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o 


THE 


/H> '{Pacts' 

JOURNAL 


OF THE 


ROYAL AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY 


OF ENGLAND. 



SECOND SERIES. 


VOLUME THE ELEVENTH. 


PRACTICE WITH SCIENCE. 


LIBRARY 
NEW YORK 
BOTANICAL 
GARUEN 


LONDON: 


JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET. 

1875. 


r\ 


Uc»l \\ 


These experiments, n is tkde, are not easy; still they are in the power of every 

THINKING HUSBANDMAN. HE WHO ACCOMPLISHES BUT ONE, OF HOWEVER LIMITED APPLICATION, AND 
TAKES CARE TO REPORT IT FAITHFULLY, ADVANCES THE SCIENCE, AND, CONSEQUENTLY, THE PRACTICE 
OF AGRICULTURE, AND ACQUIRES THEREBY A RIGHT TO THE GRATITUDE OF HIS FELLOWS, AND OF THOSE 
WHO COME AFTER. TO MAKE MANY SUCH IS BEYOND THE POWER OF MOST INDIVIDUALS, AND CANNOT 
BE EXPECTED. THE FIRST CARE OF ALL SOCIETIES FORMED FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF OUR SCIENCE 
SHOULD BE TO PREPARE THE FORMS OF SUCH EXPERIMENTS, AND TO DISTRIBUTE THE EXECUTION OF 
THESE AMONG THEIR MEMBERS. 

Van Thaer, Principle of Agriculture. 


LONDON I PRINTED BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS, STAMFORD STREET, 
AND CHARING CROSS. 




( Hi ) 


•L.i , 2 

WS~ 

CONTENTS OF VOLUME XI. 

Second Series. 


•Statistics : — page 

Meteorology for the year 1874 i-ix 

Imports of Corn, &c., British Wheat sold, and Average Prices x-xiv 
Importations and Average Prices of certain Foreign and 

Colonial Productions xv 

Acreage under each description of Crop, Fallow, and Grass ; 
with number of Cattle, Sheep, and Pigs in Great Britain 

and Ireland, 1872, 1873, and 1874 .. xvi, xvil 

Statistics of Dairy Produce, and Prices Current .. .. xviii-xxiv 




ARTICLE PAGE 

I. — On the Valuation of Unexhausted Manures. By J. B. Lawes, 

F.R.S., F.C.S 1 

II. — Report on Messrs. Prout and Middleditch’s Continuous Corn 

Growing. By Finlay Dun, Weston Park, Warwickshire .. 38 

III. — The Labour Bill in Farming. By Frederick Clifford .. .. 67 

IV. — On the Composition and Properties of Drinking-Water and 

Water used for General Purposes. By Dr. Augustus Voelcker, 
F.R.S 127 

V. ' — Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. By H. M. 

Jenkins, F.G.S., Secretary of the Society 162 

VI. — On Cheese-making in Home Dairies and in Factories. By 

J. Chalmers Morton 261 

VII. — In Memoriam. By J. Dent Dent, of Ribston Hall, Wetlierby 301 

VIII. — The late William Torr. A Compilation from many Sources .. 303 

IX. — Wool in Relation to Science with Practice. By Earl Oathcart 309 

X. — Annual Report of the Consulting Chemist for 1874 348 

XI. — Report on the Health of Animals of the Farm. By Professor 

J. B. Simonds, Principal of the Royal Veterinary College, and 
Consulting Veterinary Surgeon to the Society 353 

XII. — Annual Report of the Consulting Botanist for 1874 357 

Additions to the Library in 1874 358 


IV 


CONTENTS. 


XIII. — The Colorado Potato-Beetle. By Henry Walter Bates, F.L.S. 361 

XIY. — Report on the Results of the Competition of 1874 for the Society’s 
Prizes for Potatoes that should be free from Disease for three 
years in succession. By William Carruthers, F.R.S., Con- 
sulting Botanist to the Society 37& 

XY. — Note on Mr. IV. G. Smith’s Discovery of the Rest-Spores of 
the Potato-Fungus. By W. Carruthers, F.R.S., Consulting 
Botanist to the Society 396 

XYI. — On the Chemical Composition of Phosphatic Minerals used for 
Agricultural Purposes. By Dr. Augustus Voelcker, F.R.S., 
Consulting Chemist to the Society 399’ 


XVII. — Notes on the Works of Sowing and Consolidation of the Dunes 
or Coast Sand-hills of Gascony, containing information ob- 
tained from M. A. Cherot, a French Economist, with a view 
to the introduction of similar works on the Sand-drifts that 
are rapidly advancing over and threatening eventually to 
destroy the City of Beirut. Communicated by General F. 
Cotton, C.S.l 435 

XVIII. — Report on Laying down Land to Permanent Pasture. By 
Morgan Evans, of London, and T. Bowstead, of Eden Hall, 
Penrith, Cumberland 442 

XIX. — Report on the Health of Animals of the Farm. By Professor 
J. B. Simonds, Principal of the Royal Veterinary College, 
and Consulting Veterinary Surgeon to the Society .. .. 510 

XX. — Report on the Somersetshire Farm-Prize Competition, 1875. 

By J. Bowen Jones, of Ensdon House, Shrewsbury .. .. 517 

XXI. — Report on the Exhibition of Live-Stock at Taunton. By C. B. 

Pitman 597 

XXII. — Report on the Exhibition of Implements at Taunton. - ! By Charles 

Whitehead, F.L.S. , F.G.S., &c. (Senior Steward) .. .. 623 

XXIII. — Report on the Trials of Implements at Taunton. By John 

Hemsley, of Shelton, Newark 629' 

XXIV. — Memorandum on the Adjustment of Dynamometers. By Messrs. 

Eastons and Anderson, Consulting Engineers to the Society 683 


APPENDIX. 

PAGE 

List of Officers of the Royal Agricultural Society of England, 

1875 i, xxxvii 

Standing Committees for 1875 iii, xxxix 

Report of the Council to the General Meeting, December 10, 

1874, and May 22, 1875 v, xli 

Memoranda of Meetings, Payment of Subscriptions, &c xiii, Ixxxviii 

Distribution of Members and Council xiv 

Half-yearly Cash Account from 1st July to 31st December, 1874, 

and from 1st January to 30th June, 1875 xvi, xlvl 

Yearly Cash Account from 1st January to 31st December, 1874 xviil 


CONTENTS. 


V 


PAGE 

Country Meeting Account : Bedford, 1874 xx 

Taunton Meeting, 1875 : Schedule of Prizes, &c xxii 

List of Stewards and Judges, and Award of Prizes at Taunton xlviii 

Agricultural Education : Examination Papers, 1875 .. .. lxxx 

Members’ Veterinary and Chemical Privileges xxxiii, Ixxxix 

Members’ Botanical Privileges xxxvi, xcii 


DIRECTIONS TO THE BINDER. 


PAG* 

Plate of the Colorado Potato Beetle to face 361 

Abt. XIV. 

Table IV.— Nature and Preparation of the Land, &c. (Potato Cultivation) 381 

„ V. and VII. — Weight of Healthy and Diseased Tubers (Potato 

Cultivation) 385 

Art. XXIII. 

Table I. — Summary of Results of Trials of One-Horse Mowing Machines 

at Taunton 634 

„ II. — Summary of Results of Trials of Two-Horse Mowing Machines 

at Taunton 637 

„ III. — Summary of Results of Trials of Haymaking Machines at 

Taunton 635 

,, IV. — Summary of Results of Trials of Self-acting Horse-Rakes at 

Taunton 662 

„ V.— Summary of Results of Trials of Horse-Rakes, not self-acting, 


,, VI. — Summary of Results of Trials of Guards to Drum of Threshing 

Machines at Taunton 670 

„ VII. — Summary of Results of Trials of Combined Guards and Feeders 

at Taunton 671 


The Bind ;r is desired to collect together all the Appendix matter, with Raman numeral folios, and 
place it at th; end of each volume of the Journal, excepting Titles and Contents, and Statistics 
Ac., which are in ail cases to be placed at the beginning of the Volume; the lettering at the back to 
include a statement of the year as well as the volume ; the first volume belonging to 1839-10, the 
second to 1811, the third to 1812, the fourth to 1813, and so on. 

In Reprints of the Journal all Appendix matter and, in one instance, an Article in the body ot 
the Journal (which at the time had become obsolete), were omitted ; the Roman numeral folios, 
however (for convenience of reference), were reprinted without alteration in the Appendix matte, 
retained. 


VOL. XI. — S. 8. 



METEOROLOGY ; IMPORTATIONS OF GRAIN ; SALES OF 
BRITISH WHEAT ; PRICES OF CORN AND OTHER 
PRODUCE; AGRICULTURAL STATISTICS; AND STA- 
TISTICS OF DAIRY PRODUCE. 

[The facts are derived chiefly from the Meteorological Reports of Mr. 
Glaisher, and the Returns of the Board of Trade, and of the Inspector- 
General of Imports and Exports.] 


METEOROLOGY.— 1874. 

First Quarter ( January , February, March ). — The warm period which 
set in on the 15th December, 1873, continued, with very few and 
slight exceptions, throughout the whole of January and until the 
3rd day of February, the average daily excess of mean temperature 
for these 51 days was 4 0, 6, and for the 34 days from 1st January 
was 4°*7 ; during this lengthened warm period, the direction of the 
wind was usually a compound of the S. and W. On the 4th of 
February the wind was N.E., and a cold period began, which con- 
tinued till the 12th day, the direction of the wind being usually 
a compound of the E. with N. or S., the average daily deficiency 
was 6 t°. 

On the 12th day of February the direction of the wind changed 
to S.W., and the temperature of the air passed above the average, 
and continued above for 19 days, its average daily excess was 
3 0, 1 ; this was followed by 10 days of cold weather, from March 4th 
to March 13th, and during this period snow fell generally over 
the country, the average daily deficiency of temperature being 
4i°; from March 13th to the end of the quarter the weather was 
warm, and the average excess of mean daily temperature was 5f° 
nearly. 

The mean temperature of January was 41 0, 7 being 5 0, 4 higher than 
the average of 103 years, and 3° - 4 higher than the average of the 
preceding 33 years. It was 0 o, 4 lower than in 1873, and 0 o, 4 
higher than in 1871, so that the mean temperature for the last 
3 consecutive Januaries was 41 0, 7. Back to 1771 there is only 
one instance in which the mean temperature of 3 consecutive 
Januaries has been so high, viz., in the years 1851, 1852, and 1853, 
when the values were 42°*9, 42°-0, and 42 0, 4, the mean of which is 

VOL. XI. — S. S. A 


C II ) 


42 0, 4. Since the year 1771 there have been 9 Januaries of some- 
what higher temperature than in last January, viz. : — 


In the year 

1796 it was 45° - 3. 

In the year 

1852 it was 42°-0. 

55 

1804 

55 

43°-2. 

55 

1853 

„ 42°-4. 

55 

1834 

55 

44°-4. 

55 

1863 

„ 41°-8. 

55 

1846 

55 

43°-7. 

55 

1866 

„ 42°-6. 

95 

1851 

55 

42°-9. 





The mean temperature of F ebruary was 38 0- 7, being 0 o, 6 lower than 
the average of the preceding 33 Februaries, 4° - 4 warmer than in 
1873, and 6°'l colder than in 1872. 

The mean temperature of March was 43 0, 7, being 2|° higher than 
the average of 103 years, and 2°T higher than that of the pre- 
ceding 33 years; higher than in 1873 by l°-8, hut lower than in 
1872 by 0 o, 9. The month of March was warm, hut hack to 1771 
the mean temperature has ) een exceeded 21 times. 

The mean temperature of the quarter was 41 0, 4, the average tempe- 
rature for the first 3 months of the year as found from the previous 
103 years was 38° - 7, and as found from the preceding 33 years 
39 0- 8 ; the excess of temperature for the quarter over the former is 
2°-7, and over the latter is l°-6. 

The fall of rain in January was one inch, being only about one- 
half of the average, in February it was 0'94 inches, being about 
two-thirds of the average, and in March it was 0-45 inches only, 
being less than one-third of the average. 

Second Quarter (April, May, June ). — The warm period which set in 
on 13th March (the excess of the daily temperature of which over 
daily averages till the end of March was 5^°) continued with very 
slight exceptions throughout April, the average daily excess of 
temperature for this month being 4°. On several days towards the 
end of the month the days were very warm, the excesses being as 
largo as 10° to 13°. On 1st May a cold period set in, and con- 
tinued without exception till the 21st ; these three weekk of low 
temperature were very painful, following so immediately the heat 
of the preceding seven weeks. A period of warm weather then 
occurred from 22nd May to 11th June, the average daily excess of 
temperature being 4\°, and from this time to the end of the quarter 
low temperatures prevailed, the deficiency of daily temperaturo 
amounting to nearly 4^°. 

The mean temperature of April was 50°'0, being 4°'0 higher than 
the average of 103 years, and 2 0, 9 higher than that of the preceding 
33 years. It was higher than in 1873 by 4°T, and higher than in 
1872 by l°-7. 

Going back to the year 1771, there have been but five Aprils of 
so high a temperaturo as in 1874, viz. : — 


( III ) 

The year 1779 when the mean temperature of April was 50 o, 7. 


1821 

55 

55 

50°-4. 

1844 

55 

55 

51°-7. 

1865 

55 

55 

52°-3. 

1869 

55 

55 

50°-3. 


The mean temperature of May was 50 o, 5, being 2 O- 0 lower than the 
average of 103 years, and 2 0, 4 lower than that of the preceding 33 
years ; it was 0°‘l and 0 o, 4 colder than in 1873 and 1872 respectively. 

The mean temperature of June was 58 O- 0, being respectively 0 o, 2 
and l o, 0 lower than the average of 103 years, and the preceding 33 
years ; it was 0°'9 below the corresponding value for 1873, and 
1 0, 2 below that of 1872. 

The mean temperature of the quarter was 52 0, 8, the average tem- 
perature for the second 3 months of the year as deduced from the 
previous 103 years was 52° - 2, and as deduced from the preceding 33 
years 53 o- 0 ; showing that the excess of temperature for the quar- 
ter over the former was 0 O- 6, and the defect below the latter 0 o, 2. 

The fall of rain in Api-il was 1*4 inch, being 0'3 inch below the 
average, in May it was 0'4 inch only, and in June it was 2-4 inches, 
being 0'5 inch above the average. 

This continued deficiency of rain was very remarkable, and was 
general over the whole country. 

In the 4 months ending April, there is only one instance, back 
to the year 1815, of a smaller fall than in this year, viz., in 1854, 
when the amount was 3 - 5 inches. 

In flower — 

The earliest. The latest. 

Wheat, Juue 7, at Weybridge Heath ; June 26, at Hull. 

In ear — 

Wheat, June 6, at Strathfield Turgiss ; June 15, at Cockermouth. 
Barley, June 4, at Helston ; June 24, at Cockermouth. 

Oats, June 8, at Helston ; June 25, at Cockermouth. 

Third Quarter (July, August, September). — The cold weather which 
prevailed during the last three weeks of June was succeeded at 
the beginning of July by weather which was 'generally warm, but 
frequently cold ; the average daily excess over the average daily 
temperature till the 2nd August was 2^°. A period of moderately 
cold weather followed, and the daily temperatures were, with the 
exception of a few warm days, below their averages till the 19th 
day of September, the average daily deficiency for the 48 days end- 
ing 19th September was 1°: from the 20th of September the 
weather was warm till the end of the quarter, the average daily 
excess being as large as 5°. The mean temperature of July was 
6°-4 higher than in June; that of August was 4°1 ldwer than in 
July ; and that of September was 2 0, 4 below that of August. 

A 2 


( IV ) 


(From the preceding 33 years’ observations the mean temperature 
of July was higher than that of June by 3 0, 2 ; that of August was 
0 o- 8 lower than July ; and September 4°*2 lower than in August.) 

The mean temperature of July above that of June over the whole 
country was 6 o, 0 ; that of August below that of J uly was 3°'8 ; 
and that of September below August was 2 0, 2. The mean tempera- 
ture of July over that of June was largest in the Midland Counties, 
and was smallest both at extreme Northern and Southern stations. 
The decrease from July to August and from August to September 
was nearly the same at all places. 

The mean temperature of the air for J uly was 64°’4, being respec- 
tively 2° - 8 and 2°-2 higher than the averages of 103 years, and the 
preceding 33 years; it was l°-0 higher than that of 1873, and 0 o- 6 
lower than that of 1872. 

The mean temperature of August was 60 o- 3, being 0°‘5 lower than 
the average of 103 years, and 1°T lower than that of the preceding 
33 years ; it was respectively 2° - 4 and 0 o- 7 lower than the corre- 
sponding values in 1873 and 1872. 

The mean temperature of September was 57 0, 9, being respectively 
l 0- 4 and 0°*7 higher than the averages of 103 years, and the pre- 
ceding 33 years ; and 3 0- 2 and 0 o- 5 respectively higher than those 
recorded in the month of September in the years 1873 and 1872. 

The fall of rain in July was 2 0, 6 inches, being 0’1 inch above 
the average; in August it was 1*4 inch, being 1*0 inch below the 
average ; and in September it was 2-2 inches, being 0'2 inch below 
the average. 

The fall of rain, therefore, continued to be remarkably deficient. 

Wheat loas cut, on the 16th of July at Brighton; on the 17th 
at Guernsey; on the 18 th at Osborne and Streatley ; on the 22nd 
at Weybridgo Heath ; on the 23rd at Cardington ; on the 27th at 
Hastings ; and on the 29th at Helston. On the 1st of August at 
Llandudno ; on the 3rd at Sillotli ; on the 10th at North Shields ; 
on the 11th at Calcethorpe ; and on the 12th at Bywell. * 

Barley was cut, on the 24th of July at Wcybridge Heath; and on the 
31st at North Shields. On tho 3rd of August at Helston; on the 6th at 
Bywell ; on the 7th at Llandudno; and on the 18th at Calcethorpe. 

Oats were cut, on tho 14th of July at Brighton ; and on the 21st at 
Weybridgo Heath. On the 3rd of August at Llandudno ; on the 4th 
.at Helston ; on tho 6th at By well ; and on the 10th at Calcethorpe. 

Fourth Quarter ( October , November, December). — The warm period 
which began on the 20th September ended on 1st October, and was 
followed by eight days of cold weather; the deficiency of daily 
mean temperature was on tho averago 4°. From 10th October to 
20th November tho weather was warm, with tho exception of tho 
few days from 20th October to 24th October, and from 11th 


( V ) 


November to 14th November, which were cold. The average daily 
temperature of the 42 days ending 20th November was 49°‘l, 
exceeding the average by 2 0, 4. The excess over the average on 
some days was as large as 8° or 9°. On 21st November a severe 
cold period set in, and continued with very slight exceptions till 
1st January, 1875; the average daily temperature of the 42 days 
ending on this day was being 6 0- 6 below the average. The 

temperature on several days was more than 10° in defect ; on the 10th 
and 22nd December it was about 12°; on 23rd December it was 
14^° ; on 29th December, 12^° ; on 30th December, 12f° ; and on the 
last day of the year it was as large as 16^° nearly. On this day the 
mean temperature was 21° - 1 only; the day was painfully cold. 

Of remarkable low mean daily temperature there have been 28 
since the year 1814, eleven only in the last 30 years, five in January, 
two in February, and four in December ; of these 11 instances, three 
took place in January and February 1855. During that remarkable 
cold period extending from 14th January to the 27th February the 
mean temperature of these 42 days was 29 O- 0, and, therefore, was 
much colder than in the recent period ; the departure of these 42 
days was 9f° nearly, below the average. There was another 
analogous period of 42 days’ cold, extending from 21st December, 
1870, to 31st January, 1871 ; the mean temperature of this period 
was 31°-1, or 6° below the average. 

Since the year 1771, the following are all the instances of so low 
a mean temperature in December as 33°-2. In the year — 

1784 it was 31 o- 0 1799 it was 32 0, 8 1846 it was 32 0- 9 

1788 „ 29°-0 1840 „ 33-°3 1874 „ 33°-2 

1796 „ 30°-4 1844 „ 33°'0 

The mean temperature of November and December taken together 
was 37°‘6 ; since the year 1829, when the mean temperature of these 
two months was 37 0- l, there has been only one instance of so low a 
mean temperature as in this year, viz., in 1870, when it was 37° - 55. 

The mean temperature of October was 51°‘7, being respectively 2°'l 
and 1 0, 5 higher than the averages of 103 years, and the preceding 33 
years; it was 3 0, 9 higher than that of 1873 and 1872 respectively. 

The mean temperature of November was 42 o- 0, being 0°-3 lower 
than the average of 103 years, and 1 0, 6 lower than that of the 
preceding 33 years; and l°-2 and 3 0, 3 respectively lower than those 
recorded in the month of November in the years 1873 and 1872. 

The mean temperature of December was 33°*2, being 5° - 9 and 7° - l 
respectively lower than the averages of 103 years, and the pre- 
ceding 33 years ; it was 7°'4 and 9° - 7 lower than the corresponding 
value in 1873 and 1872. 

The fall of rain in the three months was 7'2 inches, making 20'0 
inches in the year, being 5'4 inches below the average annual fall. 


Meteorological Observations recorded at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, in the First Six Months of 

the Year 1874. 


( VI ) 


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l“*N 

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CA 

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& 


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© © c 


M 

OO 

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ON 


M 

(S 

s 

a 

* ^3 



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M 


t-i 

rt 

M 

o 

© 

H 

£ 

uJ *-> 


+ 

i 

~h 

+ 


+ 

i 

1 

i 


2 

© 

Q S« 

























> 

a 


O 

CO 

r» 

r+\ 


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o 


W 

8 

o 

o 

nO 

M 

ON 

o 

NO 

NO 


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s 



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UN 




0 © m 

P © *2 



vO 

M 

NO 


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n 



* SP£ 


r*\ 

o 

<s 

M 

0 

r» 

r< 

M 

O 



[, * t— t*! 

« 


+ 

i 

+ 

+• 


+ 

i 

1 

i 



a a « 












H 

5 

So g 

o 

"t 

UN 

M 

o 

<s 

ts 

C4 


O 

V 

o 

r« 

<s 

o 

NO 

o 



2 ® CO 

a « 2 


+ 

+ 

+ 

+ 


+ 

1 

i 

+ 



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un 


UN 

UN 


1874. 

Months. 


January .. 

February .. 

March 

Means . . j 


April .. 

May .. .. 

June .. 

Means . . 


Note. — I n reading this Table it will be borne in mind that the sign (— ) minus signifies 'below the average, and that the sign (+) plus signifies above the average. 


Meteorological Observations recorded at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, in the First Six Months of 

the Year 1874. 


( VII ) 


Reading of Thermometer on Grass. 

Highest 

Reading 

at 

Night. 

O 30 

° u v 

Highest 

46-8 

O f* O 

0 r. w 

ia vn 

Highest 

55-0 

Lowest 

Reading 

at 

Might. 

o^o 

° O' rf ^ 

M M M 

Lowest 

14-3 

f'N M O' 

° C 4 b 0 

r 4 r« fs 

Lowest 

20*2 

Number of Nights it was 

Above 

40°. 

c* *r\ 

Sum 

IO 

0 

S S' 

3 " 

< n 

Between 

30° 

and 40°. 

r* 00 i* 

M M 

9 C 4 

C /2 

O O' r*\ 

C* Hi 

Sum 

42 

At or 
below 
30°. 

O OO ^ 

9 00 

fl 

CQ 

O ^ M 

Hi 

Sum 

22 

Daily 
Horizontal 
movement 
of the Air. 

Miles. 

334 

261 

339 

fl * 

c 3 im 

i " 

S O O 

53 O « 

^ «v\ c< 

a 0 

eS O 

*3 

Diff. from 
average 
of 59 years. 

O M 

a 0 0 w 

- 1 1 1 

0 

I 7 

® 1 

»*\ wrs 

fl O M O 

-11 + 

VTN 

9 M 

w I 

Amount. 

O O' u-\ 

3 H 0 6 

V.i 

rang 

Tj- Tj- 

•9 m O e* 

9 *** 
eg * 

Weight of 
a Cubic Foot of Air. 

Diff. from 
average of 
33 years. 

. M C 4 C* 

S) 1 + + 

+ 

£ i- O SA 
& , + 

O 

a 

1 

(s vr\ <s 

® U*1 

to ^ 

W\ 

. O' M VAN 

® 't fA 

M 

OO 

ur\ 

Reading 
of Barometer. 

Din-, from 
average of 
33 years. 

VO O M 

o-\ cri 

a r ? r* 

“ 0 b b 

+ + 4 - 

O 

M 

o 

+ 

<o n CO 

. SO r» fS 

a O 0 m 

b b b 

1 + + 

00 

<s 

O 

b 

+ 

fl 

3 

V 

s 

M C 4 r+\ 

O' vr% »- 1 

a * OO OO O 

O' O' O 

ft N ro 

ON 

ON 

C* 

O' 

O O 

c * 00 O' 

O' O' O' 

<s Ci r» 

OO 

O' 

ts 

Degree 
of Humidity. 

Diff. from 
average of 
33 years. 

M O H 

1 1 

M 

1 

OOO 

O 

a 

3 

9 

S 

^ m 

OO OO OO 

OO 

O' NO ^ 
ts rN 

O 

1874. 

Months. 

January .. 
February .. 

March 

Means .. 

April 

May . . 

June 

Means . . 


. — In reading this Table it will be borne in mind that the sign ( — ) minus signifies below the average, and that the sign ( + ) plus signifies above the average. 


Meteorological Observations recorded at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, in the Last Six Months of 

the Year 1874. 


( VIII ) 


Weight of a Vapour In 
Cubic Foot of Air. 

Diff. from 

average of 

33 years. 

M M rA 

e o o o 

“ + i + 

o 

4- 

M VO 

» o o o 

& + 1 1 

0 

1 

d 

CJ 

o> 

s 

. I s - tA tA 

m V V V 

o 

n*- 

O o 

On 

c* 

Elastic Force 
of Vapour. 

Diff. from 
average of 
33 years. 

O O' aa 

O rs 

d P P P 

‘'"bo b 
+ 1 + 

On 

o 

o 

o 

4- 

m vO 

rA *-• *A 

d ? P P 

b o o 

4- 1 1 

o 

0 

1 

d 

«3 

a 

t}- 

ct O O 

d p* ? 

""boo 

«“A 

T 

o 

rj- m vO 

T ^ vO 

d p p r 
o o o 

■<fr- 

r» 

'o 

Temperature of 

Water 
of tbe 
Thames. 

O O wr\ 

° V *0 

0*0 0 

co 

rA 

vO 

O' ia rs 

® tA 

*A «*A 

o 

o 

6 

a 

£ 

*3 

Q 

< 

DifT. from 
average of 
33 years. 

fA 00 ^ 

0^-00 
+ 4- 1 

o 

+ 

Vi M <s 

O ~ b o 

1 + 1 

p- 

b 

1 

d 

c3 

s 

r}* vO >-< 

° VA O CO 

fS C4 *-« 

•'t* 

n 

CO 0O rA 

° ^A ~ O' 

M M 

vO 

£ 

s 

G 

Diff. from 
average of 
33 years. 

f-» va m 
o b o « 

+ 1 + 

CO 

O 

+ 

VO ^ M 

o " M r. 

+ 1 1 

ON 

1 

d 

c3 

vO *A *- 

° Tj* rA rA 

KT\ KT\ 

r-s 

rA 

*A\ 

fA O' 

° CO OO O' 

rA r« 

o 

ON 

fA 

d 

o 

"3 

o 

Ot 

a 

> 

W 

Diff. from 

average of 
33 years. 

't 

L o « 

+ 1 + 

o 

4* 

O H 

O r. « vO 
+ 1 1 

ON 

7 

a 

1 

a 

O vO ^ 

® C' vO tA 

VA >A tA 

o 

VA 

n h 

° O O r> 

VA rA 

ON 

o 

< 

Di ff. from 
average of 
33 years. 

r« m t-* 

o - - b 

+ i + 

vO 

o 

4- 

VA» vO M 

M M r- 

4- 1 1 

n 

1 

% 

Diff. from 
average of 
103 years. 

CO o*\ r}- 

O « o M 

+ 1 + 

c* 

4- 

M rA ON 

O b O vrv 

+ 11 

Nt- 

1 

rA 

d 

§ 

rf- rv\ ON 

° V O r~- 
vO vO »A 

O 

b 

vO 

r*. O 

° s-t M rA 

»rv t}- tA 

00 

H 

o 

• 

July .. 
August 
September 

CO 

p 

a 

<D 

October .. 

November . . 

December .. 

CO 

P 

c3 

a; 


■Jn reading this Table it will be borne in mind that tbe sign (-) minus signifies below the average, and that the sign ( + )jilus signifies chore the average, 


Meteorological Observations recorded at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, in the Last Six Months ok 

the Year 1874. 


( IX ) 

t 


Reading of Thermometer on Grass. 

Highest 

Reading 

at 

Night. 

o o o 

° CO vj- V 

kA 

Highest 

58*0 

O O 

0 *h c« 

tAi ^ fiA 

Highest 

51-9 

-S<2 * 

O o 
® 1 

^ n 

Lowest 

33*9 

0 

0 00 r< 

r» m m 

Sum Lowest 

17 12*0 

Number of Nights it was 

Above 

40°. 

r> to « 
c» c« 

Sum 

75 

tJ- fVA O 

Between 

30° 

and 40°. 

tJ- CO 

Li 

rang 

12 

II 

6 

| ~ 

A n 

At or 
below 
30°. 

0 

o 

0 

Sum 

O 

tj*\ O VA 

>-» C 4 

Sum 

46 

Daily 
Horizontal 
movement 
of the Air. 

£ O M O 

— ^ O 

£ M c* 

Mean 

260 

t» rv"\ (J\ 

O u-\ OO 

g rs r< r* 

a o 
c5 r>. 

S W 

.5 

*S 

cs 

PifF. from 
average 
of 59 years. 

m O 

q o W O 
- + 1 1 

S L 

A | 

O' tj- fiA 

d 0 b 0 

- + 1 1 

M 

i ° 

w + 

Amount. 

g VO tj- N 

rt H N 

Sum 

6*2 

Q - O O' t"'' 

rr\ M M 

i.L 

rang 

Weight of 
a Cubic Foot of Air. 

Diff. from 
average of 
33 years. 

# (S ft C* 

E 

« i + i 

M 

1 

M f< VA 

“ 1 + + 

X 

r« 

+ 

Mean. 

. O O M 

® c« c*"t r*\ 

U) VA VA WV 

O 

WN 

. O 

2 M-N WN 

b 0 W*\ VT\ 

00 

UA 

Reading 
of Barometer. 

Diff. from 
average of 
33 years. 

vr\ o vr\ 

CS >-« ay-\ 

p O O O 

oob 

+ l i 

O 

0 

1 

O' 1 

O r* O' 

a com 

boo 

+ + 1 

U*\ 

0 

b 

1 

Mean. 

O ^ r* 

OO cn, 

q o o r- 

O C 7 N O 

rs (S 

00 

O 

OO O C 4 

O »h 

P I s - O 

C"' 0 0 

M C 4 r 4 

0 

0 

r^» 

O' 

r» 

Degree 

' of Humidity. 

Diff. from 
average of 
33 years. 

vj-\ fS Tf 

l + + 

O 

M O 

+ 1 

N 

+ 

Mean. 

O 03 't 
r>. oo 

rs 

O 00 

O' CO OO 

88 

1874 . 

Months. 

July ,. 
August 
September 

Means . . 

October 

November 

December 

Means . . 


■In reading this Table it will be borne In mind that the sign (-) minus signifies below the average, and that the sign ( + ) plus signifies above the average, 


( X ) 


CORN : Importations, Sales, and Prices. 

Quantities of Wheat, Wheatmeal and Flour, Barley, Oats, Peas and 
Beans, Imported into the United Kingdom in the Year 1874. 


1874 . 

Wheat. 

Wheatmeal 
and Flour. 

Barley. 

Oats. 

Peas. 

Beans. 

January .. 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

cwts. 

3 , 685,175 
3 , 5 * 3,554 
3,082,485 
2,561,132 
2, 282, 145 
3 , 953,833 

cwts. 

662,420 

762.226 
594,005 
507,767 
418,008 

574.227 

cwts. 

748,396 

1,036,246 

613,515 

960,570 

739,623 

551,300 

cwts. 
809,317 
1,044,298 
700,55 7 
827, 267 
1,036,830 
U 367.552 

cwts. 

50,130 

110,337 

H 4,355 

123,746 

162,109 

158,934 

cwts. 

199,715 

290,392 

251,337 

158,347 

120, 748 

198,157 

In first Six') 
Months / 

19,088,324 

3,518,653 

4,649,650 

5,785,821 

719,611 

1,218,696 

July.. .. 
August . . 
September 
October . . 
November 
December 

4,683,232 

3 . 8 1 9.777 
4 , * 44 , 32 * 
3 , 758,934 

3 . 613.778 

2 , 37 r ,°94 

598,013 
355,927 
394,786 
474,790 
406,693 
480, 746 

437,968 

384,656 

1,458,504 

2,030,204 
r, 1 20, 63 2 
1,298,122 

97 I, 7°7 

1,269,292 

813,874 

609,491 

930,956 

1,014,869 

317,675 

91,728 

45,333 

61,103 

24 U 933 

33 U 597 

153.546 

*35,321 

155,025 

327,430 

200,640 

172,493 

In last Six') 
Months j 

22,391,136 

*,710,955 

6,730,086 

5,610,189 

1,089,369 

1,144,455 

Year .. 

4 i, 479 , 46 o 

6,229,608 

11 , 3 79 , 736 

11,396,010 

1,808,980 

2,363,151 


Note. — The average weights per quarter of corn, as adopted in the office of the 
Inspector-General of Imports and Exports, are as follow : — For wheat, 485J lbs., 
or 41 cwts. ; for barley, 400 lbs., or 3} cwts. ; for oats, 308 lbs., or 2f cwts. Com 
has been entered and charged with duty by weight instead of measure since Sep- 
tember, 18G4. 


Computed Real Value of Corn Imported into the United Kingdom in each 
of the Five Years, 1870-74. 


1 1870. 

1871. 

1872. 

1873. 

% 

1874. 

Wheat 

Barley 

Oats 

Maize 

Other kinds .. 
Wheat Flour .. 

Other kinds of Flour 

£. 

16,264,027 

2,831,844 

4,381,607 

5 . 790,550 

1,498,043 

3,383,75* 

19,822 

£. 

23,345,630 

3 , 407,425 

4,141,687 

6,470,789 
1,729,048 
3,502,784 
10, 712 

£. 

26,046,876 

6,194,155 

4,212,086 

8,696,362 

1 , 747,073 

4,092,189 

9,883 

£. 

28,446,689 
4,010,344 
4,804,118 
6,621,720 
1,788, 716 
5 , 839,197 
10,570 

£. 

25,201,062 

5 ,266,096 
5,118,785 
7,484,178 
1 , 959,237 
5,709,820 

14,405 

Total of Com . . 

34,169,644 

42,403,575 

50,998,624 

5 i, 52 i ,354 

5 °, 753.583 


( XI ) 


I 


Quantities of British Wheat Sold in the Towns from which Returns are 
received under the Act of the 27th & 28th Victoria, cap. 87, and their 
Average Prices, in each of the Twelve Months of the Years 1869-74. 


Quantities in Quarters. 



1869. 

1870. 

1871. 

1872. 

1873. 

1874. 

First month . . 
Second month 
Third month 1 
(five weeks) / 
Fourth month 
Fifth month .. 
Sixth month \ 
(five weeks) ) 
Seventh month 
Eighth month 
Ninth month 'i 
(five weeks) / 
Tenth month 
Eleventh month 
Twelfth month 1 
(five weeks) ) 

quarters. 

248,047 

258,883 

278,086 

204,519 

238,483 

268,599 

166,485 

174,904 

255 ,286 

256,984 

220,876 

2 44,933 

quarters. 

187.027 
231,428 

314,040 

242,457 

281,620 

296.028 

I 7 I ,°°5 

201,788 

435.398 

340,445 

298,407 

352,629 

quarters. 

267,827 

309,376 

377.003 

293,494 

222.003 

229,749 

120,154 

123,889 

371 , 59 ° 

367,672 

269,351 

322,756 

quarters. 

194,719 

193,910 

245,612 

191,522 

231,780 

268,626 

109,543 

126,769 

295,774 
264,934 
195,743 
263 ,152 

quarters. 

183,987 

202,977 

238,125 

159,268 

225,595 

219, 750 

101,101 

96,986 

266,856 

265 ,122 
214,026 

285,648 

quarters. 

187,106 

189,031 

206 , 145 
150,725 
175,715 
172,298 

95,871 

82,564 

323,153 
248,984 
225 , 162 

335,339 



Average Prices per Quarter. 



1869. 

1870. 

1871. 

1872. 

1873. 

1874. 


s . d . 

s. d . 

s. d . 

8. d . 

s . d . 

s. d . 

First Month .. 

51 IO 

43 11 

52 8 

55 4 

55 10 

62 4 

Second month 
Third month 1 

50 IO 

41 IO 

53 6 

55 8 

56 5 

63 4 

(five weeks) J 

48 5 

41 3 

54 6 

55 1 

55 6 

6l I 

Fourth month 

46 4 

42 7 

58 2 

54 2 

54 10 

60 0 

Fifth month . . 
Sixth month 1 

44 8 

43 10 

59 1 

56 3 

55 8 

62 2 

(five weeks) / 

45 i° 

47 0 

59 8 

58 11 

58 4 

61 2 

Seventh month 

49 5 

50 9 

58 7 

58 7 

59 6 

60 8 

Eighth month 
Ninth month 1 

52 1 

53 11 

57 11 

59 9 

60 1 

58 4 

(five weeks) ) 

5 i 4 

47 0 

57 0 

58 7 

63 10 

48 11 

Tenth month . . 

47 8 

47 4 

56 5 

58 7 

60 10 

44 8 

Eleventh month 
Twelfth month 

46 8 

50 X 

56 2 

56 11 

60 9 

43 11 

(five weeks) 

44 2 

5 A 4 

56 2 

56 7 

61 6 

44 6 


( XII ) 


Average Prices of British Corn per Quarter (Imperial measure) as received 
from the Inspectors and Officers of Excise according to the Act of 27th 
& 28th Victoria, cap. 87, in each of the Fifty-two Weeks of the 
Year 1874. 


Week ending 

Wheat. 

Barley. 

Oats. 

Week ending 

Wheat. 

Barley. 

Oats. 



8 . 

d. 

s. 

d. 

8 . 

d. 


8. 

d. 

8. 

d. 

8. 

d. 

January 

3-. 

6l 

8 

44 

4 

25 

5 

July 4.. 

60 

8 

41 

I I 

30 

IO 

January 

10 .. 

62 

I 

43 

II 

26 

I 

July 11.. 

60 

9 

41 

7 

29 

II 

January 

I 7“ 

62 

6 

46 

2 

27 

2 

July 18.. 

60 

IO 

39 

6 

32 

2 

January 

24.. 

63 

3 

46 

5 

27 

10 

July 25.. 

60 

5 

40 

I 

29 

8 

January 

31.. 

63 

9 

47 

7 

28 

2 

August 1 . . 

59 

8 

46 

I 

30 

9 

February 

7-- 

63 

9 

48 

9 

28 

3 

August 8.. 

58 

6 

39 

I 

30 

8 

February 14.. 

6 3 

2 

48 

9 

28 

I 

August 15.. 

58 

O 

45 

O 

3° 

6 

February 

21 .. 

62 

IO 

49 

I 

28 

10 

August 22.. 

57 

2 

46 

5 

32 

O 

February 28 .. 

62 

I 

49 

3 

29 

4 

August 29 

54 

6 

45 

II 

3° 

4 

March 

7-- 

6l 

6 

48 

5 

28 

II 

September 5 

49 

9 

44 

O 

29 

2 

March 

14.. 

60 

8 

48 

4 

28 

IO 

September 1 2 

47 

2 

43 

2 

28 

6 

March 

21 .. 

60 

7 

48 

1 

28 

3 

September 19 

46 

8 

42 

5 

27 

2 

March 

28.. 

60 

10 

48 

6 

28 

7 

September 26 

46 

9 

41 

II 

27 

9 

Average of ) 







Average of ) 







Winter | 

62 

2 

47 

6 

27 

11 

Summer 1 

55 

5 

42 

IO 

29 

IO 

Quarter ) 






Quarter ) 





April 

' 4- 

60 

3 

48 

9 

28 

2 

October 3 . . 

46 

I 

42 

4 

27 

4 

April 

II .. 

59 

5 

48 

8 

28 

3 

October 10.. 

44 

8 

42 

7 

27 

II 

April 

18.. 

60 

6 

48 

5 

28 

7 

October 17.. 

43 

IO 

42 

8 

27 

2 

April 

2; .. 

60 

0 

49 

II 

28 

II 

October 24.. 

44 

I 

42 

IO 

27 

9 

May 

2 .. 

62 

I 

46 

6 

29 

I 

October 3 1 

44 

I 

42 

II 

27 

II 

May 

9 .. 

62 

2 

47 

3 

30 

IO 

November 7 

44 

5 

42 

8 

27 

II 

May 

l6 .. 

62 

1 

47 

5 

29 

.2 

November 14 

43 

9 

42 

7 

28 

O 

May 

23.. 

62 

4 

45 

II 

3° 

I 

November 21 

43 

5 

42 

6 

27 

II 

May 

30.. 

62 

2 

47 

8 

29 

I 

November 28 

43 

6 

42 

IO 

27 

II 

June 

6.. 

6l 

8 

45 

8 

29 

II 

December 5 

44 

8 

43 

8 

28 

7 

June 

13 .. 

6l 

4 

41 

5 

30 

O 

December 12 

44 

IO 

44 

3 

28 

IO 

June 

20 .. 

60 

8 

42 

O 

30 

4 

December 19 

45 

I 

44 

7 

29 

8 

June 

27.. 

60 

4 

42 

2 

31 

2 

December 26 

44 

8 

44 

5 

29 

4 

Average of J 







Average of j 







Spring 1 

6l 

I 

46 

3 

29 

6 

Autumn > 

44 

4 

43 

I 

s8 

2 

Quarter ) 







Quarter | 








( XIII ) 


Quantities of Wheat, Barley, Oats, Peas, Beans, Indian Corn or Maize, 
Wheatmeal and Flour, Imported in the Four Years 1871-74 ; also the Coun- 
tries from which the Wheat, Wheatmeal, and Flour were obtained. 



1871 . 

1872 . 

1873 . 

1874 . 

Wheat from— 

cwts. 

cwts. 

cwts. 

cwts. 

Russia 

15 . 629,435 

17,840,640 

9,598,096 

5,714,488 

Denmark 

130,370 

432,176 

301,758 

167,286 

Germany 

3,049,031 

3,887,746 

2,153.857 

3,053,680 

France 

134,841 

2,843,016 

1,170,522 

300,299 

Austrian Territories .. .. 

239.147 

54,732 

29,730 

2,814 

Turkey and Wallachia andl 
Moldavia / 

1,418,886 

838,073 

367,487 

659,676 

Egypt 

884,396 

00 

0 

M 

'-■-N 

rr\ 

r« 

1,260,401 

293,880 

United States 

13,405.057 

8,606,403 

19,742,726 

23.048,552 

Chili 

549,529 

1,434,125 

1,557,128 

1,925,334 

British North America 

3,279,264 

1,719,378 

3,767,330 

3,807,174 

Other countries 

687,690 

1,997,731 

3,802,595 

2,506,277 

Total Wheat 

39,407,646 

41,990,228 

43,751,630 

41,479,460 

Barley 

8,589,059 

15,078,140 

9,232,485 

11.379,736 

Oats 

11,007,106 

11,567,058 

11,922,736 

11,396,010 

Peas 

1,021,950 

1,290,076 

1,211,068 

1,808,980 

Beans 

2,975,651 

2,937,514 

2,976,500 

2,363,151 

Indian Com, or Maize 

16,832,499 

24,563,334 

18,768,127 

17,683,212 

Wheatmeal and Flour from — 





Germany 

967,892 

1.054,574 

687,243 

751,366 

France 

37,150 

1,341,465 

1,669,356 

659,568 

United States 

1,794,805 

743,412 

1,580,697 

3,29°, 235 

British North America . . 

403,989 

339,300 

444,729 

389,355 

Other countries 

780,802 

917,308 

1,822,235 

1,139,084 

Total Wheatmeal and’ 
Flour j 

3,984,638 

4,396,059 

6,204,260 

6,229,608 

Indian Com'Meal 

7,881 

5.384 

6,856 

8 , 5 ir 


( XIV ) 


The Average Prices of Consols, of Wheat, of Meat, and of Potatoes ; also the Average 
Number of Paupers relieved on the last day of each Week ; and the Mean Temperature, 
in each of the Twelve Quarters ending December 31st, 1874. j 



Average Prices. 

Pauperism. 


Quarters 

ending 

Consols 

(for 

Money). 

Minimum 
Rate per 
Cent, of 
Discount 
charged 
by the 

Wheat 

per 

Quarter 

in 

England 

and 

Meat per lb. at the Metro- 
politan Meat Market 
(by the Carcase). 

Potatoes 
(York Regents) 
per Ton, 
at Waterside 
Market, 
Southwark. 

Quarterly Average of the 
Number of Paupers re- 
lieved on the last da a of 
each week. 

Mean 

Tempi 

rature 



Bank of 








England. 


Beef. 

Mutton. 


In-door. 

Out-door. 


1872 

£. 


s. d. 


5 fd.— 8§d. 




0 

Mar. 31 

9^8 

3 '° 

55 4 

5J.— 7IJ. 

80s. — 1 20s. 

149.599 

776,793 

43 *f 

Mean 6 yl. 

Mean 7 |d. 

Mean icos. 




June 30 

9*1 

4 *o 

56 8 

si d . — 7 id. 

6d.— 8fd. 

124s. — 15 08. 

134. 412 

724,463 

52-1 


Mean 6j Id. 

Mean 7faf. 

Mean 137s. 




Sept. 30 

9^8 

3'5 

58 11 

5£d.— 8d. 

6i d. — 9 \d. 

I05S. I 33 S. 

126,377 

681,987 

6 1 • ] 

Mean 6§d. 

Mean i\d. 

Mean 119*. 




Dec. 31 

921 

5 - 9 

57 3 

5 Id . — 8 d. 

6 d . — 8 ltd. 

154s. — 187s. 

138,648 

675,598 

45 V 

1873 
Mar. 31 

Mean 6f d. 

Mean i$d. 

Mean 171s. 



9 2 | 

3'9 

55 10 

5jd.— 8d. 

6i d . — 9 d. 

179s.— 235s. 

150,392 

703.357 

39 ' 

Mean 6f d. 

Mean 7| d. 

Mean 207 s. 




June 30 

93 i 

5*2 

56 5 

6d. — 8f d. 

6!<*— 9 i<f. 

183s: — 242s. 

135. 491 

666,126 

5 1 * 


Mean i\d. 

Mean 8Jd. 

Mean 2 1 is.6d. 




Sept. 30 

92 | 

3-8 

61 4 

5 fA— 

6 }>d.—<)ld. 

95 S . — 120s. 

127,674 

632,412 

6o* 



Mean i\d. 

Mean 7 \d. 

Meani07s.6d. 




Dec. 31 

9 2 | 

6-3 

6l I 

Hm 

00 

1 

5|d. — 8£d, 

( 96 s. 6 d. — 1 

1 117s. 6 d. f 

137.409 

625,316 

44 - 

1874 




Mean 6f d. 

Mean 7 \d. 

Mean 107 s. 




Mar. 31 

92 

3-6 

62 2 

5IJ.— 81J. 

5%d, — 8 \d. 

1 12 S . — I 2 7 S. 

146,082 

641,910 

4 i* 




Mean 6f d. 

Mean 6 \d. 

Mean 1 rgs.Gd. 




June 30 

93 

3‘4 

6l I 

5d.—i,d. 

$d.— &ld. 

135*. — 165s. 

133,846 

614,738 

52 - 




Mean 6Jd. 

Mean 6 \d. 

Mean 150s. 




Sept. 30 

92 | 

3-0 

55 5 

OO 

1 

ts 

An 

5 id- — lid. 

/ 75s. 6d. — \ 
\ 104s. 6 d. 1 

129,996 

592,958 

6o' 





Mean 6 |d. 

Mean 6Jd. 

Mean 90s. 




Dec. 31 

93 

4' 7 

44 4 

4ld.-&\d. 

4§d.-^8d. 

73 s. — 96 s. 

138,899 

587,776 

42 





Mean 6 %d. 

Mean 6 id. 

Mean 84s. 6 d. 





The annexed return shows the number of Beasts exhibited and the 
prices realised for them at the Christmas markets since 1841 : — 


Year. 

Beasts. 




Year. 

Beasts. 




1841 

4,500 

8. 

3 

d. 8. 
8-5 

d. 

0 

1858 

6,424 

7,560 

£. 

3 

d. s. 
4—5 

d . 

0 

1842 

4 , 54 i 

3 

4 — 4 

8 

1859 

3 

6 — 5 

4 

1843 

4 , 5 io 

4 

8 — 4 

4 

i860 

7,860 

3 

4 — 5 

6 

1844 

5 , 7 i 3 

5,326 

4 

0 — 4 

6 

1861 

8,840 

3 

4 — 5 

O 

1845 

3 

6 — 4 

8 

1862 

8,430 

3 

4 — 5 

O 

1846 

4 , 57 ° 

4 

0 — 5 

8 

1863 

10,372 

3 

6 — 5 

2 - 

1847 

4,282 

3 

4 — 4 

8 

1864 

7 D 30 

3 

8-5 

8 

1848 

5,942 

3 

4 — 4 

8 

1865 

7,530 

3 

4 — 5 

4 

1849 

5,765 

3 

4—4 

O 

1866 

7,340 

3 

8-5 

6 

1850 

6,341 

3 

0—3 

IO 

1867 

8, no 

3 

4—5 

O - 

1851 

6,103 

2 

8-4 

2 

1868 

5,320 

6,728 

3 

4 — 5 

8 

1852 

6,271 

2 

8-4 

O 

1869 

3 

6 — 6 

2 

1853 

7,037 

3 

2 — 4 

10 

1870 

6,425 

3 

6 — 6 

2 

1854 

6,181 

3 

6 — 5 

4 

1871 

6,320 

3 

10 — 6 

2 

1855 

7,000 

3 

8 — 4 

2 

1872 

7,560 

4 

6 — 6 

O 

1856 

6,748 

3 

4 — 5 

O 

1873 

6,170 

4 

4-6 

6 

1857 

6,856 

3 

4 — 4 

8 

1874 

6.570 

4 

4-6 

8 


( XV ) 


Average Prices of British Wheat, Barley, and Oats, per Imperial 
Quarter, in each of the Sixteen Years 1859-74. 


Year. 

Wheat. 

Barley. 

Oats. 

Year. 

Wheat. 

Barley. 

Oats. 


8. 

d. 

8. 

d. 

8 . 

d. 


8. 

d. 

8. 

d. 

8. d. 

I 8 J 9 

43 

9 

33 

6 

23 

2 

1867 

64 

6 

40 

O 

26 I 

i860 

53 

3 

36 

7 

24 

5 

1868 

63 

9 

43 

O 

28 I 

1861 

55 

4 

36 

I 

23 

9 

1869 

48 

2 

39 

5 

26 0 

1861 

55 

5 

35 

I 

22 

7 

1870 

46 

IO 

34 

7 

22 IO 

1863 

44 

9 

33 

II 

21 

2 

1871 

5 6 

IO 

36 

2 

25 2 

1864 

40 

2 

29 

II 

20 

I 

1872 

57 

O 

37 

4 

23. 2 

1865 

41 

IO 

2 9 

9 

21 

IO 

1873 

58 

8 

40 

5 

25 5 

1866 

49 

II 

37 

5 

24 

7 

1874 

55 

9 

44 

II 

28 IO 


Certain Articles of Foreign and Colonial Production Imported in the Years 
1871-74; and their Quantities. 



1871. 

1872. 

1873. 

1874. 

number 

208,472 

1 , 

139,468 

157,549 

157,821 

) * 

40,139 

33,525 

43,338 

36,041 

9 > 

} 917,076 

809,822 

851,035 

758,902 

» » 

animall 
tons / 

85,622 

16,101 

80,976 

115,389 

100,857 

111,692 

69,945 

82,242 

cwts. 

15,876,248 

12,578,906 

13 , 693,472 

14,062,075 

9 9 

2,587,066 

2,022,507 

2 , 194,473 

2 , 373,993 

112,285 

9 9 

178,808 

118,704 

1,105,983 

184,921 

9 > 

1,295,812 

1,251,030 

1,241,115 

146,233 

9 9 

218,664 

235.965 

123,228 

615,548 

9 9 

599,922 

815,542 

554,964 

9 9 

678,432 

626,064 

712,040 

711,161 

tuns 

35,8o8 

25,300 

65,630 

85,630 

tons 

162,804 

134,300 

138,119 

157,476 

cwts. 

847,835 

5 , 987,429 

7 , 473,230 

3 - 990,991 

9 9 

1 , 334,783 

1,138,081 

1 , 277,729 

1,355,267 

1,620,674 

1,488,223 

hundred 

1,216 ,400 

1,057,883 

3 , 337,275 

4 , 429,990 

5,500,277 

627,044 

5,672,049 

cwts. 

477,147 

578,676 

374,582 

9 9 

1,093,838 

2,001,855 

2 , 973,314 

218,563 

2,541,681 

9 9 

279,179 

293 . 215 

231,532 

287,238 

9 9 

266,967 

212,382 

266,084 

9 9 

340,506 

290,849 

278,419 

256,025 

qrs. 

1,310,147 

i, 5 i 4,947 

1,443,018 

275,823 

1,682,875 

289,781 

lbs. 

665,452 

246,549 

319,385,049 

302,500,925 

•• 

313,061,244 

338,800,481 


.nimals, Living : 


Calves 

Sheep 

Lambs 

Swine and Hogs . 


’lax 

luano 

.lemp 

lops 

lidea untanned : Dry 
,, Wet 


Butter 

Bheese 

Sggs . . . . per great 

Lard 

Bacon and Hams 

Balt Beef 

Balt Pork 

Jlover Seeds 

flax-seed and Linseed 

tape 

Bheep and Lambs’ Wool .. 


( XVI ) 


ACREAGE under each Description of Crop, Fallow, and 

Great Britain and 



Gbeat Britain. 

Descbiption of Chops and Live Stock. 

1872 . 

1873 . 

1874 . 

Corn Crops : — 

Acres. 

Acres. 

Acres. 

Wheat .. 

3 . 598,957 

3 , 490,380 

3,630,300 

Barley or Bere 

2,316,332 

2 , 335,913 

2,287,987 

Oats 

2 , 705. 8 37 

2,676,227 

2 , 596,384 

Bye 

66,875 

5 1 . 634 

47,228 

Beans 

524,005 

586,561 

559,044 

Peas 

36 r .545 

318,213 

310,547 

Total Corn Crops 

9 . 573.551 

9,458,928 

9 , 431,490 

Green Crops : — 




Potatoes 

564,088 

514,682 

520,430 

Turnips and Swedes 

2,083,507 

2,121,908 

2 , 133,336 

Mangold 

329,190 

325,702 

322,614 

Carrots 

16,499 

* 5,503 

13,927 

Cabbage, Kobl-rabi, and Rape 

177,800 

174,762 

169,285 

Vetches, Lucerne, and any other cropl 
(except clover or grass) j 

445-299 

423,929 

421,678 

Total Green Crops .. 

3,616,383 

3 , 576,486 

00 

vj 

O 

Other Crops, Grass, &c. : — 




Flax 

15.357 

14,683 

9,394 

Hops 

61,927 

63,278 

65,805 

Bare fallow or uncropped arable land 

647,898 

706,498 

660, 206 

Clover and artificial and other grasses'! 
under rotation J 

4 , 513.451 

4, 366,818 

4 , 340,742 

Permanent pasture, meadow, or grass) 
not broken up in rotation (exclusive! 
of heath or mountain land) . . .. J 

12,575,606 

12,915,929 

13, 178,012 

Live Stock : — 

No. 

No. 

No. 

Cattle 

5,624,994 

5 . 964.549 

6,125,491 

Sheep 

27.921,507 

29.427.635 

30,313,941 

Pigs 

2,771.749 

2,500,259 

2,422,832 

Total number of horses used for] 
agriculture, unbroken horses, | 
and mares kept solely for 1 
breeding .. ..J 

1,258,020 

1,276,444 

2,226,739 

Acreage of orchard, or of arable or grass- 1 
land, used also for fruit-trees . . . . / 

169,808 

148,221 

150,526 

Acreage of woods, coppices, and plan -1 
tations J 

2,187,078 

K> 

oc 

O 

VI 

00 

2,187,078 


( XVII ) 


Grass, and Number of Cattle, Sheep, and Pigs, in 
Ireland, in 1872-73-74. 


Ibreand. 

United Kingdom, 
including the Islands. 

1872 . 

1873 . 

1874 . 

1872 . 

1873 . 

1874 . 

Acres. 

Acres. 

Acres. 

Acres. 

Acres. 

Acres. 

228, 189 

168,435 

188,711 

3,839,532 

3 , 670.259 

3 , 830,767 

220,057 

2 3r,023 

212,230 

2,543,582 

2 , 574,529 

2,507,130 

1,621,813 

1,510,089 

1,480,186 

4,340,748 

4 , 198,495 

4,088,825 

8,832 

8,405 

8,979 

75,849 

60,121 

56,274 

10,029 

11,129 

9,646 

534.341 

598,221 

568,984 

1.753 

r .743 

1,756 

364.194 

321,007 

312,854 

2 ,090,673 

1,930,824 

2,902,508 

11,698,245 

11,422,532 

ir, 364, 834 

991,802 

903 ,282 

892,421 

2,563,691 

1,425,720 

1,420,825 

346,464 

347.904 

333.487 

2,439,336 

2 , 479,847 

2 , 476,757 

34,736 

38,096 

38,161 

364,699 

364,552 

361,499 

3,782 

3,698 

3,359 

20,977 

29,892 

17,865 

50,207 

37.355 

41,205 

228,118 

212,326 

210,578 

46,925 

42,085 

44,829 

495,173 

468,776 

470, r5 9 

1 , 473 , 9 i 6 

1,372,420 

1 . 353,362 

5,121,994 

4,971,112 

4 , 957,683 

122,003 

229,432 

106,886 

137,360 

244,125 

116,280 

•• 

•• 


61,931 

63,278 

65,806 

28,512 

13,474 

12,187 

667,299 

720,990 

673,376 

1 , 799 , 93 ° 

1.837,483 

1,906,083 

6,354,329 

6,240,900 

6,284,925 

10, 241,513 

10,420,695 

10,472,161 

22,838,178 

23 , 363,990 

23,680,416 

No. 

No. 

No. 

No. 

No. 

No. 

4,057,153 

4 , 151,561 

4 , 128,113 

9 . 718,505 

10,153,670 

10,281,036 

4,262,117 

4,486,453 

4 , 437.613 

32,246,642 

3 3,982,404 

34 , 837,597 

1,385,386 

1,044,218 

1,096,494 

4,178,000 

3 , 563,532 

3 , 537,354 

540,745 

532,708 

525,770 

1,808,259 

1,81^-7,831 

1 , 847,148 

•• 

325,173 

325,173 


2,512,251 



VOL, XI.— s. s. B 


( XVIII ) 


The following remarks relating to Irish and Foreign Butter and 
to Cheese are extracted from ‘ The Grocer ’ : — 

Irish Butter. — The transactions in January were small, and 
butter was offered for resale below the prices current in the Irish 
markets; the board prices in the Cork market at the end of this 
month were 154s. for firsts and seconds, whilst in the London 
markets the nearly nominal quotations varied according to fresh- 
ness from 142s. to 156s. for firsts. The transactions in February 
were very limited ; the range in prices was great, owing to a 
portion of the stock consisting of stale parcels offered for resale. 
There was scarcely enough doing in sales of Irish butter in March 
to establish market values. In the first week of April the stock of 
Irish butter at the public wharves amounted only to 75 firkins ; 
transactions were very few this month, and chiefly of low quality. 
The month of April commenced with a stock of only 28 firkins of 
Irish lying at the public wharves, and very little over 1000 pack- 
ages of foreign ; but, with increased supplies of the latter coming 
forward, prices gave way rapidly; the transactions were small. 
In June the effects of the shortness of the grass-crop began to tell 
upon the market, and led to a little more disposition on the part of 
the trade to buy. In July the transactions — with the exception of 
a few small sales of Corks' — were very limited. The great heat 
of the weather, and the high prices asked, seemed combined to 
cause the trade to be afraid to hold quantity. In the early part of 
August there was a little more doing in sales of Irish butter, but 
towards the close of the month, the trade, though lightly stocked, 
seemed afraid to follow the advanced rates asked. 

The early part of the month of September was cooler and 
showery, greatly improving the appearance of the pasture-lands ; 
the last two weeks fine and much warmer, but the transactions for 
Irish butter were so few that quotations were governed more by 
the prices paying in Ireland than by the amount of business doing 
in the London market. The trade was out of stock, but refused 
to buy at the rates asked : the northern markets, however, took 
it freely. In October the trade still thought the asking rates too 
high, and have operated so sparingly that quotations continued 
nearly nominal, shippers in the mean time found willing buyers in 
the northern towns. The transactions in November were very 
limited, so much so, that quotations were nearly nominal. In De- 
cember the transactions were also very limited, and confined chiefly 
to the sales of third and fourth Corks. 

Foreign Butter. — In January supplies were considerably above 
average cues; but with comparative light stocks lying in the 


( XIX ) 


London markets, and an active demand for it from our northern 
markets, all was cleared off fast as to hand ; quotations for best 
Normandys ranging from 144?. to 156s. There was a steady 
demand for American. In February the arrivals were large, a 
great portion of them were of second-rate and inferior qualities. 
Supplies of foreign butter in March were considerably above ave- 
rage ones. In April supplies continued to arrive in excess of those 
usual at this period of the year, but the demand was such as to 
clear all off fast as to hand. In May, best Normandys began at 
130s. to 140s.; at the end of the month, 112s. to 120s., the lowest 
price throughout the season : the want of rain and the fear of short 
crops then began to be felt. In France the want of rain was felt 
in June, and advancing prices was the result. In the early part 
of July the supplies were heavy, but became lighter towards the 
end; the heat of the weather rendered it difficult to bring it here 
in good condition, both importers and the trade were afraid to hold 
quantity. Supplies of foreign butter in August were large, and a con- 
siderable portion of these were second-rate and inferior. The supplies 
of foreign butter in September were not quite so heavy, and there 
was a large proportion of second-rate and inferior amongst them ; 
these descriptions were pressed at irregular rates, but finest held 
steadily. In October the supplies for this period of the year con- 
tinued large ; ,a great portion, however, was of very middling 
quality. For November supplies were large — say, including the 
out-ports, over 150,000 packages — a considerable portion consisted 
of doubtful qualities, the sale of which was anxiously pressed at 
seemingly low prices. In December the supplies were unnaturally 
large for the season, and a great deal of foreign butter of doubtful 
character was received, causing a wide range in prices. 

Cheese. — In January holders of fine English were very firm, 
and, as usual there was a wide range in prices. In February there 
was also a film market for all fine qualities, many of the buyers 
for country towns paying higher prices for fine English than those 
quoted in the London market. There was a steady demand for 
best qualities of American. In March the market was firm, closing 
at the highest quotations, and really fine English was scarce. In 
April the market was firm : there was a difficulty in obtaining a 
quantity of really fine English, and good useful parcels were In 
better demand. In May the best English held steadily, scarcely 
any variation in price ; the demand for American, although not what 
is termed active, was sufficient to clear off nearly all the old. By 
June the shortness of the grass led the makers of English to expect 
a smaller make than usual, a firm market for fine was thus caused, 

B 2 


( XX ) 


In July the scarcity of food for cows caused firmness to be shown 
by the makers of fine English. In August new English began to 
be quoted ; in fact, very little good old was kept, the scarcity of 
food for cows throughout the summer, and consequently a lessened 
make gave firmness to the makers of best qualities. Country 
buyers were keen competitors with the London dealers ; the heat 
of the weather, at the close of this month, causing it to be safer to 
move American cheese in its packages than English without them, 
assisted sales of the former. In September the makers of English 
cheese, believing last summer’s production to have been lessened 
by the scarcity of food, held finest qualtities very firmly, asking 
such prices as left little prospect of profit by the resale of them. 
In October holders of finest qualities were firm, both English and 
American. In November, holders of best English were very firm ; 
the makers of finest qualities showed no disposition to press sales 
at present rates ; supplies of American were rather below the 
average. In December there was scarcely any variation in prices, 
and holders of fine qualities were firm ; at the close of the month 
there was a little more doing in sales of American. 

Cork Butter Market. — The hope is generally entertained at the 
opening of each season that the high range of prices of the preceding 
one was exceptional, and that more moderate figures will prevail 
during tbe future ; therefore, though the market opened in April 
at the extreme price of 150s. for first and second qualities, a rapid 
fall was soon expected, and did take place, for by the end of May 
the prices of firsts, seconds, and thirds stood at 118s., 114s., and 
105s. respectively, which were very nearly the same as those of the 
corresponding date in 1873. However, the continued dry weather 
of last summer soon made it evident that lower prices could not 
be expected, and] as week Rafter week passed without a return of 
the rain, which it is generally quite safe to predict in Ireland, it 
became evident that the make of butter must suffer in quantity ; the 
result was that prices showed a gradual but constant advance since 
June last until the present time, and the season seems likely to 
close with higher rates than have ever yet been known. The total 
receipts of butter to the Cork market, for 1874, amount to 350,000 
firkins, of a value of about 1,600,000Z. Compared with 1873 the 
receipts show a falling off of about 12,000 firkins, but the money 
value of 1874 exceeds that for 1873. 12,000 firkins seem a smaller 

deficiency than the great drought of last summer would cause ; but 
it must bo remembered that 1873 was itself a year of short pro- 
duction, being 35,000 firkins less than that of 1872. 

An American Cheese Dairy. — “ The Old Fairfield Cheese Factory, 


( XXI ) 


of Herkimer County, New York, is one of the most noted in the 
States. It was erected in 1864, and has from the first enjoyed the 
reputation of turning out what is known in the trade as ‘ gilt-edged 
fancy cheese.’ It was in the southern part of the town of Fairfield 
that cheese-dairying took its rise as a speciality something like 
seventy years ago. The factory is designed to take the milk of 
1000 cows. The large manufacturing-room is provided with five 
double vats, capable of holding GOO gallons each. The press-room 
is provided with a number of presses, where thirty or more cheeses 
can be pressed at a time. Above the press-room and wood-shed is 
a large room with proper fixtures, where the spring and fall cheese 
can be kept and cured. The factory is fed with water from the 
celebrated Maltanner Spring, which rises near by, and forms a largo 
stream capable of driving machinery. This stream passes within a 
few feet of the end of the manufacturing-room. A large ice-house 
is connected with the establishment. The factory was erected by 
a stock company at a cost of about 6000 dols. The Old Fairfield 
Factory has had abundant reasons for success — viz., high, rich, roll- 
ing lands, affording sweet and nutritious feed, the pastures generally 
having been long in grass ; plenty of cool, sweet water distributed 
over the farms; care in the handling of milk at the farm; and, 
finally, high skill in manufacturing at the factory. Mr. Fairchild, 
the present manager and manufacturer, says the average number of 
cows from which milk was delivered in the past season was 900, 
and the largest delivery of milk in any one day was 20,135 lbs. 
During the best of the season 33 cheeses per day have been made, 
weighing 88 lbs. each, and pressed in 15^-inch hoops.” 

“ The milk is set at a temperature of 82°, and the curd is fit to 
cut in about 50 minutes. It is cut lengthwise and crosswise with 
the perpendicular knives, and once through with the horizontal 
knives; then heat is gradually applied until a temperature of 100° 
is reached, the curds, meanwhile, being carefully stirred to keep 
from packing. The time for scalding the curds occupies from 
one to three hours, according to the temperature of the weather 
and the condition of the milk. If the curds are likely to lose 
heat while scalding, the vats are covered, as it is not desired that 
the heat should get below 94°. After the acid is properly de- 
veloped the whey is drawn and the curds reduced to a temperature 
of about 84°, salted, and put to press. The rate of salting is 3 lbs. 
of salt for 1000 lbs. of milk. In cutting the curds the particles are 
left in cubes about three-eighths of an inch in size.” 


STATISTICS OP DAIRY PRODUCE. 

{The following Quotations, etc., are extracted from ‘The Grocer.’) 

Prices Current on 1st Saturday in January of each Year, from the latest actual Market Sales. 



English Cheddar, fine, 



( XXIV ) 


Statement of llie Quantity and Value of Butter imported from the 
United States, Belgium, France and Holland ; and of Cheese 
imported from the United States and Holland, 1864-73. 

I 

UNITED STATES. 


Y ears. 

Butter. 

Cheese. 


Quantities. 

Computed 

Real Value. i 

# 

Quantities. 

Computed 

Real Value. 


Cwts. 

£. 

Cwts. 

£. 

1864 .. 

142,672 

780,024 

466,988 

1 ,213,890 

1865 .. 

83,216 

437,703 

442,913 

1,296,204 

1866 .. 

16,059 

77,754 

415.726 

1,386,447 

1867 .. 

39,035 

113,290 

526,740 

1,470,017 

1868 .. 

7,117 

3 7 . 2 79 

489 ,H 7 

1,439,380 

1869 

17,203 

84,603 

487,870 

1,612,325 

1870 

16,915 

80,928 

555,385 

1,861,263 

1871 .. 

83,775 

394,359 

731,326 

O 

OO 

tJ- 

O 

r* 

1872 

45 , 765 

199,679 

598,198 

r, 7 °i > 435 

1875 .. 

A3, 406 

199,639 

790,238 

2 , 353 , i8r 

Years. 

BELGIUM. 

FRANCE. 

Butter. 

Butter. 


Cwts. 

£. 

Cwts. 

£. 

1864 .. 

81,575 

470,167 

163,020 

858,793 

1865 

70,619 

433.179 

353,115 

1,867,085 

1866 .. 

76,667 

426,712 

452,196 

2,276,493 

1867 .. 

80,754 

470,464 

450,693 

2,265,147 

1868 .. 

70,456 

405,987 

393,578 

2, 156,824 

1869 

85,789 

48 1 ,609 

407,432 

2,231,450 

1870 

84,408 

516,643 

289,692 

1,672,899 

1871 

94,539 

523,460 

304.683 

1,636,006 

• 1872 .. 

74,191 

409,555 

355,089 

1,916,795 

1875 .. 

76,610 

439 , 5 °f 

446,550 

2,409,861 


Years. 


HOLLAND. 


Butter. 

Cheese. 


Cwts. 

£. 

Cwts. 

£. 

1864 •• 

336 , 2?4 

1 , 774,462 

336,831 

881,972 

1865 

345,026 

1,886,486 

386,962 

1 , 100,037 

1866 .. 

383,225 

1,979,070 

426,559 

i, 3 r 7 , 23 i 

1867 

326,217 

1 , 733,459 

332,628 

329,565 

961,245 

1868 .. 

343.322 

1 , 992,414 

959.547 

1869 

4 I 5 , I 7 6 

2,253,420 

426,913 

r,262,ior 

1870 .. 

406,795 

2,388,459 

422,553 

1,204,830 

1871 .. 

390,616 

1,986,708 

348, 148 

954,236 

1872 .. 

269,091 

1 , 358,579 

329,535 

942,537 

1873 .. 

279,004 

1 , 453,875 

336.654 

1,0x3,233 


JOURNAL 


OF THE 

ROYAL AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY 
OF ENGLAND. 


I. — On the Valuation of Unexhausted Manures. By J. B. Lawes, 
F.R.S., F.C.S. 

On April 4, 1870, I read a Paper before the London Farmers’ 
Club, on the “ Exhaustion of the Soil, in relation to Landlord’s 
Covenants, and the Valuation of Unexhausted Improvements.” 
The object of the first part of that Paper was to point out and 
illustrate the difference between those properties of the soil 
which are known under the term of “ condition ,” and those which 
are included under the term natural, or standard fertility. 

I defined condition of land to be due to the accumulation 
within the soil of manurial matters which may be withdrawn, 
or reduced, by cropping, within a comparatively short period of 
time. Condition was stated to be a quality dependent on the 
expenditure of the tenant ; and, subject to the terms of his 
holding, may be considered to be his property. 

The natural or standard fertility of a soil, on the other hand, 
was the property of the landlord ; upon it depended, in a great 
measure, the amount of rent he was able to obtain for his land ; 
and although this natural fertility was not absolutely inex- 
haustible, it was very little liable to injury from any system of 
agriculture which, so far as present appearances enable us to 
judge, had any prospect of prevailing in this country. 

The second part of the Paper related to the question of the 
valuation of unexhausted manures ; and, taking into considera- 
tion the great difficulty in laying down rules which would be 
generally applicable for the estimation of the productive capa- 
bility, and consequently of the money-value, of the residue of 
the manures which have already yielded a crop, I suggested 
whether it would not be possible to confine the valuation to 
what was above ground, and had a recognised money-value, 
and, in so doing, to do full justice to the outgoing tenant. 

VOL. XI.— S. S. B 


2 


On the Valuation of Unexhausted Manures. 


About the time that that Paper was read, Parliament was 
discussing Mr. Gladstone’s Irish Land Act, which afterwards 
became the law of the land. Lender that Act an outgoing- 
tenant is entitled to claim compensation for “ tillages, manures, 
or other like farming works, the benefit of which is unexhausted 
at the time of the tenant quitting his holding.” The Act is very 
explicit in all that relates to the legal machinery by which claims 
may be tried or established ; but it gives no information as to what 
constitutes unexhausted value, or how that value is to be estimated. 

It could hardly be doubted that on a subject so complicated, 
and in regard to which the best authorities might differ in 
opinion very widely, much litigation would take place. Extra- 
vagant claims have been put forward ; and, if current report 
may be trusted, there is considerable dissatisfaction with the 
working of the Act among the Irish tenantry. 

In 1873, an English gentleman, who had been the assignee of 
a lease granted to a previous tenant by the late Duke of Leinster, 
made, at the expiration of his term, very large claims upon the 
landlord for unexhausted tillages and manures. The case was 
tried before the Chairman of Quarter Sessions ; and the judg- 
ment being adverse to the tenant, he appealed, and the cause 
was then heard by the Lord Chief Justice of Ireland. On that 
occasion I was present as a witness for the defendant ; and 
I had ample opportunity of observing how great were the diffi- 
culties with which both the Judge .and the opposing counsel had 
to contend. On my return to England, I wrote a pamphlet on 
‘ U nexhausted T illages and Manures, with reference to the Landlord 
and Tenant (Ireland) Act.’ Part of the Paper had reference to 
the trial, and had, therefore, only a local and temporary interest. 
The remainder was devoted to an attempt to place a value on 
the unexhausted residue, under various circumstances, of the 
most important of the manures which are likely to become the 
subjects of claim for compensation. 

In reference to this subject, the Committee on “ Unexhausted 
Improvements” appointed by the Council of the Central and 
Associated Chambers of Agriculture, have done good service in 
collecting particulars of the allowances to the outgoing tenant 
for purchased cattle-food and manures, and other improvements, 
according to the established custom in different counties and 
districts. 

Further, it is now a much-debated question, whether there 
should not be legislation in regard to England and Scotland, as 
already there is for Ireland, to secure to the outgoing tenant 
compensation for his unexhausted improvements ; and, among 
others, especially for the unexhausted residue of purchased 
leeding-stuffs and manures. 


On the Valuation of Unexhausted Manures. 


3 


It seems desirable, therefore, at the present time, to pass in 
review the state of existing knowledge on the subject of the 
value of such unexhausted improvements, and to compare the 
results arrived at by different methods, or on different bases of 
valuation. Accordingly, I propose to consider the basis, and the 
results, of the estimates of the value of the unexhausted residue 
of purchased (or saleable) feeding-stuffs and manures — 

First : As set forth in my Paper on ‘ Unexhausted Tillages 
and Manures with reference to the Landlord and Tenant (Ire- 
land) Act.’ 

Secondly : According to the established custom of various 
counties and districts, as recorded by the Committee on L T n- 
exhausted Improvements appointed by the Council of the Central 
and Associated Chambers of Agriculture. 

Thirdly : Confining the valuation to what is above ground, 
and has a recognised and easily-ascertainable money-value. 

Section I. — Valuation of the Unexhausted Residue of purchased 
Feeding-stuffs and Manures, founded on the original Manure- 
value of the Article, and on the results of direct experiments, 
and of common experience, icith different Manures. 

In the first place, I propose to direct attention to some of the 
data furnished by my experiments at Rothamsted, in regard to 
the amount, and to the condition, of the unexhausted residue left 
in the soil by different descriptions of manure ; and to attempt 
to construct a scale of valuation for different manures, founded 
partly on those data, and partly on the recognised experience of 
practical agriculture. 

Manukes. 

Before considering the question of unexhausted manures, 
it will be well to say a few words on the action and value of 
manures generally, and especially on the difference in the action 
and value of different descriptions of manure. 

The term manure includes a great variety of substances, 
which, when applied to the soil, increase the growth of crops. 
Formerly, the only manure employed was that produced by 
animals consuming food, and using litter, which were exclu- 
sively the produce of the farm itself. Modern agriculture has 
greatly altered this state of things. We have now a long list of 
manures, derived from sources external to the farm itself, which 
are in common use by farmers. 

The following is an enumeration of the most important of 
the manures, the unexhausted residues from which are likely to 
become the subjects of claim for compensation : — 

B 2 


4 On the Valuation of Unexhausted Manures. 

1. Manure produced from purchased (or saleable) feeding- 
stuffs. 

2. Farmyard, or town-stable, manure. 

3. Rapecake (or other cake) used as manure. 

4. Bones. 

5. Nitrate of soda. 

6. Sulphate of ammonia. 

7. Superphosphate of lime, made from mineral phosphates. 

8. Guano, in its natural state, or manufactured. 

9. Other manures of more or less unknown composition.* 

10. Liming, chalking, marling, <Scc. 

The difference in the price at which the different items of 
purchased manure in this list can be brought upon the farm is 
very wide indeed. 

By way of illustration, it may be assumed that town-made 
dung will, in the majority of cases in which it is largely used, 
cost the farmer about Is. Gd. per ton delivered on his farm. 
Nitrate of soda will, however, cost him, say 15s. per cwt., some- 
times more and sometimes less. Thus, he finds it worth his 
while to give about as much for 1 cwt. of nitrate of soda, 
as for 2 tons of stable-dung ; or, in other words, about 40 
times as much for an equal weight of the one manure as of the 
other. 

Sulphate of ammonia is dearer than nitrate of soda ; and 
although it is not purchased to any great extent by the 
farmer, it is much used in the manufacture of mixed artificial 
manures. 

Again, Peruvian guano contains, when of good quality, a 
considerable quantity of ammonia, as well as phosphates, and 
it costs about 13Z. per ton ; whilst inferior guano, poor in am- 
monia but rich in phosphate of lime, and superphosphate of 
lime containing no ammonia at all, sell for only from one-third 
to one-half as much. 

Nitrate of soda contains nitrogen as nitric acid ; sulphate of 
ammonia contains it as ammonia ; and Peruvian guano also 
contains, or by decomposition yields, it as ammonia. In fact, 
the money-value as manure, of nitrate of soda, or of sulphate of 
ammonia, is exclusively, and that of Peruvian guano chiefly, 
due to the nitrogen they contain. 

Thus it will be seen that the highest-priced manures are 
those which are rich in nitrogen. A few illustrations may here 
be given of the effects of nitrogenous manures upon the growth 
of crops. 

* Of such manures, the Schedules of the Committee on Unexhausted Improve- 
ments include particulars relating to Kainit, ashes, night-soil, and town manure, 
soot, sea-weed, fish, and “ other fertilisers unenumeratod.” 


