
sliei jVovogforod, 86 Forsyth 
St. Orthodox. Org. 190fi. 
Membership: 110. Seating 
capacity: 360. Sick Benefit, 
Insurance, Free Loan. Pres., 
Jacob Levy, 478 Sackman 
St., B'klyn. Sec'y, J. Spec- 
tor, 303 Broome St. 
Levy, Jacob, Pres. Chevrah 
B'nai Hashvotim Anshei 
Novgorod (86 Forsyth St.). 
since 1916. Term 6 months. 
Born 1869 in Russia. Came 
to U. S. 1891. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. 
Tailor. Res.: 478 Sackman 
St., B'klyn. 

Cong. B'nai Isaac A u s 2t e i 
Lechowitz, 93 Hester St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1892. Mem.- 
bership: 110. Seating capa- 
city: 300. Sick Benelit, In- 
surance, Free Loan, Ceme- 
tery, Study. Pres., Barneti 
Brody, iS Hoccart St , B'klyn 



Sec'y, Mori Is Zabalotsky. 
210 Madison St. 
Brody, Barnett, Pres. Cong 
B'nai Isaac Anshei Lecho- 
witz (93 Hester St.), since 
1916. Term 1 year. Born 
1.875 in Russia. Came to 
U. S. 1892. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. Re- 
tired. Res,: 48 Bo.gart Si 
B'klyn. 

<lieTrah B'nai Isaac Anshei 
Xariov, 237 Rivington St 
Orthodox. Org. 1895. Mem- 
bership: 80. Seating capac- 
ity: 150. Sick Benefit, Cem- 
etery. Pres., Max Schreizan, 
66 Cannon St. Sec'y, Oscar 
Boun, 265 E. B'way. 
Sclireizan, 3Iax, Pres. Chev- 
rah B'nai Isaac A n s h e S 
Nariov (237 Rivington St.); 
elected 1917. Term 6 months. 
Born 1846 in Austria. Came 
to U. S. 1898. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education 
Baker: 100 Ave. C. Res.: 60 
Cannon St 

< he^'rali B'ssial iMrael, 293 JE 

Srd St. Orthodox. Org. 1914 
Membership: 350. Seating 
capacity: 120. Hebrew 
School, Free Loan, Bikur 
Cholim, Cemetery. Pres . 
Henry J. Satran, 460 Grand 
St. Sec'y, H. Koenigberg 
254 E. 7th St. Rabbi, IsraeJ 
Hager, 293 E. 3rd St 
Satran, Henry J., Prea 
Chevrah B'nai Israel (293 E 
3rd St.), since 1915. Born 
1889 in Austria. Received 
high school educatioxi 
Metal dealer: 214 B. 5tVi St 
R<»8. : 460 Grand St 



GOMGRBiJATlONS 



179 



< uuK. B'uai israei, 53& W 

I 4 8 t h St. Conservative, 
E3ns:lish Sermon. Orjr. 1916 
Membership: 160. Seating 
capacity: 100. Hebrew 
School, Sisterhood, Young- 
Folks* League. Pres., Jacob 
A.dler, 601 W. 151st St. 
Sec'y, H. J. Reit, 3671 B'way. 
Rabbi, Isadore Relchert. 525 
W. 148th St. 

B'nai Israel, 225 E. 79th St. 
Orthodox. Org-. 1837. Mem- 
bership: 20. Seating capac- 
ity: 170. Cemetery. Pres:. 
Jacob Kahn, 1182 Jackson 
Ave. Sec'y, Rev. Dr. J. C. 
Noot, 1022 Trinity Ave. 
Kahn, Jacob, Pres. B'lial 
Israel (225 E. 79th St.). 
since 1877. Term 1 year. 
Born 1828 in Holland. Re- 
ceived general Jewish edu- 
cation. Retired. Res.: 1182 
Jackson Ave. 

Talmud Torah B'nai Israel, 

456 E. 166th St. Orthodox. 
Org-. 1916. Membership: 75. 
Seating capacity: 150. He- 
brew School, Study. Pres., 
J. Warschaw, 496 E. 166fh 
St. Sec'y, S. Reiman, 108S 
Washington Ave. 
i;VarshaTr, J., Pres. Talmud 
Torah B'nai Israel (456 E. 
I66th St.); elected 1917. 
Term 1 year. Born 1865 in 
Russia. Came to U. S. 1902. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Painters' sup- 
plies. Res.: 496 E. 166th St 

u*nal Israel Anshel Fordham. 

2294 Arthur .Ave Orthodr.n 



Org. 1912. Membership: 80 
Seating capacity: 150. He- 
brew School. Pres., Sam 
Meyerson, 2183 Washington 
Ave. Sec'y, L. Peller, 225» 
Bassford Ave« 

Meyerson, Sam, Pres. B'nai 
[srael Anshei F o r d h a in 
(2294 Arthur Ave.), since 
1915. Term 1 year. Born 
1886 in Russia. Received 
general Jewish education. 
Res.: 2183 Washington Ave. 

Cungr. B-nai Israel Anshel Kal- 
d©u, 87 B. B'way. Org. 1886. 
Membership: 54. Seating ca- 
pacity: 130. Cemetery. Pres., 
Abraham Meryas, 778 Pros- 
pect Ave. Sec'y, Mr. Glad- 
stein. 

Meryas, Abraham, Pres. 
Cong. B'nai Israel Anshei 
Kaidon (87 B. B'way), since 
1914. Term 6 months. Born 
1860 in Russia. Came to 
U. S. 1S83. Received general 
Jewish education. Retired. 
Res.: 778 Prospect Ave. 

Chevrah B'nai Israel Anshei 
Lamxitse B. A., 225 Clinton 
St. Orthodox. Org. 1910. Mem^ 
bershlp: 100. Seating capa 
city: 130. Free Loan, Ceme- 
tery, Study. Pres., Jeremiah 
Felgenbaum, 14 Forsyth St 
Sec'y, Morris Cohen. 276 
Madison St. Rabbi, WoK 
Rosenberg, 276 Madison St. 
Fci^enban in, Joremiak. 
Pres. Chevrah B'nai Israel 
Anshei Lamzitze B. A. (225 
Clinton St.); elected 1917 
Term 6 months. Born lS5r. 
In Lomz*} Cam*- to U S 



180 



communaij register 



1900. Received general Jew- 
ish education. Restaurant. 
Res.: 14 Forsyth St. 

Cons. B'nal Israel A n s h e 1 
Plontnitza, 15 Ludlow St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1893. Mem- 
bership: 65. Seating capa- 
city: 130. Free Loan, Ceme- 
tery. Pres., Philip Willet, 
22 Ludlow St. Sec'y, Solo- 
mon Weinstein, 47 Orchard 
St. 

Willet, Philip, Pres. Cong. 
B'nai Israel Anshei Plont- 
nitza (15 Ludlow St.), since 
1916. Term 6 months. Born 
1881 in Russia. Came to U. 
S. 1910. 22 Ludlow St. 

Chevrah B'nai Israel Anshei 
S'phard, 522 E. 137 th St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1913. Mem- 
bership: 40. Seating capac- 
ity: 250. Pres., Asher Birn- 
baum, 522 E. 137th St. Sec'y, 
Mr. Krongold, 504 E. 138th 
St. 

Cons. B'nai Israel Anshei 
Zurow Galicia, 73 Ridge St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1896. In- 
surance. Cemetery. Pres., 
Samuel SafEer, 352 Livonia 
Ave., B'klyn. Sec'y, Isidor 
Goldberg, 12 Cannon St. 
Safler, Samuel, Pres. Cong. 
B'nai Israel Anshei Zurow 
Galicia (73 Ridge St.); 
elected 1917. Term 6 months. 
Born 1877 in Austria. Came 
to U. S. 1896. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. Res.: 
352 Livonia Ave., B'klyn. 

B'nai Israel D'Broux, 777 E. 

178th St. Orthodox. Eng- 



lish Sermon. Org. 1915. 
Membership: 60. Seating 
capacity: 400. Hebrew 
School, Sisterhood, Young 
Folks' League. Pres., Her- 
man Berkowitz, 1956 Croto- 
na P'kway. Sec'y, B. Singer, 
1975 Prospect Ave. 
Berlcowitz, Herman, Pres. 
B'nai Israel D'Bronx (777 E. 
178th St.), since 1915. Term 
1 year. Born 1859 in Hun- 
gary. Came to U. S. 1881. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Real estate. Res.: 
1956 Crotona P'kway. 

Chevrah Kadisha B'nai Israel, 
Kalvarier Cong., 13 Pike St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1862. Mem- 
bership: 200. Seating capa- 
city: 1000. Life Insurance, 
Sunday School, Cemetery, 
Study. Pres., Hyman 
Sklamberg, 1809 7th Ave. 
Sec'y, Hyman Bursky, 155 
2nd Ave. Rabbi, Moses 
Skinder, 135 Henry St. 
(Branch, 107 W. 116th St.) 
SlcIambersT* Hyman, Pres. 
Chevrah Kadisha B'nai Is- 
rael, Kalvarier Cong. (13 
Pike St.), since 1907. Term 
1 year. Born 1865 In Rus- 
sia. Received general Jew- 
ish education. Grocer: 71 
Ludlow St. Res.: 1809 7th 
Ave. 

ConjBT. B'nai Israel Salanter 
Anshei Zamnt, 159 E. 118th 
St. Orthodox. Org. 1883. 
Membership: 70. Seating 
capacity: 500. Sisterhood, 
Cemetery, Study. Pres., 
Ezekiel Bernstein, 19 E. 



CONGREGATIONS 



181 



108th St. Sec'y, Louis Adel- 
man, 18 E. 109th St. Rabbi, 
Abraham" A. Saffran, 20" E. 
109th St. 

Bernstein, E « e k 1 e 1, Pres. 
Cong. B'nai Israel Salanter 
Anshei Zamut (159 E. 118th 
St.), since 1916. Term 1 
year. Born 1867 in Russia. 
Came to U. S. 1886. Received 
general Jewish education. 
Butcher: 89 E. 109th St. 
Res.: 19 E. 108th St. 

Cons. B'nal Jacob, 1712 Gar- 
field St. Orthodox. Yiddish 
and English Sermon. Org. 
1895. Membership: 50. Seat- 
ing? capacity: 450. Hebrew 
School, Ladies' Aid Society, 
Cemetery, Study. Pres.: 
Ellas Candel, 1718 Victor St. 
Sec'y, Joseph Eichel, 1730 
Matthews Ave. 
Candel, Ellas, Pres. Cong. 
B'nai Jacob (1712 Garfield 
St.); elected 1917. Term 6 
months. Born 1865 in Rou- 
manla. Came to U. S. 1892. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Tailor: 17 E. 48th 
St. Res.: 1718 Victor St. 

Cone. B'nai Jacob A n » b e 1 
Brzezan, 180 Stanton St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1892. Mem- 
bership: 135. Seating capa- 
city: 400. Ladies' Auxiliary, 
Cemetery. Pres., Harris 
Tunis, 207 Clinton St. Sec'y, 
Samuel Kluman, 69 E. 3rd 
St. Rabbi, Leib Rose, 153 
Suffolk St. 

Tunis, Harrl.*, Pres. Cong. 
B'nai Jacob Anshei Brzezan 
(180 Stanton St.), since 1913. 



Term 6 months. Born 1868 in 
Austria. Came to U. S. 1897. 
Received general Jewish 
and secular education. Busi- 
ness broker. Res.: 207 Clin- 
ton St. 

B'nai Jacob Anshei Cheehon- 
owze, 96 Clinton St. Ortho- 
dox. Org. 1892. Member- 
ship: 100. Seating capacity: 
20. Sick Benefit, Insurance, 
Cemetery. Pres., Abraham 
Levlne, 306 Madison St. 
Sec'y. H. Selgel, 422 St. 
Pauls PI. 

licvine, Abraham, Pres. B'nai 
Jacob Anshei Chechonowze 
(96 Clinton St.); elected 
1917. Term 1 year. Born 
1856 in Russia. Came to 
U. S. 1899. Res.: 306 Madi- 
son St. 

Chevrah B'nai Jacob Anshei 
Shatzk, 71 Monroe St. Or- 
thodox. Org. 1905. Mem- 
bership: 50. Seating capa- 
city: 100. Free Loan, Blkuf 
Chollm. Cemetery, Study. 
Pres., Asher Margolls, 17 
Rutgers PI. Sec'y, A. Rosen, 
1620 Madison Ave. 
Margolls, Asher, Pres. Chev- 
rah B'nai Jacob Anshei 
Shatzk (71 Monroe St.), 
since 1916. Term 6 months. 
Born 1906 In Russia. Came 
to U. S. 1852. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. Res.: 
17 Rutgers PI. 

B'nai Jacob David Anshei 
Vi^lshoe-rad, 175 Eldridge St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1890. Mem- 
bership: 70. Cemetery. 
Pres., Max Bzezinsky, 279 



182 



COMMUNAL RBtilSTEB 



E. Srd St. • Sec'y, Morris 
Brenner, 166 So. 2nd St, 
B'klyn. 

Bzesiiisky, Max, Pres. B'nal 
Jacob David Anshei Wlsh- 
ograd (175 Eldrldge St.); 
elected 1917. Term 6 months 
Born 1864 in Russia. Cam« 
to U. S. 1903. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. Rea.: 
279 E. Srd St. 



Corns. B'nal Jacob Joseph, 4S 

Sheriff St. Orthodox. Org 
1890. Membership: 85. Seat- 
ing capacity: 100. Sick bene- 
fit, Cemeterj^ Study. Pres.. 
Meyer Horn, 224 Linden St., 
B'klyn. Sec'y, Max Algua. 
95 Cannon St. 

Horn, Meyer, Pres. Cong. 
B'nai Jacob Joseph (4» 
Sheriff St.); elected 1917. 
Term 6 months. Born 1870 
In Russia. Came to U. S. 
1885. Received general Jew- 
ish education. Tailor. Res.: 
224 Linden St., B'klyn. 

Cong, B'nai JeshuruA Anahcl 
Kolnl, 21 Hester St. Ortho- 
dox. Org. 1894. Member- 
ship: 68. Seating capacity: 
100. Sick benefit, Insurance, 
Free Loan, Cemetery, Study 
Pres., Isldor Goldman, 261 
So, 9th St., B'klyn. Sec'y, L 
Zlatsltl, 1199 Fulton Ave.. 
B'klyn. 

Goldman, Isldor, Pres. Cong 
B'nal Jeshurun Anshei Kolni 
(21 Hester St.), since 1916- 
Term 1 year. Born 1872 In 
Rusla. Came to U. S. 1905 
Received general Jewish 



and secular education. Res 
261 So. 9th St., B'klyn. 

Cons* B^nai Jo«epli Auahel 
Rymanow, 435 E. Houston 
St. Orthodox. Org. 1900. 
Membership: 105. Seating 
capacity: 200. Free Loan, 
Cemetery, Study. Pres., 
Asher Metzger, 303 Rlvlng- 
ton St. Sec'y, A. Robinson, 
134 Columbia St. 
m/letxger, Asher, Pres. Cong. 
B'nal Joseph Anshei Rym- 
anow (435 E. Houston St.); 
elected 1917. Term 6 months 
Born 1867 In Austria. Cam^ 
to U. S. 1903. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. Res': 
303 Rlvlngton St. 

Chevrah B'nai Joshua Anshei 

Tela, 197 Henry St. Ortho- 
dox. Org. 1897. Member- 
ship: 45. Seating capacity: 
120. Sick Benefit, B I k u r 
Cholim, Cemetery. Pres., 
Hlllel Wolf, 29 Ludlow St 
Sec'y, H. Brunstein, 205 2nd 
Ave. 

Wolf, Hillel, Pres. Chevrah 
B'nai Joshua Anshei Tel« 
(197 Henry St.), since 1916. 
Term 1 year. Born 1872 In 
Russia. Came to U. S. 1905. 
Studied In a Yeshlbah. 
Vests: 153 Chrystie St. Res.; 
i9 Ludlow St. 

<*hcvrah B'nal Kodesh Anahel 
KroB, 9 Essex St. Orthodox. 
Org. 1895. Membership: 40. 
Seating capacity: 55. Ceme- 
tery. Pres., Bernard Brown, 
64 E. B'way. Sec'y. Isaac 
Berkowitz, 73 Monroe St 



nONOitF^ATIONfi 



183 



BrofTn, Beruard) Pres 
Chevrah Bnal Kodesh An 
shei Kros (9 Essex St.) 
since 1915. Term 1 year 

Born 1862 in Russia. Cannt 
to U. S. 1887. Received gen 
eral Jewish education 
Peddler. Res.; 6i E. Bw^y 

run^. B'nai liCry, 941 2nd Ave 

Orthodox. Org. 1906. Mem 
bership: 28. Seating capac 
Ity: 150. Study. Pres., Abra- 
ham Wolf, 303 E, 55th St. 
Sec'y, M. Virshup, 56 Norfolk 
St. 

Wolf, Abraliam, Pres. Cong. 
B'nai Levy (941 2nd Ave.), 
since 1909. Term 1 year. 
Born 1864 in Russia. Came 
to U. S. 1879. Clothing: 21 
W. 4th St. Res.: 302 E 
55th St. 

Clierrah B'nai Menachem, 209 

B. B'way. Orthodox. Mem- 
bership: 90. Seating capac- 
ity: 120. Org. 1892. Sick 
Benefit, Free Loan, Ceme- 
tery. Pres., Philip Kaplan. 
218 Henry St. Sec'y, A. 
Weinstein, 36 Attorney St. 
Kaplan, Philip, Pres. Chevrah 
B'nai Menachem (209 E 
B'way); elected 1917. Term 
6 months. Born 1872 in 
Russia. Came to U. S. 1892 
Received general Jewish 
education. Tailor: 84 Mar- 
ket St. Res.: 218 Henry St 

Con^. B'nai Mordecal Mo8^» 
Z'Ti, 126 Lewis St. Orthodox 
Org. 1895. Membership: 198 
Seating capacity: 500. Bikur 
Chollm, Cemetery. Prea.. 
Morris (Tltt»irman. 473 E 



Houston St. Sec'y, Henrf 
Toung. 130 Goerck St. Rab 
bl, Philip Karper, 57 Lewis 
St. 

Gittenuan, Morris, Fre^ 
Cong, B'nai Mordecai Moses 
Z'vi (126 Lewis St.); elected 
1917. Term 6 months. Born 
1882 in Hungary. Came to 
U. S. 1899. Received Jewish 
education in Y e s h i b a h 
Tailor. Res.: 473 E. Hous- 
ton St. 



< ong. B'nai Moses A n s h e I 
Jendzivo, 240 Madison St. 
Orthodox, Org. 1900. Mem- 
bership: 80. Seating capa- 
city: 230. Sick Benefit, Free 
Loan, Cemetery, Study 
Pres., Abraham Goldberg, 22 
Ludlow St. Sec'y, J. L. Sha- 
vln, 184 Monroe St. 
Goldberg, Abraham, Pres. 
Cong. B'nai Moses Anshei 
Jendzivo (240 Madison St.). 
since 1911. Term 6 months 
Born 1879 in Russia. Cam^- 
ro U. S. 1900. Received 
thorough Jewish education 
Butcher: 22 Ludlow St Rp? . 
29 Ludlow St. 

C ong. B'nai Montet; Chassldef 
Kobrin, 27 Ludlow St. Or- 
thodox. Org. 1905, Mem- 
bership: 35. Seating capac 
ity: 50, Sick Benefit. Free 
Loan, Cemetery, Study 
Pres., Aaron Simon, 17 Bay- 
ard St. Sec'y, Moses J. 
Kaplan, 11 Pike St. 
Slmou, Aaron, Pres. Cong 
B'nat Mosea Chasstd^l Kob- 
rtn r27 Lii'Jl<>w S't ). slncr 



184 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



1914. Term 1 year. Born 
1866 In Russia. Came to 
U. S. 1897. Received gen- 
eral education. Clothing. 
Res.: 17 Bayard St. 

Congr. B'nal Moses Joseph An- 
shel Zasmcr and Zavlehast, 

102 Lewis St. Orthodox. 
Org. 1900. Membership: 80. 
Seating- capacity: 300. Cem- 
etery. Pres., Charles Val- 
lerstein, 14 Ave. D. Sec'y, 
Abraham Hochbaum, 119 
Cannon St. 

Vallersteln, Charles, Pres. 
Cong. B'nal Moses Joseph 
Anshel Zasmer and Zavle- 
hast (102 Lewis St.), since 

1915. Term 6 months. Born 
1861 In Russia. Came to 
U. S. 1894. Received general 
Jewish education. Res.: 14 
Ave. D. 

B'nal Plschel T'shuah Anshel 
Anikst, 136 Henry St. Or- 
thodox. Org. 1890. Mem- 
bership: 110. Seating capa- 
city: 300. Free Loan, Ceme- 
tery, Study. Pres., Hyman 
Cohen, 22 Ludlow St. Sec'y, 
Max Perlstein, 2 Clinton St. 
Rabbi, Hyman Rablnowitz, 
140 Henry St. 

Congr. B'nal Rabbi Aryel Anshel 
$trell.<sk, 48 Willett St. Or- 
thodox. Org. 1900. Mem- 
bership: 70. Seating capa- 
city: 150. Cemetery. Pres., 
Nathan Weiss, 147 Forsyth 
St. Sec'y, Hirsh Roher, 118 
Attorney St. 

Wels.s, Nathan, Pres. Cong. 
B'nal Rabbi Aryei Anshel 
Strelllsk ('48 Willett St.), 



since 1916. Term 6 months. 
Born 1880 in Austria. Came 
to U. S. 1905. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. Res- 
taurant. Res.: 147 Forsyth 
St. 

Cong. B'nal Rabbi Zlndel An- 
shel Pultinsk, 119 Norfolk 
St. Orthodox. Org. 1903. 
Membership: 43. Seating 
capacity: 80. Sick Benefit, 
Free Loan, Cemetery. Pres., 
Louis Vlasky, 27 Ridge St. 
Sec'y, L. Schomskin, 1517 
Charles St., B'klyn. 
Vlasky, Lonls, Pres. Cong. 
B'nal Rabbi Zindel Anshel 
Pultinsk (119 Norfolk St.); 
elected 1917. Term 6 months. 
Born 1867 in Russia. Came 
to U. S. 1901. Received 
general Jewish education. 
Building contractor. Res.: 
27 Ridge St. 

Cons'. B'nal Rappaport Anshel 
Dombrowa, 207 B. 7th St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1888. Mem- 
bership: 200. Seating ca- 
pacity: 500. Cemetery. 
Pres., Morris Ravner, 14 W. 
119th St. Sec'y, B. Gross, 
245 E. 7th St. 

Cong. B'nal Samuel LeTcnson, 

81 Columbia St. Orthodox. 
Org. 1913. Membership: 26. 
Seating capacity: 100. Bikur 
Chollm, Cemetery. Pres., L. 
Rodkop, 95 Cannon St. Sec'y, 
S. Levenson, 62 Cannon St. 
Rodkop, li., Pres. Cong, 
B'nal Samuel Levenson (81 
Columbia St.), since 1916. 
Term 6 months. Born 1881 
In Austria. Came to U. S. 



CONGREGATIONS 



185 



1898. Received general Jew- 
ish and secular education. 
Clothing: 51 Pike St. Res.: 
95 Cannon St. 

B'nai Sholom, 261 E. 4th St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1888. Mem- 
bership: 8. Seating capacity: 
100. Pres., Moses Mayer, 
294 W. 12th St. Sec'y, Fer- 
dinand Weinberg, 214 E. 4th 
St. 

Mayer, Jlloses, Pres. B'nai 
Sholom (261 E. 4th St.), 
since 1912. Born 1846 in 
Germany. Came to U. S. 
1866. Received general Jew- 
ish and secular education. 
Res.: 294 W. 12th St. 

B'nai Simon Solomon, 203 Di- 
vision St. Orthodox. Org. 
1916. Membership: 40. Seat- 
ing capacity: 35. Cemetery. 
Pres., Gedaliah Grossman, 
95 Monroe St. Sec'y, Joseph 
Green, 53 Norfolk St. 
Grossman, Gedaliah, Pres. 
B'nai Simon Solomon (203 
Division St.), since 1916. 
Term 6 months. Born 1865 
in Russia. Came to U. S. 
'1912. Received general Jew- 
ish education. Res.: 95 
Monroe St. 

Clievrah B'nai Siraler, 162 

Madison St. Orthodox. Org. 
1815. Membership: 72. Seat- 
ing capacity: 120. Ceme- 
tery. Pres., Isaac Glick, 27 
Ludlow St. 

Gliclc, Isaac, Pres. Chevrah 
B'nai Siraier (162 Madison 
St.), since 1916. Term 6 
months. Born 1857 in Rus- 



sia. Came to U. S. 1897. 
Res.: 27 Ludlow St. 

CSievrali B'nai Solomon Anslici 
Zaimel, 22 W. 114th St. Or- 
thodox. Org. 1892. Member- 
ship: 86. Seating capacity: 
100. Sick Benefit, Free Loan, 
Cemetery. Pres., Isaac 
Siegel, 402 So. 5th St., 
B'klyn. Sec'y, Max Mones, 
22 E. 109th St. 
Siegei, Isaac, Pres. Chevrah 
B'nai Solomon Anshei Zai- 
mel (22 W. 114th St.), since 
1915. Term 1 year. Born 
1867 in Russia. Came to 
U. S. 1889. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. Res.: 
402 S. 5th St., B'klyn. 

Bohemian American Israelite 
Cong. Beth Elohim, 310-12 
E. 72nd St. Orthodox. Org. 
1896. Membership: 80. Seat- 
ing capacity: 475. Cemetery. 
Pres., Albert Winternitz, 
Sec'y, Moritz Abelis, 1242 
3rd Ave. 

Boloehover Chevrah Shom'rei 
Sholom. 122 Columbia St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1912. Mem- 
bership: 30. Seating capa- 
city: 90. Cemetery. Pres., 
Manasseh Gutthartz, 117 
Broome St. Sec'y, J. Rubin- 
stein. 639 E. 9th St. 
Gutthartz, Manasseh, Pres. 
Boloehover Chevrah Shom'- 
rei Sholom (122 Columbia 
St.), since 1916. Term 6 
months. Born 1880 in Aus- 
tria. Came to U. S. 1902. 
Received general Jewish 
and secular education. 



18<> 



miMMUNAi. KieaiSTlSilt 



Fruit salesman 
Broome St. 



Res. 



11'; 



B'ritli Skoloiu B'nai Isaac, 'o 

Ave. D. Orthodox. Org 
1912. Membership: 140 
Seating capacity: 400. Ceme- 
Lery. Pres., Isaac Willner. 
298 Broome St. Sec'y, Louia 
Berl, 56 Cannon St. Rabbi, 
Morris Wexler, 841 Kelly St 
Winner, Isaac, Pres. B'ritb 
Sholom B'nai Isaac (6 Ave, 
D), since 1916. Term 6 
months. Born 1873 in 
Austria. Came to U. S. 188:^ 
Received general Jewish 
education. Grocer. Rps ; 
Res.: 298 Broome St, 

Krothcrhood JLeagne of Rhoden 
(Agmdath Achim D'Rhodes). 

Sick benefit; cemetery. Org. 
1910. Membership: 105 
Meets 1st Sunday, at 186 
Chrystie St. Pres., Albert J. 
Amateau, 40 W. 115th St. 
Sec'y, Solomon Mizrachi, 3P> 
Rivington St. 

Bulshtiner Chevrah L< i n a t b 
Hazedek Anshci Galicia, n 

Attorney St. Orthodox. Org. 
1896. Membership: 130. 
Seating capacity: 100. Sick 
Benefit, Cemetery. Pres., 
Max Isenberg, 572 Fox St. 
Sec'y, Benjamin Appel, 63« 
E. 6th St. 

Isenberg, Max, Pres. Buish 
tlner Chevrah Linath Ha- 
xedek Anshei , Galicia (91 
Attorney. St.); elected 1917. 
Term 6 months. Born 1881 
in Austria Came to U R 



1900. Recetved general Jew 
Ish and secular education 
Tinsmith. Res.: 573 Pox St 

t»aczaczer Coagr. K. IJ. V. Sick 
benefit; insurance; ceme- 
tery; place of worship. Org 

1899. Membership: 108. 
Meetings: 1st and 3rd Sun- 
days, at 228 E. Houston St. 
Pres., E. Margulies. Sec'y, 
B. Lindner, 299 E. Srd St. 

Cong. Busker B'nal B'rlth K 

U. v., 87 Ridge St. Orthoy 
dox. Org. 1911. Member- 
ship: 42. Seating capacity 
too. Bikur Cholim, Ceme 
tery. Pres., Moses Hersh 
andler, 332 E. Houston St 
Sec'y, Harry Fink, 98 Sheriff 
St. 

tiersliandler, Moses, Pre.« 
Cong. Busker B'nai B'rith 
K. U. V. (87 Ridge St.); 
elected 1917. Term 6 months 
Born 1877 in Austria. Came 
to U. S. 1905. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. Res. : 
332 E. Houston St 



Oong. Chaiei Adam .^Inshel 
Lomza, 101 Hester St. Or- 
thodox. Org. 1877. Mem- 
bership: 70. Seating capa- 
city: 200. Free Loan, In 
surance, Cemetery. Pres., 
Leizer Goldberg, 183 Henry 
St. Sec'y, Aaron D. Kruc 
man, 935 Longwood Ave. 
Goldberg, Leizer, Pres. 
Cong. Chaiei Adam Anshei 
r..om2a (101 Hester St.), 
since 1914. Term I year 
Born 1862 In Russia Cam* 



COiNGKB^icVnONS 



187 



lo U. S. ISSl. Kecelved gen 
eral Jewish education 
Cleaning and pressirigr. Res.; 
tSS Henry St. 

Chniel Adam Anshei Minsk> 

97 Henry St. Orthodox 
Membership: 27. Seating 

capacity: 90. Malbish Aru- 
mim, Cemetery. Fres.. 
Chaim Freidin, 182 Broome 
St. Sec'y, Nathan Pried. 231 
Henry St. 

P r e 1 d 1 n , Chaim, Pres 
Chaiei Adam Anshei Minsk 
<97 Henry St.), since 1915. 
Term 1 year. Born 1860 in 
Russia. Came to U. S. 
1901. Received general 
Jewish education. Exporter 
clothing^ 243 Henry St. 
Res.: 182 Broome St. 

Chasldel Bayon Anshei Russia. 

64 Pitt St. Orthodox. Org 
1908. Membership: 20. Seat- 
ing c a p a c i t y : 60. Pres.. 
Motel Cohen, 55 Pitt St. 
Sec'y, Mr. Gulkln, 1125 5th 
Ave. 

Cohen, Motel, Pres. Cbasidei 
Bayon Anshei Russia (64 
Pitt St.), since 1914. Term 
1 year. Born 1861 in Russia. 
Came to U. S. 1904. Received 
general Jewish education. 
Restaurant. Res.: 55 Pitt St 

Chevrah Chasldel B'nal Israel 
Mirizin, 149 Attorney St 
Orthodox. Org. 1910. Mem 
bership: 54. Seating capa- 
city: 150. Cemetery, Study 
Pres., Fishel Horowitz, 273 
E. 3rd St. Sec'y. Hlrsch 
Rohr. 329 E 9th St 



H o r o *T i t £. Fishe), Prs^s 
Chevrah Chasldei B'nal Is 
rael Mirizin (149 Attornej 
St.), since 1915. Term 6 
months. Born 1872 In Aus- 
tria. Came to U. S. 1905. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Retired. Res,: 
273 E. 3rd St. 

Chasldel Sadlgera Tiphereth 
Israel Mirisin, 102 Attorney 
St. Orthodox. Org. 1892. 
Membership: 75. Seating 
capacity: 200. Insurance. 
Free Loan, Cemetery, Study. 
Pres., Simon Kleinman, 3 
Attorney St. Sec'y, Louis 
Goldstein. 95 Division Ave.. 
B'klyn. 

Kleinman, Simon, Pres 
Chasldel Sadlgera Tiphereth 
Israel Mirisin (102 Attorney 
St.), since 1912. Term 1 
year. Born 1857 in Russia 
Game to U. S. 1897. Received 
general Jewish education. 
Butcher: 19 Suffolk St. Res.: 
3 Attorney St. 

Coni;. Chesed 1^'Abraham An- 
shei Trlsk, 436 Grand St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1896. Mem- 
bership: SO. Seating capa- 
city: 100. Cemetery. Pres.. 
Louis Luxenberg, 368 New 
Jersey Ave., B'klyn. Sec'y, 
Isaac Gerbach, 58 Sheriff St. 
liuxenber^, Louis, Pres ' 
Cong. Chesed L'Abraham 
Anshei Trisk (436 Grand 
St.), since 1904. Term 1 
year. Born 1869 In Russia 
Came to U. S. 1894. Received 
general Jewish education 
Dealer in Clothiers' Trim- 



188 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



mingrs: 141 Eldridge St. 
Res.: 368 New Jersey Ave., 
B'klyn. 

Cons. Chibatli Jcrnsnlem An- 
«hel Sompolne B-nnl Abra- 
ham Miplotzk, 1362 Fifth 
Ave. Orthodox. Org. 1890. 
Membership: 80. Seating 
capacity: 250. Sick Benefit, 
Life Insurance, Brotherhood, 
Cemetery. Pres., David 
Levy, 1717 Madison Ave. 
Sec'y, Max Levin e, 46 
Bleecker St., Mt. Vernon, 
N. Y. 

Levy, David, Pres. Cong. 
Chibath Jerusalem Anshei 
Sompolne B'nai Abraham 
Miplotsk (1362 Fifth Ave.), 
since 1907. Term 1 year. 
Born 1865 in England. Came 
to U. S. 1884. Attended 
public school in England. 
Grocer. Res.: 1717 Madison 
Ave. 

ConS' Chochmath Adam Anshei 
Lomza V'Gotch, 23 Hester 
St. Orthodox. Org. 1877. 
Membership: 125. Seating 
capacity: 200. Sick Benefit. 
Insurance, Free Loan, Ceme- 
tery, Study. Pres., Nathan 
Greenberg, 285 Madison St. 
Sec'y, Naphtali Levin. 
Rabbi, Joshua Hurwich. 
Greenberg, Nathan, Pres. 
Cong. Chochmath Adam An- 
shei Lomza V'Gotch (23 
Hester St.), since 1916. Term 
1 year. Born 1852 in Poland. 
Came to U. S. 1887. Received 
general Jewish education. 
Butcher. Res.: 285 Madison 
Ave. 



Chevrah Chofctz Chalm, 51 E. 

101st St. Orthodox. Org. 
1906. Seating capacity: 10.0. 
Pres., Mr. Wolf, 1342 Park 
Ave, 

Chevrah Chovevei ZIon of 
Harlem, 319 E. 101st St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1900. Mem- 
bership: 35. Seating capa- 
city: 112. Cemetery, Study. 
Pres., Jacob S. Goldberg, 47 
E. 104th St. Sec'y, Philip 
Teller, 210 E. 103d St. 
Goldberg:, Jacob S., Pres. 
Chevrah Chovevei Zion of 
Harlem (319 E. 101st St.), 
since 1915. Term 6 months. 
Born 1875 in Austria. Came 
to U. S. 1901. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. 
Clothing contractor. Res.: 
47 E. 104th St. 

Con^. Che^Tah Kadlsha Tal- 
mud Torah, 127 E. 82nd St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1868. Mem- 
bership: 24. Seating capa- 
city: 450. Cemetery. Pres., 
B. Helneman, 164 B. 89th St. 
Sec'y, B. Ehrman, 52 B. 89th 
St. 

Helneman, B., Pres. Cong. 
Chevrah Kadisha Talmud 
Torah (127 E. 82nd St.). 
since 1910. Term 1 year. 
Born 1874 in Germany. Came 
to U. S. 1891. Received high 
school education. Fancy 
goods: 480 Broadway, Res.: 
164 B. 89th St. 

Crlstonopoler Consr* Brlth 
Isaac, 90-92 Columbia St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1897. Mem- 
bership: 100. Seating: ca- 



CONGREGATIONS 



189 



pacity; 200. Sick Benefit, 
Cemetery. Pres., Isaac Axel- 
rod, 238 Rivlng-ton St. Sec'y, 
Leib Lustig-, 48 Lewis St. 
Axclrod, Isaac, Pres. Cris- 
tonopoler Cong-. Brith Isaac 
(92 Columbia St.), since 
1916. Term 6 months. Born 
1869 In Austria. Came to 
U. S. 1899. Received gen- 
eral Jewish and secular 
education. Mineral water: 
66 Sheriff St. Res.: 238 
Rivington St. 

Cong:. Czentochauer Chafiiam 
Sopher V'Anshei Unterstun- 
esticr, 8 Clinton St. Ortho- 
dox. Org. 1888. Membership: 
500. Seating capacity: 1500. 
Sick Benefit, Free Loan, 
Bikur C h o 1 i m, Cemetery, 
Study. Pres., Lieber Grill, 
44 Ave. D. Sec'y, S. Klein- 
man, 69 E. 3rd St. Rabbi, 
Benjamin Guth, 103 Ave. A. 
Grill, Lieber, Pres. Cong. 
Czentochauer Chasam 
Sopher VAnshei Unterstan- 
estier (8 Clinton St.), since 
1913. Term 1 year. Born 
1869 In Austria. Came to 
U. S. 1898. Received general 
Jewish education. Mfgr. of 
feather boas: 732 Broadway. 
Res.: 44 Ave. D. 

Czortkorer Rabbi D. M. Fried- 
man Con;?., 30 E. 1st St. 

Orthodox. Org. 1897. Mem- 
bership: 160. Seating capa- 
city: 100. Sick Benefit, In- 
surance, Free Loan, Ceme- 
tery. Pres., Mendel Roten- 
streich, 344 E. 81st St. Sec'y. 
Joseph Rubenstein. 677 Beck 
St 



Rotenstrelcli, Mendel, Pres. 
Czortkover Rabbi D. M. 
Friedman Cong. (30 E. 1st 
St.); elected 1917. Term 6 
months. Born 1866 In Aus- 
tria. Came to U. S. 1893. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Laundry: 344 E. 
81st St. Res.: 334 E. 81st 
St. 

Czortkover Rabbi J. M. Slia- 
plro K. U. v., 80 Clinton St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1892. Mem- 
bership: 120. Seating capa- 
city: 150. Sick Benefit, Free 
Loan, Life Insurance, Ceme- 
tery. Pres., Louis Lande, 
401 Miller Ave., B'klyn. 
Sec'y, Wm. Roth, 52 E. 4th 
St. 

Lande, Louis, Pres. Czort- 
kover Rabbi J. M. Shapiro 
K. U. V. (80 Clinton St.), 
since 1916. Term 6 months. 
Born 1872 in Austria. Came 
to U. S. 1899. Received gen- 
eral Jewish and secular edu- 
cation. Liquors: 38 W. 
Houston St. Res.: 401 Miller 
Ave., B'klyn. 

Clievrali Degel Isaac, 63 Suf- 
folk St. Orthodox. Mem- 
bership: 70. Seating capac- 
ity: 150. Cemetery, Study. 
Pres., H. Weinberg. Sec'y, 
M. Maliner. 172 Monroe St. 

Cong. Degel Maciianeli Epli- 
ralm Anshei Bluzivier, 117 

Lewis St. Orthodox. Org. 
1894. Membership: 70. Seat- 
ing capacity: 300. Ceme- 
tery. Pres., Jacob Gottlieb, 
382 E. 3d St. Sec'y, Abr. 
Ader. 319 Stanton St. 



190 



UOMMUTKAL KBGI8TBR 



Gottllelt, Jacob, Fros. Cong- 
Degel Machaneh Ephraim 
Anshel Bluzivier (117 Lewis 
St.); elected 1917. Term 6 
months. Born 1873 in Aus- 
tria. Came to U. S. 1892. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Mfgr. Cloaks: 382 
E. 3rd St. 

Cong' Derech Emimah, 2 Van 

Nest PI. Orthodox. Org. 
1838. Membership: 50. Seat- 
ing capacity: 300. Sister- 
hood, Hebrew School, Ceme- 
tery. Pres., Max Morrison. 
5 Le Roy St. Sec'y. David 
Meyer, 184 Bleeclcer St. 
:!M[orrison, Max, Pres. Cong, 
Derech Emunah (2 Van Nest 
PI.), since 1915. Term 1 
year. Born 1877 in Russia. 
Came to U. S. 1888. Received 
general Jewish education. 
Clothing: 252 Bleecker St. 
Rea.: 5 Le Roy St. 

I>tnever K. U. V., 178 Stanton 
St. Orthodox. Org. 1915. 
Membership: 60. Seating 
capacity: 50. Cemetery. 
Pres., Meyer Kanarik, 95 
Cannon St. Sec'y, Harry 
Nager, 172 Rivingston St. 
Kannrik, Meyer, Pres. Dine- 
ver K. U. V. (178 Stanton 
St.); elected 1917. Term 6 
months. Born 1892 in Aus- 
tria. Came to U. S. 1913. 
Received g-eneral Jewish 
and secular education. Res 
95 Cannon St, 

Cong. Doresh Tov JDobrziBskj. 

56 Suffolk St. Orthodox 
Org. 1870. Membership: 7B 



Seating capacity. 50. Sick 
Benefit, Free Loan, Ceme- 
tery. Pres., Wolf Cohen, 225 
Henry St. S e c ' y, D a v 1 d 
P I n u s, 609 Park Ave.. 
B'klyn. 

Cohen, W^olf, Pres. Cong 
Dore.s'h Tov Dobrzinsky (56 
Suffolk St.), since 1916. Term 
6 months. Born 1877 in Rus- 
sia. Came to U. S. 1895. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Res.: 255 Henry 
St. 

<"«mg. Dorseliel Tov Anshel 
Ottynia, 62 E. 4th St. Or- 
thodox. Org. 1898. Mem- 
bership: 60. Seating capac- 
ity: 150. Insurance, Free 
Loan, Cemetery. Pres., Jos- 
eph Alster, 228 E. 7th St 
Sec'y, Joseph Reifer, 122 
Allen St. 

.\lster, Joseph, Pres. Cong 
Dorshei Tov Anshel Ottynia 
(62 E. 4th St.), since 1914. 

' Term 6 months. Born 1873 
in Austria. Came to U. S. 
1897. Received general Jew- 
ish education. Res.: 228 E. 
7tb St. 

Drubniner Chevrah, 63 Ludlow 
St. Orthodox. Org. 1877. 
Membership: 32. Seating: 
capacity: 150. Sick Benefit. 
Insurance, Cemetery. Pres., 
Abraham Cohen, 39 Attorney 
St. Sec'y, S. Finkelstein, IK.i 
.Keap St., B'klyn, 
Cohen, Abraham, Pres. Dru 
bniner Chevrah (63 Ludlow 
St.), since 1907. Term S 
months. Born 1858 In Rus- 
sia. Came to XJ. S. 1872 



OONGBKGATIONS 



191 



Received general Jewish 
'Education Res t 3S Attorney 

St.. 

Denkever Adatb Jeshumn 
A n s h « i Rabbi Isaac. 89 

Ridge St. Orthodox. Org 
1899. Membership: 95. Seat- 
ing capacity: 225. Bikur 
Cholim, Cemetery, Study. 
Pres., Asher Gidden, 89 Pitt 
St. Sec'y. Joseph Genzer. 
184 Rivington St. 

Gidden, Aslier, Pres. Dzuk- 
ever Adath Jeshurun Anshet 
Rabbi Isap.c (89 Ridge St.); 
elected 1917. Term 6 months. 
Born 1856 in Austria. Came 
to U. S. 1883. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. Re- 
tired. Res.: 89 Pitt St. 

Kduth I/lsrael Ansthei Mizrach, 

415 E. 6th St. Orthodox. 
Org, 1889. Membership: 130. 
Seating capacity: 800. Ceme- 
tery, Study. Pres., Samuel 
Turgovnik, 413 Grand St., 
B'klyn. Sec'y, Chlel Gutman. 

Organization Gin Jacob Ansbel 
LisiiOTa, 890 Jennings St. 
Org. 1913. Membership: 60 
Seating capacity: 100, Cem- 
etery. Pres., Jacob Brown. 
1436 Bryant Ave. Sec'y. 
Sam Weinberg. 460 F>. 171 st 
St. 

Brown, Jacob, Pres. Organi- 
zation Ein Jacob Anshei 
Liskova (890 Jennings St.). 
since 1913. Term 1 year 
Born 1880 in Russia. Cara* 
to U. S. 1891. Received gen- 
eral .Tew^lsh p d n (• a t i o n 



Salesman Res. r43fi Br>- 
«nt Avo 

HUlezer iJaiaasefi, 38U Grand 
St. Orthodox. Org. 1911 

Membership: 35, Seating 
capacity: 35. Sick Benefit 
Pres., Abdul Mizrahi, 194 
Rodney St., B'klyn. Sec'y, 
Sam Arazie, 37% Allen St. 
Mizrahi, Abdul, Pres. Eliezjtj 
Damasek (380 Grand St.), 
since 1915. Born 1887 in 
Tripoli. Came to U. S. 1906 
Received general education 
Underwear: 34 Allen St 
Res.: 194 Rodney St.. B'klyn 



bltiezer Gantz and lad. Fzem- 
Izler, 148 Ridge St. Ortho- 
dox. Org. 1896. Membership: 
38. Seating capacity: 6u. 
Sick Benefit, Insurance, 
(^lemetery. Pres., MdX Ring- 
ler, 52 Lewis St. Sec'y, A. 
Ader, 319 Stanton St. 
RIng'ler, Max, Pres. Bliezer 
Gantz and Ind. Pzemizler 
(148 Ridge St.), since 1916 
Term 6 months. Born 188j 
in Austria. Came to U. S 
1894. Received general Jew- 
ish education. Res.: 52 
Lewis St 

Kmanu-JBl, 521 Fifth Ave 
Reformed. English Sermon 
Org. 1845. Membership: 920 
Seating capacity: 1600. He- 
brew School, Emanuel Sister 
and Brotherhood, Junior So 
ciety. Cemetery. Pres., Louis 
Marshall. 47 E. 72nd St 
Sec'y, Wm. L Spiegelberg, 
35 Madison Ave Rabbis 



192 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



Joseph Silverman, 45 E. 75th 
St.; H. G. Endow, 895 West 
End Ave. 

Cong:. Emunuth Israel, 301 W. 

29th St. Orthodox. Org. 
1863. Membership: 80. Seat- 
ing capacity: 400. Sister- 
hood, Cemetery. Pres., Sam- 
uel Epstein, 109 8th Ave. 
Sec'y, Albert Sachs, 357 8th 
Ave. Rabbi, Hirsch Gold- 
stone, 327 W. 27th St. 
Epstein, Samuel, Pres. Cong. 
Emunath Israel (301 W. 
29th St.); elected 1917. Term 
1 year. Born 1863 in Russia. 
Came to U. S. 1880. Received 
general Jewish education. 
Plate glass. Res.: 109 8th 
Ave. 

Erste Bobriker K. U. V., 237 

Rivington St. Orthodox. Org. 
1907. Membership: 100. 
Seating capacity: 130. Free 
Loan, Bikur Cholim Society, 
C e m e t er y . Pres. Chaim 
Shmier. Sec'y, Hertz Fisher, 
14 Cannon St. 

Conj?. Krste Breziver Brook K. 

U. v., 77 Sheriff St. Ortho- 
dox. Org. 1901. Membership: 
142. Seating capacity: 152. 
Sick Benefit, Cemetery. 
Pres., Charles Gross, 324 E. 
4th St. Secy, Mendel Win- 
ner, 56 Chrystie St. 

Gross, Charles, Pres. Cong. 
Erste Breziver Brook K. U. 
V. (77 Sheriff St.); elected 
1917. Term 6 months. Born 
1867 In Austria. Came to 



U S. 1887. Received gen- 
eral Jewish and secular edu- 
cation. Mfgr. clothing:. 
Res.: 324 E. 4th St. 

I^rste Chelmer Cong., 161 At- 
torney St. Orthodox. Org. 
1916. Membership: 27. Seat- 
ing capacity: 100. Pres., 
Baruch Rosenbaum, 90 E. 
1st St. Sec'y, Gabrial Raiff, 
138 Ave. D. 

Rosenbaum, Baruch, Pres. 
Erste Chelmer Cong. (161 
Attorney St.), since 1916. 
Term 6 months. Born 1871 
In Russia, Came to U. S. 
1911. Received general Jew- 
ish education. Paper hanger. 
Res.: 90 E. 1st St. 

Erste Chevrah Ahawath Israel 
Anshei Larea, 122 Columbia 
St. Orthodox. Org. 1913. 
Membership: 54. Seating 
capacity: 60. Cemetery. 
Pres., Elijah Goldman. Sec'y, 
A. Bernstein. 

Erste Delatlner Consr>» 159 

Rivington St. Orthodox. 
Org. 1902. Membership: 70. 
Seating capacity: 150. Sick 
Benefit, Cemetery. Pres., 
Philip Demner. 1571/4 Stan- 
ton St. Sec'y, Harry Knoll, 
99 Clinton St. 

Demner, Philip, Pres. Erste 
Delatiner Cong. (159 Riving- 
ton St.); elected 1917. Term 
6 months. Born 1875 in 
Austria. Came to U. S. 1902. 
Tailor: 33 W. 30th St. Res.: 
1571/4 Stanton St. 



CONGREGATIONS 



193 



Erste Dubetzker Conir., 105 

Lewis St. Orthodox. Org. 
1902. Membership: 60. Seat- 
ingr capacity: 60. Cemetery. 
Pres., Max Sacks, 95 Colum- 
bia St. Sec'y, Ben. Briar, 96 
Lewis St. 

Sacks, Mnx, Pres. Erste 
Dubetzker Cong. (105 Lewis 
St.), since 1916. Term 1 
year. Born 1875 in Austria. 
Came to U. S. 1899. Received 
general Jewish education. 
Roofer. Res.: 95 Columbia 
St. 

Krste Dzlkover Chevrah, 77 

Sheriff St. Orthodox. Org. 
1899. Membership: 29. Seat- 
ing capacity: 150. Bikur 
Cholim, Cemetery, Study. 
Pres., Benj. F 1 e i s h e r, 67 
Lewis St. Sec'y, J. Wrubel, 
92 Goerck St. 

Fleisker, Benj., Pres. Erste 
Dzikover Chevrah (77 Sher- 
iff St.), since 1917. Term 6 
months. Born 1865 in Aus- 
tria. Came to U. S. 1899. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Res. and Bus.: 
67 Lewis St. 

Erate Frampoler K. U. F., 92 

Columbia St. Orthodox. Org. 
1910. Membership: 38. Ceme- 
tery. Pres., Charles Zitrin, 
61 Columbia St. Sec'y, Max 
Leiberman, 61 Columbia St. 
Zitrtn. Charles, Pres. Erste 
Frampoler K. U. V. (92 Co- 
lumbia St.); elected 1917. 
Term 6 months. Born 1886 
in Poland. Came to U. S. 
1908. Received general Jew- 
ish education. Res.: 61 Co- 
lumbia St. 



Erste Gorlltzer Congr. Machzl- 
kel Emeth, 101% Lewis St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1892. Mem- 
bership: 88. Seating capa- 
city: 300. Bikur Cholim, 
Cemetery, Study. Pres., 
Samuel Pensak, 173 Amboy 
St., B'klyn. Sec'y, Moses 
Kirschenbaum, 80 Sheriff St. 
Pensak, Samuel, Pres. Erste 
Gorlitzer Chevrah Machzikei 
Emeth (IOI1/2 Lewis St.); 
elected 1917. Term 6 months. 
Born 1875 in Austria. Came 
to U. S. 1884. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. Knit 
goods: 96 Attorney St. Res.: 
173 Amboy St., B'klyn. 

Erste Halltzer U. V., 159 Riv- 
ington St. Orthodox. Org. 
1904. Membership: 95. Seat- 
ing capacity: 200. Sick 
Benefit, Cemetery. Pres.: 
Louis Schumer, 346 E. 3rd 
St. Sec'y, Samuel Schorr, 
306 E. 2nd St. 

Schumer, Louis, Pres. Erste 
Halitzer U. V. (159 Riving- 
ton St.); elected 1917. Term 
6 months. Born 1890 in 
Austria. Received general 
Jewish education. Res.: 346 
E. 3rd St. 

Erste Hoaredenker Cong., 96 

Clinton St. Orthodox. Org. 
1914. Me m b e rs h i p: 135. 
Seating capacity: 300. Sick 
Benefit, Insurance, Ceme- 
tery. Pres. and Sec'y, Joseph 
Ebenstein, 208 Stanton St. 
Ebensteln, Joseph, Pres. 
Erste Hoaredenker Cong. 
(96 Clinton St.), since 1914. 
Term 6 months. Born 187« 



194 



OOMMUNAJ. RMKitlSTl&n 



In Austria Came to U. S 
1897. Received i?eneral Jew- 
ish education. Mfgr. neck- 
ties. Res.: 208 Stanton Si 

Wrste Ind. Duvestaver Cong., 73 

Ludlow St. Orthodox. Org 
1914. Membership: 14, Seat- 
ing capacity: 60. Pres., Max 
Wallerstein. Sec'y, H. Sin- 
ger, 299 S. 2nd St., B'klyn 

fi^rste Kamionker Stirnmllaw^er 

K. U. v., 125 Rivingston St. 
Orthodox. Org-. 1903. Mem 
bershlp: 90. Seating capa 
city: 500. Sick Benefit, Free 
Loan, Cemetery. Pres.. 
Samuel Durst, 717 E. 9th St 
Sec'y, Judah Lampert. 24S 
Rlvington St. 

Durst, Samuel, Pres. Erste- 
Kamionker Strumilawer K. 
U. V. (125 Rivington St.): 
elected 1917. Term 6 months. 
Born 1882 in Austria. Re- 
ceived general Jewish edu- 
cation. Res.: 717 E. 9th St. 

l^rste KopItsbluKer Sick and 

B. A., -125 Rivington St. Or- 
thodox. Org. 1905. Member- 
ship: 80. Seating capacity: 
400. Sick Benefit, Free 
Loan, Cemetery. Pres., Mor- 
ris Stockman. 47 Clinton St 
Sec'y. S. Rnbel, 636 B. 6th 
St. 

Stockman, Morris, Pres 
Erste Kopltshinzer Sick and 
B. A. (125 Rivington St.). 
Blnce 1915. Term 6 months 
Born 1864 In Austria. Re- 
ceived general Jewish edu 
oatlon. Tailor Res.: 47 
Clinton St 



Krste liinsker CJbevrali BlRui- 
Ohollm, 88 Columbia . St 
Orthodox. Org. 1899. Mem- 
bership: 75. Seating capa- 
city: 200. Sick Benefit, Free 
Loan, Cemetery, Study 
Pres., Meyer Stier, 171 Clin 
ton St. Sec'y, Isaac Stein 
berg, 125 Columbia St. 
Stier, Meyer, Pres. Brstf 
Llnsker C h e v r a h Bikur 
Cholim (88 Columbia St.), 
elected 1917. Term 6 months 
Born 1873 in Austria. Came 
to U. S. 1890. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. 
Eggs: 46 Pitt St. Res.: 171 
Clinton St. 

fSrste MagrOTver K. U. V., 180 

Stanton St. Orthodox. Org 
1908. Membership: 65. Seat- 
ing capacity: 120. Ceme- 
tery. Pres., Israel Garfun- 
kel, 134 Suffolk St. Sec'y. 
Rabbi L. A p t h e i k e r, 58 
Broome St. 

Garfunkel, Israel, Pres 
Erste Magrower K. U. V 
(180 Stanton St.), since 1915 
Term 6 months. Born 1880 
in Austria. Came to U. S 
1910. Received general Jew- 
ish and secular education 
Egg dealer: 1291 B'way. 
B'klyn Rea.: 134 Suffolk 
St. 

iCrste Prsworsker Anshcl 
Frishtak, 145 Ridge St. Or- 
thodox. Org. 1907. Member 
ship: 80. Seating capacity: 
80. Bikur Cholim, Ceme- 
tery, Study. Pres., Julius 
Silverman, 128 Norfolk St 
Sec'y. S. Alter, 910 MyrtU 
Av«., B'klyn 



OONQREOATION8 



195 



Mlverniun. Julius, fiKH: 
fli'ste Przworsker Anshei 
Frisntak (145 Ridge St.). 
since 1917. Term 6 months. 
Born 1884 in Austria. Came 
to U. S. 1903. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. Dry 
goods store: 91 E. B'way. 
Res.: 128 Norfolk St. 

Krmte Kndntker K. V. V., S37 

Stanton St. Orthodox. Org. 
1901. Membership: 55. Seat- 
ing capacity: 200. Sick Ben- 
efit, Cemetery. Pres., Joseph 
Brecher. Sec'y, Louis Kalb. 
230 E. 80th St. 

Brecher, Joseph, Pres. Erste 
Rudniker K. U. V. (337 
Stanton St.), since 1916. 
Term 6 months. Born 1881 
in Austria. Came to U. S. 
1899. Received general Jew- 
ish and secular education 
Insurance. 

Rrste Shendlshower Gallzla- 
ner, 92 Columbia St. Ortho- 
dox. Org. 1899. Member- 
ship: 75. Seating capacity: 
SOO. Sick Benefit; cemetery. 
Pres., Mr. Zwlebel, 91 Keap 
St.. B'klyn. Sec'y, Mr. Hoff- 
erung, 124 Sheriff St. 

Rrste Yarorower K. U. V., 163 

.A^ttorney St. Orthodox. Org. 
1895. Membership: 75. Seat- 
ing capacity: 130. Sick Ben- 
tiflt, Cemetery, Pres., Joseph 
A p 1 s d o r f, 69 Mangin St. 
Sec'y, Alter Seligman, 6S 
Mangin St. 

Apladorf, Joseph, Pres. 
Erste Yavo rower K. U. V 



Cit>3 Attorney St.), since 
1911. Term 6 months. Born 
1878 in Austria. Came to 
U. S. 1896. Received gen- 
eral education. Salesman 
Res.: 69 Mangin St. 

Kvnte ZaIIner Chevrah, 64 Pitt 
St. Orthodox. Org. 1901. 
Membership: 50. Seating 
capacity: 120. Pres., Sig- 
mund Yokel, 68 Kosciusko 
St., B'klyn. Sec'y, Mr, Coop- 
er, 13 Pitt St. 

Yokel, Slgrmund, Pres. Erste 
Zaliner Chevrah (64 Pitt 
St.), since 1910. Term 6 
months. Born 1859 In Aus- 
tria. Came to U. S. 1885. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Brushes, Res. r 6S 
Kosciusko St., B'klyn. 

Krste Zailscxicker R a b e n a 
Ager U. v., 193 E. 2nd St. 

Orthodox, Org. 1914. Mem- 
bership: 100. Seating capac- 
ity: 100. Cemetery. Pres., 
Joseph Oxhorn, 307 South- 
ern Ave., B'klyn, Sec'y, M. 
Bryer, 146 Ludlow St. 

CheTrah Kadtsha ESs Chalnt, 

69 Lewis St. Orthodox. Org. 
1897. Membership: 35. Seat- 
ing capacity: 162. Ceme- 
tery. Pres., Mordecal Brand, 
832 Delancey St. Sec'y, S. L. 
Bemel, 79 Cannon St. 
Brand, Mordeeal, Pres. 
Chevrah Kadisha Ez Chaim 
(69 Lewis St.), since 1909. 
Term 6 months. Born 1883 
In Austria, Came to U. S- 
1903. Received general Jew- 
ish education. Paint store: 



196 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



2S8 Delancey St.: Res. 332 
Delancey St. 

Chevrah Ex Chalm, 41 W. 

113th St. Orthodox. Org. 
1915. Membership: 6. Seat- 
ing capacity: 120. Pres., 
Morris Leflcowitz, 62 B, 
111th St. Sec'y, M. Garfin- 
kle, 22 W. 113th St. (Branch 
of 106 Ave. C.) 
Lef koTTitz, Morris, Pres. 
Chevrah Ez Chaim (41 W. 
113th St.), since 1915. Born 
1847 in Austria. Came to 
U. S. 1888. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. Re- 
tired. Res.: 62 E. 111th St. 

Cong. Ex Chalm Anshel Hun- 
gary, 106 Ave. C. Orthodox. 
Org. 1899. Membership: 65. 
Seating capacity: 230. Free 
Loan, Cemetery. Pres., 
David Herman, 77 St. Mark's 
PI. Sec'y, L Lang, 622 E. 
6th St. (Branch: 41 W. 
113th St.) 

Herman, David, Pres. Cong. 
Ez Chaim Anshei Hungary 
(106 Ave. C), since 1915. 
Term 1 year. Born 1865 In 
Hungary. Came to U. S. 
1900. Received general Jew- 
ish education. Agent. Res.: 
77 St. Marks PI. 

Chevrah Ez Chalm Anshei 
Ruzlan, 209 E. B'way. Or- 
thodox. Org. 1906. Mem- 
bership: 60. Seating capa- 
city: 150. Insurance, Ceme- 
tery, Study. Pres., Hyman 
Weinstein, 452 Bergen Ave., 
Jersey City, N. J. Sec'y, 
Asher Gallubsick, 26 Mont- 
roroery St 



Weinstein, Hyman, Pres. 
Cong. Ez Chaim Anshei 
Ruzian (209 E. B'way), since 
1915. Term 6 months. Born 
1878 in Russia. Came to U. 
S. 1890. Received general 
Jewish education. Res.: 452 
Bergen Ave., Jersey City, 
N. J. 

Ex Chalm Anshei Veloshen, 

209 Madison St. Orthodox. 
Org. 1896. Membership: 200. 
Seating capacity: '400. Free 
Loan, Sick Benefit, Ceme- 
tery, Study. Pres., Samuel 
Silverman, 717 Kelly 5t. 
Sec'y, H. Rudnlck, 152 Madi- 
son St. Rabbi, A. Burack, 
460 Grand St. 

Silverman, Samuel, Pres. 
Cong. Ez Chaim Anshei Vel- 
oshen (209 Madison St.), 
since 1916. Term 1 year. 
Born 1869 in Russia. Came 
to U. S. 1880. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. 
Clothing: 61 W. 4th St. Res.: 
717 Kelly St. 

Ez Chalm of Yorkvllle, 

107 E. 92nd St. Reformed. 
English and German Ser- 
mon. Org. 1902. Member- 
ship: 40. Seating capacity: 
450. Sunday School; Young 
Folks' League; Sisterhood. 
Pres.,' Adolf Galewskl, 148 
W. 118th St. Sec'y, Julius 
Schwartzkopf, 1 Third Ave. 
Rabbi, Dr. D. Davidson, 71 
E. 92nd St. 

GaleTvskl, Adolph, Pres. Ez 
Chaim of Yorkville (107 B. 
92nd St.), since 1907. Term 
1 year. Born 1857 In Rus- 



CONGREGATIONS 



197 



sia. Came to U. S. 1888. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Leather: 354 
Broome St. Res.: 149 W. 
118th St. 

Ezrath Achlm Anshel Tldz:, 

116 Monroe St. Orthodox. 
Org. 1903. Membership: 57. 
Seating- capacity: 75. Siclc 
Benefit, Insurance, Free 
Loan, Cemetery. Pres., Max 
Mendelson, 1845 Pitlcin Ave., 
B'klyn. Sec'y, M. Levenson, 
B5 Forsyth St. 

Mendelson, Max, Pres. Ez- 
rath Achim Anshei Vidz 
(116 Monroe St.), since 1916. 
Term 6 months. Born 1867 
in Russia. Came to U. S. 
1902. Tailor. Res.: 1845 
Pitkin Ave., B'klyn. 

Congr. Ejsrath Israel Anshel 
Bronx, 1414 Webster Ave. 
Orthodox. Membership: 40. 
Seating capacity: 450. Pres., 
S. Rosenberg, 1260 Findlay 
Ave. Sec'y, J. Sul^rin, 559 
Claremont P'kway. 
Rosenberg, Samuel, Pres. 
Cong. Ezrath Israel Anshel 
Bronx (1414 Webster Ave.), 
since 1912. Term 1 year. 
Born 18T4 In Russia. Came 
to U. S. 1904. Received 
technical education. Mfgr. 
steel and brass chains: 3rd 
Ave. and 10th St., College 
Point L. I. Res.: 1260 Find- 
lay Ave. 

Congr. Fannie Slegel Anshel 
Berlader, 165 Allen St. Or- 
thodox. Org. 1907. Mem- 



bership: 100. Seating capa- 
city: 75. Cemetery. Pres., 
Marcus Entmacher, 68 E. 1st 
St. Sec'y, Elias Kaner, 333 
E. 6th St. 

E^ntmacher, Marcus, Pres. 

Cong. Fannie Siegel Anshei 
Berlader (165 Allen St.). 
since 1907. Term 6 months. 
Born 1865 in Roumania. 
Came to U. S. 1903. Received 
general Jewish education. 
Printer. Res.: 68 E. 1st St. 

First Broder B'nal B'rith Ass'n, 

209 E. 2nd St. Orthodox. 
Org. 1897. Membership: 150. 
Sea-ting capacity: 300. Sick 
Benefit, Insurance, Free 
Loan, Cemetery. Pres., J. 
Schochet, 1115 Clay Ave. 
Sec'y, A. J. Silver, 71 E. 7th 
St. 

Schochet, J., Pres. First 
Broder B'nai B'rith Ass'n 
(209 B. 2nd St.), since 1916. 
Term 1 year. Born 1870 
in Austria. Came to U. S. 
1885. Received general Jew- 
ish education. Mfgr. leather 
goods, 181 Mercer St. Re».: 
1115 Clay Ave. 

First Cong, of B'nal David 
Aniihel Rodomisselei, 1 W. 

113th St. Orthodox. Org. 
1887. Membership: 75. Seat- 
ing capacity: 500. Sick 
Benefit, Cemetery. Pres., L. 
Barnett, 25 E. 111th St- 
Sec'y, M Kaufman, 18 E. 
111th St. 

First Cong. B'nal Rabbi David 
Meyer Anshei Schwirsh, 62 



198 



OOMMUNAL RBGISTEB 



WiUett iSt Orthodox. Oi « 
1904. Membership: 50. Seat- 
ing capacity: 120. Insur- 
ance, Free Loan, Cemetery. 
Pres., Sam Sargln, 188 Flint 
St., B'klyn. Sec'y, Isaac 
Weitz, 320 Henry St. 
Sargrin, Sam, Pres. First 
Cong. B'nai Rabbi David 
Meyer Ansliei Scliwirsh (62 
Willett St.); elected 1917. 
Term 6 montlis. Born in 
Austria. Received general 
Jewish education. Fruit: 22 
Washington Ave., B'klyn 
Res.: 190 Flint St., B'klyn. 

First Botachaner Coag. Or 
Chodosh, 80 Stanton St. Or- 
thodox. Org. 1902. Mem- 
bership: 50. Seating capa- 
city: 150. Ladies' Auxiliary 
Pres., Samuel J. Brandeis. 
103 Columbia St. Sec'y, Ja- 
cob Lesser, 55 2nd Ave. 
Brandeis, S. J., Pres. First 
Botachaner Cong. Or Chod- 
osh (80 Stanton St.), sine*- 
1916. Born 1855 in Rou- 
mania. Came to U. S. 1888. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Res.: 103 Colum- 
bia St. 

First Buczaeaser CheTrali, 223 

B. 2nd St. Orthodox. Org. 
1897. Membership: 49. Seat- 
ing capacity: 100. Sick 
Benefit, Insurance, Ceme = 
tery. Pres., Isidore Bender, 
785 E. iSlst St. Sec'y, J 
Role, 345 E. 3rd St. 
Bender, Isidor, Pres. First 
Buczaczer Chevrah (223 E 
2nd St.); elected 1917 Ternj 



6 aioiiths Born 1882 in 
Austria. Canie to U, S. 1902 
Received general Jewish 
and secular education. Cut- 
ter. Res.: 786 E. 151st St 



Flr»l Dobromller K. V. V., ^'^ 

Columbia St. Orthodox 
Org. 1890. Membership: 190 
Seating capacity: 320. Sick 
Benefit, Free Loan, Ceme- 
tery. Pres., S. Goldrech. 
1332 5th Ave. Sec'y, W 
Sacher, 72 Columbia St. 

Goldrech, Solomon, Pres. 
First Dobromiler K. U. V- 
(92 Columbia St.), since 
1916. Term 6 months. Born 
1862 in Austria. Came to 
U. S. 1892. Received general 
Jewish education. Res.: 1.'»32 
5th Ave. 



First Dnnajaver Cong., 86 At- 
torney St. Orthodox. Org 
1902. Membership: 42. Seat- 
ing capacity 100. Sick Ben- 
efit, Cemetery. Pres., Sam- 
uel Schor, 44 Ave. D. Sec'y. 
Herman Loew, 92 1st St. 



<'onj^. vnrst Gallcian Duckler 
Mogen Abraham, 87 Attor- 
ney St. Orthodox. Org. 1884. 
Membership: 230. Seating 
capacity: 700. Ladies' Aux.. 
Cemetery, Study. Pres., Solo- 
mon Brand, 264 E. B'waj 
Sec'y, Hyman Gewirtz, 359 
Madison St. Rabbi, David 
Prankel, 349 E. 4th St. 

Brand, Solomon, Pres. Cong 
First Gallcian Duckler Mog 



i^iN^UXBUA'VlOHfi 



19H 



en Abraham (87 Attorney 
St.): elected 1917. Term 1 
year. Born 1867 In Austria. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Paints. "B^s.: 2C4 
»5 B'way 

i^rat Hnnsarlan Congrreea'n 
of Yorkvllle Ohavel Torah, 

335 E. 82nd St. Orthodox. 
Orgr. 1917. Membership: «0. 
Seating- capacity: 100. Pre*., 
Morris Eisenberger, 351 B. 
83rd St. Sec'y, Alexander 
Weiss, 509 E. 7Sth St. 
Rabbi, B. M. Klein, 416 E 
85th St. 

Gisenberger, Morris, Pres. 
First Hungarian Cong, of 
rorkville Ohavei Torah (335 
B. 82nd St.), elected 1917. 
Term 6 months. Born 1886 
in Hungary. Came to U. S. 
1903. Neckwear mfgr. Res.: 
351 E. 8.3^ St. 

tHrst Hungarian Cong. Ohal» 
Zedek, 18 W. 116th St. Or- 
thodox. Org. 1873. Member- 
ship: 325. Seating capacity: 
1400. Sick Benefit, Hebrew 
."School, Sisterhood, Ceme- 
tery, Study. Pres., Moritz 
Meuman, 114 W. 120th St. 
.Sec'y, D. Berliner, 66 W 
il8th St. Rabbis: Dr. Philip 
Klein, 137 W. 119th»St., Dr 
8. Drachman, 128 W. 121st 
St. (Branch: 172 Norfolk 
St.) 

Veuman, Uorltz, Pres. Pirsi 
i-Iungarian Cong. Ohab Zedek 
(18 W. 116th St.), since 1897 
Born in Hungary. Came to 
U. S. 1877 Received general 



Jewish education. Leather 
304 Pearl St. Reg.: 114 W 

1 2nth uSt 

iPlriet Ind. Mikulinser Sick B. 

A., 214 E. 2nd St. Orthodox 
Org. 1900. Membership: 136. 
Seating capacity: 150. In- 
e\irance. Sick Benefit, Ceme- 
tery. Pres., Natha-n Rarner. 
190 E. 2nd St., c|o Goldstein 
Sec'y, H. Regen. 251 E, 4th 
St. 

First Kishinever Cong., 66 B 

4th St. Orthodox. Org. 1907 
Membership: 108. Seating 
capacity: 500. Sick Benefit. 
Free Loan, Bikur Cholim, 
Cemeter3\ Pres., Isaac Mer- 
ims, 84 Delancey St. Sec'y, 
J. Trogerman, 456 B. 175th 
.St. Rabbi: Joseph Sechtzer, 
216 B. Houston St. 
Merims, Isaac, Pres. First 
Kishinever Cong. (66 E. 4th 
St.), since 1915. Term 1 
year. Born 1864 in Russia. 
Came to U. S. 1913. Received 
jjeneral Jewish education 
Gents' Furnishings: 75 Riv- 
tngton St. Ros.: 84 Delancey 
St. 



fi'lrst l^emberger Chevjcah An- 
»faei Ashkenass, 150 Attorney 
St. Orthodox. Org. 1898 
Membersliip: 80. Seating ca 
pacity: 100. Sick Benefit, 
Free Loan, Cemetery, Study. 
Pres., Philip Wagen, 283 E 
4th St. Sec'y, Max Knapper. 
7« Cannon St. 

Wagen, Pliilip, Pres. First 
Lemberger Chevrah Anshel- 



200 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



Ashkenaz (150 Attorney St.). 
elected 1917. Term 6 
months. Born 1872 in Aus- 
tria. Came to U. S. 1897. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Painter. Res.: 
283 E. 4th St. 



First Lluath Uazedek Ansbel 
Potok-Zlotz, 80 Clinton St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1899. Mem- 
bership: 110. Seating ca- 
pacity: 250. Siclc Benefit, 
Free Loan, Cemetery. Pres., 
Abraham Baruch Mitzel- 
macher, 707 E. 6th St. Sec'y. 
Ben Zion Held, 21 1st Ave. 
Mitzelmacher, Abraham Ba- 
ruch, Pres. First Linath 
Hazedelc Anshei Potolc- 
Zlotz (80 Clinton St.), since 
1912. Term 6 months. Born 
1863 in Austria. Came to 
U. S. 1894. Received general 
Jewish education. Furrier. 
Res.: 707 E. 6th St. 



First Lutawisker C h e v r a h 
Machzikei Hadath, 48 Can- 
non St. Orthodox. Org. 1897. 
Membership: 85. Seating ca- 
pacity: 400. Cemetery. Pres., 
Samuel Katz, 99 Columbia 
St. Sec'y, Isaac Siegel, 44 
Ave. D. 

Katz, Samuel, Pres. First Lu- 
tawisker Chevrah Machzikei 
Hadath (48 Cannon St.), 
since 1916. Term 6 months. 
Born 1880 in Austria. Came 
to U. S. 1891. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. Mat- 
tresses: 105 Columbia St. 
Res.: 99 Columbia St. 



Cons:. First Madliborzgcr, 81 

Columbia St. Orthodox. Org. 

1912. Membership: 80. Seat- 
ing capacity 100. Free Loan, 
Cemetery. Pres., Jacob 
Kleinman, 629 E. 12th St. 
Sec'y, L. Hamermann, 98 
Cannon St. 

Ivleinman, Jacob, Pres. Cong. 
First Madliborzger. (81 
Columbia St.),, elected 1917. 
Term 6 months. Born 1879 
in Russia. Came to U. S. in 
1904. Received general Jew- 
ish education. Res.: 629 
E. 12th St. 

First Neustadter Cong., 159 

Rivington St. Orthodox. 
Org. 1905. Membership: 45. 
Seating capacity: 150. Bikur 
Cholim, Cemetery. Pres., 
Nathan Hartstein, 53 Pitt St. 
Sec'y, Israel Gottfried, 108 E. 
7th St. 

Hartstein, Nathan, Pres. 
First Neustadter Cong. (159 
Rivington St.), elected 1917. 
Term 6 months. Born 1883 
in Austria. Came to U. S. 

1913. Received general Jew- 
ish education. Res.: 53 Pitt 
St. 

First Niharer Berhometh Ben. 
K. V, v., 180 Stanton St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1910. Mem- 
bership: 85. Seating capac- 
ity: 50. Sick Benefit, Ceme- 
tery. Pres., Morris Lobel, 
2904 Atlantic Ave., B'klyn. 
Sec'y, Rev. Jacob Fuchs, 245 
Eldridge St. 

Lobe! Morris, Pres. First 
Nihaver Berhometh Ben. K. 
U. V. (180 Stanton St.), since 



CONGREGATIONS 



201 



1916. Term 6 months. Born 
1885 In Austria. Came to 
U. S. 1903. Received general 
Jewish and secular educa- 
tion. Cloaks and suits: 120 
W. 20th St. Res.: 2904 At- 
lantic Ave., B'klyn. 

First OeBtrelchcr Cherrah 
B'nnl Rabbi Moses Abbe, 87 

Ridge St. Orthodox. Org. 
1900. Membership: 60. 
Seating capacity: 90. Prea., 
Morris Schiff, 46 Ave. D. 
Sec'y, S . Woltzman, 13 4 
Columbia St. 

Schifl, Morris, Pres. First 
Oestrelcher Chevrah B'nal 
Rabbi Moses Abbe (87 Ridge 
St.), since 1916. Term 6 
months. Born 1881 in Aus- 
tria. Came to U. S. 1901. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Tailor. Res.: 46 
Ave. D. 

First Ostller Aid Soc^ 155 Suf- 
folk St. Orthodox. Org. 
1911. Membership: 90. 
Seating capacity, 100. Sick 
Benefit, Cemetery. Pres., 
Lipa Ouventhal. Sec'y, Bar- 
net Krongold, 599 E. 138th 
St 

Cong. First Ostrer Oheb 
Sholom, 133 Eldridge St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1896. Mem- 
bership: 125. Seating capac- 
ity: 300. Sick Benefit, Ceme- 
tery. Pres., Tsadore Fein, 
416 Van Brunt St., B'klyn. 
Sec'y, Charles Fortus, 248 
Broome St. 

First Radomer Cong., 57 St. 

Mark's PI. Orthodox. Org. 



19 13. Membership: 10 2. 
Seating capacity: 200. Sick 
Benefit, Insurance, Ceme- 
tery. Pres., Paul Moshkow- 
sky, 110 St. Mark's PI. 
Sec'y, Abraham Fishman, 
815 E. 161st St. 
Moshkowsky, P a n 1 , Pres. 
First Radomer Cong. (57 St. 
Marks PL), since 1916. 
Term 6 months. Born 1865 
in Russia. Came to U. S. 
1901. Received general Jew- 
ish education. Mfgr. chil- 
dren's clothes: 119 W. 23rd 
St. Res.: 110 St. Marks PL 

First Sokolover Cong. Ansliei 
Yosker, 144 Goerck St. Or- 
thodox. Org. 1893. Mem- 
bership: 130. Seating ca- 
pacity: 350. Cemetery, 
Study. Pres., Marcus Satler, 
265 Rivington St. Sec'y, 
Max Karpf, 134 Cannon St. 
Satler, Marcus, Pres. First 
Sokolover Cong. A n s h e i 
Tosher (144 Goerck St.), 
since 1916. Term 6 months. 
Born 186'4 in Austria. Came 
to U. S. 1899. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. Dry 
goods: 264 Rivington St. 
Res.: 265 Rivington St. 

First SondoTva Wisznia See, 

62 Pitt St. Orthodox. Org. 
1903. Membership: 60. Seat- 
ing capacity: 200. Sick 
Benefit, Insurance, Ceme- 
tery. Pres., Joseph 
Schwartz, 56 Willet St. 
Sec'y, L Shwammer, 170 
Rivington St. 

SchTvartz, Joseph, Pres. 
First Sondowa Wisznia Soc 



202 



rOHMfJNAl. RfiaiSTIBR 



'62 Fltt at.}, alnoe i»l<5 
Term 6 months. Born 187k 
m Russia. Came to U. S 
1900. Received general 
Jewish education. Under 
taker. Res.: 56 Wtllet St 

yinmt Trembovler Iv. Ij. V.» »6 

Attorney St. Orthodox. Org 
• 1897. Membership: 60. Seat- 
Ing capacity: 100. Cemetery 
Pres. Hirsch J. Schnopper. 
49 Clinton St. Sec'y, Max 
Schechter, 86 Attorney St. 
Schnopper, Hirsch J., Prea. 
First Trembovler K .U. V. 
(86 Attorney St.), elected 
1917. Term 6 months. Born 
1873 in Austria. Came to 
rj. S. 1900. Received general 
Jewish and secular educa- 
tion. Furrier. Res.: 49 Clinton 
St. 

l^'irst Umauer tJonj?., 56 Orch- 
ard St. Orthodox. Org. 
1907. Membership: 50 
Seating capacity: 55. Ceme- 
tery. Pres., Nathan Forman, 
316 Broome St. Sec'y, Abr 
Kaufman, 225 E, 99th St. 
Porman, Nathan, Pres. First 
Umaner Cong. (56 Orchard 
St.), since 1916. Term 6 
months. Born 1880 In Rus- 
8ia. Came to U. S. 1906 
Received general Jewish 
education Jeweler: 94 
Chrystie St. Res,: 316 
Broome St, 

nrst United Podhaycer Cong., 

126 Rivington St. Orthodox. 
Org. 1903. Membership: 54 
Seating capacity: 60, Insur 

.«n<;>ft k' y jn v t y r :• I 'it"" . 



Philip Teller, 210 £. 103rd 
St. Sec'y. H. Rosenman, SS 

Ave. B. 

Plr»t Usereclilcer K. C. V., 207 

K. 2nd St. Orthodox. Seat- 
ing capacity: 200. Pres.. 
Wolf liiebman, 13 So. 3d St 
B'klyn. Sec'y, Jonas Lieb 
man, 96 Rivington St 
Rabbi, Sol. Biller, 114 Essex 
St. 

First Warshauer Cong;., 5* 

Rivington St, . Orthodox 
Org. 1889. Membership: 
200. Seating capacity: 1200. 
Cemetery, Study. Pres., 
Ellas Shafer, 105 E. 10th St. 
Sec'y, Mr. Itshman, 86 Lud- 
low St. Rabbi, Mr. Shneier, 
97 Attorney St. 
Shafer, KUas, Pres. First 
Warshauer Cong. (58 Riv- 
ington St.), since 1916 
Term 1 year. Born 1875 In 
Russia. Came to U. S. 190?. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Hair goods: 111 
4th Ave. Res.: 105 E. lOtb 
St. 

CoMg. of *"^rst Washk-OiiritaeT 
Bakowlnian Sick B. S., 214 

E. 2nd St. Orthodox. Org 
19 2. Membership: 135 
Sick Benefit, Insurance, Free 
Loan. Pres., Adolph 
Luwisch, 146 B. Houston St 
Sec'y, Sam Sporn, 126 St. 
Marks PL Rabbi, Gerson 
Schachter, 189 E. 3rd St. 
Lnwliscb, Adolph, Pres. First 
Washkowitzer Sick B. S. (21 « 
B3. 2nd St.), since 1916. Term 
t) months. B<nti lSi87 in 



OONGRiSOAriONS 



20;^ 



Austria. Came to U. S. Id06 
Received general education. 
Clerk. Res,r 145 E Houston 
St 

Flr«t Zboravei Cong;., US 

Rld&e St. Orthodox. Org 
1896. Membership: 153. Seat- 
ing capacity: 300. Sick 
Benefit, Insurance, Free 
Loan. Cemetery, Study 
Pres., Chas. Hermalin, 214 
Rivington St. Sec'y and 
Rabbi, Zalel Rosen, 128 Riv- 
ington St. 

Herznalln, Charles, Pre£> 
First Zboraver Cong. (118 
Ridge St.), elected 1917. 
Term 6 months. Born 1883 
in Austria. Came to U. S 
1906. Received general Jew 
tsh and secular education 
Contractor: 827 Broadway 
Res.: 214 Rivington St. 

I<*lrst Zolaszer Ahavath Achiiu, 

118 Ridge St. Orthodox. 
Org. 1892. Membership: 115. 
Seating capacity: 250. Sick 
Benefit, Free Loan, Ceme- 
tery, Study. Pres., Nathan 
Metzger, 102 Suffolk St. 
Sec'y, Louis Friedman, 232 
Madison St. 

Metzger, Nathan, Pres. First 
Zolaszer Ahavath A c h i m 
Cong. (118 Ridge St.). 
elected 1917. Terra 6 
months. Born 1871 isi 
Austria. Came to U. S. 1890 
Received general Jewish 
education. Res.: 102 Snf 
folk St. 

P*ree Synagogue ( Reformed > . 

86 W 68th St What shall 



be the place of the Syna- 
gogue in the modern life 
has never been a question 
so warmly debated as it ip 
to-day. Should it devote 
itself exclusively to th«^ 
fostering of the formal re 
iigious life of the Jew, or 
should it take a more 
active and aggressive pari 
in Jewish Communal af- 
fairs of to-dayj as well as 
in those of the general 
communit3^ The Free Syn- 
agogue, organized in 1897. 
having to-day, a member- 
ship of approximately 1100. 
has attempted to answer 
this vital question by insti- 
tuting a series of activi- 
ties through which it 
brings home its distinctive 
message to all those whom 
It is able to reach — the mes- 
sage of ancient Judaism in 
terms of modern social 
service and civic life. 
The Synagogue conducts 
services on Sunday morn- 
ings at Carnegie Hall, the 
pulpit being occupied ater- 
nateiy by the Rabbi of the 
Free Synagogue, and prom- 
inent laymen of the Jewish 
and the Non-Jewish com- 
munities. The Synagogue 
maintains branches at Clin- 
ton Hall. 151 Clinton St. 
and Hunts Pt. Palace, 163rd 
St. and So. Boulevard, at 
which Friday evening ser- 
vices are held. For the 
training of the youth a re- 
ligious school is conducted 
with a special Bible class 
In ©aoh of the brancht^s 



204 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



A special feature of the 
work of the Synagogue is 
its Department of Social 
Service, the major activi- 
ties of which are co-opera- 
tion with the Medical Social 
Service Departments of 
Jewish and Non- Jewish 
Hospitals, in the social 
care of the siclc, and train- 
ing classes in volunteer 
social servfce. Special con- 
ferences and forums and 
vital social problems are 
also conducted as part of 
the work of this depart- 
ment. The officers of the 
Free Synagogue are: Pres., 
Henry Morgenthau; Sec'y, 
Frederich L. Guggenheim, 
86 W. 68th St. Rabbis, 
Stephen S. Wise, 23 W. 90th 
St.; Sidney E. Goldstein. 36 
W. 38th St. 

Henry Morgenthau was 

born in 1856 at Mannheim, 
Germany. When a boy of 
nine, he was brought to the 
United States where he re- 
ceived his education in Pub- 
lic and High Schools of New 
York City. He attended the 
College of the City of New 
York and Columbia Law 
School from which institu- 
tion he graduated in 1877 
with the degree of Bachelor 
of Laws. From 1879 to 1899 
Mr. Morgenthau was a mem- 
ber of the law firm of 
Lachman, Morgenthau and 
Goldsmith. While practising 
law, Mr. Morgenthau became 
interested in the real estate 
development of New York 
City. He took a leading part 



In the development , of the 
Bronx and other outlying 
districts of New York City. 
He is affiliated with a num- 
ber of great real estate 
companies, such as Central 
Realty Bond and Trust Co., 
Henry Morgenthau Com- 
pany, and Herald Square 
Realty Co. 

Mr. Morgenthau is very 
prominent in Democratic 
politics. He was the chair- 
man of the Financial Com- 
mittee of the Democratic 
National Committee in the 
Presidential campaigns of 
1912 and 1916. 

In 191S Mr. Morgenthau was 
appointed American Ambas- 
sador to Turkey. 
The war which broke out a 
year after his appointment 
added much to the duties 
and importance of the post 
held by Mr. Morgenthau. In 
the course of the war, Mr. 
Morgenthau took charge of 
the Interests In Turkey of 
such powers as Great Brit- 
ain, France, Italy, Russia, 
Belgium, Montenegro, San 
Marino, and Servla. It was 
through his efforts that the 
lives of thousands of mis- 
sionaries and subjects of 
countries at war with Tur- 
key were saved during the 
early months of the war. In 
addition, Mr. Morgenthau 
was very active In the dis- 
tribution of relief funds In 
Turkey and It Is largely 
due to him that the Jewish 
colonies In Palestine were 
not destroyed in the first 



CONGBBGATIONS 



outbreak of the fury of the 
war. In 1915 Mr. Morgen- 
thau resigned his post and 
came to America to help in 
the campaign for the re- 
election of President Wilson. 
Mr. Morgenthau has always 
taken a very lively interest 
In Jewish affairs. He is the 
President of the Free Syna- 
gogue and a Director of Mt. 
Sinai Hospital. He is inter- 
ested in all work that is 
done in Palestine. He is also 
very prominently connected 
with relief work. 

Gemllath Chasodlm A n s h e i 
Motele, 245 Division St. Or- 
' thodox. Org. 1904. Member- 
ship: 73. Seating capacity: 
150. Sick Benefit, Free 
Loan, Cemetery. Pres., 
Philip Skolnick, 15 Eldridge 
St. Sec'y, Max Hilfman, 709 
E. 9th St. 

Skolnick, Philip, Pres. Gem- 
llath Chasodim A n s h e i 
Motele (245 Division St.), 
elected 1917. Term 1 year. 
Born 1875 in Russia. Came 
to U. S. 1904. Received 
general Jewish education. 
Clothing: 319 Grand St. 
Res.: 15 Eldridge St. 

Congr. Gemllath Chesed K.U.V., 

100 Cannon St. Orthodox. 
Org. 1882. Membership: 80. 
Seating capacity: 568. Sick 
Benefit, Bikur Cholim, Ceme- 
tery, Study. Pres., Jacob 
Feder, 85 Lewis St. Sec'y, 
Nathan L. Riff, 62 Cannon 
St. Rabbi, Louis Goldberger. 
314 E. 3rd St. 



Jacob Feder, Pres. Gemllath 
Chesed K. U. V. (100 Can- 
non St.), since 1916. Term 
6 months. Born 1865 In 
Hungary. Came to U, S. 
1886. Received general Jew- 
ish education. Shochet. Res.: 
85 Lewis St. 

Consr* Glelgreshudler U. V., 3U 

Norfolk St. Orthodox. Org. 
1913. Membership: 36. 
Seating capacity: 100. 
Cemetery. Pres., Sam Ros- 
enberg, 30 Norfolk St. Sec'y. 
Benj. Rosenberg, 150 Clinton 
St. 

Roscnbergr, Sam, Pres. Cong. 
Gleigeshudler U. V. (30 
Norfolk St.), elected 1917. 
Term 6 months. Born 1865 
in Russia. Came to U. S. 
1909. Received general Jew- 
ish education. Res.; 30 Nor- 
folk St. 

Glograuer Verb mdemnsa 
Verein, 328 E. Houston St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1898. Mem- 
bership; 46. Seating capac- 
ity; 100. Cemetery. Pres., 
Hyman Rengel, 210 Stanton 
St. Sec'y, Aslas Braunstein, 
264 Rlvlngton St. 

Gluboker Cong:., 9 Rutgers St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1911. Mem- 
bership: 18. Seating capac- 
ity: 100. Sick Benefit, In- 
surance, Free Loan, Malbish 
Arumim, Blkur Cholim, 
Cemetery, Study. Pres., Da- 
vid Watskan, 709 E. 5th St. 
Sec'y, Z. Adelson, 394 Grand 
St. 

Watskan, David, Pres. Glu- 
boker Cong. (9 Rutgers St.), 



206 



OOMMUNAL KKGliSTKR 



since 1916. Term 6 months 
Born 1879 in Russia, Came 
to U. S. 1903. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education 
Painter: 219 Henry St R<^a 
709 f; =;th St 



liebrew League, 214 E. B'way. 
Orthodox. Org. 1904. Mem- 
bership: 150. Seating ca- 
pacity: 175. Benevolent Soc. 
Study. Pres., Benj. Koenigs- 
berg, 68 Pitt St. Sec'y, S. 
Perlstein, 299 Broome St. 

Koenigsbergr* Benjamin, 

Pres. Hebrew League (214 
E. B'way), since 1915. Term 
I year. Born 1884 in Aus- 
tria. Came to U. S. 1889. 
Received education at sev- 
eral Talmudical institutions, 
public school, C. C 
N. y. and N. Y. U. Lawyer: 
99 Nassau St. Res.: 68 Pitt 
St. 



Hebrew Tabernacle Ass'n., 220 

W. 130th St. Conservative, 
English Sermon. Org. 1905. 
Membership: 90. Seating 
capacity : 850. Hebrew 
School, Sisterhood, Young 
Folks' League. Pres., Abr. 
Arndt, 108 Fulton St. Sec'y, 
Adolf Schwartzbaum, 351 St 
.Vicbolas Ave. Rabbi, E 
Lissmau. 1887 7th Ave. 

.4.mdt, Abraham, Pres 
Hebrew Tabernacle Ass'n. 
.220 W. 130th St.); elected 
1917 Term 1 year Born 



1889 In N. Y. Received 
public s c h o 0.1 education 
Insurance Res,: 108 Pulton 

St, 



« hevrah Help of Israel Anshel 
Ranlzow, 147 Attorney St 
Orthodox. Org. 1896. Mem- 
bership: 62. Seating capac- 
ity: 300. Cemetery. Pres.. 
Tobias Fas.s, 67 Willett St 
Sec'y, Max Reich, 84 Sheriff 
St. 

Fass, Toblas), Pres. Chevrah 
Help of Israel Anshei Rani- 
5! o w (147 Attorney St.). 
elected 1917. Term 6 
months. Born 1889 in Aus- 
tria. Came to U. S. 1899 
Received general Jewish 
education. Butcher. Res.: 
67 Willett St. 



C' (> u j; . Uungrariau Chevraii 

Bachurim, 297 E. 3d St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1889. Mem- 
bership: 242. Seating ca- 
pacity: 815. Pres., Max 
Greenwald, 113 Cannon St. 
Sec'y, Morris Spielberger, 
740 E. 5th St. Rabbi, Leo 
Goldberger, 314 E. 3d St. 
Cjireenvrald, Max, Pres. Cong 
Hungarian Chevrah Bachu- 
rim (297 E. 3d St.), sine? 
1916. Term 6 months. 
Born 1873 in Hungary 
Came to U. S. 1887. Re 
eeived general Jewish edu 
cation. Grocer: 119 Cannoji 
St Res : 113 Cannon St 



eONtmtXiATlON!!!! 



207 



i'un^. uf lluut'n Point Tal- 
mud Torah, 1019 Garrison 
Ave. Orthodox. Org. 1916 
Membership: 200. Seating 
capacity: 3(J0. Hebrev. 
School, Malbish Aruniim, Sis 
terliood, Brotiierhood. Pres, 
Samuel Saffer, 820 Manidt* 
St. Sec'y, Max Zeipler. 101 ^ 
<.Tarrison St. 

fnd. Chevrah Choehniath Adam 
Miplinsk. 65 E. 3rc3 Si. 
Orthodox. Org. 1875, Mem 
bership: 150. Seating capac- 
ity: 450. Sick Benefit, Ceme- 
tery. Pres., Louis Fox, 199 
Keap St., B'klyn. Sec'y, 
Louis Rubov/sky, 46 Reid 
Ave., B'klyn. Rabbi, I. J. Es- 
tersohn, 81 Wlllett St. 
Fox, Louis, Pres. Ind. Chev- 
rah Chochmath Adam Mi- 
plinsk (65 E. .3rd St.), since 
19^5. Term 1 year. Born 
1875 In Russia. Came to U. 
S. 1892. Received general 
Jewish education. Manu- 
facturer, 573 Metropolitan 
Ave., B'klyn. Res.: 199 Keap 
St.. B'klyn. 

iQd. Chevrah Babbl Melr 
PrzemyzloTver, 36 Pitt St 
Orthodox. Org. 1902. Mem- 
bership: 20. Seating capac- 
ity: 150. Sick Benefit, Free 
Loan, Brotherhood, Slstei ■ 
hood, Blkur Cholim Soc, 
Cemetery. Pres., Simcha 
Shlitin, 172 Delancey St. 
Sec'y, I. Feld, 341 E. 3rd St 
Shlitin, Slmoha, Pres. Ind 
Chevrah Rabbi Meir Przemy- 
ilower (36 Pitt St.), elected 
1917 Term 6 months Bom 



1872 In Auatrla Came t«' 
U. S, 1916, Received gen 
eral Jewish and secular 
education. Res.: 172 De- 
ianeey St. 

IimJ» ioM^. AchJni >!iiiiali.ov«T. 

i'S. Attorney St. Orthodox, 
Org. 1902, Membership: 39 
Seating capacity: 100 
Cemetery. Pres., M o r r i .^ 
Hiller. 38 Suffolk St. Sec'y. 
Charles Grpenb*-rg, 416 
rjrand Bt. 

Ind. GwosBdaleeer, 125 Riving 
ton St Orthodox. Org 
1909. Me m be r s hi p: 120. 
Seating capacity: 120. Sick 
Benefit, Life Insurance, 
Cemetery. Pres., Ab. Green - 
berg, 144 Norfolk St. Sec'y. 
G- Greenberg, 261 Stanton 
St. 

Greenberg, Abraham, Pr^ji. 
fnd. Gwozdziecer (125 Riv 
ington St.), since 191;: 
Term 6 montiis. Born 187'z 
in Austria, Came to U. 8 
!.906, Received general 
Jewish and secular educa 
tion. E'ixtures. Res: 14 i 
Xorfolk Si. 

ind. Jaryehasover Y. 5i. B. A., 

90 Columbia St. Orthodox 
Org. 1901. Membership; 7;< 
Seating capacity: 150. Ceme 
eery. Pres., Louis Lacher 
155 Essex St. Sec'y, Mas 
Hecht, 253 Stanton St. 
Lacher, L<oufii», Pres. Ind 
Jaryehzover Y. M- B. A. (90 
Columbia St.), since 1916 
Term 6 months. Born ISiib 
ifi .Xuetria Canic i-. t' S 



208 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



1904. Received general Jew- 
ish and secular education. 
Tailor; 117 Essex St. Res.: 
155 Essex St. 

Ind. Kaluszer K. U. V^ 125 

Rivington St. Orthodox. 
Org. 1900. Membership: 
125. Seating capacity: 100. 
Sick Benefit, Bikur Cholim, 
Cemetery. Pres., Nathan 
Schneider, 84 Ave. B. Sec'y, 
M. Demner, 214 E. 3d St. 

Ind. K'nesseth Israel, 55 Hester 

St. Orthodox. Org. 1905. 
Membership: 450. Seating 
capacity: 215. Sick Benefit, 
Free Loan, Cemetery, Study. 
Pres., Moses Miskind, 79 
Clinton St. Sec'y, Zavel 
Newman, 306 Henry St. 
3Iisklnd, Moses, Pres. Cong. 
Ind, K'nesseth Israel (55 
Hester St.), since 1914. Term 
1 year. Born 1860 In Russia. 
Came to U. S. 1890. Re- 
ceived general Jewish edu- 
cation. Hebrew book store: 
79 Clinton St. 

Ind. Kolhushover B'mal Levi, 

438 E. Houston St. Ortho- 
dox. Org. 1902. Member- 
ship: 100. Seating capacity: 
160. Sick Benefit, Cemetery. 
Pres., H. Stein, 9 Livingston 
PI. Sec'y, S. Seidln. 385 E. 
3rd St. 

Ind. Kolomayer K. U. V., 180 

Stanton St. Orthodox. Org. 
1915. Membership: 50. Seat- 
ing capacity: 125. Cemetery. 
Pres. Max Geffner. 103 Nor- 
folk St. Sec'y, Joseph Aus- 
fresser, 639 E. 9th St. 



Geffner, Max, Pres. Ind. Kolo- 
mayer K. U. V. (180 Stanton 
St.), since 1915. Term 6 
months. Born 1865 in Aus- 
tria. Came to U. S. 1898. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Res.: 103 Nor- 
folk St. 

Ind. Kosher Butcher Retail- 
ers* Ass'n, 203 Henry St. 
Orthodox. Membership, 80. 
Seating capacity: 275. Sick 
Benefit. Pres., Wolf Grab- 
lowsky. Sec'y, Mr. Mus- 
kovltch, 136 Columbia St. 
Rabbi, Joseph Margolis, 207 
Monroe St. 

Ind. Ottyner Family K, U. V., 

86 Attorney St. Orthodox. 
Org. 1905. Membership: 50. 
Seating capacity: 100. Sick 
Benefit, Free Loan, Ceme- 
tery. Pres. Jacob Friesner, 
242 E. B'way. Sec. SolOmon 
Kauder, 236 South 1st St., 
B'klyn. 

Friesner, Jacob, Pres. Ind. 
Ottynier Family K. U. V. (86 
Attorney St.), since 1916. 
Term 6 months. Born 1856 
in Austria. Came to U. S. 
1890. Received general Jew- 
ish education. Real estate 
and insurance. Res.: 242 E. 
B'way. 

Institutional Synagogme, 112 

W. 116th St. The Institu- 
1 o n a 1 Synagogue, estab- 
lished and Incorporated In 
1917, Is an attempt to 
answer in a concrete way 
the problem of the function 
of the Synagogue In modern 
Jewish life. 



CONGREGATIONS 



' The central idea of the In- 
stitutional Synagogue Is 
that the Synagogue of to- 
day must become the Jew- 
ish community center 
which it was in former 
periods of Jewish history. 
It must be not only a house 
of worship, but must gather 
under its roof all forms of 
communal activities, rang- 
ing from the relief of the 
poor to the recreation and 
education of the youth. 

The Institutional S y n a- 
gogue has accordingly en- 
couraged the organization 
,of a Y. M. H. A., and con- 
ducts a religious school, 
and a synagogue under 
one roof; conducts weekly 
forums at the Mount Mor- 
ris Theatre, 116th St. and 
5th Ave., on Sunday morn- 
ings. The officers are: 
Pres., Isaac Siegel, 104 E. 
116th St.; Sec'y, Maxwell L. 
Sacks, 351 E. 77th St.; Ex- 
ecutive Head, Rabbi Her- 
bert S. Goldstein, 1893 7th 
Ave. 

Siegel, Isaac, Pres. Insti- 
tutional Synagogue (112 W. 
116th St.), elected 1917. 
Term 1 year. Born 1880 in 
U. S. Received public school 
education. Representative in 
Congress. Lawyer: 51 Cham- 
bers St. Res.: 104 E. 116th 
St. 

Temple Israel of Harlem, 205 

Lenox Ave. Reformed. Ser- 
mon English. Org. 1880. 
Membership: 138. Seating 



capacity: 1500. Cemetery. 
Pres., Daniel P. Hays, 115 
B'way. Sec'y, David Liv- 
ingstone, 205 W. 112th St. 
Rabbi, Maurice H. Harris, 
254 W. 103d St. 

Hays, Daniel P., Pres. Tem- 
ple Israel of Harlem (205 
Lenox Ave.), since 1892. 
Term 1 year. Born 1854 in 
U. S. Received college and 
legal education. Lawyer: 115 
Broadway. 



Temple Israel of Washington 
Heights, 587 W. 181st St. 
Conservative. English Ser- 
mon. Org. 1914. Member- 
ship: 30. Seating capacity: 
275. Sunday School; Ladles' 
Auxiliary; Young Folks' 
League. Pres. Gustave 
Fialla, 803 W. 180th St. 
Sec'y, B. Horowitz, 5 Pine- 
hurst Ave. 

Fialla, Gu.sta\e, Pres. Tem- 
ple Israel of Washington 
Heights (587 W. 181st St.). 
elected 1917. Term 1 year. 
Born 1878 in Germany. 
Came to U. S. 1893. Attended 
high school in Germany. 
Wholesale Liquors: 85 9th 
Ave. Res.: 803 W. 180th St. 



Ind. Shobosbiner Cong., 90 

Columbia St. Orthodox. 
Org. 1911. Membership: 55. 
Seating capacity: 400. Ceme- 
tery. Pres.. Abraham Beg- 
lelter, 473 E. Houston St. 
Sec'y, Hyman Weinblatt, 75 
Columbia St. 



210 



COMMUNAL REGISTBB 



Jasrolnlcser K. U. V., 17 Ave. 
A. Orthodox. Org. 1902. 
Membership: 137. Seating 
capacity: 100. Sick Benefit, 
Insurance, Cemetery. Pres., 
Morris Mintzer, 52 Marcy 
Ave., B'klyn. Sec'y, Wm. 
Hornick, 370 Miller Ave., 
B'klyn. 

mi 1 n t B e r , Morris, Pres. 
Jagolniczer K. U. V. (17' 
Ave. A), elected 1917. Born 
1874 in Austria. Came to 
U. S. 1893. Received gen- 
eral Jewish and secular 
education. Cleaning and 
dyeing: 405 Grand St. Res.: 
52 Marcy Ave., B'klyn. 



Kehlllah Kedosha of Jan- 
nlna, 98 Forsyth St. Ortho- 
dox. Org. 1916. Seating ca- 
pacity: 800. Pres., Chaim S. 
Baruch, 297 Broome St. 
Sec'y, Aaron S a d o c k , 99 
Green St. 

Baruch, Chaim S., Pres. 
Kehlllah Kedosha of Jan- 
nina (98 Forsyth St.), since 
1916. Term 3 years. Born 
1855 in Turkey. Came to 
U. S. 1911. Received general 
Jewish education. Mfgr. 
kimonos: 81 Allen St. Res.: 
297 Broome St. 



Jaroslower Congr., K. V. V., 

86 Attorney St. Orthodox. 
Org. 1889. Membership: 120. 
Seating capacity: 300. Sick 
Benefit. Free Loan. Ceme- 
tery. Pres., Morris Bruck- 
ner, 161 Ridge St. Sec'y, E. 



Bruckner, 316 W. 111th St. 
Bruckner, Morris, Pres. Jar- 
oslower Cong., K. U. V. (86 
Attorney St.), elected 1917. 
Term 6 months. Born 1875 
in Gallcia. Came to U. S. 
1902. Received general 
Jewish education. Fish 
dealer. Res.: 161 Ridge St. 

Jassy Roumanian Bohusher 
Con?., 17'4 E. Houston St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1903. Seat- 
ing capacity: 140. Study. 
Pres., Samuel Goldstein, 163 
E. Houston St. Sec'y, Eli- 
jah Eisman, 180 E. 2nd St. 
Goldstein, Samuel, Pres. 
Jassy Roumanian Bohusher 
Cong. (176 E. Houston St.), 
since 1914. Term 6 months. 
Born in Roumania. Re- 
ceived general Jewish edu- 
cation. Painter: 212 For- 
syth St. Res.: 163 E. Hous- 
ton St. 

Congr. Jehudah Halevi, 166th St. 

and Morris Ave. Orthodox. 
English Sermon. Org. 1906. 
Membership: 55. Seating ca- 
pacity: 350. Hebrew School, 
Sisterhood, Charitable Aid, 
Study. Pres., Samuel D. 
Reich, 1066 Morris Ave. 
Sec'y, William Klapp, 1025 
Teller Ave. Rabbi, J. Blen- 
enfeld, 1382 College Ave. 
Relchi, Sam !>., Pres. Jehudah 
Halevi (166th St. and Morris 
Ave.), since 1915. Term 1 
year. Born 1868 In Austria. 
Came to U. S. 1888. Attended 
high school. Cloaks: 33 E. 
33d St. Res.: 1066 Morris 
Ave. 



CONGREGATIONS 



211 



J*«»huath Jacob Anshei Hora- 
deser, 203 Henry St. Ortho- 
dox. Org. 1902. Member- 
ship: 144. Seating- capacity: 
200. Sick Benefit, Free Loan, 
Sisterhood, Cemetery, Study. 
■ Pres., B. Dubin, 9 B. 107th 
St. Sec'y, J. Kaplansky, 187 
Clinton St. 

Dubin, Barnett, Pres. J'shu- 
ath Jacob Anshei Horo- 
dezer (203 Henry St.), since 
1917. Term 1 year. Born 

1869 in Russia. Came to U. 
S. 1901. Received public 
school education. Butcher: 
9 E. 107th St. Res.: 9 E. 
107th St. 

Cong. J'shuath Jacob Anshei 
Krakow, &8 Willett St. 
Orthodox. Orgr. 1916. Mem- 
bership: 130. Seating ca- 
pacity: 350. Free Loan, Bi- 
kur Cholim Soc, Cemetery, 
Study. Pres., Jacob W. Ene- 
man, 51 Willett St. Sec'y, 
Manes Susskind, 82 Sheriff 
St. 

Eneman, Jacob W., Pres. 
J'shuath Jacob Anshei Kra- 
kow (58 Willett St.), since 
1916. Term 6 months. Born 

1870 In Austria. Came to 
U. S. 1900. Received general 
Jewish education. Eggs. 
Res.: 51 Willett St. 

Chevrah Judah and Israel, 32 

Rutgers St. Orthodox. 
Membership: 700. Seating 
capacity: 480. Ladies' Soc, 
Sick Benefit, Cemetery, 
Study. Pres. and Rabbi, 
Louis Lazarow, 963 Kelly 



St. Sec'y, Rev. H. Plotkin, 
126 North 4th St., B'klyn. 
Lazarow, Louis, Pres. Chev- 
rah Judah and Israel (32 
Rutgers St.), since 1913. 
Born 1870 in Russia. Came 
to U. S. 1900. Studied at 
Voloshiner Yeshivah. Res.: 
963 Kelly St. 

Betli Hak'nessetli Kapolier 

U. v., 12 Eldridge St. Ortho- 
dox. Org. 1886. Member- 
ship: 275. Seating capacity: 
340. Sick Benefit, Insurance, 
Free Loan, Cemetery. Pres., 
Abraham Smith, 10 Eldridge 
St. Sec'y, Abraham Sedof- 
sky, 80 E. 7th St. 
Smitli, Abraham, Pres. Beth 
Hak'nesseth Kapolier U, V. 
(12 Eldridge St.); elected 
1917. Term 6 months. Born 
1867 in Russia. Came to U. 
S. 1897. Received education 
in Capuller Yeshivah. Res.: 
10 Eldridge St. 

Karat chiner Rubin Chevrah, 

102 Attorney St. Orthodox. 
Org. 1889. Membership: 103. 
Seating capacity: 365. Free 
Loan, Hebrew School, 
Ladies' Auxiliary, Cemetery, 
Study. Pres., Mendel Roth, 
219 E. 7th St. Sec'y. G. 
Zwebel, 11 Ridge St. 
Roth, Mendel, Pres. Karat- 
chiner Rubin Chevrah (102 
Attorney St.), since 1916. 
Term 6 months. Born 1870 
in Austria. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. Res.: 
219 E. 7th St. 

Cherrah Kedushath Levy Ml- 

harltshov, 178 Delancey St. 



212 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



Orthodox. Org. 1890. Mem- 
bership: 80. Seating- capac- 
ity: 260. Sick Benefit, Free 
Loan, Sisterhood, Cemetery. 
Pres., Morris Nathanson, 224 
South 3d St., B'lclyn. Sec'y, 
Meyer Lemonilc, 269 Division 
St. Rabbi, Samuel Seidener, 
14 Cannon St. 

Cong. Kehillath Israel. 1162 
Jackson Ave. Orthodox. Org. 
1905. Membership: 98. Seat- 
ing- capacity: 325. Hebrew 
School, Study, Cemetery. 
Pres., J. Dvorkin, 1223 Union 
Ave. Sec^ Louis Gottsall, 
253 W. 89th St. Rabbi, Dr. 
E. L. Solomon, 631 E. 168th 
St. 

Dvorkin, Julius, Pres. Kehil- 
lath Israel (1162 Jackson 
Ave.), since 1914. Term 1 
year. Born 1866 in Russia. 
Came to U. S. 1887. Received 
a thorough Jewish educa- 
tion. Mfgr. clothing: 9 Uni- 
versity PI. Res.: 1223 Union 
Ave. 

Cong. Kehillath Jacob Anshel 
Uleseritch, 71 Suffolk St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1891. Mem- 
bership: 50. Seating capac- 
ity: 120. Cemetery, Study. 
Pres., M. Segal, 82 Bayard 
St. Sec'y. Elijah Zellner, 61 
Rodney St. B'klyn. 
Segal, M., Pres. Cong. Kehil- 
lath Jacob Anshel Meseritch 
(71 Suffolk St.), since 1916. 
Term 6 months. Born 1867 
in Poland. Came to U. S. 
1897. Received general Jew- 
ish education. Grocer, Res.: 
82 Bayard St. 



Cong. Kehillath Jeshuruu, 117 

E. 85th St. Orthodox. Org. 
1890. Membership: 100. 
Seating capacity: 800. Ceme- 
tery, Study. Pres., Moses H. 
Phillips, 40 E. 83d St. Rabbi, 
Moses S. Margolls, 1225 
Madison Ave. 

Phillips, Moses Hlrsch, Pres. \ 
Cong. Kehillath Jeshurun 
(117 E. 85th St.), since 1915. 
Term 1 year. Born 1846 in 
Russia. Came to U. S. 1881. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Mfgr. shirts: 1150 
B'way. Res.: 40 E^ 83d St. 

K'hal Adath Jeshurun, 1275 
Hoe Ave. Orthodox. Org. 
1914. Membership: 75. Seat- 
ing capacity: 500. School. 
Cemetery. Sec'y, Moses Ben- 
jamin, 1500 Boston Road. 
Rabbi, Israel Flax, 1503 
Charlotte Ave. 

Cong. K'hal Adath Jeshurun 
and Anshel Lubz, 16 El- 

dridge St. Orthodox. Org. 
1873. Membership: 150. 
Seating capacity: 740. Cem- 
etery, Study. Pres., Lewis 
Bloom, 152 Rodney St., 
B'klyn. Sec'y, Ch. Kandel, 
98 Essex St. 

Bloont, Lewis, Pres. Cong. 
K'hal Adath Jeshurun and 
Anshel Lubz (16 Eldridge 
St.), since 1916. Term 1 
year. Born 1865 In Russia. 
Came to U. S. 1892. Received 
general Jewish education. 
Jeweler. Res.: 152 Rodney 
St., B'klyn. 

K'hal Adath Jeshurun of Har- 
lem, 63 E. 113th St. Ortho- 



CONGREGATIONS 



218 



dox. Membership: 76. Seat- 
ing capacity: 450. Cemetery, 
Study. Pres., Samuel Bron- 
erwan, 23 E. 124th St. Sec'y, 
Mr. Aaronson, 115 E. 113th 
St. Rabbi, Mr. Fried, 17 W. 
115th St. 

Bronerwan, Samuel, Pres. 
K'hal Adath Jeshurun (63 E. 
113th St.), since 1915. Term 
6 months. Born 1874 in 
Russia. Came to U. S. 1886. 
Received general Jewish 
and secular education. Furs: 
42 E. B'way. Res.: 23 E. 
124th St. 

Cons. K'hal Chasidlm, 9 Attor- 
ney St. Orthodox. Org. 
1914. Mem b er ship: 800. 
Seating capacity: 200. 
Linath Hazedelc Soc. Ceme- 
tery,Study. Pres. and Rabbi, 
David M. Twersky, 9 Attor- 
ney St. Sec'y, Anshel Ged- 
rlch, 9 Attorney St. 
Twersky, David M., Pres. 
Cong. K'hal Chasidim (9 
Attorney St.), since 1914. 
Born 1888 in Russia. Came 
to U. S. 1913. Received 
thorough Jewish education. 
Rabbi. Res.: 9 Attorney St. 

K'hal Chasidim Anshel Kuro- 
nltz, 237 Division St. Ortho- 
dox. Org. 1893. Member- 
ship: 90. Seating capacity: 
110. Free Loan, Cemetery, 
Study. Pres., Aaron Gordon, 
58 E. 3rd St. Sec'y, David 
Ginsberg, 35 Rutgers St. 
Gordon, Aaron, Pres. K'hal 
Chasidim Anshel Kuronitz 
(237 Division St.), since 1913. 
Term 1 year. Born 1875 in 



Russia. Came to U. S. 1906. 
Received general Jewish and 
secular education. Carpen- 
try and painting. Res.: 58 
East 3d St. 

Conirregration K'hal Chasidim 
Anshel Razan, 48 Attor- 
ney St. Orthodox. Org. 
1916. Membership: 40. Seat- 
ing capacity: 200. Cemetery. 
Pres., Simon Osterlitz, 71 E. 
105th St. Sec'y, Abraham 
Feldman, 192 Henry St. 
Rabbi, Abraham J. Rosen- 
thal, 46 Pitt St. 
Osterlitz, Simon, Pres. Chev- 
rah K'hal Chasidim Anshei 
Razan (48 Attorney St.), 
since 1917. Term 6 months. 
Born 1866 in Russia. Came 
to U. S. 1907. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. Em- 
broidery. Res.: 71 E. 105th 
St. 

lil'nesseth Beth Israel, S47 E. 

121st St. Orthodox. Mem- 
bership: 32. Seating capac- 
ity: 500. Cemetery, Study. 
Pres., Harry Chaimowitz, 
1486 5th Ave. Sec'y, Mr. 
Slinkensteln, 427 E. 121st St. 
Rabbi, L. Schapiro, 334 B. 
121st St. 

Chaimowitz, Harry, Pres. 
K'nesseth Beth Israel (347 
E. 121st St.), since 1907. 
Term 1 year. Born 1874 in 
Russia. Came to U. S. 1893. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Painter: 57 E. 
125th St. Res.: 1486 5th Ave. 

Kolbnszow^er Teltelbanm Cong, 
B'nal Chaim Machneh Ren- 



214 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



ben, 622 B. 5th St. Ortho- 
dox. Org- 1890. Member- 
ship: 170. Seating capacity: 
725. Insurance, Free Loan, 
Cemetery. Pres., Louis Hy- 
man, 206 Stanton St. Sec'y, 
S. Braunhut, 79 Lewis St. 
Hyman, Louis, Pres. Kolbus- 
zower Teitelbaum Cong. B'nai 
Chaim Machneh Reuben (622 
E. 5th St.), since 1916. Term 
6 months. Born 1862 in 
Austria. Came to U. S. 1897. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Egg dealer, 117 
Ridge St. Res.: 206 Stanton 
St. 

Kol Israel Anshel Poland, 20 

Forsyth St. Orthodox. Org. 
1892. Membership: 180. 
Seating capacity: 850. In- 
surance, Cemetery, Study. 
Pres., Israel Levy, 128 St. 
Nicholas Ave. Sec'y, Max 
Doctor. 236 Madison St. 
(Branch at 24 W. 114th St.) 

Kol Israel Anshel Poland, 2'4 

W. 114th St. Orthodox. 
Org. 1902. Membership: 25. 
Seating capacity 1100. 
Cemetery, Study. Pres., 
Israel Levy, 128 St. Nicholas 
Ave. Sec'y, Benjamin Feln- 
berg, 145 W. 111th St. 
(Branch: 22 Forsyth St.) 
Levy, Israel, Pres. Kol 
Israel Anshel Poland (24 W. 
114th St.), since 1909. Born 
1851 In Russia. Came to U. 
S. 1867. Received thorough 
Jewish education. Retired. 
Res.: 128 St. Nicholas Ave. 

Komenets Podolla and Zito- 
mer W^ohlln, 52 Attorney St 



Orthodox. Org. 1901. Mem- 
bership: 260. Seating capac- 
ity: 375. Insurance, Ceme- 
tery, Study. Pres., Jacob 
Zeldman, 236 E. 6th St. 
Sec'y, Jacob Landau, 600 
Van Sicklen Ave., B'klyn. 
Zeldman, Jacob, Pres. Kom- 
enetz Podolla and Zitomer 
Wohlin (52 Attorney St.); 
elected 1917. Term 6 months. 
Born 1860 in Russia. Came 
to U. S. 1888. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. Res.: 
236 E. 6th St. 

Cong-. Koreth B'rlth Anshel 
S'phard, 80 Columbia St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1892. Mem- 
bership: 58. Seating capac- 
ity: 120. Life Insurance, 
Cemetery. Pres., Louis 
Kalish, 297 Rivlngton St. 
Sec'y, Morris Kleinman, 33 
Ave. C. Rabbi, F. Sassover, 
63 Pitt St. 

Kalish, Louis, Pres. Koreth 
B'rith Anshel S'phard (80 
Columbia St.), since 1916. 
Term 6 months. Born 1871 
in Austria. Came to U. S. 
1886. Received general Jew- 
ish and secular education. 
Res.: 297 Rivlngton St. 

Krakavrer Simon Schrelber 
Cong., 75 Lenox Ave. Or* 
thodox. Org. 1887. Mem- 
bership: 100. Seating ca- 
pacity: 5 . Cemetery. 
Pres., L Levy, 522 W. 160th 
St. Sec'y, Henry Herzog. 
204 W. 121st St. 

Krakovvitzer K. V. V., 10 Ave. 

D. Orthodox. Org. 1899. 



CONGREGATIONS 



215 



Membership; 45. Sick Bene- 
fit, Cemetery. Pres., Sam 
Isaacs, 393 E. 8th St. Sec'y, 
Jos. Kalter, 585 Hudson 
Ave., West N. Y., N. J. 
lEUiacs, Sam, Pres. Krako- 
witzer K. U. V. (10 Ave. D), 
since 1916. Term 6 months. 
Born 1860 in Austria. Came 
to U. S. 1882. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. 
Butcher: 207 Ave. B. Res.: 
393 E. 8th St. 

Chevrah Kreshover K. U. V., 

90 Columbia St. Orthodox. 
Org. 1908. Membership: 60. 
Sick Benefit, Cemetery. 
Pres., Sam Student, 758 E. 
168th St. Sec'y, Aaron Aps- 
baum, 6 10 Oak Terrace. 
Rabbi, Benjamin Trip, 86 
Lewis St. 

Stndemt, Sam, Pres. Chevrah 
Kreshover K. U. V. (90 
Columbia St.), elected 1917. 
Term 6 months. Born 1887 
In Russia. Came to U. S. 
1908. Received general 
Jewish education. Knitting: 
362 E. 146th St. Res.: 758 
B. 168th St. 

Lantzer U. V., 130 Columbia 
St. Orthodox. Org. 1890. 
Membership: 160. Seating 
capacity: 75. Sick Benefit, 
Insurance, Free Loan, Bikur 
Cholim, Cemetery, Study. 
Pres., Sam Price, 341 E. 83d 
St. Sec'y, Jacob Unger, 443 
E. Houston St. 



Membership: 100. Seating 
capacity: 300. Ladies' Aux- 
iliary, Cemetery. Pres.. 
Mordecai Lintzer, 94 Attor- 
ney St. Sec'y, Aaron Swel- 
fach, 259 Sack man St., 
B'klyn. 

Lintzer, Mordecai, Pres. 
Chevrah Lecheth Y o s h e r 
B'nai Horwitz (317 E. 8th 
St.), elected 1917. Term 6 
months. Born 1863 in Aus- 
tria. Came to U. S. 1899. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Res.: 94 Attor- 
ney St. 

Llnath Hacedek Anshet Ros* 
dol, 110 Ridge St. Orthodox. 
Org. 1893. Membership: 65. 
Seating capacity: 200. Sick 
Benefit, Cemetery, Study. 
Pres., Morris Ratner, 134 
Pitt St. Sec'y, Isaac Pater, 
130 Attorney St. 
Ratner, Morris, Pres. Linath 
Hazedek Anshei Rosdol (110 
Ridge St.), elected 1917. 
Term 6 months. Born 1867 
in Austria. Came to U. S. 
1893. Received general 
Jewish education. Butter 
and eggs. Res.: 134 Pitt St. 

LInatli Hazedek Ansliei Sakol- 

ka, 193 Henry St. Orthodox. 
Org. 1889. Membership: 100. 
Seating capacity: 275. Sick 
Benefit, Cemetery. Pres., 
Sam Smith, 804 W. 180th St. 
Sec'y, Meyer Krashewltz, 
795 St. Nicholas Ave. 



Chevrah Lecheth Yoshcr 
B»nal Horwitz, 317 E. 8 th 

St. Orthodox. Org. 1884 



Lilzensker Anshei S^phard, 15S 

Lewis St. Orthodox. Orgr. 
1895. Membership: 62 



216 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



Seating capacity: 400. 
Cemetery. Pres., Jos. 
Konlgsteln, 35 Ave. C. Sec'y, 
Moses Horn, 77 Lewis St. 
Rabbi, L. Welsblum, 342 E. 
3rd St. 

Konlgsteln, J o s e p b , Pres. 
Lizensker Anshel S'phard 
(153 Lewis St.), since 1916. 
Term 6 months. Born 1856 
In Russia. Came to U. S. 
1898. Tailor. Rea.: 35 Ave. 
C. 

Luborner Wobliner U. V., 387 

Grand St. Orthodox. Org. 
1906. Membership: 100. Sick 
Benefit, Life Insurance, Free 
Loan, Bikur Cholim, Ceme- 
tery, Study. Pres., S. Ehr- 
Uch, 367 So. 2nd St., B'klyn. 
Sec'y, Solomon Kramer, 157 
Suffolk St. 

Machzikei Hadatb Ansbei 
Zlotsbov, 159 Ridge St. 
Orthodox. Org, 1904. Mem- 
bership: 60. Seating capac- 
ity: 200. Cemetery, Sick 
Benefit, Free Loan, Study. 
Pres., H. Shalot, 7th St. and 
Ave. B. Sec'y, M. Schwager, 
255 E. 7th St. 

Macbzikei Horav, 142 Monroe 
St. Orthodox. Org. 1917. 
Membership: 300. Seating 
ca p a c 1 ty : 250. Cemetery. 
Study. Pres., Jacob Rosen- 
berg, 60 Rutgers St., Sec'y, 
A. Peshin, 38 Jefferson St. 
Rabbi, Lleber Cohon. 124 
Monroe St. 

Rosenberg, Samuel, Pres. 
Chevrah Machzikei Horav 
fl42 Monroe St.), elected 



1917. Term 6 months. Born 
1866 In Russia. Came to U- 
S. 1905. Received general 
Jewish education. Res.: 60 
Rutgers St. 

Cong. Machclkel Torab Ansbel 
Senier and Wilna, 290 Madi- 
son St. Orthodox. Org. 1896. 
Membership: 160. Seating 
capacity: 600. Ladles' Aux- 
iliary, Cemetery, Study. 
Pres., Jacob Smith, 267 E. 
Broadway. Sec'y, I. Simkln, 
12 Rutgers PI. Rabbi, I. J. 
Margolin, 207 Monroe St. 
(Branch at 100 W. 116th St.) 

Congrresration Macbzikei 
Torab Ansbel Senier and 
^Wilna, 100 W. 116th St. Or- 
thodox. Org. 1875. Mem- 
bership: 150. Seating capac- 
ity: 125. Cemetery. Pres., 
Joseph Meyers, 31 E. 111th 
St. (Branch of 290 Madison 
St. 

Meyers, Joseph, Pres. Cong. 
Machzikei Torah Anshel 
Senier and Wilna (100 
W. 116th St.), elected 1917. 
Term 1 year. Born 1869 in 
Russia. Came to U. S. 1883. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Res.: 31 E. 111th 
St. 

Macb'zikei Toratb Kodesb, 62 

E. 104th St. OrthO(iox. 
Membership: 75. Seating 
capacity: 125. Sick Benefit, 
Insurance, Cemetery. Sec'y, 
Mr. Shulman, 319 B. 102nd 
St. 

Mardlber Cbevrah B*nat JElon. 

438 B. Houston St. Ortho- 



CONGREGATIONS 



217 



dox. Org. 1898. Member- 
ship: 28. Seating capacity: 
50. Cemetery. Pres., Chas. 
Schlanger, 9 Ave. D. Sec'y, 
Liouis Schnur, 65 Cannon St. 
Schlangrer, Charles, Pres. 
Mardiher Chevrah B'nai 
Zion (438 E. Houston St.), 
since 1916. Term 1 year. 
Born 1877 in Austria. Came 
to U. S. 1897. Received 
general Jewish education. 
Fruits: 703 E. 5th St. Res.: 
9 Ave. D. 

Marlampoler B'nai B m e t h 
Cong:., 28 Pike St. Orthodox. 
Org. 1870. Membership: 30. 
Cemetery. Pres., Jacob Alt- 
marlc, 3 Rutgers St. Sec'y, 
Sundel Lreibson, 950 E. 163d 
St. 

Altmark, Jacob, Pres. Mari- 
ampoler B'nai Emeth Cong. 
(28 Pilce St.), since 1897. 
Term 1 year. Born 1851 in 
Russia. Came to U. S. 1869. 
Received thorough Jewish 
education. Hosiery and 
underwear: 55 Wallcer St. 
Res.: 3 Rutgers St. 

Chevrah Massoth Benjamin 
Anshel Podhaja li:. U. V., 66 

Clinton St. Orthodox. Org. 
1895. Membership: 120. 
Seating capacity: 150. Sick 
Benefit, C e m e t ery. Pres., 
Morris Matis, 251 Stanton 
St. Sec'y, Aaron Brody, 191 
Stanton St. 

Matis, Morris, Pres. Chevrah 
Massoth Benjamin Anshei 
Podhaja K. U. V. (66 Clin- 
ton St.), since 1916. Term 6 
months. Born 1867 in Aus- 
tria. Came to U. S. 1887. 



Received general Jewish 
and secular education. Res.: 
251 Stanton St. 

Menachem Zion Nusaeh Ari, 

40 Gouverneur St. Orthodox. 
Org. 1904. Membership: 60. 
Seating capacity: 60. Free 
Loan, Cemetery. Pres., 
Jacob Adelson, 355 E. 3rd St. 
Sec'y, J. Fradkin, 282 Hege- 
man Ave., B'klyn. 
Adelson, Jacob, Pres. 
Menachem Zion Nusaeh Ari, 
(40 Gouverneur St.), since 

1911. Term 1 year. Born 
1862 in Russia. Came to U. 
S. 1907. Studied in a Yeshi- 
bah. Retired. Res.: 355 E. 
3d St. 

Congr. Mazel Bosetz, 81 Colum- 
bia St. Orthodox. Org. 

1912. Membership: 80. 
Seating capacity, 100. Free 
Loan, Cemetery. Pres., 
Jacob Kleinman, 629 E. 12th 
St. Sec'y, L. Hamermann, 
98 Cannon St. 

Meshbisher U. V., 48 Orchard 
St. Orthodox. Org. Oct., 
1892. Mem b er sh ip: 100. 
Seating capacity: 300. In- 
surance, Study, Cemetery. 
Pres., Samuel Leib Shustig, 
Sec'y, Naphtali Hertz. 
Shustigr, Samuel Leib, Pres. 
Meshbisher U. V. (48 Or- 
chard St.), since 1915. Term 
1 year. Born 1832 in Russia. 
Came to U. S. 1892. Received 
thorough Hebrew education. 

Mesllath Yeshorlm, 9 Rutgers 
PI. Orthodox. Org. 1890. 
Membership: 65. Seating 



218 



OOMMUNAJL. REGISTER 



capacity: 158. Sick Benefit, 
Free Loan, Life Insurance, 
Cemetery. Pres., Aaron 
S. Dresner, 266 Henry St. 
Sec'y, Sam Zurov, 321 Madi- 
son St. Rabbi, Isaac J. Solo- 
mon, 246 Clinton St. 
Dresser, Aaron S., Pres. 
Congr. Mesilath Yeshorim (9 
Rutgers PL), since 1916. 
Term 6 months. Born 1867 
In Russia. Came to U. S. 
1890. Received general 
Jewish education. Res.: 266 
Henry St. 

Chevrah Midrash Anshel Mak- 
over of Poland, 203 Henry 
St. Orthodox. Org. 1897. 
Membership: 190. Seating 
capacity: 450. Insurance, 
Free Loan, Cemetery. Pres., 
Sam Benjamin, 18 Pitt St. 
Sec'y, A. Krinkowitz, 298 
Delance^y St. Rabbi, M. 
Guzik, 251 E. B'way. 
Benjamin, Sam, Pres. Chev- 
rah Midrash Anshei Mak- 
over of Poland (203 Henry 
St.), elected 1917. Term 6 
months. Born 1874 in Rus- 
sia. Came to U. S. 1887. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Res.: 18 Pitt St. 

C h e -V- r a li Midrash Anshei 
Schnedeva, 209 E. B'way. 
Orthodox. Org. 1898. Mem- 
bership: 38. Seating capac- 
ity: 120. Cemetery. Pres., 
Israel Wurbel, 222 B. B'way. 
Sec'y, Louis Zuckerman, 125 
Forsyth St. 

Wurbel, Israel, Pres. Chev- 
rah Midrash Anshei Schned- 
eva (209 E. B'way); elected 



1917. Term 6 months. Born 
1872 in Russia. Came to 
U. S. 1913. Received general 
Jewish education. Smoked 
Fish. Res.: 222 E. B'way. 

Mlnsker Con^. of the Bronx, 

9 9 6 Fox Street. Ortho- 
dox. Org. 1916. Member- 
ship: 50. Seating capacity: 
500. Sisterhood. Pres., 
Israel Tanklefsky, 1074 
So. Boulevard. Sec'y, Jacob 
Terr, 866 Manida St. 
Tanklefsky, Israel, Pres. 
Mlnsker Cong, of the Bronx 
(996 Fox St.), since 1916. 
Term 1 year. Born 1840 in 
Russia. Came to U. S. 1899. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Butcher: 12 6 5 
Stebbins Ave. Res.: 1074 So. 
Boulevard. 

Mlnsker Old Men's B. A., 156 

Henry St. Orthodox. Org. 
1911. Membership: 25. Seat- 
ing capacity: 210. Study. 
Pres.,* Charles Mishkin, 154 
Henry St. Sec'y, Henry 
D o b k i n , 116 S. 2nd St., 
B'klyn. Rabbi, D. S. Stern, 
115 Division St. 
Mishkin, Charles, Pres. 
Mlnsker Old Men's B. A. 
(156 Henry St.), elected 1917. 
Term 1 year. Born 1863 in 
Russia. Came to U. S. 1904. 
Received general Jewish 
and secular education. Ice- 
cream parlor: 211 B. B'way. 
Res.: 154 Henry St. 

Chevrah Mishkan Israel, 8^ 

Monroe St. Orthodox. Mem- 
bership: 150. Seating capac- 



CONGREGATIONS 



219 



ity: 200. Study. Pres., T. 
Edelstein, 110 Henry St. 
Sec'y, Mr, Dworetsky. 

Beth Hak'nesseth M i s h k a n 
Israel, 85 E. 110th St. Ortho- 
dox. Membership: 20. Seat- 
ing capacity: 150. Study. 
Pres., Abraham Trilling, 
1737 Madison Ave. Sec'y, 
I. Myers, 14 E. 117th St. 

Mishkan Israel Anshel Pm- 
zina, 184 Henry St. Ortho- 
dox. Org. 1913. Member- 
ship: 70, Seating capacity: 
200. Study, Cemetery. Pres., 
Asher Cohen, 188 Henry St. 
Sec'y, J. Krankel, 450 Grand 
St. 

Cohen, Asher, Pres. Mishkan 
Israel Anshei Pruzina (184 
Henry St.), since 1916. Term 
6 months. Born 1865 in 
Russia. Came to U. S. 1913. 
Studied at a Teshibah. 
Grocer. Res.: 188 Henry St. 

iflshkan Israel Anshei Suvralk, 

38 Henry St. Orthodox. Org. 
1870. M e m b e r s h i p : 150. 
Seating capacity: 1000. In- 
surance, Cemetery, Study. 
Pres. Abraham Zubrinsky, 
38 Market St. Sec'y, J. 
Dunowitzh, 252 So. 4th St., 
B'klyn. 

Zubrinsky, Abraham, Pres. 
Mishkan Israel Anshei 
Suwalk (40 Henry St.), since 
1911. Term 1 year. Born in 
Russia. Came to U. S. 1872. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Real estate. 
Res.: 38 Market St. 



Chevrah Mlshnaloth Anshei 
Berezin, 320 Madison St 
Orthodox. Membership: 65. 
Seating capacity: 85. Ftee 
Loan, Sick Benefit, Ceme- 
tery, Study. Pres., Max 
Bushlowitz, 38 Thatford 
Ave., B'klyn. Sec'y, B. Nach- 
amkin, 259 Henry St. 
Bushlowitz, Max, Pres., 
Chevrah Mishnaioth Anshei 
Berezin (320 Madison St.), 
since 1915. Term 1 year. Born 
1862 in Russia. Came to V 
S. 1897. Received general 
Jewish education. M f g r . 
Skirts: 36 W. 22nd St. Res.: 
38 Thatford Ave., B'klyn. 

Cong. Mishnaioth Chasidel 
Trisk Umikarev (269 Broome 
St.), Orthodox. Org. 1900. 
Membership: 60. Seating 
capacity: 300. Free Loan, 
Study, Cemetery. Pres., Jos- 
eph Rothman, 178 Chrystle 

^ St. Sec'y, Morris Vogel, 37 
Clinton St. 

Rothman, Joseph, Pres, 
Cong. Mishnaioth Chasidel 
Trisk Umikarev (269 Broome 
St.), since 1907. Term 1 
year. Born 1863 in Russia. 
Came to U. S. 1887. Received 
general Jewish education. 
Window plate and mirrors: 
17 Rivington St. Res.: 178 
Chrystle St. 

Chevrah Mishnaioth Shom'- 
rei Sabbath, 60 Norfolk St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1915. Mem- 
bership: 200. Seating capac- 
ity: 100. Sick Benefit, Bikur 
Cholim. Cemetery, Study. 



220 



COMMUNAL RBGISTER 



Pres., Melr Weidenbaum, 64 
Pike St. Sec'y, P. Frieder, 
18 Suffolk St. Rabbi, Ellas 
Jaffe, 207 E. B'way. 
Weidenbaum, Melr, Pres. 
Chevrah Mishnaioth Shom'- 
rei Sabbath (60 Norfolk St.). 
since 1915. Term 1 year. 
Born 1862 in Russia. Came 
to U. S. 1902. Received gen- 
eral education. Retired. 
Res.: 64 Pike St. 

Cons. M'Leah Sholom, 170 E. 

114th St. Orthodox. Org. 
1895. Membership: 50. Seat- 
ing capacity; 400. Cemetery, 
Study. Pres., Yale H. Hoff- 
berg, 158 E. 113th St. Sec'y, 
Joseph Blumenthal, 1661 
Madison ve. 

Hoif berg, Yale H., Pres. 
Cong. M'Leah Sholom (170 
E. 114th St.), since 1915. 
Term 1 year. Born 1859 in 
Russia. Came to U. S. 1906. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Butcher: 161 E 
113th St. Res.: 158 E. 113th 
St. 

C h e T r a h Mo^en Abraham 
Anshel Ostrollmo, 180 Clin- 
ton St. Orthodox. Org. 1887. 
Membership: 129. Seating 
capacity: 250. Insurance, 
Cemetery, Study. Pres., 
Louis Welnstein, 521 E. 12th 
St. Sec'y, Morris Cohen, 260 
Madison St. 

Welnstein, Locils, Pres 
Chevrah M o g e n Abraham 
Anshei Ostrolimo (180 Clin- 
ton St.), since 1914. Term 1 
year. Born 1873 In Russia. 
Came to U. S. 1898. Re- 



ceived general Jewish edu- 
cation. Painting: 29 Ridge 
St. Res.: 521 East 12th St. 

Chevrah Mo^en David Anshei 
Brok, 9 Rutgers PL Ortho- 
dox. Membership: 30. Seat- 
ing capacity: 60. Cemetery. 
Pres., Jacob Greenberg, 1766 
Washington Ave. Sec'y, Ab. 
Gafkovitz, 125 Henry St. 

Chevrah Mogren David Anshei 
Charnsch, 56 Suffolk St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1891. Mem- 
bership: 60. Seating capac- 
ity: 100. Sick Benefit, Free 
Loan, Cemetery. Pres., Sam 
Levine, 205 E. 66th St. Sec'y, 
Hyman Silverstein, 54 Lewis 
St. 

Levine, Sam, Pres. Chevrah 
Mogen David Anshei 
Charusch (56 Suffolk St), 
elected 1917. Term 6 
months. Born 1867 in Rus- 
sia. Received general Jew- 
ish education. Cigar store: 
205 E. 66th St. 

Montefiore Hebrew Cong., 

M a c y and Hewitt PL, 
Bronx. Semi-Reformed. 
English Sermon. Org. 1907. 
Membership: 60. Seating 
capacity: 10 0. Brother- 
hood, Sisterhood, Ceme- 
tery. Pres., J. B 1 u e - 
stone. Sec'y. M. Solomon. 
1004 Fox St. Rabbi, Alex- 
ander Basel, 866 B. 163d St 

Mt. Nebo Temple, 562 W. 150th 
St. Reformed. English 
sermon. Org. 1910. Mem- 
bership: 252. Seating capac- 



CONGREGATIONS 



221 



Ity: 960. Sunday School. 
Sisterhood, Study. Pres., 
Edward R. Cohn, 535 W. 
149th St. Sec'y, Henry 
Abeles, 610 W. 150th St. 
Rabbi, A. S. Ansbacher, 561 
W. 163d St. 

Cohn, Edward R., Prea. 
Mount Nebo Temple (562 
W. 150th St.), since 1911. 
Term 1 year. Born in U. S. 
Received general education. 
Diamonds: 41 Maiden Lane. 
Res.: 535 W. 149th St. 



Jacob I. Le Bowski, 203 W. 
117th St. Sec'y, Jacob Vine- 
berg, 20 E. 118th St. Rabbi, 
B. A, Tlntner. 229 W. 97th 
St. 

Le Bo\TSki, Jacob I., Pres. 
Cong. Mt. Zion (41 W. 119th 
(St.), since 1911. Term 1 
year. Born 1855 in Eng- 
land. Came to U. S. 1869. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Insurance Ad- 
juster: 92 William St. Res.: 
203 W. 117th St. 



Mt. Sinai Anshel E^meth of 
WashingrtGn Heights, 600 W. 

181st St. English Sermon. 
Orthodox. Org. 1917. Mem- 
bership: 83. Seating capac- 
ity: 445. Hebrew School, 
Sisterhood, Cemetery, Study. 
Pres., M. J. Rubin, 454 Ft. 
Washington Ave, Sec'y, 
Henry Goldstein, 728 W. 
183 St St. Rabbi, Dr. L. 
Zinsler, 551 W. 178th St. 
Rubin, 31. J., Pres. Mt. Sinai 
Anshei Emeth of Washing- 
ton Heights (600 W. 181st 
St.), since 1916. Term 1 
year. Born 18*4 in Hungary. 
Came to U. S. 1887. Re- 
ceived public school educa- 
tion. Mfgr. leather: 505 W. 
B'way. Res.: 454 Ft. Wash- 
ington Ave. 

Cong. Mt. Zion, 41 W. 119th 
St. Conservative. English 
Sermon. Org. 1888. Mem- 
bership: 62. Seating capac- 
ity: 700. Hebrew School, 
Sisterhood, Young Folks' 
League, Public Forums, 
Cemetery, Study. Pres., 



Moshcislcer Chevrah Gur 
Arie, 308 E. 3d St. Ortho- 
dox. Org. 1899. Member- 
ship: 110. Seating capaci- 
ty: 60. Sick Benefit, Life 
Insurance, Free Loan, Ceme- 
tery. Pres., Marcus Ban- 
wolf, 510 E. 5th St. Sec'y. 
Bernard Rosenberg, 22 
Ridge St. 

MValcshei Sholom A n s h c 1 
Molodedzner, 9 Rutgers PI. 
Orthodox. Org. 1885. Mem- 
bership: 60. Seating capac- 
ity: 60. Insurance, Free 
Loan, Cemetery. Pres., M. 
Gluckman, 206 W. 28th St. 
Sec'y, J. Glass, 33 Mont- 
gomery St. 

Gluckman, Morris, Pres. 
M'vakshei Sholom Anshei 
Molodedzner (9 Rutgers PI.), 
since 1913. Term 1 year. 
Born 1891. Came to U. S- 
1891. Received general Jew- 
ish education. Res.: 206 W. 
28th St. 

MVasereth Zion, 281 E. 4th 
St. Orthodox. Org. 1914. 



222 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



Membership: 8 0. Seating 
capacity: 80. Insurance, 
Cemetery. Pres., Louis 
Rotlienberg, 105 So. 8th St., 
B'klyn. Sec'y, II. Nozick, 52 
E. 7th St. 

Rothenbergr, Louis, Pres. 
M'vassereth Zion (281 E. 4th 
St.), since 1916. Term 6 
months. Born 1875 in Rus- 
sia. Came to U. S. 1907. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Res.: 105 S. 8th 
St., B'klyn. 

Chevrah M'zudath Zion B'nai 
Joshua Charlfl, 87 Ridge 
St Orthodox. Org. 1902. 
Membership: 50. Seating 
capacity: 80. Cemetery. 
Pres., Samuel Schindelheim, 
116 Cannon St. Sec'y, M. 
Rothenberg. 

Schindelheim, Sam, Pres. 
C h e V r a h M'zudath Zion 
B'nai Joshua CharlfC (87 
Ridge St.), since 1917. Term 
6 months. Born 1882 in 
Austria. Came to U. S. 1897. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Salesman. Res.: 
116 Cannon SL 

Congr* Nachal Isaac Dorshel 
Tov, 123 Forsyth St. Ortho- 
dox. Org. 1892. Member- 
ship: 200. Seating capacity: 
280. Free Loan, Cemetery, 
Study. Pres., Jacob Silber- 
man, 1844 C r o t o n a Ave. 
Sec'y, L. Shabses, 1721 Bath 
Ave., B'klyn. (Branch: 1666 
Madison Ave.). 
Sllberman, Jacob, Pres. 
Chevrah Nachal Isaac 
Dorshei Tov (123 Forsyth 



St.), since 1914. Term 
months. Born 1874 In Rus- 
sia. Came to U. S. 1891. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Res.: 1844 
Crotona Ave. 

Chevrah Nachal Isaac Dorshei 
Tov of Harlem, 1666 Madi- 
son. Orthodox. Org. 1912. 
Membership: 30. Seating 
capacity: 13 0. Cemetery. 
Pres., Jacob Feinstein, 6 W. 
H4th St. Sec'y, Myer M. 
Kaplan, 50 W. 115th St. 
(Branch ofl 123 Forsyth St.), 
Feinstein, Jacob, Pres., 
Chevrah Nachal Isaac Dor> 
shei Tov of Harlem (166b 
Madison Ave.), since 1916. 
Term 6 months. Born 1857 
in Russia. Came to U. S. 
1886. Received general Jew- 
ish education. Retired. Res.: 
6 West 114th St. 

Nachelska Chevrah Cong, and 

U. v., 56 Orchard St. Ortho- 
dox. Org. 1887. Member- 
ship: 115. Seating capacity: 
100. Sick Benefit, Free 
Loan, Cemetery. Pres., S. 
Horowitz, 146 Pennsylvania 
Ave., B'klyn. Sec'y, Hyman 
Prager, 91 Pitt St. 
Horowitz, Samuel, Pres. 
Nachelska Chevrah Cong, 
and U. V. (56 Orchard St.). 
since 1915. Term 6 months. 
Born 1881 In Russia. Came 
to U. S. 1904. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. Res.: 
146 Pennsylvania Avenue, 
B'klyn. 

Nachlath Z'vi, 65 E. 109th St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1896. Mem- 



CONGREGATIONS 



!223 



bership: 110. Seating capac- 
ity: 800. Ladies' Auxiliary, 
Cemetery, Study. Pres., 
Barnet Levy, 249 W. 112th 
St. Sec'y, George Rubin, 5 
W. 111th St. Rabbi, M. A. 
Kaplan, 52 W. 117th St. 
Levy, Barnett, Pres. Cong. 
Nachlath Z'vi (65 E. 109th 
St.), since 1915. Term 1 
year. Born 1853 in Russia. 
Came to U. S. 1874. Re- 
ceived general Jewish edu- 
cation. Silks: 144 W. 47th 
St. Res.: 249 W. 112th St. 

Congr. Nachlath Z'vi B'nal 
Israel Linath Hazedek 
B'nal Menasheh, 289 E. 4th 

St. Orthodox. Org. 1897. 
Membership: 220. Seating 
capacity: 500. Cemetery. 
Pres., Nathan Amsel, 283 
Stanton St. Sec'y, D. Muller, 
740 E. 9th St. Rabbi, L. 
Rose, 153 Suffolk St. 
Amsel, Nathan, Pres. Cong. 
Nachlath Z'vi B'nai Israel, 
LInath Hazedek B'nai 
Menasheh (289 E. 4th St.), 
elected 1917. Term 6 
months. Born 1867 in Aus- 
tria. Came to U. S. 1903. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Res.: 283 Stan- 
ton St. 

Ner Tomld Anshel Lubashov, 9 

Rutgers St. Orthodox. Org. 
1899. Membership: 80. Seat- 
ing capacity: 75. Sick Bene- 
fit, Ladies' Soc, Cemetery. 
Pres., Louis Goldstein, 49 
Rutgers St. Sec'y, J. Back- 
erman, 22 Scammel St. 
CroldBtein, Louis, Pres. Ner 
Tomld Anshei Lubashov (9 



Rutgers St.), elected 1917. 
Term 1 year. Born 1874 In 
Russia. Came to U. S. 1903. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Painter. Res.: 
49 Rutgers St. 

Cong. Netsach Israel B'nai 
Jacob, 1049 Prospect Ave. 
Orthodox. Org. 1908. Mem- 
bership: 30. Seating capac- 
ity: 450. Ladies' Auxiliary, 
B i k u r Cholim, Cemetery, 
Study. Pres., Hyman Wein- 
berg, 1065 Boston Rd. Sec'y, 
H. Lieberman, 981 Simpson 
St. Rabbi, S. Zipkowitz, 
1011 Union Ave. 
Weinberg:, Hyman, Pres. 
Cong. Netsach Israel B'nai 
Jacob (1049 Prospect Ave.), 
since 1914. Term 1 year. 
Born 1865 in Russia. Came 
to U. S. 1900. Received gen- 
eral education. Retired. 
Res.: 1065 Boston Road. 

Nevr People's Syn., 151 Clinton 
St. Orthodox. Org. 1913. 
Membership: 100. Seating 
capacity: 800. Insurance, 
Bikur Cholim, Cemetery. 
Pres., Abraham Alexander, 
536 E. 6th St. Sec'y, B. 
Okun, 150 E. B'way. Rabbi, 
I. J. Estersohn, 80 Willett 
St. 

Alexander, Abraham, Prea. 
New P e o p Te ' s Synagogue 
(151 Clinton St.), since 1916. 
Term 6 months. Born 1866 
in Russia. Came to U. S. 
1905. Received s'mlcha at 
Suvalker Teshlbah. Ladles' 
waists: 10 Avenue B. Res.: 
635 E. 6th St. 



224 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



Cons* X u 8 a c h Ari of the 
Bronx, 1243 Washington 
Ave. Orthodox. Org. 1905. 
Membership: 42. Seating 
capacity: 600. Ladies' Aux- 
iliary, Blkur Cholim, Ceme- 
tery, Study. Pres., Rev. J. 
Kopel Podvidz, 456 E. 171st 
St. Sec'y, Hillel Jacobson, 
1448 Clinton Ave. 
Podvidz, J. Kopel, Pres, 
Cong. Nusach Ari of the 
Bronx (1243 Washington 
Ave.), since 1916. Term 2 
years. Born 1875 in Russia. 
Came to U. S. 1907. Received 
general Jevsrish education. 
Mohel. Res.: 456 East 171st 
St. 

Nysander Dembizer Chevrah 
Mach'neh Reuben B'nai 
Aaron, 140 Columbia St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1914. Mem- 
bership: 110. Seating ca- 
pacity: 135. Cemetery. 
Pres., Morris Cohen, 297 
Rivington St. Sec'y, Samuel 
Green, 1758 1st Ave. 
Cohen, Morris, .Pres. 
Nysander Dembizer Chev- 
rah Mach'neh Reuben B'nai 
Aaron (140 Columbia St.), 
since 1915. Term 6 months. 
Born 187'4 in Galicia. Came 
to U. S. 1897. Received gen- 
eral Jew^ish education. 
Baker. Res.: 297 Rivington 
St. 

Odesser Cong., 106 Forsyth St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1903. Mem- 
bership: 22. Seating capac- 
ity: 60. Cemetery. Pres., 
Louis Stern, 24 Madison St. 
Sec'y, Samuel Hochman, 110 
E. 1st St. 



Oestreicher Chevrah Anshet 
S'phard D'Harlem, 10 W. 

114th St. Orthodox. Org. 
1912. Membership: 20. Seat- 
ing capacity: 40. Pres., Hy- 
man Trachtenberg, 143 W. 
111th St. Sec'y, Mannes 
Pranzblau, 60 E. 110th St. 
Trachtenberg, Hyman, Pres. 
Oestreicher Chevrah Anshei 
S'phard D'Harlem (10 W. 
114th St.), since 1916. Term 
6 months. Born 1860 in 
Russia. Came to U. S. 1888. 
Infants' cloaks and dresses: 
512 Broadway. Res.: 143 W. 
111th St. 

Cong. Ohavei Gmeth, 136 Ave. 
D. Orthodox. Org. 1913. 
Membership: 55. Cemetery. 
Pres., Emil Kohn, 133 Ave. 
D. Sec'y, Jos. Klein, 287 E. 
7th St. Rabbi, B. M. Klein, 
415 E. 86th St. 
Kohn, Kmil, Pres. Cong. 
Ohavei Emeth (136 Avenue 
D), elected 1917. Term 6 
months. Born 1869 in 
Hungary. Came to U. S. 
1907. Received general Jew- 
ish education. Cafe. Res.: 
133 Avenue D. 

Ohavei Sholom, 85 Henry St. 
Orthodox. Membership: 25. 
Seating capacity: 70. Ceme- 
tery. Pres., B. Levy. 

Chevrah Ohavei Sholom 
Anshei Sokoley, 48 Orchard 
St. Orthodox. Org. 1908. 
Membership: 200. Seating 
capacity: 400. Sick benefit. 
Life Insurance, Free Loan, 
Cemetery, Study. Pres., 
Morris Miller, 199 12th St., 



CONGREGATIONS 



225 



Jersey City, N, J. Soc'y, 
Hyman Novidwor, 860 S. Ist 
St., B'klyn. - 

Miller, Morris, Pres. Chevrah 
Ohavei Sholom Anshei So- 
koley (48 Orchard St.). 
elected 1917. Born 1885 in 
Russia. Received general 
Jewish and secular educa- 
tion. Painter. Res.: 199 
12th St., Jersey City, N. J. 

Oheb Israel Anshei Mezliibesli, 

24 Pitt St. Orthodox. Org. 
1911. Membership: 55. Seat- 
ing capacity: 100. Cemetery, 
Study. Pres., Jacob Fein- 
gold, 29 E. B'way. Sec'y, F. 
Greenberg, 157 Broome St. 

Congr. Oheb Sholom Anshei 
Bulcatchatze, 45 Sheriff St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1892, Mem- 
bership: 106. Seating ca- 
pacity: 340. Cemetery, 
Study. Pres., Max Rothfeld, 
240 E. 4th St. Sec'y, Wolf 
Dichick, 113 Broome St. 
Rothfeld, 3Iax, Pres. Cong. 
Oheb Sholom Anshei 
Bukatchatze (45 Sheriff St.), 
elected 1917. Term 6 
months. Born 1885 in Aus- 
tria. Came to U. S. 1906. 
Res.: 240 E. 4th St. 

Cong. Oheb Sholom Anshei 
Charny, 99 Hester St. Or- 
thodox. Org. 1895. Mem- 
bership: 45. Seating capa- 
city: 100. Life Insurance, 
Free Loan, Cemetery. Pres., 
David Goldstein, 182 Henry 
St. Sec'y. Isaac Goldstein, 99 
Hester St. 
Goldstein, David, Pres. Cong. 



Oheb Sholom Anshei Charny 
(99 Hester St.), since 1911. 
Term 6 months. Born 1871 
in Russia. Came to U. S. 
1900. Received general Jew- 
ish education. Cloaks and 
suits: 60 E. 10th St. Res.: 
182 Henry St. 

Chevrah Oheb Sholom Anshei 
Glubolsa, 106 E 104th St. 
Orthodox. Organized, 1912. 
Membership: 20. Seating 
capacity: 120. Pres., Mendel 
Hurdin, 58 East 103d St. 
Hurdin, Mendel, Pres. Chev- 
rah Oheb Sholom Anshei 
Gluboka (106 East 104th 
St.), elected 1917. Term 6 
months. Born 1864 in Rus- 
sia. Came to U. S. 1907. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Res.: 58 E. 103d 
St. 

.Chevrah Oheb Sholom Anshei 
Krinlter, 162 Madison St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1892. Mem- 
bership: 65. Seating capa- 
city: 80. Insurance, Free 
Loan, Cemetery. Pres., 
Harry Fliegel, 47 E. 1st St. 
Sec'y, S. Lipsky, 148 S. 3rd 
St., B'klyn. 

Fliegel, Harry, Pres. Chev- 
rah Oheb Sholom Anshei 
Krinker (162 Madison St.), 
since 1911. Term 6 months. 
Born 1872 in Russia. Came 
to U. S. 1904. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. Res.: 
47 E. 1st St 

Chevrah Ohel Jacob Anshei 
Dubna. Cemetery, Free 
Loan. Org. 1893. Member- 



226 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



ship: 45. Meetings 1st and 
3d Sundays, at 206 E. 
B ' w a y. Pres., Alexander 
Wasserman. 456 Grand St. 
Sec'y, Wolf Chackes, 92 
Rlvlngton St. 

Ohel Jacob Chevrah Kadlsha, 

78 Allen St. Orthodox. Or- 
ganized 1872. Membership: 
100. Seating capacity: 35©. 
Study, Cemetery. Pres., Hy- 
man Robinson, 726 E. 165th 
St. Sec'y, David Silverman, 
251 So 3d St., B'klyn. 
Robinson, Hyman, Pres. Ohel 
Jacob Chevrah Kadisha (78 
Allen St.), since 1915. Term 
1 year. Born 1858 in Rus- 
sia. Came to U. S. 1883. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Real estate and 
insurance. Res.: 726 E. 
165th St. 

Congr. of Ohel Torab Talmud 
Torah, 804 E. 6th St. Or- 
thodox. Org. 1901. Seating 
capacity: 150. Hebrew 
School, Cemetery. Pres., 
Jacob Weiss, 73 Ave. D. 
Sec'y, M. Klein, 455 E. 
Houston St. Rabbi, S. 
Schwartz, 306 Madison St. 

Chevrah Ohel Mo»e8 Isaac 
Dov, 133 E. 103rd St. Or- 
thodox. Org. 1911. Mem- 
bership: 30. Seating capa- 
city: 150. Pres. and Sec'y, 
Hlrsch Benjamin, 1588 
Madison Ave. 

Benjamin, Hlrsch, Pres. 
Chevrah Ohel Moses Isaac 
Dov (133 E. 103rd St.), since 
1916. Term 1 year. Born 



1862 in Roumania. Came to 
U. S. 1907. Received Jewish 
education in Siget Yeshibah 
(Hungary). Shochet. Res.: 
1588 Madison Ave. 

Orach Chalm Cong., 1463 Lex- 
ington Ave. Orthodox. 
Membership: 135. Seating 
capacity: 600 Hebrew 
School, Malbish A r u m i m, 
Bikur Cholim, Cemetery. 
Pres., Julius J. Dukas, 16 E. 
96th St. Sec'y, Samuel R. 
Travis, 11 E. 86th St. Rabbi, 
Moses H. Hyamson, 115 E. 
95th St. 

Dukas, Julius J., Pres. Orach 
Chaim Cong (1463 Lexington 
Ave.), since 1904. Term 1 
year. Also Pres. of Hebrew 
Free Loan Society (108 2nd 
Ave.) and of Rabbi Jacob 
Joseph School (167 Henry 
St.). Born 1860 in Germany. 
Came to U. S. 1878. Edu- 
cated in German Schools. 
Mfgr. brushes: 335 B'way. 
Res.: 16 E. 96th St. 

Chevrah Orach Chalm Anshel 
Radoshkowltz, 52 Market St. 
Orthodox. Membership: 40. 
Seating capacity: 100. Ceme- 
tery. Pres., I. Sachs, 170 
Cherry St. Sec'y, F. Edelson, 
249 E. B'way. 

Sachs^ Isaac, Pres. Chevrah 
Orach Chaim Ajishei Ra- 
doshkowltz (52 Market St.), 
elected 1917. Term 6 months. 
Born 1862 in Russia. Came 
to U. S. 1877. Received 
general Jewish education. 
Baker: 17 Essex St. Res.: 
170 Cherry St. 



CONGREGATIONS 



227 



Ostrover Coug-., 9 Hester St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1917. "Mem- 
bership: 60. Seating capa- 
city: 100. Pres., Aaron Kon- 
ner, 211 Eldridge St. Sec'y. 
Sam Rook, 211 Eldridge St. 
Konner, Aaron, Pres. Ostro- 
ver Cong. (9 Hester St.); 
elected 1917. Term 6 months. 
Born 1869 in Russia. Came 
to U. S. 1909. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. Rags 
dealer. Res.: 211 Eldridge 
St. 

Cong:. Pochavltier, 156 Henry 
St. Orthodox. Org. 1897. 
Membership: 300. Seating 
capacity: 150. Sick Benefit, 
Insurance, Free Loan, 
Cemetery. Pres., Barnett 
Rashkind, 904 Driggs Ave., 
B'klyn. Sec'y, L. Adelson, 
167 Monroe St. 
Rashkind, Barnett, Pres. 
Cong. Pochavitzer (156 
Henry St.), since 1904. Term 
6 months. Born 1866 in Rus- 
sia. Came to U. S. 1893. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Men's clothing: 
75 Mangin St., B'klyn. Res.: 
904 Driggs Ave., B'klyn. 

P'eir Israel Anshel Yodnovner, 

240 Henry St. Orthodox. 
Org. 1892. Membership: 65. 
Seating capacity: 200. Free 
Loan, Cemetery, Study. 
Pres., Israel Rogers, 190 
Clinton St. Sec'y, Morris 
Levine, 585 Washington Ave. 
Rogers, Israel, Pres. P'elr 
Israel Anshel Yodnovner 
(240 Henry St.), since 1913. 
Term 1 year. Born 1845 in 



Russia. Came to U. S. 1884. 
Received general education. 
Coal: 9 Hester St. Res.: 190 
Clinton St. 

Cong. Peni-El of Washlngrton 
Heigrhts, 527 W. 147th St. 
Conservative. English Ser- 
mon. Oig. 1906. Member- 
ship: 120. Seating capacity: 
700. Hebrew School, Sister- 
hood, Cemetery. Pres., 
Emanuel Friedman, 3671 
B'way. Sec'y, H. Salinsky, 
101 Hamilton PI. Rabbi, A. 
Bisenman, 611 W. 156th St. 
Friedman, Emanuel, Pres. 
Cong. Peni-El (527 W. 147th 
St.), since 1914. Term 1 
year. Born 1870 in U. S. 
Received general education. 
Bookkeeper: 170 B'way. 
Res.: 3671 B'way. 

Cong. Pincus Elijah, 118 W. 

95th St. Orthodox. English 
Sermon. Org. 1905. Mem- 
bership: 70. Seating capa- 
city: 560. Hebrew School, 
Sisterhood, West Side Com- 
munity House, Cemetery. 
Pres., Bernard Rothblatt, 
220 W. 98th St. Sec'y, Her- 
man Bernstein, 150 W. 91st 
St. 

Beth Hak'nes.seth P o a 1 e i 
Zedek Anshel Olla, 126 For- 
syth St. Orthodox. Org. 1885. 
Membership: 340, Seating 
capacity: 1300. Sick Bene- 
fit, Free Loan, Cemetery. 
Pres. Samuel Kamlnsky, 425 
Grand St. Sec'y, Abraham 
Klein, 202 E. B'way. Rabbi, 
A. S. Bockstein, 24 Rutgers 
PI. 



228 



OOMMUNAIi RBGiaTBE 



Kamlnsky, Samuel, Fres. 
Beth Hak'nesseth Poalei 
Zedek Anshei Olia (126 For- 
syth St.), since 1907. Term 
1 year. Born 1867 in Russia. 
Came to U. S. 1887 Received 
g-eneral Jewish education. 
Mfg-r. cloalcs: 153 W. 27th 
St. Res.: 425 Grand St. 

Con^. Poltusker Anshei 
Poland, 80 Norfolk St. Or- 
thodox. Org, 1909. Mem- 
bership: 30. Seating capa- 
city: 130. Cemetery. Pres., 
Moses Kruger, 32 Attorney 
St. Sec'y, Jacob Freiman, 
91 Columbia St. 
Krnger, Moses, Pres. Cong. 
Poltusker Anshei Poland (80 
Norfolk St.); elected 1917. 
Term 6 months. Born 1870 
in Russia. Came to U. S. 
1906. Received general Jew-* 
Ish education. Res.: 32 At- 
torney St. 

Pomlzaner Lodge, 129 Riving- 
ton St. Orthodox. Prea.. 
William Roth, 511 B. 5th St. 

Praskiverer Zlon Cong^ 82 

Clinton St. Orthodox, Org. 
1900. Membership: 115. 
Seating Capacity: 50. Sick 
Benefit, Insurance, Ceme- 
• tery. Pres., Isaac Ruben- 
baum, 993 Union Ave. Sec'y, 
.1 o B e p h Felgenbaum. 82 
Ridge St. 

Rtibenbaum. Isaac. Pres. 
Praskwerer Zion Cong. 
(82 Clinton St.). elected 
1917. Term 6 months. Born 
1868 in Russia. Came to U. 



S. 1901. Received general 
Jewish education. Res.: 992 
Union Ave. 

Pride of the East (Tiphereth 
Mizrachi), 86 Orchard St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1909. Mem- 
bership: 60. Free Loan, 
Social Centre, Study. Pres., 
Eliezer S. Gross, 25 Ave. 
C. Sec'y, David Rous, 292 
E. 3d St 

Prog. Brothers of Neshivles, 

89 Henry St. Orthodox. Org. 
1890, Membership: 334. Seat- 
ing capacity: 500. Sick 
Benefit, Insurance, Free 
Loan, Old Age Fund, Relief, 
Bikur C h o 1 i m, Cemetery, 
Study. Pres., Jeremiah 
Arenssen, 1242 Intervale 
Ave. Sec'y, P. Maler, 28 
Belmont Ave., B'klyn. 
Arenssen, Jeremiah, Pres. 
Prog. Brothers of Neshivies 
(89 Henry St.).; elected 1917. 
Term 1 year. Born 1860 in 
Russia. Came to U. S. 1882. 
Attended Yeshibahs of Wol- 
ozin and Mir. Insurance: 230 
Grand St. Res.: 1242 Inter- 
vale Ave. 

Beth Hak'nesseth Proshnitzer 
A nshei Poland, 227 E. 

B'way. Orthodox. Org. 1910. 
Membership: 45. Seating 
capacity: 150. Sick Benefit, 
Cemetery Pres., Solomon 
Stern, 184 Broome St. Sec'y. 
M. Krakower, 7 Goerck St, 
Stern, Solomon, Pres. Beth 
Hak'nesseth Proshnitzer 
Anshei Poland (227 B. 
B'way), since 1915. Term 6 



CONORBGATIONS 



229 



months. Born 1863 in Pol- 
and. Came to U. S. 1893. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Poultry: 183 
Broome St. Res.: 184 Broome 
St. 

Chevrah Rabenu EllcBer 
Landau, 36 W. 114th St. 
Orthodox. Org-. 1892. Mem- 
bership: 60. Seating capa- 
city: 100. Sick Benefit, Bilcur 
C h o 1 1 m, Cemetery, Study. 
Pres.. A, B. Rosenfeld, 12 W. 
114th St. Sec'y, Oscar Rouse. 
137 W. 112th St. 
Rosenfeld, A. B., Pres. Chev- 
rah Rabenu Eliezer Landau 
(36 W. 114th St.), since 1916. 
Term 1 year. Born 1867 in 
Russia. Came to U. S. 1887. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Cotton goods: 61 
W. 8th St. Res.: 12 W. 114th 
St. 

Conff. of Talmnd Torah Rabbi 
Chaim Berlin of Harlem, 

227 E. 100th St. Orthodox. 
Org. 1912. Membership: 60. 
Seating capacity: 80. He- 
brew School. Pres., Hyman 
Moskowitz, 1956 2nd Ave. 
Sec'y, Julius Goldstein, 313 
E. 102nd St. 

MoskoTvitx, HTman, Pres. 
Talmud Torah Rabbi Chaim 
Berlin of Harlem (227 E. 
100th St.). since 1915. Term 
6 months. Born 1861 in 
Roumanla. Came to U. S. 
1902. Received general 
Jewish education. Res.: 
1956 Second Ave. 

Cong. Rabbi Hlllel Lfohten- 
steln, 177 Suffolk St. Ortho- 



dox. Org. 1890. Member- 
ship: 138. Seating capacity:^ 
140. Sick Benefit, Free Loan, 
Cemetery, Study. Pres., Ja- 
cob Halem, 211 E. Houston 
St. Sec'y, L. Frcst, 133 Riv- 
ington St. 

Halem, Jacob, Pres. Cong. 
Rabbi H i 1 1 e 1 Lichtenstein 
(177 Suffolk St.), since 1916. 
Term 6 months. Born 1877 
in Austria. Came to U. S. 
1905. Received general Jew- 
ish education. Butcher: 185 
Ludlow St. Res.: 211 East 
Houston St. 

Cong, of Talmnd Torah Rabbi 
Israel Salanter, 74 E. 118th 
St. Orthodox. Membership: 
1000. Seating capacity: 
1200. Hebrew School, Ceme- 
tery, Study. Pres., Joseph 
Smolensky, 2041 Fifth Ave. 
Sec'y, B. Simon, 11 W. 117th 
St. Rabbi, S. L. Hurwitz, 66 
W. 118th St. 



Rabbi Meyer Pamishlauer Slcls 
and B. A., 90 Columbia St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1892. Mem- 
bership: 100. Seating capa- 
city: 100. Sick Benefit, Free 
Loan, Cemetery. Pres., 
Charles Charton, 300 Delan- 
cey St. Sec'y, Harry Adler, 
86 Columbia St. 
C h a r t o n, Cliarles, Pres 
Rabbi Meyer Pamishlauer 
Sick and B. A. (90 Columbia 
St.), since 1916. Term 6 
months. Born 1878 In Aus- 
tria. Received general Jew- 
ish education. Ree.: 300 
Delancey St. 



280 



COMMUNAL. REGISTER 



Rabbi Samuel Naehum Ind. 
Tlsbmlnltze K. U. V., 52 

WlUett St. Orthodox. Org. 
1898. Membership: 12. Seat- 
ing capacity: 80. Sick Bene- 
fit, Insurance. Pres., Max 
Post, 249 Stanton St. Sec'y, 
Aaron Waldman, 238 Riv- 
ington St. 

Post, Max, Pres. Rabbi Sam- 
uel Nachum Ind. Tishmini- 
tze K. U. V. (52 Willett 
St.), since 1899. Term 1 
year. Born 1861 in Austria. 
Came to U. S. 1890. Received 
general Jewish education. 
Plumber. Res.: 249 Stanton 
St. 

Rabbi Solomon Shapiro Anshel 
Mnnkacs, 153 Goerck St. Org. 
thodox. Org. 1905. Mem- 
bership: 62. Seating capa- 
city: 280. Cemetery, Study. 
Pres., Ignatz Hirshkowitz, 
135 Goerck St. Sec'y, Israel 
Schwimmer, 136 Goerck St. 
Rabbi, Chaim Alter Fried- 
man, 53 Ave. D. 
Hirshkowitz, Ignatz, Pres. 
Rabbi Solomon Shapiro An- 
shel Munkacs (153 Goerck 
St.), since 1915. Term 6 
months. Born 1859 in Aus- 
tria. Came to U. S. 1896. 
Received general J e vir i s h 
education. Grocer. Res.: 
135 Goerck St. 

Radimer Cong. B'nai Mordecal 
Ulenachem, 81 Columbia St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1903. Mem- 
bership: 64. Seating capa- 
city: 200. Sick Benefit, Free 
Loan, Blkur Chollm, Ceme- 
tery. Pres., I. Shnebaum. 



653 Lenox Ave. Sec'y, N. 
Adest, 98 Goerck St. 

Chevrah Reim Ahuvim Mi- 
rhybeshow Anshei Poland, 

237 Rivington St. Orthodox. 
Org. 1913. Membership: 100. 
Seating capacity: 110. Ceme- 
tery. Pres., Hirsch Green- 
wald, 455 E. Houston St. 
Sec'y, Max Reiss, 130 Co- 
lumbia St. 

Greenwald, Hirsch, Pres. 
Chevrah Reim Ahuvim Mi- 
rhybeshow Anshei Poland 
(237 Rivington St.); elected 
1917. Term 6 months. Born 
1859 in Russia... Came to U. 
S. 1895. Received general 
Jewish education. Peddler. 
Res.: 455 E. Houston St. 



Temple Rodeph Sholom, Lex- 
ington Ave. and 63rd St. 
Conservative. English Ser- 
mon. Org. 1842. Seating 
capacity: 1254. Hebrew 
School, Young Folks' 
League, Ladies' Auxiliary, 
Hevra Blkur Cholim, 
Mothers' Ass'n, Cemetery. 
Pres., Benj. Blumenthal, 981 
Park Ave. Sec'y, Chas. F. 
Bloch, 316 E. 50th St. Rabbi, 
Rudolph Grossman, 1347 
Lexington Ave. 
Blumenthal, Benjamin, Pres. 
Temple Rodeph Sholom 
(Lexington Ave. and 63rd 
St.), since 1896. Term 3 
years. Born 1848 in N. Y. 
Received public school edu- 
cation. Real estate: 35 
Nassau St. Res.: 981 Park 
Ave. 



00NGRBGATI0N8 



231 



Chevrah Rodeph Sholom Ind. 
Podhlrser, 155 Suffolk St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1902. Mem- 
bership: 130. Seating ca- 
pacity: 150. Insurance, Sick 
Benefit, Free Loan, Bikur 
Cholim Society, Cemetery. 
Pres., S. Shussel, 416 Wyona 
St., B'klyn. Sec'y, Rev. 

Moses Weiser, 146 Norfolk 
St. 

Schussel, S., Pres. Cong. Ro- 
deph Sholom Ind. Podhirzer 
(155 Suffolk St.), since 1916. 
Term 6 months. Born 1882 
in Austria. Came to U. S. 
1900. Received general Jew- 
ish education. Salesman. 
Res.: 416 Wyona St., B'klyn. 

Congr. Rodeph Sholom K'hil- 
lath Jophl, 34S E. 82nd St. 
Orthodox. German and Yid- 
dish Sermon. Org. 1898. 
Membership: 40. Seating 
capacity: 125. Cemetery. 
Pres., Morris Shabshelowitz, 
1581 1st Ave. Sec'y, S. Fried- 
enthal, 156 E. 86th St. Rabbi, 
A- Seelenfreund, 325 E. 83rd 
St 

Shabshelowitz, Morris, Pres. 
Rodeph Sholom K'hillath 
Jophi (348 E. 82nd St.), 
since 1905, Term 1 year. 
Born 1862 in Russia. Came 
to U. S. 1895. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. 
Liquors, Res.: 1581 1st Ave. 

Chevrah Rod'phei Sholom, 26 

Orchard St, Orthodox. 
Membership: 74. Seating 
capacity: 125. Sick Benefit, 
Hebrew School, Free Loan, 
Ladies' Soc, Cemetery, 
Study. Pres., Max Sher, 35 



Jefferson St. Sec'y, S. It- 
skovitz, 225 E. 4th St. 

ChevSnh Rod'phei Sholom Am- 
shei Polutzlc, 133 Eldridge St. 
Orthodox, Org. 1897. Mem- 
bership: 63. Seating capa- 
city: 60. Sick Benefit, Free 
Loan, Cemetery. Pres., Louis 
Zlrin, 31 Wat kins St., 
B'klyn. Sec'y, Morris Her- 
shitz, 456 E. 175th St. 
Zirin, Louisy Pres. Chevrah 
Rod'phei Sholom Anshei 
Polutzk (133 Eldridge St.), 
since 1916. Term 2 years. 
Born 1884 in Russia. Came 
to U. S, 1904, Attended 
night school. Mfgr. of bind- 
ings: 128 Wooster St. Res.: 
31 Watkins St., B'klyn. 

Chevrah Rod'phei Sholom An- 
shei Rubsevltz, 26 Orchard 
St. Organized 1886. Mem- 
bership: 75. Seating capac- 
ity: 90. Sick Benefit, Free 
Loan, Study, Cemetery. 
Pres., G. O. Ken, 1026 2nd 
Ave. Sec'y, L J. Itzkowitz, 
255 E. 4th St, 

Rod'phei Zedelc Anshei Bal- 
shovtza, 49 Sheriff St. Or- 
thodox. Org. 1892. Mem- 
bership: 100. Seating capa- 
city: 250. Sick Benefit, Cem- 
etery. Pres., Louis Davish- 
berg, 82 Sheriff St. Sec'y, 
Abram Skulnick, 254 E. 7th 
St, 

DavishbersT, Louis, Pres. 
Rod'phei Zedek Anshei Bal- 
shovtza (49 Sheriff St.); 
elected 1917. Term 6 months. 
Born 1862 in Austria. Came 
to U. S. 1895. Received gen- 



232 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



eral Jewish education. 
Peddler. Res.: 82 Sheriff St. 

C'ouic. Chevrah Rod*phel^edek 
Anshei Ritova, 227 E. B'way. 
Orthodox. Orgr. 1884. Mem- 
bership: 100. Seating- capa- 
city: 200. Sick Benefit, In- 
surance, Bikur Cholim, 
Cemetery. Pres., Simon 
aoldstein, 53 Allen St. Sec'y, 
S. Grollman, 148 W. 111th 

_ St. . 

Goldstein, Simon, Pres. 
Cong. . Chevrah R o d ' p h e i 
Zedek Anshei Ritova (227 E. 
B'way), since 1914. Term 1 
year. Born 1866 in Russia. 
Came to U. S. 1883. Received 
general Jewish education. 
Ladies' Wear. Res.: 53 
Allen St. 

Rohatyner Y. M. Soc, 254 E. 

2nd St. Orthodox. Org. 1898. 
Membership: 101. Seating 
capacity: 1400. Sick Bene- 
fit, Cemetery. Pres., Frank 
Ettinger, 72 Lewis St. Sec'y, 
Ab. Nagelberg, 1530 Minford 
PI. 

Ettinger, Frank, Pres. 
Rohatyner Young Men's Soc. 
(254 E. 2nd St.), since 1916. 
Term 6 months. Born 1877 
. in Austria. Came to U. S. 
1900. Received general Jew- 
ish education. Presser. Res.: 
72 Lewis St. 

RoKOdover Cons. B'nal Moses 
Horowitz, 49 Sheriff St. Or- 
thodox. Org. 1915. Mem- 
bership: 50. Seating capa- 
city: 100. Cemetery. Pres., 
Moses Spergel, 150 So. 2nd 
St., B ' k 1 y n. Sec'y, Abe 
Brand, 72 Lewis St. 



Sperg:el, Moses, Prea. Roso- 

dover Cong. B'nai Moses 
Horowitz (49 Sheriff St.). 
since 1916. Term 6 months. 
Born 1867 in Austria. Came 
to U. S. 1897. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. Res.: 
150 S. 2nd St., B'klyn. 

Russian Painters' B. A., 30 

Norfolk St. Orthodox. Org. 
1882. Membership: 26. Seat- 
ing capacity: 100. Cemetery. 
Pres., Morris Feinberg, 208 
Wilson St., B'klyn. Sec'y, M. 
Simonovitz, 28 Norfolk St. 
Feinberg, Morris, Pres. Rus- 
sian Painters' B. A. (30 Nor- 
folk St.), since 1913, Term 
6 months. Born 1859 in 
Russia. Came to U. S. 1888. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Carpenter. Res.: 
208 Wilson St., B'klyn. 

Rymalover K. U. V. B'nal 
Jacob, 218 E. 2nd St. Or- 
thodox. Org. 1899. Mem- 
bership: 120. Seating ca- 
pacity: 150. Sick Benefit, 
Free Loan, Insurance, Bikur 
Cholim, Cemetery. Pres., 
Isaac Newman, 69 E. 4th St. 
Sec'y, B. Brotman, 147 Stan- 
ton St. 

Newman, Isaac, Pres. Rym- 
alover K. U. V. B'nai Jacob 
(218 E. 2nd St.), since 1916. 
Term 6 months. Born 1876 
in Austria. Came to U. S. 
1897. Received general Jew- 
ish education. Shirtmaker. 
Res.: 69 E. 4th St. 

Sanakar Cong. Sbom'rei Ha- 
dath, 77 Sheriff St. Ortho- 
dox. Org:. 1892. Member- 
ship; 43. Seating capacity: 



OONGREGATIONS 



233 



110. Cemetery. Pres., Hlrsch 
Berg-er, 54 Belmont Ave., 
B'klyn. Sec'y, Solomon 
Herzberg, 794 E. 158th St. 
Bergrer, Hirsch, Pres. Satia- 
ker Cong-. Shom'rei Hadath 
(77 Sheriff St.); elected 1917. 
Term 6 months. Born 1860 
in Austria. Came to U. S. 
1893. Received general Jew- 
ish education. Oil Cloth. 
Res.: 54 Belmont Ave., 
B'klyn. 

Scherpser Chevrah, 206 E. 
B'way. Orthodox. Org. 
1872. Membership: 48. Seat- 
ing capacity: 50. Sick Ben- 
efit, Cemetery. Pres., Abra- 
ham Reich. 140 Stanton St. 
Sec'y, Rudolph Berger, 155- 
7 E. 4th St. 

Reicfa^ Abraham, Pres. 
Scherpser Chevrah (206 E. 
B'way), elected 1917. Term 
1 year. Born 1877 in Russia. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Res.: 140 Stan- 
ton St. 

Sha'arei Binab, 225 E. B'way. 
Orthodox. Org. 18C8. Mem- 
bership: 50. Seating capa- 
city: 150. Cemetery. Pres., 
David Abrahamson, 232 Di- 
vision St. Sec'y, Sam Vogel, 
116 Hopkins St., B'klyn. 
Abraham.son, David, Pres. 
Sha'arei Binah (225 E. 
Broadway), since 1909. Term 
1 year. Born 1852 in Poland. 
Came to U. S. 1888. Received 
general Jewish education. 
Retired. Res.: 232 Division 
St. 



Sha»arel Shomayim, 91 Rlv- 
ington St. Orthodox. Mem- 
bership: 350. Seating capa- 
city: 1700. Hebrew School, 
Malbish Arumim, Cemetery, 
Study. Pres., Nathan Rosen- 
zweig, 69 2nd Ave. Sec'y, 
L. Louis Diamond, 86 2nd 
Ave. 

Rosenzweig, Natban, Pres. 
Sha'arei Shomayim (91 Riv- 
ington St.), since 1912. Term 
1 year. Born 1852 in Rou- 
mania. Came to U. S. 1887. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Restaurant. Res.: 
69 2nd Ave. 

Cbevrab Sba^arei Torah An- 
sbei Hungary, 255 E. 4th St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1897. Mem- 
bership: 40. Seating capac- 
ity: 100. Cemetery. Pres., 
Pincus Bennenson, 164 Stan- 
ton St. Sec'y, Joseph lA\i- 
lich, 400 E. 8th St. 

Sha'arei T'phillab Con??. 
(West End Syn.), 156 W. 

82nd St. Conservative, Eng- 
lish Sermon. Org. 1853. 
Membership: 560. Seating 
capacity: 1000. Hebrew 
School, Young Folks' Soc, 
Sisterhood, Malbish Arumim, 
Bikur C h o 1 i m, Cemetery. 
Pres., Morris A. Magner, 202 
Riverside Drive. Sec'y, Isaac 
Bildersee, 11 Seaman Ave. 
Rabbis: Rev. Dr. F. de Sola 
Mendes, 154 W. 82nd St.; 
Rev. Dr. Nathan Stern, Am- 
sterdam Ave. and 79th St., 
cjo Hotel T/Ucerne. 
Magner, Morris A., Pres. 
Sha'arei T'phillah Cong. 
(West End Syn.) (156 W. 



234 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



82nd St.), since 1910. Term 
1 year. Born 1859 In N. Y. 
Received general Jewish 
and secular education. 
Upholstery novelties: 41 E. 
18th St. Res.: 202 Riverside 
Drive. 

Chevrah Sha'arel T'phlllah, 78 

E. 111th St. Orthodox. Org. 
1909. Membership: 30. Seat- 
ing capacity: 100. Free 
Loan, Cemetery, Study. 
Pres., Solomon Farb, 1 W. 
117th St. 

Parb, Solomon, Pres. Chev- 
rah Sha'arei T'phlllah (78 E. 
111th St.), since 1916. Term 
6 months. Born 1859 in Aus- 
tria. Came to U. S. 1902. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Res.: 1 W. 117th 
St. 

Sha'arel T'phlllah A n s h e 1 
Doliner, 214 B. 2nd St. Or- 
thodox. Org. 1900. Mem- 
bership: 30. Seating capaci- 
ty: 250. Pres., M. Stern, 
100 Attorney St. Sec'y, A. 
Wallach, 237 E. 10th St. 
Stem, Morris, Pres. Sha'arei 
T'phillah Anshei Doliner 
(214 E. 2nd St.), since 1911. 
Term 6 months. Born 1879 
in Austria. Came to U. S. 
1905. Received Jewish edu- 
cation. Restaurant: 10 Cort- 
landt St. Res.: 100 Attor- 
ney St. 

Congr. Sha'arei T'phlllah An- 
shei Kobrln, 30 Norfolk St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1887. Mem- 
bership: 130. Seating capa- 
city: 150. Free Loan, Ceme- 
tery. Pres., Nachum Gold- 
berg, 79 Essex St. Sec'y, 



Noah Friedman, 3U4 S. 3id 
St., B'klyn. 

Goldberg, Nachum, Pres 
Cong. Sha'arei T'phillah An- 
shei Kobrin (30 Norfolk St.). 
since 1913. Term 1 year. 
Born 1867 in Russia. Came 
to U. S, 1886. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. 
Shoes. Res.: 79 Essex St. 

Sha'arei Zedek, 23 W. 118th St 
Orthodox. English Sermon. 
Org. 1838. Membership: 65. 
Seating capacity: 1000. He- 
brew School, Sisterhood, 
Cemetery, Study. Pres., 
Nathan Frankel, 59 W. 124th 
St. Sec'y» L. Barofsky, 2194 
7th Ave. Rabbi, P. Cher- 
toff, 101 W. 112th St. 
Frankel, Nathan, Pres. 
Sha'arei Zedek (23 W. 118th 
St.), since 1910. Term 1 year. 
Born in England. Received 
general Jewish education. 
Mfgr.: 56 W. 24th St. Res.: 
59 W. 124th St. 

Congr. Chevrah Sha'arei Zedek, 
48 Orchard St. Orthodox. 
Org. 1910. Membership: 200. 
Seating capacity: 200. Sick 
Benefit, Insurance, Free 
Loan, Hebrew School, Ceme- 
tery, Study. Pres., A. Cohen, 
118 Delancey St. Sec'y, C. 
Cohen, 58 Allen St. Rabbi, 
M. Waknin, 15 Ludlow St. 
Cohen, Aaron, Pres. Chevrah 
Sha'arei Zedek (52 Or- 
chard St.), since 1909. Term 
2 years. Born 1857 in Pal- 
estine. Came to U. S. 1907. 
Received thorough Jewish 
training. Oriental goods: 58 
Allen St. Res.: 118 Delancey 
St. 



OONGRBQATIONS 



235 



Congr. Shearlth B'nai Israel, 

22 E. 113th St. Orthodox. 
Membership: 30. Seating 
capacity: 500. Sisterhood, 
Hebrew School, Cemetery, 
Study. Prea., Isidore Levin- 
son. 24 W. 120th St. Sec'y, 
D. Wald, 68 W. 117th St. 
Rabbi, Dr. Meisner, 11 E. 
108th St. 

Lerlnson, Isidore, Pres. Cong. 
Shearlth B'nal Israel (22 E. 
113th St.), since 1908, Term 
1 year. Born 1848 in Ger- 
many. Came to U. S. 1864. 
Received general Jewish 
and secular education. Real 
estate: 252 E. 138th St. Res.: 
24 W. 120th St. 

Beth Hak^nesseth Shearith. 
Israel, 841 So. Boulevard. 
Orthodox. Org. 1916. Mem- 
bership: 80. Seating capa- 
city: 400. Ladies' Auxiliary, 
Cemetery, Study. Pres., 
Samuel J. Andron, 952 Whit- 
lock Ave. Sec'y, J. Rabino- 
witz, 777 So. Boulevard. 
Andron, Samuel J., Pres., 
Beth Hak'nesseth Shearith 
Israel (841 So. Boulevard), 
since 1916. Born 1853 In 
Russia. Came to U. S. 1892. 
Received a thorough Jewish 
education. Insurance. Res.: 
952 Whitlock Ave. 

C h e T r a h Shearith Israel 
Bonsher Steflneshter Krnz, 

81 Rivington St. Orthodox. 
Org. 1902. Membership: 70. 
Seating capacity: 80. Ceme- 
tery, Study. Pres., Simon 
David Rothman, 40 Ludlow 
St. 

B o t b m a n , Simon David, 
Free. Chevrah Shearith Is- 



rael Bousher Steflneshter 
Kruz (81 Rivington St.), 
since 1907. Term 1 year. 
Born 1857 In Roumanla. 
Came to U. S. 1897. Grocer: 
40 Ludlow St. 

Kehillah K e d o s h a Shearith 
Israel Mlturkey, 132 E. 

111th St. Orthodox. Greek 
Sermon. Org. 1911. Mem- 
bership: 200. Seating capa- 
city: 350. Pres., Aaron 
Zadok, 58 Canal St. Sec'y, 
David Jeuda, 68 E. 118th St. 
Rabbi, Michael Calamaro, 
1465 Fifth Ave. 
Zadok, Aaron, Pres. Kehillah 
Kedosha Shearith Israel Mi- 
turkey (132 E. 111th St.), 
since 1915. Term 1 year. 
Born in Turkey. Came to 
U. S. 1903. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. 
Kimonos: 58 Canal St. 

Sheareth Judah Cong., 543 W. 

145th St. Orthodox. Eng- 
lish Sermon. Org. 1913. 
Membership: 40. Seating 
capacity: 186. Ladies' Aux. 
Pres., H. Rogers, 600 W. 
140th St. Sec'y, Charles 
Kramer, 543 W. 146th St. 
Rabbi, M. Metz, 394 Grand 
St. 

Shem Tov Anshei Janover, 277 

Division St. Orthodox. Mem- 
bership: 18. Seating capa- 
city: 75. Cemetery, Study. 
Pres., Pesach Rivisman, 96 
E. B'way. Sec'y, Joseph 
Kelin, 12 Attorney St. 
Rivisman, Pesach, Pres. 
Cong. Shem Tov Anshei 



2a6 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



Janover (227 Division St.), 
since 1908. Term 1 year. 
Born 1863 in Russia. Came 
to U. S. 1887. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. Mer- 
chant. 23 Bayard St. Res.: 
96 E. B'way. 

Shevetli Achim Anshei Slonlm, 

119 Orchard St. Orthodox. 
Org. 1890. Membership: 160. 
Seating capacity: 120. Cem- 
etery, Study. Pres., D. Wol- 
koff, 2lNEldridge St. Sec'y, 
S. Bernstein, 110 Eldridge St. 
WolkolT, Daniel, Pres. Shev- 
eth Achim Anshei Slonim 
(119 Orchard St.), since 1915. 
Term 6 months. Born 1874 
In Russia. Received gener- 
al Jewish education. Jew- 
elry. Res.: 21 Eldridge St. 

Sheveth Achim B'nai lievl An- 
Khel Chromsch V'Gometz, 26 

Ridge St. Orthodox. Org. 

1889. Membership: 200. 
Seating capacity: 350. Free 
Loan, Cemetery, Study. 
P;-es., M. Levy, 178 E. 2nd 
St. Sec'y, L. Mins, 188 
Henry St. Rabbi, M. Abram- 
son, 181 E. B'way. 

Levy, Morris, Pres. Sheveth 
Achim B'nai Levi Anshei 
Chromsch V'Gometz (26 
Ridge St.), since 1914. Term 
6 months. Born 1848 in 
Russia. Came to U. S. 1889. 
Received elementary educa- 
tion. Res.: 180 B. 2nd St. 

Shlniaver Anshei S'phard, 122 

Ridge St. Orthodox. Org. 

1890. Membership: 70. Seat- 
ing capacity: 150. Free 



Loan, Cemetery, Study. 
Pres., Philip Spilk, 112 Laf- 
ayette St. Sec'y, A. Schorr. 

Shomer Sabbath, 87 East 4th 
St. Orthodox. Organized 
1901. Membership: 22. Seat- 
ing capacity, 100. Ceme- 
tery. 

Chevrah Shonirei E^munah An- 
shei Lubon, 162 Monroe St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1899. Mem- 
bership: 15. Seating capa- 
city: 200. Sick Benefit, Free 
Loan, Cemetery. Pres., 
Louis Terry, 168 Monroe St. 
Sec'y, Z. Krolitz, 199 For- 
syth St. 

Terry, Louis, Pres. Chevrah 
Shomrei Emunah Anshei 
Lubon (162 Monroe St.), 
since 1915. Term 1 year. 
Born 1857 in Russia. Came 
to U. S. 1897. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. Res.: 
168 Monroe St. 

Shonirei Sabbath Anshei Le- 
bovner Wohliner, 203 Divis- 
ion St. Orthodox. Org. 1912. 
Membership: 23. Seating 
capacity: 35. Cemetery. 
Pdcs., Bernard Marder, 84 
Allen St. Sec'y, Aaron Ber- 
man, 74 Delancey St. 

Shomrei Hadath Anshei 
Ch-elm, 33 Ridge St. Ortho- 
dox. Org. 1913. Member- 
ship: 22. Seating capacity: 
30. Cemetery. Pres., Alter 
Saltz, 84 Pitt St. Sec'y, L. 
Vogel, 59 Columbia St. 
Saltz, . Alter, Pres. Shomrei 
Hadath Anshei Chelm (33 
Ridge St.). Born 1877 In 



CONGREGATIONS 



237 



Russia. Came to U. S. 1912. 
Res.: 84 Pitt St. 

Chevrah Sliomriiu Laboker, 

511 E. 136th St. Orthodox. 
Org. 1916. Membership: 20. 
Seating capacity: 100. Pres., 
Harris Fish, 601 E. 138th St. 
Rabbi, Moses Pfeffer, 190 
Brown PI. 

Fish, Harris, Pres. Chevrah 
Shomrim Laboker (511 E. 
13th St.), since 1916. Term 
6 months. Born 1877 in 
Austria. Came to U. S. 1902. 
Res.: 601 E. 138th St. 

Consres'ation Sliulclian Orucb 
D'Kutno, 8 W. 113th St. Or- 
thodox. Org. 1913. Mem- 
bership: 50. Seating- capa- 
city: 250. Cemetery, Study. 
Pres., A. Prince, 228 W. 
116th St. Sec'y, J. L. Cohen. 
1081 Simpson St. Rabbi, 
Israel Klein, 10 W. 117th St. 
Prince, A., Pres. Shulchan 
Oruch D'Kutno (8 W. 113th 
St.), since 1916. Term 1 
year. Born 1860 in Russia. 
Came to U. S. 1882. Received 
general Jewish and secular 
education. Mfgr. caps. Res.: 
228 W. 116th St. 



Sntarn^oner Chevrali Kadislia, 

311 Grand St. Orthodox. 
Org. 1903. Membership: 70. 
Seating capacity: 40. Sick 
Benefit, Insurance, Free 
Loan, Cemetery. Pres. and 
Sec'y, Isaac Serot, 85 Mont- 
gomery St. 

Serot, Isaac, Pres. Smargon- 
er Chevrah Kadisha (311 
Grand St.), since 1903. Term 
1 year. Born 1853 in Russia. 
Came to U. S. 1903. Received 
general Jewish education. 
Res.: 85 Montgomery St. 

Congr. Beth Hak'nesseth Soko- 
lower, 52 Orchard St. Or- 
thodox. Organized 1895. 
Membership: 200. Seating 
capacity: 300. Sick Bene- 
fit, Life Insurance, Free 
Loan, Study, Cemetery. 
Pres., M. Miller. Sec'y, Mr. 
Novidvor, 176 Grand St., 
B'klyn, N. Y. 

Sous of Israel (founded by the 
Redewitzer Rebbi) 293 B. 
3rd St. Orthodox. Mepber- 
ship: 500. Pres., Rev. Ch. 
Klien. Sec'y, H. Kenigsberg. 
Rabbi, Israel Hager. 



Sinai Congr. of the Bronx, 951 

Stebbins Ave. Reformed 
English Sermon. Org. 1911. 
Membership: 290. Seating 
capacity: 825. Fifteen Aux- 
iliary Societies, Brother- 
hood, Sisterhood. Hebrew 
School, Cemetery. Pres., 
William Daub. Sec'y, Wm. 
Mitchel, 920 Cauldwell Ave. 
Rabbi, Max Relchler, 860 E. 
leist St. 



Congr. Sons of Israel Kalva- 
rier, 107 W. 116th St. Or- 
thodox, Org. 1907. Seating 
capacity: 800. Pres. H. 
Sklamberg, 1809 7th Ave. 
Sec'y, R. Kalman, 44 W. 
117th St. Rabbi, Rev. 
Baruch Cohn. '48 W. 116th 
St. (Branch of 13 Pike St.) 

Con^. Sons of Jacob Anshet 
Tiktim, 20 Orchard St. Or- 



238 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



thodox. Org. 1886. Mem- 
bership: 100. Seating capa- 
city: 60. Sick Benefit, Free 
Loan, Cemetery, Pres., Ja- 
cob Pakewitz, 363 Henry St. 
Sec'y, Solomon Katz, 114 E. 
7th St. 

Cong:. Sons of Solomon Anshel 
Jezlema, 28 Ave. A. Ortho- 
dox. Org:. 1902. Member- 
ship: 48. Seating capacity: 
200. Sick Benefit, Cemetery. 
Pres., Harry Postel, 239 So. 
2nd St., B'klyn. Sec'y, A. 
Linderman, 195 Orchard St. 
Postel, Harry, Pres. Cong. 
Sons of Solomon, Anshel 
Jezlerna (28 Ave. A), since 
1916. Term 6 months. Born 
1870 in Austria. Came to 
U. S. 1897. Received gener- 
al Jewish and secular edu- 
cation. Merchant. Res.: 
229 So. 2nd St., B'klyn. 

Cong. Sons of Solomon Anshel 
S'phard, 111 E. 114th St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1911. Mem- 
bership: 20. Seating capa- 
city: 160. Cemetery. Pres., 
Sam Wei.ntraub, 61 St. 
Nicholas Ave. Sec'y, Sam 
Fishman, 87 E. 114th St. 
Welntraub, Sana, Pres. Cong. 
Sons of Solomon Anshel 
S'phard (111 E. 114th St.), 
since 1916. Term 6 months. 
Born 1882 In Russia. Came 
to U. S. 1895. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. Fish. 
Res.: 61 St. Nicholas Ave. 

Spanish and Portagmese She> 
arlth Israel Cong:., Central 
Park West and 70th St. 



Orthodox. Membership: 520 
Seating capacity: 700. Sis- 
terhood, Hebrew School, 
Hebrew Relief Soc, Junior 
League, Cemetery, Women's 
League for War Relief, 
Hebra Hased V a ' A m e t , 
Pres., L. Napoleon Levy, 128 
B'way. Sec'y, N. Taylor 
Phillips, 51 Chambers St. 
Minister, H. Pereira Mendes, 
99 Central Park West. As- 
sociate Minister, D. de Sola 
Pool, 102 W. 75th St. 
Levy, L. Napoleon, Pres. 
Spanish and Portuguese 
Shearith Israel Cong. (Cen- 
tral Park West and 70th 
St.), since 1893. Term 1 
year. Born in N. Y. Re- 
ceived a college education. 
Lawyer: 128 B'way. Res.: 18 
W. 72nd St. 

C h e T r a h S'phard Anshel 
Pereyaslow, 169 Henry St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1890. Mem- 
bership: 270. Seating capac- 
ity: 90. Sick Benefit, Free 
Loan, Cemetery. Pres., 
Nathan Levitzky, 668 Eagle 
Ave. Sec'y, Chas. Zalb, 296 
Berriman St., B'klyn. 
LevitsBky, Nathan, Pres. 
C h e V r a h S'phard Anshel 
Pereyaslow (169 Henry St.), 
since 1906. Term 1 year. 
Born 1877 In Russia. Came 
to U. S. 1901. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. Res.: 
668 Eagle Ave. 

Cong:. S'phard Anshet Poland, 

236 Broome St. Orthodox. 
Org. 1889. Membership: 62. 
Seating capacity: 300. Free 
Loan, Bikur Cholim, Ceme- 



OONORBGATIONS 



289 



tery, Study. Pres., Morris 
Sussman, 158 Madison St. 
Sec'y, H. Berg-ozin, 619 E. 
6 th St. 

Snssman, Hlorrls, Pres. Cong. 
S'phard Anshei Poland (236 
Broome St.), elected 1917. 
Term 6 months. Born 1871 
in Russia. Came to U. S. 
1900. Confectioner. Res.: 
158 Madison St. 



Chevrah S^phard D'Bronx, 857 

Union Ave. Orthodox. Org. 
1916. Membership: 40. 
Seating capacity: 120. Bikur 
Cholim. Pres., S. Silber, 754 
E. 161st St. Sec'y, S. Silver, 
869 E. 156th St. 
Silber, S., Pres. Chevrah 
S'phard D'Bronx (857 Union 
Ave.), since 1916. Term 6 
months. Born 1859 in Aus- 
tria. Came to U. S. 1902. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Hebrew Teacher: 
868 Fox St. Res.: 754 E. 
161st St. 



Beth Hak'nesseth D'chevrah 
S'phardim D ' P o 1 a n d, 71 

Suffolk St. Orthodox. Mem- 
bership: 30. Seating capac- 
ity: 90. Cemetery, Presi- 
dent, Daniel Bialostok, 176 
Stanton St. Sec'y, George 
Krulevitch, 400 Grand St. 
BlaloBtok, Daniel, Pres. 
Beth Hak'nesseth D'chev- 
rah S'phardim D ' P o 1 a n d 
(71 Suffolk St.), since 1895. 
Term 1 year. Born 1855 in 
Russia. Came to U. S. 1892. 
Received general Jewish 



education, 
ton St. 



Res.: 176 Stan- 



Stropkover C h e t r a b Joseph 
Chaim, 137 Attorney St. 
Orthodox. Orff. 1891. Mem- 
bership: 70. Seating capac- 
ity: 210. Cemetery. Pres., 
Abraham Riff, 800 E. 9th St. 
Sec'y, Philip November, 516 
E. Houston St. 
RiflP, Abraham, Pres. Strop- 
kover Chevrah Joseph 
Chaim (137 Attorney St.), 
elected 1917. Term 6 
months. Born 1858 in 
Hungary. Came to U. S. 
1886. Received general 
Jewish education. Cigar 
mfgr. Res.: 800 E. 9th St. 

Tachkeinoni Cong., 1378 Pros- 
pect Ave. Orthodox. Org. 

1913. Membership: 25. Seat- 
ing capacity: 70. Pres., J. 
Fine, 1412 Charlotte St. 
Sec'y, Sol. Adler, 1378 Pros- 
pect Ave. 

Cong-. Taharath Hakodesh, 

309 E. 102nd St. Orthodox. 
Org. 1909. Membership: 32. 
Seating capacity: 300. Free 
Loan, Ladies' Auxiliary, 
Hebrew School, Cemetery. 
Pres., Abraham Epstein, 315 
E. 102nd St. Sec'y, A. Zas- 
lavsky. 805 E. 102nd St. 
B p s t e 1 n , Abraham, Pres. 
Cong. Taharath Hakodesh 
(309 E. 102nd St.). since 

1914. Term 1 year. Born 
1872 in Russia. Came to 
U. S. 1902. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. 
Cloaks: 179 Stanton St. 
Res.: 315 E. 102nd St. 



240 



C50MMUNAL REGISTER 



Congr. of Taltnudlcal Instt- 
ttite of Harlem, 56 W. 114th 
St. Orthodox. Orgr. 1912. 

• Membership: 700. Seating 
capacity: 500. Hebrew 
School, Ladies' Soc. Pres., 
J. Lunitz, 117 E. 95th St. 
Sec'y, J. Popper, 12 E. 112th 
St Rabbi, M. Sterman, 26 
W. 113th St. 

Cons. Talmud Torah, 221 B. 

51st St. Orthodox. Org. 
1900. Mem be r shI p: 200. 
Seating capacity: 700. 
Hebrew School, Ladies' 
Auxiliary. Pres., Myer Free- 
man, 305 E. 50th St. Sec'y, 
Jos. Miller, 411 E. 52nd St. 

Tamashower Cong., 90 Colum- 
bia St. Orthodox. Org. 
1892. Membership: 96. 
Seating capacity: 140. 
Cemetery. Pres., Abraham 
Hecker, 148 E. 98th St. 
Sec'y, Nathan Lubkin, 86 
Columbia St. 

Hecker, Abraham, Pres. 
Tamashower Cong. (90 
Columbia St.); elected 1917. 
Term 6 months. Born 1864 
in Russia. Received general 
Jewish education. Res.: 148 
E. 98th St. 

Tarngrroder B. A., 66 Colum- 
bia St. Orthodox. Org. 
1902. Membership: 70. 
Seating capacity: 120. Sick 
Benefit, Cemetery. Pres., L. 
Kenigstein, 744 E. 5th St. 
Sec'y, S. Silberstein. 838 E. 
Houston St. 

Kenigstein, l^eon, Pres. 
Tarngroder B. A. (66 Colum- 



bia St.); elected 1917. Term 
6 months. Born 1873 in Rus- 
sia. Came to U. S. 1897. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Diamonds. Res.: 
744 E. 5th St. 

Tarnopoler K. U. V., 125 Riv- 

ington St. Orthodox. Org. 
1901. Membership: 60. 
Seating capacity: 100. Bikur 
Cholim, Cemetery. Pres., 
Mendel Peltzer, 160 S. 3rd 
St. Sec'y, T. Landesman, 206 
Stanton St. 

Peltzer, Mendel, Pres, 
Tarnopoler K. U. V. (125 
Rivington St.), since 1916. 
Term 6 months. Born 1876 
in Russia. Came to U. S. 
1903. Received general 
Jewish education. Picture 
Frames: 413 E. 8th St. Res.: 
160 So. 3rd St., B'klyn. 

Temple of the Covenant, 552 

W. 181st St. Reformed. 
English Sermon. Org. 1912. 
Membership: 100. Seating 
capacity: 300. Religious 
School, Sisterhood, Junior 
League, Sewing Society. 
Pres., Jacob W. Endel, 100 
5th Ave. Sec'y, Milton Loeb, 
665 W. 160th St. Rabbi, 
Frederick Braun. 

Temple of Peace, 542 W. 162nd 
St. Reformed. English Ser- 
mon. Org. 1916. Member- 
ship: 45. Seating capacity: 
165. Sisterhood, Young Folks 
League. Pres., Adolph /Hays, 
42 Ft. Washington Ave. 
Sec'y, Dr. Robert Peck, 517 
W. 160th St. Rabbi, Wm. 
Lowenberg, 542 W. 162nd St. 



CONGREGATIONS 



241 



Tenth St. Congr^ 228 E. 10th 
St. Orthodox. Org. 1910. 
Membership: 10. Seating 
capacity: 50. Pres., Rev. 

Suchman, 228 East 10th St. 

Cons. Chevrah T^hillm and 
Blkur Cholim, 83 E. 110th 
St. Orthodox. Org. 1911. 
Membership: 45. Seating 
capacity: 150. Sick Benefit, 
Brotherhood, Cemetery, 
Study. Pres., Louis Horo- 
witz, 21 W. 111th St. Sec'y, 
Samuel Horowitz, 25 E. 
103rd St. 

Horowitz, Louis, Pres. Cong. 
Chevrah T'hillm and Blkur 
Cholim (83 E. 110th St.), 
since 1916. Term 6 months. 
Born 1871 In Russia. Came 
to U. S. 1905. Received 
general Jewish education. 
Silks. Res.: 21 W. illth St. 



250. Blkur Cholim, Ceme- 
tery, Study. Pres., Morris 
Fleishman, 22 Suffolk St. 
Sec'y, M. Benjamin, 1500 
Boston Rd. 

Fleishman, Morris, Pres. 
Chevrah T'hillm Anshei 
Viscover (169 Clinton St.). 
since 1901. Term 6 months. 
Born 1844 in Russia. Came 
to U. S. 1887. Recelve( 
general Jewish education. 
Retired. Res.: 22 Suffolk 
St. 

Tikvath Zion Cong., 936 E. 

165th St. Orthodox. Eng- 
lish Sermon. Org. 1912. 
Membership: 30. Seating ca- 
pacity: 180. School, Study. 
Pres., Max Halpern, 936 E. 
165th St. Sec'y, Mr. Mirsky, 
891 Fox St. Rabbi, J. Laza- 
rowitz, 940 Tiffany Ave. 



Chevrah T'hillm Anshei 
Sterenke, 30 Norfolk St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1895. Mem- 
bership: 5'4. Seating capac- 
ity: 120. Cemetery. Pres., 
Louis Cohen, 883 S. Boule- 
vard. Sec'y, Joshua Dono- 
witz, 252 S. 4th St., B'klyn. 
Cohen, Lonls, Pres. Chevrah 
T'hilim Anshei Sterenke (30 
Norfolk St.), since 1897. 
Term 1 year. Born 1860 In 
Russia. Came to U. S. 1892. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Liquors. Res.: 
883 So. Boulevard. 

Chevrah T'hillm Anshei Vis- 
cover, 169 Clinton St. Ortho- 
dox. Org. 1860. Member- 
ship: 67. Seating capacity: 



Cong-, of TIphereth Achim 
Talmud Torah, 200 E. 20th 
St. Orthodox. Org. 1909. 
Membership: 20. Seating 
capacity: 200. Hebrew 
School, Cemetery. Pres., 
Julius LIpow, 1038 Lowell 
St. Sec'y, Maurice Gtins- 
berg, 208 E. 21st St. 

Con§;. TIphereth Achim Anshei 
Dunaberg, 197 Henry St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1890. Mem- 
bership: 75. Seating capac- 
ity: 150. Insurance, Study, 
Free Loan, Cemetery. Pres., 
Leib Klein. 364 E. 4th St. 
Sec'y, Myer Rosenberg, 208 
Division St. 

Klein, Leib, Pre». Cong. 
TIphereth Achim Anshei 



242 



COMMUNAL HEG18TBR 



Dunaburg (197 Henry St.)» 
since 1910. Term 1 year. 
Born 1867 in Russia. Came 
to U. S. 1891. Received 
general Jewish education. 
Shocliet. Res.: 364 E. 4th 
St. 

Chevrah Tlphereth Achim An- 
shel Sirotsk, 380 Grand St. 
Orthodox. Org-. 1913. Mem- 
bership: 60. Seating capac- 
ity: 100. Free Loan, Ceme- 
tery. Pres., Harry Mosal, 76 
Ave. B. Sec'y, Morris Fin- 
kelstein, 109 Ludlow St. 
Mosal, Harry, Pres. Chevrah 
Tiphereth Achim A n s h e i 
Sirotsk (380 Grand St.); 
elected 1917. Term 6 months. 
Born 1885 in Russia. Came 
to U. S. 1907. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. Dry 
goods. Res.: 76 Ave. B. 

Chevrah Tlphereth Achim 
Anshei Sp'hard, 36 Orchard 
St. Orthodox. Org. 1913. 
Membership: 50. Seating 
capacity: 100. Free Loan, 
Cemetery, Study. Pres., B. 
Ruch. Sec'y, Mr. Raften- 
berg, 101 Clinton St. Rabbi, 
Rev. Sonnenschein, 346 E. 
4th St. 

Beth Hak'iie.sseth D'Chevrah 
Tiphereth Israel, 1258 Bos- 
ton Road. Orthodox. Org. 
1913. Membership: 25. 
Seating capacity: 75. Pres., 
Isaiah Troy, 745 Jennings 
St. 

Troy, Isaiah, Pres. Beth Ha- 
k'nesseth D'Chevra>i Tiph- 
ereth Israel (1258 Boston 



Road), since 1915. Term 6 
mouths. Born 1875 in Rus- 
sia. Received general Jew- 
ish education. Printer: 56 
W. 28th St. Res.: 745 Jen- 
ings St. 

Cous. Tlphereth Israel, 126 

Allen St. Orthodox. Org. 
1867. Membership: 250. 
Seating capacity: 1,000. 
Cemetery., Study. Pres. 
Abraham Gewirtzman, 41 
First Ave. Sec'y, Abraham 
T. Henigson, 12 Montgomery 
St. Rabbi. Joseph Lotz, 90 
Orchard St. 

Gewirtzman, Abraham, Pres. 
Cong. Tiphereth Israel 
(126 Allen St.), since 1916. 
Term 1 year. Born 1877 in 
Russia. Came to U. S. 1904. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Furniture dealer: 
36 First Ave. Res.: 41 First 
Ave. 

Con^. of Talmud Torah Tiph- 
ereth Israel, 327 E. 13th St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1915. Mem- 
bership: 37. Seating capac- 
ity: 150. Hebrew School. 
Pres., Benjamin Gitelman, 
317 E. 13th St. Sec'y, H. 
Lefkowitz, 327 E. 13th St. 
Rabbi, H y m a n Lefkowitz, 
327 E. 13th St. 
Gitelman, Benjamin, Pres. 
Talmud Torah Tiphereth 
Israel (327 E. 13th St.), 
elected 1917. Term 6 
months. Born 1865 in Rus- 
sia. Came to U. S. 1906. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Mfgr. caps. 
Res.: 319 E. 13th St. 



CONGREGATIONS 



243 



Tlpberetli Israel Anshel 
S'phard Gallcia, 90 Ave. C. 
Orthodox. Org. 1902. Mem- 
bership: 35. Seating capac- 
ity: 60. Cemetery, Study. 
Pres., Elias Fuchs, 32 Ave. 

D. Sec'y, Judah Mishel, 106 

E. 7th St. 

Fuchs, Klias, Pres. Tiphereth 
Anshei S'phard Galicia (90 
Avenue C), elected 1917. 
Term 6 months. Born 1854 
in Austria. Came to U. S. 
1888. Received general 
Jewish education. Clothing: 
48 Cannon St. Res.: 32 
Avenue D. 

Tlpliereth Israel Anshel 
Stepenesht, 165 Allen St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1901. Mem- 
bership: 42. Seating capac- 
ity: 150. Cemetery. Pres., 
Max Ruckenstein, 110 Stan- 
ton St. Sec'y, Saul Peiner, 
161 Orchard St. 
Ruckenstein, Max, Pres. 
Tiphereth Israel Anshei 
Stepenesht (165 Allen St.), 
since 1916. Term 1 year. 
Born 1887 in Roumania. 
Came to U. S. 1907. Re- 
ceived general Jewish and 
secular education. Sales- 
man. Res.: 110 Stanton St. 

Cone. Tiphereth Jacob 
Anshei Appalla, 272 Stanton 
St. Orthodox. Org. 1905. 
Membership: 61. Seating 
capacity: 60. Cemetery. 
Pres., Raphael Zuelzer, 55 
Wlllett St. Sec'y, Anshei 
Wishniak, 123 Columbia St. 
Zncker, Raphael, Pres. Cong. 
Tiphereth Beth .Tarnb Anshei 



Appalla (272 Stanton St.), 
elected 1917. Term 6 months. 
Born 1885 in Russia. Came 
to U. S. 1912. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. Res.: 
55 Willett St. 