On the Valuation of Unexhausted Manures. 5 

Barley has now been grown in one field at Rothamsted for 23 
years in succession. On one portion there has been applied, 
every year, a mineral manure, consisting of salts of potass, soda, 
and magnesia, and superphosphate of lime ; and the average 
produce over the 23 years has been 26^ bushels of dressed corn 
per statute acre. On other portions there were used, every year* 
the same mineral manures, with the addition of ammonia-salts 
or nitrate of soda, and the average produce then reached very 
nearly 49 bushels per acre per annum ; or nearly double that 
by the mineral manures used alone. Indeed, the produce ob- 
tained by using this mixture of mineral and nitrogenous manure 
was even rather higher than that yielded by the use, for 23 years in 
succession on the same land, of 14 tons of farmyard-manure per 
acre per annum. 

In an immediately adjoining field wheat has been grown, 
without manure, and by different descriptions of manure, for 31 
years in succession, and with very similar results. Mineral 
manures alone have given very little increase of produce ; nitro- 
genous manures alone, in the form of ammonia-salts or nitrate 
of soda, have given considerably more produce than mineral 
manure alone ; and the mixture of mineral and nitrogenous 
manures has yielded much more still, and more, of both corn 
and straw, than the annual application of farmyard-manure. 

Thus, then, not only are those manures which are rich in 
nitrogen the highest priced, but direct experiments, extending 
over a long series of years, have shown that nitrogen has in 
reality a higher money-value for the purposes of manure than 
any of the other substances used. 

It will be seen further on, how much the settlement of all 
questions of compensation for unexhausted manures must depend 
upon the estimate formed of the amount, and of the condition, 
of the nitrogen of the manure remaining in the soil ; and how 
much this, in its turn, must depend on the description of the 
manure employed, the character of the soil to which it has 
been applied, the characters of the climate or of particular 
seasons, and the kinds of crop which have been grown since the 
application. 


Unexhausted Manukes. 

When a manure is applied to the soil, what happens? This 
point may be illustrated very usefully for our present purpose 
by reference to direct results obtained at Rothamsted. 

To certain plots given quantities of salts of potass, soda, and 
magnesia, superphosphate of lime, and salts of ammonia (or 
nitrate of soda), have been applied every year ; and for between 


6 


On the Valuation of Unexhausted Manures. 


twenty and thirty years full crops of wheat and of barley have 
been obtained under this treatment. 

Analysis of the produce has shown that a large proportion of 
the nitrogen supplied in the manure has remained unrecovered 
in the increase of the crop produced by its use. Still, any 
reduction in the quantity annually applied was followed by a 
diminution in the amount of the crop ; or, if the application 
were entirely stopped, there was frequently little or no effect 
upon succeeding crops from any unexhausted residue. 

Analysis of the soil showed that a portion of the nitrogen of 
the manure which was not recovered in the increase of crop was 
accumulated within the soil. But there yet remained a large 
amount of the supplied nitrogen to be otherwise accounted for 
than either in the crop or in the soil. 

It was next determined that the drainage-water from the 
various plots of the experimental wheat-field, which was already 
pipe-drained, should be examined. Numerous samples of the 
drainage-water from the differently-manured plots, collected at 
different periods of the year, have, by their own desire, been 
supplied for analysis, independently, to Professor Voelcker and 
to Professor Frankland. Their analyses proved that the drain- 
age-waters frequently contained a large amount of nitrogen in 
the form of nitrates ; that the quantity of nitrates was the greater 
the greater the amount of ammonia-salts applied as manure ; 
and that (after autumn-sowing) the quantity was very much 
greater in the winter, than subsequently in the spring and 
summer. 

In one case, after a heavy dressing of ammonia-salts, Dr. 
Frankland found a quantity of nitrates in the drainage-water, 
which would correspond to a loss of nearly 18 lbs. of nitrogen 
per statute acre, provided an inch of rain had passed as drainage 
of that strength. On another occasion, after a heavy dressing 
of nitrate of soda, Dr. Voelcker found a quantity of nitrates in 
the drainage-water, which, reckoned in the same way, would be 
equivalent to a loss of about 13 lbs. of nitrogen per acre. 

Lastly, on this point, calculation led to the conclusion, that 
most probably the whole of the nitrogen which had been sup- 
plied as manure in the ammonia-salts or nitrate of soda, and 
which was not either recovered in the increase of crop, or 
retained by the soil in a very slowly available condition, was 
drained away and lost. 

YV hen the manure employed contains or yields ammonia, what 
happens is, that the ammonia becomes more or less rapidly oxi- 
dated in the soil, and so converted into nitric acid, which is 
washed away in the drainage-water, chiefly in combination with 
lime, or soda, or both, if not in the mean time taken up by a 


On the Valuation of Unexhausted Manures. 


7 


growing plant. When, however, nitrate of soda is applied, its 
great solubility, and the much less power of the soil for the 
absorption of it, or of its products of decomposition, than for 
that of ammonia, render it more liable still to loss by drainage 
if heavy rain should follow soon after sowing. 

Although the nitrogen of manures is thus found to be very 
liable to loss by drainage, direct experiments show that the two 
important mineral constituents— ■phosphoric acid and potass — are 
much less liable to such loss. 

Thus, Dr. Voelcker’s analyses of the drainage-waters showed 
them to contain very little of either phosphoric acid or potass ; 
and analyses of the soils themselves, made by Hermann von 
Liebig, son of the late Baron Liebig, showed that they con- 
tained considerably more of both phosphoric acid and potass — 
especially in the upper layers — the greater had been the supplies 
of them by manure. Experiments in the field further showed 
that these substances, though remaining dormant and ineffective 
in the soil in the absence of a sufficient supply of nitrogen, 
become effective even for twenty years or more, after their 
application, if nitrogen in an available form be also provided 
within the soil. 

Of the three constituents of manures — nitrogen, phosphoric 
acid , and potass — which, in the sense that by the production and 
sale of corn and meat they are the most likely to become rela- 
tively deficient, are the most important constituents of manures 
generally, it is then proved, that the nitrogen is, at any rate 
when applied to ammonia-salts or nitrate of soda, very liable to 
loss by drainage, whilst the phosphoric acid and potass are, in a 
much greater degree, retained by the soil. 

When farmyard-manure is employed, or other manures con- 
taining a large quantity of nitrogenous organic matter are 
used, the result is not quite so simple. For example, in farm- 
yard-manure a portion of the nitrogen exists as ready-formed 
ammonia, but a large proportion becomes only very gradually 
converted into ammonia as the nitrogenous organic matter 
decomposes in the soil. Indeed, owing to the slow decom- 
position of dung, and the tardiness with which a large pro- 
portion of its nitrogen becomes available for the use of the 
growing crop, three or four times more nitrogen in the form of 
dung, than in active artificial manures, must be applied to 
produce the same effect upon the immediately succeeding crop. 

How slow is the perfect decomposition of dung in the soil, 
and how slowly a large proportion of its nitrogen becomes 
available for the use of growing crops, is strikingly illustrated 
in the following facts : 

In the experiments at Rothamsted on permanent grass-land, one 


8 


On the Valuation of Unexhausted Manures. 


plot received 14 tons of farmyard-manure per acre per annum, 
for 8 years, 1856-’63, and gave an average produce of 43 cwts. 
of hay, against 23f cwts. on the unmanured plot over the same 
period. During the subsequent 11 years, 1864-74, there has 
been no further application of dung or of any other manure on 
the previously dunged plot, and the average produce over the 
11 years has been 33^ cwts. of hay, against 19^ over the same 
period on the plot unmanured from the commencement. The 
total increase during the 8 years of the application of the dung 
was 7 tons 12^ cwts. of hay ; and the total increase during 
the next 11 years, due to the residue of the dung previously ap- 
plied, was 7 tons 134 cwts. ; but it has fallen off very much 
during the later years, averaging considerably less than one-half 
as much over the last 5, as over the first 6 of the 11 years. It is 
probable, that during the whole 19 years, not more than two- 
thirds as much nitrogen has been removed in the total produce 
of hay as was supplied in the manure, and the increase of nitro- 
gen over that contained in the permanently unmanured produce 
has probably been not one-fourth as much as was supplied. 

Again, for twenty years in succession 14 tons of dung were 
applied per acre on one plot in the experimental barley-field. 
Calculation showed that a much smaller proportion of the nitro- 
gen of the dung was taken up by the increase of crop, than of 
that supplied in ammonia-salts or nitrate of soda ; and, judging 
from other experiments, it is concluded that the percentage of 
nitrogen in the surface-soil has been increased by the residue of 
the dung to nearly double that of any other plot in the field. 
Yet when, after twenty years, the application of dung was 
stopped on one-half of the plot, and continued on the other half, 
the average produce over the next three years was, without 
further application, 44 bushels of dressed corn, and 2684 lbs. 
of straw ; but where the application was continued, it was, over 
the same three years, 52^ bushels of dressed corn, and 3502 lbs. 
of straw ; or there was an average per acre per annum of 8 £ 
bushels more of dressed corn, and 818 lbs. more straw, where 
the dung was applied afresh, than where the application had 
been discontinued. It is true that the produce without further 
application was large, and no doubt largely due to the residue 
from the previous applications of dung ; but, notwithstanding 
the very great accumulation within the soil of nitrogen, and, 
doubtless, of all other constituents also, the produce did not 
reach the maximum which the characters of the seasons admitted 
of, but was considerably exceeded on the fresh application of 
dung. 

Dung, however, possesses two very important properties — one 
mechanical and the other chemical. By reason of its bulk, and 


On the Valuation of Unexhausted Manures. 


9 


the quantity of organic matter it contains, it serves to render 
the soil more open and porous, and so to enable it not only to 
retain more water in a favourable condition, but also to absorb 
and retain more of the valuable constituents of the manure, and 
so to arrest the passage of them in solution into the drains. 
Further, by the gradual decomposition of the organic matter of 
the dung, the pores of the soil become filled with carbonic acid, 
which probably serves to retard the oxidation of the ammonia 
into the more soluble form of nitric acid, in which it would be 
more liable to be washed out and lost by drainage. From these 
facts it will be readily understood how it is that dung is more 
lasting in its effects than the more active artificial manures. 

Still, in the experiments at Rothamsted in which dung has 
been applied year after year for many years in succession, there 
is a large amount of the nitrogen so supplied which is not yet 
accounted for either in the increase of crop or in the soil. 
Whether there is an ultimate loss of a greater or a less pro- 
portion of that supplied than when ammonia-salts or nitrate of 
soda is used ; whether the loss will be proportionally the same 
when dung is used in more moderate quantity ; or whether the 
loss be wholly, or chiefly, by drainage, or in other ways, the 
evidence at present at command is not sufficient to determine 
with certainty. 

From the foregoing observations on the characteristics of 
some of the most important descriptions of manure, it will be 
obvious how essential it is to take in+o careful consideration the 
peculiar properties, and probable duration of effect, of different 
manures, if we would hope to arrive at anything like a fair 
estimate of the money-value of the unexhausted residue they 
leave in the soil under various circumstances. 

Guided by such knowledge as I possess on the various essen- 
tial points of the question, I will now endeavour to estimate the 
value of the unexhausted residue of various manures, under the 
circumstances in which that value is most likely to become 
the subject of claim for compensation. In all cases, the valuation 
is expressed in the number of shillings estimated to be due to 
the outgoing tenant, for twenty shillings original manure-value. 
The valuations given must, however, be taken as only approxi- 
mately correct, as the amounts due might be affected very 
materially — according to the cleanliness or foulness of the land, 
the lightness or heaviness of the soil, the dryness or wetness 
of the locality or of particular seasons, and the difference be- 
tween the purchasing price of the food or manure and its actual 
and relative value. 


10 


On the Valuation of Unexhausted Manures. 


1. Manure from Purchased (or Saleable) Feeding-stuffs. 

Claims for compensation for unexhausted manures will pro- 
bably arise more frequently under this head than under any 
other. It will be necessary, therefore, to consider the question 
in some detail. 

When the farmer uses purchased feeding-stuffs, or food the 
produce of the farm which he would otherwise be justified in 
selling, he looks for his remuneration partly to the increased 
value of his animals, and partly to the value of the manure 
obtained from them. The increased value of the animals is of 
itself seldom, if ever, equal to the cost of the food consumed. 
Unless, therefore, the outgoing tenant can rely upon obtaining 
compensation for the value of the manure produced from such 
food, he must either cease to purchase it, and feed his animals 
on the non-saleable produce of the farm alone for a year or two 
before he leaves it, or he must submit to a loss which sometimes 
wdll be very considerable. 

Before we can approach the question of the value of the 
unexhausted residue of manure produced by the consumption of 
purchased (or saleable) food-stuffs, it is necessary to come to 
some decision as to the original value of such manure. In other 
words, we must endeavour to determine how much of the cost 
of any particular food should be charged to the manure account. 

With regard to the value of different foods for feeding pur- 
poses, it may be stated in general terms, as the conclusion drawn 
from hundreds of feeding experiments with different descriptions 
of food made at Rothamsted, that, weight for weight, there is 
very much less difference in the feeding-value than in the manure- 
value of foods which are included in what may be called the 
same class. For instance, it will make comparatively little dif- 
ference, so far as the increase in live-weight of the animal is 
concerned, whether a ton of cake, a ton of pulse, a ton of Indian 
meal, or a ton of barley, be given to fattening oxen of sheep, 
and comparatively little whether a ton of clover-hay or a ton of 
meadow-hay be used. Within each of these classes of food, 
however, there would be a much wider difference in the value 
of the manure which the consumption of a ton of each of them 
would produce. 

Having regard to the results of the feeding-experiments above 
referred to, and taking into consideration the known average 
composition of different descriptions of food, an estimate was 
made of what proportion of certain of the constituents in a ton of 
various foods would, on the average, be stored up in the animal' 
itself, and what proportion would be obtained in the manure 
produced. The value, for manure, of those’ constituents was 


On the Valuation of Unexhausted Manures. 11 

then calculated, and the results are given in Table I., below, 
the substance of which I first published about fifteen years 
ago. Those estimates of manure-value were, at the time, con- 
sidered by some to be somewhat too high. They have lately 
been carefully reconsidered ; and taking into account the higher 
money-value of some of the constituents at the present time, it 
has been decided to make but little further alteration than to add 
a few articles to the list that were not originally included in it. 

Table I. — Estimated Value of the Manure obtained by the Con- 
sumption of different Articles of Food, each supposed to be 
good quality of its kind. 




No. 

Description of Food. 

Money- value 
of the Manure 
from one 

Ton of each Food. 

1 

Cotton seed-cake, decorticated 

£ s. d. 

6 10 0 

2 

Rape-cake 

4 18 6 

3 

Liuseed-eake 

4 12 6 

4 

Cotton seed-cake, not decorticated 

3 18 6 

5 

Lentils 

3 17 0 

6 

Beans 

3 14 0 

7 

Tares 

3 13 6 

8 

Linseed 

3 13 0 

9 

Peas 

3 2 6 

10 

Indian meal 

1 11 0 

11 

Locust-beans 

12 6 

12 

Malt-dust 

4 5 6 

13 

Bran 

2 18 0 

14 

Coarse pollard 

2 18 0 

15 

Fine pollard 

2 17 0 

16 

Oats 

1 15 0 

17 

Wheat 

1 13 0 

18 

Malt 

1116 

19 

Barley 

1 10 0 

20 

Clover-hay 

2 5 6 

21 

Meadow-hay 

1 10 6 

22 

Bean-straw 

10 6 

23 

Pea-straw 

0 18 9 

24 

Oat-straw 

0 13 6 

25 

Wheat-straw 

0 12 6 

26 

Barley-straw 

0 10 9 

27 

Potatoes 

0 7 0 

28 

Parsnips 

0 5 6 

29 

Mangold wurtzel 

0 5 3 

30 

Swedish turnips 

0 4 3 

31 

Common turnips 

0 4 0 

32 

Carrots 

0 4 0 


The prices given in the foregoing Table represent what it will 
be convenient to term the manure-value of a ton of the different 


12 


On the Valuation of Unexhausted Manures. 


descriptions of food ; that is to say, the value of the manure pro- 
vided it reached the soil without material loss, and was not 
subject to loss by drainage before the growth of a crop. These 
prices might conveniently be taken as a basis in the settlement 
of claims for compensation for the unexhausted residue of manure 
derived from the consumption of purchased or saleable feeding- 
stuffs, provided the system of valuation now under consideration 
were adopted. 

Anyone acquainted with the cost and the feeding-value of the 
different foods will see, by a glance at the Table, how little con- 
nection there is between either the cost, or the feeding-value, of a 
ton of the different foods, and what may be termed their manure- 
value. 

It is clear, therefore, that it would be quite fallacious to base 
a claim for compensation for the unexhausted manure from pur- 
chased food, either upon the number of tons of food consumed, 
regardless of the description of that food, or upon the amount of 
money expended in its purchase. For example, the cost of a ton 
of undecorticated cotton-cake, and of a ton of locust-beans, would 
be much about the same ; but the Table shows that the estimated 
value of the manure from the consumption of a ton of the cotton- 
cake would be SI. 18s. Qd., whilst that from a ton of locust-beans 
would be only 11. 2s. 6d. Hence, the same outlay — according 
as a ton of the one or of the other of these two descriptions of 
food were purchased — would result in a difference of 21. 16s. in 
the value of the manure thereby brought upon the farm. 

The manure-value alone should, therefore, be adopted as the 
basis of any calculations of the value of the unexhausted residue 
of manures derived from the consumption of purchased or saleable 
food-stuffs. 

Adopting the manure-value of the different foods, as given in 
the Table, I will now endeavour to estimate, to the best of my 
ability, the value of the unexhausted residue of such manure, 
under various circumstances which are likely to occur. t 

\\ hen the ordinary manure of the farm is enriched by the con- 
sumption of purchased or saleable foods, the first crop grown 
after the application of such manure will be considerably in- 
creased. The second and third crops will, according to circum- 
stances, be more or less benefited ; but, practically speaking, 
there will be no unexhausted residue left at the end of the 
rotation. 

If purchased food be consumed with a root-crop by the outgoing 
tenant, and he take no crop grown by the manure so produced, 
he should be allowed compensation at the rate of 17s. for every 
20s. of the original manure-value of the food if it have been con- 
sumed on the land, or 16s. if consumed in the yards. If he 


On the Valuation of Unexhausted Manures. 


13 


take one corn-crop produced by such manure, sell the corn, but 
leave the straw on the farm, he should be allowed Is. for every 
20s. of the original manure-value of the purchased or saleable 
food. If he have taken a second corn-crop, leaving the straw, he 
should be allowed Is. ; or if, instead of a second corn-crop, grass 
or hay be grown and consumed on the farm, 2s. ; but if the second 
crop after the roots be hay which he has sold, nothing should 
be awarded to him. 

If purchased or saleable food be consumed on grass-land, and 
the outgoing tenant have not afterwards removed a crop of hay, 
he should be allowed 18s. for 20s. original manure-value of the 
food. If he have taken one crop of hay, and consumed it on the 
farm, he should be awarded 11s. ; but if the hay have been sold, 
only 2s. for 20s. of the manure-value of the food. After a second 
year’s hay-crop, if consumed, 2s. ; but if sold, nothing should be 
allowed. If the land be only pastured, and purchased food be 
consumed on it for one, two, or three years before leaving, the 
compensation might fairly be fixed at 18s. for 20s. original manure- 
value after one year, at 12s. after two years, and at 4s. after three 
years. 


2. Farmyard or Town-stable Manure. 

Farmyard-manure, made from the produce of the farm, should 
not be made the subject of any claim for compensation by the 
outgoing tenant, whether such manure have grown a crop, or 
remain in the yards, or on the land, unless he paid for it under 
the same conditions on entry. The cases of the enrichment of 
such manure by the use of purchased (or saleable) cattle-food 
would be taken into account under the provisions of the previous 
sub-section (1). 

When stable-manure is purchased and used in large quantities, 
and the application has extended over a long series of years, as, 
for instance, in the case of garden-ground, the unexhausted 
residue remaining in the soil is very great, and large crops may 
be taken from such land, without further manuring, for a number 
of years in succession. Such cases would require special con- 
sideration and adjudication, if not provided for by special agree- 
ment, as would generally be the case. 

When purchased stable-manure is only used in the moderate 
quantity usual in ordinary agriculture, and only once in the 
course of a rotation of four or five years, it may be assumed that 
towards the end of such period no unexhausted residue would 
remain which would be sufficient to justify a claim for compen- 
sation to the outgoing tenant. 

If purchased stable-manure be applied for roots which are con- 


14 On the Valuation of Unexhausted Manures. 

sumed on the land, 17s. for every 20s. of the original value of 
the manure may be allowed ; but if the roots be consumed in the 
yards, only 16s. If one corn-crop be afterwards taken, the corn 
sold, but the straw left on the farm, 9s. may be allowed ; if a 
second crop have been taken, the corn sold, but the straw left, 
os. should be allowed ; or if, instead of a second corn-crop, grass 
or hay be grown and consumed one year, 5s. ; but if the hay be 
sold, or the grass have been grazed a second year, only 2s. should 
be allowed. 

If such manure be applied directly for a corn-crop, the corn 
sold, and the straw left, 12s. for 20s. of the original value of the 
manure may be awarded. After a second corn-crop, 6s. ; or if, 
instead of a second corn-crop, grass or hay be grown and con- 
sumed one year, 8s. ; or if the first year’s hay be sold, or the 
produce grazed or consumed a second year, only 4s. should be 
allowed. 

If the manure be applied directly to grass-land, and the produce 
is entirely grazed, 18s. may be allowed after one year, 14s. after 
two years, 8s. after three years, and 2s. after four years. If the 
manure be applied to grass-land, and hay be taken exclusively 
for consumption on the farm, the allowance should be 16s. after 
one year, 12s. after two years, and 6s. after three years; or if 
the hay be sold, 10s. after one year, 4s. after two years, but nothing 
after three years should be allowed. 

3. Rape-CxAke (or other Cake) used as Manure. 

When rape-cake, or other cake, is used as manure, a consider- 
able portion of it decomposes pretty rapidly in the soil, and the 
more so the lighter and more porous the soil. It yields up a 
much larger proportion of its nitrogen, and other manurial con- 
stituents, in the first year of its application, than does farmyard- 
manure ; and accordingly, in practice, a quantity not containing' 
one-fourth the amount of nitrogen of an ordinary dressing»of dung 
would be applied to produce the same effect on the first crop. 
An ordinary dressing of rape-cake, therefore, after the first crop, 
leaves a very much less unexhausted residue than an ordinary 
dressing of dung. A given quantity of nitrogen applied as rape- 
cake would, on the other hand, be less rapidly available and 
effective than the same quantity applied as nitrate of soda, sul- 
phate of ammonia, or Peruvian guano ; but it would be less 
liable to loss by drainage, and would, therefore, leave a larger 
proportion as unexhausted residue after the first crop, than either 
of the above-named more rapidly active manures. 

It the outgoing tenant have applied cake as manure for a root- 
crop, and the roots have been consumed on the farm, he should 


On the Valuation of Unexhausted Manures. 15 

receive compensation at the rate of 16s. for 20s. cost of the 
manure if they were consumed on the land, and of 15s. if con- 
sumed in the yards. If a corn-crop have been grown after the 
roots, the corn sold, and the straw left, he might receive 7s. for 
20s. cost of the manure ; if a second corn-crop, Is. ; or if, instead 
of a second corn-crop, grass or hay be grown and consumed, 3s. ; 
but if hay be sold, nothing should be allowed. 

If the cake be applied directly for a corn-crop, the corn sold, 
and the straw left, 7s. for 20s. cost of the manure may be allowed. 
If a second corn-crop have been taken, Is. ; but if a third, nothing 
should be allowed. If, instead of a second corn-crop, grass or 
hay be grown and consumed, after one year, 3s., or after two 
years, Is. ; but if hay be sold, nothing should be awarded. 

4. Bones. 

Ordinary crushed or half-inch bones decompose less rapidly, 
and are, therefore, less rapidly active than finely-ground bones. 
In either state bones are less rapidly active than rape-cake, 
and, like rape-cake, are much less so than nitrate of soda, 
ammonia-salts, or guano. The action of bones depends, more- 
over, very much upon the characters of the soil to which they 
are applied. In heavy soils their action is very slow, and there- 
fore the more lasting ; but in light soils it is more rapid, and 
less lasting. 

In the case of soils to which experience has shown that bones 
can be applied with effect and profit for the root-crop, if so 
applied, and no crop have been grown from the manure pro- 
duced by the consumption of the roots, the allowance might be 
17s. for 20s. original value, if the roots have been consumed on 
the land, or 16s. if consumed in the yards. If a corn-crop have 
been taken after the roots, the corn sold, and the straw left, 8s. ; 
if a second corn-crop, 2s. ; if, instead of a second corn-crop, 
grass or hay be grown and consumed one year, 4s. ; or if hay 
be sold, or grass or hay consumed a second year, only Is. 
should be allowed. 

If bones be applied to suitable grass-land, which is entirely 
grazed, 18s. for 20s. original value may be allowed after the first 
year, 13s. after the second, 6s. after the third, and Is. after the 
iourth year. If the grass be made into hay and consumed on the 
farm, 16s. after one year, 10s. after two years, and 3s. after three 
years, may be allowed. If the hay be sold, 10s. may be allowed 
after the first year, 4s. after the second, but nothing after the third 
year. 


16 


On the Valuation of Unexhausted Manures. 


5. Nitrate of Soda. 

r From what has been already said of the loss of the nitrogen 
of manure by drainage, and especially of the very great loss that 
may arise when such soluble and rapidly active nitrogenous 
manures as nitrate of soda or ammonia-salts are used, it will be 
readily understood that, when they are employed, we have not 
to look forward very far to reach the limit of their action, and 
consequently the period at which any claim for compensation 
for their unexhausted residue should cease. This point is in 
fact sooner reached in their case than in that of any other nitro- 
genous manures. Next in order in lasting character, so far as 
the nitrogen is concerned, comes guano, then perhaps, folding, 
then rape-cake, and then bones ; whilst farmyard-manure is the 
most lasting of all. 

Notwithstanding the very great solubility of nitrate of soda, 
and its greater liability to loss by drainage than any other nitro- 
genous manure, some experiments at Rothamsted have shown 
that after it had been used in large quantities, and for many 
years in succession, considerable benefit accrued to future crops. 
To what extent this result was due to the disintegration of the 
subsoil, by which it became more porous, more capable of re- 
taining water in a condition favourable for the growing crop, 
and more permeable to its roots, and how much to the retention 
of nitric acid by virtue of the increased porosity, and therefore 
increased surface for absorption, of the subsoil, there is not 
sufficient evidence to show. It would, indeed, be quite unsafe 
to assume that any conclusions applicable to ordinary practice 
can be drawn from these results, obtained under such excep- 
tional circumstances. 

It must in fact, for practical purposes, be assumed that nitrate 
of soda, used only occasionally, and only in the moderate 
quantities usually applied, leaves no beneficial residue after the 
removal of the first crop. Whatever is not taken up by'the crop 
itself, or washed out during its growth, will probably be in 
great part drained away in the winter following, leaving at any 
rate but a small, an uncertain, and a doubtfully effective residue. 

If nitrate of soda have been used for roots consumed upon the 
farm, and the manure so produced have not yielded a crop, 15s. 
for 20s. original value of the manure may be allowed if the roots 
have been consumed on the land, or 14s. if in the yards. If the 
manure produced from the consumption of the roots have yielded 
a corn-crop, the corn sold and the straw left, 4s. for 20s.; or if a 
second corn-crop have been taken, Is.; or if instead of a second 
corn-crop, grass or hay be grown and consumed, 2s. may be 
allowed. 


On the Valuation of Unexhausted Manures. 17 

When nitrate of soda is applied for a corn-crop, the grain sold 
bv the outgoing tenant, and the straw left on the farm, he 
should receive 6 s. for 20s. cost of the manure ; nothing after a 
second corn-crop ; but if, instead of a second corn-crop, grass or 
hay be grown and consumed, Is. 

If nitrate of soda have been applied to grass which has been 
onlv pastured, 16s. for 20s. of original value of the manure 
should be allowed after one year, 10s. after two years, and 2s. 
after three years ; if hay have been taken and consumed, 14s. 
after the first year, 8s. after the second year, and Is. after the 
third year ; but if the hay have been sold, 2s. after one year, but 
nothing afterwards should be allowed. 


6. Sulphate of Ammon r a. 

The only salt of ammonia used to any extent for agricultural 
purposes is the sulphate of ammonia. As already said, this is 
used to a considerable extent, but chiefly in the manufacture of 
mixed manures. When sown in the autumn it will be more 
1 iable to loss by drainage than when sown in the spring ; but 
when sown in the spring, it will probably be less liable to loss by 
drainage than nitrate of soda sown at the same time. It is more 
liable to such loss in the case of light and porous soils and 
subsoils, than of soils and subsoils of more retentive character. 

The same rules for compensation will be applicable to sulphate 
of ammonia as to nitrate of soda, provided the circumstances of 
its application, as above referred to, be the same. 


7. Superphosphate of Lime made from Mineral 
Phosphates. 

It has been explained that the phosphoric acid and the potass 
of manures are comparatively little liable to loss by drainage, at 
any rate when applied to the heavier soils. In fact, superphos- 
phate leaves a considerable unexhausted residue ; but that residue 
is, as a rule, without appreciable effect on succeeding crops, 
unless nitrogenous manure be applied to take it out. If, there- 
fore, the crop for which the manure has been applied has been 
wholly sold by the outgoing tenant, no residue will remain to 
which a money-value can be assigned. 

The most prominent effect of superphosphate of lime when 
applied to a root-crop is to cause a great development of root- 
fibres, thus enabling the plant to gather up much more of other 
lood from the soil. It therefore serves to increase the imme- 
diate effect of other manures supplied with it ; also to turn to 

VOL. XI. — S. S. C 


18 


On the Valuation of Unexhausted Manures. 


account accumulations within the soil which, if not taken up, 
would be liable to loss by drainage. 

When superphosphate has been applied to roots, and no crop 
has been taken from the manure produced by their consumption, 
9 s . for '20s. of its cost may be allowed if the roots be consumed 
on the land, or 8s. if in the yards ; or if corn have followed the 
roots, the grain sold and the straw left, 2s. may be allowed. 

When superphosphate has been applied for a corn-crop, the 
corn sold and the straw left, compensation to the extent of 5s. for 
20s. cost of the manure might be granted. 

If superphosphate have been applied to grass-land which has 
been grazed, for every 20s. cost, 12s. after one year, 4s. after two, 
but nothing after three years should be allowed. If applied to 
grass-land, and hay have been taken and consumed, 10s. after 
one year, 2s. after two years, and nothing after three years. If 
hay have been sold, nothing should be claimed. 

No compensation should be claimed for the unexhausted residue 
of superphosphate, whenever a second crop of any kind has been 
taken since the application, excepting corn after roots, grass 
grazed, or hay consumed, as above specified. 

8. Guano, in its Natural State, or Manufactured. 

Under the existing conditions of the Peruvian guano trade it 
is impossible to speak with any certainty, even as to the value 
of guano as a direct manure. It must therefore be more difficult 
still to speak definitely as to the value of the residue it may 
leave in the soil after the removal of a crop. 

At one time the farmer could calculate upon receiving guano 
containing nitrogen equal to 16 per cent, of ammonia ; more 
recently he had to be satisfied with 14 per cent.; and more 
recently still, not only a lower average per cent, than this, but 
great uncertainty whether he would receive that amount, half as 
much, or even less. , 

The present agents for the sale of Peruvian guano in this 
country have, however, quite recently informed me, that, during 
the time the agency has been in their hands, their importations 
have averaged nearer 13 than 12 per cent, of ammonia, and that 
cargoes analysing anything below 12 per cent, have been quite 
the exception. Such guano, in its natural state, will probably 
also contain from 25 to 30 per cent, of phosphates. But some 
they mix with sulphuric acid, and manufacture it into a sub- 
stance of uniform quality containing nitrogen equal to about 
10 per cent, of ammonia, superphosphate equal to about 20 per 
cent, of phosphate rendered soluble, and only about 4 per cent, 
of phosphates left undissolved. 


On the Valuation of Unexhausted Manures. 


19 


Such a manufactured guano would rank in a position inter- 
mediate between the more highly or purely nitrogenous manures 
( such as nitrate of soda and sulphate of ammonia) on the one 
hand, and a superphosphate of lime on the other ; or rather, it 
would be equivalent to a mixture of the two. 

Other manure-dealers also prepare “ dissolved guano,” but of 
very varying composition. 

From what has been said in regard to the action, and the 
value, of different descriptions of manure, it will be readily 
understood that the value of guano will depend very greatly 
upon the percentage of nitrogen it contains. The nitrogen 
in guano, whether “ dissolved ” or not, should be valued at the 
rate for the time of that in nitrate of soda, or sulphate of 
ammonia. 

If the guano be “ dissolved ” by admixture with sulphuric 
acid, the value of the phosphates rendered soluble may be 
reckoned as the same as that in superphosphate of lime, but if 
not dissolved at only two-thirds as much. 

Thus it will be obvious that the mere price paid for guano 
cannot be accepted as the basis upon which to calculate the 
value of its unexhausted residue after it has yielded a crop. It 
is essential for the establishment of a claim for compensation 
that the composition of the guano should be known, and its 
actual value calculated, according to the amount of ammonia it 
contains or yields, the amount and condition of its phosphates, 
the price of ammonia in sulphate of ammonia, and that of 
soluble phosphate in superphosphate. 

If the guano have been acted upon by sulphuric acid, both its 
nitrogen and its phosphates will probably be more effective on the 
first crop, and leave, therefore, the less for succeeding crops, than 
if it were used in its natural state. But the difference would not 
be either sufficiently great, or sufficiently uniform on various 
soils and in various seasons, to justify a difference in the scale of 
valuation of the unexhausted residue. 

If guano, whether dissolved or not, have been used for roots 
consumed upon the farm, and the manure so produced has not 
yielded a crop, 15s. for 20s. estimated value of the guano may 
be allowed if the roots be consumed on the land, or 14s. if in the 
yards. If the manure produced from the roots have yielded a 
corn-crop, the corn being sold and the straw left, 4s. for 20s. 
value of the guano should be allowed ; if a second corn-crop 
have been taken, Is.; or if, instead of a second corn-crop, grass 
or hay be grown and consumed, 2s. 

If guano, whether dissolved or not, have been directly applied 
for a corn-crop, the grain sold, and the straw left, 6s. for 20s. 
value of the guano might be awarded. If after one corn-crop, 

c 2 


20 


On the Valuation of Unexhausted Manures. 


grass or hav be grown and consumed on the farm, Is. may be 
allowed ; but if a second corn-crop be taken, or hay be cut and 
sold, no claim for compensation should be admitted. 

If guano be applied to grass-land, 16s. for 20s. estimated 
original value may be allowed after one year, 10s. after two 
years, and 2s. after three years, if the produce be only grazed : 
if it be made into hay which is consumed, 14s. after one year, 
8s. after two years, and Is. after three years ; or if a crop of hay 
be taken and sold, only 2s. should be allowed. 

9. Other Manures of more or less unknown Composition. 

Under this head may be included — special grass-manures, 
corn - manures, root-manures, or other compound artificial 
manures ; also dried blood, shoddy, Kainit, ashes, night-soil, 
soot, other town-manures, sea-weed, fish, and some other refuse- 
matters. 

As in the case of guano, so in that of each of the above 
manures, the mere price paid for it cannot be accepted as the 
measure of its value. If any claim for compensation for the 
unexhausted residue of such manures is to be made, it is abso- 
lutely essential that the composition of the manure used should 
be known. 

It is obviously requisite that any Act by which power is given 
to an outgoing tenant to claim compensation for unexhausted 
manures should give the person subject to such claim power to 
ascertain the composition and value of the manures in respect 
to which the claim is made. In all cases, therefore, in which 
it is intended to put in such a claim, the person making it should 
be required to give notice to the landlord that he is about to 
use certain manures, from which he may have samples taken 
for analysis if he desire it. 

Professor Voelcker in England, the late Professor Anderson in 
Scotland, and Professor Cameron in Ireland, have from tiine'to time 
drawn attention to the numerous frauds committed upon tenant- 
farmers by the sale of spurious manures ; and if a purchaser do 
not take the trouble to protect himself from fraud when his own 
interest alone is concerned, he is little likely to do so if, by 
afterwards claiming compensation based upon the amount of 
his outlay, he can shift a portion of the loss upon some one 
else. 

The value of a manure of this class will depend almost ex- 
clusively on the quantity, and the condition, of the nitrogen and 
of the phosphates, and in the case of Kainit of the potass, which 
it contains. 

Special grass, corn, root, or other compound manures, will 


On the Valuation of Unexhausted Manures. 


21 


sometimes contain their nitrogen as sulphate of ammonia, but 
frequently in the form of shoddy, or other nitrogenous organic 
matter. If the nitrogen exists as sulphate of ammonia it should 
be valued at the same rate as in that substance. The nitrogen 
in shoddy, and in most other nitrogenous organic matters used 
as manure, is, however, much more slowly effective than that in 
nitrate of soda, sulphate of ammonia, or guano. As a rule, 
therefore, the nitrogen of manures which exists as nitrogenous 
organic matter should be valued at only from one-half to two- 
thirds ther price of that in nitrate of soda, sulphate of ammonia, 
or guano. 

A given quantity of nitrogen in nitrogenous organic matter 
being less I'apidly effective, and probably less liable to loss by 
drainage also, than that in nitrate of soda, sulphate of ammonia, 
or guano, will of course leave proportionally more for suc- 
ceeding crops. The result will, however, be so dependent on 
the description of the organic matter employed, the kind of soil 
to which it is applied, tbe characters of the seasons, and other 
circumstances, and the residue itself would, in some cases, be so 
slowly available, that, practically speaking, the unexhausted 
residue from nitrogenous organic matter applied as manure 
cannot be taken at a higher value in proportion to the original 
value of the manure settled as above, than in the case of the more 
rapidly active nitrogenous manures. 

The phosphate of manures of this class, if in the state of 
superphosphate, should be valued as in superphosphate. 

The following scale of compensation for unexhausted residue 
might be adopted when any of these compound artificial manui'es 
are used. 

When applied to grass, and the produce has been only grazed, 
14s. for 20s. original value of the manure, calculated as above, 
may be allowed after the first season, 6s. after the second, but 
nothing after the third. If hay be taken and consumed on the 
larm, the allowance may be 13s. after the first year, and 4s. after 
the second year ; but if the hay have been sold, only 2s. should be 
allowed. * 

When applied for a corn-crop, the corn being sold and the 
straw left, 6s. for 20s. estimated value of the manure should be 
allowed. If a second corn-crop be taken no allowance should 
be made ; but if, instead of a second corn-crop, grass or hay be 
grown and consumed, Is. may be allowed. 

W hen applied for a root-crop, the roots consumed upon the 
larm, and the manure so produced have not yielded a crop, 12s. 
lor 20 s. of the value of the manure may be allowed if the roots 
lie consumed on the land, or only 10s. if consumed in the yards. 
If a corn-crop has been grown by the manure of the consumed 


On the Valuation of Unexhausted Manures. 




roots, the grain sold, and the straw left on the farm, 2s. for 20s, 
of the estimated value of the manure should be allowed. 

Special potass-manures, such as Kainit, are only profitable 
under such exceptional circumstances as to soil and cropping, 
that no special rule can be given for the valuation of the unex- 
hausted residue from their use ; and before any claim could 
l>e admitted, evidence of their utility on the farm in question 
should be required. When such utility is proved, the same pro- 
portion of the original market-value, founded on composition, 
might be allowed, under the same circumstances as to cropping, 
&c., as in the case of a mineral superphosphate. 

In the case of anv compound or refuse artificial manure, con- 
taining very little nitrogen, but a fair amount of soluble phos- 
phates, the same proportion of the estimated value of the manure 
may be allowed for unexhausted residue as if it were a super- 
phosphate. But if it contain very little of either nitrogen or 
soluble phosphates, no allowance whatever should be made for 
its use ; excepting in the case of a potass-manure under the con- 
ditions above defined. 

The foregoing remarks as to the circumstances to be taken 
into consideration in valuing the unexhausted residue of the- 
various compound or refuse artificial manures of more or less 
unknown or uncertain composition, and the scales of compensa- 
tion which have been suggested, will, it is hoped, serve as some 
guide to those who may have to adjudicate on claims made in 
relation to such manures. At the same time, it will lie obvious 
that, owing to the great difference in the composition and value of 
such manures, no absolute rules can be laid down for the estima- 
tion of the value of any residue they may leave in the soil. 

10. Liming, Chalking, Mae ling, &c. 

Liming, chalking, and marling, are practices so far from 
being generally required, or generally adopted, in agriculture, 
and their cost and value are so dependent on local circum- 
stances, that no general rules can be laid down for the valua- 
tion ol their unexhausted effects. Still, where beneficial lv 
adopted, they would undoubtedly be fair subjects for compen- 
sation il the benefits were not unexhausted at the time of the 
tenant quitting his holding. If disputed, any claim should be 
settled upon the evidence, or might appropriately be submitted 
to the arbitration, of intelligent and disinterested persons of local 
practical experience. 

Such, then, are the results of an attempt, very carefully made, 
to construct a scale ol valuation of the unexhausted residue of 


On the Valuation of Unexhausted Manures. 


23 


previously-applied manures which have already yielded a crop. 
It will be observed that a fundamental principle of the valuation 
is to take as the original value of the manure not its cost-price, 
but its properly ascertained manure-value. Further, the de- 
scription of the crop or crops grown since the application of the 
manure, and whether the produce has been consumed or sold, have 
carefully been taken into account. But even supposing the esti- 
mates arrived at should be admitted or found to be in application 
as fair as, or fairer than, others in the majority of cases, it is freely 
granted that they might require very considerable modification, 
according to the cleanliness or foulness of the land, the lightness 
or heaviness of the soil, the dryness or wetness of the locality or 
of the particular seasons, and other circumstances. It is further 
granted that existing knowledge would not justify an attempt to 
take these essentially fluctuating conditions into numerical cal- 
culation, and to frame a sliding scale of allowances accordingly. 
Indeed, whatever basis or scale of valuation may be accepted as 
upon the whole the best, considerable latitude in its application 
must be allowed to those who may have the responsibility of 
making the award in individual cases. 

The results of the valuation of the unexhausted residue of 
manures founded on their original manure-value, which have 
been considered in detail in the foregoing pages, are, for the 
convenience of easy reference and comparison, brought together 
in one view in Table II. overleaf. 

Section II. — Allowances according to the Established Custom of 
different Counties and Districts. 

The Committee on “Unexhausted Improvements"’ appointed 
by the Council of the “ Central and Associated Chambers of 
Agriculture” have sought to collect, and put on record, the 
particulars of the allowances recognised in different counties and 
districts for a great variety of feeding-stuff’s and manures. Their 
schedules are arranged for returns relating to linseed-cake, 
cotton-cake, other purchased feeding-stuffs, guano, nitrate of 
soda, sulphate of ammonia, nitro-phosphate or blood-manure, 
special concentrated manures, bone-dust, superphosphate of 
lime, Kainit, ashes, night-soil, town-manure, rape-cake, soot, 
sea-weed, fish, and “ other fertilisers unenumerated.” In their 
Report, dated June 2, 1874, they state that they have received 
returns lrom 55 districts ; extending from the most northern 
to the most southern, and from the most eastern to the most 
western limits of England. The allowances vary accordingly as 
the purchased food is consumed in the yards or buildings, on 
pasture land, or on arable land ; or accordingly as the manure is 


Estimated Money-Value of the Unexhausted Residue of Manuhks remaining after tlio Growth of different 
Crops, expressed in Shillings for every T'wonty Shillings original MaHUVo- Vuluo ol the 1 urohased l'oeding- 
Stuff or Manuro employed. 



2nd year Corn crop; grain sold, straw loft 
3rd year Corn crop; grain Hold, straw left 


1st year Corn crop; grain sold, straw left 

2nd year Com crop ; grain sold, straw left 

2nd year , Grass or Lay consumed 
3rd year ' Grass or liny consumed . . 


On the Valuation of Unexhausted Manures 



Feeding-Stuff consumed on, or Mauure applied to, (truss-laud — Huy sold. 


20 


On the Valuation of Unexhausted Manures. 


applied to root or green-crops consumed on the farm, to corn- 
crops, the straw being left for consumption, hay-crops consumed 
on the farm, or to pasture ; and accordingly', also, as the food or 
manure was employed in the last year, or the last year but one, 
of the tenancy. 

In all cases the allowance is expressed as a certain proportion 
of the “ original value ” of the purchased feeding-stuff or 
manure ; “ original value ” meaning, it would appear, original 
cost of the article. 

It is understood that in some of the most important of the 
agricultural districts to which the returns refer, the scale of com- 
pensation has been settled by the mutual consent of outgoing 
and incoming tenants ; and some of the advocates of compul- 
sory compensation seem anxious that certain of the customs in 
question should be extended to all parts of England. It seems 
very desirable, therefore, that the basis of a few of the most im- 
portant of the recognised allowances should be carefully con- 
sidered, and their results compared with those arrived at by- 
other methods of valuation. 

In the most important districts in which such customs are in 
force, and which are supposed to supply the best examples for 
application to other localities, it so happens that there exists a 
very rigid, or scarcely varying, rotation of crops, and that little 
else than one or two standard feeding-stuffs, and one or two 
standard manures, are used. Supposing, therefore, the basis of 
the allowances prevailing in those districts were to be adopted 
for the country at large, the list, and the conditions, would 
have to be greatly enlarged if the requirements of the farming- 
under the great variety of rotations, and with the great variety 
of foods and manures employed, in other districts, are to be pro- 
vided for. 

Of the returns in question, Schedule 1, Form B, apparently in 
an incomplete state, is the only one I have been able to obtain. 
From it 1 find that in Lincolnshire, and in some other districts, 
the allowance for purchased feeding-stuffs is one-half the ori- 
ginal value of the quantity consumed by the outgoing tenant 
during the last year of his occupancy, a condition being that that 
quantity be not excessive ; and it is the same whether the food 
have been consumed in the yards, on pasture, or on arable land. 

The following Table shows, in parallel columns, the present 
price per ton of some staple feeding-stuffs, and the allowance to 
the outgoing tenant for its consumption, according to the customs 
referred to, founded on “ original value ” or cost. By the side 
of these is also shown the allowance that would be made 
according to the scale of valuation laid down in the foregoing 
Section (I.) ; in the construction of which the original manure- 


27 


On the Valuation of Unexhausted Manures. 

value of the feeding-stuff after consumption, as given in the 
Table at page 11, is adopted as the basis, and it is assumed 
that the quantity of the feeding-stuff accepted as the year’s con- 
sumption is the average amount of two, three, or more years, as. 
the case may be, and the allowance is made on a declining scale 
from year to year, according to the crop grown, <Scc., as already 
fully explained. 



Oxe Ton of Food Consumed per 

Annum. 


“ Original value " 
or 

Purchasing Price. 

Allowance i 
according to 
Lincolnshire 1 
Custom ; 
half One Year’s 
Consumption. 

Allowance 
according to 
Manure-value ; 
on Three Years’ 
Consumption. 

Allowance 
by " Custom ” 
more (+), or less (— ),. 
than by 

“ Manure-value.” 

Cotton-cake, de-i 
corticated . . / 

£ s. d. 

10 10 0 \ 

£ *. d. 

5 5 0 

£ s. d. 

8 5 9 

£ 8. d. 

- 3 0 9 

Linseed cake . . 

12 10 0 

6 5 0 

5 17 11 

+ 0 7 1 

Wheat 

9 10 0 

4 15 0 

2 2 1 

+ 2 12 11 


Although, according to the Lincolnshire custom, the allow- 
ance is half the original value of the last, or one year’s con- 
sumption only, it is a condition that the quantity claimed upon 
shall only be a fair average of the consumption of three years : 
so that, in point of fact, the allowance, though only part of one 
year's consumption, is, as in the case of my own scale, arranged 
to compensate for more than the consumption of the last year 
alone. In the case of my own scale, 17s. is allowed for every 
20s. of original “ manure-value ” of the food if consumed on the 
land during the last year, and 16s. if consumed in the yards ; 
and in the example given in the Table, it is supposed that half 
is consumed on the land, and half in the yards ; 7s. in 20s. is 
allowed for the amount consumed with roots in the last year but 
one, followed by a corn-crop ; and 2s. for the amount consumed 
in the last year but two, followed by corn, and this by grass 
or hay consumed. 

Of all purchased feeding-stuffs, linseed-cake is the one in 
the use of which farmers have the greatest experience, and the 
feeding and manure-value of which are therefore the best under- 
stood. It will be seen that the allowance for it is, according 
to the Lincolnshire custom, nearly the same as according to 
my more elaborate scale ; and the agreement would be nearer 
still, if it were not that the cost of the cake is taken at the 
present exceptionally high price. 


28 On the Valuation of Unexhausted Manures. 

It is, however, when we come to other purchased feeding- 
stuffs, the feeding and manure-value of which is less understood, 
but in respect to which the allowance for compensation is, like 
that for linseed-cake, also based upon original cost, that we find 
very wide differences between the allowance according to the 
“ customs,” and according to manure-value. Thus, in the case 
of decorticated cotton-cake, which has not only the highest 
manure-value of any of the articles enumerated in the Table at 
page 11, but has also a very high manure-value in proportion to. 
the purchasing price of the food, my estimate of unexhausted 
residue, founded on manure-value, is very much higher than that 
which would be allowed by the Lincolnshire custom. In the 
case of wheat, on the other hand, which has a very low manure- 
value, both actually and relatively to purchasing price, the 
allowance founded on manure-value would be considerably less 
than half that according to the Lincolnshire custom, founded on 
original cost. 

These few examples are sufficient to show how entirely fal- 
lacious it is to assume that the manure-value of a food, whatever 
may be its composition, bears a fixed proportion to its original 
cost. It may, perhaps, be answered that my own estimates are 
erroneous; and certainly I do not intend to claim for them infal- 
libility, but only that they are carefully made, with due regard 
to such knowledge as at present exists bearing upon the subject. 

But let us test the question in another way. Wheat is much 
used for feeding at the present time, and the purchasing price 
of feeding qualities may be taken at 9/. 10s. per ton. On the 
assumption that the manure-value of any feeding-stuff is one-half 
its purchasing price, that of a ton of wheat after consumption 
would be 4 1. 15s. Now, the manure-value of consumed food 
may be said to depend almost exclusively on the amount of 
nitrogen, phosphoric acid, and potass, contributed to the manure ; 
and the quantity of these constituents yielded by the consump- 
tion of a ton of wheat w r ould be, in round numbers : — 


* lbs. 

Nitrogen 34 

Phosphoric acid, reckoned as phosphate of lime 40 

Potass ! .. .. 11 


These manurial constituents could be purchased at the present 
time as follows : — 

£ s. d. 

34 lbs. nitrogen, in 220 lbs. nitrate of soda, at 14s. per cwt. .. 1 7 G 
40 lbs. phosphate of lime (soluble), in 154 lbs. superphosphate,) a 7 e 

at 5*. 6d. per cwt J 

11 lbs. potass in 22 lbs. sulphate of potass, at lGs. per cwt. .. 0 3 2 


£1 18 2 


On the Valuation of Unexhausted Manures. 29 

Thus, then, if wheat had been consumed, and compensation 
were allowed at the rate of one-half the original cost of the year’s 
consumption, the incoming tenant would have to pay nearly 31. 
more for each ton of wheat so used by his predecessor than the 
constituents he received in the manure could be purchased for 
in artificial manures. Not only so, the animal-manure would 
be subject to an unknown loss by winter rains, and would be 
less rapidly active than the same constituents applied in artificial 
manures in the spring. 

Further, the allowances according to “ Custom ” vary very 
much in different localities, and even in closely-contiguous 
districts. Thus, within the limits of the West Riding of York- 
shire, in one district the allowance on the last year’s consump- 
tion is one-half or one-tliird of the original value of the food, 
according to the description of the cake, or the conditions under 
which it has been consumed ; and, for the last year but one, one- 
fourth the original value in all cases. In another district the 
allowance is, for the last year one-fourth, and for the last year 
but one one-eighth, under- all conditions. In a third, it is for 
the last year one-third, and for the last year but one, nothing. 

In South Staffordshire the allowance for linseed or cotton-cake 
consumed is, for the quantity used during the last year of the 
tenancy, two-thirds, and for that used during the last year but 
one, one-third, of the original value of the food. Supposing the 
outgoing tenant consumed 1 ton of linseed-cake annually upon 
his turnip-crop, followed by barley, he would receive compensa- 
tion, according to the custom of South Staffordshire, founded on 
original value or cost, and according to my estimates, founded 
on manure-value, respectively, as follows : — 

According to South Staffordshire custom — 

£ s. d. £ s. d. 

1 ton linseed cake, last year, two-thirds cost, at) 0 „ 0 

12 1. 10s .. \ 8 6 8 

1 ton lmseed cake, last year hut one, one-third) , „ . 

cost, at 12 1. 10s j 4 

12 10 0 


According to my estimate of manure-value — 

1 ton linseed cake, last year, consumed with roots) 0 1Q Q 

on land .. .. ^ 8 

1 ton linseed cake, last year but one, fed with roots! . 0 , 

on land, followed by barley ) 1 * 

1 ton linseed cake, last year but two, fed with) 

roots on land, followed by barley, and by grass > 0 9 3 

or hay consumed .. ..J 


6 0 3 


£6 9 9 


30 


On the Valuation of Unexhausted Manures. 


Here, then, for every ton of linseed-cake annually consumed 
by his predecessor during the last years of his occupancy the 
incoming tenant would, according to the South Staffordshire 
custom, have to pay 6/. 9 s. 9 d. more than according to the 
estimate founded on manure-value, in fact more than twice as 
much. 

In the following Table are compared the compensation that 
would be allotted according to the Lincolnshire custom, founded 
-on original cost, and according to my estimates founded on com- 
position or manure-value, for guano containing nitrogen equal 
to 13 per cent, ammonia, for guano containing nitrogen equal to 
G'5 per cent, ammonia, for nitrate of soda containing nitrogen 
equal to 19 per cent, ammonia, for sulphate of ammonia con- 
taining 24 per cent, ammonia, and for superphosphate of lime 
containing 26 per cent, phosphate rendered soluble. Each is 
supposed to be applied for a root-crop consumed by the out- 
going tenant during the last year of his occupancy. 


One Ton'used fer Annum for Roots consumed. 



Original value, 
or 

Purchasing Price. 

Allowance 
according to 
Lincolnshire 
Custom. 

Allowance 
according to 
6cale at 
Page 24. 

Custom allowance 
more ( + ), or less ( — ) 
than according to 
scale at Page 24. 


£ 

s. 

(J. 

£ 

s. 

d. 

£ *. 

d. 

£ s. 

d. 

Guano containing nitrogen! 
= 13 per cent, ammonia . . / 

13 

0 

0 

13 

0 

0 

9 15 

0 

+3 5 

0 

Guano containing nitrogen! 
= 6‘5 per cent, ammonia. J 

Nitrate of soda containing) 

13 

0 

0 

13 

0 

0 

4 17 

G 

+ 8 2 

6 

nitrogen = 19 per cent.) 
ammonia ) 

Sulphate of ammonia con- ) 

14 

0 

0 

14 

0 

0 

10 10 

0 

+ 3 10 

0 

taining 24 per cent. of> 
ammonia j 

Superphosphate of lime con- ) 

18 

10 

0 

18 

10 

0 

13 17 

6 

+4 12 

6 

taining 26 per cent. solu-> 
ble phosphate ) 

5 

10 

0 

5 

10 

0 

2 15 

0 

+ 2 15 

0 


Again, in regard to manures, as to many feeding-stuffs, the 
compensation for unexhausted residue is much higher according 
to the Lincolnshire custom than according to my estimates. The 
illustration given of guano supposed to contain 13 per cent., or 
only 6‘5 per cent, of ammonia respectively, each bought at. the 
uniform price of 13/. per ton, shows how fallacious is the estimate 
of unexhausted value founded on original cost, instead of on 
-composition. 


On the Valuation of Unexhausted Manures. 31 

The examples given in respect to both feeding-stuffs and 
manures, of the great and variable difference in the amount of 
compensation that would be awarded for unexhausted residue 
according to the customs of large agricultural districts on the one 
hand, and on the basis of valuation according to composition on 
the other, are, to say the least, very striking. Little doubt can 
be entertained, that much better evidence of their fairness and 
general applicability than at present exists would be required 
before attempting to apply the scale of allowances adopted in 
special agricultural districts to the country at large, 

I am quite willing to grant that wide differences exist between 
the soil, climate, and other conditions of the agriculture of other 
districts, compared with those of my own farm. Indeed, although 
I cannot admit that the experimental results obtained at Rotham- 
sted afford no data upon which, with care and judgment, im- 
portant general conclusions applicable to other and different 
conditions may be founded, yet I have already said that, even 
supposing the basis upon which my own estimates of compensa- 
tion are arranged were adopted, the exact scale of allowances 
might require considerable modification, according to the 
characters of the soil, of the climate, of the individual seasons, 
and other circumstances. 

It will, perhaps, be said that so long as both parties interested 
agree to accept terms of compensation, which, whether fair or 
not, those subject to them may at some future time in their turn 
exact, no great harm is done. But in the event of a system of 
compulsory compensation being adopted, proof of the value of 
the unexhausted residue of feeding-stuffs and manures will be 
required of the claimant ; and I would ask — where are the scien- 
tific witnesses, having characters to lose, who would assert that 
the unexhausted residue from all purchased feeding-stuffs and 
manures may be valued on the basis of the original value or 
purchasing price of the article ? 

•Section III . — Estimation of Compensation for the Unexhausted 
Residue of purchased (or saleable ) Feeding-stuffs and Manures , 
by the Valuation of what is above ground , and has a recognised 
and easily-ascertainable Money-value. 

I freely admit that the tenant farmer has an equitable claim 
lor compensation for the unexhausted manures he leaves in the 
soil when he quits his holding. But I think anyone who has 
carefully considered the schemes of compensation discussed in 
cither of the foregoing Sections (I. and II.) of this Paper will 
agree with me that, even with the best intention, and calling to 
our aid all the knowledge, both practical and scientific, which 


32 On the Valuation of Unexhausted Manures. 

we at present possess bearing upon the subject, it would be a 
matter of very great difficulty to lay down rules which shall be 
generally applicable for the estimation of the productive, and 
consequently of the money-value of the unexhausted residue of 
manures which have previously been applied to the soil, and 
have already yielded a crop. 

The results of direct experiments have shown that some 
important constituents of manure either leave little or no unex- 
hausted residue in the land after the first crop, or leave it so 
combined within the soil, or so distributed throughout it, that 
it produces little or no appreciable effect on succeeding crops. 
Some manures, on the other hand, produce marked effects for 
several years after their application. It is obvious, therefore, 
that it would require a x very complicated sliding-scale to enable 
us to estimate the value of constituents already under ground 
under the very varying conditions that would arise, as to the 
description and the amount of the manure employed, the cha- 
racters of the soil and subsoil, the dryness or wetness of the 
particular locality or of particular seasons, the description of 
crop grown, the cleanliness or foulness of the land, and so on. 

It seems extremely desirable, therefore, that every attempt 
should be made to arrive at some mode of estimating the com- 
pensation due to an outgoing tenant for his unexhausted 
manures founded on the valuation of what is above ground, the 
amount and the value of which can be easily ascertained, rather 
than to leave his claims to be settled by the conflicts of practice 
and science in Courts of Law. Tenant-farmers would find an 
Act for compulsory compensation dearly bought on such terms. 

In my Paper read before the London Farmers’ Club, in April, 
1870, I made some suggestions with a view of estimating com- 
pensation by the valuation of certain products of the farm. 
These, with some modifications, I propose to re-state here, in the 
hope that they will, at any rate, receive that full and candid 
criticism without which the principle they involve should be 
neither accepted nor rejected. > 

If the plan in question were adopted, it would be desirable 
that the time of entry should be Lady-day. The items upon 
which I would base the valuation in favour of the outgoing 
tenant are, — 

1. The farmyard-manure made during the last six months of 
the occupancy. 

2. The manure from the consumption of purchased food which 
has not yet grown a crop. 

3. The straw of the corn-crops of the next harvest. 

The farmyard-manure would be valued to the incoming tenant 
by the load or ton. The price of the dung, per load or ton, would 


On the Valuation of Unexhausted Manures. 


33 


have to be settled, either by agreement, or by a recognised cus- 
tom for a given district or locality ; and the question is open 
for consideration whether the rate should approximate to the 
farm- or to the market-value. As the quantity of dung to be so 
valued will depend very much on the quantity of straw pxoduced 
at the last harvest, the valuation will, so far, take into account 
the previous condition of the land. High condition of land 
means large corn-crops, and the tendency of the effect of high 
manuring is to increase the straw in greater proportion than the 
corn ; and as 1 ton of straw makes from 3^ to 4 tons or more 
of dung, the difference between the number of tons of dung 
paid for on entry on land in poor condition, and the amount to 
receive for on quitting in high condition, may be very large. 

If in addition to the value of dung, reckoned per load or ton, 
the manure-value of the purchased food, if any, consumed in 
its production were also allowed, it might be objected that the 
incoming tenant would thus have to pay for the same manure 
twice over. In answer it may be said that the addition to the 
weight of a yard of manure by the excrements due to the con- 
sumption of purchased food is comparatively immaterial ; but if 
it were decided that a reduction should be made on this score, 
about three-fourths of the weight of the purchased food would 
probably be sufficient to deduct from the total number of loads 
or tons of dung. What proportion of the original manure-value 
of the purchased food, as shown in Table I., at page 11, should 
be allowed, will depend upon whether it has been consumed on 
the land, or in the yards or buildings. If on the land 17s., 
and if in the yards or buildings 16s., for every 20s. of original 
manure-value should be allowed. 

The condition of the land in regard to recent manuring would, 
as in the case of the amount of dung produced from the straw of 
the last harvest, be further represented in the amount of straw to 
be valued as such at the next harvest. How much the amount 
of straw may vary on the same land and in the same seasons, 
according to “ condition,” may be illustrated by what is, how- 
ever, admittedly a very extreme case. The continuously un- 
manured plot in my experimental wheat-field gave over a series 
of years an average of only about 14^ cwts. of straw per acre ; 
whilst a highly-manured plot gave, over the same period, an 
average of 46^ cwts., or nearly 3£ times as much. 

Supposing the amount of straw were to be taken as an item in 
the valuation for compensation, as here proposed, the question 
whether the consuming or the market price should be adopted 
would, as in the case of the dung, be still open for consideration. 

Shortly after the publication of my Paper read before the 
London Farmers’ Club in 1870, Mr. Smith, of Woolston, writing: 

VOL. XI.— S*. S. D 


34 


On the Valuation of Unexhausted Manures. 


in the ‘Agricultural Gazette,’ objected, first, that my plan of com- 
pensation would give the outgoing tenant nothing more than the 
consuming value of his straw, and afterwards, that it would give 
him no more than he could already obtain. Neither allegation 
was true. The real question at issue is, however, not whether 
on the plan proposed the outgoing tenant would receive less or 
more than under any other arrangement, but whether he would 
receive as much as he was entitled to for his outlay. In answer, 
I put as an example a case which, with some modifications, I 
repeat here. 

Suppose a farm of 400 acres cultivated on the four-course 
system ; that the tenant enters upon it in a low condition ; that 
after years of clean farming, and the liberal use of purchased 
food and manures, he leaves it in high condition ; and that, 
accordingly, it yielded at the time of entry, and the time of giving 
up, respectively, the following average amounts of produce. 



Average Produce per Acre. 


On Entry. 

On Leaving. 

100 acres roots 

G tons. 

12 tons. 

100 acres barley 

28 bushels. 

42 bushels. 

100 acres bay 

1 ton. 

2 tons. 

100 acres wheat 

24 bushels. 

36 bushels. 


It will be unnecessary to complicate the subject by taking into 
account the oats consumed by the horses, as the amount of 
manure produced from them would not be materially different at 
the two periods. Also for the sake of simplicity, the same pro- 
portion of straw to corn may be assumed on entry and on leaving, 
though it would doubtless be higher under the improved con- 
dition. Let it lie assumed, then, that in each case half the 
roots are consumed in the yards ; that previous to entry no 
purchased food had been employed ; that during the later years 
of the occupancy 25 tons of linseed-cake were used annually ; 
that for every bushed of wheat (of 60 lbs.) there was an average of 
100 lbs. of straw, and for every bushel of barley (of 52 lbs.) an 
average of 62^ lbs. of straw. 

Adopting these data, the following are the amounts of. straw, 
and the estimated amounts of dung, entered upon, and left, 
respectively; and the difference between the value of these on 
entry and on leaving, together with the proportion of the manure- 


On the Valuation of Unexhausted Manures. 


35 


value of the purchased cake, will represent the compensation 
to be received by the outgoing tenant for his improvement of 
the condition of the land. 

First, as to the straw, we have — 



Wheat Straw. 

Barley Straw. 

Total Straw. 

Value 

at 15s. per ton. 


Tons. 

Tons. 

Tons. 

£ S. 

d. 

• On entry 

107 

78 

185 

138 15 

0 

On leaving .. 

160i 

117 

2774 

20S 2 

6 

Difference . . 

534 

39 

92£ 

69 7 

6 


Reckoning the same amounts of straw as above assumed on 
>ntry, to have been converted into manure during the season pre- 
vious to entry ; and again, the same amounts as assumed on 
leaving, to have been converted into manure during the season 
previous to leaving ; with, in each case, the consumption of 
oots and hay as above supposed, and previous to leaving of 
15 tons of linseed-cake also, the amounts of manure, calcu- 
ated according to carefully considered data would be about as 
ollows : — 


Fresh Dung. j Value at 5s. per ton. 


Tons. [ £ s. d. 

On entry 649 ■ 162 5 0 

On leaving 1072 1 268 0 0 

Difference 423 105 15 0 


Lastly, the estimated total manure-value obtained by the con- 
umption of 1 ton of linseed-cake is 47. 12s. 6t/.; and assuming 
[hat the outgoing tenant consumed 25 tons, half on the land and 
jiall in the yards, he would have an average claim of 16s. 6(7. for 
very 17. of original or total manure-value of the 25 tons of cake. 
The original manure-value of 25 tons of linseed-cake would be 
157. 12s. 6c/.; and this at 16s. 6r7. in the 17. would be 957. 7s. 10rf., 
ue to the outgoing tenant on the consumption of the 25 tons 
i linseed-cake during the last year of his occupancy. 

The outgoing tenant would, therefore, according to the above 
istimates, founded on the amount of certain products of the farm, 
pe quantity and value of which are easily ascertained, receive 

d 2 


36 


On the Valuation of Unexhausted Manures. 


as compensation for liis unexhausted improvement in the con- 
dition of the land, the following sums beyond what he paid on 


entry : — 

£ s. d. 

On straw 69 7 6 

On dung 105 15 0 

On purchased food consumed 95 7 10 


£270 10 4 


As I said at the time, so I repeat now, whether the above 
amount would or would not be adequate compensation is a 
question fairly open for discussion. I do not at all insist on the 
general applicability of the rate of 15s. per ton for the straw, or 
of 5s. per ton for fresh dung, adopted above for the purpose of 
illustration. All I contend for is the principle of valuation which 
I have proposed : being convinced that valuations so made would 
rest upon a basis of facts much more easily ascertainable, and 
much more trustworthy, than would any estimates of the value 
of the unexhausted residue of manures which have been applied 
to the land, and have already yielded a crop. 

For comparison, there is shown below what would be the 
allowance in the case of a 400-acre farm as above assumed : — 

1. According to the scale laid down in Section I., founded on 
manure-value. 

2. According to the Lincolnshire custom, founded on cost,' 
as quoted in Section II. 

3. According to the valuation of the straw, of the dung, and 
of the manure from purchased food, as given above : — 


1 . 


According to Manure-value — £ s d £ s d 

25 tons linseed-cake, last year, consumed with! Qr 7 . n 
roots, half on land and half in yards .. .. / 0 

25 tons linseed-cake, last year but one, con-1 , „ ^ r 

sumed with roots, followed by corn .. .. / ° 

25 tons linseed-cake, last year but two, con-1 , 4 

sumed with roots, followed by corn, and J 11 11 3 

hay consumed ) 

147 8 ' 


2. According to Lincolnshire custom — 

25 tons linseed-cake consumed during last 
year, half original value 


156 5 


3. Calculated on produce, &c. — 


On straw 69 7 6 

On dung 105 15 0 


On purchased food consumed .. .. 95 7 10 


270 10 


On the Valuation of Unexhausted Manures. 


37 


Thus then, in the case supposed, the outgoing tenant would 
be awarded almost identical amounts of compensation for the 
unexhausted residue of his purchased linseed-cake, whether it 
were estimated according to my more elaborate mode of valuation 
founded on manure-value, or whether according to the Lincoln- 
shire custom, founded on original value or cost ; and the agree- 
ment would be closer still if, in the latter calculation, the present 
exceptionally high price of linseed-cake had not been adopted. 
As already pointed out, however, although in the case of Jinseed- 
cake, the food and manure-value of which are comparatively well 
understood, these two methods do give closely approximating 
results, yet, as has been shown, they lead to totally different esti- 
mates with other foods of different composition, and which have 
been less generally used. 

Compared with either of the two methods just referred to, the 
valuation founded on the amount of dung made from the straw 
□f the preceding harvest, the amount of purchased food consumed, 
and the quantity of straw of the succeeding harvest, is seen to 
give a very much higher rate of compensation. It is to be 
observed, however, that whilst in the case of method 1, or 
method 2, being adopted, further allowances would frequently 
be made for straw and dung, in the case of method 3 the allow- 
ance for these is already included. 

With the foregoing consideration of the principle and results 
of the different methods, and with the example given of the 
application of each, put forward merely for the sake of illustra- 
tion and comparison, I leave the further discussion of this com- 
plicated and difficult subject to those whom it mav most concern, 
feeling assured that I may safely do so at a time when the 
important questions involved are exciting so much general 
interest. 

It may be said that the adoption of the plan of valuation I 
have proposed, founded on the amount and value of certain pro- 
ducts of the farm, would necessitate an entire re-arrangement of 
Covenants and customs. This may be true; but I would suggest 
whether the changes required under such circumstances would be 
greater than would be forced upon the landlord, if compulsory 
compensation on any other basis became the law of the land ? 

The main conclusions arrived at may be summarised as 
(follows : — 

1. In the existing state of our knowledge, no simple rules, 

■ applicable to various soils and subsoils, climates, seasons, crops, 
and manures, can be laid down for the valuation of the unex- 
hausted residue of previously applied manures which have already 
yielded a crop. 


38 Report on Messrs. Prout and Middleditch' s 

2. Under such circumstances, valuation upon such a basis 
would very frequently result in injustice to the one party or the 
other, and would probably lead to much litigation. 

3. If a system of compensation based upon the valuation of 
the unexhausted residue from purchased foods or manures were 
adopted, power should be given to the landlord, or to the 
incoming tenant, to take samples for analysis, of any foods or 
manures, for the use of which any claim is to be made. 

4. In consideration of the difficulties attending other methods 
of valuation, it is very desirable to consider whether compensa- 
tion for unexhausted condition of land might not be advan- 
tageously based upon the amount of certain products of the farm, I 
the quantity and money-value of which can be easily ascer- 
tained. 


II. — Report on Messrs. Prout and Middleditch’ s Continuous Corn 

Growing. By Finlay Dun, Weston Park, Warwickshire. 

Some agricultural authorities insist that corn growing cannot pay 
in England, and that the increasing expenses of cultivation must 
shortly consign large tracts of arable land to grass. Whether sup- 
ported mainly upon permanent pastures or upon fodder and roots 
grown under rotation, cattle and sheep have recently been regarded 
as the chief sources of farm profits. They have moreover been 
considered essential for maintaining the condition alike of grass 
and arable land. Indeed good yard-manure and sheep penning, 
with occasional cleaning and recruitment by fallow and grass, 
have hitherto been the recognised means of maintaining the 
fertility of ploughed land. Accepting these data, good managers 
of clay soils have recently endeavoured to augment their herds 
and flocks, to grow mangold and other food for stock, to increase 
their expenditure upon cake and corn, and fatten sheep as well 
as cattle in yards. Steam economically securing deeper and 
more thorough cultivation in some localities is superseding the 
slower and more expensive horse-power. But despite these aids 
and modern appliances, the heavy clays continue, too generally, 
to absorb a large amount of capital and yield a minimum ol 
profit. Owners and occupiers are alike dissatisfied with the 
meagre returns obtained from clay farms, and anxiously invoke 
the aid of science and practice. 

Two spirited agriculturists, Mr. John Prout, of Sawbridge- 
worth, Herts, and Mr. Edward Middleditch, of Blunsdon 
Swindon, Wiltshire, have helped materially to solve some o 
the difficulties ol clay farming. They have demonstrated mor<| 


Continuous Corn Growing. 


39 


fullv the agricultural capabilities of stubborn clays ; have prac- 
tically shown how successfully they may be cultivated ; have 
profitably grown cereals on the same heavy land for several 
consecutive years, and continue annually to dispose of the whole 
of the increased produce. The Council of the Royal Agricul- 
tural Society of England, desirous that such striking results 
should be investigated and made public, have instructed me to 
prepare a report on these two interesting farms. 

Mr. Prout purchased Blount’s and Sweetdew’s farms, in 1861. 
They comprise 450 acres, situated in the parish of Sawbridge- 
worth, about four miles from Harlow, and four miles from 
Bishop Stortford. The soil — a clay and strong loam readily 
poaching and running together if worked wet — lies upon a sub- 
soil of drift-clay and cretaceous gravel, a portion of the Eocene 
formation, and bordering on the Chalk and chalk-marl. Sub- 
joined* are analyses made, in 1865, by Professor Voelcker, of the 
soil from three fields, carefully collected by himself, and showing 
no remarkable fertility, and no superabundance of th? alkalies 
and phosphates, which grain-crops specially require. The pro- 
perty, when conveyed to Mr. Prout thirteen years ago, had for 
some time been in the market, had frightened various intending 
purchasers, and eventually was bought for 33/. per acre, — a 
moderate cost for a compact estate in a beautiful metropolitan 
county, and only twenty-eight miles from London. But to such 
an indifferent condition had the farm been reduced, that the 
former owner had difficulty in getting a tenant to offer 20s. per 
; acre. 

The land was wet, overrun with couch, docks, and thistles, 
and overshadowed with crooked useless fences. Even the fields 


* Analyses of Soils at Blount’s Farm. 


Broad Field. 

Black Acre. 

White Moor. 


Per Cent. 

Per Cent. 

Per Cent. 

Organic matter 

4-75 

4-46 

5-49 

Oxide of iron 

4-80 

4-29 

7-91 

Alumina 

5 39 

4-90 

2-06 

Carbonate of lime 

245 

4-74 

1-80 

Magnesia 


1-59 

0-80 

Potash 


0-72 

0-51 

Soda 

0-08 

traces. 

0-16 

Sulphuric acid 


o-oi 

0-09 

Phosphoric acid 

016 

012 

0-27 

Insoluble matters 

79-91 

79-17 

80-91 


100-00 

100 00 

100 00 

Sand by washing . . 

53-01 

42-64 

39-38 


40 


Report on Messrs. Prout and Middleditch’ s 

around the house, presumably in the best condition, produced 
the miserable yield of 12 bushels of wheat, and 20 of oats in the 
year that Mr. Prout took possession. As might be anticipated, 
a heavy outlay was required before much return could be drawn 
from such a property. About 16/. per acre was expended in 
draining, cutting outfall ditches, grubbing up and levelling 
old fences, making roads, adding to and repairing buildings, 
and fallowing foul land. Mr. Prout as well as his son, Mr. 
William Prout, have, most obligingly, given me much informa- 
tion relating to their improvements and farming, and furnished 
me with the following details of the cost of these preliminary 


improvements : — 

£ £ 

Draining 2700 or per acre 6 

Ditches and fences 450 , , 1 

Boads, reservoirs and pumps .. .. 900 ,, 2 

Cottages, luncheon-room and walls .. 450 ,, 1 

Bare fallows and cleaning 2700 , , 6 


£7200 , , 1G 

The old farm-house, barns, and yards stand rather towards the 
northern boundary of the farm. A new house has been talked 
of, but Mr. Prout, when he makes his frequent visits, is still 
content with the accommodation furnished by several rooms 
in the old dwelling, permanently occupied by the bailiff. But, 
solicitous for the comfort and convenience of his labourers, 
he has built and improved three commodious cottages. The 
home barns, chiefly constructed of wood, and thatched, being 
of little use for the storage of corn, are converted into 
spacious, airy, loose boxes for the cart-horses. An outlying 
barn is employed as a manure-shed. To ensure convenient 
water-supply, new wells have been dug and old ones cleaned 
out. In one enclosure, where the water frequently wept forth, 
stunting or destroying every crop, a brick reservoir, capable of 
containing 15,000 gallons of water, has been made ; and into this 
is fixed, handy to the road, an elevated iron pump, under which 
the water-carts supplying the engine are conveniently filled. A 
great deal of labour and several hundred pounds were expended 
in grubbing up the unsightly hedge-rows, and levelling the ugly 
banks, which cut the farm into fifty-one enclosures. Laboriously 
with horses this reclaimed\land was ploughed, and brought into 
good cultivation ; and it now adds about 18 acres to the produc- 
tive area of the farm. 

The land, gently sloping, lies tolerably well for draining, but 
the former outfalls were indifferent; the bush-drains, which, as 
elsewhere in the locality, had been dug in some of the wettest 
places, did little good ; and, in spite of ridging up in narrow 


Continuous Corn Growing. 


41 


3— ft. lands, the miserable crops were often starved. At intervals 
of 33 vds. 2-in. pipes were laid at the depth of 34 feet ; in the 
lower portions of the longer drains 3-in. pipes were placed ; the 
pipes in the furrows empty into 4 or 6-in. mains which collect 
the drainage of 10 or 12 acres, and discharge into dykes or 
ditches 6 or 7 ft. deep, which intersect the symmetrical fields 
and conduct the surplus water into a tributary of the Lea. 
About 70 acres were drained, at 14 ft. intervals and 28 in. depth, 
by the steam mole-ploughs of Mr. Eddington, of Chelmsford ; this 
cost 35s. per acre, with 5s. extra for digging and laying the 
mains by hand labour. But most of this land, thus steam-mole 
drained, has since required to be dried in the ordinary way 
with pipes. Fifteen acres were drained to the depth of 4 ft., but 
as the argillaceous substratum is cut through and the yellow clay 
reached at 34 ft. there appears no good reason for deeper and more 
expensive draining. No difference is observable in the dryness 
of the fields drained at 34 and 4 ft., nor has repeated obser- 
vation discovered any difference in the outflow of water from 
the same acreage drained at these two depths. The dykes, 6 to 
7 ft. deep, and wide in proportion, present rather a formidable 
obstruction during the hunting season, but effectually separate 
the twenty enclosures into which the farm is now divided. 

Convinced of the economy of steam for the working of heavy 
land, Mr. Prout at once obtained, from Messrs. John Fowler 
and Co., of Leeds, a 14-horse-power engine with clip-drum, 
anchor, and 400 yards of rope for 1065/. This tackle, the best 
that was then procurable, has been -\ery effective, is still in 
admirable order, and enables him to get through his work with 
six or seven horses. Even during earlier years ten horses 
sufficed to perform the farm work as well as the haulage of 
draining-pipes, road materials, and other extra duties. The 
steam cultivation at Sawbridgeworth has already been described 
in the Society’s ‘Journal,’ Second Series, vol. iii. p. 121. The im- 
portance of the service, so economically rendered by the steam- 
tackle, may also be gathered from the subjoined tabular state- 
ment, extracted for ijie from his books by Mr. William Prout. 