Congr. Tiphereth Jerusalem, 

240 Madison St. Orthodox. 
Org. 1914. Membership: 110. 
Seating capacity: 1000. Free 
Loan, Ladies' Auxiliary, 
Cemetery, Study. Pres., 
Aaron Jacobs, 780 E. 169th 
St. Sec'y, J. Levine, 25'4 
Henry St. Rabbi, M. Sobel, 
Jacobs, Aaron, Pres. Cong. 
Tiphereth Jerusalem (240 
Madison St.), since 1915. 
Term 1 year. Born 1860 in 
Russia. Came to U. S. 1886. 
Received general Jewish and 
secular education. Dry 
goods: 251 Church St. Res.: 
780 E. 169th St. 

I 
Congr. of Talmud Torah Tiph- 
ereth Jerusalem, 147 E. 

B'way. Orthodox. Org. 
19 8. Membership: 650. 
Seating capacity: 125. He- 
brew School, Sisterhood, 
Malbish Arumim, Cemetery, 
Study. Pres., Aaron Jacobs, 
251 Church St. Sec'y, Louis 
Beroza, 77 Essex St. Rabbi, 
Aaron Gordon, 137 Henry 
St. 

Cong. Tiphereth Joseph 
Anshei Przemsyl, 81 Colum- 
bia St. Orthodox. Org, 1891. 
Membership: 65. Seating 
capacity: 300. Sick Benefit, 
Insurance, Cemetery. Pres., 
Barnch Pelasdnrff. f>4 Can- 



244 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



non St. Sec'y, Isaac Taurig, 
644 Wales Ave. 
Pelasdurir, B a r a c h , Pres. 
Cong-. Tiphereth Joseph 
Anshei Przemsyl (81 Colum- 
bia St.), elected 1917. Term 
6 months. Born 1861 in 
Austria. Came to U. S. 1889. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Tailor. Res.: 54 
Cannon St. 

Tlumaczer Congr., 67 Clinton 
St. Orthodox. Org. 1902. 
Membership: 75. Seating 
capacity: 60. Sick Benefit, 
Insurance, Free Loan, Mal- 
bish Arumim, Bikur Cholim, 
Cemetery. Pres., Ben Zion 
Greiper, 262 E. 2nd St. Sec'y, 
L. Friedman, 527 E. 13th St. 
Greiper, Ben Zion, Pres. 
Tlumaczer Cong. (67 Clinton 
St.), elected 1917. Term 6 
months. Born 1875 in Aus- 
tria. Came to U. S. 1902. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Res.: 262 E 2nd 
St 

Toldoth I.saac Nusach S'phard, 

85 Henry St. Orthodox. Org. 
1900. Membership: ^5. 
Seating- capacity: 75. Insur- 
ance, Free Loan, Bikur ^ 
Cholim, Cemetery. Pres., M. 
Silberman, 391 Atkins St., 
B'klyn. Sec'y, W. Pruszow- 
sky, 85 Henry St. 

Cone. Tomchei Tipbereth Is- 
rael, 1038 Prospect Ave. 
Orthodox. English sermon. 
Org. 1917. Membership: 25. 
Seating capacity: 400. He- 
brew School, Ladies' Aux. 



Pres., Rev. B. Kallenberg, 
1042 Prospect Ave. . Sec'y, 
Ignatz Roth, 1042 Prospect 
Ave. 

Kallenberg, B., Pres. Cong. 
Tomchei Tiphereth Israel 
(1038 Prospect Ave.), elect- 
ed 1917. Term 3 years. Born 
1875 in Russia. Came to 
U. S. 1900. Rabbi. Res.: 
1042 Prospect Ave. 

Tom'ebei Torah D'Bronx, 792 

E. 156th St. Orthodox. Mem- 
bership: 70. Seating capac- 
ity: 500. Hebrew School. 
Pres., J. Hyman, 699 Eagle 
Ave. Sec'y, S. Shoenfeld, 576 
Pox St. 

Hyman, Joseph, Pres. 
Tom'chei Torah D'Bronx 
(792 E. 156th St.), since 
1913. Term 1 year. Born 
1855 in Russia. Came to U. 
S. 1882. Received general 
Jewish and secular educa- 
tion. Real estate: 119 Nas- 
sau St. Res.: 699 Eagle 
Ave. 

Cbevrah Torath Acblm S'phard 
Anshei Poland, 36 Orchard 
St. Orthodox. Org. 1913. 
Membership: 50, Seating 
capacity: 100. Free Loan, 
Study, Cemetery. Sec'y, Mr. 
Raftenberg, 101 Clinton St. 

Cong, of Talmud Torah 
Torath Moses, 667 Dawson 
St. Orthodox. Org. 1914. 
Membership: 90. Seating 
capacity: 400. Hebrew 
School, Sisterhood. Pres., 
Chas. Baltler, 830 E. 163d 
St. Sec'y, Harris Lewis, 664 
E. 160th St. 



CONGREGATIONS 



245 



Cong, of Treniont Hebre^T 
Free School, 484 E. 173d 
St. Orthodox. Org. 1907. 
Membership: 600. Seating 
capacity: 700. Hebrew 
School, Malbish Arumim, 
Ladies' Auxiliary. Pres., 
Isaac Auselewitz, 1494 Cro- 
tona P'k East. Sec'y, Louis 
Brumberger, 723 E. 175th 
St. 



Sec'y, Harry Auerbach, 86 

Ridge St. 

Weinstein, Hyman, Pres. 

Vladover Slovotitcher Gemi- 
lath Chasodim Verein (93 
Attorney St.), elected 1917. 
Term 6 months. Born 1882. 
in Russia. Came to U. S. 
1912. Received general Jew- 
ish education. Res.: 221 
Clinton St. 



Tremont Temple SVarel Rach- 
amim, 2064 Concourse. Re- 
formed. English Sermon. 
Org. 1906. Membership: 115. 
Seating capacity: 450. Sick 
Benefit, Insurance, Free 
Loan, Study. Pres., Adolph 
Steiner, 2070 Anthony Ave. 
Sec'y, N. Joel, 2340 Walton 
Ave. Rabbi, Clifton Harby 
Levy, 2001 Union Ave. 
Steiner, Adolph, Pres. Tre- 
mont Temple Sha'arei Rach- 
amim (2064 Concourse), 
since 1915. Term 1 year. 
Born 1847 in Germany. Res.: 
2070 Anthony Ave. 

Harlem Branch United Wilner 
Chevrah B'nai Abraham. 38 

W. 115th St. Orthodox. Org. 
1915. Membership: 20. Seat- 
ing capacity: 100. Pres., B. 
Anderson, 1699 Lexington 
Ave. Sec'y, S. Bukatman, 
168 Lenox Ave. 

VladoA-er Slovotitcher Geml- 
lath Chasodim Verein, 93 

Attorney St. Orthodox. 
Org. 1914. Membership: 56. 
Seating capacity: 10 0. 
Cemetery. Pres., Hyman 
Weinstein. 221 Clinton St. 



Washlngrton Heig^hts Cong:., 

510 W. 161st St. Orthodox. 
English Sermon. Org. 1909. 
Membership: 100. Seating 
capacity; 720. Hebrew 
School, Cemetery. Pres., 
Emanuel Hertz, 400 West 
150th St. Sec'y, Jerome 
Konheim, 935 St. Nicholas 
Ave. Rabbi, Moses Rosen- 
thal, 974 St. Nicholas Ave. 
Hertz, Emanuel, Pres. Wash- 
ington Heights Cong. (510 
W. 161st St.), since 1913. 
Term 1 year. Born 1870 in 
Austria. Came to U. S. 1884. 
Received A. B. (C.C.N. Y.), 
A. M. (Columbia), L. L. B. 
(Columbia). Lawyer: 115 
Broadway. Res.: 400 W. 
150th St. 

W^est Side Ahavath Achim 
Cong., 845 Ninth Ave. Or- 
thodox. Org. 1895. Mem- 
bersliip: 80. Seating capac- 
ity: 100. Sick Benefit, 
Brotherhood, Cemetery. 
Pres. Harry Grant, 231 W. 
140th St. Sec'y, Adolph 
Moskowitz, 201 W, 135th St. 
Grant, Harry, Pres. West 
Side Ahavath Achlm Cong. 
(845 9th Ave.), elected 1917. 



246 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



Term 1 year. Born in Rus- 
sia. Came to U. S. 1885. 
Received g-eneral Jewish 
education. Real estate. 
Res.: 231 W. 140th St. 

AVest Side Hebrew Relief Soc. 

351 W. 47th St. Orthodox. 
Org-. 1915. Membership: 20. 
Seating capacity: 40. 
Hebrew School. Pres., Sam 
Yampolsky, 686 8th Ave. 
Sec'y, R. Grant, 339 W. 43rd 
St. Rabbi, Ellis Harkavy, 
351 W. '4'7th St. 

Clievrali Wohlin Anshei Mal- 
zer, 311 Grand St. Ortho- 
dox. Org-. 1906. Member- 
ship: 150. Seating- capacity: 
150. Free Loan, Cemetery, 
Study. Pres., Mordecai 

. Schatzman, 44 Attorney St. 
Sec'y, A. Brik, 366 S. 3d St., 
B'klyn. 

Schatzman, Mordecai, Pres. 
C h e V r a h Wohlin Anshei 
Malzer (311 Grand St.), since 
1916. Term 6 months. Born 
1884 in Russia. Came to U. 
S. 1910. Received general 
Jewish education. Seltzer 
dealer, 1912 Broome St. Res.: 
44 Attorney St., c|o C. 
Levine. 

Yad Charutzim Monester- 
zisker, 214 E. 2nd St. Ortho- 
dox. Org-. 1891. Member- 
ship: 107. Seating- capacity: 
150. Free Loan, Cemetery. 
Pres., Jacob Gips, 421 Sutter 
Ave., B'klyn. Sec'y, L. 
Oliver, 25 E. 4th St. 
Glps, Jacob, Pres. Tad 
Charutzim Monesterzisker 



(214 E. 2nd St.), elected 
1917. Term 1 year. Born 
1886 in Austria. Came to 
U. S. 1907. Received public 
school education. Butter 
and Eggs: 103 Monroe St.. 
Res. : '4 21 Sutter Ave., 
B'klyn. 

Cong. Yad Savel, 119 Norfolk 

St. Orthodox. Org. 1882. 
Membership: 39. Seating 
capacity: 100. Free Loan, 
Cemetery. Pres., H e i m a n 
Gold, 556 Marcy Ave., B'klyn. 
Sec'y, and Rabbi, S. Trach- 
tenberg, 958 Home St. 
Gold, Ueiman, Pres. Cong. 
Yad Savel (119 Norfolk St.). 
since 1914. Term 1 year. 
Born 1866 in Russia. Came 
to U. S. 1888. Received gen- 
eral Jewish and secular 
education. Res.: 556 Marcy 
Ave., B'klyn. 

Cong, of Yesliibath Rabenu 
Mordecai Rosenblatt, 98 E. 

B'way. Orthodox. Org. 
19 16. Membership: 150. 
Seating capacity: 120. 
School, Study. Pres., Philip 
Lefkowitz, 152 Henry St. 
Sec'y, Samuel Borenstein, 
110 Eldridge St. 
Lefkowitz, Pliilip, Pres. 
Yeshibath Rabenu Morde- 
cai Rosenblatt (98 E. 
B'way). since 1916. Term 
1 year. Born 1852 in Rus- 
sia. Came to U. S. 1885. 
Received . general Je-wlsh 
education.* Res.: 162 Henry 
St. 
Young Israel Synagrogue, 197 
E. B'way. Orthodox. Bng- 



00NGRBQATI0N8 



247 



lish Sermon. Org. 1915. 
Membership: 75. Seating 
capacity: 150. Sisterhood, 
Study. Pres., Harry G. 
Fromberg, 288 E. B'way. 
Sec'y, David Friedman, 158 
E. B'way. 

Fromberg-, Harry G., Pres. 
Young Israel Synagogue 
(197 E. B'way), since 1915. 
Term 6 months. Born 1889 
in Russia. Came to U. S. 
1892. Lawyer: 320 B'way. 
Res.: 288 E. B'way. 

Con^. Zemach Zedek Nusach 
Art, 184 Henry St. Orthodox. 
Org. 1898. Membership: 160. 
Seating capacity: 400. Free 
Loan, Cemetery, Study. 
Pres., Mr. Rivitzky. Sec'y, 
Mr. Kaminsky. 

Cong. Zemach Zedek Nusach 
AH D'Harlem, 81 E. 110th 
St. Orthodox. Org. 1911. 
Membership: 50. Seating 
capacity: 290. Free Loan, 
Sisterhood, Ladies' Auxili- 
ary, Cemetery. Pres., Abra- 
ham Cohen, 58 W. 115th St. 
Sec'y, Max Zeldin, 23 E. 
104th St. Rabbi, Abram Z. 
Chonowitz, 83 E. 110th St. 
Cohen, Abraham, Pres. Cong. 
Zemach Zedek Nusach Ari 
D'Harlem (81 E. 110th St.), 
since 1912. Term 1 year. 
Born 1870 in Russia. Came 
to U. S. 1891. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. Gar- 
ters: 4 B. 115th St. Res.: 58 
W. 115th St. 

Chevrah Zerah Jacob of .the 

Bronx, 1815 Washington 



Ave. Orthodox. Org. 1902. 
Membership: 60. Seating 
capacity: 360. Free Loan, 
Bikur Cholim, Cemetery, 
Study. Pres., Rubin Lubin, 
1540 Seabury PI. Sec'y, S. 
Fliegman, 2023 Washington 
Ave. 

Lubln, Rubin, Pres. Zerah 
Jacob of the Bronx (1815 
Washington Ave.), since 
1916. Term 1 year. Born 
1883 in Russia. Came to 
U. S. 1902. Received gen- 
eral Jewish and secular 
education. Principal of He- 
brew School: 537 Claremont 
P'kway. Res.: 1540 Seabury 
PI. 
Chevrah Zichrei Torath Moshe, 
83 Eldridge St. Orthodox. 
Org. 1892. Membership: 24. 
Seating capacity: 100. Free 
Loan, Study, Cemetery. 
Pres., Mr. Levinson, 26 Suf- 
folk St. 

licvinson, Pres. Chevrah 
Zichrei Torath Moses (83 El- 
dridge St.), since 1914. Term 
1 year. Born 1860 in Russia. 
Came to U. S. 1887. Received 
general Jewish education. 
Grocer. Res.: 26 Suffolk St. 

Zlchron Kphraim, 161 E. 67th 
St. Orthodox. Org. 1890. 
Membership: 75. Seating 
capacity: 900, Religious 
School, Cemetery, Study. 
Vice-pres., P. J. Danziger, 
242 E. 58th St. Sec'y, B. 
Discount, 43 W. 112th St. 
Rabbi, Ber. Drachman, 128 
W. 121st St. 

Zlchron Judah, 246 E. 82nd 

St. Orthodox. Org. 1903. 



248 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



Membership: 90. Seating 
capacity: 130. Ladies' Aux., 
Cemetery, Study. Pr^s., 
Charles Brown, 342 E. 82nd 
St. Sec'y, Z. Silberlcraus, 
506 E. 86th St. 
Brown, Charles, Pres. Cong. 
Zichron Judah (246 E. 82nd 
St.), since 1915. Term 1 
year. Born 1884 in Hungary. 
Came to U. S. 1905. Received 
general Jewish education. 
Printer: 346 E. 81st St. Res.: 
342 E. 82nd St. 

Zion Hebrevp Cong:, of Bronx, 

1342, Stebbins Ave. Orthodox. 
Org. 1912. Membership: 250. 
Seating capacity: 600. He- 
brew School, Ladies' Aux., 
Sisterhood. Pres., Philip 
Wattenberg, 960 Prospect 
Ave. Sec'y, S. Widuchinsky, 
670 E. 170th St. 
Wattenberg, Philip, Pres. 
Zion Hebrew Cong, of Bronx 
(1342 Stebbins Ave.), since 
1915. Term 1 year. Born 
1869 in Austria. Came to 
U. S. 1896. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. Real 
estate. Res.: 960 Prospect 
Ave. 

Cong, of Zion Talmud Torah 
of Manhattan, 388 3d Ave. 
Orthodox. Org. 1914. Mem- 
bership: 75. Seating capac- 



ity: 60. Study. PreB., Jacob 
Schneider, 616 2nd Ave. 
Sec'y, Jacob Weinberg, 132 
Attorney St. Rabbi, Rev. 
Goldstein. 

Schneider, Jacob, Pres. Zion 
Talmud Torah of Manhat- 
tan (388 3d Ave.), elected 
1917. Term 1 year. Born 
1867 in Russia. Received 
general Jewish education. 
Bus.: 616 2nd Ave. 

Chevrah Zionei Galicia Anshel 
S'phard, 481 E. 167th St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1915. Mem- 
bership: 35. Seating capa- 
city: 75. Pres., Jehuda Fel- 
ler, 265 E. 165th St. Sec'y, 
Joseph Herman, 1261 Brook 
Ave. 

Feller, Jehndah, Pres. Chev- 
rah Zionei Galicia Anshei 
S'phard (481 E. 167th St.), 
since 1915. Term 6 months. 
Born 1878 in Austria. Came 
to U. S. 1901. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. 
Tailor: 114 E. 23d St. Res.: 
265 E. 165th St. 

Zmlgroder Cong. Benjamin 
Joseph, 53 Columbia St. Or- 
thodox. Org. 1887. Mem- 
bership: 30. Seating capac- 
ity: 50. Cemetery. Pres., L. 
Stein. Sec'y, N. Cohen, 228 
So. 1st St., B'klyn. 



CONGREGATIONS 



249 



ADEUUATF3 INFORJUATION IS LACKING ON THK 
FOLLOWING SYNAGOGUES: 



Aaron David Anshel Lubitz, 27 

Ludlow St. 



Cons. B'nal Moses, 80 Clinton 
St. 



Chevrah Agrudath Achim An- 
shei Fisbers, 62 Pitt St. 

Cbevrah A^udath Acblm An- 
sbel Misbwitz, 108 E. 1st St. 

Agrudatb B*nai Eretz Israel, 79 

Forsyth St. 

Ansbei Dubiner, 209 E. 2nd St. 



Chevrab B'nai Mosbe Ansbei 
Neesta Cbecbonavitz, 133 

Eldridge St. 

Borocbauer Cbevrab, 214 E. 

2nd St. 

Cbasidim Ansbei Kurevitz 
Kether Torab Kehal, 116 

Monroe St. 



Ansbei Dusblkower Galicia, 

291 E. 3d St. 



Cong. Cbatiner Bessarabier, 17 

Avenue A, 



Cbevrab Ansbei NarOTvla, 155 

Avenue C. 



Cbernustrofl Verein, 90-96 
Clinton St. 



Cong. Ansbei Sedid, 24 Pitt St. 

Cbevrab Ara Rosebra, 98 For- 
syth St. 

Betb Israel Blkur C b o 1 1 m , 

72nd St. and Lexington Ave. 

B'nal Abrabam Ansbei Prnzb- 
ner, 227 E. B'way. 

Cbevrab B'nai Jacob Ansbei 
Czernovey, 62 Pitt St. 

B'nal Jesburun, Madison Ave. 
and 65th St. 

Cong. B'nai Lippner Abavath 
Israel, 90-96 Clinton St. 

Cbevrab B'nai Menacbem An- 
sbei Hovretz, 28 Avenue A. 



Cboroshon-er K. U. V., 257 E. 

Houston St. 

Cong. Degel Macbneb Israel, 

161 Henry St. 

Cbevrab Dorsbei Tov Ansbei 
Piaslt, 22 Forsyth St. 

Dorsbei Zedek Ansbei Krlvltz, 

85 Forsyth St. 

Erste Baranower K. U. V., 294 

Stanton St. 

Erste Chevrab B'nai David 
Ansbei Radimasbe, 178 

Stanton St. 

Erste Hat ika Bessarabia K. U. 

v., 133 Eldridge St. 



2£ib 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



Congr> Erste Obertlner Chev- 
rah, 125 Rivington St. 

Congr. D o r 8 c h e Tov Dodro- 
czynshe, .100 Essex St. 

First Chodoromer Vereln, 155 

Suffolk St. 

First Gallclan Society, Lenox 
Ave. and 126th St. 

G a 1 i c 1 a Freedman Chevrah, 

214 E. 2nd St. 

Isaiah Temple, 131 W. 89th St. 

Chevrah Jeshnofisar, 232 

Broome St. 

Kabslier Binder Vereln, 12 W. 

114th St. 

Katriner Cong., 209 E. 2nd St. 

Kol Adath Israel, 241 E. 14th 
St. 

Cong. Liinath Hazedek Anshei 
Sadilkoff, 90 Clinton St. 

Lodzer Chevrah A g u d a t h 
Achim, 85 E. 4th St. 

Machzike Hadath Anshei 
Zborow, 89 Ridge St. 

Malener Chevrah, 106 Forsyth 
St. 

Minsker Heb. Ben. Ass'n, 97 

Henry St. 

Mosasia Chevrah Gur Arye, 

115 Lewis St. 

Chevrah Moshe Joseph, 30 Suf- 
folk St. 

Chevrah Orberlk, 206 East 
B'way. 

People's Synagogue, 1981 
B'way. 



Chevrah Rabbenn Nachnm An- 
shei Grodno, 227 E. B'way. 

Rava Ruska Cong., 8 Ave. D. 

Rhonlshover K. U, V, and 
Chevrah, 149 Attorney St. 

Rlkihover Agudath Achlm, 121 

Ridge St 

Rishoner Chevrah, 106 For- 
syth St. 

Cong. Sedagarer Lutzker, 90 

Clinton St. 

Shaarel Groda Lodge, 28 Ave- 
nue A. 

Society B'nai Elijah Anshei 
Zager, 107 W. 116th St. 

Sushovar Chevrah, 214 E. 2nd 

St. 

Temple Israel of the Brenx, 

1049 West Farms Rd. 

Tiphereth Achim, 98 Forsyth 

St. 

Chevrah THereth Israel An- 
shei Kraulover, 227 East 
B'way. 

Telechan Seventewaler S. B., 

214 E. 2nd St. 

Cong. Yaslovitzer U. V., 80-96 
Clinton St, 

Yedinitzer Chevrah, 214 E. 2nd 

St. 

Chevrah Yeshlbath Anshei 
Ranser, 149 Attorney St. 

Young Men's Edncatloaal 
League, 56 St. Marks PI. 



CONGREGATIONS 



25] 



LIST OP CONGREGATIONS IN BROOKLYN, QUEENS 
AND RICHMOND 



Aehim B'nal Israel Anshel 
Radish Konltz, 228 Christo- 
pher Avis. Orthodox. Org. 
1895. Membership: 92. Seat- 
ing capacity: 250. Free 
Loan, Cemetery, Study. 
Pres., Abraham Kenedy, 48 
Blake Ave., B'klyn. Sec'y, 
Benjamin W. Schulman, 545 
Sackman St., B'klyn. 

Beth Hak'uesseth Adath B'nai 
Israel, 50 Moore St. Ortho- 
dox. Org. 1909. Membership: 
170. Seating capacity: 540. 
Bikur Gholim Society, Study, 
Cemetery. Pres., Samuel 
Blum, 20 Johnson Ave., 
B'klyn. Sec'y, Philip Cohen, 
229 Stockton St., B'klyn. 
Rabbi, M. Risikoff, 48 Moore 
St., B'klyn. 

Blum, Samuel, Pres. Beth 

Hak'nesseth Adath B'nai 
Israel (50 Moore St.), since 
1913. Term 1 year. Born 
"l865 In Russia. Came to 
U. S. 1899. Received thor- 
ough Jewish education. 
Shochet. Res.: 70 Johnson 
Ave., B'klyn. 



ship: 36. Seating capacity: 
250. Hebrew School, Sister- 
hood, Junior Org. Pres., 
Edward Ehrman, 515 Nep- 
tune Ave., B'klyn. Sec'y, 
Theodore Plant, W. 2nd St., 
Coney Island. Rabbi William 
Schwartz, 318 Madison St. 

Ehrman, Edward, Pres. 
Cong. Adath Israel (W. 5th 
St., Coney Island) ; elected 
1917. Term 1 year. Born 

1882 in N. Y. Received high 
school education. Photo en- 
graving. Res.: 515 Neptune 
Ave., B'klyn. 



Adath Israel, 8 Dodge Ave., 
Rockaway, L. I. Orthodox. 
Org, 1914. Membership: 28. 
Seating capacity: 60. Study. 
Pres., Isaac Green, 28 N. Bl- 
drid Ave., Rockaway, L. I, 

Green, Isaac, Pres. Adath 
Israel (8 Dodge Ave., Rock- 
away), since 1914. Term 1 
year. Born 1866 in Russia. 
Came to U. S. 1910. Received 
general Jewish education. 
Res.: 28 N. Eldrid Ave., 
Rockaway. 



Cong. Adath Israel, W. 5th St., 
Coney Island. Conservative, 
English Sermon. Membtr- 



Adath Jacob, 344 Roebllng St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1917. Seat- 
ing capacity: 160. Study. 



25S 



COMMUNAL REOIgTBR 



Pres. and Sec'y, M. Ij. 
Stone, 152 So. 8th St., B'klyn. 
Stone, M. I4., Pres. Adath 
Jacob (344 Roebling St.); 

elected 1917. Term, perma- 
nent. Born 1887 In Austra- 
lia. Came to U. S. 1916. 
Received thorough Jewish 
education. Merchant. Res.: 
152 So. 8th St., B'klyn. 

Adath JeshuTun Anshel New 
York, 9 Barrett St. Ortho- 
dox. Org. 1910. Member- 
ship: 40. Seating capacity: 
630. Ladies' Auxiliary, Cem- 
etery, Study. Pres., Abraham 
Baskowitz, 116 Grafton St., 
B'klyn. Sec'y, Henry Tepfer, 
1339 St. Johns PI.. B'klyn. 
Baskotritz, Abraham, Pres. 
Adath Jeshurun Anshei New 
York (9 Barrett St.), since 
1916. Term 1 year. Born 
1863 in Russia. Came to 
U. S. 1884. Attended a Te- 
shibah. Cotton goods: 126 
Bleecker St. Res.: 116 Graf- 
ton St., B'klyn. 

Cong. Adath Jeshnmn Anshei 
S'phard, 726 Driggs Ave. Or- 
thodox. Org. 1908. Mem- 
bership: 65. Seating capac- 
ity: 365. Insurance. Ceme- 
tery, Study. Pres., Isaac 
Kanner, 242 Metropolitan 
Ave., B'klyn. Sec'y, BenJ. 
BUenbogen, 131 Division 
Ave., B'klyn. 

Kanner, Isaac, Pres. Adath 
Jeshurun Anshei S'phard 
(726 Driggs Ave.), since 1916, 
Term 6 months. Born 1871 
In Austria. Came to U. S. 
1892. Received general Jew- 



ish education. Tailor. Res.: 
242 Metropolitan Ave., 
B'klyn. 

Cong. Adath Walkovlsk of 
Brownsville, 306 Osborn St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1911. Mem- 
bership: 60. Seating capaci- 
ty: 200. Free Loan, Ceme- 
tery, Study. Pres., David 
Parkin, 304 Thatford Ave., 
B'klyn. Sec'y, Max Freed- 
man, 360 Wat kins St., 
B'klyn. 

Parkin, David, Pres. Cong. 
Adath Walkovisk of 
Brownsville (306 Osborn St.), 
since 1916. Term 1 year. 
Born 1859 in Russia. Came 
to U. S. 1912. Received 
general Jewish education. 
Mfgr. sashes. Res.: 304 
Thatford Ave., B'klyn. 

Chevrah Agudath Aclilni An- 
shei Broolclyn K. U. V., 71 

Cook St. Orthodox. Org. 
1909. Membership: 70. Seat- 
ing capacity: 200. Sick Ben- 
efit, Cemetery. Pres., Max 
Lasky, 130 Ellery St., B'klyn. 
Sec'y, Louis Cohen, 20 
Thames St., B'klyn. 
liasky, Max, Pres. Chevrah 
A g u d a t h Achim Anshei 
Brooklyn K. U. V. (71 Cook 
St.); elected 1917. Term 6 
months. Born 1887 in Rus- 
sia. Came to U. S. 1904. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Tailor. Res.: 130 
Ellery St., B'klyn. 

Agudath Achim Anshei Chesed. 

386 Jersey St., S. L Ortho- 
dox. Org. 1900. Member- 



CONGREGATIONS 



253 



ship: 50. Seating capacity: 
150. Hebrew School, Ceme- 
tery. Pres., Louis Levy, r4S 
3rd Ave., S. L Sec'y, A. 
Raephelson, 241 4th Ave., 
B'klyn. 

Levy, Lonls, Pres. Ag-udath 
Achim Anshel Chesed (386 
Jersey St., S. I.), since 1910. 
Term 1 year. Born 1861 In 
Russia. Came to U. S. 1890. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Real estate. Res.: 
143 3rd Ave., Staten Island. 

A^udath Achtm Anshel David 
Horodak, 167 Sutter Ave. 
Orthodox. Org. 1908. Mem- 
bership: 14. Seating capac- 
ity: 100. Pres., Joseph JafCe, 
278 Alabama Ave., B'klyn. 
Sec'y, Abraham Horowitz, 
278 Alabama Ave., B'klyn. 
Jaffe, Joseph, Pres. Agudath 
Achim Anshel David Horo- 
dak (167 Sutter Ave.), since 
1910. Born 1868 In Russia. 
Came to U. S. 1903. Received 
general secular and relig- 
ious education. Carpenter. 
Res.: 378 Alabama Ave., 
B'klyn. 

A^ndath Achim Anshei Homel, 

167 Chester St. Orthodox. 
Org. 1914. Membership: 48. 
Seating capacity: 140. Free 
Loan, Cemetery, Study. 
Pres., Harry Goodman, 235 
Watkins St., B'klyn. Sec'y, 
Morris Messinger, 109 Herzl 
St., B'klyn. 

Goodman, Harry, Pres. Agu- 
dath Achim Anshel Homel 
(169 Chester St.), Bince 
1916. Term 6 months. Born 



189'4 in Russia. Came to 
U. S. 1907. Received gen- 
eral Jewish and secular edu- 
cation. Toys: 143 Chester 
St., B'klyn. Res.: 235 Wat- 
kins St., B'klyn. 

A^rudath Achim Anshel Liba- 
wita, 197 Watkins St. Or- 
thodox. Org. 1892. Mem- 
bership: 180. Seating capa- 
city: 1100. Ladies' Auxiliary, 
Cemetery, Study. Pres., Arye 
Fried, 206 Grafton St., 
B'klyn. Sec'y, Aaron Wiener, 
134 Grafton St., B'klyn. 

Cons'. Agudath Achim Anshel 
New Lots, 41 Malta St. Or- 
thodox. Org. 1912. Mem- 
bership: 120. Seating capaci- 
ty: 500. Sisterhood, Ceme- 
tery. Pres., Nathan Wiener, 
6 5 6 Pennsylvania Ave., 
B'klyn. Sec'y, Jacob Rodel- 
etz, 188 Malta St., B'klyn. 
Rabbi, I. Isaacson, 454 Hins- 
dale St., B'klyn. 
Wiener, Nathan, Pres. Cong. 
Agudath Achim Anshel New 
Lots (41 Malta St.), since 
1916. Term 6 months. Born 
1867 in Russia. Came to 
U. S. 1897. Received general 
Jewish education. Rem- 
nants: 197 Chrystle St. 
Res.: 656 Pennsylvania Ave., 
B'klyn. 

Asrudath Achim Anshel Stolln. 

103 Morell St. Orthodox. 
Org. 1907. Membership: 55. 
Seating capacity: 250. Free 
Loan, Cemetery. Pres., Philip 
Deitch, 304 S. 8rd St., B'klyn. 
Sec'y, I. Shainman, 89 E. 
B'way. 



554 



(COMMUNAL. REGISTER 



Deltch, Philip, Pres. Agudath 
Achim Anshei Stolin (103 
Morell St.): elected 1917. 
Term 6 months. Born 1877 
in Russia. Came to U. S. 
1902. Received general Jew- 
ish education. Fish dealer. 
Res.: 304 S. 3rd St., B'klyn. 

Cong. Agudath Achim B'nai 
Jacob, 236 Wyona St. Ortho- 
dox. Org. 1897. Membership: 
105. Seating capacity: 620. 
Cemetery, Study. Pres., 
Aaron Kaufman, 310 Brad- 
ford St., B'klyn. Sec'y, 
Julius Zukerman, 408 Ver- 
mont St., B'klyn. 
Kaufman, Aaron, Pres. 
Cong. Agudath Achim B'nai 
Jacob (238 Wyona Street, 
B'klyn); elected 1917. Term 
6 months. Born 1871 in 
Hungary. Came to U. S. 
1900. Received general Jew- 
ish education. Salesman. 
Res.: 310 Bradford St., 
B'klyn. 

Chevrah Agudath Achim Plach 
Chernlgow, 441 Sackman St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1906. Mem- 
bership: 42. Seating capa- 
city: 150. Sick Benefit, Free 
Loan, Cemetery. Pres., 
Gedalia Hindin, 1813 St. 
Johns PI., B'klyn. Sec'y, 
Kalmon Bolotin, 265 Sack- 
man St., B'klyn. 
Hlndln, Gedalia, Pres. 
Chevrah Agudath Achim 
Plach Chernigow (441 Sack- 
man St.), since 1915. Term 
6 months. Born 1872 in 
Russia. Came to U. S. 1902. 
Received general Jewish 



education. Tailor. Res.: 
1813 St. Johns PL 

Chevrah Agudath Achim WIs- 
nitz Anshei Marmarlsh, 56 

Manhattan Ave. Orthodox. 
Org. 1913. Membership: 70. 
Seating capacity: 400. Cem- 
etery. Pres., Max Shmeril, 
133 Moore St., B'klyn. Sec'y, 
Aaron Lempal, 45 Boerum 
St., B'klyn. 

Shmeril, Max, Pres. Chevrah 
Agudath Achim W i s n i t z 
Anshei Marmarish (56 Man- 
hattan Ave.); elected 1917. 
Term 6 months. Born 1891 
in Austria. Came to U. S. 
1911. Received general Jew- 
ish "education. Res.: 133 
Moore St., B'klyn. 

Ahavath Achim, 674 Metropol- 
itan Ave. Orthodox. Org. 
1905. Membership: 35. Seat- 
ing capacity: 350. Hebrew 
School, Cemetery. Pres., 
A d o 1 p h Wechsler, 6 7 6 
Metropolitan Ave., B'klyn. 
Sec'y, A. Lichter, 624 Metro- 
politan Ave., B'klyn. 
Wechsler, A d o I p h , Pres. 
Ahavath Achim (674 Metro- 
politan Ave.); elected 1917. 
Term 6 months. Born 1878 
in Austria. Came to U. S. 
1900. Received general Jew- 
ish and secular education. 
Plumber: 637 Metropolitan 
Ave., B'klyn. Res.: 676 
Metropolitan Ave., B'klyn. 

Chevrah Ahavath Achim, 1458 
East N. Y. Ave. Orthodox. 
Org. 1905. Membership: 128. 

Seating capacity: 190. Sick 



CONGREGATIONS 



255 



Benefit, Cemetery. Pres., 
Aaron Finkelstein, 115 Sut- 
ter Ave., B'klyn. Sec'y, 
Samuel Wlodovsky, 212 Sut- 
ter Ave., B'klyn. 
Finkelstein, Aaron, Pres. 
C h e V r a h Ahavath Achim 
1458 E. N. Y. Ave.); elected 
1917. Term 6 months. Born 
1877 in Russia. tlJame to U. 
S. 1905. Received general 
Jewish education. Building 
Contractor. Res.: 115 Sutter 
Ave., B'klyn. 

Aliavath Achlm, 161 Harrison 
Ave. Orthodox. Org. 1915. 
Membership: 9. Seating ca- 
pacity: 40. Pres., Louis 
Cohen, 161 Harrison Ave., 
B'klyn. Sec'y, Mr. Tennen- 
baum, 163 Harrison Ave., 
B'klyn. 

Cohen, Louis, Pres. Ahavath 
Achim (161 Harrison Ave.), 
since 1916. Term 6 months. 
Born 1856 in Russia. Came 
to U. S. 1904. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. 
Glazier. Res.: 161 Harrison 
Ave., B'klyn. 

Temple Aliavath Achtm, 712 

Quincy St. Conservative. 
English Sermon. Org. 1869. 
Membership: 65. Seating 
capacity: 365. Sunday 
School, Sisterhood, Toung 
Folks' League, Cemetery. 
Pres., Simon Levy, 1033A 
President St., B'klyn. Sec'y, 
T. J. Eberson, 933 Greene 
Ave., B'klyn. Rabbi, Joseph 
Paymer, 399 Kosciusko St., 
B'klyn. 

Levy, Simon, Pres. Temple 
Ahavath Achim (712 Quincy 



St., B'klyn.), since 1913. 
Term 1 year. Born 1875 in 
Germany. Came to U. S. 
1892. Received public school 
education. Merchant. Res.: 
1033A President St., B'klyn. 

C h e V r a h Ahavath Achim 
Anshei S'phard of Austria, 

40 Seigel St. Orthodox. Org. 
1911. Membership: 21. Seat- 
ing capacity: 120. Cemetery. 
Pres., Louis Schlafnitz, 166 
Cook St., B'klyn. Sec'y, 
Solomon Weintraub, 147 
Tompkins Ave., B'klyn. 
Schlafnitz, Louis, Pres. 
Chevrah Ahavath Achim 
Anshei S'phard of Austria 
(40 Seigel St.), since 1916. 
Term 6 months. Born 1864 
in Russia. Came to U. S. 
1891. Received general Jew- 
ish education. Res.: 166 
Cook St. 

Chevrah Ahavath Achim B'nai 
Abraham, 396 Logan St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1908. Mem- 
bership: 50. Seating capa- 
city: 250. Sisterhood, Cem- 
etery, Study. Pres., Israel 
Feinstein, 86 Crystal St., 
B'klyn. Louis Rosen, 954 
Liberty Ave., B'klyn. 
Feinstein, Israel, Pres. 
Chevrah Ahavath Achim 
B'nai Abraham (396 Logan 
St.), since 1915. Term 6 
months. Born 1868 in Rus- 
sia, ^ame to U. S. 1894. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Caps: 160 Woos- 
ter St. Res.: 86 Crystal St., 
B'klyn. 



256 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



Cong:. Ahavath Chesed, 742 

Jefferson Ave. Orthodox. 
Org. 1904. Membership: 100. 
Seating capacity: 500. Sis- 
terhood, . Ladies' Auxiliary 
Soc, Cemetery. Pres., Henry 
J. Nurick, 830 Putnam Ave., 
B'klyn. Sec'y, Philip Zuck- 
erman, 1660 Eastern Park- 
way, B'klyn. 

Nurick, Henry J., Pres. 
Cong. Ahavath Chesed (742 
Jefferson Ave.), since 1916. 
Term 1 year. Born 1882 in 
Russia. Came to U. S. 1891. 
Received college education. 
Civil Engineer and archi- 
tect: 892 B'way, B'klyn. 
Res.: 830 Putnam Ave., 
B'klyn, 

Cong. Ahavath Israel, 1374 
Gates Ave., B'klyn. Ortho- 
dox. Org. 1906. Member- 
ship: 130. Seating capacity: 
650. Hebrew School, Sister- 
hood, Cemetery, Study. 
Pres., Max Friedman, 1229 
Gates Ave., B'klyn. Sec'y, 
Harry Hubschman, 302 Cen- 
tral Ave., B'klyn. Rabbi, 
Saul Mordkovsky, 1372 Gates 
Ave., B'klyn. 

Friedman, Max, Pres. Aha- 
vath Israel (1374 Gates Ave., 
B'klyn), since 1916. Term 6 
months. Born 1865 in Rus- 
sia. Came to U. S. 1887. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Tailor. Res.: 1229 
Gates Ave., B'klyn. 

Cong. Ahavath Israel of 
Greenpolnt, 108 Noble St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1903. Mem- 
bership: 140. Seating ca- 



pacity: 405. Cemetery. Pres., 
Morris Neulander, 1053 Man- 
hattan Ave., B'klyn. Sec'y, 
Max Brody, 650 Manhattan 
Ave., B'klyn. 

Neulander, Morris, Pres. 
Ahavath Israel of Greenpoint 
(108 Noble St., B'klyn). since 
1914. Term 1 year. Born 
1872 in Hungary. Came to 
U. S. 1889. Received public 
schoo-1 education. Milliner. 
Res.: 1053 Manhattan Ave., 
B'klyn. 

Ahavath Israel of Went 
Brownsville, 373 Bristol St 
Orthodox. Org. 1912. Mem- 
bership: 8. Seating capac- 
ity: 200. Cemetery. Pres., 
Isaac Coltunov, 188 River- 
dale Ave., B'klyn. Sec'y, 
Gerson Krasetz. Rabbi, 
Eliezer Schwartz, 165 Riv- 
erdale Ave., B'klyn. 
Coltunov, Isaac, Pres. Cong. 
Ahavath Israel of West 
Brownsville (373 Bristol 
St.); elected 1917. Term 6 
months. Born 1865 In Rus- 
sia. Came to U. S. 1900. Re- 
ceived general Jewish edu- 
cation. Retired. Res.: 188 
Riverdale Ave., B'klyn. 

Cong. Ahavath Sholom Beth 
Aaron, 98 Scholes St. Ortho- 
dox. Org. 1895. Member- 
ship: 20. Seating capacity: 
400. Cemetery. Pres., Simon 
Freudenthal, 275 T h r o o p 
Ave., B'klyn. Sec'y, Elias 
Ash, 699 Bedford Ave., 
B'klyn. 

Temple Ahavath Sholom of 
Flatbush, Ave. R. and E. 



CONQBBGATIONS 



257 



16th St. Conservative, Eng- 
lish Sermon. Org. 1912. 
Membership: 60. Seating ca- 
pacity: 240. Sunday School, 
Sisterhood. Pres., Leon 
Levine, 1716 E. 18th St.. 
B'klyn. Sec'y, H. L. Zeeman, 
1658 E. 19th St.. B'klyn. 
Rabbi, Samuel Peiper, 1314 
Ave. R, B'klyn. 
Levine, Leon, Pres, Temple 
Ahavath Sholom of Flat- 
bush (Ave. R. and E. 16th 
St., B'klyn), since 1916. 
Term 1 year. Born 1877 in 
Russia. Came to U. S. 1892, 
Received general Jewish 
education. Clothing: 55 5th 
Ave. Res.: 1716 E. 18th St., 
B'klyn. 

Chevrah Anshel Borlson of 
Brownsville, 617 Stone Ave., 
B'klyn. Orthodox. Org. 1916. 
Membership: 12. Seating ca- 
pacity: 50. Free loan; cem- 
etery. Pres., Max Kusnetzov, 
355 Chester St., B'klyn. 
Kusnetzov, Max, Pres. Chev- 
rah Anshei B o r i s o n of 
Brownsville (617 Stone 
Ave.), since 1915. Term 1 
year. Born 1871 in Russia. 
Came to U. S. 1901. Received 
general Jewish education. 
Res.: 355 Chester Ave,, 
B'klyn. 

Chevrah Anshei Chaiel Adam, 

464 Cleveland St. Orthodox. 
Org. 1916. Membership: 20. 
Seating capacity: 120. Study. 
Pres., Israel Millstein, 359 
Elton St., B'klyn. 
Millstein, Israel, Pres. Chev- 
rah Anshei Chaiel Adam 



(46'4 Cleveland St.), since 

1916. Term 6 months. Born 
1847 in Poland. Came to 
U, S. 1879. Received general 
Jewish education. Retired. 
Res,: 359 Elton St,, B'klyn. 

Cons. Anshei Emeth, 136 Stan- 
hope St, Orthodox, Member- 
ship: 50, Seating capacity: 
600. Free loan; cemetery. 
Study. Pres., Louis Biern- 
bach, 874 Bushwick Ave., 
B'klyn. Sec'y, Morris Wein- 
berger. 

Biernbach, Louis, Pres. 
Cong. Anshei Emeth (136 
Stanhope St.), since 1916. 
Term 1 year. Born 1883 in 
Austria. Came to U. S. 1899, 
Received general Jewish 
education. Clothing: 20 
Starr St,, B'klyn. Res,: 874 
Bushwick Ave,, B'klyn. 

Chevrah Kadisha Anshei 
Emeth, Park PI. and W. 3d 
St,, Coney Island. Orthodox. 
Org, 1899. Membership: 32. 
Seating capacity: 200. Pres,, 
Reuben Shermer, 2913 W. 3d 
St., B'klyn. Sec'y, Mr. Kess- 
ler, 2751 Ocean P'kway. 
Shermer, Reuben, Pres, 
Chevrah Kadisha Anshei 
Emeth (Park PI, and W. 3d 
St., Coney Island); elected 

1917. Term 1 year. Born 
1879 in Austria. Came to 
U, S, 1897. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. 
Butcher: 2930 W, 3d St., 
B'klyn. Res,: 2912 W. 3d St., 
B'klyn, 

Anshei Kether, 137 Smith St, 
Orthodox, Org. 1905. Mem- 



258 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



bership: 50. Seating capac- 
ity: 325. Cemetery. Pres., 
Mr. Bandit. Sec'y, Mr. Solo- 
mon. Rabbi, Rev. Kavetzky, 
223 Corona Ave., B'klyn. 

Con^. Aushei Nemlrov, 181 Os- 

born St. Orthodox. Org-. 1917. 
Membership: 50. Seating" ca- 
pacity: 250. 

Congr. Anshei Petrlkov Ml- 
Brovmsvllle, 403 Dumont 
Ave, Orthodox. Org. 1915. 
Membership: 40. Seating ca- 
pacity: 100. Pres., Isidore 
Shmuckler, 698 Stone Ave., 
B'klyn. Sec'y, Aaron Laz- 
emnik, 311 Lott Ave., B'klyn. 
Shmnckler, Isidore, Pres. 
Cong. Anshei Petrlkov Mi- 
BrownsvUle (403 Dumont 
Ave.); elected 1917. Term 6 
months. Born 1843 in Rus- 
sia. Came to U. S. 1909. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Res.: 698 Stone 
Ave., B'klyn. 

Congr. Anshet Sholozn of 
Greenpoint, 151 Engert Ave. 
Orthodox. Org. 1912. Mem- 
bership: 55. Seating capa- 
city: 400. Ladies' Auxiliary, 
Cemetery. Pres., Joseph 
Selikson, 54 Eckford St., 
B'klyn. Sec'y, Morris Stoffen, 
502 Graham Ave., B'klyn. 
Selikson, Joseph, Pres. Cong. 
Anshei S h o 1 o m of Green- 
point (151 Engert Ave., 
B'klyn), since 1914. Term 6 
months. Born 1865 in Rus- 
sia. Came to U. S. 1891. Re- 
ceived general Jewish and 
secular education. Sheet 



Metal Worker. Res.: 54 Eck- 
ford St., B'klyn. 

Clievrali Anshei Tov of Brook- 
lyn, 172 Boerum St. Ortho- 
dox. Org. 1912. Member- 
ship: 30. Seating capacity: 
150. Pres., Meyer Gerstein, 
185 McKibben St., B'klyn. 
Sec'y, Mr. Pinsir, 29 Boerum 
St., B'klyn. Rabbi, Rev. Lie- 
der, 81 Leonard St., B'klyn. 
Gerstein, Meyer, Pres. An- 
shei Tov of B'klyn (172 
Boerum St.), since 1915. 
Term 6 months. Born 1875 
in Russia. Came to U. S. 
1903. Received general 
Jewish education. M f g r . 
Cloaks and Suits: 128 W. 
26th St. Res.: 185 McKibben 
St., B'klyn. 

Anshei Tnrov, 403 Sutter Ave. 
Orthodox. Org. 1916. Mem- 
bership: 25. Seating capac- 
ity: 40. Pres., Louis Gittle- 
man, 415 Watkins St., 
B'klyn. Sec'y, Sam Bachk- 
man, 398 Chester St., Bk'lyn. 
Gittleman, Louis, Pres. An- 
shei Turov, (403 Sutter 
Ave.), since 1916. Term 6 
months. Born 1871 in Rus- 
sia. Came to U. S. 1906. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Contractor of 
clothing, 47 Watkins St., 
B'klyn. Res.: 415 Watkins 
St., B'klyn. 

Chevrah Anshei Zedek, 1087 
Sutter Ave. Orthodox. Org. 
1909. Membership: 50. Seat- 
ing capacity: 125. Free 
Loan. Pres., Louis Krojon- 



CONGREGATIONS 



259 



sky, 308 B e r r i m a n St., 
B'klyn. Sec*j% Ab. Rosen- 
blum, 1033 Sutter Ave., 
B'klyn. 

Krojonsky, Louis, Pres. 
Chevrah Anshei Zeclek (1087 
Sutter Ave.), since 1913. 
Term 6 months. Born 1866 
in Russia. Came to U. S. 
1888. Received general Jew- 
ish education. Res.: 308 
Berriman St., B'klyn. 

Con^. Asefath Israel, 420 

Wallabout St. Orthodox. 
Org-. 1885. Membership: 52. 
Seating capacity: 235. Cem- 
etery, Study. Pres., Samuel 
Kovitz, 55 Bartlett St., 
B'klyn. Sec'y, Isaac S. Jaffe, 
48 Walton St., B'klyn. 
Kovitz, Samuel, Pres. Ase- 
fath Israel (420 Wallabout 
St.), since 1914. Term 1 year. 
Born 1879 in Russia. Came 
to U. S. 1904. Received' gen- 
eral Jewish education. 
Woolens. Res.: 55 Bartlett 
St., B'klyn. 

Cong, of Talmud Torali Ater- 
etli Israel, 115 Fountain 
Ave. Orthodox. Org. 1912. 
Membership: 80. Seating 
capacity: 200. Pres., Jacob 
Delman, 149 Milford St.. 
B'klyn. Sec'y, Ellas Solo- 
mon, 909 Glenmore Ave., 
B'klyn. 

Delman, Jacob, Pres. Talmud 
Torah Atereth Israel (115 
Fountain Ave.), since 1916. 
Term 1 year. Born 1869 in 
Austria. Came to U. S. 
1899. Received general 
Jewish education. Mfgr. 



skirts: 47 E. 9th St. Res.: 
149 Milford St., B'klyn. 

Clievrah Ateretli Z'vl of East 

N. Y., 482 Barbey St. Ortho- 
dox. Org. 1908. Member- 
ship: 35. Seating capacity: 
50. Pres., Samuel Lesser, 
582 Schenck Ave., B'klyn. 
Sec'y, Harris Weinstein, 596 
Schenck Ave., B'klyn. Rabbi. 
Ha,rris Semer, 504 Ashford 
St., B'klyn. 

Liesser, Samuel, Pres. Chev- 
rah Atereth Z'vi of E. N. Y. 
(482 Barbey St.), since 1916. 
Term 6 months. Born 1879 
in Russia. Came to U. S 
1912. Received general Jew- 
ish education. Res.: 582 
Schenck Ave., B'klyn. 

Clievrah Berdltchev Anshei 
S'phard, 104 Moore St. Or- 
thodox. Org. 1909. Member- 
ship: 38. Seating capacity: 
100. Pres., David Davidson, 
38 Varet St., B'klyn. Sec'y, 
Meyer Turman, 128 Hum- 
boldt St., B'klyn. 
Davidson, David, Pres. 
Chevrah Berditchev Anshei 
S'phard (104 Moore St.), 
since 1914. Term 1 year. 
Born 1871 in Russia. Came 
to U. S. 1906. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. Res.: 
38 Varet St., B'klyn. 

Con^. Beth Aaron, 107 Ross 
St. Orthodox. Org. 1914. 
Membership: 30. Seating ca- 
pacity: 200. Pres., Eliezer 
M. Blum, 110 Keap St., 
B'klyn. Sec'y, Leon Gold- 
stein, 95 Division Ave., 
B'klyn.. 



260 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



Cons. Beth Aaron, 11 

Beaver St. Orthodox. Org. 
1893. Membership: 50. Seat- 
ing capacity: 246. Ceme- 
tery, Study. Pres., Jacob 
Lefkowitz, 217 Stag-g St., 
B'klyn. Sec'y, Isidor A. 
Krulowitz. 1067 E, Park- 
way, B'klyn. Rabbi, Jacob 
Gerstein, 79 Cook St., 
B'klyn. 

Lefkowitz, Jacob, Pres. 
Cong. Beth Aaron (11 Beav- 
er St.), since 1915. Term 1 
year. Born 1855 in Hungary. 
Came to U. S. 1886. Received 
general Jewish and college 
education. Retired. Res.: 
217 Stagg St., B'klyn. 

Cong. Beth Aaron of B'klyn., 

267 S. 1st St. Orthodox. Org. 
1905. Membership: 12. Seat- 
ing capacity: 900. Sick Ben- 
efit, Cemetery, Study. Pres., 
Louis Fox, 199 Keap St., 
B'klyn. Sec'y, Abraham 
Streltzin, 329 Grandest. 
Fox, Louis, Pres. Cong. Beth 
Aaron (267 S. 1st St.), since 
1909, also Pres. Chochmath 
Adam Miplinsk (55 E. 3rd 
St.), since 1915. Term 1 
year. Born 1857 in Russia. 
Came to U. S. 1883. Received 
general Jewish and secular 
education. Mfgr. clothing: 
575 Metropolitan Ave., 
B'klyn. Res.: 199 Keap St., 
B'klyn. 

Chevrah Beth Aaron 
Koydinow, 18 Cook St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1903. Mem- 
bership: 46. Seating capaci- 
ty: 186. Cemetery. Pres.. 



Elias Marshak, 28 Cook St., 
B'klyn. Sec'y, Israel J. 
Shapiro, 77 Middleton St.. 
B'klyn. 

Marshak, Blias, Pres. Chev- 
rah Beth Aaron Koydinow 
(18 Cook St.), since 1916. 
Term 1 year. Born 1872 in 
Russia. Came to U. S. 1899. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Grocer. Res.: 28 
Cook St., B'klyn. 

Cong. Beth Abraham, 113 Bris- 
tol St., Orthodox. Org. 
1889. Mem be rs hip: 100. 
Seating capacity: 400. Sick 
Benefit, Insurance, Free 
Loan, Cemetery, Study. 
Pres., Barnet Weiner, 496 
Hopkinson Ave., B ' k ly n . 
Sec'y, Isaac Hurwitz, 553 
Saratoga Ave., B'klyn. 
Weiner, Barnet, Pres. Cong. 
Beth Abraham (113 Bristol 
St.), since 1916. Term 6 
months. Born 1875 in Rus- 
sia. Came to U. S. 1904. 
Received general education. 
Notary Public. Res.: 496 
Hopkinson Ave., B'klyn. 

Cong. Beth Chasldlm Anshel 
Poland, 1827 Pitkin Ave. 
Orthodox. Org. 1909. Mem- 
bership:- 24. Seating capa- 
city: 150. Free Loan, Ceme- 
tery. Pres., Hyman N. Ros- 
enzwelg, 428 Blake Ave., 
B'klyn. Sec'y, Slsklnd Berg- 
sjon, 386 Christopher AVsB., 
B'klyn. Rabbi, Samuel J. 
Beckerman, 337 Hopkinson 
Ave., B'klyn. 

Rosenaweigr, Hyman, N., 
Pres. Cong. Beth Chasldiro 



CONGREGATIONS 



261 



Anshei Poland (1827 Pitkin 
Ave.), elected 1917. Term 6 
months. Born 1878 in Rus- 
sia. Came to U. S. 1912. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Jeweler. Res.: 
428 Blake Ave., B'klyn. 

Temple Beth-El, 110 Noble St., 
Conservative. English Ser- 
mon. Org", 1887. Member- 
ship: 45. Seating capacity: 
300. Sunday School, Hebrew 
Ben. Ass'n, Ladies' Soc, 
Cemetery. Pres., R. Norek, 
1102 Eastern Parkway, 
B'klyn. Sec'y, M. W. Tasch, 
1009 Eastern Parkway, 
B'klyn. Rabbi, S. J. Rome, 
1031 Lorimer St., B'klyn. 
Norek, R., Pres. Temple 
Beth-El (110 Noble St.), 
since 1908. Term 1 year. 
Born 1877 In Russia. Came 
to U. S. 1877. Received 
public school education. 
Real Estate: 253 Schenec- 
tady Ave., B'klyn. Res.: 
1102 Eastern Pkway, B'klyn. 

Cong. Beth-El of Borough P'k, 

4050 12th Ave. Orthodox. 
Org. 1906. Membership; 108. 
Seating capacity: 350. In- 
surance, Sisterhood, Ceme- 
tery, Study. Pres., Jacob 
Leiberraan, 1258 51st St., 
B'klyn. Sec'y, J. M. Mish- 
kin. 1225 42nd St., B'klyn. 

Cong. Beth Elohlm, 8th Ave. 
and Garfield PI. Reformed. 
English Sermon. Org. 1861. 
Membership: 133. Seating 
capacity: 1,500. Sunday 
School, Sisterhood. Ceme- 



tery. Pres., Jacob Brenner, 
252 Carroll St., B'klyn. 
Sec'y, Manasseh Miller, 827 
Eastern Parkway, B'klyn. 
Rabbi, Alexander Lyons, 528 
8th St., B'klyn. 
Brenner, Jacob, Pres. Cong. 
Beth Elohim (8th Ave. and 
Garfield PI.), since 1907. 
Term 1 year. Born 1857 in 
N. T. Received public school 
education. Graduated Law 
School. Lawyer: 26 Court 
St., B'klyn. Res.: 252 Car- 
roll St., B'klyn. 

Temple Beth Emeth of Plat- 
bush, Church Ave. and Marl- 
borough Rd. Reformed. 
English Sermon. Org. 1911. 
Membership: 125. Seating 
capacity: 530. Educational 
and Social activities, Sunday 
School, Sisterhood, Young 
Folks' League, Junior 
League, Cemetery. Pres., 
Wm. Goldschmidt, 809 E. 
16th St., B'klyn, Sec'y, 
Meyer Yondorf, 522 E. 8th 
St., B'klyn. Rabbi, Samuel 
J. Levinson, 1084 E. 8th St., 
B'klyn. 

Goldschmidt, William, Pres. 
Beth Emeth of Flatbush 
(Church Ave. and Marlbor- 
ough Rd.), since 1911. Term 
1 year. Born 1870 In N. Y. 
Graduated Law School. 
Lawyer: 49 Wall St. Res.: 
809 B. 16th St.. B'klyn. 

Beth Hamldrash Hagodol, 839 

S a c k m a n St. Orthodox. 
Org. 1889. Membership: 130. 
Seating capacity: 1000. 
Free Loan, Cemetery. Study, 
Pres., Daniel Merowltz, 1737 



!62 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



President St., B'klyn. Sec'y, 
David Shur, 198 Watkins 
St., B'klyn. Rabbi, Benja- 
min Flelsher, 189 Powell 
St., B'klyn. 

Merowltz, Daniel, Pres. Beth 
Hamidrash H a go d o 1 (339 
Sackman St.), since 1913. 
Term 1 year. Born 1859 in 
Russia. Came to U. S. 1891. 
Received general .Jewish and 
secular education. Real 
estate. Res.: 1737 President 
St., B'klyn. 

Beth Hamidrash Hagodol, 46 

Moore St. Orthodox. Org. 
1882. Membership: 54. Seat- 
ing capacity: 300. Insurance, 
Malbish Arumim Soc. Cem- 
etery, Study. Pres., Joshua 
Reibln, 124 Sumner Ave., 
B'klyn. Sec'y, B. Aronson, 7 
Willoughby Ave., B'klyn. 
Rabbi, Rev. Eli Tnselbuch, 
171 "Vernon Ave., B'klyn. 
Reiben, Joshua, Pres. Beth 
Hamidrash Hagodol ('46 
Moore St.), since 1911. Term 
1 year. Born 1855 in Russia. 
Came to U. S. 1885. Re- 
ceived general Jewish edu- 
cation. Installment b u s i - 
ness. Res.: 124 Sumner Ave., 
B'klyn. 

<7on^. Beth Israel, 233 Ainslie 
St. Orthodox. Org. 1913. 
Membership: 75. Seating 
capacity: 1300. Cemetery, 
Study. Pres., Isidore Gerber, 
306 Graham Ave., B'klyn. 
Sec'y, Robert Bier, 130 Mes- 
erole St., B'klyn. 
Gerber, Isidore, Pres. Cong. 
Beth Israel (233 Ainslie St.). 



elected 1917. Term 6 months. 
Born 1877 in Russia. Came 
to U. S. 1892. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. Mfgr. 
gloves. Res.: 306 Graham 
Ave., B'klyn. 

Cong. Beth Israel Anshei 
Emeth, 236 Harrison St. 
Conservative. English Ser- 
mon. Org. 1856. Membership: 
140. Seating capacity: 1100. 
Sunday School, Sisterhood, 
Cemetery. Pres., P i n c u s 
Weinberg, 51 Strong PI., 
B'klyn. Sec'y, Prank Morris, 
443 49th St., B'klyn. Rabbi, 
Israel Goldfarb, 360 Clinton 
St., B'klyn. 

Weinberg, P i n c u s , Pres. 
Cong. Beth Israel Anshei 
Emeth (236 Harrison St.), 
since 1916. Term 1 year. 
Born 1865 in Poland. Came 
to U. S. 1879. Received 
general Jewish education. 
Wines: 239 Columbia St. 
Res.: 51 Strong PI., B'klyn. 

Beth Israel of Brownsville, 349 

Christopher Ave. Orthodox. 
Org. 1912. Membership: 150. 
Seating capacity: 1300. Free 
Loan, Bikur Cholim, Ceme- 
tery, Study. Pres. Moses 
Malach, 577 Stone Ave., 
B'klyn. Sec'y, Jacob Spatt, 
424 Sackman St., B'klyn. 
3Ialach, Moses, Pres. Beth 
Israel of Brownsville (349 
Christopher Ave.), since 
1915. Term 6 months. Born 
1855 in Russia. Came to 
U. S. 1885. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. Re- 
tired. Res.: 577 Stone Ave., 
B'klyn. 



OONGRSeATIONS 



26H 



Chevrah Beth Israel Chasldel 
Kariin, 36 Varet St. Ortho- 
dox. Org-. 1913. Membership: 
33. Seating capacity: 140. 
Cemetery. Pres., N o c h 1 m 
Sherman. Sec'y, Mendel 
Schwartz, 128 Cook St., 
B'klyn. 

Sherman, Nochiiu, Pres. 
Chevrah Beth Israel Chasi- 
dei Kariin (36 Varet St.), 
elected 1917. Term 6 months. 
Born 1863 in Russia. Came 
to U. S. 1909. Received gen- 
eral Jew s h education. 
Ladies' Garments. 

Beth Jacob Anshei Sholom, 

276 S. 3rd St. Orthodox. 
English Sermon. Org. 1887. 
Membership: 155. Seating 
capacity: 1300. Hebrew 
School, Cemetery, S t u dy . 
Pres., Julius L. Horowitz, 
221 Roebling St., B'klyn. 
Sec'y, I. Kushelewitz, 276 S. 
3rd St. Rabbi, Wolf Gold, 
166 S. 3rd St., B'klyn. 
Horowitz, Julias L., Pres. 
Beth Jacob Anshei Sholom 
(276 S. 3rd St.), since 1916. 
Term 1 year. Born 1878 in 
Roumania. Came to U. S. 
1898. Received a thorough 
Jewish education. Wines: 
320 Grand St. Res.: 221 
Roebling St., B'klyn. 

Cong. Beth Jacob Joseph, 368 

Atlantic Ave. Orthodox. Org. 
1901. Membership: 77. Seat- 
ing capacity: 200. Study, 
Cemetery. Pres., Philip 
Cohen, 1437 36th St., B'klyn. 
Sec'y, Mr. Mas, 379 Atlantic 
Ave., B'klyn. 



Cohen, Philip, Pres. Congr. 
Beth Jacob Joseph (368 At- 
lantic Ave.), since 191B. 

Term 6 months. Born 1873 in 
Russia. Came to U. S. 1890. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Plumber: 316 At- 
lantic Ave., B'klyn. Res.: 
1437 36th St., B'klyn. 

Cong. Beth Judah, 904 Bedford 
Ave. Orthodox. English 
Sermon. Org. 1894. Mem- 
bership: 85. Seating capa- 
city: 850. Sunday School, 
Ladies' Auxiliary, Young 
Folks' Auxiliary, Cemetery. 
Pres., Thomas Mansevitz, 
224 Spencer St., B'klyn. 
Sec'y, Harry Cohen, 234 
Green Ave., B'klyn. Rabbi, 
Samuel Buchler, 324 Bain- 
bridge St., B'klyn. 
Mansevitz, Thomas, Pres. 
Cong. Beth Judah (904 Bed- 
ford Ave.), since 1916. Term 
1 year. Born 1862 in Rus- 
sia. Came to U. S. 1876. 
Received general Jewish 
and secular education. Real 
Estate and Insurance. Res.: 
224 Spencer St., B'klyn. 

Beth Sholom People's Temple, 

20th Ave. and Benson Ave. 
Reformed. English Sermon. 
Org. 1907. Membership: 1'48. 
Seating capacity: 266. He- 
brew School, Sisterhood, 
Cemetery. Pres., Jesse H. 
Wasserman, 100 Bay 29th 
St., B'klyn. Sec'y, Arthur J. 
Stern, 8709 23d Ave., B'klyn. 
Wasserman, Jesse H., Pres. 
Beth Sholom People's Tem- 
ple (20th and Benson 



264 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



Aves.); elected 1917. Term 
1 year. Born 1872 in N. Y. 
Received college education. 
Automobile supplies: 149 
Church St. Res.; 100 Bay 
29th St., B'klyn. 

Cong. Beth Solomon, 1869 
Sterling PI. Orthodox. Org. 
1909. Membership: 8. Seat- 
ing capacity: 700. Pres., 
Solomon W. Greenbaum, 
1580 Eastern Parkway, 
B'klyn. Sec'y, S. Goldrich, 12 
E. 112th St. 

Greenbaum, Solomon W., 
Pres. Cong. Beth Solomon 
(1869 Sterling PL), since 1909. 
Born 1853 in Russia. Came 
to U. S. 1872. Attended a 
Teshibah. Res.: 1580 East- 
ern Parkway, B'klyn. 

Cong. Bikur Chollm Anshel 
LibishOT of Brownsville, 182 

Chester St. Orthodox. Org. 
1916. Membership: 44. 
Seating capacity: 70. Bikur 
Chblim, Cemetery. Pres., 
Moses Gurstein, 161 Bristol 
St., B'klyn. Sec'y, Samuel 
B. Sukovice, 136 Livonia 
Ave., B'klyn. 

Gurstein, Moses, Pres. Cong. 
Bikur Cholim Anshei Libi- 
shov of Brownsville (182 
Chester St.); elected 1917. 
Term 6 months. Born 1875 
in Russia. Came to U. S. 
1904. Received general edu- 
cation. Seltzer dealer. Res.: 
161 Bristol St.. B'klyn. 

Bikur Chollm Anshet S'phard, 

154 Watkins St. Orthodox. 
Org. 1902. Membership: 42. 



Seating capacity: 200. Free 
Loan, Cemetery, Study. 
Pres., Abraham Storch, 102 
Bristol St., B'klyn. Sec'y. 
Nathan Finkelstein, 57 Bris- 
tol St., B'klyn. 
Storch, Abraham, Pres. 
Bikur Sholom Anshel 
S'phard (154 Watkins St., 
since 1917. Term 6 months. 
Born 1856 in Austria. Came 
to U. S. 1890. Received 
general education. Res.: 
102 Bristol St., B'klyn. 

Chevrah Bikur Cholim B'nal 
Jacob, 2134 Dean St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1909. Mem- 
bership: 50. Seating capac- 
ity: 700. Ladies' Auxiliary, 
Bikur Cho 1 i m, Cemetery. 
Pres., Harry Milbauer, 2172 
Dean St., B'klyn. Sec'y, 
Harry Harnig, 1816 Pros- 
spect PI., B'klyn. Rabbi, M. 
Lax, 1923 Bergen St., B'klyn. 
Milbauer, Harry, Pres. Chev- 
rah Bikur Cholim B'nai 
Jacob (2134 Dean St.), since 
1916. Term 6 months. Born 
1868 in Austria. Came to 
U. S. 1884. Received general 
Jewish education. Clothing: 
149 W. 30th St. Res.: 2172 
Dean St., B'klyn. 

B'nai Abraham Anshei B'klyn. 

99 Leonard St. Orthodox. 
Org. 1899. Membership: 50. 
Seating capacity: 300. Sick 
Benefit, Free Loan, Ceme- 
tery, Study. Pres., Louis 
Cohen, 98 Boerum St., 
B'klyn. Sec'y, Louis Good- 
man, 30 Humboldt St., 
B'klyn. 



CONGREGATIONS 



265 



Cohen, Louis, Pres. B'nal 
Abraham Anshel B'klyn (99 
Leonard St.). since 1916. 
Terra 6 months. Born 1879 
in Russia. Came to U. S. 
1900. Studied in a Yeshi- 
bah. Selzer dealer: 85 Mon- 
trose Ave., B'klyn. Res.: 98 
Boerum St., B'klyn. 

Con^. B'nal Abraham Anshel 
Hung-ary, 100 Hopkins St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1906. Mem- 
bership: 60. Seating capaci- 
ty: 500. Cemetery, Study. 
Pres., Jacob L. Fell, 925 De 
Kalb Ave., B'klyn. Sec'y, 
Samuel W. Koenig, 476 
Marcy Ave., B'klyn. 
Fell, Jacob L., Pres. Cong. 
B'nai Abraham Anshei Hun- 
gary (100 Hopkins St.); 
elected 1917. Term 6 months. 
Born 1873 In Austria. Came 
to U. S. 1895. Received 
general Jewish education. 
Salesman. Res.: 925 De 
Kalb Ave., B'klyn. 

Chevrah B'nal Abraham An- 
shei Poland, 32 Humboldt 
St. Orthodox. Org. 1904. 
Membership: 40. Seating 
capacity: 320. Cemetery, 
Study Pres., David Levine, 
76 Hart St., B'klyn. Sec'y, 
Solomon Bachrich, 864 Myr- 
tle Ave., B'klyn. 
LcTlne, David, Pres. Chev- 
rah B'nai Abraham Anshel 
Poland (32 Humboldt St.): 
elected 1917. Term 6 months. 
Born 1857 in Russia. Came 
to U. S. 1897. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. 
Laundry. Ree.: 76 Hart St., 
B'klyn. 



Beth Hak'ne.sseth D'Chevrah 
B'nal David, 124 Johnson 
Ave. Orthodox. Org. 1893. 
Membership: 55. Seating ca- 
pacity: 250. Cemetery. Pres., 
Max Fried, 200 Montrose 
Ave., B'klyn. Sec'y, Abraham 
Bas, 100 Manhattan Ave., 
B'klyn. 

Pried, Max, Pres. Beth 
Hak'nesseth D'Chevrah 
B'nai David (124 Johnson 
Ave.), since 1910. Term 1 
year. Born 1877 In Austria. 
Came to U. S. 1897. Received 
general Jewish education. 
Pants Mfgr. Res.: 200 Mont- 
rose Ave., B'klyn. 

Chevrah B'nal Isaac Nusach 
Hoarl, 445 Georgia Ave. 
Orthodox. Org. 1905. Mem- 
bership: 50. Seating capac- 
ity: 1,000. Study. Pres., Jack 
Zimmerman, 415 Georgia 
Ave., B'klyn. Sec'y, J. 
Spreiregen, 459 Pennsyl- 
vania Ave., B'klyn. Rabbi, 
Rev. Narschafsky, 556 Ver- 
mont St., B'klyn. 
Zimmerman, Jack, Pres. 
Chevrah B'nal Isaac Nusach 
Hoari (445 Georgia Ave.), 
since 1909. Term 6 months. 
Born 1851 In Austria. Came 
to U. S. 1889. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. 
Cloaks: 168 1^ Delancey St. 
Res.: 415 Georgia Ave., 
B'klyn. 

Temple B'nai Israel, 4th Ave. 
and 54th St. Conservative. 
English Sermon. Org. 1907. 
Membership: 25. Hebrew 
School, Sisterhood, Brother- 



266 



COMMUNAL RBOISTBR 



hood, Study. Pres., Simon 
Abels, 939 73d St., B'klyn. 
Sec'y, Adolph Shuman, 462 
6l8t St., B'klyn. Rabbi, 
Solomon Goldman, 254 
Herzl St., B'klyn. 
Abels, Simon, Pres. Temple 
B'nai Israel (4th Ave. and 
54th St.), since 1916. Term 
1 year. Born 1866 in Russia. 
Came to U. S. 1887. Received 
thorough Jewish education. 
Real Estate: 44 Court St., 
B'klyn. Res.: 939 73rd St., 
B'klyn. 

Cong. B'nai Israel, 620 Bed- 
ford Ave. Orthodox. Org. 
1909. Membership: 120. Seat- 
ing capacity: 1100. Sister- 
hood, Cemetery, Study. 
Pres., Jacob Lorence, 117 
Clymer St., B'klyn. Sec'y, 
Aaron Rubinstein, 77 Lee 
Ave., B'klyn. 

Lorence, Jacob, Pres. Cong. 
B'nai Israel (620 Bedford 
Ave.), since 191*4. Term 1 
year. Born 1858 in Hun- 
gary. Came to U. S. 1882. 
Received general education. 
Hats: 649 B'way. Res.: 117 
Clymer St., B'klyn. 

B'nai Israel Ossel Tovah, 27 

Glenmore Ave. Orthodox. 
Org. 1914. Membership: 50. 
Seating capacity: 70. Cem- 
etery. Pres., Morris Gold- 
stein, 111 Amboy St., B'klyn. 
Sec'y, Harry Dadick, 38 
Osborn St., B'klyn. Rabbi, 
L. Edelman, 176 Sutter Ave., 
B'klyn. 

Goldstein, Morris, Pres. 
B'nai Israel Ossei Tovah (27 



Glenmore Ave.); elected 
1917. Term 6 months. Born 
1870 in Turkey. Came to 
U. S. 1912. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. 
Painter. Res.: Ill Amboy 
St., B'klyn. 

B'nai Israel U. V. of Browns- 
ville, 1861 Pitkin Ave. Or- 
thodox. Org. 1911. Member- 
ship: 60, Seating capacity: 
75. Cemetery. Pres., Hyman 
Millstein, 535 Saratoga Ave., 
B'klyn. Sec'y, Samuel Wigu- 
tow, 543 Ralph Ave., B'klyn. 
Millstein, Hyman, Pres. 
B'nai Israel U. V. of 
Brownsville (1861 Pitkin 
Ave.), since 1915. Term 6 
months. Born 1867 in Rus- 
sia. Came to U. S. 1883. Re- 
ceived general Jewish edu- 
cation. Tailor. Res.: 535 
Saratoga Ave., B'klyn. 

Cong-. B'nai Jacob, 42 Seigel 
St. Orthodox. Org. 1909. 
Membership: 35. Seating ca- 
pacity: 180. Cemetery. 
Pres., Louis Feldman, 25 
Bartlett St., B'klyn. Sec'y, 
Harry Sturman, 69 Johnson 
Ave., B'klyn. 

Feldman, Louis, Pres. Cong. 
B'nai Jacob (42 Seigel St.), 
since 1916. Term 6 months. 
Born 1883 in Russia. Came 
to U. S. 1900. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. Fix- 
tures. Res.: 25 Bartlett St., 
B'klyn. 

Cong. B'nai Jacob, 519 Marcy 
Ave. Orthodox. Org. 

1916. Membership: 50. Seat- 



C50NGREGATION6 



267 



Ing capacity: 2,000. Study. 
Pres., Isaac Brownsteln, 560 
Greene Ave., B'klyn. Sec'y, 
Myer Brownsteln, 560 
Greene Ave., B'klyn. Rabbi, 
Leon Risikov. 

BroTvnstein, Isaac, Pres. 
Cong. B'nai Jacob (519 
Marcy Ave.), since 1916. 
Term 1 year. Born 1863 In 
Russia. Came to U. S. 1893. 
Received a general Jewish 
education. Res.: 560 Greene 
Ave., B'klyn. 

Con^. B'nai Jacob, 136 Pros- 
pect Ave. Orthodox. Org. 
1885. Membership: 95. Seat- 
ing capacity: 350. Sister- 
hood, Hebrew School, Ceme- 
tery. Pres., Israel Taub, 566 
Third Ave., B'klyn. Sec'y, 
Jacob Skier, 104 15th St., 
B'klyn. Rabbi, S. Goldman, 
254 Herzl St., B'klyn. 
Taub, Israel, Pres. Cong. 
B'nai Jacob (136 Prospect 
Ave.), since 1916. Term 1 
year. Born 1877 in Russia. 
Came to U. S. 1889. Attended 
Public School. Real Estate. 
Res.: 566 Third Ave., B'klyn. 

CbeTrab B'nai Jacob Ansliei 
S'pbArd, 276 Pennsylvania 
Ave. Orthodox. Org. 1906. 
Membership: '40. Seating 
capacity: 530. Sisterhood, 
Cemetery, Monteflore. Pres., 
Philip Katz, 357 Smediker 
Ave., B'klyn. Sec'y, David 
Ochshorn. 

Katz, Pliilip, Pres. Chevrah 
B'nai Jacob Anshei S'phard 
(276 Pennsylvania Ave.), 
since 1911. Term 1 year. 



Born 1862 in Russia. Came 
to U. S. 1890. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. Fur- 
rier: 29 W. 38th St. Res.: 
357 Snediker Ave., B'klyn. 

Cong. B'nai Jacob Josepb 
D'Brooklyn, 928 De Kalb 
Ave. Orthodox. Org. 1910. 
Membership: 50. Seating 
capacity: 400. Cemetery. 
Pres., Lippman Morris, 179 
Pulaski St., B'klyn. Sec'y, 
Maurice Newman, 1004 De 
Kalb Ave., B'klyn. 

B'nai Jesbaruu, Richmond 

Turnpike, Tompkinsville, S. 
I. Orthodox. Org. 1887. 
Membership: 50. Seating ca- 
pacity: 200. Heb. Charitable 
Soc, Cemetery. Pres., Max 
Ginsburg, 333 Jersey St., 
New Brighton, S. I. Sec'y, 
L. Seyman, 300 Jersey St., 
New Brighton, S. I. Rabbi, 
H. Rabinowitz. 
Ginsburg, Max, Pres. B'nai 
Jeshurun (Richmond Turn- 
pike, S. I.), since 1916. Term 
1 year. Born 1869 in Russia. 
Came to U. S. 1892. Dry 
Goods. Res.: 333 Jersey St., 
New Brighton, S. I. 

Cong. B'nai Joseph, 77 Meeker 
Ave. Orthodox. Org. 1894. 
Membership: 80. Seating 
capacity: 120. Hebrew 
School, Sisterhood, Young 
Folks League, Cemetery. 
Pres., Samuel Jacobs, 116 
Powers St., B'klyn. Sec'y, 
Harry Marcus, 529 Hum- 

, boldt St., B'klyn. 
Jacobs, Samuel, Pres. Cong. 
B'nai Joseph (77 Meeker 



268 



COMMUNAL REGISTBR 



Ave.), since 1916. Term 6 
months. BorA 1868 in Hun- 
gary. Came to U. S. 1887. 
Received Public School edu- 
cation. Mfgr. shirts. Res.: 
116 Powers St., B'klyn. 

Cong. B'nal Sholom, 403 9th 

St. Conservative. English 
Sermon. Org. 1884. Seating 
capacity: 800. Sunday School, 
Sisterhood, Young Judaea, 
Cemetery. Pres., William 
Ginsberg, 538 5th Ave., 
B'klyn. Sec'y, H. Oshinsky, 
B'klyn. Rabbi, Marcus 
Friedlander, 10 Prospect 
Park, S. W. 

Ginsberg:, William, Pres, 
Cong. B'nai Sholom (409 9th 
St.), since 1915. Term 1 
year. Born 1870 in Austria. 
Came to U. S. 1883. Received 
general education. Toys. 
Res.: 538 5th Ave., B'klyn. 

Cong. Chesed Shel Burnetii of 
So. Brooklyn, 157 17th St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1897. Mem- 
bership: 18. Seating capa- 
city: 75. Cemetery. Pres., 
Abraham Friedlansky, 709 
3d Ave., B'klyn. Sec'y, J. S. 
Levy. 

Friedlansky, Abraltam, Pres. 
Cong. Chesed Shel Emeth of 
So. B'klyn (157 17th St.). 
since 1909. Term 1 year. 
Born 1861 in Russia. Came 
to U. S. 1889. Received gen- 
eral Jew^ish education. Shoes. 
Res.: 709 3d Ave., B'klyn. 

Citevrah I{:adlsha, 93 Moore St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1889. Meip- 
bership: 85. Seating capa- 
city: 750. Insurance, Bikur 



C h o 1 i m. Cemetery, Study. 
Pres., Zalkind Shapiro, 1159 
St. Johns PI., B'klyn. Sec'y, 
H. ffaylor. Rabbi, Bernard 
Margolin, 35 Graham Ave., 
B'klyn. 

Shapiro, Zalkind, Pres. 
Chevrah Kadisha (93 Moore 
St.), since 1915. Term 1 
year. Born 1850 in Russia. 
Came to U. S. 1886. Attended 
Walkawer Yeshibah. Re- 
tired. Res.: 1159 St. Johns 
PI., B'klyn. 

Crowning Glory of Israel 
(Ateretli Tipheretli Israel), 

481 Ashford St. Orthodox. 
Org. 1909. Membership: 260. 
Seating capacity: 800. He- 
brew School. Pres., Jules 
Levinsohn, 556 Ashford St., 
B'klyn. Sec'y, A. Karlln, 
526 Cleveland St., B'klyn. 
Rabbi, Joseph Baltuck, '489 
Jerome St., B'klyn. 
Levinsohn, Jules, Pres. 
Crowning Glory of Israel 
(481 Ashford St.), since 
1916. Term 6 months. Born 
1871 in Russia. Came to U. 
S. 1916. Received thorough 
Jewish education. Mf gr. 
clothing: 7 Gt, Jones St. 
Res.: 556 Ashford St., 
B'klyn. 

Derech Emiinah, Larkin St. 
and Vernon Ave., Arverne, 
L. L Orthodox. Org. 1905. 
Seating capacity: 600. Re- 
ligious School, Study. Pres., 
Israel Unterberg, 11 W. 86th 
St. 

Israel Unterberg:, Pres. 
Derech Emunah (Arverne. 



CONGREGATIONS 



269 



L.I.) Mfgr. Shirts: 90 Frank- 
lin St. Res.: 11 W. 86th St., 
N. Y. 

Cons. EIn Jacob of Browns- 
ville, 248 Watkins St. Or- 
thodox. Org. 1900. Mem- 
bership: 90. Seating capa- 
city: 200. Sick Benefit, Free 
Loan, Cemetery, Study. 
Pres. Harry Brown, 115 
Glenmore Ave., B'klyn. 
Sec'y, Solomon Levy, 435 
Rockaway Ave., B'klyn. 
Brown, Harry, Pres. Cong. 
Ein Jacob of Brownsville 
(248 Watkins St.), since 
1916. Term 1 year. Born 
1878 in Russia. Came to U. 
S. 1900. Received general 
Jewish education. Dealer in 
Lumber. Res.: 115 Glenmore 
Ave., B'klyn. 

Temple Emanuel of Borough 
Park, 49th St. and 14th Ave., 
Conservative. English Ser- 
mon. Org. 1904, Member- 
ship: 175. Seating capacity: 
1200. Hebrew School, Sister- 
hood. Young Folks' League, 
Cemetery. Pres., Simon 
Frank, 1434 57th St., B'klyn. 
Sec'y, Samuel Greenberg, 
1413 52nd St., B'klyn. Rabbi, 
David Levine, 1450 50th St.. 
B'klyn. 

Frank, Simon, Pres. Temple 
Emanuel of Borough Park 
(49th St. and 14th Ave.), 
since 1906. Term 1 year. 
Born 1860 in Russia. Came 
to U. S. 1874. Studied in 
European Gymnasium. 
Threads: 3 E. 17th St. Res.: 
1434 57th St.. B'klyn. 



Temple Emanuel of Staten 
Island* Haberton and Post 
Ave., S. I. Orthodox. Or- 
ganized 1907. Membership: 
50. Seating capacity: 450. 
Sick Benefit, Insurance, 
Cemetery. Pres., H. L. Bo- 
dine, Elm Park, Staten Is- 
land. Sec'y, Signand Weiss, 
Port Richmond, S. I. 
Bodine, Herman L., Pres. 
Temple Emanuel (Haber- 
ton and Post Aves., S. I.), 
since 1915. Term 1 year. 
Born 1876 in U. S. Received 
public school education. 
Merchant: Elm Park, S. I. 
Res.: Morning Star Road, 
Elm Park, S. I. 

Erste Stepluer Cong., 391 

Watkins St. Orthodox. Org. 
1897. Membership: 72. Seat- 
ing capacity: 300. Sick ben- 
efit. Free Loan, Cemetery. 
Pres., Morris Engelman, 549 
Powell St., B'klyn. Sec'y. 
David Cholodne, 376 Sara- 
toga Ave., B'klyn. 
Engelman, Morris, Pres. 
Erste Stepiner Cong. (391 
Watkins St.); elected 1917. 
Term 6 months. Born 1881 
in Russia. Came to U. S. 
1902. Received general edu- 
cation. Res.: 549 Powell St., 
B'klyn. 

Esrath Israel, 582 Gates Ave., 
B'klyn. Orthodox. Org. 
1912. Membership: 20. Seat- 
ing capacity: 100. Pres., 
Myron S. Yochelson, 820 La- 
fayette Ave., B'klyn. Sec'y 
and Rabbi, Abraham Sherr, 
689 Gates Ave.. B'klyn. 



270 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



Cong;. Ez Chalm Anshel Lubin, 

113 Moore St. Orthodox. 
Org. 1895. Membership: 38. 
Seating capacity: 225. Sick 
Benefit, Free Loan, Ceme- 
tery. Pres., Moses L. 
Pretzles, 297 Bushwick Ave., 
B'klyn. Sec'y, Jacob Cohen, 
297 Bushwick Ave., B'klyn. 

Congr. Ex Clialin Macbzikel 
Horav Ansbei BrOTrnsville, 

471 Stone Ave. Orthodox. 
Org-. 1893. Membership: 135. 
Seating capacity: 1100. Sick 
Benefit, Free Loan, Ladies' 
Auxiliary, Cemetery, Study. 
Pres., Morris Silverman, 
2001 Bergen St., B'klyn. 
Sec'y, Wolf Haberman, 485 
Sutter Ave., fe'klyn. Rabbi, 
Moses Chaim Rabinowitz, 
198 Thatford Ave., B'klyn. 
Silbenuan, Morris, Pres. Ez 
Chaim Machzikei Horav 
Anshei Brownsville (471 
Stone Ave.), since 1915. 
Term 1 year. Born 1868 in 
Russia. Came to U. S. 1885. 
Received general J e w i s li 
education. Salesman. Res.: 
2001 Bergen St., B'klyn. 

First Austro-Hungarian Beth 
Sholom, 23 Sumner Ave. 
Orthodox, Org. 1907. Mem- 
bership: 80. Seating ca- 
pacity: 550. Sunday School, 
Ladies' Auxiliary, Cemetery, 
Study. Pres., Louis Shoen, 
293 Throop Ave., B'klyn. 
Sec'y, Joseph Ritter, 88 La- 
fayette St., B'klyn. Rabbi, 
Dr. Sigmund Abeles, 196 
Vernon Ave., B'klyn. 

First Brooklyn Roumanian- 



American Cong:. Beth T'pbil- 
lah, 228 Hopkins St., B'klyn. 
Orthodox. Org. 1894. Mem- 
bership: 300. Seating capac- 
ity: 1,500. Free Loan, Sis- 
terhood, Cemetery, Study. 
Pres., Morris Diamond, 10 
Manhattan St., B'klyn. Sec'y, 
William Zimmerman, 347 
Bainbridge St., B'klyn. 

First Cong. Anshei S'phard, 

4506 14th Ave. Orthodox. 
Org. 1915. Membership: 105. 
Seating capacity: 1000. Free 
Loan, Cemetery, Study. 
Pres., Wolf Nadler, 1369 
56th St., B'klyn. Sec'y, K. 
Ho r nig, 1479 44th St., 
B'klyn. 

Nadler, Wolf, Pres. First 
Cong. Anshei S'phard (4506 
14th Ave.), since 1915. Term 
1 year. Born 1868 in Rou- 
mania. Came to U. S. 1882. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Real estate: 137 
Bowery. Res.: 1369 56th St., 
B'klyn. 

First Cong, of Kensington 
Temple Tiphereth Israel, 

West and 40th Sts. Con- 
servative. English Sermon. 
Org. 1907. Membership: 100. 
Seating capacity: 320. He- 
brew School, Ladies' Aux- 
iliary. Pres., Sidney S. 
Raymond, 4 '4 Ocean 
P'kway, B'klyn. Sec'y, 
Robert B. Richmond, 1663 
43d St., B'klyn. Rabbi, 
Jacob Katz, 521 West St., 
B'klyn. 

Cong. Gemilath Chasodim An- 
shei Austria of BrOTFnsvllIe, 



OONGRBOATIONS 



271 



461 Osborn St. Orthodox. 
Org. 1907. Membership: 140. 
Seating- capacity: 850. Free 
Loan, Sick Benefit, Insur- 
ance, Ladies' Auxiliary, 
Cemetery. Pres., Samuel 
Rosenzweig-, 276 Watkins 
St., B'klyn. Sec'y, Morris 
Baron, 354 Stone Ave., 
B'klyn. 

Rosenzweigr, Samuel, Pres. 
Cong. Gemilath Chasodim 
Anshei Austria of Browns- 
ville (461 Osborn St.), 
since 1915. Term 1 year. 
Born 1884 in Russia. Came 
to U. S. 1904. Received gen- 
eral Jewish and secular 
education. Jeweler. Res.: 
276 Watkins St., B'klyn. 

Gemilath Chasodim Anshei 
Kobrin Horodetz and Anto- 
pole, 315 Osborn St. Ortho- 
dox. Org. 1908. Member- 
ship: 46. Seating capacity: 
150. Free Loan. Pres., Sam- 
uel Sapper, 401 Chester St., 
B'klyn. Sec'y, Barnett Kra- 
kower, 396 Williams Ave., 
B'klyn. 

Sapper, Samuel, Pres. Gemi- 
lath Chasodim Anshei Kob- 
rin Horodetz and Antopole 
(315 Osborn St.); elected 
1917. Born 1876 in Russia. 
Came to U. S. 1891. Re- 
ceived general Jewish edu- 
cation. Shirts: 1423^. N. Y. 
Ave., B'klyn. Res.: 401 Ches- 
ter St., B'klyn. 

Cong. Gemilath Chesed, Sea 

Breeze Ave., Coney Island. 
Orthodox. Org. 1893. Mem- 
bership: 60. Seating capaci- 



ty: 500. Ladies' Soc, Ceme- 
tery. Pres., Harry Blatt, 
Surf Ave., Coney Island, 
B'klyn. Sec'y, William 
Priedfeld, 5 Roebery PI., 
Coney Island, B'klyn. 

Cong. Gemilath Chesed of 
Greater N. Y., 137 Glenmore 
Ave. Orthodox. Org. 1898. 
Membership: 65. Seating 
capacity: 300. Sick Benefit, 
Insurance, Free Loan, Cem- 
etery, Study. Pres., Charles 
Blumenfeld, 109 Bristol St., 
B'klyn. Sec'y, Samuel Dick- 
ler, 203 Bergen St., B'klyn. 
Blumenfeld, Charles, Pres. 
Cong. Gemilath Chesed of 
Greater N. Y. (137 Glenmore 
Ave.); elected 1917. Term 6 
months. Born 1873 in Rou- 
mania. Came to U. S. 1892. 
Received general Jewish 
and secular education. In- 
surance. Res.: 109 Bristol 
St., B'klyn. 

Cong. Hach'nosath O r c h i m 
H a g o d o I Tiphereth Zion 
VJerusalem and Yeshibath 
Torah Mizion. 199 Christo- 
pher Ave, Orthodox. Org. 
1916. Membership: 75. Seat- 
ing capacity: 280. Hebrew 
School, Cemetery, Study. 
Pres., Samuel Levi, 199 
Christopher Ave., B'klyn. 
Sec'y, Phineas Hyams, 161 
Christopher Ave., B'klyn. 
Levi, Samuel, Pres. Cong. 
Hach'nosath Orchim Hago- 
dol Tiphereth Zion VJeru- 
salem and Yeshibath Torah 
Mizion (199 Christopher 
Ave.), since 1916. Born 1855 



I 



272 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



in Russia. Came to U. S. 
1909. Attended a Teshibah. 
Collector, Res.: 199 Christo- 
pher Ave., B'klyn. 

Temple Israel, Bedford and 
Lafayette Aves., B'klyn. Re- 
formed. Org. 1871. Mem- 
bership: 175. Seating ca- 
pacity: 70 0. Cemetery, 
School. Pres., A. L. Levi, 
343 Stuyvesant St. Sec'y, 
Aaron Marcus, 461 McDon- 
ough St., B'klyn. Rabbi, 
Nathan Krass, 1172 Union 
St., B'klyn. 

Temple Israel, Roanoke Ave. 
and State St., Far Rocka- 
way. Reformed, English 
Sermon. Org. 1911. Mem- 
bership: 183. Seating capac- 
ity: 640. Religious School. 
Pres., Joseph Fried, Law- 
rence, L. I. Sec'y, E. L. 
Jacobs, Woodmere, L. 1. 
Rabbi, L Landman, 1380 Ce- 
dar Ave., Far Rockaway, 
L. I. 

JeTvlsh Communal Centre of 
Flatbush, 1343 Coney Island 
Ave. English Sermon. Org. 
1917. Membership: 60. Seat- 
ing capacity: 150. Hebrew 
School, Ladies' Auxiliary. 
Pres., Max Wilhelm, 1125 E. 
22nd St., B'klyn. Sec'y, N. 
Kolis, 1315 Ave. J., B'klyn. 
Wllhelmi, Max, Pres. Jewish 
Communal Centre of Flat- 
bush (1343 Coney Island 
Ave.), elected 1917. Term 
1 year. Born 1877 In Ger- 
many. Came to U. S. 1902. 
Received general education. 
Collars and shirts: 80 



B'way, B'klyn. Res.: 1125 
E. 22nd St., B'klyn. 

Kamiu Kasliersk U. V. Anshel 
S'phard, 33 Moore St. Or- 
thodox. Org. 1914. Member- 
ship: 50. Seating capacity: 
210. Study, Cemetery. Pres., 
Abraham Abel, 991 De Kalb 
Ave., B'klyn. Sec'y, Mr. 
Silverman, 279 Marcy Ave., 
B'klyn. 

Abel, Abraham, Pres, Kamin 
Kashersk U. V. Anshei 
S'phard (33 Moore St.), since 
1913. Term 6 months. Born 

, 1873 in Russia. Came to 
U. S. 1891. Received gen- 
eral education. Contractor: 
990 Myrtle Ave., B'klyn. 
Res.: 991 De Kalb Ave., 
B'klyn. 

Cong. Kether Torah Chono 
David, 159 Throop Ave. 
Orthodox. Org. 1895. Mem- 
bership: 130. Seating capa- 
city: 600. Sick Benefit, In- 
surance, Free Loan, Ceme- 
tery, Study. Pres., Benjamin 
Frank, 198 Middleton St., 
B'klyn. Sec'y, Benjamin 
Kauderer, 112 Humboldt St., 
B'klyn. 

Klever and Homier Congr. Aid 
Soc., 361 Bristol St. Ortho- 
dox. Org. 1917. Member- 
ship: 75. Seating capacity: 
200. Cemetery. Pres., Will- 
iam Banwer, 1696 Park PI., 
B'klyn. Sec'y, Isidor Kras- 
now, 247 W a t k i n 3 St., 
B'klyn. 

Chevrah Klshar Achlm Ab- 
shel S'phard, 459 Hendrlx St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1907. Mem- 



CONGREGATIONS 



273 



bersliip: 73. Seating capa- 
city: 320. Free Loan, Sis- 
terhood, Cemetery, Study. 
Pres.^ Chas. Brand, 411 Jer- 
ome St., B'klyn. Sec'y, Leib 
Scharf, 492 Hendrix St., 
B'klyn. 

Brand, Charles, Pres. Chev- 
rah Kishur Achim Anshei 
S'phard (459 Hendrix St.); 
elected 1917. Term 6 months. 
Born 1882 in Austria. Came 
to U. S. 1896. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. Deal- 
er in underwear: 547 Broad- 
way. Res.: 411 Jerome St., 
B'klyn. 

Chevrah K'nesseth Israel, 1321 
42nd St. Org. 1912. Orthodox. 
Membership: 75. Seating ca- 
pacity: 140. Cemetery. Pres., 
Isaac Silverman, 4112 12th 
Ave., B'klyn. Sec'y, Israel 
Zuckerman, 1345 41st St., 
B'klyn. 

^ • 

Silverman, Isaac, Pres. 
Chevrah K'nesseth Israel 
(1321 42nd St.); elected 1917. 
Term 6 months. Born 1857 
in Russia. Came to U. S. 
1876. Received general Jew- 
ish education. Broker. Res.: 
4112 12th Ave., B'klyn. 

K'nesseth Israel B'nal Abra- 
ham, 315 Hooper St. Ortho- 
dox. Org. 1915. Member- 
ship: 75. Seating capacity: 
300. Cemetery, Study. Sec'y, 
M. Mark, 252 Hewes St., 
B'klyn. Rabbi, Abraham 



Goodblatt, 182 Havemeyer 
St., B'klyn. 

Chevrah K'nesseth Israel Beth 
Jacob, 543 Stone Ave. 
Orthodox. Org. 1910. Mem- 
bership: 80. Seating capac- 
ity: 275. Cemetery. Pres., 
Arthur Julien, 617 Warwick 
St., B'klyn. Sec'y, Abraham 
Zivotofsky, 459 P e n n s y 1 - 
vania Ave., B'klyn. 
Julien, Arthur, Pres. Chev- 
rah K'nesseth Israel Beth 
Jacob (543 Stone Ave.), 
since 1916. Term 6 months. 
Born 1871 in Roumania. 
Came to U. S. 1904. Attend- 
ed a Yeshibah. Res.: 617 
Warwick St., B'klyn. 

Conft-. K'nesseth Israel D'Bath 
Beach, Bay Parkway and 
85th St., B'klyn. Orthodox. 
Org. 1917. Membership: 20. 
Seating capacity: 270. He- 
brew School, Ladies' Soc, 
Study. Pres., Abraham 
Sacks, 2156 83rd St., B'klyn. 
Sec'y, Hillel B. Krichev, 
Bath Ave. and 28th St., 
B'klyn. 

Sacks, Abraham, Pres. 
K'nesseth Israel D'Bath 
Beach (Bay Parkway and 
85th St.); elected 1917. Term 
6 months. Born in Russia 
1834. Came to U. S. 1852. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Res.: 2156 83rd 
St., B'klyn. 

Cong, Kol Israel of Browns- 
ville, 176 Osborn St. Or- 
thodox. Org. 1910. Mem- 



274 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



bership: 180. Seating capa- 
city: 200. Sick Benefit, 
Cemetery, Study. Pi-es., 
Samuel Loss, 168 Powell St., 
B'klyn. Sec'y, Joseph Gil- 
lule, 262 D u m o n t Ave., 
B'klyn. 

JLoss, Samuel, Pres. Cong. 
Kol Israel of Brownsville 
(176 Osborn St.); elected 
1917. Term 6 months. Born 
1863 in Russia. Came to 
U. S. 1902. Received general 
Jewish education. Res.: 168 
Powell St., B'klyn. 



Cong, liinath Hacholim An- 
shel Poland, 373 Saratoga 
Ave. Orthodox. Org. 1908. 
'Membership: 42. Seating 
capacity: 200. Free Loan. 
Bikur C h o 1 i m, Cemetery. 
Pres., Abraham Phillips, 266 
Rochester Ave., B'klyn. 
Sec'y, Samuel Fine, 56 Graf- 
ton St., B'klyn. 

Phillips, Abraham, Pres. 
Cong. L i n a t h Hacholim 
Anshei Poland (373 Sara- 
toga Ave.); elected 1917. 
Term 6 months. Born 1875 
in Russia. Came to U. S. 
1890. Received general edu- 
cation. Res.: 266 Rochester 
Ave., B'klyn. 



Llnath Hazedek K. IT. V., 98 

Rockaway Rd. Orthodox. 
Org. 1910. Membership: 46. 
Seating capacity: 100. Sick 
Benefit, Insurance, Free 
Loan, Bikur Cholim Society, 
Cemetery, Study. Pres., 



Louis Silverstein. Sec'y, Sam 
Vinegar. Rabbi, Chaim Zet- 
bleman, 157 Rockaway Rd. 



CoMgr. Machsikei Hadath, 175 

Thatford Av«. Orthodox. 
Org. 1890. Membership: 45. 
Seating capacity: 150. Free 
Loan, Cemetery, Study. 
Pres., E. Wachtel. 1938 Pit- 
kin Ave., B'klyn. Sec'y, 
Bliezer Merbaum, 56 Bel- 
mont Ave., B'klyn. 



Machzikei Talmud Torah An- 
shei Kmeth, 217 Corona Ave., 
L. I. Orthodox. Org. 1916. 
Membership: 60. Seating ca- 
pacity: 200. Religious 
School, Sisterhood, Ceme- 
tery. Pres., B. Cannon, 9 
Fairview Ave., L. I. Sec'y, 
Mr. Levinson. Rabbi, Rev. 
Kavetzky, 223 Corona Ave., 
L. I. 



Mapleton Park Hebrew Insti- 
tute, 2024 66th St. Orthodox. 
Org. 1914. Membership: 40. 
Seating capacity: 450. He- 
brew School, Sisterhood. 
Study. Pres., Abraham M. 
Pariser, 6120 19th Ave., 
B'klyn. Sec'y, Edward Mil- 
ler, 1953 65th St., B'klyn. 
Pariser, Abraham M., Pres. 
Mapelton Park Hebrew In- 
stitute (2024 66th St.), since 
1915. Term 1 year. Born 
1882 in N. Y. Graduated 
C. C. N. T. and Law School. 
Lawyer: 51 Chambers St. 
Res.: 6120 19th Ave., B'klyn. 



CONGREGATIONS 



275 



Cong. Men of Justice, 1760 
Park PI. Orthodox. Org. 
1909. Membership: 40. Seat- 
ing capacity: 800. Hebrew 
School, Ladies' Auxiliary, 
Cemetery, Study. Pres., 
Abraham Lestner, 522 Ralph 
Ave., B'klyn. Sec'y, Joseph 
J. Greenberg-, 1561 Park PI., 
B'klyn. 

Lestner, Abraham, Pres. 
Cong-. Men of Justice (1760 
Park PL), since 1915. Term 
6 months. Born 1857 in 
Russia. Came to U. S. 1889. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Dry goods. Res.: 
522 Ralph Ave., B'klyn. 

Cong. Meyer Z'vi, 287 Thatford 
Ave. Orthodox. Org. 1907. 
Membership: 55. Seating 
capacity: 170. Free Loan, 
Cemetery. Pres., Tovia 
Sternberg, 494 H e g e m a n 
Ave., B'klyn. Sec'y, Jacob 
Katz. 

Sternberg, Tovia, Pres. Cong. 
Meyer Z'vl (287 Thatford 
Ave.), since 1907. Term 6 
months. Born 1864 in Aus- 
tria. Came to U. S. 1902. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Retired. Res.: 
494 Hegeman Ave., B'klyn. 

Cong. Mi»hkan Israel, 826 

Cr»«c«nt St., Attorla, L. I. 
Orthodox. Engli»h and Yid- 
dish Sermon. Org. 1904. 
Membership: 60. Seating 
capacity: 200. Sisterhood, 
Cemetery. Pres., Gustave 
Steiner, 596 Jackson Ave., 
Astoria, L. I. Sec'y and 
Rabbi, Henry Wechsler, 826 



Crescent St., Astoria, L. I. 
Steiner, Gustave, Pres. Cong. 
Mishkan Israel (826 Cres- 
cent St., Astoria, L. I.), since 
1912. Term 1 year. Born 
1857 in Austria. Came to 
U. S. 1867. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. 
Liquors. Res.: 596 Jackson 
Ave., Astoria,, L. I. 

Cltevrah Mishnaioth Anshei 
Wohlen, 148 Varet St. Or- 
thodox. Org. 1913. Mem- 
bership: 34. Seating capa- 
city: 250. Cemetery, Study. 
Pres., Moses Zipper, 253 
Wallabout St., B'klyn. Sec'y, 
Abraham Zelig Hecht, 171 
Moore St., B'klyn. 
Zipper, Moses, Pres. Chevrah 
Mishnaioth Anshei Wohlen 
(148 Varet St.), since 1914. 
Term 1 year. Born 1872 in 
Russia. Came to U. S. 1904. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Jobber in bottles. 
Res.: 253 Wallabout St., 
B'klyn. 

Chevrah Mishnaioth of B. N. 

Y., 335 Sheffield Ave. Ortho- 
dox. Org. 1908. Member- 
ship: 60. Seating capacity: 
120. Free Loan, Cemetery. 
Pres., Samuel Solomon, 335 
Sheffield Ave., B'klyn. 

Cong. Mogen Abraham of East 

N. Y., 437 Schenck Ave. Or- 
thodox. Org. 1913. Mem- 
bership: 50. Seating capa- 
city: 275. Sunday School, 
Ladies' Auxiliary, Cemetery, 
Study. Pres., Isidore Zlot- 
chower, 616 Schenck Ave., 



276 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



B'klyn. Sec'y, Osias Glass, 
437 Schenck Ave., B'klyn. 
Zlotcho^ver, Isidore, Pres. 
Cong. Mogen Abraham of 
E. N. Y. (437 Schenck Ave.), 
since 1914. Term 6 months. 
Born 1875 in Austria. Came 
to U. S. 1898. Received 
general Jewish education. 
Insurance. Res. : 6 16 
Schenck Ave., B'klyn. 

(oiift-. Nachlath Israel, 167 

Chester St. Orthodox. Org. 
1905. Membership: 70. Seat- 
ing capacity: 345. Free 
Loan, L a d i e s' Auxiliary, 
Cemetery, Study. Pres., 
Moses Valerstein, 318 Will- 
iams Ave., B'klyn. Sec'y, 
Samuel Lakshin, 169 Ches- 
ter St., B'klyn. 
Valerstein, Moses, Pres. 
Nachlath Israel (169 Ches- 
ter St.), since 1916. Term 6 
months. Born 1852 in Rus- 
sia. Came to U. S. 1891. 
Received general education. 
Contractor. Res.: 318 
Williams Ave., B'klyn. 

Nachlath Jacob Z'vl, 50 Moore 
St. Orthodox. Org. 1917. 
Membership: 150. Cemetery. 
Pres.. Charles Werbelowsky. 
Sec'y, Rev. Leon J. Risikoff, 
50 Moore St., B'klyn. Rabbi, 
Rev., M. C. Risikoff, 48 
Moore St., B'klyn. 

North Side Heb. Cong., 45th 
*St., near Jackson Ave., Cor- 
ona, L. I. Conservative. 
English sermon. Org. 1914. 
Membership: 40. Seating 
capacity: 175. School, Sis- 



terhood. Pres., Samuel Perlo, 
East Elmhurst, L. I. Sec'y, 
Bernard Moss, 318 Stuyve- 
sant Ave., Astoria, L. I. 
Rabbi, Rev. Dr. Feld, 1385 
Madison Ave. 

Perlo, Samuel, Pres. North 
Side Hebrew Cong. (45th St. 
near Jackson Ave., Corona, 
L. I.), since 1914. Term 1 
year. Born 1882 in Russia. 
Came to U. S. 1888. At- 
. tended C. C. N. Y. and N, Y. U. 
Law School. Lawyer: 350 
B'way, Manhattan. Res.: E. 
Elmhurst, L. I. 

Oheb Sholom, 135 Thatford 
Ave. Orthodox. Org. 1890. 
Membership: 200. Seating 
capacity: 1544. Cemetery, 
Study. Pres., Abraham Vol- 
etzky, 80 Amboy St., B'klyn. 
Sec'y, Henry Seinfel, 954 
Eastern P'kway. B'klyn. 
Rabbi, Simon Finkelstein, 
341 Stone Ave., B'klyn. 

Conj?. Oheb Sholom of B'klyn, 

19 Varet St. Orthodox. Org. 
1894. Membership: 140. 
Seating capacity: 700. Cem- 
etery. Pres., Wm. Bernstein, 
23 Stuyvesant Ave., B'klyn. 
Sec'y, Louis Epstein, 134" 
Boerum St., B'klyn. 
Bernstein, William, Pres. 
Cong. Oheb Sholom of 
B'klyn (19 Varet St.), since 
1915. Term 1 year. Born 
1863 in Russia. Came to 
U. S. 1885. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. Junk 
dealer: 105 T h r o'o p Ave., 
B'klyn. Res.: 23 Stuyves- 
ant Ave., B'klyn. 



CONGREGATIONS 



277 



Oheb Sholom Anshei S'phard 
Galicia, 159 Leonard St. Or- 
thodox. Org-. 1892. Member- 
ship: 80. Seating- capacity: 
460. Insurance, Cemetery. 
Pres., Samuel Lamensdorf, 
38 Johnson Ave., B'klyn. 
Sec'y, Mr. Klein, 64 Tomp- 
kins Ave., B'klyn. 
Lamensdorf, Samuel, Pres. 
Oheb Sholom Anshei S'phard 
Galicia (159 Leonard St.), 
since 1916. Term 6 months. 
Born 1872 in Austria. Came 
to U. S. 1890. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. 
Butcher. Res.: 38 Johnson 
Ave., B'klyn. 

Cong. Oheb Zedek, 368 Berri- 
man St. Orthodox. Org. 
1909. Membership: 50. Seat- 
ing capacity: 200. Cemetery. 
Pres., G. Hochfeld, 312 Ber- 
riman St., B'klyn. Sec'y, A. 
Kipnis. 1100 Sutter Ave., 
B'klyn. 

Hoehfeld, G., Pres. Cong. 
Oheb Zedek (368 Berriman 
St.), since 1913. Term 6 
months. Born 1867 in Rus- 
sia. Came to U. S. 1892. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Hat frames. Res.: 
312 Berriman St. 

Cong. Oheb Zedek, 298 How- 
ard Ave. Orthodox. Org. 
1895. Membership: 100. Seat- 
ing capacity: 600. Pres., 
Aaron Braverman, 1733 
President St., B'klyn. Sec'y, 
Chas. Smolen, 1515 St. Johns 
PI., B'klyn. 

Braverman, Aaron, Pres. 
Cong. Oheb Zedek (298 



Howard Ave.); elected 1917. 
Term 1 year. Born 1877 in 
Russia. Came to U. S, 1897. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Salesman. Res.: 
1733 President St., B'klyn. 

Cong. Ohel Abraham, 315 

Hinsdale St. Orthodox. Org. 
1908. Membership: 37. Seat- 
ing capacity: 500. Pres., 
David R. Miller, 523 Alaba- 
ma Ave., B'klyn. Sec'y, Mr. 
Shklor, 522 New Jersey Ave., 
B'klyn. 

Miller, David Rubin, Pres. 
Ohel Abraham (313 Hins- 
dale St.), since 1914. Term 4 
years. Born 1863 in Russia. 
Came to U. S. 1890. Received 
thorough Jewish education. 
Cottons and Woolens: 117 
Hester St. Res.: 523 Alaba- 
ma Ave., B'klyn. 

Cong. Ohel Isaae,' 961 Bergen 

St. Orthodox. English Ser- 
mon. Org. 1905. Member- 
ship: 65. Seating capacity: 
65. Surtday School, Ladies' 
Auxiliary, Cemetery. Pres., 
Marcus Levine, 840 Lincoln 
PI., B'klyn. Sec'y, Bernard 
I. Finkelstein, 1453 Bedford 
Ave., B'klyn. Rabbi, Abra- 
ham Fisher, 961 Bergen St., 
B'klyn. 

Pereyaslaver Cong., 247 Sned- 
iker Ave. Orthodox. Org". 
1912. Membership: 100. 
Seating capacity: 340. Free 
Loan, Study. Pres., Jacob 
Warshavsky, 80 Osborn St., 
B'klyn. Secjy, Charles Zoob 
296 Berriman St., B'klyn. 



578 



COMMUNAL REGISTEK 



Warshuvsky, Jacob, Pres. 
Pereyaslaver Cong. (247 
Snedlker Ave.), since 1916. 
Term 1 year. Born 1863 In 
Russia. Came to U. S. 1906. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Bookbinder and 
paper dealer. Res.: 80 Os- 
born St., B'klyn. 

Temple Petach Tikwah, Roch- 
ester Ave. and Lincoln PI. 
Conservative, English ser- 
mon. Org. 1914. Member- 
ship: 275. Seating capacity: 
1200. Hebrew School, Sister- 
hood, Junior Cong., Ceme- 
tery, Study. Pres., Wm, B. 
Roth, 1133 Eastern Park- 
way, B'klyn. Sec'y, Henry 
Seinfel, 954 Eastern Park- 
way, B'klyn. Rabbi, Israel 
Herbert Levinthal, 1233 
Eastern Parkway, B'klyn. 
Roth, William B., Pres. 
Temple Petach T 1 k w a h 
(Rochester Ave. and Lincoln 
PL), - since 1914. Term 1 
year. Born 1864 in Hungary. 
Came to U. S. 1883. Received 
Jewish education in a 
Yeshibah. Banker: 361 Stone 
Ave., B'klyn. Res.: 1133 
Eastern Parkway, B'klyn. 

Chevrali Poalei Zedek Anshel 
Lomza, 256 Sutter Ave. Or- 
thodox. Org. 1911. Mem- 
bership: 60. Seating capa- 
city: 100. Cemetery. Pres., 
Kiveh Moncheck, 99 Bel- 
mont Ave., B'klyn. Sec'y, 
Isaac Stein, 1498 Pitkin 
Ave., B'klyn. 

Moncheck, Klveh, Pres. 
Chevrah Poalei Zedek An- 



shei Lomza (256 Sutter 
Ave.), since 1914. Term 6 
months. Born 1877 in Rus- 
sia. Came to U. S. 1895. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Dry goods. Res.: 
99 Belmont Ave., B'klyn. 

Chevrah Rabenu Chaim Hasrer 
.Anshel Galicia Bukowina. 

103 Cook St. Orthodox. 
Org. 1906. Membership: 40. 
Seating capacity: 160. Ceme- 
tery, Study. Pres., Baruch 
H a g e r , 320 Hartford St., 
B'klyn. Sec'y, Moses Zigel- 
wax, 209 Siegel St., B'klyn. 
ila^er, Baruch, Pres. Chev- 
rah Rabenu Chaim Hager 
Anshei Galicia Bukowina, 
(103 Cook St.); elected 1917. 
Term 6 months. Born 1882 
in Austria. Came to U. S. 
1897. Received general Jew- 
ish education. Shochet, Res.: 
320 Hartford St., B'klyn. 

Sha'arel Torah, 2252 Bedford 
Ave. Orthodox. Org. 1907. 
Membership: 50. Seating 
capacity: 190. Hebrew 
School, Study. Pres., Arthur 
Lewis, 277 Rugby Rd., 
B'klyn. Sec'y, Nathan B. 
Robbins, 293 Lenox Rd., 
B'klyn. Rabbi, Emanuel 
Hollander. 129 E. 32nd St.. 
B'klyn. 

Levels, Arthur, Pres. 
Sha'arel Torah (2252 Bed- 
ford Ave.), since 1916. Term 
1 year. Born 1882 in U. S. 
Received public school edu- 
cation. Mfgr. shirts: 4S 
Worth St. Res.: 277 Rugby 
Rd., B'klyn. 



CONGREGATIONS 



279 



Cong. S h a ' a r e 1 Tornh of 
B'klyn, 90 Siegel St. Ortho- 
dox. Org. 1898. Member- 
ship: 25. Seating capacity: 
100. Cemetery: Pres., 
Bzeklel J. Degitz, 44 Sumner 
Ave., B'klyn. Sec'y, Jacob 
Friedman, 144 McKlbben St., 
B'klyn. 

Sha'arel T'pfaillata, 51 Watkins 
St. Orthodox. Org-. 1897. 
Membership: 132. . Seating 
capacity: 1000. Cemetery, 
Study. Pres,, Hyman H. 
Miller, 140 Powell St., 
B'klyn. Sec'y, Jacob Sherz, 
41 Osborn St., B'klyn. 

Con J?. Sha'arcl T'phlllali, 8669 
Bay 16th St. Orthodox. Org. 
1910. Membership: 80. Seat- 
ing capacity: 495. Hebrew 
School, Sisterhood, Ceme- 
tery, Study. Pres., Nathan 
Engelhardt, 8693 Bay 15th 
St., B'klyn. Sec'y and Rabbi, 
Joseph Jaffe, 24 Bay 23rd 
St., B'klyn. 

Engelhardt, Nathan, Pres. 
Cong. S h a ' a r e i T'phlllah 
(8669 Bay 16th St.), since 
1916. Term 1 year. Born 
1867 in Austria. Came to 
U. S. 1882. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. Mfgr. 
garters: 125 Canal St. Res.: 
8693 Bay 15th St., B'klyn. 

Cong. Sha'arel T'phillah, Cen- 
tral Ave., near Neilson Ave., 
Far Rockaway, L. I. Ortho- 
dox. Org. 1909. Member- 
ship: 40. Seating capacity: 
450. Sisterhood, Hebrew 
School, Study. Pres., Israel 



Lidz, 133 W. 21st St., N. Y. 
Sec'y, Cecil B. Ruskay, Far 
Rockaway, L. I. Rabbi, B. 
A. Lichter, 1366 Dickens St., 
Far Rockaway, L, I. 



Sha'arei T'phillah of Flushing, 

53 Washington St. Orthodox. 
Org. 1903. Membership: 55. 
Seating capacity: 75. Sister- 
hood. Cemetery, Pres., Jos- 
eph Meltsner, 320 State St., 
B'klyn. Sec'y, Mr. Ellenson, 
153 Main St., B'klyn. 
Meltsner, Joseph, Pres. Sha'- 
arei T'phillah of Flushing 
(53 Washington St.), since 
1912. Term 1 year. Born 
1869 in Russia. Came to 
U. S. 1882. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. 
Mfgr. clothing: 21 Waverly 
PI. Res.: 320 State St., 
B'klyn, 

C h e V r a h Sha'arel T'phlllah 
S'phard Anshel Odessa, 153 

McKibben St. Orthodox. Org. 
1893. Membership: 145. 
Seating capacity: 400. Sick 
Benefit, »Free Loan, Ceme- 
tery, Study, Pres., Max 
Maisel, 249 Vernon Ave., 
B'klyn, Sec'y, Mendel Sharf. 
77 Midelton St,, B'klyn. 
Maisel, Max, Pres. Chevrah 
Sha'arei T'phillah S'phard 
Anshei Odessa (153 McKib- 
ben St.), since 1916. Term 6 
months. Born 1872 in Aus- 
tria. Came to U. S. 1889. 
Received general education. 
Mfgr. shirts: 47 Siegel St., 
B'klyn. Res.: 249 Vornon 
Ave., B'klyn. 



280 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



Sheveth Aohlm Anshel Rat- 
shos Poland, 12 Moore St., 
Orthodox. Org. 1892. Mem- 
bership: 100. Seating capac- 
ity: 150. Sick Benefit, In- 
surance, Free Loan, Bikur 
Cholim, Cemetery. Pres., 
Jacob Barnet, 580 Marcy 
Ave., B'klyn. Sec'y. J. De- 
voro, 850 Flushing- Ave., 
B'klyn. 

Barnet, Jacob, Pres. Sheveth 
Achim Anshei Ratshos Pol- 
and (12 Moore St.), since 
1916. Term 6 months. Born 
1856 in Russia. Came to U. 
S. 1890. Received education 
at Yeshibahs in Poland. 
Children's Jackets: 293 
Wallabout St., B'klyn. Res.: 
580 Marcy Ave., B'klyn. 

Cong*. Shom'rei Kmunah, 52nd 
St. and 14th Ave. Orthodox. 
Org. 1909. Membership: 100. 
Seating capacity: 550. Young 
Folks' Auxiliary, Cemetery, 
Study. Pres., Simon Klotz, 
1266 50th" St., B'klyn. Sec'y, 
Henry Nadelweiss, 5113 14th 
Ave., B'klyn. 

C h e V r a h Shom'rei Hadath, 

1327 41st St. Orthodox. Org. 
1912. Membership: 22. Seat- 
ing capacity: 140. Sister- 
hood, Cemetery, Study. 
Pres., Moses Bloom, 1216 
42nd St., B'klyn. Sec'y, H. 
Shapiro, 4314 15th Ave. 
Bloom, MoMes, Pres. Chevrah 
Shom'rei Hadath (1327 41s.t 
St.), since 1913. Term 1 year. 
Born 1856 In Russia. Came 
to U. S. 1906. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. 



Crockery;^ 4010 13th Ave., 
B'klyn. Res.: 1216 42nd St., 
B'klyn. 

Cons". Sons of Abraham, 726 

Gates Ave. Orthodox. Org. 
190'4. Membership: 60. Seat- 
ing capacity: 600. Ladies' 
Auxiliary, Bikur Cholim, 
Cemetery. Pres., A d o 1 p h 
Haber, 711 Lexington Ave., 
B'klyn. Sec'y, S. Boudner, 
214 Bainbridge St., B'klyn. 
Rabbi, Leo Joachim, 161 
Tompkins Ave., B'klyn. 
Haber, Adolph, Pres. Sons of 
Abraham (726 Gates Ave.), 
since 1916. Term 6 months. 
Born 1877 in Austria. Came 
to U. S. 1895. Received gen- 
eral Jewish and secular 
education. Butter and eggs: 
197 8th Ave., B'klyn. Res.: 
711 Lexington Ave., B'klyn. 

Cong'. Sons of Israel, 10 Hin- 
man St., Middle Village, L. I. 
Orthodox. Org. 1908. Mem- 
bership: 50. Seating ca- 
pacity: 750. Hebrew School. 
Pres., Wm. Kreisberg, 14 
Edison PL, Glendale, L. I. 
Sec'y, Meyer Feldman, 2 
Market St., Middle Village, 
L. I. 

Kreisberg, William, Pres. 
Cong. Sons of Israel (Middle 
Village, L. I.), since 1915. 
Term 6 monthe. Born 1876 
in Russia. Received gener- 
al Jewish and secular edu- 
cation. Painting: 301 W. 
57th St. Res.: 14 Edison 
PL, Glendale, L. I. 

Cong. Sons of Israel, 73 Bay 

22nd St. Orthodox. English 



CONGREGATIONS 



281 



Sermon. Org-. 1897. Mem- 
bership: 170. Seating^ ca- 
pacity: 450. Hebrew School, 
Sisterliood, Cemetery, Study. 
Pres., Henry J. Pasternak, 
70 Bay 22nd St., B'klyn. 
Sec'y, Charles Paston, 168 
State St., B'klyn. Rabbi, 
Samuel Sachs, 216 Bay 23rd 
St., B'klyn. 

Pasternak, Henry J., Preg. 
Cong. Sons of Israel (73 Bay 
22nd St.), since 1912. Term 
1 year. Born 1876 in Hun- 
gary. Came to U. S. 1885. 
Received public school edu- 
cation. Mfgr. waists: 56 W. 
35th St., B'klyn. Res.: 70 
Bay 22nd St., B'klyn. 

Cong:. Sons of Judah, 866 Sut- 
ter Ave. Orthodox. Org-. 
1908. Membership: 60. Seat- 
ing capacity: 450. Malbish 
Arumim, Cemetery, Study. 
Pres., Max Kramer, 2348 
Pitkin Ave., B'klyn. Sec'y, 
Moses Yancovitz, 498 Je- 
rome St., B'klyn. 
Kramer, M a x, Pres. Cong. 
Sons of Judah (866 Sutter 
Ave.), since 1915. Term 6 
months. Born 1878 in Aus- 
tria. Came to U. S. 1895. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Clothing: 127 
Bleecker St. Res.: 2348 Pit- 
kin Ave., B'klyn. 

South B'klyn B'nai Israel B. A. 

153 17th St. Orthodox. Org. 
1912. Membership: 60. Seat- 
ing capacity: 80. Sisterhood, 
Cemetery. Pres., Samuel 
' Singer, 627 7th St., B'klyn. 
Sec'y, M. Goldman, 475 7th 
Ave., B'klyn. 



Singer, Samuel, Pres. South 
Brooklyn B'nai Israel B. A. 
(153 17th St.); elected 1917. 
Term 6 months. Born 1882 
in Russia. Came to U. S. 

1902. Received general Jew- 
ish education. Tailor. Res.: 
627 7th St., B'klyn. 

Beth Hak'nesseth Chevrah 
S'phard Anshei Wohlin, 22 

Sumner PI. Orthodox. Org. 
1907. Membership: 115. 
Seating capacity: 650. Sick 
Benefit, Cemetery, Study. 
Pres., Meyer Roistacher, 92 
Cook St., B'klyn. Sec'y, 
Isaac Morman, 81 Gerry St., 
B'klyn. 

Koistaeher, Meyer, Pres. 
Beth Hak'nesseth Chevrah 
S'phard Anshei Wohlin (22 
Sumner PL), since 1916. 
Term 6 months. Born 1869 
in Russia. Came to U. S. 

1903. Received general edu- 
cation. Res.: 92 Cook St., 
B'klyn. 

Chevrah S'phard Anshei Kra- 
sflev, 31 Manhattan Ave. 
Orthodox. Org. 1901. Mem- 
bership; 125. Seating capa- 
city: 240. Sick Benefit, 
Cemetery. Pres., Charles 
Beresnick, 25 McKibben St., 
B'klyn. Sec'y, Solomon 
Weiss, 35 Graham Ave., 
B'klyn. 

T. T. Mishkan Israel of 
Jamaica, 27 Bendman Ave., 
Jamaica, L. I. Orthodox. Org. 
1914. Membership: 45. Seat- 
ing capacity: 150. Sister- 
hood, B i k u r Cholim Soc, 



282 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



School, Cemetery, Study. 
Pres., Henry Cohn, 107 
Rockaway Road, Jamaica. 
Sec'y, George Jachnowltz. 

Vong. Talmud Torah North 
Side of B'klyn A u a h e i 
Eineth, 326 Keap St. Ortho- 
dox. Org-. 1892. Member- 
ship: 80, Seating capacity: 
400, Cemetery. Pres., Louis 
Grossberg, 136 North 6th St., 
B'klyn. Sec'y, Louis Gold- 
berger, 234 Hewes St., 
B'klyn. 

Grossberg, Louis, Pres. Tal- 
mud Torah North Side of 
B'klyn Anshei Emeth (326 
Keap St.), since 1916, Term 
6 months. Born 1877 In 
Hungary. Came to U. S, 
1892, Received general 
Jewish education. Plumber. 
Res.: 136 N. 6th St., B'klyn. 

Cfrevrah T»hlllim Crown of 
Israel, 256 Thatford Ave., 
B'klyn. Orthodox, Org. 1891. 
Membership: 4 7 0. Seating 
capacity: 1,450. Free Loan, 
Sisterhood, Cemetery, Study. 
Pres., Harris Avidon, 2095 
Bergen St., B'klyn. Sec'y, 
Abraham Winick, 449 Stone 
Ave., B'klyn. 

ATidon, Harris, Pres. Chev- 
rah T'hillim Crown of Israel 
(256 Thatford Ave.), since 
1913. Term 1 year. Born 
1870 In Russia. Came to 
U. S. 1891. Received general 
Jewish and secular educa- 
tion. Milk Dealer. Res.: 
2095 Bergen St., B'klyn. 

Clievrah T'liilllm and Mlsb- 
naloth of B'lilyn, 165 Varet 



St. Orthodox. Org. 1912. 
Membership: 55. Seating 
capacity: 100. Free Loan, 
Cemetery, Study. Pres., 
Alexander Tanslcy, 132 Cook 
St., B'klyn. Sec'y, Saul 
Shenbron, 128 Cook St., 
B'klyn. 

Tansliy, Alexander, Pres. 
Chevrah T'hillim and Mish- 
naioth of B'klyn (165 .Varet 
St.), since 1915. Term one 
year. Born 1851 in Russia. 
Came to U. S. 1901. Re- 
ceived general Jewish edu- 
cation. Grocer. Res.: 132 
Cook St., B'klyn. 

Chevrah T'hillim Nusach Ash- 
kenaz, 592 Linwood St. Or- 
thodox. Org. 1908. Member- 
ship: 85. Seating capacity: 
250. Free Loan, Cemetery, 
Study. Pres., Morris Binko- 
witz, 4 4 6 Li nV o o d St., 
B'klyn. Sec'y, Mr. Mosesson. 
Blnkowitz, Morris, Pres. 
Chevrah T'hillim N u s a c h 
Ashkenaz (592 Linwood St.), 
since 1915. Term 6 months. 
Born 1875 n Russia. Came 
to U. S. 1890. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. Cot- 
tons: 54 Worth St. Res.: 446 
Linwood St., B'klyn. 

Congr. Tlpliereth B'nai Jacob 
Rabbi Meyer Przemlslauer, 

141 Christopher Ave. Or- 
thodox. Org. 1913. Mem- 
bership: 150. Seating capa- 
city: 500. Free Loan, Cem- 
etery. Pres., Jacob Tapper, 
526 Stone Ave., B'klyn. 
Sec'y, Ash«r Franzblau, 132 
Thatford Ave., B'klyn. 



CONGREGATIONS 



288 



, Tapper, Jaeoh, I'res. Cong. 
Tiphereth B'nai Jacob Rabbi 
Przemislauer (141 Christo- 
pher Ave.), since 1916. Term 
6 months. Born 1866 In 
Austria. Came to U. S. 1896. 
Received general education. 
Res.: 525 Stone Ave., B'klyn. 

Cong, of Talmud Torah Tiph- 
ereth Israel, 371 Pennsyl- 
vania Ave. Orthodox. Org. 
1906. Membership: 200. 
Seating capacity: 650. Free 
Loan, Religious School, Sis- 
terhood, Boys' Cong., Ceme- 
tery, Study, Pres., Barnett 
Jaffe, 377 New Jersey Ave., 
B'klyn. Sec'y, Mr. Tafer- 
sky. Rabbi, Rabinowitz, 
3 9 3 Pennsylvania A ve . , 
B'klyn. 

Tiphereth Israel Coni^., 48 

Cook St. Orthodox. Org. 
1899. Membership: 12. Seat- 
ing capacity: 220. Pres., 
Israel Bordowsky, 48 Cook 
St., B'klyn. 

Cong. Tiphereth Israel, Wil- 
loughby and Throop Aves., 
B'klyn. Orthodox. Org. 1906. 
Membership: 175. Seating 
capacity: 1000. Charity, Hos- 

. pitals, Hebrew Free School, 
Religious School, Cemetery, 
Study. Pres., Morris Rosen- 
feld, 309 Van Buren St., 
B'klyn. Sec'y, Nathan 
Rabii-owitz, 810 Greene Ave., 
B'klyn. 

Tiphereth Israel Anshel 
Brownsville, 93 Rockaway 
Ave.' Orthodox. Org. 1916. 



Membership: 40. Seating 

capacity: 200. Cemetery. 
Pres., Jacob Minerfeld, 210 
Douglas St., B'klyn. Sec'y, 
Samuel Farber, 164 Thatford 
Ave.,. B'klyn. 

Cong. Tiphereth Israel of Aus- 
tria, 25 Siegel St. Orthodox. 
Org. 1900. Membership: 40. 
Seating capacity: 200. Ceme- 
tery, Study. Pres., Harry 
Balser, 186 McKibben St., 
B'klyn. Sec'y, Kisriel Lip- 
shitz, 81 Bartlett St., B'klyn. 
Balser, Harry, Pres. Cong. 
Tiphereth Israel of Austria 
(25 Siegel St.), since 1915. 
Term 6 months. Born 1882 
in Austria. Came to U. S. 
1902. Received general Jew- 
ish and secular education. 
Insurance. Res.: 186 Mc- 
Kibben St., B'klyn. 

Cong. Tiphereth Israel of So. 
B'klyn, 385 14th St. Ortho- 
dox. Org. 1899. Member- 
ship: 52. Seating capacity: 
340. Cemetery. Pres., Samuel 
Schulman, '442 15th St., 
B'klyn. Sec'y, Ben Zion 
Dickerstein, 397 14th St., 
B'klyn. 

Schulman, Samuel, Pres. 
Cong. Tiphereth Israel of 
So. Brooklyn (385 14th St.), 
elected 1917. Term 1 year. 
Born 1881 in Russia. Came 
to U. S. 1881. Received 
high school education. 
Merchant: 89 E. Broadway. 
Res.: 442 15th St., B'klyn. 

Cong, of Tiphereth Zlon Tal- 
mud Torah, 1887 Prospect 



284 



COMMUNxYL REGISTER 



PI. Orthodox. Org". 1907. 
Membership: 250. Seating 
capacity: 500. Hebrew 
School, Ladies' Auxiliary, 
Study. Pres., Joseph Kop- 
lovitz, 1873 Prospect PL, 
B'klyn. Sec'y, Alexander 
Hoffman, 1827 Prospect PI., 
B'klyn. 

C h e V r a h Tomchei Zedakah, 

503 Jerome St. Orthodox. 
Org-. 1915. Membership: 70. 
Seating capacity: 200. Ceme- 
tery. Pres., A. Nathanson, 
511 Jerome St., B'klyn. Sec'y, 
I. Schechter, 912 Blake Ave., 
B'klyn. 

Nathanson, A., Pres. Chevrah 
Tomchei Zedakah (503 
Jerome St.), since 1915. 
Term 6 months. Born 1864 
in Russia. Came to U. S. 
1892. Received general Jew- 
ish education. Clothing. 
Res.: 511 Jerome St., B'klyn. 

Cong. of Yeshibath Beth 
Yabneh, 409 Blake Ave. 
Orthodox. Org. 1916. Mem- 
bership: 30. Seating capac- 
ity: 100. Study. Pres., 
Louis Fiterstein, 482 Powell 
St., B'klyn. Sec'y, Philip 
Brody, 400 Christopher Ave., 
B'klyn. 

Fiterstein, Louis, Pres. 
Yeshibath Beth Yabneh 
(409 Blake Ave.), elected 
1917. Term 6 months. Born 
1877. Rceived general 
Jewish education. Retired. 
Res.: 482 Powell St., 
B'klyn. 

Conj;?. of Yeshibath Hagaon 
Rabbi Elijah, 297 Saratoga 



Ave. Orthodox. Org. 1916. 
Membership: '40. Seating 
capacity : 100. Ladies' 
Auxiliary, Study. -Pres., 
Isaac Rabhan, 1432 St. 
Marks Ave., B'klyn. Sec'y, 
Aaron Cantor, 297 Saratoga 
Ave., B'klyn. 

Zemach Zedeli, 125 Moore St. 
Orthodox. Org. 1887. Mem- 
bership: 200. Seating ca- 
pacity: 1500. Bikur Cholim, 
Cemetery, Study. Pres., Isi- 
dore Keepnees, 130 Moore 
St., B'klyn. Sec'y, E. Shef- 
tal, 75 Morrell St., B'klyn. 
Rabbi, Moses Raphael Posen, 
72 Graham Ave., B'klyn. 

Keepnees, Isidore, Pres. 
Cong-. Zemach Zedek (125 
Moore St.), since 1916. Term 
1 year. Born 1873 in Rus- 
sia. Came to U. S. 1898. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Butcher. Res.: 
130 Moore St., B'klyn. 

Zembiner Cong., 392 Watkins 
St. Orthodox. Org. 1908. 
Membership: 20. Seating 
capacity: 200. Free Loan, 
Sick Benefit, Cemetery. 
Pres., Barnett Klonsky, 362 
Watkins St., B'klyn. Sec'y, 
Samuel Kronick, 391 Powell 
St., B'klyn. 

Klonsky, Barnett, Pres. 
Zembiner Cong. (392 Wat- 
kins St.), since 1916. Term 
6 months. Born 1872 in 
Russia. Came to U. S. 1903. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Tailor. Res.: 362 
Watkins St., B'klyn. 



CONGREGATIONS 



285 



/itomirer Chevrah, 522 Blake 
Ave. Orthodox. Org. 1914. 
Membership: 75. Seating- 
capacity: 100. Ladies' Auxil- 
iary, Bikur Cholim, Ceme- 
tery. Pres., Harry Sollner, 
341 Bristol St., B'klyn. Sec'y, 
Menashe Karaan, 444 Rock- 
away Ave., B'klyn. 
Sollner, Harry, Pres. Zito- 
mirer Chevrah (522 Blake 
Ave.), since 1916. Term 6 



months. Born 18S8 in Rus- 
sia. Came to U. S. 1905. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Seltzer Mfgr. 
Res.: 341 Bristol St., B'klyn. 

Zlphrah Zered Cong., 13 Cook 
St. Orthodox. Organized 
1913. Seating capacity: 200. 
Pres., Charles Hirsch, 561 
Bus h wick Ave., B'klyn. 
Sec'y, Isaac Chauss, 126 
Boerum St. B'klyn. 



ADEQUATE IINFORMATION IS LACKING ON THE 
FOLIiOWING SYNAGOGUES: 



Adath Israel of Brownsville, 

1784 Pitkin Ave. 



Cong. Eliezer of E. N. Y., 133 

Hinsdale St. 



Congr. Anshei Chesed of Temple Israel, 10 So. Fairview 

B'klyn, 63 Herzl St. Ave., Rockaway Beach. 



Cong. Beth Abraham, 776 Cong:. Jamaica Synagogue, 30 



Howard Ave. 

Beth Elohim Cong., 274 Keap 

St. 

Beth Hak'nesseth Shel Noach 
Levy, 366 Hudson Ave. 

Cong. Beth Jacob, 276 Reid 
Ave. 

Bikur Cholim, 91 Wyona St. 

Cong. Bikur Cholim, 14 Gra- 
ham Ave. 



North Washington St., Ja- 
maica, L. I. 

Mount Sinai Cong., 305 State 
St. 

Rockaway Beach Cong., Blvd. 
and Dodges St. 

Shaarei Zedek (Gates of Right- 
eousness), 765 Putnam Ave 



Cong. Sheveth Achim Anshei 
Retchones, 307 Wallabout 

St. 



RFJiTGlOlIS FTTNCTIONARTKS 287 

\ AAD llOKx\BBON131 OF NEW VORK 

(Board of Ortiiodox llabbis) 

By Rabbi J. Eskolsky, Secretary 

The Vaad Horabbonim, or Board of Orthodox Rabbis, 
was organized under the auspices of the Kehillah of 
Xew York, in 1911. The intolerable conditions which 
prevailed in the religious life of New York Jewry made 
the organization of this Board imperative. The most 
vexing problem of all was that of the rabbinate. Who 
may perform the functions of rabbi and who may not? 
Is it sufficient for one to be engaged by a congregation 
and dubbed "Reverend"? Or is it necessary to receive 
the authorization (Hatorath Horooh) of some leading 
Jewish rabbi? There was no authoritative body to lay 
down the rule or to enforce it. The Vaad Ilorabbonim 
was organized to supply this communal deficiency. 

The first ten members of the Board were chosen by 
the Kehillah from among the recognized and well known 
rabbis in New York City. These were authorized to aug- 
ment the membership of the Board and accordingly they 
invited the cooperation of twenty other rabbis, all of 
whom were attached to well known congregations and 
had rabbinical authorization from the recognized rabbis 
of the old world. The membership of the Board is now 
increased to forty-one ; all of them admittedly competent 
to decide questions of ritual (Shaalos) and all other 
matters pertaining to religious conduct. 



288 COMMUNAL REGISTER 

Since its organization, the Board carried on a many- 
sided activity. Primarily it attempted to regulate Kash- 
ruth, the Rabbinate, Marriage and Divorce, Jewish Edu- 
cation and all other matters which were within the tra- 
ditional jurisdiction of the rabbi. At the same time, the 
Board did not neglect to make its voice heard concerning 
man}^ of the social and philanthropic problems of New 
York Jewry. A cursory review of these activities will 
show to what extent the Jews of this city needed the 
services of this Board. 

1. Kashruth. The Committee on Kashruth, appointed 
by the Board, divided the city into several districts. The 
rabbis of each district were urged to bring all matters of 
Kashruth under their control. 

The chicken markets were put under special supervi- 
sion, the supervisors taking care that every market 
should have its full quota of properly authorized slaugh- 
terers. Care was also taken that slaughtering should not 
begin before nightfall on Saturdays and on holidays, a 
pernicious practice that had prevailed for many years. 

Supervisors (Mashgichim) were also detailed to watch 
the butcher shops, to make sure that the butcher was 
buying kosher meat, that he removed the parts of the 
animal forbidden to Jews (Nikur) and that the meat was 
properly rinsed (Hadocho). This phase of the work, 
essential as it was, was afterwards relinquished because 
of lack of funds to defray the cost of supervision. 

The supervision of this committee also extended to the 
slaughter-houses where Gassos and Dakos (beef and veal) 
are slaughtered for the Jewish trade, and it took a de- 



RELIGIOUS FUNCTIONARIES 289 

cided stand against a number of rabbis who were ready to 
countenance a certain amount of levity in Nikur. 

The committee also watched that the unleavened 
bread, the wine and liquors, as well as all other food 
articles used for Passover shall be free from any sus- 
picion of "Chometz" or leaven, requiring that every 
article marketed shall have the '^Hechscher" of a recog- 
nized rabbi. 

The committee discouraged the use of Esrogim grown 
in the south of the United States, contending that per- 
mission to use them must be preceded by the authoriza- 
tion of competent rabbis, after they will have visited the 
plantations and w^ill have convinced themselves that these 
Errogim are pure and not a ''mongrel breed." 

The Vaad also took a decided stand against the sausage 
factories which pass themselves off as "kosher" without 
submitting to rabbinical supervision. 

Lack of funds hindered the Board, considerably, from 
exercising its full authority in matters of Kashruth. But, 
in spite of this handicap, the Board succeeded in greatly 
ameliorating the Kashruth situation. 

2. Marriuge and Divorce. The Board insistently cau- 
tioned the Jews of New York City against the granting 
of divorce decrees by self-styled and incompetent rabbis. 
It was reiterated most emphatically that such decrees 
were invalid, and hence a menace to the Jewish marital 
relationship. The effect of this propaganda ultimately 
began to make itself felt, and today very few divorce 
decrees are issued by the unauthorized and uninitiated. 

3. Jeivish Education. Looking upon Jewish Education 
from its purely religious aspect, the Board deemed it its 



1^90 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



duty to take an active interest in all matters pertaining 
to the religious training of our young. It encouraged the 
old Talmud Torahs and assisted in the organization of 
new ones. The assistance was rendered primarily through 
urgent appeals in the pulpit calling for the support of 
the Talmud Torahs, Yeshiboth and Jewish Kinder- 
gartens. 

The attitude of the Board on educational matters led 
it to a disagreement with some of the methods of the 
Bureau of Education, which was then still under the 
auspices of the Kehillah. The Board contended that the 
session, or time allowed for daily instruction, by the 
Bureau, for the schools affiliated with it, was entirely 
insufficient for effective religious training. The contro- 
versy ultimately led to the separation of the Vaad 
Horabbonim from the Kehillah, and ever since, it has 
been working independently. 

The Board opposed the Gary System for the Public 
Schools of New York and also registered its protest 
against the policy of the National Radical Schools for 
making Yiddish, instead of Hebrew, the main subject of 
instruction. 

4. War Belief for Rahhis. The Board organized the 
^'Ezrath Tor ah Fund" for alleviating the condition of 
Rabbis and all other religious functionaries of the old 
world who were affected by the ravages of the war. Fifty 
thousand dollars were raised for this fund and additional 
ninety-four thousand were secured for the same purpose 
from the War Relief Committees. 

Aid and assistance is also extended to the noted char- 
itable and educational institutions of Europe and Pales- 



KELIGIOUS FUNCTIONARIES 291 

line, aud the Board is always ready to oooperatc with the 
emissaries of these institutions who come to collect funds 
III this country. 

From the above it will easily be seen that the main 
purpose of the Vaad Horabbonim is the perpetuation of 
traditional Judaism in this country. The Board is con- 
vinced that this can be achieved only when the various 
activities inaugurated by it will reach a higher degree 
of efificiency and thoroughness. Needless to say that the 
sympathies of the Board are wide enough to include in 
its programme not only the regulation of purely religious 
affairs, but all other matters which pertain to Judaism 
and to the welfare of the Jewish people. Thus, the Board 
is ready to assist with all its might in the restoration of 
the Jewish people to its historic homeland and to enlist 
the Orthodox congregations in behalf of this great ideal. 
The Board considers it also advisable that a committee 
of prominent Jews shall cooperate with the rabbis to 
bring about the necessary improvements in our religious 
affairs, and also to take care that the rabbis should be 
properly provided for and not be continually exposed to 
a hazardous and insufficient income. 



292 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



Board of Orthodox Rabbis of New York 
(Va'ad Horabbonim) 

256 East Broadway 

OFFICERS: Pres., Rabbi Benjamin Baruch Guth, 103 
Avenue A. Sec'y, Rabbi J. Eskolsky, 256 East Broadway. 
Established and incorporated 1901. Membership 40. 

Guth, Benjamin Baruch, Pres. Board of Orthodox Rabbis 
of N. Y. (256 E. B'way), since 1916. Term 6 months. Born 
1856 in Hungary. Came to U. S. 1898. Received education 
at Yeshibah and Gymnasium. Rabbi. Res.: 103 Avenue A. 



Members of Va'ad Horabbonim 



Aranowitz, Benjamin, 9 Mont- 
gomery St. 

Chanowitx, Zalmau, S 1 E. 

110th St. 

Cohen, Baruch, 68 W. 116 th St. 
Cohen, B., 124 Monroe St. 

Dicksteln, Reuben, 155 E. 

B'way. 

Eskolsky, Jacob, 256 E. B'way. 
Frankel, David, 349 E. 4th St. 



Finkelstein, I. 

Ave., B'klyn. 



36 Thatford 



Fried, Joseph, 17 W. 115 th St. 

Friedman, Pinchvs, 56 Lewis 
St. 



Galant, Abraham, 508 E. 140th 

St. 



Gerstenfield, A. 

St. 



11 Columbia 



Gliek, Samuel, 530 E. 125th St. 

Goldberg-, A. J., 8978 21st Ave., 
B'lilyn. 

Gordon, Aaron, 139 Henry St. 

Guth, Benjamin B., 103 Ave. A. 

Guxi^, Mendel, 251 E. B'way. 

llirshowitz, A., 41st St. and 
12th Ave., B'l<;lyn. 

Inselbruch, E^lias, 171 Vernon 
St., B'lclyn. 



[Maacson, 

B'klyn. 



582 Hinsdale St., 



RELIGIOUS FUNCTIONARIES 



293 



JafTe, Solomon C, 207 East 
Broadway. 

Kamareek, Salkl, 118 Colum- 
bia St. 

Klein, Barueh Meyer, 313 E. 

71st St. 

Klein, Philip, 137 W. 119th St. 
Latz, J., 90 Orchard St. 

Lehrman, Abraham, 133 W. 

140th St. 

Margrolis, M. S., 1225 Madison 
Ave. 

Pfefer, Altar Shmul, 112 Ave- 
nue C. 



RabinowitK, Moses Chaim, 19S 

Thatford Ave. 

Risikof, Mendel, 48 Moore St., 
B'klyn. 

Sax, Jehuda, 160 E. B'way. 

Schneir, A., 97 Attorney St. 

Sherman, Moses, 26 W. 113th 
St. 

Tamashof, Moses, 630 Stone 
Ave., B'klyn. 

Weiner, Raphael, 1589 Wash- 
ington Ave. 

Weisblum, Lipa, 342 E. 3d St. 

Weiss, Isaae, 249 E. 2nd St. 



Port, Moses J., 1 Windsor PI., 
B'klyn. 



WendraTvsky, Isaac, 312 Madi- 
son St. 



294 COMMUNAL REGISTER 



THE NEW YORK BOARD OF JEWISH 
MINISTERS 

By Rev. Dr. D. de Sola Pool, Former President 

In 1881, Gustav Gottheil (Emanu-El), Adolph 
Huebsch (Ahavath Chesed), Henry S. Jacobs (B'nai 
Jeshurun), Kaufmann Kohler (Beth El), F. de Sola 
Mendes (Shaaray Tefila) and H. Pereira Mendes 
(Shearith Israel) organized the New York Board of 
Jewish Ministers. Henry S. Jacobs was its President 
until his death in 1893. Subsequent Presidents have 
been Kaufmann Kohler, H. Pereira Mendes, 1904 
Joseph Silverman, 1906; F. de Sola Mendes, 1908 
Maurice H. Harris, 1910; Bernard Drachman, 1912 
Rudolph Grossman, 1914, and D. de Sola Pool, 1916. 
Membership is open to qualified, recognized Rabbis of 
Greater New York' and its vicinity. 

The functions of the Board from the first have been 
three-fold : 

1. The Consideration of Communal Interests. From 
the Board's deliberations and activities have sprung the 
Hebrew Institute, reorganized in 1893 under the name 
of the Educational Alliance; the People's Synagogue, of 
which the Emanuel Brotherhood is an offshoot; the 
Prisoners' Aid Society, now merged in the Jewish Pro- 
tectory; the Hebrew Free School, etc. More than two 
years before the New York Kehillah was organized, the 
Board advocated the formation of an organized local 
Jewish Community. The first impetus towards real Jew- 



RELIGIOUS FUNCTIONARIES 295 

isli care of the Jewish deaf-mutes came from the Board, 
and its records show that it is the intellectual father of a 
number of other communal movements and organizations 
of importance. 

It has consistently called for observance of the dietary 
laws in residential institutions, and adequate religious 
instruction and religious services in child-caring institu- 
tions. Many communal institutions have become mark- 
edly more Jewish under the urgings of the Board. The 
Board has cooperated with communal movements and 
organizations, supplying them with preachers and lec- 
turers and supporting their work in the pulpit and by 
other service. 

The Board has stood like a watchman in the com- 
munity. It has tried in various ways to offset Christian 
missionary activity. Again and again it has opposed 
Easter and Christmas celebrations and sectarian exer- 
cises in the Public Schools. It hats taken action to elimi- 
nate the study of the Merchant of Venice from the public 
school curriculum. It has fought proposed blue laws and 
pleaded in Albany for more liberal Sabbath legislation. 
It has negotiated with Colleges and Universities to avoid 
having examinations set on Jewish holy-days. In the 
general community it has helped the fight to suppress 
horse racing, improper dance halls, intemperance, the 
social evil, tuberculosis, etc., and has supported the ac- 
tivities of liberal immigration societies, child-welfare 
boards, etc., etc. 

2. The Discussion of Practical, Theological and Bitvxil 
Questions. In such problems as those of Get, Chalitza, 
Intermarriage, Conversion, Jewish Laws of Hygiene, 



296 COMMUNAL REGISTER 

Religious School Methods, Funeral Customs, Cemetery 
Decorum, Jewish Criminality, Big Brother Work, Labor 
and the Synagogue, the Unsynagogued, etc., the Board 
has given guidance to the community. It has published 
The Door of Hope, a manual of prayers and devotional 
readings upon visiting the cemetery, Sabbath Pleadings, 
eleven sermons on Sabbath observance, and from the 
papers read at its meetings, a volume was published in 
1916 containing those on Jewish Eugenics by Max 
Reichler, The Defective in Jewish Literature, by Joel 
Blau, and Capital Punishment Among the Jews, by D. 
de Sola Pool. Many sessions have been addressed by 
distinguished visiting scholars. 

3. Social. The spirit of fraternal cooperation among 
the Rabbis of the city has been actively promoted by the 
Board, both in the professional work and in the personal 
life of the members. It has made it possible for them to 
cooperate as an organized unit with other Rabbinical 
associations, both in the United States and abroad, and 
also with clergymen of other faiths. Within the limits 
of its resources, the Board gives unobtrusive help to 
superannuated colleagues, and ministers in temporary 
difficulties. 

The Board is active today in all these directions, with 
the increased influence of weight of numbers and repre- 
sentative character, the original membership of six being 
increased ten-fold. At the beginning, the chief practical 
work done was the arranging of a quota of members of 
the Board to visit Mt. Sinai-Hospital. This work has 
grown until today Jewish religious work is done in prac- 
tically all the public hospitals and asylums of Greater 



RELIGIOUS FUNCTIONARIES 297 

New York and in many in New York State. At the Sea 
View Tuberculosis Hospital the Board supports a Jewish 
Social Service nurse. Services are held wherever possible, 
prayer books are supplied and the Jewish festivals and 
holy-days are observed. In many cases, especially in the 
case of the institutions outside of New York City, the 
Chaplains act as the sole link between the patient in the 
institution and the family in the city, bringing messages 
of cheer from one to the other and bearing gifts of com- 
fort to the patient, caring for the family that may be in 
want, or taking measures to prevent the spread of disease 
in the family. A large measure of social service supple- 
ments the visits to the institutions. In innumerable cases 
the Chaplain is specially called to the bedside of a suf- 
ferer or a dying patient, to give the consolation of relig- 
ion, and numberless acts of true charity are done for the 
sick, the afflicted, the dying or the dead. Until recent 
years, the community as a whole has not been alive to the 
growing problem of this work, so that the Board has had 
to grapple with it with altogether inadequate resources. 
Increased support for which the Board appeals will en- 
able the work to be so thoroiighly organized, that the 
message of brotherhood, love and religion will be brought 
to every hospital and asylum in the city and state where 
there is a .Jewish sufferer. 

The Board holds the unique position of a non-partisan 
organization, comprising representatives of Reform, Con- 
servation and Orthodoxy, working in harmony and 
united in the higher synthesis of Judaism. For this 
reason the Board has become the representative Rab- 
binical organization of Greater New York, and to it both 



298 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



Jewish and non-Jewish organizations tilrn when they 
desire cooperation of the Synagogues. Since the begin- 
ning of the war, patriotic, philanthropic and civic bodies, 
the Mayor 's office and the Federal government have been 
steadil}^ calling. upon the Board for co-operation. It is 
today the authoritative representative of the synagogue, 
both within and without the Jewish community. 



New York Board of JeAvish Ministers 

OFFICERS: Pres., Dr. I. S. Moses, 219 W. 81st St. Sec'y, 
Nathan Stera, 201 W. 79th St. Established and incorpor- 
ated 1881. Membership 52. 

"Meets monthly at Temple Emanuel for exchange of 
views. Takes up all matters of interest to Rabbis. Chief 
activity is organization and conduct of Jewish chaplain work 
in the hospitals and asylums of Greater New York. Sends 
religious visitors to the public hospitals and asylums, and 
supports a Jewish social service nurse in Seaview Hospital 
in conjunction with the Eastern Council of Reform Rabbis. 
Has issued a Mourner's book of comfort and a collection of 
essays. Membership open to orthodox and reform Rabbis 
alike. 



Members of the N. Y. Board of Je^ivish Ministers 



Auspacher, A. S., 561 W. 163d Davidson, David, 281 Edge- 
St. 

Blechman^ Nathan, 4 E. 119th 
St. 

Blum, Abraham, 596 Riverside 
Drive. 

Cohen, Simon R., 1491 Presi- 
dent St., B'klyn 

Cronbach, A., 223 E. 12th St. 



combe Ave. 

Drachman, Bernard, 128 W. 

121st St. 

E^lseman, Aaron, 611 E. 156th 

St. 

Elxam, Barnett A., 42 W. 72nd 
St. 



RELIGIOUS FUNCTIONARIES 



299 



fcluelow, H. G., 895 West End 
Ave. 



Levy, Clifton Harby, 2001 
Morris Ave. 



Friedlander, M., 10 Prospect 
Park, S. W., B'klyn. 



Lewis, Harry S., 616 W. 184th 
St. 



Frlseh, Ephralm, 400 W. 118th 
St 

Garfinkle, Joseph I., 215 Union 
Ave., Mt. Vernon, N. Y. 



Llchter, Benjamin, Far Rock- 
away, L. I. 

Llssman, Edward, 1887 7 th 

Ave. 



Goldstein, Herbert S., 9 E. Llpkinjd, G., 318 W. 113th St. 
97th St. t 

Goldstein, Jacob, 78 W. 85th 
St. 

Goldstein, Sidney E., 3G W. 

68th St. 

Greenfield, Samuel, 241 W. 

113th St. 

Grossman, Rudolph, 1347 Lex- 
ington Ave. 



Harris, Maurice H. 

103d St. 



254 W. 



Hyamson, M., 115 E. 95th St. 
Kohn, Jacob, 235 V\^. 110th St. 



Lowenstein, G., 540 W. 165tb 
St. 

Lyons, Alexander, 5'40 W. 
165th St. 

Magnes, J. L., 356 2nd Ave. 

Margolls, Ellas, 601 W. 162nd 
St. 

Mendes, F. de Sola, 154 W. 

82nd St. 

Mendes, H. Perelra, 99 Cen- 
tral Park West. 

iMinkln, Jacob S., 5 W. 104th 
St. 



Kopfsteln, Meyer, 1360 Boston 
Road. 



Moses, Isaac S., 219 W. 81st 
St. 



Landman, Isaac, 1380 Cedar 
Ave., Far Rockaway, L. I. 



Pool, D, de Sola, 102 W. 75th 
St. 



Levlnson, S. J., 671 Westmin- 
ster Rd., B'klyn. 



Reichert, Isidore, 535 W. 148th 
St. 



Levinthal, Israel H., 1075 

Eastern Parkway, B'klyn. 



Relchler, Max, 860 E. lOlst 
St. 



300 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



Robisout Aaron G., Y.M.H.A-, 
92nd St. & Lexington Ave. 



Spear, Joseph D., 129 E. 105th 

St. 



Schreiber, E., 470 W. 166th St. 

Schulman, G., 15 Pier St., 
Yonkers, N. Y. 

Schwartz, Jacob D., 18 E. 41st 
St. 

Sllberfeld, Julius, 148 Hunter- 
don St., Newark, N. J. 

Silverman, Joseph, 45 E. 75th 
St. 

Solomon, Ellas M., 631 E. 

168th St. 



Spiegrel, Adolph, 47 W. 119th 

St. 

Stem, Nathan, 201 W. 79th St. 

Tarlau, Jacob, 530 W. 153rd 
St. 

Tintner, B. A., 840 West End 
Ave. 

AVlse, Stephen S., 23 W. 90th 
St. 

Zlnsler, L., 77 W. 128th St. 



RELIGIOUS FUNCTIONARIES 301 

THE CANTORS AND THEIR PROBLEM 

By Rev. N. Abramson 
President^ Jewish Cantors' Association 

The problem of the cantor or professional chazan may 
be summed up under three heads : the trial performance, 
the short-term contract and the congregational politician. 
These are the three evils which beset the path of the 
cantor and their baneful influence is not only the cause 
of his dejection and humiliation, but also very often the 
cause of his degradation. It must be borne in mind that 
the cantor combines both the artist and the religious 
functionary and that the ill-treatment to which he is 
often subjected not only debases his art, but also degrades 
his communal dignity. 

The trial performance, in its last analysis, is nothing 
else but a kind of petty graft indulged in by many of 
the congregations at the expense of the cantor. A con- 
gregation has a vacancy to fill. Naturally, it will not 
engage a cantor without hearing him first. The cantor 
does not receive any remuneration for the trial service. 
The congregation has lost nothing and consequently is in 
no hurry to consummate the bargain. The following 
Saturday another cantor is heard, on trial, and the pro- 
cess is repeated for many weeks. This means virtually a 
saving in salary, which the congregation would have had 
to pay to an engaged cantor. Taken in its entirety, the 
profession thus loses thousands of dollars annually. 

The remedy is very simple : it is the duty of the cantor 
to insist on payment for the trial service. This would, in 



302 COMMUNAL REGISTER 

the first place, accelerate engagements, and in the second 
place, do away with the other evil mentioned above, the 
short-term contract of which I shall speak presently. 

Among the many time-honored traditions of the Jewry 
of the old world, the relationship of the Jewish commun- 
ity to its chazan was surely one most worthy of emula- 
tion. The chazan was almost always a highly respected 
member of the community and always took his seat 
among the learned and pious of the town. Once he was 
given his contract and his name was entered in the 
''Pinkus," he retained his position for life. Moreover, 
his widow received a pension after his death and if his 
son happened to be qualified for the sacred office, he had 
the **Chazakah" or first claim to his father's place. 

To the great regret of those in the profession, this 
beautiful tradition was discontinued in the new world, 
and the dismissal of a cantor from his congregation is no 
more thought of than the discharging of an operative 
from a tailor shop. The short-term contract is now the 
custom in almost all of the orthodox congregations, and 
the cantor never knows when he will be compelled to 
fold his tent and start out once more on the vicious round 
of trial performances, endless negotiations, bickerings 
with congregational officials and the humiliating manoeu- 
vres for procuring a new *'job". 

The most influential factor in maintaining the onerous 
custom of the short-term contract is the congregational 
politician, or as he is more popularly known, the **kohl- 
sher macher". Generally he is the flunky of the all- 
powerful president and uses his influence for personal 
aggrandizement. He is not very discriminating. He prof- 



RELIGIOUS FUNCTIONARIES 303 

its from all congregational transactions, whether it is the 
engagement of a rabbi or the renovating of the vestry 
rooms. This man is the, deadly enemy of the cantor. He 
takes care that the cantor shall not gain too many ad- 
mirers in the congregation, because this may lead to a 
renewal of the contract, without his benign intercession. 
His weapons are those of guarded slander and petty 
persecution. And he persists in them till he dislodges his 
man and then starts the game all over again with the 
new incumbent. 

Sometimes the congregational politician is replaced by 
the congregation itself. In this case, the money is not 
exacted for personal use. As a rule it is asked for the 
purpose of defraying the costs of some particularly heavy 
expenditure of the synagogue ; the paying off of part of 
the principal on the mortgage or the repairing of the 
edifice. In other words, the congregation makes the un- 
fortunate candidate meet a liability which the members 
assume and are unwilling to face. 

The Jewish Cantors' Association, which was organized 
about fifteen years ago, has been striving hard to do 
away with all these evils. It insists, in the first place, 
that its members demand payment for trial services and 
fortunately it has found willing ears, at least, among the 
more prominent and self-respecting members of the pro- 
fession. The Association is also ready to act as inter- 
mediary between the cantors and the congregations, to 
bring them together for their mutual benefit. The cantor 
would receive better treatment and more advantageous 
terms through the elimination of the congregational 
politician ; the congregation would be guarded against a 



304 COMMUNAL REGISTER 

host of interlopers, whose musieal qualifications, knowl- 
edge of liturgy and religious conduct are below the ac- 
cepted standard. There is no doubt that if the congre- 
gations of this country would avail themselves of the 
services of the Association whenever they have a vacancy 
to fill, that it would ultimately imp?ove the condition of 
the cantor and, incidentally, that of the congregation. 

The project of founding a seminary for the training 
of cantors was fostered for many years by the 
Association. The aim was to supply the needs of 
American Jews by training young men for the profes- 
sion, instead of relying, exclusively, on the ''finished 
product ' ' coming hither from the old world. The project 
ultimately materialized, and a cantors' seminary was 
opened. But the curse that has blighted many a worthy 
undertaking in this community, soon overtook this one 
also. The seminary was closed for lack of funds. 

Naturally this phase of the problem, as well as the 
general situation confronting the cantors of this city, 
must be dealt with from the community point of view. 
A strong cantors' association may accomplish much. The 
solution of the problem, though, rests mainly with the 
community as a whole. Fair treatment for the cantor 
cannot be secured without fair treatment for the rabbi 
or for any of the other religious functionaries. It will 
require a radical change in the mental attitude of the 
community to its public servants. A cantors' seminary 
is in reality the business of the community, surely much 
more so than the business of the cantors themselves. The 
elimination of the congregational politician is also a 
larger piece of work than any individual cantor or group 



I RELIGIOUS FUNCTIONARIES 305 

I of cantors may hope to handle successfully. Only the 
enlightened, well organized community may cope with 
the entire situation successfully, and the coming of such 
a community is the hope and the salvation of the Jewish 
cantor in this city. 



Cantors' Association of America 

77 Delancey Street 

OFFICERS: Pres., Nathan Abramson, 287 Henry St. 
Sec'y, Joseph Salzniaii, 312 E. 72nd St. Established 1897. 
Membership 125. 

Abramson Nathan, Pres. Cantors' Ass'n of America (77 
Delancey St.); elected 1917. Term 1 year. Born 1870 in 
Russia. Came to U. S. 1903. Received thorough Jewish 
education. Cantor: People's Synagogue. Res.: 287 Herny St. 



New York City Members 

Auerbach, Albert, 638 Lafay- Bloom, A., 1146 43rd St., 

ette Ave., B'klyn. B'klyn. 

Abramson, Nathan, 287 Henry Braverman, B., 601 Marcy Ave., 

St. B'klyn. 

Abramson, Norris, 181 East Cantor, A., 297 Saratoga Ave., 

Broadway. B'klyn. 

Baltnch, J., 489 Jerome St., Cantor, N., 1327 44th St., 

B'klyn. B'kli^n. 



Bamel, Joseph, 1453 Madison 
Ave. 



Epros, S., 975 Union Ave. 
Baum, S., 206 E. 79th St. Epstein, D., 1020 Simpson St. 



Berasky, D^ 952 Trinity Ave., Eskowltz, F., 434 Bradford St., 
Bronx. B'klyn. 



306 



COMMUNAL UEGISTER 



Frachtenberg, A. 49 Norfolk 
St. 

Frank, I., 327 Central Park 
West. 

Freedman, S., 204 14th St., 
B'klyn. 

Frohman, J., 161 Clinton St. 

Gangursky, J. L,., 419 Brook 
Ave. 

Glovltz, J., 110 Lenox Ave. 

Goldschmidt, N., 1227 Boston 
Road. 

Graf man, S., 1507 E. P'kway; 

Greenbaum, J. L., 764 Beck St. 

Guinsberg:, S., 19 W. 69th St. 

Hast, B., 237 W. 113th St. 

Hlld, Paul, 324 Convent Ave. 

Hillman, M., 21 W. 111th St. 

Hlrtzon, A., 283 Broome St. 

Jasson, A., 1552 President St., 
B'klyn. 

KartscharmolT, Ed., 9 W. 91st 
St. 

Katzman, S. J., 1445 43d St., 
B'klyn. 

Kalemansky, J., 379 Rodney 
St., B'klyn. 

Klrschnor. 8.. 56 W. 119th St. 



Kleinart, S., 515 W. 147th St. 

Klennor, H., 105 Canal St. 

Krasnoff, P., 233 Chester St., 
B'klyn. 

Laobmanowitz, M., 948 E. 

179th St. 

liCfkowitz, L., 790 Riverside 
Drive. 

Lev, M., 303 Williams Ave., 
B'klyn. 

Leviue, Sam, 128 Amboy St. 

Liml, O., 474 Madison St., 
B'klyn. 

LIpitz, L., 1084 First Ave. 

Lobman, S., 25 School St., 
B'klyn. 

Mandellicey, J., 3 W. 111th St. 

Meltzhof, N. G., 875 W. 180th 
St. 

Millor, L., 2125 Morrell St., 
B'klvn. 

Minsky, R., 18 E. 105th St. 

Neumark, H., 567 W. 149th St. 

Olefsky, D., 253 E. 10th St. 

Ornsteln, A., 615 W. 143d St. 

Oronoff, M., 746 E. 5th St. 

Rablnowltz, M., 73 Orchard St 



RELIGIOUS FUNCTIONARIES 



307 



Rappaport, J., 1178 41st St. 

Richardson, J. M., 770 Jeffer- 
son Ave., B'klyn. 

R o s e 1 1 u, H. A., 58 Shandon 
Ave., Far Rockaway. 

'Rutman, A., Detroit, Michigan. 

Salzberg, M., 28 Pinehurst 
Ave. 

Salzmau, Joseph, 312 E. 72nd 
St. 

Saplrsteln, S., 1986 Douglass 
St., B'klyn. 

.Sarovraysky, M., 536 Hopkin- 
son Ave., B'klyn. 

Savtnick, K., 510 Blake Ave., 
B'klyn. 

Schachtor, M., 252 Thompkins 
Ave., B'klyn. 

Schaen, M., 91 Eldridge St. 

Schaplro, Joseph. 510 W. 147th 
St. 

Schlayer, S., 220 Wadsworth 
Ave. 

Schramesk, Carl, 60 So. Ninth 
St., B'klyn. 



Schrayer, M., 826 Beck St. 

Schrayer, N., 480 E. 179th St. 

*SchTTartz, J., 78 W. 85th St. 

Seldeman, L., 1431 Madison 
Ave. 

Shaffer, M., 324 E. 72nd St. 
Sie^el, M., 107 W. 117th St. 
Silvers, H., 84 Essex St. 

Somersteln, Joseph, 611 E. 6th 

St. 

Slngror, A., 737 Gates Ave., 
B'klyn. 

Sukaenlry, A., 24 E. 99th St. 

Tanuenhau.s, Jos., 234 E. 82nd 
St. 

Wolfberg, M. J., 225 E. 4th St. 

Weisser, S., 204 E. 113th St. 

Wechslor, M. G., 1732 Madison 
Ave. 

Weinman, J.. 221 E. Broadway. 

Wlerson, S., 62 Lovls Ave., 
B'klyn. 



308 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



SHOCHETI3I 

The following is a list of Shochetim who are members of 
the various Associations of Shochetim in New York City, and 
who responded to mail inquiries sent to verify their ad- 
dresses: 



Barruck, I. H., 122 Greenpoint Czalxkes, Berlsch, 492 Grand 



Ave., B'klyn. 



St. 



Bashesovitz, Israel, 142 Char- 
lotte St. 



Glkins, Louis, 102 I^iberty 
Ave., B'klyn. 



Berkowitz, L.., 134 Goerck St., 
c|o Markowitz. 

Berman, Anshel, 108 McKibben 
St., B'klyn. 

Blau, Jacob K., 456 E. 171st St. 

Bloom, Herman D., 975 Flush- 
ing- Ave., B'klyn. 

Blum, Vigdor, 19 Cook St., 
B'klyn. 

Blum, Samuel, 70 Johnson 
Ave., B'klyn. 

Bauner, Harris, 404 E. 8th St. 

Brook, Louis, 105 E. 113th St. 

Cliill, M. H., 79 McKibben St., 
B'klyn. 

Chodos, Philip, 22 E. 103d St. 

Cohen, Abraham, 53 E. 112th 
St. 

Cohen, Ellas, 166 Pulaski St., 
B'klyn. 

Cunin, Mendel, 60 E. 97th St. 



Estersohn, Isaac J., 80 Wil- 
lett St. 



Pabrikant, Samuel, 273 Chris- 
topher Ave., B'klyn. 



Fulman, Abr. B. 

St., B'klyn. 



288 Grand 



Galonsky, Julius, 881 Park 
Ave., B'klyn. 

Goldberg;, Hyman N., 132 El- 

dridg-e St. 

Goldbergr, M. P., 8 E. 117th St. 

Gellls, Fishel, 453 Powell St., 
B'klyn. 



Goldsobel, Ephraii 

St., B'klyn. 



75 Bristol 



Goldstein, Mayer, 179 Herzl 
St., B'klyn. 

Gordon, Samuel, 17-19 Attor- 
ney St. 

Gottschalk, Joseph, 82 Graham 
Ave., B'klyn. 

Grosser, Max, 348 Ellery St., 
B'klyn. 



RELIGIOUS FUNCTIONARIES 



309 



Haibersteiu, Jonas, 216 - 218 Klinetieki, A. L., 26 Attorney 
Bristol St., B'klyn. St. 

Halkower, Wolf, 96 Willett Krugman, Aaron D., 935 Long- 
St. wood Ave. 

Ilalperin, Dotieer, 108 Hopkins Lauer, Louis, 762 Hopkinson 
St., B'klyn. Ave., B'klyn. 

Hein, Hyman, 373 Bristol St., Lebowitz, Jo»., 331 Alabama 
B'klyn. Ave., B'klyn. 

Helfgott, J., 72 Sumner Ave., Lesteh, Joseph D., 250 Division 
B'klyn. St. 

Henkin, Benj., 314 E. 56th St., 

Herman, I. L.., 1556 St. Marks 
Ave., B'klyn. 

Hershman, Aaron L., 85 Sher- 
iff St. 

Hirsoh, Michael, 59 E. 117th 
St. 

Hoffman, E., 48 Christopher 
Ave., B'klyn. 

Horowitz, Harry, 886 Flushing 
Ave., B'klyn. 

Horowitz, Jos. M., 53 E. 117th 
St. 

Horowitz. Morris, 82 Varet St., 
B'klyn. 

Horowitz, Samuel, 274 New 

Lots Rd., B'klyn. 

Itzkowltz, E., 347 Beekman St. 



Levine, Jacob, 317 Livonia 
Ave., B'klyn. 

I.evine, Mandel, 183 Varet St., 
B'klyn. 

IJb.sohn, Samuel, 2045 South- 
ern Boulevard. 

Meltzer, Eli, 14-16 W. 118th St. 

Mender, David, 444 Grand St. 

Meyer, Isaac. 347 E. 10th St. 

Meyerson, Samuel, 226 East 
B'way. 

Moskowttz, Hyman, 52 Colum- 
bia St. 

Myerson, Harris, 54 E. 118th 
St. 

Xathanson, Harry, 1-3 Attoi - 
ney St. 



Jacobs, J., 42 Amboy St., M o r o g r u d s k y, Simon, 266 

B'klyn. Henrv .St. 



Kline, Hyman D., 364 E. 4th Olshou, Sol., 250 Linden St., 
St. B'klyn. 



aio 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



OstrowskT, Uaymau, 2921 W. 
3d St., Coney Island. 



SchlefflteiB, Jacob, 605 Snedi 
ker Ave., B'klyn. 



Uslnskx. Morria, 433 Sackman 
St., B'klyn. 



SchuBBhelm, Samuel I., 746 E. 

6th St. 



Pnuar%'eg, Sam., 244 E. 2nd St. 

Pcarlman, H. P., 121 W. 115th 
St. 



Sechtzer, Jois., 216 E. Houston 
St. 

Seeal, Abraham, 10 E. 103d St. 



FlncuM, Samuel, 381 Sackman 
St., B'klyn. 



Simonovrltz, Bzeklel, 329 E. 

16th St. 



Rablnowlts, BenJ., 699 Wat- 
kins St., B'klyn. 



Shapiro, Kalman, 524 Blake 

Ave., B'klyn. 



RablnowltK, Rer. Lelb, 27 

Slegrel St., B'klyn. 



Shapiro, M. M., cjo Herllng, 37 
Orchard St. 



Robinson, Louis Nathan, 166 

Boerum St., B'klyn. 

Rosen, Chaslcel, 1774 Wash- 
ington Ave. 

Rosen, Joseph, 557 Hackman 
St.. B'klyn. 



Sharpstein, Abraham W., 45 

Monroe St. 

Sherman, Benjamin, 528 Chris- 
topher Ave., B'klyn. 

Sholniclc, Jos., 507 Van Sick- 
len Ave., B'klyn. 



Rosen, Peits, 138 Graham Ave., 
B'klyn. 



Silversteln, Samuel, 338 E. 

Houston St., c|o I. Goldfarb. 



Rosenblatt, Kiva, 806 E. Bth 

St. 



Slutslfiy, Moses A., 26 That- 
ford Ave., B'klyn. 



Rosenman, Shea, 36 Montgrom- 
ery St. 



Sofsol, Raphael, 84 Watkins 
St., B'klyn. 



Salit, Ben. Lelb, 155 So. 4th 
St., B'klyn. 



Solcoloff, Jacob, 225 E. 146th 
St. 



Schechter, Rer. Meyer, 96 Ave- 
nue C. 



Somber, Isidore, 142 21st St. 
B'klyn. 



Sehenlunan, Sam., 2S1 Myrtle 
Ave., B'klyn. 



Steinberg, Hyman, 222 Pulaski 
St., B'klyn. 



RELIGIOUS FUNCTIONARIES 



311 



sitraiiss, DaTld, 359 Madison Wernlck, Aaron, 715 E. 9th 

St. St. 



SUbermanr Alter, 401 Alabama Wexler, Jacob, 536 E. 5th St. 

Ave,. B'klyn. 

Willner, Sam., 58 E. 104th St. 

Wagner, Abraham, 2965 W. 1st 

St., Coney Island. 

Welner, Rev. Israel, 338 Hart 
St., B'klyn. 

Weinlas, P., 103 Hopkins St., 
B'klyn. 



Witkln, Abr. Oscar, 78 Market 
St. 

Wolf, Benjamin, 626 E. 140th 
St. 

Wolfe, Jacob, 1421 Crotona 
Ave. 



W^elsman, Jos., 197 Roebling Zuckerman, Mendel, 810 Davl- 



St, B'klyn. 



son St. 



312 COMMUNAL REGISTER 

A FEW RE31ARKS ON KASHRUTH 

The elements in the Kashrutli. situation are : Rabbonim, 
Shochetim, slaughter-houses, speculators, wholesalers, 
retailers, the purchasing public. 

The problem can be treated under two general head- 
ings: (1) Gassofe and Dakos; and (2) Ofos. 

1. Gassos and Dakos 

All of the meat slaughtered in New York City and 
vicinity, whether for Jewish consumption or not, is 
slaughtered by Shochetim under the supervision of au- 
thoritative Rabbonim. This is done because it pays the 
slaughter-houses and packers. It pays them because, in 
the first place, the kosher parts of the animal are sold to 
the great Jewish consuming public at prices far in excess 
of those which the same parts of the meat bring in non- 
Jewish communities; and, second, because the parts of 
the animal which are not sold to the Jewish public are 
sold at correspondingly higher prices to the non-Jewish 
public, restaurants, hotels, etc. The parts of the meat 
eaten by Jews are not sought after by non-Jews, aiid 
vice versa. Animals slaughtered by Schochetim can 
therefore be sold to both Jews and non-Jews at prices 
higher than these parts bring in non-Jewish communi- 
ties. The kosher aspect of the j)acking and slaughtering 
business is really its verviis rerum. 

This ought to be, as a consequence, a soui'ce of large 
income to the Jewish community. It is, however, a 
source of a great economic and spiritual deficit for the 



RITUAL INSTITUTIONS 313 

Jewish community, and at the same time a source of 
immense profits for packers and slaughter-houses. 

The slaughter-houses and packing establishments in 
New York City and vicinity, are branches of the great 
packing and slaughter-houses of the country. These 
slaughter-houses employ Shochetim, and the Shochetim 
in turn usually choose the Rov who is to be the super- 
viser of the Shochetim. The Rov who is chosen is usually 
a figure-head visiting the slaughter-house only upon oc- 
casion. He chooses another Rov, of minor importance, 
who acts in his place, and is the actual Mashgiach on the 
spot. 

The consequences of this system are varied. In the 
first place, the slaughter-houses are removed by several 
degrees from any direct responsibility to the Jewish 
community. In the second place, the Shochetim em- 
ployed by the slaughter-houses have entrenched them- 
selves, and have formed what is in effect a Shochetim 
trust. It is impossible for any Shochet to be employed 
at a slaughter-house except upon approval of the 
Shochetim themselves. A Shochet or a M'saya, (assis- 
tant) to be employed must have influence of one kind or 
another with the boss Shochet and the other Shochetim, 
and must pay a certain sum for admittance into the 
charmed circle. No new Shochetim or helpers are ad- 
mitted except that it be absolutely impossible to avoid it. 
The circle is kept as small as possible. In fact, the 
Shochetim rule the situation in large measure. If the 
slaughter-house does not comply with their demands, 
they can threaten a strike or retaliation in other ways. 
If the Rabbonim do not satisfy them, the Rabbonim can 



•^14 COMMUNAL REGISTEIR 

be discharged. The packers and slaughterers seem to be 
satisfied with this arrangement. Indeed, the whole policy 
of the slaughterers and of the Shochetim would seem to 
be to keep the Rov in as weak a position as possible. The 
position of the Rov has become so much weakened that 
in some places the chief Shochet acts as the Rov- 
Mashgiach. 

The percentage of the entire operating costs expended 
by the slaughter-houses on Kashruth, which is the life 
blood of their industry in New York, is exceedingly 
small. 

Before the slaughtered meat gets into the hands of 
the householder, it passes through several stages of a 
journey. 

In the first place, there is the speculator. He is re- 
garded by the slaughterer or the packer as the bane of 
existence. Yet the slaughter-house does not seem to be 
able to do without him. The speculator acts as a kind 
of go-between between the slaughterer and the retail 
butcher. The slaughterer would like to deal with the 
retail butcher direct, but the retail butcher is usually a 
man without much capital, and it has been impossible 
thus far for the slaughter-houses to work out a system of 
credit satisfactory to the hundreds, and perhaps thou- 
sands, of Jewish retail butchers who are in need of it 
in order to secure their daily supply of meat. The 
speculator furnishes this credit. He does this by pur- 
chasing large blocks of meat at wholesale prices on a 
given day, an.d keeping this meat for a day or two on the 
chance of the market price fluctuating. He then gives 
credit to a retail butcher, and he sees to it that the 



RITUAL INSTITUTIONS 315 

retail butcher pays him the highest possible market 
price. He is also charged by the retail butcher and by 
the wholesaler with giving short measure. Yet he has 
established himself to such a degree that he has bought 
store-houses for the storing of his meat, and he can 
threaten the whol-esaler with the establishment of com- 
petitive slaughter houses. 

The one time the power of the speculator is threat- 
ened is when the retail butchers strike against the slaugh- 
ter houses. They refuse at times to buy meat for a 
number of days, and the speculator is caught with a 
large amount of meat on his hands. It is at such times 
that an improvement in the general situation might be 
made, but thus far no advantage of such a situation has 
been taken. 

Between the speculator and the retailer, there is very 
often a man who calls himself a wholesaler. He is 
usually a man who has a number of retail shops which 
he can supply at a rate somewhat more advantageous 
than the smaller retailer who has but one shop can get ; 
and, after supplying his own retail shops, he supplies 
the retail shops of a number of others. He is not, how- 
ever, an important factor in the situation. 

'An attempt was made under the auspices of the Vaad 
Horabbonini of the Kehillah to get a census of the re- 
tail butchers. This was done at considerable cost, but 
unfortunately the records are not in the possession of 
the Kehillah. It is estimated that there are over 3,000 
retail butcher shops , in this city calling themselves 
kosher. These butcher shops may be classified as fol- 
lows: 



316 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



a) Those at which the wives of Rabbonim buy their 
meat. These are kosher beyond all question. 

b) Those in charge of a man — very often a Schochet, 
a Lamdan, or Baal-ha-Bos — who is known to 
everyone, as beyond suspicion in his observance 
of the Jewish law and tradition. These butcher 
shops also are beyond all question kosher. Such 
butcher shops regard it as a disgrace to have the 
word kosher on their windows; certainly to have 
upon their windows "Under the Hashgachah of 
theRovd'Po." 

c) Then there are the shops which are regarded as 
kosher by everyone, but which for business or 
other reasons find it to their advantage to have 
a certificate signed by a well known Rov or a 
committee of Rabbonim. In connection with this 
practice, a long history of kosher signs might be 
written. 

d) There are other butcher shops of varying degrees 
of reliability as to Kashruth, determined very 
largely by the neighbors. 

e) There are finally the Chatesim, who pretend to 
be kosher butchers, but who demonstrably are 
not. In connection with such butchers there is a 
large amount of espionage, intrigue, scandal, etc. 

Many of the retail butchers are organized into associa- 
tions corresponding to different parts of the city. They 
have a Yiddish weekly organ, the Jewish Butchers ' Jour- 
nal. The butchers themselves are of two minds as to 
the regulation of Kashruth. There are some who think 
that it might be to their advantage, and others who are 
sure that it would be to their disadvantage. The com- 
munity point of view seldom prevails. 



RITUAL INSTITUTIONS 317 



2. Ofos 



The fowl and poultry situation is of the same general 
nature, but it moves along different lines. Here the 
Rabbonim play a very small part, the chief elements 
being the Shochetim, the producer of fowls (generally 
in the Middle West), the receiver in New York, the 
wholesaler, the marketman, the slaughter-house, the re- 
tailer, the teamsters and drivers, and the consuming 
public. 

About 50,000,000 pounds of poultry are consumed 
yearly by the Jewish public of New York City. The 
poultry, which is raised in the Middle West (Ohio, 
Illinois and Indiana) is shipped in vast quantities in 
charge of employees of the receivers in New York City. 
The price paid for the poultry in the West is fixed in 
New York City. 

On its arrival in New York City the poultry is sold to 
the ''wholesalers" or marketmen. In order to increase 
the weight of the poultry, many inhumane practices have 
been engaged upon, such as starving the chickens on the 
way from the West, and then stuffing their crops with 
a mixture of cement, sawdust and other ingredients. 
The chickens are also wet down with hose, so as to 
increase their weight. The ''wholesaler" generally has 
a market of his own where he sells live and dressed 
poultry to retail butchers and individuals customers. In 
his market he usually has facilities for slaughtering 
fowls. Permits for such slaughtering facilities within 
the limits of New York City must be secured from the 
Department of Health. These places are usually located 



318 communaij register 

on the thinly populated fringes of densely crowded dis- 
tricts. The Jewish ritual requires that only freshly 
killed chickens be eaten. As a consequence, the Jewish 
housewife very often goes to the market herself, picks 
out a live chicken, and has it slaughtered. This sanitary 
practice has led to a great deal of misunderstanding 
between the market keepers and the retail butchers. 
The retail butchers claim that in 4his way they are 
deprived of the profit which they earn when selling to 
the households. The whole question of ' * Schechita Gelt ' ' 
needs regulation. 

The Schochetim are entirely at the mercy of the 
marketmon. The Schochet must, in the first place, pay 
the marketman or ^'wholesaler" for the privilege of 
slaughtering fowls on the given premises. In the second 
place, he must slaughter as much as the *' wholesaler " 
or . marketman bids him slaughter, with or without 
helpers. Before the Sabbath and the holidays, he 
sometimes works the whole night and day through with- 
out respite. Various attempts have been made to organ- 
ize the Schochetim for their own protection and for 
the protection of the community. There is even a labor 
union of Schochetim. These efforts, however, have not 
led to much improvement in the situation from the 
communal point of view. The attempt has been made, 
also, to extend the authority of the rabbis over the 
ritual aspect of this industry. These attempts have also 
failed. 

Due to the unregulated condition of the kosher killing 
of fowls, many abuses have arisen which have disturbed 
the peace and the orderly development of the commu- 



RITUAL INSTITUTIONS 319 

iiity. Strikes liave taken place, murders and other 
crimes have been committed. A proper understanding 
of the needs of a large part of the Jewish population 
of the community would have led long since to the 
cleaning out of these abuses, and to constructive work 
which, if begun in this phase of the Kashruth situation, 
might lead to an improvement in other phases of the 
communal life. 



It is not possible to get a fair statement in figures as 
to how much extra money is being spent by the Jews 
of this city on kosher meat. It is therefore only possible 
to make an approximate guess. The guess is arrived at 
in the following way : 

Upon inquiry it was learned that it is fair to assume 
that the average Jewish family of five consumes at least 
fifteen pounds of meat a week: ten pounds of beef and 
five pounds of fowl. This would make three pounds 
per capita per week, or 156 pounds per year. 

It is also fair to assume that of the one and a half 
million Jews of this city, one million buy meat from 
kosher butchers; particularly, in view of the fact that 
many people who do not keep the dietary laws in their 
homes, still buy meat from kosher butcher shops. Hence 
the total amount of meat used by the Jews in this city, 
may be conservatively estimated at 156,000,000 pounds 
per year. 

It is further fair to assume that kosher meat costs 
two cents a pound more than the same kind of meat 
sold by non-Jewish butchers. Multiplying 156,000,000 



320 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



pounds by two cents, would give us $3,120,000 per an- 
num. This is undoubtedly a conservative estimate of 
the amount of money spent by the Jews for the extra 
cost of kosher meat. 

It is also fair to assume that since the average butcher 
sells some 50,000 to 60,000 pounds of meat per annum, 
the total number of Kosher butchers in this city is some- 
where between 2,600 and 3,000. 



Some of the efforts which the Kehillah has made for 
the regulation of Kashruth are recorded in the report of 
the Vaad Horabbonim, printed in this volume. 



RITUAL INSTITUTIONS 321 

THE 3IILAII BOARD OF THE JEWISH 
COMMUNITY 

By Rev. Dr. M. Hyamson, Chairman 

Need of Milali Board 

The Milah Board was called into existence to supply a 
want that had been for a long time distinctly felt. The 
Jewish Community of New York, counting approximate- 
ly a million and a half souls, is the largest centre of 
Jewry on the face of the globe. On account of its huge 
size and the heterogeneous character of its constituent 
elements, it stands in organization far behind most of its 
sister communities. And this lack of organization has, 
among other evil results, manifested itself in the absence 
of all supervision of the important rite of Circumcision, 
which is the oldest institution among the Jewish people, 
dating back, as it does, to the days of Abraham, the first 
of the three ancestors of our race. There has been no 
control of those who professed to be Mohelim. Anyone 
who chose to do so could perform this operation without 
let or hindrance, without being obliged to prove his 
qualification. As the rite is a minor surgical operation, 
there is a risk, if performed by an unskilled and inexpert 
Mohel, not only of non-compliance with the ritual re- 
quirements, possibly necessitating a second operation, 
but — what is more serious — of actual danger to the 
health or even life of the infant subjected to the opera- 
tion. In an enormous Jewish population, like that of 
New York, these risks are by no means imaginary or 
negligible. Medical men — Jewish and Gentile — have re- 



'A22 (^ommunaij register 

ported cases that came under their notice, in their private 
practice and in the wards of the public hospitals and 
dispensaries, where male Jewish children have had to be 
treated for injuries, organic or constitutional, which 
were the direct result of circumcision incompetently 
performed by unskilled and inexperienced Mohelim. The 
parents are not to blame. They were absolutely helpless 
in the matter. They had no means of distinguishing be- 
tween the competent and incompetent Mohelim. To rem- 
edy this unsatisfactory condition of affairs, the Milah 
Board of the Jewish Community of New York was pro- 
jected. After many futile and abortive attempts the 
Board was finally established, and came into existence 
three years ago. 

Constitution and Functions of the Board 

The purpose for which the Milah Board was created 
is to train and examine Mohelim; and when found 
qualified, to certify them as competent, and advertise 
their names and addresses for the information of the 
Jewish public. The following are the methods employed 
to attain these objects. The Milah Board, under the rules 
of its Constitution, consists of three Orthodox Rabbis of 
recognized standing in the community, three qualified 
physicians resident in the City of New York, and three 
representatives of the Agudath Hamohelim (the Mohelim 
Society). 

Examination and Certification of Molielim 

Any candidate desiring to be certified by the Board 
as a competent Mohel has to fill out an application form 



RITL'AL INSTITUTIONS 323 

stating his name, age, address, place of birth, place of 
education, profession (whether he is a rabbi), place of 
residence since arrival in the United States, whether he 
IS a citizen of the United States, how long he has been a 
I\Iohel, where he studied Milah, who was his teacher, how 
many operations he has performed, and how many of 
them in the past twelve months. The applicant must 
also state whether he knows the dangers of Milah when 
improperly performed, and must promise to study the 
pamphlet on Milah, prepared by the physicians of the 
Board, and practise Milah in accordance with the sur- 
gical principles laid down in that pamphlet. After the 
form has been filled out and signed by the candidate, 
the application is referred to the representatives of- the 
Agudath Hamohelini for enquiries as to the candidate's 
religious and moral character and good standing. If 
their report is favorable, the candidate is then examined 
by the Rabbis of the Milah Board in the laws of Milah 
from the religious point of view. When he has satisfied 
this test, he is recommended to study the pamphlet whicli 
sets forth the hygienic precautions that have to be taken 
by the Mohel previous to. during, and after the opera- 
tion. One or more operations .have to be performed by 
him in the presence of a surgeon appointed by the phy- 
sicians of the Board. He is also examined orally by the 
Board on the surgery and hygiene of the operation. 
When he has passed all these various tests and thus sat- 
isfied the Board as to his theoretical knowledge and 
practical skill, he is awarded a certificate of proficiency 
signed by the rabbis and physicians of the Board and 
the Chairman. This certificate recommends him as a 



324 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



competent and qualified Mohel worthy of being employed 
by the Jewish public. The names and addresses of the 
certified Mohelim are regularly advertised in the English 
and Yiddish Press. Placards, giving these names and 
addresses, have also been posted in the Chevrahs of New 
York City. It is hoped that this publicity will lead to the 
increased employment of only those Mohelim whose com- 
petency is certified and thus help to eliminate, in a con- 
siderable measure, the risk of death or disease overtaking 
Jewish male babes because pf uncleanly and unhygienic 
procedure on the part of some inexpert and careless 
Mohelim. 

Pamphlet on Milah 

Reference has been made to a pamphlet on the hygiene 
of Milah. A pamphlet, containing the sanitary rules 
that should be observed in circumcision and also the 
principal Dinim, was drawn up by the Milah Board in 
English and in Yiddish. The Board of Health of the 
City of New York was deeply interested in this pamphlet 
and in the work of the Milah Board generally, as appears 
from the following communication : 

DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH 

CITY OF" NEW YORK , 

OFFICE OF THE COMMISSIONER 

^ Haven Emerson, M.D., Commissioner 

Dr. J. L. Magnes, November 24, 1915. 

Chairman of the Jewish Community, 
356 Second Avenue. 
My Dear Dr. Magnes: 

The text of the circular of information for the Mohe- 
lim was found so accurate in its medical presentation of 



RITUAL INSTITUTIONS 325 

the case, and so complete in its discussion, that it has 
been accepted for publication by the Department as an 
otBcial circular, with practically no changes. The edu- 
cational value of such work as the Milah Board has done 
in this matter is of the greatest help to the City, and 
particularly to our department. 

I wish to express my appreciation of the cooperation 
of the Jewish Community with this department, and to 
indicate that support of such activities as we have found 
you prepared to undertake are direct contributions to 
the public welfare. 

Very truly yours, H. Emerson, Commissioner. 

Work of Certified Mohelim at the Hospitals 

As a large number of Jewish boys are born in Hospi- 
tals and Lying-in Homes, the Board has during the past 
two years made, and is still making, continued efforts to 
obtain for its certified Mohelim the right to practise at 
the public medical institutions in the city, both those 
under the jurisdiction of the Municipal Authorities and 
also those that are under communal control. Their efforts 
have thus far attained a certain measure of success. 

An arrangement for a rota of certified Mohelim to 
attend the Lying-in Department of the Beth Israel Hos- 
pital was inaugurated in 1916, and the report of the 
Superintendent of that institution shows that it works 
well. The report reads as follows: 

BETH ISRAEL HOSPITAL 
Rev. Dr. M. Hyamson, March 10, 1917. 

Chairman of the Milah Board, Jewish Community, 
356 Second Avenue. 
Dear Dr. Hyamson : 

I have made a thorough investigation of the work of 
the Mohelim, and I am pleased to report to you that the 



326 



UOMMUJNAL. KEGISTEK 



work has been done in an eminently successful manner. 
The rules are rigidly adhered to, and the work from a 
medical point of view has been conducted in a scientific 
manner — so the House Surgeon tells me. We have the 
House Surgeon or the Assistant House Surgeon attend 
every circumcision, and the work, since January 1st, has 
been free work and no fees collected. 
With best wishes. 

Sincerely, L. Frank, Superintendent. 

Other Hospitals 

At the Gouverneur Hospital, where a large number of 
Jewish male births take place, the privilege of entry for 
the Mohelim certified by the Board was obtained. This 
concession is due to the courtesy and goodwill of the 
lady superintendent of the institution, to the Jewish 
chaplain — the Rev. Dr. Tintner — and the Rev. Mr. Gor- 
don, one of the certified Mohelim of the Board who had 
acted honorarily as the official Mohel at the Hospital. 
It was arranged that lists of the certified Mohelim should 
be hung up in the corridors and maternity wards, and 
that parents should have the right to select from the list 
any Mohel they please. 

Other institutions that have expressed their willing- 
ness to give similar concessions, in whole or in part, are 
The Bellevue Hospital, The Society of the Lying-in- 
Hospital, Second Avenue, 17th and 18th Streets; Miseri- 
cordia Hospital, 531 East 86th Street, and the Depart- 
ment of Public Charities, Blackwell's Island, Metro- 
politan Hospital. 

The Beth David Hospital has appointed four Mohe- 
lim, with a three months' Service each, two of whom are 
Mohelim certified by the Board. 



RITUAL INSTITUTIONS 327 

The official Mohel at the Lebanon Hospital holds the 
^'ertificate of the Board, and other certified Mohelim 
■ive individually been accorded permission to circumcise 
iiildren at that institution, where parents so desire. 

It is hoped that, in course of time, all hospitals in the 
City — Jewish and general — will be opened to the Certi- 
fied Mohelim of the Board, that all competent Mohelim 
practising in the City will see fit to obtain Certification, 
and that the Jewish public will only employ those en- 
rolled on the Board's list. 

The Chairman of the Milah Board is the Rev. Dr. M. 
Hyamson. 

The Rabbis who form the Examining Board in Jewish 
Laws are Rabbis B. B. Guth, M. S. Margolies and Dr. 
Philip Klein. 

The Medical Members of the Board are Dr. Abraham 
L. Wolbarst and Dr. I. C. Rubin. Dr. Roth and Dr. 
Schwartz rendered excellent service for three years, 
but, owing to pressure of other duties, recently with- 
drew. All these are honorary workers. A fee of 
five dollars is charged to each candidate to cover charges 
of the surgeons appointed by the Medical Members of 
the Board to inspect operations by candidates and for 
other minor incidental expenses. The cost of advertising 
the lists of Mohelim and of printing the pamphlet has 
been met by funds given by a few public-spirited 
subscribers. 

Twenty-two Mohelim were enrolled during the first 
year of the existence of the Board, twenty additional 
during the second year. The following is the list of all 
the Mohelim at present certified and their addresses : 






328 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



Agu€latli Hainohelini 

216-18 East Houston St. 

OFFICERS: .Pres., Rabbi J. Sechtzer, 216 East Houston 
St. Sec'y, H. Plotkiii, 126 N. 4th St., B'klyn. Established 
1913. Membership 42. 

PURPOSE: To foster hygienic methods and compliance 
with the orthodox rite of circumcision. 

Sechtzer, Joseph, Pres. Agudath Hamohelim (216 E. 
Houston St.), since 1914. Term 6 months. Born 1869 in 
Russia. Came to U. S. 1906. Received Rabbinical education. 
Mohel. Res.: 216 E. Houston St. 

Members of the Agudath Hamohelim 



Bern.stein, B., 77 Essex St. 

ChernevitKki, J., 96 Hopkinson 
Ave., B'klyn. 

Cohen, H. M., 18 Rutgers PI. 

Cohen, Vletor, 1991 Washing- 
ton Ave. 

Frledland, Joseph, 6 Rutger.s 
St. 

Frledland, Julius, 238 Madi- 
son St. 

Gelfner, B., 237 Henry St. 

Gerber, L., 18 Norfolk St. 

Gerstenfeld, S., 61 Columbia 
St. 

Gordon, Isaac, 314 Broome St. 

Gottlieb, J., 8-10 W. 117th St. 

Greenberg:, Isaac, 727 Trinity 
Ave. 



Groman, A. M., 514 W. 146th 

St. 

Hirsch, 3Iichael, 59 E. Ii7th 
St. 

Jnches, Philip, 56 Lenox Ave. 

Jacobson, M., 64 E. 90th St. 

Kaplan, S., 166 Henry St. 

Kaufman, H., 179 Lewis St. 

Kessin, A. M., 106-8 Keap St., 
B'klyn. 

Landau, S., 800 E. 160th St. 

Levine, Barnet, 222 E. 102nd 
St. 

L.evine, Hyman, 956 Leggett 
Ave. 

Lewinter, Ch., 16D Siegel St., 
B'klyn. 



RITUAL INSTITUTIONS 329 

llinkov, Hymau, 613 E. 6th Rosen, Zalel, 128 Rivington 
St. St. 

31in8ky. Rnphnel, 18 E 105th Schechter, David, 100 Suffolk 
St. St. 

f.,o o «. ,, • Schiller, I. M., 164 Suffolk St. 
Newman, Alter, 163 Suffolk 

Schutz, I., 128 Second St. 

Pessin, E. A., 38 Jefferson St. ^ ^^ , ^ oi^ t^ tt 

Sechtzer, Joseph, 216 E. Hous- 

Platkin, H., 126 N. 4th St., ^^^ ^^' 

B'klyn. Shapiro, Benj., 201 E. 103d St. 

Podvitz, Kopel, 456 E. 171st Tannenbaiim, N., 306 E. 100th 
St. St. 

Raphaelowitz, Simon, 257 AVald, B., 8 Attorney St. 
Henry St. 

Wilnin, Daniel, 1651 Wash- 
Rolnik, Aaron, 1 W. 114th St. ington Ave. 

Rosen, Perez, 136 Graham AVoolflf, Bernard, 77'4 Prospect 
Ave.. B'klyn. Ave. 






330 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



•THE JEAVISH SABBATH ASSOCIATION 

By Rev. Dr. Bernard Drachman, President 

The Jewish Sabbath Association was organized, or 
rather incorporated, for it had existed for some time" 
previous in an unincorporated condition, in the year 
1905 (5665). Its organization was owing to a deep feel- 
ing on the part of many earnest Jews that a determined 
effort must be made to prevent the observance of the 
Sabbath, the most fundamental precept and distinguish- 
ing characteristic of Judaism, from falling into utter 
desuetude in America. The incorporators were Eev. Dr. 
Philip Klein, Rev. Dr. Bernard Drachman, Rev. Dr. H. 
Pereira Mendes, Jacob H. Luria, Hyman Eisenberg, 
Meyer Goldberg, Henry P. Goldstein, Gabriel Davidson 
and Vivian S. D. Aaronson. The Jewish Sabbath Asso- 
ciation is not the first association with this object to 
exist in America. At least three Jewish Sabbath Ob- 
servance societies had been previously organized in this 
country, one as far back as in the early sixties. But, for 
some reason — probably lack of energy on the part of 
the management — they all speedily ceased to exist. The 
Jewish Sabbath Association is the first and only one 
which, by dint of hard and unceasing labor and devotion, 
has managed to continue its work, so necessary to the 
spiritual well-being of the Jewish people, for upwards 
of twelve years. On February 1st, 1917, the Jewish 
Sabbath Association became affiliated with the Federa- 
tion for the Support of Jewish Philanthropic Societies 
of New York. The object of the Jewish Sabbath 
Association is stated in the sentence printed as a 



RITUAL INSTITUTIONS 331 

headline on its. official paper — *'To promote the observ- 
ance of the Holy Sabbath in every possible way." In 
these few words an enormous programme of work is 
suggested, for it means nothing less than the attempt to 
olve one of the — perhaps the — gravest religious and so- 
ial problems of modern Jewry. It would be, of course, 
impossible, within the limits of this article, to treat with 
any degree of exhaustiveness the various kinds of activi- 
ties which the Jewish Sabbath Association has hitherto 
taken up or hopes to take up in the future for the attain- 
ment of its object. Stated in the briefest possible com- 
pass they are the following : 

(1) Propaganda. Every effort is made to preserve 
the sentiment of attachment to the Sabbath still existing 
among the Jewish people and to promote this sentiment. 
For this purpose meetings are held in synagogues and 
other places, cooperating societies of women, young peo- 
ple and workingmen have been organized, and circulars 
and pamphlets have been printed and distributed. For 
several years the Association maintained a monthly or- 
gan, 'The Sahhath Journal, in English, Yiddish and He- 
brew. This propaganda work has had noteworthy re- 
sults. 

(2) Intercession. The Association intercedes • with 
merchants and manufacturers who have kept their es- 
tablishments closed on the Sabbath and who contemplate 
opening on that day and induces them to continue their 
practice of Sabbath observance. In this way upwards 
of fifty establishments have been prevented from Sabbath 
desecration and the privilege of Sabbath rest retained 
for several thousand employees 



332 COMMUNAL REGISTER 

(3) Procuring of Employment. The Association main- 
tains an Employment Bureau, through which employ- 
ment without Sabbath desecration is obtained for Sab- 
bath observers, thereby assisting in the solution of one 
of the gravest difficulties of the whole Sabbath problem, 
the bringing together of the Sabbath-keeping employer 
and employee, who would otherwise not know of each 
other's existence. Since its inception, the Employment 
Bureau has placed upwards of 3,000 persons in Sabbath- 
keeping places. During the period covered by our last 
report, June 15th, 1916 to December 1st, 1917, it placed 
775 persons. 

(4) Protection of the Rights of Sahhath Observers. 
The Jewish Sabbath Association has several times ap- 
peared through representatives before the Legislatures 
of this and other States in behalf of the legal right of 
seventh-day observers to pursue their ordinary vocations 
on Sunday. It also appears before courts and judges 
and police officials in defence of the rights of Sabbath 
observers. For this purpose it maintains since the be- 
ginning of 1917 a regular Legal Counsel, whose efforts 
have been very successful. It has also appeared before 
Christian Sunday Associations pleading for considera- 
tion for the Jewish Sabbath observer. The most note- 
worthy effort in this direction was the trip of its Presi- 
dent in 1915 to Oakland, California, where he spoke be- 
fore the International Lord's Day Congress on ''The 
Jewish Sabbath in its Relation to the General Question 
of Sabbath Observance." His address, which made a 
deep impression, is printed in the proceedings of the 
Congress, published by the New York Sabbath Commit- 



RITUAL INSTITUTIONS 333 

tee. It is hardly necessary to point out that these efforts 
have contributed greatly to a better understanding of 
the Jewish position on the part of the Gentile world. 

The above are the chief, though by no means all, the 
features of the activity of the Jewish Sabbath Associa- 
tion. In the future it purposes to continue along these 
lines, adding from time to time such other branches of 
work as its ability, financial and other, and the new 
conditions which arise, may render possible and neces- 
sary. It earnestly hopes for a measure of support from 
the Jewish community commensurate to the vastness of 
the problem which it has undertaken to solve and which 
will enable it to take up the broad and far-reaching 
activity which is required for the effective and permanent 
solution thereof. 



334 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



Free Burial Societies 



MANHATTAN 



Ajiiidaih Aehim Chesed Sliel 
Elmoth (Hebrew Free Burial 
Society), 245 Grand St. Org. 
1888. Pres., Barnett Fried- 
man; Sec'y. H. E. Adelman; 
Sup't, Samuel A r o n s o n . 
Burial plots in Mt. Richi- 
mond Cemetery, S. I.; Silver 
Lake Cemetery, Stapleton, 
S. I.; Bay Side Cemetery, 
Woodhaven, L. L Total 
area: 35 acres. Free burials 
last fiscal year: 932. 

Friedman, Barnett, Pres. 
Agudath Achim Chesed Shel 
Emeth (245 Grand Sti), 
since 1888. Term 1 year. 
Born 1857 in Russia. Came 
to U. S. 1878. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. Real 
estate. Res.: 11 Elizabeth St. 

Austro - Hungarian Hebrew 
Free Burial Ass'n, 172 Nor- 
folk St. Org. 1889. Pres., 
Moritz Kessler; Sec'y, Her- 
man Kraus. Burial plots in 
Washington Cemetery, 
B'klyn; Riverside Cemetery, 
Hackensack, N. J, Total 
area: 2 acres. Free burials 
last fiscal year: 150. 
Kessler, Moritz, Pres. Aus- 
tro-Hungarlan Hebrew Free 
Burial Ass'n (172 Norfolk 
St.), since 1902. Term 1 
year. Born 1858 in Hungary. 
Came to U. S. 1878. Attended 
High School in Hungary. 
Tailor: 17 Clinton St. Res.: 
470 E. 141st St. 



Yorkville Branch: 1528 2nd 
Ave. (Branch Officers: Pres. 
Max Freet; Sec'y, I. J. Man- 
delbaum.) 

Harlem Branch: 11 E. 106th 
St. (Branch Officers: Pres., 
Mrs. Fannie Krakow; Sec'y, 
George D. Sherman; Sup't, 
Moritz Kessler.) 
Krakow, Fannie, Pres. 
Austro-Hungarian Free Bu- 
rial Ass'n (11 E. 106th St.), 
since 1909. Term 1 year. 
Born 1871 in Russia. Came 
to U. S. 1890. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. Res.: 
1588 Madison Ave. 

Bronx Branch: 470 E. 141st 

St. 
H e b r e vr Free Burial Ass'n 

(and Israel Orphan Asylum), 
274-280 2nd St. Org. 1902. 
Pres., Gu stave Hartman; 
Sec'y, Elias D. Saphirstein. 
Burial plots in Mt. Zion 
Cemetery, Maspeth, L. I.; 
Montefiore Cemetery, Spring- 
field, L. I. Free burials last 
fiscal year: 436. 
Hartman, Gustave, Pres. 
Israel Orphan Asylum and 
Hebrew Free Burial Ass'n 
(274 2nd Ave.), since 1913. 
Term 1 year. Born 1880 in 
Hungary. Came to U. S. 
1882. Member of the Ex- 
ecutive Committee of the 
Jewish Congress. Received 
the following degrees: B. S. 
(C. C. N. Y.); L. L. B.; L. L. 
M.: J. D. (N. Y. U.). Justice 



RITUAL INSTITUTIONS 



3;^5 



of the Municipal Court of 
the City of N. T.: 264 Madi- 
son St. Res.: 243 E. 7th St. 



HebreTV Free Burial Society 

(see Agudath Achim Chesed 
Shel Emeth). 



BROOKLYN 



Chesed Shel Emeth of Browns- 
ville (Free Burial Ass'n of 
Brownsville), 424 Sackman 
St. Org-. 1887. Pres., Chas. 
Dunreff. Sec'y, Jacob Spott. 
Burial plots in Montefiore 
Cemetery, Springfield, L. I. 
Total area: 60 lots. 

Dunreff, Charles, Pres. Free 
Burial Ass'n of Brownsville 
(424 Sackman St., B'klyn), 
since 1915. Term 1 year. 
Born 1865 in Russia. Came 
to U. S. 1884. Received gen- 
eral Jewish and secular edu- 
cation. Real estate. Res.: 
1834 Pitkin Ave., B'klyn. 

Free Burial Ass'n of Browns- 
ville (see Chesed Shel Emeth 
of Brownsville). 

Hebre^v Burial Society of 
Brooklyn, 101 Varet Street. 
Org. 1898. Pres., Dr. Samuel 
Gliick; Sec'y, Lesser Meyer; 
Sup't, Simon Blecher. Burial 
plots in Washington Ceme- 



tery, Brooklyn; Mt. Judah 
Cemetery, Brooklyn; Monte- 
_fiore Cemetery, Springfield, 
L. I. Total area: 244 lots. 
Free burials last fiscal year: 
369. 

Glttek, Samuel A., Pres. He= 
brew Burial Soc. of B'klyn 
(101 Varet St., B'klyn), since 
1913. Term 1 year. Born 
1877 in N. Y. Received col- 
lege, medical and legal edu- 
cation. Doctor and Lawyer. 
Res.: 840 Eastern Parkway, 
B'klyn. 

Ladies' Aid Society Chesed 
Shel Bmeth, 386 Van Sicklen 
Ave. Pres., Mrs. Celia Cohen. 
(No information available.) 
Cohen, Celia, Pres. Ladies' 
Aid Soc. Chesed Shel Emeth 
(386 Van Sicklen Ave., 
B'klyn), since 1916. Term 6 
months. Born 1857 in Rus- 
sia. Came to U. S; 1900. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Res.: 409 Georgia 
Ave., B'klyn. ' 



336 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



Jewish Cemeteries 



Acavia, Wo odhaven, L. 1. 
Area: 11% acres. Office: 
Grand near Allen St., Man- 
hattan. Sup't, Moe Aronson. 
Reached by Kings Co. " L," 
R. R. and trolley. 

Ahnrath Chesed, 1424 Metro- 
politan Ave. Area: 13 acres. 
Office: 652 Lexington Ave., 
Manhattan. Sup't, J. Grauer- 
holz. Reached by Metropol- 
itan Ave. cars. 

Baron Hirsch, Old Stone Road, 
Point Richmond. Area: 100 
acres. Office: 131 Essex St., 
Manhattan. Sup't, L W. 
Wolf. Reached by Ferry to 
St. George; then Bulls Head 
trolley. 

Bay Side, Woodhaven, L. I. 
Area: 36 acres. Office: At 
cemetery. Sup't, L. Borow- 
sky. Reached by Fulton St. 
"L" to City Line and trolley. 

Beth El, Amboy Rd., Totten- 
ville. Area: 7 acres. Office: 
Tottenville, S. I. Sup't, Geo. 
F. Reckhow^ Reached by 
Ferry to St. George; then 
trolley. 

Beth Olom, Kells Path Road. 
Area: 7% acres. Office: At 
cemetery. Sup't, Solomon 
Strook. Reached by B'klyn 
"L" or trolley from ferries 
and via bridges. 

B'nai Israel, Waverly, N. J. 
Area: 1 acre. Office: 140 1st 
St., Elizabeth, N. J. Sup't, 



Morris Koestler. Reached by 
Penn. R. R., Newark and 
Elizabeth trolley. 

niachpelah. Evergreen, L. I. 
Area: 13 acres. Office: Fresh 
Pond Rd. and Cypress. Sup't, 
H. Koopman, Jr. Reached by 
Cypress Hills car line from 
Ridgewood. 

Maimonldes, Jamaica Avenue, 
B'klyn. Area: 7 acres. Of- 
fice: At cemetery. Sup't, 
Albert Fredericks. Reached 
by Lex. Ave. "L" and trolley 
from bridge and ferries. 

M'kom Sholom, Woodhaven, L. 
I. Area: QV2 acres. Office: 
At cemetery. Sup't, H. Ed- 
wards. Reached by Fulton 
"L" and Bergen trolley. 

3Ionteflore, Springfield, L. I. 
Area: 113 acres. Office: 14 
Delancey St., Manhattan. 
Sup't, M. Jaffe. Reached 'by 
City Line "L" and Freeport 
trolley. 

Mount Carmel, Cypress Hills, 
L. I. Area: 50 acres. Office: 
At cemetery. Sup't, M. B. 
Blumenthal. Reached by 
B'klyn "L" or trolley from 
ferries and via bridges. 

Mount Hebron, Flushing, L. I. 
Area: 150 acres. Office: 1 
Madison Ave., Manhattan. 
Sup't, C. R. Query. Reached 
by Ridgewood "L" to Fresh 
Pond, then Flushing Ave. 
car. 



RITUAL INSTITUTIONS 



337 



Mount Hope, Jamaica Avenue, 
B'klyn. Area: 12 acres. Of- 
fice: Jamaica and Nichols 
Aves. Sup't, H. N. Otten- 
herg. Reached by Lex. Ave. 
"L" and B'way surface lines. 

Mount Judah, Evergreen, L. I. 
Office: 89 Delancey St. Sup't, 
S. Goldberg-. Reached by 
Myrtle Ave. "L" and Cypress 
Hills trolley; also Bushwick 
Ave. trolley. 

Mount Lebanon, Glendale, L. I. 
Area: 32 acres." Office: 8 
R u t g- e r s St., Manhattan. 
Sup't, F. L. Richmeyer. 
Reached by Myrtle Ave. car 
to Brush. 