This Table (p. 42) indicates the reiterated operations which 
were at first essential to clean the foul land. But instead of 
the two or three ploughings and a scarifying at first requisite, 
one operation, generally a ploughing 6 or 7 inches deep, now 
suffices to ensure a good and clean seed-bed. The whole of 
the farm has been subsoiled 15 or 16 inches deep, but an- 
other such subsoiling will probably shortly be undertaken. So 
effectually did the steam-tackle disintegrate the formerly sour 
stiff clay, and admit frost, air, and sun, that for a few years 
lull crops throve with little extra manuring, and even consecu- 


42 


Report on Messrs. Prout and Middleditcfi s 


tive cereals were grown with about 20s. per acre of artificial 
manure. Experience, however, has shown that to prosecute 
successfully Mr. Prout’s system, fertilisers to the value of 50 s. 
or 60s. per acre require to be applied annually. 


Years. 

Subsoiled. 

Ploughed. 

Scarified. 

Total. 

18621 
and > 

Acres. 

Acres. 

Acres. 

Acres. 

277 

1401 

480 

2158 

1863) 

1864 

191 

409 

264 

864 

1865 

98 

496 

317 

911 

1866 

. , 

310 


310 

1867 


637 

174 

811 

1868 


321 

257 

678 

I860 


368 

116 

502 

1870 

, . 

281 

277 

558 

1871 


296 

130 

426 

1872 

57 

304 

55 

416 

1873 

. . 

363 

4 

367 

1874 


408 


408 


623 

5612 

2074 

8309 


But Mr. Prout has done more than bring into superior and 
profitable cultivation 450 acres of heavy clay land, thirteen years 
ago worth not more than 20s. per acre. He has inaugurated an 
almost original system of husbandry. Cereals and clover are year 
after year sold to be removed from the occupation ; all ordinary 
rotations are ignored; corn-crops follow each other on the same 
field for several consecutive years ; wheat has been taken for five 
years following; cereals have been reiterated for eight years. 
For his consecutive corn-crops Mr. Prout only desires deep 
thorough cultivation, extirpation of weeds, and the regular supply 
of plant-food in the form of appropriate portable manures. His 
present system was not adopted hastily and inconsistently. Mr. 
Prout is no mere theorist. He brought to Sawbridge worth abun- 
dant experience, acquired in farming both in Cornwall andjCanada, 
and lor the first few years endeavoured to farm on established 
principles, to pursue some well-advised rotation, to keep and 
leed plenty of live stock, to increase fertility by the purchase of 
London manure. But, like some other agriculturists, he found 
that he could not make a satisfactory balance-sheet. Messrs. 
Lawes and Gilbert’s successful experiments at Rothamsted in 
growing grain-crops in consecutive years with artificial manures, 
justified, he believed, the more extensive adoption of this 
system ; and he determined to sell year by year the whole of his 
growing-crops, and to restore an equivalent of plant-food in the 
lorm ol portable fertilisers. Accordingly in 1864, 147 acres of 


Continuous Corn Growing. 


43 


wheat, 73 acres of barley, and 29 acres of oats, were advertised 
for sale, straw as well as grain to be removed. An average of 
81. 8s. per acre was obtained. Eight sales have since followed. 
Prices have varied with the season and the prospects of the 
market, but reached their highest in 1870, when the total average 
was 12/. 6s. 6d., the wheat making 15/. 3s. 10r7. The sale 
account for 1874 is as follows : — • 

£ s. d 

325 acres Wheat, averaging 10 17 7 

64 „ Oats, averaging 9 15 0 

45 „ Clover cut and ricked, averaging 7 2 3 

.. „ Aftermath 3 5 9 

434 ,, Averaging 10 13 3 = 4628 2 6 

The sales are held a week or ten days before the crops are 
ready for harvest. The neighbouring farmers are the principal 
buyers, and at the sale of 1874 one gentleman bought 54 acres. 
The purchasers usually superintend their own harvesting, thresh 
out their own grain, part of it from the field, most of it be- 
fore Christmas, and either consume the straw or forward it to 
London. Metropolitan dealers sometimes compete for the hay. 
Comfortably to accommodate the increasing company annually 
attracted to the sales, Mr. Prout, in 1866, provided over his 
cart-shed a spacious apartment in which a capital cold collation 
is served before the party proceed to the fields. The crops are 
set out in lots, usually varying from 5 to 15 acres, each lot being 
conspicuously marked by a pole, surmounted with a board, on 
which the printed number is affixed. Competition is generally 
good, and few lots fall below the moderate reserve placed upon 
them. Removal of number-boards or other mistakes seldom 
occur ; rarely is a purchase repudiated. Six months’ credit is 
given ; the auctioneer will probably not object to its being 
recorded that he receives for his services 4 per cent., that he 
pays advertisements and meets bad debts, which are neither 
numerous nor serious. After harvest Mr. Prout has the pieces 
measured, and half this expense is paid by the purchasers. 
The total cost of the sale, including auctioneer’s commission, 
lunch, See., is set down at 200/. Although the “ lot is at the 
risk of the purchaser at the fall of the hammer,” Mr. Prout does 
. not cease to take an interest in his fine crops. He finds 
reaping-machines and horses at moderate cost to cut down 
the thinner crops ; his barns and out-houses for five or six weeks 
are filled with Irish and other harvest-hands, sometimes to the 
number of 120, a large proportion of them from London. They 
generally prove themselves well-disposed steady work-people, 
and receive from 12s. to 15s. per acre for fagging, and aboutASs. 


£ s. d. 
= 3536 2 6 

= 624 0 0 

= 320 1 3 

= 147 18 9 


44 


Report on Messrs. Prout and Middleditcli s 


for tving-up and shocking behind the machines. So well satis- 
fied are these town denizens with their trip to the Hertfordshire 
hills that they usually return annually, close the while their town 
house, and bring their families, three of which last year reached 
the goodly number of ten each, and are generally conveyed, with 
their scanty baggage, in donkey-carts. Harvest got-in, these 
labourers change their country quarters, and frequently have 
several weeks’ hop-picking in Kent. 

I inspected Mr. Prout’s farm during the first week of last 
August, just as harvest operations begun. Compared with most 
holdings throughout the Midland counties, and even with many 
in neighbouring parts of Hertfordshire, Blount's Farm exhibits 
a paucity of trees and hedge-rows. There is no permanent 
grass, a very limited area of green crops, and no live stock 
excepting a couple of Guernsey cows, six agricultural horses, 
a carriage-horse, and a pony. Wheat is the staple produce, 
generally occupying upwards of 300 acres. In 1874 there were 
grown 216 acres of Payne’s Rivett, a description of cone wheat, 
and 103 acres of Browick red — two varieties which have been 
proved by repeated experiment to be very suitable for the soil 
and climate. Beans, having been repeatedlv found uncertain, 
are discarded for the present ; oats answer well, about 50 
acres are generally grown, and their area will probably be in- 
creased. l\o barley was sown last year, but now that it is rela- 
tively dearer than wheat, and producible with a saving of pro- 
bably 10s. per acre on the manure bills, preparation is made 
for drilling 100 acres this year. The crops nearly ready to cut 
looked remarkably well, were reported to be more uniform than 
those of 1873, and annual visitors attracted in ever-increasing 
numbers declared that they improve yearly. With the exception 
of portions of one field behind the house infested with wild oats, 
and one small enclosure of five acres, the farm was beauti- 
fully clean. The best crops of 1874 were those on the thinner, 
lighter soils and following clover. 

A brief description of the 20 rectangular fields into 'which 
the farm is divided, their former management, and present ap- 
pearance, will prove instructive. 

^orth from the house and premises is Well Field, a 50-acre 
enclosure ol strong clay land, bearing in 1874 Rivett wheat alter 
clover. A bushel and a-half of seed was drilled in October. 
1 he crop was horse and hand hoed and had no manure, save 
about seven acres, which looked badly in spring, and received 
1£ cwt. of nitrate of soda. In 1872 the field was wheat, in 1871 
beans, and in 1870 wheat. The crop of 1874 was level, with a 
good bold head, promised to yield 7 quarters per acre, and on 
the 28tU July made an average of 15/. 


Continuous Corn Growing. 


45 


Cross Field, comprising 55 acres, grew sainfoin for three years, 
from 1869-1871, and has since borne three wheat crops. Last 
autumn it carried 33 acres Rivett wheat, which sold for 10/. 10s. ; 
and 22 acres Browick red, more regular, kindly, and yielding, 
and sold cheap at 10/. 10s. 

Dudley, measuring 40 acres, had ten years ago a dressing of 
London manure; in 1872, it was clover following wheat ; about 
eleven acres were broken up and subsoiled 16 inches deep ; more 
crude clay than was desirable was then brought to the surface ; 
and Mr. Prout considers that the field has accordingly since 
required rather more manure. Wheat followed in 1873, and 
last year there were 30 acres of red wheat and 10 of Rivett, together 
averaging upwards of 10/. per acre. 

Behind the Farmhouse is the Home Field, comprising 45 acres ; 
23 of which were originally in old grass of low quality, ploughed 
up by Mr. Prout, and, in spite of severe cropping, not yet 
exhausted of its riches. It was fallowed in 1862, but, with the 
exception of small patches under beans and other cleaning crops, it 
has grown cereals ever since ; and, amongst the rest, five conse- 
cutive and remunerative crops of barley. Last season it was in 
Rivett wheat, drilled rather late, sold at an average of 9/. 16s. ; 
not so regular as some other pieces, portions considerably 
“ knee-broken,” and here and there interspersed with wild oats, 
which will, however, be eradicated by the autumn and spring 
cultivation, preparatory for a crop of black Tartarian oats. 
Nothing at Sawbridgeworth, Mr. Prout assures me, has paid so 
well as the arable culture of the Home Field and other portions 
of inferior grass land. Continuous corn-crops have been pro- 
duced at little expense ; for several years scarcely any artificial 
manures were applied ; the food for the million, as well as the 
profit for the farmer, must have been three times that which 
under any management could have been extracted from the 
original sour rough pasturage. 

By the side of the turnpike road, approaching the farm-build- 
ings, is Whitemoor, bearing 64 acres of black Tartarian oats, 
a fine level crop, put in early in March with the general-purpose 
drill. Three and a half bushels of seed were sown, With 14 cwt. 
OhlendorfFs prepared guano; a fortnight later l/r cwt. nitrate 
of soda was applied as a top-dressing, and the crops sold at an 
average of 9/. 15s. Although three cereals have been grown 
consecutively on part of this field, and five cereals over the re- 
mainder, the cultivation has been so thorough, and the crops 
have so rapidly and entirely covered the ground, that there has 
been little opportunity for weeds to flourish ; and with the 
exception of a few patches of squitch-grass in some of the damp 
furrows, Whitemoor may be pronounced perfectly clean. 


46 


Report on Messrs. Prout and Middleditch’s 

Blackacre, measuring 36 acres, was fallow in 1863, wheat in 
1864, beans in 1865, and under white crops ever since. It was 
subsoiled 15 inches deep in 1872, has received subsequently 
artificial manures to the annual value of over 60s. per acre. 
It was perfectly clean, and the good crop of red wheat of 1874' 
realised all over 9/. per acre. 

Brook Field, 31 acres, exhibited amongst the plastic clay a 
somewhat less proportion of calcareous matter, was clean and in 
good condition, and contained 15 acres of wheat, sold at 9/. 9s., 
and 16 acres of red clover. 

Beadles, mapped at 51 acres, presented its fourth white crop 
in direct succession ; like the remainder of the farm it was per- 
fectly free from weeds of all descriptions ; the wheat sold at about 
10/. per acre, and amongst it clover-seeds are sown out. 

Cowcroft, one of the original small enclosures, measures 5 
acres ; some years ago it had hundreds of loads of tank-water 
applied without obvious effect : like other pieces it has been 
kept constantly producing corn-crops ; has had no fallow since 
1862 ; and being now rather foul is drilled with winter vetches, 
which some of Mr. Prout’s west-country friends assure him will, 
without much trouble of cultivation, effectually choke and destroy 
all rubbish. 

Mr. Prout had, in 1874, 45 acres of clover, which, averaging 
10/. 8s., paid as well as the cereals, and proved besides a good 
preparation for the succeeding wheat-crop. Although 27 acres 
were on land (Parkspring) which for five years immediately 
preceding had grown wheat, there was no difficulty in rearing 
a good plant. The success of the clover-crops depends upon the 
thorough autumn culture, and the use of the very best seed, of 
which 12 lbs. are deposited amongst wheat or with barley, usually 
by Holmes and Son’s seed-drill, with 26 coulters. To ensure a 
full cut of clover, top-dressings are used. Last spring 1 J cwt. 
of Ohlendorff’s guano was broadcasted in March ; the clover was 
mowed and carried in June ; and the result, in two ricks, con- 
taining 70 tons of prime hay, was offered at the sale for 320/. 
Grass being scarce, it was determined to force the second crop 
with l^cwt. of nitrate of soda. Owing to the continued drought 
probably little benefit resulted from the dressing; but the crop, 
which was to be mowed without seeding, brought at the auction 
sale, on the 28th July, 3/. 5s. 9 d. Any unconsumed artificial 
manure will doubtless tell favourably on the wheat, for on his 
heavy land Mr. Prout is convinced that even the comparatively 
soluble nitrate of soda frequently fertilises more crops than one. 
So soon as the second clover is cleared off, usually towards the 
middle of September, the land is lightly ploughed. 

East of the house and buildings lies a block of about 25 acres 


Continuous Corn Groicing. 


47 


not farmed on Mr. Prout’s ordinary system. Part of the produce 
is retained and returned to the land ; manure from the cart and 
carriage-horse stable is applied, green crops are grown, and it has 
been in contemplation to lay down a portion in permanent grass 
when it has been raised to a state^of high condition. That it 
has already reached this desirable state is tolerably evident from 
the admirable results it yielded last harvest. Four acres carried 
a magnificent crop of Rivett wheat, which Mr. Prout, anxious to 
test the vield, bought in for 17/. 16.9. It must reach 8 quarters. A 
bushel over that was Mr. Prout’s highest return obtained in 1868. 
Four acres were devoted to black Tartarian oats, following 
rye-grass, and produced a yield of 10 or 11 quarters per acre. 
Conterminous were some fine cow-cabbage, suffering apparently 
little from the protracted summer drought, and a couple of acres 
of yellow globe mangold dunged, drilled with dissolved bones, 
thirty inches apart in the rows, a splendid regular plant, from 
which many of the lower leaves have been, with impunity, 
gathered as a bonne bouclie for the Guernsey cows that supply 
milk for the family and servants. For this crop Mr. Prout had, 
on his sale day, an offer of 20/. per acre. A late planted but 
promising piece of swedes followed a crop of tares, which had 
been consumed by the cart-horses and dairy cows. 

The remainder of the 25-acre home piece was occupied with 14 
acres Italian rye-grass, broadcasted in August, 1873, on freshly 
scarified wheat-stubble, thrice cut, rapid growth being secured 
by a dressing of 1^ cwt. nitrate of soda applied immediately the 
first cutting was removed. In a former season the rye-grass was 
sold for 20/. per acre, with the privilege of cutting and carrying 
off whatever grew from Lady-day to Michaelmas. 

The busy season at Sawbridgeworth commences whenever 
the stubbles are cleared ; steam and horses are fully occupied : 
thorough cleaning, horse and hand hoeing have, however, so 
thoroughly extirpated weeds that autumn scarifying is now 
seldom requisite. A furrow of 6 or 7 in. is turned over ; 8 acres 
of such work is daily performed by the 14-horse engine and 4- 
furrow plough. An extra horse or two are occasionally purchased 
to hasten the ploughing and wheat-drilling, for the earlier and 
drier this calcareous clay is ploughed up and planted the better. 
For wheat only one furrow is given. But this autumn 100 acres, 
steam-ploughed in September, were six weeks later worked over 
with the 4-furrow plough, on which the coulters remain as 
usual, but from which the second and fourth mould-boards are 
removed. The ground, thus thoroughly cut and turned over, is 
left in a ridge-and-fuxrow form with a large surface exposed to 
the beneficial action of the weather, and when harrowed down in 
spring will produce an admirable seed-bed for the Hallet’s pedigree 


48 Report on Messrs. Prout and Middleditcli' s 

barley, for which it is intended. In early spring the wheat is 
sometimes harrowed, and invariably, as soon as practicable, it 
is horse and hand hoed, every advantage being taken of fine 
weather, and all available hands being set to work. The spring 
corn, forced with superphosphate or guano drilled with it, and 
shortly top-dressed with nitrate, speedily, covers the ground, and 
hence seldom requires hoeing. 

The labour question has troubled Mr. Prout less than many 
of his neighbours. His steam-tackle economises both horse and 
hand labour, and keeps his labour account under 30s. per acre. 
His engine-men have from 18s. to 21s. a week ; carters 16s.; 
ordinary labourers 15s.; some of the regular hands have also 
their cottage and garden rent free, and cows have been kept to 
supply each family with 3 pints of new milk daily — a boon which, 
however, has hardly been sufficiently appreciated ; and the men, 
recently offered their choice of going on with their 3 pints of 
milk or accepting as an equivalent 2s. a week, grasped at the 
money, to the almost certain detriment of the health of their 
young growing children, who can get no other food so good and 
nutritive as milk. Like other employers, Mr. Prout complains 
that, pay as he may, he does not now get as much work done 
as formerly ; young active men are said to be scarce, and he 
threatens to import a few picked hands from the North, w'hence, 
twelve years ago, he had the active intelligent bailiff, who has 
been of great service in successfully carrying out the details of 
his system. In the subjoined amounts paid for labour from 
1868-74 the bailiff’s wages of 100/. a year are included. Unlike 
most other farms, the labour payments have not increased during 
recent years ; they exhibit an annual average of 635/. 14s. 4 d. 


£ s. d. 

1868 609 14 6 

1869 651 14 6 

1870 634 5 6 

1871 578 8 6 

1872 756 8 10 

1873 653 9 6 

1874 567 14 6 


The economical use of artificial manures is a matter of grave 
consideration with Mr. Prout, as with others who pursue high 
farming. Chief amongst the debateable points are what amounts 
yield the best returns ? What are the suitable combinations 
of phosphatic and ammoniacal fertilisers? What mode of ap- 
plication is least wasteful? In the soil newly worked up 
by steam, and on the poor grass-land recently converted into 
arable, Mr. Prout’s thorough cultivation secured full grain-crops 
with little outlay for artificial manures. For several years his 


Continuous Corn Growing. 


49 


total annual outlay for manures did not exceed 500/., being at 
the rate of about 20s. per acre. Rut as cereals continued to 
follow each other more plant-food had to he provided, and Mr. 
Prout now considers that he requires to expend upwards of 
1200/. annually on portable manures, or between 50s. and 60s. 
per acre. During the last seven years the annual expenditure 
has not materially varied ; the annual average is 1269/. 15s. Ad., 
or about 55 s. per acre. Whilst Mr. Prout anxiously studies 
economy in the use of these expensive fertilisers, he declares 
that it is often the last 10s. worth that brings the best return ! 

Bones, mineral superphosphate, guano, and nitrate of soda are 
the manures generally used. 

A favourite mixture for drilling with the several crops is 
made with equal proportions of ^-inch bones, freely saturated 
with water, and mixed with mineral superphosphate on the floor 
of one of the disused barns. The excess of acid in freshly pre- 
pared superphosphate, and the fermentation produced by the heat 
and moisture, dissolve the bones, and in about three months there 
remains a soluble richly phosphatic manure, which, after spread- 
ing out thinly, dries and, mixed with a few sifted ashes, is readily 
distributed either by hand or drill. Three to five hundred-weight 
of this mixture constitutes the usual dose applied to most of 
the cereals, excepting the wheat-crop on the clover leys, which 
derives pabulum sufficient from the unexhausted dressings applied 
to the clover, and from its gradually disintegrating roots. 

Both Messrs. Prout and Middleditch prefer to apply phos- 
phates as well as guano by drill. Thus, deposited in close 
vicinity to the rootlets, more immediate effects are produced, and 
less waste occurs from valuable soluble matters being washed 
into the subsoil. 

What Mr. Prout chiefly requires in a drill is that seed and 
manure should be deposited from separate tubes, and the manure 
placed fully ^-in. below the seed, from which it is thus separated 
by a thin layer of soil. The concentrated active manure is in 
this manner prevented from doing harm during germination 
when it is not wanted ; but is sufficiently handy, and probably 
more fittingly diluted, when the tender spongioles, having ex- 
hausted their infant stores, are ready to decompose and absorb 
the food-supplies in the soil. 

Priest and Woolnough’s drills are used at Sawbridgeworth, 
and Mr. Middleditch has been in frequent communication with 
Messrs. John Fowler and Co. regarding the perfecting of a steam 
corn and manure drill which they hope to bring out. Mr. Prout 
has found considerable difficulty in getting the makers of drills 
to carry his ideas into practice : he complains that some of them 
have become very independent — they hold themselves aloof 

VOL. XI.— -S. S. E 


50 


Report on Messrs. Prout and Middleditch' s 


from the Royal Agricultural Society’s trials, and the. Society 
and the public thus lose the benefit of their experience. The 
most effectual plan to bring all makers to the competitive trials 
would be to prevent manufacturers or their agents exhibiting 
any of the implements, which are specified in the prize sheet of 
the year, unless duplicates are also entered for trial competition. 

The nitrate of soda, in doses varying from 1 to 1^ cwt., is gene- 
rally broadcasted on the cereals in March or early in April, and on 
the clovers and rye-grass in early spring or after the first cutting, 
is removed. Where more than 1 cwt. is to be used, a double 
chance of benefit results from applying the amount in two doses, 
at intervals of a week or ten days. Grateful and generous as is 
the well-managed soil, it is not necessary to entrust it with 
more soluble fertilising materials than are sufficient for the im- 
mediate wants of the growing crop. 

No farming is fairly entitled to commendation unless it is also 
profitable, and the important practical question is, how does 
Mr. Prout’s system pay ? From the books and accounts, which 
are kept with as much care and order as the farm itself, a satis- 
factory balance-sheet can be produced. Few large concerns have 
such simple receipts ; nearly the whole are realised from the 
auction sales, which were begun in 1866, were not held in 1867, 
but have since been continued annually. Flaving abstracted and 
averaged most of the payments for seven years, the same period 
may fittingly be taken for the receipts, and the totals of the sales 
since 1868^are accordingly subjoined. 


£ s. d. 

1868 4,726 0 8 

1869 3,742 0 0 

1870 5,232 7 4 

1871 4,625 14 11 

1872 .'. 4,743 11 10 

1873 4,570 4 10 

1874 4,628 2 6 


£32,268 2 1 

This gives an annual average of 4609/. 11s. 5 d. To this 
there remains to be added the produce of from 15 to 18 
acres, part of the 25 acres lying near home, described on page 
47, which, unlike the remainder of the farm, is not cropped so 
continuously with corn, nor fed so exclusively with artificials; it 
is usually devoted to growing hay and roots for the horses and 
milk-cows; but its labour and seed bills are included in the 
general payments, and its annual returns are estimated at 200/., 
This brings the total receipts of Blount’s Farm to 4809/. 11s. bd. 

The annual acreable averages will convey to many a more 
definite idea fo the actual returns. The four years, 1868-1871, 


Continuous Corn Groining. 


51 


inclusive, exhibit better results for wheat than the three later 
years, but this is not peculiar to Mr. Prout’s farm. The dry, 
warm year of 1868 produced, especially on heavy land, one of 
the most prolific wheat-crops ever grown in England. The 
early season of 1870 was also favourable for clay-land crops. 

The following Table presents the acreable returns obtained 
from each of the seven sales : — 

1st. For the whole of the crops sold. 

2nd. For the wheat-crops alone. 

3rd. The average value of wheat per quarter for the week in 
July in which the sale was held. 


Years. 

Total 

Averages. 

Wheat 

Averages. 

Price of Wheat 
on Week of Sale. 


£ s. d. 

£ s. d. 

£ s. d. 

1868 

12 0 2 

14 14 2 

3 2 9 

1869 

10 12 6 

14 6 8 

2 11 9 

1870 

12 6 6 

15 3 10 

2 12 10 

1871 

10 19 3 

14 3 2 

2 18 0 

1872 

10 16 0 

11 0 5 

2 19 1 

1873 

10 0 0 

10 8 11 

3 0 0 

1874 

10 13 3 

10 17 7 

2 18 0 


The annual payments for labour, manure, and auction sale, 
have already been noted and commented on. Considering the 
quality of the land as well as the capital sunk in its purchase 
and improvement, 900/. a year, or 40s. per acre, may be taken 
as a reasonable rent ; rates and taxes absorb about 220/. ; the 
keep of the 6 agricultural horses and the 2 nags is set down at 
30/. each. As the fodder and roots consumed by the 2 dairy 
cows have been credited amongst the receipts, 40/. a-year must 
be added for the keep of the cows. These items, with 250/. for 
seed, and 230/. for expenses of steam-culture, are detailed in the 
subjoined statement. 


Manual labour, including bailiff’s salary of 100/ 635 

12 months’ keep of 6 agricultural horses, at 30/ 180 

, , Carriage-horse and pony 60 

, , 2 milk-cows 40 

Engine and tackle cost 1065/., interest at 5 per cent. . . 53 

, , Depreciation annually at 5 per cent. . . 53 

,, Wear and tear of machinery .. .. 77 

, , Coal bills 42 

, , Oil 5 

Corn and clover-seeds 250 

Artificial manures, at 55 s. per acre 1269 

Auction sale expenses 200 

Kent, 2/. per acre 900 

Hates, taxes, and tithe 220 

Total annual payments £3984 


E 2 


52 


Beport on Messrs. Prout and MiddleditcK s 



Receipts . 
Payments 

Profit 


4809 11 5 
3984 0 0 


£825^11 5 


An annual profit of 825/. derived from 450 acres of rather 
second-rate clay-land, and maintained throughout seven years, 
affords satisfactory testimony to Mr. Prout’s system. That the 
consecutive corn-crops sold off year by year have not exhausted 
or deteriorated the land is evident from the improved quantity 
and quality of the growing crops, and very notably also from 
the increased value of the farm, which, instead of the 33/. origin- 
ally paid for it, would now bring double that amount. Indeed, 
so recently as February, 1875, the estate, purchased at less than 
16,000/., has been valued by a very competent surveyor at 
31,000/. This enhanced value represents a handsome return, 
not only for permanent improvements, but also for the meagre 
profits of the earlier years of Mr. Prout’s occupation. Very 
few land investments, under any description of management, 
pay, like Mr. Prout’s, a fair interest on outlay and double their 
value in thirteen years. 

Mr. Middleditch, settling himself down to farming in 1866, 
after several years’ commercial pursuits in India, was struck 
with the accounts of Mr. Prout’s agricultural successes : a survey 
of the clean and bountiful crops at Sawbridgeworth made him 
an enthusiastic disciple ; and he determined to prosecute the 
system at Blunsdon, three miles from Swindon, where he had 
just acquired 160 acres of heavy clay-loam. But this small holding 
affording inadequate scope, he purchased four other conterminous 
farms, making, with 44 acres of land rented, an aggregate of about 
600 acres arable and 100 acres pasture. He rehabilitated an old 
farmhouse, surrounded it with a pleasant shrubbery and garden, 
planted a belt of plantation as shelter from the south-west winds, 
which drive up rather severely some 35 miles from the Bristol 
Channel. From his elevated healthy site on the coral-rag 
ridge, he overlooks his compact farm, commands a magnificent 
view of the beautiful valley of the White Horse, counts upwards 
of a dozen village churches, and in bright weather catches the 
light reflected from Cirencester College, eleven miles north- 
wards. To the east of the house lies the pleasant village of 
Blunsdon, quaintly-built on sloping limestone banks, with 
springs of splendid water trickling forth from almost every 


garden. 


Continuous Corn Growing. 


53 


But seven years’ anxious thought, hard labour, and liberal 
well-directed outlay of capital, have been required to make 
Blunsdon what it now is. To the purchase-money, which aver- 
aged 70/. per acre, fully 20/. have been added in draining and 
other improvements. Eleven miles of wide, worthless, wasteful 
hedgerows have been grubbed up ; 180 acres of poor sour wet 
grass have been converted into profitable corn-land ; instead of 
small enclosures, there are now a field of 240 acres, another 
of 150 acres, two of 50 acres, the others somewhat smaller. No- 
where have I seen draining more carefully and thoroughly done ; 
nowhere does steam exhibit greater triumphs of deep, thorough, 
clean culture. The land is mostly a strong clay-loam, tolerably 
friable from admixture of vegetable fibre, the result of its having 
■only recently been brought under arable culture. It is of deeper 
and better quality than Mr. Prout’s. Underneath the loam is a 
thin stratum of yellow marl mixed with clay, resting about two 
and a half feet down on beds of marl and blue clay, which extend 
downwards for many feet. The superior quality of the soil 
doubtless mainly depends upon its being at the meeting of the 
three geological strata, the coral-rag, Oxford clay, and the 
alluvial deposit which constitutes a portion of the old basin of 
the Thames. Forty acres having been little more than three 
years in Mr. Middleditch’s possession, are still, as he describes 
them, in a transition state, and have not yet been entirely freed 
-of their former heritage of couch, docks, and garlic. 

During three years Mr. Middleditch effectually drained his 700 
acres, at a cost varying from 81. to 15/. One field of 8 acres, 
drained with 4-inch pipes, actually cost 19/. 35. 6c/. per acre. 
A portion of the money required has been borrowed from the 
Lands Improvement Company, at an annual charge of 6/. 14s. Id. 
per cent., which in 25 years pays both principal and interest. 
Often he has had 100 men busily at work, in gangs of three or 
four, making the four-foot excavations at a cost of from 2s. 6d. to 
7s. 6 d. per chain ; a trustworthy man on day-wages is told off 
to lay the pipes for about 20 excavators ; to ensure the levels 
being kept, and the fall, which is sometimes not very great, 
being made the best of, water was systematically let down every 
•drain before the pipes were laid. The draining of heavy land 
■being uncertain, and often ineffectual, when the pipes run askew 
or across high-backed lands, the drains at Blunsdon have in- 
variably been placed in the original furrows, which vary from 
5 to 7 yards. Little reliance is placed on 1-inch, or even 
2-inch pipes, which Mr. Middleditch considers liable to get 
displaced or blocked, and he has accordingly buried but few 
smaller than 3-inch pipes, whilst in the lower portions of the 


54 


Report on Messrs. Prout and Middleditctis 


longer furrows, and wherever the fall is inconsiderable, 4-inch 
pipes are used. 

The mains have 6, 9, 12, and even 15-inch pipes. A proportion 
of these larger pipes for the mains are made with 4-inch inlets, 
into which the furrow-pipes are securely fixed. Approaching 
the outfall a few glazed socket-pipes are used, to diminish risk 
of injury from frost ; and every outlet is neatly and securely built 
up, and the opening protected with a stout iron grating. In 
striking contrast to the 12-incli outfall pipes five feet down, Mr. 
Middleditcli has also built in one of the 2-inch pipes, which his 
predecessors used for their main exits, and buried only two feet 
from the surface. Several of the mains empty into convenient 
pools, supplying water used chiefly for the steam-tackle. This 
draining is certainly costly, but it is unusually effective. During 
the first week of 1875 it was subjected to a severe test. The 
heavy snow which had come down during the previous ten days, 
and represented probably two inches of water, suddenly melted, 
with the additional fall of about an inch of rain ; the 12-inch 
mains ran three-quarters full ; four days later, on January 8th, I 
walked over Mr. Middleditch’s fields and was surprised to find the 
land dry and firm, no evidence of flood or washing remained ; the 
surface of the heavy land was not caked or run together, not a 
blade of wheat or a bean-plant was injured. Over the hedge, 
in fields drained at shallower depths with smaller pipes, the 
mains being of insufficient capacity, and the ground puddled 
with horses’ feet, walking was heavy, water was not fully removed 
from the furrows, and the surface was run together in a manner 
likely to interfere with the future growth of the wheat. 

Mr. Middleditch began farming with horses, but finding that 
his work was not sufficiently rapidly and seasonably performed, 
he shortly hired steam ; and in 1871 he purchased two of Messrs. 
John Fowler and Co.’s 20-horse engines, with ploughs, scari- 
fiers, &c. Strictly and intelligently looked after by the master 
and his staff, this powerful set has done an immense amount 
of capital work. Of superior manufacture, and largely made of 
steel, they can safely work up to 100 horse-power. Mr. Middle- 
ditch furnishes me with the subjoined statement (p. 55), setting 
forth the work performed for himself and his neighbours for 
the past four years. In 1873 and 1874 about 200 acres have 
besides been drilled by steam. 

Mr. Middlcditch’s thoroughly and deeply cultivated clean fal- 
lows amply testify to the efficiency of his steam-tackle. It is 
impossible to have work better done ; the 90 acres fallowed in 
1874 have mostly been cultivated five or six times to a depth 
of 12 or 15 inches, and 20 acres of one heavy clay piece, on the 


Continuous Corn Growing. 


55 


occasion of my visit in July, was receiving; an efficient sub- 
soiling to a depth of 28 inches, at a cost of about 20s. per acre. 
This operation is undertaken chiefly for the purpose of ensuring 
superfluous rainfall finding its way through the adhesive clay to 
the drains. But where the land is not puddled or trodden with 
horses’ feet in wet weather, such subsoiling will not be required 
to be repeated for 8 or 10 years. The daily consumption of coal 
when ploughing 10 inches deep is about 2 tons ; coal costs 20s. 
a ton at Swindon. At convenient points pools are formed from 
which water is obtainable even in the driest seasons. Through- 
out the farm good roads have been made, along which engines 
and water-carts conveniently travel. Archways over ditches 
have been strengthened and widened ; the field gateways are 
set out to 20 feet, and provided with double gates. The multi- 
farious steam-machinery is carefully housed in the disused barns 
and shedding ; whilst engineers and other regular servants are 
comfortably located in the commodious dwellings which erewhile 
were the farmhouses of the several holdings now gathered into 
one. 




Subsoiling. 

Ploughing. 

Cultivating. 

• 

Dragging. 

Total Work. 

Amount 

earned. 



Acres. 

Acres. 

Acres. 

Acres. 

Acres. 

£ S. 

d. 

1871 

Mr. Middleditch 

48 

257 

508 

1421 

2234 




For hire 


54 

135 


189 

102 12 

0 

1872 

Mr. Middleditch 

35 

495 

292 

1692 

2514 




For hire 


124 

168 

.260 

552 

306 12 

1 

1873 

Mi-. Middleditch 


399 

367 

854 

1620 




For hire 

•• 

78 

917 

708 

1703 

747 4 

6 

1874 

Mr. Middleditch " . . 

72 

364 

421 

1156 

2013 




For hire 


31 

548 

294 

873 

310 4 

0 



155 

1802 

3356 

6385 

11698 

1466 12 

7 


The economy of steam as compared with horse-power in 
cultivation especially of the heavier soils, cannot now be ques- 
tioned. Indeed, estimating the enhanced value of horses, the 
increased cost of horses’ food, with the damage that horses do 
by treading and poaching, and the comparative tardiness with 
which they perform autumn work, it appears difficult to under- 
stand how heavy arable land can be profitably managed by horse- 
power. The advantage of steam is forcibly exhibited in the 
following statement prepared by Mr. Middleditch, the estimate 


56 Report on Messrs. Prout and Middleditcli s 


of cost being taken for the more common 12 or 14-horse-power 
tackle. 


Approximate Cost of Steam Cultivation with Fowler’s 
12 or 14-h.p. Tackle. 

£ s. d. 

Interest on 2000?. at 5 per cent, for 1 year, 100?., or working) q po 0 
200 days per annum, per diem ) 

Depreciation on 2000 1. at 15 per cent, for 1 year, 300?., or work-) p pQ q 
ing 200 days per annum, per diem j 

Wear and tear, duplicates and repairs, 100?. per annum, per) q 10 0 
diem j 


Eopes, 100?. every 2 years, or per diem 050 

£ Oil, 25?. per annum, or per diem 0 2 6 

Coal, two tons per diem at 25s. per ton, average 2 10 0 

£ s. d. 

Manual labour — Head driver per diem 0 3 4 

Second do. do 0 2 6 

Ploughman do 0 2 2 

Boy do 0 18 

0 9 8 

' Water and coal carting, per diem 0 10 0 


£6 7 2 

Plus piece-work wages as under : — 

Cost of ploughing — 


12 acres per diem — cost as above— 

-per acre .. 

0 

10 

•7 

Extra for piece-work — per acre 

. 0 

0 

9 

Total per acre 


. 0 

11 

4 

Cost_of cultivating — 





20 acres per diem — cost as above- 

-per acre . 

. 0 

6 

4 

Extra for piece-work 

. 0 

0 

6 

Total per acre 


. 0 

6 

10 

Cost’of dragging — 





70 acres per diem — cost as above- 

-per acre . 

. 0 

1 

10 

Extra for piece-work 

. 0 

0 

3 


Total per acre £021* 

This is not much over half the cost at which similar work on 
heavy land is done by horses. But even these moderate rates 
may be further reduced where the tackle, when it can be spared, 
is hired out. In many localities 300/. to 400/. may thus be 
earned annually, reducing, probably to the extent of 20 per cent., 
the cost of the work done at home. It is those extra earnings 
particularized above which enable Mr. Middleditcli to perform 
his steam-work at the very low rates of 8s. per acre for 6 to 8 
inch ploughing, 6s. 10r7. for cultivating, and Is. Gd. for dragging. 
The principle of paying by results is introduced as far as possible, 


Continuous Corn Growiny. 


57 


even with the steam-work. The enginemen have a standing wage 
ranging from 13s. to 20s., and receive besides a premium of 3f i. 
per acre for dragging, Gd. for cultivating, Is. for ploughing. 
Is. Gd. for subsoiling. The principal carter has 3s., the second 
2s. Gd., per day. These, with 2 boys, constitute the entire ordi- 
nary working-staff of the farm of 700 acres. This economy alike 
of horse and hand-labour is a very striking feature of the farming 
at Blunsdon. Mr. Middleditch’s predecessors on the farms he 
occupies used 36 horses ; he generally has 5 or 6. The cost of 
manual labour for the arable land throughout the district is up- 
wards of 30s. per acre ; including enginemen, carters, and extra 
hands hoeing, his is under 20s. 

Steam has greatly contributed to Mr. Middleditch’s successes : 
it has enabled him to have his work done thoroughly and 
economically, his land ploughed up early, and, whilst it was 
dry, his seed put in well and seasonably. In 1874 he began 
drilling with five pecks of wheat on 20th September, increased 
his seeding to about six pecks throughout October, and had 
finished 450 acres of planting by the first week in November ! 
To make the best use of those few precious weeks which imme- 
diately follow harvest, he has recently purchased a second set of 
steam-tackle, consisting of a pair of Messrs. Fowler and Co.’s 
14-horse-power engines, with ploughs, cultivator, &c. This 
will render him independent of the six or eight horses which 
he has been in the habit annually of purchasing or hiring in 
autumn, and using for getting his seed in. Although one pur- 
chased horse went quite wrong this autumn, the loss on the 
seven bought — and sold after ten weeks’ hard work — was only 
31/. The perfecting of the steam-drill, which is now heavy, 
difficult to steer, and only F i\ feet wide, will considerably expe- 
dite and economise autumn labour. Mr. Middleditch believes 
that a steam-drill will shortly be produced, probably in two 
sections, each 10 feet wide, capable of sowing 40 acres a day, 
putting in both seed and manure, and with drags attached 
before and behind. 

During the earlier years of his occupation Mr. Middleditch was 
so confident of the power of steam to cleanse foul land, and so 
anxious to secure full annual returns, that he regularly cropped 
the whole of his arable area, and trusted to autumn culture to 
get rid of the rubbish he had inherited. In 1873 almost the 
whole farm was devoted to corn ; but wet seasons favoured 
weeds; and in 1874, 90 acres were in bare fallow; in 1875, 
4o acres will be under mangold or potatoes, about 20 acres in 
summer-fallow after vetches. As at Sawbridgeworth, wheat has 
hitherto been the staple produce, five crops have sometimes 
followed in direct succession. The strong deep land is pro- 


58 


Report on Messrs. Prout and Middleditcli s 


bably more suitable for wheat than for barley or oats. Beans 
are found remunerative, and a good preparation for wheat. 
Clover has not yet been systematically grown. A week or ten 
days before harvest the growing crops are sold by auction. 
Both straw and grain are removed, but Mr. Middleditch evi- 
dently parts regretfully with his superior crops, rightly thinking 
that he could harvest them as well as anybody else, and might 
enjoy the purchaser’s as well as the grower’s profits. 

Leaving the house and passing westward through the garden 
and orchard, and still on the thin coral-rag, are two acres of 
lucerne, kept clean by frequent horse and hand hoeing, cut three 
or four times a year, chiefly for the horses, and proving so 
serviceable that its culture will speedily be extended. Adjacent, 
and still on the upland limestone-rag, are 35 acres of sainfoin, 
laid down in 1871, and bringing annually between 6/. and 11. 
per acre : in 1874 it realised 8 1. 5s. The first crop generally 
letches 51 . ; occasionally it has been cut twice : the aftermath, . 
which is fed off, usually brings 30s.; but, owing to the scarcity 
of grass, when put up for public competition on July 23rd, 
1874, the grazing, let until October 1st, averaged 3/., whilst 
one lot realised 90s. At this high figure it was rented to afford 
a fresh and healthy bite for 150 superior Cots wold lambs. To 
no better purpose than the growing of sainfoin can this thin 
limestone soil be put. To sustain fertility the crop receives 
an occasional dressing of the limited amount of stable-manure 
which is made, and is also helped by the cake and corn given to 
the sheep which graze down the autumn bite. When the -sain- 
foin has exhausted itself, one or two capital corn-crops will 
follow ; but there is neither depth nor staple of soil to justify 
the adoption of the consecutive grain-crops, which can be pro- 
duced on the lower, deeper, and heavier portions of the farm. 

From the table-land on which stand the house, garden, and 
sainfoin field, a few steps bring us to the gently-sloping 
enclosure of 150 acres of especial interest in the annals ot 
steam-ploughing — where fourteen years ago one of John Fowler’s 
engines astonished the Wiltshire farmers by its power and 
aptitude for land-culture. In 1874 this large field was chiefly 
seeded with Rivett wheat, the third wheat-crop in succes- 
sion — fully 100 acres, of splendid promise, standing on the 
sale-day beautifully erect ; some of the straw upwards of 6 feet 
high ; many heads discoverable numbering 100 grains, and one 
giving the bountiful increase of 120 grains. The best por- 
tion sold for 17/. 5s. per acre, and, even with the autumn fall 
in the value of wheat, must still have left a fair profit. Several 
plots when threshed out averaged 7 quarters ; one reached 8^ 
quarters. The stout bright straw, which looks like 40 to 45 cwt. 


Continuous Corn Growing. 


59 


per acre, will probably, as in former years, be disposed of for 
paper-making, the Spanish wars having interfered with the sup- 
plies of the Esparto grass. For cutting, tying, and shocking, 
25 s. per acre is being paid. Some of the best of this good 
crop is on land which Mr. Middled itch found under old turf, 
but on which corn has since been grown uninterruptedly for 
three, and on one portion for four years. On one part of 
this enclosure wdiere it was recently drained, with the further 
disadvantage of being ploughed and drilled wet, the crop was 
thin and poor, several lots realising only 4/. per acre. Amongst 
these thin portions wild oats had shown themselves, and 
Mr. Middleditch is now convinced that a summer-fallow or 
early-spring cultivation, and a crop of oats or barley, would 
have answered better than wheat. For two years, excepting for 
drilling and hoeing, horses have not been employed in the 
cultivation of this large field. During September, 1873, the 
steam-ploughing was performed in ten days, the ’engines working 
from daylight till dark. In October, 140 acres were drilled with 
about 1^ bushel of Rivett wheat, in 10-inch rows : a consider- 
able proportion was deposited by the steam-drill. In spring 
the crop was harrowed, part of it horse-hoed, most of it hand- 
hoed, whilst the weakest portions of it received a dressing of 
about 2 cwt. superphosphate, and 1 cwt. nitrate of soda. 

\ isiting Blunsdon on January 8th, 1875, I found that 70 acres 
of this fine field had been steam-ploughed in September, dragged 
and again drilled with 6 pecks of Rivett wheat, which looked 
forward and vigorous, and perfectly clean ; indeed with such 
crops there is little room for weeds. Sixty acres, including that 
portion where the inferior spring-wheat had grow r n, have been 
steam-ploughed early, advantage taken of the dry weather in 
August, dragged and drilled October 12th to 16th with winter 
beans. Two bushels of seed were deposited per acre, in rows 
19 inches apart, w r ith the steam-drill, which delivered at the 
same time doses of the following manures : — 3 cwt. super- 
phosphate ; 2 cwt. superphosphate with 4 cwt. ashes ; 5 cwt. 
lime with 1 cwt. salt ; 6 cwt. Bristol manure, made from the 
dead and damaged Irish, foreign, and colonial beasts, from 
which all available fatty matter is first extracted. To secure 
the regular distribution of these manures, they are drilled along 
with 1 cwt. of kiln-dust, obtained from Burton at a cost of 
4/. per ton. Five acres are set apart for each manure ; up 
the middle of each plot is a strip from which the manure 
has been altogether withheld. Such experiments may probably 
discover what hitherto has been a desideratum, namely, a trust- 
worthy portable fertiliser for the bean-crop. Throughout the 
beans look remarkably strong and regular, and promise to be 


60 


Bcport on Messrs. Prout and Middleditch' s 


as easily cleaned, and more prolific, than those grown in 1874 
on the plan of two rows 8 inches apart, and on each side a 
fallow strip of 26 inches. But even with these wide spaces, 
the 18 acres of 1874 averaged 9Z. 10s. Twenty acres of this 
150-acre inclosure steam-ploughed, dragged, and dunged on 
the surface, now lie ready for mangolds or potatoes, for which 
Mr. Middleditch expects to obtain as ready and remunerative a 
sale as for his corn-crops. 

The North-field, a farm in itself, - comprises 240 acres. Over 
220 acres of this broad level expanse, unmarked by lands or 
ridges, with only a few furrows cleared out in some of the old 
boggy places, waved in July, 1874, a splendid regular crop of 
Biddell’s Imperial wheat. Cereals have been grown in various 
portions for four or five years without intermission, the latter 
crops proving quite as good as the first. After steam- ploughing 
and dragging, 6 pecks of seed were put in, during the first 
week in October, partly by horses and partly by steam-drill. 
The steam-drilled land was hand-hoed, as the seed was not suffi- 
ciently regularly deposited to permit the use of the horse-hoes, 
which went twice through most of the horse-drilled wheat. 
On all, except the newly broken-up land, 3 cwt. of dissolved 
bones were applied at seed time ; 1^ cwt. nitrate of soda, 
as a top-dressing, in spring. For this fine field the average 
acreable price obtained, in July, 1874, was 11/. Twenty acres 
on the upper side of this large enclosure were, during 1874, 
thoroughly summer-fallowed. One of the last remaining of the 
superfluous hedgerows, with many tons of tree-roots, has been 
effectually torn out, and the ground levelled and made ready for 
profitable occupation. As soon as the crop of 1874 was cleared 
off, the steam-plough was at work ; about 40 acres were scarified, 
but this leaves too much stubble and rubbish on the surface, and 
in the succeeding summer is more apt to be overrun with weeds. 
Rivett and blue-cone wheat, to the extent of 6 pecks per acre, were 
drilled ; the work being finished early in October. One portion 
of the field harrowed about a week after drilling has been left 
rather thin, but the whole of the wheat is most promising. On 
20 acres of the heaviest portion of this field, never yet subjected 
to thorough cleaning, vetches are drilled, presenting a thick good 
crop, intended lor sale, most probably to be penned ofi in May 
with sheep ; for, partial as Mr. Middleditch is to portable fertil- 
isers, he knows full well how much condition heavy land receives 
from liberally-fed sheep, penned on it during dry weather. 

The three meads, comprising 33 acres, presented, in July, 
1874, a good crop of Rivett wheat. Although the fourth corn- 
crop in direct succession, the thorough autumn culture, horse 
and hand-hoeing, and uniform regular crops, prevent the growth 


Continuous Corn Growing. 


61 


of weeds. Three cwt. of dissolved bones and f cwt. of nitrate of 
soda have been used this year as manure, and the field made an 
average of 13/. ; in 1873 it reached nearly 15/. The prospects 
for 1875 are equally good ; steam-ploughing and dragging were 
early finished — a matter of paramount importance in the profit- 
able management of this heavy land : two bushels of Browick 
red, the fifth wheat-crop in succession, were steam-drilled in 
October, with about 3 cwt. of dissolved bones, and by the first 
week in January the plant looked very forward, many of the root- 
lets already down several inches, and tillering as much as many 
crops will have done in April. On Newlands were 34 acres of 
Rivett wheat, the fourth corn-crop in succession ; not so strong 
or thick as some other pieces, but averaging 10/. per acre. 
During the summer of 1874, 12 acres adjoining were thoroughly 
fallowed. On these pieces, in October, 6 pecks of Browick red 
were drilled with the usual dose of phosphates, and three months 
later the wheat looked forward and promising, especially on the 
summer-fallowed portion. 

Mr. Middleditch, although not very partial to grass-farming, 
still reserves about 100 acres of old turf, kept, he declares, more 
for amenity than profit, and because his friends tell him that, if 
his estate were for sale, purchasers would deplore the want of 
permanent grass, hedgerows, and trees. The grass, for years, 
has evidently been neglected and very wet. In the trial holes 
the water stood before the draining, even in a dry time, within 
a loot of the surface. The whole of the ploughed land having 
been dried, the grass was drained during the winter of 1873—74. 
Mr. Middleditch is not troubled with the fear, still somewhat 
common, that his grass-land may be overdrained. Down into 
4-ft. drains only surplus water flows, and in a dry season the 
4-lt. stratum must be saturated before water runs to waste. 
Drained so recently, the grass has not yet fully profited by the 
operation ; the herbage is still rough and of improvable quality. 
But even in its present condition, it yields a fair return. Let 
by auction in May, for six months, it has averaged annually 
during the four yearly auction sales a little over 4/. per acre. 
But these are insignificant results compared with what the old 
turf does when ploughed up. Some sour grass, worth little 
more than 20s. per acre, ploughed up four years ago by Mr. 
Middleditch, has since produced, at an annual cost of about 5/. 
per acre, three consecutive wheat-crops making the following 
profitable acreable returns, and presenting besides an excellent 
prospect for 1875 : — 


£ *. d. 

1872 13 10 0 

1873 14 0 0 

1874 17 0 0 


62 


Report on Messrs. Prout and Middleditch' s 


Instead of following the present prevailing practice of laying 
down land to grass, irrespective indeed of its fitness, better 
results might often be secured by the more extensive use of 
thorough steam-cultivation, whilst the ploughing up and subse- 
quent good management of inferior grass-land will frequently 
afford profits sufficient to buy the land in ten years. 

Submitted to the critical test of figures, how has Mr. Middle- 
ditch’s farming paid? Will the money, so liberally invested, 
bring a fair percentage ? On the credit side of the account 
may be set down a return of 10/. per acre. Many years’ experi- 
ence, both at Blunsdon and at Sawbridgeworth, have shown that 
this average may be depended on. Four and a half quarters of 
wheat may be realised, and even at 45s. this nets 10/. 2s. 6c?. 
Oats and barley have, of late years, maintained about the same 
acreable value. 

Turning to the debtor side of the account. The land, with 
its draining and other improvements, has cost nearly 90/. an 
acre ; to secure for this outlay an adequate return, 3/. is charged 
as rent ; 2s. 6c?. per acre goes for rates. Ploughing, harrowing, 
drilling, and hoeing absorb about 20s. ; seed, 15s. ; about 40s. 
will be required for manures, consisting of about 3 cwt. dis- 
solved bones and 1 cwt. nitrate of soda ; whilst 10s. must be set 
down for auction expenses. Mr. Middleditch furnishes me with 


the following details : — 

£ s. d. 

Rent and rates ■ 3 2 6 

Steam-ploughing _ 0 8 0 

Steam-dragging 0 3 0 

Drilling *. .. .. 0 2 6 

Seed 0 15 0 

Harrowing 0 16 

Artificial manures n . 2 0 0 

Horse- and hand-hoeing 0 4 0 

Auctioneer’s sale expenses 010 0 


Total £7 6 6 


The figures above detailed indicate that Mr. Middleditch 
derives a profit of nearly 55s. per acre, — a tolerably satisfactory 
return for his expenditure, skill, and labour. It is very doubtful, 
however, whether similarly handsome profits could everywhere 
be depended on. Where steam has to be hired, or horses used, 
the expenses of cultivation would probably be trebled. Further, 
to secure thorough cleanness on most soils, an unremunerative 
bare fallow or expensive root-crop would occasionally be required, 
which, if recurring every seven years, would add another 20s. to 
the expenses, and swallow up profit. On the other hand, some 
items of the above expenditure might be reduced. Sixty shillings 


Continuous Corn Growing. 


63 


per acre is a high rent even for the deep fertile land of Blunsdon, 
md for about 40a'. land of fair quality, well drained, and in large 
rectangular enclosures, can be procured in many parts of England 
and secured, it is to be hoped, to an enterprising tenant, either 
with a twenty years’ lease or an engagement to obtain remunera- 
tion for unexhausted improvements, or better still with both. 

The system of farming described in this Report, if it is to be 
followed elsewhere with the successes which have been secured 
at Sawbridgeworth and Blunsdon, must be carried out amidst 
similar favourable conditions. 

Steam-power is a sine qua non; without it the occasional 
deep-stirring and thorough autumn cultivation, so essential for 
rapidly obtaining a suitable seed-bed and eradicating weeds, 
could scarcely be secured. The use of steam in its turn obviously 
requires large rectangular fields, deep drainage, absence of trees 
and landfast stones, and more capital than at present is pos- 
sessed by most of the occupiers of small clay-land, farms. 

A deep and rather retentive soil is most favourable for the 
system. The thinner limestone formations and porous friable 
soils, unlike the clays, do not contain such a mine of varied 
plant-food which can, in great part, be rendered available by 
deep thorough cultivation. Nor do they retain, with compara- 
tively little waste, the more soluble constituents of plants, 
whether elaborated in the soil or applied in the form of portable 
manures. The system, it is urged, is not self-supporting : from 
foreign sources fertilizers must continue 'to be obtained; guano 
deposits will be used up. But, practically, the supplies of 
phosphates and nitrates are almost inexhaustible. 

A dry climate is also a necessary condition of successful con- 
tinuous corn growing. Amidst the frequent mizzling showers 
of the extreme south-western counties of England or Ireland, or 
in many parts of Cumberland and Westmoreland, with their 
rainfall of 60 to 70 inches, it would be futile to extend corn 
growing, or reduce the area of the roots and grass which, in such 
moist districts, thrive and pay. 

Still another condition would have to be secured, namely, the 
permission of the landlord to pursue a system of cropping, which 
has hitherto been almost universally proscribed, which is opposed 
to custom, inconsistent with the accepted principles of good 
farming, and supposed to exhaust and deteriorate the land. A 
longer continuance and wider multiplication of the experiences 
of Messrs. Prout and Middleditch will, doubtless, be required to 
remove many of the prevailing opinions relating to land-tenure : 
amongst other things, to establish the inutility of most of the 
restrictive cropping clauses which encumber our agreements, to 


64 Report on Messrs. Prout and Middleditcli s 

demonstrate that, in the long run, more cannot be extracted 
from the land than is put into it ; and to secure to the skilful 
responsible tenant the liberty to plant what he pleases, unless 
during the two years previous to his leaving, provided always 
he keeps his land clean and grows good crops. 

Some landlords and tenants may, perhaps, be sceptical as to 
the fertilising powers of thorough cultivation and portable ma- 
nures — the two chief factors by which the fertility of these farms 
has been improved and maintained. But thorough cultivation 
ensures the free entrance of sunlight, air, and moisture into the 
soil, and thus ameliorates and renders more soluble and fit for 
plant-food the crude materials which abound especially in stub- 
born clays. Again, artificial manures must not be regarded, as 
they still often are, as “ stimulants ” to be used sparingly and 
occasionally, but eventually leading to serious exhaustion of the 
soil. Judiciously applied, they supply directly to the growing 
plant the materials with which its textures are built up, w r hilst 
they sometimes render available certain constituents of the soil 
which otherwise could not be taken up by plants. Farm crops 
are not capricious as to their food. They cheerfully elaborate 
their grains and roots frojp any convenient sources of plant-food. 
It is comparatively immaterial whether the elements of plant- 
nutrition be of home or foreign origin, whether they enter the 
soil in concentrated or bulky form, whether they come directly 
from the fold-yard or from antediluvian stores. The essential 
matter is that they be, in quantity and variety, sufficient for the 
demands of the plant, and presented in a moderately soluble 
state. The phosphatic and ammoniacal dressings regularly used 
at Blount’s Farm and Blunsdon present about a fair equivalent 
for the phosphates and albuminoids annually removed in the 
crops. From the soil and atmosphere the other materials requisite 
are readily obtained. 

Messrs. Lawes and Gilbert’s invaluable experiments — one of 
the chief store-houses of the reliable facts of scientific agricul- 
ture — demonstrate that on heavy land the maximum returns both 
of wheat and barley have been reached with portable manures, 
and that on an average of twenty-five years dissolved bones and 
nitrate of soda, to the value of about 60s. per acre, produced 
several bushels more than an annual dressing of 14 tons of good 
farmyard-manure.* 

But it has been urged that fertility resulting from the use of 
artificials must be ephemeral. The Commissioners of the Royal 
Agricultural Society, reporting on Steam Cultivation in 1866 


* ‘Journal of the Royal Agricultural Society,’ vol. xxv., and vol. ix., 2nd 
Series. 


Continuous Corn Growing. 


65 


(Journal,’ Second Series, vol. iii.), after inspecting Mr. Prout’s 
farm, declared that “the course here pursued is exceptional, 
and must soon come to an end ; manure will soon be wanted.” 
This foreboding has not been justified. The system has been 
strictly persisted in. Eight crops have since been reaped, 
showing no falling off either in quantity or quality, all of them 
much over the average of the district, yielding an acreable 
return of 10/., exhibiting an annual acreable profit of 40s. Phos- 
phates of lime and nitrate of soda — the staple manures used by 
Messrs. Prout and Middleditch— certainly do not furnish all the 
materials requisite for the nutrition of plants, and it has been 
declared that sooner or later other elements, at first present in 
the soil, will become exhausted. Granting that in some soils 
such exhaustion may occur, the failing potash, chlorine, silica, 
or other element might be cheaply supplied. Even under ordi- 
nary farm-management the replacing of articles of plant-food, 
which are actually wanting in a particular soil, is frequently a 
more convenient and economical method of maintaining fertility 
than the supplying, as in farmyard-manure, of a general assort- 
ment of all the elements of plant-food. The practical problem 
appears to be — With a given soil and surroundings, what are 
the cheapest raw materials from which to manufacture the par- 
ticular crops desired ? 

Messrs. Lawes and Gilbert’s experimental plots furnish the 
best practical refutation of the supposed fleeting and unstable 
effects of artificial manures. For upwards of twenty-five years 
phosphates and nitrate of soda, at a cost of about 60s. per acre, 
have maintained rather poor heavy clay-land in a maximum 
state of fertility, producing corn-crops continuously, and return- 
ing, on an average of twenty-eight years, nearly 36 bushels of 
wheat, and during twenty-three years nearly 50 bushels of barley. 
The averages for the last ten years being better than those pre- 
viously obtained, justify the conclusion that there is no retro- 
gression, and that the same management which has economically 
secured this high fertility can permanently maintain it. 

The farms described admirably illustrate the power which the 
judicious outlay of capital exerts in developing the resources of 
the soil. Nor does a long period necessarily elapse before good 
returns are realised. Within a dozen years Blount’s Farm has 
doubled its selling or letting value, whilst seven years’ spirited 
management have already added fully 20 per cent, to the value 
of the Blunsdon farms. Former tenants, at much lower rents, 
regularly becoming impoverished, are superseded by men of skill 
and capital, who, although weighted with enhanced rents to meet 
the interest chargeable for costly improvements, manage to double 
the acreable produce and make the concern profitable. Similar 
results are obtainable elsewhere. What has been done may be 

VOL. XI.— s. S. F 


66 Report on Continuous Corn Growing. 

done again. Throughout our generally well-farmed island are 
still thousands of acres of unprofitable clay, poor thriftless grass- 
land, and worthless wastes, on which the system described in 
this Report might be successfully prosecuted. But capital is with 
difficulty attracted into such hitherto unprofitable channels. 
Landlords themselves seldom have the time, taste, or spare funds 
for such enterprises. Whilst, without more permanence of tenure 
than is generally accorded, or a more widely recognised payment 
for unexhausted improvements, tenants of skill and means ob- 
viously are indisposed laboriously and expensively to raise the 
land they hire from a state of unremunerative barrenness to one 
of high and remunerative fertility. Nor is this to be wondered 
at. Several years elapse before even essential and judiciously 
effected improvements fully repay their outlay. Throughout 
England long leases, as of 19 or 21 years, which afford definite 
permanence of occupation, and an opportunity for tenants to 
recoup themselves for substantial costly improvements, are un- 
common. Cases occur in which the death of landlord or tenant, 
or the sale of property, produces, on short notice, a change of 
tenancy, and the reversion to the landlord of the occupier’s 
capital. Such arrangements, too generally countenanced by 
custom, sanctioned by law, and peculiar only to agricultural 
occupations, obviously are a serious check to the expenditure 
of farmers’ capital. The several classes concerned in agricul- 
tural prosperity, and whose weal or woe are so indissolubly 
connected, suffer together. The farmer’s exertions are re- 
strained ; he has seldom liberty to make the best of his manu- 
factory of bread-stuffs or meat ; obsolete arrangements, devised 
to prevent deterioration of the occupation, unfortunately often 
prove more effectual in preventing its improvement ; uncertain 
whether he may enjoy time or opportunity to realise a return for 
extra expenditure, he is chary of laying out his capital ; his 
produce falls short of what it should be ; his profits are small. 
The landlord, who under any system must eventually obtain, 
without cost, a considerable share of all permanent agricultural 
improvements, has the resources of his property only very slowly 
and imperfectly developed, whilst his rent-roll shows little 
prospect of improvement. The labourer, under such a system, 
seldom has constant or remunerative employment. The com- 
munity at large pay higher prices for bread, meat, and dairy 
produce. 

Both Messrs. Prout and Middleditch are strongly impressed 
with the need of improvement in the system of land tenure. 
They rightly declare that no tenants would have been justified, 
under any system at present in existence, in undertaking the 
costly improvements which they have made. 

This Report ha's not been prepared with the idea that agricul- 


The Labour Bill in Farming. 


67 


turists everywhere will slavishly copy Messrs. Prout and Mid- 
dleditch’s system ; that corn-growing is generally to supersede 
; stock-farming ; that auction sales of standing corn are to become 
as common as those of live-stock, or that corn-crops will gene- 
rally be removed from the farm, and all land henceforward de- 
prived of its accustomed supplies of yard-manures. Procrustean 
principles are inconsistent with good farming, which ought to 
accommodate itself especially to changing conditions of markets 
and cost of production. If customers fail to bid for the crops 
at Blount's Farm or Blunsdon, the auction sales can be discon- 
tinued and the corn harvested by the growers. The straw, if 
not required to fodder and litter stock, can, as now, be disposed 
of for paper-making and other purposes, at prices considerably 
above the 16s. or IBs. per ton, which it is worth merely for 
manure. Again, even supposing that liberal foreign supplies 
bring the cereals down to a selling point at which their growth 
ceases to prove remunerative, these farms, so deeply and cleanly 
cultivated, are in an unusually favourable state for growing full 
crops of roots and fodder, and maintaining a large amount of 
stock. Meanwhile, Messrs. Prout and Middleditch’s valuable 
•experiences inculcate various practical lessons applicable almost 
|to any system of farming. They inculcate the wide adoption, 
especially on the heavier clays, of the deeper and more effectual 
stirring of the soil ; the economy of steam, as compared with 
horse-power, in the cultivation of the land ; the more systematic 
liberal feeding of the farm-crops with portable manures ; the gain 
resulting from drilling such manures with the seed-corn, and 
thus bringing them into closer contact w r ith the spongioles of 
the young plants ; and the desirability of remunerating the tenant 
for unexhausted improvements effected by his own capital, and 
thus encouraging him to devote to his vocation more brains, 
enterprise, and money. 


III . — The Labour Bill in Farming. By Frederick Clifford. 

For some months during the year 1874 it became my duty to 
follow somewhat closely the strikes and lock-out which occurred 
m the Eastern Counties, to describe the course of farming 
there, and set forth fairly the position both of employers and 
employed. The present Paper has not for its object a discussion 
of any of the controverted questions which arose during that 
inhappy struggle. Those persons who care to revive their 
ecollections of what will always be a memorable event in the 
listory of English agriculture may refer elsewhere to a perma- 

F 2 


68 


The Labour Bill in Farming. 


nent record of the strikes and lock-out.* It has been thought, 
however, that one point of practical interest to British farmers, 
suggested by the events of 1874, might be treated in this 
‘ Journal,’ with greater fulness than was necessary or possible 
when these events were described merely for general reading, 
and might possibly result in some advantage through a frank 
discussion of the labour question here. Having no claim what- 
ever to the character of a practical farmer, I had, and still have, 
much hesitation in venturing to speak upon a question of this 
nature to readers who will be for the most part experts, thoroughly 
acquainted with details, which I can give only at second-hand. 
As, however, I have been asked to place upon record in the 
‘ Journal ’ some of the facts and statistics, gathered in the course 
of my enquiry in East Anglia, as far as they relate to the Labour 
Bill in farming, I do so, though with diffidence, accompanying 
them by such reflections as suggest themselves to an outside 
observer, not an expert, who has watched with great interest, and 
under exceptional conditions, the attempt to solve a problem of 
the highest public importance. 

The farmer’s position is in many respects a peculiar one, and 
must be properly appreciated before we can hope to understand 
the question now proposed for treatment. It is his business to 
produce for human sustenance as much animal and vegetable 
food as his land will raise, and to produce it at the lowest pos- 
sible outlay consistently with fair dealing towards landlord and 
labourers. Some advantages belong to the position. Rural life 
is pleasant, and hitherto has been easy-going, though whether it 
will long continue so is doubtful. The farmer breathes pure air, 
is seldom weighed down by too much work, has a healthy out- 
door occupation, can take his share of field-sports. It has often 
been said that he begins life with an employment, and amid 
scenes, which townspeople covet all their days, and hope only 
to enjoy as the final reward of long and successful work. Then 
the farmer has not to face the keen competition of neighbours ; nor 
is lie tempted to resort to the sharp practice which, as he reads, 
is but too common in the towns, in order to maintain your 
position relatively to that of trade rivals. What his neighbour 
grows, or how much, is nothing to him, except that he naturally 
likes to farm as well and groAv as much. In agriculture there 
is an absence of anything like trade jealousy, trade secrets, 
over-reaching, or unfair rivalry. Farmers have interests in com- 
mon ; and such competition as exists among them is a generou: 

* ‘The Agricultural Lock-out of 1874, with Notes upon Farming in tli 
Eastern Counties.' Reprinted from ‘The Times.’ By Frederick Clifford, of tli 
M-ddlo Temple, Barrister-at-law. William Blackwood and Sons, Edinburgh an' 
London, 1875. 


The Labour Bill in Farming. 


69 


competition, springing from a wholesome desire to distinguish 
hemselves in what is by far the largest and most important of 
lational industries. Then, too, there is no need for the farmer 
o solicit custom. He produces articles in universal demand, 
or which he is sure to receive the market price, whether remu- 
lerative or unremunerative, without going farther than the next 
market-town. He need not advertise, or employ agents to tout for 
aim, or be at all anxious about the sale of his commodity, though 
ue may have great cause for anxiety about the price it fetches. He 
loes not stand beholden to any customers, or fear the loss of orders 
from this man or that ; nor has he to reckon from time to time 
upon possible sudden, capricious checks to demand, through 
changes in habit or taste, or through the competition of foreign 
manufactures in foreign markets. He is wholly independent of 
foreign markets, and is absolutely certain of a demand for all his 
produce at his own barn-door, without incurring the smallest 
obligation to the buyer, or going cap in hand to anybody. 

There is another side to this picture, and it is a much less 
pleasant side. The farmer carries on his business under con- 
ditions which often render skill and industry wholly unavailing 
:o secure success. He deals with land which may be unthankful. 
He must face the seasons, over which he has no control. Crops, 
:o the growth of which he may have contributed all that good 
husbandry and unceasing care require, may fail to fulfil their 
early promise. From year to year his land yields varying 
quantities, over which his toil and thought and outlay have little 
influence. Then his cattle and sheep suffer from diseases which, 
of late years, have come to be far more fatal and frequent than 
they used to be, while he is equally powerless to prevent them. 
If, like most manufacturers, he were able to recoup himself for 
losses by raising prices — or if, like some other producers, he 
could combine to keep up prices — his position, economically, 
would be vastly improved. But a farmer’s is a cosmopolitan 
trade. He does not feel that he has rivals in his neighbours, 
because farmers throughout pretty nearly the whole world are 
his rivals, and therefore the cereal produce of his parish, or even 
,of his county, is not worth considering in its effect upon the 
price of his own produce. At present, indeed, he has to a large 
extent a monopoly in the supply of beef and mutton, though 
before many years are over we may be sure that science will 
find the means of cheapening this commodity by importing it in 
much larger quantities, and in a more palatable condition, from 
countries like Australia and South America. As to wheat, how- 
ever, which hitherto has been the staple crop of the British 
farmer, he must measure himself against producers in countries 
where taxation is light, where the seasons are favourable, where the 


70 


The Labour Bill in Farming. 


land has a natural fertility far surpassing that of the British isles, 
and perhaps labour is far cheaper. Happily for consumers, 
distance, and the difficulty of transit, is the only protection 
enjoyed by the home producer ; and the price of wheat depends 
not upon his will but upon the genial rain which quickens, and 
the sunshine which is sure to mature the crop, if not here, at any 
rate in some of the countries that are ready to supply us with 
their superabundance. 

It will thus be seen that the British farmer, who, like other 
men, follows his calling for profit, is limited in his power of 
making this profit by natural conditions not applicable to ordi- 
nary producers, while from these conditions he can never hope 
to be free. We are also face to face with the fact that the 
ordinary business of farming is not one in which high profits are 
made. If, on an average of years, he makes from eight to ten 
per cent, upon his capital, he may be reckoned fortunate indeed. 
There may be some farmers, exceptionally favoured in respect of 
rents and quality of soil, whose percentage of returns is larger ; 
but 1 suspect there are very many more who cannot point to so 
large a return. In few trades would this rate of interest be 
deemed an adequate one, considering the risk run and the skill 
and amount of personal supervision necessary. The farmer 
cannot turn over his capital three or four times in the course 
of a year. On the contrary, he has to spend so much for rent, 
for labour, manure, and seed, long before he receives any return 
for this outlay ; and whatever profit he makes must be led up 
to by a long course of industry, by continued expenditure, and 
patient expectations very often bitterly disappointed. 

If, however, the British farmer, as a rule, makes at the best 
only three or four per cent, above the rate of interest he would 
receive, with little risk, if his capital were invested on the 
mortgage of house property, and no more than he would re- 
ceive in many modern investments, reckoned fairly safe, leaving 
no remuneration for his personal services upon the farm, the 
question now to be considered is an urgent one. It seems to be 
capable of statement in this way : — Labour is one chief item in 
farming outlay. Its tendency, shown by recent events, is to rise 
in value. From a public point of view, as well as in the interests 
of a class with whom we must all sympathize, it is desirable 
that labour should rise in value ; but the farmer, like the 
labourer, must live. Some persons, indeed, on this point have 
replied almost in the words of the French wit, who, when a 
similar appeal was made to him, said, “Jc n'en vois .pas la 
necessite.” But as rural society is now constituted, and under 
our present system of agriculture, it must be assumed that the land 
is meant as much for the support of the farmer as the labourer. 


The Labour Bill in Farming. 


71 


As few farmers, therefore, till the land for the purpose of pleasure 
or experiment, can they, with the existing narrow margin of 
profit, get a living if the cost of labour materially increases ? 

Clearly they cannot do so, unless by compensation derived 
from one or more of the following sources:— (1) by lower rents, 
a result which cannot be reasonably looked for ; (2) by higher 
prices for farm produce ; (3) by increased production ; (4) by 
greater economy in production, such as through the cheapening 
of manure, the reduction of local rates, the increased use of 
machinery, and resort to a course of husbandry requiring less 
labour ; or (5) by a system of paying for labour by results, — 
a system which recognizes the necessity of higher wages, but 
requires in return labour, if possible, higher in quality and cer- 
tainly greater in quantity than that now given. 

I have said that lower rents cannot in reason be expected. 
Whatever may be the case in Scotland, one cannot have gone 
far, or made much enquiry as to rents on this side of the 
Tweed, without feeling that land is on the whole very fairly, 

■ and even moderately let. Some time ago an Eastern Counties 
farmer had an interview with a landlord, who was talking of 
proposed changes upon a large estate where the tenantry were 
not very contented and not very prosperous. The farmer, as 
he told me, contributed his suggestion, though it was a negative 
one: — “For goodness sake, sir,” he said, “whatever you do, 
don't lower the rents ! ” He meant, no doubt, that rent acts as 
a healthy stimulus to exertion, and that rentals below the fair 
value of the land let are sometimes no real advantage to in- 
different farmers. I daresay the landlord took kindly to the 
advice thus tendered. However this may be, English tenants 
must look first to help from one of the other sources just indi- 
cated. Farming must be proved to be unprofitable, after other 
shilts have been tried, before rents will come down ; and they 
are more likely to go up than to come down. 

Higher prices for farm-produce are more within the range of 
probability. heat is now very low, and men of experience 
look for a continuance of low prices for bread-stuffs. Barley is 
taking the place of wheat as a remunerative crop upon suitable 
soils. The average price of farm-produce may now be said to 
be a fairly good one, and in time other crops will be substituted 
for wheat. This is a topic, however, with which I shall not 
presume to deal. The possibility of increasing production, and 
reducing absolutely or relatively the cost of production, also 
raises questions beyond the scope of this Article. We come, 
then, to the last of the five heads iust specified — the Labour 
Bill. 

At starting it will be well to try to define as nearly as possible 


72 


The Labour Bill in Farming. 


what may fairly be included in the “ Labour Bill ” in farming. 
The nominal rate of wages paid in a given district, as even the 
most superficial readers of newspapers now know, represents as 
a rule neither the labourer’s full gain nor the farmer’s entire 
outlay in this branch of expenditure. The items which really 
contribute to this expenditure may be classed as follow : — 

1. Weekly wages for manual labour. 

2. Labourers’ extra earnings from piece-work, not including 
harvest. 

3. Extra wages at harvest, whether paid by the week or in a 
lump sum for the job. 

4. Horse labour, including risk and depreciation. 

5. Difference in the value of cottage and garden, where these 
are let by the farmer or his landlord to the labourer rent-free, or 
at rentals below actual value. 

6. Perquisites given directly or indirectly as a supplement to 
wages. 

7. Wages know ingly paid by the farmer in excess of the value 
of the labour given in return, as in the case of old or infirm 
hands. 

8. The farmer’s contribution in rates to the relief of the poor. 

1. “ The price of labour,” writes one of my correspondents, “ as 
well as the rent of land, must be governed by this fact — whether 
the farmer’s capital is profitably or unprofitably invested.” The 
truth of the proposition may be admitted ; but then the farmer 
must move with the times, and use the means which experience 
and necessity from time to time suggest for adapting his mode 
of husbandry and employment of labour to the social or econo- 
mical changes which occur around him. In the end, self-interest 
will lead him to do what he finds it is necessary he should do for 
the purpose of insuring a profit on his capital ; but it is well 
that no time should be lost in getting into the right groove. Let 
us now see what the cost of labour is and has been in farming 
during recent years, and what seems to have been the influence 
of machinery upon the charge for manual labour. 

The old-fashioned way of estimating the cost of manual labour 
was to take it as about equal to rent and tithes. Now, however, 
the cost of labour is regulated by the system of farming pursued 
upon the various occupations. Some forty years ago, before arti- 
ficial manures came into use, a farmer depended almost entirely 
upon such manure as he could produce at home. This, again, 
ruled the number of acres under crop, and the bulk of each crop, 
and it ruled also the demand for labour. The use of artificial 
manures greatly increased the number of hands employed. The 
introduction of machinery set free some hands, but generally to 


73 


The Labour Bill in Farming. 

employ them only in other ways. For example : “ Forty years 
ago,” writes Mr. Mathew, of Knettishall, near Harling, “ six 
men upon this farm did nothing but thresh corn from harvest 
till June 1st in the succeeding year. Now I do not use a flail 
at all, and still I employ more men than were employed here forty 
years ago, though I grow no more corn : indeed the acreage of 
corn is now rather less than it was then. Machinery does not 
lessen the demand for manual labour, but diverts it into other 
channels. In some districts the value of labour used to be cal- 
culated by the price of wheat ; and the price of one bushel of 
wheat, added to half-a-crown, was the weekly wage paid for an 
adult labourer. Thus, when wheat was selling at 30s. per coomb 
(4 bushels), the wages would be 10s. a week. During the 
Crimean war, wheat rose to 44s. per coomb, and the farmers in 
my parish then advanced wages to 13s. per week. At that time 
a great many men were out of work.” 

The following is the Labour Account upon a Light-land Farm 
in Suffolk, containing 367 acres arable land, 23 acres pasture, and 
37 acres sheep walk : — 


Date in 
May. 

Daily Wage of 
able Men. 

Amount paid for 
Labour annually. 

Cost of Labour 
acre upon 40C 
acres.* 


6 . 

d. 

£ 

s. 

d. 

£ s. d. 

1S47 

2 

0 

565 

15 

6 


1848 

1 

8 

623 

8 

5 


1849 

1 

6 

557 

6 

9 

1 7 10i 

1850 

1 

6 

535 

7 

8 


1851 

1 

4 

507 

2 

3 


1852 

1 

4 

494 

19 

6 

1 4 6i 

1853 

1 

6 

526 

0 

8 

1 6 3£ 

1854 

2 

0 

660 

8 

4 


1855 

2 

0 

676 

19 

5 


1856 

2 

0 

757 

11 

11 


1857 

1 

10 

692 

13 

10 

1 14 74 

1858 

1 

8 

674 

6 

2 


1859 

1 

8 

647 

4 

4 


1860 

1 

8 

696 

18 

8 


1861 

1 

10 

727 

3 

9 

1 16 4i 

1862 

1 

10 

689 

19 

4 


1863 

1 

8 

689 

14 

5 


1864 

1 

8 

638 

0 

6 


1865 

1 

8 

605 

16 

10 

1 10 3| 

1866 

1 

8 

640 

16 

0 


1867 

1 

10 

681 

2 

11 


1868 

2 

0 

721 

19 

2 


1869 

1 

8 

652 

0 

9 

1 12 1 

1870 

1 

8 

616 

13 

9 


1871 

1 

8 

618 

15 

7 


1872 

2 

0 

694 

10 

4 


1873 

2 

2 

700 

18 

5 

1 15 0J 

1874 

2 

2 

719 

12 

7 



* This calculation allows a little labour for the sheep-walk. 


74 


The Labour Bill in Farming. 


The above figures represent the amount paid in hard cash. 
The value of the beer given was about 15/. or 20/. annually, 
according to the price of malt. Beer is given on this farm all 
the year round, at hay-time and harvest, as well as during drill- 
ing, sheep-washing, and clipping. Then there is the meat, &c., 
given to the men at sundry times from the house. To this may 
be added cheap cottages, let at 52s. and 31. per year, allotments 
.. free, meat and beer at Christmas according to the size of the 
family ; and three-quarters day given on Good Friday.* The 
reason of the year 1847 showing so small a gross amount of 
w r ages is accounted for by the fact that the out-going tenant paid 
for his own threshing. 