Mount Neboh, Fresh Pond Rd., 
L. I. Area: 14 acres. Office: 
601 W. 162nd St., Manhattan. 
Sup't, Charles Rosenf eld. 
Reached by Myrtle Ave. "L" 
and Cypress Hills trolley. 

Mount Richmond, Richmond, 
S. I. Area: 28 acres. Office: 
245 Grand St., Manhattan. 
Sup't, H. E. Adelman. 
Reached by S. I. ferry and 
Richmond trolley. 

Mount Zlon, Maspeth, L. I. 
Area: 75 acres. Office: 41 
Park Row, Manhattan. Sup't, 
Morris Jacoby. Reached by 
trolley from E. 34th St., 
Houston. 23d St. ferries. 

Ne^r Mount Carmel, Cypress 
Hills, L. I. Area: 50 acres. 
Office: At cemetery. Sup't, 



M. B, Blumenthal. Reached 
by B'klyn "L" or trolley 
from ferries and via bridges. 

New Union Fields, Cypress 
Ave., B'klyn. Office: At cem- 
etery, Sup't, S. Berliner. 
Reached via B'klyn Bridge; 
then Myrtle Ave. train, stop 
at Wycoff Ave., and then 
transfer to Mt. Cypress 
Hills. 

Riverside, Rochelle Park, N. J. 
Area: 125 acres. Office: 1400 
5th Ave., N. Y. C. Sup't, E. 
Winer. Reached by Hudson 
River trolley from Port Lee 
Ferry. 

Salem Fields, B'klyn, N. Y. 
Area: 80 acres. Office : 
Jamaica and Euclid Aves. 
Sup't, S. Hiltman. Reached 
by B'klyn "L" or trolleys. 

Shearith Israel, Fresh Pond 
Rd., B'klyn. Area: 20% 
acres. Office: At cemetery. 
Sup't, A. D. Miner. Reached 
by B'klyn "L" and trolley 
from ferries and via bridges. 

Silver Lake, Stapleton, S. I. 
Area: 4% acres. Office: 245 
Grand St., Manhattan. Sup't, 
H. E. Adelman. Reached by 
Manhattan Ferry and Silver 
Lake trolley. 

Union Fields, Cypress Ave., 
B'klyn. Area: 48 acres. 
Office: Lex. Ave. and 63d St., 
Manhattan. Sup't, George 
Bayha. Reached by Cypress 
Ave. trolley. 



338 



(JUMMUNAl. KKOISTKK 



lialtcd Hebr«Tv, Klchiiiutid, S 
r. Area: 100 acres. Office. 
190 Bowery, Manhattan 
Sup't Simon Haskel, Reached 
by S. I. Ferry and RIchmonrt 
I rolley 



v\'»Mrjiiii^tuii^ Z'^na. and Graves- 
end, B'klyn. Area 100 acres 
Office: 723 Lenox Ave., Man- 
hattan. Supt A. E. Karel- 
sen. Reached by Culver Line 
"Li" and trolley from Bridge 
«.nd Perries 



341 

CHASSIDISM IN THE NEW WORLD 

By Isaac Even 

To the student of Chassidism, who has carefully fol- 
lowed its development since it made its appearance in 
Jewish life, nearly two hundred years ago, one fact 
stands out most prominently: namely, that Chassidism 
is a very delicate plant, requiring a particularly favor- 
able soil so that it may strike root and thrive. 

In Podolia, Ukraine, Poland, certain parts of Rus- 
sia, Galicia and Hungary, the new cult soon found many 
followers. Western Europe, on the other hand, has re- 
mained immune to this very day. Take, for instance, 
the case of the Zadik Reb Schmelke, a favorite disciple 
of the renowned Reb Baer, who made a persistent at- 
tempt to introduce Chassidism in Nikolsburg (Moravia.). 
For a while he really held sway as a ' ' Guter Yid, ' ' but, 
ultimately, he was compelled to give it up as a hopeless 
task. A similar fate overtook the only Chassidic Rabbi 
in Germany, Reb Elie of Greidetz. 

Even in those countries where Chassidism flourished 
for nearly two centuries, it is now on the decline. The 
world war, raging for the last three years in Galicia and 
Poland, the erstwhile strongholds of the Chassidic faith, 
has undermined the dynasties of the famous Zadikim 
and even there the new cult is gasping its last. 

The relation of the war to the sudden decline of 
Chassidism is obvious. 

All those who are initiated in the lore of Chassidism 
know that one of the great attributes of the Zadik is 
aloofness and seclusion. His person is the embodiment 
of the serenity and sacredness of the Sabbath. He shows 



342 COMMUNAL REGISTER 

himself to his followers only on certain occasions and 
great care is taken that he shall appear at his very best. 
At all other times, he remains in absolute seclusion. 
Thus his daily life becomes a profound mystery and his 
followers keep on spinning all sorts of fantastic tales 
around his mysterious existence. I do not wish to convey 
the idea that this seclusion is merely a sham. Most of 
the "Zadikim were really devoted to study and worship 
during these long, lonely hours. But a public perform- 
ance of these functions would not have been quite so 
conducive to arouse admiration in the eyes of the Chassi- 
dim, and most of the Zadikim adhered, therefore, to the 
principle of absolute secrecy. 

The war made a sudden end to this seclusion of the 
Zadik. Irrespective of his exalted position, he was rudely 
seized from his private study and thrown hither and 
thither. Many of the staunch believers were startled at 
the utter helplessness of their leader, to whom they had 
attributed supernatural powers. For the first time they 
saw him in his human weakness and their faith was 
rudely shaken. Whether with the cessation of the war 
the Zadik will be restored to his former position is a 
matter of grave doubt. 

And how about America ? Can the seed of Chassidism 
find fertile soil in the new world? Before judgment is 
pronounced, whether favorable or otherwise, let us first 
examine a few facts. 

The first man who crossed the Atlantic with the inten- 
tion of establishing himself as a **Guter Yid," in this 
country, was Reb Eliezer Chayim Rabinowitz, son of 
Reb Boruch'l Yompolier and a descendant of the Baal 



OHASsmisM 343 

Shem, the founder of Chassidism. He landed on these 
shores about twenty-five years ago. 

The undertaking was successful in a way j that is, ere 
long the new Zadik's coffers were bulging with money, 
given him by sorrowing and heartbroken women who 
flocked to him, asking for his divine intercession in their 
behalf. He also found a number of followers among the 
rabble. However, he never succeeded in attracting the 
real Chassidim. It is possible that at that early period 
of Eastern European immigration there were too few 
real Chassidim in this country to form a permanent fol- 
lowing. Again, an explanation may be found in the fact 
that he was not a Zadik in his own right, but merely a 
"grandson" of a Zadik. His ultimate abdication may 
also be ascribed to the hostile attitude of the Yiddish 
press, which persecuted him relentlessly. 

Be this as it may, the seed surely fell on barren soil. 
After sojourning a few years in this unfriendly environ- 
ment, Reb Eliezer Chayim renounced his **holy post" 
and left America, to become merely a *' grandson" once 
more. 

During the last twenty years the adherents of the 
various Chassidic sects came to this country in ever 
increasing numbers. Most of them craved for the exal- 
tation and joy of the Zadik 's proximity. Many plans 
were hatched to induce one of the noted Zadikim of the 
old world to come to America. The followers of the 
Zadik of Dzikov (Galicia) promised an annual income 
of about ten thousand dollars to Reb Usher 1 Horvitz, 
one of the old Zadik 's sons, if he would consent to come 
to America. He refused. As a matter of fact, not one of 



344 COMMUNAL REGISTER 

the famous Zadikim would entertain the notion of leav- 
ing his followers at home to try his luck in the new 
world. 

About two years prior to the outbreak of the war, a 
sudden change took place. Several Zadikim made their 
appearance in America almost simultaneously. First 
among them was Reb Schmul Abraham Rabinowitz, son 
of the unsuccessful pioneer mentioned above. He was 
soon followed by his intrepid father who, in spite of his 
advanced age, undertook the voyage once more. (He 
died here about a year ago). Next came a grandson of 
the famous ' * Tolner Rebbi, ' ' Reb Mordecai David Twer- 
sky, who had been compelled to leave Russia because of 
military persecution. Here he is known simply as the 
''Tolner Rebbi." These Zadikim were followed *by two 
others: Reb Yisrol Hagar of Radautz, a grandson of 
Reb Chayim'l Kossover and known here as the ''Rodo- 
witzer Rebbi ' ' ; and the most recent arrival, Reb Boruch 
Sack, son-in-law to Reb David 1 Kobriner, who passes 
here simply as the * ' Kobriner Rebbi. * ' As you see, there 
are now not less than four * * Gute Yidden ' ' in New York. 
In passing, it may be said that all are prosperous. 

One must be careful, though, not to jump to conclu- 
sions concerning the existence of Chassidism in America 
because there are four Zadikim living in New York. The 
question is really this : are these Zadikim surrounded by 
a genuine Chassidic environment, similar to the one 
which surrounded their prototypes in the old world? 
And again, is true Chassidism, retaining its traditional 
aspects, at all possible in this country ? It may be highly 
regrettable, but it is nevertheless true, that all our 



CHASSIDISM 345 

Zadikim have barely a score of followers of the genuine 
Chassidic type. The ^'Tolner Rebbi" (with all due 
apologies to the other three Zadikim) is considered the 
most prominent amongst them, owing to his personality 
and to his famous ancestry. And even he was compelled 
to abandon one of the most important traditions in 
Chassidic conduct, the ' ' Tisli ; ' ' that is, the taking of the 
Sabbath meals surrounded by the Chassidim, which is 
generally a scene of great enthusiasm and one of the few 
occasions when the Zadik reveals himself in all his glory. 
The reason for this was simply lack of genuine Chassidic 
environment. There is deep significance in the Chassidic 
adage which declares that the ** Chassidim make the 
Rebbi. ' ' The greatest of them would soon lose his power 
and influence if he were to sit down to table with a 
host of indifferent men given more to the contemplation 
of the dishes set before them than of their leader 's great- 
ness and sanctity. 

And how about the Chassidim? Are there none here 
who really want a Rebbi ? 

The question is debatable. Some maintain that true 
Chassidim never existed here. Coming to America means 
essentially some sort of compromise with the new sur- 
roundings. True Chassidism, on the other hand, knows 
no compromise. The real Chassid, therefore, never risks 
his soul, and stays at home. Those who do not are not 
true Chassidim. 

The **Tolner Rebbi" views the situation from a dif- 
ferent angle. He maintains that there are here not less 
than thirty thousand Chassidim and as many as one 
hundred and thirty- three *'Klausen." They all have a 



846 COMMUNAL REGISl'BB 

/ 

great hankering for the **Tish" of the Zadik. The crux 
of the situation, though, is this : The Russian Chassidim, 
the followers of the Tschernobler and Sadagorer Zadi- 
kim, have shown a great tendency to modern dress and 
modem manners, even in the old country. Coming to 
this country they became quickly Americanized, and 
although their hearts still throb with the old faith, they 
are not strong enough to live outwardly as Chassidim. 
It is true they are ready to support the Zadik,- they are 
still his friends, but they cannot conform any longer to 
purely Chassidic conduct, and their influence on the 
Zadik is insignificant. 

The Chassidim hailing from Galicia and Poland, on 
the other hand, have really retained their old Chassidic 
life and habits. They maintain all the * ' Chassidische 
Klausen" and are still imbued with the real spirit of 
the faith. But these Chassidim will not shift their 
allegiance from one Zadik to another. Every one of these 
groups remains faithful to its Zadik at home and refuses 
to sit at the feet of any ' ' Rebbi ' ' who is not a descendant 
of the original stock. 

The ''Tolner Rebbi" is of the opinion that if one of 
the Galician or Polish Zadikim would venture to come 
to this country, he would find a host of followers and 
would even become a dominant factor in Jewish life in 
America. 

But this is mere speculation. Judging from present 
conditions, one must come to the conclusion that Ameri- 
can soil is rather unfavorable for the seed of the Chassi- 
dic cult. So far Chassidism is placed in the very queer 
position of having four Zadikim without Chassidim, and 
thirty thousand Chassidim without a single Zadik. 



Educational Agencies 



349 



THE PRESENT STATUS OF JEWISH 

RELIGIOUS EDUCATION IN 

NEW YORK CITY 

By S. Benderly 
Directory Bureau of Jewish Education 

Provision for Jewish Education Insufficient 

The list of schools, the statistical tables and the graphs 
in this department of the Register, tell a simple and 
serious tale. There are in New York City approximately 
275,000 Jewish children attending the eight grades of 
the public school system. Of this large number of chil- 
dren, only 65,000 receive some form of religious and 
moral instruction at any one time; that is to say, 
provision is made for only 23.5% of the total, or approxi- 
mately one child out of four.^ 

What does this fact signify? It means that an enor- 
mous number of Jewish boys and girls in this city grow 
up without any Jewish education. Some of them because 
of native endowment, nUK niDT? grow up into fine Ameri- 
can citizens in spite of the fact that they receive no 
Jewish training. But just because of their innate abili- 
ties, might not these Jews and Jewesses have made 
American citizens of a still finer quality, had they come 
under the influence of Jewish education and of Jewish 
ideals? From the Jewish comjnunity many of them are 

*See Table I and Graph I. 



350 OOMMUN^^ tUSGlSTKK 

certainly estranged. They are lost to the cause of 
Judaism in this city. 

On the other hand, there is a large number of Jewish 
boys and girls who, as adolescents and as adults, show 
the effects of this lack of religious and moral training. 
They are the boys and girls whosQ characters are not so 
strong, and who because of the community's neglect, or 
the parents' indifference with regard to their religious 
and moral training, grow up into mean, selfish men and 
women, interested only in material things, and imitating 
the worst features of American life. Many of these con- 
stitute a disintegrating force both in the Jewish and in 
the general community. 

School Accommodation Inadequate 

But what about the 65,000 children who do come 
under the influence of religious and moral instruction? 
Are they properly accommodated? Is the instruction 
offered to them well organized and systematic? Table 
2 and Graph 2 tell a tale of wretched accommodation 
for the bulk of these 65,000 children. Only about 8,000 
children receive their religious instruction in modern 
sanitary buildings; 9,000 children receive their instruc- 
tion in remodeled dwellings; 15,000 children receive 
their instruction in dark underground vestry rooms of 
synagogues; 5,000 children are found in the various 
Jewish recreational centres and in orphan asylums of 
this city. Some 17,000 children are taught in miser- 
able holes, known as Chedarim. These are located in 
cellars, in vacant stores, in meeting rooms, in the rear 



JEWISH RELIGIOUS SCHOOLS 351 

of saloons, and in garrets. About 10,000 children are 
taught in their homes, the place of instruction being the 
kitchen, the dining-room, the parlor or one of the bed- 
rooms. 

It is hardly necessary to add anything to complete the 
sordid picture of accommodation for religious instruc- 
tion in this great city of New York. The conditions 
are in themselves sufficient to arouse the indignation of 
any self-respecting Jew. But we must remember that 
our children also attend the public schools of the city. 
What can our children think of Judaism, if after their 
stay in the modern public school buildings, we offer 
them Jewish classrooms which are badly ventilated and 
poorly lighted, and which are very often not kept clean. 
They are bound to interpret the entire heritage of our 
people in the terms of the physical side of the class- 
room; for not only young children, but also adult chil- 
dren do that. We must realize also that in view of the 
fact that many of these children are taught after public 
school hours, when they are already fatigued, there is 
the risk of infection amidst the unsanitary surroundings 
of many Jewish schools. Many of these children come 
from homes that are well furnished and properly taken 
care of. If the parents would take the trouble to visit 
these classrooms, they might be shocked to find their 
children taught in such schools and under such con- 
ditions. These parents might discover that large spaci- 
ous synagogues which are used only once a week, are 
a luxury, when the same synagogues offer their children 
dark unsanitary classrooms for study. 



^^2 COMMUNAL BEQISTBR 

Large Schools Indispensable in 
New York City 

A glance at Table 3 and Graph 3 suffices to show with 
what efficiency the actual work of Jewish schools can be 
done. It has been said that the entire population of New 
York City moves once in three years. As regards many 
sections of the Jewish population of the city, it would 
be nearer the truth to say that they move three times 
in one year. How does this affect the organization of 
the religious school? The classes in a school form a 
pyramid; the lower classes constituting the base, and 
the graduating classes, the apex. The narrower the 
initial base, the smaller must be the final apex. Unless 
a school in New York City has a large number of chil- 
dren in the lower grades, very few survive for the upper 
grades. Many of the children leave school for one 
reason or another; some move away from the district, 
while others, finding school irksome, offer a variety of 
excuses for discontinuing their studies. It may shock 
the reader to know that in most of the Jewish schools 
of this city, more than half of the children leave every 
year. That means, that if a school has a register of, let 
us say, 400 children, that school is bound to lose some- 
where between 200 and 300 of these 400 children in the 
course of one year. A transfer system would of course 
minimize to a considerable extent this serious wasteful 
loss. But a transfer system is only possible when there 
are enough schools giving the same form of instruction 
and conveniently located. In New York City we do not 
have enough schools, nor is theire any uniformity in cur- 



JEWISH BBLIGIOUB SCHOOL* 35H 

ricula or methods among those that we do have. Fur- 
thermore, regular school buildings are very expensive. 
The modern classroom costs between $8,000 and $10,000, 
and it does not pay to erect a school building with less 
than ten or fifteen classrooms. The small school which 
needs only two or three classrooms, cannot avail itself 
of modern facilities. 

Under these conditions of constant shifting of the 
population, of lack of a uniform curriculum, and of the 
costliness of modern school buildings, what chance does 
a small school have to do good work? Indeed, it has 
no chance ! Only large schools that can have modern 
accommodation, that can have large numbers of children 
in their lower grades, and that can afford to have a well 
paid principal to supervise the instruction, can do effec- 
tive work. 

From Table 3 and Graph 3, the reader can see how 
large the Jewish schools of this city are. Of the 181 
schools in which 41,000 Jewish children are taught, 40 
schools have less than 100 children on their register; 97 
schools, from 100 to 300; 24 schools, from 300 to 500; 13 
schools, from 500 to 700, and 7 schools have 700 pupils 
and over. In other words, of the 181 schools, only 44 
schools, those that have more than 300 children, have 
a chance to do fairly good work with a reasonable ex- 
penditure of money, energy, enthusiasm and love. In 
the smaller schools, the cost of energy and money far 
exceeds the results. Then, too, let us not forget that 
the large number of children who are taught in the 
holes called Chedarim, do not even have the opportun- 
ity which a Jewish child has in the smallest of the 



354 COMMUNAJ^ RKGJSTKK 

schools. As to private instruction in the homes — there, 
chaos reigns supreme ! 

The Jewish Schools an Uncoordinated 
System 

Table 4 and Graph 4 attempt to depict the auspices 
under which Jewish religious instruction is imparted. 
This table and graph show that the 181 schools, (let 
alone the 500 Chedarim), constitute a totally unco- 
ordinated system. Of the 181 schools, 67 are Community 
Weekday Schools, which are distinct institutions, not de- 
pendent upon any congregation or any other institution. 
Fifty of the schools are Congregational Weekday Schools 
constituting, in most cases, the tail-end of their respec- 
tive congregations, whereas thirty-seven are Congrega- 
tional Sunday Schools, receiving a little more attention 
on the part of the rabbis and the congregation than 
some of the weekday classes, but suffering greatly from 
inanition. Ten of the schools are Institutional Weekday 
Schools, which form a department of some larger in- 
stitution, and there are Institutional Sunday Schools, 
conducted along the same lines, but giving less time to 
instruction. There are also four Parochial Schools, en- 
tirely out of joint with all the other schools. Then 
comes the great host of Chedarim, more than 500 of 
them, as well as the 10,000 children taught in their own 
homes, where the grandmother often decides what 
should constitute the content of Jewish instruction. A 
veritable Babel! And yet, hard though it may be to 
believe it, the Jews of this city actually spend, and are 



jKwiiia KifiL.iaiou« SCHOOLS 355 

willing to »pencl, more thgm a million and a quaiter del 
lars a year for this hodge-podge of education. 

The Outlook Hopeful 

It may be that some of the readers will object to the 
picture of Jewish education in New York which I have 
drawn. They will say, as usual, that in the first place, 
it is not so black and dismal as that ; and, secondly, that 
even if it were so, njn n^:n 5>X, that we must keep it 
quiet, so as not to discourage the work which is being 
done now. It is not my purpose to discourage. It is 
merely a question of method. As long as the Jews of 
this community do not understand the actual status of 
Jewish religious education in the city, they cannot make 
any further progress. Understanding the problem is 
one-half of its solution; and it is here that I wish to 
sound a note of optimism. 

I believe that the Jews of this city are beginning to 
understand the problem of Jewish education. It is true 
that the great majority is still indifferent ; that many so- 
called leaders are still busy with petty things. But 
there are some Jews in this city who do appreciate the 
gravity of the situation, and are lending their support 
to the awakening of this great Jewish community. While 
it wiU be impossible, and to my mind undesirable, to 
create in this city a completely centralized system of 
Jewish religious education, a number of coordinating in- 
fluences, tending towards greater efficiency in Jewish 
instruction, are beginning to appear. The principals of 
the larger Jewish schools of this city, organized into the 
Hebrew Principals* Association, have for the past seven 



>J56 COMMUNAL REGISTER 

years been coming together regularly for the purpose of 
consultation and cooperation. A new generation of 
Jewish teachers has sprung up, and they as well as 
the older Hebrew teachers, have organized the Jewish 
Teachers* Association and the Hebrew Teachers' Associa- 
tion, the primary aim of which is to improve the status 
of the Jewish teachers and to raise the standard of 
Jewish teaching. The Sunday school teachers, also, 
through the Religious School Union, are struggling for- 
ward. The Teachers ' Institute of this city has been pro- 
gressing from year to year, and if properly supported, 
will without doubt give us in the course of time many 
competent American Jewish teachers, of whom we are 
now in the greatest need. The Jewish parents of this 
city are awakening. They have banded themselves in 
the various schools into parents ' associations, which form 
parts of one large Jewish Parents' Association for the 
entire city. The younger rabbis are beginning to real- 
ize that the school work in their congregations is more 
important and may ultimately prove to be more effec- 
tive than the pulpit. 

On the pedagogic side, intensive work is being done 
to solve the whole problem of method and text books, so 
as to establish a uniform standard curriculum, or cur- 
ricula, for the Jewish schools. The question is also being 
considered of what can be done for that large number 
of Jewish children of this city who do not receive any 
Jewish religious education, the three out of four for 
whom no educational provision is made. Comprehen- 
sive experiments are being conducted on their behalf in 
Extension Jewish Educatiofi, Then, too, the Jewish 



JEWISH RELIGIOUS SCHOOLS 367 

youth, the 200,000 Jewish boys and girls between the 
ages of 14 and 21, the citizens of tomorrow — their prob- 
lem is also receiving attention, and signs of awakening 
among them are already apparent. But what is still 
more encouraging, is the fact that in the community, a 
number of laymen have banded themselves together, call- 
ing themselves the Board of Jewish School Aid. These 
public-spirited men have pledged themselves to become 
the champions of Jewish education in this city. They 
have already made one great step forward in this di- 
rection. If the functions of this Board increase and 
widen, and if the same spirit animates it in the future 
as it does now, we will, through its aid, redeem the 
Jewish boys and girls of New York for the Jewish 
people. 



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859 



PROPORTION OF CHELDREN RECEIVING JEWISB 
INSTRUCTION 




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361 

KINDS OP SCHOOL, ACCO>OIODATION PROVIDED FOR 
JEWISH CHILDREN 







mv 



Proportion of Total 

Number of Jewish 

Children attending the 

public schools 


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16,225 
9,249 
6,741 
6,596 


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500-700 

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363 



SIZE OF THE JEWISH SCHOOLS OP NEW YORK 

(Showing Proportion of Children in Schools of Various Si9;e) 




364 



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365 



TYPES OF RELIGIOUS INSTRUCTION PROVIDED FOR 
JBAVISH CHILDREN OF NEW YORK 




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461 



PREFATOKY JVOTES ON JEWISH EDUCA- 
TIONAL AGENCIES OF NEW YORK > 

By Alexander M. Dushkin 

Head of Department of Study and Appraisal, Bureau 

of Jewish Education 

There are over 275,000 Jewish children in the eight 
grades of the public schools of New York City. Of these, 
only 65,000, or about 23.5%, are given Jewish religious 
instruction at any one time. (See Table I). Of the 
65,000 children, 16,000 are girls. 

The instruction is provided in various forms. To over 
41,000 children religious education is offered in 181 
schools. To some 14,000 children, Jewish instruction is 
given in Chedarim, of which there are over 500 in the 
city. To 10,000 children Jewish instruction is offered 
in their own homes by private teachers. 

Most of the 181 schools are distinct institutions, not 
affiliated with any other school. Many of them are small 
schools having less than one hundred pupils, whereas 
there are seven schools whose register consists of more 
than 700 pupils. (See Table III). The average Jewish 
school in New York has an enrollment of 160 pupils, and 
employs two or three teachers. 

The organization and management of the schools 
vary in effectiveness. Some are unorganized and poor- 
ly administered, while others are well equipped, care- 



* Ed. Note: The figures quoted in these notes are based upon: "A 
Survey of Jewish Religious Education in New York City," by Alexander 
M. Dushkin, a dissertation submitted for the Ph.D. degree at Teachers' 
College, Columbia University, 1918. The classification of schools used in 
this study differs slisrhtly from that employed in the Communal Ref^istor 



368 COMMUNAL REGISTER 

fully graded, educational institutions whose pupils are 
taught by professional teachers under supervision of 
competent principals. The better type of Jewish school 
is not inferior in equipment or standard of work to any 
of the public schools of the city. Among the 181 schools 
are weekday schools (Talmud Torahs and Hebrew 
Schools), Sunday schools, and Parochial schools. 

Supplementary Weekday Instruction 

Of the 181 schools there are 136 in which instruction 
is given supplementary to the studies in the public 
schools, on weekday afternoons, on Sundays, and, in 
some cases, also on Saturdays. Of these schools, 50 are 
congregational schools, organized and managed by a con- 
gregation, as an adjunct of the synagogue ; 67 are com- 
munal schools, organized and managed by special edu- 
cational societies, whose chief function is the education 
of Jewish children; 10 are institutional schools, con- 
ducted as part of some Jewish welfare institution, (or- 
phanage, settlement, etc.) ; and the remaining 9 consist 
of larger Jewish private schools, (not chedarim). These 
136 schools give instruction to 32,467 children, of whom 
20,124 are in the communal schools, 8,123 in congrega- 
tional schools, 2,990 in institutional schools, and 1,230 in 
the larger 'private schools. (See Table IV). More than 
three-fourths of the 65,000 Jewish children, therefore, 
receive their religious education outside of the syna- 
gogue. 

As regards the place of instruction, 8 of the schools 
are conducted in special school buildings; 32 in re- 
modeled buildings; 14 in institutional buildings; and 



JEWISH RELIGIOUS SCHOOLS 

the rest in vestries of synagogues and in rented rooms. 
(See Table II). The average weekday school holds ses- 
sions during 48 weeks of the year, from as few as 3 to 4 
hours per week in some of the congregational weekday 
schools, to as many as 30 hours per week in some of the 
older Talmud Torahs. The children are usually taught 
in shifts, the average being from 2 to 3 shifts per day. 
The average Jewish teacher, therefore, instructs from 
two to three classes every day, with a total of about 70 
pupils. In the typical weekday school, the number of 
hours of instruction given to each child varies from 63^ 
hours in the lowest grade to 9>^ hours in the seventh 
or highest grade. 

The annual cost of instruction ranges from $7.85 per 
child to over $43.00 per child, with an average per 
capita cost of approximately $22.00 annually. The in- 
come of the schools is derived from three sources : 30% 
comes from tuition fees of the pupils; 20% from prop- 
erty owned by the school, (such as synagogue, room 
rents, etc. ) ; and 50% is derived from the community, 
chiefly in the form of membership dues and donations. 
The task of collecting the income from the last source 
embarrasses considerably the management of the schools. 
The total sum spent by the Jews of New York upon the 
weekday school is approximately $740,000. 

The total teaching staff consists of 615 teachers, of 
whom about 23% are women. The salary of teachers 
ranges from $300 to $1,200 per year. The average salary 
is $780 annually for 22 hours' work during the week. 
Per teaching hour this compensation is practically as 
low as the lowest salary paid to public school teachers. 



370 COMMUNAL REGISTER 

The course of study places the main emphasis upou 
the study of the Hebrew langauge and literature. It 
extends over five to seven years, giving a total of 2,600 
hours of instruction. In the typical school of this class, 
35% of the time is allotted to the study of Hebrew; 
(reading, conversation, grammar, composition and writ- 
ing) ; 40% of the time is devoted to biblical and post- 
biblical literature, of which 31% goes to the study of the 
Bible; 10% of the time is given to the teaching of his- 
tory; 12% to the study of prayers, customs and laws; 
and about 3% is given to music and other subjects. The 
curricula vary, however, both in amount of time, and 
in the subjects taught. In a few of the older Talmud 
Torahs, the center of attention is upon the Talmud; 
whereas in the national-radical schools, the instruction 
is ** non-religious," and the curriculum consists chiefly 
in the study of the Yiddish language and literature. 

Weekday Conimunal Schools 

MANHATTAN AND BRONX 

AnBhel Polen Talmud Torah, to U. S. 1872. Studied In 

169 Suffolk St. Communal European Yeshibaha. Real 

weekday school. Organized estate: 127 Delancey St 

1911. Pres., H. M. Green- Res.: 34 W. 119th St. 
bergr. Principal and sec'y. 

Mendel Holtz. No. pupils: Aushei Zitomir Talmud 

100 boys. Staff: 3 teachers. Torah, 337 B. 4th St. Com- 

Sesaions: Sunday, 10 a. m. munal weekday school. Or- 

to 1:30 p. m.; weekdays, 4 ganized 1912. Pres.. Max 

to 7:30 p. m. Meyerson. Sec'y, S. Scheiner. 

Greenber^, Henry Michael, Principal: Rabbi E. Horo- 

Prea. Anshel Polen Talmud witz. No. pupils: 482 boys, 

Torah (169 Suffolk St.), 103 girls. Staff. 7 teachers; 

since 1914. Term 1 year. 6 year course. Sessions: 

Born 1852 In Russia. Came weekdays. 4 to 8 p. m.; 



JEWISH RELIGIOUS SCHOOLtJ 



371 



Saturday, 9 to 11 a. m.; 
Sunday, 10 a. m. to 2 p. m. 
Affiliated; Ladies' Malbish 
Arumim, Ladies' Refresh- 
ment Committee for poor 
children, Children's Clubs. 
mieyerson. Max, Pres. Anshei 
Zitomir Talmud Torah, 337 
E. 4th St., since 1913. Term 
1 year. Born 1870 in Russia. 
Came to U. S. 1895. Received 
general Jewish and secular 
education. Paper and twine: 
86 Hudson St. Res.: 230 W. 
Kinney St., Newark N. J. 

Augrnstower Talmud Torah, 

122 W. 129th St. Principal: 
M. Rabinowitz. No. of pu- 
pils: 75 boys. 

Bureau of JeTvish E^ducatton, 

356 Second Ave. A commu- 
nal educational agency, or- 
ganized in 1910 for the pur- 
pose of coordinating the 
work of the Jewish schools, 
of rendering them advice 
and aid, and conducting 
studies and experiments, 
looking toward the solution 
of the various problems of 
Jewish education in Amer- 
ica. (For complete account 
see Bureau of Jewish Edu- 
cation, among the research 
and coordinating agencies.) 
Among its activities the 
Bureau also conducts a 
I system of experimental 

Jewish schools: Element- 
ary, Intermediate and High 
School for girls, and sec- 
ondary classes for high 
school boys. Its Girls' 
Schools are situated \t) th« 



following school buildings: 
School No. 1 — In the build- 
ing of the Uptown Talmud 
Torah, 132 E. 111th St. 
Principal: Albert Schoolman. 
School No. 2 — In the build- 
ing of the Downtown Tal- 
mud Torah, 394 E. Houston 
St. Principal: Leah Klep- 
per. 

School No. 3 — In the build- 
ing of the Hebrew Free 
School, 414 Stone Ave., 
B'klyn. Principal: Benja- 
min Rosen. 

School No. 4 — In the build- 
ing of the Young Women*.s 
Hebrew Association, 31 W. 
110th St. Principal: Albert 
Schoolman. 

School No. 5 — In the build- 
ing of the Hebrew Techni- 
cal School for Boys, 3'4 
Stuyvesant St. Principal: 
Sarah Solomon. 
In these schools 2458 girls 
are taught by 21 teachers. 
The secondary classes for 
boys (supervisor: Joseph 
Bragin) are situated in the 
buildings of the Salanter 
Talmud Torah, the Uptown 
Talmud Torah, the Down- 
town Talmud Torah, the 
Hebrew Free School, and 
the Glory of Israel Talmud 
Torah, B'klyn. The classes 
for high school boys and 
high school girls, as well as 
the special preparatory 
classes of the intermediate 
girls' schools, are conducted 
for the purpose of training 
a selected group of pupils 
to enter the Teachers' In- 
stitute, and to undertake 



372 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



Jftwlsh teaching as a pro> 
fession. There are 650 pu- 
pils In these classes. 
Besides these schools the 
Bureau is also attempting 
to reach the great numbers 
of Jewish children who re- 
ceive no formal Jewish edu- 
cation. This is done 
through Its extension de- 
partment by means of two 
organizations. The Circle of 
Jewish Children of Amer- 
ica, for children of school 
age, and the League of Jew- 
ish Youth, for adolescents 
between the ages of 14 and 
21. These organizations are 
self-governing. By means 
of districting the entire city 
the members reach all the 
boys and girls in their local- 
ity. The Circle numbers 
10,000 children and the 
League over 9,000 adoles- 
cents. 

The Central Jewish Institute, 

125 E. 85th St. A Jewish 
community centre organized 
in 1916. Modern school 
building, (10 class rooms, 2 
kindergarten rooms, 2 social 
rooms, library, auditorium, 
Gymnasium). Budget $30,000. 
Pres., Jacob H. Rubin. Hon. 
Sec'y, Victor Friedman. Ex- 
ecutive Director, Isaac B. 
Berkson. Designed as a 
neighborhood centre with 
an emphasis on Jewish edu- 
cational work. Building ex- 
cellently equipped for edu- 
cational, social and recrea- 
tional activities. Its Hebrew 
School gives instruction to 



500 boys and fflrls. Organ- 
ized children's club work 
under Clrcl© of Jewish Chil- 
dren, enrollment 500; work 
with adolescents, through 
League of Jewish Touth, en- 
rollment 500. In addition to 
8 teachers and vice-principal 
of the Talmud Torah, the 
Institute stafe Includes 10 
paid workers and 10 trained 
workers who give part time 
service free or at nominal 
rates. 

Darchei Noam Talmud Torah, 

78 Second St. Organized 
1913. Communal weekday 
school. Pres., B. Ferzdik. 
Sec'y, D. Weinstein. No. 
pupils: 200 boys, 28 girls. 
Staff: 3 teachers. Sessions: 
Sunday, 9 a. m. to 1:30 p. m.; 
weekdays, 3 to 7:30 p. m. 

Downtown Talmud Torah, 394 

E. Houston St. A communal 
weekday school, organized 
in 1890. School Building. 
Budget $18,000. Pres., Wm. 
Fischman. Sec'y, I. Ewen. 
Principal, I. Konowitz. 
A 7 years' course of study 
is offered to 638 boys of 
elementary and higher 
grades under a staff of 9 
teachers. Sessions are held 
on Sunday from 9 a. m. to 
1 p. m., and on weekdays 
from '4 to 8 p. m. On Fri- 
day evenings and Saturday 
mornings, as well as on the 
holidays, the pupils conduct 
their own services. 
The school houses one of the 
experimental Girls' Schools 
of the Bureau of Education. 



JEWISH RELIGIOUS SCHOOLS 



373 



and Is one of the centers of 
the League of the Jewish 
Youth of Amrica, and of the 
Circle of Jewish Children of 
America. 

Festivals, Clubs, Glee and 
Dramatic Clubs, as well as 
"Parents" Associations, are 
part of the school organiza- 
tion. 

Fi.sehman. William, P r e s . 
Down Town Talmud Torah 
(394 E. Houston St.), 
since 1902. Term 1 year. 
Born in Austria. Received 
general education. Mer- 
chant: 13-15 E. 26th' St. 
Res.: 315 Central Park West. 

Hunts Point T. T., 1019 Gar- 
rison Ave. Communal week- 
day school. Organized June, 
1916. Pres.: S. Saffer. Sec'y: 
M. Siegler. Principal: Akiba 
Fleishman. No. pupils: 80 
boys, 30 girls. Staff: 3 
teachers. Sessions: Sun- 
day, 9 to 1 p. m.; weekdays, 
4 to 8 p. m. 

Saflfer, Samuel. Pres. Hunt's 
Point T. T. (1019 Garrison 
Ave.), since 1916. Term 1 
year. Born 1868 in Russia. 
Came to U. S. 1882. Received 
general Jewish education. 
Mfgr. clothing: 1 Bond St. 
Res.: 820 Manida St. 

Jewish National Radical 
School, 188 Ludlow St. Com- 
munal weekday school. Or- 
ganized in 1911. It was the 
first of the National Radical 
Schools, whose curriculum 
is based on purely national- 
istic tendencies, including 
the study of Hebrew and 



ifiddish languages and lit- 
erature, Biblical and mod- 
ern Jewish history, the 
celebration of all National 
Jewish holidays, and an un- 
derstanding of present Jew- 
ish life. Principal: Joel 
Enteen. Sec'y: J. Goldman. 
No. pupils: 80 boys. 120 
girls. Staff: 4 teachers. 
Sessions: Sunday, 10 a. m. 
to 2 p. m. ; weekdays, '4 to 8 
p. m. 

Jewish National Radical 
School, 46 E. 104th St. Org. 
1912. Communal Weekday 
School. Sec'y, S. Lipschitz. 
Principal: J. Entin. No. pu- 
pils: 70 boys, 130 girls. Staff: 
8- teachers. Sessions: Week- 
days, 4 to 7 p. m.; Saturday 
and Sunday, 10 a. m. to 6 
p. m. 

Machzilcei Talmud Torah, 

Main School, 225 E. B'way; 
Branch, 68 B. 7th St. Com- 
munal Weekday School, or- 
ganized in 1883. It was the 
first Talmud Torah organ- 
ized by Russian Jews in 
New York. School Building. 
Budget $18,000. Pres.: Moses 
Phillips. Sec'y: M. Cohen. 
Principal: Solomon Uselaner. 
Principal of Branch: J. 
Leiserowltz. The two schools 
offer a six years course of 
study to 821 boys and 476 
girls. Staff: 20 teachers. 
Sessions: Sundays, 9 a. m. to 
1 p. m.; weekdays, 4 to 8 
p. m. 

National Hebrew School, 183 

Madison St. Communal 



374 



COMMUNAJL REGISTER 



Weekday School for girls, 
org-anized 1910. Pres.: S. 
Naitove. Sec'y: Ben. Bar- 
ondess. Principal: A. H. 
Friedland. This school oftevs 
a 10 years' course of in- 
struction (4 years elemen- 
tary, 3 years intermediate 
and 3 years advanced), 
with particular emphasis 
upon the study of the He- 
brew Lang-uag-e and Litera- 
ture. The school teaches 430 
girls and 70 boys, on Sunday 
from 9 a. m. to 1:30 p. m., 
and on weekdays from 4 to 
8 p. m. A Hebrew circulat- 
ing library for children and 
a children's Hebrew theatre 
are part of the school equip- 
ment. 

LVational Hebrew School, 1695 
Washington A\"e. Org. Ji*!!. 
Communal Weekday School. 
Pres.: Harry J. Kahn. Princi- 
pal: Menachem Schlossberg. 
No. pupils: 125 boys, 125 
girls. Staff: 3 teachers. Ses- 
sions: Sunday, 9 a. m. to 1 
p. m.; weekdays, 4 to 8 p. m. 

Montefiore Hebre-w Free 
School, 40 Gouverneur St. 
Communal Weekday School. 
Org. 1889. Pres.: B. Melts- 
ner, 1133 B'way. Sec'y: K 
N. Shaffer. Principal: J 
Buchalter. No. pupils: l.ST 
boys, 190 girl.<9. Staff: <". 
teachers. Sessions: Sunday. 
10 a. m. to 1 p. m.; w<^ek- 
days, 4 to 7 p. m. 

Society Ohel Torah, 802 E. 6th 

St. Communal Weekday 
School. Org. 1901. School 



Building Budget, $11,000. 
Pres.: Jacob Weiss. Sec'y: 
Miss M. Klein. No. pupils: 
250 boys, 100 girls. Staff: 6 
teachers. Sessions: Sunday. 
9 a. m. to 1 p. m.; week- 
days, 4 to 8 p. m. 

Weiss, Jacob, Pres. Ohel 
Torah (802 E. 6th St.), since 
1914. Term 1 year. Born 
1861 in Hungary. Came to 
U. S. 1898. Received general 
Jewish education. Res.: 73 
Ave. D. 

Kabbi Iisrael Salanter Talmud 
Torah, 74 E. 118th St. Com- 
munal Weekday School, or- 
ganized in 1907. School 
Building Budget, $13,000. 
Pres.: J. Smolensky. Prin- 
cipal: Rabbi S. L. Hurwitz. 
Sec'y: Barnett Simon. A 6 
years' course of instruction 
is offered to 460 boys and 80 
girls. The school conducts 
evening classes 3 evenings a 
week, for 80 pupils. Jewish 
high school classes for boys 
are also conducted under the 
auspices of the Bureau of 
Education. Sessions are held 
on Sunday, 9 a.m. to 1 p.m. 
and on weekdays, from 4 to 
8 p. m. The institution 
serves as a center for the 
Circle of Jewish Children of 
America. Affiliated: Parents' 
Ass'n, Children's Clubs, 
•Synagogue, Cemetery 
Smolensky, Joseph, Pres 
Talmud Torah Israel Salan- 
ter (74 E. 118th St.), since 
1907. Term 1 year. Born 
1869 in Russia. Came to 



•fBWlSH RKIjIGIOUS SCHOOLS 



375 



U. S. 1884. Received general 
Jewish education. Jeweler: 
18 E. B'way. Res.: 2041 5th 
Ave. 

Kabbi Jacob Da\ld T. T. 85 

Henry St. Communal 
Weekday School. Org. 1913 
Pres. : Morris A s o f s k y . 
Sec'y: M. Mazero witch 
Principal: Rabbi Jacob E. 
Eskolsky. No. pupils: 160 
boys. Staff: 3 teachers. Ses- 
sions: Sunday, 9 a. m. to 1 
p. m.; weekdays, 3 to 7 p. 
m.; Saturday, 2 to 3 p. m. 
Asofsky, Morris, Pres. Rabbi 
Jacob David T. T. (85 Henry 
St.), since 1913. Term 1 year. 
Born 1881 in Russia. Came to 
U. S. 1897. Received general 
education. Broker: 204 E. 
B'way. Res.: 326 Roebling 
St., B'klyn. 

Rabbi Josepb Moses Sebapiro 
YcsMbah, 108 Attorney St. 
Communal Weekday School. 
Org. 1915. Pres.: P. Las- 
sower. Principal: Joseph 
Tonenblatt. No. pupils: 200 
boys, 50 girls. Staff: 6 teach- 
ers. Sessions: Sunday, 9 a. m 
to 1 p. m.; weekdays. 3 to 7 
p. m. 

Rabbi Solomon Kluger School, 
319 Rivington St. Communai 
Weekday School. Org. 1906. 
Pres. : H. M. G r e e n b e r g. 
Principal and Sec'y: Leib 
Rokeach. No. pupils: 378 
boys. Staff: 7 teachers. Ses- 
sions: Sunday, 9 a. m. to 1 
p. m.; weekdays, 4 to 7 p. m 

Sholom Aleichem Folkii 
S c b a 1 e. 1387 Washington 



Ave. Org. 1914. CommunaJ 
Weekday School. Branches 
at 173 E. 180th St. and 500 
E. 150th St. P r e s . : Dr. 
J. Kling. Sec'y, R. Wein- 
man. Principal: F a b i u s 
Holmstock. No pupils: 105 
boys, 70 girls. Staff: 5 teach- 
ers. Sessions: Sunday, 9 a. 
m. to 1 p. m.; weekdays, 4 
to 7:30 p. m.; Saturday, 9 
a. m, to 1 p. m. Affiliated: 
Yiddish Folks Universltet 
and Bibliotek. 

Tipheretb Jerusalem Talmud 
Torab, 147 E. B'way. Com- 
munal Weekday School. 
Pres.: Aaron Jacobs. Sec'y: 
J. Lev in e. Principal: I. 
Meinster. No. pupils: 600 
boys. Staff: 10 teachers. Ses- 
sions: Sunday, 9 a. m. to 3 
p. m.; Wednesday, 3:30 to 
9:30 p. m.: Saturday, 1:30 to 
4:30 p m. 

Jacobs, Aaron, Pres. Talmud 
Torah Tiphereth Jerusalem 
(147 E. B'way), since 1916. 
Term 1 year. Born 1862 in 
Russia. Came to U. S. 1887. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Cotton goods: 251 
Church St. Res.: 780 E. 169th 
St 

Talmud Torah Tomchel Torah, 

790 E. 156th St. Org. 1910. 
Communal Weekday School 
President: Joseph Hyman. 
Sec'y: B. Schoenfeld. Prin- 
cipal: L. Baine. No. pupils: 
150 boys, 30 girls. Staff; 3 
teachers. Sessions: Sunday, 
S to 11 a. m.; weekdays; 4 
to 8 p. m. 



376 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



Byman, Joseph, Pres. T. T. 
T o m c h e i Torah (790 B. 
156th St.), since 1912. Term 
1 year. Came to U. S. 1881. 
Received g^eneral education. 
Real Estate. Res.: 699 Eagle 
Ave. 

Tomchei Talmud Torah of 
Jeshibath Walozin, 9 Rut- 
gers St. Principal: Jacob 
Meyer Edelman. No. of pu- 
pils: 60 boys. 

Yeshibath Torath Chaim 

(Founded by Radawitzer 
Rebby), 293 East Third St. 
Rabbi: Israel Hager. Pres.: 
Ch. Klein. Sec'y: H. Koe- 
nigsberg. Staff: Principal, 
J. Fuerst, 3 teachers. Ses- 
sions: Sunday 9 a. m. to 1 
p. m.; Weekdays, 4 p. m. to 
8 p. m. 

Yeshibath Torath Chaim of 
Harlem, 105 E. 103d St. 
Communal Weekday School. 
Org-. 1902. Membership: 500. 
Pres.: H. Goldstein. Sec'y: 
N . Green. Principal: A. 
Shmulevich. No. pupils: 300 
boys, 60 girls. Staff: 7 teach- 
ers. Sessions: Sunday, 9 a. m. 
to 1 p. m.; weekdays, 4 to 8 
p. m. 

Goldstein, Harris, Pres. 
Yeshibath Torath Chaim (105 
B. 103d St.), since 1915. 
Term year. Born 1867 in 
Russia. Came to U. S. 1883. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Clothing: 809 
B'way. Res.: 76 E. 106th St. 

Talmud Torah Torath Moses, 

667 Dawson St. Communal 
Weekday School. Pres. 



Charles Baltler. No pupils: 
180 boys, 15 girls. Staff: 2 
teachers. Sessions: Sunday, 
9 a. m. to 1 p. m.; weekdays, 
4 to 8 p. m. 

Baitler, Charles, Pres. Tal- 
mud Torah Torath Moses 
(667 Dawson St.), since 
1913. Term 1 year. Born 1862 
in Russia. Came to U. S. 
1885. Received general Jew- 
ish education. Mfgr. of 
sweaters: 395 B'way. Res.: 
830 E. 163d St. 

Tremont Hebre-w Free School, 

484 E. 173d St. Communal 
Weekday School. Pres.: Isaac 
Anselowitz. Sec'y: L. Brom- 
berger. No. pupils: 350 boys. 
Staff: 5 teachers. Sessions: 
Saturday, 2 to 3 p. m.; Sun- 
day, 9 a. m. to 1:30 p. m.: 
weekdays, 4 to 8.30 p. m. 
Anselowitz, Isaac, Pres. Tre- 
mont Heb. Free School (484 
B. 173d St.); elected 1917. 
Term 1 year. Born 1871 in 
Russia. Came to U. S. 1904. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Mfgr. Clothing: 
733 B'way. Res.: 1494 Cro- 
tona Parkway East. 

Uptown Talmud Torah, (Har- 
lem Hebrew Institute), 132 
E. 111th St. Communal 
Weekday School, organized 
In 1890. It is the largest 
Jewish school In America, 
offering instruction to 1,476 
boys. It also houses one of 
the experimental Girls' 
Schools of the Bureau of 
Education. Sessions: Sun- 
day, 9 a. m. to 2 p. m., and 
weekdays. 4 to 8:30 p. m 



JEWISH RElilGlOUS SCHOOIjS 



377 



School Building:. B u d gr e t , 

$50,000, Pres., Samuel Bayer. 
Honorary Sec'y. Louis Man- 
heim. Sup't and Principal: 
E. Ish-Kishor. Besides the 1 
years' elementary course, the 
school also conducts higher 
classes for Jewish high 
school boys. On Saturdays 
and holidays, the pupils, 
who are organized into tv/o 
congregations, conduct their 
own synagogue services. The 
building serves as a neigh- 
borhood center, and offers 
facilities for meetings to 
clubs and social organiza- 
tions. Affiliated with the in- 



stitutions are the League of 
the Jewish Youth of Ameri- 
ca, the Circle of Jewish 
Children of America, a La- 
dies' Malbish Arumim So- 
ciety and a Parents' Ass'n. 
The building contains a 
gymnasium and a children's 
library. 

Zion Hebrew Institute of 
Bronx, 1342 Stebbins Ave. 
Communal Weekday School. 
Principal: S. Widuchinsky. 
No. pupils: 230 boys, 20 
girls. Staff: 3 teachers. Ses- 
sions: Sunday, 9 a. m. to 1 
p, m,; Monday, 4 to 8 p. m. 



Coinniunal Weekday Schools 

BROOKLYN, QUEENS AND RICHMOND 



Austrian Talmudical School, 

42 Morrel St. Communal 
weekday school. Principal: 
S. Fisher. No. pupils: 150 
boys, 25 girls. Staff: 3 
teachers. Sessions: Sunday, 
9 a. m. to 3 p. rn.; weekdays. 
3 to 8 p, m. 

Coney Island T. T., Sea Breeze 
Ave., Coney Island. No. of 
pupils: 30 boys, 10 girls. 

East New York Talmnd Torah, 

872 Dumont Ave. Organized 
1913. Communal weekday 
school. Pres., A. Silberman. 
Sec'y, M. Abramowitz. Prin- 
cipal: Moses Abelowitz. No. 
pupils: 90 boys, 25 girls. 
Staff: 2 teachers. Sessions: 
Sunday, 9 a. m. to 1 p. m.; 
weekdays, 3:30 to 7:30 p. m. 

Ha'^aon Rabbi Elijali Yesbi- 
bah. 297 Saratogra Ave 



Communal weekday school. 
Pres,, M. Feldhuhn. Sec'y, 
A. Cantor, No pupils: 150 
boys. Staff: 4 teachers. 
Sessions: Sunday, 9 to 12 
m.; weekdays, 3:30 to 7:30 
p. m. 

Feldhuhn, Herman, Pres. 
Ha'gaon Rabbi Elijah Yeshi- 
bah (297 Saratoga Ave.); 
elected 1917. Term 1 year. 
Born 1868 in Russia. Came 
to U. S. 1891. Received Pub- 
lic School education. Mfr.: 
258 Canal St, Res.: 1596 St. 
Marks Ave,, B'klyn. 

H e b r e TV Free School of 
Brownsville, 400 Stone Ave., 
A communal weekday 
school, organized in 1901. 
School building budget, 
$23,000, Pres., A. Kaplan. 
Sec'y, Joseph Holtzberg. 
Principal: Harry Handler. 



378 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



The school offers a six year 
course of instruction to 875 
boys and 75 girls, under a 
staff of 11 teachers. It also 
conducts classes in higher 
Jewish studies for high 
school boys, under the aus- 
pices of the Bureau of Jew- 
ish Education. Sessions 
are held on Sunday from 9 
A. M. to 4 p. m., and week- 
days 4 to 8 p. m. On Sat- 
urdays and holidays the 
pupils conduct their own 
services. 

The school houses one of 
the experimental g i r 1 s" 
schools of the Bureau of 
Jewish Education. It also 
serves as a center of the 
League of tlie Jewish Youth, 
and of the Circle of Jewish 
Children. A number of 
Young Judea clubs meet in 
its rooms. Festival clubs 
and parents' meetings are 
part of tlie school activi- 
ties. 

Hebrew^ Free School of Staten 
Island, 386 Jersey St., S. I. 
No. of pupils: 27 boys, 22 
girls. 

Hebrew National Schools of 
B'klyn. Organized 1905. 
Present officers: Pres., Jacob 
Fink; Sec'y, A. Oshinsky; 
Principal, Abram Perlberg. 
Three communal weekday 
schools, main school, 63 
Tompkins Ave.; branches, 
181 McKlbben St., 844 De- 
Kalb Ave. Total enroll- 
ment: 125 boys, 570 girls. 
Total staff: 6 teachers. 
Sessions: Sunday 9 a. m. 



to 2 p. m.; weekdays, 4 to 8 
p. m. 

Fink, Jacob, Pres. Hebrew 
National Schools of B'klyn. 
(63 Tompkins Ave.), since 
1915. Term 6 months. Born 
1868 in Russia. Came to U. 
S. 1887. Received general 
and Talmudical education. 
Merchant: 813-17 Broadway, 
B'klyn. Res.: 20 Belvidere 
St., B'klyn. 

Hebrew National School, 1554 
St. Marks Ave., B'klyn. 
Principal: Benjamin J. Solo- 
mon. No. of pupils: 35 boys. 

Jewish National Radical 
School, 1701 Pitkin Avenue, 

Brooklyn. Communal Week- 
day School. Principal: My- 
er Brown. No. pupils: 25 
boys, 75 girls. Staff: 3 
teachers. Sessions: Daily, 3 
to C p. m. 
Machzlkei Talmud Torah, 1319 
43d St., B'klyn. Communal 
Weekday School. School 
building. Org. 1908. Pres., 
.Jacob Neinken. Sec'y, H. I. 
Barnett. Principal: Hyman 
E. Goldin. No. pupils: 415 
boys, 230 girls. Staff: 10 
teachers. Sessions: Sunday, 
9 a. m. to 1 p. m. ; weekdays, 
4 to 8 p. m 7 year course. 
Affiliated: Children's clubs. 
Boys' and Girls, Congrega- 
tion. 

Neinken, Jacob, Pres. Mach- 
zikei Talmud Torah of Bor- 
ough Park (1319 43d St.). 
since 1916. Term 1 year. 
Born 1873 in Russia. Came 
to U. S. 1893. Received gen- 
eral Hebrew education 



JEWISH RELIGIOUS SOHOOIjS 



379 



Mfr.; 127 Bleecker St. R^a. ; 
1472 56th St., B'klyn. 

Middle Village T. T^ 10 Hyn- 
man St., Middle Village, L. 
[. Principal: J. Borsky. 
No. of pupils: 50 boys, 10 
girls. 

»Ilshkan Israel T. T., 27 Ben- 
daman Ave., Jamaica, L. I. 
Principal: L. Jachnovitz. No. 
of pupils: 42 boys, 8 girls. 

^ievr* JLots Talmud Torah, 644 

Georgia Avenue. Communal 
Weekday School. Pres., A. 
Gersick. Sec'y, L. Goldstein. 
Principal: Nathan Helfman. 
No. pupils: 120 boys, 40 girls. 
Staff: 3 teachers. Sessions: 
Sunday, 9 a. m. to 1 p. m.; 
weekdays, 4 to 8 p. m. 

School of Biblical Instruction, 

61 Meserole St. Communal 
weekday school. Organized 
1900. School building. Pres., 
S. H. Whiteman. Sec'y, S. 
Efran. Principal: N. Kulish. 
No. of pupils, 400 boys; 50 
girls. Staff: 7 teachers. 
Sessions: weekdays, '4 to 
8 p. m.; Sundays, 9 a. m. to 
1 p. m. 

Stapelton Hebrew School, 645 

Bay St., Stapelton, S. I. 
Principal: Maxwell Ehrlich. 
No. of pupils: 30 boys, 30 
girls. 

Talmudlcal School of Brook- 
lyn, 57 Graham Avenue. 
Organized 1909. Communal 
weekday school. Pres., 
Charles Verbelofsky. Sec'y, 
M. Goldstein. No. pupils: 
150 boys. Staff: 6 teachers 



Sessions: Sunday, 9 a. m 
to 7 p. m.'. weekdays. 4 to 
7 p. m. 

Talmud Torah Mechodosh, 146 

Stockton St. Org. 1909. Com- 
munal weekday school. Pres. 
Simon Goldman. Sec'y, B. 
Maggin. Principal, Hyman 
Kamonoff. No. pupils: 400 
boys. Staff: 5 teachers. 
Sessions: weekdays, 4 to 8 
p. m.; Sundays, 9 a. m. to 
1 p. m. 

Goldman, Simon, Pres. Tal- 
mud Torah Hechodosh (146 
Stockton St.), since 1912. 
Term 1 year. Born 1880 in 
Russia. Came to U. S. 1895. 
Received general education. 
Manufacturer. 25 E. 4th St. 
Res.: 709 Lafayette Ave. 

Tiphereth Israel Talmud 
Torah, 363 Pennsylvania 
Avenue. Communal 
weekday school, reorgan- 
ized in 1913. School build- 
ing. Annual budget, $16,000. 
Pres., Jacob Dunn. Sec'y, S. 
Tversky, Principal: Nathan 
Aaronson. No. pupils: 680 
boys; 225 girls. Staff: 12 
teachers. Sessions: Sun- 
day, 9 a. m. to 1 p. m.; week- 
days, 4:30 to 8:30 p. m. 
Besides the elementary He- 
brew School, instruction in 
secondary Jewish subjects 
is given to High School boys 
under the auspices of the 
Bureau of Jewish Educa- 
tion. Affiliated with the 
school is also a branch of 
the Circle of Jewish Child- 
ren of America and League 



380 



COMMUNAL RBGISTBB 



of the Jewish Youth of 
America. 

Dunn, Jacob, Pres. Tipheretla 
Israel T. T. (363 Pennsyl- 
vania Ave.), since 1916. 
Term 1 year. Born 1882 in 
Russia. Came to U. S. 1902. 
Received g-eneral education. 
Mfr.: 127 W. 25th St. Res.: 
747 Blake Ave., B'klyn. 

Tlphereth Zlon Talmnd Torah, 

1887 Prospect Place. 
Communal weekday school. 
Pres., Jacob Kapelowitz. 
No. pupils: 200 boys; 75 
girls. Staff: 4 teachers. 
Sessions: Sunday, 9 a. m. 



to 1 p. m.; weekdays, 3:3u 
to 8 p. m. 

Hebrew School of TVilliams- 
bur^, 310 South 1st Street. 
Communal weekday school. 
Pres., Leo Gross. No. pupils: 
360 boys, 140 girls. StaflC: 6 
teachers. Sessions: Sunday, 
9 a. m. to 1 p. m. Week- 
days, '4 to 8 p. m. Affili- 
ated: Young Judea Clubs, 
Embroidery Circle, Ladies, 
Auxiliary and Parents' As- 
sociation. 

Yeshibath Beth Yavneh, 409 

Blake Ave., B'klyn. No. of 
pupils: 85 boys. 



Congregational Weekday Schools 

MANHATTAN AND BRONX 



4.dath Israel, 551 E; 169th St. 
Congregational Sunday and 
weekday school. Rabbi: 
Mayer Kopf stein. N o . 
pupils: 70 boys, 115 girls. 
Staff: 7 teachers. Sessions: 
Sunday, 10 a. ra. to 12 
m.; Monday, 4 to 6 p. m.; 
Thursday, 4 to 6 p. m. 

Chevrah A^adath Achim An- 
shei Fresh, 105 Hester St. 
Teacher: Jacob Katz, No. of 
pupils: 27. 

A^udath Jeshorim Cong., 113 

E. 86th St. Rabbi and Prin- 
cipal: G. Lip kind. No. 
pupils: 40 boys, '45 girls. 

Temple Anshel Chesed, 1881 
Seventh Ave. Congrega- 
tional weekday school. 
Rabbi: Jacob Kohn. Princi- 
pal: M. Katz. No. pupils: 
160 boys, 140 girls. Staff: 



5 teachers. Sessions: week- 
days, 4 to 6 p. m.; Saturday, 
2:30 to 5 p. m. 

Anshei E]meth Mt. Sinai, St. 

Nicholas Ave. and 181st St. 
Rabbi and Principal: L. 
Zinsler. No. of pupils: 30 
boys, 25 girls. 

Adereth El, 135 B. 29th St. 

Congregational weekday 
school. Rabbi: Ch. J. Klein. 
Principal: Meyer Mosko- 
witch. No. pupils: 100 boys, 
10 girls. Staff: 2 teachers. 
Sessions: Sunday, 9 a. m. to 
1 p. m.; weekdays, 4 to 8 
p. m. 

Atereth Israel Cong., 323 B 

82nd St. No. pupils: 40 
boys, 35 girls. 

Beth Abraham, 535 B. 146th 
St. Congregational Sunday 



JBWISH RBLIGIOUS SCHOOLS 



383 



and weekday school. Rabbi: 
A. Gallant. No. pupils: 250 
boys, 150 girls. Staff: 12 
teachers. Sessions: Satur- 
day, 3 to 5 p. m.; Sunday, 
9:30 a. m. to 12:30 p. m.; 
weekdays, 4 to 7 p. m. 

Temple Beth ISlohlm, 961 

Southern Boulevard. Con- 
gregational Sunday and 
Weekday School. Principal: 
I. J. Alderman. No. pupils: 
75 boys, 75 girls. Staff: 9 
teachers. Sessions: Sun- 
day, 10 a. m. to 12 m. Mon- 
day and Thursday, '4 to 6 
p. m. 

Talmud Torah Shel Beth 
Hamldrash, 911^ E. 169 th 
St. Teacher: S. Landes, 
No. of pupils: 20. 

Beth Hamldrash Hagodol, S29 

Forest Ave., Bronx. Con- 
gregational Weekday 
School. Principal: Benja- 
min Rabinowitz. No. pupils: 
120 boys, 10 girls. Staff, 2 
teachers. Sessions: Sunday, 
9 a. m. to 1 p. m.; weekdays, 
4 to 8 p. m. 

C h e V r a h Beth Hamldrash 
Sheerlth T. T., 120 Columbia 
St. Rabbi, Berel Gottlieb. 
No. of pupils: 25 girls. 

T. T. of Beth Israel Anshel 

Galicia Cong., 3884 Park Ave. 
Congregational Weekday 
School. Sec'y. A. Goldsmith. 
No. pupils: 100 boys, 50 
girls. Staff: 3 teachers. 
Sessions: Sunday, 9 to i 



p. m.; Weekdays. 3:80 to 8 
p. m. 

Beth Israel Blkur Chollm, 

72nd St. and Lexington Ave. 
Congregational Sunday and 
Weekday School. Princi- 
pal: Samuel Benjamin. No. 
pupils: 130 boys, 150 girls. 
Staff: 7 teachers. Sessions: 
Sunday, 9:30 to 12 m.; Tues- 
day and Thursday, 4 to 6 
p. m. 

Biallstoker, 7-11 Willett St. 
Congregational Weekday 
School. Principal: S. Perl- 
stein. No. pupils: 100 boys. 
Staff: 2 teachers. Sessions: 
Sunday, 9 a. m. to 1 p. m.; 
weekda.ys, 4 to 8 p. m. 

B'nal Israel Cong., 535 W. 

148th St. Rabbi: Isidor 
Reichert. No. pupils: 25 
boys, 35 girls. 

! 

B'nal Israel Anshei Fordham, 

2294 Arthur Ave., Bronx. 
Principal: S. Rocklin. No. 
pupils: 55 boys, 15 girls. 

Bohemian American Israelite 
Cong^ 310 E. 72nd St 
Rabbi: J. Salzman. No. 
pupils: 15 boys, 36 girls. 

First Roumanian Sphardisher 
Schul Hebrew School, 1379 
Washington Ave. No. of pu- 
pils: 27. 

First Van Nest Hebrew Cons., 

1712 Garfield St. Principal: 
J. Berger. No pupils: 50 
boys. SO girls. 



382 



COMMUNAL KEGISTEK 



Judah Ualcvl, 166th St. and 
Morris Ave. Congregational 
weekday school. Rabbi : 
Jesse Bienenfeld. No. pupils: 
70 boys, 45 girls. Staff: 2 
teachers. Sessions: Sunday, 

9 a. m. to 12 m. Weekdays, 
4 to 7 p. m. 

Ivehilath Israel, 1162 Jackson 
Ave. Congregational Week- 
day School. Rabbi: Elias L. 
Solomon. No. pupils: 120 
boys, 30 girls. Staff: 3 
teachers. Sessions: Sunday, 

10 to 12 m.; weekdays, 4 to 
6 p. m. 

Khal Adath Jeshurun, 1275 
Hoe Ave. Congregational 
Weekday School. Princi- 
pal: Max Kedushin. No. 
pupils: 100 boys, 15 girls. 
Staff: 2 teachers. Sessions: 
Sunday, 9 a. m. to 12 m.; 
weekdays, 4 to 7 p. m. 

Knesseth Israel, 205 W. 139th 
St. Congregational Week- 
day School. Pres.: H, 
Schneiderman. Sec'y: I>- 
Schechter. No. pupils: 120 
boys, 30 girls. Staff: 3 
teachers. Sessions: Sunday, 
9 a. m. to, 12:30 p. m.; week- 
days, 3:30 to 7 p. m. 
Schneiderman, Hyman, Pres. 
Talmud T o r a h Knesseth 
Israel (205 W. 139th St.); 
elected 1917. T«rm 6 monlh.s. 
Born 1882 in Russia- Came 
to U. S. 1895. Mfr.: 97 
Wooster St. Res.: 209 W. 
148th St 

Talmud Torah Bfachzikel 
Ha-dath D'tabaratb Hakod. 



esh, 307 Ja. I02ud St. Prin- 
cipal: S. Zazlovsky. No. pu- 
pils: 60 boys. 

JHisbcacli Chadosh Oong^rega- 
tion Cheder, 71 E. 104th St. 
Principal and Teacher: Mey- 
er Friedberg. No. of pupils; 
20 boys. 

V 

Montefiore Congrej^at ion. 

Hewitt and Macy PI. Con- 
gregational weekdays. 
Rabbi: Alex Basel. No. 
pupils: 215 boys, 85 girls. 
Staff: 5 teachers. Sessions: 
Sunday, 10 to 12 m.; week- 
days, 4:30 to 7:30 p. m. 

Ohab Zedek, 18 West 116th 
St. Congregational Week- 
day School. Rabbi : B. 
Drachman. Principal: M. 
Wald. No. pupils: 125 
boys, 50 girls. Sessions: 
Sundays, 9:30 to 11:30 a. m.; 
weekdays, 4 to '6 p. m. 

Ohab Zedek Hebrew School, 

830 E. 5th St. Principal: J. 
Weinstock. No. pupils: 80 
boys. 

Cong'reg'ation Orach Ghaim, 

92nd St. and Lexington Ave. 
(in the building of the Y. M. 
H. A.). Congregational 
Weekday School. No. pupils: 
225 bovs, 175 girls. Sessions: 
Sunday, 9 a. m. to 12 m.; 
weekdays, 4 to 7 p. m. 

Penl El, 525 W. 147th St. Con- 
gregational Weekday 
School. Rabbi: Aaron Eise- 
man. No. pupils: 75 boys. 90 



JEWISH RELIGIOUS SCHOOLS 



383 



girls. Staff: 7 teachers. Ses- 
sions: Sunday, 9.30 a. m. to 
12 m.; Tuesday and Thurs- 
day, 4 to 6 p. m. 

T. T. of Pincns Blijah, 118 W. 

95th St. Rabbi: Jacob S. 
Minkin. No. pupils: 93 boys. 
55 girls. 

aabbl Samuel Slohliver, 295 

Henry St. Congregational 
Weekday School. Principal. 
L. Edelman. No. pupils: 100 
boys. Staff: 2 teachers. Ses- 
sions: Sunday, 9 a. m. to 1 
p. m.; weekdays, 4 to 7 p. m. 

Chevrah Rodphei Sholom Dob- 
sevetz School, 26 Orchard St. 
No. pupils: 40 boys. 

Sha'arei Shomaim, 91 Riving- 
ton St. Congrega tional 
Weekday School. Principal: 
A. Margolis. No. pupils: 300 
boys. Staff: 4 teachers. Ses- 
sions: Sunday, 9 a. m. to 12 
m.; weekdays, 4 to 7 p. m. 

Sha'arei Zedek Aram Zovah, 

52 Orchard St. Congrega- 
tional Weekday School. 
Rabbi" Mayer Waknin. No. 
pupils: 120 boys. Staff: 3 
teachers. Sessions: Sunday, 
9 a. m. to 12 m. and 2 p. m. 
to 5 p. m.; weekdays, for pu- 
pils under school age, 9 a. m. 
to 12 m. and 1 to 3 p. m., for 
public school pupils, 3 to 7 
p.m.; Saturdays, 12 to 5 p.m. 



girls. Staff: 2 teachers. Ses- 
sions: Sunday, 10 a. m. to 
12:30 p. m.; weekdays, 4 to 
6:30 p. in. 

Sha'arei Zion, 811 E. 179th St. 
Principal: Rabbi Si skin d 
Evenson. No. pupils: 75 
boys, 5 girls. 

Cong. Shearitli B'nai Israel, 22 

E, 113th St. Rabbi: Jacob 
A. Dolgenas. No. pupils: 25 
boys, 50 girls. 

Shearlth Israel (Polonies Tal- 
mud Torah), 99 Central 
Park West. The Polonies 
Talmud Torah is the oldest 
Jewish school in America. It 
was organized earlier than 
1731, and reorganized in 
1801 under its present name. 
Together with the Sunday 
School afniiated with it. the 
school teaches 61 boys and 
86 girls, under a staff of 9 
teachers. Sup't, D. de Sola 
Pool. Sessions: Sunday, 9:30 
to 12:30 p. m.; Tuesday and 
Thursday, 3:45 to 5 p. m. 

Sheerith Israel Bohui»her Ste- 
faneshter Kruz Chevrah 
School, 81 Rivington St. 
Teacher: M. Reich. No. of 
pupils: 20. 

Chevrah Shomrint Laboker, 

511 B, 136th St. Rabbi: 
Moses Pfeffer. No. pupils: 
55 boys. 



!iha*arei Zedek, 23 W. 118th St. 
Congregational Weekday 
School. Rabbi: P. Chertoff. 
No. pupils: 75 boys, 60 



SInal Congregation, 951 Steb- 
bins Ave., Bronx. Congrega- 
tional Sunday and Weekday 
School. Rabbi: Max Reich- 



884 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



ler. Principal: M. Klelnman. 
No. pupils: 170 boys, 250 
girls. Staff: 11 teachers. 
Sessions: Sunday, 10 to 12 
m.; Monday and Thursday, 
4:30 to 6:45 p. m. 

Sons of Abraham Alter Cons. 
Talmud Torah, 266 E. 78th 
St. Teacher: Morris Atlas. 
No. pupils: 25 boys. 

Torah Me-Zlon, 199 Christo- 
pher St., B'klyn. Principal: 
Harris L. Levi. No. pupils: 
181 boys. 



Washlns-ton Uel^htu Congre* 
nation, 510 W. 161st St. Con- 
ffregational Weekday 
School. Rabbi: Moses Rosen- 
thal. No. pupils: 200 boys, 
50 girls. Staff: 6 teachers. 
Sessions: Sunday, 10 a. m. to 
1 p. m.; weekdays, 4 to 6 
p. m.; Saturday, 3:30 to 4:30 
p. m. 

Zichron Kphraim, 163 E. 67th 
St. Congregational weekday 
and Sunday School. Rabbi: 
B. Drachman. No. pupils: 
125 boys, 75 girls. Staff: 4 
teachers. Sessions: Sunday, 
10 to 12 m.; weekdays, 4 to 
6 p. m. 



Congregational Weekday Schools 

BROOKLYN, QUEENS AND RICHMOND 



A^ndath Achim T. T. of Bay 
Rldg:e, 320 47th St., B'klyn. 
Principal: Joseph Lubin. No. 
of pupils: 35 boys, 10 girls. 



Ahavath Achim HcbreTv 
School, 674 Metropolitan 
Ave. Principal: Moses 
Shmargosky. No. of pupils: 
40 boys, 20 girls. 

Ahavath Achim Congregratlon 
School, 710 Quincy St.. 
Congregational Weekday 
School. Rabbi: Joseph Harry 
Paymer. Principal: T. H, 
Weil. No. pupils: 40 boys, 
61 grlrls. Staff: 7 teachers. 
Sessions: Sunday, 10 to 12 
m.; weekdays, 4 to 6 p. m. 



Anshei Zedek Cong. T. T., 1760 
Park Place. Congrega- 
tional Weekday School. 
Principal: Jacob Rosenblum. 
No. pupils: 200 boys, 40 
girls. Staff: 3 teachers. Ses- 
sions: Sunday, 9 a. m. to 1 
p. m.; weekdays, 4 to 8 p. m. 

Atereth Israel Talmud Torah, 

115 Fountain Ave,, B'klyn. 
Principal: Louis Markoff. 
No. of pupils: 80 boys. 10 
Srirls. 

Atereth Tiphereth Israel Tal- 
mud Torah, 479 Ashford St.. 
Congregational Weekday 
School. Principal: Joseph 
Baltuch. No. pupils: 135 
boys. 15 grlrls. Staff: 2 



JEWISH RELIGIOUS SCHOOLS 



:iH5 



teachers. S«gsions: Sunday, 
d a. m. to 1:30 p. m.; week- 
days, 4 to 8:30 p. ra. 

Temple Beth-el Religloua 
School, 110 Noble Street. 
Congreg-ational Sunday and 
Weekday School. Principal: 
Sigmund J. Ronae. No. pupils: 
60 boys, 90 girls. Staff: 5 
teachers. Sessions: Sunday, 
10 to 12 m. ; Monday and 
Wednesday, 4 to 6 p. m. 

Beth Emeth of Flatbush Re- 
ligious School, Church Ave. 
cor. Marlborough Rd. Con- 
gregational Sunday and 
Weekday School. Rabbi : 
Samuel J. Levinson. Princi- 
pal: I. V. Burger. No. pupils: 
217 boys. Staff: 8 teachers. 
Sessions: Sunday, 9:45 to 12 
m. ; weekdays, 3 to 5 p. m. 

Beth Israel Anshel E^meth 
Talmud Torah, 236 Harrison 
St. Congregational Sunday 
and Weekday School. 
Rabbi: Israel Goldfarb. No. 
pupils: 160 boys, 240 girls. 
Staff: 20 teachers. Sessions: 
Weekdays, 4 to 7 p. m.; 
Sunday, 9:30 to 12 m. 

B'nai Lsrael Religious School 

4th Ave. cor. 54th St. Con- 
gregational Weekday and 
Sunday School. Rabbi: Solo- 
mon Goldman. No. pupils: 
150 boys, 150 girls. Staff: 10 
teachers. Sessions: Sunday, 
10 to 12 m.; weekdays, 4 to 
7 p. m. 

Temple Bmann - el Religious 
School, 14th Ave. and 49th 



St. Oongrregratlonal Sunday 
and Weekday SchooL Rabbi: 

David Levine. Principal ol 
Daily School, Isidor M. Kon- 
owitz. Principal of Sunday 
School, Bessie Schuman. No. 
pupils, 250 boys, 350 girls. 
Staff: 34 teachers. Sessions: 
weekdays, 4 to 6 p. m.; Sun- 
day, 10 a. m. to 12 m. 

K'nesseth Israel Talmud 
Torah, Bay Parkway and 
85th St., B'klyn. Rabbi, 
Jacob Saklod. No. pupils: 
25 boys, 10 girls. 

I 

Machzikel Talmud Torah, 217 
Corona Ave., L. I. Principal: 
R. Kavetzky. No. pupils: 30 
boys, 30 girls. 

Temple Petach Tikvai Religi- 
ous School, Rochester Ave. 
and Lincoln PI. Congrega- 
tional Sunday and weekday 
school. Rabbi: I. H. Levin- 
thai. No. pupils: 230 boys, 
240 girls. Staff: 18 teach- 
ers. Sessions: Sunday, 9:45 
to 12 m.; weekdays, 4 to 7 
p. m. Children's services on 
Saturday mornings. 

S h a a r e 1 Tephilah Talmud 
Torah, 8669 Bay 16th St.. 

Congregational weekday 
and Sunday school. Rabbi: 
Joseph Jaffe. No. pupils: 
130 boys, 50 girls. Staff: 3 
teachers. Sessions: Sunday, 
9 a. m. to 1 p. m.; weekdays, 
3:30 to 7:30 p. m. 

Shaarel Torah Hebre^v School, 

812 De Kalb Ave.. B'klyn. 
Principal: 5h. Feder. No. of 
pupils: 55 boys. 



:<S6 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



Suiui of Israel MebreTr School, 

73 Bay 22nd St. Congrega- 
tional weekday school. 
Principal: Samuel Sacks. 
No. pupils: 140 boys, 20 
girls. Staff: 3 teachers. 
Sessions: Sunday, 9 a. m. to 
1 p. m.; weekdays. 3:30 to 
6:30 p. m. 

riphereth Israel Talmud Torah 
of Brooklyn, 37-39 Throop 
Ave. Organized 1910. Con- 
gregational weekday school. 
Pres.: A. Brafman. Sec'y: 
J. Lapides. Principal: Saul 
Backstein. No. pupils: 225 
boys. Staff: 3 teachers. Ses- 
sions: Sunday, 10 a. m. to 2 
p. m. ; weekdays, 4 to 8 p. m. 

TIpliereth Israel Congregation 
Talmud Torah, Willoughby 
and Throop Ave. Congrega- 
tional weekday school. 
Rabbi: Morris Feinthal. No. 
pupils: 90 boys, 30 girls. 



Sessions: Sunday, 9 to 12 m.; 
weekdays, 4 to 7:30 p. m. 

Cong, B'nai Jacob, 136 Pros- 
pect Ave. Rabbi: S. Gold- 
man. No. pupils: 20 boys, 
30 girls. 

Derech Gmunah, Larkin St. 
and Vernon Ave., Arverne, 
L. I. Principal: Simon 
Blumenthal. No. pupils: 20 
boys, 30 girls. 

Ahavath Israel Cong, of 
Ridgewood, 1372 Gates Ave., 
Principal: Morris Schulman. 
No. pupils: 50 boys, 10 girls. 

Shaarei Torah, 2252 Bedford 

Ave. Rabbi and Principal: 
Emanual Hollander. No. pu- 
pils: 58 boys, 2 girls. 

Cong. Shaarei Tephillah, Cen- 
tral Ave., Far Rockaway. 
L. I. Rabbi and Principal: 
B. T, Llchter. No. pupils: 
30 boys, 43 girls. 



Institutional Weekday Schools 

MANHATTAN AND BRONX 



Council of Jevrish Women New 
Vorlc Section Religious 
School, 71 St. Marks Place. 
Chairman : Mrs. Julius 
Levy. No. pupils: 85 girls. 

educational Alliance Religious 
School, 197 E. B'way. Insti- 
tutional Weekday School. 
Executive Director: A. Pey- 
ser. Principal: Rabbi Jacob 
B. Grossman. No. pupils: 
330 boys and 920 girls. Staff: 
15 teachers. Sessions: Sat- 



urdays and Sundays, 9 a. m. 
to 4 p. m.; weekdays, 4:15 
to 6:15 p. m. On Friday eve- 
nings services are conducted 
for young people, and on 
Saturday mornings and af- 
ternoons special children's 
services are held. 

Ezra HebreiT School, 1745 
Washington Ave., Bronx. 
Org. 1912. Weekday school, 
under the auspices of the 
New York Committee for 



JEWISH KELIGIOUS SCflOOliS 



387 



Schuoi Extension of the 
Union of American Hebrew 
Congregations. Principal: 
Louis E. Goldstein. No. pu- 
pils: 300 boys, 208 girls. 
Staff: 5 teacliers. Sessions: 
Sunday, 9 a. m. to 2 p. m.; 
weekdays, 3:10 to 7:10 p. m. 
Affiliated: Parents' Ass'n. 
Cliildren's clubs. 

Hebrew Day Nursery and 
Klndcrgnrten, 35 Montgom- 
ery St. Institution founded 
in 1905. Sup't: J. H. Luria. 
No. pupils: 150 in kinder- 
garten and nursery: 100 in 
Hebrew School. 

Hebrevr National Orphan 
House, 52 St. Marks Place. 
Institutional Weekday 
School. Principal: M. Ep- 
stein. No. pupils: 110 boys. 
Staff: 3 teachers. Sessions: 



Sunday, 9 a. m. to 1 p m. . 
weekdays, 4 to 8 p. m. 

Hebrew Orphan Asylum He- 
brcTv School, 1560 Amsterdam 
Ave. Institutional Weekday 
School. Superintendent: 
Solomon Lowenstein. Prin- 
cipal: Prof. Israel Davidson. 
No. pupils: 476 boys, 232 
girls. Staff: 7 teachers. Ses- 
sions: Saturday, 8 a. m. to 
2 p. m.; Sunday, 8 to 11 a. 
m.; weekdays, 3:30 to 5:30 
p. m. 

School of Spanish and Portu- 
guese Sisterhood, 73 Allen 
St. and 86 Orchard St. In- 
stitutional Weekday School. 
Principal: A. Ben-Ezra. No. 
pupils: 85 boys, 85 girls. 
Staff: 3 teachers. This school 
is conducted for children of 
Oriental Jews. 



Institutional Weekday Schools 

BROOKLYN, QUEENS AND RICHMOND 



Hebrew Educational Alliance 
of Greenpoint, 961 Manhat- 
tan Ave. Institutional 
Weekday School. Principal: 
B. Bickle. No. pupils: 140 
boys, 60 girls. Staff: 2 teach- 
ers. Sessions: Weekdays, 4 
to 8 p. m.; Sunday, 9 a. m 
to 1 p. m. 



Hebrew Educational Institute 
of South Brooklyn, 374 7th 

St., B'klyn. Institutional 
Weekday School. Superin- 



tendent: Gertrude Haft. No. 
pupils: 75 boys, 50 girls. 
Staff: 3 teachers. Sessions: 
Weekdays, 3:15 to 7 p. m.; 

Saturday morning services. 

• 

Hebrew Educational Society, 

564 Hopkinson Ave., B'klyn. 
Institutional Sunday and 
Weekday School. Sup't: 
Charles S. Bernheimer. No. 
pupils: 448 boys and girls. 
Staff; 4 teachers. Sessions: 
Sunday, 9 a. m. to 1 p. m.: 
weekdays. 4 to 8 p. bo 



;88 



(K)MMUNAL RBGISTBR 



Private Weekday Schools 

MANHATTAN AND BRONX 



Kramer, Fein and Fuelis Pri- 
vate School, 67 Lewis St. 
Private Weekday School. 
Principal: Philip Kramer. 
No. pupils: 100 boys, 25 
girls. Staff: 3 teachers. Ses- 
sions: Sunday, 9 a. m. to 3 
p. m. ; weekdays, 3 to 9 p. m. 

Modern Hebrew School, 34 W. 

115th St. Private Weekday 
School. Principal: S. Kasdan. 
No. pupils: 140 boys, 30 
girls. Staff: 3 teachers. Ses- 
sions: Sunday, 9 a. m. to 4:30 
p. m.; weekdays, 4 to 8 p. m. 

Tachkemonl Hebrew School. 

1378 Prospect Ave. Private 
Weekday School. Principal: 
Sol. Adler. No. pupils: 90 
boys, 20 girls. Staff: 2 teach- 
ers. Sessions: Sunday, 9 a. 
m. to 1 p. m. ; weekdays, 8 
to 7:30 p. m. 



MVeat Side Hebrew School, 

347 West 35th St. Private 
Weekday School. N o. 
. pupils: 130 boys, 50 girls. 
Staff: 3 teachers. Sessions: 
Sunday, 10 a. m. to 1 p. m.; 
weekdays, 4 to 8 p. m. 

West Side Hebrew School, 

230 Seventh Ave. Private 
Weekday School. Princi- 
pal: H. B. Walder. No. 
pupils: 80 boys, 40 girls. 
Staff: 2 teachers. Sessions: 
Sunday, 9 a. m. to 1 p. m.; 
weekdays, 4 to 8 p. m. 

Zernbabel Hebrew School, 22 

West 114th St. Private 
Weekday School. Princi- 
pal: William Frishberg. No. 
pupils: 95 boys, 25 girls. 
Staff: 3 teachers. Sessions: 
Sunday, 9:30 a. m. to 1:30 
p. m.; weekdays, 4 to 8 
p. m. 



BROOKLYN 



Beth Sefer Ivrl, 91 Selgel St., 
B'klyn. Private Weekday 
School. Principal: Abraham 
Spitzer. No. pupils: 185 boys, 
5 girls. Staff: 4 teachers. 
Sessions: Sunday,^ 9 a. m. to 
3 p. m.; weekdays, 3 to 7 
p. m 

Beth Sefer Ivrl, 216 Sumner 
Ave., B'klyn. Private Week- 
day School. Principal: Kal- 
man Whiteman. No. pupils: 
80 boys, 20 girls. 

Beth Sefer Ivrl Hatechlah, 417^ 

New Jersey Ave., B'klyn 



Private Weekday School. 
Principal: Zarach Rudavsky. 
No. pupils: 110 boys, 15 
girls. Staff: 3 teachers. Ses- 
sions: Sunday, 9 a. m. to 2 
p. m.; weekdays, 4 to 8:30 
p. m. 

Beth Sholom Hebrew School, 

157 Marcy Ave., B'klyn. 
Private Weekday School 
Principal: Max I. Cohen. 
No. pupils: 120 boys, 18 
Sirls. Staff: 2 teachers. Ses- 
sions: Saturday. 3 to 6 p. m.: 
weekdays. 3:30 to 8 p. tn 



JEWISH RELIGIOUS SCHOOLS 889 

Sihaarel Zlon Hebrew School, boys, 5 grii'ls. StalK: 3 teach- 

210 Stockton St., B'klyn. ers. Sessions: Sunday 9 a. m. 

Est. 1893. Private Weekday to 2 p. m. Weekdays, 3:30 

School. Principal: S. H. to 8:30 p. m. 
Neumann. No. of pupils: 95 



Sunday School Instruction 

There are in New York City 41 schools in which in- 
struction is given on Saturdays or Sundays. As dis- 
tinguished from the supplementary weekday schools, the 
Sunday schools are unrelated to the public schools, 
inasmuch as their programs and time of instruction have 
no relation to the public school system. Of these 41 
schools, the great majority, or 37 schools, are conducted 
by congregations;^ and the remaining 4 are conducted 
in conjunction with Jewish welfare institutions, or are 
managed by special educational societies. The 41 schools 
give instruction to 7,951 pupils, of whom 55% are girls. 

These schools being adjuncts of regular congregations, 
are supervised by the rabbis. The entire teaching staff 
consists of 346 teachers, more than half of whom (55%) 
are women. In some of these schools the teachers are 
paid, whereas in others they render their services gratis. 
The cost of instruction is about $2.00 per child annually 
in those Sunday schools whose teachers are mainly vol- 
unteers; and from $7.50 to $10.00 per child annually 
in schools with paid teaching staffs. The aggregate sums 
expended upon the Sunday schools annually is approxi- 
mately $50,000. 

The typical Sunday school holds sessions during 34 
weeks of the year, two and a half hours each week on 



^ Some of these schools also conduct weekday classes Id Hebrew. 
These are listed in the Register among the weekday schools. 



390 



COM-MUNAL. KEGISTEK 



Sunday mornings. The central subject of the curricu 
lum, instead of being language and literature, is history, 
to which 48% of the time is devoted. The Hebrew lan- 
guage receives 30% of the total time of instruction ; and 
religion and ethics about 20%. 



Congregational Sunday Schools 

MANHATTAN AND BRONX 



Ahavath Chesed Sha'nr Ha- 
Hhomalxn, 55th St. and Lex- 
ing-ton Ave. Congregational 
Sunday School. Rabbi: Isaac 
S. Moses. Principal: Max L. 
Schalleck. No. pupils: 90 
boys, 70 girls. Staff: 5 
teachers. Sessions: Sunday, 
9:30 to 12 m. 

Temple Beth-el, 5th Ave. and 

76th St. Congregational Sun- 
day School. Rabbi: Samuel 
Schulman. Principal: Max 
Radin. No. pupils: 81 boys, 
74 girls. Staff: 10 teachers. 
Sessions: Sunday, 9:15 a. m. 
to 12 m. 

Temple Emanuel, 5th Aye. and 
43d St. Congregational Sun- 
day School. Org. 1845, first 
Jewish Sunday School in 
New York City. Sup't: H. G. 
Enelow. No. pupils: 92 boys, 
135 girls. Staff: 12 teachers. 
Affiliated: Brightside organ- 
ization. Junior Society, 
Emanuel Association. 

Free Synagrogue Religions 
Schools: Rabbi, Stephen S. 
Wise. The Free Synagogue 
conducts five Sunday schools 
in the following places: 



Synagrog-ue House: 36 W. 

68th St. Principal: Louis I. 
Newman. No. pupils: 81 boys, 
89 girls. Sessions: Sunday, 
9:45 to 11:30 a. m. 
Downtown Branch: 155 Clin- 
ton St. Principal: Rabbi 
Bernard Kantor. No. pupils: 
107 boys, 175 girls. Sessions: 
Sunday, 10:30 to 12 m.; Sat- 
urday, 10:30 a. m, to 5 p. m. 
South Bronx: 142nd St. and 
3d Ave. Principal: Ira 
Hershfield. No, pupils: 150 
boys and girls. Sessions: 10 
a. m. to 12 m. 

McKinley Square: 169th St 
and Boston Rd. Principal; 
Louis I. Newman. No. pupils: 
125 boys and girls. Ses- 
sions: Sunday, from 10 a. m. 
to 12 m. 
' Hunt's Point: 161st St. and 
Southern Blvd. Principal: 
Louis I. Newman. No pu- 
pils: 250 boys and girls. 
Sessions; 10 a. m. to 12 m. 
Total Enrollment: 977 boys 
and girls. Total staff: 46 
teachers. 

Eta Chaim of YorkvlUe, 107 E. 

9 2nd St. Congregational 
Sunday School. Rabbi: D 



JEWISH RELIGIOUS SCHOOLS 



391 



Davidson. No. pupils: 60 
boys, 60 girls. Staff: 5 teach- 
ers. Sessions: Sunday, 9:30 
to 12 m. 

Hebrew^ Tabernacle, 218 West 
120th St. Congregational 
Sunday School. Rabbi: Ed- 
ward Lissman. Principal: 
Adolf Schwarzbaum. No. 
pupils: 200 boys, 150 girls. 
Staff: 9 teachers. Sessions: 
Sunday, 9 to 12 m. 

Temple Israel, 120th St. and 
Lenox Ave. Congregational 
Sunday School. Rabbi: M. 
H. Harris. Principal: Lenore 
M. Haas. No. pupils: 220 
boys and girls. Staff: 10 
teachers. Sessions: Sunday 
and Saturday, 9 to 12 m. 

Mission Sabbatb School: 330 

pupils, 13 teachers. Sessions: 
Saturday 9 to 12. 

Mt. Nebo Cong-., 562 W. 150th 
St. Congregational Sunday 
School. Rabbi: A. S. Ans- 
pacher. Principal: Mrs. D. E. 
Goldfarb. No. pupils: 375 
boys and girls. Staff: 20 
teachers. Sessions: Sunday, 
10 to 12 m. 

nt. ZIon Congregation, 37 W 

119th St. Congregational 
Sunday School. Rabbi: B. 
Tintner. Principal: Miss G. 
Cohen. No. pupils: 125 boys, 
175 girls. Staff: 7 teachers. 



Sessions: Sunday, 9:30 to 12 
m.; Wednesday, 4 to 6 p. m 

The New Synagogrue, 76th St 
and B'way. Rabbi and Prin- 
cipal: Ephraim Frisch, No. 
pupils: 26 boys, 29 girls. 

Temple Rodeph Sholom, Lex- 
ington Ave. and 63d St. 
Congregational Sunday 
School. Rabbi: Rudolph 
Grossman. Principal: Louis 
Marks. No. pupils: 80 boys, 
120 girls. Staff: 7 teachers. 
Sessions: Sunday, 9:30 to 
12 m. 

Sha'aray Tefila, 160 W. 82nd 
St. Congregational Sunday 
School. Rabbi: Nathan Stern. 
No. pupils: 150 boys, 150 
girls. Staff: 16 teachers. 
Sessions: Sunday, 9:30 to 12 
m. 

Sons of Israel Congregation, 

15 Pike St. Rabbi: Moses L. 
Skinder. Principal: Albert 
Lucas. Congregational Sun- 
day School. No. pupils: 50 
boys, 300 girls. Staff: 8 
teachers. 

Temple of Peace, 542 W. 162nd 
St. Rabbi: Wm. Lowenberg. 
No. pupils: 26 boys, 26 girls. 

Treiiiont Temple, 2064 Con- 
course St., Bronx. Congre- 
g a t i o n a 1 Sunday School. 
Principal: Alex H. Holenaan. 
No. pupils: 120 boys, 130 
girls. Sessions: Sunday, 10 
to 12 m. 



BROOKLYN 



Adath Israel, West 5th St., 
Coney Island. Rabbi: Wm 



Schwartz, 
boys. 



No. pupils: 20 



i92 



OOMMUMAIi BEQIST£B 



AhaTath Mtbolom, Ave. K. and 

B. 16th St. Congregrational 
Sunday School. Rabbi: Sam- 
uel Peiper. No. pupils: 60 
boys, 40 g-irls. Staff: 7 
teachers. Sessions: Sunday, 
10 to 12 m. 

Temple Beth Ellohim, 274 Keap 
St., B'klyn. Congreg-ational 
Sunday School. Rabbi: S. R. 
Cohen. Principal: Mrs. J. 
Van Raalt. No pupils: 82 
boys, 90 g-irls. Staff: 8 teach- 
ers. Sessions: Sunday, 9:30 
to 12 m. 

Beth E:iohlm, 8th Ave. and 
Garfield PI., B'klyn. Con- 
gregational Sunday School. 
Rabbi: Alex. Lyons. No pu- 
pils: 145 boys, 160 girls. 
Staff: 16 teachers. Sessions: 
Sunday, 10 to 12 m. 

Cong. Beth Jehuda, 904 Bed- 
ford Ave., B'klyn. Congre- 
gational Sunday School. 
Rabbi: Samuel Buchler. No. 
pupils: 50 boys, 50 girls. 
Staff: 4 teachers. Sessions: 
Sunday, 10 to 12 m. 

Beth Sholom Peoples* Temple, 

Bay 24th St. and Benson 
Ave., B'klyn. Congregational 
Sunday School. Rabbi: Jacob 
Goldstein. No. pupils: 100 
boys, 100 girls. Staff: 9 
teachers. Sessions: Sunday, 
10 to 11:30 a. m. 

B'nal Sholom, 403 9th St., 
B'klyn. Congregational Sun- 
day School. Rabbi: Marcus 



Frledlander, No. pupils. 

75 boys, 125 girls. Staff: 8 

teachers. Sessions: Sunday, 
10 to 12 m. 

Temple Israel, Lafayette and 
Bedford Aves., B'klyn. Con- 
gregational Sunday School. 
Rabbi: Nathan Krass. Prin- 
cipal: Ben. G. Greenberg. 
No. pupils: 100 boys, 70 girls. 
Staff: 7 teachers. Sessions: 
Sunday, 10 to 12 m. 

Temple Israel, Roanoke Ave. 
and State St., Far Rocka- 
way, L. L Congregational 
Sunday School. Rabbi: S. 
Landman. Principal: Benj. 
Veit. No. pupils: 170 boys, 
110 girls. Staff: 10 teachers. 
Sessions: Sunday, 10 to 12 
m. 

Mt. Sinai Temple, 305 State St.. 
B'klyn. Congregational Sun- 
day School. Minister: Morris 
Silverman. No. pupils: 72 
boys, 78 girls. Staff: 7 teach- 
ers. Sessions: Sunday, 9:45 
to 12 m. 

Cong. Ohel Isaac, 591 Bergen 
St., B'klyn. Principal: Abra- 
ham Fisher. No. pupils: 20 
boys, 10 girls. 

Temple Sha'arei Zedek, Put- 
nam and Reid Aves., B'klyn. 
Congregational Sunday and 
Sabbath School. Rabbi: Max 
Raisin. No. pupils: 80 boys. 
120 girls. Staff: 14 teachers. 
Sessions: Sunday, 9 to 12 m.: 
Saturday, 10 to 12 m. 






JEWISH RELIGIOUS SCHOOLS 398 

llphereth Israel of Kensln^- Principal: Jacob Katz, No. 

ton. West St. and Ditmas pupils: 60 boys, 60 girls. 

Ave., B'klyn. Congreg-ation- Staff: S teachiers. Sessions: 

al Sunday School. Rabbi and Sunday, 10 a. m. to 12 m. 

Institutional Sunday School 

Federation Settlement of Har- Sussman. No. pupils: 32 

lem, 240 E. 105th St. Insti- boys, 108 girls. Staff: 7 

tutlonal Sunday School. teachers. Sessions: Sunday, 

Sup't: Miss Pauline Marko- 10 a. m. to 12 m. 
witz. Principal: Samuel 



394 

Parochial Education 

There are four Jewish parochial schools in America, 
all of which are situated in New York City. Whereas 
the weekday school supplements the public school, the 
Jewish parochial school substitutes it, teaching both 
Jewish and secular subjects. The Jewish studies art- 
taught from 9 A.M. to 3 P.M., and the secular subjects 
are taught from 3 to 7 P.M. All of the 985 pupils of 
these schools are boys. 

The secular curriculum in these schools, consisting of 
4,800 hours of instruction, provides for fewer hours than 
does the minimum public school curriculum of New 
York, which calls for 7,190 hours for the seven-year 
course. But this difference is chiefly due to the fact that 
the parochial schools do not teach certain of the subjects, 
such as elementary science, manual training, music, etc. 
In the fundamentals (English, mathematics, geography, 
penmanship, etc.), the parochial school provides for 
practically as many hours as does the minimum public 
school curriculum. 

The Jewish curriculum, giving over 10,000 hours of 
instruction during the seven years of the course, is much 
more intensive than the curriculum of the weekday 
schools, in which about 2,600 hours of instruction are 
given. The central subject of the curriculum, especially 
beyond the fourth year of study, is the Talmud, to which 
20% of the total time is devoted. The Jewish teaching 
staff consists of 54 teachers, whose language of instruc- 
tion is Yiddish. The annual cost of instruction is $70 
per child, so that Jewish parochial education costs ap 
proximately $70,000 annually. 



JEWISH RELIGIOUS SCHOOLS 



395 



Parochial Schools 



Habbt Jacob Joseph School, 

165-7 Henry St. Talmudlcal 
School organized in 1901, 
g-ivlng- Instruction both in 
Jewish and in Secular sub- 
jects. School building. 
Budget. $40,000. Pres.: 
Julius J. Dukas, Sec'y: A. 
S. Bloch. Principal of He- 
brew School: A Simon. 
Principal of Secular De- 
partment: Joseph Phillips. 
The school teaches 548 
boys. The Jewish Curricu- 
lum, whrch emphasizes par- 
ticularly the study of Tal- 
mud, is taught every morn- 
Ing (except Saturday), 
from 9 a. m. to 3 p. m. 
Public school studies are 
taught afternoons from 4 to 
7 p. m, (except Friday and 
Saturday). The teaching 
staff consists of 14 Hebrew 
teachers and 18 teachers of 
secular subjects. 

Talmudlcal Institute of Har- 
lem, 56 W. 114th St. Paro- 
chial School, teaching Jew- 



ish and public school sub- 
jects. Pres.: Jacob Lunltz 
Principal: Rev. M. Sterman. 
No. pupils: 100 boys. Staff: 
J) teachers. Sessions: Sun- 
day, 9 a. m. to 7 p. m.; 
weekdays, 9 a. m. to 7 p. m 
Lunltz, Jacob, Pres. Tal- 
mudlcal Institute of Har- 
lem (56 W. 114th St.), 
since 1915. Term 1 year. 
Born 1869 in Russia. Re- 
ceived general Jewish edu- 
cation. Cotton goods: 162 
Greene St. Res.: 117 E. 
95th St. 

Veshivath Rabbi Chaim Berlin, 

1899 Prospect PL, B'klyn. 
Parochial school, teaching 
Jewish and public school 
subjects, organized in 1912. 
Pres., B. A. Lesser. Princi- 
pal, Rabbi Chaim I. Moseson. 
No. of pupils: 200 boys. 
Staff: 8 teachers. Sessions: 
Sundays, 9 A. M. to 7 P. M. 
Weekdaj^s, 9 A. M. to 7 P. M. 

Y'eshibath Ktx Chaim (See 

Rabbincal College). • 



.S96 

Clieder Instruction 

Over 14,000 children (5%), or one-fifth of the chil- 
dren for whom Jewish instruction is provided in New 
York, are taught in the Chedarim (rooms) or one- 
teacher schools. There are more than 500 of these 
Chedarim situated in various parts of the city. In the 
countries of Europe, the Cheder or private school was 
the normal educational institution for the instruction of 
Jewish children. The Talmud Torah or the communal 
school, existed only to educate the children of the poor. 
In America, these conditions have been completely re- 
versed. Because of the fundamental need of organized, 
systematic work in this country, the Talmud Torah has 
developed into the most hopeful institution for the prim- 
ary education of Jewish children. The Cheder, on the 
contrary, has degenerated. 

Several causes contributed to the degeneration of the 
Cheder. In the small communities of Eastern Europe, 
where every individual and his activities were known, 
there was a general unofficial control and supervision 
of the Cheder, exerted by public opinion. Everyone 
knew the qualifications and abilities of each teacher. 
The teachers were therefore men of knowledge and good 
character, especially in the higher Pentateuch and Tal- 
mud schools. After several years of experience, either 
as an apprentice to some other teacher, or in his own 
school, the teacher usually acquired the most essential 
requisites in the teaching process: patience, devotion, 
and a pragmatic understanding of the child mind. 

But in a large community like New York, it is not 
possible for public opinion to exert an influence over 



JEWISH RELIGIOUS SCHOOLS 397 

particular efforts of individual teachers. Every per- 
son, qualified or unqualified, who wishes to supplement 
his weekly earnings by keeping school, can do so without 
hindrance. Today, many of the New York Chedarim 
are taught by men who had been teachers in Eastern 
Europe. These men came to this country too late in 
life to make new adjustments, and they therefore con- 
tinued in the only occupation which they knew in the 
land of their birth. The lot of these earnest, mediaeval 
men, zealously trying to impart unwished-for knowledge 
to the unwilling youngsters of the New World, is a sad 
one indeed. But there are many other Chedarim kept 
by those who are less worthy. These are usually ignor- 
ant men who spend their mornings in peddling wares or 
in plying some trade, and utilize their afternoons and 
evenings for selling the little Jewish knowledge which 
they have, to American children, at so much per session 
(10c — 25c per week, for 10 or 15 minutes' instruction 
daily). The usual procedure is for a group of boys to 
gather in the home of the self-appointed *'Rebbi," and 
to wait their turn or ''next." While one pupil drawls 
meaninglessly the Hebrew words of the prayer book, 
the rest play or fight, with the full vivacity of youth. 

Another cause for the degeneration of the Cheder lay 
in the economic condition of the parents. In Eastern 
Europe their educational standard had been high. But 
in this country the new immigrants were too much oc- 
cupied with their daily struggle for existence to be able 
to devote much of their time to the question of the re- 
ligious education of their children. Their educational 
standards consequently decreased, so that an elementary 



398 COMMUNAL REGISTER 

Jewish education, on the plane of the Dardekei Cheder, 
began to suffice. The ideal of many parents came to 
contain but three elements : ( i ) fluency in the mechani- 
cal reading of Hebrew prayers ("Ivri") ; (2) knowl- 
edge of the Kiddush or Sabbath Eve benediction, and 
the Kaddish, or prayer for the dead; and (3) ability 
to read the portion of the Torah assigned at the Bar 
Mitzvah (initiation) ceremony, together with a ''con- 
firmation speech. ' ' 

In the towns of Eastern Europe, the Cheder was the 
only educational model before the child, and therefore 
its equipment, management and teacher lost nothing by 
comparison. In New York, the congested life of the 
tenement make the sanitary conditions of the Cheder 
much worse than in the communities of Europe. The 
equipment continues to be as primitive. Many of the 
Chedarim are situated in unbelievable places: above 
stables, in back of stores, in cellars, in garrets, and in 
similar well-nigh impossible locations. These places 
are, naturally, badly ventilated and poorly lighted. The 
equipment is unsanitary and dilapidated, consisting us- 
ually of a rickety table and backless benches, upon which 
the pupils spend their brief but uneasy period of learn- 
ing. When the Jewish child compares this school with 
the highly developed public school, Jewish education 
suffers greatly by the comparison. It is not possible 
to survey or to supervise the 500 Chedarim of New 
York. They arise without notice, and usually disappear 
after a brief existence. Their only announcement is 
the sign on the front of the house, and in many cases 
even that is lacking to tell of their whereabouts. 



JEWISH RBUGIOUS SCHOOLS 399 

Private Instruction in tlie Home 

About 10,000 childreu receive their Jewish instruc 
tion in their own homes. While it is true that a minor- 
ity of these children are taught by modern, well-equipped 
teachers, this minority is very small. The typical Jewish 
private teacher is of the same class as are those who 
teach in the Chedarim. The causes which brought about 
the degeneration of the Cheder in America, have 
brought with them the great number of traveling Mela- 
medim. The entire school equipment of the traveling 
teacher consists of a worn-out prayer book placed under 
his arm. He goes from house to house bringing the 
Cheder to the children, instead of requiring the children 
to go to the Cheder ; for in aim, content and method, the 
home instruction thus given, differs in no way from 
that of the Chedarim. There are some 750 of these 
traveling teachers in New York City. They are either 
maladjusted individuals, whose earnestness must not be 
underrated, or else mercenary disbursers of **Ivri," who 
are an obstacle to the progress of Jewish education in 
America. 



i 



401 




ENTRANCE TO UPTOWN TALMUD TORAH 
132 East 111th Street 



403 




CENTRAL JEWISH INSTITUTE 
125 East 85th Street 




DOWNTOWN TALMUD TORAH 
394 East Houston Street 



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407 




JESHI]^TH RABBI JACOB JOSEPH 
165 Henry Street 



409 




MACHZIKEI TALMUD TORAH 
225 East Broadway 



411 




HEBREW FREE SCHOOL OF BROWNSVILLE 
414 Stone Avenue 



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JEWISH RELIGIOUS EDUCATION 451 

TEACHERS' TRAINING SCHOOLS 

As far back as the middle of the last century, efforts 
were made by the Jews of New York to provide pro- 
fessional training for their Jewish teachers. In a sense, 
the future development of Judaism depends upon the 
calibre and equipment of the men and women who are 
engaged in Jewish religious instruction. The Jews of 
this city are aware of the immediate need of adequately 
training their young men and women for this profession. 

In 1903, special classes were opened by the Jewish Theo- 
logical Seminary for the purpose of training teachers 
for Jewish schools. But these classes were inadequate to 
meet the growing demand, and six years later, in 1909, 
the Teachers' Institute of the Jewish Theological Semi- 
nary was organized. The principal of this Institute is 
Prof. M, M. Kaplan. The faculty is composed as 
follows : 

Prof. Israel Priedlaender — Jewish History. 
Dr. Elias Solomon — Bible and Customs. 
Rabbi M. Levine — Hebrew and Talmud. 
Mr. Joseph Braggin — Hebrew. 
Mr. Zevi Scharfstein — Hebrew Literature and 

Methods of Teaching Hebrew. 
Mr. Leo L. Honor — Jewish History . and 

Methods of Teaching History. 
, Mr. Joshua Neumann— Bible. 

The Institute offers a three years' training coui*se to 
51 young men and 73 young women. Since 1912 it has 
graduated six classes, granting a total of 114 teachers' 



452 COMMUNAL REGISTER 

diplomas. The requirements for admission are: (1) 
a high school diploma or equivalent and (2) a knowl- 
edge of Jewish subject matter, equivalent to that ob- 
tained in a two years' course, supplementary to the 
regular training given in the Talmud Torah schools of 
this city. The standard of studies in the Institute has 
been recently raised to a considerable extent by the 
regular entrance as applicants of young men and young 
women who were graduated from the special high school 
classes of the Bureau of Jewish Education. 

The present quarters of the Institute are in the build- 
ing of the Hebrew Technical Institute for Boys, 34 Stuy- 
vesant Street. Classes are conducted evenings and Sun- 
days, from eight to ten hours during the week. Instruc- 
tion in the first year is given in Hebrew, grammar, read- 
ing; Bible; and history. During the second, year, the 
work in these subjects is continued and Hebrew Litera- 
ture and pedagogy are added. The work in pedagogy 
consists in methods of teaching Bible, Aggadah, Litera- 
ture and Grammar. Observation classes are also pro- 
vided for the students, as well as practice teaching. In 
the last year, an additional course in Jewish Ethics and 
Ceremonies is offered. 

Besides the regular course, instruction is provided for 
a small group of men and women who are engaged in 
supervisory or administrative work in Jewish education. 
These more advanced students pursue special studies 
selected by themselves under the guidance of the prin- 
cipal and the faculty of the Institute. 

A similar Training School for Jewish Teachers 
was opened in 1917 by the Mizrachi Association. It is 



JEWISH RELIGIOUS EDUCATION 453 

situated at 86 Orchard Street, and has an enrollment of 
thirty pupils. The students are all young boys, ranging 
in age from thirteen to sixteen years. A four years' 
course of intensive training in Hebrew language and 
literature is to be provided for them. The principal in 
charge is Rabbi Meyer Waxman. 



454 COMMUNAL REGISTER 

TEACHERS' ASSOCIATIONS 

With the development of Jewish education, and the 
consequent increase in the number of Jewish teachers, 
the need for professional organizations among them be- 
came evident. The purpose of such organization is to 
improve the economic status of Jewish teachers, to study 
the professional implications of Jewish education, and 
to better the quality of the daily work of the Jewish 
schools. But it was not until after 1910 that the pro- 
fessional consciousness among Jewish teachers became 
sufficiently strong to crystallize into organization. Since 
then three associations of teachers were organized in 
rapid succession. 

In 1912 the first convention of the Agudath Hamorim 
(Hebrew Teachers' Union) took place. This organiza- 
tion is composed of 160 teachers, chiefly of the im- 
migrant ''Maskil" type. Its most notable achievements 
have been the publication of a Hebrew educational 
journal, ''Hed Hamoreh," for a period of about one 
year, 1915 ; and the publication of a Hebrew journal for 
children, "He-aviv," which was discontinued after a 
brief existence. The Union also conducted a teachers' 
strike for higher wages in 1916. This strike resulted in 
the raising of teachers' salaries in several of the larger 
Jewish schools. The officers of the organization are : 
K, Whiteman, Chairman of the Executive Committee j 
Z. Heller, Secretary, 307 Throop Avenue, Brooklyn. 



JEWISH RELIGIOUS EIDUCATION 



451 



New York City 3Ienibers of the Agiidath 
ITainorim 



Aaronson, N., 44u IVIiller Ave., 
B'klyn. 

Adler, S., 1378 Prospect Ave. 

Allentuch, I., 565 E. 178th St. 

Alperewlch, L., 637 Hendrick.s 
St., Bklyn. 

AliDlebum, L,., 631 Sutter Ave., 
B'klyn. 

Aucrbach, S., cjo Hatoren, 89 
Delancey St. 

Balotofskr, Z., 610 Bristol St., 
B'klyn. 

Barkan, A., 740 Rockaway 
Ave., B'klyn. 

Baron, E. H., ISO Claremont 
Ave. 

Bar.sky, Y., 31 Fulton St., Mid- 
dle Village, L. I. 

Ba.<4liook, Ph., 307 Throop Ave., 
B'klyn. 

Berger, Mrs. A., 462 Williams 
Ave., B'klyn. 

Bolber, N., 907 Lafayette Ave. 

Bolber, Rachel, 907a Lafayette 
Ave. 

Borodkln, S., 1820 Madison 
Ave. 



Horu4>hove, M., 1537 Fulton 
Ave. 

Bo.sner, K., 932 Myrtle Ave., 
B'klyn. 

Bradburt, 230 Madison St. 

Braverman, H., 1521 Eastern 
Parkway, B'klyn, 

Brin, Mrs. K., 85 Monroe St. 

Brlslowe, M., 261 E. 4th St. 

Cantor, H., 163 Henry St. 

Casson, 1511 Charlotte St. 

Chohin, B. Z., 232 Cherry St. 

Davidowltz, 827 Union Avenue, 
B'klyn. 

Dinerstein, J., 971/2 E. 7th St. 

Dueoff, R., 1350 43d St., B'klyn. 

Edelhlte, Sh., 93 Division Ave., 
B'klyn. 

F^lseman, D., 197 Clinton St. 

Ellovson, M., 181 Stockton St. 
B'klyn. 

Epstein, M., 86 Orchard St. 

Epstein, Sh., 106 E. 4th St. 

Epstein. Sh.. 1029 Kelly St. 



456 COMMUNAL REGISTER 

l^rdbere, Sh.. 159 Delancey St 



FleUhmnn, A., 917 Longwood 
Ave. 

ForstiaHer, B., 175 Essex St. 

Frankel, A., 22 Rutgers St. 

Frledland, A., 183 Madison St. 

Fried, 1207 Washington Ave. 

Friedman, S., 495 Hudson St. 

FriNhherg:, N., 22 W. 114th St. 

Furman, B., 74 Leonard St., 
B'klyn. 

Gertzoff, N., 925 Sackman St., 
B'klyn. 

(;oldthole, I., 293 E. 3d St. 

Gunner. L., 1463 Webster Ave. 

Goldfarb, M., 4311 14th Ave., 
B'klyn. 

fireenbers, L., 601 Marcy Ave., 
B'klyn. 

Greenfield, 25 W. 42nd St. 

GroHbergr, M., 542 E. 178th St. 

GroNNman, A. L., 201 E. B'way. 

Halevy, M., 516 E. 181st St. 

Halperen, M., 251 E. 4th St. 

Halperln, H., 110 Keap St.. 
B'klyn. 



Ho-lvry, c|o Hatoren, 89 De- 
lancey St. 

Helfmau. M., 789 E. 9th SL. 

Heller, '£.., 307 Throop Ave., 
B'klyn. 

Hershcowltx, J., 149 Avenue C. 

HirMhfield, A., 438 Vermont 
Ave., B'klyn. 

Hofer, I., 27 Suffolk St. 

Horbatkln, S., 14 Meserole St., 
B'klyn. 

Itzcovritx, H., 122 W. 129th St. 

Jacobson, A., 201 Graham Ave., 
B'klyn. 

Jaffe, B., 183 Henry St. 

Jaffe, J., 57 E. 102nd St. 

Jerushalmy, N.. 57 Suffolk St. 

Kammenoff, H., 745 Lafayette 
St., B'klyn. 

Ka.stiove, j»I., 1511 Charlotte St. 

Kat«, J., 456 E. 171st St. 

Kaufman, J., 29 Ludlow St. 

Kelman, S., 215 E. 10th St. 

Korne, M., 58 Willett St. 

Kotz, L., 154 Madison St. 

Knllsih, N.. 99 Johnson Ave.. 
B'klyn. 



JEWISH RELIGIOUS EDUCATION 



457 



Landesbergr, W., 1494 Brook 
Ave. 



Panltx, I., 22 W. 114th St., c|o 
Zerubabel Heb. Sch. 



LeiserowltB, N., 219 Henry St. 
Ve»coT, Mrs. L., 456 E. 171st St. 
Leve, 209 Clinton St. 
Liohterman, I., 649 E. 9th St. 

LianM. 630 Howard Av., B'klyn. 

Llpman, I., 499 Vermont St., 
B'klyn. 

iMarcofe, L... 200 Ross St. 

inargrolit*, A., 930 De Kalb Ave., 
B'klyn. 

Ma»1ln, M., 417 E. 65th St. 

MattesNon, H.. 961 E. 173rd St. 

.Moscowltx, J., 35 W. 118th St. 

MoshevitKky, 285 Bristol St., 
B'klyn. 

Nankin, B., 84 Penn St. 

Natkin, D., 287 Division Ave., 
B'klyn. 

Orthur, 312 Henry St. 

Oshinsky. A.. 72 McKlbbin St., 
B'klyn 

Osfrnnsky. A., 387 So. 4th St.. 
B'klyn. 

Ovey, Y^ 198 Thatford Ave., 
B'klyn. 



Paplsh, A., 346 Hinsdale St., 
B'klyn. 

Papush, O., 620 Riverdale Ave., 
B'klyn, 

Perelberg, N., 300 Henry St. 

Phlrst, J. M., 293 E. 3rd St. 

Posner, I., 265 Floyd St., 
B'klyn. 

Pressman. Sh., 1705 Bathgate 
Ave. 

Rabinofvltx, A., 17 W. 115th St. 

RabinowltK, P., 2886 W. 31st 
St., Coney Island. 

Rachovsky, Ch., 119 E. 114th 
St. 

Rlchman, 647 Hinsdale St., 
B'klyn. 

Rivlln, M., 3 W. 119th St. 

Roch, Sh., 134 Cannon St. 

Rosen, I., 3813 15th Ave.. 
B'klyn. 

Rosenfeld, 210 Ross St., B'klyn. 

Rnbin. Ch., 61 E. 117th St. 

Saplre, Sh., 176 Smith St., 
B'klyn. 

SamaelMon, 921 E. 169th St. 



458 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



Saslovskj, D., 324 E. 15th St. 

Sa«er, J., 36S Houston St. 

Schechter, 12 Montgomery St. 

Sefrln, 340 Madison St. 

Seldin, M. A., 284 Christopher 
Ave., B'klyn. 

Shapiro, S., 46 Bartlett St.. 
B'klyn. 

Shapiro. Sh., 255 Meserole St., 
B'klyn. 

Shelnmark, D., 19 Henry St. 

Sblesber?. M., 1592 Washing- 
ton Ave. 

Shlesberg, Mrs. R., 1592 Wash- 
ington Ave. 

Shoohet, I., 601 Maroy Ave., 
B'klyn. 

Shots, I., 4401 15th Ave., B'klyn. 

Shorn, H., 1356 Clinton Ave. 

Share, D., 198 Watklns St., 
B'klyn. 

Shvartaiberg, li., 430 Saratoga 
Ave., B'klyn. 

ShT^-artz-bcrpr, A., 232 Delancey 
St. 

Sllvrlrb. W., 9 W. 112th St. 

Skokol8k7. H., 109 E. 3rd St. 

Markin, If) Varct St., B'klyn. 



Slonlmsky, 3819 15th Ave., 
B'klyn. 

Sloterman, S., 88 Clinton St. 

Soehowltz, Mr»., 586 Prospect 
PI., B'klyn. 

Srednlk, I., 52 Bartlett St., 
B'klyn. 

Steinberg, A., 4056 3rd Ave. 

Steinberg, M. E., 340 Houston 
St. 

Stern, I., 115 Monroe St. 

Stor, I. L., 437 Hopkinson Ave., 
B'klyn. 

Siibrov»ky, S., 1495 St. Marks 
Ave., B'klyn, 

Sunewltai, N., 181 E. B'way. 

Tabak, B. Z., 209 Hopkins St., 
B'klyn. 

Tagreman, H., 122 Attorney St. 

TanlN, A., 748 Trinity Ave. 

Tebak, A., 124 Blake Ave., 

B'klyn. 

Todls, I)., 630 Howard Ave., 
B'klyn. 

Tlcolsky. I., 226 E. 102nd St. 

Tranekman, M., 116 Suffolk St. 

Wei.sblatt, 134 Clinton St. 



JEWISH RELIGIOUS EDUCATION 45^ 

Whitman, K., 216 Sumner Ave., Wohrman. J., 122 £}. 2nd St. 

B'klyn. 

Wolfson, A., 1469 Webster 
Winoeure. B., 1834 Park PI., Ave. 

B'klyn. 

Yokel. B., 1216 Plat bush Ave., 
Wlnshteln, J., 60 E. 4th St. B'klyn. 

•The Jewish Teachers' Association^ composed of 70 
young men and young women, who are trained in Ameri- 
can colleges and universities, was organized in 1914. 
The purposes of this Association are chiefly professional 
study of the problems of Jewish education and of the 
technique of Jewish teaching. Its aim is to raise the 
work of the Jewish teacher to the level of a recognized 
profession. The monthly meetings of the Association are 
devoted to lectures and discussions concerning Jewish 
educational problems. It cooperates in its work with the 
Jewish Teachers' Institute and with the Bureau of 
Jewish Education. 

Besides professional study, the Association has been 
issuing since 1916, an educational magazine in English, 
**The Jewish Teacher." This magazine has until now 
appeared semi-annually, but will in the future be is- 
sued as a quarterly. The officers of the Association are : 
Leo L. Honor, President; Albert P. Schoolman, Secre- 
tary, 356 Second Avenue. 

3Ieiiibers of the Jewish Teachers' Ass'n 

Aaron.Hoti, R., 520 W. 123rd St. Blum, M., 31 W. 110th St. 

BaroH, E^ 180 Claremont Ave. Bra^n, Joseph. 135 Vernon 

Ave., B'klyn. 
Benderly, S., 856 2nd Av<i. ^^^^^^^ ^ ^ ^^^ ^ ^^^^^ 

BerkiM>B« I. B., 146 W. llltk ^^• 

St. Cohen, Fannie, 17 B. llSth St. 



460 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



Deltehman. E„ 400 Stone Ave. 
B'klyn. 

Dushkin. A. M.. 201 W. 118th 
St. 

I^pstein. Hose, 267 Stanton St. 

FlMh, A.. 1135 43rd St., B'klyn. 

Frtedlander, S., 201 W. 118th 
St. 

Gamoran, E., 219 W. 120th St. 

Gittelson, M., 159 E. 95th St. 

Goldfarb, S. E., 360 Clinton St., 
B'klyn. 

Grossman. Annie, 39 W. 112th 
St. 

Grossman, S„ 123 W. 10th St. 

Hammer, L.., 534 Powell St., 
B'klyn. 

Honor, 1.. L., 54 E. 122nd St. 

Hurwitz, Louis, 538 W. 124th 
St. 

Isaacs, Melr, 1017 Bryant Ave. 

Kalb, A., 400 E. Houston St. 

Kaplan, M. M., 120 B. 93rd St. 

Kempuer, Lottie, 921 Trinity 
Ave. 

Klepper, L... 394 E. Houston 
St. 

Konovltz, Leah, 749 Jennings 
St. 

Lanser. H., 16 E. 120th St. 



Levtne, Morris D„ 1915 Daly 
Ave. 

Machiowlts, Am 624 E. 9th St. 

iHart^oshes, Sam'l, 356 2d Ave. 

x>Ieltzer, S., 161 Henry St. 

Fitkowsky, S., 6 E. 108th St. 

Prager, Dora, 1545 Minford PI. 

Preizer, Edith, 169 Broome St. 

Reder, F., 564 Fox St. 

Rosen, B., 400 Stone Ave., 
B'klyn. 

Schoolman, A. P., 952 Kelly 

St. ^ 

Sharf stein, ZevI, 194 Rodney 
St., B'klyn. 

Silberman, E., 208 Penn St., 
B'klyn. 

Slavin, Mm 26 W. 115th St. 

Solomon, S., 208 Madison St. 

Soltes, M., 609 Willoughby 
Ave., B'klyn. 

Steifcman, Minna, 8 E. 107th 

St. 

Suchoff, L., 140 W. 112th St. 

Trachman, H., 863 Beck St. 

Weiss, Minnie, 158 E. ICSth 
St. 

Zaretski, S., 464 Saratoga Ave.. 
B'klyn. 



JEWISH RELIGIOUS EDUCATION 461 

In 1913 the Jewish Religions School Union was or- 
ganized for Sunday school teachers. Its members gath- 
ered at regular intervals to listen to lectures on Jewish 
history and the Bible. Nineteen of the Sunday schools 
of the city are affiliated with it. Its president is Rabbi 
Clifton Harby Levy. 



462 COMMUNAL REGISTER 

HEBREW PRINCIPALS' ASSOCIATION 

Upon the principals of the Hebrew schools is laid 
directly the responsibility for the quality of the edu- 
cation which is given to Jewish children. In an edu- 
cational system which has not behind it the compelling 
power of the government, the principals themselves must 
realize the necessity for cooperation. To this end the 
Plebrew Principals' Association of New York was or- 
ganized in 1910 by the Bureau of Jewish Education. 

Its purposes are three-fold: (1) to raise the educa- 
tional standard of the Talmud Torahs; (2) to bring 
about a uniform curriculum, or curricula, among the 
Talmud Torahs of the city; and (3) to increase the 
efficiency of Jewish school administration. The prin- 
cipals meet twice every month. At these meetings both 
the practical and the theoretic aspects of their work are 
discussed, and plans are laid for the improvement of 
school management and for the broadening of school 
policy. 

The Association issues a monthly bulletin in Hebrew, 
''Kuntros Hamodiyin," which it sends to the principals 
of various schools throughout the United States. Its 
officers are: President, Ephraim Ish-Kishor; Secretary, 
Israel Konowitz, 356 Second Avenue. Its membership 
consists of 20 principals of Hebrew schools. 

3Ieinbers of the Hebrew Principals' Ass'n 

Aaronson, N., 863 Pennsyl- Berkson, I. B., 145 W. 111th 
vania Av«., B'klyn. 

I Bragrin, Joseph, 135 Vernon 

Beiiderly, S., 356 2nd Ave. Ave., B'klyn. 



JEWISH RELIGIOUS EDUCATION 463 



Goldin, H., 1319 43d St., B'klyn. Lehrman, A., 133 W. 140th St. 

Grossman, J. B., 160 Marlbor- Ozer, G., 17 Bay 22nd St., 

oiigh Road, B'klyn. B'klyn. 

Handler, H., 414 Stone Ave., Perlbers, TV., 63 Tomyknia 

B'klyn. Ave., B'klyn. 

Hiirwitx, S. I.., 66 W. 118th Rosen, B., 1156 Eastern Park- 

St- way, B'klyn. 

Ish-Kislior, E., 90 Lenox Ave. 

Scharf stein, Z., 194 Rodney 

Komonolf, A. 31., 146 Stock- ^^•' ^ ^^^y^- 
ton St., B'klyn. 

Schoolman, A. l'., 9.^2 K( Uy 

Konowitz, I., 749 Jennings St. St. 



Recreational and Cultural 
Agencies 



467 



RECREATION IN THE JEWISH COM- 
3IUNITY OF NEW YORK CITY 

By Julius Dkachsler 

Secretary of the Faculty, The School for Jewish 
Communal^ Work. 

"Tell me liow a man spends his leisure time, and I 
shall tell you what manner of man he is." The truth 
of this quaint proverb would perhaps be even more tell- 
ing, were we to substitute the word "community," for 
the word * ' man " ; for in nothing does a group show its 
inherent traits more clearly than in the spontaneous 
expressions of play. 

Pessimistic critics of our modern city life have draw^n 
gloomy pictures of the gradual loss of naturalness in the 
recreations of men and women of today. Even children, 
they cry, play according to rules and regulations; and, 
if the city dweller does attempt to be spontaneous in 
his amusements, he either loses himself in a riotous in- 
dulgence of superficial pleasures, or, what is worse, 
plunges into excesses which ultimately rob him of his 
vitality. In his effort to re-create his body, he loses 
his soul. For this sad state of affairs these preachers of 
gloom blame our modern industrial life with its intense 
struggle for bread, and its nerve-wrecking pace. To 
their minds, the mad seeking after pleasure in our large 
cities is an unconscious revolt against the tyranny of the 
Machine, whether this be a real machine in a factory, 
or the relentless, ever present, thougli invisible pressure 



468 COMMUNAL. REGISTEat » 

of the mechanism of the counting house or of the stock 
market. 

That many of these depressing truths should be ap- 
jjlieable to the Jew in modern city life, and particularly 
in a city like New York, is simply proof of the fact that 
the Jew, too, is in the grip of an industrial life, which, 
on the one hand, offers comparatively little leisure time, 
and on the other, gives little encouragement for a moder- 
ate and balanced enjoyment of it. Add to this his nerv- 
ous temperament, born of centuries of struggle against 
fearful odds, and we have a fairly complete explanation 
of the lack of many of the finer cultural and spiritual 
elements in the leisure-time activities of a large part 
of the Jewish population, such as is found in New York 
City. 

What are some of these forms of recreation? AVhat 
are the prevailing standards? How may these stand- 
ards be raised? IIow would community action help to 
improve the quality of the leisure-time activities of 
Jewish men, women and children? These are questions 
well worth studying and answering carefully. Using 
the term ''leisure-time activities" in the broadest sense, 
we may mention three large groups of recreational ac- 
tivities ini the Jewish community of New York City: 
commercial recreation, institutional recreation, and those 
more intimate, more informal kinds of recreation which 
are carried on in the home itself and in private social 
clubs and societies. 

It has always been true, and will no doubt always re- 
main true, that the family is the real unit of communal 
life. The warmth of personal relations, the devotion to 



RECREATIONAL AND CULl^JRAL AGENCIES 469 

unselfish purposes — most of what is generous aud kind 
in human nature — are fostered in the privacy of home 
life. It is true with even greater force that home in- 
fluences form taste in amusements of all kinds. Sham 
refinement, vulgarity, boorishness and sensuousness in 
private entertainments cannot fail to be reflected iu 
public amusements. If festival celebrations in the home, 
weddings, birthday parties, and other family gatherings, 
lack in a genuine spiritual tone and atmosphere (and 
surely no one will hold that, in order to be such, they 
must have an elaborate setting), then it ought not be a 
matter of great surprise if the press is not so refined 
in its appeal as it might be, that the theatre shows clear 
signs of decadence, that the cheap dance hall, and the 
sensuous moving picture show, have little difficulty in 
attracting their hundreds of thousands of devotees, and 
that the communal institutions which attempt to offset 
these demoralizing influences upon the youth by offering 
wholesome recreation under proper auspices, find it prac- 
tically impassible to compete with the irresistible lure 
of the commercialized pleasure-places. A eTewish home 
that has no Jewish music, no Jewish pictures, no Jewish 
interests, no Jewish aspirations, no Jewish enthusiasms, 
is not infrequently a home the emptiness of which is 
filled with little more than the hollow pleasures of 
pinochle. 

The view that prevailing standards of recreation in 
the Jewish community are none too lofty, may easily 
be verified by a careful study of the press, the theatre, 
and the purely commercial recreational facilities at the 
command of the masses of Jewish population in New 



470 COMMUNAL REGISTER 

York City. While the press, as such, would hardly be 
cousidered a means of recreation, the Jewish, and par- 
ticularly the Yiddish press of this city, does perform 
this function for the great masses of its readers. For 
them the Yiddish daily is a veritable store-house of intel- 
lectual food. For most of them, it is the only source of in- 
formation to which they have access. Not having been 
readers of newspapers in the lands from which they 
came, and having had practically no secular education, 
the information contained in most of these dailies must 
be pre-digested for them, and, if the food is ill-digested 
first by the editor, then it will certainly be ill-digested 
by the reader. In spite of its faults, the Yiddish press, 
with the vast range of topics discussed in its sheets, and 
with its half million daily readers in this city, is not only 
a great source of intellectual enjoyment to the Jewish 
masses, but is an invaluable guide to them in the first 
stages of their adjustment to a strange and complex 
environment. 

If now we turn to the theatre as the next great form 
of recreation among the Jews of this city, we are likely 
to be further discouraged about the prospects of raising 
the standards of amusements in Jewish communal life. 
Careful students of the Yiddish theatre point out that, 
while in the earliest days of the Yiddish stage in this 
city the quality of performances was merely simple and 
naive, no sooner had the theatre expanded with the large 
influx of immigration during the 80 's and 90 's, than the 
type of amusement became of a distinctly lower calibre ; 
actor, playwright and manager were demoralized, and 
stagnation was staring the Yiddish theatre in the face ; 



RECREATIONAL AND CULTURAL AGENCIES 471 

that the brief period of renaseence in the opening years 
of this century was unfortunately too brief to make a 
lasting impression. on either the producers or the public, 
and that today the Yiddish theatre is in a spiritually de- 
crepit condition, much as its financial basis may have 
been improved. We are then confronted with this di- 
lemma: on the one hand, the producers do not scruple 
much about the art and morals of their productions, and 
the masses take what is offered them ; on the other hand, 
the masses do not cry out for better art, and therefore 
the producers do not feel constrained to improve their 
wares. 

That even less can be expected in the direction of rais- 
ing standards of recreation from the ordinary dance- 
hall and the cheap moving picture place, is obvious. 
Inartistic, crude, sensuous in their appeal, to the youth 
particularly, as these commercial pleasure-haunts are, 
many of them merit nothing but the deepest condemna- 
tion of the community. 

But mere dissatisfaction with, and even open and 
severe criticism of, existing conditions in the field of re- 
creation in the Jewish community of New York City, 
can hardly be the way of permanent improvement. Who 
is to blame? The just way, one might suppose, to ap- 
portion the blame, would be to say, quite paradoxically : 
everybody is to blame, and nobody is to blame. The 
individual Jew is at fault, because he does not join 
forces with those in the .community who see the danger 
ahead, and are sincerely working according to their best 
lights to prevent a catastrophe. The community as a 
whole is at fault because it goes on its heedless way. 



472 COMMUNAL REGISTER 

unorganized, chaotic, quibbling about non-essentials 
which should sink into insignificance when compared 
with the great and serious tasks ahead of the Jews of 
this city. 

That there have been public-spirited Jewish men and 
women who have thought seriously of the problem of 
recreational facilities, particularly for the youth, is 
shown by existence of the various Y. M. H. A.'s, Y. W. 
H. A.'s, settlements and social centers in this city. For 
a long time the main motive in organizing these associa- 
tions was the desire to offset the bad effects upon young 
people of the forms of recreation described above. These 
organizations provide entertainment of all types, from 
the littie "affair" held by small clubs for the benefit of 
the members and their friends, to mass entertainments, 
musicals, dramatic recitals, and pageants for the people 
of the neighborhood in which the institution happens to 
be located. But in such a vast community as New York 
City, these semi-philanthropic organizations can hardly 
hope to compete with the immensely greater facilities 
of the commercial recreational agencies, even if there 
were sufficient centers to accommodate the hundreds of 
thousands of young people. How much smaller, then, 
is the total impression made by these institutions, if we 
keep in mind that there are hardly a dozen of them of 
any considerable size in the Jewish community of New 
York City. 

What then is the solution of this difficult situation? 
Bmld more Y. M. H. A.'s, Y. W. H. A.'s, Alliances, 
settlements and social centers? Decidedly yes! Im- 
prove the work in these organizations, so that the tastes 



RfiCRfiATlONAL AND CULTURAL AGENCIES 473 

oi* the young people frequeuting them will gradually 
improve? Decidedly yes! Make the recreational work 
in these organizations more Jewish in content and mean- 
ing? Decidedly yes! But doing all these necessary 
things, while going very far towards a solution, will 
not have touched the vital issue in the matter. That 
issue is this: Reci'eation is fundamentally a communal 
problem. It is a communal problem not in the sense 
that the community prescribes the particular forms of 
amusement for each person, or groups of persons (such 
an attitude is so undemocratic and un-American as to 
be condemned as soon as it finds expression), but rather 
in the sense that the community as a whole, must on the 
one hand, safeguard the leisure time of its members, 
and on the other hand, see to it that the forms of re- 
creation, whatever they may be, shall be such that they 
truly re-create in the finest spiritual sense of the term. 
If the Jewish community is to raise the standards of its 
leisure-time activities, whether they be carried on in the 
home, in the private club, in the theatre, in the dance 
hall or in the social center, each and every member of 
the community must cooperate with the general com- 
munity in its efforts to improve living and working con- 
ditions, so that the masses of the people may have more 
leisure; and, furthermore, the Jewish community must 
marshal all its educational forces, the religious school, 
the synagogue, the social center, to develop a desire for 
the finest cultural and spiritual values on the part of 
its youth. Parallel with this, the community must be 
prepared to provide facilities just as soon as the de- 
mand finds expression. Above all, there must be de- 



474 COMMUNAL REGISTER 

veloped a powerful public opinion, which will (rown 
upon all vulgarity and sham, wherever it may be found 
in the communal life. 

It has been the distinctive feature of the genius of the 
Jew that he encompassed everything in the life of the 
individual and of the community within the bounds of 
the moral law. Not even play, the most spontaneous of 
human expressions, was excluded. It was the Greek 
who pleaded: ''Art for Art's sake." It was the He- 
brew who insisted : * * Art for Life 's sake. " As " Art for 
Art's sake" is a less inclusive, and thereffore less spirit- 
ual aim, than ''Art for Life's sake," so must we make 
the aim of each and every member of the Jewish com- 
munity in his pursuit of pleasures, recreation not so 
much for its own sake, but rather recreation for life's 
sake; for the sake of his own richer life, as well as for 
the sake of the larger and ever-expanding spiritual life 
of the community. 



475 

THE WOKK OF iOUNG 31EN'S HEBREW 

AND KINDRED ASSOCIATIONS IN 

NEW YORK CITY 

By I. E. GoLDWASSER, Chairman, 

Advisory Committee, National Council of Young Men's 
Ilehrew and Kindred Associations 

The Young Men's Hebrew, Association of today differs 
so completely from what was known as the Association 
thirty years ago, that it is almost impossible to consider 
the problems of the two types of institutions in connec- 
tion with each other. At the time of the inception of 
the Young Men's Hebrew Association, forty years ago, 
the idea in the minds of the founders was to establish 
a club which was to include young men and young 
Women whose interests lay in fields other than those of 
mere recreation. The first Association was a social 
club for young men and women. The participating 
group was also the gathering body. The activities were 
those of a rather high grade literary society. The sub- 
jects discussed in essays or debates were to some extent 
Jewish, but dealt also with topics of general interest, 
not necessarily with, religious topics. The membership 
was limited. The meetings were held regularly, but no 
attempt was made to exert either a neighborhood or com- 
munity influence. . The object was to promote sociability 
among the members, and in brief, the club was merely 
an expression of the genei*al .tendency of young people 
to organize themselves, for. their general improvement. 

Xaturall}^ ai] Association organized along such lines, 



476 COMMUNAL REGISTER 

was bound to meet certain difficulties. As the members 
grew older, their interests became scattered and the at- 
traction of their Association club was no longer so 
potent as it had been. The defection of the members 
caused a reduction in the membership. It was difficult 
to secure additions. Those who remained faithful, were 
unwilling to admit into the group new members con- 
siderably younger than they were. To secure additional 
members from among those of their age, was almost im- 
possible. Therefore the Association passed through suc- 
cessive periods of deterioration and rejuvenation. At 
times the affairs of the Association were in such a pre- 
carious condition, that the entire organization was dis- 
banded for a more or less extended period. It was only 
about twenty years ago that it was felt that a Young 
Men's Hebrew Association might have as its function 
something other than merely to gather a small group 
of young people together for the ordinary purposes of 
a literary, dramatic or social club. Following the lead 
of the Young Men's Christian Association, some leaders 
of the Jewish community felt that the Association idea 
might be developed to such an extent as to make an 
appeal to the young men and young women who were 
not reached by the synagogues and temples, and who 
might be led, through the influence of the Association, 
to a fuller realization of their responsibilities as Jews, 
and their obligations to the Jewish community. Accord- 
ingly, Mr. Jacob H. Schiff placed at the disposal of the 
Young Men's Hebrew Association in Manhattan, a build- 
ing at 92nd Street and Lexington Avenue. The status 
of the Association at that time may be measured by the 



RECREATIONAL AND CULTURAL AGENCIES 477 

fact that, when Mr. Schiff m^de his gift, he set as one of 
the conditions that the annual expenditure of the As- 
sociation, must be no less than five thousand dollars, 
and that at the present time, the budget of the 92nd 
Street Young Men's Hebrew Association is almost sixty 
thousand dollars. The small figure set twenty years ago 
was an indication, not of the needs of the institution, 
but rather of the belief, on the part of those most inter- 
ested, in the extent of support that could be expected 
from the general public. 

The Association of today is quite different from the 
social club of forty, years ago. Today there is a com- 
petent Board of Directors interested in this particular 
phase of Jewish work and planning the activities of 
their society, so as best to meet the needs as they see them. 
There is a large body of members of the Association 
whose interest is manifested only by their annual sub- 
scriptions for the support of the work. Finally, there 
is the participating membership itself, which consists 
of three groups : the seniors, the associates and the 
juniors. The grades are based upon the differences in 
age. 

Today an Association cannot carry on its activities on 
the basis of the payments made by the members for the 
benefits which they enjoy. For example, in the 92nd 
Street Young Men 's Hebrew Association, only ten thou- 
sand dollars are contributed by the members toward the 
gross budget of the Association, although there are 
2,300 members. 

In the last five years there has been a growth in the 
number of Associations established in Greater New 



478 COMMUNAL REGISTER 

York. This has beeu due to two causes, in the first 
place, there has been an ever stronger desire on the 
part of young men and young women to organize them- 
selves into associations, and in the second place, the 
Council of Young Men's Hebrew and Kindred Associa- 
tions, through its metropolitan league, has furthered the 
formation of these institutions. 

The first great difficulty that lies in the way of an 
extension of this kind of work, is the apathy on the part 
of the general public towards preventive institutions. 
The most popular forms of philanthropic work are tra- 
ditionally the hospital, the relief society and the orphan 
home. It is only within comparatively recent years that 
in the field of communal work it has come to be felt 
that preventive work is more effective, more economical 
and more valuable than is remedial work. The general 
public must be educated to the value of the preventive 
institutions, and in the course of such education, the 
public must come to feel the things which the preventive 
institution seeks either to remove or improve. 

It is a matter of common experience to know that the 
synagogue and the temple do not hold the Jewish young 
men and young women. To a very great extent this is 
due to the fact that economic conditions prevent atten- 
dance at religious services. The traditional synagogue 
or temple building does not readily lend itself to ex- 
tension activities. The governing Boards of such iiLstitu- 
tions have only begun to realize that the synagogue must 
exert an influence ux)on every phase of the Life of its 
members. 

The spirit of service is spreading. Our youTig people 



UECREATIONAL AND CULTURAL AGENCIPJS 479 

are becoming very anxious to ally themselves with types 
of communal work, which will enable them to render 
service to the community. The weakening of the religi- 
ous spirit of our young people, is due not so much to 
our American environment, or the desire to become 
separated from the Jewish faith, as it is to the fact 
that the community does not offer avenues of expression 
for young people, through which they may give more or 
less adequate utterance to the desire to serve, and the 
desire to become, through action, more closely affiliated 
with the vital aspects of their religion. If such avenues 
of expression are not provided, there must come an in- 
evitable falling away from Judaism. The Jewish con- 
sciousness will be deprived of its proper mode of ex- 
pression and must necessarily become weakened. 

The function of the Association as a preventive insti- 
tution is not restricted solely to the affording of an op- 
portunity of expression of the spirit of service, and of 
the Jewish consciousness; the Association has shown it- 
self to be of great value in meeting the problem of 
delinquency. Those who have been interested in the 
direction of our Associations, have voiced with pride, 
the fact that few, if any, of the members of the Associa- 
tions have ever found their way into courts under 
charges. This, of course, may be due to the fact that 
the Association does not attract the wayward boy or girl, 
and therefore the percentage of delinquency in this case 
is not indicative of the real situation. On the other hand, 
it must be remembered that the Association does not 
limit its membership on the basis of character recom- 
mendations, and that therefore, it is impossible to esti- 



480 COMMUNAL REGISTER 

mate how many of those who become members of the 
Associations, might have lapsed, had the influence of 
the institution not been exerted upon them. 
• The community must be educated to the point, there- 
fore, of realizing how important preventive work is, and 
liow necessary it is for an institution to have such varied 
activities as will permit fullest expression on the part 
of its members. An Association which is enabled to do 
this type of work, must be properly housed. It is a mis- 
take to build a large Association building. Great num- 
bers cannot be treated in the intimate way, that the 
need of the problem demands. The Young Women's 
Hebrew Association and the Young Men's Hebrew As- 
sociation of Manhattan, represent probably the maxi- 
mum size of institution that should be directed by one 
group. The Association must exert an influence, not 
only upon its members, but must also exercise an in- 
fluence upon the neighborhood in which it is located. 
In other words, the Association must become, not only 
a gathering place for its young people, but also a com- 
munity centre into which will pour all the Jewish activi- 
ties of the neighborhood, and from which will radiate 
all influence for good upon the Jewish community. The 
buildings must provide facilities for recreation, for edu- 
cation and for communal gatherings of various kinds. 
The surroundings must be pleasant but not ornate; the 
tone must be refined, but not overwhelming, and above 
all, the Association spirit must be emphasized. The 
young men and young women must be given plenty of 
opportunity to express themselves in their work and in 
the management of the institution. 



RECKEATIONAL AND CULTURAL AGBNCLK8 481 

In order that in a large city there shall not be duplica- 
tion of effort or tlie creation of useless institutions, a 
central governing body must be created with authority 
to enforce its requests. This body should be charged 
with the duty of viewing the entire community as a 
unit, and of determining where the greatest needs lie. 
For instance, at the present time, there are four sections 
of the city that are urgently in need of the Association 
work. They are the Bronx, Harlem, the West Side and 
Williamsburg. The order in which these communities 
should be served, must be determined, not by the im- 
portunities of any one group, but rather by the delibera- 
tion of a central body which will evaluate all needs and 
arrive at a fair and impartial decision. 

In the immediate future it is difficult to note any full 
realization on the part of the community of the import- 
ance of the Association. As a war measure the creation 
of a Young Men's Hebrew Association might be re- 
ceived as an emergency which the times have created. 
Several war nations have found themselves confronted 
with the problem of increased delinquency. If this 
country is to be spared a similar problem, the Associa- 
tion must be developed. 

To outline a detailed program as to what should be 
the lines along which the development should take place, 
would be to set at naught the fundamental principle 
of an Association. It is important that the Association 
shall be expressive, not of the theories of those who are 
interested in it, but rather of the community in which 
it is located. The proper Association can be organized 
only when a community survey has been made, and the 



482 COMMUNAL REGISTER 

needs of the community have been charted. In all sec- 
tions, it will be found that the Association must contain 
ample facilities for recreation, a gymnasium, swimming 
pool, etc. It will be found that if the Association is to 
win the confidence of the neighborhood, provision must 
be made for religious services. The Friday night service 
or forum has become increasingly popular in all Associa- 
tions. In a number of our buildings, groups of young 
men and young women flock to the buildings on Friday 
evening, and after participating in a brief service and 
listening to a short sermon, discuss with the speaker, the 
subject matter of the address. The Association, wherever 
it is located, will moreover, in all probability, require 
facilities for educational work and several clubs. It will 
be found that the organization must include some type 
of afternoon work for school boys. Religious schools 
might be organized in certain localities. In short, a 
maximum use must be made of the plant, but the uses 
must be determined by the needs of the community. 

With such a program of standardized Association fa- 
cilities, and of particular facilities suited to particular 
needs, there is no limit to the value of the Association 
as a communal agency for the solution of Jewish com- 
munal problems. 



RECREATIONAL AND CULTURAL AGExVCIES 



488 



YOUNG MEN'S HEJ5KEVV ASSOCIATIONS 



)'ouns Men's Hebrew Ann'u of 
the Bronx. 1261-1263 Frank- 
lin Ave., established and in- 
corporated 1909. Budget for 
1917: $6,000. Membership: 
1,000. Pres.. M. Maldwin 
Fertig, 1389 Stebbins Ave. 
Sec'y, .Louis Weinstein, 1916 
Daly Ave. Sup"t. Wallace A. 
Mannheimer. PUR P-O S E : 
"The moral, educational, re- 
ligious and physical develop- 
ment of the boys and girls, 
young men and women of 
the Borough of the Bronx. 
ACTIVITIES: Literary, ath- 
letic and social clubs for 
boys and girls, from the 
ages of 9 to 25. Jewish cul- 
tural and literary work for 
the younger groups Genei-al 
social activities; " hou:-5e " 
welfare work for older boys. 
Classes in gymnasium work. 
Commercial course. Relig- 
ious services on Friday eve- 
nings and holidays. League 
of the Jewish Youth oc 
America. Big Brother ac- 
tivities. Center for phil- 
anthropic, civic and social 
work in the Bronx. Natui- 
alization Bureau and an 
Rnglish class for foreigners. 
Separate quarters for young 
ladies and girls v/ho con- 

. .^titute a Y. W. H. A. ' 
Fertig, M. Mald>Tin,^ Pres, Y. 
■M. H. A. of the Bronx yi2r,l 

. Franklin Ave,), sincf^ 1914. 
Term 1. year. Born 1887 In 
N. Y. Received the following 
•i->:rrees: B. S. (C. C."' N. Y.): 
L. L. B. (N. Y. Lav.' School). 



Lawyer: 120 B'way. 
1389 Stebbins Ave. 



Res.: 



Youn^ Men's Ilebrevr Ass'n of 
Brooklyn, 345 Ninth St., 
B'klyn. Incorporated 1907. 
Supported by Brooklyn Fed- 
eration of Jpwish Charitips, 
Pres,. Grover M. Moscowitz, 
862 Kenmore Place, B'klyn. 
Sec'y, Bernard J. Becker. 375 
Pulton St. Sup't., Adolph 
Noshkes. PURPOSE : 
"Intellectual and spiritual 
advancement and increased 
efficiency and physical 
growth of the young man 
offered in congenial s\ir- 
roundings, inducing c o m - 
panionship and healthy re- 
creation." ACTIVITI ES: 
Gymnasium training given 
under competent instructors. 
Educational classes, orches- 
tra, mandolin club, chess 
and checker club. Dramatic 
Society. Literary Societies. 
Bible and Jewish History 
Classes. Employment Bu- 
reau. General Entertain- 
ments. Ploliday service, Boy 
Scouts, Young Men's Con- 
gress. 

Young' Men' .y Hebrevv Ass'n of 
Bro\yn>*vIl!e, 461 Rockaway 
Ave., B'klyn. Pres., Frank 
Wasserman, 563 Howard 
Aye., B'klyn. Sec'y," William 
Cantor, 3fi2 Sackman St., 
B'kJyn. Established 1911. 
Incorporated 1912. Member- 
ship 200. PURPOSE: "To 
develop Jewish young men 



484 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



morally, physically and re- 
ligiously." ACTIVITIES: 1. 
Studies in Jewish History; 

2, Social and Literary Work; 

3, Services on Jewish Holy 
days; 4, Provision for needy 
Jewish families during 
Passover. 

Wasserman, Frank, Pres. Y. 
M. H. A. of Brownsville (461 
Rockaway Ave., B'klyn); 
elected 1917. Term 1 year. 
Born 1877 in Russia. Came 
to U. S. 1887. Received High 
School and College educa- 
tion. Lawyer: 37 Liberty 
St. Res.: 563 Howard Ave., 
B'klyn. 
Jamaica Young Folks' He- 
brew A.ssociation, 96 Union 
Ave. Pres., Benjamin Mar- 
vin. 

Rockaway Beach Y. M. H. A.. 

care of Temple Israel. 
Pres., Louis Lewy. 

The Young Men's Hebrew 
Ass'n of Harlem, 12 B. 119th 
St. Established 1915. Budget 
for 1917 $2,000. Membership 
200. Pres., Isaac Robinson, 
850 E. 163d St. Sec'y, Ralph 
Levy, 6 W. 116th St. PUR- 
POSE: "To provide the 
Jewish youth with a Jewish 
center of activities of such 
a nature that he shall find 
It unnecessary to go beyond 
the doors of this building 
for amusement, education or 
religion." ACTIVITIES: 
Religious — Clubs, classes, 
Services. Educational — For- 
ums, classes in Business and 
College entrance subjects 
and lectures on civic and 



commercial subjects. Ath- 
letics — Athletic games and 
events under the direction 
of athletic trainer, J. 
Greengeld. Social — Commun- 
al welfare work. Social en- 
tertainment for the youth. 
Lectures in connection with 
the worlv at specified times. 
Robinson, Isaac, Pres. Y. M. 
H. A. of Harlem (12 E. 119th 
St.), since 1915. Term 3 
years. Born in England. 
Came to U. S. 1913. Attended 
High School in England. 
Salesman. Res.: 850 E. 163d 
St. 

Young Men's Hebrew Ass'n of 
Washington Heights. 

2005 Amsterdam Avenue. 
Established 1916. Incorpor- 
ated 1917. Budget $15,000. 
Membership 800. Pres., Dr. 
S. R. Schultz, 620 W. 150th 
St. Sec'y, Ely Rosenberg, 346 
B'way. Sup't, Harry War- 
shaw. PURPOSE: "To act as 
a neighborhood center for 
social, cultural and civic bet- 
terment; to conduct classes 
and clubs in any subject 
(within this scope) that are 
not adequately provided by 
other social agencies; to 
organize community effort 
and to act as a center for 
community organization in 
recreation, in neighborhood 
improvement in social, char- 
itable and religious work, 
to build up and conserve 
character in Jewish men. 
women and children." AC- 
TIVITIES: Cultural — Li- 
brary, literary and debating 



RECREATIONAL AND CULTURAL AGENCIES 



485 



societies; educational, and 
vocational classes, orches- 
tra, musical training in 
classes and with individuals. 
Social — A social room for 
men and one for women. 
Games, entertainments, 
clubs, dances and outings. 
Civic — A center for war ser- 
vice, civic club, rally meet- 
ings, suffrage club, Junior 
Police, co-operation with 
health and police depart- 
ments. Athletic — Athletic 
teams, billiards and pool 
rooms, baths. 

Schultz, S. Robert, Pres. Y. 
M. H. A. of Washington 
Heights (2005 Amsterdam 
Ave.), since 1916. Term 1 
year. Born 1876 in Russia. 
Came to U. S. 1892. Received 
academic and medical edu- 
cation. Physician. Res.: 620 
W. 150th St. 

Vouug Men'.s Hebre^v Ass'n of 
'WilliamMbarg, 164 Clymer 
St., B'klyn. Established 1909. 
Incorporated 1910. Budget 
for 1917 $2,000. Membership: 
500. Pres., Hon. Jacob S. 
Strahl, 74 Chauncey Street, 
B'klyn. Sec'y, David Schae- 
fer, 498 Bedford Ave., 
B'klyn. PURPOSE: "To de- 
velop a Jewish American 
consciousness, to elevate 
the moral standard of Jew- 
ish young men." ACTIVI- 
TIES: Its religious activities 
include the Spinoza Literary 
Society which is devoted to 
the study and discussion of 
Jewish Philosophy Culture, 
and Ideals, and the Senior 
Society which devotes one 



evening a month to religi- 
ous discussions. Among the 
literary activities the or- 
ganization conducts classes 
in English and Public 
Speaking, Press Clubs and 
a magazine published by 
younger members called 
"Sholem Aleichem." Issued 
bl - monthly. There are 
regular gymnasium classes 
under competent instructors 
in athletics. Personal 
touch with the members is 
secured through the Person- 
al Help and Advice Bureau, 
which gives confidential ad- 
vice and vocational guid- 
ance. 

West Side Youngf Men's He- 
brew A»s'n, 462 8th Ave. 
Established 1913. Budget for 
1917, $2,000. Pres., Charles 
P. Kramer, 44 Pine St. Sec'y, 
Jesse Libien, 352 W. 56th St. 
PURPOSE: "The mental, 
moral and physical improve- 
ment of Jewish Young Men." 
ACTIVITIES: 1. Philosophy 
club, arranges and conducts 
public forums. 2, Business 
men's club-talks and dis- 
cussions on business topics. 
3, Current Topic Club-talks 
and discussions on general 
topics. 4, Junior Clubs, 
work along religious lines. 

5, Friday Evening Services. 

6, Literary and dramatic 
flubs. 7, Athletics. 
Kramer, Charles P., Prea 
West Side Y. M. H. A. (462 
8th Ave.), since 1914. Term 
1 year. Born 1890 In U. S. 
Graduated Law School. 
Lawyer: 44 Pine St. Rea.: 
551 W. 157th St. 



486 COMMUNAL REGISTER 



vol N(i WOMKN'S HK»HE\V ASSOCIATIONS 



^ «iuu^ Wonien'M Hebrew Ass'u 
of Brooklyn. 374 7lh St., 
B'klyii. Pres., Mrs. Anna R. 
Jacobs, 429 16th St., B'klyn* 
Sec'y, Dr. Anna M. Hoch- 
felder, 277 17th St., B'klyn. 
Estab. and incorpor. 1916. 
Budget $500. Membership 
350. PURPOSE: "To promote 
the social, moral and religi- 
ous welfare of the Jewish 
young women of the Bor- 
ough of Brooklyn, to pro- 
vide and maintain a home 
for our homeless Jewish 
young- girls, to aid them to 
obtain positions, to form 
social and educational 
classes for their recreation 
and mental development; to 
protect Jewish young girls 
from vice and immoral- 
ity; to instill i.n them the 
principles and idealism of 
the Jewish religion." AC- 
TIVITIES: Classes in, 1, He- 
brew, 2. Millinery and croch- 
etingr- 3, Advanced sewiriLj 
and dressmaking. 4, Elocu- 
tion. 5, First Aid to the in- 
jured. 6, Swimming, . 7, 
. Embroidering-. 8, Piano in- 
struction. ,9, Parliamentar>' 
law. 10, Civil Service. 11, 
Gymnastics and athletic 
dances. 

.lacol»». Anna R., PreS. -Y. W. 
H. A. of B:klyn.(374 7th St., 
B'klyn.). since 191(). Term 1 
year. . Born 1891 -in-N. Y. 
Received an academic and 
secretarial .education. Social 
worker. Res.: 429 16th St.. 
Rklyn. 



Greenpoint V. VV. H. A., 1000 
Lorimer St., B'klyn. Pres., 
Mrs. W. V. Zipser. 

Y. W. H. A, of WasHinstou 
Heights, 2005 Amsterdam 
Ave. Sup't., Miss J. Fisher. 



West Side Yonnc: Women'.s 
Hebrew Ass'n, 4 62 8th Ave. 
Pres., Lillian Wolf. 462^ 8th 
Ave. Sec'y, Dorothy Shend- 
ler, 462 8th Ave. Established 
1914. Membership 40. 
PURPOSE: "To promote the 
■moral, mental and physical 
development of the Jewish 
young women- of this city." 
ACTIVITIES:-- Speakers' ad- 
dress meetih-g-s weekly on 
• topic-s pertaining- to religi- 
■ ous sirid s-ooial life. One -eve- 
ning-- a;- -week is- devoted to 
sewing-. liiteraiy and dram- 
atic work forms ah import- 
ant part of the activities. 



Young Women's Hebrew A!*s*i» 
of Brownsville, 63 Liberty 
Ave., B'klyn. I'res., P^rieda 
Goldenberg, 774 Sack man 
St., B'klyn. Sec'y, Anna 
Gellman, 534 Thatford Ave.. 
B'klyn. Established 1914. 
Membership 100. PUR- 
POSE: "To develop the 
young-er element of Browns- 
V i 1 1 e mentally, physically 
and spiritually." ACTIVI- 
TIES: M e e t i u g s. Sewing 
Circle, Dramatic <Cir.cles, 
Athletics. 



I 



RECREATIONAL AND CULTURAL AGENCIES 



487 



SETTLEMENTS 



Federation Settlement, 236-4U 
E. 105th St. Pres., Dr. Maur- 
ice H. Harris, 254 W. 103cl 
St. Sec'y, Edward S. Green- 
baum, 2 E. 94th St. Sup't, 
Pauline Moskowitz, 236 E. 
105th St. Incorporated 1907. 
Membership 1,400. PUR- 
POSE: "A community center 
for social, cultural, religious 
and moral benefit." ACTIV- 
ITIES: 1, Parents Clubs, 
literary, social, ci.vic and 
athletic. 2, Sewing- Circles. 
3, Music Classes in Piano, 
Violin, Orchestra and 
Chorus. 4, Physical culture 
and workshop. 5, Dancing, 
aesthetic and interpretive. 
6, Art classes, cooking, em- 
broidery, pine-needle work 
and basketry. 7, Game 
rooms. 8, Kindergarten. 9, 
Clubs, debating, dramatic, 
Young Judea, boys and girls 
Scouts. 10, Religious: (a) 
Sunday School, (b) Friday 
Evening and Saturday 
morning services for adults, 
(c) Saturday afternoon ser- 
vices for juniors. 11, Neigh- 
borhood visiting. 12, Dental 
and Medical Clinic. 
Harris, Maurice H., Pres. 
Federation Settlement (240 
E. 105th St.), since 1908. 
Term 1 year. Born 1859 in 
England. Came to U. S. 1878. 
Received B. A. and Ph. D. at 
Columbia University. Rabbi: 
Temple Israel of Harlem, 
(Lenox Ave. and 120th St.) 
Res.: 254 W. 103d St. 



FellofVHhiit House. (See under 
Hebrew Sheltering Guardian 
Society.) 

Henry Meiuhard Memorial 
Neighborbood House, 100 E. 

101st St. Est. 1914. Pres., 
Morton H. Meinhard, 215 4th 
Ave. Sec'y, George L. Cohen, 
100 East 101st St. Sup't, 
George L. Cohen. PURPOSE: 
To take care of the social 
needs of tlie neighborhood. 
ACTIVITIES: 1, Clubs. 2, 
Lectures. 3, Kindergarten. 

4, Employment Bureau. 5, 
Open Forum. 6, Classes. 7, 
Athletics. 8, Shower Baths. 
9, Legal Aid. 

Meinhard, Morton Henry, 
Pres. Henry Meinhard Mem. 
Neighborhood House (100 E. 
101st St.), since 1914. Born 
1872 in U. S. Received a 
liberal education. Woolens: 
215 4th Ave. Res.: 524 5th 
Ave. 

New Era Club, 274 E. B'way. 
Pres., Louis S. Posner, 15 
Broad St. Sec'y, Joseph 
Gluck, 56 Ave. C. Incorpor- 
ated 1901. Membership 200. 
Budget for 1917, $3,000. 
Sup't, M. Kopp. ACTIVI- 
TIES: 1, Hebrew Classes. 2, 
Literary Classes and Lec- 
tures. 3, Library and Read- 
ing Room. 4, Game Room. 

5, Vacation Camp. 
Po.sner, Louis S., Pres. New 
Era Club (274 E. B'way). 
since 1906. Term 1 year. 



488 



COMMUNAL. REOISl'ER 



Born 1879 In England. Re- 
ceived college education. 
Nasi of Zeta Beta Tau 
Graduate Club. Lawyer: 15 
Broad St. Res.: 152 Living- 
ston St., Forest Hills, L. I. 
Recreation Rooms and Settle- 
ments, 186-188 Clirystie St. 
Established 1898. P r e s . , 
Mrs. Cyrus L. Sulzberger, 
516 West End Ave. Sec'y, 
Mrs. Harry Guinzberg, 115 
W. 86th St. Budget 1917, 
$18,000. Sup't Miss Rae Perl- 
man. PURPOSE: To provide 
healthful and proper recrea- 
tion for the young people of 
the neighborhood. ACTIVI- 
TIES: 1, Gymnasium 
classes. 2, Clubs of Instruc- 
tive and Recreational Char- 
acter for afternoons and 
evenings. 3, Open air play- 
ground. 4, Trained nurse 
service. 5, Visiting of homes 
and relief for poor. 6, Sup- 
ervised dances and enter- 
tainments. 7, Maintains for 
working girls, mothers and 
children during the vacation 
"The Ida R. Strauss Va- 
cation Home." 8, Scholar- 
.ship awarded to deserving 
pupils at various technical 
and High Schools. 9, Co- 
operates with Surprise Lal<e 
Camp in giving outings for 
boys, day excursions, etc. 

Wage Earners^ Institute (for- 
merly Tliomas Davidson 

School), 307 Henry St. Pres., 
Simon Hirsdansky. Sec'y. 
Y e t t a Dubrin. Principal, 
Alexander L, Shluger. Es- 



tablished 1899. Incorporated 
1907. Supported by volun- 
tary contributions and mem- 
bership dues. PURPOSE: 
"To impart to the worker a 
knowledge of his relation to 
the outside world, physical, 
cultural, and industrial, to 
arouse an interest in the 
higher things of life. To cul- 
tivate a taste for good liter- 
ature, an appreciation of art 
and music, and to stimulate 
a desire for association with 
the best and noblest." AC- 
TIVITIES: 1, Academic, cul- 
tural courses in the evening 
in advanced English, his- 
tory, mathematics, physics, 
chemistry, social and politi- 
cal science, art and philoso- 
phy. 2, Special courses are 
offered in naturalization. 3, 
A series of public lectures 
given on Friday evenings on 
current, social, political and 
literary topics. 4, Conducts 
a department of clubs. 5, 
Conducts outings and ex- 
cursions. 6, Publishes the 
"Wage Earners Quarterly." 

ADEQUATE INFORMATION 
IS LACKING ON THE POL- 
LOWING SOCIETIES: 

Albert i^ucas Ass'n. Pres., 
Albert Lucas, 56 W. 105th 
St. Sec'y. Martha Wolf, 164 
St. Nicholas Ave. 

East Side Neigliborliood Ass'n, 

184 Eldridge St. Pres., Dr. 
H. Moskowitz. Sec'y, J. J. 
Goldstein. 



RKCREATIONAL AND CULTURAL AGENCIES 489 

YOUNG MEN'S HEBREW ASSOCIATION, 148 E. 92nd 
St. (Established 1874.) 

The pioneer organization of its kind, the Y. M. H. A. of 
Manhattan has been from the time of its organization, an 
experiment station, so to speak, for Y. M. H. A. work in this 
country. In size of its membership and in equipment, the 
institution is still the leading organization of its type. 
While in the earlier stages of its history the purely recrea- 
tional and cultural phases of Y. M. H. A. work were em- 
phasized, later years have seen a gradual shifting of inter- 
est, both on the part of the administrators, and on the part 
of the membership, towards social activities in a more 
specifically Jewish setting, and of more definite Jewish 
application. The aim of the organization is "to develop 
among young Jewish men, the Jewish consciousness as a 
means to the highest type of spiritual life." To this end, 
every side of the character of the Jewish boy and young 
man is appealed to. The natural interest in physical exer- 
cise is fostered by offering opportunities for wholesome 
athletics in a completely equipped gymnasium and swim- 
ming pool, and by conducting during the summer "Surprise 
Camp Lake," at Cold Spring, New York, one of the' largest 
and most favorably situated vacation camps in this country. 
The social activities conducted in the building include: 
boys' and young men's clubs, emphasizing Jewish literary 
work; entertainments and holiday celebrations; lectures and 
forums on Jewish, civic, and vocational topics; group work 
in music, a choral society, an orchestra, an opera company, 
concerts, recitals. During the summer months games and 
entertainments are conducted on the roof garden. 

To foster an intelligent knowledge of Jewish life of the 
past, and of the present, classes in Jewish history, the study 
of the Bible and Hebrew are organized; holiday and Sabbath 
services, particularly for the younger people, are also a 
feature of the religious work of the Institution. 

Among the numerous other activities may be mentioned 
an employment and vocational bureau, a carefully selected 
reference library of almost 14,000 volumes, evening educa- 
tional classes in which academic and commercial subjects 
are taught to students preparing for the state regents' 
examinations. 

The organization is a member of the Federation for the 
Support of Jewish Philanthropic Societies of New York City. 
Its budget for 1917 was $6^0,696.12, of which the Federa- 
tion provided $32,300.03. The budget for 1917 of the 



490 



COMMUNAL RIi^GISTER 



Surprise Lake Camp, a summer camp conducted jointly with 
the Educational Alliance, was $14,560.28. 

The membership of the organization is approximately 
5,000. 

The officers are: — President, Hon. Irving Lehman, 51 
William St.; Honorary President, Felix M. Warburg; First 
Vice-President, Louis I. Haber, 508 West Broadway; Second 
Vice-President, William Prager; Treasurer, Henry M. Toch, 
19 W. 94th St.; Secretary, Eugene H. Paul, 52 William St.; 
Executive Director, Ilabbi Aaron G. Robison. 



Irving Lehman was born in New York in 1876. He at- 
tended Columbia University and took his degree of Bachelor 
of Arts in 1896; Master of Arts in 1897, and Bachelor of 
Laws in 1898. From 1898 to 1908 he practiced law. He is 
now serving as Justice of the Supreme Court of the City of 
New York, his term ending in 1922. 

Judge Lehman takes an active interest in Jewish com- 
munal life. He is a member of the American Jewish Com- 
mittee. His main interest, however, is in education. He is 
a trustee of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America; 
he is the Chairman of the Board of Trustees of the School 
for Jewish Communal Work; he is President of the Young 
Men's Hebrew Association of 92nd Street and Lexington 
Avenue, and is a trustee of the Hebrew Technical Institute. 



491 




BUILDING OF Y. M. H. A. 
92ncl Streft and Lexington Avenue 



493 




I 



495 




497 




489 




§01 




KECKEATIUNAL. AND CUIjTUKAL AGENCIES f>08 

yOUNQ WOMEN'S Hl^BREW ASSOCIATION, 31 W. 

110th St. (Established 1902, Incorporated 1903.) 

The y. W. H. A. of New York City, established in 1902, is 
perhaps the only large institution of its kind in America. 
From a comparatively small, inadequate building, to a com- 
pletely equipped eight-story modern social center, the Young 
Women's Hebrew Association has grown in its activities, 
until today it offers not only recreational and educational 
opportunities to those Jewish girls and young women who 
live with their parents or relatives, but it also houses Jewish 
girls who are orphans or strangers in New York City, and 
other young women dependent upon their own exertions for 
their living. 

The building is located on an attractive thoroughfare, 
and faces Central Park. Besides being a most comfortable 
home for one hundred and seventy girls, the building is 
also a true center for the communal interests of the neigh- 
borhood; it houses a Commercial School, a Hebrew School, 
(an Experimental Girls' School of the Bureau of Jewish 
Education), Trade Classes in Dressmaking, Millinery, 
Domestic Science, classes in Hebrew, Bible Study, Jewish 
History, Art, English to Foreigners, Advanced Encjlisli, 
French, Spanish, and Nursing. There is a completely 
equipped modern gymnasium and swimming pool. The 
Employment Bureau for the use of the members of the 
building, not only directs girls in suitable vocations but 
helps toward their advancement by providing extension 
work. 

Religious services are held in the Synagogue on Friday 
evenings, Saturday mornings, and holidays for the girls 
living in the building, and for the people of the neighbor- 
hoo3. Sunday evening concerts by talented artists have 
helped to form the nucleus of a "musical salon" for the 
neighborhood. Weekly dances for the young people are 
very much appreciated, especially those during the Summer, 
on the beautifuf Roof Garden. 

No energy is spared in cooperating wiili llie various agen- 
cies for war activities and war i-elief; the institution is an 
auxiliary of the American Red Cross, and hundreds of its 
members are constantly giving personal service in the work 
rooms. Soldiers and sailors are welcomed to all social and 
educational functions, and special arrangements are made 
during holidays for entertaining those who are away from 
their homes 



504 COMMUNAL REGISTER 

One of the activities recently added, is the all day care 
of anaemic and cardiac children, and the children of poor 
families, on the Roof Garden during the Summer, and 
numerous excursions into the country for poor children and 
mothers. 

An important work to which a great deal of attention has 
been paid is the formation of Americanization Classes for 
Aliens, to help lessen the tragedy in the social evolution of 
the immigrants. 

The Institution is a member of the Federation for the 
Support of Jewish Philanthropic Societies of New York City. 
Its budget for 1917 was $69,754.08, of which $17,650.55 
was provided by the Federation. 

The officers are: — President, Mrs. Israel Unterberg, 11 
W. 86th St.; Secretary, Mrs. Samuel I. Hyman, 981 Park 
Ave.; Superintendent, Mrs. Ray F. Schwartz. 

Mrs. Israel Unterberg was born in New York City in 1868, 
and received her education in the public schools of New 
York City. Mrs. Unterberg is very active in Jewish work. 
She is the founder and president of the Young Women's 
Hebrew Association, chairman of The Women's Work of the 
National Council of the Y. M. H. and Kindred Organizations, 
member of the Board of Directors of the Federation for the 
Support of Jewish Philanthropic Societies, President of the 
Metropolitan League of Young Women's Hebrew Associa- 
tions, Treasurer of the Ladies' Fuel and Aid Society, and a 
member of the Women's Committee of the Council for 
National Defense. 



505 




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BUILDING OF Y. W. H. 
81 West 110th Street 



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527 




RECREATIONAL AND CULTURAL AGENCIES 529 

EDUCATIONAL ALLIANCE, East Broadway and Jeffer- 
son St. (Incorporated 1869, reorganized 1893.) Young 
People's Branch, 36 Stuyvesant St. 

With the great influx of Jewish immigration to America 
after the enactment of the May Laws in Russia, 1882, the 
problem of adapting the immigrant population to American 
habits of thought and action, became one of the most urgent 
problems confronting the Jewish community in New York 
City. Institutions were needed, which, on the one hand, 
would conserve the best values in the traditional culture of 
the immigrant, and on the other, would interpret for him 
the ideals of America. Among the first and largest of such 
institutions to be organized was the Educational Alliance. 
Since its establishment the institution has grown in its 
activities, until today there is hardly any phase of the life 
of the Jewish immigrant in the neighborhood of the insti- 
tution which the Alliance does not attempt to influence. 
The following list indicates the wide range of the activities 
carried on by the institution: 

EDUCATIONAL: Lectures in English and Yiddish on 
American history and civics; naturalization classes; Civil 
Service classes; reading-room; domestic art school; domes- 
tic science school; manual training; day classes for adult 
immigrants; physical culture school; telegraphy class; 
Bread Winners' College (307 Henry St.). 

SOCIAL: Auditorium entertainments (concerts, lectures, 
dramatic performances, moving pictures, etc.); boys and 
girls clubs; social rooms for boys, girls, men and women; 
roof-garden; boys' summer camp; girls' summer home; 
parents' meetings; summer outings; inter-settlement activi- 
ties; indoor play-ground; free baths, etc. 

RELIGIOUS: People's Synagogue; Special Services on 
Holy Days; School of Religious Work; Sabbath morning 
and afternoon services; lectures on moral topics; Young 
People's Synagogue; classes in ethics, etc. 

SOCIAL SERVICE: Desertion Bureau; Legal Aid Bureau; 
Information Bureau; Penny Provident Fund. 

The Educational Alliance is a member of the Federation 
for the Support of Jewish Philanthropic Societies of New 
York City. Its budget for 1917 was $106,299.78, of which 
the Federation provided $65,236.78. The budget for 1917 
of the Surprise Lake Camp, a summer camp conducted 
Jointly with the Young Men's Hebrew Association, waa 
$14,560.28. 



530 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



The officers are: — President, Samuel lireeubaum, 2 E. 
94th St.; First Vice-President, Le© Kohns, 42 Warren St.; 
Second Vice-President, Benjamin Tuska, 20 Nassau St.; 
Treasurer, William Salomon, 25 Broad St.; Secretary, 
Bernard M. L. Ernst, 31 Liberty St.; Executive Director, 
Dr. Nathan Peyser; Administrator, Dr. Henry Fleischman. 

Samuel Greenbaum was born in London in 1854. He was 
brought to America as a child of three, and received his 
education in the public schools of New York City and 
College of the City of New York from which he graduated 
in 1872, with the degree of Bachelor of Arts. He studied 
law at the Columbia Law School from which he graduated 
in 1875 with the degree of Bachelor of Law. He served as 
a teacher in the New York Public Schools until 187 7, 
whereupon he took to the practice of law, which he 
continued until 1902. He was elected in 1901 Justice of 
the Supreme Court of the State of New York for a term that 
expired in 1915, and was re-elected upon the nomination 
of the leading political parties for a term of fourteen years. 
Judge Greenbaum is known for his legal erudition. He is 
a member of the Bar Association of America, of the State 
of New York and of the City of New York. He is also a 
member of the Society of Medical Jurisprudence, of the 
Civil Service Reform Association, of the Fr^e Trade League, 
and of the Manhattan and City Clubs. 

Judge Greenbaum takes a very great interest in Jewish 
educational institutions. He is a trustee of the Jewish 
Theological Seminary of America and of the New York 
Public Library. He was one of the organizers of the 
Educational Alliance and its first vice-president from its 
organization to 1912, when he became its president. He was 
president of the Young Men's Hebrew Association; was one 
of the founders of the Aguilar Public Library and was its 
president from its organization until its merger with the 
New York Public Library. He is also a trustee of the 
Jewish Teachers' Fund and chairman of the Jewish 
Teachers' Institute conducted under the auspices of the 
Theological Seminary. 



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EDUCATIONAL ALLIANCl] FARMERS IN SEWARD PARK 




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KKCREATIONAL AND CULTURAL AGENCIES 547 

HJEBKEW EDUCATIONAL SOCIKTV, Kopkinson and 
Sutter Aves., Brooklyn. 

The Hebrew Educational Society is ttie only distinctively 
Jewish social centre in the district of Brownsville. The 
district contains a Jewish population estimated at over 
100,000. The Society entered its new building at Hopkinson 
and Sutter Avenues in June, 1914. The building is equipped 
with an auditorium having a capacity of five hundred per- 
sons, and is used for lectures, concerts, entertainments, 
dances and meetings: a large social room used in the after- 
noons as a study and game room for boys and girls and in 
the evening for games, entertainments, dances and meetings 
for adults; a gymnasium with shower and locker accommo- 
dations, that is used for classes composed of young men, 
young women, boys and girls; a roof garden that largely 
takes the place of the social room in the summer time, and 
is used for entertainments and dances in the evenings and 
for recreation for boys and girls in the day time. There are 
a large number of rooms used for classes, club and society 
meetings, and for instruction in Jewish history, Hebrew, 
music and domestic art; also a farm garden. 

The organization has a membership of 800. Its budget 
for 1917 was $12,611.98. The attendance during the year 
1916 was 205,297; during 1917, 232,092. 

The officers are: — President, Aaron William Levy, 60 
Wall St.; Secretary, Bernhard Bloch, 50 Court St., B'klyn.; 
Treasurer, Jacob Michael, 500 13th Ave., B'klyn.; Superin- 
tendent, Dr. Chai'les S. Bernheimer. 

Aaron William Levy was born in England in 1878. When 
a boy of 8 he came to New York City, where he received his 
education in the Public and High Schools of New York City. 
He attended the College of the City of New York and the 
Columbia Law School from which he graduated with the 
degree of Bachelor of Laws. He was admitted to the Bar 
and is at present a practicing attorney. Mr. Levy is very 
much interested in Jewish social work. He was for many 
years connected with the Hebrew Educational Society of 
Brooklyn of which he was at various times director, treas- 
urer and vice-president. He is at present the president of 
the Hebrew Educational Society of Brooklyn, also of the 
men's club of Temple Israel of Brooklyn. 



549 




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RECREATIONAL AND CULTURAL AGENCIES 561 

PROFESSIONAL WORKERS IN Y. M. H. AND 
KINDRED ASSOCIATIONS 



Alexander, 31rs. Rose, 197 East 
B'way. Home and School 
Visitor. Educational A 1 1 i - 
ance. 



Brenner, Bertha, 1146 Eastern 
Parkway. Director social 
work, Hebrew Educational 
Society. 



Aronson, B., 622 W. 141st St. 
Piano Class. Federation 
Settlement. 



Brody, Robert B., 197 E B'way 
Director Boys' Club. Edu- 
cational Alliance. 



Axel, Tamah, 250 W. 129th St. 
Club Administrator, Young 
Women's Hebrew Ass'n. 

Badesch, Lillian, 32 W. 116th 
St. Leader Girls' Clubs, 
Educational Alliance. 

Berkovvltz, Mary, 650 E. 6th 

St. Sewing- and Dressmak- 
ing Teacher, Educational 
Alliance. 

Berkson, I. B., 145 W. 111th 
St. Executive Director, 
Central Jewish Institute. 

Bernhelmer, Charles S., 1475 
President St., B'klyn. Su- 
perintendent, Hebrew Edu- 
cational Society, Hopkinson 
and Sutter Aves., B'klyn. 

Borchard, Alelce C, 137 W 

110th St. Stenography and 
typewriting teacher, Young 
Women's Hebrew Associa- 
tion. 



Bnehanan, Julia, 610 W. 152nd 
St. Music teacher, Bronx 
House, 1637 Washington 
Ave. 

Buchwald, Rose, 1513 Si 
Marks Ave., B'klyn. Assist- 
ant, Fedei-ation Settlement. 

Bunker, Glsie, 1056 Lexington 
Ave. Music Teacher, Bronx 
House, 1637 Washington 
Ave. 

Burstein, A., 531 W. 123d St. 
Club Leader, Young Men's 
Hebrew Association. 

Campbell, Elsa, 303 W. 74th St. 
Music Teacher. Bronx 
House, 1637 Washington 
Ave. 



Chapman, Claude, Ridgefieid 
Park, N, J. Music Teacher 
Bronx House, 1637 Washing- 
ton Ave. 



Boawell, Leonora^ 34'4 W. 85th 
St. Music teacher, Bronx 
House, 1637 Washington 
Ave. 



Co gin, Myer, 500 Eastern 
Parkway, B'klyn. Director 
Department of Entertain- 
ment, Educational Alliance. 



562 



COMMUNAJj BEQlSTfili 



Cohen. Dora, 229 W. 111th St. 
Sec'y to Executive Dlreotoi. 
Educational Alliance. 



Dcescher, Cbarles, 27 Orcharcl 

St. Director of Clubs, Edu- 
cational Alliance. 



Cohen, Julia, 224 W. 122nd Si. 
Sewing- and Dressmaking 
Teacher, Educational Alli- 
ance. 



Fein, Lena, 197 Hi B' way. Sew- 
ing and Dressmaiking 
Teacher, Educational Alli- 
ance. 



Cohen, Irving !«., 1848 Anthony 
Ave. Teacher Educational 
Classes, Young Men's He- 
brew Association. 

^Cohen, Mortimer, 531 W. 123d 
St. Religious Director, Y. 
W. H. A. 

Cohn, M., 1312 Franklin Ave. 
Cooking Class. Federation 
Settlement. 

Coritx, Philip, Boys' Physical 
Training Director, Recrea- 
tion Rooms and Settlement. 



Felnsold, Samuel, 47 E. 88th 
St. Central Jewish Institute. 

Flelschman, Beatrice, 240 E. 

105th St. Kindergarten 
Teacher, Federation Settle- 
ment. 

FleiscJiman, Henry, 197 East 
B'way. Administrator, Edu- 
cational Alliance. 

Freed, Miriam, 969 Trinity 
Ave. Sewing and Dressmak- 
ing Teacher, Educational 
Alliance. 



(^ottin, Jack, 125 E. 83d St. 

Assistant, Central Jewish 
Institute. 



Frledel, Ruth, 252 Willis Ave. 
Social Club Work, Beth- El 
Sisterhood. 



Danish, David, 240 W. 15th St. 
Teacher Educational Classes, 
Young Men's Hebrew Asso- 
ciation. 

Davis, Ruth, 152 W. 118th St. 
Accompanist, Young Wom- 
en's Hebrew Association. 



Friedman, Saul, 945 Hoe Ave., 
Bronx, Gymnasium Teacher, 
Hebrew Educational Society. 

Frultstone, Mitchell, 439 Hen- 
drix St., B'klyn. Attorney, 
Legal Aid Bureau of the 
Educational Alliance. 



Deutsch, Fstelle, 1637 Wash- 
ington Ave. Headworker, 
Bronx House, 1637 Washing- 
ton Ave. 

noIg:ena», Samuel, 50 E. 108th 
St. Central Jewish Institute. 



Glaser, J., 341 E. 94 th St. 
Workshop, Federation Set- 
tlement. 

Glelch, Morris, 197 B. B'way. 
Physical Training Instruc- 
tor, Educational Alliance. 



aBOREATIONAL. AND CULTURAL AQENCLBS 



553 



Goldbergr, M., 318 E. S2nd St. 
Director of Boys' Work, 
Emanuel Sisterhood. 



Goldsmid, Deborah, 465 East 

140th St. Sewing Teacher, 
Young Women's Hebrew As- 
sociation. 

Goldstein, Israel, 261 W. 112th 
St. Club Leader, Young 
Men's Hebrew Association. 



Goldln, H., 18 E. 120th St. 
Central Jewish Institution. 



Greenber^, Herman M., 23 E. 

111th St. Director of Club 
Athletics, Educational Alli- 
ance. 



Greene, Ada J., 58 W. 90th St. 
Millinery Teacher, Young 
Women's Hebrew Ass'n. 

Greenwald, Rose R., 197 E. 

B'way. Leader Girls' Clubs. 
Educational Alliance. 

Goldfarb, Samuel, 197 E. 

B'way. Music Instructor, 
Educational Alliance. 

Gollnbier, Emll, 197 E. B'way. 
Leader Outdoor Athletics, 
Bducational Alliance. 

Haffey, Mary-, 197 B. B'way. 
Embroidery Teacher, Edu- 
cational Alliance. 

Held, Nathaniel, 137 W. 117th 

St. Director Boys' Work 



Young Men's Hebrew Asso- 
ciation. 

Hene, Mrs. Regrlna, 31 W. 

110th St. Dormitory Secre- 
tary, Young Women's He- 
brew Association. 

Henry, Maxwell, 240 E. 105th 
St. Federation Settlement. 

Herllns, David, 521 E. 146th 
St. Assistant Mgr. Employ- 
ment Bureau, Young Men's 
Hebrew Association. 

Hess, Leonard L., 197 East 
Broadway. Custodian Adult 
Society Room, Educational 
Alliance. 

Hlrschman, Edna, 566 W. 

159th St. Teacher, Emanuel 
Brotherhood. 

Horwltt, Pauline, 658 Dawson 
St. French Teacher. Young 
Women's Hebrew Associa- 
tion. 

Katzensteln, Leon E., 148 E. 

92nd St. Supt,, Young Men's 
Hebrew Assn. 

Kurz, Michael, 857 Beck St. 
Teacher Educational Classes. 
Young Men's Hebrew Ass'n. 

KurjB, Philip, 857 Beck St. 
Teacher Educational Classes, 
Young Men's Hebrew Ass'n. 

Lasarowltz, Eva, 729 E. 168th 
St. Music Teacher, Bronx 
House, 



554 



COMMUNAL (tEGISTBR 



l.azlnsky, Samuel, 53 E. 99th 
St. Club Leader, Young 
Men's Hebrew Ass'n. 

I.erner, J., 1501 Bryant Ave. 
Club Director, Research 
Rooms and Settlement. 

I.erner, Kathertne, 31 W. 110th 
St. Household Manager, 
Young- Women's Hebrew As- 
sociation. 

licvy, Fanny, 100 W. 121st St. 
Music Teacher, Bronx 
House. 

Levy, Henry, 409 W. 129th St. 
Teacher Educational Classes, 
Young Men's Hebrew Asso- 
ciation. 

Lewi.s, Mr.s. Eugenie, 520 W. 

18'4th St. Visiting Nurse, 
Henry St. Settlement. 

Loewy, Ada, 79 W. 110th St. 
Supervisor of Clubs, Hannah 
Lavanburg Home. 

Mendel, Benjamin, 197 East 
Broadway. Leader Boys' 
Clubs, Educ. Alliance. 

.Ilann, Georgre, 197 E. B'way 
Leader Boys* Clubs, Educ 
Alliance. 

Markowitz, Pauline, 240 E 

105th St. Head Worker 
Federation Settlement. 

Marks, Ira, 197 E. Broadway 
Leader Boys' Club, Educ. 
Alliance. 

MarnchesH, Mt». Alex Voun^, 
453 W. 21st St. Music 
Teacher, Bronx House. 

>Iay, Gertrude, 197 E. Broad- 
way. Leader Girls' Clubs. 
Educ. Alliance. 



Aleltzner, Albert, 197 East 
B'way. Leader Boys' Clubs. 
Educational Alliance. 

Mersou, Simon A., 197 East 
B'way. Leader Boys' Clubs, 
Educational Alliance. 

Met5B, Irving, 40 Ave. B. Jr 
Boys' Physical Director. 
Recreation Rooms and Set- 
tlement. 

Meyer, Ida, 197 E. Broadway. 
Leader Girls' Clubs, Educ. 
Alliance. 

Aloses, Mrs. Racliel, 343 E. 10th 
St. Teacher. Emanuel 
Brotherhood. 

Moskowitz, David, 197 East 
Broadway. Leader Techni- 
cal Clubs, Educ. Alliance. 

Nadel, Jack, 1440 Lexington 
Ave. Employment Secre- 
tary, Young Men's Hebrew 
Association. 

Nnliemow, Lioui.s, 197 E. Bway. 
Attorney, Educ. Alliance. 

Nosclikes, Adolph, 155 Ross St 
Head Worker. Educ. Alli- 
ance. 

Nosclikes, Mrs. Carol Kollen- 
der, 155 Ross St. Director 
Girls' Clubs, Educ. Alliance. 

Notkin, Louis M., 287 Division 
Ave., B'klyn. Club Leader, 
Young Men's Hebrew Ass'n. 

Perlman, Ray, 186 Chrystie St 
Head Worker, Recreation 
Rooms and Settlement. 

I'eyser, Nathan, 1025 Prospect 
PI., B'klyn. Executive Di- 
rector, Educ. Alliance. 



RECREATIONAL AND CULTURAL AGENCIES 



555 



Koblson, A. G., 137 W. 110th 
St. Executive Director, 
Young- Men's Hebrew Ass'n. 

Rose, Jenule, 319 E. 17th St. 
Assistant Superintendent, 
Hannah Lavanburg- Home. 

Rosen, Alexander, 197 E. 
B'way. Director, Depart- 
ment of Adult Immigrants, 
Educational Alliance. 

Rosenberg, Julia, 319 E. 17th 
St. Superintendent, Hannah 
Lavanburg Home. 

Rosenberg:. Rnth, 186 Chrystie 
St. Assistant Worker, 
Recreation Rooms and Set- 
tlement. 

Rosenthal, Morton I., 287 

Edgecomb Ave. Teach e.r, 
Young Men's Hebrew Asso- 
ciation. 

Rosenthal, Mrs. M., 197 E. 

B'way. Leader Girls' Clubs, 
Educational Alliance. 



atructor, Recreational 
Rooms and Settlement. 

Schoenlng:, Georj^e W., 159 E 

89th St. Physical Director, 
Young Men's Hebrew Ass'n. 

Schaplro, Barnet, 197 E. 

Broadway. Physical Train- 
ing- Instructor, Men, Educa- 
tional Alliance. 

Schuster, Matilda, 197 E. 

Broadway. Teacher, Educa- 
tional Alliance. 

Schuster, Martin M., 197 E 

Broadway. Director of En- 
tertainment D e p a r t m ent, 
Educational Alliance. 

Schwartz, Max, 591 E. 141st 
St. Scout Master, Educa- 
tional Alliance. 

Schwartz, Mrs. Ray P., 31 W. 

110th St. Superintendent, 
Young Women's Hebrew 
Association. 



Rosenzweis, Yetta, 309 E. 5th 

St. Assistant Sewing Teach- 
er, Recreation Rooms and 
Settlement. 

Roth Tobias, 50 St. Marks PI. 
Superintendent, Emanuel 
Brotherhood. 

Sabel, Slgnnund, 197 E. Broad- 
way. Choir Master. Edu- 
cational Alliance. 

Salom, Mrs. Joseplilne, 220 

Wadsworth Ave. Sewing Tn- 



Silbert, Celia, 120 W. 114th St. 
Custodian, Educational Alli- 
ance. 

Strelltz, Anna, 216 E. 87th St. 
Supervisor Children's Ser- 
vices, Educational Alliance. 

Streusand, Ira, Director of 
Physical Training, 619 E. 5th 
St. Central Jewish Institute 

S t o w e 1 1 , Edg:ar, Briarcllff 
Manor, N. Y. Music Teacher 
Bronx House 



556 



COMMUNAL REGISTBR 



Sultan, Joseph, 197 B. Broad- 
way. Assistant Director 
Entertainment Department, 
Educational Alliance. 

Swlck, Frances S., 131 Edge- 
comb Ave. Bookkeeping 
Teacher, Young Women's 
Hebrew Association. 

Segrerman, Rebecca, 197 E. 

Broadway, Assistant Sew- 
ing Teacher, Educational 
Alliance. 

Shack, Edna S., 197 E. Broad- 
way. Director Women's 
Work, Educational Alliance. 

Shapiro, William, 174 Essex St! 
Teacher, Young Men's He- 
brew Association. 

Sheerer, Rebecca, 197 E. 

Broadway. Cooking Teach- 
er, Educational Alliance, 

Shepard, O. Carlton, 303 W. 

102d St. Teacher, Young 
Men's Hebrew Association. 

Simon, Llllie, 404 E. 85th St. 
Sewing Class, Federation 
Settlement. 

Smerllngr, Frank, 599 W. 190th 
St. Teacher, Young Men's 
Hebrew Association. 



ToIchlnskT-, Abraham, 1S78 
Third St., Brooklyn. Music 
Teacher, Bronx House, 1637 
Washington Ave. 

TombergTt Aaron, 197 E. Broad- 
way. Teacher, Educational 
Alliance. 

Under hill, Margaret, 307 W. 

93d St. Music Teacher, 
Bronx House, 1637 Wash- 
ington Ave. 

Warshaw, Harry, Superintend- 
ent, Washington Heights Y. 
M. H. A. 

Welnsteln, May, 186 Chrystie 
St. Assistant Worker, 
Recreation Rooms and Set- 
tlement. 

W^olowitz, Abraham, 197 E. 

Broadway. Teacher, Educa- 
tional Alliance. 

Wort man, Caroline, 197 E. 

Broadway. Cooking Teach- 
er, Educational Alliance. 

Zucker, S., 1637 Washington 
Ave. Director of Boys' 
Work, Bronx House. 

Zuckerman, Elmma, 108 W. 

113th St, Office Secretary, 
Council Young Men's He- 
brew Association. 



Smolen, Rose B., 74 W. 118th 
St. Stenography Teacher, 
Young Women's Hebrew 
Association. 

Sobel, Samuel, 197 E. Broad- 
way. Attorney, Educational 
Alliance. 



Zuckerman, Rose, 359 Bristol 
St., Brooklyn. Instructor, 
Educational Alliance. 

Zacharlas, Tlllle, 1278 DeKalb 
Ave. Dressmaking, Young 
Women's Hebrew Associa- 
tion. 



RECREATIONAL AND CULTURAL AGENCIES 



557 



LIST OF SOCIAIi AND LITERARY SOCIETIES 



American Literary Social 
Club, 108 E. 112th St. Org. 
1914. Membehshlp 50. Pres., 
William Debin, 60 E. 106th 
St. Sec'y, Isidore Zweroff, 
S3 E. 110th St. 
Debln, William, Pres. Am. 
Literary Social Club (108 
E. 112th St.); elected 1917. 
Term 3 months. Born 1822 
in Russia. Came to U. S. 
1912. Received general 
Jewish education. Sign 
painter. Res.: 60 E. 106th 
St. 

Archer Club, 41 West 124th 
St. Org. 1912. Membership 
26. Pres., Charles Brodie, 
75 W. 94th St Sec'y, Henry 
Schenk, 228 W. 141st St. 
Brodie, Charles, Pres. Archer 
Club (41 W. 124th St.); 
elected 1917. Term 1 year. 
Born 1898 in U. S. Received 
College Education. Adver- 
tising: 6 E. 39th St. Res.: 
75 W. 94th St. 

Aabnrn Soda! CInb, Inc., 357 

So. 2nd St., B'klyn. Org. 
1910. • Membership 50. Pres., 
Samuel Leibowitz, 127 2nd 
Ave. Sec'y, Murray 
Schwartz, 31 Tompkins 
Ave., B'klyn. 

Leibowitz, Samuel, Pres. 
Auburn Social Club (357 So. 
2nd St., B'klyn), since 1915. 
Term 6 months. Born 1894 
In Austria. Came to U. S. 
1895. Received High School 
education. Salesman Res.: 
127 2nd Ave. 



Beaver Club, Inc. 81 W. 118th 
St. Org. 1912. Membership 
60. Pres., Irving T. Fein- 
stein, 237 E. 112th St. Sec'y, 
Jacob Kulakowsky, 59 E. 
100th St. 

Feinsteln, Irving T., Pres. 
Beaver Club Inc. (81 W. 118t 
St.); elected 1917. Term 6 
months. Born 1896 in U. S. 
Received High School edu- 
cation Bank Clerk. Res.: 
237 E 112th St. 

Coney Island Hebrew^ Ass^n, 

Sea Side Walk, Coney Isl- 
and. Org. 1909. Member- 
bership 135. Pres., A. Sid- 
ney Gabitzka, 44th St., Sea 
Gate, C. I. Sec'y, Henry 
Marks. 

East Side Neigrhborhood Club, 

137 Henry St. Org. 1915. 
Membership 125. Pres., Dr. 
Max Baegel, 24 Montgomery 
St. Sec'y, Herman Janowitz, 
129 E. B'way. N. T. C. 
Baegrel, Dr. Max, Pres. East 
Side Neighborhood Club 
(137 Henry St.); elected 
1917. Term 1 year. Born 
1886 in Russia. Received Col- 
lege education. Physician. 
Res.: 24 Montgomery St. 

Edward Clarlc Club, 73 Can- 
non St. Org. 1909. Mem- 
bership 100. Pres., Chas. 
H. Warner, 283 Rivlngton 
St. Sec'y, A. QershofC, 97 
Avenue B. 

Warner, Charles Henry, 
Pres. Edward Clark Club 
(73 Cannon St.), since 1909. 



558 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



Term 1 year. Born 1872 in 
U. S. Received College edu- 
cation. Lawyer: 283 Riv- 
Ington St. Res.: Yonkers. 
N. Y. 

lona Social Club Inc., 135 

Henry St. Org. 1915. Mem- 
bership 57. Pres., Abraham 
Goldstein, 663 Howard Ave. 
B'klyn. Sec'y, Louis Bern- 
stein, 60 Pike St. 

Ivory Social Club, 96 Clinton 
St. Org. 1914. Membership 
30. Pres., Hyman Stern, 60 
E. 102nd St. Sec'y, Abe 
Newmark, 32 Lewis St. 
Stern, Hyman, Pres. Ivory 
Social Club (96 Clinton St.); 
elected 1917. Term 3 
months. Born 1898 in Rus- 
sia. Came to U. S. 1905. Re- 
ceived Public School edu- 
cation. Res.: 60 E. 102nd 
St. 

Karl Marx Publishing Society, 

175 E. B'way. Pres., L. B. 
Boudin; Sec'y, Sol. Goodman. 
Purpose: To acquaint Jew- 
ish readers with writings, 
philosophy and activities of 
the founder of scientific 
Socialism. 

Keystone Club, 41 W. 124th 
St. Org. 1908. Membership 
25. Pres., Mr. Joseph M. 
Mero, 48 E. 104th St. Sec'y. 
Abe M. Sussman, 231 E. 24th 
St. 

Klimbers Klub, Inc., 20 W 

115th St. Org. 1912. Mem- 
bership 45. Pres., Alexand- 
er Rabinowitz. 216 E 118th 



St. Sec'y, Albert Slgman, 
1117 Fuller Ave., Bronx. 
Rabinowitz, Alexander, Pres 
Klimbers Klub Inc. (20 W. 
115th St.), since 1916. Term 
1 year. Born 1894 in U. S. 
Received Public School edu- 
cation. Clerk: 2084 3rd Ave 
Res.: 216 B. 118th St. 

Kropotkin Literary Society. 

Pres., Dr. J. A. Maryson, 250 
E. B'way. Purpose: To ac- 
quaint Jewish readers with 
writings of radical philos- 
o p h e r s , sociologists and 
economist's, in Yiddish 
translations. Published 
"Capital," by Karl Marx: 
" F ie 1 d s , Workshops and 
Factories," by Peter Krop- 
otkin, and others. 

Literary Dramatic Club, 9 

Thatford Ave., B'klyn. Org. 
1915. Membership 50. Pres., 
Harry Silver, 315 Hopkinson 
Ave., B'klyn. Sec'y, Leon 
Buchikoff, 76 Hertzl St., 
B'klyn. 

Silver, Harry, Pres. Literary 
Dramatic Club (9 Thatford 
Ave., B'klyn), since 1916. 
Term 3 months. Born 1892 
in Russia. Came to U. S. 
1912. Received general Jew- 
and secular education. 
Clothier: 1512 Pitkin Ave.. 
B'klyn. Res.: 315 Hopkin- 
son Ave., B'klyn. 

lloyal A. C. of Harlem Inc., 

58 W. 113th St. Org. 1911 
Membership: 56. Pres., Jos- 
eph Bloomfield, 413 E. 100th 
St. Sec'y, George J Cohen. 
58 W 113th St. 



RECREATIONAL AND CULTURAL AGENCIES 



559 



Bluomfleld, Joseph, P r e s 
Royal A. C. of Harlem Inc. 
(58 W. 113th St.). since 1915. 
Term 6 months. Born In 
Austria. Came to U. S. 1902. 
Received Public School edu- 
cation. Printer. Res.: 413 
E. 100th St. 



Smar^oner Self Culture Club, 

135 Henry St. Org. 1915. 
Membership 45. Sec'y. Dave 
Simon, 19 Henry St. 

Solax Club Inc., 232 E. B'viray. 
Org. 1912. Membership 85. 
Pres., Jacob Kreindel, 5 
Willett St. Sec'y, Theodore 
Kantor. 

Kreindel, Jacob, Pres. Solax 
Club (232 E. B'way); elected 
1917. Term 6 months. Born 
1893 in U. S. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. Clerk 
Dept. of Water Supply. Res.: 
5 Willett St. 

Sephardini Social Club, 64 

Rlvington St. Org. 1916. 
Membership 80. Pres., Aaron 
Perahia. Sec'y, Hyman Pes- 
serllo, 127 Eldridge St. 
Perahia, Aaron, Pres. Seph- 
V ardim Soc. Club (64 Riv- 
Ington St.); elected 1917. 
Term 1 year. Born 1892 in 
Greece. Received general 
Jewish education. Designer. 

Star KuUbllater Young Friends 
Social Club. Org. 1916. Mem- 
bership 60. Pres., Sam Sha- 
piro, 1382 Boston Rd. Sec'y. 
Louis Spector. 892 Flushing 
Ave. 



Tyron Club, inc., 7 W. 120th 

St. Org. 1916. Membership 
30. Pres., Jacl< Babits, 61 E 
101st St. Sec'y. Sam Solon. 
234 E. 119th St. 

United Dramatic and i>lu»iical 
Club, 138 2nd Ave. Org. 1914. 
Meets Friday evenings. 
Membership: 112. Pres., 
Samuel Shapiro, 110 St. 
Marks PI. Sec'y, Seymour 
Knopfler, 110 St. Marks PI. 

Yorkville Brotherhood Aid 
Society, 103 W. 116th St. 
Org. 1905. Membership 130. 
Pres., Geo. R. Rubin, 5 W. 
111th St. Sec'y, Chas. Fish- 
er, 567 W. 191st St. 
Rubin, Oeorge R., Pres. 
Yorkville Brotherhood A. S. 
(103 W. 116th St.), since 
1916. Term 1 year. Born 
1889 in Russia. Came to U. 
S. 1896. Received College 
education. Lawyer: 261 
B'way. Res.: 5 W. 111th St. 

Young Friends Political 
League, 21 Montgomery St. 
Org. 1916. Membership 35. 
Pres., Philip Fishgold, 242 
South 9th St. Sec'y, Mr. 
Alex Fruchthandler, c|o T, 
Tager, 54 Canal St. 
Fishgold, Philip, Pres 
Young Friends Political 
League (21 Montgomery St.). 
since 1916. Term 6 months. 
Born 1896 In Russia. Came 
to U. S. 1910. Received High 
School education. Waist 
Cutter. Res.: 242 So 9th 
St., B'klyn 



560 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



ADEaUATE INFORMATION IS LACKING ON FOLLOWING 
SOCIETIES 



Alexandrandrovvker* 

B'way. 



17S 



Adath B'nal Israel, 66 W. 

114th St. 

A. Feldman Society, 206 E. 

B'way. 

Broker, Y. M^ 206 E. B'way. 

Bnoth Jerasalem, 86 Orchard 
St. 

B'nal Jndah, 85 E. 4th St. 

Bilsker Verein, 206 E. B'way. 

Benzerlmer Social Club, 6S 

Ludlow St. 

Comrade Social Club, 41 W. 

124th St. 

Clechanovzer Progr* Soc„ 206 
E. B'way. 

Daniel Dellon, 206 E. B'way. 

Equal American Social Club, 

Laurel Garden, 95 E. 116th 
St. 

Ehren Progrresslve L., 10 Q W. 

116th St. 

Esther J. Rnskay Rellarlona 
Circle, 119 W. 114th St. 

Friedens Verein, 1943 Madi- 
son Ave. 



Garnet Club, 209 E. B'way. 

Honest Bros., Forward Bldg., 
173-5 E. B'way. 

Herder Society, Lexington 
Hall, E. 116th St. 

Harlem Hebrew Leagrue, 34 

W. H5th St. 

Junior Leasnie, Ave. R. and E. 
16th St. 

Julia Brown Circle, 100 W. 

116th St. 

Jewish Leagrue of American 
Patriots, 206 B. B'way. 

Kenova Social Club, 331 Shef- 
field Ave. 

Kademah Circle for Men and 
Ladies, 125 Bay 22nd St. 

Lubliner Y. M. and Y. L. Lit. 
League, 151 Clinton St. 

Mutual Welfare Club, 71 St. 

Marks PI. 

Mount Morris Society, 100 W. 

116th St. 

Molly Schwartx Society, 107 

W. 116th St. 

Modern Youns Friends' Club, 

542 B. 145th St. 

Mandolin Club, 138 2nd Ave. 



Friendship Society, 100 W. Manhattan Club, 88-85 For- 
116th St. ayth St. 



RECREATIONAL. AND CULTURAL AGENCIES 561 



Manhattan Y. F. S^ 209 E. 

2nd St. 



Progrresslve Social Club, 80-2 
Clinton St. 



Madison Council Society of 
Native Born, 162 Madison 
St. 

Margrarita Circle, 100 W. 116th 

St. 

Nlaerra Circle, 107 W. 116 th 

St. 

Neustater Y. M., 8-10 Ave. D. 

Pro^resslTe W'^ashlngton 
Young Men, 73 Ludlow St. 



Plnu Club, 113-115 E. 101st St. 

Plnsker Volunteer, 206 E. 

B'way. 

Peace and Justice, 80-2 Clin- 
ton St. 

Soroka Y. F. and Ed. Leagrue, 

80-2 Clinton St. 

Sons of Joseph Society, 100 

W. 116th St. 

Social Guild, 143 McKibben. 



Prog. Soc. Ed. Club, 151 Clin- 
ton St. 



Wlshnltzer Y. Friends, 214 E. 

2nd St. 



Paradise Club, 41 Debevoise. 



Young Folks' League of Har- 
lem, 41 W. 124th St. 



562 



COMMUNAL. RJSGISTBR 



JEWISH CLUBS 



I'he Century Club, Landers 
Rd., Westchester. TeL No. 
Elmsford 1830. Pres., George 
M, Sidenberg-, 30 Broad St. 
Sec'y, Walter E. Beer, 52 
B'way. Treas., E. I. Stralem, 
5 Nassau St. 

City Athletic Club, 48 W. 54th 
St. TeL No. Circle 600. Pres.. 
F. R. Guggenheim, 121 
B'way. Sec'y, Edwin D. 
Haya, il5 B'way. 

Columbia Club, 2306 B'way. 
TeL No. Schuyler 4445. Pres., 
Alexander Lyons, 68 Will- 
iams St. Sec'y, Harry Wal- 
lenstein, 24 University PL 
Treas., Marcus Heim, 36 
Beaver St. 

Criterion Club, 683 Fifth Ave. 
Tel. No. Plaza 1950. Pres., 
Fred H. Greenebaum, 19 Nas- 
sau St. Sec'y, William J. 
Wittenberg, 11 Broadway. 
Treas., Albert Goodman, 
Plaza Hotel. 

Pairview Country Club, Saw 

Mill River Rd. TeL No. 
Elmsford 1781. Pres., Edw. 
P. Heymann, 35 Nassau St. 
Sec'y, Alfons Wile, 62 Ninth 
Ave. Treas., Joseph H. 
Strasser, 29 Ninth Ave. 

Par Rockaway Club, Par 

Rockaway, L. L (Informa- 
tion not available.) 

Preundschaft Society, 105 W. 

57th gt. TeL No. Circle 3398 



Pres., Max D. BriU, 44 East 
14th St. Sec'y, E. W. Kahn. 
95 Madison Ave. Treas., S. 

D. Leidesdorf, 417 Fifth Ave. 

Harmonic Club, 10 East 60th 
St. TeL No. Plaza 2690. 
Pres., Phineas S o n d h e i m 
(Ladenburg, T h a 1 m a n & 
Co.), 25 Broad St. Sec'y. 
Norman Goldberger, 501 
First Ave. Treas., Walter 
Naumburg, 14 Wall Street. 
Sup't, Mr. Rott. 

Hcig^hts Social Club, r40 Riv- 
erside Drive. Tel. No. Audu- 
bon 1242. 

Inwood Country Club, Inwood, 
L. I. Tel. No. Far Rocka- 
way 2800. Pres., Samuel 
Eiseman, 114 E. 23d St. 
Sec'y, L. L Lewine, 135 
B'way. Treas., A. P. Steiner, 
200 5th Ave. 

Nortli Shore Country Club 

(Country Club of the Har- 
monic Club), Glen Head, 
L. I. Pres., Julian S. Hess, 
43 W. 36th St. Sec'y, Oscar 

E. Rosenheim (Paragon Silk 
Co.), 19 E. 24th St. Treas.. 
Max S. Kallman, 16 E. 60th 
St. 

Ocean Country Club, Far 

Rockaway, L. I. Tel. No. 
Par Rock. 156. Pres., Will- 
iam Goldman, 68 East 83d 
St. Sec'y, John Marcus, Oak 
St., Par Rockaway. Treaa., 
Julius C. Morgenthau. 87 
Nassau 8t. 



RECREATIONAL AND CULTURAIj AGENCIES 



563 



Prosress Club, 88th St. and 
Central Park W. Tel. No. 
Riverside 773. Pres., Nathan 
D. Stern, 111 B'way. Sec'y, 
M. Hochster, 220 B'way. 
Treas., Selig Goldstein, 95 
William St. 

Vlgrilant Club, 1 W. 121st St. 
Tel. No. Harlem 1892. Pres., 
Louis C. Cohen, 440 W. End 



Ave. Sec'y, Henry Peyser, 
66 Vermilia Ave. Treas., Leo 
Steiner, 95 Fifth Ave. 

W o o d m e r e Club, Meadow 
Drive, Woodmere, L. I. Tel. 
No. Woodmere 3670. Pres., 
L. J. Robertson, 41 Spruce 
St. Sec'y, I. H. Lehman, 111 
B'way. Treas., David A. 
Ansbacher, 527 5th Ave. 



564 COMMUNAL REGISTER 

HEBREW SPEAKING CLUBS IN AMERICA 

By Z'VI SCHARFSTELN 

1. Revival of Hebrew as a Spoken Tongxie 

With the rise of the *'Chibath Zion" movement, the 
forerunner of political Zionism in Eussia, a profound 
change took place in the Jewish attitude towards the 
old historic tongue. This was the time when the crav- 
ing of the Jewish people for its historic homeland 
emerged from the purely religio-mystical phase and 
began to take shape in the concrete form of coloniza- 
tion in Palestine. This desire for galvanizing old na- 
tional values into new, live forces also led to the attempt 
of converting the ''holy tongue" into a living tongue. 

It is true that the "Haskalah" movement, which 
preceded the rise of ' ' Chibath Zion, ' ' had had its share in 
stripping Hebrew of its purely religious garb. But then 
this was not done as an end, but as a means. The Mas- 
kilim, the pioneers of secular enlightment, simply used 
the Hebrew language as a wedge for Western culture. 
Hebrew literature was intended as a pontoon leading 
to the sunny shores of the great European treasures of 
thought. This was the reason why the **Haskalah" 
never encouraged the revival of Hebrew as a spoken 
tongue. The task was left to the pioneers of the earlier 
Zionist movement and it was only in the eighties of the 
last century that Hebrew-speaking groups began to 
spring up. These cliibs, generally called "Sofo Beru- 
rah*' (the pure tongue) were numerous in Russia. All 
of their members were obligated to speak Hebrew. 



I 



RECREATIONAL AND CULTURAL AGENCIES 565 

2. In Palestine 

While many of these clubs did not generally enjoy a 
very long life, the movement itself made rapid strides. 
The development of the new settlement in Palestine and 
the profound influence of Eliezer Ben Jehudah in Jeru- 
salem, ultimately removed the speaking of Hebrew from 
the domain of individual accomplishment, as a curious 
feat, and made of it a great popular movement. It be- 
came an important factor in education and in daily 
life. This wonderful achievement encouraged the He- 
braists in the lands of the Dispersion. Though a large 
number of Hebrew-speaking clubs came to an untimely 
end, new ones were continually taking their place; and 
the movement has now become more prominent and more 
stabilized. 

3. Progress of the Movement 

It would be unjust to measure the progress of the 
movement by the number of clubs which are devoted 
solely to the speaking of Hebrew. While these clubs 
may be looked upon as its visible symbols, they are, by 
far, not the sum total of the Hebraic sentiment which 
has permeated the more dynamic elements of Jewry. 
Forty years ago, a man capable of expressing himself in 
fluent Hebrew was looked upon as a marvel. Today 
there are hundreds of Jews in all lands who speak He- 
brew exclusively in their own circles; others, although 
fewer in number, make Hebrew the daily language in 
their homes. Verily, there are babes today whose first 
prattle consists of Hebrew monosyllables. P^orty years 



566 COMMUNAL REGISTER 

ago Hebrew was used solely to express abstract ideas. 
It was a bookish language and as such it was rather re- 
dundant. Today, Hebrew has acquired the precision 
and fullness of expression which are the requisites of 
daily use. Its terminology for scientific expression is 
growing continually. 

4. In America 

The first Jewish immigrants from Eastern Europe 
came from the lower strata of the Jewish people. Eru- 
dition, which to the Jews alwaj^s meant a knowledge of 
Hebrew to begin with, was not rampant among these 
early settlers. Now and then, a learned young Jew 
would also drift to these shores. But to him adjustment 
to the new environment meant a much harder struggle 
than to the simple working-man or artisan. His higher, 
more spiritual needs were, therefore, sorely neglected in 
the bitter fight to gain a foothold in the new land. 

During the last twenty years, though, a gradual 
change has been taking place. Jewish life became more 
stabilized. The younger, more intelligent element began 
coming to America and with it, the Hebraic movement 
made its entrance into the new world. 