A valuable addition to the foregoing statement is the fol- 
lowing : 


Account of Wheat and Barley Crops upon the same Farm, and 
their Average Prices, together with the Weekly Wage paid to able- 
bodied men during the same periods. 



Wheat Crop. 
Average. 

Price per 
Coomb. 

Barley Crop. 
Average. 

Price per 
Coomb. 

Weekly 

Wage. 

Profit or loss per cent, on 
Capital. 


c. 

B. 

P. 

s. 

d. 

C. 

B. 

P. 

s. 

d. 

s. 


1819 

9 

i 

0 

19 

0 

10 

2 

0 

14 

0 

9 


1850 

8 

0 

0 

20 

6 

10 

0 

0 

11 

0 

9 


1851 

8 

0 

0 

' 20 

0 

11 

0 

0 

14 

6 

8 

Profit, 5} per cent. 

1852 

7 

2 

0 

23 

6 

11 

2 

0 

16 

0 

8 

Profit, 10 „ 

1853 

7 

2 

0 

42 

0 

11 

0 

0 

19 

0 

9 

Not a farthing profit 

1851 

13 

0 

1 

36 

0 

13 

0 

0 

17 

0 

12 


1855 

8 

1 

2 

38 

0 

13 

2 

0 

19 

0 

12 


1856 

8 

3 

0 

35 

0 

11 

3 

0 

23 

0 

12 


1857 

9 

1 

1 

25 

0 

12 

0 

0 

19 

6 

11 


1858 

9 

0 

1 

23 

6 

9 

2 

3 

17 

0 

10 


1859 

9 

1 

2 

21 

0 

9 

3 

1 

13 

6 

10 


1860 

8 

0 

0 

27 

0 

11 

0 

2 

21 

0 

10 


1861 

9 

1 

1 

30 

3 

11 

0 

0 

20 

6 

11 


1862 

7 

0 

3 

24 

3 

11 

0 

1 

18 

6 

11 


1863 

10 

3 

1 

20 

6 

12 

3 

2 

18 

0 

10 


1861 

7 

0 

0 

20 

6 

11 

3 

2 

16 

0 

10 


‘ 1865 

9 

3 

3 

23 

0 

8 

2 

3 

17 

6 

10 


1866 

9 

1 

1 

28 

0 

10 

1 

0 

23 

6 

10 


1867 

9 

0 

0 

35 

0 

11 

0 

0 

20 

6 

11 


1868 

8 

3 

3 

26 

0 

9 

2 

0 

23 

6 

12 


1869 

10 

1 

1 

22 

0 

9 

0 

0 

17 

0 

10 


1870 

6 

0 

3 

27 

9 

6 

2 

1 

17 

9 

10 

Profit, 10 per cent. 

1871 

8 

0 

1 

29 

0 

11 

0 

3 

19 

6 

10 

7 

1872 

7 

0 

3 

26 

0 

9 

2 

2 

22 

0 

12 

„ 9 „ 

1873 

7 

2 

1 

31 

0 

9 

2 

1 

24 

0 

13 

„ I 2 

1871 


*• 









13 



The corn averages are rather high in price, because, as a rule, 
none of the dross corn was sent to market, but was kept for con- 
sumption on the farm. The figures are trustworthy, and are of 


* The value of these extras is reckoned by the farmer at Is. C d. per acre. 


The Labour Bill in Farming. 


75 


interest, not only as showing the varied yield of crops upon a 
well-cultivated farm, but as showing also how far the wages here 
have followed the rise or fall in the price of corn. The existence 
from time to time of surplus labour in the district is another 
disturbing element. 

The details that follow relate to a farm of 780 acres, of which 
38 are wood, 20 pasture, and 722 arable. Of the latter about 
5 per cent, would be waste. Part of the land is light ; part is 
good mixed soil. The rent is 1080/. ; the tithes, 224/. ; rates, 
106/. The year’s labour bill rvas 1330/., representing about 
34s. per acre. The tabular figures show the total paid for 
labour upon the farm during the last 17 years, and they show 
also the amount given in beer. A good deal of difference will 
be observed in the cost of labour from year to year, even when 
the rate* of wages is the same. This difference is caused by the 
variation in seasons, much less labour being required in a dry 
than in a wet season. Indeed, the effect of a drought in reducing 
wages sometimes extends into the year following, owing to 
shorter crops to be gathered, and a smaller quantity of corn to 
be threshed. It will be seen what little difference seems to have 
been produced by the latest agricultural machinery in reducing 
the total wage account. Steam-threshing caused a considerable 
economy in labour as compared with flail-threshing, but this 
result is not shown, as steam-threshing was adopted upon the 
farm before 1857, when the figures begin : — 


Total Labour for the Years ending October 11. 



Total Labour. 

Including Beer. 


£ 

s. 

d. 

£ 

s. 

d. 

1857 

1,266 

19 

0 

55 

12 

0 

1858 

1,192 

5 

0 

54 

5 

0 

1859 

1,221 

14 

0 

82 

5 

0 

1860 

1,298 

18 

0 

55 

13 

0 

1861 

1,265 

10 

0 

54 

15 

0 

1S62 

1,330 

17 

0 

87 

18 

0 

1863 

1,119 

6 

0 

35 

17 

0 

1864 

1,076 

0 

0 

31 

2 

0 

1865 

1,040 

18 

0 

85 

2 

0 

1866 

1,158 

5 

0 


* 


1867 

1,275 

2 

0 

117 

7. 

0 

1868 

1,244 

6 

0 

134 

2 

0 

1869 

1,126 

17 

0 

93 

5 

0 

1870 

1,165 

15 

0 

78 

13 

0 

1871 

1,043 

11 

0 

50 

2 

0 

1872 

1,199 

4 

0 

61 

4 

0 

1873 

1,318 

17 

0 

11 

6 

0 


* Beer omitted by mistake. 


One cause of the great variation in the value of the beer given 


76 


The Labour Bill in Farming. 


is that a quantity of malt or beer was in stock at the beginning 
of some of the years. The fairest way, therefore, would be to take 
the average of groups of years. It will be seen that, happily, since 
the maximum was reached in 1868, the quantity has been steadily 
diminishing. The following account, derived from the labour 
books kept at this farm, shows the fluctuation in the nominal 
rate of wages paid there during a period of 58 years : — Between 
1817 and 1821, inclusive, the wages paid were 10s. a week ; 
1822-3, 8s. ; 1824, 9s. ; 1825, 10s. ; 1826-30, 9s. ; 1831-3, 
10s. ; 1834, 9s. ; 1835-42, 10s. ; 1843-6, 9s. ; 1847, in May, 
12 s. (Irish famine), November, 10s. ; 1848-9, 9s. ; 1850-2, 8s. ; 
1853, 9s., in December, 10s. ; 1854 (March), 11s. ; 1855, 11s., 
in December, 12s. ; 1856, 11s. ; 1857, 10s. ; 1858-60, 9s. ; 
1861-2, 10s. ; 1863-5, 9s. ; 1866, 10s. ; 1867-8, 11s. ; 1869-71, 
10s.; 1872, 11s., in October, 12s.; 1873, 12s., in April, 13s.; 
1874, 13s. At this nominal wage of 13s. an average able- 
bodied labourer on the farm earned the following actual wages, 
from May 3, 1873, to May 2, 1874. He enjoyed no advantages 
in day-work, for which extra pay is allowed as in some in- 
stances, and was never employed on Sundays in looking after 
horses and stock. During the year this man lost two and a half 
days through absence, besides a little time taken by him at his 
own request before and after harvest ; but he earned by day-work 
24/. 12s. 9^6?. ; by piece-work, 13/. 0s. 6^d . ; and by harvest- 
work, 81. 15s. — total, 46/. 8s. 4 d., or rather more than 17s. 10t/. 
a week in cash. Then he had the following perquisites : — A 
house and good garden, for which he paid a shilling a week, but 
which was valued by the farmer at the moderate rent of 4/. 10s. 
In the outskirts of a town it would be thought a catch at 9/. 

__ o 

The farmer, however, only put down as the difference between 
rent paid and actual value of cottage, 1/. 18s. The beer per- 
quisites came to 1/. 6s. ; fagots, 2s. 6 d . ; coal, 10s. ; Christmas- 
box, 2s. 6 d . — value of perquisites, 3/. 19s. Total value of earnings 
and perquisites, 50/. 7s. 

Here are some details respecting a farm of another, class, a 
small one of 200 acres, mixed soil, with 3 acres pasture, and the 
remainder arable, the estimate of waste being 7 per cent. The 
amount paid in labour during the year was 426/., or 21. 2s. 7 d. 
per acre. It will be seen that upon the farm nearly four times 
its size, just mentioned, the cost of labour was 8s. Id. per acre 
less. Besides men and boys, 8 horses are required to work 
these 200 acres. The rent was 335/. ; tithe, 83/. — total, 418/. 
The wages paid to ordinary labourers were 13s. for five weeks 
in the year, 14s. for 43 weeks, and then come the four weeks of 
harvest, which make the average earnings throughout the year 
17s. weekly in cash. The horsekeeper and stockman receive 


The Labour Bill in Farming. 


77 


each 2s. a week extra. The beer perquisite is not included in 
this calculation. The farmer here had allowed his books to be 
examined by an independent person, from 1862 to 1871 inclusive, 
for the purpose of estimating profits, and during these ten years 
the profits amounted to 2671/., or an average of 267/. for interest 
on a capital of 2500/., and also as the return for no common 
skill, and for constant care and oversight. My informant argued 
that a net profit of 267/. afforded very little margin for allowing 
an increase of wages, and upon such returns as the farming of 
1874 produced there is no margin at all. Since 1871, as will 
be seen by the Table just given, agricultural wages have risen 
3s. weekly — from 10s. to 13s. The labour on this 200-acre farm 
during the ten years (1862—71) amounted to 3236/. — an average 
of not quite 324/. per annum ; but in 1873-4 the labour bill was 
426/., showing an increase of 102/. If this 102/. can be replaced 
bv higher profits than were shown from 1862 to 1871 the farmer 
cannot complain, but at present prices he can have no such 
expectation. The sum of 102/., then, must be viewed as a per- 
manent deduction from the average yearly profit, bringing it 
down to 165/. per annum; “and I ask you or any reasonable 
being,” said the farmer, “ whether that is a fair remuneration 
upon my 2000/. capital, and for a fair average amount of skill 
and strict personal attention ? ” The good faith of the farmer in 
this instance is undoubted ; and his statement throws some light 
on the question as to the margin of profit out of which farmers 
can afford to satisfy the demand for increased wages. In refusing 
to increase wages the farmer does not always withhold something 
which he can well afford to pay. 

The following figures refer to a heath farm of 950 acres, of 
which about 525 are arable and 130 pasture. It was taken by 
the father of my informant in the year 1834. At that time there 
was not a machine on the farm, excepting such as were worked 
by hand. Shortly afterwards, however, the occupier bought a 
horse-power chaff-cutter. Some of the farm books between 1834 
and 1842 are lost, and therefore the separate amounts under the 
subjoined heads for those years cannot be supplied. It may be 
stated, however, that the labour bill for the year 1835 did not 
amount to 500/. — less than 20s. an acre upon the arable land 
alone, and between 1834 and 1842 the outlay for wages may be 
fairly put at an average of 550/. The farm has been cultivated 
strictly on the four-course shift, so that the same acreage of corn 
has been maintained, except during the last five years, when the 
present occupier has been farming upon a system which involves 
the growth of less corn and the substitution of green crops. On 
the other hand, in the year 1867, 147 acres of arable land were 
added to the farm, which is now larger by that acreage : — 


78 


The Labour Bill in Farming. 


Year ending 

Labour. 

Cake Corn, Manure, &c., 
purchased. 


£ 

s. 

d. ' 

£ 

s. 

d. 

1843 

627 

0 

0 

300 

14 

6 

1844 

620 

8 

10 

482 

12 

4 

1845 

597 

19 

U 

482 

12 

4 

1846* * * § 

556 

2 

4 

577 

15 

10 

1847 

690 

14 

3 h 

676 

9 

9 

1848 

623 

6 

7j 

760 

7 

0 

1849 

646 

10 

10 

711 

0 

6 

1850f 

592 

6 

0 

556 

11 

5 

1851 

569 

10 

4 

682 

11 

4 

1852 

555 

2 

1 

617 

11 

7 

1853 

624 

1 

4 

755 

1 

3 

1854 

736 

3 

2 

991 

14 

10 

1855 

797 

7 

8 

1,250 

15 

5 

1856 

775 

18 

n 

1,210 

15 

9 

| 1857 

767 

11 

i 

622 

1 

0 

1858 

731 

12 

7 

980 17 

11 

1859$ 

749 

2 

11 

983 

1 

11 

1860 

794 

5 

8 

915 

1 

3 

1861 

814 

2 

1 

1,159 

18 

11 

1S62§ 

785 

10 

6 

1,368 

14 

11 

1863 

766 

2 

8 

1,220 

1 

0 

1864|| 

712 

4 

1* 

1,189 

14 

4 

1869 

906 

7 

0 

995 

19 

10 

1870 

916 

3 

6 

1,010 

9 

6 

1871 

879 

15 

1 

907 12 

6 

1872 

943 

10 

0 

1,104 

6 

2 

1873U 

964 

3 

8 

820 

15 

0 


The year ending September, 1874, would show an addition to 
the labour hill of about 100/. The fact prominently brought out 
by these figures is one already indicated — that the introduction 
of machinery and of high farming increases the demand for 
manual labour instead of diminishing it. During the later years 
covered by these statistics, machine-reapers and mowers, and root- 
mincers have been used, and steam-power has been employed in 
threshing and for other purposes. Yet the money spent in manual 
labour has hitherto gradually increased. On the other hand, 
the number of horses has been gradually reduced from 19 in 
1868 to 15 at the present time by the use of double' ploughs, 
and by keeping more land down in sainfoin. The farmer, too, 
is employing six men fewer than in 1873. This reduction of 
staff is in part due to the dry season of 1874, but the farmer, 
being put to the test during the lock-out, is of opinion that he 


* Guano first tried and Lavres’s turnip manure first used, 

t Ilorse-power threshing-machine bought, and nitrate of soda first tried, 

j 'Reaping-machine bought this year. 

§ Steam threshing-machine purchased. 

|| There is a break in the account here till 18G9. 

^ Ending September 1. 


The Labour Bill in Farming. 


79 


can permanently reduce the regular staff of men in his service. 
Here is a statement of the earnings of his labourers during the 
last 12 months. I may pass over the bailiff, the shepherd (more. 
than 70 years old), with assistant, and the groom : 

J. B., over 70 years old, 2s. per day, extras when at piece-work ; cottage, 
21 . 10s. rent. He has harvested on the farm for 48 consecutive years. 

J. W., over 70 years old, 11s. per week all the year round, and extras for an 

odd job. 

S. D., eight years on farm, head man, 50?. Is. ; no rent. 

W. J., four years ditto, second man, 48?. 10s. ; single man. 

W. S., 60 years ditto, general work, 44?. 12s. ; 8?. rent. 

J. B., eight years ditto, acre work, 50?. 12s.; no rent. 

H. L., four years ditto, acre work, 47?. 2s. ; no rent. 

R. F., from a hoy, thatching and general work, 48?. 6s. ; 2?. 10s. rent. 

J. F., from a boy, machine, cart, &c., 49?. 10s. ; 3?. Is. rent. 

C. S., seven years on farm, general work, 45?. 17s. ; 3?. 10s. rent. 

D. H., eight years ditto, machine work, &c., 47?. 5s. ; cottage in another 
parish, one acre of land. 

J. W., jun., life ditto, stockman, 48?. 9s. ; 3?. rent. 

C., about 30 years ditto, engine-man, 47?. 6s. ; no rent. 

W. from a boy ditto, general work, 44? 16s. ; 2?. 15s. rent. 

H. B., four years ditto, general work, 47?. 8s. ; single man. 

J. C., worked through winter upon estate work. 

J. S., worked through winter, and then left without giving notice. 

H. E., from a boy, now about 20, has had 13s. per week, and extra in 
harvest, &c. 

W. C., about 18, has 12s. per week, and extra in harvest, &c. 

J. D., about 18, left and went to Leicestershire, returned again, did not find 
it answer, has 2s. per day, &c. 

C., age 16, 7s. per week, and extras, &c. 

G. F., age 15, 6s. ditto, ditto. 

J. F., age 13, 4s. ditto, ditto. 

W. S., age 14, 5s. ditto, ditto. 

H. S., age 14, 6s. ditto, ditto. 

In looking through the labour books on the farm just mentioned, 
I find that nearly one-half the outlay for horse and hand labour 
is incurred during the spring and summer in growing food for 
stock. Again, during the winter months more than one-half 
the labour is employed in looking after the cattle and sheep on 
the farm and in preparing food for the stock. Modern farming 
differs from old-fashioned farming chiefly, perhaps, in the greater 
quantity of stock fed and sent to market. The farmer finds that, 
to make a living, he must not, in common talk, “ look to the 
barn-door for everything.” Wheat is not the remunerative crop 
it used to be. On some land in Suffolk perhaps the best barley 
in Lngland is grown, and the Burton brewers are ready to give 
good prices for it. But, unless the soil is one peculiarly adapted 
for white-straw crops, the farmer now must breed or feed, or breed 
as well as feed. The increase of stock accounts to a great extent 
for the fact, that with the increased use of machinery has come a 


80 


The Labour Bill in Farming. 


greater demand for manual labour in high farming. What has 
just been stated as to the farm I am now noticing — that of Mr. 
Mathew, of Knettishall— shows that during three parts of the 
year the stock is properly chargeable with quite half the labour 
employed. Forty years ago Mr. Mathew’s father, who then held 
the farm, grew as great an acreage of corn as is now grown, and 
did not employ so many men and boys, nor any machinery 
for the first ten years of his occupation, though he employed 
more horses. One explanation is that he only kept about half 
as many sheep as are now wintered on the same farm, and about 
half as many head of neat stock. All the corn on the farm is 
now threshed by steam. Steam machinery is used for cutting 
chaff and grinding corn, and horse-power for mincing roots and 
breaking cake. All this work used to be done by hand, yet 
the father employed fewer labourers than the son now employs, 
and the father’s expenditure for labour continued for some time 
at the rate of about 500/. a year, whereas the son, who uses all 
this steam and horse power, is spending (with 150 more acres, it 
is true) 1100/. in manual labour. 

Mr. Mathew is sowing less corn and trying a system which 
he hopes will make farms of light and mixed soil more self- 
supporting, by rendering them less dependent upon artificial 
grasses, and reducing some of the present heavy items for expen- 
diture upon cake, artificial manure, and labour. This is one of 
the changes already indicated for economising production. He 
has found that, upon light land, sainfoin resists the drought better 
than most other descriptions of feed, and he also attaches great 
importance to the growth of a good plant of mangolds. Assuming, 
therefore, that he thinks it right to grow 20 acres of mangolds 
every year, the course of husbandry upon six plots of 20 acres each 
would be as follows : — 1. Mangolds after barley, instead of small 
seeds. 2. Wheat after mangolds in course. 3. Sainfoin after 
wheat, instead of turnips. 4. Sainfoin instead of barley. 5. 
Sainfoin instead of clover, Sec. 6. Wheat after sainfoin, in 
course. The 3-year-old sainfoin is followed by wheat, and 
there is always an acreage of sainfoin of three different ages I 
upon the farm. This crop, it is said, supplies capital feed, 
whether cut for hay, or used in the yard for horses and cattle 
during the summer, or given as chaff, or fed off on the land. 
The acreage so occupied requires no manure and little labour, 
and possesses other advantages which, in the farmer’s opinion, 
more than compensate for the loss of 20 acres of barley. Here 
is the yield upon a field of 16 acres of sainfoin during three 
consecutive years: — 1868. First crop of hay, 33 waggon-loads; i 
second crop fed off by lambs. 1869. — First crop of hay, 35 \ 
waggon-loads ; second crop, 80 sacks of seed. 1870. — First | 


The Labour Bill in Farming. 


81 


crop of hay, 33 waggon-loads ; second crop, seed estimated at 
224 bushels. Practical men must judge for themselves as to 
the merits of this system. The farmer is convinced that it is, 
at any rate, well adapted to his own land ; and he expects, by 
means of it, to dispense with four men and four horses when 
it is in full operation, besides greatly increasing his food for 
sheep and cattle, and thus growing more corn upon the fields 
which are cultivated for corn, to compensate him somewhat 
for the smaller acreage of corn which his system involves. 
One point upon which Mr. Mathew insists is, that any 
falling off in the supply of labour, whether from a strike, a 
lock-out, or from natural causes, will reduce the supply of 
meat rather than the production of corn. From April 1 to 
the end of July, about one-half of his men were employed in 
growing roots and getting in the hay — in fact, in producing a 
supply of winter food for sheep and cattle ; and from the com- 
pletion of harvest to April again, one-half the men and boys 
were engaged in securing roots, cutting chaff, mincing and 
preparing food, littering yards, and attending to sheep and 
cattle. Thus the winter’s work is regulated to a great extent 
by the operations of the spring and summer, and, summing the 
matter up in the farmer’s words, “ Few men in spring and sum- 
mer, mean few roots or little hay. This again means no stock 
<luring autumn and winter, and no stock during autumn and 
winter means 14 fewer men and boys than I employed last 
year.” 

The moral drawn by Mr. Mathew is, +hat if the labour market 
is disturbed by any cause, the first to suffer is the labourer, 
the next the consumer, while the last and least sufferer is the 
farmer. After planting his spring corn comes the season for 
planting mangolds and kohl rabi, which may be done up to the 
10th of May. If that season is lost, so is the crop. Agricultural 
work is not like manufacturing work, which can be taken up 
where it was left off. The season once lost in farming is lost 
for ever.* You must try something else. Supposing, then, 
that mangolds and kohl rabi fail, swedes can be sown up to the 
10th of June. If this time goes by, you need not sow, for you 
will get no crop. White turnips, however, may follow up to the 
18th of July. If this season be missed through dearth of labour, 
the farmer will take to coleseed, which requires little or no 
labour. What, then, is the relative value of these crops? Man- 
golds will carry one-third more stock than swedes, swedes will 
carry more stock than white turnips, and each of these crops 
will carry as much stock again as coleseed. The earlier crops 


* “ Res rustica sic est, si unam rem sero feceris, omnia opera sero facies.' 

VOL. XI.— S. S. G 


82 


The Labour Bill in Farming. 


of the year require the greatest amount of labour — wheat more 
than barley, mangolds more than swedes, swedes more than tur- 
nips, and turnips more than coleseed, which “ may be fairly 
termed the farmer’s refuge.” These are the premises upon 
which Mr. Mathew justifies his conclusion that the farmer 
can carry on his business, dispensing with much labour, and 
leaving the labourer and consumer to be the chief sufferers. 
As to another course open to the farmer — to lay down more 
land in grass — he does not doubt that this may and will be 
done ; but adds, “ it may increase the quantity of store cattle 
and sheep, but, I think, it will not materially increase the 
quantity of fattened sheep and cattle. In my opinion, no 
greater quantity of stock is fattened under any system of farming 
than under the old four-course system, which has stood the test 
of several generations.” 

I will now give the labour outlay upon three farms in a state 
of high cultivation in Cambridgeshire and Suffolk. The first 
consists of 1076 acres, of which 162 are heath, 50 pasture, and 
864 arable, the arable land comprising 384 acres of light and 
480 of strong land on chalk. The net rental received by the 
landlord (free of Property Tax) is 1477/. The gross rental 
paid by the tenant, including Land Tax, tithes, rates, and taxes, 
is 201 21. The amount distributed in cash for labour during the 
year ending Lady-day last, was 1453/. Besides this sum, the 
farmer, at harvest time, gave his men malt and hops worth 
68/. 14s. ; the harvest supper cost him 9/. 13s., and he estimates 
the beer given during the remainder of the year at 37/. 15s., 
making an addition to the labour bill of 116/. 2s., or a total of 
1569/. During the same period, the sum of 2414/. 16s. was 
spent in feed and manure, making a total outlay of close on 
6000/. The farmer here has carefully worked out his profits 
during the seven years he has cultivated his present holding, 
and, after debiting his house-keeping account fairly with every 
article of farm produce consumed, he says he has only made 
7 per cent, on the capital employed, about 9000/. I may add 
that he farms under lease, and therefore enjoys security of 
tenure. On another farm of 800 acres, rent and tithe came 
to 1130/. ; cost of labour, 1775/. This farm consists of light, 
easy working land, with only 10 acres of pasture, the remain- 
der being arable. On another farm of 370 acres (300 arable, 
mixed soil, and 70 pasture) the rental is 50s. per acre, in- 
cluding tithe and rates ; the charge for labour is 37s. Gd. per 
acre; the average earnings of the labourers are 17s. per week 
in cash, and the perquisites or extras are reckoned at about 
3s. per acre. 

At Blennerhassett, the whimsical co-operative farm carried on 


The Labour Bill in Farming. 


83 


bv Mr. Lawson, the labour sheet for one year showed the cost 
of labour to be SI. 5s. 2d. per acre, another year 21. 2s. 6d., 
while the cost of farm-horses is put down at 43/. 18s. 9| d. 
per annum. No wonder the experiment proved a financial 
failure. Against this instance of frolicsome farming, full of 
interest and amusement as it is to Mr. Lawson’s readers, let me 
set some figures taken from the accounts of a heavy-land Eastern 
Counties farm of 367 acres, cultivated for profit and not as a 
social or farming experiment. These figures have been carefully 
prepared for my use in these pages, and show, upon a moderate 
holding, highly farmed and closely looked after, the proportions 
borne by wages to other outgoings in the Eastern Counties, 
during the last eight years. 

Upon the 367 acres, the waste by house, garden, premises, 
hedges, ditches, &c., would be 17 acres. Of the 350 remaining 
acres, 29 would be in pasture and 321 arable; roots grown 
would average — mangold from 15 to 20 acres ; swede turnips, 
15 acres ; kohl rabi, 4 acres ; and the remainder white turnips. 

The farmer does not debit himself in his accounts with any 
allowance for depreciation upon machinery and implements. 
It is clear, also, that his profits cannot be safely tested unless 
we assume that on leaving the farm his live stock will fetch the 
price he paid for stock on entering the farm. In other words, 
we must assume that his capital will be returned to him in full 
by the incoming tenant. Subject to these remarks, we seem to 
have here an instance of successful farming, to be accounted for 
in part by the quality of the land and probably also by the 
manageable size of the farm, which renders close personal super- 
vision possible. 


r. 

Balance of 
Receipts over 
Payments.* 

Cost of Labour. 

Rent 

Rates and 
Taxes. 

Other Payments, 
including Interest. 

Total Payments. 


£ 

8. 

d. 

£ 

8. 

d. 

£ 

8. 

d. 

£ 

s. 

d. 

£ 

s. 

d. 

£ 

8. 

d. 

66 

251 

10 

0 

522 15 11J 

502 

12 

2 

94 

0 

10 

1095 

10 

6 

2214 

19 

51 

6/ 

798 

13 

1 

567 

2 

71 

516 

15 

3 

100 

8 

0] 

1118 

15 

0 

2303 

0 

11 

68 

413 15 

0 

601 

17 

61 

532 

7 

3 

112 

11 

81 

1233 

9 

3 

2480 

5 

9 

,69 

84 18 10£ 

563 

9 

81 

552 

4 

0 

82 

5 

10 

1286 

13 

3 

24S4 12 

91 

,70 

445 

19 

2 

579 

13 

2 

552 

4 

0 

101 

6 

6 

1497 

8 

1 

2730 

ii 

9 

‘71 

507 11 

6 

560 

1 

6 

552 

4 

0 

76 

19 

5 

1972 

13 

3 

3161 

18 

2 

72 

394 

1 

91 

664 

7 

81 

552 

4 

0 

87 

13 

8 

1831 

0 

61 

3135 

5 

11 

'73 

240 

7 

HI 

716 

4 

4 

548 19 

0 

70 

7 

31 

1474 

5 

8 

2809 

16 

31 

ige 

• 

i 

392 

2 

2 

596 

19 

1 

538 

13 

8 

90 

14 

2 

1438 

14 

5 

2665 

1 

41 


* After deducting interest of £3800 at 4 per cent. 

G 2 


84 


The Labour Bill in Farming. 


The average profit, during the eight years, was 392/., besides 
the interest at 4 per cent, charged in the balance sheet. A 
capital of 3800/., therefore, returned in this instance over 14 per 
cent. ; a financial result which I believe to be exceptionally 
favourable. It will be seen that the cost of labour has risen con- 
siderably during the two years last given, and 1873-4 would 
yield a still higher labour bill. Diminishing profits during the 
same period seem also to show that the increased wage-fund was 
derived from this source ; and, at anything like the rate of 
increase here indicated, the farmer’s profits would soon sink to 
zero, unless some counteracting influence were introduced. 

Mr. Flatman, of Chippenham, Suffolk, who keeps very accurate 
accounts, has forwarded his figures for the 52 weeks ending March 
25th, 1874, showing an expenditure for labour of 289/. 10s. 6 d. 
on a bad light-land farm of 240 acres, all arable. Mr. Flatman 
hires steam-threshing machinery, but has included all the labour 
of threshing in this sum. He also includes malt for harvestmen, 
and beer during the year. Mr. Flatman’s nominal rate of wages 
was 13s. weekly, but as a matter of fact his men earned, includ- 
ing harvest, 17s. 6<L per week. The labour expenses on this 
farm being 24s. 2 d. per acre, seem so low, even for light-land 
cultivation, that whatever disadvantage is attached to a small 
farm as regards labour seems, in this case, fully compensated 
by what may be called concentrated personal supervision. In 
spite of the small cost of labour, I am told that, in proportion, 
as much corn is grown on this farm as on a larger one of similar 
quality. 

Mr. Flatman’s statement is a good illustration of the cost of 
light-land labour. Mr. D. K. Long, of Great Bradley, has 
given me his account of a large heavy-land farm ; and Mr. 
Robert Stephenson, of Burwell, in Cambridgeshire, is good 
enough to supply me with particulars of his own farm as an 
example of a medium or mixed soil. In all three cases the same 
year, ending Lady-day, 1874 (just previous to the strike), has 
been taken. The same nominal rate of wages was'paid in all 
three cases ; and in each case the calculation is based on the 
same system, including all kinds of manual labour, with malt 
and beer, and the value of cottages, but only where they are i 
rent-free. 

Mr. Long’s farm contains 130 acres of pasture and 800 of 
heavy arable land. As neither Mr. Long nor Mr. Stephenson 
ever cut any meadow-hay, they have charged all the labour to 
the arable land. Upon this basis Mr. Long’s labour bill amounts 
to 38s. Q>d. per acre, being a total of 1539/. on 800 acres of arable. 
Air. Long ploughs and drains his land by steam, and thus, in his 
opinion, saves fully 6s. per acre in ploughmen’s and horsekeepers 


The Labour Bill in Farming. 


85 


wages, which would have brought his labour, supposing he had 
no steam-plough, up to 44.5. 6(7. 

The cost of labour on Mr. Stephenson’s land is 36s. 3(7. per 
acre on 864 acres of arable (384 light and 480 stronger soil). 
He also rents 162 acres of heath and 50 of pasture, not employ- 
ing any appreciable amount of labour. 

A neighbour of Mr. Long’s, farming similar land, but doing 
no steam-ploughing, has sent me his account, which is accurately 
kept. He farms 10 acres grass and 277 arable land. Charging, 
as in the foregoing cases, all the labour to the arable land, it 
amounts, during the same period, to 43s. 6(7. per acre, viz., 
5887. 4s. 10<7. ; but the nominal rate of wages on this farm was 
onlv - 11s. 6(7. per week, and the men earned, in a rather short 
harvest, 87. without beer. In order, therefore, to draw a fair 
comparison with Mr. Long’s farm, 13 per cent, (the difference 
between 11s. 6(7. and 13s.) should be added to the 5887. 4s. 10(7., 
which would make 6637. Thus, supposing an equal rate of 
wages, this calculation would show, upon the small heavy-land 
farm without steam-ploughing, an outlay of 48s. 7(7. against 38s. 6(7. 
upon the large heavy-land farm with steam-ploughing. 

A comparison of the actual amounts paid on any farm for 
labour, during different years, cannot be wholly trusted to show, 
with accuracy, the tendency of the labour bill either to rise or 
fall, because the amount of work necessary on a farm varies from 
year to year according to the seasons or other causes. Comparing, 
however, the nominal rate of wages for the year ending Lady- 
day, 1874, with that of four or five yearn ago, the increase of 2s. 
a week, from 11s. to 13s., paid throughout the greater part of the 
Eastern Counties, is equal to a rise of more than 18 per cent. 
Mr. Stephenson adds: — “I paid harvestmen, in 1873, 97. 16s. 
and malt, in place of 77. and malt in 1869, equal to a rise of 40 
per cent. Working out these figures I find therefrom that, had 
I paid last year at the same rate as in 1868 and 1869, my labour 
bill would have amounted to 11867. instead of 14537., showing a 
rise on the year’s outlay of 22£ per cent. Then turning to my 
old labour books, I find, as a matter of fact, that my labour bill 
for the year ending Lady-day, 1874, stands 36 per cent, higher 
than the year ending Lady-day, 1869 (a year of drought), and 
20 per cent, higher than that ending Lady-day, 1870. So my 
experience goes to show that there is no truth in the opinion so 
olten expressed, that we can make up for the rise in wages by 
economising labour. Paying, as I do, about 2707. more for 
labour than I should have done 4 or 5 years since, means a de- 
duction from a farmer’s profits of from 2^ to 3 per cent, per 
annum on his capital. In some parishes the proportionate 
increase of wages is even more than in my case. In these places 


86 


The Labour Bill in Farming. 


the nominal rate was 10s. when mine was 11s., while at this 
moment we all seem to be pretty firmly fixed at 13s. per week. 
Wheat has now fallen considerably in value without reducing 
wages, as was formerly the case ; and I think in this neigh- 
bourhood the price of corn will never influence wages again. 
The high price of corn, lately prevalent, has hitherto prevented 
farmers from realising the effect of the extra cost of labour ; 
but now, with wheat at 21s. per coomb, the case must be very 
different.” 

I have found it difficult to arrive at any satisfactory con- 
clusion upon the comparative cost of labour on large and small 
farms per acre and relatively to production. The statistics 
already given do not deal with farms of very extended acreage. 
Indeed, it is not easy to define with accuracy what constitutes 
a large farm. For example, a farm of 500 acres would be 
reckoned small in Lincolnshire and large in Leicestershire. 
The general opinion expressed, in answer to many questions 
put to practical men, is that the cost per acre for manual 
and horse labour is less on large than on small farms. Here 
is one reply : — “ A hundred acres of stiff arable land would be 
worked with 5 horses, while 140 acres would require only one 
more. Moreover, in all agricultural operations it is an enormous 
advantage to have a large and competent staff of men always at 
your call to execute work at the proper time. For these and 
other reasons the relative production is likely to be greater, and 
certainly the relative cost of production would be less on large 
than on small farms. But there are many exceptions in favour 
of small farms, where these are well managed.” 

Another farmer writes : — “ However difficult it may be to 
reduce to actual figures the relative cost of labour on large and 
small farms, everyone who has had any practical experience 
in agriculture is well aware that the difference is very great. 
Within my own experience I have found that in the occupation 
of a farm of nearly 600 acres which had previously been held by 
two tenants, the saving in horse-labour was about 30 per cent., 
and in manual labour 20 per cent. This saving arose from 
greater concentration of force in the larger occupation which was 
wanting in the smaller one, and from a better supervision in the 
large, which would not be remunerative in the small occupation. 
There is no doubt also that the results obtained bore an exceed- 
ingly favourable comparison with regard to production, as was 
shown by the repeated enlargement of the rick-yards. On large 
holdings the labourers work in larger gangs, superintended by 
a working foreman. Thus the work progresses quickly, is' soon 
finished, and something else is commenced before the men are 
tired by that particular kind of labour. Again, special men can 


The Labour Bill in Farming. 


87 


be retained and kept for special work, and thus become adepts 
at it, whereas upon small occupations a man has to do a variety 
of work and is perfect in none. The superior advantages of 
a large occupation, in respect of labour-saving appliances, are 
also shown in the description and character of the machinery 
employed. On a small occupation the use of machinery must 
necessarily be restricted, and many agricultural operations must 
thus be conducted on a small scale and by slow processes. The 
purchase and use of steam ploughs and drills would hardly be 
justified upon a small holding, whereas upon a large one these 
and many other costly implements are almost indispensable. 
They enable the occupiers to finish a large amount of work in a 
short time, without extraneous aid and at a moderate cost. The 
saving of time, in this way effected in farming, is of no small 
moment, especially in busy or ‘ catching ’ seasons.” 

For the purpose of any fair comparison between the cost of 
labour on large and small holdings, it is plain that you must 
not only compare land of the same quality, but land farmed upon 
the same system. “ Speaking, generally,” writes another farmer 
of great experience, “ a larger staff of men per acre will be found 
upon large farms than upon small ones. A farmer occupying 
200 acres will not be able to keep a steam-engine for his own 
use. It would require more hands for the profitable working of 
it than he would have at his command. It therefore answers his 
purpose better to hire an engine and men to do his threshing, 
chaff-cutting, and grinding his corn ; whereas a large farmer can 
profitably employ for his own sole use a rteam-engine for thresh- 
ing, chaff-cutting, grinding, and, in some instances, for mincing 
food and cake-breaking. I believe the time will come when we 
shall have machinery for the various operations on the land, such 
as ploughing, &c., of a much more simple kind than exists at 
present. I have not hitherto seen a steam-engine used to save 
money — that is, by doing the work for less money than it will 
cost if I employ my own horses. It may be that, if you break 
up certain kinds of land by steam, you do good to the land and 
save money indirectly. But I want to see a direct saving of 
money from the use of steam-machinery, and believe that such a 
result must be exhibited before the use of such machines becomes 
general. Comparing the cost of labour upon large and small 
farms, I am inclined to think that it will be found less upon the 
former according to the value of the produce, though it may 
amount to as much per acre.” 

“ The large farmer,” writes another correspondent in the 
Eastern Counties, “ has many advantages over the small one 
in the saving of labour. He can keep a better staff, and train 
men for certain kinds of work. By being kept to this work 


88 


The Labour Bill in Farming. 


they naturally become more expert, and in farming, as in pin- 
making, a proper division of labour produces the article at a 
lower cost.” If so, good-bye to the handy man about a farm, 
invaluable to employers, who can plough, drill, hoe, thatch, 
stack, drain, clip hedges with an eye to form, and do pretty 
nearly anything. My last correspondent (Mr. Walton Burrell, 
jun., of Fornham St. Martin, Suffolk) considers the increase in 
the farmer’s labour bill during the last few years to be from 
20 to 25 per cent., without any corresponding increase in the 
value of produce, though there has been a considerable reduction 
in the rates. “ The cost of labour,” he adds, “ on fair light land 
under the plough would not be much less than on heavy land, 
provided roots were grown on the light and not on the heavy 
land, and that both were farmed under the four-course system. 
Of course upon very poor light-land farms, where a large portion 
of the acreage is left as a sheep-walk, the labour bill would be 
small. If an equal quantity of roots were grown on the heavy 
land instead of clean fallow, the proportion would be about 
3 on the light to 4 on the heavy land. As to the influence of 
machinery upon the cost of manual labour, I question whether 
in many instances work is not done as cheaply by manual labour, 
provided only that men can be obtained in sufficient numbers 
when they are wanted. But the day has happily gone by 
when the farmer could find half a score of men on the village- 
green waiting for a job, to be set on, and paid off, at his con- 
venience.” 

“ Nearly one-half less horse-power,” say the writers of another 
letter, farmers in the Midland Counties, “ is required to work 
light land. But although the work on light land may be done 
with much less toil than on heavy land, there is not so much 
less manual labour as at first sight there seems to be ; for a crop 
of turnips and the eating and superintending of a large flock of 
sheep is a very costly method of producing meat in these days 
of high wages. If a light-land farm is well managed, it will 
require nearly as many men as a heavy farm. A great deal of 
work on the latter arises from the fact that every article grown 
upon it must be taken into yards to be eaten, and then, after 
a time, must be carted back to the land, in the shape of manure. 
All this creates much wear and tear.” 

As to the comparative cost of labour on grass and arable land, 
a letter from another farmer in the Midland district is to this 
effect : — “ On grass land the cost of labour is reduced to a mini- 
mum. A man and strong lad can attend to the flocks and herds 
on 500 acres of grass land during the summer months. On the" 
same quantity of arable land, at least eight men besides lads 
would be required, to say nothing of horses and implements. 


The Labour Bill in Farming. 


89 


On grass land the cost of labour is very small, but the capital 
required is much larger per acre, and greater supervision is 
necessary on the part of the occupier.” Another correspondent 
reckons that the cost of labour on grass land would be about a 
fourth of that on arable land, supposing half the grass were 
cut, and half fed off. 

“ Of course the saving in labour upon grass lands,” writes 
another farmer, “ must be all the labour in ploughing, culti- 
vating, seeding, &c. ; and, where they are grazed, the cost of 
harvesting is also saved. The same calculation, however, must 
not be made with regard to all grass fields which may be attached 
to an arable farm. Upon such a farm a certain staff of horses 
and men will be required all the year round. If, therefore, the 
farmer in this case loses the opportunity of making the most of 
a piece of pasture by mowing it instead of grazing it, he will lose 
money, because his outgoings will be the same in labour whether 
he mows the field or grazes it. Upon a purely grass farm, on 
the other hand, manual labour is only necessary at hay harvest, 
when the occupier can avail himself of itinerant labour from 
neighbouring counties. To the grass farms around London, for 
example, men used to resort in June from all parts, sometimes 
obtaining high wages for a week or two. Mowing machines, 
however, with horse-rakes and haymakers, have supplanted much 
of this manual labour, enabling the farmer to secure his crop more 
quickly, and also more cheaply, without feeling so dependent 
upon casual hand-labour as he once was. From this neigh- 
bourhood (the border-land of Norfolk and Suffolk) during the 
last two years many men went ‘ into the shires ’ as usual, but 
could have done better by remaining at home. It is highly 
necessary now-a-days for each farmer to calculate carefully 
whether he has a prospect, by grazing, of making a profit over 
rental and fixed charges per acre, instead of incurring a great 
outlay in labour, with the chance of a wet season, and a plentiful 
crop elsewhere, to reduce the value of his hay harvest, so that 
the balance of profit left after mowing is less than that left after- 
grazing. To stock good grass land naturally requires the com- 
mand of more capital than is necessary for the cultivation of 
arable land. I have heard of 30/. an acre being required to 
purchase stock for good marsh land. Some marshes will carry 
a bullock and two or three sheep an acre. The grazing of light 
land, instead of tillage, would of course be for sheep-feed only, 
unless I may except sainfoin, which is the salvation of light 
lands, and ought to enter into the rotation of every light-land 
farm.” 

It may be taken for granted that farmers in the Eastern Counties 
are not alone in their experiences of the increased cost of labour 


90 


The Labour Bill in Farming. 


and the inroad thus made upon profits. I will give, however, 
spme figures bearing on the same point, supplied to me from 
three farms in the Midland Counties, well-managed mixed farms, 
fair representatives, I believe, of a very large class of holdings. 
No. 3 has not been occupied by the present tenant for so long a 
period as the two others, and, therefore, his figures cover a shorter 
space of time, though they refer, like the rest, to three years of 
farming, and tell the same tale : — 

Cost of Manual 
Labour. 



Year. 

— 


£ 

s. 

d. 


f 1862 

Farm of 340 acres 

(130 plough, 210 grass) 280 

5 

0 

No. 

1. <( 1868 

Do. 

99 99 

373 

6 

0 


( 1874 

Do. 388 „ 

„ 258 „ 

419 

16 

0 


f 1862 

Farm of 210 acres (80 arable, 130 grass) .. 

223 

10 

0 

No. 

2. <( 1868 

Do. „ 

99 99 

249 

19 

0 


l 1874 

Do. „ 

99 99 

272 

0 

0 


f 1869 

Farm of 230 acres 

(120 arable, 110 grass) 

268 

16 

0 

No. 

3. <( 1872 

Do. „ 

99 99 

307 

14 

0 


l 1874 

Do. „ 

99 99 

344 

12 

0 


The expenditure for manual labour, set forth here, does not 
include the value of beer ; and every man employed on these 
farms has a quart a day during nine months of the year, and two 
quarts a day during the remaining three months, in the course 
of haying, harvest, and other exceptional work. Nor does the 
foregoing account include tradesmen’s bills, such as blacksmith’s 
and carpenter’s work, which may be put at 7s. an acre. My 
correspondent says : — “ Wages have risen here from 30 to 40 per 
cent, (at the lowest estimate 30 per cent.) within a compara- 
tively short period. In 1862 a good able-bodied labourer would 
earn 12s. a week, besides beer and other perquisites, and he 
received these wages wet or dry, whether he could work or not. 
In 1874 we pay 15s., 16s., and 17s., with all the same perquisites ; 
and in many cases a cottage and half a rood of ground rent-free 
into the bargain, worth to rent 2s. 6d. to 3s. a week. This, 
however, is not all. Notwithstanding the extra cost of labour, 
we do not get above two-thirds of the work which used to be 
done, and there is a discontented murmuring, which is worse 
than all. Boys fit to drive the plough formerly received 2s. and 
2s. 6 d. a week. This year they will be a scarce article until 
they are old enough, or have learning enough, to leave school 
under the Education Act. A lad, 11 years old, is now getting 
6s. a week ; if 14 or 15 years old, 9s. a week ; if 17 years 
old, 12s.” 

Another Midland County farmer says the rise in farm wages 
“ may be roughly stated to be at the rate of 30 per cent., without 
any improved standard or quantity of work done, but rather the 


The Labour Bill in Farming. 


91 


reverse. As a matter of course this increase tells adversely upon 
the occupier, diminishing his profits, and, as any reduction of 
rent is improbable, placing him in a very awkward dilemma. 
The use of machinery and the progress in agriculture of late 
years have given a fillip to wages. The more frequent use of 
steam has developed the intelligence of the labourers, some of 
whom must manage the steam-machinery. The various local 
agricultural Societies have also done their best to encourage latent 
talent among the men. The result is that, while the condition 
of the mass of labourers has improved, such ol them as possess 
any exceptional skill have often benefited still more. This is as 
it should be.” Then my correspondent shows how the recent 
agitation in the labour market has acted upon supply and 
demand ; but into these moot questions we need not follow 
him. 

If from the Eastern and the Midland Counties we take a short 
flight to Scotland, we find the labour bill there apparently in- 
creasing quite as rapidly as in England. The following notes 
are kindly furnished to me by an Aberdeenshire gentleman 
practically acquainted with the farming of that district : — 

“ The average cost of farm-labour in Aberdeenshire (I use this 
word, though it may be held to include good part of three or four 
neighbouring counties) has nearly doubled within about a quarter 
of a century. The ordinary mode of engagement is to provide 
the labourer with board and bed, and pay half-yearly wage. 
Thus : — 


Wages in 1840, 
per 6 months. 

£ s. d. £ s. d. 

1st ploughman .. from 710 0to8 0 0 

2nd ditto .. ,, 6 0 0,,7 0 0 

Cattlemen .. .. ,, 6 0 0 ,, 7 10 0 

Female workers .. ,, 2 10 0,,3 0 0 


Wagf.s in 1874, 
per 6 months. 

£ S. d. £ s. d, 
from 13 0 0 to 15 0 0 

,, 11 10 0 ,, 14 0 0 

,, 13 0 0 ,, 15 0 0 

, , 5 0 0 ,, 6 0 0 


“ It is not the large increase of wages our Northern farmers 
complain of ; it is that the men who are most capable and efficient 
go off through emigration, and otherwise seek to benefit them- 
selves, in such large proportion, leaving only the less capable 
and less enterprising at home. For example, a large farmer and 
well-known breeder of Shorthorns complained to me the other 
day that, while perfectly willing to pay wages for competent 
ploughmen at the rates stated (practically 30Z. a year, with bed 
and board), his overseer had been compelled to fill up his staff 
largely with half-grown lads, experienced ploughmen being so 
scarce. 

“ In the working of an Aberdeenshire farm of medium or large 
size, one ploughman, with a pair of horses for every 60 to 80 
acres, is deemed sufficient. On very small farms 50 acres require 


92 The Labour Bill in Farming. 

a pair of horses ; but usually the horses are not so powerful in 
that case. 

“ A thoroughly efficient Aberdeenshire ploughman, with his 
two horses and swing-plough, will, I should imagine, till a greater 
extent of land, and in a more satisfactory style, than any other 
team of equal power extant ; that is, a single man (paid at a 
comparatively high wage) and two good horses will be found 
cheaper far than any of the miserable devices that exist in some 
parts of England with underpaid labourers, one driving the 
team, another holding the stilts of the plough, and so on. The 
cost of a ploughman and pair of horses per day, doing hired 
work, is 9s. and 10s. Steam-cultivation is not yet so far intro- 
duced as to have sensibly affected the cost of horse-labour ; but 
it will be and is being heartily welcomed by all intelligent 
farmers as an aid to deeper and more thorough cultivation — on 
the principle that for an increased outlay they will reap a larger 
return. 

“ A point worth noting in our farming is the very large ex- 
penditure systematically made for extraneous manures, — bone- 
dust, guano, phosphates, &c. A trustworthy estimate is that the 
average expenditure yearly for such manure in Aberdeenshire 
is equal to from a third to a half of the entire rental of the 
county.” 

A Forfarshire tenant, on a friend’s estate in that county, gives 
me the benefit of his experiences upon the cost of labour on a 
farm of 300 acres, with an average production from grain-crops 
of five quarters an acre. This is the farmer’s mode of showing 
the outlay for manual labour : — “ Divide the 300 acres into six 
parts, three of them in grass, to be pastured with either sheep or 
cattle. Then : 

£ s. d. 

1-3. Labour, outlay in looking after stock and keeping up 

fences on 3 acres of pasture, at 6s 0 18 0 

4. An acre of oats, labour, outlay in ploughing, harrowing, 

sowing, cutting, and carting 2 2 0 

5. An acre of turnips and potatoes. Crop, 20 tons of turnips 

per acre and 7 tons potatoes. Cost to plough, harrow, ' 
grub, clear the land of weeds, sow, thin the turnips, 

&c. ; plant and dig potatoes. Total expense of working 


per acre 3 11 6 

6. An acre of barley — manual labour upon 2 2 0 


Total cost of working 6 acres of the above farm . . £8 13 6 

Upon this basis of calculation the total labour bill would 
amount to 433/. 15s. upon the 300 acres, and would work out to 
1/. 8s. llr/. per acre — a low average contrasted with this item of 
expenditure in some of the English farming-accounts already 
given, and especially low if the crops here mentioned represent a 


The Labour Bill in Farming. 


93 


fair average, and if the same ratio of production is generally 
maintained. The secret of the low labour bill here lies chiefly, 
no doubt, in the large proportion of land in grass, viz., one-half, 
instead of one-fourth or one-fifth as in the south-eastern counties 
of England. In Forfarshire, as in Aberdeenshire, the wages of 
agricultural labourers have risen rapidly. The farmer draws the 
following pithy contrast between the cost of labour now and 
formerly : — 


30 years ago the money wages were 


20 

4 


77 

77 


>7 77 

77 77 


At present the money wages are 


£12 a year. 


18 

24 

34 


77 

77 


The men, he adds, are generally engaged by the year ; but 
sometimes are engaged by the half-year. The payments in kind 
consist of an allowance of 2 pecks of meal per week, 1 pint of 
new milk a day, with fire and light in the “ bothy.” 

s. d. 

The meal, milk, and bothy accommodation are valued at, per week, 6 6 

Present money wages 13 0 


Total weekly wages of Scotch able-bodied labourer . . . . 19 6 

“ Tradesmen’s accounts upon the farm,” adds this Forfarshire 
tenant, “ have risen much in the same proportion as farm labour. 
So have taxes. Against these items of increased expenditure we 
may set the fact that we have been able to do with fewer hands, 
owing to the introduction of machinery, improved steadings, and 
drainage of land. Thus we have been able to balance income 
against extra expenditure. Twenty years ago, upon the farm of 
300 acres just mentioned, there would have been employed six 
men, two boys, and three women, for the regular work ; whereas 
we now keep four men, two boys, and one woman. The saving 
of labour is more especially felt during harvest, when, at one 
time, 50 hands would have been employed, whereas now not 
more than sixteen in all are employed. To sum up the whole, 
wages have risen one-third, and production has increased in about 
the same proportion. The farm-labourer’s position will improve 
still further, if emigration continues and trade prospers.” 

This letter suggests several considerations bearing materially 
upon the English view of the labour question. In the first place, 
we see long hirings to be the rule ; whereas in England they are 
the exception, and usually apply only to shepherds and some of 
the stockmen. The Labourers’ Unions are said to oppose long 
hirings. As far as I know, they have passed no rule either for 
or against them ; and if the wages are made worth a man’s while, 
depend upon it he will engage upon these terms, whether the 
L nions favour long hirings or not. My observation leads me to 


94 


The Labour Bill in Farming. 


the conclusion that the chief prejudice against long hirings lies 
with employers. “ Farmers in this neighbourhood,” writes a 
Cambridgeshire farmer, “ are not inclined to hire men for 
a length of time with a view to prevent the inconvenience of 
strikes. On the contrary, the feeling is that, if a discontented 
man were bound for a term, he would work so unsatisfactorily 
that a farmer would be glad to he rid of him at any price.” But 
why should it he assumed that men would be discontented if 
they entered into such engagements with their eyes open ? And 
why should a mode of hiring almost universal in Scotland and 
the North of England be impracticable or unsatisfactory in the 
South, where long hirings, as we have seen, do in fact prevail 
partially at present ? If the northern practice became general, 
it would have more than one useful result. The tie between 
master and man would become closer, and labourers would be 
less liable to estrangement from employers at the instance of 
strangers. The labourers would also feel a certainty of steady 
employment. Their wages would be paid in regular weekly 
sums, instead of being brought up to a respectable average of 
cash payments by high wages during a single month of the year. 
On the other hand, employers would be relieved from the fear 
of being left without labour at seed-time or harvest, or other 
critical periods ; and they would know w T hat their labour bill 
w’ould be during the year, instead of feeling that they were 
exposed, at a week’s notice, to demands from their labourers 
which might upset all their calculations of profit, and would 
have materially altered their course of cultivation had they fore- 
seen such demands. 

Again, in reading this Forfarshire letter, one cannot avoid 
the impression that, if the Scotch hind works harder than the 
Southern labourer — a fact which seems to be generally admitted 
— the Southern farmers have not secured from the introduction 
of machinery the same saving in manual labour which has been 
effected by farmers across the Tweed. The smallness of the 
regular staff of labourers upon this and other Scotch farms of 
Avhich one hears, compared with the staff maintained upon 
English farms of equal acreage, may be in part explained by 
the greater energy thrown into the work of the Scotch peasantry, 
and this may be an affair of thew and sinew and race. Is 
it not, however, also due in no small degree to stricter super- 
vision by the Northman, a rigorous resolve to have money’s 
worth for money, care in noting when labour has been ren- 
dered superfluous by machinery, and the maintenance of 
the smallest possible establishment for ordinary farm-work, J 
supplemented by unskilled labour on extraordinary occa- 
sions? One would make this suggestion with greater hesi- 


The Labour Bill in Farming. 


95 


tation but for the fact proclaimed by farmers in every part of 
the Eastern Counties during the strikes and lock-out of 1874, 
that they were able to dispense with much labour which they 
had hitherto been accustomed to regard as indispensable. It 
seemed to be regarded as a new revelation ; but 1 suspect that 
circumstances forced upon the Eastern Counties farmers a dis- 
covery which Scotchmen made for themselves long ago. No 
doubt, the ease with which most employers in the Eastern 
Counties tided over their difficulty last year was due in a great 
measure to the singular dryness of the season. Making every 
allowance, however, for this cause, I think the lesson of 1874 
will have been learnt in vain if it does not teach English farmers 
everywhere to economise production by reducing establishment 
charges. Nor does an economy in this direction mean hard 
measure to the labourer, but the very reverse. It is not the 
interest of the tillers of the soil that superfluous labour should be 
employed. Wherever that state of things exists, wages must 
necessarily be low, and the labour given in return for wages will 
generally be dear labour. 

A recent speech, by Mr. C. S. Read, M.P., has directed the 
attention of farmers anew to the points last mentioned, which 
cannot be too often impressed upon all employers. In addressing 
an Agricultural Association in Norfolk, Mr. Read said he found 
that the average weekly pay of a common day labourer in Norfolk 
was about 17s. 6d., whereas in Northumberland and Scotland he 
was assured that it came to nearly 25s., and he added : — 

“ Mr. Barclay, the Member for Forfarshire, is, like me, a 
tenant-farmer . . . He farms 380 acres of arable land, which is 
exactly the acreage of land I have at Honingham. He has 
75 acres of rough pasture, and I have 40 acres of good permanent 
grass. He grow r s 20 acres more corn than I do ; but he has less 
roots and more grass seeds than I have. Taking the cold, damp 
Northern climate into consideration, I should say he would 
require as much manual labour on his farm as I do on mine. 
But mark the difference. For the four years ending 1871 the 
average annual payment for labour (two-thirds in cash and one- 
third in milk, meal, and potatoes, &c.) was 400/.; while mine 
was 750/. In 1872 and 1873, Mr. Barclay’s had risen to 510/ ; 
but, as he puts 30/. of it down to extraordinary labour, he 
considers the real increase to be only 20 per cent. Now take 
my expenditure for those years, which, being about 850/. and 
750/., would average 800/., and you must surely admit — that 
which I knew long ago — that the Scotchman is a sharper and 
keener man of business than I am ; and I also come reluctantly 
to the conclusion that the highly-paid Scotch hind is a cheaper 


96 


The Labour Bill in Farming. 


and better man than the Norfolk labourer, and that, after all, 
there is no such thing as cheap labour.” * 

We have not the details which would enable us to generalise 
with entire safety from these figures. But the moral drawn by 
Mr. Read is, no doubt, in the main a just one ; and it points 
to the conclusions I have already suggested — that two elements 
contribute to the smaller labour bill in Scotch farming : a better 
quality of labour, ana keener supervision and regulation of it by 
the farmer. Between the 25s., of which Mr. Read speaks from 
hearsay, and the 19s. dd. which my Forfarshire correspondent 
actually pays, there is a wide difference. I have no reason to 
doubt that 19s. did. is the market rate paid in the latter county ; 
and as it agrees substantially, in respect of money wages, with 
the report I have received from Aberdeenshire, the most pro- 
bable cause of the discrepancy lies in the different appraisement 
of the bothy accommodation and the doles of food, the latter of 
which may easily vary in different districts. 

It may be that 19s. 6d. in cash and kind is a lower average of 
wages than exists in other parts of Scotland. If we include the 
perquisites, harvest money, extra earnings in piece-work, and 
under-rented cottage and garden of the Eastern Counties labourer, 
I doubt whether the latter is not often better off than the Scotch 
hind upon such wages. Comparing the better class of cottages 
here with the bothy accommodation provided for the Scotch 
peasant, the Eastern Counties labourer will certainly have a 
more comfortable home. If wages, therefore, are substantially 
equal, there ought, in theory, to be no great disparity in the 
amount of work done by the Forfarshire and the Suffolk peasant. 
Farmers, however, seem to be quite agreed that there is a great 
disparity, and one unfavourable to the Southern labourer; and 
complaints on this score are too general to allow of any doubt 
that they are well founded. But, if this be so, one must surely 
look for the same marked superiority in Scotch operatives and 
industrial workers of all classes. No such evidence, however, 
is forthcoming. I have said that a distinguishing feature of 
agriculture is a happy absence of competition, so that there is 
no reason why “ two of a trade ” — or why any number of the 
farming trade — should not agree. If the same keen competition 
existed in agriculture as in manufactures, we should long ago 
have heard English farmers complain how heavily they were 
weighted in this respect, compared with their Northern rivals. 

I here is a keen rivalry in many kinds of manufacture between 
North and South Britain, yet we do not find that Scotch manu- 


* • Tho Times,’ October 17th, 1874. 


The Labour Bill in Farming. 


D7 


facturers arc monopolising production through their command 
of a superior quality of labour — nominally dearer, but really 
cheaper than that obtainable on this side of the Tweed. 

If, therefore, English manufacturers hold their own, employing 
English workmen, is it not possible for English farmers also, 
with the materials they have, to do so too, and obtain, in 
agriculture, results as economical and as satisfactory as are ob- 
tained in manufactures ? One does not willingly assume that 
the English agricultural labourer is so different a being from the 
English artisan in energy, stamina, and the will to work, that 
while one can hold his own against the same class in Scotland, 
the other is hopelessly beaten. At all events it is time, for their 
own sake, that employers tried to bring the English labourer to 
put forth his full strength, or more of it than he puts forth now. 

I cannot help thinking that there is, among the mass of our 
English peasantry, a great reserve of power waiting to be called 
out, and ready for use if adequate inducements are offered. We 
see what happens if a man gets a bit of land. Ele bestows 
upon it an amount of labour often wholly out of proportion to 
the produce of the land — labour which would have yielded him 
twice or more than twice the money-produce of the land if he 
had worked with the same energy and during the same hours 
for a farmer. The reason is that he has an adequate motive 
for work, or thinks he has, which comes to the same thing. 
Now, can employers present to him the same adequate motive 
in another form, and lead him to serve his own interest and 
theirs by working not necessarily longer hours, but bv working 
harder while he does work ? 

This is a problem of the first importance. It is hardly inferior 
to that of increasing production by higher farming. In fact, it is 
one method of stimulating production and increasing national 
wealth very largely by adding to our labour-force, without at 
the same time adding to the number of mouths to be fed. The 
system of day-labour may answer in Scotland. It does not 
iollow that in England another system may not be adopted with 
success. Nor is it of any use to say that English labourers in 
the Southern and Midland Counties ought to work by the day 
as well as those in the Northern Counties and in Scotland. The 
general answer is that they do not. From different parts of 
England the same complaints reach me, that farm-labourers do 
not do anything like a full or fair day’s work in the day.* The 

* I have myself heard a Northumbrian farmer declare that one of the strong, 
big-boned women, who worked in his fields, was worth much more than any 
average Southern labourer. An East Suffolk farmer writes to me to the same 
effect. “ I protest,” he says, “ that one of the Scotchmen whom I formerly 
employed would do as much work as two and even three Suffolk labourers. It 

VOL. XI. — S. S. H 


98 


The Labour Bill in Farming. 


Eastern Counties farmers who set their hands to the’plough or 
drill, when lately deserted by their men, found that in the 
same hours they could do half as much again as their men got 
through, and without over-fatiguing themselves. What reason- 
able stimulus, just both to employers and labourers, can be 
offered to the latter to do what they could surely do, if they 
liked, with much less effort than employers unused to exhausting 
labour, and many of them, like Hamlet, “ fat and scant of 
breath ” ? 

2. I do not think this problem insoluble, and piece-work 
seems to be the best way out of the difficulty. Piece-work is a 
protection to the farmer, who then pays only for work actually 
done. It affords also the strongest inducement to the labourer 
to put forth his full energies. The system is not without diffi- 
culty in its application. Upon almost every farm it w ill require 
some amount of special adaptation and management. The soil, 
the seasons, the implements, the course of husbandry, all require 
careful study. Above all, the farmer must not be niggardly in 
the rates he fixes. The attempt to introduce piece-work will be 
sure to break down if employers attempt to take the lion’s share 
of whatever surplus exists over and above an average day’s work. 
Given an average day’s work, and the usual pay for it, then the 
extra work done, measured by the same standard of pay, would 
yield a fund, of which two-tliirds might fairly go to the labourer, 
and one-third to the employer for his trouble in planning and 
laying out the work, and for capital invested. It is of no use to 
conceal the fact that the adjustment of a fair tariff to meet the 
varying conditions of different farms in different districts would 
involve much trouble, and more personal supervision than is 
frequently given by farmers. But it is a farmer’s business to 
take trouble in what concerns the cultivation of his farm ; and 
there is no task to which he might devote himself with greater 
advantage to his labourers, to himself, and to the State, than 
that of endeavouring to apply this piece-work system to his own 
holding. • , 

I he system is not new or untried. It has long been prac- 
tised in some departments of farm-work by men of practical 
experience in various parts of England. Elsewhere I have 
described the working of the system upon a light-land farm of 
about 800 acres rented by Mr. W. Mathew, of Knettishall, near 
I hetford ;* * and the main facts may, I think, with advantage be 

makes one’s, flesh creep to see some of our men at work. Many appear to be 
anxious to <lo as little as possible when the eye of the master or the bailiff' is oft' 
them.” 

* Hr. Herbert J. Little, in a paper read before the Farmers' Club, on “The 


The Labour Bill in Farming. 


99 


reproduced here, if only to show that the plan now recommended 
is not a mere theoretical one, incapable of practical application. 
We may begin with harvesting, which upon the lvnettishall 
Farm differs somewhat from similar work upon most other farms 
in the system of remuneration to the men. Elsewhere in the 
Eastern Counties the farmer generally treats separately with each 
labourer, who receives so much money for harvest, according to 
whether he is a “ full man ” or a “ three-quarter man,” irre- 
spective of the time occupied by the work. At Knettishall the 
farmer contracts not with each labourer separately, but with the 
whole body of labourers, to whom a stipulated sum is paid, and 
the companionship then divide this money among themselves, 
not in equal proportions, but according to their own notions — 
generally pretty accurate — of what each has earned. The agree- 
ment is to this effect “ Agreed for the sum of 170/., with the 
men whose names are herein written, to do all the harvesting of 
the corn in a proper and husbandlike manner, to include the 
thatching of the same, and also the seeing after the horses, cows, 
and pigs, littering the yards when necessary, carting straw for 
thatching, and any other work incidental to the securing the 
-corn and attending to the stock. There being 32 acres of corn 
more than last year, it is further agreed that a sum per acre 
•equal to the payment of 170/. for the same quantity of acres as 
was done last year shall be paid in excess of the above sum 
of 170/.” 

The names follow this simple form of contract, which answers 
its purpose in being easily understood, and in binding both the 
farmer and his men. The acreage of corn covered by this 
agreement was — wheat, 114; barley, 138; oats, 38; rye, 32. 
Before the corn-harvest, 34 acres of peas were cut by hand, and 
-cost 75. Qd. an acre, which included cutting, carting, stacking, 
and thatching. Twenty acres of sainfoin and 10 acres of clover 
were cut with the machine, and cost 4s. an acre. The corn- 
harvest worked out at about 12s. an acre, including everything. 
j\o difficulty or dispute arose among the men in the division of 
the lump sum earned by them. They know better than any- 

Future of Farming,” refers to tlie letters of the special correspondent of ‘ The 
rimes,' for the example of “ a Suffolk farmer who has led the way in introducing 
piece-work into almost every department of his business.” Mr. Little strongly 
advocates the general adoption of this system, and gives the following instance of 
wasteful labour “ which must have occurred to anyone having the management 
of a farm. It is a matter of the simplest calculation that a pair of horses, walking 
at the rate of two miles an hour, and ploughing a 9-inch farrow, will, in 51 hours, 
accomplish an acre. Add to this the necessary time for turning at end, and 
going to and from work, and it will seem a matter of surprise that, uidess closely 
watched, the ordinary ploughman will scarcely perform his acre of average soil 
in an eight-hours' bout. ’ Here not only the man’s but the horses’ time is wasted 
under the day-work system. 

H 2 


100 


The Labour Bill in Fanning. 


one else can know the value of each other’s work. It is, in fact 7 
co-operative farm-labour. The same principle has been tried 
with equal success in building the Workmen’s Homes upon the 
Shaftesburv Estate near Clapham Common, where co-operative 
labour is said to have saved 20 per cent. ; the result being not 
onlv cheaper labour, but labour of much better quality than that 
employed under contractors. 

The republican plan in vogue at Knettishall w’orked ad- 
mirably. As I have said, it was not based upon any arbitrarv 
or fictitious notion of perfect equality among the harvest-men, 
and a claim by each adult to an equal share of the money 
earned. A curious commentary upon the doctrine to this effect, 
taught by a good manv labour associations, or tacitly enforced 
by them, is furnished by the fact that, in this and other instances, 
where the men are themselves brought face to face with this 
principle of “ natural equality,” they repudiate it altogether. 
They go then upon the much more obvious and reasonable 
principle that, as the labourer w r orks, so shall he earn. They 
do not, indeed, in the harvest-field resort to any standard of 
measurement. Given an able-bodied man who can keep his 
“ stroke ” among his fellows in the harvest-field, and does not 
fall out of the ranks through weakness or idleness, and he 
receives a full share according to the highest standard. But 
equity requires that any man who comes short of this standard 
shall abate his claim proportionately. Thus an able-bodied 
man, whose nominal weekly wages during the year were 14s., 
received SI. 19s. for his harvest-earnings; and the shares of the 
three-quarter men, half-men, and boys, were based upon this 
sum. Even the boys form part of this commonwealth of labour, 
and it becomes the obvious interest of the men not only to look 
sharply after them, but after each other. One of the virtues of 
such a system, however, is the spirit of emulation it produces 
among all the harvest-workers. The gang-master, or his deputy, 
or the “ boss, as he would be called across the Atlantic, is not 
wanted to keep the men going. As a rule, they keep each other 
going, and the feeling soon becomes general among them that 
loitering and slack work are against the common good — an 
offence not against the master, which might be venial in tho 
eyes of the workers, but an offence against each other, which 
stands on quite a different footing. It should be added that, 
under this contract, the men receive all their earnings in cash, 
and nothing in kind. Not long ago, upon the border-land of 
Norfolk and Suffolk, the harvest-wages were 51. 10s. for an adult 
labourer, with two bushels of malt, and a proportionate quantity 
ol hops. The men in this instance find their own malt and 
hops, if they want anv. 


The Labour Bill in Fanning. 


101 


At Knettishall ploughing is paid for at the rate of Is. 4 d. per 
acre. As Knettishall is a light-land farm, two acres are generally 
finished off in a day with a double plough, without hurting either 
men or horses. On heavy land a different rate of pay would of 
course be necessary, and there the farmer must take care that in 
ploughing by piecework the strength of the horses is not over- 
taxed. Upon a heavy-land farm a man might not be able to do 
more than half an acre a day, and this day’s work might try the 
horses more than two acres upon light soil. Another scale would 
be necessary upon mixed-soil farms, and upon the same farm 
difference of soil might require two different scales of remunera- 
tion. There would be no greater difficulty, however, in providing 
for these cases than has been experienced here, where for two 
years past the system has been found a fair one both to master 
and men. An obvious objection to it is, that the work may be 
hard or easy, .according to the season, and that a price which is 
lust at one time may be inadequate or excessive at another. 
Mr. Mathew gets over the difficulty by putting out the ploughing 
at a fixed average price, taking one season with another. After 
a little experience, and with a mutual wish to give and take on 
both sides, such an adjustment of pay is not hard to make. The 
conditions of this work are so various and so complicated, that 
no general rule can apply. On either side of a hedge the soil 
may be such as to require different pay for the men employed in 
ploughing it. Average rates would probably be the best in such 
cases, having regard to the soil upon the farm generally. Here 
it is found that, with Is. 4c?. an acre all round, the men earn an 
average of about 4c?. a day above the rate of daily wages. The 
practice is for the men on piece-work to draw money from week 
to week from their employer to the amount of weekly wage they 
would receive if paid at the current wage-rate. An account of 
their earnings is kept meanwhile. If they want a little money 
on account they can have it. At the end of two or three months 
a balance is struck, and they receive whatever surplus is found 
due to them. 

For mowing the men receive 10c?. an acre, the farmer, of course, 
finding machines and horses. After the mowing is ended, day- 
work begins till the hay is fit for carrying. Piece-work is hardly 
possible then on account of the weather, for in fickle weather the 
work must sometimes be done over and over again. Pitching 
and loading are done by the piece. Sixpence is paid for a 2-horse 
waggon-load, which would be nearly equal in the loose state to a 
ton of hay in the truss. A good day’s work would be 32 loads, 
and this would be the work of four men, two to pitch and two to 
load. At Gd. a load these four men would earn 165., or 4s. a day 
apiece, and they are allowed two pints of beer. Unloading on 


102 


The Labour Bill in Farming. 


to the stack is done by four men in the same way, and is paid 
for at the same rate, the farmer finding a man to stack the hay.. 
Of the four men, one would be on the waggon and three on the 
stack. 

Hoeing is also done by the piece, but on a different principle. 
The custom around Harling is to let the work to a gang-master. 
The whole of the hoeing at Knettishall, upon 127 acres of wheat, 
has been taken this way at 2s. 10 cl. per acre. A large proportion 
in Norfolk is also hoed by contract, as well as some other farm- 
work, such as “ mucking” and getting up mangolds and swedes ; 
and it- is thought that the gang-system will make progress in 
Suffolk, as it enables farmers to dispense with some regular hands 
and to save time in hoeing, while the work is also more cheaply and 
on the whole better done. In the gang employed at Knettishall 
about 20 men and boys were employed, the men earning about 
2d. a day more than if they were working as ordinary farm hands. 
The gang-master or his deputy looks sharply after the men to- 
keep up the “ stroke,” and prevent idling. Somehow the farmer 
cannot get the same “ stroke ” or rapid work from his men, even 
when the hoeing is done by the piece, probably because the men 
in the gang are picked, experienced hands. The gang-master 
makes money. He finds a horse and van to take the people to 
and from their work, and can provide employment for them 
pretty nearly all the year round. What with this certainty of 
employment and high wages he has never any trouble in getting 
men, and good men : and there is constant emulation among the 
younger ones to work quickly and well, because they know they 
will earn more money as soon as they can keep up in their stroke 
with the leading men. The supervision of the gang-master or 
his deputy is chiefly in the quality of the work, for as to quick- 
ness the men need little urging. They are jeered at if they lag 
behind, and they do not like to get a character for being slower 
than their neighbours. Indeed they would be very soon turned 
out of the gang if the gang-master or his sharp foreman saw they 
were reducing his profits and not giving money’s worth. 

Sanfoin, a lavourite crop at Knettishall, used to cost for mowing 
05 . an acre, yielding about three tons an acre. It now costs for 
mowing with the machine 10c?. an acre. This is one economv 
effected by machinery which has helped the farmer in the hay- 
harvest more, perhaps, than in any other kind of labour. Here 
the hay is now put on the stack at the same price per ton as it 
used to cost lor mowing. W hile the regular wheat-hoeing is 
done by gangs, such other hoeing as remains is left for odd jobs, 
and is either done as day-work or with the horse-hoe at 3</. an 
acre. The turnip-hoeing is done chiefly by old men who are 
not equal to harvest-work. For swedes and white turnips the- 


The Labour Bill in Farming. 


103 


rate is is. Gel. an acre. Mangolds cost Ss. “ Mucking ” is paid for 
at per score loads. Filling muck into “tumbrils” (Suffolk ver- 
nacular for heavy two-wheeled carts) and spreading on the land 
costs 6«. a score loads, a tumbril holding about 40 bushels. The 
(is. is thus divided : for filling, 2s. Gel . ; spreading, 2s. Gel . ; the 
boy who leads receives Is. At this work a man may earn 2s. 6c/. 
a day. Fencing and ditching are paid for by the rod. Dressing 
corn is paid for bv the 20 coombs, and costs Is. per score for each 
time of passing through the dressing-machine. Threshing is 
done by the farmer's machine, and is not paid for by the piece. 
The men who drive the engine and attend to the drum receive 
Is. a day extra ; the man who attends to the sacking of the corn 
Gel. a day extra. All the other men who have anything to do 
with the engine-work get 2d. a day extra; and a pint of beer a 
day all round encourages them to get through the work quickly. 
Sowing artificial manure is paid at the rate of 3c?. a day extra 
upon the nominal wages of 14s. weekly. Overtime is paid for 
in cash, and not by bribes of beer— an excellent innovation upon 
a bad system. The regular hours in summer are from G to 6, 
with half an hour for breakfast and an hour for dinner. By 
paying 3d. an hour for overtime the employer can command the 
services of the men when he wants them. They are ready enough 
to add a little to their earnings in this way, and cease to feel that 
they are “ doing a lot for nothing.” 

Sheep-clipping is another part of the piece-work system at 
Knettishall, but the same system is common to most of the 
larmers in this district. There are gangs of clippers who travel 
about the country at shearing time, and are noted for their expert- 
ness, and also for their drinking powers. The farmer allowed 
them, nominally, a quart of beer for every score of sheep, and, 
as there were 36 score, they were entitled to 3G quarts. In fact, 
they received 10 gallons. But this allowance by no means met 
the wants of such thirsty souls, and they ordered nearly 15 more 
gallons from the nearest public-house, of course paying for it 
themselves. Sheep-shearers, however, seem to have shared in 
the gradual improvement of their class, though a good deal of 
room is left for improvement still. Even 25 gallons drunk in a 
single day by 21 men, is a much smaller quantity than used to 
be consumed by the sheep-shearers when the beer was supplied 
without limit by farmers for whom they were working. “ In 
my lather’s time, 30 years ago,” said the farmer, “ nearly double 
the quantity would have been consumed.” The work, it is true, 
is hard, and the clippers put forth all their strength in getting 
through it rapidly, immediately moving off to the next job. 
1 he contract with them is to clip the ewes at 3s. 6c/. a score, 
hoggets at 4s. The winding up of each fleece before it is packed 


104 


The Labour Bill in Farming. 


away costs about 10s. upon 36 score of sheep, and the whole 
work would be cleared off in a day by the gang. I believe it is 
not easy to join this companionship. An entrance fee is de- 
manded from new-comers, and the leading man of the gang is 
particular in admitting only strong, healthy recruits. A vacancy 
rarely arises except through death or old age, for the employ- 
ment is lucrative and congenial to men not afraid of hard work 
and liking the excitement of moving about from parish to parish. 
As to lodging, the clippers sleep in a barn, under a stack, “ or 
anywhere,” while they go about the country. They make nearly 
10s. a day apiece — at least the best hands do, for here again a 
man must approve himself by quick and good shearing before 
he can expect a full share of the money earned, and at first he 
will probably only receive a quarter of the sum shared by the 
others. Really good clipping is a difficult handicraft, and the 
immense experience of these gangs makes them much sought 
after bv the farmers. 

For drilling wheat, 6c?. an acre is paid. In drilling soft corn 
- — barley, oats, peas — the land can be got over somewhat more 
quickly, and the price is 5 d. an acre. The men get through 
10 acres of wheat and 104 or 11 of soft corn daily. If the 
average work is 10 acres of wheat, the men will earn Is. a day 
above the rate of day wages, or rather more than Is. Some- 
thing, of course, depends on the horses as well as on the men. 
Eleven acres and a half have been done in a day. I am assured 
it is not very hard work ; but to make up such a daily average 
there must be “ no stopping at the ends you must “ keep going 
on.” Here is an account of 23 4 days’ work in drilling : — Soft 
corn, 210 acres (some on mixed, some on light soil), at 5 d. per 
acie, 41. 7s. 6 d. Seeds, 14 acres, 5s. 10d. Sainfoin, 21 acres, at 
3d. (a long, wide drill is used, covering a good deal of ground), 
5s. 3d. ; total, 41. 18s. 7 d. Deduct money paid on account, 
21. 9s. Balance earned in excess of nominal weekly wages, 
21. 9s. Id., divided between the man who leads the horses and 
the man behind who holds the drill. These extra earnings are 
a great encouragement to both men, and the money thus made 
in drilling is said to be equivalent to an extra shilling a week 
upon their wages all the year round. The total acreage covered 
by them in these 23^ days’ work was 245 acres, which gives a 
daily average of very nearly 10^ acres. There are plenty of 
farms on which no more than six acres a day are got through. 
A difference in the width of the drill may account in some mea- 
sure for the smaller acreage covered, but probably a cause which 
has greater influence is the different mode of payment and the 
stimulus which piece-work gives. Both the men engaged in 
the drilling at Ivnettishall were horsekeepers receiving 15s. .a week, 


The Labour Bill in Fanning. 