5. Mefize S'fath Ebei 

The first Hebrew-speaking club* was organized in 
1902 by a group of young Hebraists. Its name ''Mefize 



* A society for the diffusion of Hebrew literature had existed in New 
York as early as 1880. It bore the name of "Shocharei S'fath Eber." 
Among its members we find the names of such prominent men as Jacob 
H. SchiflF, Dr. de Sola Mendes, Dr. A. S. Isaacs and Judge Lachman. The 
Society maintained a library and published a Hebrew magazine. Tt 
existed only one year. 



KECREATIONAL AND CULTURAL AGENCIES 567 

S'fas Eber u' Sifroso," iudicates its aim, which was the 
diffusion of the knowledge of the Hebrew language and 
literature. The program included the speaking of He- 
brew, the maintenance of reading rooms, evening courses 
for adults, and the publication of a journal. The first 
meetings at which various discourses in Hebrew were 
given created a veritable sensation. These meetings be- 
came very popular and the visitors were often as many 
as three hundred strong. Noted writers and prominent 
leaders would, from time to time, be invited to address 
these gatherings. 

The society also gave subsidies to several Hebrew pub- 
lications and, from time to time, made an attempt to 
publish pamphlets and journals in Hebrew. The be- 
ginnings of an extensive library were made. Lack of 
funds, however, made all these projects short-lived. Re- 
cently, the organization disbanded. 

6. Achieber 

In 1909 a group of young Hebraists who were striv- 
ing for more aggressive methods than their predeces- 
sors, organized the ''Achieber." The aims of the new 
organization were nearly identical with those of the older 
one. If a departure was made, it consisted mainly in 
the policy of subsidizing Hebrew literature the world 
over, and particularly in Palestine. Two thousand 
francs were given to the Palestinian organization *'Ko- 
heleth," in order to make possible the publication of 
scientific text-books for Palestinian schools. The ** Achie- 
ber" became a volunteer subscription agent for all the 



568 COMMUNAL REGISTEK 

Jewish periodicals of the old world and in the course 
of three years, more than four thousand dollars were 
collected for these purposes through the organization. In 
1913, the organization took upon itself the publication 
of a monthly journal, the *'Hatoren." A year and a 
half later, this publication was converted into a weekly. 
Its management was then turned over to an independent 
corporation. Its last enterprise is the publication of 
a voluminous year-book. 

The society is also the publicity agent of the Hebrew 
writers who come to this country. During the eight 
years of its existence it has taken the initative in all cele- 
brations and public gatherings of a Hebraic character. 
It also arranges weekly lectures in Hebrew. Among its 
members are all the noted Hebrew writers in America. 

7. Other Organizations 

In Greater New York there are now ten Hebrew- 
speaking organizations with a total membership of five 
hundred. Two of them consist of working-men, **B'nai 
Am Chai" and Branch No. 3 of the Poale Zion) ; one 
of students (Agudah Ivrith of the College of the City 
of New York) and one whose special purpose is the 
creation of a Hebrew stage. These ten clubs do not in- 
clude the numerous Hebrew-speaking clubs of juveniles 
in Hebrew schools and Talmud Torahs. Outside of New 
York there are twenty Hebrew-speaking clubs in the 
United States and two in Canada. These organizations 
generally maintain evening courses in Hebrew for adults, 
and the number of students taking these courses in- 
creases from year to year. 



RECREATIONAL AND CULTURAL AGENCIES 569 

8. Summing Up 

Looking back at the Hebraic movement for the last 
twenty years, one must come to the conclusion that its 
achievements were rather intensive than extensive. 
Twenty years ago, hardly anyone on this side of the 
Atlantic thought of using Hebrew as a spoken tongue. 
The few meagre publications that appeared here had 
hardly any literary value. The number of their readers 
never exceeded several hundred. There were hardly 
any subscribers to the Hebrew publications of the old 
world. The most prominent monthly, the ' ' Hashiloach, ' ' 
had about twenty subscribers in New York City. As to 
the demand for modern Hebrew books, there was vir- 
tually none. 

Today, New York has several thousand people whose 
language of conversation is Hebrew, either steadily or 
intermittently. Two weeklies, the ^^Hatoren" and the 
''Haibri,'' as well as a juvenile monthly, the "Shach- 
ruth," are being published. Collectively they have al- 
most eight thousand subscribers. Societies for the pub- 
lication of Hebrew books are springing up. Moreover, 
the inauguration of the natural method, that is, the 
using of Hebrew as the language of instruction in many 
Hebrew schools and Talmud Torahs, is essentially a 
great asset for the revivifying of the **holy tongue." 
About ten lectures in Hebrew are given in New York 
City every week. The creation of a Hebrew school of 
secondary instruction for boys and girls and the Jewish 
Teachers' Institute may also be looked upon as a great 



570 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



stimulus to a strong and lasting Hebraic movement in 
this country and particularly in New York City. 

In spite of the many difficulties that beset the develop- 
ment of Hebrew-speaking clubs in an environment where 
Hebrew is not the daily language of conversation, it is 
to be hoped that the renewal of Jewish life in Palestine 
will strengthen the hands of the Hebraists in this land, 
and make their influence greater and more lasting in 
the Jewish life of America. 

















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572 



COMMUNAL. REGISTER 



THE YIDDISH THEATRE 

By David Pinski 

Three kinds of entertainers were known to the old 
Ghetto of Russia, Poland and Galicia; The Hazan, the 
Magid and the Poyatz, (Cantor, Preacher and Clown). 
The Hazan supplied the music, so much craved by the 
Ghetto; the Magid — the more serious entertainment, 
garnished with pious thought; the Poyatz — the jollity 
of queer antics and pleasant raillery. These three kinds 
of entertainment were at a later day united in the per- 
son of the Badchen (Minstrel). He became the pro- 
vider of song, serious thought and jollity. 

When, during the Turco-Russian war in the seventies 
of the last century, Abraham Goldfaden organized the 
first Yiddish troupe and wrote his first Yiddish play, 
he bore in mind these Jewish entertainers and entertain- 
ments. He fashioned his plays along the lines of the 
Badchen entertainment; singing, ''serious" thoughts 
and buffoonery. Remarkable, childish plays, — as child- 
ish as the Jewish theater-goer of those days, who for the 
first time in his life, was treated to such a thing as 
theater, and fairly suitable to the untrained actors, who 
simply pretended that they were acting. 

Abraham Goldfaden soon found imitators. In a very 
short time Russia was swamped with traveling troupes, 
who produced mainly the Goldfaden plays, but also 
plays by other authors, written generally according to 
the Goldfaden formula. The most important of his 
imitators was the creator of the sensational novel in 



RECREATIONAL AND CULTURAL AGENCIES 573 

Yiddish, N. M. Schaikewitch, who is better known under 
his pen-name, Schomer. 

In Russia, however, the Yiddish theater was short- 
lived. The government of Alexander III prohibited in 
the eighties the production of Yiddish plays, and to- 
gether with the large emigration to America, following 
the pogroms of 1882, the Yiddish theater also emigrated 
to the new world : Goldf aden, Shomer, and a motley host 
of Yiddish troupes. 

In the beginning, the old repertoire remained in vogue ; 
audience, actors and plays remained the same. But the 
new environment soon began to make inroads upon the 
old life and the old habits, and this period of transition 
wrought havoc in the morale of the Yiddish theatre. 
Both outlook and content became demoralized. The new 
plays concocted by Horowitz and Lateiner were no more 
childish; they were simply abominable. The formula 
was still Goldf aden 's, but more frivolous and debased. 
The plays were not only more sensational; they were 
no more Jewish. The plays depicting modern Jewish 
life were barren of all serious Jewish problems and 
Jewish thought. Their ** historical" operas did not con- 
tain a vestige of historical episode. All in all, pot-boil- 
ing of dull brains, bad taste and indecency. Moreover, 
neither the actors nor the public longed for anything 
better. The actors were very comfortable in their re- 
pertoire. There was no need for rehearsals, and they 
were privileged to give a touch of impromptu to their 
parts. They could indulge in acrobatic stunts to their 
hearts' content, become famous without much trouble, 
pile up little fortunes, and pass themselves off as great 



574 COMMUNAL REGISTER 

actors. The public, on the other hand, knew of naught 
better and no one ever thought of teaching^ it to demand 
something higher. The pious souls who took it upon 
themselves to enlighten the newly immigrated Jewish 
masses, hoped for the early Americanization of the new 
immigrants, and cared little for the temporary harm 
done by the Yiddish stage, which was lowering the aesthe- 
tic level of the Jewish masses. The Yiddish theater in 
their opinion was doomed to disappear soon. Why then 
worry ? 

In the nineties, a redeemer of the Yiddish stage 
appears. He is an immigrant himself. His name is 
Jacob Gordin. He breaks into the stronghold of Horo- 
witz and Lateiner, demolishes it and liberates both the 
public and the actors. 

His first steps are somewhat erratic. He also writes 
plays after the Goldf aden model ; songs, serious thought, 
and buffoonery. But the content is more Jewish, even if 
the play is adapted from a foreign literature, and his 
ideas have a more or less serious texture. His prime 
merit consists in delineation of character ; his personages 
are not mere caricatures of the hitherto prevailing re- 
pertoire. One can identify them as real humans. Little 
by little he shakes off the influence of his predecessors. 
He finds himself and finds the way. He produces **Mi- 
rele Efros," ''Gott, Mensch und Teifel,'' ^'Kreutzer 
Sonata," "Der Unbekanter. " They are not faultless 
plays; at best quasi-art. But compared to the plays of 
the preceding repertoire, there is a vast difference. 

Jacob Gordin becomes the caliph of the Jewish stage. 
He wins over the actors, whose true powers suddenly 



RECREATIONAL AND CULTURAL AGENOllSS 575 

reveal themselves. He wins over the public, upon whom 
began to dawn the puerility and senselessness of the 
Horowitz repertoire. 

He did not banish **schund" altogether. The old 
repertoire did not disappear. But he did weaken its 
grip on the public and relegated it to a less domineering 
place. 

Unfortunately, Gordin died young. The last eight 
years, since Gordin 's death, have been lean years for the 
Jewish stage. Externally, materially, its progress is 
more than satisfactory. New spacious theatre buildings 
sprang up. The actors are handsomely paid. The re- 
lationship between manager and hired actor is less 
patriarchal; that is, the manager no longer takes the 
liberty of manhandling his employee. Also, the authors 
get larger royalties. But internally, spiritually, the old 
conditions prevail. The art of acting has made no pro- 
gress simply because the actors are afraid to venture a 
step farther. They are afraid to move forward, and 
do not realize that they are really moving backward. 
They were reared on the simple principle of indolence, 
never studying the part, and never living the character 
they were depicting on the stage. Even Gordin made 
it rather easy for them. He used to fashion parts to 
their measure. There was no need to study, to create, 
to live one's part. This they still demand of every 
new playwright, and the author who wishes to retain 
his independence, or who dares to introduce new artistic 
forms, or who has a new message to offer and does not 
speculate beforehand about the actor who may perchance 
play the part, — in short, the author who has the least 



676 OOMMUNAL KEGISTEK 

advanced conception of playwriting has no access to the 
theater. To him, the doors are closed. 

At the beginning of this season, the '^Yiddisher 
Kaempfer," organ of the Poale Zion, had this opinion 
to offer about the conditions prevailing in the Yiddish 
theater : 

* ' The Yiddish theater ought to be a name calling forth 
joy, spiritual gratification and even national pride. But 
the name has come to denote tomfoolery, clownishness 
and degeneracy. Mention the ''Yiddish Theater" and 
every man more or less intellectually developed will 
shrug his shoulders contemptuously. 

''The Yiddish theater has become the caricature of 
Jewish life. It is not only inartistic ; it is not even cater- 
ing to the demands of the times. Its existence is beyond 
its time and place. It follows the same path as when it 
first came into being. Plays which called forth disgust 
when they were first produced decades ago, still dom- 
inate its repertoire. Our actors were reared on these 
very plays and stick to them to this very day. 
They find in them the acme of their histrionic possibili- 
ties, and won't let them go. Naive pleasure-seekers who 
enjoy this abomination never become scarce, and the 
writers of "new" plays have no other alternative than 
to imitate this buffoonery. And in this wise, the Yiddish 
theater remains submerged in the eternal magic circle of 
sham and shame." 

Is there not one among the wealthy Jews, who would 
take it upon himself to liberate the Yiddish theater from 
the yoke of its satraps 1 One, whose heart throbs warm- 
ly for the Jewish masses and would wish to afford them 



RECREATIONAL AND CULTURAL AGENCIES 



677 



a better education, to improve their inner life, their cul- 
tural development? He has no right to balk on the 
score of language, that is, because he has an antipathy 
to Yiddish. The education of the masses is the prime 
object. Relinquishing the Yiddish theater as an educa- 
tional means for the development of the artistic and the 
beautiful, will not annihilate Yiddish. As it is now, the 
Jewish masses are the only sufferers. Is there one who 
would make this cause his ? 

The harm is great and help is urgently needed. 



LIST OF JEWISH THEATRES 



Adler^s Grand Theatre, Grand 
and Chrystle Sts. Organized 
May 1, 1917. Pres. and 
Manager: Louis Goldstein, 
Grand and C h r y s t i e Sts. 
Plays produced in 1917: 
Jewish Pride. Stars: Mr. 
and Mrs. Jacob P. Adler, 

Bessie Thomashefsky's Peo- 
ple's Theatre, 201 Bowery. 
Thomashefsky, 156 2nd Ave. 
Manager, Joseph Edelstein, 
45 W. 110th St. Plays pro- 
duced in 1916: Two Mothers, 
Winsome Susie. Star: Bessie 
Thomashefsky. 



the plays produced In 1917 
are: The Power of Passion, 
Solomon the Charlatan, God, 
Man and Devil, The Value 
of a Mother. 

Gabers Theatre, 235-37 Bow- 
ery. Pres., Max Gabel, 235- 
37 Bowery. Manager, Harry 
Gotti, 332 E. 18th St. Or- 
ganized 1916. Main plays 
produced in 1916: Clear 
Conscience, Max Gabel; Baby 
Wife, Max Gabel. Stars: 
Max Gabel, Jennie Goldstein, 
Elias Rothstein and Goldie 
Shapiro. 



David Kessler Theatre, 53 2nd 

Ave. Manager, R. Wlllner. 
Cast, David Kessler, Ber- 
nard Bernstein, Morris 
Schwartz, Celia Adler, Louis 
Birnbaum, Mrs. S c h n e i r , 
Bessie Weissman. Among 



Goldbergr & Jacobs Lenox 
Theatre, 10 Lenox Avenue. 
Manager, Philip Schneider, 
384 Grand St. Ass't Mgr., 
Samuel Rosenheim. Org.: 
1915. Main plays produced 
In 1916: The Moral Preach- 



578 



COMMUNAL RBG18TBR 



era, Max Gabel; Capital 
Punishment, Morris Schor; 
Ylshiva Biicher, Isidore Sol- 
otorefsky; Price of Love, 
Isidore Solotorefsky; Inno- 
cent Victim, Joseph Lateln- 
er; A Mother's Awakening, 
Nahum Rockov; Apartment 
No. 3, Leon Kobrin. Stars: 
Mr. and Mrs. Nathan Gold- 
berg, Mr. and Mrs. Jacob 
Jacobs. 

Jberty Theatre, 63 Liberty 

Ave., B'lclyn. Manager, Chas. 
W. Groll. 200 W. 113th St. 
Organized Sept., 1915. Main 
plays produced in 1916: The 
repertoire of Jacob Gordin, 
Z. Libin, L. Kobrin, J. Lat- 
einer, M. Richter, I. Solotor- 
efsky. Stars: Jacob P. Adler, 
Boris Thomashefsky, David 
Kessler, Jacob Cone, S. 
Weintraub, Rose Karp, 
Kenny Lipzln, Bessie Thom- 
ashefsky, Sarah Adler. 



I'liomashefsky TJieatre, Inc., 
111-117 E. Houston St. Pres.. 
Boris Thomashefsky, 549 
Bedford Ave., B'klyn. Man- 
ager, Louis Goldberg, 236 E. 
6th St. Organized Dec. 14, 
1914. Plays produced in 1916: 
Devil's Povirer, I. Solotoref- 
sky; Broken Violin, Boris 
Thomashefsky; Love and In- 
terest, S. Goldenburg; Spirit 
of the City, Osyp Dymon; 
War Brides, N. Rockov; Up- 
town and Downtown, S. 
Kornbluth; For Her Chil- 
dren, Dr. Solotorofl. Cast: 
Boris Thomashefsky, Sam- 
uel Kasten, Mme. R, Zucker- 
berg, Mr. S. Goldenburg, 
Leon Blank, Samuel Rosen- 
stein, Miss Dora Weissman, 
G. Rubin, Mme. Gurewitch, 
Miss B. Gersten, Miss R. 
Greenfield. 



579 




GRAND STREET THEATRE 



RECREATIONAL AND CULTURAL AGENCIES 581 

ODDISH LITERATURE 

(In the Old World and the New) 

By Joel Enteen 

Yiddish and Yiddish literature — they are like a mir- 
acle of Jewish history, like a stroke of our destiny. They 
were born in exile, like the grass that sprouts among 
the cobble-stones of the million-footed city pavement. 
They blossomed and flourished in the farthest corners 
of the globe, wherever the Diaspora has scattered us, 
thus presenting the most indelible sign of our tenacity. 
They are our shield and bulwark in days of sequestra- 
tion and fading traditions. Scattered all over the face 
of the earth, would we survive without a distinct living 
tongue? In an age when religion crumbles and social 
strife is disrupting, what could hold us together? But 
the genius of Jewish history, or you may call it, the in- 
stinct of our national self-preservation, provided a timely 
remedy. Out of the essence of the withering Hebrew 
it wove the Yiddish. Out of the embers of the dying 
religion it caught the flame of Jewish tradition and 
rekindled it and transfused it through the pages of 
Yiddish poetry. 

And thus it came to pass, that ages away from our 
ancient glory and oceans apart from one another, we 
still retain our national physiognomy. And thus it hap- 
pened, that out of the depths of our estrangement and 
in the midst of our endless divisions and schisms we are 
still one people. 



582 COMMUNAL RBGISTEIB 

1. 

If Yiddish caunot claim anything like the antiquity 
of Hebrew, it is nevertheless, a pretty old language, be- 
ing perhaps coeval with modern English, i. e. the Eng- 
lish that was formed after the Norman Conquest. Yid- 
dish had been created by the German Jews shortly after 
they settled in Teutonic regions, and they had been there 
early in the second half of the Christian era. And it 
has ever since been the living language of all the Jews 
that trace their origin from those regions: Of the Jews 
of Russia, Russian-Poland, Galicia and Roumania and 
of the emigrants from the latter territories to England, 
the United States, Canada, the Argentina Republic, 
South Africa, Australia, Turkey, the Holy Land, etc. 
True, for about a century the bulk of the wealthy and 
more denationalized Jews of Germany and Germanic 
Austria, as well as their derivative emigrations to Eng- 
land and America, have deliberately and disdainfully 
drifted away from the ''gibberish of the Ghetto." Yet 
this is not without parallel in history. Did not the 
Frenchified British courtiers and other gentry in the 
days of William the Conqueror and his immediate pos- 
terity look down with a like disdain on their native 
Anglo-Saxon ? 

Although the living tongue of the bulk of the Jewish 
nation, yet, because of its profane origin in comparison 
with the sacred language (Yiddish being a composite of 
Middle High German and Hebrew with, centuries later, 
an additional super-stratum of Slavic origin), it was at 
first relegated to the common folk and the women as 
their literary patois. This, however, only enriched and 



RECREATIONAL AND CULTURAL AGENCLEtS 5ii^ 

euhanced the tongue. It grew up as the language of 
the most hardy and most loyal children of Israel. It grew 
up as the most fertile bed of Jewish tradition, of his- 
torical allusions and suggestions. Yiddish is the lan- 
guage of Jewish folk-lore : of the riddles, the endless 
proverbs, the popular anecdotes and witticisms, of the 
simple and heartfelt tales of the lowly : of the numerous, 
highly emotional and, at times, charmingly pretty folk- 
songs. 

As early as the fourteenth century we find Yiddish 
translations of the Hebrew prayer-books and hymn books. 
Then there appeared translations and paraphrases of 
the Old Testament, collections of Talmudical legends, 
parables and maxims, which were subsequently supple- 
mented by a number of ethical and homiletic books, 
mostly translated from the Hebrew, yet, not too rarely 
originally composed in the language of the people. In 
the course of time there also appeared the popular tale, 
mostly to impart some moral or religious lesson, and not 
infrequently written in the same spirit, and partly with 
the same effectiveness, with which Protestant De Foe 
wrote his Robinson Crusoe. 

The last mentioned tales were more or less original 
productions independent of Hebrew, yet these were not, 
even in far bygone days, the only original creations in 
Yiddish. Hundreds of years before our age, Yiddish 
gave rise to two distinct species of literature, of which 
one has no counterpart either in Hebrew or in any other 
literature, and the other has some parallel in the early 
beginnings of the European .drama. The first are the 
TecMnothy fervent and ebullient prayers of an extern- 



584 COMMUNAL. REGISTER 

poraneous nature, composed for all sorts of synagogical 
and family occasions, and exclusively meant to suit the 
needs and the sad lot of the Jewish wife and mother. 
The second species are the Purim and mystery plays, 
the former composed in a rather burlesque vein and some- 
what loose style and betraying a slight influence of 
similar German farces, the latter being dramatic re- 
citals of the deeds and legends of patriarchs and heroes 
of old. Unlike most old Hebrew dramas many of these 
were actually played on the Feast of Purim and on 
other occasions, thus creating a distant background to 
the quite imposing Yiddish drama of today. 

It should likewise be mentioned, that as a profane 
language, Yiddish was also tolerated to be used as a 
vehicle for the myths and stories of contemporary 
Europe. Thus, we find in it, centuries ago, renderings of 
the Niebelungen myths and of the tales of adventure 
then current in the Teutonic and Slavonic world. 

Nor must it be assumed that because most of the 
learned Jews disdained to dip their pen in the language, 
they utterly neglected it. Quite the contrary. Yiddish 
was the language in which the rabbis and scholars de- 
livered their Talmudic lectures and carried on their 
casuistic and subtle discussions. It was the language 
in which the schoolmaster translated the psalms and 
prophecies. 

It was last but not least, the language in which all 
the preachers itinerant and communal held forth their 
most fervent and most picturesque sermons, teeming 
with rabbinical learning and legendary lore, studded 
with fables, parables, personal experiences and observa- 



RECREATIONAL AND CULTURAL AGENCIES 585 

tions, travelers' tales, witticisms and deep Jewish yearn- 
ings for Palestine and glowing patriotic effusions. 

In the course of centuries, then, by these multifarious 
ways, the new tongue was welded, enriched, and refined, 
until it became the most intimate and thorough lan- 
guage of the Jewish people, its ideal means of expression. 
Yiddish most truly reflects the Jewish mind and soul; 
the originality of the Jewish brain, the pathos, the 
thoughtfulness, the sadness, the other-wordliness of the 
Jewish character, the keenness, the penetrating sagacity, 
the humor, the irony of the Jewish intellect, the lustre 
of Jewish imagination, the delicacy and depth of Jewish 
feeling, the varied richness and worldly wisdom of Jew- 
ish observation. 

When, therefore, in the nineteenth century Jewish 
writers began to employ Yiddish for secular and modern 
literary purposes, they found it a most apt, most facile 
and rich, fresh and succulent, and above all, a most inti- 
mate means of Jewish expression. It was then that Yid- 
dish literature in the more restricted sense of the word 
began to flourish. Thus, early in the nineteenth century 
we already meet with Yiddish didactic bards and popu- 
lar singers, dramatists, story-tellers, essayists, and the 
like. Somewhat later talented novelists and poets ap- 
pear, and as early as the sixties Yiddish literature as- 
sumed quite a magnificent appearance. It is, then, that 
Abramowitz, the but now deceased Mendele Mocher 
Sephorim, a truly Jewish genius of the highest magni- 
tude, writes his plays, his novels and most pathetic and 
poignant satires. About a decade later Spector begins 
to writ.e his graceful and most sympathetic stories and 



586 COMMUNAL REGISITGR 

novels. Then, also came the poet Froog, with his sweet- 
ly pensive, graceful, yet highly emotional lyrics, finely 
romantic epics and sadly bitter satires. Then appeared 
the great and most ingenious humorist Rabinowitz, the 
late Sholem Aleichem, who at various times has been 
compared to the Russian Gogol, the English Dickens, 
and the American Mark Twain, but who, most correctly 
and most definitely, is the great humorous explorer and 
portrayer of Jewish life, of Jewish men, women and chil- 
dren of all classes, ages and regions, and who draws his 
inexhaustible fountains of Jewish pathos and humor from 
the very depths of Jewish thought and feeling, from his 
intimate acquaintance with the multifarious ramifica- 
tions and vagaries of the Jewish mind and soul and 
with the rich stores and finest shades and tints and 
quaintest turns of the Yiddish language. Lastly, at the 
end of the eighties, there came I. L. Peretz (who died in 
the Spring of 1915) the greatest and most versatile Yid- 
dish man-of -letters, some of whose lyrics, dramatic lyrics 
and ballads are among the choicest specimens of the 
Jewish muse and should be considered among the most 
powerful of modern social poetry ; a genius whose faith- 
ful, at times naturalistic, sketches from the life of the 
Polish Jews reveal a new and rich world, not only to the 
uninitiated, but also to the Jews themselves ; whose mystic 
stories and folk-tales are the very flower of Jewish ro- 
manticism, and whose sjrmbolic prose poems and dramas 
are so fascinating in their external beauty and so preg- 
nant with world irony and the sad contemplation of 
the tragedy of man that he yields to none of the grim 
and brooding philosopher-poets of our day. 



RECREATIONAL AND CULTURAL AGENCIES 587 

As in the case of Hebrew literature, the great Jewish 
national revival of the last three decades gave Yiddish 
literature an unprecedented impetus. Here, however, 
the rejuvenation was much enhanced by the great 
democratic and revolutionary awakening in Russia and 
by the mighty tide of emigration to England, to the 
United States, South Africa, etc. The wonderfully 
gifted poets, Rosenfeld and Bloomgarden (Yehoash), the 
powerful dramatists Gordin and Kobrin, the vivid and 
most translucent sketch-writer and poet Raisin, the 
idyllic story-teller and thoughtful playwright Pinski, 
the magnificently elemental and exuberantly sensuous 
novelist and dramatist Asch, the sadly humorous delin- 
eator of American Jewish sweatshop life Libin,.the pen- 
sive singer of modern Jewish fears and cravings Ein- 
horn, the finely psychological portrayer of intellectual 
modern types Nomberg, and a very large host of other 
poets, novelists, essayists, critics and historians in 
Russia, America, Galicia and elsewhere, have incessantly 
enriched the ever-flowing stream of Yiddish literature, 
so that it has now assumed the most astonishing propor- 
tions and has become one of the most original and most 
deeply interesting of modern literatures. It is the truest 
mirror of the joys and sorrows, the schisms and alli- 
ances, the transformations and metamorphoses, the 
yearnings and cravings, the love and hatred, the piety 
and disbelief, the high abandon and deep scathing irony, 
the hope and despair, the pathos, the tragedy of the 
Jewish people of today. 



588 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



II. 

If now we cast a swift glance at Yiddish literature, as 
from a railroad window at tlie passing landscape, we are 
struck by the following points : 

It is one of the most wonderful literatures in the 
world and it is wonderful in many respects. First, be- 
cause of the rapidity of its growth. Secular Yiddish 
literature has hardly reached beyond the span of a 
single life. We are not yet through with the obsequies 
of the grandfather of Yiddish literature, Mendele, who 
stood at her cradle, and yet, what fertility! Of poets 
alone we have about three hundred, and over two hun- 
dred came after the advent of Peretz. 

Secondly, Yiddish literature is wonderful because of 
its numerous giants. No other literature has produced 
so many geniuses, true creators, in so brief a period. 
Among other nations, albeit circumstances are more 
favorable, there is no such prosperity. In England, for 
instance, there was no such phenomenon ever since the 
latter years of Queen Victoria. In Russia there live 
now, after the death of Tolstoi and Chekhov, but two 
great writers, Gorki and Andreieff. Yet how many mas- 
ters of Yiddish literature ever since the sixties. When 
Reb Mendele first waved his magic wand there emerged, 
besides the wizard himself, Sholem Aleichem, Froog, 
Peretz, Rosenfeld, Gordin, Raisin, Yehoash, Asch. 

Then again Yiddish literature is wonderful because of 
its remarkable vitality, and because of its great endur- 
ance. Has any literature ever blossomed forth and 
thrived in spite of the intellectuals, the writers, the pro- 
ductive forces of its people ? Yet Yiddish literature has 



I 



RECREATIONAL AND CULTURAL AGENCIES 589 

flourished in the midst of the persecution of those who 
ought to be its godfathers, its protectors. For a long 
time Yiddish literature was treated like an ungracious 
brat, found by the wayside. They wrote ditties, dashed 
off farces, yet they did not dare father their composi- 
tions. Such was the relation of the Maskilim. Later 
on in the early days of the Lovers of Zion when Sholem 
Aleichem made his bow with his Volks Bibliotek, war 
was declared against Yiddish literature and its reader 
"Yochanon the Cobbler,'* and long did the battle rage in 
the columns of the Hamelitz. And nowadays when 
Yiddish literature has reached such heights, they ex- 
communicate it. At the Ussischkin circle in Odessa, as 
well as at the American Talmud Tor ah, at the gymna- 
sium of Tel Aviv, as well as the People 's House at Jeru- 
salem, everywhere the Shofar is blown and the black 
candles flicker. Such is the attitude of official Zionism 
and of Hebraism. 

Add to it all the poverty of its environment, the 
utter absence of any patronage of wealth and you will 
have some idea of the tenacity of Yiddish literature. 

Yiddish literature is also blessed with originality. 
This comes, naturally enough, from the originality of 
Jewish life, the Jewish way of thinking, Jewish humor 
and the Yiddish tongue. Be this as it may, Yiddish 
literature is the better for it all. Take Ibsen, for in- 
stance. His ideas are new, original, daring, but not 
the characters. You come across a Mrs. Alving, a Dr. 
Stockman and even a Rosmer in other literatures; 
similarly with Hauptmann and Chekhov. You could 
transpose Johaness of the Lonely People, bale and bag- 



590 COMMUNAL REGISTER 

gage, to Uncle Vaiiia, and again Dr. Astrov to the 
Lonely People and no one would be the wiser. Yet it 
is impossible to transplant the types of Mendele, Sho- 
lem Aleichem or Raisin. 

Yiddish literature is constantly expanding, i. e., get- 
ting filled. Formerly certain species were absent; here 
and there was a blank. In poetry, it was claimed, there 
lacked the narrative ; in prose, the novel, in the modern 
sense, was absent. But after the achievements of Ye- 
hoash, Mani Leib and M. L. Halpern there is no room 
for the first claim, and after Bergelson's ''All Over" 
Asch's '^Mary" and the novels of Opatosho there is no 
foundation for the latter. 

Yiddish literature is continually approaching the 
goal of self-realization. It means that it is getting all 
the more Jewish. This is its best sympton of growth 
and longevity. A literature which is not rooted in the 
life and history of its people, cannot subsist. Such a 
literature has no message of its own and has no right 
to exist. In the days of the Internationalists Edelstat 
and Bovshever or in the early cosmopolitan years of a 
Kobrin or Gordin, there would have been a shadow of 
truth in the reproach that Yiddish literature chews the 
cud of other literatures. Such criticism, however, would 
sound astoundingly unfounded after Sholem Aleichem 's 
Tales from Casrilevky, etc.; after Peretz's Chassidic 
stories and folk tales, after the sketches by Raisin and 
Asch's ''Townlet" and ''Youth," after the poetry of 
Yehoash and Einhorn or the plays of Hirshbein. 



BECRBATIONAL AND CULTURAL AGENC1P:S 591 

III. 

If Yiddish literature is a miracle, then its American 
share is a miracle within a miracle. It is still within 
the remembrance of readers of some twenty-eight years 
ago how the Hebrew press of those daj^s bewailed the 
Jewish emigration from Russia to this country. For 
was it not certain that we were doomed here to extinc- 
tion, or at least to Jewish degeneracy? 

Saddest of all were the prophecies about the future 
of Yiddish and Yiddish literature in this country. Take, 
for instance. Dr. Leo Wiener of Harvard University 
who, in his preface to his History of Yiddish Literature, 
apologizes somewhat to this effect: Yiddish and its 
literature will soon be effaced in America. The Ghetto 
itself will be engulfed. Even now you may hear the 
seething and the brawling of the fatal whirlpool and 
it is for fear lest the world remain ignorant of the awful 
human ferment and palpitation, that the doctor writes 
his book. 

The assimilation prophecy, however , was dispersed 
like chaff before the wind. About twenty years have 
passed since and we have in New York alone five Yid- 
dish dailies, six weeklies and two monthlies, which are 
estimated to be read by over a million people. 

Only about thirty years had passed since they began 
writing Yiddish in America, and yet what an upbuilding 
and fructifying force the printed American Yiddish 
word has proved for Yiddish literature. If it were not 
for America, perhaps some branches of Yiddish litera- 
turt would still be missing. More than that, if it were 



692 COMMUNAL REGISTER 

not for America, Yiddish literature as a whole would 
perhaps not have risen to such lofty heights. 

First of all it was America, i. e., the American Yid- 
dish press that led some of the greatest Yiddish writers 
forth into the world. Some twenty-five years ago, there 
being no Yiddish press in Russia and hardly any pub- 
lishers of sterling Yiddish literature, Peretz was still 
brooding in obscurity. But then he began to write for 
the Arbeiter Zeitung and the Zukunft, published by the 
New York Socialists. It was here that many of his best 
sketches and symbolistic tales first saw the light. We 
may say, without vanity, that we Americans discovered 
Peretz for Russia. This is equally the case with David 
Pinski and to some extent also with Asch, Raisin and 
Hirshbein. 

Of much greater importance in this connection, how- 
ever, is our own very numerous family of poets, novel- 
ists, dramatists and publicists. Suffice it merely to say 
that in the course of these thirty years there loomed up 
here not less than a couple of hundred Yiddish men 
of letters. 

Yet the what is of much more importance than the 
how many. And it is here that America's share is 
greatest. 

Until America came with its poetic message Yiddish 
poetry, in the modern sense of the term, was compara- 
tively humble, with the exception of the poetry of the 
old school. There was the poetry of Froog, there was 
Peretz 's famous ballad **Monish" and a few of his 
minor poems; also a few poems by David Frishman, 
with a few more poems scattered here and there in obso 



RECREATIONAL AND CULTURAL AGENCIES 593 

lete magazines or almanacs. But it was the literary 
soil of America that produced, besides Sharkansky and 
Bovshever of the old poets and quite a number of the 
younger ones, such singers as Morris Rosenfeld, Liesin, 
Yehoash, Mani Leib, Rolnick, Raisenblatt, J. J. Schwartz, 
M. L. Halpern, Leivick Halper and Fradel Stock. 

Upon America's contribution to the Yiddish drama it 
is not necessary to dilate. The drama of Russia and 
Roumania in the seventies and early eighties was but 
a humble beginning. Gordin, Kobrin, Libin, Korn- 
blueth and A. Shomer are all American dramatists. The 
plays of Asch and Ornstein were for the most part per- 
formed here. Dimov's plays were never, to my know- 
ledge produced in Russia in Yiddish. The Yiddish 
literary drama is an exclusively American product. 

America has sounded many new notes in Yiddish 
literature, has given it many new motives. For instance, 
Yiddish prose and poetry is either naturalistic or im- 
pressionistic. Both these schools were largely intro- 
duced by American writers, the first by the older gen- 
eration of Ab. Cahan, J. Gordin, B. Gorin, Leon Kobrin, 
etc. ; the second by the young generation of Mani Leib, 
David Ignatov and A. Raboi. Again, Yiddish literature 
is chiefly democratic and revolutionary in its tendency. 
This should be attributed to the American Socialist 
press, which was the nursery of nearly all of the Ameri- 
can Yiddish writers. 

Yiddish belles-lettres largely cling to the great city. 
This of course is mostly due to New York, where most 
of the American Yiddish writers have found a home. On 
the other hand, the fact that Yiddish literature is not de- 



594 COMMUNAL REGISTER 

void of descriptive scenes of nature, that Yiddish poetry 
is resonant with the song of the mountain and of the 
woodland, and emblazoned with the sheen of the lake 
and the golden haze of the landscape, and you hear in it 
the primeval tale of the sea, is mostly due to American 
Yiddish poets and the grandeur of American scenery. 
I must also mention that now and then you may trace 
in Yiddish verse a slight influence of English- American 
poetry. It is clear that it has come in via America. 

True, American- Yiddish literature has some serious 
faults. For instance, its prose for the most part (not to 
speak of the trashy romance that is concocted in the 
newspapers for daily consumption by the reader) con- 
sists of short stories. The style may now and then lack 
polish. The technique may now and then be some- 
what imperfect. All such faults, however, are derived 
from the same sources from which the highest good 
flows. It should always be borne in mind that Yiddish 
literature in America is purely proletarian. It was 
never stimulated by wealthy patronage : it never had an 
academy to guide it, and never had a literary salon to 
advise it. Moreover, it was born and bred in the daily 
and weekly press, with the cheap dime-novel for its 
crib-fellow and the loudly palpitating daily article for 
its godfather. 

It is true that while rocking in its leaden cradle, it 
often also had Tourgeneff, Tolstoi, Zola, Dostoyevski, 
Chekhov and Andreieff for its fellows. Yet, while it can- 
not be denied that American-Yiddish literature was visi- 
bly influenced by contemporary European literature, it 
is also true that it was Yiddish literature that paved the 



RECREATIONAL AND CULTURAL AGENCIES 595 

way for the best in the world's literature to the recep- 
tive mind of the Yiddish reader. The Jewish sweatshop 
worker would have no appreciation of Maupassant or 
Gorki if he had not previously been trained by Libin, 
Kobrin, Gordin, Gorin, Pinski or Raisin. 



Yiddish and Yiddish literature have been the great 
boon of Jewish history to the scattered tribes of Israel. 
To the Jews of America they have been like the rainbow 
in the sky, a covenant against the deluge of assimila- 
tion. One is almost tempted to see in them the finger 
of Jewish destiny. For have not the Yiddish press and 
literature been, inadvertently, planted in this new land 
of our Goluth by our very Socialists and Anarchists of 
thirty years ago, who then disclaimed anything Jewish 
and who made use of our vernacular for the very end 
of denationalizing the Jewish immigrant, of preaching 
to him the gospel of internationalism and cosmopolitan- 
ism? 

But then the tool proved more potent than the wielder. 
It was Yiddish that kept the Jew alive in the hearts of 
our workers and the innermost Jew craved for Yiddish 
literature and he got it, perhaps in spite of the giver. 
And it was Yiddish literature that kept the sap of 
Jewish tradition flowing in the veins of the souls of the 
Jewish masses in the New World. And thus it came to 
pass that Yiddish and Yiddish literature were our shield 
and our bulwark. 



596 



THE JEWISH PRESS IN NEW YORK CITY 

By S. Margoshes 
Bureau of Jewish Education 

I. Rise and Development 

In a polyglot society, such as the Jewish community 
of New York City, the periodical literature is naturally 
polyglot. The accessibility of the modern printing press 
makes it possible for every group • in the Jewish com- 
munity, no matter how small, to maintain an organ of 
its own. Virtually, there are today as many divisions 
of the Jewish Press as there are language groups in the 
Jewish community. The main line of division, however, 
is to be found between the English, or native press, 
and the foreign language or immigrant periodical litera- 
ture corresponding to the basic distinction prevailing 
between * * uptown ' ' and * * downtown. ' ' 

1. English 

The readers of the Jewish publications in English, 
with the entire English Press open to them, and offering 
them all general information, had no need for a Jewish 
daily paper in English to minister to their daily needs. 
These readers contented themselves with weekly and 
monthly publications, devoted exclusively to Jewish af- 
fairs. As long as the Jewish community was numeri- 
cally small, such weelilies or even monthlies could not 
be self-supporting, and until 1823, there was not a single 
English periodical in New York City that represented 
Jewish interests. In 1823, the first Jewish periodi- 



RECREATIONAL AND CULTURAL AGENCIES 597 

cal in English made its appearance. It was named 
''The Jew." Journalistically it was a sorry affair, its 
chief concern being to fight the missionaries who were at 
that time very active in the Jewish districts. It dragged 
along a poor existence for two years when it suddenly 
stopped. So discouraging was the first effort at Jewish 
journalism in English, that for the next twenty-four 
years New York Jewry remained without a publication 
of its own. In 1894, Mr. Robert Lyon organized a 
weekly *'The Asmonean," and that lasted ten years. 
"The Asmonean" was devoted to the literary, religious 
and political interests of the Jews in America, and so 
strong was the interest it aroused, that when "The As- 
monean" itself began to sink, "The Jewish Messenger" 
appeared. "The Jewish Messenger" enjoyed a long life, 
appearing from 1857 to 1903, when it was merged into 
"The American Hebrew." It represented the interests 
of the orthodox Jews of the city, and set up new and 
improved standards in Jewish publications. Not long 
after the first publication of the "Jewish Messenger," 
' ' The Jewish Record, ' ' another orthodox paper appeared, 
in 1862; but though the learned Jonas Bondy was one 
of its editors, this weekly had but a short life, ceasing 
to appear in the very year in which it was started. 

In 1871, the first Jewish juvenile paper in English 
made its appearance. It was called "Young Israel" 
and was published for thirty years, creating a con- 
siderable if not highly valuable, Jewish juvenile litera- 
ture in English. In the seventies, the field of Jewish 
journalism began to fill out. In 1871, Raphael de C. 
Levine published two monthly journals, "The New 



o98 COMMUKAL REGISTER 

Era" which ran to 1877, and the "Jewish Advocate," 
which ran from 1879 to 1882. In 1879 ''The American 
Hebrew," the most important of American Jewish 
weeklies, made its appearance. It was started as the 
mouthpiece of the German Jews in America, and con- 
tinued to be such for many years. Four years later, 
''The Hebrew Standard" was first published. It al- 
ways regarded itself as the spokesman of the orthodox 
Jewish interests in New York City. In 1895 a very 
interesting periodical, "The American Jewess," a 
Jewish woman 's paper, made its appearance, and ran till 
1899. It had a literary quality, and added considerably 
to the literary output of American Israel. Another 
woman's paper was the monthly, called "Helpful 
Thoughts," which was published for six years. If we 
add to the periodicals mentioned, "The Maccabsean," 
the Zionist monthly, which began to appear in 1901, and 
"The American Jewish Chronicle," the Jewish nation- 
alist journal, which began in 1916, we have a list of the 
most important Jewish periodicals which have appeared 
in English in New York City from the earliest period to 
this day. 

2. Foreign Languages 

(a.) German 

From the very small number of Jewish periodicals in 
German which were printed in New York City, five in 
all, the conclusion is obvious that the German Jews who 
migrated to America, speedily acquired the language of 
the country and had no need for German publications. 

Jsadore Busch, a Bohemian Jew, who when in Austria 



RECREATIONAL AND CULTURAL AGENCIES 599 

was active as a publisher of Judeo-German and Hebrew 
annuals, came to New York City in 1849 as a political 
immigrant. In New York, he resumed his profession 
and established a German weekly, entitled "Israel's 
Herald," which he published for the Order B'nai Brith. 
The new weekly, however, did not last very long, hardly 
three months, and Busch, out of sheer revenge, left New 
York, and went to St. Louis, where he became a multi- 
millionaire. The other Jewish publications in German 
were even less important. None of them lived more 
than a few months. From the point of view of in- 
fluence and quality, they could not compare with either 
the Jewish press published in English, or with that in 
any other foreign language. The use of German, how- 
ever, in the Je\^h Press persisted for some time, and 
even a few journals in English carried German supple- 

(&.) Hebrew 

If the Jewish immigrants, coming from the Slavic 
countries did not absorb American culture, and did not 
acquire the English language as quickly as their Ger- 
man brethren, they did not support their Hebrew Press 
very much better than the German Jews supported the 
Jewish Press in German. Twenty or more Hebrew 
journals, monthly and weekly, were started in New 
York, but none with the exception of the first Hebrew 
weekly in America, "Ha Zophe b'Eretz ha Hadosho" 
(1870-1876) and the "Haibri'' (1892-1902) had the 
privilege of a long life. Indeed very few Hebrew peri- 
odicals managed to survive a whole year. Either be- 
cause the readers of the Hebrew Press in America were 



600 COMMUNAL REGISTER 

not sufficiently interested, or because the editors of the 
Hebrew journals were, for the most part, doctrinaires 
and impractical people who, in addition, did not even 
have sufficient capital for their enterprise, the Hebrew 
Press in America dragged out a precarious existence. 
An attempt to run a daily in Hebrew in New York City, 
failed, — the "Ha Yom,*' published in 1909, surviving 
only for a few months with great difficulty. The effort of 
Mr. Reuben Brainin in 1912 to establish the *'Hadror," 
a literary weekly journal of good quality, failed dis- 
astrously. At present there are two Hebrew weeklies 
in New York, '^The Hatoren" and the "Haibri." 
Though their circulation is very limited, it would seem 
as if they are destined to escape the docan that has over- 
taken all their Hebrew predecessors in America. 

(c.) Yiddish 
We now come to the most important part of the 
Jewish Press — that published in Yiddish; the most im- 
portant, because during the short period of its existence, 
it has been productive of more journals than all other di- 
visions of the Jewish Press combined, but chiefly be- 
cause in point of radius of influence, it far exceeds all 
other language groups of the Jewish Press. From 1872 
to 1917, there appeared in New York City about one 
hundred and fifty publications. These publications ap- 
pealed to a multitude of readers, running into the hun- 
dreds of thousands, and holding the widest views on 
all subjects under the sun. For unlike the Jewish Press 
in English, the one printed in Yiddish is the only source 
of information for its readers and consequently deals 
with an enormously wide and current range of topics. 



RECREATIONAL AND CULTURAL AGENCIES 601 

We find in Yiddish all sorts of journals, trade and pro- 
fessional journals, humorous and serious newspapers, 
business journals, while every party in New York Jewry, 
beginning with the most orthodox and ending with the 
anarchist, has an organ of its own. We have lived to 
see even the publication of a newspaper in Yiddish deal- 
ing with matrimony. 

The first Yiddish paper in New York and in America 
was *'Die Jiidische Post," published and edited in 1872 
by Henry Gershuni. The enterprise was not a success, 
and the editor, who was a typesetter and newspaper 
vender, had to give it up very quickly. The immigra- 
tion from Russia, which later was responsible for the 
phenomenal growth of the Yiddish Press in America, 
had not as yet assumed the tremendous proportions 
which it attained in the early eighties, but even the 
thin trail of Yiddish-speaking immigrants in America 
had created the need for printing information of what 
was going on in the Jewish world. Benefiting from 
this need, Kasriel Zwi Sarasohn, who was a good business 
man, began publishing the Yiddish weekly, **Die New 
Yorker Jiidische Zeitung" in 1872. This first venture 
of Sarasohn 's was not very successful, chiefly because 
of the language used in the paper, a mixture of German 
and Yiddish, which could not possibly appeal to the Rus- 
sian Jew. But Sarasohn was too far-sighted to abandon 
the idea of publishing a Yiddish newspaper because this 
first attempt of his was a failure. Two years after he 
had ceased publishing the **New Yorker Jiidische Zeit- 
ung," he started the '* Jiidische Gazetten," a weekly 
which still exists today. Sarasohn 's enterprise soon at- 



^J02 COMMUNAL REGISTER 

tracted wide attention, the attention of competitors in- 
cluded, and in 1875 Mordecai Yalialimstein, who from 
1870 to 1876 had published the Hebrew weekly, **.Ha 
Zophe b'Eretz ha Hadosho," began publishing the Yid- 
dish weekly, ''Der New York Israelite" in competition 
with Sarasohn's "Jiidische Gazetten." This competi- 
tion, however, had very little success, and very shortly, 
in the same year, Yahalimstein 's newspaper collapsed, 
while Sarasohn's weekly became a success. 

The intellectual complexion of the Jewish immigrants 
from Russia who found their way to America before the 
mass-migration of 1881, is very interesting. This im- 
migration consisted mostly of adventurous individuals 
who had the courage to leave Russia for an unknown 
country, for such was America to all Jews at that time. 
A good many of these immigrants were Socialists who 
came here in search of a new order of things. Here in 
America they organized the first Socialist and atheist 
newspaper, *'Die Volkszeitung " which began to appear 
in 1878. With editors who were better idealists than 
business men, this paper could not last very long. 
Meanwhile, Sarasohn's weekly was growing. His previ- 
ous competitors became his co-workers, and in 1885, he 
organized the *' Yiddishes Tageblatt," which exists to- 
day, and is considered the oldest Jewish daily in the 
world. The ''Tageblatt" was started as a strictly 
orthodox paper, and as such was widely read. With 
the rise of other papers, but chiefly because of the change 
in the calibre of Jewish immigration in the United 
States, the ' ' Tageblatt ' ' lost much of its influence, even 
among the conservative class. The first editor of the 



RECREATIONAL AND CULTURAL AGENCIES 603 

"Tageblatt" was Yahalimstein, and he was succeeded 
by Johan Paley, who edited the ^'Tageblatt" for maiij^ 
years. Subsequent editors were J. J. Zevin, Leon Zolot- 
koff and Gedalia Bublick, who is the present editor. 

Following the eighties that witnessed the first tidal 
wave of Jewish immigration into the United States, there 
was a great rise and fall in the Yiddish publications in 
New York City. Jaffa, Shustrin, Mintz, Selikowitch and 
Sharkansky tried their hands at publishing Yiddish 
newspapers, with varying success. It was Shaikevitch, 
known to the Yiddish-reading public by his nom de 
plume as **Shomer," who was particularly active. 
When he failed with his three or four humorous papers, 
he organized a business paper, named "Der Wegweiser 
in der Amerikaner Business-welt, ' ' which showed the way 
so successfully, that it had to succumb to financial diffi- 
culties itself. On the whole, this is the period of short- 
lived Yiddish weeklies. 

The immigration in the eighties greatly added to the 
numerical strength of the Jewish Socialists in America, 
with the result that in the nineties, Jewish radicals on 
the East Side felt themselves sufficiently strong to issue 
their ow^n daily in Yiddish. In 1894, the first Socialist 
daily in Yiddish in America and in the world, was pub- 
lished. It was named *'Das Abendblatt, ' ' and was the 
organ of the Socialist Labor Party. It continued till 
1902, but long before its end, it had outlived its useful- 
ness as a radical paper. Dissensions, based on theoretical 
as well as on personal differences, led to a split in the 
editorial staff of the *'Abendblatt'' and in 1897 a new 
Socialist daily, '^The Forward," under the editoriship of 



604 COMMUNAi^ REGISTER 

Abraham Cahan was started. The new publication, 
though financially hard pressed from the ver^^ beginning, 
soon became very much in vogue among the radical 
masses of New York City, achieving the place of the most 
widely read foreign publication in New York City. 

Meanwhile, the orthodox class in New York gained in 
influence and in social position. *'The Tageblatt," 
leaning slightly towards liberalism, no more fully sat 
isfied its needs. Besides, a Jewish morning paper that 
would tell the immigrant Jew early in the morning 
where he could look for a job, in addition to what had 
happened in the world over night, was a long-felt want. 
When, therefore, in 1902, Jacob Saphirstein, after suc- 
cessfully experimenting for some time with catering to 
the Jewish reader by supplying him with sensational 
novels based on the Dreyfus Case, organized the 
* ' Jewish Morning Journal, ' ' it was a great success from 
the very beginning. From its very inception, the 
** Morning Journal'^ regarded itself as the spokesman 
of the orthodox masses in New York City. In 1904, the 
same Jacob Saphirstein began publishing ''The Ameri- 
kaner," a weekly journal, with popular literary ma- 
terial for the family. 

The tide of Jewish immigration that swept over 
America in 1905, as a result of the pogroms that took 
place in the same year in Russia, brought to this country 
an element altogether different from the one brought in 
the first wave. The growth of both the socialistic and 
the nationalist tendencies in Russia, had changed the 
outlook of the Jewish masses now flocking to the United 
States. This nationalist radical tendency among the 



I 

RECREATIONAL AND CULTURAL AGENCIES 605 

Jews of New York City was reflected not only through 
the existing publications, but also through the addition 
of new ones. In 1905, Louis E. Miller, formerly associ- 
ated with the ** Forward," organized the ** Daily War- 
heit," the first national radical newspaper, of which 
newspaper he continued as editor until 1914. This daily 
was in constant combat with the ** Forward" with which 
it competed for the Socialist circulation. 

Three noteworthy attempts to establish new Yiddish 
dailies in New York City, failed. The first attempt 
was that of the ''Yiddische Welt," organized in 
1902 by a group of German Jews for the purpose of 
Americanizing the Jewish masses. The newspaper lasted 
two years and was edited by Joseph Jacobs, and then by 
Jacob de Haas, with the assistance of the Rev. Z. Mas- 
liansky. The **Yiddische Welt" managed to attract a 
considerable amount of Jewish talent, and was on the 
way to becoming very popular when dissensions broke 
out among the members of the managing board, and the 
newspaper had to be discontinued. The second attempt 
was made by the Jewish anarchists of New York City in 
1906 when they started their daily ' ' The Abend Zeitung. ' ' 
The newspaper, however, did not live longer than three 
months. The last effort at Yiddish daily journalism was 
made in 1914 by Louis E. Miller, who published **Der 
Fiihrer." The paper was strongly pro-Russian, and 
so strong was the opposition to it on the part of the 
Jewish masses, that it had to be discontinued before the 
end of three months. The last Yiddish daily to be estab- 
lished was the ''Day." It was organized in November, 
1914, under the editorship of Herman Bernstein. The 



I 

606 COMMUNAL ElEGISTER 

newspaper was organized on a non-partisan basis, with 
the aim of raising the standard of Jewish journalism. 
It maintained a very high standard from its very incep- 
tion, and in a short time became very popular. 

For financial reasons, the Yiddish weekly was never 
a success in America. The only Yiddish weeklies exist- 
ing are party organs, subsidized by their respective 
party organizations. Of these weeklies, the **Freie Ar- 
beiter Stimme," an anarchist publication, organized in 
1900 and edited by S. Yanofsky, maintained for a. very 
long time a high literary standard. ''Das Yiddisher 
Volk," the organ of the Federation of American Zion- 
ists, started in 1909, while ''The Yiddische Kampfer," 
the organ of the Poale Zion, was organized in 1907, dis- 
continued and then re-established in 1916. The Yiddish- 
speaking Socialists of the Bund category have as their 
organ "Die Neie Welt," organized in 1913. 

Worthy of mention are the few humorous weekliei 
which appeared in New York, such as "Der Land C2ia 
Cham," edited by Shaikevitch, from 1893 to 1894, "Der 
Yiddisher Puck, ' ' also edited by Shaikevitch, from 1894- 
1896, "Der Ashmedai," which was published and edited 
by Morris Rosenfeld and Sharkansky in 1894, "Der 
Kibitzer," published in 1908-1912, "Der Yiddische Gaz- 
leh," edited by J. Adler and Isaac Reis, which appeared 
in 1910, and "Der Kundes," which, organized in 1908, 
still exists today. 

Comparatively few Yiddish monthlies have appeared 
in New York City. In 1892, "Die Zukunft," a So- 
cialist monthly, devoted to the discussion of social and 
philosophic problems, was published. Next comes "Die 



RECREATIONAL AND CULTURAL AGENCIES 607 

Freie Gesellschaf t, " an anarchist monthly, which wats 
published from 1895-1902; ''Die Freie Stimme," a 
literary monthly which appeared in 1904, and the **Yid- 
dische Zukunft,'^ a literary Zionistic journal which ap- 
peared in New York under the editorship of Dr. Charles 
Wortsmanu ; the ' * Familien Journal, ' ' a literary month- 
ly which appeared from 1911 to 1914, and "Das Neie 
Leben," a radical nationalist publication, edited by Dr. 
Chaim Zhitlowsky, which appeared from 1908-1912. 

Published irregularly are Ch. Minikes' **Yomtov 
Bletter," which has appeared with interruptions since 
1897 and the '* Yiddischer Amerikaner Volks-Kalender, * ' 
which was edited by Alexander Harkavy, and appeared 
from 1894-1897. 

Looking back on the history of the Yiddish as well 
as of the other divisions of the Jewish press in New York 
City, one cannot help being struck by the closeness with 
which it runs parallel to the entire course of Jewish 
development in New York City. It would seem as if 
every change in the complexion of New York Jewry 
would register itself in the Jewish press almost auto- 
matically. For decades the Jewish press carried on a 
precarious existence. So did American Judaism. Then 
with the rising tide of immigration, first from Germany, 
then from Russia, there is a corresponding rise in the 
number of Jewish periodicals. But simultaneously with 
this rise there is an increase in the discordant voices in 
the Jewish press. The Jewish publications instead of 
reflecting the entire Jewish life in New York City, re- 
flect only that particular corner of Jewish life nearest 



60S COMMUNAL KEGISTKK 

to them — a course of action resulting in the sheerest 
communal myopia where there should have been broad 
communal vision. But here again the Jewish press only 
registers what happens in Jewish life — ^the separatistic 
tendencies of New York Jewry in the nineties, before 
the various elements composing the Jewish Community 
had time to fuse in the Melting Pot of the Jewish Com- 
munity of New York City. Since 1905 a new tendency 
becomes manifest in the Jewish press of New York City 
— it is a centripetal instead of a centrifugal tendency. 
There is a foreshadowing of the communal point of view 
and a groping after a communal policy. Again it is 
nothing other than the fluctuations of Jewish life reg- 
istering themselves in the Yiddish press. The sledge- 
hammer blows of the Russian pogroms from without and 
the constant rapidly increasing process of fusion from 
within had set in motion new constructive forces making 
for a strengthened communal consciousness and an or- 
ganized Jewish Community in New York City. The 
Jewish Press, true to its established traditions, has re- 
flected the working of these new forces, without, how- 
ever, either anticipating what was about to happen or 
retarding the work set in motion by leaders with com- 
munity vision. 

II. Present Status 

1. The Jewish Press in English 
The Anglo-Jewish press reflects to an astonishing de- 
gree the character of the native American Jew to whom 
it caters. In the first place, it is numerically weak. 
There are only five important Jewish periodicals appear- 



KJiCREATlONAl^ AND CULTURAL AGENCIES 60H 

ing in English in New York City, of which three are 
weeklies and two monthlies. The rest, appearing from 
time to time, are of little more than of recording im- 
portance. The English- Jewish press is, in the second 
place, unlike the Yiddish press, more temperate in char- 
acter and, with the exception of the American Jewish 
Chronicle, which in more ways than one closely resembles 
the Yiddish publications, is not given over to propagan- 
da. Third, in its reactions to Jewish life, the English- 
Jewish press manifests a dipassionate and ratiocinative 
interest, that compares interestingly with the emotional 
attitude of the Yiddish press. Fourth, though its influ- 
ence extends only to the fringes of the Jewish population, 
yet limited as its reading circle is, it does happen to reach 
those who are most influential in Jewish affairs, so that 
the actual influence of the English-Jewish press is en- 
tirely out of proportion to its circulation, which does not 
exceed 15,000 in New York City. Fifth, the English- 
Jewish press, chiefly because it is issued for the benefit 
of a reading public which economically and socially pre- 
sents very little variation, lacks that variety which is 
the spice of the Yiddish press. Finally, it lacks original- 
ity and Jewish creative ability and has to rely intellec- 
tually to a very large extent on the Yiddish press. All 
this makes the English -Jewish press far less fascinating 
than perhaps it should be. The future may belong to 
the Jewish press in English, but its present is certainly 
far from glorious. 



610 communal register 

2. Foreign Language Press 

(a.) Hebrew 

The Hebrew press in New York shares these two 
features with the English press: — First, it does 
not minister solely to the intellectual needs of its 
readers, who get most of their information from other 
sources ; and, second, it reaches only a small fringe of the 
Jewish population. But its close resemblance to the 
English press does the Hebrew press little good, for on 
the one hand it is regarded by its readers as a sort of 
luxury, some of them looking upon the purchase of a 
Hebrew periodical chiefly as a manner of paying tribute 
to their renascent Jewish sentiments, and on the other 
hand the fringe of the Jewish population to which the 
Hebrew press caters, happens to be the least influential 
— some 8,000 readers of the most recent immigration. 
Reflecting the point of view of its readers, who are for 
the most part foreigners, the Hebrew press has no light 
to shed on communal problems and is most at home in 
discussions of literary and metaphysical topics. Ob- 
viously, its value as a communal influence is negligible. 
The Hebrew press having only one tradition to draw 
upon, the Jewish cultural renaissance, is also in its 
limited way, a one-sided influence. The entire Hebrew 
press is nationalistic. The two existing weeklies vie 
with each other in their strong nationalistic leanings, 
but the difference between the orthodoxy of the Haibri 
and the secular nationalism of the "Hatoren" is by 
no means comparable to the difference which separates 
one Yiddish periodical from other. 



RECREATIONAL AND CULTURAL AGENCIES 611 

(&.) J udeO' Spanish 

The 20,000 Oriental Jews in New York City maintain 
two weekly papers: ''La America" and *'La Bos del 
Pueblo" (The Voice of the People), both written in 
Judeo-Spanish with Hebrew characters. But the Jew- 
ish press in Judeo-Spanish or Ladino is even more 
badly situated than the Hebrew press. From the 
editorials of "La America" it is rather difficult to decide 
what policy it pursues, but *'La Bos del Pueblo" is pro- 
nouncedly socialistic. Two other periodicals in Judeo- 
Spanish, ''La Eenasansia," a Zionist sheet, and "El 
Kierbatch Amerikano," a humorous paper, appear very 
irregularly. For one reason or another, the Judeo- 
Spanish press has failed to get a grip on the Oriental 
community. All the four papers combined have a cir- 
culation not exceeding 1,500, which is pretty low con- 
sidering the size of the Oriental community in New York 
City. The limited circulation of the Ladino press may 
perhaps be explained by the fact that the Oriental com- 
munity does not form a unit even linguistically, some 
"Oriental Jews speaking Arabic, some Greek, and the rest 
other languages, while not all of them understand 
Ladino. (c.) German 

The Jewish press in German was never strong in 
New York City, but until Americans declaration of 
war with Germany, the "Or den's Echo," the monthly 
organ of the Independent Order of True Sisters, 
still continued to appear. The war between the 
United States and Germany, however, induced the Inde- 
pendent Order of True Sisters to change the language 
of its organ from German to English, thus wiping out at 
one stroke the entire German- Jewish press in New York. 



612 COMMUNAL REGISTER 

(d.) Yiddish 

The Yiddish press in New York City differs in 
many essentials from the other divisions of the Jew- 
ish press. First, it has the peculiar distinction of 
having practically created its own reading public. Very 
few of the people who are now readers of the Yiddish 
papers in New York City, had ever read any journals 
while on the other side of the Atlantic. As Shomer, the 
noted Yiddish novelist, created a Yiddish-reading pub- 
lic by the publication of his novels, so the Yiddish papers 
taught the East European Jew in America to read news- 
papers by coming out every day for his special benefit. 
Then, too, the readers of the Yiddish papers being newly 
made readers, have read very little outside, perhaps, of 
the Chumosh. The Yiddish newspaper, therefore, is 
their only education and their chief educative influence. 
Here may be found the origin of the make-up of the 
Yiddish paper, which is radically different from that 
of the English newspaper. While the English news- 
paper is primarily organized for the conveying of news, 
the Yiddish paper must also be a literary journal, print* 
ing short stories, novels, articles on popular science, 
theology and politics. It explains also the marvelous 
influence of the Yiddish press. No other press in the 
world exercises such a monopoly on the mental content 
of its readers. While, for instance, it is possible for a 
political candidate in New York City to get elected in 
the face of the strong opposition of almost the entire 
English press, the election of any candidate on the East 
Side is impossible unless the Yiddish press favors him. 

As to the power of reach of the Yiddish press, the 
Circulation Statistics tell a very interesting story. These 



RECREATIONAL AND CULTURAL AGENCIES 613 

figures were given to the Post Office on October 1st, 
1917, by all the Yiddish dailies: 

The Day 65,369 

The Forward 148,560 

The Jewish Daily News 55,000 

The Jewish Morning Journal 87,322 

The Jewish Daily Wahrheit 50,241 

This gives us 411,492 as the total number of copies of 
the Yiddish papers actually sold every day in the United 
States. Since three-quarters of the total number of 
copies is sold in New York City we find that 308,619 
copies are sold in New York City daily. On the assump- 
tion that a person buys two papers a day, divide this 
number by 2 and we get 154,309 people who buy Yid- 
dish papers in New York City every day. Knowing as 
we do that every paper bought is read by at least three 
people including the buyer, multiply 154,309 by three 
and we get a total of 462,937 as the number of Jews of 
New York City who come within the radius of influence 
of Yiddish papers day in and day out. Great as these 
figures are for 1917, they were even greater in 1916, 
when Yiddish papers sold for a penny a copy instead of 
two cents as is the case now. In 1916, the total cir- 
culation of all Yiddish dailies was 532,697, that is, 121,- 
205 more than in 1917. Subjecting the figure of 532,- 
697 to the same calculations, as we have subjected the 
figure of 411,492, that is, the circulation for the year 
1917, we get a total of 599,283 readers of Jewish dailies 
in New York City in 1916, a net surplus over 1917 of 
136,356. This means that the change of the Yiddish 



614 COMMUNAL REGISTER 

dailies from the one cent basis to that of two cents 
caused a shrinkage in the Yiddish-reading public of 
136,356. Many people who before bought two or more 
papers during the day now buy less, while a few who 
bought one paper, buy none at all. , 

The huge sum spent by New York Jewry on the 
Yiddish dailies, should give us an additional index of 
the radius of influence of the Yiddish press. Multiply 
308,619, that is, the daily circulation in New York City 
for 1917 by the 365 days in the year, and we get 112,- 
645,935. From this total deduct three-quarters of sixty 
times the added circulation of the ''Jewish Morning 
Journal" and the ''Jewish Daily News," which do not 
appear on Saturdays and holidays, that is, 6,404,490, 
we will get a circulation in New York City amounting 
to 106,241,445 per annum. Then, by multiplying the 
annual circulation in New York City, that is, 106,241,445 
by $.02, we obtain the amount spent per annum by the 
Jewry of New York City for daily publications in Yid- 
dish, which is $2,124,828.90. (See Table I). 

But the Yiddish dailies, though an exceedingly import- 
ant part, are by no means the entire Yiddish press. Be- 
sides the five dailies, there are twenty-four other publi- 
cations in New York appearing in Yiddish-r-weeklies 
and monthlies, covering a wide range of topics and 
appealing to a multitude of readers. The Yiddish press 
practically runs the entire gamut of Jewish life in New 
York City. (See Table II). 

All this goes to show how great and important are the 
powers wielded by the Yiddish press. But it is only fair 
to say that the influence exerted by it for the good of 



RECREATIONAL AND CULTURAL AGENCIES 615 

the community has been proportionate to the power it 
wields. As an instrument for the Americanization of 
the masses of Jewish immigrants settled on the East 
Side, the Yiddish press has been invaluable. Assuming 
at the very beginning an American character, the Yid- 
dish newspapers have instilled in their multitude of 
readers the spirit of American life, making possible the 
intelligent citizenship and loyal American sentiment 
found on the East Side. The great usefulness of the 
Yiddish press is demonstrated also in the conscientious 
vigilance over the welfare of the community and in its 
fostering and encouraging of Jewish institutions which 
carry on the charitable and educational work of the 
Jewish community. In addition, the Yiddish press, by 
serving for so many years as a common channel for in- 
formation and education of the large and heterogeneous 
Jewish masses of New York City, created that indis- 
pensable modicum of communal apperception without 
which no communal activity would be possible. If we 
add to this the fact that the Jewish newspapers have 
guided the Jewish masses to an understanding and ap- 
preciation of modern literary forms, we have the out- 
standing features of the character of the Yiddish press. 
It should be remarked, however, that this exercise of 
power is not unattended by certain abuses. But the 
latter are almost unavoidable when power is wielded as 
omnipotently as it is in the Yiddish press. The Yiddish 
press has not always been able to resist successfully the 
temptation to allure its readers with cheap stories of 
'*sex" interest, and its attitude towards Jewish institu- 
tions and movements as well as prominent personalities 



616 



COMMUNAL REGISTEK 



has not always been noble and righteous. Very often 
the editorial staffs of the Yiddish papers have not been 
animated by that spirit of responsibility which should 
be theirs. But there has come to pass in the Yiddish 
press an unmistakable gaining of vision both in its con- 
ception of the community as a unit and in the under- 
standing of the character of its great responsibilities; 
the Yiddish press is beginning to catch the spirit by 
which the Jewish Community of New York is organiz- 
ing itself into a firmer and more Jewish life. This spirit, 
it may now be hoped, the Yiddish press will eventually 
fully embody. 



TABLE 1 

SHOWING RADIUS OF INFLUENCE OF NEW YORK 
YIDDISH DAILIES 



NAME OP DAILY 


DAILY CIRCULATION 




1916 


1917 


Day. , 


81,029 


65,369 


Forward 


198,892 


148,560 






Jewish Daily News 


55,140 


55,000 






Jewish Morning Journal 


108,502 


87,322 


Jewish Daily Warheit 


89,134 


55,241 






Total number of copies sold in 
United States daily 


532,697 


411 492 







Total number of copies sold in 
United States daily 


532,697 


411 492 






Total number of copies sold in 
New York City daily 


399,523 


308,619 


Total number of buyers of Yid- 
dish dailies in New York 
City 


199,761 


154,309 




Total number of readers in New 
York City 


599,283 


462,927 




Amount spent in New York City 
per annum 


$1,384,620.05 


$2,124,828.90 



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619 



A LIST OF JEWISH PERIODICALS PUBLISHED IN 
NEW YORK CITY PREVIOUS TO 1917* 



ENGLISH 



The Jew. Monthly. 1823-1824. 
Editor: Solomon H. Jackson. 
Anti -Missionary, 

The Asmonean. Weekly. 1849- 
1858. Editor: Robert Lyon. 
Political, Religious, Literary. 

The JeTfish Messenger. Week- 
ly. 1857 - 1903. Orthodox. 
Merg-ed with "The American 
Hebrew." 

The Jewish Record. Weekly. 
1862. Editors: Abr. S. Cohen. 
Jonas Bondy. Orthodox. 

Voung Israel. Monthly. 1871- ? 
Editors: Louis Schnabel and 
others. Juvenile. 1 1 1 u s - 
trated. Title changed to 
"Israel's Home Journal" (in 
1901). 

The New Era. Monthly. 1871- 
1875. Editor: Raphael D'C. 
Lewin. Literary. 

The Independent Hebrew. 

Weekly. 1876 (3 months). 
Editors: S. N. Leo. 

The Jewish Advocate. Month- 
ly. 1879 - 1886. Editor: 
Raphael D'C. Lewin. Liter- 
ary. 



Hebraica. Monthly. 1879. 
Supplement to "The Jewish 
Messenger." Literary. '■ 

The American Hebrew^. Week- 
ly. 1879. Informational and 
Literary. Since 1904, The 
American Hebrew and Jew- 
ish Messenger. 

The Hebrew Standard. Week- 
ly. 1883. Editor: J. P. 
Salomon. Orthodox. Suc- 
cessor to "The Hebrew 
Leader." 

The Hebrew Journal. Weekly. 
1885-? Editor: Joseph Davis. 
Conservative. 

The Mcnorah. Monthly. 1886- ? 
Editors: B. F. Peixotto — 
then Moritz Ettinger. Lit- 
erary, Scientific. Organ of 
the B'nai B'rith. 

The American Jewess. Quar- 
terly. 1895-1899. Editor: 
Rosa Sonneschein. Religi- 
ous, Social, Literary. 

The Monteflore. Monthly. 
1896-? Bulletin of Young 
Ladies and Gentlemen's 
League of the Montefiore 
Home. 



* This list does not claim to be exhaustive. Many Jewish periodical* 
have been so short-lived that even the public libraries have no trace of 
them. All that could be done was to catalogue the Jewish periodicals to 
be found in the New Yoric Public Library and the Library of the Jewish 
Theological Seminary of America, and this the present list does. It wa» 
compiled by Joseph Margoshes of the staflF of the "Day." 



620 



COMMUNAL REGISTEB 



Helpful Thonerhts. Monthly. 
1897 - 1903. Editors: Julia 
Richman, Rebecca K o h u t, 
later with Richard Gotthell, 
M. Harris and Q. Kohut, 
successively. Juvenile. 

Alliance Review. Monthly 
1899- ? Organ of clubs of 
Educational Alliance. Re- 
ports, Literary. Founded as 
"Alliance Club News." 

Pamphlet Library. Monthly. 

1900. Editor: Michael Singer. 
Historical, Literary, Zionist. 

The Maccabaean. Monthly. 

1901. Literary, Zionist. 

Israel Home Journal. Monthly. 
1901- ? Editor: M. C. Guns- 
berg. Literary, Illustrated. 
Successor to Young Israel. 

Charity Work. New York 
Fortnightly. 1902- ? Editor: 
Max Cohen — for the United 
Hebrew Charities. 

Jewish Charity. Monthly. 

1902. Editor: Joseph Jacobs, 
Lee K. Frankel. For the 
United Hebrew Charities 

(Formerly "Charity Work"). 

The New Era Illustrated Mag- 
azine. Monthly. 1903. Edi- 
tor: Isidore Lewi. Continu- 
ing the New Era Jewish 
Magazine, of Boston, Mass. 
Literary. 

The Jewish Home. Monthly. 
1903- ? Editor: George A. 
Kohut. For Family and 
Religious Schools. 

East Side L-lfe. Weekly. 1903- ? 
Literary, News. 



The New Era Comment. 

Monthly. 1904. Organ of 
the New Era Club. 

Young Judaean. Monthly. 
1910. Organ of "Young 
Judea." Juvenile. 

JeTTlsh Immigration Bulletin. 

Monthly. 1912. Organ of the 
Hebrew Sheltering and Im- 
migrant Aid Society. Pro- 
fessional. 

The Jewish Child. Weekly. 
1912. Published under the 
auspices of the "Bureau of 
Education." Children's pa- 
per. 

Hadassah. Monthly. 1914. 
Bulletin, published by the 
Hadassah. 

Seminary Students^ Annual. 

English and Hebrew. 1914. 
Organ of the Students of the 
Jewish Theological Semi- 
nary. Scholarly. 

The Jewish Deaf. Monthly. 
1915. Philanthropic. 

The Menorah Journal. Month- 
ly. 1915. Organ of the "In- 
tercollegiate Menorah As- 
sociation." Devoted to Jew- 
ish Culture and Ideals. 

East and West. Monthly. 
1915-16. Literary. 

American J e vr 1 s h Chronicle. 

Weekly. 1916. Editor: Dr. 
S. M. Melamed. Nationalis- 
tic. 

The Jewish Teacher. Semi- 
annual, then quarterly. 1916. 
Editor: Alexander M. Dush- 
kln. Organ of the Jewish 
Teachers' Association. Pro- 
fessional. 



RECREATIONAL AND CULTURAL AGENCIES 



621 



GBRMAN 



IsraeFs Herald. Weekly. 1849 
(3 months). Editor: Isldor 
Busch. Organ of the B'nel 
Brith. 

Orden's Echo. Monthly. 1884. 
Official organ of the "Inde- 
pendent Order of True Sis- 
ters." 



Echo dea Judenthums. Weekly. 
1892. Editor; Emll Herzfield. 
Fraternity News. 

Der Jude. Weekly. 1895. 
Editor: M, Singer. Title 
changed to Juedischer An- 
zeiger, with No. 11. News. 
Literary. 



Der Jude. Weekly. 1887. Jnedlsche Monatsblaetter. 

Editor: S. Wiener. News. Monthly. 1899, Editor: 

Literary. William Broch. Zionist. 



ENGLISH JOURNALS WITH GER3IAN SUPPLEMENTS 



The JeTrish Times, New York. 
Weekly (English - German). 
Established 1869-1879. Edi- 
tors: Moritz Ettinger, Har- 
vey M. Marks (1878-79). 
Scientific, rabbinic, literary. 
Reform: Title, "The Re- 
former and Jewish Times." 

The Jewish Ne^rs, New York. 
Weekly. Established 1871. 



Editor: Jacob Cohen. Eng- 
lish, German, Hebrew, Yid- 
dish. 



Jewish Reformer, New York. 

Weekly. Established 1886. 
Editors: K. Kohler, E. G. 
Hirsch and Adolph Moses. 
Reform: English and Ger- 
man. 



HEBREW 



Weekly. 1870-1876. Editor: 
Mordecai ben David Yehal- 
Imstein. News, Literary. 

Quarterly. 1881. Literary. 
(Only one number.) 

Weekly. 1888-1889. Editor: 
Ephraim Deinard. 23 num- 
bers, last 3 numbers In 
Newark, N. J. News. Liter- 
ary. 



Weekly. 1889. Editor: Mi- 
chael S. Rodkinsohn. News, 
Literary. Only few numbers. 

Weekly. 1889-1890. Editor: 
Michael S. Rodkinsohn. Lit- 
erary, News. One number 
appeared at Chicago, Sept. 
24, 1893. 

Fortnightly. 1890. Editor: 
M. L. Rodkinson. Literary, 
Theological, Political. 



622 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



' nnyn 

Weekly. 1892-1902. Editor: 
Gerson Rosenzweig. Liter- 
ary, News. 

nmon 

Monthly. 1894. Editor: 
Moses Goldman. Only one 
number. Literary and bel- 
letristlc. 

nONH 

Monthly. 1894-1895. Editor: 
Hayim Enowitz. Literary. 

Monthly. 1895-1897. Editors: 
Abr. Rosenberg-, then Sam- 
uel B. Schwartzberg. For 
the Society Mefize Sifrut 
Israel. Literary. Belletris- 
tic. Historical. 

Weekly. 1895-1896. Editors: 
Hayim Enowitz and Joseph 
Gabreelow. (Only 6 months.) 
Literary, News. 

Monthly. 1896. Editor: Ch. 
Enowitz. Literary. 

ntznp 

Monthly. 1899. Editor: Ger- 
son Rosenzweig. (Only 6 
months.) 

Monthly. 1900- ? Historical, 
Belletristic, Zionistic. 

1901. Editors: Solomon Judi- 
son and Pinchas Turberg. 
Literary. 

mpnn 

Weekly. 1901. Editor: H. 
L. Selikowitz, J. H. Luria, 
Literary. 



Monthly. 1903. Editor: Dov 
Bar Abramovitz. Rabbinical. 

Monthly. 1902. (Weekly 
since 1904-?) Editor: M. 
Goldman. News, Literary. 



Annually. 1904. 
Ohole Shem Ass'n. 
Historical. 



Editors: 
Literary, 



nnj;n 

Weekly. 1910. Re-established 
1916. Editor: Rabbi M. 
Berlin. Mizrachi. 



Weekly. 1912. (5 
Editor: Reuben 
Literary. 



months.) 
Brainin. 



Weekly. 1915. Editor: 
Aaron Frankel. For Shem- 
veebar Publ. Ass'n. (Only 
few months.) 

Monthly. 1915. Editor: A. 
Fleischman, for the Hebrew 
Teachers' Organization. 
Pedagogic (only few num- 
bers.) 

nnnts* 

Monthly. 1915. Editor: Z. 
Scharfstein. Juvenile. Pub- 
lished under the auspices of 
the Bureau of Education. 

Weekly. 1916. Editor: J. D. 
Berkowitz, then Dr. Shmar- 
yahu Lewin and J. D. Ber- 
kowitz. Zionist. 



RECREATIONAL AND CULTURAL AGENCIES 



623 



a America. Weekly 
Editor: M. S. Gadol. 



JUDEO — SPANISH 

1910 



Las Bo8 del Pueblo. 

1915. Socialist. 



Weekly. 



YIDDISH 



Weekly. 1872. Editor: 
Henry Gershoni. .News, Lit- 
erary. 



Weekly. '1886-1887. Editors: 
Moses Mintz, Dr. Braslav- 
sky. Socialist. 



;jiu''S V'^'T^ "lypnx' i'3 

Weekly, 1872. Editor: K. 
H. Sarasohn. German in He- 
brew characters. 

Weekly. 1874. Weekly edi- 
tion of Juedisches Tageblatt. 
Editor: K. H. Sarasohn. 

Weekly. 1875. Editor: 
Mordechai Yohalimstein. 

Wilts''!? Dp^KS yti'n^x 

Weekly. 1878. Editors: M. 
Taplowsky, G. Landau. So- 
cialistic, Atheistic. 



Daily. 1885. News. 
dox. 



Ortho- 



Weekly. 1885. News, Lit- 
erary. 

JilU'^S yB>ni« lypIN' TO 
Weekly. 1885-1889. Editor: 
Morris Wechsler. Literary, 
Orthodox. 

Weekly. 1886. Editors: N. 
Rayevsky, Abr. Cahan. So- 
cialist (only few numbers). 



Fortnightly. 1887-1888. Edi- 
tor: Abr. Goldfaden. Illus- 
trated, Literary (only 17 
numbers). 

BHpNinK Dp'i?NS IV"! 

Weekly. 1887. Editor: 
G. Selikowich. Then weekly 
edition of "Der Taeglicher 
Herald" and now of "The 
Warheit." News, Literary. 



Weekly. 

Rayevsky. 

istic. 



1887. Editor: Dr. 
Literary, Social- 



Weekly. 1888. Editor: 
Louis Schnabel. Comic. 

Weekly. 1888. Editors: Da- 
vid Apotheker and Morris 
Wechsler. News, General. 

Weekly. 1889. Anarchist. 
(Only 20 numbers.) 

Weekly. 1889-1890. Editors: 
J. Jaffa (Nos. 1-8). Then 
Joseph Petrikovsky (20 
numbers). Literary. 






624 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



Weekly. 1889. Editor: David 
Apotheker. Literary, News. 

Weekly. 1889-1891. Editor; 
Nahum M. Siiaikewitz. News, 
Literary, Belletristic. 

Weekly. 1889. Editor: J. 
Jaffe. Comic. 

Daily. 1890. Editor: G. 
Selikowich. (Only 26 num- 
bers). 

Weekly. 1890. Editor: 
Nalium M. Shaikewitz. Lit- 
erary, News, Comic. 

Weekly. 1890-1902. Sunday 
edition of the Abend Blatt. 

Weekly. 1890. Editor: Jos- 
eph A. Bluestone. Zionist. 

Weekly. 1890-1899. Editor: 
Osias Wag-man. News. 



Daily. 1891 - 1904. 
Michael Mintz. 



Editor: 



in n 

Weekly. 1892. Editors: Mor- 
ris Rosenfeld, Joel Aronson, 
Jacob Terr. News, Literary. 
(Only 7 numbers). 

Weekly. 1892. Editor: 
Nahum Melr Shalkowitz. 
Commercial. 



Monthly. 1903-1905. Editor: 
William Edlin. 

Monthly. 1892-1893. Editor: 
Herman Rosenthal. 

BBJlplS 

Monthly. , 1892. Scientiflc, 
Socialistic. Old Series 1892- 
97. New Series 1902. 

"iirniKpyn ivtt'n'K "lyi 

Weekly. 1893. Editor: 
Gustav Mintz. News, Liter- 
ary. 

i^rp'ianp n^T 

Weekly. 1893. Editor: J. 
Jaffe. Literary. (Only 5 
numbers). 

Monthly. 1893-1894. Editor: 
Nahum Meir Shalkowitz. 
Comic. 

Monthly. 1893. Editors: 
Philip Krantz, Abraham 
Sharkansky. Literary, Com- 
mercial. (Only 3 numbers.) 

^xntr' mpn 

Monthly. 1893- ? Editor: A. 
C. Gaebelein. For the Tik- 
wat Yisrael Movement. Mis- 
sionary. 

Weekly. 1893. Editor: J. 
Jaffe. Literary, News. (On- 
ly 8 numbers). 

Weekly. 1894-1896. Editors: 
Nahum Shaikewlch and M. 
Selfert. Comic. 



KECREATIONAL. AND CULTURAL AGENCIES 



625 



Annual. 1894-1897. Editor: 
Alexander Harkavy (First 
two volumes called "Der 
Amerikanischer Volks-Kal- 
ender".) Informative, Lit- 
erary. 

Daily. 1894-1902. Organ of 
the Socialist Labor Party. 

Weekly: 1894. Editors: 
Morris Rosenfeld, Ab. Shar- 
kansky. Comic, 

Weekly. 1894. Editor: Sol- 
omon J. Silberstein. (Only 
three weeks.) 

Monthly. 1895-1902. Editors: 
M. Leontiev, M. Katz. An- 
archistic. 

Daily. 1899-1905. Editors: 
Saphirstein, Rosenbaum. 
News. 



BN'?n n:j;nK ^Ntsju 

Weekly. 1896- ? 



Socialistic. 



Brooklyn Yearly. 1897-1899. 
Editor: V. E. Pomeranz. 

Monthly. Jacob Terr. 1897- 
1898. (Only 8 months.) Lit- 
erary. 

Monthly. 1897. Editor: Abr. 
S. Sharkansky. Literary. 
Belletrlstic. 



Monthly. 1897-1898. Editor: 
Alexander Harkavy. Liter- 
ary, Artistic. (10 numbers.) 

Daily. 1897. Socialist. 

Jewish and American Holi- 
days. 1897-1899. Editor: Ch. 
Minikes. Literary, Bellet- 
rlstic. 



tans n 

Monthly. 1897-1898. 
Menachem Dolitzky. 
ary, Zionist. 



Editor 
Liter-. 



Monthly. 1898. Editor: Isaac 
Meirky. For the Ohale Zion. 
Zionistic (only 4 months). 

Weekly. 1898. Organ of 
the Zionist Societies of U. S. 

Weekly. 1898. Organ of the 
Kolel American Tif eret 
Yerushalayim. 

pi!? mtt'no 

Weekly. 1898. Bulletin of 
the Federation of Zionists. 

Weekly. 1898. Editors: N. 
Braslavsky, J. Jaffe, Abner 
Tannenbaum. Radical. 

Monthly. 1898-1899. Socialist 

Daily. 1898. E d 1 t o r : G. 
Selikowich. News (Only few 
months). 



H26 



COM M U N AL. KEGISTEK 



Daily. 1899. Organ of the 
United Hebrew Trades. 



Daily. 1902. Editor: Jacob 
Saphirstein. News, Orthodox. 



Weekly. 1899-?. Weekl4r edi- 
tion of New Yorker Abend 
Post. News, Literary. 

Daily. 1899-?. 

Monthfy. 1899. Editor: Wil- 
liam Broch. Formerly Ju- 
d i s c h e Monats - Blaetter. 
(German). 



Weekly. 1904- ? Organ of 
the United Hebrew Trades 
of the State of New York. 

Weekly. 1904. Informative 
Literary. 

Weekly. 1904-1911. Socialis- 
tic, Literary. 



Weekly. 1900- 
ial. 



Matrimon- 



Quarterly. 1900. Editors: 
Morris Rosenfeld, M. Shar- 
kansky. Literary, Historical, 
Discussions of timely topics. 

Year Book. 1900. Editor: 
(year only). Informative, 
Literary. 

Weekly. 1900. Editor: S. 
Yanowsky. Anarchistic, 

News. 

KBisj;nj nyi .]is "jip ijrn 

Daily. 1901. Political. 

Daily. 1902-1904. For Amer- 
icanization of Russian Im- 
migrants. Yiddish with one 
English page. Edited by 
Joseph Jacobs, then Jacob 
de Haas 



Monthly. 1904- ? Literary. 

Quarterly. 1904- ? Radical. 
Zionistic. 

Daily. 1905. Editor: L. E. 
Miller, till 1914, then Isaac 
Gonickman. Liberal, Nation- 
alistic. 

■ipNpnjroN li^T 

Weekly. EstajDlished 1905. 
Conservative Family Jour- 
nal. 

Daily. 1905. Editor: Morris 
Rosenfeld. (Only few 
months.) 

1905. 31 Issues, then 1908- 
1910. Organ of the Federa- 
tion of Gallcian and Buco- 
vinean Jews of America 
Editor: J. Pfeffer 



tlECKEATlONAL AND CULTURAL AGENCIES 



627 



Weekly. 1905. Weekly Pub- 
lication of the Daily For- 
ward. Literary. Political, 
Belletristic. 

Daily. 1906. Editor: S. 
Yanovsky. (Only three 
months.) Anarchistic. 

Monthly.' 1906. Editor: 
Philip Kranz. Political, Lit- 
erary, (Only few numbers.) 



Monthly. 1908-1912. Editor: 
Dr. Ch. Zhitlovsky. Literary. 
Timely Topics, Critic. 

Weekly. 1909. Organ of the 
Federation of Am. Zionists. 

13DNS •ij?'?nnJN-in n 

Weekly. 1910. Neighbor- 
hood Paper. 

Weekly. 1910- ? Organ of 
the Bakers' Union. 



Weekly, 
morous. 



1908-1912. Hu- 



(The Big Stick.) Weekly. 
Appears since 1908. Humor- 
ous. 

Weekly. Organ of the So- 
cialist organization "Poale 
Zion of America." 1907-8. 
Re-established 1916. 

Weekly. Established 1908. 
Trade Paper. 



Weekly. 1910. Editor: Jacob 
Adler and Isaac Reiss. 
Comic (only '4 numbers). 

ij«'7 yn: Dijn 

Weekly. 1911-1912. Editor: 
Abraham Reisen. Literary, 
Illustrated (only 8 months), 
(only 8 months.) 

Monthly. 1911-1914. Liter- 
ary. 

Weekly. 1912-1913. Editor: 
Abraham Reisen. Literary 
Belletristic (only 4 months.) 



Established 1908. Organ of 
the Jewish Agricultural and 
Industrial Aid Society. Trade 
Paper. 



Weekly. 1912. Editors: Da- 
vid Plnski, Joseph Schloss- 
berg. Literary (only 14 
numbers). 



Monthly. 1908. Editor: Dr. 
Charles Wortsmann. (Only 3 
numbers in N. T.) Literary. 
Zionistic. 



Weekly. 1913. Organ of 
"Federation of Yiddish- 
speaking Socialists of Amer- 
ica." Socialist-Bundist. 



628 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



Monthly. 1914. Organ of 
"Jewish National Workers' 
Alliance." National, Radi- 
cal. 

Daily. 1914. Editor: Her- 
man Bernstein (till 1916), 
then William Edlin. Liberal. 
Nationalistic. 

Weekly. 1915. Trade Paper 



Daily. 1915. Editor: L. E. 
Miller. (Only few months.) 
Radical, Nationalistic. 

Weekly. 1915. Organ of 
"Amalgamated Clothing 
Workers of America." Trade 
Union Organ. 

Monthly. 1916-1917. Editor: 
Rabbi S. L. Hurwitz. Ortho- 
dox. (Only 11 numbers.) 



A LIST OF JEAVISH PERIODICAIiS APPEARING IN 
NEW YORK CITY DURING 1917 



The Jewish Daily News, 185- 
187 E. B'way. Daily (Eng- 
lish Section). Established 
1885. Editor: G. Bublick. 
Republican in politics. Or- 
thodox, Zionist. Critical to- 
wards efforts at Jewish 
Communal organization. 
Circulation Oct. 1, 1917, 
55,000. 

*?NJ"nB'T ij;;n«o lyB^n^N i;;t 

The Jew^ish Morning: Journal, 

77-79 Bowery. Daily. Estab- 
lished 1902. Only morning 
newspaper in Yiddish. Edi- 
tor: Peter Wiernik. Repub- 
lican in politics. Orthodox. 
Devotes much space to com- 
munal activities. Circula- 
tion, Oct. 1, 1917, 87,322. 

Jewish Daily Warheit, 153 E 

B'way. Established 1905. 
Rditor: J. Gonickman. Dem- 
ocratic in politics. National- 



DAILIES 

radical. Circulation, Oct. i 
1917: 55,241. 



The Day, 183 East Broadway 
Daily. Established 1914, by 
Herman Bernstein. Editor: 
William Edlin. Non- 
partisan in politics. Nation- 
al-radical. Maintains sym- 
pathetic attitude toward 
Jewish communal problems 
and institutions. Maintains 
high literary standards. Cir- 
culation, Oct. 1, 1917: 65,369. 



Forward, 173-175 E. B'way. 
Daily, Established 1897. 
Editor: Abraham Cahan. 
Socialist organ. Maintains 
negative attitude toward 
Jewish communal problems. 
Circulation. Oct. 1, 1917: 

. 148.560. 



RiiiCREATlONAL AND CULTURAL AGENCIES 



629 



WEEKLY FAMILY JOURNALS 



Americun Jevv-lsih Chronicle, 

S3 W. '42nd St. Weekly. Es- 
tablished 1916. Editor: Dr. 
S. M. Melamed. Zionist and 
cultural. Maintains critical 
attitude toward attempts at 
Jewish communal organiza- 
tion. 

The American Hebre^T, 44 E. 

23rd St. Weekly. Estab- 
lished 1879. Editor: Herman 
Bernstein. Informative 
with nationalist leanings. 
Very often reflects the 
views of influential New 
York Jews. Maintains sym- 
pathetic attitude toward 
Jewish communal problems 
and institutions. 

The Hebrew Standard, 87 

Nassau St. Weekly. Estab- 
lished 1883. Orthodox. Main- 
tains critical attitude to- 
ward attempts at Jewish 
communal organization. 



Der Amerlcauer, 77 Bowery. 
Weekly. Established 1905. 
Published by Jewish Morn- 
ing Journal. Family journal. 
Literary and informative. 

Jfidische Gazetten, 185-187 E. 
B'way. Weekly. Established 
1874. Weekly edition of the 
Jewish Daily News. Ortho- 
dox. 

Miller's Weelcly, 151 Canal 
St. Weekly. Established 
1917. Editor: Louis E. Mil- 
ler. National-radical. 

La America. 197 Eldridge St. 
Judeo-Spanish Weekly. Es- 
tablished 1910. Editor: M. 
S. Gadol. Informative. 



WEEKLY PARTY ORGANS 



P7«£3 ]}Vn^t< DKT 
Oo8 Yiddishe Folic, 44 E. 23d 

St. Weekly. Editor: Dr. S. 
M. Melamed. Established 
1909. Yiddish organ of the 
"Federation of American 
Zionists." 

Der YIddisher Kaempfer, 266 

Grand St. Weekly. Editor: 
D. Pinski. Organ of Social- 
ist Organization "Poale Zion 
of America." 



HaibrL 86 Orchard St. He- 
brew Weekly. Established 
1910. Editor: Rabbi M. Ber- 
lin. Mizrachi. 

pinn 

Hatoren, 89-91 Delancey St. 
Hebrew Weekly, Established 
in 1913 as monthly, and in 
1916 as weekly. Editors: Dr. 
Schmaryahu Levin and J. D. 
Berkowitz. Zionist and cul- 
tural. 



680 



COMMUNAL REGlSTEli 



Die Nele Welt» 175 E. B'way. 

Yiddish Weekly. Established 
.1913. Managing Editor: Dr. 
B. Hoffman. Organ of Jew- 
ish Socialist Federation of 
America. 



Freie Arbelter Stlmme, 157 E. 



B'way. Editor: S. Yanovsky, 
Yiddish Weekly. Established 
1899. Anarchist. 

La Bos del Pueblo, 235 El- 

dridge Street. Judeo-Spanish 
Weekly. Established 1915. 
Editor: Maurice Nessid. So- 
cialistic. 



MONTHLY ORGANS 



rhe Maccabaean, 44 E. 23d St. 

Monthly. Established 1901. 
Published under supervision 
of Federation of American 
Zionists. 

Menorah Journal, 600 Madison 
Ave. Bi-Monthly (except in 
July.) Established 1915. 
Published by the Intercol- 



legiate Menorah Ass'n. De- 
voted to the furtherance of 
Hebraic ideals and culture. 

Die Zukunft, 175 E. B'way. 
Monthly. Established 1892. 
Published by "Forward As- 
sociation." Socialist. Editor: 
A. Walt Liesin. 



PROFESSIONAL AND TRADE JOURNALS 



The Jewish Farmer, 172 2nd 

Ave. Monthly. Established 
1908. Organ of the "Jewish 
Agricultural and Industrial 
Aid Society." 

Butchers^ Journal & Poultry 
Magazine, 140 Rivington St. 
Weekly. Established 1915. 

The Grocers' Guide and Mod- 



ern Businessman, 89 Delan- 

cey St. Weekly. Established 
1908. 

The Jewish Teacher, 356 2nd 

Ave. Quarterly. E s t a b - 
lished 1916. Editor: A. M. 
Dushkin. Organ of "Jewish 
Teachers' Association." 

The Mediator, 253 Broadway. 
Weekly. (Yiddish Section.) 
Bakers' Trade Journal. 



TRADE UNION PAPERS 



The Headgear "Worker, 62 E. 

4th St. Monthly English 



section. Organ of "United 
Cloth, Hat and Cap Makers 
of North America." 



KECREATIONAL AND CULTURAL AGENCIES 



631 



Fortschritt, 32 Union Square. 
Yiddish Weekly. Established 
1915. Org-an of "Amalga- 
mated Clothing Workers of 
America." 

Advance, 31 Union Square. 
Weekly organ of "Amalga- 
mated Workers of America." 

The Fur Worker, 9 Jackson 
Ave., Long- Island City. Yid- 
dish Weekly (English Sec- 
tion.) Org-an of the Inter- 
national Fur Workers' 
Union of the United States 
and Canada. 



The Iiadles' Garment Worker, 

32 Union Square. Yiddish 
and English Monthly. Organ 
of "International Ladies' 
Garment Workers' Union." 

Die Glelchhelt, 16 W. 21st St, 
Weekly. Organ of the La- 
dies' Waist & Dressmakers' 
Union, Local No. 25, Inter- 
national Ladles' Garment 
Workers' Union. 

The Naye Post, 38-40 E. 2nd 
St. Yiddish Weekly. Organ 
of the Joint Board of the 
Cloak & Skirt Makers' 
Union. 



GENERAL BUSINESS PAPERS 



Business Record, 



149 Canal St. 



Weekly. Devoted to business 
methods. Editor: S. Mason. 



ORGANIZATION BULLETINS 



Jeifrlsh Inunlgrratlon Bulletin, 

229 E. B'way, Monthly. Es- 
tablished 1912. Organ of the 
"Hebrew Sheltering and 
Immigrant Aid Society." 

JeTvish AVorker.s' Voice, 89 

Delancey St. Yiddish Month- 



ly. Established 1914. Organ 
of "Jewish National Work- 
ers' Alliance." 

The Friend, 175 E. B'way. 

Monthly. Organ of the 
"Arbeiter Ring." Organized 
1910. 



NEIGHBORHOOD JOURNALS 



Brooklyn - Brownsville Post, 

1778 Pitkin Ave., B'klyn. 
Yiddish Weekly. Established 
1910 



Progrress, 1T46 Pitkin Ave. 
B'klyn. Yiddish Weekly. 



632 



COMMUNAL. REGISTER 



JUVENILE PERIODICALS 



The Jewish Child, 356 2nd Ave. 
Weekly. Established 1912. 
Published under the aus- 
pices of the "Bureau of 
Education." 

Ylddlshe Kinder Welt, 89 De- 

lancey St. Yiddish Monthly. 
Published by "National Rad- 
Icale Schulen Verband." 



Youug Judaean, 44 E. 23d St. 

Monthly. Established 1910. 
Organ of "Young Judaea." 

nnntt' 

The Youth, 356 Second Ave. 
Hebrew Monthly. Published 
under the auspices of the 
"Bureau of Education." 



HUMOROUS PAPERS 



Grosser Knndes (The Big 
Stick), 200 E. B'way. Hu- 
morous Weekly. Editor: 
Jacob Marinoff. Established 
1908. 



El Klrbatch Americano (The 
Whip), 235 Eldridge Street. 
Humorous Judeo-Spanish 
Weekly. Established 1917. 



ANNUALS 



Seminary Students* Annual, 

531 W. 123d St. Eng'lish and 
Hebrew. Established 1914. 



Organ of the Students of the 
Jewish Theological Semi- 
nary. Scholarly. 







COMPOSITE PICTURE OF THE PRINCIPAL JEWISH 

NEWSPAPERS AND PERIODICALS PUBLISHED IN 

NEW YORK CITY 



i 



Economic Agencies 



K( ONOMIC AGENCIES 687 

INDUSTRIAL PROBLEM OF THE JEW IN 
NEW YORK CITY 

By Paul Abelson 
Director y Bureau of Industry 

The Jew in industrial life in this city presents a dis- 
tinct and separate problem. The problem is due largely 
if not exclusively to the fact that the overwhelming 
majority of the Jewish employers and workers in this 
city belong to the first generation of immigrants, and 
these Jewish employers and Jewish workers find them- 
selves confronted with a number of new and difficult 
situations. 

The scope of occupational endeavor in small com- 
munities in Eastern Europe was necessarily limited, and 
partook more of the nature of the economic life of the 
mediaeval town. Here in the metropolis, trades and oc- 
cupations are national in scope, and the field of com- 
petition and the strain of changing conditions is a 
thousand fold greater. Industries in which Jews pre- 
dominate in New York City are of but recent develop- 
ment. Many such trades employing tens of thousands 
of workers, with hundreds of establishments, were actu- 
ally not in existence ten or fifteen years ago. There 
are no definitely established standards of methods or 
of technique. These standards are gradually being 
evolved and developed. Jewish occupations are inter- 
related and form one group of the needle industry. 

Jewish trades are, moreover, highly seasonal in their 
character. The workers in these trades, many of them 



638 COMMUNAL. REGISTER 

newly- developing, are adults, and except in a few neg- 
ligible cases, have not undergone a period of appren- 
ticeship or training. Again, these trades can in no 
sense of the term be classed as unskilled. We have, 
then, constantly developing skilled occupations which 
have to be managed and organized with an adult labor 
force, which has to acquire the required skill in a hap- 
hazard manner, without planned and organized trade 
education. A resultant over-supply of labor in certain 
trades and a lack of supply of labor in others is a char- 
acteristic phenomenon of this complex situation. The 
size of the city, the extent of the industries, the large 
number of workers and employers affected, make it all 
but impossible to organize and coordinate the employ- 
ment market with adequate employment bureaus com- 
manding the confidence of employers. 

The chaotic condition of the needle trades causes and 
is accompanied by very unsatisfactory relations between 
employers and employees. The appalling waste incident 
to strikes and lockouts is a great social loss, — one that 
carries with it untold distress and misery, and engenders 
hatred, hostility and class-warfare, which more than any- 
thing else tends to destroy the feeling of unity and 
harmony among the Jews of the city as a whole. 

Of necessity, individual trades in this group are not 
able to cope with the economic maladjustments and dif- 
ficult problems which this situation creates. Only social 
engineering of a higher order can cope with them. The 
solution of all these problems must call for a compre- 
hensive plan and scheme of coordination. There are in 
existence at the present time many agencies which en- 



ECONOMIC AGENCIES 639 

deavor to deal with one or the other of the difficulties 
that confront the Jews of New York, whose root-causes 
can be traced to the industrial problems of the Jew. But 
only by interrelated study and effort can anything con- 
structive be developed and carried out. 

These efforts must be directed along four distinct 
lines : 

1. Jewish communal effort must devote itself to the 
task of securing all the salient facts bearing en 
the subject, and of interpreting their vital signi- 
ficance. 

2. The employment problem must be faced through 
the creation of employment bureaus. 

3. Attention must be given to the problem of voca- 
tional guidance and training of the Jewish boys 
and girls, as well as of adult immigrants. The 
industries in which Jews are engaged will be 
dried up at their source with the cessation of 
immigration from Russia, which is inevitable in 
the changed world conditions at the end of the 
war. 

4. The continual strife between employer and em- 
ployee must be reduced to a minimum. Sane and 
rational methods must be evolved, and industrial 
peace fostered and supported by the combined 
intelligence, moral force and influence of the 
Jewish community as a whole. 

What is the promise of the future? Those who are 
in daily contact with the difficulties and perplexities of 
the situation are often discouraged by the outlook. 
There is, however, no reason for despondency. If one 



640 COMMUNAL REGISTER 

studies objectively the course of Jewish industrial life 
during the past two decades, he must inevitably be im- 
pressed with the sure signs of improvement and of the 
development of a sense of communal responsibility. The 
collective conscience of groups, whether of employers or 
of workers or of tradesmen, is slowly asserting itself. 
The work that is being done by communal agencies in 
the field of non-commercial employment work, in trade 
education, in the organization of the workers, in the 
organization of employers, and in ''financing" the small 
artisan or trader through the Free Loan Association 
and Credit Unions, as described in special articles in 
this Register, is an earnest of the isolated and separate 
endeavors that are being made to meet the group needs 
in the economic life of the Jew. 

Out of it all is sure to come a realization of the need 
of organized communal effort to deal with the normal 
aspects of Jewish life in the city, with the same sense of 
devotion and intelligence that obtains in the field of 
Jewish philanthropy at the present time. It will not be 
long before the leaders of the Jewish community will 
rally to the aid of the few pioneers who have been urging 
that broad statesmanship must be applied to the solu- 
tion of the industrial problem of the Jews of New York. 



I 



ECONOMIC AOENCIK&; 641 

rfON - C031MERCIAL EMPLOYMENT 

BUREAUS IN THE JEWISH COM- 

MUNITY OF NEW YORK CITY 

By Joseph Gedalecia 

The Jewish unemployment problem is specific and 
unique not because we artificially isolate the question, 
but because our people present definite and unique char- 
acteristics, rooted in inherited historical and economic 
factors. Moreover, the labor situation in the metropolis 
is not regulated ; with the result that the competition for 
jobs reaches abnormal proportions. 

If the above considerations apply correctly to the 
efficient Jewish worker, with how much greater force 
do they apply to the semi-efficient laborer, whose handi- 
cap is serious enough to bar him from the best jobs, but 
not serious enough to render him economically useless. 
To make use of whatever ability the sub-efficient worker 
may have, by finding the right kind of jobs for him, and 
to educate employers to a more social concept of the 
handicapped types (the schlemiel, the neurotic, the help- 
less idealist, the mechanic whose efficiency is lower than 
the standard of his trade), the miscellaneous group of 
men whose view of life has been warped by unfavor- 
able circumstances, is one of the most pressing problems 
confronting the Jewish Community. 

The bulk of the Jewish workers are immigrants. A 
skilled mechanic on his arrival here finds that he has to 
learn the language, join the union where there is one 
in his trade, and take his chance of procuring employ- 



H42 (OMMUNxiL. KEOISTEK 

ment along with many others who are without work, 
because of a congested labor market. If he is an un- 
skilled laborer, he finds that such work has been pre- 
empted by his fellow-immigrant from other sections of 
Europe. Even if a capable and efficient workingman, 
he finds the opportunities for employment far short of 
the number of available men. In many industries he 
meets with a strong prejudice against Jewish labor. If 
a Sabbath observer, he will find that most industries 
are closed to him. 

To meet this situation, the result of unavoidable econ- 
omic conditions, there exist in the city of New York 
employment agencies which may be designated as non- 
commercial Employment Bureaus. An appended table 
at the end of this article, giving a list of such agencies 
with a description of their activities and other data, 
will show at a glance the kind of work they are per- 
forming. 

Do these employment agencies contribute to the relief 
of the unemployment situation in New York City ? Have 
they realized the maximum efficiency, and if not what are 
the reasons ? Have they surveyed the labor market and 
acquainted themselves with the conditions prevailing 
in various lines of industry ? Significant as the work of 
the aforementioned agencies has been, they have not 
fully realized their possibilities. The fundamental lim- 
itations under which they operate are traceable to un- 
avoidable economic conditions or to the nature of cer- 
tain types of applicants. Within these limitations there 
is constructive work to perform, offering a wide field for 
genuine service, if these opportunities had been taken 



ECONOMIC AGENCIES 648 

advantage of to their fullest extent. Lack of co-ordina- 
tion between these employment agencies necessitates the 
solicitation for vacancies of the same employers by sev- 
eral of them at the same time. Such duplication of 
work and harassing of the employers do not tend to 
convert them, but rather engender antagonism to the em- 
ployment bureaus. The employment agencies in their 
treatment of the problem of employment are guided by 
individual prejudice and by their misinformation. If 
they would pool their knowledge, resources and ma- 
chinery and approach the iDroblem from a communal 
viewpoint, better results could be attained. Therefore, 
the most elementary need in order to improve their serv- 
ices to the community is to divide the territories so as 
to locate properly agencies and eliminate confusion, in 
order that a certain type of applicant for employment 
residing in one Borough may not have to apply for a 
job in a different Borough. This would also result in 
the elimination of agencies not located in convenient 
districts. 

The lack of trained workers understanding the uii- 
employment situation and the characteristics of Jewish 
workers, is a serious handicap, as the efficient handling 
of the problem requires sympathetic treatment of the 
applicants and business knowledge in dealing with the 
employers. A clearing house for employment agencies 
to act as a central bureau for information for applicaots 
and for separate agencies is necessary. The Employ- 
ment Bureau of the Jewish Community was the pioneer 
in suggesting such a clearing house. This suggestion 
was adopted recently by the Mayor's Committee of Na- 



H44 COMMUNALi KEGISTBR 

tional Defense; but the idea is capable of exteusion. 
Such a clearing house should have two objects. First, 
a scientific survey of the industries in New York City 
and the collecting of such data as will show their needs 
and opportunities as well as the peculiar conditions pre- 
vailing in each industry in which Jews mostly engage. 
This is to be accompanied by propaganda and publicity 
to create openings for applicants, which could be classi- 
fied on simple and accurate records, and transmitted 
daily by bulletins to the various agencies handling the 
class of help indicated. Secondly, an efficient method of 
dealing with applicants so that they will be referred to 
the proper agencies and the proper jobs. Duplication 
by agencies either amongst employers or employees could 
in that way be eliminated, and at the same time prove 
to the employer that agencies are conducted on practical 
business lines. ''Knowledge is to displace guess work; 
centralized efforts to displace duplication and trained 
workers to displace job holders." 

Business depression resulting from the present war 
accentuated the unemployment problem among Jewish 
workers. Many groups of public-spirited men and 
women have endeavored to deal with this problem. Aside 
from sweeping generalizations on the one side and radical 
suggestions on the other side, nothing concrete has been 
suggested to ease the unemployment situation. The 
prime need is for practical and intelligent effort to the 
end that existing opportunities would be made available, 
so that the unfilled jobs and the available worker might 
be brought together. In spite of our limitations there 
still is room for ameliorative and practical endeavor 



ECONOMIC AGENCIES 645 

Along these lines we must work and concentrate all 
possible efforts. Rational handling of the problem of 
unemployment by the agencies will specifically decrease 
the number of unemployed Jews in our community. 





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F.('( • N O M I C AGK N C IKS 64' 



List of Jewish N on -Commercial Employment 
Bureaus in New York City 



COLMUNITY EMPLOYMENT BUREAU FOR THE 
HANDICAPPED 

(Foi-merly Affiliated with the Kehillah) 

356 Second Avenue 

Manager, Joseph Gedalecia. Caters to all trades. Makes 
specialty of finding employment for handicapped. Number 
of placements in 1917: 1,164. 



FEDERATED EMPLOYMENT BUREAU FOR JEWISH 
GIRLS, 60 West 39th Street 

Pres., Mrs. Alexander Kohut, 302 W. 87th St. Sec'y, Mrs. 
Francis D. Pollak, 55 W. 77th St. Director, Mrs. Edgar H. 
Strakosch, 208 W. 108th St. Established: January, 1915, 
at the Emergency Relief Committee. Reorganized October, 
1915, as the Federated Employment Bureau for Jewish 
Girls. 2,000 placements were made in 1916. PURPOSE: 
"To conduct a free employment office for Jewish girls 
and women and to act as a clearing house for all cooperat- 
ing Jewish organizations." ACTIVITIES: "Makes an in- 
tensive study of industrial problems affecting Jewish girls 
and women, and is attempting, through a constructive pro- 
gram, to give better service to the employer and to create 
a better future for the employee." 



For other Employment Bureaus, in the Table, see under: 

Young: Women's Hebrew Aasr'n, Industrial Removal Office. ( p. 

(p. 503.) 1233.) 

Young Men's Hebrew Ass'n. 

(p. 480.) 

Emanuel Sisterhood, (p. 996.) Society for the Welfare of 
Hebrew Sheltering and Inunl- Jewish Deaf. (p. 1087.) 

grant Aid Society, (p. 1230.) 



Farm Labor Bureau. 



648 COMMUNAL KEGISTER 

VOCATIONAL SCHOOLS ESTABLISHED 

AND MAINTAINED BY THE JEWISH 

COMMUNITY IN NEW YORK 

By J. Ernest G. Yalden 
Supt. Baron de Hirsch Trade School 

The Jewish community has established and is main- 
taining four schools which may be generically called 
vocational schools, and in attempting to describe briefly 
these schools and to show how they have met what are the 
recognized educational needs of today, it is advisable to 
point out just what is meant by vocational education. 

Pntil recent times it was considered sufficient to give 
our youth an opportunity to secure an elementary 
general education; the necessary training for a voca- 
tion — agricultural, commercial or industrial — was ob- 
tained by some form of apprenticeship or by employ- 
ment in that vocation. 

In the development of educational policy to meet the 
requirements of modern conditions, it was recognized that 
some kind of training for vocation was advisable, and 
so our educational system has broadened its scope to 
include what is now called vocational education. 

Vocational education may be defined as that period 
of training which aims to fit our youth for some particu- 
lar trade or occupation. 

Hebrew Technical Institute 

This school was established to enable Jewish boys 
of limited means to secure the best training to fit them 
for successful employment in mechanical trades. 



ECONOMIC AGENCIES 649 

By reason of its long career and the very excellent 
record of its graduates, it may be said to have eminently 
attained that object. 

The course is three years in length, and the pupils 
are selected with care. They must be about 13 years of 
age, and possess a general education equivalent to that 
given in the 6th year of the elementary public schools. 
Tuition is free. 

Our Jewish youth are not by hereditary experience 
apt to choose a trade as a vocation, so the first two 
years of the course are devoted to instruction in those 
subjects best fitted to develop a taste for a trade, and 
the last year to intensive instruction to fit the pupil 
directly for that trade. 

The work of this school is therefore both prevoca- 
tional and vocational in character, and, as such, a model 
of what a school should be for the purpose intended. 

Hebrew Technical Institute for Girls 

The purpose of this school is primarily to equip Jewish 
girls to become a better factor in the home, and with 
thftt in view the pupils are given suitable mental, ethical 
and physical instruction in connection with the special 
training for a vocation. 

The course is eighteen months in length, and in ad- 
mitting pupils the aim is to select those who are in 
greatest financial need, and best fitted to derive l?enefit 
from the work they are to undertake at the school. 

They must be 14>^ years of age, and graduates of 
the public schools. Tuition is free, and in some cases 
additional support is provided. 



650 COMMUNAL RBGISTEK 

The vocational training is of two kinds: commercial 
and industrial. The first prepares girls to follow busi- 
Qess pursuits, the last for efficient wage-earning in trade. 

The work of this school is similar in character to that 
done in the public high schools; but with this differ- 
ence — that by means of intensive work, and short unit 
vocational courses, a girl can accomplish the same 
amount of work in about one-half tjie time. This is an 
important feature, as for economic reasons practically 
none of these girls could attend the city high schools. 

Clara de Hirsch Home for Working Girls 

The primary object of this institution is to provide 
a home for needy working girls, and by bringing them 
into a better environment, improve their mental, moral 
and physical condition. 

The great majority of the. girls are backward and 
uncared for, and much emphasis is placed upon teaching 
them the fundamental principles of proper living. 

The aim of the trade instruction given is to prepare 
the pupils in as short a time as possible for work in the 
skilled needle trades, as otherwise they could only leawi 
these trades in the usual unsatisfactory manner. In 
(connection with that training they receive instruction in 
the elementary subjects of a general education. 

The courses vary in length from 6 months to 13^ 
years ; but the school 's program is flexible, and is adapted 
to the needs of the individual pupil. 

In selecting the pupils, who are between 14 and 17 
years of age, preference is given to those girls who are 
dependent, and most in need of the school's instruction. 



ECONOMIC AGENCIES 651 

Barou de Hirsch Trade School 

The purpose of this school is, by a short course of 
vocational training, to fit a certain class of our Jewish 
young men to obtain employment in one of the mechani- 
cal trades. 

These young men, many of them recent immigrants 
deficient in education, have left school at an early age 
and found employment in unskilled occupations, at low 
wages and with little chance for advancement. They are 
from necessity wage-earners, and cannot afford to enter 
schools having long courses of instruction, but can sacri- 
fice a short wage-earning period if by so doing they can 
secure the necessary preparation to give them a better 
start in life. 

To meet the needs of this class the school offers 5%- 
month courses of instruction in trades, any of which if 
completed will give the pupil a sufficient practical knowl- 
edge readily to secure employment as a helper, and a 
foundation to assure his advancement to the grade of a 
mechanic. 

The pupils must be at least 16 years of age, and satisfy 
the Superintendent as to their general fitness to learn 
a trade. Tuition is free. 

If it were not for this school many of our Jewish 
youth would have had little opportunity to better their 
condition in life, and the successful record of its several 
thousand graduates only confirms this fact. 

In view of the establishment by the Board of Edu- 
cation of several vocational schools as part of the city's 
school system, one may question whether the Jewish 
community is justified in . maintaining schools of that 
character. 



652 COMMUNAL. BEGISTBB 

The private schools have been the pioneers in develop- 
ing this kind of work; but in spite of all that has so 
far been accomplished, educators have not yet arrived 
at any unanimity on the subject of vocational education. 

The diversity of educational needs, owing to the vary- 
ing social, industrial and educational conditions of dif- 
ferent communities makes it difficult, if not impossible, 
to decide upon any one type of school as best fitted to 
meet those needs. Indeed, educational experts have only 
recently discovered the very grave difficulties underly- 
ing the whole problem, and are less able than they were 
a few years ago to offer a solution. 

Vocational education is still in the experimental 
stage, and educational progress in a country of such 
varied conditions as ours can only be advanced by ex- 
perimental solutions demanded by those conditions, and 
diversity rather than uniformity will yield the best 
results. 

Our private vocational schools, owing to their diver- 
sity of type, and to their being independent foundations 
able to develop their own policy, are better fitted than 
the public schools to perform this experimental work, 
and the results attained will supply the basic facts by 
means of which our educational experts may ultimately 
develop a general policy of vocational education. 

The public vocational schools as now organized do 
not directly meet the needs of the different classes of 
Jewish youth now attending our schools, and it is to be 
questioned if they ever can do so, for it is believed that 
private schools of various types will always be needed 
to supplement the work of the public schools. 



ECONOMIC AGENCIES 653 

List and Description of Vocational Schools 

Maintained by the Jewish Community 

of New York 

HEBREW TECHNICAL INSTITUTE (FOR BOYS) 
36 Stuyvesant Street 

As a training school in the mechanical trades for boys 
from 14 to 17 years of age, the Hebrew Technical Institute 
combines the features of a trade school, a manual training 
school, and a polytechnic institute, without belonging dis- 
tinctly to any one of these types of educational institutions. 
In order to insure for its students a general academic and 
manual training, indispensable for progress in mechanical 
pursuits, applicants for admission are expected to be public 
school graduates, or to have obtained an equivalent education. 
Tbe course of study in the Institute covers a period of three 
years. During the first two years, instruction is given in 
fundamental subjects, such as English Language and Liter- 
ature, History, Industrial Geography, Map Drawing, Mathe- 
matics, Applied Science and Mechanical and Free Hand 
Drawing. In the third year, the student specializes in one 
of the following subjects: Machine Working, Instrument 
Making, Pattern Making, Wood Carving, Electrical Con- 
struction Work, Mechanical, Architectural or Free Hand 
Drawing. 

To give the students the opportunity to observe actual 
working conditions in the various mechanical trades, inspec- 
tion trips are organized once a month, under the guidance of 
a competent instructor, to factories, foundries, machine 
shops, electrical works, engineering works, and drafting 
rooms. For the purpose of studying industrial establish- 
ments outside of New York City, summer walking trips are 
made by small groups of students, with an instructor and 
special guide, to factories, steel works and mines. The 
whole curriculum is designed to train students to become 
ultimately foremen, superintendents, engineers and propri- 
etors. 

There are several features of the work that render the 
Institute unique In the educational field. A hot luncheon is 
served to the boys at a nominal cost of twenty cents a week. 
As this constitutes the principal meal for many of the boys, 
its value can hardly be overstated. Then, too, as the major- 
ity of the pupils come from the crowded tenement districts, 



654 COMMUNAL REGISTEK 

bathing facilities are provided, and each pupil is required 
to take a bath at the school, once a week. 

To meet the vocational needs of older mechanics who did 
not have the opportunity in their earlier years to obtain a 
systematic trade education, the Institute conducts an eve- 
ning school, where instruction is offered in tool making, 
instrument making, pattern making, mechanical drawing 
and mathematics. 

The student enrollment is 375. Tuition, textbooks and 
supplies are free. The per capita annual cost is $138. 

Sixteen hundred students have been graduated since the 
establishment of the Institute in 1883. 76% of these are 
following the occupations for which they were directly 
prepared. 

The school, occupying three six-story buildings, between 
Stuyvesant and Ninth Streets, East of Third Avenue, is sup- 
ported by a society of 2,000 members, private contributions, 
and income on endowment funds. The capital invested 
in grounds, buildings and equipment, is approximately 
$450,000. The school is a constituent member of the Fed- 
eration for the Support of Jewish Philanthropic Societies of 
New York City. Its budget for 1917 was $76,707.50, of 
which the Federation provided $54,858.40. 

The officers are: President, Eugene E. Spiegelberg, 160 
Broadway; Secretary, Arthur L. Goodhart, 21 W. 81st St.; 
Treasurer, Mortimer L. Schiff, 2 E. 80th St.; Principal,. Dr. 
Edgar S. Barney, 36 Stuyvesant St. 

Spiegelberg, Eugene E., Pres. Hebrew Technical Institute 
(36 Stuyvesant St.); elected 1917. Term 1 year. Born 
1876 in New York. Received the following degrees at Co- 
lumbia University: A.B.; A.M.; L.L.B. Lawyer, 160 
Broadway. 



HEBREW TECHNICAL SCHOOL FOR GIRLS 

(Established 1880, Inc. 1884 and 1886) 
Second Avenue and 15th Street 

Is a non-sectarian educational institution, whose aim is 

to provide free instruction to girls in commercial and in- 
dustrial pursuits. The course of study covers a period of 
eighteen months. Those admitted are selected after exam- 
ination on the basis of the best comparative mental equip- 
ment and greatest financial need. The school has two de- 
partments: the Commercial and the Manual. In the Com- 
mercial department, stenography, typewriting, bookkeeping. 



ECONOMIC AGENCIES 655 

Euglisli, penmanship, commercial arithmetic and geography 
are taught. The students in the Manual department, who 
are to become assistants in dressmaking or millinery estab- 
lishments, are given instruction in sewing, millinery, em- 
broidery, drawing and costume designing. In order, how- 
ever, to provide a broad cultural background, in addition 
to a specific training, all students are taught history, litera- 
ture, physiology, choral music, social ethics, swimming, 
gymnastics, cooking and laundering. 

A number of special features characteristic of a well- 
equipped social center, distinguish the institution from an 
ordinary trade or technical school. The school maintains an 
employment bureau. In January, 1916, 2,175 graduates of 
the school were earning ah aggregate of $1,374,036 per 
annum, an average of $50 to $52 per month each. The 
school also has an auditorium seating over 400 persons, a 
library, a gymnasium, a swimming pool and a well-equipped 
roof garden. The pupils are given milk and cake at 10.15 
in the forenoon, and again at noon to supplement the lunch 
they bring with them. A Sabbath school having about 200 
pupils meets every Saturday afternoon. 

There are over 600 pupils in the school. The institution 
is affiliated with the Federation for the Support of Jewish 
Philanthropic Societies of New York City. Its budget for 
1917 was $64,136.16, of which the Federation provided 
$58,836.16. 

The officers are: Honorary President, Adolph Lewisohn; 
President, Mrs. Alfred S. Rossin; Vice-President, Abram I. 
Elkus; Treasurer, Julius Kayser"; Corresponding Secretary, 
Mrs. J. N. Bloom; Advisory Committee on Education; Chair- 
man, Dr. Nicholas Murray Butler; Dr. Henry S. Pritehett, 
Dr. James Earl Russell; Principal, M.E. Dolphin; Medical 
Director, Emily Dunning Barringer, M.D. 



BARON de HIRSCH TRADE SCHOOL 
222 East 64th Street 

The Baron de Hirsch Trade School was organized to meet 
a specific need in trade education, namely, to provide a 
thorough course of training in the rudiments of the skilled 
of trades, within a comparatively brief period of time, to 
those young men who, because of financial disability or lack 
of broad educational equipment, cannot undergo an elabor- 
ate technical course of training. 

The course of study in the school covers a period of five 



656 ' UOMMUNALi KEGISTER 

and one-half months. Two classes a year are admitted: one 
in February, and the other about the middle of August. 
The first fourteen working days of the term are considered 
a probationary period. During this time the applicant must 
show that he is able to learn a trade, and that he is willing 
to follow the regulations of the school. At the end of this 
period, those who are found eligible, are enrolled as stud- 
ents. Each pupil is given a careful training in the mathe- 
matics of the trade for which he is being prepared, and all 
except those in the printing and painting departments, are 
taught mechanical drawing and plan reading. At the satis- 
factory completion of his course, each pupil receives a 
certificate of graduation, and a kit of tools. These tools are 
given by the Baron de Hirsch Fund, and it is expected that 
they will be paid for as soon as the graduate is able to do 
so. 

The essentials of the following trades are taught in the 
School: printing, sheet metal work, carpentry, machine 
work, house painting, sign painting, plumbing, electrical 
work, operating engineer. 

The Trade School Committee are: Chairman, Abram I. 
Elkus, 111 Broadway; Charles L. Bernheimer, 120 Frank- 
lin St.; S. G. Rosenbaum, 483 West End Ave.; Herbert H. 
Lehman, 16 William St.; S. P. Rothschild; Superintendent, 
J. E. G. Yalden, 222 E. 64th St. 



CliARA de HIRSCH HOME FOR WORKING GIRLS 
225 East 63d Street 

Pres., Mrs. Oscar S. Straus, 5 W. 76th St. Sec'y, Mrs. 
Walter Leibman, 55 E. 82nd St. Directress, Miss Rose 
Sommerfeld, 225 E. 63d St. Incorporated: 1897. Supported 
by endowments. PURPOSE: "To maintain a non-sectarian 
home for girls between 14 and 20 years of age, to im- 
prove their mental, moral and physical conditions and to 
train them for self-support." ACTIVITIES: Maintains 
trade classes in "hand-sewing, machine operating, dressmak- 
making and millinery for its inmates. 

Straus, Sarah L., Pres. Clara de Hirsch Home (225 E. 63d 
St.), since 1897. Term 1 year. Born 1862 in U. S. Re- 
ceived a thorough general education. Res.: 5 W. 76th St. 



I 



657 




659 




i 



661 




663 




» 



I 



665 




667 



I 




I 



669 



I 







671 




BARON de HIRSCH TRADE SCHOOL 
222 East 64th Street 



I 



678 




675 




677 




^79 



\ 




I 



681 




I 



683 



I 




i 



685 



I 




687 




CLARA de HIRSCH HOME 
225 East 63rd Street 



ECONOMIC AGENCIES 689 

FREE LOAN SOCIETIES 

By Samuel Seinfel, Manager 
Hebrew Free Loan Society 

It is generally conceded that poverty and its attend- 
ing miseries, while not entirely curable, are to a large 
extent preventible. The really deserving poor, if ren- 
dered prompt and judicious relief without the stigma 
of charity, are eventually restored to the ranks of self- 
supporting, self-respecting members of the community. 
To effect this result is the purpose of the Free Loan 
Societies. It is justly claimed that the work of these 
Societies has been of great value and far reaching im- 
portance in the cause of preventive and constructive re- 
lief rendered to the deserving poor. 

Loans do not rob the poor man of his self-respect ; he 
does not feel degraded in receiving this form of help. 
What the banks do for the rich and middle classes, a 
Free Loan Society does for the small tradesman and 
mechanic. It relieves borrowers of great inconvenience 
and privation, prevents their falling victims to ravaging 
loan-sharks, and this is done without elaborate formal- 
ities or unnecessary delays and with a courtesy that is 
reciprocated in prompt and scrupulous repayment. 

The oldest existing Free Loan Society in New York 
City, and, as far as is known in the United States of 
America, was organized in 1892 and is only twenty-five 
years in existence. But there were from time immem- 
orial Gemilath Chasodim societies in every Jewish com- 
munity in Europe. Though similar in purpose, loaning 



690 COMMUNAL REGISTER 

money without interest, these Gemilath Chasodim so- 
cieties were in method and extent as unlike the Free 
Loan Societies in this country as the *'Heckdesh" of a 
small Jewish European town is unlike the modern, well 
equipped hospital. 

In the year 1917, the several Free Loan Societies of 
Greater New York made about thirty thousand loans 
amounting to approximately one million dollars. About 
77% of the amount and number of loans was made by 
the largest Society with its three branches, located in 
Harlem, Bronx and Brownsville. This Society loans in 
denominations of from $5.00 to $300.00. Most of the 
others loan in amounts up to $50, a few up to $100, 
and only one up to $200. All loans are made on notes 
endorsed by responsible people, without charge of in- 
terest or expense of any kind, the borrowers repaying the 
loan in weekly instalments. 

The borrower of $10, $15, or $25 invariably wants 
his loan to pay over-due rent, doctors', grocers' or 
butchers' bills. In these cases, the loans are least effec- 
tive; the borrower remains just as poor after the loan 
as before. The loans of $100 and over, however, are 
usually applied for by small tradesmen, students and 
young professional men. The small business man 
through such a loan is enabled to retain his credit in 
the commercial world, and continue his struggle for in- 
dependence. The same is true of the student and pro- 
fessional man. 

Loans of larger denominations, therefore, accomplish 
the most constructive and durable good, and it is in this 
direction that the smaller Societies should aim to im- 



ECONOMIC AGENCIES 691 

prove and extend their work. A still greater and further 
reaching achievement would be the merger of all the 
Free Loan Societies of New York into one great Society 
with branches in every Jewish section of the city. This 
would not only reduce the losses, small as they are, and 
the average cost per loan, but would eliminate the great 
and only evil now existing among them — duplication. 

The achievements of the Free Loan Societies cannot 
fail to fill one with enthusiasm for the cause. From the 
immigrant who needs a footing in this new world to the 
troubled merchant who has to be tided over some dif- 
ficulty in meeting obligations, all are relieved from em- 
barrassment and humiliation, not in a spirit of pauper- 
ism, nor as objects of charity, but with courteous treat- 
ment and genuine desire to keep alive self-reliance, self- 
respect and independence. No better method has yet 
been evolved to solve so practically the great problem of 
pauperism. 

LIST OF FREE liOAN SOCIETIES 

HEBREW FREE LOAN SOCIETY, Inc. (Established 1892) 

Central Office, 108 Second Ave., Tel. 8516 Orchard 

Branches: 69 East 116th St., 1321 Boston 
Road, Bronx; 1878 Pitkin Ave., B'klyn. 

Established more than twenty-five years ago, this society 
has been the practical embodiment of the idea of self-help 
in charitable relief work. Instead of giving alms to 
persons who have found the struggle for a means of liveli- 
hood too severe, the Society loans money in sums ranging 
from $5 to $300, to applicants, without distinction of nation- 
ality, religion or race, on notes endorsed by reputable busi- 
ness men, without charge of interest or expense of any kind, 
the borrower repaying the loan in weekly installments. Over 
80% of the loans have been made witliout requiring that 



692 COMMUNAL REGISTER 

the endorsers have a commercial rating. The expenses of 
the office, and losses, are covered by members' dues and 
donations. The records of the Society show that almost 
97% of the loans are repaid by the borrower, and less than 
2% by the endorsers. Of these 2%, over one-half is ulti- 
mately returned to the endorsers through the society, or 
through the borrowers themselves. 

During the fiscal year January 1st to December 31st, 1916, 
the Society made 24,330 loans, aggregating $711,940. The 
returns in weekly instalments amounted to $704,087.07. 
Receipts for 1916 from members' dues, donations and be- 
quests, totaled $45,009.92; expenses including all branches, 
$24,500.49. During the fiscal year, January 1st to Decem- 
ber 31st, 1917, this Society made 23,403 loans aggregating 
$765,400. The returns in weekly installments amounted to 
$745,105.50. Receipts from Federation of Jewish Philan- 
thropic Societies, $36,904.20. Expenses including all 
branches $23,615.52. Losses on loans, $2,910.50. Total 
capital of the Society amounts to $241,637.69. To meet the 
increased demands for free loans, two new branches have 
been opened during the last year, one in the Borough of the 
Bronx, at 1321 Boston Road, and one in the Borough of 
Brooklyn, at 1878 Pitkin Avenue. 

The officers of the Society are: Pres., Julius J. Dukas, 
335 Broadway; Treasurer, Hirsh Rabinowich, 108 Second 
Ave.; Secretary, Abraham Bakst, 101 Bowery; Manager, 
Samuel Seinfel, 108 Second Ave. 

Julius J. Dukas was born in Sulzburg, Germany, in 1860. 
He received his education in the schools of Wiesbaden and 
in 1878, at the age of eighteen, he came to America. Here 
he embarked upon a business career and has become one of 
the successful Jewish merchants of this city. 

As a communal worker, Mr. Dukas displays a versatility 
that makes him one of the most important men in the Jew- 
ish community. His sphere of activity is not limited to any 
particular phase of Jewish work, but embraces almost every- 
thing of communal importance. Philanthropy, religious 
affairs and Jewish education have been promoted through 
the devoted work of Mr. Dukas. His influence is felt par- 
ticularly in Orthodox and Conservative Jewish circles, be- 
cause his sympathies and mode of life have gained for him 
their respect and admiration. 

Mr. Dukas is connected in various capacities with many 
important institutions of this city. He has been president 
of the Hebrew Free Loan Society (108 Second Avenue) 
since 1904; and is president of the Rabbi Jacob Joseph 



ECONOMIC AGENCIES 



693 



School (163 Henry Street), the largest Jewish parochial 
school of this city, and president of the Orach Chaim Con- 
gregation (1463 Lexington Avenue). 

He is also a member of the Executive Committee of the 
Jewish Community, a trustee of the Federation for the Sup- 
port of Jewish Philanthropic Societies and Chairman of the 
Federation Committee on Religious Education. He is very 
active in the relief work for war sufferers and is the vice- 
president of the Central Relief Committee. He takes an 
important part in the management of the Boys' Department 
of the Talmud Torah of the Orach Chaim Congregation, and 
is a member of the Board of Directors of the Lebanon Hos- 
pital and of the Jewish Maternity Hospital. 



Bath Beach Free Loan Ass'n, 

Cropsey and 20th Aves., 
B'klyn. Pies., Louis Sturz. 
8120 19th Ave., B'klyn. Sec'y, 
Wm. Rosin. 1819 82nd St., 
B'klyn. 

Brooklyn Hebrew Free Loan 
Ass»n, 31 McKibben St.. 
B'klyn. Pres., Nathan 
P r e n s k y, 809 Willoughby 
Ave., B'klyn. Sec'y, Isaac 
Kali n a, 3224 Surf Ave.. 
Coney Island. Incorporated, 
1900. 

P r e n .s k y , Nathan, Pres. 
B'klyn Hebrew Free Loan 
Ass'n (31 McKibben St.. 
B'klyn), since 1899. Term 1 
year. Born 1852 in Russia. 
Came to U. S. 1886. Received 
general Jewish education. 
Retired merchant. Res.: 809 
Willoughby Ave., B'klyn. 

Hebrew Aid Sotiety of East 
New York, 371 Pennsylvania 
Ave., B'klyn. Pres.. Raphael 
Seril. Secretary, Benjamin 
Newman. 2127 Pitkin Ave.. 
B'klyn. Established, 1908. 



Budget about $1,200. Mem- 
bership about 300. 
Seril, Raphael, Pres. Hebrew 
Aid Society of E. N. Y. (371 
Pennsylvania Ave., B'klyn). 
since 1910. Term 1 year. 
Born in Russia. Came to 
U. S. 1893. Received gen- 
eral Jewish and secular edu- 
cation. Res.: 98 Miller Ave.. 
B'klyn. 

Hebrew Free Len^lingr Ass'n of 
the United Hebrew Com- 
munity of New York, (Adath 
Israel), 203 E. B'way. Pres.. 
A. Kruger, 301 E. B'way. 
Sec'y, Dr. S. Mossesson, 1744 
Anthony Ave., Bronx. In- 
corporated, 1910. 
Krug-er, A., Pres. Hebrew 
Free Lending Ass'n of the 
United Hebrew Community 
of N. Y. (203 E. B'way). 
since 1911. Term 1 year. 
Born 1866 in Russia. Came 
to U. S. 1900. Attended a 
Russian High School and 
Yeshibah. Superintendent, 
Home of Daughters of Ja- 
cob. Res.: 301 E. B'way. 



694 COMMUNAL REQISTBR 

Hebrew L.easne Aid (Harlem Leagrue Aid Ass'n (56 W. 

Branch), 56 W. 114th St. 114th St.), since 1914. Term 

Pres., H, Levine, 56 W. 114th 1 year. Born 1846 in Russia. 

St. Sec'y. A. Rabinowitz, 50 Came to U. S. 1887. Received 

W. ll'4th St. Incorporated, general Jewish education. 

1915. Cashier. Res.: 56 W. 114th 

LeTlne, Harris, Pres. Hebrew St. 



ADEQUATE INFORMATION IS LACKING ON THE 
FOLLOWING SOCIETIES: 

Broder Loan Fund, 276 East Eastern District Loan and 
Houston St. Relief, 115-117 Manhattan 

Ave., B'klyn. 

Constantine Free Loan, 257 Hebre^v Free Loan Ass'n, Nep- 
East Houston St. tune Ave., B'lclyn. 

Sterling Commercial Ass'n. 
Daughters of Rebecca, 1301 Loan and Relief. 115-117 

Boston Road. Manhattan Ave., B'klyn. 



695 




HEBREW FREE LOAN SOCIETY 
108 Second Avenue 



ECONOMIC AGENCIES 697 

LABOR ORGANIZATIONS 

By Frank F. Kosenblatt 
Chief of Staff, Bureau of Philanthropic Research 

Up to about a decade ago trade unionism among the 
Jewish, workers was in its incipient stage. The United 
Hebrew Trades, which is now preparing to celebrate its 
thirtieth anniversary with an imposing membership of 
250,000, was for a number of years suffering from the 
same lack of stability which was characteristic of its 
constituent organizations. 

Prior to 1910, the Jew as a striker, the Jew as a 
martyr on the picket line had become famous in labor 
circles as well as in special treatises of trained investiga- 
tors. The Jew as a trade unionist, as one of a well dis- 
ciplined bona-fide organization, as a mere dues-paying 
member, was considered almost an impossibility, be- 
cause of the strong individualistic peculiarities which 
were attributed to him. This distinction of the Jewish 
worker has now completely faded away. The Interna- 
tional Ladies ' Garment Workers ' Union, an organization 
consisting of 140,000 members of whom fully 80% are 
Jews, is now in the foremost ranks of American trade 
unionism, being the third largest International of the 
American Federation of Labor. The Amalgamated 
Clothing Workers of America, which came into exist- 
ence only about three years ago, enjoys the admiration 
and loyalty of tens of thousands of Jewish working men 
and women in the men's clothing industry. The older 
organizations, like those of the United Cloth Hat and 



698 ©OMMUNAL RHOISTBR 

Cap Makers of America and the International Fur 
Workers' Union of U. S. A. and Canada, and others, have 
likewise assured their permanent stronghold among the 
Jewish laborers. 

The so-called individualism of the Jewish immigrant, 
particularly of Russian nativity, was the natural result 
of the conditions in which he had been brought up. It 
had been forced upon him by the barbarity of the old 
Russian regime, by the exclusive legal code which robbed 
him of the most essential and most sacred human rights 
of choosing abode and occupation, as well. as by the 
inexorable determination on the part of the old govern- 
ment to crush every attempt at organization and com- 
bination. While the Jew never adopted the morbid 
philosophy of homo hominis lupus, he was, nevertheless, 
driven to look upon competition as the strongest, if not 
the only effective, weapon in his struggle for existence, 
in his fight for self-preservation. 

The new environment in this country has greatly 
changed the peculiar "psychology" of the Jew. The 
Jewish worker is now recognized not only as an excellent 
striker, but also as a first-class union man, loyal to his 
organization and devoted to its interests. 

The basic principles of trade unionism, viz., collective 
bargaining and concerted action, have been improved by 
the so-called ''protocol," or agreement between the em- 
ployees and employers. After the general strike of gar- 
ment workers in 1910, the International Ladies' Gar- 
ment Workers' Union was the first to initiate such a 
protocol, providing the machinery for the adjustment of 
labor disputes and regulating conditions of labor. This 



I 



ECONOMIC AGENCIES 699 

method of mutual agreement between manufacturers and 
employees, which tends to do away with sporadic strikes 
and lockouts subsequently found wide application in 
a number of smaller trade unions. 

The Jewish labor organizations have become great 
factors not only in the economic and industrial fields, 
but also in the cultural and spiritual life of their mem- 
bers. The betterment of economic conditions, the prime 
purpose of every trade union, has of late been coupled 
with the motto of general betterment. The activities of 
the unions are not confined to the protection of the in- 
terests of their members as wage-earners only. Great 
importance is attached to educational work, and series 
of lectures on economic, political and sociological ques- 
tions, as well as popular courses in history and science, 
constitute necessary items in the budgets of most of the 
organizations. The magazines published by every im- 
portant union contain articles not only on trade topics, 
but also general essays on various social and political 
questions, as well as literary masterpieces in prose and 
poetry. 

Besides their general cultural and educational activi- 
ties, the Jewish organizations are also devoting special 
attention to specific Jewish problems. Most of them 
have distinguished themselves in the work of the Na- 
tional Workmen's Committee on Jewish Rights and in 
the relief work for the Jewish war sufferers. 



700 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



LOCAL LABOR ORGANIZATIONS 

FUR INDUSTRY 

General Organization: International Fur Workers' Union 
of United States and Canada. (See also under Economic 
Central Organizations.) 



Feather Boa ^lakers' Union 
Local No. 74 (I. F. W. U. U. 

S. & C.) Pres., Charles Vel- 
zer, 163 Stanton Street, c/o 
Renest. Sec'y, Charles Stet- 
sky, 81 Fourth Ave. Meets 
2nd and 4th Thursday at 81 
Fourth Ave. 

Fur Cap Makers' Union Local 
No. 20 (I. F. W. U. U. S. & 

C.) Pres., Harry Reiff, 630 
E. 9th St., N. Y. C. Sec'y, 
Charles Stetsky, 81 Fourth 
Ave. Meets every 1st and 
3rd Wednesday at 81 Fourth 
Ave., N. Y. O. 

Fur Cutters' Union Local IXo. 1 
(L F. \V. U. U. S. & C.) Pres., 
Harris J. Algus. 1405 Fifth 
Ave. Sec'y, Frank Frim- 
merman, 334 E. 100th St. 
Meets every 2nd and 4th 
Saturday at 210 E. 5th St. 

Pur Dressers' Union Local No. 
2 (L F. W. U. U. S. & C.) 

Pres., Ike Hertzberg. 949 
Willoughby Ave., B'klyn. 
Sec, Gustav Schubert, 949 
Willoughby Ave., B'klyn. 
Meets every 1st and 3rd 
Monday at Brooklyn Labor 
Lyceum. 949 Willoug-hby 
Ave., B'klyn. 

Fur Dyer.s' Union Local No. 50 
(1. F. W. U. U. S. & C.) 



Pres., M. Parent, 949 Wil- 
loughby Ave., B'klyn. Sec'y, 
Charles DeStefano, 9 Jack- 
son Ave., Long Island City. 
Meets 2nd and 4th Thursday 
at B'klyn Labor Lyceum, 
949 Willoughby Ave., B'klyn. 

Fur Finisliers' Union Local No. 
15 (L F. W. U. U. S. & C.) 

Pres., Max Suroff, 276 Ave. A 
c/o Udew^itz. Sec'y, M. Hai- 
mowitz, 659 Alabama Ave., 
B'klyn, N. Y. Meets 2nd and 
4th Monday, 12 St. Marks PI 

Fur Floor AVorkers' Union 
Local No. 3 (L F. AV. U. U. 

S. & C.) Pres., P. Lucchi, 71 
Beadel St., B'klyn. Sec'y. 
Philip Silberstein, 494 Wil- 
loughby Ave., B'klyn. Meets 
1st and 3rd Sunday, B'klyn 
Labor Lyceum, 949 Wil- 
loughby Ave., B'klyn. 

Fur Hatters' Union Local No. 
^1 (L F. W. U. U. S. & C.) 

Pres., Chas. Basco, 415 Wil- 
loughby Ave., B'klyn. Sec'y. 
Martin Murphy, 115 Nost- 
rand Ave., B'klyn. Meets 
1st and 3rd Monday, B'klyn 
Labor Lyceum, 949 W^il- 
loughby Ave., B'klyn 

Fur Head & Tail Makers' 
Union Local No. 60 (I. F. W. 

U. U. S. & C.) Pres., Harry 



ECONOMIC AGENCIES 



701 



F. Somins, 1761 Bathgate 
Ave. Sec'y, Charles Stetsky, 
81 Fourth Ave. Meets 1st 
and 3rd Tuesday at 81 
Fourth Ave. 



Pres., Wolf Weiner, 299 E. 
8th St. Sec'y, M. Katzman, 
56 E. 7th St. Meets 1st and 
3rd Thursday, 12 St. Marks 
PI. 



Fur Lined Coat Finishers' 
Union Local No. 63 (I. F. \V. 

U. U. S. & C.) Pres., Joe 
Stein. 76 Clinton St. Sec'y, 
Samuel Leibowitz, 81 Fourth 
Ave. Meets 2nd and 4th 
Wednesday, 81 Fourth Ave. 

Fur Xailers' Union Local No. 
10 (L F. \i\ U. U. S. & C.) 

Pres., Morris Kliger, 812 E. 
6th St. Sec'y, Adolph Lew- 
itz. 4010 Third Ave. Meets 
1st and 3rd Wednesday. 
Casino Hall, 85 E. 4th St. 

Fur Operators' Union Local 
No. 5 (I. F. W. U. U. S. & C.) 



Fur Pluckers' Union Local No. 
4 (I. F. TV. U. U. S. & C.) 

Pres., John Gorsky, 192 Nas- 
sau St., B'klyn. Sec'y, Jos- 
eph J. Savag-e, 193 Sumpter 
St., B'klyn. Meets 1st Mon- 
day of month at B'klyn La- 
bor Lyceum, 949 Willoughbj'^ 
Ave., B'klyn. 

Muff Bed Workers' Union 
Local No. 51 (I. F. W. U. U. 

S. & C.) Pres., Harry Farber, 
340 Watkins St., B'klyn. 
Sec'y, Samuel Leibowitz, 81 
Fourth Ave. Meets 2nd and 
4th Thursday at 81 Fourth 
Ave. 



GARMENT INDUSTRY 

Men's Clothing 

General Organization: Amalgamated Clothing Workers' 
of America. (See also under Economic Central Organiza- 
tions.) 



Brooklyn & Brownsville But- 
tonhole Makers' Local No. 
245 (A. C. W. A.) Sec'y, I. 
Rabinowitch, 9 Siegel St., 
B'klyn. Meets every Wed- 
nesday at 9 Siegel St.. 
B'klyn. Membership: 2.^0. 

Brooklyn Pants Makers' Local 
No. 43 (A. C. W. A.) Sec, A. 
Yelowitz, 143 McKibben St., 
B'kjlyn. Meets Wednesday 



at 83 Bartlett St., B'klyn. 
Membership: 1250. 

Brooklyn Vestmakers' Local 
No. 263 (A. C. W. A.) Sec'y, 
S. Reich, 29 Graham Ave., 
B'klyn. Meets every Wed- 
nesday at 76 Throop Ave., 
B'klyn. Membership: 1400. 

Buttonhole Makers of New 
York Local No. 344 (A. C. W. 

A.) Sec'y. .J. Miller. 237 Div- 



702 



COMMUNAL. REGISTER 



Islon St. Meets Monday 
night at 237 Division St. 



Tuesday at 54 Morrell St., 
B'klyn. Membership: 350. 



Children's Jacket Makers of 
Brooklyn Local No. 7 (A. C. 
\V. A.) Sec'y, Harry Robert, 
76 Throop Ave., B'klyn. 
Meets every Thursday at 76 
Throop Ave., B'klyn. Mem- 
bership: 700. 



Chlldren'js Sailor Jacket 
aiakers' Union Local No. 175 

(A. C. W. A.) Sec'y, S. Ber- 
man, 219 Sackman St., 
B'klyn. Meets every Wed- 
nesday at 219 Sackman St., 
B'klyn. Membership: 1000. 



ClUldren's Jacket Makers* 
(Baisted) Local No. 10 (A. 
C. W. A.) Sec'y, Mr. Tanzer, 
155 Clinton St. Meets every 
Wednesday at 77 Delancey 
St. Membership: 900. 

Cliildren*s Jacket Makers' 
(Non-balsted) Local No. 12 
(A. C. W. A.) Sec'y, M. Gold- 
macher, 35 E. 2nd St. Meets 
every Wednesday at 151 
Clinton St. Membership: 
1800. 



Children's Jacket Pressers' 
Local No. 11 (A. C. W. A.) 

Sec'y, J. Horn, 436 Grand 
St. Meets every Wednesday 
at 82 Clinton St. Member- 
ship: 350. 

Children's Jacket Pressers' 
Local No, 30 (A. C. W. A.> 

Sec'y, J. Powers, 1813 Pitkin 
Ave., B'klyn. Meets Wed- 
nesday at 747 Blake Ave., 
B'klyn. Membership: 400. 

Children's Jacket Pressers* 
Local No. 165 (A. C. W. A.) 

Sec, S. Hassner, 54 Morrell 
St.. B'klyn. Meets every 



Clothing: Cutters o£ New York 
Local No. 4 (A. C. W. A.) 

Sec'y, Moses Hart, 44 E. 12th 
St. Meets every Friday at 
30 E. 1st St. Membership: 
3000. 

Clothing Cutters of New York 
(Bronx) Local No. 9 (A. C. 

W. A.) Sec'y, J. H. Freireich, 
44 E. 12th St. Meets every 
Thursday at 953 So. Boule- 
vard. Membership: 800. 

Coat Operators' and Tailors' 
Local No. 213 (A. C. W. A.) 

Sec'y, Sam Levy, 159 Bel- 
mont Ave., B'klyn. Meets 
every Wednesday, 229 Sack- 
man St., B'klyn. Member- 
ship: 900. 

Coat Operators' Brooklyn 
Local No. 259 (A. C. W. A.) 

Sec'y, Salon Mesh, 235 Hart 
St., B'klyn. Meets every 
Wednesday at 9 Siegel St., 
B'klyn. Membership: '400. 

Coat Pressers' Local No. 3 (A. 
C. W. A.) Sec'y, M. Silver- 
stein, 370 S. 2nd St., B'klyn. 
Meets every Wednesday, 175 
B. B'way. Membership: 3000. 



ECONOMIC AOENCIBS 



703 



Coat Pressers* Local No. 72 (A. 

C. W. A.) Sec'y. S. Siegel, 30 
Humboldt St., B'klyn. MeelK 
every Tuesday at 9 Siegel 
St., B'klyn. Membership: 
400. 

Coat Pressers* Local No. 214 

(A. C. W. A.) Sec'y, J. En- 
gelman, 151 Amboy St., 
B'klyn. Meets every Tues- 
day at 229 Sackman St., 
B'klyn. Membership: 500, 



New York Clothinff Tamers' 
Local No. 55 (A. C. W. A.) 

Sec'y, Barney Gross, 190 
Bowery, Room 409. Meets 
Thursday at Kass' Bldg. 
Membership: 250. 

Operators' (Coat) Local No. 
156 (A. C. W. A.) Sec'y, S. 
Baral, 372 Howard Ave., 
B'klyn. Meets every Wed- 
nesday at 175 E. B'way. 
Membership: 3500. 



Coat Tailors' Local No. 215 (A. 

C. AV. A.) Sec'y, B. Wartel- 
sky, 200 Floyd St., B'klyn. 
Meets every Tuesday at 9 
Siegel St., B'klyn. Member- 
ship 650. 

Coat Tailors' and Baisters' 
Local No. 2 (A. C. \V. A.) 

Sec'y, H. Scheps, c/o Dinner, 
208 Madison St. Meets 
every Wednesday at 175 E. 
B'way. Membership: 5000. 

Custom Tailors' Local No. 162 
(A. C. W. A.) Sec'y, Jos. 
Marg-one, 79 E. 4th St. 
Meets every Monday at 85 
E. 4th St. Membership: 350. 

Kneepants Makers' Local No. 
19 (A. C. AV. A.) Sec'y, B. 
Zuckerberg, 151 Clinton St. 
Meets every Friday at 151 
Clinton St. Membership: 
2000. 

Lapel Makers' Local No. 1^1 
(A. C. W. A.) Sec'y, 2-oiiis 

Lablento, 201 Broome St. 
Meets 1st and 3rd Friday 
201 Broome St. Membership: 
300. 



Overall Workers' Local No. 178 
(A. C. W. A.) Sec'y, Jacob 
Newman, 348 Ellery St., 
B'klyn. Meets every Tues- 
day at 133 Eldridge St. 
Membership: 300. 

Palm Beach Workers' Local 
No. 157 (A. C. W. A.) Sec'y, 
Morris Pearl, 9 Siegel St., 
B'klyn. Meets every Thurs- 
day at 9 Siegel St., B'klyn. 
Membership: 700. 

Pants Makers' Local No. 85 (A. 
C. W. A.) Sec'y, A. Yelow- 
itz, 143 McKibben St., 
B'klyn. Meets every Wed- 
nesday at 83 Bartlett St., 
B'klyn. Membership: 600. 

Pants Makers' Local No. 159 
(A. C. v#'. A.) Sec'y, I. Sie- 
gelheim, 132 Thatford Ave., 
Cklyn. Meets every Wed- 
nesday at 229 Sackman St., 
B'klyn. Membership: 750. 

Pamts Operators' Local No. 8 
(X. C. W. A.) Sec'y. H. No- 
vodvor, 63 Ludlow St. Meets 
every Wednesday at 145 



704 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



Suffolk St. 
2500. 



Membership: 



Puuts Presser**' l^ocal No. 40 
(A. C. W. A.) Sec'y, H. No- 

vodvor, 63 Ludlow St. Meets 
every Wednesday at 66 Es- 
sex St. Membership: 1100. 

Shirt 3Iakers' Local No. 248 
(A. C. W. A.) Sec'y, D. Mon- 
as, 175 E. B'way. Meets 
every Friday at 73 Ludlow 
St. Membership: 300. 

A'est Baisters' and Operators' 
Local No. 16 (A. C. W. A.) 

Sec'y, P. Monat, 175 E. 
B'way. Meets every Friday 
at 175 E. B'way. , Member- 
ship: 1600. 



Vest Pressers' Local No. 180 
(A. C. W. A.) Sec'y, H. 
Weinstein, 175 E. B'way. 
Meets every Monday at 175 
E. B'way. Membership: 400. 



Washable Sailor Suit Union 
Local No. 1«9 (A. C. W. A.) 

Sec'y A. Finkelstein, 175 E. 
B'way. Meets every Thurs- 
day at 56 Orchard St. Mem- 
bership: 750. 



Wholesale Clothing Clerks' 
Local No. 158 (A. C. W. A.) 

Sec'y, H. N. Greenberg-, 44 
E. 12th St. Meets every Fri- 
day at 44 E. 12th St. Mem- 
bership: 100. 



WOMEN'S CLOTHING 

General Organization: International Ladies' Garment 
Workers' Union. (See also under Economic Central Organ- 
izations.) 



Amalgamated Ladies' Garment 

Cutters Union No. 10 (I. L. 

G. W. U.), 7 W. 21st St. 

Org. 1901. Membership 7,- 

'^ Pres., John C. Ryan, 

Shei-igt St Sec'y, Sam B. 

Ryan, ->- w. 21st St. 

^^^'^^ ?ocal ^P^es. Amal. 
TTnlon Local -^ 
Yii St); elected- u 1 1 e r s 
^^ ;ia Born l8bT w. 

'-"Si"-:-. 

tion. Kes.. o 

Sinser, Hand Eml.. 
Bonnaa, Si»S« ' ^j l. g. 

^-T.'^rotint'st. org. 
W. v.), 10^ ^- ^„^v.«r7 Leo 
1913. Pre«- 



Zachar7 Leo 



Friedman, 661 E. 158th St. 
Sec'y, S. Lang, 5441/2 E. 12th 
St. (Also affiliated with U. 
H. T.) 

Friedman, Z a c h a r y Leo, 
Pres. Bonnaz. Singer, Hand 
Embroidery Union Local 
No. 66 (103 E. 11th St.), since 
1909. Term 6 months Born 
1883 in Russia. Came to U. 
S. 1904. Received general 
education. Embroiderer.Res. : 
'VE. 158th St. 

(I. Jbje Makers and Button 

St. Orgdon Local No. 58 

1.000. MangJ.), 80 E. 10th 

Membership 

"ob Uran. 



ECONOMIC AGENCIES 



705 



50 Pike St. Sec'y, Solomon 
Klein, 637 E. 5th St. 



Ave. (Alfiliated alsu with U. 
H. T.) 



Children's Cloak aud Keefer 
Worker Union Local No. 17 
(I. L. G. W. U.), 117 2n(l 
Ave. Org. 1905. Member- 
ship 3,200. Pres., Louis 
Mann, 117 2nd Ave. Sec'y, 
Jacob J. Heller, 117 2nd Ave. 

Children's Dress M. U. Local 
No. 50 (U. H. T. and I. L. 

G. W. U.), 22 W. 17th St. 
Org-. 1910. Membership 3,- 
500. Pres., Carl Zaluck, 354 
Newport Ave., B'klyn. Sec'y, 
Esther Lauber, 26 E. 104th 
St., c|o Rand. 

Cloak & Suit Piece Tailors* & 
Sample 3Iakers' Union Local 
No. 3 (I. L. G. \V. U.), 9 W. 

21st St. Org-. 1914. Mem- 
bership, 2,100. Pres., Max 
Kurtz, 605 E. 11th St. Sec'y, 
Barnet Penster, 15 Living- 
ston PI. (Affiliated also with 
U. H. T.) 

Kurtz, Max, Pres. Piece 
Tailors & Sample Makers 
Union Local No. 3 (9 W. 
21st St.), since 1916. Term 
1 year. Born 1872 in Aus- 
tria. Came to U. S. 1899. 
Received general Jewish and 
secular education. Tailor. 
Res.: 605 E. 11th St. 

Cloak & Suit Tailors Union 
Local No. 9 (L L. G. AV. U.), 

228 2nd Ave. Org. 1908. 
Membership 10,000. Pres., 
H. Goldberg, 228 2nd Ave. 
Sec'y, N. M. Minkow. 228 2nd 



Cloak li!xantiuer.<4% Squurers* 
aud Uushclers' Union (I. L. 
G. AV. U.), 228 2iid Ave. 
Membership: 1000. Pres., L. 
Sheinberg. Sec'y, Mr. Grall. 
(Affiliated also with U. H. T.) 

Cloak Makers' Union Local No. 
11 (L L. G. AV. U.), 229 

Sackman St., B'klyn. Org. 
1908. Membership: 2500. 
Pres., J. Rosenzweig, 229 
Sackman St., B'klyn. Sec'y, 
H. Batsky, 229 Sackman St., 
B'klyn. 

Cloak Operators' Union of 
Brownsville Local No. 11 ( I. 
L. G. \¥. U.), 219 Sackman 
St., B'klyn. Membership: 
3000. Sec'y-treas., Harry 
Brodsky. 

Cloak, Skirt and Bress Pre.s."**- 
ers' Union Local No. 35 (I. li. 
G. W. U.), 228 2nd Ave. 
Membership: 9000. Sec'y- 
treas., A. E. Kagan. Mgr., 
M. Breslower. 

Embroidery Workers' Union 
Local No. 6 (L L. G. W. U.), 

133 2nd Ave. Org. 1907. 
Membership: 1600. Sec'y, 
Isidor Saremsky, 1070 Wash- 
ington Ave. 

Ladies' and 3Iisses' Cloak Op- 
erators' Union Local No. 1 
(L L. G. \A^ U.), 238 4th Ave. 
Membership: 11,000. Pres., 
M. Wolberg. Sec'y-treas., 



706 



COMMUNAIi RBGISTBB 



Wm. Bloom. (Also affiliated 
^vith U. H. T.) 

Ladles' Tailors Alteration and 
Special Order Union Liocal 
No. 80 (I. L. G. W.), 725 

Lexing-ton Ave. Org. 1916. 
Membership: 800. Pres., Wm. 
Schmetterer, 529 E. 135th St. 
Sec'y, Harry Hilfman, 725 
Lexington Ave. 
Schmetterer, AVilllam, Pres. 
Ladies' Tailors Alt. and Spe- 
cial Order Union No. 80 (725 
Lexing-ton Ave.), since 1916. 
Term 6 months. Born 1880 
in Austria. Came to U. S. 
1901. Received Public School 
education. Res.: 529 E. 135th 
St. 

Ladies' WaLst and Dressi- 
makers' Union, Local No. 25 
(I. L. G. W. U.), 16 W. 21st 
St. Org. 1900. Membership: 
20,000. Pres., Max Essen- 
feld, 221 Broome St. Sec'y, 
Isidore Schoenholtz, 16 W. 
21st St. (Affiliated also with 
U. H. T.) 

Bssenfeld, Max, Pres. 
Ladies' Waist and Dress 
Makers' Union No. 21 (16 W. 
21st St.), elected 1917. Term 
6 months. Born 1888 in 
Austria. Came to U. S. 
1907. Received high school 
education. Res.: 221 Broome 
St. 

Skirt and Cloth Dressmakers' 
Union Local No. 23 (U. H. 
T. and I. L. G. W. U.), 231 

E. l'4th St. Org. 1903. 
Membership: 7000. Chair- 
man, M. Josephson, 501 Ver- 



mont St., B'klyn. Sec'y, 
Harry Wander, 1516 Char- 
lotte St. 

Josephson, M., Pres. Skirt 
Cloth Dressmakers' Union 
(231 B. 14th St.), since 1917. 
Term 1 year. Born 1884 in 
Russia. Received general 
Jewish education. Skirt 
operator. Res.: 501 Ver- 
mont St., B'klyn. 

Waterproof Garment W^ork- 
ers Union Local No. 20, (I. 
L. G. W. U.), 20 E. 13th St. 

Org. 1910. Membership: 2000. 
Pres., Simon Robinson, 1390 
Boston Rd. Sec'y, Ida N. 
Mayerson, 510 E. 77th St. 
(Affiliated also with U. H. T.) 

White Goods W^orkers' Union 
Local No. 62 (L L. G. W. U.). 

35 E. 2nd St. Membership: 
4000. Mgr., Samuel Shore. 
Sec'y-treas., Mollie Lifshitz. 
(Affiliated also with U. H. T.) 

Wrapper, Kimono, House 
Dress and Bath Robe Mak- 
ers Union Local No. 41 (I. 
L. G. W. U.), 22 W. 17th St. 
Org. 19 1. Membership: 
1200. Pres., Miss Sarah 
Spanier, 474 Saratoga Ave., 
B'klyn. Sec'y, Israel M. 
Chatcuff, 22 W. 17th St. 
Spanier, Sarah, Pres. Wrap- 
per, Kimono and House 
Dress Makers' Local No. 41, 
LL.G.W.U. (22 W. 17th St.), 
since 1916. Term 1 year. 
Born 1890 in Austria. Came 
to U. S. 1894. Received gen- 
eral education. House dress 
maker. Res.: 474 Saratoga 
Ave., B'klyn. 



ECONOMIC AGBNCIE6 



707 



HEADGEAR INDUSTRY 

General Organization: United Clath Hat and Cap Makers 
of North America. (See also under Economic Central 
Organizations.) 



Local No. 1 (U. C. H. & C. M. 
of N. A.), 62 E. 4th St. Org. 

1901. Membership: 2700. 
Sec'y, Joe Posener, 62 E. 4th 

St. (Affiliated also with 
U. H. T.) 

Local No. 3 (U. C. H. & C. M. 

of N. A.), 62 E. 4th St. Org. 
1880. Membership: 600. Pres., 
Louis Marg-olin, 350 Brad- 
ford St., B'klyn. Sec'y, Leo- 
pold Baher, 62 E. 4th St. 

Local No. 3 (U. C. H. «fe C. M. 

of N. A.), 62 E. 4th St. Org. 
190 1. Membership: 4 00. 
Sec'y, S.'Zaradkin, 62 E. 4th 
St. (Affiliated also with 
U. H. T.) 

Local No. 17 (U. C. H. & C. M. 
of N. A.), 62 E. 4th St. Org. 

1902. Membership: 110. Sec'y, 
Isidore Zimerman, 62 E. 4th 
St. 

Local No. 23, (U. C. H. & C. 
M. of N. A.), 62 E. 4th St. 
Org. 1903. Membership: 
250. Sec'y, S. Handman, 62 
E. 4th St. 

Local No. 30 (U. C. H. & C. M. 
of N. A.), 62 E. 4th St. Org. 

1903. Mem bars hip: 300. 
Sec'y, M. Wartenberg, 62 E. 
4th St. 



Local No. Sa (U. C. H. & C. M. 
of N. A.), 160 Pulaski St., 
B'klyn. Org. 1907. Mem- 
bership: 18. Sec'y, Charles 
Kirschner, 160 Pulaski St., 
B'klyn. 

Local No. 39 (U. C. II. & C. 31. 
of N .A.), 62 E. 4th St. Org. 
1904. Membership: 20. 
Sec'y, H. Goldberg, 62 E. 
4th St. 

Local No. 43 (U. C. H. & C. M. 
of N. A.), 62 E. 4th St. Org. 
1916. Membership: 350. Sec'y, 
S. C. Axelrod, 64 B. 4th St. 

Millinery and Ladies* Straw 
Hat Workers^ Union Local 
No. 24 (U. C. H. & C. M. of 
N. A.), 64 E. 4th St., N. Y. 
City.- Org. 1910. Member- 
ship: 4000. Sec'y, Isidore 
Weinberg, 64 E. 4th St. (Af- 
filiated also with U. H. T.) 

Millinery and Ladles' StraTV 
Hat Blocking Union Local 
No. 43 (U. C. H. and C. M. of 
N. A.), 64 E. 4th St. Organ- 
izer, Max Golden, 2130 Bel- 
mont Ave. Sec'y, A. J. Stern- 
boch, 64 E. '4th St. (Affiliated 
also with U. H. T.) 
Golden, Max, Org. Millinery 
Ladies' Straw Hat Blockers 
Union Local No; '42 (64 E. 



708 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



4th St.), since 1915. Term 
6 months. Born 1888 in 
Roumania. Came to U. S. 
1909, Received college edu- 
cation. Hatter. Res.: 2130 
Belmont Ave. 

StraTV Hatters' Union Local 
No. 4,% (U. C. H. & C. M. of 
N. A.), 64 E. 4th St. Mem- 
bership: 400 Pres., John 



MacDonald, 64 E. 4th St. 
Sec'y, Charles Baer, 64 E. 
4th St, 

SlacDonald, John, Pres. 
Hatters' Union Local No. 45 
64 E. 4th St.), since 1915. 
Term 1 year. Born 1889 in 
Ireland. Came to U. S. 1892. 
Received general education 
Hatter, 



MISCELLANEOUS 

General Organization: United Hebrew Trades. (See also 
under Economic Central Organizations,) 



Bakers' Union Local No. 87 (U. 

H. T.). Org. 1896. Member- 
ship: 306. Pres. and Sec'y, 
Adolph Kornblatt, 397 Wy- 
ona St., B'klyn. 



Baiters' Union Local No. 30.% 
(U. H. T.), 80 E. 110th St. 
Org. 1903. Membership 426. 
Sec'y, Abraham Goldblum, 
80 E. 110th St. 



Baiters' Union Local No. 100 

(U. H. T.), 155 Rivington St. 
Org. 1908. Membership 900. 
Sec'y, L. Raimist, 155 Riv- 
ington St. 

Baiters' Union Local No. 104 (U. 
H. T.), 66 Clinton St. • Org. 
1903. Membership 100, Sec'y, 
Abraham Adler, 1361 Brook 
Ave. 

Bakers' Union Local No. 163 (U. 
H. T.), 36 Morell St., B'klyn. 
Org. 1893. Membership 280. 
Sec'y, Jacob Rosinsky, 2.^ 
Whipple St., B'klyn. 

Bakers' Union Local No. 169 ( U. 

H. T.), 1330 Wilkins Ave. 
Org, 1907. Membership 450. 
Sec'y, M. Rubinstein, 1330 
Wilkins Ave. 



Bakery Drivers' and Sales- 
men'.s No. 289 (I>. H. T.). 

Meets at 321 E. 73d St. 
Sec'y, W, Eichenbaum, 83 
Irving Ave. 

Bed Spring Makers' Union (U. 
H. T.), 62 Pitt St. Org. 1914. 
Membership :150, Pres., A. 
Abzug. Sec'y, D. Cooperman, 
180 E. Houston St. 

Bonnaz Bmbroiderers' Union 
Local No. 66 (U. H. T.), 103 
E. nth St. Org. 1913. Mem- 
bership: 760. Pres., L. Z. 
Preedman, 661 E. 158th St. 
Sec'y, Sophie Lang, 544^/^ E. 
12th St. (See also p. 704.) 

Brotlierliood of Painters' Local 
No. 442 <V. n. T.>, 175 E 



ECONOMIC AGENCIES 



709 



B'way. Org. 1903. Member- 
ship: 1400. Pres., Isidore 
Cohen, 178 Brook Ave. Sec'y, 
Solomon Jonoth, 494 E. 141st 
St. 

Brotherhood of PuinterH' Uuion 
I>ocal No. 261 (U. H. T.) 

143 E. 103rd St. Meets at 
210 E. 104th St., Fridays. 

Brotherhood of Painters, Dec- 
orators and Paper Hangers 
of America Local No. 1011 
(U. H. T.), 175 E. B'way. 
Org. 1903. Membership 1,- 
400. Pres., Isidore Cohn, 178 
Brook Ave. Sec'y, Solomon 
Jonath, 175 E. B'way. 
Cohn, Isidore, Pres. Local 
No. 1011 Brotherhood of 
Painters, Decorators and 
Paper Hangers (175 E. 
B'way); elected 1917. Term 
1 year. Born 1880 in Rus- 
sia. ' Came to U. S. 1904. 
Received general Jewish 
education. Painter. Res.: 
178 Brook Ave. 

Brotherhood of Paper Hangrers 
Local No. 490 (U. H. T.), 

7 W. 110th St. Org. 1864. 
Membership 1,000. Pres., 
Morris Wollheim, 1350 Wil- 
kins Ave. Sec'y, Frank DuU- 
Inger, 521 6th Ave. 
Wollheim, Morris, Pres. Pa- 
per Hangers Local No. 490, 
Brotherhood of Painters and 
Paper Hangers of America 
(7 W. 110th St.), since 1917. 
Term 1 year. Born 1881 in 
Russia. Came to U. S. 1886. 
Received public school edu- 



cation. Paperhanger. Res.: 
1350 Wilkins Ave. 

Brush Makers* Union Local 
No. as (U. H. T.). Meets at 
175 E. B'way, 1st and 3rd 
Tuesday. 

Butcher Workers' Union Local 

No. 174 ill. H. T.). Meets at 
243 E. 84th St., 1st Sunday. 

Buttonhole Carriers* Union 
(U. H. T.), 73 Ridge St. Org. 
1913. Membership: 70. Pres., 
Sam Bergman, 25 Pitt St. 
Sec'y, Louis Grossman, 73 
Ridge St. 

Chandelier and Brass Workers 
Union (U. H. T.), 175 E. 

B'way. Org. 1913. Member- 
ship 275. Pres., Meyer Ab- 
ramson, 631 Linden Ave.. 
B'klyn. Sec'y, M. Browd,-175 
E. B'way. 

A b r a m s o n, Meyer, Pres. 
Chandelier & Brass Workers' 
Union (175 E. B'way). since 
1917. Term 6 months. Born 
1874 in Russia. Came to U. 
St. 1881. Received public 
school education. Res.: 631 
Linden Ave., B'klyn. 

Children's Cloak and Reefer 
Makers* Union (U. H. T.), 

117 2nd Ave. (See page 704) 

Children's Shoe Workers Union 
(U. H. T.), 175 E. B'way. 
Org. 1914. Membership 655. 
Pres., S. Seidel, 175 E. B'way. 
Sec'y. S. Margolis, 250 E. 
B'way. 



710 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



!»eidel, S., Pres. Children's 
Shoe Workers' Union (175 E. 
B'way), since 1915. Term 6 
months. Born 1875 in Rus- 
sia. Came to U. S. 1909. 
Received general education. 

Children Dress Makers' Union 
Local No. 50 (U. H. T.), 22 
W. 17th St. (For informa- 
tion see page 705). 

Clip Sorters' Union (U. H. T.) 

Meets 175 E. B'way. 

Cloalc Button Workers' Union 

(U. H. T.), 126 W. 29th St. 
Org. 1914, Membership: 400. 
Pres., M. Greenglass, 126 W. 
29th St. Sec'y, Jacob Neid- 
erbach. 126 W. 29th St. 

Cloak, Suit and Sample 
Makers' Union No. 3 (U. H. 

T.), 9 W. 21st St. Meets at 
210 E. 5th St., Tuesday. (For 
information see page 705). 

Cloak and Suit Tailors' Union 
Local No. 9 (U. H. T.), 228 

2nd Ave. Meets at 228 2nd 
Ave., Tuesday. (For infor- 
mation see pa,ge 705). 

Cloth Examiners' and Spong:- 
ers' Union (U. H. T.) Meets 
at 19 St. Marks PI. on 2nd 
and 4th Fridays. 

Consumers' League of Bronx 
Branch Local No. 1 (U. H. 
T.), 500 E. 172nd St. Org. 
1912. Membership 450. Sec'y. 
Fannie Jacobs, 3746 3rd 
Ave. 

Cleaners' and Dyers' Union 

(U.H.T.), 151 Clinton St. Org. 



1914. Membership 500. Pres., 
Frank Weiss, 149 S. 4th St.. 
B'klyn. Sec'y, I. Nelson, 108 
Keap St., B'klyn. 

Cloak Buttonhole Makers' 
Union Local No. 64 (U. H. 
T.), 40 E. 23rd St. Org. 
1909. Membership 450. Pres., 
Max Tuvin, 1652 Washington 
Ave. Sec'y, J. Huebschman, 
228 E. Tremont Ave. 
Tuvin, Max, Pres. Cloak 
Buttonhole Makers' Union 
(40 E. 23d St.), since 1917. 
Term 6 months. Born 1887 
in Russia. Came to U. S. 
1907. Received general Jew- 
ish education. Buttonhole 
maker. Res.: 1652 Wash- 
ington Ave. 

Cloak Presser's Union Local 
No. 3 (U. H. T.), 228 2nd 

Ave. Org. 1904. Member- 
ship 7,000. Pres., Jacob 
Kimbaransky, 379 Cypress 
Ave. Sec'y, A. E. Kazan, 
228 2nd Ave. 

Kimbaransky, Jacob, Pres. 
Cloak Pressers Union Local 
No. 3 (228 2nd Ave.), since 
1916. Term 1 year. Born 
1882 in Russia. Came to U. 
S. 1904. Received general 
education. Presser. Res.: 
379 Cypress Ave. 

Cloth Hat and Cap Makers' 
Union Local No. 1 <U. H. T.), 

62 E. 4th St. Meets at 62 E. 
4th St. on Saturday. (For 
information see page 707). 

Cloth Hat and Cap Blockers' 
Union Local No. 3 (U. H. T.) 

meets at 62 E. 4th St. on 



ECONOMIC AOQNCIfitS 



711 



Saturday, 3 p. m. (S^e pas* 
707). 

Combers' and Bristle Dressers' 
Union (U. H. T.) Meets at 
175 E. B'way 2nd and 4th 
Friday. 

Cotton and Woolen Goods 
Clerks' Union (U. H. T.). 

Meets at 175 E. B'way. 
Sec'y, Schefkowitz. 

Crockery Gnamelled Ware 
Workers' (U. H. T.). Meets 
at 85 E. 4th St. Sec'y, 1. 
Pilner. 

Delicatessen Clerks' Uusou. 

Meets at 195 Lenox Ave. 

East Side NcTFspaper Deliv- 
erers' Union (U. H. T.). 

Meets at 175 E. B'way. 
Sec'y, I. Greenberg, 288 E. 
Houston St. 

Examiners', Begraders', 3Iark- 
ers' and Bushelers' Union 
Local No. 82 (U. H. T,), 228 
2nd Ave. Meets at Stuyve- 
sant Casino on 1st and 3rd 
Thursday. (See page 705.) 

Furniture and Flour Drivers' 
Union Local No. 285 (U. H. 

T.) Meets at 207 E. 2nd St. 
on Sunday. 

Furriers' •Union, 4 Locals, 109 
E. 29th St. (See Joint Board 
Furriers' Union, under 
Economic Central Organiza- 
tions). 

HebrcTv Actors Protective 
Union Local No. 1 (U. H. T.), 

108 2nd Ave. Org. 1899. 
Membership: 125. Pres., 



Louis Herman, 239 E. 5th St. 
Sec'y, David Groll, 118 W. 
112th St. 

Merman, Louis, Pres. He- 
brew Actors Union (108 2nd 
Ave.), since 1915. Term 1 
year. Born 1878 in Austria. 
Came to U. S. 1890. Received 
public school education. 
Actor. Res.: 239 E. 5th St. 

Hebrew Actors' Union Local 5 
(U. H. T.), 66 2nd Ave. Org. 
1902. Mem b e r s h i p: 105. 
Business Mgr., Joseph Leon 
Weiss, 141 Penn St., B'klyn, 
N. Y. Sec'y, Frederick Fil- 
epescu, 11a West 118th St. 

Hebrew^ Bill Posters and 
Ushers' Union (U. H. T.), 35 
E. 2nd St Org. 1887. Mem- 
bership: 40. Sec'y, Isidore 
ZolatarofC, 1440 C r o t o n a 
Park East. 

H e b r e TF Butcher W^orkers' 
Union Local No. 509 (U. H. 
T.), 175 E. B'way. Org. 1904. 
Pres., Morris Kraut, 52 Co- 
lumbia St. Sec'y, S. Jacobi, 
175 E. B'way. 

Kraut, Morris, Pres. Hebrew 
Butcher Workers' Union 
(175 E. B'way), since 1912. 
Term 6 months. Born 1880 
in Austria. Came to U. S. 
1899. Received Jewish edu- 
cation. Butcher: 168 Orchard 
St. Res.: 52 Columbia St. 

Hebrew Chorus Union Local 
No. 9 (U. H. T.), 98 Forsyth 
St. Org. 1886. Membership: 
46. Pres., Reuben Kazimir- 
sky, 2914 W. 22nd St., Coney 
Island. Sec'y, L. Schlegman, 
668 Tinton Ave. 



712 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



Inside Irun uud Bronze Work- 
ers' L'nion Local J\o. 1«4 ( U. 
H. T.), 175 E. B'way. Org. 
1913. Membership: 2000. 
Pres., Louis Piatt, 576 E. 
137th St. Sec'y, Solomon 
Broad, 175 E. B'way. 

Inside lee Cream "Workers' 
and Salesmen's (U. H. T.) 

Meets at 209 E. B'way 1st 
and 3rd Wednesday. 

Jewelry Workers' Union Local 
No. 1 (U. H. T.) World 
Building-. 

Journeymen Barbers' Interna- 
tional Union Local No. 657 

(U. H. T.), 219 Sacltman St., 
B'lclyn. Org. 1911. Mem- 
bership: 155. Pres., Louis 
Lubinsky, 351 Hinsdale St., 
B'klyn. Sec'y, Barnett Ja- 
cobs, 299 Georgia Ave., 
B'klyn. 

Journeymen Barbers' Union 
Local No. 753 (U. H. T.), 175 

E. B'way. Org. 1906. Mem- 
bership: 500. Pres., Mike 
Goldberg, 175 E, B'way. 
Sec'y, Max Brill, 160 E. 
B'way. 

Ladies' and Misses' Cloak Op- 
erators (U. H. T.), 238 4th 

Ave. (See page 705). 

iiadies' Wnist and Dressmak- 
ers' Union Local No. 25 (U. 
H. T.), 16 W. 21st St. (See 
page 705). 

Laundry W^ o r k e r s ' Union. 
Local No. 97 (U. H. T.) 

Meets at 7 W. 110th St. 

Laundry Workers' Union Local 
No. .34 (U. H. T.), 151 Clin- 



ton St. Org. 1907. Mem- 
bership: 70. Sec'y, Louis 
Yanowitch, 328 Henry St. 

Leatlier Suspender Trinuninii; 
Maker.s' Union (U. H. T.). 

113 EWridge St. Org. 1916. 
Membership: 3 0. Pres., 
Joseph Robinson, 130 E. 
113th St. Sec'y, I. Rosen- 
berg, 412 Schenck Ave., 
B'klyn. 

Robinson, Josepli, Pres. 
Leather Suspender Trim- 
ming Makers' Union (133 
Eldridge St.), since 1909. 
Term 6 months. Born 1881 
in Russia. Came to U. S. 
1892. Received high school 
education. Res.: 130 E. 
113th St. 

Live Poultry Workers' Union 
(U. H. T.), 170 Norfolk St. 
Meets at 100 Essex St. on 
1st and 3rd Sunday. 

Local No. 366 (U. H. T.), 701 

7th Ave. Org. 1914. Mem- 
bership: 680. Pres., Samuel 
Kaplan, 57 Vermont St., 
B'klyn. Sec'y, H. I. Sherman, 
2015 Monterey Ave., Bronx. 

Mattress Makers' Union (U. 

H. T.) Meets at 58 Orchard 
St., on Thursday. 

Mechanical Spring Works 
Union (U. H. T.) Meets at 
85 E. 4th St., on Thursday. 

Millinery and Ladies' Straw^ 
Hat Blocking Union Local 
No. 43 (U. H. T.), 64 E. 4th 
St. (See page 707.) 



ECONOMIC AGENCIES 



718 



Millinery and Ludies' Stra^v 
Hat "Workers' Union Local 
No. 24 (U. H. T.) Meets at 
64 E. 4th St., on Tuesday. 
(See page 707.) 

Mineral Water Workers' 

Union (U. H. T.). Meets at 

151 Clinton St. Sec'y, S. 
Lelbowitz. 

Moving Pictnre Machine Oper- 
ators' Local No. 308 (U. H. 

T.), 701-709 7th Ave. 

I*aper Cigrarette 3Iakers' Union 

No. 98 (U. H. T.) Meets at 

175 E. B'way on 2nd and 4th 
Friday. 

Qnilt Makers' Union (U. H. T.) 

Meets at 175 E. B'way on 
Wednesday. 

Retail Clothingr Salesmen's 
Union (U. H. T.) Meets at 
79 Forsyth St. on Tuesday. 

Retail Dress Goods Clerks' 
Union (U. H. T.) Meets at 
257 E. Houston St. on 1st 
and 3rd Tuesday. 

Retail Grocery Clerks' Union 
(U. H. T.) Meets at 1'43 E. 
163rd St. Sec'y, Feinblatt, 
355 Crimmons Ave., Bronx. 

Sheet Metal W^orkers' Union 

No. 137 (U. H. T.). Meets at 
85 E. 4th St. Sec'y, A. 
Cohen, 655 Stone Ave.. 
B'klyn. 

Shoe Fitters' Union Local No. 
465 (U. H. T.), 590 De- 



Kalb Ave., B'klyn. Org. 1909. 
Membership: 250. Pres., Sam 
Lipschitz, 590 De Kalb Ave., 
B'klyn. Sec'y, Meyer Rubin- 
son, 590 De Kalb Ave., 
B'klyn. 

Shoe Repairers' and Second 
Hand Shoe Makers' Union 

(U. H. T.)„ 62 Pitt St. Org. 
1916. Membership: 3 00. 
Pres., A. Cooperman, 132 
Eldridge St. Sec'y, Louie 
Weitzner. 238 E. 7th St. 
Cooperman, A., Pres. Shoe 
Repairers' and Second Hand 
Shoe Workers' Union (62 
Pitt St.), elected 1917. Term 
6 months. Born 1870 in 
Russia. Came to U. S. 1898. 
Received public school edu- 
cation. Shoe repairer. Res.: 

132 Eldridge St. 

Skirt and Cloth Dress Makers' 
Union Local No. 23 (U. H. 
T.), 231 E. 14th St. (See 
page 706). 

Suit Case and Bag Makers' 
Union (U. H. T.), 151 Clin- 
ton St. Org. 1911. Mem- 
bership: 750. Sec'y, A. Kas- 
soff, 151 Clinton St. 

Suspender Trlmmingr "Workers' 
Union (U. H. T.) Meets at 

133 Eldridge St., on Thurs- 
day. 

Theatrical Door Men's Union 
U. H. T.). 126 Clinton St. 
Membership: 22. Pres.: 
Harry Cooper, 15 Bristol St., 
B'klyn. Sec'y, Leopold Mar- 
kowitz, 620 E. 6th St. 



714 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



Cooper, Harry, Pres. Thea- 
trical Door Men's Union (126 
Clinton St.), since 1915. 
Term 6 months. Born 1892 
in Russia. Came to U. S. 
1907. Door man at theatre: 
People's Theatre. Res.: 15 
Bristol St., B'klyn. 



Wider, Sol., Pres. United 

Neckwear Makers' Union (43 
E. 22nd St.), elected 1917. 
Term 6 months. Born 1884 
in Hungary. Came to U. S. 
1903. Received general 
Jewish and secular educa- 
tion. Res.: 2014 Bryant Ave. 



Theatrical Musical Club (U. 

H. T.) Sec'y, A. Simonowitz, 
4613 15th Ave., B'klyn. 

Theatrical Stage Employees' 
Local No. 4 (U. H. T.), 379 

Bridge St., B'klyn. Org. 
1886. Membership: 251. 
Sec'y, Chas. Weidemeyer, 379 
Bridge St., B'klyn. 

Theatrical Tailors' and Dress- 
ers' Union, L,ocal 12719 A. F. 
of L. (U. H. T.), 68 E. 4th 

St. Org. 1891. Membership: 
26. Pres., Benjamin Shpitzer, 
35 2nd Ave. Sec'y, Samuel S. 
Patashinsky, 31 2nd Ave. 

Trunk Malcers' Union of 
Greater New York (U. H. 
T.). Org. 1902. Membership: 
220.. Pres.: M. Frenkel, 527 
DeKalb Ave., B'klyn. Sec'y, 
J. Pulin, 510 E. 136th St. 

Typographical Union liOcal 
No. 83 (U. H. T.) Meets at 
211 E, B'way, on Friday. 

United Neckwear Makers' 
Union ( U. H. T.), 43 E. 

22nd St. Org. 1903. Mem- 
bership: 1400. Pres., Sol. 
Wider, 2014 Bryant Ave. 
Sec'y, May Oberst, 43 E. 

aand St. 



United Purse and Leather 
Goods Workers' Union (U. 

H. T.) Meets at 133 Eldridge 
St., on Thursday. Sec'y, J. 
Gaber, 396 Hinsdale St., 
B'klyn. 

United Umbrella Handle and 
Stick Makers' Union (U. H. 
T.), 175 E. B'way. Org. 1913. 
Membership: 225. Pres., 
Charles Seigerman, 124 For- 
syth St. Sec'y, Saul Ber- 
man, 553 Kosciusko St., 
B'klyn. 

Walters' Union Local No. 1 

(U. H. T.), 12 St. Marks PI. 
Org. 1885. Membership: 2000. 
Pres., William Beck, 134 
Goerck St. Sec'y, Harry 
Kleinman, 12 St. Marks PI. 
Beck, William, Pres. Waiters' 
Union Local No. 1, U. H. T. 
(12 St. Marks PL), elected 
1917. Term 6 months. Born 
1887 in Austria. Came to 
U. S. 1908. Received gen- 
eral Jewish and secular 
education. Waiter: 343 6th 
Ave. Res.: 134 Goerck St. 

Waterproof Garment "W'orkers' 
Union Local No. 20 (U. H. 
T.), 20 B. 13th St. (For in- 
formation see page 706). 



ECONOMIC AGENCIES 



716 



White Goods Workers Union 
Local No. 62 (U. H. T.), 36 

E. Second St. Org. 1907. 
Membership: 5000. Sec'y, 
Molly Lifshitz, 35 E. 2nd St. 
Mgrr., S. Shore, 35 E. 2nd St. 
(See page 706.) 

Wholesale Cotton Goods 
Clerks' Union (U. H. T.). 

Meets at 175 E. B'way. Secy, 
D. Shefkowitz, 75 Eldrldge 

St. 



W^holesale Dry Goods Clerks' 
Union (U. H. T.). Org. 1916. 
Membership: 500. Sec'y, Max 
M. Weiner, 906 Myrtle Ave., 
B'klyn. 

W^omen's Trade Union League 
(U. H. T.), 7 East 15th St. 
Org. 1903. Membership: 600. 
Pres., Hilda Svenson, 7 E. 
15th St. Sec'y, Maud 
Swartz, 7 E. 15th St. 




716 

EMPLOYERS' ORGANIZATIONS IN 
JEWISH TRADES 

By Paul Abelson, 
Director, Bureau of Industry 

Organized effort on the part of employers in trades 
in which Jews predominate, namely, the needle trades, 
is of very recent development. Employers' organiza- 
tions in these trades exhibit special characteristics. 
Their growth and development has been conditioned by 
the peculiar problems that confront them. They did 
not arise from a pressing need for cooperation in matters 
of credit information, or to meet trade abuses. If that 
were the case, employers' organizations in the needle 
trades would be as weak as other employers' associa- 
tions. 

Trade organizations in the needle trades have grown 
and developed and acquired influence through the neces- 
sity of employers to meet collectively the labor problem. 
It is a paradoxical truth that the Jewish labor unions 
have been the potent cause in the organization of the 
Jewish employers' associations. Like the Jewish labor 
unions, which are created as a result of strikes, Jewish 
employers' organizations have been organized either on 
the eve, or actually during the period of strikes. This 
situation has naturally led to the development of col- 
lective agreements between the organized manufacturers 
and organized workers. 

Trade agreements between employers' organizations 
and organized workers have been very common in tjie 



ECONOMIC AGENCIES 717 

needle trades since the adoption of the first collective 
agreement, the now famous Protocol of Sept. 2, 1910, 
between the Cloak, Suit and Skirt Manufacturers' Pro- 
tective Association and the Cloak Makers ' Unions of the 
International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union. There 
are in existence at the present time, in some form or 
other, collective agreements or collective understandings 
in almost every one of the trades in the needle industries. 
Some of them have continued along the lines originally 
adopted in the particular trade. Others have gone 
through many changes. The net result, however, has 
been to bring about certain standards of hours, rates of 
pay, conditions of work, which directly or indirectly are 
being maintained and improved. 

With the organization of employers, there naturally 
followed the collective consideration and solution of 
many trade problems which could never have been 
solved, but for the existence of thriving employers' as- 
sociations. The results in these directions have been of 
great value to the employers. The creation of stand- 
ards, the elimination of harmful business practices and 
the development of a wholesome tone of business moral- 
ity have been the unfailing results. 

The next step in the development of employers' as- 
sociations will be cooperation between different associa- 
tions. As the associations represent allied trades, and 
as they all deal with the same jobbers and retailers 
throughout the country, a uniformity of terms, condi- 
tions, methods and standards is sure to be brought 
about. There is also a possibility of collective inter- 
association effort to deal with the labor problem. In 



718 COMMUNAL REGISTER 

the near future there is sure to arrive a type of associa- 
tion executive or manager, who will be a man highi;/ 
trained in the larger aspects of economic and business 
problems, and will combine an organizing skill and abil- 
ity to deal with and harmonize apparently conflicting 
and competing groups. It is as yet uncertain whether 
this peculiar type of industrial expert, as distinguished 
from the charlatan type of the pseudo-scientific manager, 
will be developed through the efforts of the associations 
themselves, or through the cooperation and assistance of 
public agencies. That it is to come there is no doubt. 
The initiative, energy, industry and the idealism of 
the Jew make it all but certain that the Jewish trades 
will be among the first to lead the way in the creation 
of the industrial statesman who will approach the 
problems of business in the spirit of social service and 
community responsibility — the spirit of the great pro- 
fessions. 

MST OF EMPLOYERS' ASSOCIATIONS 

American Clothing Maniifac- Endel, Charles W., Pres. As- 

turers' Ass'n.. Pres. Herbert sociated Boys' Clothing 

C. Ansorg-e, 657 B'way. Sec'y, Mfgrs. of Greater N. Y. (42 

Leon Mann, 752 B'way. E. 11th St.), since 1913, 

Term 1 year. Also Pres. of 

Associated Boys' Clothing Clothiers' Ass'n of New 
Manufacturers of Greater York (13 Astor PL) Born 
New York, Hotel Albert, 42 1867 in U. S. Received Pub- 
E. 11th St. Pres., Charles W. ' lie School education. Mfgr. 
Endel, 100 Fifth Ave. Sec'y, Clothing: 100 5th Ave. Res.: 
Sidney Cohen, 28 W. 4th St. 251 W. 98th St. 
Established, 1915. Incorpor- 
ated, 1916. Membership, 69. Associated Fur Manufacturers, 
PURPOSE: "To mend griev- Inc., 303 Fifth Ave. Pr« =?., 
anccs between manufactur- Adolph Engel, 20 W. 33d St. 
ers and unions." Sec'y, BenJ. Berlinger, :;03 



ECONOMIC AGENCIES 



719 



5th Av€ 
C. Mills, 
ant Mg 
porated 
196, vv( 
the pic 
PTJKPC 
manufj 
whatc 



?r.. David 

ve. Assist- 

ol. Iiicor- 

embership, 

out 75% of 

.e industry. 

do for the 

<£i- collectivelj' 

Ijannot be done 



Fourth Ave. Sec'y, Charles 
Rosenbaum, 24 W. 37th St. 
The Association has en- 
tered into collective agree- 
ment with unions in matters 
concerning the trade. 
Goldberger, Leo J., Pres. 
Children's Dress Manufac- 
turers' Ass'n (200 5th Ave.), 



jhildren' 



away, N 





' or ar- 




- ent thf 




affairs. 




relations 


ei A- 


m r X <> y e r s and 


->rv ' 






»iph. ri 




, Inc. iv 




;e 1»14. It.. 1 




•n 1870 In Hu-- 




n<^ : :: S. IS?' 




UCHtiOJ. 




t. Ties.. 



64iii Sc. 

.ated Shirt Manut'actnr- 

3'>0 P way. Preij., Abra- 
■r, 7S Loon^r*! St. 
"Is r.i3.»*thpr-sr 8«> 



Harry Cohn, 15 W. 27th St 
Secy, Saul Singer, 11 E. 2t5th 
St. Established 1910. Mem- 
v^yvjp opn Arms. PUR- 
e for the g^^ 
^f the indus- 
try.' \' nviTIES: Credit 
Dep't. Collection Dep't, Mer- 
■ ■ Labor Dep't, 
House. 

, ,,^ T>,-r.v <M ... ■ 

I ■ At i 



(•-•30 oti 
Term 1 



>rn 1878 i.. 

to U. S. 

.oral Jew- 

r. Cloaks, 

5.^e^: 15 W. 

236 W. 70th 



tton G«»r«»''nt Manufactnr- 

... ^- . ersi of Nrw York, 1 Ma'i'-^>" 

•Ion Square. A^^e. Prea., Sam Qolu 

r E. 12nd St 114 'th Ave. Sec'y. S', o 

TI. "• •. 151 W 30th St. Gei\ 

la»uf:ic«ur- ^'^- . Herman Mason. 1 Mad- 

''Mfth A- - Incorporated 1913 

^r^er, vJ5 Ip ««. PURPOSE: 



720 



COMMUNAL REOISTRR 



"To promote and broaden 

'rlendl" ^ntercour»f> nnd r«- 

^een Arms and 

11 those IntPresi- 



unlt^d 






Born i87i> in U. S. 
■\'(J p'i>)lio s.Mjool ©du- 
ll on Mfg^r. T nderwear: 
4 r,th Ave no9 • 602 W. 



*\tii 



, iorris : 
2'jth i- Gen. 
S. L.< v\ y. 200 
Orf;artr.;ea 1913. a 

-^ Mr ^ ). ruRPOs 

\ eiy deal witJi 
ins of labor and 
ni.ir better feollnpr an > 
ih.» rjtir. bt^rs of the a:J3<^ 
tion." 
St<*rai, !»Iorrl«i, Free. Drei 

•■ Ass'n (200 ij 

1916. Tenn 

to XJ. .' 

s: i;i5 W. 29th 



J-63 In 1 

; i8S0. 



£i»d A 



V Hat 
<lve Ai 

- ■ . :7" 



i^e,^. 



St ' <\ rice Pla 



Ki. 



it a 



BCONOMIO AGENCIES 



721 



Uartman, Joseph, Pres. Min- 
eral Water Dealers* Prot. 
Ass'n (185 Henry St.); elect- 
ed 1917. Term 6 months. 
Born 1885 in Austria. Came 
to U. S. 1903. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. 
Dealer: 110 Columbia St. 
Res.: 118 Lewis St. 

National Ass'n of Separate 
Skirt Manufacturers. Pres. 
Maxwell Copales, 1182 
B'way. Sec'y, Abraham 
Shapiro, 134 W. 37th St. 

National Society of Men's 
Neckw^ear Manufacturers, 61 
B'way. Pres., George L. 
Close, 1 W. 33rd St. Sec'y, 
William K. Meyer, 17 E. 
22nd St. Incorporated 1914. 
Membership 30. PURPOSE: 
"To promote, advance and 
harmonize the general wel- 
fare of manufacturers of 
neckwear, and to act in con- 
cert, and in respect to mat- 
ters that affect all members, 
in common and to treat 
alike with all employees 
who are members of 
unions." 



Kimono Mfgrs. (200 Fifth 
Ave.), since 1913. Term 1 
year. Born 1875 in Russia. 
Came to U. S. 1892. Received 
Public School education. 
House Dresses: 102 Madison 
Ave. Res.: 1467 51st St., 
B'klyn. 

N. Y. Restaurant Keepers' 
Ass'n, 51 Avenue A. Pres., 
Samuel Berman, 374 Grand 
St. Sec'y, Morris Levine, 51 
Avenue A. Membership 200. 
Established 1915. Incorpor- 
ated 1916. PURPOSE: "To 
settle disputes that may 
arise In the organization 
and to perpetuate good will 
among the members. 
Berman, Samuel, Pres. New 
York Restaurant Keepers' 
Ass'n, since 1916. Term 6 
months. Born 1876 in Rus- 
sia. Came to U. S. 1891. Re- 
ceived general Jewish and 
secular education. Caterer: 
374 Grand St. Res.: 536 E. 
149th St. 

N. Y. Tailors' Vereln, 106 For- 
syth St. (No information 
available.) 



New York Ass'n of House 
Dress and Kimono Manufac- 
turers, 200 5th Ave. Pres., 
I. Ginsberg, 102 Madison 
Ave. Sec'y, Leo Cooper, 130 
W. 26th St. Established 1913. 
PURPOSE: "Collective 
agreement with unions. Col- 
lective activities in matters 
concerning the trade." 
Glnsburgr, Isaac, Pres. N. Y 
Ass'n of House Dress and 



Retail JcTvelry Dealers' Ass^n, 

80-8 Clinton St. Pres., M. 
G i n s b u r g , 388 Grand St. 
Sec'y, E. Kreisler, 139 Ave- 
nue A. Established 1916. 
Membership 125. Budget for 
1917, $1,500. PURPOSE: "To 
further the welfare of the 
members." 

Glnsburg-, M., Pres. Retail 
Jewelry Dealers' Ass'n (82 
Clinton St.); elected 1917. 



722 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



Term months. Born 1882 
in Russia. Received gener- 
al Jewish education. Jew- 
eler: 388 Grand St. 

Shirt Manufacturers* Protec- 
tive Ass'n, 350 B'way. Pres., 



Sidney Rosenstein, 599 
B'way. Sec'y, Mark E. Gold- 
berg, 350 B'way. PURPOSE: 
"Cooperation in all matters 
tending to the improvement 
of conditions in the indus- 
try." 



lilST OF TRADE ASSOCIATIONS 



American Cigar and Soda 
Workers Syndicate, 139 De- 

lancey St. Pres., Herman 
I/eibowitz. Sec'y, Louis 
Rodner. Membership 600. 
Established 1916. Incorpor- 
ated 1916. PURPOSE: "To 
work for mutual coopera- 
tion in order to economize 
in purchasing material." 

Business and Professional 
Men's Ass'n of Lower N. Y., 

57 St. Marks PI. Pres., Dr. 
J. Broder, 2131 B'way. Sec'y, 
Jos. Hamerman, 200 B'way. 
ed 1914. PURPOSE: "Better 
laws affecting business, 
and professional men; bet- 
ter civic conditions; promo- 
tion of intercourse among 
its members and advance- 
ment of their interests." 

Grocer.s' Protective Ass'n of 
Harlem, 62 E. 106th St. 
Pres., B. Kresch, 170 E. 
107th St. Sec'y, Elias Cohen, 
63 E. 104th St. Membership 
125. Budget, $1,500. Estab- 
lished 1905. Incorporated 
1914. PURPOSE: "To protect 
the interest of the members 
by combining to control 
prices." Formed a cooper- 
ative buying organization 



with a capitalization of 
$25,000. 

Kresch, Benj., Pres. Grocers' 
Prot. Ass'n of Harlem (60 E. 
104th St.), since 1915. Term 
6 months. Born 1871 in 
Hungary. Came to U. S. 
1888. Received general Jew- 
ish and secular education. 
Grocer. Res.: 170 E. 107th 
St. 

Installment Protective Ass'n, 

206 E. B'way. Pres., J. Sil- 
verstein, 3393 3d Ave. Sec'y, 
A. Zirman, 1143 Longfellow 
Ave. Established and Incor- 
porated 1915. Membership 
103. PURPOSE: "To protect 
the installment collections, 
by giving legal aid in case 
payment is refused by a 
customer." 

Sllverstein, J. L., Pres. In- 
stallment Prot. Ass'n (206 E. 
B'way); elected 1917. Term 
6 months. Born 1870 In 
Russia. Came to U. S. 1885. 
Received Public School edu- 
cation. Installment Dealer: 
3393 3d Ave. Res.: 568 E. 
166th St. 

Jevt'lsh Butchers of Browns- 
ville, 432 Blake Ave., B'klyn. 
Pres., M. Feller, 69 Belmont 
Ave., B'klyn. Sec'y, M. 
Light, 142 Blake Ave.. 



ECONOMIC AGENCIES 



723 



B'klyn. Established 1906. 
ACTIVITIES: Regulates 
prices for its members. 

Leagrue of Citizen Peddlers of 
Greater N. Y., 169 E. Hous- 
ton St. Pres., Sam Dictor, 
178 Essex St. Sec'y, Philip 
Kriftchel, 154 E. Houston St. 
Established 1888. Incorpor- 
ated 1912. Membership 300. 
PURPOSE: "To work for 
mutual aid in social as well 
as business matters." 
Dictor, Sam, Pres. League of 
Citizen Peddlers of Greater 
N. Y. (169 E. Houston St.), 
since 1913. Term 1 year. 
Born 1885 in Russia. Came 
to U. S. 1905. Received gen- 
eral Jewish and secular edu- 
cation. Dealer in Pickles: 
217 E. Houston St. Res.: 178 
Essex St. 



Williamsburg Hebrew Retail 
Grocery Ass'u. 143 McKib- 
ben St., B'klyn. Pres., A. 
Albert 92 S. 8th St., B'klyn 
Secretary, J. Rothenberg, 
214 Graham Ave., B'klyn, N. 
Y. Organized 1908. Mem- 
bership 300. Budget for 
1917: $1,500. PURPOSE: 
"Mutual protection and the 
promotion of common busi- 
ness interests; also financial 
help given to members in 
time of need." 
Albert, Arnold, A, President 
Williamsburg Hebrew Re- 
tail Grocery Ass'n., (143 Mc- 
Kibben Street, Brooklyn), 
since 1916. Term 6 months. 
Born 1875 in Austria. Came 
to U. S. 1897. Received gen- 
eral Jewish education. Re- 
tail Grocer. Res.: 92 S. 8th 
St., B'klyn. 



ADEQUATE INFORMATION IS LACKING ON THE 
FOLLOWING SOCIETIES: 



Cracker Dealers' 

Clinton St. 



Ass'n, 151 



East Side Ind. Retail Grocers' 
Ass'n, 96 Clinton St. 

Federation of Hebrew Retail 
Kosher Butchers, 140 Riv- 
ington St. 



Ind. W^indow Cleaners Ben. 
Ass'n, 145 Suffolk St. 

Jewish Butchers' Ass'n of 
Yorkville, 304 E. 78th St. 

Shoe Renovators' Ass'n, 151 

Clinton St. 



724 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



PROFESSIONAL WORKERS IN ECONOMIC AGENCIES 



AbelBon, Paul, Director, Bu- 
reau of Industry, 356 2nd 
Ave. 

Cohen, Miss Esther. Director 
Ejmployment Bureau, T. W. 
H. A., 31 W. 110th St. 

Davidson, G., 174 2nd Ave. 
Manager, Jewish Agricul- 
tural and Industrial Aid So- 
ciety. 

Frank, Isidore, 560 W. 144th 
St. Acting Manager, Indus- 
trial Removal Office. 

Gedalecla, Joseph, 320 2nd 

Ave. Manager, Community 
Employment Bureau for the 
Handicapped. 



Krlnsky, Henrietta P., 76 W. 

105th St. Assistant Director, 
Federated Employment Bu- 
reau. 

Luria, Ida, Employment Sec- 
retary, Sabbath Ass'n, 246 
E. B'way, 

Mannheimer, Leo, 500 W. 140th 
St. Sec'y, Committee on In- 
dustrial Relations, Bureau 
of Industry. 

Plncus, Joseph W. Secretary, 
Federation of Jewish Farm- 
ers of America, 174 2nd Ave. 

Rothberg:, Anna, 967 Pox St. 

Placement Secretary, Fed- 
erated Employment Bureau. 



Gottlieb, George, 205 So. 2nd 
St., B ' k 1 y n . Investigator, 
Employment Bureau of Jew- 
ish Community. 

Grlbblns, Angrel, 229 E. B'way. 
Employment Agent, Hebrew 
Sheltering and Immigrant 
Aid Society. 

Kotcher, Simon, 635 E. 5th St. 

Assistant Manager, Hebrew 
Free Loan Society. 



Seinfel, Samuel, 108 Second 
Ave. Manager, Hebrew Free 
Loan Society. 

Steuer, Mrs. B., 556 W. 188th 

St. Bronx Branch Manager, 
Federated Employment Bu- 
reau for Jewish Girls. 

Strakosch, Mrs. Edgrar, 428 

Central Park West. Direc- 
tor. Federated Employment 
Bureau for Jewish Girls. 



Mutual Aid Agencies 



MUTUAL AID AGENCIES 727 

THE CREDIT UNION MOVEMENT AMONG 
THE JEWS OF NEW YORK CITY 

By Hyman Kaplan 

Formerly of the Jewish Bureau of Philanthropic 

Research 

The ''Credit Union" or ''People's Bank" found its 
origin in the hardships resulting to the lower economic 
classes from the absence of adequate credit facilities. In 
the middle of the nineteenth century two Germans,' 
Schultze-Delitzsch and Raiffeisen by name, working in- 
dependently, perfected this type of organization as a 
solution of the problem. The efforts of these pioneers, 
begun on a very modest scale, have met with phenomenal 
success, for today these "banks" are to be counted in 
the tens of thousands — and in adapted forms they have 
spread to all corners of the globe. It has been estimated 
that the total annual turnover of these associations is 
above $7,000,000,000 per year. 

The Credit Union is based upon the principle that 
men, individually of small means may, by pooling their 
resources and offering their combined pledge as guaran- 
tee to the lender, secure the command of money which 
may then be disposed of among themselves in accord- 
ance with individual needs. Working capital is obtained 
through the sale of shares to members, through the ac- 
ceptance of deposits, and if necessary by borrowing in 
the open market. 

The business of these organizations is almost ideally 
safe because of the fact that losses incurred through de- 



728 COMMUNAL REGISTER 

jfault, fall upon the group an a whole. Because of this 
feature, members are carefully selected, and loans are 
made only after inquiry has shown the request to be 
justified. The societies are democratically administered, 
one man, one vote; and ultimate authority rests with 
the membership at large. Three governing bodies are 
elected: A Board of Directors for management of 
general affairs, a Credit Committee which specializes 
upon applications for loans, and a Supervisory Com- 
mittee, to supervise the work of the Board of Directors 
and Credit Committee. 

The advantages of the Credit Union are manifold. 
This type of organization makes credit available to the 
man of small means, at moderate terms, and on the same 
business basis as characterizes the relations between the 
commercial bank and its clients. Moreover, by virtue of 
the democratic character of administration, the organi- 
zation serves as an effective educative force, and the 
personal nature of the business and the smallness of 
the transactions are direct stimulants to thrift. The 
Credit Union too, provides a powerful instrument for 
exterminating the usurer through the medium of com- 
petition as against the ineffectual repressive method of 
legislation. 

The Jews have been most active participants in the 
development of the credit union movement in this coun- 
try. The first Credit Union in New York State was 
founded in 1911, by the Jewish Agricultural and Indus- 
trial Aid Society, which organization has since been 
responsible for the creation of many others among Jewish 
farmers. Of the twenty-three Credit Unions now operat- 



\ 



TABLE SHOWING THE MAIN POINTS IN THE TRANSACTIONS OP JEWISH CREDIT UNIONS IN NEW YORK CITY 



NAME 


Date 
of 
Organiza- 
tion 


Number 

of 
Members 


Par Value 

of 

Shares 


Shares in 
Force, 
January 1 
1917 


Total 

Assets 


Amount 

Paid in 

on Shares 


Rate of 
Interest 
Charged 

on 
Loans 


Loans to 

Members in 

1916 


Loans 

Repaid in 

1916 


Largert 
Outstanding 

Loan, 

January 1, 

1917 


Total 
Outstanding 

Loans, 

January 1, 

1917 


Cash 
on Hand, 
January 1, 

1917 


Expenses 


Guaranty 
Fund 


Borough of Brooklyn Credit 
Union 


1915 


191 


.110.00 


636 


$7,219.64 


$6,659.44 


12% 


$16,110.00 


$14,756.69 


$420.00 


$6,367.36 


$627.23 


$60.36 


$181.38 




Citizen's Credit Union 


1916 


31 


10.00 


35 


569.59 


525.00 


12% 


625.00 


107.00 


100.00 


518.00 


51.59 


11.59 


31.75 


Commercial Credit Union of 
Brooklyn 


1915 


610 


25.10 


1,082 


17,206.23 


16,409.11 


12% 


26,845.00 


15,500.92 


200.00 


16,468.98 


687.25 


681.43 


507.98 




Co-operative Credit Union 


1915 


230 


5.00 


217 


1,547.14 


2,093.77 


12% 


3,380.20 


2,446.35 


310.00 


1,2.55.85 


241.29 


123 44 









Empire State Credit Union. . . . 


1916 


71 


25 00 


143 


3,755.28 


2,462 00 


2% 


4,280.00 


1,187.00 


300.00 


3,093.00 


421.56 


276.-52 


28.87 


Fraternal Credit Union 


1915 


33 


5.00 


543 


3,309.70 


3,069.75 


8% 


7,162.50 


5,778.50 


592.00 


2,989.00 


320.00 


75.26 


31.64 




1916 


563 


25 00 


905 


12,385.16 


11,486.00 


5% 


. 25,305.00 


17.861.00 


200.00 


11,083.50 


1,301.66 


611.20 


134 90 






Kings County Credit Union — 


1915 


117 


5 00 


1,160 


6,353.55 


5,875.00 


12% 


16,018.55 


10,098.00 


450.00 


6,134.05 


104.23 


282.01 


48.26 


Metropolitan Cred t Union .... 




206 


10.00 


1,231 


14,054.29 


12,734.65 


1% 


31,514.00 


25,140.50 


500.00 


25.140.50 


323.27 


281.03 


575.91 








Russian-Polish Proaressive 


1916 


91 


5 00 


945 


3,767.47 


3,607.00 


1% 


5,979.00 


2,991.00 


126.00 


2,988.00 


780.47 


107.03 








United Credit Union 


1915 


94 


5.00 


514 


2,694.65 


2,399.28 


6% 


5,210.00 


4,076.00 


250.00 


2,589.25 


105.40 


127.22 


95.18 






West Side Credit Union 


1916 


104 


5.00 


1,382 


7,836.38 


7,458.32 


10% 


7,975.00 


1,186.00 


1,000.00 


6,789.00 


1,047.38 


51.54 


344.52 


Total 




2,341 




8,793 


$80,699.08 


$74,778.32 




$150,404.25 


$101,128.96 




$85,366.49 


$6,011.38 


$2,688.54 


$1,980.39 


AVERA-QE 




195 


$10.83 


733 


$6,724.94 


$6,231.53 


7.75% 


$12,535.35 


$8,427.41 


$370.07 


$7,113.92 


$500.96 


$240.71 


$198.04 









i 



1 



MUTUAIi AID AOENCIEe 729 

ing in New York City, ten are composed almost entirely 
of Jewish membership. These ten societies represent a 
total of 1766 members, and have assets amounting to 
$65,018.45. During the year 1916 they have made loans 
aggregating $138,149.25. 

The possibilities of the development of the movement 
among the Jews of this city are particularly promising. 
Jewry here is already well organized into hundreds of 
lodges, vereins, unions, etc.; all of which are excellent 
media for credit union organization, possessing as they 
do the requisite elements of intimacy among members, 
active public opinion, and general cooperative spirit. 

The great need of the movement in New York City 
at present, is an independent agency under Jewish aus- 
pices to undertake an extensive publicity campaign and 
personal propaganda among the organizations favorable 
for the spread of credit unionism, to serve as a continu- 
ous guide and mentor in problems of administration, 
and to indicate and advance the adoption of standard 
methods. Such an agency should also concern itself 
with aU external events which bear upon the Credit 
Union movement, representing and protecting the in- 
terests of the group. 



730 



COMMUNAL REGISTER 



LIST OP JEWISH CREDIT UNIONS IN NEW YORK CITY 



Boroiig^h of Brooklyn Credit 
Union, 115 Manhattan Ave., 
B ' k 1 y n . Organized 1915. 
Pres., Israel Rothstein, 120 
Hopkins St., B'klyn. Vice- 
Pres., Abraham Halpern, 115 
Essex St., B'klyn. Sec'y, 
Henry Gold, 2851 W. 24th St., 
C. I. Treas., Max Isicowitch, 
35 Manhattan