105 


Is. above the ordinary wages, and they paid no rent for their 
cottages, which have two rooms downstairs and three bedrooms. 
The shepherds also live rent-free. 

\ ipers and rats seem an unlikely source of income, but they 
add a trifle to the wages at Ivnettishall, and I dare say at most 
other farms where these vermin abound. Here again the pay- 
ment is by results. Rats are worth a penny each to the man 
who can kill them ; vipers twopence. It costs the farmer SI. or 
107. a year to keep down the rats at Ivnettishall. An unusual 
number of vipers made their appearance during the hot, dry 
season of 1874, and a boy caught eight in one day. They are 
not pleasant visitors, for they bite the sheep, and at the time of 
my visit two sheep had already been killed by them, the vipers 
nearly always biting in the face or throat. Among other small 
earnings may be mentioned that of the thatcher, who receives 
Is. per corn-stack, besides his harvest-wages, and 8 d. a day extra 
lor thatching hay. Trussing stover (hay made from artificial 
grass) is paid for at the rate of ’20d. per ton. In the autumn 
“topping and filling"’ the mangolds — that is wringing off or 
cutting off the tops and filling the tumbrils — costs 8s. an acre, 
and the same price is paid for “ hilling up ” the swedes in 
readiness for cutting when the hoggets and sheep are turned 
upon the land. I have already stated that overtime, instead of 
being coaxed out of the men by beer, is paid for at the rate of 
3(7. an hour. If any necessary work falls to be done on Sundays, 
it is also pair for as an extra. The stockman, besides 16s. a 
week, gets a penny a score for all the eggs he collects. His wife 
attends to the poultry, and makes 37. or 47. in the course of the 
year. The sheep-Avashing is done by Mr. Mathew’s own men. 
The four who stand at the tubs and wash receive 3s. a day and 
their board ; and the shepherd has 35s. with which to buy meat 
and beer. 

These details will give some notion of the possibility of 
adapting the piece or task system to a good deal of farm- work. 
The result of such a system is encouraging to the men, and 
a source of profit to the farmer, because he gets more for his 
money. But the farmer, I repeat, if he wishes to be well-served 
under this system, must lay down a scale of payments in no 
grudging spirit, remembering the wise saying of old, “ There 
is that scattereth and yet increaseth.” If a man finds that by 
“ working his heart out,” as the common phrase runs, he can 
only earn a few pence more than by lounging through the day, 
he will reckon naturally enough that it is not worth while to 
task his strength and energies for so small a gain. No doubt, 
also, there are men constitutionally indolent, self-indulgent, and 
careless of the future, who will never do a stroke more work than 


106 


The Labour Bill in Farming. 


they can help doing. For instance, a farmer, who writes to me- 
about piece-work, speaks of labourers who, working on his farm 
at day wages, finish their “ score ” or “ stint ” by one o’clock 
day after day. “ I say to them, ‘ Why not work three or four 
hours longer, as you very well can, and earn half as much again, 
say 3s. 6c/. instead of 2s. to 2s. 6c/. a day ? ’ They reply, ‘ No, 
master, we don’t want no more money ! We’ve arned as much as 
we care about! We’d ruther go home and smoke a pipe!’” 
Indifference of this kind is common to races of a lower type in 
countries where the means of living are easier than they are 
with us. The negro will hoe or dig in the cane-piece up to 
noon, and, having earned his shilling, no persuasion or hope of 
earning another shilling will induce him to begin again. But 
I cannot think such cases common in England, where the 
struggle to live is so keen, and opportunities of earning money 
with comparative ease are so seldom within the peasant’s reach. 
Education will certainly diminish this indifference. Even now 
plenty of English peasants are ready to jump at the chance of 
earning more money by piece-work. 

Besides the general tariff for various descriptions of piece- 
work established by Mr. Mathew, special arrangements are 
made from time to time for special work, and the terms are 
generally committed to writing. I have already given a con- 
tract entered into for harvest-work. Here are two more. The 
first is an agreement made with four men “ to do the work upon 
the field called Forty-two Acres, to be planted with mangolds or 
turnips as follows: — To fill and spread the muck-hill now 
standing upon the field for the sum of 31. 5s. ; and, when the 
plant is ready, to hoe the same three times, if necessary, for the 
sum of 8s. per acre, and to do the work in a proper and work- 
manlike manner." The farmer, on his side, undertakes “ to do 
the horse-hoeing, or pay for the same being done well, as many 
times as the field is hoed by hand.” The second agreement is a 
hiring of a labourer who is “ to look after four horses” and do 
the farm work, “being paid as under: — When by the day, at 
the usual wage paid to other able-bodied men upon the farm ; to 
do the ploughing at Is. 4 d. per acre ; scarifying and crab- 
harrowing (4 horses), 34'/. per acre ; harrowing (light and 
heavy), 3s. per score acres ; subsoiling ridges with grubber, 5s. 
per acre ; Cambridge rolling, 3'/. per acre ; heavy iron rolling, 
3d. per acre; splitting down ridges with single plough, Is. 6rf. 
per acre. I he said C. I). to occupy a cottage, and give up 
possession thereof when he ceases to work for the said W\ M., 
and to have Is. per week for overtime and Sunday attendance 
upon horses and stable work. During harvest, to have the same 
money as other men upon the farm.” No time of service is 


The Labour Bill in Farming. 


107 


fixed in the agreement, but a tolerably good guarantee for the 
length of it is afforded by the provision for surrender of the cot- 
tage when the labourer ceases to work on the farm. Substan- 
tially, though not in terms, this is a yearly hiring. 

Thus piece-work is not an inelastic system, only possible in 
one or two descriptions of farm-work, but is capable of appli- 
cation to the varied round of agricultural operations. The 
Knettishall method, carefully thought out as it has been, may 
be susceptible of improvement. Each farmer, on this question, 
must think and act for himself ; and it will be all the better if he 
takes his men into liis councils and talks over the subject with 
them in frank and friendly fashion, gleaning from them what 
their views are both as to principle and details. I do not know 
that I can put the labourer’s view more strongly or forcibly than 
it was put by a sturdy Cambridgeshire peasant, with whom I had 
some talk. “ Look here ! ” he said. “ What encouragement have 
I to do my very best all day long, when some chaps alongside of 
me do not do much above half what I do, and yet earn just as much 
wages? This sort of thing gives a man a bad heart, I can tell 
you.” * The system of day-wages, in fact, handicaps the quick, 
conscientious worker in favour of the slow, unconscientious 
worker, and thus favours skulking all round. 

An Exning farmer, Mr. Sabin, told me he put out the follow ing 
work to be done by the piece : turnip-hoeing, both hand and 
horse, ploughing, spreading manure, drilling, and cutting and 
cleaning turnips for sheep, at so much per acre ; and dressing 
corn with the machine, paid by quantity. This represents a con- 
siderable portion of the agricultural work which falls to be done 
throughout the year ; and the harvest, occupying four or five 
weeks, is paid for by the job also. “ No body of men,” Mr. Sabin 
told me, “ can be better satisfied with the system than mine are.” 
They draw their weekly wages at the current rate (13s.), and at 
the end of each quarter there is a settlement, when they receive 
the surplus due to them. Thus the men always have money 
accumulating, and it is paid to them in a lump, so that when it 

* Arthur Young in his ‘Inquiry into the Propriety of applying Wastes to the 
better Maintenance and Support of the Poor,’ has this oft-quoted passage : — “ Go to 
an alehouse-kitchen of an old enclosed country, and there you will see the origin 
of poverty and poor-rates. ‘ For whom are we to be sober ? For whom are we to 
save ?’ (such are their questions). ‘For the parish? If I am diligent, shall I 
have leave to build a cottage? If I am sober, shall I have land for a cow? If I 
am frugal, shall I have half an acre for potatoes? You offer no motives; you 
have nothing but a parish-ofhper and a workhouse. Bring me another pot! ’ ” 

Whether a bit of such waste as could now be given to the peasant would reward 
his industry, is more than doubtful ; but if we give him the opportunity of earning 
higher wages by greater industry, and thus of saving money, surely a much more 
adequate motive is at once supplied to him for the exercise of diligence, sobriety, 
and frugality. 


108 


The Labour Bill in Farming. 


comes it stops many a gap in the family expenditure. The men 
make two or three shillings a week over their nominal wages. 
As to the farmer, he has equal, perhaps greater, cause for satis- 
faction. Instead of requiring upon 630 acres of land nine single 
ploughs with eighteen horses, he gradually dropped down to two 
double ploughs with six horses, and a single plough for occasional 
use. He also found that, whereas a man’s average daily work in 
drilling used to be about nine acres, it rose under the piece-work 
svstem to thirteen acres ; and on one occasion a labourer, to show 
what he could do, got tlii'ough sixteen acres. Mr. Sabin estimated 
that, by introducing piece-work upon his farm wherever he could 
do so, he saved nearly ten shillings an acre in labour, while his 
men were better paid, and of course better satisfied. At first, his 
bailiff raised every obstacle to the new method, clinging to the 
•old ways, as bailiffs, like other men, often do, because the ways 
are old. Some time, however, after piece-work was shown to be 
a success, the bailiff came to the farmer and said, “ I think, sir, 
I might as well leave you.” “ All right, John ! ” was the answer. 
“ But why ? ” “ Because, sir, I have so little to do now. Nearly 

all my time used to be taken up in running about after the men 
and seeing that they did their work, but now they go straight 
ahead and want no looking after.” 

Doubtless there is some good-humoured exaggeration in this 
way of putting it. We must not expect that, with piece-work, 
the necessity for looking after the men will cease ; only the sur- 
veillance will take another form. It will be directed to the 
quality instead of to the quantity of the work ; the men will not 
want watching to see that they keep at work, but to see that the 
work is not scamped. Surely, however, increasing education, 
and therefore increasing self-respect, will make it possible to 
rouse among agricultural labourers that feeling of pride in their 
work which is latent in every class of worker. 

Mr. C. S. Read, M.P., kindly supplies me with the following 
pregnant illustration of the advantages of piece-work to the far- 
mer, as well as to the men : — “ I am now paying,” he says, 
“ some common labourers 1/. a week at task-work, while the 
other men at day-work are receiving only 13s., and yet I am sure 
that il the task-work were done by the day, it would cost me ever 
so much more than I now pay for it.” Again, to show what men 
can really earn, and what it may be worth the while of an em- 
ployer to pay, I take the following extract from the farm cash- 
book of Mr. J. II. Arkwright, of Hampton Court, Leominster. 
It has been published in contradiction of statements made as to 
the wages earned by one of the labourers mentioned in the 
account, who has since become the most prominent member of 
the National Labourers’ Union. I do not, however, care to enter 


The Labour Bill in Farming! 


101) 


into this controversy, nor is this extract reproduced here because 
of its mention of Mr. Arch, but only because it illustrates the 
result of piece-work, both in testing and rewarding exceptional 
■capacity or diligence: — 


. " February 22nd, 1SG0. £ d. 

Paid Joseph Arch and John Ivens for laying 26f perches 

fencing, Hill House land, Newton, at Is. 3 d 1 13 5 

Paid ditto, 74:1 perches, Hill House Farm and Newton Court, 

at Is. \d, 3 14 9 

By J. H. Arkwright, paid their expenses from Hereford to 

Dimnore 0 24 

Ditto, from Dinmore to Stratford-on-Avon 1 10 0 


Xote . — The above are '"Warwickshire men, and have been 12 days each at 
I the above, 4s. 6 d. a day.” 

Mr. Arkwright adds : — “ The pay was fair, and the work well 
done. At that date, 14 years ago, our own hedgers could have 
made the same wages, viz., 27 s. a week, if they could have done 
the same amount of work. This incident, more than anything 
else in my experience, has proved to me that wages must be 
gauged by individual capability, not by a fixed tariff. Otherwise, 
all being equal, Mr. Arch should have shared with the natives 
here what he earned over and above what they could make at 
the same work.” Nor did the 27s. a week paid to these two 
hedgers represent the whole cost of the work, for it will be seen 
that Mr. Arkwright paid travelling expenses equivalent to Is. 4 d. 
a day each, in addition to the wages. We may presume, therefore, 
it must have been worth his while to pay at the rate not of 27s., 
but 35s. for the work done. 

3. It will be gathered from the foregoing remarks that task or 
piece-work is given by many employers in the Eastern Counties, 
as no doubt in most other parts of England, though seldom as 
part of a regular system. Of course, wages are increased by the 
extra earnings thus realised ; and high pay at harvest is another 
addition, and a material addition, to the year’s income of the 
labourer. 

The system of payment at harvest time which prevails in the 
Eastern Counties seems open to some question. During the 
harvest month, sometimes a little more, occasionally a little less, 
the men earn nearly three times as much a week as thev earn 
during the rest of the year, though they certainly do not work 
twice as hard. One farmer says that the increased work done bv 
his men during harvest would be fairly represented by a fourth 
of extra pay. The men like these “ lump ” payments, which, 
however, are generally mortgaged for rent or boot and shoe bills, 
or to meet the claims of the small shopkeeper ; while, if thev are 


110 


The Labour Bill in Farming. 


not so applied, they lead at times to waste and extravagance. 
“ Quickly come, quickly go and tlie money soon burns a hole 
in the pocket of the unmarried labourer, unless he has more than 
an ordinary share of prudence. The zeal of harvest labourers 
is stimulated by higher wages at that season all over England. 
But outside East Anglia such wages as 21., 21. 10s., and even 31. a 
week, for harvesting, I believe, are nowhere given. If these wages 
could be spread over the rest of the year and hirings were made 
yearly or half-yearly, the labourer would be much better off. At 
present he earns least when he wants most. In the winter months 
wages are sometimes reduced by a shilling a week, on account 
of the smaller quantity of work done ; and the opportunities of 
earning extra money by piece-work must be fewer than they are 
during the summer. More food, too, is wanted, with more warm 
clothing and more fuel. But when the pinch comes at this time, 
the harvest earnings are generally gone — not necessarily ill-spent, 
but spent without that thrift and regard for actual wants which 
would guide both housewife and wage-earner if the money came 
in regular weekly sums all through the year. 

I know of one instance in which a Suffolk farmer has acted 
upon this view, and with the consent of his labourers is now 
paying the able-bodied men an average wage of 18s. weekly, upon 
a yearly hiring. It is an experiment, and in Suffolk, at least, a 
novelty, though less of a novelty than at first sight appears ; for 
I repeat that it only applies to the staff of able-bodied men 
generally, terms of hiring already recognised in the case of 
the shepherd and one or two other hands on almost every farm. 
1 have said that farmers object to long hirings because if a 
man grows discontented, or if a difference arises between him 
and his master, he ceases to work with any will or spirit — 
ceases to give remunerative work, and had better go. The 
yearly hiring, it is contended, is a premium upon the growth of 
disaffection and discontent among the men at a season when it 
would be their interest to leave their employ. For example, they 
might work at the 18s. rate while the days were short and the 
work was slack, and they might leave their master in the busy 
season. In case, however, of any breach of agreement under such 
circumstances, the master has a summary remedy at law, and, 
whether the agreement were enforced or not, a labourer who 
left his employer in the lurch so unhandsomely would find it 
difficult to gain other employment upon like terms. Employers, 
for their own safety, would be careful whom they hired by the 
year, and would generally, from previous personal acquaintance 
or as the result of good references, know something of a man’s 
antecedents before engaging him. Such a hiring, including 
“ haysel ” and harvest, would secure the employer against being 


77te Labour Bill in Farming. 


Ill 


•suddenly left without hands at a week’s notice. It would also 
give the labourer and his wife no temptation to squander what 
to them is a large sum of money now earned at harvest time. 
One incidental advantage of such a contract would also be that 
the labourer’s position, in respect of wages, would then be much 
clearer than it is, both to himself and outsiders. 

The co-operative system of labour which I have described as 
prevailing at harvest-time on the Knettishall farm has great 
recommendations in theory, as in practice. Under the usual 
system which prevails throughout the Eastern Counties in harvest- 
time — that of giving each man a lump sum for the harvest — it 
becomes the labourer’s interest to get the work out of hand as 
quickly as possible. Still there is then not the same bond of 
interest between the workers ; they are dealt with separately by 
the farmer and are not brought into the same close relationship 
with each other as when they join in contracting for the job. 
The sense of a common interest in the work in hand not only 
supplies a wholesome stimulus to exertion, but is a good edu- 
cator. Whatever system of labour brings out of a man all his 
power, or, let us say, most of his power, must be the best system, 
both for master and man, in agriculture as in all other callings. 
Economy in farming is, I am convinced, not only compatible 
with higher wages, but will be promoted by higher wages,* 
the condition precedent being always understood that the wages 
paid are for work actually done, and not for work merely 
supposed to be done. In modern farming, I repeat, there can 
be no more important point for study to-day than the introduc- 
tion and perfection of a system which shall enable employers, 
according to the circumstances of each district — it may be of 
each farm — to apply this test in the payment of wages, and 
gradually educate both their labourers and themselves up to 
payment by results. 

4. Horse-labour is necessarily a large item in the farmer’s 
labour bill. The double-furrow plough has saved something 
both in manual labour and in horse-labour. One farmer esti- 
mates the saving at lOrf. per acre in men, and at the same 
amount in horses. W here one man and two horses plough one 
acre with the single-furrow plough, one man and three horses 

* “ I think we do not often consider how much low-priced labour (which is not 
necessarily cheap labour) has retarded agricultural improvements. Low-priced 
labour has rendered the farmer iuditferent to the extended use of machinery, and 
careless of the minutim of his business. Low-priced labour has in many cases 
contracted the hours of work, and made the work slovenly and unprofitable. 
Low-priced labour has rendered the labourer physically incapable of exertion, and 
degraded him too frequently into habitual pauperism.” — Mr. Little on ‘ The Future 
of Farming.’ 


112 


The Labour BUI in Farming. 


will plough about If acre with a double-furrow plough. But 
this — perhaps the only implement recently introduced which 
saves an appreciable amount of labour in the cultivation of land 
— can only be used on light and medium soils. 

The farmer whose estimate has just been quoted reckons that 
the cost of keeping and replenishing a horse, and of paying 
farrier and harness bill, amounts to 18.s. per week per horse, say 
47/. per annum each horse. “ It would be fair,” he adds, “ to 
assume that a farmer keeps in regular work from three to four or 
more horses per 100 acres.” “ Horse-labour, therefore, costs from 
about 28s. to 42s. per acre per annum, varying with the nature of 
the soil.” But the cost of horse-labour must vary also according 
to the machinery used on a farm, and the cost price of raw 
material in the shape of young horses. “ My horse-labour,” 
savs another farmer, “ has decreased in cost by about 6 per cent, 
within the last seven years ; but this decrease is caused by 
machinery provided in the form of well and pump, with water- 
pipes about the yards ; 150/. being spent in this way to save the 
daily expense of pumping and distributing.” Another farmer 
writes : — “ I should put the diminution in the number of horses 
kept within the last few years at from 5 to 10 per cent., partly 
owing to the great advance in their price, and partly to the 
extensive use of the double-furrow plough, w hich has also caused 
a great saving in manual labour.” 

The follow ing is “ the estimated cost of horse-labour per acre on 
a mixed-soil farm of G90 acres at Fornham St. Martin, Suffolk : — 
Acres. 

550 Arable net. 

90 Pasture gross. 

50 Roads, farm-premises, house, gardens, hedges, ditches,. 

See., works out about : — . 

£ x. d. 

116 0 on 550 acres of arable. 

4 7 on 90 acres of pasture. 

“ This calculation is made on the following basis : — The 
present price of both horses and horse-keep is very high ; 
22 horses, each costing 46/. per annum, exclusive of horse- 
keeper’s wages (which would come under the item of manual 
labour) ; and no charge is made for straw, the manure being 


considered an equivalent : — £ s d 

Death, risk, and depreciation 7 0.0 

For 38 weeks’ corn, chaff, hay, Ac 28 14 6 

For 14 weeks’ corn, green food, Sec. 6 8 10 

Interest 2 10 0 

Veterinary, shoeing, fire insurance, Ac. . . 16 8 


£46 0 0 


The Labour Bill in Farming. 113 

“ The horses are supposed to be worth, on an average, 50/. 
*>ach.'’ 

The cost of manual labour on these 690 acres from October 11, 
1873, to October 11, 1874, was 1209/. 15s. 6rf., or at the rate of 
1/. 15s. Off/, per acre, not far off the cost of horse-labour. The 
horses now find harvest time a trying one. Formerly the men 
used to do the hard work. Now the horses and the machines 
together relieve the men from what our neighbours across the 
Channel would call the brutalising labour which used to fall 
upon them. The more intelligent the labourer, the more keenly 
he appreciates a result which saves his strength, while it has 
raised, instead of diminishing, wages. 

5. Almost invariably throughout the Eastern Counties, when 
cottages are let by the farmer or the landowner, they are under- 
rented. Various questions of importance are suggested by this 
fact. One is the hindrance to cottage improvement thereby 
created. If the landowners were sure of receiving a fair interest 
upon outlay, instead of merely a nominal rent, the substitution 
of new and roomy cottages for old ones of a bad type rapid. 
Up on this point, however, I need not dwell. The only point 
material to the present inquiry is the addition which is in- 
directly made to the farmer’s labour bill by this system of 
nominal rent. At present the labourer really has a house and 
garden in part payment of wages ; and whether the cottage 
and garden are rent-free, or are merely under-rented, makes no 
difference in principle ; it is merely a question of degree. 

In cases where the cottages are let d'rect from the landlord, as 
I have said elsewhere, it comes to this — that A, who is employed 
by C, relies upon B for what is really a portion of his earnings. 
It may be that B, the landlord, recoups himself for the loss upon 
A’s cottage out of the rent paid by C, the farmer, for something 
else. But though landowners may indirectly recover from the 
farmer what they lose in dealing with the labourer, the system is 
a roundabout one which should be put an end to. I have heard 
of complaints by landowners that, after spending large sums in 
building good cottages for labourers, some farmers have used 
these cottages as a means of keeping wages low. Such com- 
plaints, if well-founded, show not only that the cottage is one 
element in fixing wages, but that landowners do indirectly con- 
tribute in this way towards the wage-fund. In order to ascer- 
tain how far the peasant’s cottage is under-rented, it is worth 
while here to compare some good town-dwellings built for the 
working-classes — artisans and labourers — with the good modern 
cottages which are rising up slowly, though more rapidly than 
one could reasonably have expected, throughout the Eastern 

VOL. XI. — s. S. " I 


114 


The Labour Bill in Farming. 


Counties. At Lavender Hill, not far from Clapham Junction,, 
in the south of London, there is now upon the Shaftesbury Park 
Estate what is popularly known as “the Working-men’s City." 
The houses there are of four classes. Those of the lowest and 
cheapest class, which need alone be mentioned here, contain five 
rooms — two living and three bed-rooms — and the weekly rental 
charged for them is 5s. 9c?., including rates and taxes. Having 
inspected the Lavender Hill dwellings, and visited in all parts 
of Suffolk three-bed-roomed cottages of the same class, I can 
speak of their relative merits with some confidence. The town- 
houses have the advantage of gas and water (though these 
requisites, of course, involve an extra payment), a system of 
drainage, and air-shafts and valves which secure a free ventila- 
tion in every room. The tenants also enjoy the benefit of easy 
access to schools, a lecture-hall, and shops, or a co-operative 
store, where marketing can be done cheaply and quickly. By 
common consent of the tenants, it may be added, no beer-shop 
or other place for the sale of alcoholic drinks is allowed upon the 
estate. On the other hand, few of the people who live here are 
as near to their work as the farm-labourers, even those living in. 
the villages ; while they are under a still greater disadvantage in 
comparison with the labourers for whom cottages have been 
provided upon the farms on which they are engaged. Probably 
the majority of the inhabitants at Lavender Hill must travel to 
and from their work by means of the neighbouring suburban 
railways ; and the weekly railway fare, even at workmen’s rates, 
represents a substantial addition to rental, with a liability to 
increase at the discretion of the Railway Directors. 

Plenty of peasants’ cottages throughout East Anglia may be 
fairly contrasted with these workmen’s dwellings. I wish the 
number were greater than it is. But, as I have said, much is 
being done to increase the number ; and the wonder is, with the 
inadequate rentals yielded by such cottages, that they should 
increase in number at all. The rooms of the modern cottage 
are of about the same size, and give the same accommodation,, 
as those of the houses at Lavender Hill. There is invariably 
an oven for bread-baking, not always one for each coltage, but 
one for each pair, built in the rear ; and generally there is a 
common copper for brewing. These two economies, practised 
as a matter of course by the villager, are impossible to the work- 
man in any large town. The pig-sty, with its useful inmate,, 
and the garden yielding good crops of vegetables, must not be 
omitted ; and here, again, these things are not for the workmen 
in towns. 

I he comparison, however, may rest not upon relative accom- 
modation, but actual rental. Now, while 5s. Qd. is thought a 


The Labour Bill in Farming. 


115 


fair weekly rental for the five-roomed houses at Lavender 
Hill, 2s. would be thought a high rent for cottages which 
may be favourably compared with these houses for internal 
accommodation, and far surpass them in respect of gardens, 
supply of vegetables, power to bake and brew, command of pure 
air, nearness to work, and pleasant surroundings. It follows 
that in actual rental alone there is a difference of 3s. 9 d. a week 
against the town-dweller and in favour of the peasant, while 
the produce of the garden and the profit of pig-keeping go to 
increase the relative advantages of the latter. 

Next as to cost of construction. If a man wishes to buy a 
five-roomed house at Lavender Hill, the price is 170/., exclusive 
of law charges. For this sum, however, he does not secure the 
freehold : he holds the house on a 99-years’ lease, and must pay 
an annual ground-rent of 21. 12s. If this ground-rent be capi- 
talised, an addition of say 50/. must be made to the purchase- 
money, which will then come to 220/. On the other hand, we 
may reckon that the peasant’s cottage costs about 150/., setting 
down nothing for the value of the land. Averaging the rent 
at Is. 9c/. a week, we have a yearly return of 4/. 11s. from this 
investment, or about 31. per cent. From this return, however, 
must be deducted rates and taxes, insurance, and repairs. 
There is no deduction for occasional loss of rent, nor is any 
account taken of the land occupied by the cottage .and garden. 
When a moderate allowance has been made under each of these 
heads, what remains for the landlord ? Barely 2J per cent., 
and as soon as a cottage has seen its best days, even less ; while 
the lowest dividend realised by the Artisans and Labourers’ 
Dwellings Company at Lavender Hill is 6 per cent. : and Lord 
Shaftesbury has stated that the Company might have divided 
10 per cent. 

Hitherto cottages in the country have been compared, in rent 
and accommodation, with new dwellings recently provided for 
labourers and mechanics in the suburbs of London. But com- 
paratively few town labourers can afford to live so far from their 
work. We shall now see what sort of lodgings they are able to 
procure in the heart of London. The private letter from which 
I take the following extract was written by a gentleman inti- 
mately acquainted with the district he describes, with the wages 
and mode of life of town labourers there, and the rent they 
commonly pay : — 

“ Within a two miles’ radius of this spot (he refers to a street 
in Southwark) a front room, 12 feet square, would let for 4s. a 
week, a back room, 8 feet or 9 feet square, would be about 2s. 6d. 
to 3s. A small house in courts and places with no thoroughfare, 
containing four rooms about 7 feet square, would let for from 

i 2 


The Labour Bill in Farming. 


biG 

D.v. 6 d. to 8s. 6rf. weekly. These places are in closely-packed 
neighbourhoods, where the clouds are only to be seen as you put 
your head out of the window. A labourer with 21s. per week, 
and two children, must pay for one front room 4s. per week — 
10/. 8s. per annum. The washing and all domestic things must 
be done in one room, and the clothes dried there. Again, sup- 
pose— which is often the case — -a drunken, noisy family is living 
in the room above and keeps late hours. A man goes home 
tired to his room, wanting sleep. He will soon wish himself 
back in the country. In some places there is only one closet for 
live or six families, some of whom are very dirty people.” In 
another letter the writer says : — “ Not one poor person out of six 
has a cooking stove. The meat must be boiled or se.nt to the 
bakehouse. Very few mechanics have more than two rooms ; 
to have three rooms, a man must be very careful and steady. 
Faking all things, I think London is cheaper than the country 
for living (food). But a London labourer has no garden to grow 
vegetables. All must be bought.” 

Is it not clear, then, that wages which in large towns are 
higher in money, but subject to deduction for higher rent, are in 
the country really supplemented by the difference, whatever it 
may be, between fair letting value represented by cost and actual 
rental of cottage and garden ? Whether the farmer or the land- 
lord makes this contribution to wages, or whether it is a joint 
contribution by both, will depend upon the agreement subsisting 
between them as to cottage building or letting ; but this question 
is one which affects only themselves. The benefit derived by 
the labourer in respect of rental is in no way touched by the 
relations between landowner and farmer. 

The system is so general and so deeply rooted that one has 
faint hopes of seeing it changed. But both in theory and in 
practice it appears indefensible. The labourer is seldom conscious 
that in fact he receives an addition to his weekly wages, in the 
shape of deductions from rent, even when he pays a weekly rent 
lor his cottage. In one instance the fact was brought to his 
knowledge in a very homely but forcible fashion. 'The story 
will bear repeating. It is told of an East Anglian rector, who, 
when in his parish the labourers, living for the most part in 
under-rented cottages, were complaining of low wages, had this 
dialogue with his gardener, perhaps with a view to teach others 
by example : — “ Let me see, John; what wages are vou getting?” 
“Eighteen shillings a week, sir." “Are you satisfied with 
your wages?” “ Yes, sir, quite satisfied.” “ Very well, John ; 
then I shall raise them 3s. a week, and give you a guinea.” 
John was overcome with gratitude. “Oh! thank you very 
much, indeed, sir! Thank you!” “Yes, but John, I shall 


The Labour Bill in Farming. 


117 


raise vour rent 35. a week too.’’ John would hardly feel con- 
strained to say “ Thank you ” this time ; but if the cottage were 
worth 35. a week more rent than John was paying for it, it is 
not clear that he could have urged any valid objection. As i 
have said elsewhere, to give with one hand and take away with 
another leaves the wage-fund where it stood before ; but this re- 
adjustment of rental and earnings puts the relations between 
employers and employed on a much sounder footing, for wages 
then really mean wages, and rent means rent. At present both 
are arbitrary nominal terms which do not indicate what they 
really represent. The wages are not represented by 13s. or 14s. 
in money, but by a mixed payment in coin and kind, not easily 
estimated ; varying as rents, cottage accommodation, and size of 
garden do vary even in the same parish and upon the same 
occupation ; and misleading not only outside critics, but the ver* 
parties to the contract, who only see dimly where they stand. 

Such a system must be full of anomalies, and also of injustice 
to individual labourers. The possession of a good cottage is 
often a matter of mere accident. The labourer to whom it is 
allotted receives an addition to his wages, as we have seen, 
though perhaps he works no harder or better than his fellows 
Through accident, again, the cottages upon one estate or upoa 
one farm will often be far better than those upon an adjoining 
estate or farm. The labourers in both cases will receive thie 
same nominal wages, but those who occupy the good cottages 
are really in receipt of higher wages than their neighbours. 
These inequalities would disappear if you could reckon the 
average amount now received indirectly by labourers in the 
shape of under-rent ; and if you paid this amount in money, 
requiring them, on the other hand, to give for their cottages a 
rent representing actual value. But it would be necessary, in 
strict justice, that this increase in money wages should be pad 
to all the labourers employed whose labour was of equal value 
When the men were the tenants of their employer, they would 
be no better off through the change. Like the rector’s gardener, 
they would receive with one hand and pay away with the other. 
But if men live in cottages which they do not rent from their 
employers, the same process will not necessarily be gone 
through. The addition to their wages, which equal justice 
requires, need not be paid away in extra rent, for it may be 
that they can get no cottage which is worth so much more 
money. 

6. Perquisites are probably given on much the same scale in the 
Eastern Counties as in other parts of Southern England. Beer 
is the chief, and certainly the most objectionable of these gifts 


118 


TIlc Labour Bill in Farming. 


in aid of wages. This item appears in the accounts of every 
farmer as an addition to his labour bill. If the labourer is kept 
at work a little longer than usual, or is employed on harder 
work than usual, he goes to the house for his pint or quart of 
beer. Certain kinds of work carry with them an understood 
claim to drink. In harvest-time the consumption is enormous. 
An East Suffolk farmer gives me the following statement on this 
head: — -“We always allow each of our men,” he says, “three 
bushels of best malt for harvest. Out of each bushel the men 
make from nine to ten ‘ pails ’ of three gallons.” A pail is the 
Suffolk measurement in home-brewing. “ They have, therefore, 
from 27 to 30 pails, or from 81 to 90 gallons, as the case may 
Ik>, for the harvest, which in average years lasts 27 days. 
Besides this quantity of beer, a 300-acre farmer never thinks of 
giving away less thaaa 30 gallons, or a barrel, of what we in 
Suffolk call harvest beer, which is specially strong and is generally 
brewed during the previous March. This is exactly what goes 
on year after year in this district with regard to beer allowance. 
I have often seen men come with empty bottles during the last 
few days of harvest, and get their fellow-labourers to give them 
some ; and I always give them some myself, if I know they are 
without.” 

When the weather is very hot, or any special effort is called 
for through fear of rain, I have heard of a big stone bottle being 
sent into the harvest-field filled with spirits and water. Admit- 
ting that some beer is needful to enable the labourer to support 
the heat and burden of the day, the system of beer-doles at bar- 
vest, as at other times, seems to be little less than a premium 
upon excessive drinking. The farmers say, if the men did not 
brew for themselves, they would buy public-house beer, made 
heady by one knows not what ingredients, and would be unable 
to work upon it. On the other hand, is it not better to give the 
men the value of the malt and hops, and thus give them some 
inducement to drink less? In Forfarshire, as we have seen, the 
labourers receive milk as a part of their weekly wages. We do 
not hear ol much beer or spirit-drinking while they work, yet 
we know how well they work. Farmers say that the men like 
beer-perquisites, and will do more for a pint of beer than they 
will do for twice its equivalent in money. One can quite under- 
stand this craving. The same story is told in the cider counties. 
1 think it will lie found that in districts where drink is doled out 
in the greatest quantity, the type of labour is the lowest ; and, 
whether the labourer likes it or not, this vicious system should 
be abandoned. If work is being done, not adequately paid lor 
by current wages, the extra earnings should be in cash. As it 
is, the labourer drinks far more than is good for him, and pours 


TIlc Labour Bill in Farming. 


119 ' 


down his throat what he ought, in the form of money wages, to 
carry home to his family for such food as would give himself and 
them greater strength and stamina. In the harvest-field, too, 
me cannot help thinking that so much beer must tell upon many 
men, depressing their energies and hindering work instead of 
expediting it. 

The produce of the garden or allotment, or both, can hardly 
be called a perquisite, though it is certainly a privilege, and a 
valuable one. The labourer uses his leisure to raise vegetables, 
•or sometimes a patch of corn, and he cultivates his quarter of an 
acre, more or less, to a profit. I am glad to say that, with some 
exceptions, allotments in the Eastern Counties are let at a mode- 
rate rental. Occasionally the men have a potato-plot rent-free, 
and this, of course, is a supplement to wages, representing a small 
addition to the labour bill. I have met with cases in which the 
farmer ploughs his men’s land without charge. 

Sometimes the farmers object to pig-keeping. There is a 
special objection to this bit of thrift in the case of horsemen or 
carters, because of the access these men have to the corn and 
their opportunities of peculation. The temptation, it is said, is 
so great in such cases, that men ought not to be exposed to it. 
Where the farmer does not allow pig-keeping he often gives 
manure for the allotment. Sometimes corn is sold for the use 
-of the pig at market rates. Straw is given for the same purpose. 
Milk is occasionally given or sold at a nominal price, but is not 
always valued as it should be, perhaps because it has to be fetched. 
Brushwood or underwood is given or sold at nominal rates. 
Then there are the Christmas gifts of beef or money, and the 
farmer’s subscriptions to the boot or clothes clubs of the parish. 
These are voluntary gifts, no doubt, and their value is not easily 
assessed. IN either would the farmers wish such gifts to be 
regarded as more than good-will offerings, which help the labourer 
to tide over the winter and tend to promote kindly relations. 
There remains for notice the help given to the poor from the 
farm-house in illness — help freely given, and looked for almost 
as a right by the recipient. W ine, brandy, arrowroot, and other 
medical comforts, are asked for and given, with very little sense 
■of dependence on the one hand or of patronage on the other. In 
remote country parishes, where the nearest surgeon probably lives 
miles away, the great house, the vicarage, and the farm-house are 
dispensaries, and something more. In the towns, labouring men 
or mechanics would never dream of asking for such help, and 
many of them perhaps would spurn it with some indignation if 
it were offered. The same independence is hardly possible in 
the country. The farmer or the farmer’s wife does not grudge 
this relief, but it has a money-value, and though no farmer would 


120 


The Labour Bill in Farming. 


think of setting it down to the account of labour, such is really 
the form it takes to outsiders. 

7. Of greater importance than perquisites is that item in the 
labour bill which I have described as “ wages knowingly given 
bv the farmer in excess of the value of the labour given in return, 
as in the case of old and infirm hands or, it may be added, 
wages paid during wet or frost, when agricultural work cannot 
be done ; or in the short, dark days of winter ; or when boys arc 
employed, as they sometimes are, though not really required, 
“ because there is such a large family.” 

“To show how the old men hang on and the young ones go- 
away,” writes a Suffolk farmer, “ take my farm. I employ 20 
men : 13 of them are above 50 and under 75, the majority 
ranging from 60 to 65, while only 7 men of the whole 20 are 
under 50. Yet all these men are on full pay, although they are- 
certainly not worth it. Several have worked on the farm for 30 
or 40 years. I maintain that I pay 30 per cent, more in wages 
than the work is worth in the market. But neither I nor any other 
decent farmer would turn a man off simply because he was old. 
Hitherto it has been the custom to ‘ find a corner somewhere ’ for 
men who have grown old in a place.” 

The statement here made is true of hundreds of farmers in the 
Eastern Counties, and no doubt in every English county. This- 
particular farm is an extreme case ; but on a smaller scale, go- 
where you will, you find old servants retained upon farms, some- 
times receiving full wages, sometimes treated as “ three-quarters” 
or “ half” men, but hardly ever earning the wages paid them, 
if judged by the standard remuneration given to labour in the 
parish. This regard for old services is highly honourable to the 
farmers. No one will pretend to say that they are the only 
class of employers who consider the claims of old and par- 
tially worn-out servants. But it may be said with truth that 
there is no other class of employers who employ this unremu- 
nerative labour to anything like the same extent. The result 
must, and does, tell upon the labour bill. The older men are 
really receiving an annuity for past services, represented by the 
difference between their wages and the value of their labour. It 
follows that either these annuities must come out of profits, or 
the wages of able-bodied men must be lower than they otherwise 
would be in contemplation of the provision which the farmer is- 
expected to provide in old age. 

In winter the hours of labour in Suffolk, and generally 
throughout East Anglia, are (nominally) from 7 A.M. till 5. r.M.,. 
with an hour for dinner. In summer the hours are, with some- 
what greater reality, from 6 A.M. till 6 r.M., with half an hour 


The Labour Bill in Farming. 


121 


for breakfast and an hour for dinner. The year’s work is thus 
summed up by one of my informants : — “ Harvest-hours, twelve- 
hours’ actual work. Summer, ten hours’ actual work. Winter, 
eight and often not more than seven hours of actual work. We lose- 
time sadly in winter, and farmers who pay, as I do, wet or dry,, 
then get very poor value for their money. Several days last week 
(in December) my men did not do two hours’ work a day. In a 
factory men are not paid if they do not work.” It is a nice 
question in farming whether the men or the master should suffer 
if the weather renders farm-work impossible. In the old days of 
flail-threshing, work could generally be found under cover in case- 
of continued rain. Machine-threshing has put an end to this 
resource, and it is often impossible to find a job for every labourer 
in-doors when field-work is stopped by the wet. Under such 
circumstances, when the labourer is ready to work but cannot, 
should he be mulcted of his pay, or should the farmer pay for 
work not rendered ? The equities on both sides seem equal, anti 
a hard economist would probably say, with some show of reason, 
that the employer should not pay if he can receive no equivalent. 
Most persons, however, will hold that the hiring should not be a 
daily but a weekly and continuous hiring, and that the farmer 
should take his chances of the weather. In practice this rule is 
general among the large farmers when men are upon weekly 
wages ; when they are upon task-work, of course the risk is theirs. 
The contrary rule is still too frequently in force, and there is no- 
greater cause of suffering among, the men, especially when, as in. 
the South-Western Counties, the rate of wages is low, the liability 
to wet great, and piece-work is either rare or badly paid. 

I hope most earnestly that farmers will not engage their 
labourers upon this niggardly system, deducting for wet days from 
the wages of men who can ill afford to bear such deductions. We 
cannot help seeing, however, that, if the farmer in such seasons 
pays for work which is not performed, he is equitably entitled at 
other times to ungrudging work for longer hours than are usual in 
other employments. There can be no exact adjustment of labour 
throughout the year, no self-righting balance struck between 
seasons when field-work is easy and may be prolonged, and other 
seasons when it is difficult and when “ all pay and little or no- 
work ” hardly exaggerates the employer’s situation. The diffi- 
culty is in impressing upon the men what any impartial outsider 
must see, and what they must see if they will conscientiously 
consider the case, that when the contract with them is “ wet or 
dry,” they are really paid in the short, dark, rainy, or frosty days 
ol winter, wages out of proportion to those paid during the sum- 
mer months. In other words, an average is struck throughout 
the year ; they may be paid less than their work is worth in 


122 


The Labour Bill in Farming. 


summer time and more than it is worth in the winter ; and unless 
they work well in summer all through the day, they do not give 
back what they have received. Agricultural labour must be dis- 
tinguished in this respect from most kinds of town work. The 
farm labourer cannot, like the factory hand and many artisans, 
work by artificial light. He must follow the sun, and, in a fickle 
climate like ours, cannot always even do that. Employers of 
labour in manufacturing towns, and indeed any persons who wish 
to form a fair judgment upon the wages paid to farm labourers, 
must take into account the inevitable condition under which these 
men work and farmers have to make their living. By all means 
let us sympathise with the English peasantry, where they deserve 
sympathy, as they often do in their dwellings and surroundings ; 
but our sympathy ought to be an intelligent one, based upon a 
correct appreciation of the circumstances under which they work, 
and a fair allowance for the difficulties of those for whom they 
work. It will perhaps be enough to ask this question — What is 
the system of paying operatives, like masons, whose labour is 
interfered with by weather? And upon what system would mill- 
owners pay factory hands, if this species of work were liable to 
similar interruptions ? 

8. Poor’s-rate may hardly seem admissible as an item in the 
farmer’s labour bill. It is true that Boards of Guardians no 
longer give relief in order to make up insufficient w'ages ; but 
poor’s-rate presses with peculiar force upon farmers who are the 
only employers and often the only ratepayers in a country parish. 
Sometimes, indeed, one farmer will occupy all the land in a 
parish. In a town, payment of the poor’s-rate is spread over 
many different classes and interests — manufacturers, merchants, 
tradesmen, professional men, clerks. It is confined in the country 
to one class and one interest. Unhappily the present system of 
poor-relief not only gives no encouragement to thrift, but often 
discourages it ; and in rural society the one employ ing-class, 
after paying fair wages to labourers in their prime, may after- 
wards be compelled, and they alone, to support these very 
labourers, often brought to the poor-house through their own 
improvidence. VVeinust bear in mind also the constant drain 
ol labour from the country to the town. The young and the 
strong are forced to migrate, or take their labour to what they 
think a better market, leaving behind an undue proportion of 
old and weakly men. The rates clearly suffer, owing to this 
migration. 

W ith regard to the probable future cost of farm-labour, Mr. 
•Stephenson, ol Burwell, whose communication has been already 


The Labour Bill in Farming. 


123 


quoted, writes to me as follows: — “The principal change 
noticed by me since the commencement of the recent agitation 
is the removal by emigration of a large number of those surplus 
hands on whom farmers depended in times of extra work — such 
as turnip-hoeing, hay-making, Sec . — men who occupied them- 
selves in other ways, or were idle when not required at these 
times. We may probably look forward to the removal of this 
class of labourer in still larger numbers ; and we may have to 
depend entirely on our regular hands, excepting at harvest, 
when the high wages will, no doubt, continue to draw men from 
other employments. 

“ I think we ought to consider how far we may have to alter 
our system of farming, looking forward, as we must do, to the 
more or less complete removal of these ‘ odd hands.’ The root- 
crop will, probably, be the only one affected, this being the only 
crop which necessitates the employment from time to time of a 
number of extra hands. As the work of hoeing and singling turnips 
cannot be delayed, it is clear that, if a large amount of surplus 
labour is not forthcoming at the requisite moment, the acreage 
of roots must be reduced. As the roots are the worst-paying 
crop on the farm, to give up half the acreage will leave a greater 
profit to be shared between landlord and tenant, without any 
disadvantage to the land. As much stock would be fatted ; but 
they would eat corn and cut-straw in place of roots. 

“ On good mixed soil much money is lost by farmers being 
compelled by a lease to grow roots on one-fourth of the whole 
arable land. Such a wasteful system is only possible by the 
existence of a large amount of surplus labour. If half this 
turnip-shift were given up to barley, as recommended by Mr. 
Lawes,* the following would be a reasonable estimate of the 
cost and result. The figures speak for themselves : — 

“ Estimated Cost and Besult of growing a Crop of Swede Turnips. 


Per acre. 
£ s. d. 

Team Work — including the usual ploughings, harrowings, 

rolling, drilling, and horse-hoeing 112 0 

Manual Labour — including hoeing by hand, singling, pulling, 


Artificial Manure 2 0 0 

Seed 0 3 0 

Rent, rates, and taxes, say 2 10 0 


Total cost 780 

If carted from the field, add 10s. per acre. 

"Value of Crop for Food and Manure, 12 tons at 8s £4 16 0 


* See Mr. Lawes’ recommendations in the * Royal Agricultural Society's Journal 
for 1873,’ vol. ix., part 2, specially pp. 373, 374. 


124 


The Labour Bill in Farming. 


“ Estimated Cost and Besult of growing one acre of Barley in 
place of the above Crop. 

£ *. <L 


Team Work— including Autumn cleaning, ploughing, usual 
hanwings, rolling and drilling ; also team work at harvest, 


threshing, and delivering to market 180 

Manual Labour at harvest — threshing and dressing .. .. 0 18 O 

Coal and use of steam-threshing machinery 0 4 0 

Seed 0 15 O 

Manure 2 00 

Rent, rates, and taxes 2 10 0 


7 15 O 

Value of Crop, 10 coombs at 19s £9 10 0 

Straw for consumption on farm 1 10 0 


Total produce £11 0 0 


“ As high-farming consists in consuming on the farm as 
much corn and cake as possible, it is clear that a landlord, by 
compelling a tenant to grow an extra amount of roots, defeats 
his own object : because a farmer of small capital, instead of 
purchasing food, has all he can do to consume his roots, and 
thereby only returns to the land a part of what the crop of roots 
had previously taken out of it. 

“ Beyond the opinion expressed above with regard to surplus 
hands, I see no reason to think that labour will be dearer. 
When I consider that, notwithstanding the considerable pressure 
that was used to induce emigration from the Newmarket district 
last year, the wages still remain nominally at 13s., I cannot 
resist the conclusion that an immense deal of emigration must 
take place from the country generally previous to any further 
rise in farm-wages. Moreover, there seem to be some signs of 
a sufficiency of hired labour in America. If such is the case, 1 
do not think that English farm-labourers in regular employment 
will be induced in any considerable numbers to go to the back- 
woods to clear forests on their own account.” 

America, however, is not the only outlet for our surplus farm- 
labour, and I cannot help thinking that emigration 'may, in. 
time, cause a dearth of labour. The leaders of the National 
Union are now concentrating the resources and influence of 
their organization for the purpose of sending agricultural 
labourers away to other parts of the country or the colonies. 
So far as this movement really tends to the benefit of the -men 
themselves, nobody has the least reason to complain of it. On 
the contrary, it is a natural and legitimate attempt to better the 
condition ol the labourers, and one which will command general 
approval. Experience has shown that most farm-labourers, at 
all events in the Southern Counties — and East Anglia may be 


125 


The Labour Bill in Farming. 

included in the list — are far too slow in migrating, and arc still 
more loth to emigrate, even when there is a reasonable assurance 
■of higher wages, cheaper food, and regular employment in a 
new sphere. YVe must remember, too, that the agricultural dis- 
tricts will bear a good deal of depletion, not only without injury 
to farmers and labourers, but with positive advantage to both. 
It is not really to the advantage of farmers in any district that 
there should be a redundant population ; for if the nominal rate 
•of wages be thereby kept somewhat lower than it is elsewhere, 
the rates are higher. Moreover, low wages generally mean de- 
pression and discontent among the labourers, and bad, nerve- 
less, dear work. 

The conditions of rural society are constantly at work to 
produce in every purely agricultural district this superfluity of 
blood and muscle. The land, as it is now cultivated, employs a 
stated number of men and youths. Taking fifty rural parishes 
in any county, you may predict with tolerable certainty, within 
fifty men, how many labourers will be wanting there at the end 
of the next ten years. The use of machinery must increase, and 
stand, to some extent, in the place of manual labour. Thus, 
while the demand for labour in the rural districts may be 
reckoned as pretty nearly fixed, supply is constantly outstrip- 
ping demand. Our peasantry do not abstain from marrying 
early and having large families because they know that emplov- 
ment cannot be found for all their children around the villages 
where they are born. They marry, often improvidently, though 
probably not more improvidently than artisans or labourers in 
towns. The result is that, as they must work to live, so they 
must migrate in order to work. For some years the discoverv 
of coprolites in East Anglia absorbed much of what would 
■otherwise have been surplus labour produced in excess of 
agricultural wants. But coprolite digging no longer affords a 
sufficient outlet for the annual increment of population in coun- 
ties which contain so few large towns and have so few manu- 
factures. 

All over rural England the same process of over-population 
goes on, and the same phenomenon is noted — that, though of all 
classes, perhaps without exception, agricultural labourers are 
under the greatest necessity to leave their birth-places, and have 
the greatest inducement to do so, no class is so hard to move away. 
Our artisans are pretty nearly absorbed by the development of 
manufactures and the growth of great cities ; but they do not 
hesitate to go elsewhere if they see a chance of doing better for 
themselves. The sons of our trading and professional classes are 
ready at the shortest notice to move off to any part of the world, 
in order to find elbow-room and opportunities which do not 


126 


The Labour Bill in Farming. 


exist in our own overcrowded communities. Hitherto, however, 
the English peasantry, who are more valuable colonists, and more 
likely to succeed, than any other class, if they have average energy, 
thrift, and industry, are the very people who cling the closest 
to home, no matter how poor that home may be. 

It is impossible to believe that our farm-labourers will long 
remain so reluctant to stir, and so little adventurous. No doubt 
one very strong motive-power with them, as with every other 
class, has been, and always will be, self-interest ; and the most 
obvious explanation of a man’s reluctance to go somewhere else 
is that he thinks he is better off where he is. In part this 
is a true explanation, though it does not account for the fact 
that farm-labourers are often content to stay in villages where 
their labour is not wanted. Education will make them more 
plastic, readier in adapting themselves to new conditions, and 
less disinclined to face what to them at present is the unknown. 
Union agents, emigration agents, and the Union press, are doing 
their best to educate the men up to this point, and supply informa- 
tion as to the best labour-fields open to them in this country and 
the colonies. Such being the new influences brought to bear upon 
the agricultural labourer, not in one part of the country alone, 
but in all parts, to induce him to leave home, a question of the 
utmost interest arises, and one very pertinent to the present 
inquiry— Will the taste for emigration grow, and, after a time, 
sensibly affect the farm-labour market? Or will it do no more 
than restore a healthy balance between supply and demand, 
preventing stagnation at home, and furnishing the British colo- 
nies with a steady flow of the surplus labour which we cannot 
usefully employ ? I cannot help thinking that the influences 
just specified, though, perhaps, at first slow in their operation, 
will before long make themselves felt, and will gradually force 
upon the farmers a change in the system of hiring and of 
work, if they wish their best men to stay at home. 

The rural Arcadia of which we can at present do little more 
than dream is one in which employers will find that the 
secret of economical farming consists in encouraging men to do 
their utmost and do their best, by paying them well for the 
results of work; in which the young men will earn, by task- 
labour, wages enabling them to live comfortably, and pro- 
vide for old age out of savings ; in which education will make 
our peasants more intelligent workers, while it will be too widely 
spread to make them look down on work ; in which, also under 
the influence of education, the labourers as a class will become 
temperate and frugal, acknowledging the duty of providence, 
insisting on decent, comfortable homes, and willing to pay fair 
rentals for such homes ; while they will learn self-respect, sterling- 


The Labour Bill in Farming. 127 

independence, and the duty they owe to others as well as to 
themselves. 

If any advance is to be made towards this ideal, I am con- 
vinced that education must furnish the chief motive-power, and 
that no other help you can give to the labourer will be half as 
effectual as that which awakens and quickens his intelligence, 
and enables him to help himself. I have shown that the old 
men employed about a farm practically receive from the farmer 
small annuities, which are either paid out of profits, or, less 
probably, represent deductions from their wages when they were 
voung and lusty. Neither hypothesis is satisfactory ; and the 
only sound, healthy system is one under which the young men 
receive such wages as allow them to save for their own support 
during old age. County Benefit Societies afford a valuable 
machinery for securing this end. 

But you cannot make bricks without straw, and it is question- 
able whether, out of his present earnings, the married labourer, 
however thrifty, can support a family and pay the weekly sum 
which is necessary to secure for himself an adequate provision in 
sickness and old age. The first requisite, therefore, is a remune- 
ration for labour which will give an industrious man the means 
of satisfying these conditions. Piece-work may enable him to do 
so. At all events, it seems to offer the most promising prospect 
of reaching this end. I think it is worth a trial : a trial not hastily 
begun or soon relinquished, but persisted in, even under some 
discouragement, in the conviction that here is a sound principle, 
and that some means must exist, and ought to be found, for 
reducing it to successful practice. I have sought to show that a 
reciprocal duty is cast upon employers and employed in this 
matter. We must not look for perfection or forgetfulness of self 
in either class, and the advantage of the system of labour I have 
advocated in agriculture is that it appeals to the self-interest 
of both classes. In day-labour every man should, and a con- 
scientious man does, put forth his strength. But in day-labour 
a man cannot help feeling that his pay will be the same how- 
ever he may work. He feels, in short, that he is working for 
his master, while under task-labour he knows that he is working 
for himself as well as for his master. 


IV. — On the Composition and Properties of Drinking-Water 
and Water used for General Purposes. By Dr. Augustus 
VOELCKER, F.R.S. 

Like pure and fresh air, a good and wholesome water is an in- 
dispensable element for maintaining the health of man and beast^ 


128 On the Composition and Properties of Drinking-Water, 

and contributing to the comforts of domestic life. It has been 
surmised that waters which have their origin in crowded cities, 
or in their immediate neighbourhood, must contain ingredients 
•incompatible with their use as a beverage or for general domestic 
purposes. The sudden outbreak of cholera, and the prevalence 
of typhoid fever and other infectious diseases, in certain localities, 
have long been associated in the popular mind with bad water 
and impure air ; and there can be no doubt of the great influ- 
ence which the purity of air and water exerts on general health. 

In many cases the sudden outbreak of cholera, scarlet and 
typhoid fever, small-pox, and similar diseases, in particular 
towns or districts has been clearly traced to the pernicious con- 
tamination with sewage of the water used by the inhabitants, 
or to the infiltration of surface-drainage into the wells which 
supplied the drinking-water. Most towns in England at present 
are supplied with wholesome water, which is often brought to the 
•floor of the consumer from considerable distances ; and the town 
population in most places is no longer dependent for its water 
upon local wells and pumps, many of which have been closed alto- 
gether by the sanitary authorities. The examination of a large 
number of samples of water from towns and the country leads 
me to the conclusion that towns, as a rule, are supplied with 
purer drinking-water, and water better suited for general house- 
hold purposes, than country districts, isolated farmhouses, and 
■country residences. 

The supply of water in rural districts is often not only deficient 
in quantity, but frequently largely impregnated with sewage 
and yard and house drainage, being thus rendered unwholesome, 
and quite unfit for drinking purposes. There are many villages 
with no other source of supply than shallow wells ; and even the 
country residences of the nobility and landed proprietors I find 
frequently are supplied with unwholesome water, or water much 
less pure than that in use in most towns. 

The purity and suitability for general household purposes of 
spring, river, and well waters, in the first place, are influenced 
by the chemical composition of the rocks of the locality in 
■which they originate; and in the second place the properties 
of natural waters are more or less affected by local sources of 
contamination, such as the proximity of the well to a cesspool, 
a house or yard drain, a stable-yard or a dung-pit. 

If a water emits a strongly disagreeable smell, or if it is more 
or less coloured yellow, or if it is turbid, or if it shows floccu- 
Ient, floating particles of organic matter or living organisms, 
no chemical examination is requisite to prove its unwholesome 
character and unfitness for drinking purposes. It, however, 
frequently happens that fairly bright and barely coloured water, 


and Water used for General Purposes. 


129 


emitting no smell whatever, nevertheless may be impregnated 
with an amount of organic impurities and certain saline in- 
gredients which will render it unfit for drinking and cooking 
purposes. By a careful chemical and physical examination it 
may be decided without much difficulty, in many cases, whether 
or not water is fit for drinking, and which of a number of 
samples is best adapted for general domestic purposes. In other 
instances the analytical indications are less decisive, and the 
water will have to be pronounced of a suspicious or doubtful, 
or, at all events, not perfectly wholesome character. 

I purpose in the following pages to pass in review the various 
kinds of natural waters, pointing out their composition, pro- 
perties, and adaptation for household purposes ; next to direct 
special attention to the sources of contamination which render 
water more or less unwholesome or unfit for domestic use ; and 
lastly, as far as practicable, to point out any available means for 
purifying water. 

The principal varieties of natural waters are rain-water, 
spring-, river-, well-, and sea-water. The latter may be dis- 
missed at once, the purport of this paper being to treat of waters 
which are used for domestic purposes. The remaining varieties 
may be conveniently placed in two groups, and described as 
soft and hard waters. There is, however, no distinct line of 
demarcation separating the two groups, for the difference be- 
tween hard and soft waters is one of degree and not of kind. 
Speaking generally, a water is called soft if it contains per im- 
perial gallon not more than 12 to 15 grains of fixed constituents, 
the greater part of which consists of carbonate and sulphate 
of lime and magnesia. If there are more than 8 to 10 grains of 
lime and magnesia compounds in the total fixed residue, and 
the amount does not exceed 16 grains, the water is said to be 
moderately hard ; and if the earthy matters exceed 16 grains in 
the gallon it is considered decidedly hard. 

Soft Waters. 

Rain-water . — In nature, water is never found perfectly pure. 
The impurity of the water is frequently visible to the eye. Fine 
suspended red clay often imparts a reddish colour to rivers 
flowing through rocks of red marl, which contain much oxide 
of iron in their composition ; occasionally it appears milky, 
lrom fine particles of white clay, which settle with difficulty 
or only imperfectly after long subsidence. In other instances 
river-water is contaminated with town-sewage and then ap- 
pears muddy and more or less dark-coloured. It is generally 
brown where it issues from boggy lakes or passes across a 

VOL. XI. — S. S. Iv 


130 On the Composition and Properties of Drinking-Water, 

peaty country, and in that case seldom is perfectly clear and 
colourless. 

Besides the visible impurities taken up from the rocky and 
other materials which water meets with in and upon the earth, 
there are others which are held in solution, the presence of which 
cannot be detected by the sense of sight. The brightest, clearest, 
and perfectly colourless spring and river waters are never 
chemically pure ; they all contain in solution a greater or less 
quantity of saline matter and earthy constituents, which are left 
behind as a fixed residue when the water is evaporated to dryness. 

The water which descends as rain, having undergone a species 
of natural distillation, is, if collected in clean vessels and in 
the open country, the purest and softest of all natural waters. 
On evaporation to dryness it scarcely leaves any fixed residue. 
It is contaminated only with exceedingly small quantities of 
carbonic and nitric acid and ammonia, and light floating particles 
of impurities washed by it out of the air during its descent 
as rain. Rain-water collected in towns or smoky localities, such 
as manufacturing or coal-mining districts, contains, in addition 
to the traces of atmospheric impurities just named, soot and 
other mechanical impurities, or constituents dissolved from the 
materials of the roofs of the buildings upon which the rain falls. 
Rain-water collected in towns is always more or less dirty from 
suspended or mechanical impurities, and generally more or less 
yellow-coloured by soluble organic matter. 

In a filtered state rain-water is the softest natural water, and 
most useful for washing purposes or for the feeding of steam 
boilers. It absolutely prevents boiler-incrustations, which cause 
so much inconvenience, when hard waters, largely impregnated 
with lime-salts, have to be used in kitchen boilers and steam 
generators. Rain-water, however, is insipid and wanting in the 
peculiar refreshing taste so much prized in fresh and bright 
spring-water. On keeping, moreover, the organic impurities 
enter into decomposition and impart a disagreeable smell to it, 
which can only be effectually removed by filtration through a 
charcoal filter. 

In view of the great advantages of having the command of 
soft water for washing purposes, arrangements should be made 
in every country house for the collection of rain in suitable reser- 
voirs. The rain-water may be gathered in water-tight cemented 
brick-tanks, or it may be stored conveniently in wooden tanks 
or a number of large barrels. But it should not be kept in tanks 
lined with sheet-lead, which would be rapidly corroded ; and 
as this poisonous metal passes into actual solution in the shape 
of oxide of lead, rain-water collected in such tanks should on no 
account be used for drinking purposes. 


and Water used for General Purposes. 131 

Lakc-xraters . — Amongst the purest natural waters hitherto 
examined are the waters of several lakes in the north of Scot- 
land and of Cumberland. These waters contain only a small 
proportion of solid matter per gallon ; they are very soft in con- 
sequence, and excellent for washing purposes. At certain times 
of the year they get coloured by peaty matters, which, besides 
rendering them rather unsightly, give them an unpleasant taste. 
The water of Loch Katrine, which furnishes Glasgow with a 
copious supply of excellent water, has been repeatedly analysed, 
at all periods of the year, by different chemists, and has been 
found exceedingly soft and good for general household purposes. 
1 have myself analysed Loch Katrine water, as well as that 
of some other Scottish lakes, and, as illustrations of the chemi- 
cal characters of very soft lake-waters, append the following 
analyses : — 

Composition of Water from Loch Katrine, St. Mary’s Loch, and 
Porthore Loch in Scotland. 



Locli 

Katrine. 

St. Mary’s 
Loch. 

Portmore 

Loch. 

An imperial gallon contains : — 

Grains. 

Grains. 

Grains. 

Organic matter 

•80 

2 00 

•92 

Earthy carbonates 

■35 

•79 

1-93 

Sulphhte of lime 

•64 

•81 

•45 

Chloride of sodium 

•70 

•59 

1-01 

Nitrate of magnesia 

trace 

truce 

trace 

Silica and oxide of iron and alumina 

•10 

•20 

•23 

Total fixed constituents in grains'! 
per gallon / 

2-C8 

4-39 

4-54 

Degree of hardness : — 




Before boiling 

1-3° 

1G 3 

2-4° 

After boiling 

These waters further contained per gallon : 

1-0° 

1-4° 

2‘0° 

Free (saline) ammonia 

•003 

•005 

•002 

Organic (albuminoid) ammonia.. 

•010 

•012 

•004 

Nitric acid 

trace 

trace 

trace 


The sample of Loch Katrine water analysed by me, it will be 
seen, contained only grains of fixed residue per gallon, and 
scarcely 1 grain of this residue consisted of carbonate and sul- 
phate of lime. The St. Mary’s Loch water was scarcely harder 
than that of Loch Katrine, but it was impregnated with much 
more organic matter, which gave it a yellowish colour and a 
somewhat peaty taste. The total amount of fixed residue in the 
Portmore Loch water was in round numbers 4^ grains, *38 of a 
grain of which consisted of earthy carbonates and sulphates. In 

K 2 


132 On the Composition and Properties of Drinking-Water, 


consequence of the larger proportion of lime and magnesia com- 
pounds the water of Portmore Loch is somewhat harder than 
that of Loch Katrine and St. Mary’s Loch, but in comparison with 
ordinary spring and river waters it is extremely soft. All the 
three samples, practically speaking, contained merely traces of 
actual and of organic ammonia, showing clearly that the organic 
matter in these waters is derived from vegetable and not from 
nitrogenous animal-refuse matters. Had the waters been con- 
taminated with sewage-products or refuse-matters of animal 
origin, a much larger amount of free and organic ammonia would 
have been revealed by the chemical analysis. 

There is no evidence on record proving peaty matter to 
affect the health injuriously ; it may therefore be assumed that, 
although the St. Mary’s Loch water was decidedly yellow-coloured, 
and contained comparatively a large amount of soluble organic 
matter, it was not unwholesome. 

Similar in composition and general character are the waters of 
the lakes of Cumberland and Westmoreland. 

Composition of Water from Hawes-Water, Ullswater, and 
Thirlmere Lakes. 



Hawes-Water 

Ullswater 

Thirlmere 


Lake. 

Lake. 

Lake. 


G rains. 

Grains. 

Grains. 

Prof. Way found in an imperial gallon : — 




Lime 

•50 

•81 

•42 

Magnesia 

•18 

•20 

•14 

Soda 

•71 

•51 

•46 

Chlorides of sodium and potassium 

•40 

•69 

•77 

Oxide of iron, silica, &c 

•25 

•20 

•05 

Sulphuric acid 

•51 

•37 

•44 

Carbonic acid 

•82 

103 

•56 

Organic matter 

•62 

*35 

•77 

Total fixed constituents in grains 

3-99 

416 

3-61 

Hardness before boiling . . . „ 

2-0° 

21° 

1-5° 

Hardness after boiling 

1-8° 

2-1° 

1-5° 

These constituents, according to Way, are 




probably combined as follows : — 




Carbonate of lime 

•90 

1-45 

•75 

Carbonate of magnesia 

•36 

•42 

•29 

Carbonate of soda 

•56 

•40 

•20 

Sulphate of soda 

•90 

•65 

•78 

Chlorides of sodium and potassium 

•40 

•69 

•77 

Oxide of iron, silica, &c 

•25 

•20 

*05 

Organic matter 

•62 

•35 

•77 

Total solid constituents per gallon (ini 

grains) / 

3 99 

416 , 

3-61 


133 


and Water used for General Purposes. 

The entire district draining into the rivers Lowther, Eamont, 
and Greta, and adjoining the lakes of Hawes- Water, Ullswater, 
and Thirlmere, is bare hill-pasture, on siliceous, primitive, or 
igneous rocks ; and it possesses all the attributes of a locality from 
which an enormous amount of water of remarkable purity and 
softness may be obtained, as the preceding analyses by Professor 
Way show. 

The proportion of organic matter in all these samples is 
small ; and they all likewise contain only a small proportion of 
fixed constituents per gallon. The waters of these three lakes, 
practically speaking, are as soft as those of the Scottish lakes 
analysed by me, and all are admirably suited for the domestic 
supply of town populations. 

Piver-ivaters . — Most of the waters in the granite regions of 
the north of Scotland contain as little as from 4 to 5 grains 
of fixed constituents in the gallon, and many small mountain- 
brooks and Scottish rivers contain but little more, as the fol- 
lowing average analyses of a large number of samples of water 
from Scotland made by Dr. Letheby and myself will show — - 


Composition of Water from the South Esk and Tweedale Burn. 



South Esk. 

Tweedale Burn. 


Grains. 

Grains. 

An imperial gallon contained : — 



Carbonate of lime 

1-43 

1 55 

Carbonate of magnesia 

•97 

•64 

Sulphate of lime 

•98 

•42 

Chloride of sodium 

1-54 

1-04 

Silica and oxide of iron 

•27 

*36 

Organic matter 

•52 

1-26 

Total solid constituents per gallon in grains 

5-71 

5-27 

Actual or saline ammonia 

•005 

•002 

Organic (albuminoid) ammonia 

•009 

•005 

Degrees of hardness : — 



Before boiling 

3-6° 

3-6° 

After boiling 

3-1° 

2-4° 


Spring-waters . — Excellent pure and soft spring-waters rise in 
the Green-sand of Surrey. The following analyses are quoted 
from a Parliamentary Report on the water-supply of the metro- 
polis. The samples were collected in the district of the Hind- 
head, to the south of Guildford, in Surrey, pretty well defined, 
which district includes the watershed on all sides of an ele- 
vated tract belonging to the Green-sand formation, and known 
as the Hindhead, over the summit of which the foot-road to 
Plymouth is carried for several miles. 


Composition op Surrey Waters 


134 On the Composition and Properties of Drinking-Water > 



and Water used for General Purposes. 


135 


These waters were bright and pure, and entirely unexception- 
able in point of aeration and colour. Their usual temperature 
when taken up was from 50° to 52°, showing that their sources 
are deep-seated, and that they preserve the average temperature 
of the whole year. Their taste betrayed no organic taint, but 
evinced great purity, although they appeared rather flavourless 
and somewhat vapid to persons habituated to the use of hard 
waters. 

Well-icaters . — Wells sunk in deep sandy soils or in siliceous 
rocks generally furnish soft waters. The following analyses of 
two soft well-waters from Hampshire were lately made bv me : 

Composition of two Soft Well-icaters from Hampshire. 


An imperial gallon on evaporation to dryness left :- 



No. 1. 

No. 2. 


Grains. 

Grains. 

Solid residue 

. 8-85 

6-14 

In the residue were found : — 

Oxidisable organic matter 

# 22 

•33 

Lime 

1-96 

T29 

Oxide of iron . . 


•14 

Magnesia 

•51 

•10 

Sulphuric acid 

•28 

•15 

Chlorine 

115 

•82 

Nitric acid 

3-50 

1-54 

Soluble silica 

•12 

•84 

The waters further contained in one gallon 

— 


Actual (saline) ammonia 

•001 

•001 

Organic ammonia 

■003 

•002 

These constituents are probably united together as follows : — ■ 



Grains. 

Grains. 

Oxidisable organic matter 

• 99 

•33 

Oxide of iron 


•14 

Carbonate of lime 

•28 

•95 

Sulphate of lime 

•47 

•25 

Nitrate of lime 

4-71 

1-93 

Nitrate of magnesia 

*55 .. .. 

•37 

Chloride of sodium 

2-50 .... 

1-35 

Soluble silica 

•12 

•84 


— 

— 


8-85 

6-10 


The sample No. 1 was taken from a well 35 feet deep, the 
soil being sand and siliceous rock. The sample Xo. 2 was taken 
lrom a well 73 feet deep, sunk at a considerable distance from 
all buildings, through beds of sand and siliceous ironstone. 
Both samples are good, wholesome, soft-drinking waters, and 
well suited for general household purposes. 

Lead . — Although soft water is greatly preferable to hard for 


136 On the Composition and Properties of Drinking-Water, 

washing or cooking purposes, or for supplying steam-boilers, it 
frequently happens that soft spring and lake-waters, especially 
when much charged with carbonic acid and well aerated, exert 
a corrosive action upon lead, and become contaminated with 
soluble lead-compounds. It is true that the amount of oxide of 
lead dissolved by the action of soft waters upon leaden pipes, or 
the sheet-lead linings of water-tanks, rarely amounts to more than 
one part or less in ten millions of the fluid, but although such 
small quantities of lead probably will not do any positive injury 
to persons who take the water habitually, even traces of lead 
are undesirable in potable waters. The popular notion, that all 
very soft waters act upon lead, I find is not founded on facts ; 
many take up traces of oxide of lead which pass into actual 
solution, others do not become impregnated with soluble lead- 
compounds ; and as it is not always possible to ascertain before- 
hand, or even from the analysis of a soft water, whether it is 
likely or not to act upon lead, it should not be omitted in the 
examination of a soft water to make a few experiments, and 
to test practically its effect upon both new and bright, and dull 
and superficially oxidised sheet-lead. To this end strips of the 
metal should be immersed in the water in question in such a 
manner that a portion of the lead remains uncovered by water, 
and freely exposed to the air. After a week or a fortnight the 
strips of lead may be withdrawn, and the water he examined, 
as well as the strips of lead. Should the latter remain bright, 
and the parts immersed in the water unaltered, and no turbidity 
or deposit have been caused in the water, the probability will be 
that the water has not acted upon the lead, and that it contains 
no appreciable traces of oxide of lead in solution. But should 
the strips of bright metallic lead have been rendered dull, or 
covered with a white powder during the experiment; and should 
a whitish deposit have been produced in the water, it will 
appear to have exerted a corrosive action upon the lead, and 
traces of oxide of lead may have actually passed in solution. In 
either case the water should be passed through wliite v filtering- 
paper, and the perfectly clear fluid, after having been slightly 
acidulated with acetic acid, be saturated with sulphuretted 
hydrogen by passing a current of the gas into it. If there are 
no traces of lead in the clear and filtered water it will remain 
unchanged, but should it assume a yellowish-brown colour, the 
presence ol lead will be indicated by the colour, which will lie 
all the more deep and decidedly brown the more lead has passed 
in solution in the course of the trial. 

Most waters which corrode lead usually act more or less ener- 
getically upon metallic iron. The storage of soft water in iron 


and Water used for General Purposes. 


137 


tanks and its conveyance through iron pipes are frequently 
attended with inconvenience, for the hydrated oxide of iron, pro- 
duced by the action of the water upon iron, gives a reddish-brown 
colour to the water, and renders it muddy to an extent which 
entirely prevents its use for household purposes. With a view 
to preventing the corrosive action of soft water upon iron, it has 
been recommended to substitute galvanized iron for plain cast- 
or sheet-iron. I find, however, that galvanized iron is not an 
efficient protection against the corrosive action of water ; and 
instances have been brought under my notice in which tanks 
made of galvanized iron were attacked more rapidly than plain 
cast-iron tanks. In galvanizing iron it is difficult, if not prac- 
ticably impossible, to cover the surface of the iron with metallic 
zinc so completely as not to leave here and there small particles 
of iron of a rough surface unprotected by zinc ; and it appears 
to me that a true galvanic action is set up by the water in contact 
with the two metals — iron and zinc forming a galvanic pair — in 
virtue of which action the iron is more rapidly corroded than in 
the case of ungalvanized-iron tanks. 

As an example of the inconvenience of the storage of soft 
water in galvanized-iron tanks, and its distribution through iron 
pipes, I may mention a case which has lately been submitted to 
me. A gentleman residing in the country wrote to me : — 

“ I am in a great difficulty as regards the working of a boiler at the back 
of my kitchen grate. This boiler is connected with a cistern in the upper 
part of the house, and this cistern is supplied with our lake water by means of 
a ball-cock. 

The boiler and hot-water cistern are connected together by two 2-inch 
iron pipes, the whole was mounted by one of the first makers in London. 
The cistern supplies hot water to two baths and to some housemaids’ closets. 
After being at work some eighteen months a very slow delivery of hot water 
was gradually observed, and finally, on examination, one of the pipes at least 
(the downward floor) was found to be nearly choked with the material, a 
sample of which I hand you for examination. This material seems to line 
the whole of the pipe, even that part which is placed vertically. I should 
observe that the lower end of the supply-pipe dipping 15 inches into the 
boiler appears to be corroded and the zinc eaten away from the iron. 

“ You analysed the water some two or three years ago and pronounced it 
to be very good. In fact, filtered, we 'use it now as drinking-water. Nearly 
the whole of it is drainage water. Will you kindly examine the substance 
and give me your opinion as to its origin.” 

On examining the dark-brown material which nearly choked 
up the supply-pipe, I found the bulk to consist mainly of 
hydrated oxide of iron, with small quantities of carbonate of 
lime, silica, and magnesia, some carbonic acid, and traces of 
sulphuric acid, manganese, and zinc. 

1 he following is its composition, when dried at 212 3 Falir. : — 


13S On the Composition and Properties of Drinliing-Watcr, 

Composition of an Incrustation taken from an Iron Water-pipe. 

. Grains. 

Water of combination and a little organic matter) -.00 


(loss on heating) J 0 

Oxide of iron 88 • 89 

Carbonate of lime '18 

Silica ‘G1 

Carbonic acid, magnesia, traces of sulphuric acid,) o.gg 
manganese, zinc (not determined separately) .. | 0 


100-00 

On further enquiry I learned that the galvanized-iron tank 
which supplied the water was corroded to a certain extent, and 
a deposit similar to the material in the pipes was found at the 
bottom. The composition of the brown incrustation clearly 
betrayed its origin. It was mainly hydrated oxide of iron, 
formed by the action of the water upon the galvanized-iron tank. 
The tank deposit evidently was carried down in the supply- 
pipe, and gradually choked it up. The pipe itself, although 
rusty in the interior, did not appear to have been eaten away in 
any appreciable degree ; the substance which choked it could 
not therefore have been derived entirely from the action of the 
water upon the pipe, and as the lake-water on analysis was found 
to contain merely traces of oxide of iron, it could not have given 
rise to the deposit, which was evidently carried down mechani- 
cally from the tank where it was first produced. 

Probably the iron supply-pipes would have remained in good 
working-order for many years but for the iron tank. In order 
to remedy the inconvenience arising from the storage of soft 
lake-water in galvanized-iron tanks, I recommended my corre- 
spondent to replace the tank by a slate cistern, and have no doubt 
by this means the supply-pipes will be kept clear from any 
deposit and in good working-order for years to come. 

Hard Water. 

Springs rising in granitic regions, or in localities where primi- 
tive rocks, little acted upon by water, prevail, or which have 
their origin in siliceous strata, furnish soft water, we have seen. 
On the other hand, springs which rise in the oolite or chalk-for- 
mation, and all waters which flow over calcareous rocks, or pass 
through soils abounding in lime, are always more or less largely 
impregnated with carbonate and sulphate of lime and magnesia. 
It is chiefly to the lime and magnesia, in combination with 
carbonic or sulphuric acid, that what are called hard waters owe 
their property of curdling soap. Perfectly pure or soft water, in 


and Water lined far General Purposes. 139 1 

contact with chalk or limestones (carbonate of lime), is capable 
of dissolving only a very minute quantity of these materials ; 
one gallon of water taking up no more than 2 grains of car- 
bonate of lime. This earthy impregnation is said to give the 
water 2 degrees of hardness. Most natural waters, however, 
contain more or less carbonic acid gas, which is a good solvent 
of carbonate of lime, forming with it soluble bicarbonate of 
lime. 

Spring waters in the chalk-formation often contain as much 
as 16, or even 20 grains and upwards, of carbonate of lime in 
the gallon. Such waters are generally bright and sparkling to 
the eye, and agreeably sweet to the taste. When boiled they 
become milky, and leave a sediment which incrusts the insides 
of kettles and boilers. The explanation of the change which 
hard waters undergo on boiling is found in the fact that the 
second equivalent of carbonic acid in the soluble bicarbonate 
of lime is only loosely united with carbonate of lime. At the 
ordinary average temperature of the air, hard water contains 
bicarbonate of lime in a state of perfect solution, but on raisings 
the temperature to the boiling-point of water the carbonic acid, 
which holds the carbonate of lime in solution, is driven off, and 
insoluble carbonate of lime is then precipitated, as a sediment, 
in consequence, with the exception of the two grains which are 
held in solution by the water itself. The carbonate of lime, 
dissolved by carbonic acid and curable by boiling the water, 
expresses its temporary hardness. 

An artificially prepared hard water, containing 13^ grains of 
carbonate of lime to the gallon, was observed to decrease from 
13*5 to 11 '2 degrees of hardness merely by heating it in a kettle 
to the boiling-point. Boiling for 5 minutes reduced the hard- 
ness to 6-3 degrees, 15 minutes to 4'4 degrees, 30 minutes to 
2 - 6 degrees, and 1 hour to 2 '4 degrees. The softening effect of 
boiling does not therefore appear all at once, but the greatest 
proportional effect is certainly produced by the first five minutes 
boiling. 

In addition to carbonate of lime, hard waters generally contain 
sulphate of lime and not unfrequently nitrate of lime, and occa- 
sionally chloride of calcium. These salts of lime are dissolved 
in water without the intervention of carbonic acid gas, and 
therefore remain in solution although the water is boiled, and 
impart to it permanent hardness. 

Soft water readily produces a lather with soap ; hard water, on 
the other hand, destroys much soap before a lather is formed. 
Soap may be regarded as a soluble compound of soda with fatty 
acids. With lime these fatty acids form insoluble compounds. 


140 On the Composition and Properties of Drinking-Water, 

and hence it is that hard waters are deprived of lime, or softened 
at the expense of soap. The carbonate of lime in water decom- 
poses about ten times its weight of soap in washing, and other 
salts of lime act injuriously upon soap in proportion to the lime 
they contain. Carbonate of magnesia and other salts of mag- 
nesia act upon a solution of soap in a similar manner to lime- 
salts. 

On adding a solution of soap to hard water, white curdy pre- 
cipitates are produced, and no lather appears until the lime and 
magnesia in the water are completely thrown down by the soap- 
solution. The production of lather by the addition of measured 
quantities of soap-solution of a known strength thus affords a 
good indication of the degree of the hardness of a water. Each 
degree of hardness indicates 1 grain of carbonate of lime, or its 
equivalent of other soap-destroying earthy compounds, in an im- 
perial gallon of water. 

The quality of the water-supply as regards hardness varies 
greatly in different towns, as will be seen by the following 
Tables : — 


Cities and Towns supplied with Water of a Hardness over 10 degrees. 


Banbury 

Hardness 
of Water. 

.. 16° 9 

Lincoln 

Hardness 
of Water, 
o 

11- 

Bedford 

.. 24-3 

London 

15-5 

Birmingham 

.. 15-5 

Newcastle and Gateshead .. 

19-5 

Bristol 

.. 17-1 

Norwich 

14-5 

Canterbury 

.. 18-0 

Rugby 

11T 

Cheltenham 

.. 12-0 

Runcorn 

17-7 

Congleton 

.. 11-9 

Southport 

19-5 

Croydon 

.. 16-4 

Sunderland and South Shields 12 ■ G 

Deal 

.. 18-4 

Wakefield 

16- 

Derby 

.. 14-4 

Warrington 

12-7 

Dover 

.. 17- 

Worthing 

17-3 

Guildford 

.. 18-5 

York 

14-3 

Leamington 

.. 18-5 




Hardness of Water-supply from G to 10 degrees. 



Hardness 
of Water. 

% 

Hardness 
of Water. 

Accrington 


Liverpool aud West Derby 

. 9-G 

Ashton-under-Lyne .. 

.. 9-9 

Macclesfield 

. 5-9 

Birkenhead 

.. 8-3 

Northampton 

. 7-2 

Carlisle 

.. G-l 

Northwicli 

. 9-8 

Durham 

.. 7*5 

Preston 

. 6-3 

Edinburgh 

.. 7 * 

St. Helens 

. 8-9 

Leeds 

7*5 

Wigan 

. 8'4 

Leicester 

.. 9-4 

Worcester 

. 10- 

Leith 

.. 7* 




141 


and Water used for General Purposes. 


Water-supply of a Hardness from 2 to 6 degrees. 



Hardness 


Hardness 


of Water. 


of Water. 

Blackburn .. 

.. .. 4°1 

Oldham 

.. 4°9 

Bolton 

.. .. 3-4 

Over Darwen 

.. 4-4 

Bury and Radii ffe 

.. .. 3'8 

Paisley 

.. 2-9 

Churley 

.. .. 3-8 

Plymouth 

.. 3- 

Charlton 

.. . 2'5 

Preston 

.. 5-5 

Dundee 

.. .. 4'3 

Rochdale 

.. 3-6 

Manchester and Salford .. 2 '5 

Stockport 

.. 5’8 

Maryport .. 

.. .. 2-3 



Water- 

supply of a Hardness less than 2 degrees. 



Hardness 


Hardness 


of Water. 


of Water. 

Aberdeen . . 

.. .. 1°4 

Lancaster 

•°6 

Cockermouth 

.. .. 1-5 

Perth 

2- 

Glasgow 

.. .. '6 

Sheffield 

.. 2- 

Greenock .. 

.. .. 3-3 

Whitehaven 

.. 1- 


The waters supplied by the Metropolitan Water Companies 
contain from 19 to 24 grains of solid constituents in the gallon, 
and vary in hardness from 14 to 15 degrees. As an example of 
a moderately-hard water, the water supplied by the New River 
Company, London, may be quoted. An imperial gallon of this 


water contains : — 

Grains. 

Earthy carbonates 12 ’58 

Sulphate of lime 2 ’41 

Chloride of sodium 1 • 28 

Nitrate of magnesia 2 • 08 

Silica and oxide of iron and alumina ‘38 

Oxidisable organic matter • 32 


Total solid constituents per gallon .. .. 19 '05 

Degrees of hardness before boiling 14 '4° 

„ „ after boiling 4 • 2° 

The water further contains per gallon : — 

Actual or saline ammonia '001 

Organic or albuminoid ammonia • 003 


Artesian Well-Waters. 

Wells sunk in the chalk-formation usually furnish bright, 
sparkling, perfectly colourless, and excellent-drinking waters, 
remarkable for their absence of organic impurities. Deep chalk 
springs, or artesian well-waters, however, are generally hard,, 
and not so well adapted for washing or cooking as for drinking 
purposes. 


142 On the Composition and Properties of Drinking-Water , 

The following are the results which I recently obtained in the 
analyses of two artesian well-waters. No. 1 was obtained from an 
artesian well sunk in the chalk-formation in Hampshire ; No. 2 
is water from a deep well in Devonshire. These waters, on 
evaporation to dryness, left per gallon : — 



No. 1. 

No. 2. 


Grains. 

Grains. 

Solid residue 

23-02 

25-21 

In which we find : — 

Oxidisable organic matter 

•22 

•30 

Lime 

9-72 

9-72 

Magnesia 

1-16 

•65 

Oxide of iron and alumina 

•14 

•14 

Sulphuric acid 

•33 

•43 

Nitric acid 

•21 

•63 

Chlorine 

•97 

2-87 

Soluble silica 

1-12 

•98 

Alkalies and carbonic acid 

not determined separately. 

The waters further contained per gallon : — 

Actual (saline) ammonia 

none 

•001 

Organic (albuminoid) ammonia 

•004 

•002 

The hardness before boiling was 

171° 

16i° 

„ after boiling was 

4° 

3j° 


By uniting the acid with the basic constituents, the compo- 
sition of the two waters may be expressed as follows : — 


Composition of two Artesian Well-waters. 


An imperial gallon contained : — 

No. 1. 

No. 2. 


Grains. 

Grains. 

Oxidisable organic matter 

; * 22 

•30 

Oxide of iron and alumina .. 

•14 

•14 

Carbonate of lime 

.. 16-94 

16-59 

Sulphate of lime 


•73 

Nitrate of magnesia 

•32 

•86 

Carbonate of magnesia 

2-24 

•88 

Chloride of sodium 

1-48 

4-73 

Soluble silica 

1*12 

•98 

Total solid constituents 

.. 23-02 

25-21 

Actual (saline) ammonia 


.. .. ' -ooi 

Organic (albuminoid) ammonia .. 

•004 

•002 

Hardness before boiling 

173° 

16i 

„ after boiling 

4° 

O 1 

.. .. 02 


It will be seen that both samples contained rather a large 
proportion of lime, but almost entirely combined with carbonic 
acid ; and sulphate of lime, which gives rise to permanent hard- 
ness, was nearly absent. Both waters were softened very fully, as 
might be expected, by boiling. The original hardness of No. 1 


and Water used for General Purposes. 143 

on boiling fell from 17| degrees to 4 degrees, and that of No. 2 
from 16-L to degrees. 

The lime and other saline constituents do not interfere with 
their use as a beverage. Both were perfectly wholesome and, 
indeed, choice drinking-waters, for they contained, practically 
speaking, merely traces of organic matter, and that of a kind 
which appears to he incapable of undergoing putrefactive de- 
composition ; and their clearness, freedom from colour, and 
brilliancy, were unexceptionable. 

Deep chalk well-water generally has a uniform temperature 
throughout the year of 50° to 52 Fahr., and thus possesses a 
desirable coolness which recommends it for drinking purposes. 
The only and obvious objection to chalk spring-water is its 
hardness, which, when the water is first drawn, is generally from 
16 to nearly 18 degrees. A portion of the carbonate of lime, 
which occasions the hardness, is deposited from the water, when 
exposed to the atmosphere, with facility, from the escape of car- 
bonic acid gas, and thus by simple storage in reservoirs or tanks 
for a few days the water becomes much softer. 

The good quality and abundance of the water from the chalk 
have been proved in every case, and it has been found suitable 
for town use, as at Gravesend, Folkestone, Dover, Brighton, 
Lewes, Portsmouth, Deal, Canterbury, Arundel, and Win- 
chester. 

When hard waters are used in steam-boilers they rapidly pro- 
duce a stone-like incrustation or fur, which interferes with the 
economic generation of steam, and if not removed from time 
to time may become the cause of boiler explosions. Boiler 
incrustations produced from hard water consist principally of 
carbonate and sulphate of lime, as the following analysis, which 
I made some years ago, will show : — 

Composition of a Boiler Incrustation. 


Grains. 

Water of combination and organic matter .. .. 4 ’59 

Oxide of iron and alumina '53 

Phosphoric acid - 58 

Carbonate of lime 71'06 

Sulphate of lime 12 '75 

Lime in a state of silicate 1 • 56 

Magnesia 3 • 23 

Soluble silica 5'70 


100-00 

\ arious plans have been recommended for preventing the 
formation ol boiler deposits, to which reference will be made in 
a subsequent page of this paper, in discussing the means of 
effecting the purification of natural waters. 


144 On the Composition and Properties of Drinking-Water, 


Spring and well waters, in districts where Lias-clay, Wealden, 
or Oxford clay abound, are sometimes charged with so much 
saline matter as to give them a decided mineral taste and to 
impart medicinal properties to them. 

A spring of that character occurs in a clay-bed at Purton, near 
Swindon. This spring is used, with considerable benefit, as a 
remedy for a variety of disorders ; and in addition to the usual 
constituents of mild saline waters, such as sulphate of soda 
(Glauber salt), sulphate of magnesia (Epsom salt), and chloride 
of sodium, the water contains a considerable amount of carbonate 
of potash, and appreciable proportions of iodide of sodium and 
bromide of magnesium, which constituents do not occur in 
ordinary potable waters, and to which, no doubt, its medicinal 
virtue is partly owing. The alkaline carbonates give it a strong 
alkaline reaction. An analysis of the saline Purton water, 
which I made in 1859, yielding the following results in an 
imperial gallon : — 

Grains. 


Water of combination and organic matter (being loss' 
obtained on heating residue, left on evaporation and 

dried at 320° Fahr.) i 

Lime 

Magnesia 

Oxides of iron and alumina, with traces of phosphoric 

acid 

Potash 

Soda 

Chloride of sodium 

Sulphuric acid 

Soluble silica 

Iodine 

Bromine 

Carbonic acid 

Sulphuretted hydrogen 


8-750 

34-536 

25-736 

•280 

20-707 

49-006 

34-297 

165-074 

1-280 

•056 

•080 

33-090 

traces 


These constituents arranged into the compound, which pro- 
bably existed in the water, give the following results : — 


Grains. 


Organic matter and water of combination 

Sulphate of soda 

Sulphate of magnesia 

Bromide of magnesium 

Iodide of sodium 

Chloride of sodium 

Sulphate of lime 

Sulphate of potash 

Carbonate of potash 

Oxides of iron and alumina, with traces of 

acid 

Soluble silica 


8 

570 

112 

239 

77 

208 


092 


066 

34 

297 

83 

873 

1 

916 

28 

880 


280 

1 

280 


Solid constituents (dried at 320° Fahr.) per gallon 348 "881 
The water contained further, free carbonic acid, 23 "820 grains in the gallon. 


and Water used for General Purposes. 


145 


This is a decidedly mineral water. There are other well- 
waters which possess a less pronounced mineral character, and, 
or want of better sources of supply, are used for drinking and 
;eneral domestic purposes. A water of the latter description 
was lately sent from Norfolk to my laboratory for analysis, and 
nv opinion desired, whether it was a good and wholesome 
Irinking-water. 

An imperial gallon, on evaporation, left 146'86 grains of 
olid residue, dried at 130° Fahr. 

In the residue I found by direct determinations : — 


. Grains. 

Oxidisable organic matter '34 

Oxide of iron 1 • 06 

Alumina and traces of phosphoric acid ’06 

Lime 45 ‘23 

Magnesia 6 ' 06 

Chlorine 8 ' 62 

Sulphuric acid 58 "93 

Soluble silica '28 


Alkalies and carbonic acid not determined separately. 

According to these analytical data the composition of the 
rater per imperial gallon may be represented as follows : — 


Grains. 

Oxidi sable organic matter '34 

Oxide of iron 1 • 06 

Alumina and traces of phosphoric acid '06 

Carbonate of lime 22 * 27 

Sulphate of lime 79 ' 57 

Chloride of sodium 14 * 21 

Sulphate of magnesia 18 ‘18 

Alkaline carbonates 10 ' 89 

Soluble silica '28 


Total solid constituents per gallon . . . . 146 ' 86 


The water was clear and colourless when first drawn, but on 
exposure to the air it soon became turbid, and deposited a reddish- 
brown coloured precipitate, which on examination proved to con- 
sist of oxide of iron. The water had a slight inky taste, and a 
faint smell of sulphuretted hydrogen. 

The preceding analysis shows that the water contained as much 
as 1 grain of oxide of iron in the gallon. The iron occurred 
in the water combined with carbonic acid, as bicarbonate of 
protoxide of iron, a compound which, on exposure to the air, 
parts with carbonic acid and gives rise to the deposition of 
reddish-brown hydrated oxide of iron. The water owed its pecu- 
liar inky taste to this soluble compound of iron. 

The water, it will be seen, contained a large amount of sulphate 
of lime or gypsum, a constituent which renders it permanentlv 
VOL. XI. — S. S. L 


146 On the Composition and Properties of Drinking-Water, 

hard. It also contained much carbonate of lime, and about 18 
grains of sulphate of magnesia : and, in consequence of the large 
amount of earthy compounds it was excessively hard, and not 
suitable for cooking or washing purposes. Although it contained 
nothing positively injurious to health, it was too largely impreg- 
nated with saline matter to be ordinarily used as a beverage, 
especially as its taste and smell were objectionable. 


Properties to be preferred in a Water intended to be 
used for Drinking and General Household Purposes. 

The properties which are esteemed of most value in water for 
drinking and general domestic purposes are 

1. Freedom from putrescible organic matter. 

2. Freedom from constant, or even occasional discoloration 
by clay and vegetable matter, with perfect brightness and 
clearness. 

3. Freedom from smell and disagreeable taste. 

4. Softness. 

5. Coolness. 

Water suitable for all domestic purposes should not contain an 
excess of saline and earthy matters, and, generally speaking, not 
more than about 25 grains of solid substances in the imperial 
gallon. The less lime and magnesia salts it contains the better 
it is for washing, or cooking, or the generation of steam in 
boilers. A moderate amount of mineral matter, or even a suf- 
ficient amount of earthy carbonates to render water decidedly 
hard, does not interfere with its use as a beverage, for it may be 
safely stated that no sufficient grounds exist for believing that 
the mineral contents of ordinary hard spring-water are injurious 
to health. The amount of lime and magnesian salts in chalk- 
springs, and in waters having their origin in calcareous strata, 
must be greatly exceeded in general by the quantity of the same 
salts which enters the system in solid food ; and it is a notorious 
fact that chalk-springs, rvhich seldom contain less than 15 or 16 
grains of carbonate of lime, are universally considered to furnish 
perfectly wholesome, and indeed the choicest drinking-water. It 
is true that chalk-springs are wanting in softness, one of the pro- 
perties most valued in water ; but on the other hand, the uniforrr 
coolness of the water at all periods of the year, its perfect bright- 
ness and clearness, freedom from smell or disagreeable taste, ant 
especially its perfect freedom from organic matter capable o 
further alteration or decomposition, recommend it as an excel 
lent drinking-water. 

In point of softness, the springs in granitic regions, or district 


and Water used for General Purposes. 


147 


in which primitive rocks prevail, are superior to chalk-springs ; 
but, unfortunately, very soft waters are frequently coloured by 
organic matter, and, as a rule, act upon leaden pipes more ener- 
getically, and are more liable to become contaminated with 
soluble compounds of lead, than hard waters ; and this circum- 
stance presents certain disadvantages to the use of very soft 
waters, such as those from the Cumberland or Scottish lakes. 

In the examination of water, particular attention should be 
paid to ascertain the quantity of organic matter which a given 
sample may contain, and also to trace, if possible, the origin 
of the organic impurities, and to determine whether they pro- 
ceed from decomposing animal-refuse matters, or from harmless 
vegetable matter, which is frequently found in lake-waters in 
peaty localities. Inattention to the discrimination of the kind 
of the organic matter in a water may lead the analyst to form 
an erroneous opinion of its true , character. 

Wholesome and perfectly unobjectionable waters are always 
bright and free from colour. If a water has a yellowish colour, 
and at the same time a more or less nauseous taste or smell, no 
chemical analysis is required to prove its unfitness as a beverage ; 
for such water is certain to contain decomposing organic matter 
of animal origin, which cannot fail to be a source of serious 
danger to the health of those who drink it habitually. Light 
floating particles of suspended organic matter also frequently 
afford indications of the unwholesome character of water. 

It is well, therefore, to submit water to a preliminary examina- 
tion, upon the result of which it will depend whether it is desirable 
to incur the expense of a thorough chemical anjjysis. 

In the first place, I would ascertain whether the water is 
colourless, or more or less tinged yellow. This may be done 
by filling a glass tube, 2 ft. long and about 1^ in. wide, with 
the water, placing the tube upon a sheet of white paper, and 
comparing the colour of the water as seen when looked through 
the whole length of the tube with the colour of pure distilled 
water contained in a tube of the same length and diameter. Or 
the colour may be noted by filling a white Bohemian-glass flask, 
holding about a quart, and placing it on a sheet of white paper, 
and placing by its side a flask of the same size, filled with pure 
distilled water. The best drinking-water appears as colourless 
as pure distilled water. Most river-waters show a greenish tint ; 
and peaty waters and waters contaminated with yard-drainage 
or sewage, often appear more or less yellow coloured. By the 
same experiment the presence of any small floating particles 
may be readily detected in the water, when the flask is held in 
lront of a dark-coloured wall, a strong light falling on the flask 
from one side or from above. Should the water contain much 

L 2 


148 On the Composition and Properties, of Drinking-Water, 

suspended matter, set the flask aside for a couple of days, and 
then pour off the clear liquid, or pass it through filtering-paper, 
and examine the colour of the clear or filtered water as before. 
The suspended matter may be fine clay or marl, and simple 
filtration or subsidence may render it quite fit for use. 

In the next place it should be ascertained whether the water 
has any smell. If it contains appreciable quantities of sewage 
or decomposing organic matter, it will necessarily have a bad 
smell ; if there are but small quantities of such matters present, 
it is often difficult to decide at once whether the water is free 
from smell or not, and in that case it is best to fill a large flask 
or bottle with water, to pour out the greater part of the contents, 
and then to inhale the air in the partially filled flask or bottle. 
In this way, and especially if the flask is gently warmed, may 
be detected a disagreeable smell, which cannot be clearly dis- 
cerned by the ordinary mode of noticing the smell of water. 

Another preliminary examination which anyone may make is 
to fill a clean wine-bottle quite full with water, cork it down 
tight, and set it aside for about a week ; then draw the cork and 
notice whether the water gives off a bad smell, or has in any 
other way undergone a change. At the same time place some 
water in an open vessel — best a clean glass beaker — cover it over 
loosely with filtering-paper to exclude dust and similar me- 
chanical impurities floating in the air, place the water aside for 
a week or fortnight, and observe from time to time whether the 
water remained fairly clear, or whether fungoid growth or the 
development of plants of the lowest order has taken place. In 
waters contaminated with even small quantities of sewage the 
development of vegetable cells and plants of the lowest order is 
very striking. 

Lastly, evaporate about one pint of water in a clean small 
porcelain dish, or better still, platinum capsule ; and notia 
whether the water remains unaltered as regards colour, oi 
whether it turns yellow or brownish on concentration to a smal 
bulk. If a water contains merely traces of organic matter, i 
does not sensibly turn colour on concentration ; but if it is con 
taminated with an appreciable amount of organic impurities, i 
turns yellow or brown. Evaporate the water under examinatio 
completely to dryness, and notice the colour of the residue 
If quite white, like the residue obtained by evaporating to dr> 
ness the colourless water of chalk-springs, no organic matter 
present ; but if the residue is coloured yellow, as is the case wit 
most natural waters, a certain amount of organic matter 
present. The organic matter may be harmless ; or it may 1 
injurious to health, and in that case requires further examinatio 
which should be entrusted to an experienced and skilled analy: 


and Water used for General Purposes. 149 

A good idea of the general character of the organic matter in 
water may often be formed by noticing the smell which is 
given off when the residue obtained by evaporating one pint of 
water is heated over a spirit or gas flame in the dish in which 
it was obtained, allowing the air free access. Vegetable or 
peaty matter manifests itself, on heating, by its peculiar smell ; 
and moreover the fumes which are given off, when tested with 
moistened litmus-paper, show a slight acid reaction. Animal 
organic matter, on the other hand, on heating, produces fumes 
which turn reddened litmus-paper blue, and thus have an alka- 
line reaction ; the vapours which are generated when animal 
organic impurities are exposed to a strong heat possess the pecu- 
liar smell, of burned or singed hair or feathers, which characterises 
all nitrogenous organic matters. 

By these simple experiments it may sometimes be decided at 
once, and without much trouble and in a short time, whether a 
water is wholesome, or decidedly injurious to health. Other 
experiments of greater or less value in testing water might be 
mentioned ; but I abstain from doing so, because if the prelimi- 
nary trials which I have recommended fail to give a decided 
answer to the inquiry for which they were instituted, the safest 
plan in that case, for a person who has not had the opportunity of 
making himself acquainted with analytical processes, is to send 
the water, on the qualities of which he desires information, to a 
qualified scientific chemist who has had much experience in the 
examination of potable waters. 

In most instances one gallon will be sufficient for the analysis. 
The water may be transmitted to the laboratory in a clean and 
new spirit-jar ; but as the jar has to be closed with a cork, and 
it is desirable to avoid the contact of the water with the organic 
matter of the cork, the better plan is to send the water in 
so-called Winchester quarts, which glass-stoppered half-gallon 
bottles can be bought at about Is. a-piece in any druggist’s shop. 

Before being charged with the sample of water, the bottles 
should be filled to overflow with the water, the contents poured 
away, and again be filled with the same water up to the neck. 
The glass stopper should then be tied over with a piece of stout 
clean paper, calico, or leather, and the string sealed, if necessary. 

Impurities in Water. 

As stated already, in forming an opinion of the sanitary quality 
of a water, or the merits of a number of samples of potable waters, 
particular care should be bestowed on the examination of the 
amount and character of the organic impurities which the water 
may contain. 

In towns, no less than in the country, shallow well-waters are 


150 On the Composition and Properties of Drinking-Water , 

liable to become contaminated with drainage products containing 
soluble organic impurities of the most injurious kind to health. 
In sinking a well, the close proximity of a farmyard or stable- 
yard, a cesspool or drain conveying house-slops or sewage, or 
the neighbourhood of a cemetery, or the depositing-place for 
town-rubbish, and all localities where organic filth accumulates, 
should be avoided as much as possible ; and care should be taken 
to prevent the infiltration of surface-water into the well, and by 
making it water-tight, to exclude percolation from drains near 
or at some distance from the well. 

The wells in crowded cities, or the pumps in the close neigh- 
bourhood of burial-places, are frequently contaminated with 
organic impurities of the most objectionable character, and are a 
frequent cause of the outbreak and spread of infectious diseases. 
Such waters at certain times of the year are quite bright, free 
from smell, and scarcely coloured ; and their physical properties 
thus afford no clear indication of anything being wrong with the 
water. At others they give off a disagreeable smell, and appear 
decidedly coloured yellow. Well-waters which do not show a 
uniform character as regards freedom from smell and taste ought 
not to be used for drinking purposes. In further discussing the 
peculiarities of unwholesome well-waters, I beg to direct attention 
to the following analysis which I recently made of pump-water, 
from a public pump in one of the suburbs of London. On 
evaporation to dryness, this water left 58'80 grains of solid 
residue (dried at 130° C.) per gallon. 

In the residue I found, by direct determinations : — 


Grains. 

Oxidisable organic matter ’56 

Lime 13 '79 

Magnesia 2 • 22 

Sulphuric acid 10'67 

Chlorine 8 • 21 

Phosphoric acid '19 

Nitric acid 11 '90 

Soluble silica '84 


Alkalies and carbonic acid not determined separately. 

These constituents were probably united together, as,follows : — 


G rains. 

Oxidisable organic matter '56 

Phosphate of lime *42 

Sulphate of lime 18 ' 14 

Nitrate of lime 8 '97 

Carbonate of lime 5'41 . 

Nitrate of magnesia 8 '21 

Chloride of sodium 13 '53 

Alkaline carbonates . . 2 '72 

Soluble silica ’84 . 


Total solid matter per gallon 58 '80 


and Water used for General Purposes. 151 

The water further contained, per gallon : — 

Grains. _ 

Actual (saline) ammonia ‘252 

Organic (albuminoid) ammonia * 168 

Its hardness before boiling, was 26j° 

„ after boiling „ 241° 

This pump-water, slightly yellow-coloured, on evaporation 
to a small bulk became more strongly coloured yellow ; the 


residue which was left on final evaporation to dryness had a 
brownish colour, and on exposure to a strong heat in a platinum 
dish turned dark, and gave off disagreeable smelling fumes, 
showing that the water contained a considerable amount of un- 
oxidised organic matter. The direct determination of oxidi- 
sable organic matter showed a much larger proportion than ought 
to be present in a good drinking-water. 

It will be noticed that the water contained much more chloride 
of sodium (common salt) and nitrates of lime and magnesia than 
is found in wholesome drinking-waters. The proportions of 
actual and organic (albuminoid) ammonia were likewise greatly 
in excess of the quantities usually found in unobjectionable water. 
Nitrates are products resulting from the oxidation of nitrogenous 
organic or animal matters ; and although harmless in themselves, 
unless they exist in water in excessively large proportion, a con- 
siderable amount of nitrates points to a source of contamination 
which may seriously affect the quality of water. 

The simultaneous occurrence in the water of much common 
salt, nitrates of lime and magnesia, of much saline and organic 
ammonia, and of oxidisable organic matter, is an unmistak- 
able proof of the presence of sewage or drainage products. It 
will further be noticed that this water contained nearly half a 
grain of phosphate of lime in the gallon. Ordinary spring and 
wholesome well-waters never contain more than mere traces of 
phosphate of lime ; and according to my experience, phosphates 
are only found in appreciable proportions in waters highly charged 
with sewage, or products resulting from the decomposition of 
animal organic matter. The total amount of solid matter was more 
than twice as large as that found in hard but wholesome waters, 
and this also showed that something was wrong with this water. 

I was afterwards informed that there is a burial-ground in the 
neighbourhood of the pump from which the water was drawn, 
and I have no doubt that the drainage of that ground finds its 
way into the well which supplies the public pump. At any 
rate, the water was largely impregnated with organic impurities 
of animal origin, and rendered thereby unwholesome and totally 
unfit for drinking purposes. 

A few months ago several cases of typhoid fever occurred in a 


152 On the Composition and Properties of Drinking-Water, 


family, and suspicion having been raised with regard to the 
purity of the drinking-water used by that family, two samples 
were sent to me for examination. One of the samples was 
decidedly yellow-coloured, the second nearly colourless. On 
evaporation to dryness they left respectively, per imperial 
gallon : — 

No. 1. No. 2. 

Grains. Grains. 

Solid residue 70'11 .. .. 70’84 


In the residue I found, by direct determination : — 


23 


Oxidisable organic matter 

Oxide of iron and alumina and phosphoric) 

acid ) 

Lime 19 

Magnesia 3 

Sulphuric acid 9 

Nitric acid 5 

Chlorine 10 ‘ 

Alkalies and carbonic acid, not determined separately. 
Soluble silica 1 ' 12 


28 

91 

98 

13 

77 

35 


1-56 


•98 

14-79 

6-15 

12-16 

•14 

12-40 

1-40 


The two waters further contained in the gallon : — 

Actual (saline) ammonia "014 .... "039 

Organic (albuminoid) ammonia .. .. "021 .... "058 

According to these analytical data the composition of these 
two waters may be expressed as follows. An imperial gallon 
contained : — 



No. 1. 

No. 2. 


Grains. 

Grains. 

Oxidisable organic matter 

•23 

1-56 

Oxide of iron and alumina and phosphoric) 
acid ( 

•28 

•98 

Carbonate of lime 

24-14 

.. .. 11-21 

Sulphate of lime 

15-52 

.. .. 20-67 

Carbonate of magnesia 

3-86 

.. .. 12-81 

Nitrate of magnesia 

7-91 

•19 

Chloride of sodium 

17-05 

.. .. 20-44 

Alkaline carbonates 


1-58 

Soluble silica 

1-12 

1-40 

Total solid constituents (dried at 130° C.) 

70-11 

.. ..' 70-84 

Actual (saline) ammonia 

•014 

•093 

Organic (albuminoid) ammonia 

•021 

•058 


In explanation of the preceding analytical results I would 
observe : — 

1. The total amount of solid matter is much larger in both 
samples than in good drinking-waters. 

2. Both contain more actual and organic ammonia than ought 
to occur in wholesome water. 


and IVater used for General Purposes. 153 

3. The proportion of oxidisable organic matter in sample 
No. 1 is inconsiderable, and in sample No. 2 very large. 

4. Both samples are largely impregnated with common salt. 

5. Sample No. 1 contains a considerable amount of nitrates, 
and sample No. 2 only traces of nitrates. 

It appears from these results that both samples are contami- 
nated with drainage products, which render both unwholesome, 
and fully account for the outbreak of typhoid fever in the 
family. Although No. 2 contains only traces of nitrates, it is, 
nevertheless, the worse of the two samples, for it contains a 
much larger proportion of unoxidised organic matter, and more 
ammonia than No. 1 ; and the organic impurities which found 
their way into the wells from which the samples were drawn 
having undergone a more perfect oxidation in No. 1 than in 
No. 2, exist in the former sample in a less dangerous condition 
than in the latter. The amount of nitrates in different samples 
thus must not be regarded as the measure of their relative purity. 
Fresh sewage or drainings from dung-heaps I find contain no 
nitrates whatever, and hence the absence of nitrates, or the 
occurrence of mere traces, does not prove that a water is whole- 
some. On the contrary, the absence of nitrates, and the simul- 
taneous presence of much unoxidised organic matter, of chloride 
of sodium (common salt), and appreciable quantities of saline 
and organic ammonia in a water, show that it is contaminated 
with the most objectionable and decidedly injurious organic 
impurities. 

These examples might suffice for having directed general 
attention to the frequent use which is made of unwholesome 
drinking-water in country districts ; and I may observe, that 
scarcely a week passes in which I do not receive a sample of 
water from the country which, on analysis, proves to be injurious 
to health, by being contaminated with imperfectly oxidised 
drainage products. I cannot refrain, however, from directing 
attention to one additional case in point, which has quite recently 
been brought under my notice. A gentleman residing in Lin- 
colnshire recently lost two beasts. The veterinary surgeon who 
was consulted was unable to account satisfactorily for the cause 
of the death of the animals, but thought it probable that the 
water given to them may have contained something injurious to 
health, or have been deficient in some important element. A 
sample of the water was consequently sent to me, and my 
opinion was solicited as to the effect the water was likely to 
have had on the deceased beasts. The water in question was 
coloured slightly yellow, and contained some light floating 
particles of matter of apparently organic origin, but it was free 
from smell. The residue which was left on evaporation was 


154 On the Composition and Properties of Drinking-Water, 

yellow-coloured, and turned dark on exposure to a strong heat 
in a platinum dish. The residue amounted to 218*26 grains 
per gallon, and in it I found by direct determinations : — 


Grains. 

Oxidisable organic matter 2*68 

Oxide of iron and alumina ‘95 

Phosphoric acid *17 

Lime 39*82 

Magnesia 15*49 

Sulphuric acid 82*34 

Nitric acid 10*50 

Chlorine 27*52 

Soluble silica 1*82 

Alkalies and carbonic acid, not determined separately. 

The water further contained in the gallon : — 

Actual (saline) ammonia * 126 

Organic (albuminoid) ammonia * 126 


According to these analytical data the composition ol the 
water may be represented as follows : — 

An imperial gallon contained : — 


Grains. 

Oxidisable organic matter 2*68 

Oxide of iron alumina .. .. *95 

Phosphoric acid * 17 

Sulphate of lime 96*71 

Sulphate of magnesia 34*83 

Nitrate of magnesia 13*93 

Sulphate of soda 3*96 

Chloride of sodium 45*35 

Alkaline carbonates 17*86 

Soluble silica .. 1*82 


Total solid constituents per gallon .. .. 218*26 

Actual (saline) ammonia * 126 

Organic (albuminoid) ammonia *126 


A cursory inspection of these results will show that the water 
was impregnated with no less than 218 grains of earthy and 
saline matters per gallon, comprising nearly 100 grains of sulphate 
of lime, about 45 grains of common salt, much sulphate of mag- 
nesia, a considerable proportion of nitrate of magnesia, and other 
saline compounds. Besides the saline and earthy impurities 
which were present in abnormally large proportions, the water 
was contaminated with much unoxidised organic matter. The 
occurrence in the water of nitrates, and much more saline and 
albuminoid ammonia than is ever found in good drinking-water, 
clearly showed that the organic impurities were derived from 
animal refuse-matters. Unquestionably the water was charged 
with a large proportion of injurious organic impurities, and 
much contaminated with saline and earthy compounds, which 


and Water used for General Purposes. 


155 


were derived from yard-drainage, sewage, or similar objection- 
able liquids. In consequence of these impurities the water was 
positively poisonous, and probably caused the death of the two 
beasts. 

Very soft waters, as mentioned already, not unfrequently 
contain traces of lead in solution. It may be questioned whether 
minute traces of oxide of lead exert a positively injurious effect 
upon health, but there can be no doubt that an appreciable 
quantity of soluble lead-compounds in water affects injuriously the 
health of man and beast. A remarkable instance of water con- 
taminated with an unusually large proportion of oxide of lead 
was brought under my notice some years ago. This water on 
examination was found to contain in the imperial gallon : — 


Grains. 

Organic matter o' 22 

Oxide of iron ’20 

Oxide of lead '47 

Sulphate of lime 3 • 14 

Carbonate of lime 1 '31 

Magnesia 1 • 28 

Chloride of sodium 2 ■ 30 

Alkaline nitrates 2 ‘38 

Soluble silica 1‘05 


Total solid matter (dried at 130° C.) per gallon 17 • 35 

It will be seen that this water contained nearly half a grain of 
oxide of lead in the gallon ; and I ascertained that this poisonous 
oxide occurred in solution partly as bicarbonate of lead, partly 
as nitrate of lead. The water was drawn from the leaden 
supply-pipes connected with a well sunk in close proximity to 
a manure-heap, which accounts for the abnormally large quan- 
tity of soluble organic matter in the water. Drainage from the 
dung-heap evidently passed into the soft well-water, partly in 
an unaltered condition, partly oxidised into nitrates, which, in 
contact with metallic lead, are known to give rise to soluble 
nitrate of lead. Probably the soluble organic impurities in the 
water also acted upon the lead and gave rise to soluble lead- 
compounds. The unfavourable position of the well in this case 
fully accounts for the contamination of the water with injurious 
organic impurities, and the still more poisonous lead-compounds. 

The properties of water, which enable it to act at times with 
unusual vigour upon lead, are little understood, and seem often 
to arise from the accidental action of local causes, such as the 
presence of drainings from dung-heaps and decaying organic 
impurities. These causes are of a kind most to be dreaded in 
the supply of a single residence, in which, as in the case before 
us, the whole volume of water may at a time assume the same 


13G On the Composition and Properties of Drinking-Water, 

dangerous composition. The facility with which nitrogenous 
organic matters are oxidised in porous soils and converted into 
nitrates, adds to the danger of water becoming impregnated with 
poisonous soluble compounds of lead, for, according to the 
uniform experience of all chemists who have studied the action 
of the different constituents of natural waters, no saline matter 
corrodes lead so readily as nitrates. 

Most soft waters act more or less energetically upon lead when 
they are well aerated and impregnated with atmospheric oxygen, 
which appears to be a primary cause of the action of soft water 
upon lead, for pure, distilled, or rain water, purposely deprived 
of air, does not attack lead in any appreciable degree. 

This explains why some soft waters in contact with lead 
become impregnated with this poisonous metal, whilst others 
scarcely attack lead, and may with safety be conveyed through 
leaden delivering-pipes. Hard waters, as a rule, do not act 
upon lead so readily as soft, especially if they contain carbonate 
of lime dissolved in carbonic acid gas. The effect of this com- 
pound is fortunately to neutralise to an extraordinary degree 
the usual solvent action on lead which water exercises through 
the agency of the oxygen dissolved in it. The soluble oxide of 
lead is converted into carbonate, which, although not absolutely 
insoluble, appears to be the least soluble of all the salts of lead. 

Carbonic acid is usually present in moderately hard spring, 
river, and well-waters, and also in most soft natural waters, in 
sufficient quantity to prevent the solution of a dangerous amount 
of lead. 

On the other hand, certain salts, especially sulphates to which 
a protecting effect is usually ascribed, do not appear to exercise 
uniformly that useful property. Hard waters containing an 
abundance of so-called protecting salts, sometimes corrode lead 
with remarkable rapidity, but, fortunately, no lead passes into 
solution, for the carbonate of lead resulting from this corrosive 
action is wholly insoluble, even in water highly charged with 
carbonic acid gas. Even excessively hard waters sometimes 
rapidly corrode leaden pipes, especially if they have an alkaline 
reaction. I have in my collection pieces of originally stout 
leaden pipes, which in the course of less than twelve months 
were eaten away to a layer as thin as writing paper, surrounded 
by a thick hard coating of carbonate of lead. Although car- 
bonate of lead cannot pass into solution, this dangerous lead- 
compound may be present in water in a suspended state, and in 
that condition may be mechanically introduced to the system. 
The practice of filtering water kept in leaden cisterns, and 
intended for drinking purposes, cannot, therefore, be too strongly 
recommended. 


157 


and Water used for General Purposes. 

Purification of Water. 

Spring - , river, well, or lake-waters, as it has been shown, are 
rendered impure to a greater or less extent — 

1. By suspended animal and organic substances, such 

as finely-divided clay, marl, flaky organic matters, 
decaying vegetable matter, and similar mechanical 
impurities : 

2. By soluble organic impurities, which generally colour 

the water yellow or brownish : and 

3. By certain saline matters and soluble earthy compounds, 

which, in the shape of a more or less considerable 
and generally slightly coloured residue, are left be- 
hind w r hen a measured quantity of any kind of 
natural water is evaporated to dryness. 

In other words, suspended — or mechanical, organic, and 
mineral, — and soluble — vegetable, and animal, — matters, are the 
ordinary impurities of natural waters, to which have to be added, 
in exceptional cases, sulphuretted hydrogen, traces of copper, 
arsenic, or more frequently lead. 

The means available for the purification of water are : — 

1. Distillation. 

2. Filtration. 

3. Precipitative processes, which remove certain soluble 

earthy compounds. 

1. Distillation. — When river, or spring, or sea-water, is kept 
boiling in a glass retort or metal still, it is converted into steam, 
which carries with it all the gaseous or volatile impurities that 
may have been present in the natural water, and leaves the 
whole of the solid saline and earthy matter behind. By suitable 
cooling apparatus the steam is readily condensed ; and if the 
first part of the distillate, containing most of the volatile im- 
purities, is rejected, nearly pure distilled water is obtained. 
Except at sea, or for chemical use, this method of purification 
is seldom resorted to for effecting the purification of water. 

2. Filtration. — On a large scale turbid river-water is effec- 
tually clarified by passing it through gravel and sand filter-beds. 
By this means the mechanical impurities, such as fine clay or 
marl, dead leaves, and similar accidental impurities, are arrested 
in the filter-beds, and the water is rendered bright. Filtration 
through sand also removes to some extent soluble organic matters, 
which sometimes give a yellowish tint to river-waters, for by 
passing through gravel or sand, a portion of such organic matters 
is oxidised, and the filtered water is in a measure deprived of the 
original yellow tint. The saline and earthy matters dissolved 


158 On the Composition and Properties of Drinking-Water , 

in water, however, are not diminished by sand filtration, or 
only in a very slight degree. The necessity for this process may 
be greatly diminished by the use of subsiding reservoirs, which, 
moreover, have the advantage of exposing the remaining water 
for a length of time to the oxidising influence of atmospheric 
oxygen, whereby it is deprived of some objectionable colour- 
ing matter. But filtration cannot be entirely superseded, being 
indispensable as the concluding operation of purification, to 
remove accidental impurities which may find access to the water, 
as well as fine particles of clay after remaining for a long time 
in suspension. 

For household purposes, turbid and slightly-coloured water 
may be made bright and almost colourless by the use of the 
tank or hand-filters, which are now supplied in all sizes by the 
London Water-purifying Company, Strand ; by Messrs. Atkins, 
Fleet Street ; Mr. Lipscombe, Temple Bar ; and other makers of 
Avater-filters. In most of the tank and hand-filters advantage is 
taken of the well-known property of animal charcoal to remove 
colouring matters. Vegetable or animal charcoal, moreover, 
retains effectually every trace of lead which a water may contain, 
either in solution or in a suspended state, and thus tank or hand- 
filters, in which charcoal is employed as a purifying agent, afford 
the greatest security against danger arising from the presence of 
lead poison. 

In Spencer’s Magnetic Carbide Filter, the purifying agent em- 
ployed is magnetic oxide of iron mixed with carbon. Mr. Thomas 
Spencer prepares this material by using Cumberland hematite 
iron-ore with a certain proportion of carbon, and heating the mix- 
ture to a dull red heat in retorts for 24 hours. The porous magnetic 
oxide produced is mixed with coarse sand when used for filtering 
water, and it removes effectually all organic impurities in a state 
of putrescence, and any traces of lead that may be present. 

The most recent invention in water-filters has been made by 
Professor Bischoff, who employs spongy iron as a purifying 
agent. Bischoff has experimentally investigated the properties 
of spongy iron, and, amongst other particulars, found that the 
organic nitrogen and albuminoid ammonia in water are always 
much reduced in quantity by filtration through spongy iron, 
which also diminishes the amount of organic carbon. Filtration 
through spongy iron thus appears capable of decomposing organic 
matter. It further removes entirely every trace of lead, and, con- 
sequently, is a valuable purifying agent for water. 

Domestic water-fdters, on Professor Bischoff’s plan, are made 
by Messrs. Murr.ay & Co., of the Caledonian Pottery, liuther- 
glen. The spongy iron through which the water is fdtercd is 
contained in a stoneware vessel, with a slightly curved bottom. 


and Water used for General Purposes. 159 

On the top of the bottom is a perforated disc, on which the 
spongy iron is placed. An opening in the curved bottom is 
connected with an earthenware pipe, which passes up to the outer 
side of the vessel to slightly above the level of the spongy iron. 
Here the pipe communicates with another pipe, passing from the 
top of the outside of the spongy iron vessel down to the centre of 
the closed bottom. The latter pipe is open at the top and bottom. 
An alternate exposure to air and water causes the spongy iron 
to become oxidised, when it loses more or less its purifying- 
power. A screw-tap at the lower end of the latter pipe serves 
to regulate the flow of the water through the spongy iron. The 
spongy iron vessel is placed inside the casing of an ordinary 
stoneware filter, with perforated bottom, beneath which there 
is a reservoir for the filtered water. On the top of the per- 
forated bottom is placed a layer, some four inches thick, of finely- 
divided marble or limestone, upon which the water containing 
some iron in solution flows from the screw-tap. The effect of 
the limestone is to remove completely every trace of iron from 
the water. 

BischofFs filter has a decided advantage over ordinary water- 
filters, which soon lose their purifying properties unless the 
filtering agent is renewed from time to time, whereas BischofF s 
filter remains in good working order for years, without requiring 
the renewal of the spongy iron. 

3. Purification of Water by Precipitating Processes. — An elegant 
and useful process for softening hard water is that patented by 
the late Dr. Clark, of Aberdeen. Carbonate of lime is scarcely 
soluble in pure distilled water, a gallon being capable of holding- 
only about 2 grains in solution. In liver or spring-water, how- 
ever, carbonate of lime is held in solution by carbonic acid, or, 
in other words, exists as bicarbonate of lime. On boiling, the 
second equivalent of carbonic acid in the soluble bicarbonate 
is expelled, and neutral carbonate of lime precipitated. Profes- 
sor Clark proposed to soften hard water by taking advantage of 
the property of caustic lime to remove carbonic acid from water. 
Caustic lime, when added to hard water in sufficient quantity, 
neutralizes the carbonic acid, removes the solvent, and, be- 
coming at the same time carbonate of lime, is precipitated with 
that originally in solution. In falling down, the precipitated 
carbonate of lime carries with it a portion of the organic and 
colouring matter present in most waters, and thus Clark’s pro- 
cess not only softens, but in a measure also deprives hard water 
of organic impurities. 

Clark’s process is peculiarly well adapted to the softening of 
chalk springs, which owe their hardness almost entirely to car- 
bonate and not to sulphate of lime, a constituent which cannot 


. 160 On the Composition and Properties of Drinking-Water , 

be removed by heating as by the lime process, and which renders 
water permanently hard. 

The composition of spring or well-water from the chalk-strata 
varies but little in different localities. Its hardness rarely 
exceeds 18 degrees, and pretty uniformly amounts to from 16 to 
17^ degrees. Water of that degree of hardness contains in 400 
gallons about 1 lb. of carbonate of lime, held in solution by 7 
ounces of carbonic acid gas. 1 lb. of carbonate of lime, in round 
numbers, consists of 9 ounces of caustic lime and 7 ounces of 
carbonic acid. It is evident, therefore, that the addition of 9 
ounces of caustic or quicklime to 400 gallons of such water 
will have the effect of depriving it of the 7 ounces of carbonic 
acid gas, which holds 1 lb. of carbonate of lime in solution ; and 
that both the lime added and that originally present must be pre- 
cipitated together as neutral insoluble carbonate of lime, minus 
a small quantity, amounting to about 2 grains in the gallon, 
which pure water is capable of dissolving. 

The original hardness of chalk springs may thus readily be 
reduced by Clark’s lime-process from 16 to 18 degrees to from 
2 to 4 degrees. 

This process is sufficiently simple to be left to the execution of 
a workman of ordinary intelligence. All that is required for him 
to do is to stir lime-water or milk of lime, made by mixing 
quicklime with water — about 1 lb. to 40 gallons of water — into 
the water intended to be softened, until the carbonic acid which 
holds the carbonate of lime in solution is completely neutral- 
ized by the addition of quicklime. The spring-water, on the 
addition of the lime-water, at first has the appearance of thin 
milk, but the preciptation of the carbonate of lime proceeds 
with rapidity, and in the course of 24 hours the water may be 
syphoned off from the precipitate and received in a perfectly 
clear condition into the supply cistern or tank. The only pre- 
caution necessary to be taken is to insure the absence of an 
excess of lime. To this end the water in the settling tank has 
to be tested from time to time with a few drops of a weak solu- 
tion of nitrate of silver. This test gives a white precipitate in 
the original hard spring-water, and shows whether the, quantity 
of lime required has been exceeded, by the brown colour of the 
precipitate then formed. In practice the addition of lime-water is 
stopped as soon as a sample of the filtered water from the settling 
tank gives a brownish-coloured precipitate with the nitrate of 
silver test. In that case more of the hard w r ater is added, and 
well mixed with the contents of the settling tank. After subsi- 
dence, a sample of the softened water is again tested with a drop 
or two of a nitrate of silver solution, and the addition of more 
hard water if necessary is repeated a third time, or until the 


and Water used for General Purposes. 


1G1 


water ceases to give a brown colour, and yields a white-coloured 
precipitate with nitrate of silver. 

Clark’s process has been tried on a large scale, and is in suc- 
cessful operation in many dye-works and other manufactories, 
where large quantities of soft water are required. The water 
used by railway companies for feeding their engines is also 
softened in several places by this useful and extremely simple pro- 
cess ; and by it the Water Works Company, at Caterham, has for 
some vears past rendered hard chalk spring-water deliciously 
soft and pure before delivering it to the inhabitants of Caterham. 
The only drawback in working this process on an extensive scale 
is the difficulty of finding space for precipitating reservoirs, and 
storing for an additional 24 hours the immense volume of water 
which is required for the supply of large cities. However, this 
difficulty after all resolves itself into a question of expense, which 
is of no account in the case of private houses, in which Clark's 
process can be carried out very well without much difficulty. 

In conclusion, a few lines on the prevention of boiler incrus- 
tations may be considered serviceable. 

Ordinary boiler incrustations, resulting from the use of hard 
water, consist chiefly of carbonate and sulphate of lime, as will 
be seen by the following analysis of a sample which I examined 
some time ago : — 

Composition of a Boiler Incrustation. 

Dried at 212°. 

Grains. 

Water of combination 4 ‘59 

Oxide of iron • 53 

Phosphoric acid • 58 

Carbonate of lime 71 • 06 

Sulphate of lime 12 - 75 

Lime in a state of silicate ., I - 58 

Magnesia in a state of silicate 3 '23 

Soluble silica 5‘70 

100-00 

Carbonate of lime separates gradually from hard water when 
the temperature is raised to the boiling-point, and in the course 
ol time assumes a crystalline form. Hard crystalline masses 
or stone-like deposits are thus formed in steam-boilers, which 
greatly interfere with the economical production of steam. 

The best plan of preventing the formation of boiler-deposits 
like the sample, the analysis of which has been given, is to soften 
the water by Clark’s lime-process. 

The next best plan, in my judgment, is to add to the water 
a solution of caustic soda ; to allow the precipitate to settle, ajjd 
to use the clear water for feeding the boiler. 

Or if it be considered too much trouble to soften the water in 

VOL. XI. — S. S. M 


162 Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Nonvag. 


this way, caustic soda dissolved in water may be put into the 
steam-boiler. By this means the precipitation of carbonate of 
lime, as well as the removal of lime from sulphate, is effected in 
a condition in which the lime to precipitate is far less crystalline 
than it is when no precipitating agent is employed. 

The formation of crystalline and hard incrustations in boilers 
may also be prevented to a great extent by placing in the boiler 
potato-peelings, spent-tan, peat-mould, coarse sawdust, or chips 
of oak-wood and bark, or similar materials, which act in a 
purely mechanical manner in preventing the agglomeration of 
crystalline particles of carbonate of lime into hard masses. 
Several compositions sold as preventives of boiler incrustations 
act mainly in a mechanical way, and others partly chemically 
and partly mechanically. A favourite composition, sold under 
various names, consists of a combination of crude tannic acid, 
produced from gum catechu or oak-bark, or other astringent raw 
materials, with bone-gelatine or glue. Crude tannic acid and 
caustic soda are likewise constituents of several fluids recom- 
mended as preventives of boiler-deposits. 

11, Salisbury Square, Fleet Street, E.C., January, 1875. 


V . — Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. By 
H. M. Jenkins, F.G.S., Secretary of the Society. 


Introduction 
Physical Features .. 

Farm Buildings 
General System of Agriculture 
Cultivation of the Land 
Harvesting 
Live Stock 
Horses 

Posting Stations 

Cattle 

Thelemark Breed 
Swedish Country Breed 
English Breeds and Swedish 


Crosses 208 

Management of Shorthorns. 211 
Tondern Breed 213 


Page 

Cattle — Cost of rearing Calves 215 
Exportation of Swedish 


Cattle 218 

Sheep 220 

Pigs 221 

Dairying 222 

Sale of Milk to Towns . . 222 

Butter-making 223 

Cheese-making 224 

A Meat-making Farm .. .. 227 

A Milk-producing Fann .. 238 

Meat versus Milk .. '. .. 243 

Farm Labour 246 

Agricultural Institutions .. 250 

Taxation and Rural Affairs .. 255 

Conclusion 259 


General Contents. 
Page 
162 
168 
175 
178 
184 

193 

194 
194 
199 
201 
201 
205 


Introduction. 

The agriculture of the Scandinavian Peninsula is less known 
to Englishmen than that of any other region of Northern 
Europe. The farming of the more distant empire of Russia has 


Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 163 

received greater attention on account of that country having 
been the source from which the rinderpest has more than once 
come to us of late years, and also because it is the chief 
European granary to which the English consumer looks for 
supplies of wheat after a deficient harvest at home. Special 
features in the land-laws, the rural economy, or the methods of 
farming of other countries have attracted the attention of poli- 
tical economists and writers on agriculture ; but, so far as I 
know, the agriculture of Sweden and Norway has not hitherto 
been described. 

Within the last few years the question of the supply of meat 
to large towns has directed public attention in a marked degree 
to the more sparsely populated countries, whence supplies of 
cattle might be obtained at a price that would admit of their 
profitable importation into Great Britain. Again, in Sweden 
and Norway cottages are generally built of wood, and the recent 
extension of the cut-wood trade with those countries (see 
Tables I. and II.) led to the belief that imported wooden cot- 
tages for agricultural labourers might be erected in England 
more economically than with the usual materials of brick, stone, 
or concrete ; but the results of careful inquiries on this subject 
did not confirm this impression, and the experiments made have 
not been reduced to practice on a large scale. 

The statistics of the trade between the United Kingdom and 
Sweden and Norway are published annually in the Board of 
Trade Returns, and the following Tables (p. 164), culled from that 
source, show the progressive development of our import trade 
in cattle and other agricultural products from those countries 
during the five years, 1869-73. 

The total value of the imports from Sweden rose from 
4,498,384/. in 1869, to 7,739,744/. in 1873, showing an increase 
of over 70 per cent. ; and the total value of the imports from 
Norway rose from 1,855,161/. in 1869, to 2,947,033/. in 1873, 
or an increase of 60 per cent. In the case of Sweden, the value 
of the timber is about one-half, and in that of Norway about 
tw r o-thirds, the total value of all the imports into the United 
Kingdom from those countries. 

Our imports of cattle and wood from Sweden and Norway 
have thus been recently increasing, and their importance is 
well shown in the following Tables. But the significance of 
our exports of live stock to those countries, though they also 
are increasing in quantity and value, cannot be so well delineated 
in a table of figures, for as mere units they appear insignificant. 
I heir real importance lies in the fact that the animals go into 
Scandinavia for the purpose of improving the indigenous breeds, 
and thus largely contributing, not only to the greater weight of 

M 2 


Table I. Imports of Agricultural Commodities from Sweden in the Years 1869-73. 


164 Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 








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Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 165 

the individual beasts which are imported into Great Britain for 
slaughter, but' also to the increased production of milk, which 
has rendered possible the increase of exports of dairy produce to 
Great Britain and other countries. 

The following Tables (III. and IV., pp. 166, 167) give the 
actual imports and exports of agricultural commodities, so far as 
Sweden is concerned, for the five years, 1869-73 inclusive ; the 
returns for the last year being, however, somewhat incomplete. 

At the present time the agriculture and commerce of Sweden 
are progressing with a rapidity that is probably not excelled in 
any other European country. The railway system has within 
the last few years been greatly extended, and new railways are 
still being opened for traffic at frequent intervals.* The maps 
and guide-books published three years ago are now out of date, 
and those which at this moment may be in the press will in a 
year or two be considered behind the time. New markets for 
his produce have thus been brought within the reach of the 
Swedish farmer, and at the same time he has been enabled to com- 
pare his modes of procedure with those followed by his compatriots 
who have longer possessed foreign customers. 

The Government has done its share in the promotion of the 
agricultural interests of the country, not only by the construction 
of railways, as just mentioned, but also by the establishment of 
agricultural schools and colleges, the endowment of agricultural 
societies in each province of the kingdom, and even by the imme- 
diate supervision of the cattle trade, with a view to guaranteeing 
the exporter against loss and the importer against disease. 

In the course of this Report I shall endeavour to make clear 
the relations which exist in Sweden and Norway between the 
State and the agricultural interest. At present it is sufficient 
to indicate that the enormous advances that have been made, 
and are still being made, in these northern countries, though 
aided and even stimulated by the recent high prices of meat, 
butter, and wood, could not have been accomplished so surely and 
so rapidly if the Government had not sent men of mark to 
explore the new territory ; and if they had not in some cases, 
through the medium of the agricultural societies, organised a 
system of guarantee, which alone would overcome the distrust 
ol the Scandinavian peasant, and his consequent disinclination 
to enter upon a path to which he was not accustomed. 

* In a recent communication to the Pall Mall Gazette (January 25, 1875), the 
Acting Consul for Sweden and Norway stated that— “ Railways of the length of 
nearly 1000 miles have been built in Sweden by the State on borrowed money, 
and as these lines in 1873, the last for which accounts are published, gave a net 
revenue of 5J per cent, on the cost of construction, the operation may even 
financially be looked upon as successful, though that was not considered when 
the outlays were voted.” 


166 Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 


Table III. — Imports of Agricultural Commodities into Sweden in thb 

Years 1869-73. 


_ 1 

Weights 

or 

Measures.* 

1869. 

1870. 

1871. 

1872. 

1878. 

Bacon and Pork . . 

Cent'. 

26,155 

31,443 

84,020 

130,126 

238,41; 

Guano 

> 5 

54,535 

121,715 

243,202 

404,933 


Hemp 

7 7 

33,816 

45,436 

45,927 

47,321 


Hops 

7 7 

3,451 

9,839 

4,096 

5,808 


Horses 

No. 

721 

1,373 

1,825 

1,871 

1,58 

Cattle 


631 

518 

177 

207 

25 

Sheep 

7 7 

291 

370 

352 

41 

4 

Pigs 

7 7 

420 

925 

2,489 

2,649 

2,76 

Meat 

Cent'. 

10,412 

12,111 

13,657 

14,182 

18,2f 

Flax 

7 7 

7,582 

16,875 

5,362 

8,186 


Cheese 

7 7 

8,358 

7,933 

4,867 

9,660 

10,5; 

Butter 

7 7 

32,307 

47,400 

41,314 

37,039 

31,51 

Unground Corn : — 
Wheat 

Cbf. 

262,463 

247,821 

98,734 

22,465 

68,81 

Damaged cargoes 

Rd. 

4,546 

• • 

7,542 

17,571 


Barley and Malt 

Cbf. 

370,927 

120,452 

70,584 

133,924 

216,5 

Rye 

7 7 

3,942,051 

1,065,202 

531,344 

2,016,048 

2,343,8: 

Damaged cargoes 

Rd. 

6,049 

1,419 

.. 

115 


Vetches 

Cbf. 

21,331 

2,954 

2,603 

10,341 


Peas 

7 7 

149,786 

43,301 

3,989 

19,856 


Other grain 

7 » 

45,374 

63,001 

8,924 

21,235 


Ground Com : — 

Grits 

Cent'. 

4,633 

2,051 

1,084 

3,605 


Wheat-meal 

7 7 

320,660 

248,775 

140,916 

270,207 

328,7 

Rye-meal 

7 7 

665,925 

547,891 

297,499 

45?, 585 

743,1 

Other kinds of Meal 

7 7 

10,690 

11,111 

1,465 

2,727 


Oilcakes 

, , 

31,905 

31,992 

77,698 

155,912 


Seeds, except Canary . . J 

lbs. 

1,893,870 

2,108,204 

1,786,444 

3,637,295 


1 

Cbf. 

126,743 

261,061 

255,884 

297,287 

L. 


* A centner (100 Swedish lbs.) is about 93 lbs. avoirdupois, and a cubic foot is equa « 
about 5f gallons. Rd. signifies Kigsdaler (= Is. l£d.) 


Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 167 


able IY. — Exports of Agricultural Commodities from Sweden in the 
Years 1869-73. 


Articles. 

Weights 

or 

Measures. 

1869. 

1870. 

1871. 

1872. 

1873. 

Bi >n and Pork 

Cent r . 

1,812 

2,783 

3,225 

2,360 

7,121 

( 

Cbf. 

34,013 

54,673 

24,049 

6,881 


5( * < 

lbs. 

400,177 

518,700 

389,613 

215,250 


H es .. .. .. 

No. 

1,395 

811 

1,024 

3,227 

3,672 

Cile 

7 » 

11,583 

13,506 

14,276 

16,884 

26,006 

s : p 

7 * 

8,476 

8,930 

17,137 

18,208 

14,956 

4 

7 7 

10,749 

16,832 

11,537 

24,527 

20,001 

U t 

Cent'. 

1,854 

2,045 

2,089 

2,764 

3,925 

0 ake 

7 7 

30,810 

59,540 

48,656 

61,203 


C ese 

» f 

2,279 

3,985 

5,098 

5,274 

4,339 

I ter 

* 7 

28,155 

54,679 

68,321 

85,044 

69,922 

1 ground Corn : — 







tots 

Cbf. 

11,155,606 

20,161,920 

20,224,108 

16,794,829 

16,535,620 

rheat 

7 7 

263,470 

484,434 

560,342 

311,578 

400,316 

>arley and Malt . . 

* 1 

1,426,819 

2,552,728 

2,491,167 

2,219,063 

1,695,642 

tjo 

> > 

46,176 

539,670 

598,549 

106,063 

189,320 

'ares 

? ? 

189 

5,785 

3,856 

569 


’eos 

7 7 

6,875 

76,832 

221,142 

62,026 


lixture 

7 > 


2,456 

8,590 

.. 


1 mnd Com : — 







Jrite 

Cent'. 

708 

3,234 

2,013 

2,862 


)at & Barley-meal 

» 7 

35 

4,931 

1,379 

3,741 


Vkeat-meal . . 

7 7 

12,281 

25,473 

55,246 

55,465 

59,200 

lye-meal 

* 7 

330 

14,489 

16,364 

9,140 

7,276 


168 Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 

In view of the increasing importance of the agricultural rela- 
tions which I have thus endeavoured to indicate, and in the ab- 
sence of any reliable information in the English language on the 
present state of agriculture in Sweden and Norway, the Council 
of the Society resolved that a Report upon the Agriculture of 
Scandinavia, with special reference to the stock-farming, should 
be obtained for publication in the ‘Journal.’ Having been en- 
trusted with the preparation of this Report, which was to include 
a notice of the Agriculture of Denmark, I spent ten weeks of the 
past summer in visiting the best districts of Sweden, Denmark, 
and Schleswig-Holstein, and in taking a rapid glance at the agri- 
culture of Southern Norway. 

In the following pages I shall endeavour to give a fair idea 
of the leading features in the agriculture of the southern pro- 
vinces of Sweden and Norway, leaving the Report on Danish 
farming for a future number of the ‘ Journal.’ I have selected 
this order of proceeding because Danish agriculture has already 
been twice reported upon in the pages of this Journal,* whereas 
some short notes on Sweden, published thirty-two years ago,t 
comprise the only notice of the agriculture of the Scandinavian 
Peninsula which is contained in the publications of the Royal 
Agricultural Society of England. 

I should be ungrateful if I did not thankfully acknowledge 
the great kindness and hospitality of all the gentlemen whose 
names are mentioned in this Report, and of many other worthy 
representatives of their country ; more particularly if I did not 
specially record the exertions on my behalf of our honorary 
member, Mr. Juhlin Dannfelt, who took every means and oppor- 
tunity to further the object of my visit to Sweden ; and of the 
Chamberlain Holst, who did everything in his power to render 
my brief visit to Norway as instructive and agreeable as possible. 
I wish also to express my thanks to Mr. Willerding (the Consul- 
General for Sweden and Norway in London) and to the Acting 
Consul (Mr. Coster) for their very great kindness in procuring 
me official data for statistical calculations, and in giving me 
any other aid that I required. 

Physical Features. 

The Scandinavian Peninsula extends northwards from lat. 
55° 22' N. to the North Cape, in lat. 71° 12' N. Its most southern 
extremity is nearly in the same parallel as the Tweed, and its 
chief southern town, Malmd, approximately coincides in lati- 
tude with the town of Berwick. The western and extreme 


* Vol. ii., 1842, p. 400; and vol. xxi., 1860, p. 267. f Vol. iv., 1S43, p. 196. 


Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 169 

northern portion of this peninsula is the narrow and mountain- 
ous country of Norway, while Sweden forms the larger and less 
elevated eastern and southern division. Though both countries 
are under the same Sovereign, each has its own executive 
government, legislative assemblies, and fiscal arrangements. In 
fact, the two nations are essentially distinct and foreign to each 
other. They speak different languages, and use not only different 
weights, measures, and money, but even different thermometers. 
In contour and climate they also present remarkable diversities, 
for while more than one-half of Norway has an elevation 
exceeding 2000 feet, only one-twelfth part of Sweden attains 
that height above the sea. One-third of Sweden has an eleva- 
tion of less than 300 feet ; and a second third lies between that 
plane and one of 800 feet. The two countries are divided by 
a table-topped mountain-chain, called the Kolen, which from 
Trondhjem northwards forms nearly the whole of the northern 
part of Norway. Southwards that country expands into a huge 
lobe of mountainous land, 40 per cent, of the surface of which 
was calculated by the late Professor Forbes to exceed 3000 feet 
in height. The chief physical characteristics of Norway are its 
fjelds, fjords, and forests. The forests clothe the sides of the hills 
and of the fjords, or firths, if not to their summit, at any rate to 
the greatest elevation that the climate will permit ; and the fjelds 
are the elevated and generally barren table-lands, which, with 
isolated higher peaks, form the high ground of the country. 
Thus the area devoted to agriculture is comparatively small, 
and very much scattered, consisting generally of the soles of the 
valleys and the strips of land at the sides of the fjords. 

In Sweden, on the other hand, more than one-eighth of the 
surface is occupied by lakes, and almost as large an area is 
devoted to agriculture. This latter portion is nearly equally 
divided between natural grass, chiefly in the north, and various 
other crops ; but, as will be seen presently, a very large area of 
grass is also under rotation. In the north of Sweden most of 
the surface is occupied by forests or is waste land, and thus the 
remaining three-fourths of the acreage of the country is accounted 
lor. In those northern regions the cultivated land is also very 
much divided ; but in the more southern provinces, such as 
Scane, and East and West Gotland, especially around Lake 
W ettern, there are large cultivated plains with fewer boulders 
than on the waste lands which abound farther north. Those 
southern districts offer so fine a field for the employment of 
steam in the cultivation of the land, that it is most surprising 
to find the example of Mr. Axel Dickson, of Kyleberg, near 
W adstena, who bought one of Howard’s sets of roundabout 
steam-tackle seven years ago, still without a single follower. 


170 Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 

Fig. 1. — Sketch-map of the South of Sweden and part of Norway, showing 
the greater portion of the Regions reported on. 



Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 171 

Geology . — The geology of Sweden and Norway requires very 
little description to enable their agriculture to be understood. 

• The solid rocks are mostly granite or gneiss ; but other igneous 
and metamorphic rocks also occur, though they do not constitute 
large areas ; while in the province of Scane there are small 
tracts of lands belonging to the Cretaceous and Jurassic forma- 
tions. Naked rounded hills of inconsiderable elevation but 
forbidding barrenness bound the sea-coast ; and the hollows 
between them are frequently occupied with swamps and peat- 
bogs of almost equal poverty. In the cultivated tracts of country, 
the solid rocks are almost invariably covered by a greater or less 
thickness of superficial deposits,, mostly consisting of glacial clay 
or marl, generally containing boulders. In some districts these 
boulders are very numerous and of large size, when, of course, 
the land cannot be profitably cultivated ; in other districts they 
are relatively smaller and more scattered ; and in Scane, for 
instance, as already mentioned, they would not generally inter- 
fere with the use of the steam-cultivator. Near the east coast, 
north of Stockholm, as well as at Uddevalla, on the west coast, 
raised beaches occur in considerable numbers ; these, coupled 
with other evidence, have led geologists to conclude that the 
northern part of the Scandinavian region is gradually rising 
above the level of the sea, while it is gradually sinking at the 
extreme south. 

The surface deposits of the cultivated area of Sweden having 
a tolerably uniform though extraneous origin, the land does 
not exhibit those extreme diversities of composition to which 
English farmers are accustomed. Generally, the land is a more 
or less sandy loam, or a light-coloured clay possessing heavier 
staple, especially in the central districts, in the neighbourhood of 
the great lakes, YVenern and Wettern. None of the land that I saw 
could, however, be compared in stiffness with our heavy clay soils 
of Liassic, Carboniferous, or London Clay periods ; but it may be 
that the comparative lightness of the land exists more in appear- 
ance and mechanical condition than in chemical composition ; 
and there can be no doubt that some of the Swedish clays have 
a tendency to cake in dry seasons and become sticky after much 
rain. It is, also, more than possible that long-continued and 
severe frosts may in Sweden do to the land in winter some 
portion of the pulverizing that in our moister and milder climate 
has to be done by the cultivator and the harrow in spring. 

Climate . — Most writers of “Travels” in Sweden and Norway 
have found it necessary to refer to the prevailing belief in Eng- 
land that the climate of those countries is something terrible 
to contemplate ; and so late as 1853, Professor J. D. Forbes 
wrote as follows : — “ The time can hardly be said to be gone by 


172 Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 

when an erroneous belief was prevalent as to the utterly inhos- 
pitable climate of Norway. Bishop Pontoppidan cites the 
amusing mistake of our English Bishop Patrick, who describes 
a Norwegian as imagining a rosebush to be a tree on fire; 
whereas roses are common flowers in many parts of Norway.” 
Equally mistaken ideas of the agriculture of these regions have 
therefore naturally been held, and I confess to having been very 
much startled at seeing tobacco cultivated on an extensive scale 
so far north as the neighbourhood of Stockholm. 

The peculiarities of the climate are long winters, short sum- 
mers, and long days in the summer season. On the western 
coast of Norway the climate is relatively mild and damp, owing 
to the influence of the Gulf Stream ; but in Sweden and eastern 
Norway the climate is dry, and subject to greater extremes of 
temperature. Again, in the south of Sweden, especially in the 
province of Scane, the winters are relatively mild, and there is 
comparatively little snow ; but farther north the winters are more 
severe and more lasting, and an abundant snow-fall is almost as 
important to the community as an abundant harvest.* Speaking 
generally, it may be said that the farther north one travels the 
shorter is the summer season, the hotter it is while it lasts, and 
the longer are the summer days. Indeed, to see the “ midnight 
sun ” has been the object of many and many a pilgrimage to 
Hammerfest and Tornea. Thus it happens that in the most 
northern regions vegetation grows continuously during the short 
summer season, in consequence of the sun’s influence being con- 
stantly upon it. The shortness of the summer-night in Scandi- 
navia also tends to render the days hotter than they would other- 
wise be, as the night is the cooling period ; and thus the short 
interval between seed-time and harvest, which is in some dis- 
tricts as little as six or eight weeks, may be to a great extent 
explained.! M. Tisserand, in his report on Denmark, has also 


* In the absence of snow the forests could not be worked, for as there are no 
roads a good fall of snow is necessary to the use of the sledge, the only possible 
vehicle for the removal of the timber to the beds of the rivers, which, when the 
frost is gone, float it to the saw-mills and shipping depots. v 

t ‘‘ In Lapland and the adjoining parts of the most northern provinces of Sweden, 
the climate is so much against agriculture, that the people arc obliged to pile up 
large quantities of moist wood or brushwood along the north-west side of the 
small patches of land sown with grain, that in case the wind (in the nights of 
August) should come from the north-west they may bo set on fire to protect the 
crop from frost, by the smoke diminishing the evaporation from the soil. Another 
method of protecting the crop from being frozen when in ear, in general use in 
the northern and middle parts of the country, is for two men to draw a rope across 
the heads of grain before the sun rises, by which means the drops of dew are 
shaken oil, and the ears become dry before the dew on them is frozen, which 
takes place (if allowed to remain) just at the time the sun rises.” 

The above is substantially a quotation from a paper by Mr. Stephens, published 
in the ‘ Quarterly Journal of Agriculture ’ for 1836 ; but corrected in some detail; 


Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 173 

drawn attention to the influence of light in promoting the 
growth of crops ; and his conclusion is well worth quoting. He 
observes : “ It follows that the progress of vegetation in these 
hi<jh latitudes of the globe bears comparison with that of our 
regions, in the ratio of an express train to a parliamentary. In 
the north the stations do not exist, and the progress is quick 
and uninterrupted.” 

These conditions will be more completely realised by English 
farmers if 1 quote the ordinary dates of a few of the most essen- 
tial agricultural operations. Throughout Sweden and Norway, 
where winter-corn can be grown, with the exception of Scane, 
rve is sown from the beginning to the middle of August, and 
wheat from the middle to the end of that month. In Scane, the 
superiority of the climate enables these operations to be per- 
formed with advantage at least a month later. Leaving that 
favoured province out of consideration, it is therefore clear that 
wheat-sowing is an operation that precedes harvesting. 

The first out-door work in the spring is generally the sowing 
of clover and grass-seeds on the autumn-sown wheat or rye. 
This is often done while the snow is still on the ground, say the 
beginning of April. As soon in April as the weather will per- 
mit, the land is prepared for spring-corn, oats being sown first 
and barley afterwards. With the exception, again, of Scane, 
these operations are usually conducted in May ; the oats being 
occasionally, and in favoured localities, got in by the end of 
April ; but in Scane spring-corn can always be sown in April, and 
the May seed-time is devoted to mangolds, turnips, and potatoes. 

It is therefore evident that, except in Scane, the field-work 
rarely commences before the middle of April, and often not until 
later. It is interrupted by the exigencies of the hay and corn 
harvest, the former in July or the beginning of August, and the 
latter in September ; but the whole of the out-door work of the 
farm must be finished before the end of October or the first 
week of November. At the outside, therefore, the Swedish and 
Norwegian farmer has but six working months ; and if he is a 
farmer and nothing more, he has the remaining six months of 
enforced idleness. But generally he is a forester as well as a 
farmer, and in winter he utilises in the forest the staff of work- 
men and horses that would otherwise be eating their heads off 
on the farm. In fact, but for this combination of foresting and 
farming, the latter would be a commercial impossibility over 
the greater portion of the Scandinavian peninsula. 

by Mr. Juhlin Dannfelt, who adds that “the surest remedy against damage by 
frost is now universally found to be to drain the marshes and low tracts of land as 
thoroughly as possible, to which important improvement a considerable grant is 
annually made by the Government.” 


174 Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 

The following comparative Tables of average temperature and 
rainfall during the growing season (from May to October in- 
clusive) in the years 1863 — 1872, in the neighbourhood of 
Stockholm and at Greenwich respectively, will further elucidate 
the climate of that part of Sweden during the season of field- 
work : — 

Table V. — Average Temperature for 10 Tears (1863-72) in each of the 
Months, May to October, at Enskede, near Stockholm, and at the 
Greenwich Observatory, in degrees Fahr. 



Enskede, near 
Stockholm. 

Greenwich. 


o 

o 

May 

49-12 

52-94 

June 

Cl -83 

58-69 

July 

68-72 

63-09 

August 

65-55 

61-41 

September 

57-45 

57-85 

October 

45-66 

49-68 


Table VI. — Average Rainfall for 10 Years (1863-72) in each of the months, 
May to October, at Enskede, near Stockholm, and at the Greenwich 
Observatory, in English Inches, with the Average Number of Days on 
which Rain fell. 



Enskede, near Stockholm. 

Greenwich. 

May 

Days. 

7 ' 

Inches* 

1-59 

Days. 

107 

Inches. 

213 

June 

6 

2-02 

io- 

1-93 

July 

7 

2-25 

9-4 

2 03 

August 

9 

2-56 

11-3 

216 

September 

9 

2-44 

11-8 

2-47 

October 

6 

2-09 

14-6 

2-63 


44 

12-95 

67-8 

13-34 


As May is the first growing month and October the last over 
the greater part of Sweden, these Tables contain the elements of 
a sufficiently precise comparison for agricultural purposes. It 
will be seen that the average temperature in May is at Stockholm 
3f° lower than at Greenwich, where vegetation has already made a 
considerable growth during the months of March and April. In 

* The Swedish inch is 29-69 milliro., and the English inch is 25-4 millim., 
therefore in framing the above Table I have taken the Swedish inch to be 
one-sixth longer than the English. 


Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 175 

June, however, the excess of temperature is 3° in favour of Stock- 
holm, and this advantage is increased to more than5£°in the month 
of July. In August the excess is still 4° in favour of Sweden, 
while in September the average temperatures are about equal at 
the capitals of both countries. In October the advantage again 
belongs to England to the amount of 4°, and during the whole 
of the following months vegetation is at a standstill over the 
greater part of Sweden, while our climate permits the growth of 
roots and grass to continue another month, -and, in favourable 
vears, almost until Christmas. 

The table of rainfall shows that there is a difference of less 
than half an inch in the total average amount of rain that falls 
at Stockholm and at Greenwich in the course of the six months ; 
but that at Stockholm " this rain is confined to 44 days, or an 
average of 7^ days per month, while at Greenwich it is spread 
over nearly 68 days, or lllr per month, or an excess of 50 per 
cent. In this respect, also, the English climate favours the 
growth of both natural and artificial grasses much more than 
the Scandinavian. 


Farm Buildings. 

The buildings are nearly always of wood, on stone founda- 
tions, and are separated into as many different parts as possible, 
each house or stall being placed at a convenient distance from 
the homestead. Thus the barn, stable, cowshed, piggery, dairy, 
and granary, will be under so many roofs, distinct from each 
other and from the farmhouse.* Although this arrangement is 
not conducive to economy of labour or efficiency of supervision, 
it is obviously necessary in order to reduce to a minimum the pos- 
sible loss in case of fire. This consideration is by no means fan- 
ciful, for several times in the course of my journey I saw traces 
of the effect of fires on farm-buildings, as well as in towns and 
villages. Both Sweden and Norway have their Chicago ; and 
it is only necessary to refer to the last occasion, in 1869, when 
Gefle, in Sweden, was almost totally destroyed, to be impressed 
with the awful rapidity with which fire extends amongst wooden 
buildings. Drammen, in Norway, has a similar reputation, and 
has well earned it in recent years, having been to a great extent 
burnt down in 1866, and again in 1870. It may, however, be 
said generally that whatever is lost by the separation of tffe 
different buildings is compensated for, as far as possible, by 
their economical interior arrangements. The cattle are arranged 
in the cowsheds and feeding byres in one or more double rows 

* Here again the province of Sc&ne presents an exception, the farm-buildings 
in that district being arranged in a hollow square on the Danish model. 




1 7(3 Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 

of beasts facing each other, and separated by a walk or tramway, 
along which the food is brought. The food of the cattle is 
placed in fixed troughs (a, a , Figs. 2 and 3) at the sides of this 
walk, and water is generally given at the regulation time by 
turning a tap, which causes it to flow into the feeding-troughs ; 
but sometimes the water is given in pails, and in definite quantities 
to each animal. The straw is generally stored overhead, and is 
brought into the cowshed by means of trap-doors at convenient 
places in its ceiling, which forms the floor of the straw-barn. 
Fig-s. 2 and 3 illustrate these characteristic features, and also show 
how, in a well-constructed cow-house, the liquid manure runs 
into a gutter at the back of the animals, and from it, by means 
of sinks and underground drains, into a liquid-manure tank out- 
side. The general system is to have all the cattle of every 
description, no matter how numerous they may be, under one 
roof ; and it often occurred to me, when inspecting a dairy of 
150 or 200 milch-cows, to ask what would be done in the event 
of an outbreak of contagious disease. The answer invariably 
was that they had had no experience of such diseases amongst 
their cattle. 

The Swedish barn is an institution with which we are not 
familiar in England ; it was originally constructed, in most 
cases, with a view to its holding and storing the whole of the 
grain-crops and hay grown on the farm, and to its having, in 
addition, a sufficient reserve space to admit of the operations of 
threshing and dressing to be conducted under the same roof. 
Probably no better evidence of the recent advancement of Swedish 
agriculture could be given than the inadequate accommodation 
which the old barns afford for the crops that are now produced. 
These barns have therefore been supplemented by additional 
buildings, and in many districts by stacks, the existence of which 
seemed to me to throw a doubt on the necessity of sinking so 
much capital in the erection of huge buildings for storing hay 1 
and sheaf-corn. 

In a country where threshing is the chief occupation of the 
labourers during a long winter, and where a very large propor- 
tion of the produce of the farm is consumed by the' live stock 
and working staff, in consequence of the distance of markets 
and the necessarily expensive carriage of materials both to and 
from the farm, a suitable granary is a very important portion of 
the steading. At the same time, an Englishman can scarcely 
help questioning the necessity of such large buildings ; nor can 
he help suggesting that the increased use of improved threshing- 
machines will eventually render them unnecessary, and give the 
benefit of that better quality which belongs to freshly-threshed 
grain and straw, whether used on the farm or sent to market. 


Report on the Agriculture of Siceden and Norway. 177 


Figs. 2 and 3 . — Plan and Sections of part of the Cowhouse at Kijleberg, 

near Wadstena. 




Fig. 3. —Sections parallel to the lines A B and C D. 


VOL. XI.— S. S. 


N 



178 Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 

In materials, the granai’ies do not differ from the other build- 
ings ; they are generally several storeys in height, each flat being 
well ventilated, not overcrowded, and under constant supervision 
to wage war against rats and mice, which, on account of the 
harbour afforded by the wooden buildings, are a great plague to 
the Scandinavian farmer. 

General System of Agriculture. 

Sweden and Norway extend through so many degrees of lati- 
tude, that the climate must alone cause great diversities in the 
agricultural practices of the various districts of the kingdom. Yet 
the general idea is the same, and may be thus briefly sketched : 

The system is one of arable-land dairying. The cows are 
very generally bred by the labourers and smaller farmers, being 
sold progressively, after they have dropped two or three calves, 
their places being taken by heifers calving for the first time. 
The bull-calves are nearly all killed as soon as they are born ; 
and where cattle are bred on larger farms, the cow-calves share 
the same fate, with the exception of about ten per cent., which 
are reared in order to take the place, in due time, of old cows 
that are culled. 

In the northern parts of the country the cows are sent during 
the summer to hill-pastures,* called “ Saeter ; ” the women and 
children, in the case of small farmers, migrating there to tend 
the cattle and make the cheese and butter, while the men culti- 
vate the land in the valleys, and join their families on Sunday, j 
In winter, the positions are reversed, for the men work in the 
forests, and the women live in the valleys, whither they had \ 
taken their cattle with them in the month of September. 

In the southern provinces there are no such migrations, and s 
the farms are on the average larger, with a comparatively small a 
acreage of permanent grass ; but the principal object is still - 
dairying, and it is chiefly carried on by means of grass under 4 
rotation. There is, however, a certain amount of land devoted t 
to the growth of “ industrial crops,” especially tobacco and beet- 4 
root, and a fair number of cattle are fed on the refuse of sugai ;< 
manufactories, breweries, and distilleries, though the dairy cows t J 
obtain a large share of these adventitious feeding-stuff’s. 

With this broad outline in his mind, the reader will be bettei 
prepared to understand the more detailed description whicl 
follows. 

* The smoke arising from damp burning wood is used in the most northern I 
provinces as a protection to the cattle from the gnats or mosquitoes; and th 
instinct of the animals leads them to place themselves in its midst, for the purpos 
of getting rid of tiieir tormentors. 


Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 179 

Space does not permit me to describe at any length the 
history of agriculture in Sweden and Norway, so I content 
myself with the following translation of a brief sketch which 
refers to Sweden, and which was published in the introduction 
to the official catalogue of Swedish Exhibits at the Vienna 
Universal Exhibition. I believe it was drawn up by my good 
friend Professor Arrhenius. “ The oldest system of farming in 
Sweden is the burning -system, in which the forest is cut down 
and set on fire, the land is enclosed, and sown with rye. This 
system of corn-growing is now only to be seen at a few 
localities in Wermland and some other forest districts; but 
over the rest of the country it has been abandoned. To it 
succeeded the hoe-system, in which the land was worked with 
a hoe, and the stones were collected into larger or smaller heaps. 
The land broken up in this manner was sown every year, so 
long as it would grow corn, and then it was again given over 
to Nature. The result was the reconversion of the arable land 
into forest, and in such localities the stone-heaps and remnants 
of ditches, which are the characteristic signs of this system of 
agriculture, are everywhere met with. 

“In the northern provinces the arable land is, in many places, 
still cropped on the one-field system , that is to say, it is sown 
annually with summer-corn, potatoes, or flax ; and when it will 
no longer pay to do this, it is* allowed to be in grass. By 
degrees it becomes converted into grass-land, which is then used 
partly as pasture and partly as meadow. When it has been in 
grass a number of years, and thereby accumulated a new store of 
vegetable matter, and restored its fertility, it is again broken up, 
and for some time used as arable land, when it is once more 
left to cover itself with herbage. 

“This system, the most primitive of all, now occurs only 
in the most northern regions (Norrland), where, however, as 
in the remaining part of the country, the farming is now for 
the most part carried on as a two-field or a three-field system, 
and in various localities under differently arranged systems of 
rotation and of 1 twin-culture’ ( Koppelwirthschaft *). 

“ The two-field system | is most general in Uppland, Westman- 
land, and Sodermanland, or in the farmed land surrounding the 
Malar Lake. The three-field system $ occurs mostly in East and 
West Gotland, in Nerike, on Oland and Gotland, as well as 


* This word may be rendered literally “cultivation of enclosed land” as well as 
“ twin ” or “ double ” culture ; but the term “ twin-culture ” best conveys its 
meaning, which is, that about half the arable land shall be in corn and the rest 
in artificial grass. 

t Com and fallow alternately. J Winter-corn, spring-corn, and fallow, 

N 2 


180 Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 

9 * 

in the provinces of Gefleborg, West Norrland, and certain dis- 
tricts of Kopparberg. 

“ The four-field system is more rare, and occurs in Falbygden, 
and certain other districts of West Gotland and Dalsland, as 
well as in Smaland, Blekinge, and Roslagen, also in the divisions 
Nedan and Ofvan Siljan, of the province Kopparberg, where 
also the three-field system is followed. 

“ The system of rotations is general in Scane, both on the estates 
of the gentry and on the farms of the peasants. In the remain- 
ing southern and middle provinces this system prevails upon 
nearly all estates and large holdings, and in the last-mentioned 
part of the country it is adopted by not a few of the smaller pro- 
prietors. ‘ Twin-culture ’ farms are mostly to be found in Werm- 
land and Dalarne, and also, as is the case with the system of 
rotations, here and there upon the larger estates, in parts of the 
country where the reduction in the area of natural meadow and of 
pasture has rendered necessary the cultivation of artificial grasses. 

“ Many systems of rotation of crops are to be met with, 
comprising from 4 to 12 shifts. The oldest ‘ twin-culture ’ farms 
in Dalarne had 10 courses ; and now such farms occur in many 
places worked in from 6 to 16 courses, these last often having 
a double sowing of clover and grass, one after a manured 
winter-corn, and another after summer-corn, which had been 
preceded by a manured and hoed root-crop. The accepted prin- 
ciples of the system of rotations are now recognised in that of 
twin-cultivation, that corn and fodder-crops shall follow one 
another, so that straw-crops shall alternate with foliage-crops; 
and therefore the ‘ twin-culture ’ farms are arranged in such a 
manner that their rotations include several years of clover and 
grass. The last-mentioned farms are the best adapted to the 
agricultural circumstances of the country, and permit— in con- 
sequence of the grass being left down for several years, as well 
as the more extended cultivation of root-crops — a profitable i 
rearing (Hollanderei) and dairy husbandry, to which general 
attention is at present devoted to such an extent that a nol 
inconsiderable exportation now takes place, both 4 ol' butchers 
animals and dairy products.” 

The principle of the Swedish rotation of crops is very simple 
The chief bread-corn used by the people is rye, for althougl 
bread is also made of wheat, barley, and oats, it has been cal 
culated that the average consumption per head of the popula 
tion per annum of the chief vegetable products of the farm is 
excluding decimals, rye, 5 bushels; wheat, 3 pecks; barley 
3 bushels; oats, 1* bushel; peas, 1? bushel; and potatoes, 7 
bushels. 


Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 181 


To grow rye in so northern a climate as that of Sweden, it 
should be sown in the beginning or middle of August : and as 
fit does not succeed unless the land has been allowed to get stale 
before seed-time, the preparation of the seed-bed should be 
completed by the middle to the end of July. Thus, as a rule, 
no crop is taken in the year in which the rye is sown. Com- 
mencing, therefore, with a bare fallow, which is always dunged, 
and sometimes receives a small dressing of superphosphate as 
well, the second year will see the harvesting of rye or wheat, 
'on which clover and Timothy-grass had been sown in the early 
spring. The land remains in grass for two or three years or 
more, and is then cropped with oats for another two or three 
i years in succession, unless the second white crop is barley in the 
place of oats. 

This is the prevailing rotation, especially with the smaller 
farmers, and in the more remote districts, where rye would be dear 
to purchase on account of the expense of transit ; but a few of 
the more calculating farmers in other districts have come to the 
conclusion that a crop which practically monopolises the land 
tor two years must cost a great deal of money by the time it is 
placed in the granary'. Therefore they' have sown a portion of 
their fallow-course with roots, and taken barley instead of winter- 
corn the second y r ear. Some farmers take a root-course after the 
ley-oats, and then a crop of oats or barley before the bare fallow, 
while others, again, have long rotations, including several years 
of grass, or intercalations of green crop every second or third 
year. The following are examples : — 


tfr. Ivar Kylberg, Gras- 
torp, on Lake Wenern. 

1. Fallow (chiefly sown 

with a green crop). 

2. Eye or Wheat. 

3.1 

4.}Grass. 

5-( 

6. Oats or Barley. 

7. Green Crop. 

8. Wheat. 

9. Oats or Barley. 

0. Turnips. 

1. Rye or Wheat. 

2. Oats or Barley. 


Mr. Steinbeck , Gudhem, near 
Fallcoping. 

1. Bare Fallow. 

2. Rye or Wheat. 

3. Barley. 

4. Green Crop. 

5. Turnips with Dung. 

6. Barley with Clover, &c. 

7. Grass, cut. 

8. Do. do. 

9. Do. do. (limed). 

10. Do. do. 

11. Do. fed. 

12. Do. do. 

13. Do. do. 

14. Barley. 

15. Oats. 


Mr. Fogelmark, Mali, near 
Gefle. 

1. Bare Fallow or Turnips. 

2. Rye (after bare Fallow), 

or Barley (after Tur- 
nips). 

3. Grass, cut. 

4. Do. do. 

5. Do. do. dunged. 

6. Do. do. 1 aftermath 

7. Do. do. J grazed. 

8. Oats. 

9. Oats. 


Other variations of the national system of rotations will be 
mentioned in the sequel, but the preceding illustrate some points 
of interest. Mr. Kylberg’s farm is near the southernmost shore 
ot Lake Wenern, and his object is to have one-fourth of his 
land in artificial grass, one-fourth in winter-corn, a third fourth 


182 Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 

in summer-corn, and the remainder in green-crop, which is 
either turnips, tares and oats, buckwheat, &c., cut green for 
the cattle and horses. Mr. Steinbeck’s farm is farther north, 
and consists of much stronger land ; his rotation is a good 
illustration of the system of keeping such land in grass 
for seven or eight years, and also of a by no means uncommon 
plan of taking turnips after a previous green-crop, generally 
consisting of tares and oats cut green. This rotation may 
be conveniently contrasted with the short course adopted by 
Captain von Braun, at Rydaholm, near Wara, also on strong 
land in the same district ; viz. (1) fallow, mostly bare ; (2) 
wheat or rye ; (3) and (4) grass ; (5) oats. This shift has the 
disadvantage of keeping nearly one-fifth of the farm unproduc- 
tive every year ; but Captain von Braun thinks that he is 
repaid by his large crops of corn, which he puts at 4^ quarters of 
wheat and 9 quarters of oats per English acre. The third rota- 
tion given above is taken from a farm much farther north — in 
fact, many miles north of Stockholm. It also illustrates in 
every essential particular the characteristic rotation in Norway, 
as well as the following improvements upon the ordinary shifts : 
the growth of turnips on half the fallow-course, which generally 
necessitates the growth of barley instead of rye on that half the 
next year ; the grass being manured the third year ; and only two 
crops of oats taken in succession, instead of the three or four that 
are customary in Norway and the north of Sweden. 

The following rotation, pursued by Mr. Hay, of Jonkoping, 
the Managing Director of the celebrated match-factory, on a 
small farm in the neighbourhood of that town, illustrates in its 
latter stages a somewhat exhaustive style of farming, which could 
only be followed successfully by the aid of a liberal expenditure 
on artificial manures, and the high feeding of a numerous head 
of stock. The rotation is, (1) tares ; (2) wheat ; (3), (4), (5), 
and (6), grass ; (7) wheat ; (8), (9), (10), wheat, barley, or oats, 
according to the condition of the land. It should be noted that 
Mr. Hay has been in the habit of applying his farmyard-manure 
to the fallow-crop, about 150 lbs. of superphosphate per acre to 
each corn-crop, and poudrette, purchased from the factory people, 
to his grass-land. He also has good strong land, and a climate 
which permits wheat to be sown as late as the beginning of 
September. 

The following Table, showing the acreage in Sweden under 
each kind of crop, under bare fallow, and grass under rotation, 
for the years 1807 to 1872, indicates a very remarkable uni- 
formity of farm-practice under the system of cropping which 
I have termed the “ national rotation — 


Table VII. — Showing the Acreage in Sweden under each kind of Crop, Bare fallow, Grass, Forests, &c. 


Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 183 


35 

ill 


033 2 & 




•sdojQ Id q*0 


•sdoao-ajqij 


•sdoiD 

-^ooh 


•sao^oj 


a 1-4 


*-• o 


N N N N 


r-t O O H 


•oao3 j^qi^ 


bD 72 

2'g 

> p« 
<1 


184 Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 

Cultivation of the Land. 

Falloic .■ — The bare fallow is generally prepared by ploughing 
the oat-stubble 6 or 7 inches, before the season is too far advanced 
in the autumn. Early in the spring, that is to say, in the 
month of May, it is harrowed, and then either ploughed again 
or worked with a native kind of scuffler called an ard, illus- 
trated in Fig. 4. The farmyard manure is always applied to 


O O 

Fig. 4 . — Slcetcli of the Ard , Ardret , or Order. 



SECTION 

A. Beam. 

B. Sole. 

C. Iron share. 

D. Iron vertical shaft to regulate depth of 

work by the holes r and the pin p. 


K E. Digging-breasts. 

F. Handle. 

G. Hinder vertical shaft, supporting the 

handle, 
c Iron collar. 


this shift, either wholly or partially, and is got on the land 
about the end of June or beginning of July. It is turned under 


Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 185 

by moans of the plough or the ard, and the land is afterwards 
harrowed, and allowed to settle, so as to be fit for rye-sowing 
bv the beginning or middle of August, or for wheat-sowing 
about a fortnight later. Just before sowing, the land is finally 
worked with a heavy harrow, or a native quadrangular im- 
plement, called a “ sladd,” a sketch of which is given in Fig. 5. 



Plan of one-half the length of the implement, showing the side that may be used as a harrow and 
scraper, the other side being plain, and used as a roller or clod-crusher when weighted. 

A. B. Longitudinal beams. c. d. Iron staple for the attachment of the 

C. D. Transverse beams. horses or bullocks. 

a. a. Harrow teeth (iron). e. t. Iron clamps. 

b. b. Iron scraper. f. g. Iron collars. 

This and the ard are wooden implements ; but iron ploughs of 
native manufacture and good quality, though perhaps wanting 
in finish, may be purchased in Sweden at very low prices. Some 
farmers, like Mr. Insulander, of Claestorp, whose bare fallow 
follows turnips or vetches, manage to cart a portion of the manure 
on to the land, and to plough it in, during the brief autumn. 

I have stated that a portion of this course is sometimes sown 
with tares, to be cut green in July, and followed by rye or 
wheat ; or with turnips followed by barley. In either case the 
seed is got in as early as the season will permit. Mr. Hay 


186 Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 

grows tares on the whole of his fallow-course on strong land, and 
sows wheat early in September ; but he was long looked upon as 
a madman by the neighbouring peasant-farmers. The official 
returns for Sweden well illustrate the national practice ; and they 
show that, taking the average of the years 1867-72 inclusive, 
949,630 acres were annually planted with winter-corn, while 
928,337 acres were in bare fallow. 

Rye or Wheat. — Rye-sowing commences about the begin- 
ning of August in the central districts, and wheat-sowing fol- 
lows immediately afterwards. In the more southern regions,- 
especially in Scane, rye is not sown until about the middle 
of September, and wheat is put in as late as the first week in 
October. Amongst the best farmers the quantity sown is about 
two bushels per acre ; but 14 to 15 pecks is not uncommon on 
peasant farms. According to the Swedish returns the quantity 
of seed used for winter corn varies from *59 of a tunna per tunn- 
land (9 pecks per acre) in Jemtland (a high northern district), 
to as much as a tunna (15 pecks per acre) in Elfsborg lan. In 
Malmohus lan (the most southern province) the average quan- 
tity given in the official statistics is ’79 tunna per tunnland, or 
12 pecks per acre. 

The seed is generally sown broadcast on the bare fallow, 
which has been manured and prepared as already described. If 
tares or other green crops have been grown on the fallow, it is 
usual to apply to the land a dressing of 150 lbs. of superphos- 
phate per acre when preparing the seed-bed for winter-corn. 
These practices, however, are found very rarely except on large 
estates farmed by the owners, and on the farms held in connec- 
tion with the agricultural schools and colleges. On farms of that 
stamp the winter-corn would also be drilled. Wheat is not 
unfrequently harrowed in the spring, but rye is not touched. 

Harvesting is generally got through during August or the 
early part of September, and most commonly with little or no 
extraneous help. The Swedish official returns give the average 
crop of winter-corn for the last eight years at about 19 bushels 
per acre ; but I met very few people who would own to less than 
twice that quantity. No doubt the very best farmers, having 
good land, their own property, may reckon upon getting from 30 
to 35 bushels or more per acre in fair years ; but I was frequently 
told of such harvests where the stubble did not' bear out the 
assertion. 

Grass . — The seeds are sown on the young wheat or rye 
in April, frequently, and preferably, in some parts of Sweden, 
while the snow is still on the land. Some idea of the mixtures 
used may be gained by the following examples. (1) On a cen- 
tral farm near Skofde, between the Lakes Wenern and Wettern, 


Report on the Agriculture of SivAlen and Norway. 187 

14 lbs. Timothy grass, 7 lbs. red clover, 2 \ lbs. white clover, 
and 7 lbs. alsike, per imperial acre ; (2) on a much more 
northern farm, near Gefle, the quantities were, 18 lbs. Timothy, 
9 lbs. alsike, 4 lbs. red clover, and 2 to 2^ lbs. white clover, per 
imperial acre ; and (3) on a farm near the south-eastern shore of 
Lake VVettern, 13 lbs. Timothy grass, 10 lbs. red clover, 7 lbs. 
alsike, and 4 lbs. trefoil, per imperial acre. 

The grass remains, as we have seen, from two or three to as 
many as six or seven years. In the shorter rotations it is usually 
cut once in the first year or two, and either partially or entirely 
fed the third. In the case of longer- rotations it is cut three or 
four years, being dressed with lime or compost the second or 
third year, and cut the last three years. Some farmers, how- 
ever, prefer to alternate the mowing and feeding ; while others, 
again, never feed anything but the aftermath. As a rule the red 
clover disappears, more or less, after the first year, and then the 
value of the Timothy grass is felt. 

The spring climate of a large portion of the south of Sweden 
renders the growth of good grass a very difficult achievement. 
The comparatively warm days of that season are succeeded by 
very frosty nights, and this alternation of nocturnal frosts and 
diurnal thaws not only destroys the roots of the grasses, but also 
honeycombs the land in a very remarkable manner. I was told 
that north of the Gotha Canal, where the advent of spring is 
later but more pronounced, there is not the same difficulty ; and 
it is quite within our own experience that grass and wheat both 
suffer severely from repeated and violent fluctuations of the 
weather, in the form of alternations of wet and dry periods, 
or of frosts and thaws. The shortness of the summer season 
must also, as already suggested, reduce the average of the crop 
of grass. 

The quantity of land in Sweden sown with grass and fodder 
crops in rotation is 1,654,544 acres, of which only 320,360 acres 
are returned as pasture, and the remainder are mown. 

Oats . — The grass is generally ploughed in the autumn about 
six inches deep, after having been limed, by-; the best farmers, 
il the land is strong ; it is then left until the end of April or 
beginning of May, when it is harrowed, and sown with about 4 to 

bushels of oats per imperial acre. The seed is harrowed in, and 
nothing further is done until harvest-time, which generally falls 
about the end of August to the middle of September, according 
to the season and district. When oats follow a previous corn- 
crop the method pursued is the same, except that the best 
farmers apply from 150 lbs. to 2 cwt. of superphosphate or 
Mejillones guano per imperial acre. Good crops are stated to 
be from 36 to 48 bushels per imperial acre. 


188 Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 

Barley . — This crop succeeds either oats or turnips in the 
greater portion of Sweden and Norway ; but in some favoured 
districts it is taken after sugar-beet. Barley-sowing follows the 
oat seed-time ; and the land is prepared very much as that for 
oats after a previous corn-crop. Many good farmers, however, 
who take barley between two crops of oats, give a dressing of 
farmyard-manure to their barley-land. In that case the manure 
is carted on to the land early in spring, to the amount of 10 to 
15 tons per imperial acre, and is either ploughed or harrowed 
in according to the strength of the land. The barley is sown, 
generally about the beginning to the middle of May, except in 
Scane, where it is got in by the middle of April. Four bushels 
of seed per acre, generally of the six-row variety, is not an 
unusual quantity ; and the average quantity of seed used for 
all kinds of spring-corn in the years 1865—72 inclusive, ac- 
cording to the official returns, is no less than 4^ bushels per 
imperial acre. The crop varies very much according to cir- 
cumstances, being largest after sugar-beet ; for a very good 
farmer it may be put down at 36 to 40 bushels per acre, but 
rising to as much as 50 under very favourable circumstances. 
The official average crop of spring-corn for the whole kingdom 
■of Sweden in the years 1865-72 inclusive, is 23'8 bushels per 
imperial acre ; and the extent of land sown is, on the average of 
the six years ending with 1872, as much as 1,979,198 acres. 

When barley is taken after turnips or beetroot the land re- 
quires no preparation in the autumn, and in the spring it is 
merely harrowed or “ sladded,’’ sown, and the seed harrowed in. 
The assertion that the crop after beetroot is so superior to that 
after any other crop may be accepted as the truth without much 
•question, on account of the comparatively heavy manuring, and 
the careful cultivation which the land receives in preparation 
for that crop, as well as the careful cleaning during its growth. 
Drilling spring-corn is not generally liked in Sweden. The 
time of spring-sowing is also a matter on which differences of 
opinion prevail, and my notes contain records of practice varying 
from the middle of April in Scane, to as late as the beginning of 
June on Mr. Swartz’s farm not far from Wadstena. When I saw 
this farm in the middle of September, the late-sown six-row 
barley was still green, but giving the promise of a very heavy 
return it it could be safely housed ; and I have every reason to 
believe that the exceptionally dry autumn which prevailed in 
Sweden this year brought this risky speculation to a successful 
issue. It seemed more hazardous than its avowed object — the 
reduction of annual weeds — would warrant. 

'Turnips . — A root-course is comparatively rare in the rotations 
pursued on Swedish and Norwegian farms, although a certain 


Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 189 


breadth of potatoes for home use is generally grown. Turnips 
are sometimes taken after oats instead of barley, on either the 
whole or a part of the course, and in other cases on part of 
the fallow course, which is then followed by barley instead of 
rye. The stubble is ploughed in the autumn as for bare fallow, 
and harrowed in the spring ; or if the ploughing cannot be done 
in the short autumn it must be a first consideration in the spring. 
About the middle of May the land is grubbed to the depth of 
10 inches, harrowed, if possible, and set out in ridges from 24 to 
28 inches wide, with the double-mouldboard plough. Farm- 
yard manure is laid in the drills to the amount of 15 tons per 
acre, and 1 to 2 cwt. of superphosphate added. The ridges are 
split, and about 4 lbs. per acre of turnips sown. This is an, 
advanced system of turnip-cultivation, and is rarely to be seen. 
More frequently no farmyard-manure is applied, and the super- 
phosphate is sown broadcast directly after the spring harrowing. 
The land is ridged, and 7 or 8 lbs. of turnip-seed drilled per 
imperial acre. 

The cleaning of the land is mostly performed by means of a 
bow-scraper which works in the furrows, and the plants are 
thinned and singled by children to about 10 inches apart. In 
October the roots are lifted, topped and tailed, and stored in 
long pits or pies, or in houses, for use as required during 
the winter. The total extent of land under all kinds of root- 
crops, in Sweden, has averaged only 24,177 acres for the years 
1867-72 inclusive. It will be seen in the sequel that the 
reason why turnips are not more extensively grown is that on 
most of the farms in the Scandinavian Peninsula the prin- 
cipal object is dairying. It is not that the climate prevents 
itheir cultivation or renders it difficult, for throughout the 
•country, from Malmo in the south to Gefle in the north, I occa- 
sionally saw exceedingly good crops of swedes and of white and 
m r ellow' turnips. 

1 Sugar-beet . — This root is grown on a fair number of farms 
|n the south and centre of Sweden, in localities near certain 
fcwns, such as Landskrona and Wadstena, where sugar-factories 
mist. The crop is generally sold to the sugar-makers at a price 
efcual to rather more than 21s. per ton, which may be increased 
tMnearly 24s. in the winter-season in some districts. From one- 
fi»h to one-sixth of the weight of the roots may be bought back 
aMpulp, at prices varying from 13s. 4 d. per ton, in the case of 
tl® larger percentage, to 16s., or even 18s. 6d., in the case of the- 
siAller. It is of course obvious that the quality of the pulp 
is Better in the latter case, as the difference between the larger 
an® smaller percentage of weight returned as pulp consists 
aliAst entirely of w^ater. 


190 Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 

The following method of cultivation is pursued by Mr. Swartz, 
of Hofgarden, near YVadstena, who grows annually 100 acres of 
sugar-beet after barley. The stubble is ploughed in the autumn 
as soon as possible, and if the weather permits, the land is gone 
over afterwards with the ard. The dung is carted out and spread 
during the winter to the amount of 10 or 11 tons per imperial 
acre. In the spring the land is cultivated, or rather, deeply har- 
rowed, twice or thrice in cross directions ; the depth reached 
being about 7 inches. After this, about 2 cwt. of superphosphate 
(containing 15 per cent, of soluble phosphate guaranteed) is 
sown per acre, and harrowed in. About 28 lbs. of seed per acre 
is then drilled in rows about 18 inches apart. This operation is 
performed between April 28th and May 10th as a general rule, 
and is always the earliest spring-sowing on Hofgarden. Rolling 
is a favourite practice with sugar-beet growers, but Mr. Swartz 
never practises it. The argument is that it hastens vegetation, 
but Mr. Swartz prefers to get in his seed as early as possible on 
well-prepared land, and in view of the trying and uncertain 
spring climate in his locality, to carefully avoid any mode of 
procedure that would unduly hasten its germination. 

When the plants are sufficiently grown to enable the rows to 
be seen, the land is horse-hoed between them, and the plants are 
weeded. The liorse-hoe is used a second time, and the plants 
are then singled to about 9 or 10 inches apart. The next 
operation is performed with a “ beet-lifter,” but with the shares 
arranged, at this stage of the cultivation of the crop, to act as 
a grubber between the rows, working as deeply as can be done 
by a pair of horses, generally about 7 inches. This same imple- 
ment is employed as a “ lifter ” when the crop is ready, the 
shares being turned to work beneath the roots. The cultivation 
of Mr. Swartz’s 100 acres of sugar-beet necessitates the employ- 
ment of 40 boys, girls, and women, during the season, at an 
average wage of 8 d. per diem. 

Harvesting is done by boys and women at from 15s. to 18s. 
per acre, including the collection of the roots and the leaves, 
each into a separate heap for every half-acre cultivated. The 
leaves are not regularly heaped, but are collected together, and 
taken off as required for the cows, each of which gets about 
3 imperial stone per day, the average produce of an imperial 
acre being something under 3 tons of leaves. Mr. Swartz assured 
me that the leaves of the sugar-beet would stand an immense 
amount of severe frost without injury. The roots are made into 
long heaps on each half-acre (Swedish), covered with earth, and 
sent to the sugar-factory at Wadstena as desired. The, crop 
varies from 12 to 18 tons per imperial acre. 

The following details in the method of cultivation pursued by 


Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 191 

Mr. Tranchell, a sugar-manufacturer, on bis farm of Sabyholm, 
near Landskrona, in tbe soutli of Sweden, exhibits some im- 
portant divergences of practice. The stubble is ploughed in the 
autumn to the depth of about 10 inches, either by horses or oxen. 
In spring, a good tilth is obtained by harrow ing, and the land is 
then sown with about 150 lbs. per acre of bone-dust, a similar 
quantity of guano, and 75 lbs. of potash-salts. These manures 
having been harrowed in, the land is rolled, and then drilled with 
from 20 to 25 lbs. of seed per acre, in rows 18 inches apart, the 
plants being eventually set out to 10 inches apart. After drilling, 
the land is rolled again, and if necessary, in consequence of be- 
coming baked, it is harrowed about eight days afterwards. 
When the plants are about an inch high, the horse-hoe is 
passed between the rows ; and this operation is repeated five or 
six times during the summer. When the plants have three or 
four leaves, they are thinned out and singled by hand. Early 
in the summer they are cleaned, and the earth raked away from 
the roots, by women at about 10ef. per day, each imperial acre 
occupying one woman from seven to ten days. About the end 
of June, or beginning of July, the roots are again covered w T ith 
earth, by means of a horse-hoe, after which they require no 
farther attention until harvest-time. 

The beetroot harvest in this district generally falls about the 
beginning of October, and is done at from 18s. Gd. to 22s. per 
acre, including pitting and covering with 12 inches of earth. 
Mr. Tranchell finds that the roots contain an average of 12 per 
cent, of sugar ; and he also informed me that most of the 
farmers from whom he purchases roots do not claim their pri- 
vilege of buying back the pulp, an abstention that doubtless 
pays him very well indeed. The cost of manual labour in the 
cultivation of sugar-beet amounts to 31. per acre, on an average of 
300 imperial acres of this crop grown annually by Mr. Tranchell. 

Without going into fiscal matters, it may be worthy of mention 
that Mr. Tranchell’s factory at Landskrona commenced work in 
1850, but that it remained the only one in Sweden until 1869, 
although many experiments were made in the interval in most 
of the southern and central provinces of the kingdom. In 1869, 
however, another factory was built near Stockholm, and was 
followed, in 1870, by one near Malmo, at Arlof ; and in 1871, 
by the one referred to near Wadstena, as well as by others near 
Halmstad and on the Ljung estate. In addition to these fac- 
tories, and as accessories to them, it has been attempted to carry 
out the process of manufacture in its earlier stages upon large 
farms, and to forward the crude product ( Kalkzucker ) to the 
factories for the completion of the manufacturing and refining 
processes. 


102 Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 

Potatoes . — Throughout Sweden and Norway potatoes are gene- 
rally grown ; but it is chiefly in Hedemarken, in the latter 
country, and in the southern provinces of the former, that they 
are cultivated on an extensive scale for the manufacture of spirit. 
In round numbers, 350,000 acres were planted in Sweden in the 
year 1872, and the crop amounted to 45,000,000 bushels, or 130 
bushels per acre. Taking the bushel to weigh about half a 
hundredweight, this would give an average production of 3 tons 
5 cwt. per imperial acre. By Table VII., p. 183, it may be seen 
that the average quantity of land under potatoes during the six 
years included in it was 331,776 acres, and that the cultivation of 
the tuber has during that period been progressively extending. 
According to the official returns, the average crop for the eight 
years ending with 1872, was 116'9 bushels per imperial acre. 
The cultivation of the land is the same as for roots, and the 
potatoes are planted from the end of April until the third week 
in May. The crop is chiefly harvested by women, who work in 
gangs, numbering in some cases twenty or thirty people. The 
women receive 7 \d. to 8 d. per day, and as many potatoes as they 
can eat, and the overseer about Is. 8 d. per day. These long 
rows of women, on their knees, getting the potato-harvest with 
their fingers as much as w ith their hoes, and superintended by a 
man, who w alks to and fro keeping them at it, seemed to me the 
most disagreeable examples of agricultural labour to be found in 
Sweden, and especially in the province of Scane. 

Pulse . — On an average, according to the official returns, about 
130,000 acres of pulse-crops are grown in Sweden every year. 
A proportion of this area doubtless consists of tares grown on the 
fallow-course preceding winter-corn ; and the greater portion 
of the remainder is taken after ley-oats on a part of the course, 
in place either of barley or a second crop of oats. The cultiva- 
tion of the land in the first instance has been already described 
under the head of bare fallow r ; and in the second case it would 
be the same as for barley. The official returns for Sweden 
lurther give the average amount of seed used as 3J bushels per 
acre, and the average crop as 16*3 bushels. , 

Tobacco . — This crop is cultivated in the neighbourhood of 
Stockholm and other large towns, from which plenty of manure 
and occasional labour can be obtained. The total amount of 
the crop throughout the kingdom has not been published, but I 
have seen as much as 10 acres of tobacco on one farm in the 
south, and the quantity grown near Stockholm alone has been 
stated at more than 200 tons per annum. As a rule it is grown 
year after year on the same land, which is very heavily dressed 
with town-manure and guano. 


Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 193 
Harvesting. 

The climate of Norway and the North of Sweden renders 
the harvesting of the crops in good condition somewhat diffi- 
cult. I was therefore curious to learn what expedients, if any, 
were resorted to in the case of wet or frosty weather ; for even 
“ snow in harvest ” would not be looked upon as a miracle in 
some of these northern regions. The most common plan is to 
spit the sheaves on poles, which are planted in the field for the 
purpose, in long rows, at equal distances from pole to pole, and 
from row to row. Either the poles are stuck through the sheaves, 
or the sheaves are bound to the poles in couples, one on each 
side, as in Fig. 6. The number of sheaves piled one above the 
other varies according to circumstances, but generally an interval 
is left between the lowest sheaf and the ground, unless it is occu- 
pied by an upright sheaf forming a support for the horizontal 
ones above. Peas, tares, &c., and frequently even clover and 
grass, are dried by being hung across rails, or a kind of hurdle 
or fence, on the plan of a common clothes-horse. 

Fig. 6 . — Sheaves hound to Poles to hasten their drying, as practised in 
Siceden and Norway. 



Reaping-machines are slowly making their way (the American 
“Buck-Eye” is most often seen) ; but their more general adoption 
is retarded by the existence of so many open parallel drains — 
which are rendered necessary by the sudden thawing of the snow 
in the spring — as well as by the fact that the regular staff of 
servants engaged by the year to work on the farm in summer and 
in the forest in winter is so large as to render the Scandinavian 
larmer comparatively independent of mechanical aids in the 
operations of reaping and mowing. 


VOL. XI. — S. S. 


0 


194 Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 

Live Stock. 

The annexed Table (VIII.) gives the number of head of farm 
stock in Sweden in each of the years 1865 to 1872 inclusive, and 
the number in Norway in 1865. Comparing the Swedish figures 
for 1872 with those already given (Table VII.), of the quantity 
of land under cultivation and in natural grass (exclusive of forest 
and mountain-pasture) in that country in the same year, the num- 
ber of horses, cattle, sheep, and pigs, per 100 acres in Sweden, 
and those in Great Britain, according to our own Agricultural 
Returns (also exclusive of mountain pasture), are as follows : — 



Horses. 

Cattle. 

Sheep. 

X’igs. 

Sweden 

4-0 

18-9 

14-9 

3-6 

Great Britain . . 

6-8 

18-1 

90-0 

8-9 


A reliable comparison with Norway cannot be given ; but if we 
assume the acreage of land under cultivation in Norway in 1865, 
given in the Agricultural Statistics of Great Britain for 1873, 
to be approximately correct, then the number of live stock per 
100 acres was as follows : — Horses, 5T ; cattle, 33 - 3 ; sheep, 60 ; I 
and pigs, 3 - 2. It is tolerably clear, however, that the 2,840,500 
acres of land stated in our own Statistics to include all kinds of 
crops, bare-fallow, and grass, cannot include the natural grass of 
the Saeter, which, throughout Norway, almost entirely supports 
the stock of cattle and sheep during the summer months, and 
also, to a certain extent, furnishes the hay for their winter keep.* 

It should also be mentioned that, in addition to the stock 
included in Table VIII., Sweden possessed 118,438 goats in 1872, 1 
and Norway 290,650 in 1865, as well as 101,750 reindeer. 

Horses. 

The average number of horses per 100 acres of land, exclusive 1 
of the forest and mountain pasture, is, both in Sweden and Nor- 
way, much less than in England, although the short season for < 
farm-work, the demand for horse-labour in the forests, and the 1 
comparatively small mileage of railways, are conditions that all 
point to an opposite result. It must, however, be remembered 
that, on the one hand, the Norwegian and Swedish cattle include a | 
large number of draught-oxen, amounting in Sweden to probablt 1 
at least 2 per 100 acres, as the total number of oxen is equal t( 

* I regret that I have been unable to make use of the official statistics relatin' . 
to the cultivation of the land in Norway, as my calculations of the quantities int . 
English weights and measures gave results that were evidently erroneous, whei , 
compared with similar calculations relating to Sweden and Denmark. 


Table VIII. — Showing the Number of Animals of tho Farm in Sweden in the Years 1805-72, anil in Norway 

in the Year 1865. 


195 


Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 



196 Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Noi'way. 

2-5 per 100 acres of agricultural land. Then, on the other hand, 
it must equally be borne in mind that only about three-sevenths 
of our English horses are used in agriculture (one-seventh are 
brood-mares and young animals, and the remaining three- 
sevenths are used for non-agricultural purposes), though what is 
the proportion used in the cultivation of the land in Sweden and 
Norway the published statistics do not enable me to ascertain. 

In Norway there are two distinct breeds of horses, namely, the 
larger, or Gudbrandsdal breed, and the smaller, or Nordfjord 
breed. The latter is well known as the compact and hardy 
dun-coloured Norwegian pony, from 13 to 14 hands high, with 
dark legs, mane, and tail, and a dark stripe along the back. 
The Gudbrandsdal horse is somewhat larger, without any speci- 
ality of colour, and has its home, as its name implies, in the 
district of Gudbrandsdal, in Hedemarken. Pure specimens of 
the latter breed are now rarely seen, as it has been very much 
crossed with Danish blood. Some hundreds of horses are annu- 
ally exported from Norway, chiefly to Sweden. 

The following descriptions of these breeds, translated from 
Mr. Smitt’s ‘ History of Norwegian Agriculture,’ * will further 
elucidate this subject : — 

“ The horse of the Fjord districts is distinguished by a very compact and 
powerful build in proportion to its size. The head is sometimes a little rough, 
but most often well-formed ; the forehead is broad, and smoothly united with 
the straight nose ; the ears are small, on the inside thickly covered, or filled, as it. 
were, with rather long hairs; the eyes are lively, and have a gentle expression ; 
and the disposition of the animal is generally friendly and docile. The head 
is rather stiffly connected with the neck, which is short, thick, and strong, 
with a short stiff nape and a strong mane. The back is most often straight ; ; 
the loin short and broad ; the buttocks broad and strong, sometimes straight, 
but more often somewhat slanting ; the chest is broad ; the legs small, but | 
strong and well placed ; the hoofs small, commonly black ; the hams often I 
somewhat crooked, but strong, with little disposition to spavin. The chest is i 
vaulted and deep, the shoulder sometimes a little oblique, the flanks short. Taken | ! 
as a whole, this horse may be said to be rather short than long in the body. 

“ The colour is most usually yellow — dun-coloured yellow — white, or mouse- < 
grey, with a mixture of black in the tuft of hair on the top of the head anc i 
the tail, black along the middle of the mane, a black stripe along the back 
and black, black-grey, or brownish feet from the fore-knee and the ham t( - i 
the hoof, with black cross-stripes on the back of the fore-knee, and black hoofs 
In general it may also be observed that the outer streak and the points of tin 
ears are black. A brown colour, with black tuft of hair, black mane, tail, an< 
■stripe along the back, black feet and ear-points, is very frequent. How fa 
this colour originally belongs to this race, or has been introduced througl 
crossing with foreign breeds, would perhaps be difficult to decide with an 
certainty, but that it is due to crossing may perhaps be considered as tb 
most probable. The size is usually about 13 to 14 hands, reckoned frot 
the mane to the uppermost streak of the outer side of the hoof. 


* ‘Detnorsko Landbrugs Historic i Tidsruinmet 1815-1870.’ Af J. Smit 
Christiania, 1874. 


Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 197 

“ The Gudbrandsdal horse has, in all probability, partly obtained its pre- 
-;nt characteristics through crossing with Danish breeds. It is known that 
ibout the middle of the last century, and the period immediately succeeding, 
Danish stallions were introduced into Gudbrandsdal for stud purposes. 

“ The Gudbrandsdal breed is larger than the Fjord horse, about 14 to 15 
hands, sometimes rather bigger, and shows evidence of something having 
been done for its improvement, through a more careful selection of sires, as 
: well as through better treatment in rearing. 

“ The head, as a rule, is more delicate, the ears larger, with more lively motion. 
The judges of horses in the Gudbrandsdal district are particular about the horse 
. having the right sort of ears. The eyes are large; the neck not exactly long, 
yet longer and not so stiff as in the Fjord horse ; the nape and the connection 
, between the neck and the head is better in the Gudbrandsdal horse, and it 
i frequently has a very fine bearing. The back is rather straight ; the buttocks 
•, sometimes straight, but often somewhat slanting ; the chest is deep, and the 
ribs vaulted. The whole frame is proportionately somewhat longer than that 
[of the Fjord horse. The legs are strong and well placed. Altogether this 
breed is strongly built. 

“ The colour is more often brown, with black tuft of hair on the head, 
i black mane and tail, and sometimes black feet. Chestnut, grey, and black 
i horses of this breed are also frequently to be met with.” 

In Norway, Government stallions, for the use of the farmers 
of the several districts, are placed on conveniently situated 
farms. I visited such a farm, between Christiania and Drammen, 
which was 500 feet above the sea-level. The stallion was of 
the Gudbrandsdal breed, and the covering fee was 13s. 6c?. per 
mare, if they went to him, but if the horse went into the hills 
the fee was 1Z. 2s. 6cf. per mare. This stallion had covered 
56 mares last season. The fees went to the Government, and 
the farmer w T as allowed Is. 1 ^d. per day for the horse’s keep. 

In Sweden there are three State establishments, similar to the 
French Haras, on a tolerably large scale. They are all under 
the supervision and control of the manager of the chief establish-., 
ment at Stromsholm, in Westmanlands lan, where 75 stallions, 
71 mares and fillies, and 2 geldings were kept at the time of the 
latest returns. At Flyinge, in Malmohus lan (Southern Sweden), 
there were 34 stallions, 23 brood-mares, and 53 young horses. At 
Ottenby, in Gland, there were 61 old and young stallions, 105 
mares and fillies, and 8 geldings. There were also 7 stallions 
in Malmohus lan, and 5 in Christianstad, which had received 
Government premiums as stud animals. 

The farm horses of Sweden are much lighter than those 
generally seen on English occupations; and although occasionally 
ol considerable stature, they are frequently wanting in breadth 
and power. It is very rare to see more than two horses before a 
plough, or any other implement used for the cultivation of the 
soil ; but, as already mentioned, the land is rarely if ever so 
strong as that of our stiff clays, while the severe frosts of the 
long winter penetrate to a great depth, and considerably lighten 


198 Report on the Agriculture oj Siveden and Noricay. 

the work of the farmer. The short period during which the 
land can be worked necessitates the keeping of a large staff 
of draught-animals, and the comparatively small draught-power 
attached to a plough, of course means, in many cases, com- 
paratively shallow cultivation. On a very well-managed and 
characteristic farm of 1460 acres (360 being permanent pasture, 
and three-sevenths of the remainder in artificial grass annually) 
there were 34 horses and 28 oxen employed in working the 
farm, or more than 5^ per 100 acres under cultivation. On 
a Norwegian farm, 500 feet above the sea, there were 8 horses 
to cultivate 130 acres of arable land in the short summer, but 
of course they were employed in the forests during the winter. 
On a farm of 360 acres, three-sevenths in artificial grass, in the 
south of Sweden, where the summer is much longer, there were 
6 horses and 16 working oxen, or 6 draught-animals per 100 
acres ; while on another of 600 acres of arable land, also in the 
south, but with less artificial grass, there were 28 horses, or 4-^ 
draught-animals per 100 acres. The contrast presented by these 
last instances seems to suggest the well-known fact of the supe- 
riority of horses over oxen for farm-work. 

The most instructive facts relating to horse-labour are those 
furnished me by Mr. Swartz, of Hofgarden, who has 600 acres 
under the plough, over 500 acres in artificial grass left as long 
as possible, about 80 or 90 acres of permanent grass, and 500 
acres of forest. Practically, the farm-work for the horses is con- 
fined to the 600 acres of ploughed land, on which there is 
no seed-course ; but it is found necessary to keep 44 horses 
and 10 oxen, out of which 6 horses are employed in carrying 
water, milk, &c., leaving 48 draught-animals to work 600 acres, 
or 8 per 100 acres.* Mr. Swartz has everything weighed and 
measured, and every transaction carefully entered, an elaborate 
system of bookkeeping being thoroughly carried out by his 
clerks. Therefore, remembering that two years ago I somewhat 
startled the Farmers’ Club by stating that it required as much 
land to keep a horse as would supply the necessary food for 
seven or eight men, I begged Mr. Swartz to give me'his calcula- 
tion of the quantity of land which was required to produce the 
food of each of his horses annually, taking average crops as 
the basis of calculation. This he did as follows : — The daily 
food ol his horses consists of 10 lbs. of oats (8 lbs. crushed and 
2 lbs. ground), 12 lbs. of hay, and 15 lbs. of straw per day. 
the whole year through. The average crop of 1 tunnland ol 


* This proportion is not larger than on other farms, except in the south, if tli 
quantity of land which requires horse-labour in any one year be alone taken int 
the calculation. 


Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Noricag. 190 


oats is 1600 lbs. ; of straw, 2400 lbs. ; and of hay, 3000 lbs. 
Therefore the account is — 


10 lbs. per day of Oats = 3650 lbs. 
15 lbs. „ Straw = 5475 lbs. 

12 lbs. ,, Hay = 4380 lbs. 


1600 lbs. \ 
2400 lbs. / 
3000 lbs. 


= 2| Tunnland. 

= 


Total 


33 


?> 


The oats and the straw are thus taken as grown on the same 
land ; and the total, 3f tunnland, is equal to exactly imperial 
acres. The working oxen get 20 lbs. of hay, 15 lbs. of straw, 
and 2 lbs. of meal per day, or the produce of 2% tunnland of 
hay, 2^ of straw, and ^ of corn, or not very much less than the 
horses. If, to simplify the calculation, we take the whole of the 
draught-animals at the horse figure, then the produce of 216 acres 
of land is consumed by the animals which are found necessary for 
the cultivation of 600. Or, in round numbers, one-third of the 
crops go to feed the draught-animals employed in their cultiva- 
tion. It may, however, be urged that all this should not be put 
to the debit of the farm, as the forest utilises part of the horse- 
labour in winter ; but the important consideration from the agri- 
cultural point of view is that the work of the farm could not 
be done with fewer horses. Then again, Mr. Swartz has only 
500 acres of forest, and in the winter his horses are occupied 
for six weeks in carrying firewood to the farm-steadings and 
labourers’ cottages, and a portion of the remaining time in 
carting out manure. In the summer the men are up at six, and 
in the fields with their horses by seven, working until twelve. 
They resume at two, and work until tight, with an interval of 
half-an-hour between half-past four and five o’clock. 

Posting Stations . — A sketch of the horses and horse-keeping 
of the Scandinavian Peninsula would be incomplete without 
some notice of the national and somewhat peculiar system 
of posting, which supplies the chief means of travelling in 
those districts where the railway has not yet penetrated. Theo- 
retically, by law, the farmers of each defined district are bound 
to supply in turn, and at a fixed tariff, horses required by tra- 
vellers, who may either order them beforehand by sending a 
messenger in advance (fiorbud), or may take their chance of 
finding horses at liberty at the successive stations. In the latter 
case, should there be no horse at liberty, and no other traveller 
in advance at the station, a horse must be furnished in one hour, 
two horses in two hours, and so on ; but if the traveller is fore- 
stalled, he must wait patiently his turn, until the previous comers 
have been served, before the counting of his hours commences. 

On most of the highroads, the stations, which are also the 
inns of the rural districts, are now let by contract to a post- 


200 Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 


master, who takes the responsibility off the farmers by con- 
tracting to supply travellers, at the Government tariff, either 
with his own horses or with those which he may hire by 
private contract, in case of need, from such farmers or other 
persons as may be willing to let. 

When driving in Dalecarlia ( Dalarne) from Falun, I was unable 
to send my forbud papers, and I was therefore obliged to take my 
chance all along the route. At the first station, about 10 miles 
from Falun, there were two travellers before me, each of whom 
wanted one horse, therefore I was compelled to wait three hours 
before I could proceed another 12 miles on the road. Bv the 
time the second station was reached it had become too dark to 
proceed farther that night, so I had to resign myself to sleeping 
at this posthouse, which was fortunately much better appointed 
than the previous one. 

French and German having proved of no avail, I was alike 
startled and relieved at hearing the postmaster’s wife answer my 
forlorn-hope question, “ Do you speak English?” with, “ Waal, 
I guess I dew some,” given with a pronounced Yankee drawl, 
flavoured with a Swedish accent. I secured her services as an 
interpreter in obtaining information as to the management of 
the station. Her husband receives a subvention of about 100/. 
per annum from the district, the contract being made for a 
period of five years. In return for this sum he is obliged to 
keep horses for travellers, and let them at the Government 
tariff, as follows : — 


July .. .. 

.. 5 hors 

August . . 

.. 5 „ 

September 

.. 4 „ 

October .. 

.. 4 „ 

November 

.. 3 „ 

December 

.. 3 „ 


January 2 horses. 

February .. .. 2 „ 

March 2 „ 

April 3 „ 

May 5 „ 

June 5 


get them at any cost within the stipulated time, and charge 
only the proper tariff to the traveller ; therefore he actually 
keeps 12 horses all the year round, and is thus, 'generally 
speaking, independent of external aid. 

That this contract is not unprofitable may be inferred from 
the fact that the postmaster is in his second term of five years, 
for which he has accepted a somewhat smaller subvention than 
he received during his first term. 

I should add that this postmaster owns about 15 acres of 
land, which he cultivates in the usual manner, namely, fallow, 
followed by rye sown out with seeds, which remain 3, 4, or 
5 years, and are succeeded by oats for 2 or 3 years. Sometimes 
six-row barley is taken instead of one of the crops of oats. Five 


Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 201 

milch-cows and two or three young cattle are kept in addition 
to the horses, for which, of course, a large quantity of food is 
annually purchased. 


Cattle. 

In the far north a small white hornless breed of cattle (the 
Finn ho) exists, more or less in a state of nature ; but I did not see 
any specimens of it. Prof. Nilsson has suggested that this breed 
may have descended from the extinct Bos lonyifrons, Owen.* 

The only breeds that require description on economical 
grounds are the Thelemark breed of Norway, and the so-called 
Herrgardsrace of Sweden, while the influence of crossing with 
foreign breeds, in enhancing the production of meat and milk, 
is even more important than the inherent capabilities of the 
native races. 

Thelemark Breed.- — With regard to this breed I cannot do 
better than quote the following description of it by my friend 
Mr. Tveter, the Manager of the Royal Farm at Ladegaardsoen, 
near Christiania, making only such alterations in verbiage and 
such omissions of detail as its publication in England seems to 
render desirable 

“The Thelemark race is one of the few constant races of cattle, perhaps 
the only one, which Norway possesses. It is a well-defined mountain race, 
which, as its name denotes, has its home in Thelemark, and is found purest 
in the upper districts, Siljord, Hvideseid, &c. 

“ The animal is small. Full-grown cows rarely attain a greater weight 
than 660 to 770 lbs. ; but it must be remarked that they increase consider- 
ably in size when put on better food than usual, particularly if this takes 
place at an early age. Thus on the Royal farm at Ladegaardsoen there are 
cows which, after having remained some years on good food, have attained a 
weight of 1000 lbs. and upwards. It is the usual scanty winter- feeding in 
Thelemark, in addition to early calving, which throws them back in their 
growth. In the summer — from Midsummer till the middle of September — 
the cows are kept in the mountain-pastures, where they usually have excel- 
lent grazing, but also frequently suffer much from cold and bad weather, as 
sheds are seldom erected for their protection. The great abundance of good 
summer-grazing often induces the keeping of more cows than can be properly 
fed during the long winter, for which reason the produce in milk is during 
that time extremely small ; and in the spring the animals are usually lean, and 
in bad condition. 

“ The most remarkable points in the Thelemark breed are the slender form, 
small head, with long well-shaped horns (nearly always furnished with 
buttons), the sprightly movement, and the bright colouring. This last varies 
very much, from quite white till tolerably dark; but usually the variations 
Are those of red, spotted and brindled. Most of the animals are red-sided, 
spotted, or dappled, but the somewhat rarer brindled colour is considered 
handsomer.f Besides the colour, the horns are very characteristic ; hornless 

* ‘ Annals and Mag. Nat. Hist.,’ 2nd Series, vol. iv. 1849, p. 423. 

t The colour is generally confined to the sides and head, the back and belly 
'Usually remaining white. — H. M. J. 


202 


Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 

(‘ polled ’) cows are relatively rare, so that some people even maintain that such 
are not pure-bred. The horns should be long and slender, of transparent 
substance, regularly curved outwards, and a little forwards ; a width between 
the tips of the horns of 24 to 30 inches is not of uncommon occurrence. The 
head must be small and fine ; the eyes large and lively ; the nostrils large, 
and the ears thin ; the neck should be long, the body round, with straight 
back and broad hind-quarters. The milk-signs and the skin are naturally, in 
this as in every other milking race, of great importance. 

“ The Thelemark breed is peculiarly a milking breed. On the Royal farm 
at Ladegaardsoen the best milking cows have been of this .race for the last 
three years, although animals of various breeds have been kept, and some 
rather large ones of 1000 lbs. living weight and upwards. The stock has 
therefore in the course of the last few years been changed almost exclusively 
to Thelemark cattle. Thus the cow ‘ Risoie ’ milked in 1868, 646f gallons; 
in 1869, 720 gallons ; in 1870, 689j gallons, or on an average of 3 years 685J 
gallons, with a living weight of about 790 lbs. English weight, that is nearly 
9 lbs. of milk for each 1 lb. living weight annually, a result which bears com- 
parison with the best foreign milking breeds.* Usually the Thelemark cows 
do not milk highly immediately after calving, seldom more than 3£ gallons 
daily, but they maintain the yield evenly, and do not remain long dry. It 
is also not usual that newly purchased animals give so rich a yield at first as 
afterwards ; but yet we have instances of cows which have given above 3000 
pots (637 gallons) in the first year. However, such instances do not justify 
the notion that so high a yield is according to rule among newly-purchased 
Thelemark cows ; t it is naturally only in the case of exceptionally fine 
animals ; usually we must be well satisfied when a cow weighing 660 to 
770 lbs. gives 425 to 530 gallons of milk on regular good food.}: 

“ Like every other good milking breed, the Thelemark cows are very 
liable to milk-fever ; for which reason it is very important to keep them on a 
low diet for some time before and after calving. 

“ The Thelemark breed has been improved during the last few years, by 
reason of the greater attention paid to the selection of breeding-stock, and by 
better keep. The State has caused a general exhibition of cattle to be held every 
autumn at Siljord, and this has been of great advantage to the district. Besides 
the prizes distributed and the lectures delivered, there has been formed spon- 
taneously during the exhibition time a cattle-market, on rather a large scale 
in relation to Norwegian circumstances, where people from different districts 
of the country meet to buy and sell. Large herds are sent away every year, 
and the cows are distributed over nearly the whole country. Some animals 
have also gone to Sweden ; and in 1869 His Majesty the King purchased six 
young animals, which are at Ulriksdal. One of these, which in the same year 
gained the first prize at Siljord, was an uncommonly fine animal. 

“ Some people were at first afraid that the race would degenerate in Thelc- 
mark, as many of the best prize animals were sold away; but*it has been 


* A fallacy appears to lurk in this argument, which suggests that tho annual 
yield of milk per lb. living weight is a correct standard of excellence. If this 
were true, a cow which made meat and milk concurrently would be regarded as 
unprofitable, in comparison with one that gave as much milk but becamo lean 
during the process. — II. M. J. 

t According to the official statistics the average production of milk in 1805 
(the date of the last Agricultural Census) was under 210 gallons per cow. — 
H. M. J. 

J It order that it may not be thought that the above is an isolated instance, 
we refer to the report of Mr. Lindcquist (Government Farm Superintendent) for 
1800, in which 0 Thelemark cows from various districts are instanced which all 
gave more than 3000 pots in one year; one of them even 3584 pots (761 gallons). 


Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 203- 

proved, on the contrary, that year by year animals more worthy of the prizes 
come to the exhibition, naturally because the interest in better breeding is 
awakened, and people now can afford to feed better, the prices within the 
last twenty years having nearly doubled. The price of good animals varies 
now from 51. 11s. to 6 1. 13s. 6 d., and some few remarkable animals have been 
even sold for 11?. 2s. 3d. and upwards. 

“ The time as well as the place for the exhibition are judiciously chosen ; 
in the middle of September the cattle return from the mountain-pastures, and 
those of most districts must pass by Siljord. Therefore thousands of animals 
pass through this place ; some are driven past, but most of them stop at the 
place of exhibition ; partly in order that some of them may be shown, but 
chiefly in order to'sell. There is thus opportunity to make purchases in a short 
time, and, if requisite, of animals which are perfectly alike in shape and colour.* 

“ The greatest defect in the Thelemark breed is that the value of the 
animal to the butcher is very small. When a cow has to be slaughtered on 
account of age or accident the value of the meat is very little. The bulls are 
small and insignificant, and when put on good food become sluggish and un- 
serviceable ; so that it would seldom pay to purchase them for breeding. Ayr- 
shire bulls have therefore been used successfully for crossing, and the mixed 
progeny has turned out extremely well. The cross does not gain anything 
in milking qualities, but usually retains the mother’s structure with the greater 
fulness of body which distinguishes the Ayrshire breed, giving it a much 
higher value for the butcher. In Thelemark no mixture of strange blood is 
considered judicious, and therefore the prizes are only given for the pure 
breed ; but for the agricultural districts the cross is to be recommended. 

“ While the Ayrshire breed, as well in Sweden as in Norway, has of late 
years fallen into discredit on account of its liability to tubercular disease, no 
symptom of such disease has hitherto, so far as we know, been observed in 
the mixed progeny. Such halfblood beasts have, at the Koyal farm at 
Ladegaardsoen, attained a weight of 1100 lbs., and have been sold for 11?. 5s. 
to the butcher ; while old Thelemark cows seldom fetch more than 51. 12s. 6 d. 
to 6?. 15s. As an instance of young Thelemark beasts having also had a fair 
value to the butcher, we may mention in May this year a five-year-old cow, 
weighing 850 lbs., and a three-year-old bull, weighing 990 lhs., were sold for 
export to England at 1?. 2s. 9t?. per cwt. live weight.” 

In further elucidation of the characters and appearance of this 
breed I give overleaf a woodcut copy of a photograph of two of 
the prize cows at the last Gothenburg Agricultural Show, which 
were afterwards purchased by the King. Their diminutive size 
is well indicated by the stature and attitude of the servant. 

It may be added that the export to Great Britain of animals 
of this breed is not likely to become extensive, as the expenses, 
which amount to between 21. and 31. per head, bear too large a 
proportion to their gross value, while the risk incurred by the 
voyage from Christiania to the ports of England and Scotland 
is so great that dealers express no inclination to increase the 
prices hitherto offered (see p. 219). 


* The exhibition was held in 1874 on Monday, 18th September. The road to 
Siljord is best via Skien, whence a steam-vessel plies through a pretty canal 
with locks up to the lake Nordsjo, from the upper end of which the traveller can 
post the same day to the exhibition. Thelemark is widely known for its natural 
beauties, and on that account is visited by a great many travellers every year. 




Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 205 

Swedish Country Breed . — According to popular tradition, this 
breed, now very variable in its characters, was introduced from 
Holland about 150 or 200 years ago. Mr. Dannfelt, however, 
assured me that they are a cross between the polled white race 
of the north of Sweden and some red cattle from Eckenforde, 
in Holstein, which were brought into Sweden by Swedish 
timber-merchants during the reign of Charles XI., circa 1680, 
and placed on the Royal estate of Stromsholm, where some 
are still to be found. Most of the country cattle are some shade 
of red, with a certain amount of white, especially about the face, 
but not so constantly as with our Herefords ; the colour also 
varies from nearly yellow to a deep red. The best specimens 
are red with blackish points (see Fig. 8), in this respect resem- 

Fig 8 . — Cow of the Swedish Herrgardsrace ( from a Photograph). 


bling the Angeln breed, as well as in being excellent milkers. 
I should also mention that the Rev. J. Storer, of Hellidon, 
Northamptonshire, having directed my attention to the value of 
pictures as indicators of the origin and history of cattle, I found 
some by Dutch masters of the seventeenth century, including 
one (No. 572) by Paul Potter, in the Stockholm Museum, which 
might well have been taken for portraits of the ordinary Swedish 
cows with white faces. 

It is now very rare to meet with the Swedish cattle pure y 


,206 Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Nor wag. 

and on account of the difficulty of procuring good bulls, at- 
tempts at their maintenance as an improved pure breed have 
been practically abandoned. The best type is known as the 
Herrgdrdsrace , or noble’s race, a name which formerly distin- 
guished it from the less-cultivated type that was bred by the 
peasants. The distinction is still maintained nominally, al- 
though it is now more a matter of feeding and general treatment 
than of pureness of blood, which it is almost vain to look for. 
Mr. Dannfelt has had one cow of the Herrgardsrace which 
gave as much as 920 gallons of milk per annum, and others 
yielding from 575 to 690 gallons have not been uncommon on 
the Royal estates. At the same time it should be mentioned 
that peasants’ cows do not yield anything like this quantity, 
from 200 to 300 gallons being a high average. 

The ordinary system in Sweden, formerly more general than 
it is now, is that only the smaller farmers rear their cattle ; and 
that as their heifers begin to breed they sell the older cows to the 
larger farmers. The peasant looks upon the sale of his cows 
as the principal source of his income in coin of the realm : 
therefore his object is to keep as many heifer-calves as possible. 
In the comparatively short summer there is generally plenty of 
food for them, but during the long winter they are half-starved. 
The people concerned have become so habituated to this mode 
of treatment, that they now, in very many instances, conscien- 
tiously believe it to be based on a rational system of cattle- 
breeding. They say, “ if we fed the stock better during the 
winter they would run to meat like your Durhams.” How far 
this treatment conduces to make them “ run to milk ” may be 
inferred from the fact that the annual yield of milk by peasants’ 
cows is generally calculated at from 150 to 250 gallons, while 
not a few large herds of Shorthorn-crosses average 500 and 600 
gallons per head per annum. 

The prevailing system pays the large farmer well enough, 
because he buys cows, such as they are, at a time when they are 
beginning to yield the largest quantity of milk, namely, after 
having dropped two or three calves, at a price varying from 6/. 
or 11. to 12/. or 14/., according to circumstances, the highest prices 
being obtained in the neighbourhood of Stockholm and some 
other large towns for exceptionally good milkers. Universal 
testimony goes to show that the yield of milk may be enorm- 
ously increased, even in cows that have been badly fed as calves 
and heifers, by a judiciously liberal diet ; and it is scarcely 
conceivable that the cows could be reared by their purchasers 
at so small a cost as the price usually paid for them. 

It will be seen by Table VIII. on page 195, that more than 60 
per cent, of the cattle in Sweden, and more than 70 per cent, of 


Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 207 

those in Norway, are milch-cows ; and that in Sweden, of the 
remaining 40 per cent. 24 are young cattle, and only 16 bulls 
and oxen, the latter being chiefly used in the cultivation of the 
land. Thus the production of milk, and not of meat, is the 
<jreat object of the Scandinavian farmer. 

Following out the national practice a little farther, we find 
that nearly all the male calves are slaughtered as soon as they 
are born ; and on the larger farms the female calves share the 
same fate, with the exception of from 8 to 10 per cent, where 
the herd is home-bred, to keep up the supply of cows in place 
of those which become barren, or are rendered unprofitable bv 
reason of age. A few male calves are sometimes kept to be 
reared as working-oxen, and one or two for use as bulls. 

The calves are frequently killed before they have suckled, but 
in some instances they are kept a day or two, and sold to butchers 
at prices varying from 5s. to 10s. per head, otherwise they are 
consumed on the farm. When a farmer has a superior breed of 
cattle, whether of the native or a foreign race, or a cross, he gets 
higher prices for his calves, both from farmers in his neighbour- 
hood and those at a distance. In such cases, either a price is put 
upon the value of the animal when born, and a certain sum per day 
charged for its keep, or it is sold at a certain age at so much per 
pound live weight, without regard to the special qualities or ex- 
cellencies of the individual animal. 

Old cows of the native race are not often fattened for sale. 
Generally the attempt to fatten would be a failure, and if it suc- 
ceeded would not pay. Working-oxen appear better adapted to 
the feeding process, and sometimes make up to about 1500 lbs. 
live weight, at from 8 to 10 years old. Many farmers get their 
working-oxen, as they do their cows, by purchasing them either 
direct from the peasants or at public markets, when 5 or 6 years 
old, at an average price of 14/. or 15/. each. These animals are 
bred by the peasants, and used by them until they become large 
and strong enough to fetch a good price. 

As a rule, the calves are dropped at all times of the year ; but 
the best farmers, unless they send their milk to a town, en- 
deavour, if possible, to obtain cows that will calve soon after 
they are tied up for the winter, preferably about the beginning 
of November. Two reasons are usually given for this preference: 
in the first place, both milk and butter bring better prices during 
the winter ; and in the second, it is said that cows which begin 
to milk soon after they go into the house, give one milking there, 
and a second when they are turned out to grass in the spring. 

In Sweden, the cows are turned out about the beginning of 
June, and remain on the grass until the beginning of October, 
but the practice in such matters must necessarily vary with the 


208 Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 

climate of the different parts of the country. Some farmers, es- 
pecially those who sell their milk in a neighbouring town, keep 
their cows in the house all the year round ; while others keep in 
only their best milkers. Feeding in the house involves a large 
amount of labour on the part of the cattle-men, and almost as 
much adjustment of the menu as for a civic dinner. Cows are fed 
either two or three times a day, and milked during the progress 
of each meal, which lasts from 2 or 3 hours, in the latter case,, 
to as much as 5 hours in the former. The following extreme 
examples are illustrative, the numbers denoting the “ courses — 
A, (1) water, as much as the cows can drink, given in buckets; 
(2) 5 lbs. hay ; (3) 2 lbs. bran mixed with chaff ; (4) long straw. 
This allowance is given three times daily, and 4 lb. of linseed- 
cake is added to both the morning and evening meals. B, (1) 
5 lbs. hay ; (2) 5 lbs. beetroot-pulp, given at twice, after having 
been mixed with 2 £ lbs. pea-straw ; (3) cribs cleaned out and 
water given ; (4) 4 lbs. cavings and 2 lbs. oil-cake ; (5) 5 lbs. hay. 
Another meal of similar composition, but substituting an ad- 
ditional 5 lbs. of hay for the 2 lbs. oil-cake, is given in the 
evening. C, 20 lbs. of beetroot-pulp, 4 lbs. rape-cake, and 
2 lbs. crushed oats, mixed together with cut straw, and divided 
into four equal portions. The cows are fed with this mixture 
four times daily, and, in addition, get long straw after the last 
milking. 

Another example, taken from as far north as Gefle, shows that 
the cows there also get 15 lbs. of hay in the course of the day, as 
well as 15 lbs. of grains, 2 lbs. of oats, fermented by the addition 
of water to a mixture of those ingredients, and cut straw and 
cavings. The cows are fed three times a day, and each meal 
lasts from 2 to 3 hours. 

Again, going to nearly the extreme south of Sweden, I find in 
my note-book that on an average good farm of 600 acres, the 
allowance of hay to each cow was 3000 lbs. for the winter 
months. It is important to draw attention to this matter, as it 
must have a considerable influence on the cost of production of 
milk, and the cost of rearing calves. 

English Breeds and Swedish Crosses . — Specimens of various 
foreign breeds have been imported into Sweden from time to time, 
both by the Government and by private individuals, for the purpose 
of crossing with the Herrgardsrace, as well as for the foundation 
of various herds. In the years 1848-50, Ayrshire and Pembroke- 
shire cattle were imported from Great Britain, as well as Allgauer 
and Volklander beasts from Bohemia. The Ayrshires were 
distributed throughout the country, and placed at Government 
stations, so as to facilitate their use for crossing with the country 
cattle in different parts of the kingdom. The experiment did not 


Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 209 

succeed, as the breed was found to be generally subject, both in 
Sweden and Norway, to tubercular disease of the lungs. The 
Government herds were therefore sold off. Nevertheless, Ayr- 
shires are still kept in most districts of Sweden ; for although 
they cannot long stand the climate, it does not appear that their 
crosses with other races inherit this susceptibility to any great 
extent. Gradually, however, the Ayrshire is being displaced 
by the Shorthorn, the greater hardiness of which is now rarely 
contested. 

At the date of the last returns, the following numbers of 
foreign cattle were at the several Government stations : — 



Shorthorns. 

Allgauer. 

“ Fjellrace,” or Crossed 
with Allgiiuer. 


Bulls. 

Cows. 

Bulls. 

Cows. 

Bulls. 

Cows. 

Alnarp 

2 * 

31 

, . 

## 

# , 

.. 

Sabyliolm 

• • 

8 

•• 

•• 

•• 

.. 

Sofiedal 


• • 

3 

18 


.. 

Experimental Field,! 
Stockholm . . . . / 

•• 

•• 

2 

3 

•• 

•• 

Roron 


.. 

.. 

.. 

1 

10 

Holm 

.. 

.. 

• • 


.. 

10 

Melderstein .. 


•• 


•• 

1 

10 

Total . . 

2 

39 

5 

21 

2 

30 


From this official return it appears that the Government has 
sold off all the English cattle, with the exception of the Short- 
horns at the Agricultural College, at Alnarp, near Lund, and at 
the farm of Sabyholm, not far distant. The fact is, that the 
assistance of the Government is no longer needed in this matter, 
many English cattle being, when importation is not prohibited 
on account of cattle-plague, annually purchased through private 
channels, notwithstanding severe but doubtless necessary regula- 
tions, including three weeks’ quarantine at the port, three months’ 
isolation on the farm, and sundry inspections and certificates. 

Shorthorns were first taken to Alnarp in 1862 ; and are now 
met with all over the south of Sweden. The common Yorkshire 
cattle are generally preferred to pedigree Shorthorns, as there 
is a prevailing idea that the use of the pure breed causes a 
diminished production of milk. There can be no question that 
most of the fashionable strains of Shorthorn blood would not 
pay to keep as dairy cattle ; at the same time there is reason to 
believe that the almost universal dislike to pedigree bulls that 

VOL. XI. — S.'S. p 


210 Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norwag. 

prevails throughout Sweden is founded more on prejudice than 
on practice. A few facts in illustration of the effect of breed in 
the production of meat and milk may be worth consideration by 
the dairy-farmers of both England and Sweden.* 

Lieut. Hansen, of Gammalstorp, near Grastorp, finds that the 
old peasants’ cows cannot be fattened, and must be sold for next 
to nothing ; while the Ayrshire cross will scale 1000 lbs. live 
weight, and fetch about 15/., the market price having recently 
risen from 3d. to 3f d. per lb. 

Mr. Fogelmark, of Wall, near Gefle, has hitherto kept a cross 
of Swedish and Ayrshire, and has found their production of milk 
to average from 400 to 430 gallons per annum. The average 
yield of Swedish cows bought from peasants, even though well 
fed, does not exceed from 290 to 350 gallons per annum, while 
similar cows, with peasants’ food, do not produce more than from 
180 to 230 gallons of milk per annum. 

Mr. Tranchell, at Sabyholm, near Landskrona, keeps East 
Friesland cows, and a cross of Shorthorn on the Holstein Marsh 
cattle. He finds that the former give an average of about 575- 
gallons of milk per annum, and the latter an average of only 
460 gallons ; but on the other hand, the greater adaptability of 
the cross to fatten makes the total result about the same. Both 
varieties yield most milk when the cows are about 8 years old : 
but they do not keep the cross-bred cattle so long as the East 
Frieslanders before fattening them. 

Count von Platen, at Kulla Gunnarstorp, keeps a cross of 
Ayrshire and East Friesland. The cows give an average of 460 
gallons of milk per annum, and are sold lean when no longer 
profitable in the dairy. 

Professor Nathorst’s results with pedigree Shorthorns and 
Y orkshire cows, at the Agricultural College at Alnarp, are given 
on page 212. 

Mr. Swartz, of Hofgarden, who began with Swedish cows in 
1856, at first decided to sell off all that did not yield an average 
of 200 gallons per annum ; he now keeps a cross of Shorthorn 
on the Swedish Herrgardsrace, and has an average milk-return of 
460 gallons per head, selling off all cows that do not yield over 
400 gallons per annum. This cross nicks remarkably well, 
the produce being larger, age for age, than either of the parent 
breeds. The calves are generally sold at 4 months old, on the 
following system : — a sum of 11s. 3d. (10 rd. Swedish) is charged 
for the calf when born, and 2 f u d. (20 ore Swedish) per lb. live 

* On this point Lady Pigot has given sonic interesting examples in an ‘ Ex- 
tract from a Chapter addressed “ To the Small Farmer,’” from a work about to ap- 
pear, but in the mean lime published as an appendix to the ‘Private Catalogue’ 
of her Shorthorn herd for 1874. 


Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 211 

weight at the time of sale. At four months old the heifer-calves 
weigh from 300 to 340 Sw. lbs., and the bull-calves from 340 to 
400 Sw. lbs. ; the prices will therefore vary between 3 1. 17s. Qd. 
and 51. 

Mr. Axel Dickson, of Kyleberg, near Wadstena (whose farm 
will presently be described in detail) breeds nothing but Short- 
horns, though he purchases young cattle for feeding purposes, 
chiefly of the Shorthorn-Swedish cross. He finds that the 
average production of milk by his Shorthorn herd is nearly 520 
gallons per head per annum. 

The preceding details, selected as among the most precise and 
illustrative cases of which I took notes, show that the native 
Swedish cow s kept by the peasants on poor food produce only 
about 200 gallons of milk per head per annum, and that the old 
cows are worth very little as beef ; that by better treatment the 
same kind of cow may be brought to produce at least 50 per 
cent, more milk, while a cross of Ayrshire will not only double 
the first-mentioned milk-production, but give a butchers’ value 
to the old cows. The result of crossing the native breed with 
Shorthorns is still more favourable, both for meat and milk ; and 
Mr. Tranchell’s experience leads him to value the adaptability 
to fatten,* which an infusion of Shorthorn blood confers, at not 
less than 100 gallons of milk per annum. 

Management of Shorthorns in Sweden . — The details of the 
management of a Shorthorn herd in the climate of Sweden will 
doubtless be read with interest by Shorthorn breeders in the 
United Kingdom ; and although the selected locality, Alnarp, 
is in the favoured province of Scane, the method pursued there 
shows that the Shorthorn is by no means too delicate an animal 
to be reared in provinces much further north. 

At the time of my visit last autumn, the Shorthorn herd 
consisted of about 40 females, most of them bred from animals 
which had been purchased in England, and evidently selected 
for their dairy qualities. Six cows and heifers by the Gwynne 
bull “ Macdonald,” had been obtained from the herds of Mr. 
Thomas Morris, of Maisemore Court, Gloucester, and four 
cows and heifers from that of Mr. Hewer, of Sevenhampton, 
W ilts. The former, bred from the old Strickland herd, has 
ol late years been kept up with Bates blood ; while the latter 
has been bred chiefly from Booth strains. Both are, however, 
very celebrated in the south of England as excellent dairy herds 


* What was meant to be understood was no doubt the general power of 
assimilating and utilising food, which is made most manifest in Shorthorns and 
their crosses by their adaptability to fatten in a short time and on comparatively 
small quantities of food. 

r 2 


212 Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 

of pure Shorthorns, and Mr. Morris’s cattle especially have done 
remarkably well in Sweden.* Two heifers had also been bred 
by Mr. Stiles Rich, whose herd in Gloucestershire was well 
known for its Bates blood and dairy qualities. There were 
also two cows of Mr. Pawlett’s breeding, and two of Mr. Hugh 
Aylmer’s, both these herds being of Booth blood. The sires 
selected for use were the Bates “ Third Baron Westbury,” of 
the Wild Eyes tribe, bred by Mr. Thomas Bell ; “ Macdonald 
Second,” from Mr. Morris’s herd ; and “ Prince of Athens,” 
from Mr. Barber, combining the Towneley and Booth strains. 

The herd at Alnarp also includes eighteen Yorkshire dairy 
cows, some from Mr. Hutchison’s herd at Catterick, and about 
sixty Swedish and other cows, for dairy purposes. 

Commencing with bull-calves, these get milk until they are 
six months old, namely, whole-milk for the first two months,, 
commencing with If gallon per day and gradually increasing 
to double the quantity ; after the age of two months the whole- 
milk is gradually mixed more and more with skim-milk ; and 
when they are from three to four months old they get only skim- 
milk, and as much linseed-cake and crushed oats as they care to 
eat, both given dry. The heifer-calves are not allowed milk-diet 
for more than four months, half the time being kept entirely 
on whole-milk, and eventually on skim-milk, supplemented by 
crushed oats and linseed-cake. After they are six months old the 
diet of all the calves consists of hay, 2 lbs. of linseed-cake, and 
from 2 to 4 lbs. of oats. It has not yet been found necessary to 
seton them, as no indications of quarter-evil have been noticed. 

Calves are kept entirely in the house when quite young, but 
after nine months old they are kept out of doors day and night, 
except in the winter months. 

The cows, in winter, are fed with a mixture consisting of half 
a bushel of pulped mangolds per head, and as much cut oat and 
barley-straw as they can eat, together with 1 lb. of rape-cake. 
The mixture is left to ferment for forty-eight hours, and is given 
in two meals, one in the morning and the other in the evening. 
In addition to this mixture their daily food consists of 2 lbs. of 
linseed-cake, 4 lbs. of oat or barley-meal, and 10 lbs. of hay, 
likewise given in two meals in the cribs, with a little water, 
before the fermented mixture. A little meal is generally reserved 
to dust over any remnant of the mixture, and thus induce the 
cows to finish it. It is considered that the small quantity of 

* In her published ‘ Extract,’ &c., already quoted, Lady rigot mentions this 
gentleman's herd us consisting of 10(1 pedigreed cows — “animals that would 
supply the dairy and the butcher afterwards,” — besides about fifty common-bred 
cows. 


Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 213 

rape-cake gives a better flavour to the butter, but that more than 
1 lb. per cow daily must not be given. 

In the summer the cows are kept in the byres during the earlier 
months, getting green clover or a mixture of oats, tares, peas, and 
barley (cut green). The heifers are never soiled, as they would 
not be so hardy under that treatment ; they are, therefore, turned 
out of doors as early as the season will permit, generally some 
time in April. , 

Shorthorn heifers have hitherto been very rarely sold, as they 
are required to increase the proportion of pure Shorthorns in the 
herd. Bull-calves of pedigree descent are generally sold to Den- 
mark, the ordinary price being about 8 guineas per head at the 
time of birth, and 1 rd. (Is. l^cf.) per diem afterwards for keep. 
Of course, special prices are asked in the case of extra good 
animals. While the pedigree Shorthorns are preferred in Den- 
mark, the farming of which is nothing if not dairying, it is 
remarkable that in Sweden very few people will look at any- 
thing more “ pure ” than the Yorkshire dairy cross. This accounts 
for Professor Nathorst keeping both classes of stock. His legi- 
timate object is to provide for the wants of his customers, and he 
is not responsible for their taste or their wisdom. 

The average production of milk at Alnarp per cow, per annum, 
is for pure Shorthorns 500 gallons, but some of the best cows 
have given double that quantity, and Yorkshire cows an average 
of 800 gallons ; the price obtained for butter is, according to 
contract, fixed at rather more than 5s. per cwt. above the highest 
price quoted in the ‘ Berlinske Tidende ’ at the time of sale. 

Professor Nathorst informs me, as the result of numerous experi- 
ments, that in order to get good milking cows of the pure Short- 
horn breed, it is necessary to keep them rather poor as heifers, and 
to bring them early to the bull. This treatment, however, reduces 
their size and weight, and the cows will never grow so large as 
their mothers. On the other hand, if the object be to rear meat- 
producing animals, then, by keeping them well as calves and 
heifers, and not putting them to the bull until 22 months old, 
they can rear Shorthorns as large and as heavy at the same age 
in Sweden as in England ; and under such treatment the breed 
shows no sign of degeneration. 

Some further information on Shorthorns, chiefly as meat- 
producing animals, is given in the account of Mr. Axel Dick- 
son’s farm at Kyleberg (p. 231). 

Tondern Breed . — This is a Danish breed that has found con- 
siderable favour in Sweden, especially with the occupiers of 
heavy land ; as the male animals, on account of their large size 
and great weight in comparison with the Swedish, furnish good 
draught-oxen. It will be more particularly described in my 


214 Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Noncay. 


succeeding report on Denmark ; therefore at present it is suf- 
ficient to state that it is a red breed, equally adapted for the 
production of milk and of meat, but not attaining special excel- 
lence in either respect. 

The average production of milk reported by Mr. C. Ekman, 
of Finspong, as that of his well-kept Tondern herd, is 4G0 
gallons. The lean cows weigh, on an average, nearly 10 cwt. ; 
both they and the working-oxen are easily fattened, and then 
fetch nearly the same price, without distinction of sex. 

In the summer Mr. Ekman’s cows pasture either in the mea- 
dows or on the aftermath of the artificial grasses. In the winter 
they each get per diem from 9 to 11 lbs. of hay, 4 lbs. of crushed 
oats, 1 lb. of oilcake, and straw. 


Table IX. — Food List for Calves on Fiskeby and Skalf Estates. 


Week. 

Day. 

Milk. 

„ „ 
Meal. 

Barley and 
Pea-meal. 

Oatmeal. 

Morning. 

Xoon. 

Evening. 

Gallons per day. 

Pounds Avoirdupois per day. 


/l 



0 ' 14 * 






2 

0-14 

0-14 

0-29 






3 

0-29 

014 

0-29 




1 

4 

0-43 

0-14 

0-29 





5 

043 

0-14 

0'43 





6 

O ' 58 

0-14 

0-43 





w 

0-58 

0-14 

0-58 




2 


0-58 

0-29 

0-58 

0 ' 24 f 



3 


0-72 

O ' 29 

0-58 

0'47 

.. 


4 


0'72 

0'29 

0'43 

0'71 



5 


0'87 

0-29 

0'72 

0-94 

0'24 


6 


0-87 

0'29 

0'87 

1-18 

0-47 


7 


0'87 

0'29 

0-87 

1-41 

0-71 


8 

• • 

0'87 

0'29 

0-87 

1-88 

0-94 


9 


0'87 

0-29 

0-87 

1-88 

118 


10 


0-87 

0'29 

0-72 

1-88 

1-41 


11 


0'72 

029 

O' 72 

1-65 

1-65 


12 


0-72 

0'29 

0-58 

1 -41 

1-88 , 


13 


058 

0'29 

0-58 

0-94 

212 


14 


0-58 

0'29 

0-43 

0-71 

2-35 


15 


0'43 

0'29 

0-43 

0-47 

2-59 


16 


0'43 

0'29 

0-29 

0-24 

2-82 

024 

17 


0'29 

0-29 

0-29 


2-82 

0'47 

18 


0'29 

0'29 

0 14 


2-82 

0-71 

19 


014 

0'29 

014 


2-82 

0.94 

20 



0'29 

• " 


2-82 

1-18 


Note.— T he linseed is given ground, and mixed with warm water and the 
milk. 


From eight to ten calves are annually kept to take the place of 
unprofitable cows, the remainder (about thirty-four) being easily 


Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 215 

sold to neighbouring farmers. The preceding tabular statement 
•of the quantity of food given to calves for the first twenty weeks 
after birth is instructive, both for the actual information it con- 
tains and as another illustration of the precision with which such 
matters are dealt with not only in Sweden but also generally - 
throughout Northern Europe. I must confess, however, that 
although such returns excite my admiration as supplying precise 
data for statistical calculations, I am somewhat sceptical as to 
whether the method which they represent, supposing it to be 
rigorously followed in practice, enables the stock-breeder to obtain 
the best result from his animals — whether, in fact, the appetite 
and the assimilating power of every calf are exactly the same at 
the same age, on the principle that tubs or steam-boilers of the 
same dimensions must have the same capacity ! 

Cost of rearing Calves . — The almost universal practice in 
Sweden of killing, generally for home consumption, nine-tenths 
of the calves as soon as they are born, prompted me frequently 
to ask the reason. The answer invariably was, that “ it did not 
pay to rear them.” It was urged that the milk was wanted either 
for sale or for making into butter or cheese — commodities that 
are always marketable, and that could be sent long distances at 
an expense small in proportion to the value of the article, with 
little or no risk of loss from damage, detention, &c. In the 
north of Sweden, also, the long winter renders the winter fat- 
tening of cattle very costly, and there is thus little demand for 
young stock to be reared with that object; but were it otherwise, 
the cost of transport would bear too large a proportion to the 
value of the animal, while, owing to the paucity of itinerant 
dealers, the risk of loss by deterioration of value, or by death, 
would be too great to make the venture sufficiently attractive. 

It must be admitted that there is a great deal of force in these 
arguments; and until the present movements in favour of im- 
proved breeds of cattle and improved means of communication 
have had more time for their development, no great difference 
in the methods of stock-farming at present pursued in Sweden 
and Norway can be expected. Another obstacle, in addition to 
those in course of removal, is the want of a certain demand 
for store stock at remunerative prices ; and this cannot be over- 
come until the common cattle of these countries have been exten- 
sively crossed with Shorthorn blood, or superseded by animals 
better adapted for feeding purposes. At the same time, it may 
also be remarked that, in districts which are in direct railway 
■communication with the larger towns and the principal ports, 


* One-fourtli of a kanna, and so on. 
t One-fourth of a Swedish lb., and so on. 


216 Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 

cattle-feeding is on the increase, not only in connection with 
sugar-factories, distilleries, and breweries, but also on farms 
where the growth of roots has recently been extended. 

It would have been presumption in me to doubt the conclusions 
of so many practical Swedish farmers with reference to the rearing 
of calves, especially as two circumstances suggested that the pro- 
cess must be much more expensive in Sweden than in England. 
The first of these was, again, the long winter. There many,, 
perhaps the majority, of the calves are born between November 
and March, and must necessarily be kept in the house until 
June, while it is the prevailing practice to keep all the young 
cattle in the sheds during the first summer, and until after the 
second winter, during the whole of which time their food consists 
largely of hay, which, in comparison with its nutritive and 
manurial power, is very expensive keep. On the other hand, as 
cheese or butter is made on nearly all the farms in question, it 
seemed to me that calves would pay as well as pigs for feeding 
on dairy-refuse. In any case, I was anxious to obtain an actual 
account of the cost of rearing calves from some reliable source, 
and I was so fortunate as to obtain the following statement 
(p. 217) from that mine of valuable records, Mr. Swartz, of 
Hofgarden, which I publish with his permission. 

This statement is valuable, as showing what Mr. Swartz has 
calculated to be the cost of rearing a heifer, on his farm, until it 
produces its first calf, at 25 months old, on the basis of the 
money-value of the different farm-products used as food, which 
he has deduced from a series of observations and records, ex- 
tending over many years, as the amount which they severally 
bring in, on the average, as dairy produce, after deducting the 
cost of manufacture.* 

It will be observed that new milk is calculated at less than 
6rf., skimmed-milk at a little over 2d., and whey at ^ d . per 
gallon. The value of hay is put at the low sum of 33s. 4 d. 
per ton, cavings at 22s. 6 d., straw at 16s. 8 d., and roots at 13s. 4d. 
The 70 days’ grazing is valued at no more than 1/. 7s. 
although it occupies about half the growing season of grass 
in that part of Sweden. Notwithstanding these low prices, the 
calculated value of the food consumed by a two-year-old heifer 
in Sweden comes to about double the estimated cost of rearing 
one in England. This is partly owing to Mr. Swartz’s table- 
being based on the estimated value of the food, instead of the- 

* Inasmuch as it is almost impossible to give the exact equivalent of every item 
of Swedish money in English coin, I have given the original figures and my 
approximate translations of them. The English totals are re-calculated from 
the Swedish at the rate of 18 rd. to the sovereign, and must be taken as approx- 
imately accurate, even though they should differ slightly from the summing up 
of the English column. 


Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 217 " 


Table X. — Mr. Swartz’s Calculations of the Quantity and Value 
of the Food of a Heifer from Birth until it Produces a Calf 
at Twenty-five Months old. 




Ed. 

ore. 



£ 

s. 

d. 

Value of calf at birth . . 


10 

0 


= 

0 

11 

4 

First 4 months’ feeding : — 









45 kannor new milk, at 25 ore 


11 

25 

- 

26 galls., at 5 Id . .. 

.. 0 

12 

8 

511 , , skim milk, at 9 ore 


45 

99 

- 

2944 galls., at 2 Ad. 

.. 2 

11 

6 

2 '66 cent', hay, at 1 rd. 25 ore.. 

3 

33 

= 

21 cwt., at Is. 8 d. 

.. 0 

2 

8 

2 -66 cent r . straw, at 62 i ore 

•• 

1 

67 

= 

21 cwt., at lOd. .. 

.. 0 

1 

10 

Cost at 4 months . . 

Ed. 

72 

24 


= 

4 

0 

3 

Second 4 months' feeding : 

— 








360 kannor skim milk, at 9 ore 

32 

40 

= 

2074 galls., at 2 r V.d. 

.. 1 

16 

Q3 

12 cent', hay, at 1 rd. 25 ore 


15 

00 


10 cwt., at Is. 8 d. 

.. 0 

16 

8 

3 '60 cent', straw, at 624 ore 

, ( 

2 

25 

= 

3 cwt., at lOd. .. 

.. 0 

2 

6 

9-60 cent', roots, at 50 ore 

•• 

4 

80 

= 

S cwt., at 8d. 

.. 0 

5 

4 

Cost at 8 months . . 

Ed. 

126 

69 


= 

7 

0 

10 

Third 4 months’ feeding 









480 kannor whey, at 2 ore 


9 

60 

=3 

276 galls., at %d. 

.. 0 

11 

6 

18 cent', hay, at 1 rd. 25 ore 


22 

50 

- 

15 cwt., at Is. 8 d. 

.. 1 

5 

0 

3 '60 cent', cavings, at 83J ore 


3 

00 

= 

3 cwt., at Is. ljd. 

.. 0 

3 

4 

3 '60 cent', straw, at 624 ore 


2 

25 

= 

3 cwt., at lOd. 

.. 0 

2 

6 

19 "20 cent', roots, at 50 ore 


9 

60 

= 

16 cwt., at 8 d. 

.. 0 

10 

8 

Cost at 12 months .. 

Rd. 

173 

64 


= 

9 

13 

0 

Fourth 4 months’ feeding 
480 kannor whey, at 2 ore 

— 

9 

60 


276 galls., at %d. 

.. 0 

11 

6 

18 cent', hay, at 1 rd. 25 ore 


22 

50 

= 

15 cwt., at Is. 8 d. 

.. 1 

5 

0 

3 '60 cent', cavings, at S3J ore 


3 

00 

- 

3 cwt., at Is. ljd. 

.. 0 

3 

4 

3 - 60 cent', straw, at 62 J ore 


2 

25 

= 

3 cwt., at lOd. .. 

.. 0 

2 

6 

38 1 40 cent', roots, at 50 ore 


19 

20 

= 

32 cwt., at 8d. .. 

.. 1 

1 

4 

Cost at 16 months.. 

Ed. 230 

19 


= 

12 

15 

9 

Last 9 months’ feeding, viz. first 200 daijs 

— 




40 cent', hay, at 1 rd. 25 ore 


50 

00 

= 

33J cwt., at Is. 8 d. 

.. 2 

15 

6J 

6 cent', cavings, at 83J ore 


5 

00 

= 

5 cwt., at Is. lgd. 

.. 0 

5 

6 i 

6 cent', straw, at 62 § ore .. 


3 

75 

= 

5 cwt., at lOd. 

.. 0 

4 

2 

64 cent', roots, at 50 ore . . 


32 

00 

= 

53J cwt., at Sd. .. 

.. 1 

15 

6 

2 cent', meal, at 6 rd 


12 

00 

= 

1§ cwt., at 8s. 

.. 0 

13 

4 

Last 70 day 8 on grass 

•• 

25 

00 

= 


1 

7 

104 

Total 

Rd. 

357 

94 


- 

£19 

17 

8 


218 Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 


cost of its production, and partly to the expensive Swedish system 
of feeding young cattle during so long a period in the house, 
and therefore to so large an extent on hay. Both in England 
and in Sweden, the cost of rearing a two-year-old heifer is subject 
to a deduction on the score of the manure made in the house. 
According to the foregoing Table, the value of this would he 
about double its worth in England, the estimated manurial 
value of the hay alone being, according to Mr. Lawes, no less 
than 51. 16s. (76 cwt. at 1/. 10s. 6c?), even if reckoned as meadow- 
hay instead of artificial grass ; while the straw, cavings, roots, 
and meal would add at least another 30s. to the estimated value 
of the manure.* 

Exportation of Swedish Cattle. — Gothenburg is the chief port 
from which cattle are exported from Sweden to England. They 
are chiefly oxen, but cows and calves are also sent. Arriving in 
Gothenburg, whether by rail or road, they are either put into 
the public lair, near the railway station, apparently a very well 
managed establishment, or they are taken to the private lairs 
belonging to the exporters, which are situated some distance 
from the town. The principal exporter has a lair in which he 
can put up 300 head of cattle. When kept in the public lair 
until it is time to ship them, the exporters pay about 3 ^d. per 
head of cattle per diem for lairage, and extra for food according 
to the season. In 1873 the charge for this item was about 10r/. 
per head per day, but in the following year it was nearly double. 
On the voyage the cattle get a little hay and water, the latter, I 
was informed, being rendered necessary by the imperfect venti- 
lation of the steamboats. I cannot avoid taking this opportunity 
of reiterating my opinion that all such steamers should be com- 
pulsorily furnished with blast-fan ventilators, driven by steam 
from the ordinary boiler. I have shown in my Report on the 
“Trade in Animals,”! that such appliances are easily added to 
existing steamers, and are at the same time cheap and effective. 

The commission-agent in Gothenburg is appointed by the 
Agricultural Society of the district, to which he gives a gua- 
rantee-bond of about 2750?., while the Society guarantees to the 
exporter the money which his beasts realise when sold. I was 
informed that the commission-agent is not allowed to charge 
the expovter more than 2s. 3d. per head of cattle, and about 6f<?. 
per head of sheep or pigs. The freight and other charges from 


* Lady l’igot quoles figures furnished her by Mr. Hugh Aylmer, of West 
Dereliam Abbey, showing that the cost of bringing lip a Shorthorn steer (by a 
pedigree bull out of a common bred cow), and fattening it off at two years old. i> 
35/. 138. 8 d., subject to a deduction of 71. for value of the manure, and of 32. foi 
milk of cow for three months after the calf was weaned, leaving a net cost oi 


Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 219 


Oothenburg to the cattle-market at Islington amount to 3 Is. per 
head, exclusive of insurance ; therefore the total expenses need 
not much exceed 21. per beast. 

With regard to the quality of the cattle which have hitherto 
been sent to Great Britain from Sweden and Norway, I have 
been so fortunate as to obtain the opinion of Messrs. Swan and 
Sons of Edinburgh, contained in the following extract from a 
letter to me, dated June 30th, 1874. It is only necessary to 
preface this extract by stating that Messrs. Swan and Sons have 
as large a trade in cattle with the European Continent as any 
firm in the British Isles, and that their statements are entitled to 
the weight due to the results of long and extensive experience. 

“ Norway . — In 1858, one of this firm was commissioned to go 
out to buy cattle, a vessel being sent from Leith on the recom- 
mendation of the at that time Professor of Agriculture in Norway, 
the owner commissioning us to fill her with cattle, and resell 
them here on his account. After travelling through a large 
tract of country from Bergen inland, the cattle were found of so 
inferior a breed — bulls, cows, and heifers being grazed indiscrimi- 
nately — and the stock, never originally of a good class, were so 
diminutive and unsuitable, that he returned with one cow as a- 
sample. The Norwegian cattle, so far as we have had them, are 
much like the Shetland breed, therefore so long as they main- 
tain the present breed in its purity, they are not calculated, either 
as stores or fat, to afford this country any source of supply ; the 
best we have had this year from Christiania have averaged about 
14/. a-piece, fat, and these our consigners intimated were first- 
class quality. So long as the system of in-and-in breeding 
is allowed, they are likely to get worse in place of better, and, 
judging from our experience, there has been no general improve- 
ment amongst Norwegian cattle since 1858. 

“ Sweden .- — From this country we get the best and the worst 
cattle sent us from the Continent. The native yellow bullocks, 
which come from Gothenburg and Malmo, are, as a rule, plain, 
and sell very large for the money. With, in some seasons, a 
scarcity of home-bred store stock, some of our farmers have 
been induced to buy them in the autumn for fattening ; these 
have generally done wonderfully well on turnips, but their 
natural roughness, even at small prices, prevents our farmers, as 
a rule, from buying them. There are, however, many prime fat 
cattle, Shorthorn crosses, now raised in Sweden, which, sent here 
iat, make close on home-fed cattle quotations. 

“ W ere good Shorthorn bulls introduced amongst those districts 
where cattle are bred, this country could supplement our own 
want of store cattle, as the native breeds have size and hardihood, 
and they would also be very materially improved in symmetry. 


220 Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 

One of our firm, lately in Aarhuus, at the Jutland Fat Cattle 
Show, met a Swedish Professor who advocated the advantage 
of Shorthorns being imported into Sweden. The ordinary run of 
Swedish bullocks make from 14Z. to 18/. or 19/. each, though 
some old work-oxen occasionally reach 30/., and even more, when 
stall-fed in their own country ; while crossed-Shorthorns from 
the same country make, as three-year-olds, 22/. to 32/. each . 
From Sweden therefore, by judicious Shorthorn-crossing, a large 
supply of first-class fat cattle, as well as useful and saleable 
stores, might readily be available. 

“ At present we have large lots of calving-cows, which are 
readily bought by Edinburgh dairymen, — foreign cows consti- 
tuting the whole stock in some dairies in the city. These make 
prices varying from 7Z. to 15/. each, as a rule milk well, and 
from their small cost are less risk to the dairyman ; while when 
fat they frequently make 3/. to 5/. a-piece over inlaid price,. 
Ayrshires or Shorthorns generally losing nearly as much com- 
paratively between purchase by the dairyman and sale to the 
butcher. The cross in this class of stock, therefore, would 
likewise be beneficial, many of our best dairymen refusing 
them at present from the same cause as the farmers do the store 
cattle of the native breed.” 

Sheep. 

Although every farmer keeps a few sheep, sheep farming, as 
we understand it, scarcely exists in Sweden and Norway. The 
few sheep or goats seen on even the smallest farm are kept 
more for domestic use than as a source of profit, more for the 
wool than the meat, and in some districts, as in Dalarne, 
chiefly as the source of supply of the sheepskin jacket, which is 
part of the national costume of both men and women. 

The province of Scane, in the South of Sweden, is the onl) 
district in which large flocks of sheep are frequently met witl. 
on arable land ; but even there almost every farmer whom 1 
questioned on the subject told me that formerly he kept more 
sheep, that they did not pay, and that he had reduced his flock 
The fact is, sheep are an expensive stock to feed, and a troublesomi 
stock to look after during the long winter, and therefore goo( 
sheep-farming is most frequently to be seen in that part of tin 
country where the winters are neither so long nor so severe as i) 
the more northern districts. In Sweden, as in Canada, slieej 
cannot find a large, or even any, portion of their winter food fo 
themselves on the pastures, as they do in England, and on tha 
account must be less profitable than in this country. 

The sheep-management at Sabyholm, near Landskrona, ma 
be described as an example of the better class : 50 Cotswoh 


Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Nor wag. 22 1 

ewes and 100 Soutlidowns are kept, the latter breed being pre- 
ferred, although they do not clip so much wool, partly because 
short wool meets with a readier sale, and partly because the South- 
down lambs are more easily reared. The ewes are tupped on 
seeds, about the middle or end of September, and go into winter- 
quarters about the end of October to the middle of November, 
according to the season, when they get pea and bean-shucks, and 
long straw with cut turnips. When the lambs drop in March, 
the ewes are still in the house, and they then receive £ lb. linseed- 
cake each, with some hay, in addition to their previous food. 
As soon as the lambs will eat, they are given peas that have been 
soaked in water, with a little linseed-cake and fine hay ; but 
they get no additional food at weaning-time, which is generally 
about the beginning of June. 

When the lambs are weaned the ewes are shorn ; the South- 
downs are clipped once a-year, and the ewes give an average of 
4 lbs. each ; but the Cotswold ewes give from 7 to 8 lbs. each 
in two clips, viz., in June and October. In the summer the 
sheep-stock is kept on seeds without artificial food. 

At one time, Mr. Tranchell, the proprietor of Sabyholm, had 
a flock of 800 sheep, but finding that they did not pay, he 
reduced the number to 300, one-lialf being breeding-ewes. I 
endeavoured to learn how it had been ascertained that the sheep 
did not pay, and found that they had been debited with all 
actual expenses and credited with all actual receipts, except that 
they had received credit for the value of only 3 months’ manure ; 
the remainder, probably that dropped about the fields, not being 
capable of collection and valuation, had been passed over as worth- 
less. Then what is the value of the “ golden hoof” in Sweden ? 

Very rarely can a true Swedish sheep be now seen in the 
southern provinces of the country, as they have all been crossed 
for several years with English Southdowns, Cotswolds, or 
Leicesters, and more rarely with French Merinos. The value of 
good rams may be measured by the fact that Professor Nathorst, 
at Alnarp, gets about 5 1. 10s. per head for his Southdown and 
Leicester tups when 18 months old. He sells his draft-ewes at 
3 Jr/, per lb., live weight. 

Pigs. 

Almost every farmer in Sweden and Norway keeps pigs 
to consume the refuse products of the dairy. A few, how- 
ever, say that they have been compelled to abandon them on 
account of their liability to measles and scarlet-fever. Many 
Swedish farmers, according to Mr. Juhlin Dannfelt,* are now 

* ‘ Journ. Roy. Agric. Soc.,’ 2nd Series, vol. viii. part 2, 1872, pp. 273 and 271. 


222 Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 

feeding calves with skim-milk, instead of making skim-cheese 
and feeding the pigs on the whey. I have already stated (p. 21C>; 
that this practice is adopted by Mr. Swartz, of Hofgarden : 
and doubtless, as markets for good horned-stock become more 
accessible, it will be considerably extended. 

The pigs generally seen on Swedish farms are crosses of the 
large Yorkshire or Cumberland breed on the original Swedish; but 
sometimes Berkshire crosses are seen, and occasionally, as an 
article dc luxe , a specimen of one or other of our smaller breeds. 

Dairy-farmers who make whole-milk cheese, and devote a 
considerable quantity of corn as well as all the whey to the 
manufacture of pork, may turn out half as many fat pigs in the 
year as they have dairy-cows. Comparatively few farmers, 
however, reach this proportion, as they either sell part of their 
milk, make butter and skim-cheese, rear a certain number of 
calves, or, most generally, have not sufficient corn to fatten 
pigs as well as keep their horses and cattle throughout the 
winter. The usual allowance of corn for feeding pigs is from 
2 to 3 lbs. each per diem, in addition to whey, wash, potatoes, 
*S:c., for about a couple of months before they are sold. When 
sold, they generally weigh from 200 to 240 lbs., live weight, and 
from 2>\d. to 4 d. per lb. 

Dairying. 

Two admirable articles on Swedish Dairying, by our honorarv 
member, Mr. Juhlin Dannfelt, have already been published in 
this Journal ;* and to them I would refer everv one interested in 
the subject, if they wish thoroughly to understand the manner 
in which this branch of agricultural industry is carried out in 
a northern climate. It is unnecessary for me to go over the 
ground that has thus been so thoroughly explored by Mr. Dann- 
felt, viz., the small-farm dairying, and the manufacture of cheese 
and butter at factories under different systems of co-operation. 
I shall therefore restrict myself to a rapid glance at the dairying 
of large farms, under the three aspects of, (1) sale of milk to 
towns, (2) butter-making, and (3) cheese-making. 

Sale of Milk to Towns . — The price obtained for milk sent 
to large towns varies from 25 ore per kanna = 5-£<Z. per gallon, 
in the summer months, in the south of Sweden, to 40 ore per 
kanna = 9 ±d., at Gefle, in the north. In the winter the price in 
the south rises to 29 or 30 ore per kanna, equal to about Id. per 
gallon. It is not usual for the farmer to deliver the milk. The 
milkman purchases it for a stipulated price on the spot, and the 

* 1 Journ. Roy. Agric. Soc.,’ 2nd Series, vol. vi. part 2, 1870, p. 328, ami vol. vii. 
part 2, 1872, p. 207. 


22$ 


Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 

burner agrees to place at liis disposal one, two, or more horses, 
and a cart or two, according to the quantity of milk to be de- 
livered. Lodging accommodation and wood are also furnished, 
to a stipulated number of servants employed by the milkman. 

Butter-making . — Scandinavian butter has of late years acquired 
a very high reputation, chiefly owing, I believe, to the ice-water 
svstein of setting milk, which was discovered by Mr. Swartz, of 
Hofgarden, near Wadstena, the gentleman who has already been 
so frequently referred to in this Report. Deep cans nearly full 
of milk are placed in tanks containing a mixture of water and 
ice, having a temperature of about 39° Fahr. The milk is thus 
brought to a temperature of about 41 to 43 2 Fahr., and the cream 
to within 2 or 3 degrees of the milk. Butter, under this system, is 
made from sweet cream, which has been taken off the milk after 
it has stood 24 or 36 hours. Before churning, the cream should 
be warmed to a temperature of f)5°Fahr. in summer, and of 57 
to 59° in winter. This is done by placing the vessel containing 
the cream in one nearly filled with water heated to 98' Fahr., 
until the cream has acquired the proper temperature. Churning 
is done at the rate of 60 to 70 strokes per minute, and the 
butter comes in from three-quarters of an hour to an hour. Mr. 
Swartz finds that 100 kannor (57^ gallons) of milk will produce 
20 Sw. lbs. (18£ Eng. lbs.) of butter, 32 Sw. lbs. (29J Eng. lbs.) 
of skim-cheese, 16 kannor (9j gallons) of butter-milk, and 60 
kannor (34^ gallons ) of whey. The price at rvhich Mr. Swartz 
sold his butter in 1874 is equal to about 130s. per cwt. delivered 
in Goteborg, the delivery costing about 6s. per cwt. 

On some farms there is a mixed system of butter-making, 
combined with either the sale of milk or the manufacture of 
“ half-milk ” cheese. In such cases the milk may be skimmed 
after having stood only 12 hours, when of course a smaller 
return of butter per gallon of milk is obtained, the remaining 
cream contributing, however, to the richness of the cheese. 
The chief reason for these and other variations appears to be 
that, owing to the very general practice of making butter first, 
and then cheese from the skim-milk, skim-cheese has become 
more or less of a drug in the market, and other ways of utilising 
the skim-milk are therefore sought after.* 

Although Mr. Swartz’s ice-water method has been almost 
universally adopted on the large and better-managed farms of 
Sweden, there are some who use it without realising that its 
object is to hasten the rising of the cream, and thus to ensure 
sw eet-cream butter being obtainable at all seasons of the year. 
Thus I have seen a milk-house which has been altered to enable 


On this point see the second of Mr. Daunfelt’s papers already referred to. 


224 Report on the Agriculture of Siceden and Norway. 


the ice-water method to be pursued, and jet the cream is still 
kept to get sour, and the butter made on the old system. 

A capital butter-making machine, originally of American 
origin, but much improved by, I believe, Messrs. Caroc and 
Leth, of Aarhuus, Denmark, is also coming into use in Sweden. 
I therefore give the annexed plan and section (Figs. 9 and 10), 
which were drawn from a machine which we saw at work, bv 
my friend and fellow-traveller in Denmark, Mr. F. Wilton, 
•of the East London Railway. Descriptions of the variations of 
this machine will come more properly into the Report on Den- 
mark ; but I give the annexed sketches at once for the benefit 
of our own butter-makers on a large scale. 

The butter is placed on the circular table (see Fig. 10), the 
central portion of which is raised as indicated by the dotted 
lines in Fig. 9. By turning the handle, the bevelled cog-roller 
is made to revolve at the same time as the table. The person 
in charge keeps the cog-roller supplied, as it were, with butter, 
and the pressure exerted during its passage between the table 
and the roller squeezes out the buttermilk and consolidates 
its texture. The buttermilk flows down the slanting table to 
the gutter (c), and through the pipe (d) to the reservoir (<?), from 
which it can be transferred to any other receptacle. The butter 
is prevented from adhering to the inner and outer sides of the 
table, as well as from getting to the axis of the cog-roller by the 
scrapers (a a) ; while the upper scraper (Z>, Fig. 10) takes off 
any butter that may adhere to the roller. An experienced 
attendant knows, both by the colour of the expressed buttermilk 
and by the texture of the butter, when to stop the operation of 
“ making ” or “ working,” for which this machine is so admir- 
ably adapted. 

Cheese-making . — So much has been written about cheese- 
making, that it might be reasonably anticipated that nothing 
very novel could come out of Sweden. The reverse, however, 
is the fact ; for Mr. Swartz has invented a mechanical arrange- 
ment for the manipulation of the curd, and a system, of cheese- 
making, which, so far as I know, is entirely new to England. 
As this system is used to a considerable extent both in Norway 
and Sweden, a sketch of its leading features may claim a place 
in this Report. 

An ordinary metal cheese-tub, with false bottom and sides 
for receiving hot water to heat the milk and cook the curd, is 
furnished with a partial cover to the width of one-half the 
radius of the tub, leaving a circular open space in the centre. 
A spindle is fixed vertically in the axis of the tub, and carries 
on it about 4 or 5 curd-breakers, having a width nearly equal to 
the internal radius of the tub, and the knives disposed in various 


Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 225 


Figs. 9 and 10 . — Elevation and Plan of Butter-making Machine ] 
used in Scandinavia. 


Fig. 9. — Elevation. 



Fig. 19 . — Plan. 



«, a. Guide-scrapers for bringing the butter to the roller from the central and outside margins 
of the table. 

b. Scraper for cleansing the roller (a bevelled cog revolving against the conical table). 

c. Groove, or gutter, for conveying the butler-milk to the pipes beneath. 

<1, d. Pipes for carrying off the butter-milk to the receiver, e. 

f. Shelf. 

VOL. XI.— S. S. 


Q 


226 Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 

directions, thus : — vertical, horizontal, from the centre outwards 
and downwards, and vice versa. 

The milk is heated to 77 J , when the rennet is added, also 
white-wine vinegar in the proportion of 1 pint per 100 gallons. 
The milk then stands for about an hour, after which the dairy- 
maid begins to work the curd-breaker very gently, increasing 
the speed gradually for half-an-hour, after which time the 
spindle is attached by a movable rod to a liorse-gear. The 
curd-breaker is then worked by horse-power for an hour and a 
half ; during the first half-hour the curds and whey are kept 
at the same temperature as before ; during the second they are 
gradually raised to 90°, at which temperature they are kept for 
the third half-hour. The whey is then run off, and the curd put 
to stand for 24 hours on a frame with a perforated bottom, 
which allows the remaining whey to drain off. During this 
time the curd is turned, but not pressed. 

The curd is next put back into the clieese-tub for 24 hours ; 
but this time the spaces between the double sides and bottom 
are filled with ice and water, so as to reduce the temperature of 
the curd as low as possible. The curd is then ground twice, 
salted with 2 per cent, of its weight of salt, packed in frames at 
a temperature of 55° Fahr., and pressed for four days, viz., one 
day in the press-cloth, and afterwards three days in sewn cloth, 
in which it remains for two months, being kept at a tempe- 
rature of about 62° to 64° the first month, and afterwards cooler. 

Both whole-milk cheese and skim-cheese have been made on 
this system on a large scale, and Mr. Swartz expresses himself 
well satisfied with its success. The great merit which he claims 
for it is that it imparts to the cheese a richer flavour than under 
the old system could be obtained with the same percentage of 
butter in the milk. Of late, however, the state of the butter- 
market has rendered butter-making more profitable than the 
manufacture of whole-milk cheese ; therefore I saw, with few 
exceptions, only skim-cheese made on this system. These skim- 
cheeses, in Mr. Swartz’s and other dairies, exhibited a remarkable 
tendency to “ heave,” not in the ordinary manner nor from the 
ordinary cause (the retention of whey in the curd), but appa- 
rently because the low temperature to which the curd had been 
subjected before being put into the press had contracted the 
atmospheric air contained in its pores. Subsequently, when the 
cheese was placed in a temperature of over 60° this air expanded, 
and as a consequence both its faces, as well as its sides, exhibited 
a greater or less convexity. Notwithstanding this defect in 
appearance, and the overstocked condition of the skim-cheese 
market, Mr. Swartz was getting, last September, 4 £d. per English 
lb. for his skim-cheeses when three months old. 


Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 227 

“ Well-to-do” people in Sweden eat a very thin slice of cheese 
on bread-and-butter before dinner, or something else as an equiva- 
lent. Cheese is their Alpha and our Omega ; and the little they 
eat they like highly flavoured. The flavour is obtained by 
gradually raising the temperature of the “ mess,” in the course 
of the two hours occupied by the separation of the curd, from 
84° to as much as 102° Fahr., the cheese being otherwise 
made on Mr. Swartz’s method. If a cheese heaves very much 
it is sometimes cut into small pieces, soaked in warm milk, and 
re-made ; the flavour of such cheeses will eventually be very 
high, and proportionately appreciated by the devotees of the 
Stnoragsbord. 

“ Cheddar ” cheese for ordinary use or for export is made 
from whole-milk, and sold at about 7 2s. per 120 lbs., if of good 
quality and flavour. Also butter may be made from the cream of 
the evening milk, and cheese made from the morning’s milking, 
added to the skim-milk of the evening. If very well made, such 
“ half-skim ” cheese has brought as much as 64s. per 120 lbs. 
Both skim and lialf-skim cheese are not unfrequently made 
without the addition of salt to the curd, the cheese being in that 
case soaked in brine for a certain number of days, as is the 
practice in Holland. A sprinkling of carraway-seeds in the curd 
is also considered an improvement to cheese intended for home 
consumption. 

Yet another kind of cheese is called “ Priest’s Cheese,” which 
appears to have had its origin in the ancient custom of paying 
tithes in kind. A large quantity of tithe-milk was thus brought 
together periodically, and it was absolutely necessary to turn it 
quickly into a useful commodity that would keep, and so “ Priest’s 
Cheese” was made on the spot. I was informed that the curds and 
whey are heated to 90° Fahr., and kept at that temperature for a 
quarter of an hour. The curd is cut, collected, and drained, and 
then pressed together with the hand only. 

Whey-cheese has already been referred to in the first of Mr. 
Dannfelt’s papers, and described in detail in the succeeding note 
by Dr. Yoelcker, in vol. vi. (2nd Series), p. 333. 

A Meat-making Fakm. 

Having given a sketch of the general farm-practice in Sweden 
and Norway, I shall now illustrate the subject by describing 
two first-rate farms in some detail. The first of these is Mr. Axel 
Dickson’s farm at Kyleberg, near Wadstena, which is managed 
on a system entirely different from that which has hitherto 
been described, and with the production of meat as the chief 
object of the stock-farming. The second is Mr. Axel Odelberg’s 

Q 2 


228 Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 

farm at Enskede, near Stockholm, which I believe to exhibit the 
national system of farming, namely, for the production of milk, 
under its most profitable aspect. 

Kyleberg is situated in one of the best agricultural districts of 
Sweden, not far from the shores of Lake Wettern, and from 7 
to 10 English miles from the railway-stations of Skennige and 
Mjolby, on the one side, and from the steamboat-stations of 
Wadstena and Odeshog on the other. The district consists of a 
large undulating plain ; the land varies in strength, but is gene- 
rally of good quality. Large farms and large fields predominate ; 
and although the district, as a whole, appeared to me better cul- 
tivated than most parts of Sweden, there were comparatively few 
roots to be seen, and generally the fields bore evidence that the 
same system is pursued in this as in other districts, subject 
to a modification in the case of those farmers who grow sugar- 
beet for the Wadstena factory. 

One of the farms adjoining Kyleberg is a “ peasant-farm ” of 
about 160 acres, the rotation of crops being, (1 ) bare fallow, ma- 
nured ; (2) rye ; (3) and (4) seeds ; (5) mixture of oats and 
barley ; (6) bare fallow ; (7) wheat or barley ; (8) tares and oats ; 
(9) mixture of oats and barley. Thus two-ninths of the land are 
in bare fallow every year, two-ninths in grass, one-ninth in tares, 
and four-ninths in corn, and manure is applied only to the fallow 
for rye ; and yet not less than 5 horses (generally 6) and 
10 oxen are required to work this farm. The staff of labourers 
is never less than 5, in addition to the occupier himself, who 
probably works harder than any of them. From 16 to 20 
cows are kept, and most of the butter and cheese made is con- 
sumed by the farmer and his men. The rent paid is about half 
a guinea per acre, and the farmer is looked upon as in advance 
of his order. 

This little digression is necessary to show that Kyleberg does 
not lie in a district exceptionally favoured in its soil or climate. 
In fact, it is about three or four miles from Hofgarden ? so often 
mentioned in the preceding pages. 

Kyleberg consists of nearly 900 imp. acres of rather strong 
land, of which about 136 acres are in permanent old grass; 
140 acres which have been reclaimed from the lake are planted 
with trees, amongst which coarse grass and reeds furnish auxiliary 
keep ; 68^ acres are partly occupied by soldiers,* and partly 
let to labourers ; and 16 acres comprise the park, gardens, &c. 
The land under the plough is cropped as follows : — (A) 103 
acres under a six-course shift, viz., (1) turnips or other foots; 
(2) barley ; (3) and (4) seeds mown and aftermath fed ; (5) 


* On this point see p. 255. 


Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 229 

wheat, the ley having been ploughed out in July ; (6) mixture 
of oats and barley. (B) about 383 acres are under a seven- 
course shift, of 55-acre fields, viz., (1) bare fallow or turnips ; 
(2) rye after fallow, and barley after turnips ; (3) and (4) seeds 
mown ; (5) tares, cut green ; (6) wheat ; (7) mixture of barley 
and oats. (C) (58 acres under a four-course shift (1) roots, last 
year carrots ; (2) barley, followed the same year by (3) rye, cut 
green the next spring, and succeeded by tares and oats, also cut 
green ; (4) barley, or mixed barley and oats. With reference to 
this shift it should be mentioned, that the taking of fodder-rye 
after barley, to be succeeded the same year by tares, is an experi- 
mental effort to get two green crops in one year. If it succeeds 
as well as it bids fair to do, Mr. Dickson will have once more 
well earned his present reputation as a pioneer in advanced 
Swedish farming. 

At present Mr. Dickson is going over his six-course shift with 
two root-crops in succession, with a view of thoroughly cleaning 
the land and putting it into better heart. Sometimes also he 
allows the grass to remain longer than two years, if it. is good 
enough. Seven years ago Mr. Dickson bought a set of Howard’s 
round-about steam-tackle. The economy and advantage of using 
steam, by enabling the fullest use to be made of every favourable 
day in the short Swedish season for the outdoor work of the 
farm, appear to have been very generally admitted by those 
who have seen his tackle at work, Mr. Dickson’s ordinary 
farm-labourers having soon acquired the necessary facility in 
its use. His example has not hitherto been followed ; but I 
shall be surprised if the next year or two does not witness the 
introduction of one, if not two, other sets of steam-tackle into 
Sweden. 

Bare fallow, followed by Bye. — The stubble is generally steam-cultivated 
as soon as possible after harvest. In spring the land is ploughed or cross- 
cultivated by steam, and then harrowed, the sladd following the harrow. 
Farmyard-manure is carted out in June and ploughed in immediately. Rye 
is sown the middle of August, and the preparation of the seed-bed is as follows : 
the land should be left at least three weeks after the dung is ploughed in, 
when it is harrowed previous to sowing ; if, however, it has become hard, in 
consequence of wet weather, or if weeds render it necessary, it is gone lightly 
over with the steam-cultivator or the did. From 10 to 11 pecks of rye are 
drilled per acre, and a good crop is from 5 to 6 quarters. 

Seeds . — The mixture used is about 10 to 12 lbs. of red clover, 15 lb. or 
more of alsike, 7 or 8 lbs. of Timothy, and enough rye-grass to make rather 
over 28 lbs. per imperial acre. All the seeds are sown with a broadcast ma- 
chine, as soon as possible in the spring when on rye, or on the barley imme- 
diately after it is sown. Mowing takes place between Midsummer and the 
beginning of July, according to the season, Mr. Dickson preferring to cut before 
the ryegrass flowers, as the quality of the hay is then much better; and 
although the quantity is necessarily short, a good aftermath is obtained, and 
may be either cut or fed. Originally he had his ryegrass-seed from England ; 


230 Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 

now he reserves a patch for seed every year, and in this way he has not 
only acclimatized the seed, but also, with careful winnowing, much im- 
proved its quality. The same method is pursued in the selection of grain 
for seed. 

Tares . — The seeds are broken up in the autumn by steam or cattle ; the 
land is harrowed in spring and sown in the middle of April with rather more 
than 4 bushels of seed, two-thirds being tares and one-third oats per acre, 
150 lbs. of Mejillones or Baker’s guano, with 19 per cent, soluble phosphate 
guaranteed, having been first applied. The tares are cut green as wanted, 
beginning not later than the middle of July, about the time that they com- 
mence podding. 

Wheat . — The tare-stubble is broken up by the steam-plough or cultivator at 
the end of July, sometimes the beginning of August, and the land is then 
harrowed, siadded, and drilled with 10 to 11 pecks of wheat per acre at the 
end of August, or as soon as possible, early sowing being preferred. The 
harvest is generally in August ; the crop is cut by a reaping-machine, if pos- 
sible, and all harvest operations are performed by the regular staff of farm 
labourers. The crop is generally the same as rye, or a little more; and the 
manure used for it is also 150 lbs. per acre of Mejillones, or Baker’s guano, put 
in with the drill immediately after the seed. 

Blandseed ( mixture of Oats and Barley ). — The climate of Kyleberg is too 
dry for the growth of oats as a separate crop, therefore they are grown inter- 
mixed with barley, and a certain quantity separated afterwards, if required. 
Blandseed follows wheat, the stubble being broken up in the same way as for 
that crop. From 14 to 16 or 17 pecks of seed is sown either by hand or with 
a broadcast machine about the middle or end of April, and followed as usual 
by 150 lbs. of Mejillones, or Baker’s guano. Mr. llickson is doubtful of the 
advantage of drilling spring-corn, as he thinks that the ground is not so well 
covered in that way as when sown broadcast — an important consideration in 
his dry climate. The cultivation of barley does not differ essentially from 
that of blandseed, and it may be mentioned that this year one piece yielded 
over 6 quarters per imperial acre. 

Potatoes . — This crop follows blandseed in the 4 or 6 course shifts, about 
18 acres being grown in one or the other. If possible, the manure is carted in 
the autumn on the stubble, which is then ploughed, sometimes by steam to 
the depth of 8 or 10 inches, but otherwise try horses or oxen, 8 inches deep. 
If the stubble is not manured in the autumn, the steam-cultivator is used 
instead of the plough ; and the manure is put on the land in spring, and got in 
with the plough or cultivator. Generally it requires only harrowing again ; 
but sometimes the use of either the cultivator or'the &rd is necessary to get a 
good tilth. Just before planting, the usual dressing of 150 lbs. of Mejillones, 
or Baker’s guano, is sown. The potatoes are planted in the middle of May, the 
setts being placed in the furrows made by a plough which precedes v the planter, 
and covered by one which follows him. A short time after planting, the land 
is levelled with the “sladd” and then left until the potatoes appear, when it 
is harrowed. During early growth a double-row horse-hoe is used, as required, 
to keep the land clean, hand-hoeing being also resorted to. When the plants 
are ready they are earthed up once or twice with a double-mouldboard plough, 
and kept clean, as necessary. Harvesting is done with Howard’s potato-plough. 
The ordinary crop is from 220 to 260 bushels per acre, though as much as 
375 bushels has been obtained in an exceptional season. 

Turnips . — The cultivation of the land is the same as for potatoes. About 
5 lbs. of seed is drilled per acre, commencing with Swedish turnips, if pos- 
sible, in the middle of April, and continuing them until the middle or end of 
May. White and yellow turnips are sown until the beginning or even the 
middle of June. This year about 35 acres were sown, all Swedes. White and 


Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 231 

yellow turnips are only sown when Swedes cannot be got in early enough, or 
when re-sowing is necessary. 

Carrots . — The land is prepared as for turnips; hut, if possible, the manure 
should be got in during the autumn. About 4 or 5 lbs. of white Belgian carrot, 
per acre, is dropped in by women, who use small hoes, the handles of which 
exactly measure the distance between the plants. The after-cultivation is the 
same as for other roots. Carrots are best after potatoes or Swedes, as they 
do better without stable-dung. They are harvested by pulling, and using 
digging-forks, when necessary, by the ordinary staff of farm 'labourers. 

Lucerne . — About an acre and a half has been sown as an experiment, in- 
stead of clover-seed, 20 lbs. of seed per acre being used. 1874 was the second 
year, and, notwithstanding the dry season, a small mowing was obtained. The 
first year the yield was very little. This plant grows almost wild in some parts 
of Sweden, having probably been imported with other farm-seeds. This fact 
encourages the idea that it may be successfully cultivated. 

Cattle . — About 40 Shorthorn cows are kept, and all the calves 
are reared. Last September, the young stock consisted of 10 
in-calf heifers, 15 yearlings, 15 two-year-olds, 20 calves, and 5 
young bulls. Calves drop all the year round, but generally come 
from the middle of January to the middle of May. They are 
sold at all ages, from 1 week to 6 or 8 months old, and customers 
come from all parts of Sweden. The price of a bull-calf a 
week old is 4 guineas; at a month old, one would fetch 71. ; 
and at 6 months, 18/. 

The cows are kept on grass day and night, from about the 
10th of June until the beginning of October, and if the pastures 
are not very good, they get some tares on it ; but this year the 
mild autumn enabled them to be kept on the pastures by day 
until the niddle of November. This was a great help, as the 
shortness of the hay and root crops rendered the keep of so 
many cattle of all kinds (over 200 head, including cows, young 
stock, feedmg cattle of all ages, and working oxen ) as are to be 
found on tyleberg, during a long winter, a matter of con- 
siderable andety, In view of these circumstances, the following 
dietary has been arranged for the winter of 1874-75 : — Cows 
will have 4 lbs. good hay, 5 lbs. blandseed meal, and 27 lbs. 
roots (carrots, swedes, and steamed potatoes) per diem ; also straw 
as much as tley will eat, partly cut for mixing, and partly uncut 
and mixed w.th the hay. 

The roots, meal, chopped straw, and chaff, are all mixed and 
pressed down in boxes, holding enough for one day, and the 
mixture is albwed to become slightly heated. The chaff and 
chopped straw are first put down in a layer of about 4 inches, 
then sprinkled over with water. A portion of the pulped roots, 
or steamed and crushed potatoes, is then spread over the straw, 
&c., and then more straw sprinkled over. All are then mixed 
and pressed cbwn, and the same process is repeated until the 
box or bin is as full as is required for the number of cows. 


232 Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 


The cows are fed at 5 A.M. with mixture as above ; at 7 A.M. 
they have water and a little straw afterwards ; and at 11.30 A.M. 
the same as at 5. At 1 P.M. they are watered, and then get a 
little hay or straw ; at 4.30 P.M. mixture as at 5 A.M., and finally 
at 8 P.M., blandseed straw. Just after calving, the cows get a 
little more meal (2 or 3 lbs.), given generally in water, and 
sometimes sprinkled over other food, also a little more hay 
under ordinary circumstances. Their average production of 
milk exceeds 500 gallons per annum. 

The same principle of feeding is carried out for the working- 
oxen and the feeding-stock, only that the former get a little less 
meal and hay, and the latter 10 or 12 lbs. of meal and cake, 
and more roots. The root-crop of 1874 having been very light, 
the feeding-beasts have this winter received no whole swedes ; 
nevertheless they have done very well, but probably not improved 
so rapidly as usual. 

From 30 to 35 feeding-beasts, crossed Shorthorn and the 
Swedish Herrgardsrace, are bought at about 6 months old, and 
sold fat at about 3 years old. They come in as calves in October, 
and are treated the same as those of Mr. Dickson’s own breeding. 
When roots are plentiful, they are fed on turnips and slraw ; but 
if not, as this year, they get mixture like that made for the cows, 
and about J lb. of oilcake per head. In summer, the feeding 
stock go on as good grass as possible, and if it is not good 
enough, they get ^ lb. of oilcake each. In October tley go into 
the houses, as a rule, and are fed as before, but ruth larger 
quantities. In the spring they again go on the grass, and the 
third winter they are given as many turnips as they can eat, 
though if the turnips run short, they get oilcake aid oatmeal, 
some requiring more of this assistance than others. They are 
finished off in April with an increase of meal and some oilcake. 
When sold, the beasts weigh from 1500 to over 1800 English 
lbs. live weight, and fetch from 27 rd. to 30 rd. per centner, 
equal to about Ad. to 4 \d. per English lb. About 30 fat beasts 
are sold yearly in Gothenburg, and most of them gc to ^England. 
Like most English feeders, Mr. Dickson finds that tie cattle leave 
little or no profit except in the manure; but he is quite satisfied 
with the results which he thereby obtains in his crqis. It may be 
mentioned, as an indication of the quality of the sw<des, that cattle 
can be fattened entirely on them and straw, though it is not done. 

Sheep and Pigs . — Very little need be said uuler this head, 
for although 30 Cheviot ewes and 5 breeding-sow are kept, and 
their produce reared, it is only because the requrements of the 
estate render the home production of mutton, perk, and bacon, 
a matter of convenience, and there is nothing in tie management 
of the animals that calls for detailed description. 


Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 233 

Horses . — Bearing in mind what has already been stated (p. 198) 
as to the horse-power required to work a farm in Sweden, it 
will be interesting to ascertain the reduction of such force caused 
bv the use of steam-tackle. Twelve horses and 16 working- 
oxen are used for working Kyleberg, and as the total amount of 
land under rotation is 554 acres, this gives an average of 5 draught- 
animals to every 100 acres under the plough. On an ordinary 
Swedish farm, 80 acres of this would be in bare fallow, and 240 
acres in seeds ; but on Kyleberg, only 27 acres are in bare fallow, 
and 144 acres in seeds. The staff of draught-animals is there- 
fore not more than two-thirds of the strength usual on large 
farms in Sweden, if we reckon only the land that needs horse- 
labour in each year. 

In summer the horses are fed chiefly on green tares and clover, 
with very little corn. In winter they get from 10 to 12 lbs. of 
oats (whole and crushed), and from 10 to 12 lbs. of hay per 
diem. The working-oxen get, in summer, tares and oat-straw, 
or some other green food, such as cut grass. In winter they get 
a few turnips, and about 10 lbs. of hay, otherwise 2 lbs. of oat- 
meal, 1 gallon of turnips, and as much straw as they can eat. 

Labourers . — When Mr. Dickson bought Kyleberg, the land had 
been cropped on the two-field system, half fallow and half corn, 
and the land was manured about once in 30 years. The labourers 
lived in hovels, and were paid in kind, giving so many days’ 
work for a stipulated quantity of each description of produce. 
It is unnecessary, however, to describe the difficulties which 
attended and obstructed the alterations made by Mr. Dickson, 
either in the course of cropping or in the treatment of the 
labourers. 

The labourers are now hired in July, for the twelve months 
commencing the following October, a system which is not unusual 
in those parts of Sweden where hired labour, properly so termed, 
is the general rule. Commonly the agreement stipulates for 
the payment of so much hiring-money, and so much wages ; but 
Mr. Dickson puts both sums together. His married labourers — 
16 in number — each get about 6/. 2s. 6 d. per annum in money, 
about 27 bushels of rye, 13J bushels of barley, 3 cubic fathoms 
(of 108 cubic feet each) of w r ood per annum, and \ kanna 
(rather more than 1 quart) of milk per day. His cattle-man 
receives 8/. 13s. 4 d. in money, the same allowance of rye, barley, 
and wood as the labourers, and twice the quantity of milk. The 
bailiff, the foreman, the smith, the carpenter, and every other 
grade of labourer, has his special scale of payment, some being 
very complicated. For instance, the smith (an important man 
on the farm worked by the only steam-plough in Sweden) 


234 Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 

receives 16/. 13s. 6 d. in money, 18 bushels of rye, 13^ bushels 
of barley, rather more than 2 bushels of peas, 9 bushels of 
mixed barley and oats, 3^ bushels of malt, 224 bushels of pota- 
toes, 2 bushels of kohl rabi, 30 head of cabbage, ^ cwt. pork, 
93 lbs. of beef, 93 lbs. of herrings, 7 gallons of salt, about 3 lbs. 
of lard, and the same quantity of hops, and 4 fathoms of wood 
per annum, as well as 1 kanna (nearly three-fifths of a gallon) 
of milk per day. 

In addition to their wages and allowances, each labourer has 
part of a house and a piece of garden rent-free. The details of 
the construction of the houses for the ordinary farm-labourers, 
which are built to hold four families each, and those of the 
ample store-cellars and out-houses, will be understood by refer- 
ence to the annexed plans, sections, and elevations (pp. 235—237), 
which Mr. Dickson was so kind as to trace for me from the 
original drawings. 

These cottages are built of wood, cela va sans dire ; but they 
cost 340/. per block, including the out-houses ; and Mr. Dick- 
son told me that if he had clay fit for making bricks on his 
estate he would build no more wooden cottages. He thinks 
that they are not much, if any, cheaper in first cost than brick 
cottages, and are continually requiring repairs. If this is the 
case in Sweden, it would obviously be useless to import such 
cottages into England.* Like most of the wooden houses in Swe- 
den, the Kyleberg cottages are stained with a kind of red ochre, 
which is made from a refuse material — an impure red oxide of 
iron — obtained from the sulphur works. This material is mixed 
with meal, oil, turpentine, and a solution of sulphate of iron ; 
and its application tends to preserve the wood from decay. The 
cottages are roofed with the thin spruce-splints termed 1 shingle.' 
Before use, these ‘ chips,’ in appearance, are soaked in a solution 
of sulphate of iron ; and their durability as a roofing material 
was attested by the present excellent condition of the roof of 
Mr. Dickson’s granary, which was built twenty-two years ago : 
since then the roof has not been once renewed, artd it is per- 
fectly sound now. 

Fences . — The ordinary Swedish fence, hideous to the eye, and 
with many practical drawbacks, is at Kyleberg being replaced 
by quick fences, which are planted on the flat, the plants being 
6 inches apart in a single row. The year after planting they 
are cut a little to strengthen the bottom, and afterwards are 
trimmed as required. 


* Vide ‘ Journal of tho Bath and West of England Society,’ 3rd Series, vol. v. 
p. 196. 


Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 235 


If these fences fulfil the promise of their youth, they will, in 
a few years, add another illusive feature to Kyleberg ; and with 
the steam-plough, the Shorthorns, the Cheviot sheep, the turnips, 
the stacks of corn, the reaping-machines, the fixed engine and 
its tall chimney, will tend to make the agricultural traveller 
imagine that he has suddenly stepped from Sweden into the 
neighbourhood of Edinburgh. 


Figs. 11-14 . — Illustrations of a Kyleberg Cottage, with Accommodation 
for four Families. 





236 Report on the Agriculture of Siceden and Norivag, 




Fig. 14.— Ground floor, with accommodation for two families: o, fire-place, in front of 6, the oven 
The family living above has the right to bake with the family living beneath them. Each family 
on the ground-floor has two rooms, and one family ou the floor above has three and the other four 
rooms. 


Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 237 


Figs. 15-17 . — Illustrations of the Out-buildings to a Kyleberg Cottage 
(to accommodate four Families). 



Fig. 15. — Elevation. 



Fig. 16. — Ground Floor, showing steps, on right and left, leading to cellars beneath. 



Fig. 17.— Section along the line a b, in Fig. 16. 


SWEDISH ELLS OF 2 FEET. 
0 I 2 3A-S 6783 \0 


IS 


29 


238 Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 


A Milk-producing Farm. 

Enskede is almost in the suburbs of Stockholm, and is worked 
as a suburban dairy-farm with remarkable ingenuity in conjunc- 
tion with a distillery, by their owner, Mr. Axel Odelberg. Here, 
therefore, exist the most favourable conditions for obtaining a 
profitable result from the management of a dairy-farm in Sweden ; 
and from this point of view the following sketch of the farming 
and its results may have a special interest. The facts given are 
taken partly from my note-book, partly from Mr. Odelberg’s pub- 
lished pamphlets, and partly from the account of his farm which 
appeared in the catalogue of Swedish Exhibits at Vienna, 1873. 

The farm is prettily situated in a valley, bounded and broken 
here and there by wooded hills of no great elevation. In the 
lower part of the valley the land is strong loam, containing a 
fair quantity of vegetable matter ; but nevertheless difficult to 
work both in very dry and very wet weather. The soil of the 
upper part of the valley contains more sand, and is therefore 
lighter, though also rich in vegetable matter. There are three 
agricultural divisions of the farm, viz., the stronger land, the 
lighter land, and the irrigated meadows. 

The stronger land comprises about 227 acres, and is farmed 
on a 10-course shift ; namely, first year, bare fallow, well 
dunged, and followed by rye in the second year, either allowed 
to ripen, or eaten as green fodder, according to circumstances, 
and sown out with seeds (Timothy grass, red clover, and alsike), 
which remain down for three years. In the sixth year oats are 
taken, and in the seventh, vetches for fodder, well manured ; 
then wheat in the eighth, barley in the ninth, and oats, peas, 
vetches, or other pulse-crops, in the tenth year. 

The lighter portion of the arable land measures about 148 
acres, and is divided into twelve fields, eleven of which have the 
following rotation, while the twelfth is cropped as circumstances 
may render necessary : — (1) bare fallow, dunged, and now 
and then sown about St. John’s Day with vetches to be used as 
green fodder ; (2) rye or barley, sown out with the mixture of 
clover and grass already mentioned ; (3), (4), and (5), seeds 
mown ; (6) rye, after a deep ploughing and manuring ; (7) 
potatoes, also manured ; (8) barley ; (9) vetches, dunged ; (10) 
barley, and (11) oats. 

The third division of the farm, consisting of 33 acres, is now 
almost exclusively irrigated meadow-land, which is watered in 
spring and autumn with accumulations of rain and drainage- 
water from the homestead and the surrounding land, including 
the runnings from the stables, cowhouses, &c. It may also here 
be mentioned that four horses are kept in employment carting 
town-manure from Stockholm to the farm ; therefore there is 


Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 239 

comparatively little need of artificials, although now and then 
the use of superphosphate and sulphate of ammonia may be 
deemed necessary. Mr. Odelberg also lets a cow-house, with- 
out land, to a man who keeps from 40 to 50 cows, and supplies 
him with as much straw as he requires at half the Government 
tax-price, on condition that the manure becomes the property of 
Mr. Odelberg without payment. The cow-keeper is at liberty 
to feed his cows as he pleases. 

Recently, about 120 acres have been added to the home-farm, 
and since then the stock of cows has reached its maximum. It 
should be remembered that the farm has varied in size from 
time to time, otherwise the great variations in the quantity of 
milk produced, as stated in the accounts of different periods, to 
be quoted presently, will not be properly understood. 

The details of the cultivation of the land need not be given 
here ; but those relating to the treatment of the milch-cows will 
be read with interest. 

From 100 to 120 cows have latterly been kept during the 
winter months, and from 80 to 90 during the summer. They 
are bought in Stockholm within a week of two of calving, and 
are generally of the native Swedish race, crossed more or less 
with Dutch, or one of the English breeds. Every year about 
60 or 70 cows are bought, and about the same number sold, for 
as soon as a cow gives less than 2 kannor (about 1-^- gallon) of 
milk per day, it is sold off. The cows are bought as good as 
they can be obtained, and the prices given vary from 8 guineas 
to nearly 14. They are sold in good condition, and in 1873 
fetched from 4 to 4^ rd. per liss pund ( = about 3 d. per English 
lb.) live weight ; but in 1874 they did not fetch more than 
to 3^ rd. per liss pund (or not more than 2\d. to 2 ^d. per 
English lb.) live weight. 

Between 20 and 30 cows — the pick of the various purchases 
— are kept for several years, being allowed to run dry previous 
to calving, and otherwise treated as on breeding-farms. The 
average production of milk per cow, taking into consideration 
only the number on the farm at any one time, is 1000 kannor 
(576 gallons) of milk per cow per annum, which is equal to over 
18/. per cow, at l\d. per gallon, the price the milk has recently 
fetched on the farm. This does not mean, however, that the 
cows, taken one with another, give this quantity, because as soon 
as a cow gives less than 2 kannor per day it is sold, and re- 
placed by one that will calve in a week or two, and then give 
from 5 to 8 kannor (2-^ to 4-f- gallons) per day, though occa- 
sionally not more than 4 kannor (2-^ gallons). In this way a 
high average production is kept up ; and with this system, the 
close vicinity of Stockholm, and the advantages of an adjoining 


240 Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 

distillery, Enskede ought to furnish an example of a highly pro- 
fitable dairy-farm, if such an establishment exists in Sweden. 

The distillery begins work about October 1st, and from this 
date the number of cows is increased to the maximum as soon 
as possible. As a system, they are kept in the houses all the year 
round ; but if necessary, on account of scarcity of fodder that can 
be cut, they are turned out to graze the aftermath about the begin- 
ning of September. The food given in the houses consists of 
three meals per diem, namely, at 4 A.M., at 3 P.M., and at 7 to 
8 P.M. From the commencement of distillery work the food 
consists of a mixture of thick draff and straw', which is left 
during the night to ferment. In the morning, at 4 o’clock, the 
draff is first given ; and when the cows have drunk as much of it 
as they care for, they have as much of the fermented straw and 
draff as they like to take, then a little oatmeal, being a propor- 
tionate part of from 1^ to 2^ cwt. allowed for all the cows 
during the day. By 10 to 11 o’clock the byres are cleaned, and 
the cows allowed to remain quiet until 3 o’clock. From 3 to 
6 they are again fed as in the morning. The distillery work 
ends on May 1st ; but there is a reserve of draff which usually 
lasts another fortnight, after which the summer-feeding of the 
cows commences. For the first month — from May 15th to June 
15th— their food consists of hay, oats, and straw, mixed together 
and fermented, just as the straw and draff had been in the 
winter. From June 15th to the end of the summer the cows 
are fed on cut grass from the water-meadows, and green vetches ; 
and during the last two or three weeks in September they are 
put on the aftermath by day, getting in the evening cut grass and 
green clover in the houses. All the cows are milked between 
4 and 6 A.M., the best 20 to 30 a second time between 11 and 
12, and the whole again between 4 and 5.30 P.M. The milk 
is sent to Stockholm at six o’clock in the morning and half-past 
five in the evening. It is sold on the farm at (in 1874) nearly 
l\d. per gallon to a man who is at the expense and trouble 
of distribution, but who has the use of two horses vand a cart 
without payment, as well as three rooms and firing at the farm. 

There are 16 horses and 20 working-oxen employed in the 
cultivation of this farm (excluding the two horses used for the 
carriage of milk, but including the four employed in carting 
town-dung). Taking the whole of the arable land to measure 
500 acres, this number shows rather more than 7 draught-animals 
to each 100 acres under cultivation, although more than 100 
acres are annually in artificial grass ; and the greatest possible 
care has been taken to arrange the farm-machinery, so that 
it may be connected when required with the steam-engine be- 
longing to the distillery. 


Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 241 

The preceding details as to the number of cows and their 
production of milk refer to the autumn of 1874, while the fol- 
lowing are translated from Mr. O del berg’s account of his farm 
for the year ending May 31st, 1874 : — 

“ About 100 cows are usually kept. During the winter months the shed 
is filled with 108, and some dry cows are, besides, housed with the oxen. 
During the summer, on the other hand, the number is lessened to about 90, 
and calves are no longer bred, but the number is recruited by buying cows 
which have just calved. Formerly, when the milk could be sold in Stock- 
holm for a higher price, and the profit from the dairy could in consequence 
be more satisfactory, without considering too carefully the most profitable 
way to manage that branch of industry, breeding-cows were kept at Enskede, 
and several calves were yearly bred from these. At one time cows of Fries- 
land and Tender races were exclusively kept ; but, as before said, this mode 
of management, however pleasing and agreeable to the eye, had been obliged 
to be abandoned for one more profitable. 

“ During the course of the financial year ending with the 31st of May last, 
the number of cows kept had been on an average 102, and the milk produced 
59,582 gallons, whereof 53,242 have been sold, and the rest consumed by the 
household and the families attached to the farm. The shifting of animals 
has been : — sold and killed, 2 bulls and 56 cows ; for which the dairy accounts 
have been credited with 6627. 2s. 3 d . ; besides which, 1 cow died by sickness : 
4 bulls and 65 cows have been bought, for which 7287. 4s. 6 d. have been paid. 
The fodder used for feeding the cattle during that time has been — hay, and 
green fodder reduced to hay, 2449 cwts. ; groats and meal, 635 cwts. ; salt, 
37'8 cubic feet ; draff, the refuse product of 7515 cwt. of flour and groats; 
and 11,200 cubic feet of potatoes, of which oxen and swine received a little 
more than T ^th part.” 

The following additional details are translated from the ‘ Cata- 
logue of Swedish Exhibits at the Vienna Exhibition’ in 1873 — - 

“ The live stock consists, besides draught-animals, of about 100 cows — in 
winter a few more, in summer a few less — 3 bulls, about 20 pigs, and some ■ 

poultry Calves are not reared, but the number is kept up entirely by 

purchase, about one-third of the whole being annually sold out and others 
bought in to replace them. At the commencement of the last-ended financial, 
year, viz., on June 1st, 1871, the number of cows and bulls was 93, which 
together weighed nearly 800 cwt., or an average of 952 lbs. each. At the end of 
the same year there were 97 animals, having a total live weight of over 840 cwt., 
or an average of 974 lbs. each. In that year an average of 100 animals had 
received, exclusive of straw and chaff, most of which had been used as litter, 
the following quantities of food: — Meal, 953 cwts.; hay, and green fodder 
reduced to hay, 2962 cwts. ; draff during six months, 385,920 gallons; linseed- 
cake, 42 cwts. ; and pasturage, corresponding to hay, 125 cwts. 

“ The value of the draff is estimated at 20 per cent, of that of the raw 
materials from which it is obtained. These, in so far as they contributed to 
the usefulness of the draff to the cows, were 3217 bushels of potatoes, 2939 
cwts. of rye-meal, and 2288 cwts. of barley-meal. 

“ The total production of milk was 58,857 gallons, or an average of 588 
gallons per cow. All the milk was sold on the spot at 6 Id. per gallon (28 
ore per kanna), which left a profit on all the cows of 1942. 14s., or an average 
ol 11. 18s. 11(7., after deducting the cost of fodder, labour, rent of land and 
cow-stall, and other items.” 

In further elucidation of the mode in which the profit on the 

VOL. XI.— S. S. R 


242 Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 

cows is calculated, I subjoin the following translation of an 
account published by Mr. Odelberg in his description of 
‘ Enskede in 1868,’ and of the paragraphs explanatory of it : — 

“ To give an idea, although incomplete, of the two .principal branches of 
farming industry at Enskede, viz., agriculture and dairy-keeping, two Tables 
are annexed, made out from the last year’s accounts ; the one showing the 
cost of cultivating the soil during the last three years, and the revenue there- 
from ; the second being an exposition of the debit and credit derived from 
the dairy department during 1865 and 1866, with a calculation of the cost or 
production of one kanna of milk (= 0'576 imperial gallon) during those 
years 

“ It can be seen from the first of these Tables* that a harvest is required 
exceeding in value 4 1. 12s. per acre of the whole area, the barren soil in- 
cluded, to cover the yearly expenses of cultivating the soil, together with the 
interest of principal and floating capital ; that the expenses for labour, seed- 
corn, manure, &c., alone attain the amount of 31. 14s. per acre, that out of the 
sum which the harvest exceeds in value the last-mentioned amount, the rent — 
13s. per acre — must first be paid, and then the interest on the floating capital, 
5s. 3d. per acre ; and that what then remains is the net profit on the tillage, 
which profit has been on an average 111/. 10s. these three years. f 

Table XT. — Calculation of the Cost of Production of Milk at Enskede 
during the Financial Years 1865-66 and 1866-67. 


The year 1865-66. Production of Milk, 68,564 kannor = 39,544 gallons. 




Expenses. 

♦ 


Gross. 

Net. 

Per Gall, 
of Mills. 



£ 

s. 

d. 

£ 

s. 

d. 

d. 

Fodder : viz. grass, hay, and pasturing 


320 

14 

0 





Straw 


119 

2 

9 





Meal, groats, rape-cake, and salt 


472 

8 

9 





Draff 


100 

13 

3 





Total cost of food . . 


1012 

18 

9 





Less the value of the manure, equal to the) 

119 







value of the straw 




893 

16 

0 

5-4 


Other expenses : — 





Labour, wages, transport (the carriage 

ofl 

170 

14 

6 





milk not included) 

J 





Purchase of cows 


269 

1 

3 


* 



Interest on capital, proportionate share of\ 


1 

0 





expenses of management, &c. 

■ A 






Lighting and sundries 


12 

10 

5 





Total for other expenses 


530 

7 

2 





Less cattle sold, dead meat,\ 971 ,,- 
hides, &c r n 10 

0 








Increased value of stock . . . . 46 15 

5 

318 

10 

5 

211 

16 

9 

1-3 







Total cost of milk . . 





1105 

12 

9 

- 6-7 


* The re-publication of this Table is not necessary, 
t Equal to about 5s. 6 d. per acre. 


Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 243 
Table XI. — Calculation of the Cost of Production of Milk — continued. 


The, year 1866-67. Production of Milk, 62,018 kannor = 36,322 gallons. 



Gross. 

iXPENSES. 

Net. 

Per Gall, 
of Milk. 


£ s. d. 

£ s. d. 

d. 

Fodder : viz. green fodder and hay 

395 15 5 



Straw 

105 12 7 



Meal, groats, rape-cake and salt 

465 12 9 



Potatoes 

6 7 9 



Draff 

101 17 9 



Total cost of food 

1075 6 3 



Less the value of the manure, equal to tliei 




value of the straw / 

JLIM 1 L u 





969 13 9 

64 

Other expenses : — 




Labour, wages, transport (the carriage oft 

17^ n 7 



milk not included) / 




Purchase of cows 

139 13 9 



Interest on capital, proportionate share of| 

QH 17 Q 



expenses of management, &c / 




Sundries 

19 8 8 



Decreased value of stock during the year . . 

51 14 9 



Total for other expenses . . 

466 15 0 



Less for cattle sold, dead meat, hides, &c. . . 

232 2 0 





234 13 0 

1-6* 

Total cost of milk 

.. .. 

1204 6 9 

8-0 


“ From the second Table (XI.) it is seen that during the year 1865-66 the 
production of milk was 39,544 gallons, the cost of production having been 
nearly 29 ore per kanna (= 6! d. per gallon) ; -that, on the other hand, the 
following year, 1866-67, the production of milk was only 36,322 gallons, which 
had cost nearly 35 ore per kanna ( = 8 d. per gallon). This unsatisfactory re- 
sult of the dairy during that year must he ascribed to the had quality of the 
fodder produced in 1866, and its bad nourishing properties. The first year 
the dairy gave a profit — the latter one, on the contrary, a loss. The price 
of milk in Stockholm is not high enough to cover so heavy a cost of produc- 
tion as 35 ore, as well as the dairy and selling expenses. It must be remem- 
bered that during both these years the time for the distillation of branvin 
was limited to three months yearly, and that of the draff produced a part was 
sold to the families attached to the farm and to neighbours. As the means 
of obtaining that powerful fodder is limited to a short time, it cannot be used 
as a chief ingredient, therefore it has no very important place among articles of 
fodder.” 


Meat versus Milk. 

We are now in a position to estimate the relative advantages 
and disadvantages of meat-making and milk-production in 


» 


K 2 


Nearly. 


244 Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 

Sweden, taking into account the various circumstances which 
have been described in the preceding pages. 

When milk is sold in a town the price varies from less than 
6rf. per gallon to more than 9 d. (at Gefle), subject to certain 
expenses of delivery, or to cost of horses, house-room, firing, 
&c., supplied to the distributor. When it is made into whole- 
milk cheese, it may yield a maximum gross return of over Id. 
per gallon ; but on the one side must be deducted the cost of 
labour, and on the other must be added the value of the whey 
and, according to Mr. Swartz, the net return is not more than 
Gd. per gallon. When made into butter and skim-cheese the 
return may be as much as l\d. per gallon at the highest prices 
for butter and skim-cheese, subject to deductions as in the case 
of whole-milk cheese, and probably the net result would not be 
very different. 

It is, however, only in exceptional instances that the highest 
prices are obtained ; and those instances are where highly 
intelligent and educated men have both the capital to invest in 
their business and the business capacity and energy necessary 
for its effective supervision. If ordinary cases were taken, a 
large deduction from the preceding figures would be necessarv 
to represent the truth ; but, for the sake of simplicity, it will 
answer my purpose to assume that Gd. per gallon represents the 
average net return which an ordinary Swedish farmer receives 
for his milk. 

The next question is, What does this milk cost to produce? 
and it is almost unnecessary to say that very few farmers can 
answer the question. We have seen, however, that in the year 
1865-66, Mr. Odelberg’s milk cost him 6f d. per gallon, and 8cL 
per gallon in the year 1866-67, after deducting the value of 
the manure. Mr. Odelberg remarks that the small quantity of 
draff available in those years both increased the cost of pro- 
duction of the milk and diminished its quantity ; therefore one 
would say, d fortiori , that on ordinary farms on which draff 
cannot be obtained, the cost of production must be greatei 
than at Enskede. Then Mr. Odelberg takes care, by the judi- 
cious sale and purchase of cows, to keep up the average pro- 
duction of milk to 1000 kannor (576 gallons) per annum. 
What, therefore, must a gallon of milk cost to a man whose cows 
give an average of only 200 or 250 gallons per annum ! 

It is unfortunate that Mr. Odelberg’s accounts, when they 
give the value of the fodder consumed, do not give the quantities ; 
and when the quantities are stated, as in the Vienna Catalogue, 
the values are not given. For the sake of comparison, however* 
I have calculated the value of the last-mentioned quantities at 
the rates given by Mr. Swartz in estimating the cost of rearing 


Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 245 

calves, on page 217, and the result is an average quantity of food 
to the value of4^(f. for every gallon of milk. Adding the average 
of the “ other expenses ” for the years 1865-66 and 1866-67, 
as given on pages 242 and 243, we get a total of 5 ’95 d., or very 
nearly 6d. per gallon, as the cost of production of milk in the 
vear ending May 31st, 1872, on a basis of 100 cows, giving an 
average of 588 gallons per head during the year. Mr. Odelberg 
states that his milk was in that year sold at 28 ore per kanna 
(6£rf. per gallon), and at that price yielded a profit of 1/. 18s. 11 d. 
per cow ; therefore the cost of producing the milk must have 
been a trifle more than I have calculated, otherwise the profit 
(which of course includes the value of the manure reckoned as 
the value of the straw, as in the years 1865-66 and 1866-67) 
would have been about 9s. per cow more. It is, however, possible 
that the statement “ all the milk was sold ” is subject to a modi- 
fication to the extent of the quantity usually consumed by the 
farm-labourers and their families, which would nearly balance 
the results of the two methods of calculation. These results are 
also confirmed by calculating the values of the quantities of food 
given for the year ending May 31st, 1873, the cost per cow being 
in each year between 10 guineas and 11/. 

It requires no argument to show that, if Mr. Odelberg’s state- 
ments as to the cost of producing milk in the neighbourhood of 
Stockholm, are at all indicative of the average cost throughout 
Sweden under the best management, it is perfectly clear that milk- 
production in that country cannot pay even so low a rent as 13s. 
per acre, and leave a profit to the farmer. So far, indeed, is this 
from being the case, that there is a dead loss of |c?. per gallon 
on the milk produced in the most favourable of the two years 
in Mr. Odelberg’s table, if Qd. per gallon represents the average 
net price obtained. The comparatively small farmers cannot be 
in the habit of comparing the returns from their dairy with the 
value of their labour, and of the materials that go into their 
cow-house for the production of milk, otherwise dairy-husbandry 
would not continue to hold its sway as the principal object of 
Scandinavian agriculture. 

The best meat-growers in Sweden, as well as in England, 
hold that their fat beasts leave little or no profit except the 
value of their manure ; but they are better off than the Swedish 
dairyman, whose cows, as it appears to me, generally entail a 
loss even after crediting them with their own estimate of their 
value as fertilising machines. I should, however, here observe 
that Mr. Odelberg’s estimate of the value of the manure, namely, 
the original value of the straw, equal to very little more than 
1/. per cow per annum, appears too low, although doubtless 
the value of the liquid manure is discounted in calculating the 


246 Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Nortcay., 

cost of the hay and green food obtained from the irrigated 
meadows. 

The foregoing argument should not be pushed too far, as the 
production of a sufficient quantity of milk, butter, and cheese for 
the wants of the community is both necessary to the consumer 
and profitable to the producer. But in Sweden nearly even- 
farmer is a dairyman ; it is therefore not surprising that the 
maximum price of milk obtained by a large producer close to 
Stockholm, the capital of the country, does not now reach 8J. 
per gallon. Then, although butter obtains a high price if it is 
of exceptionally good quality, the percentage of the total product 
belonging to that category is remarkably small ; while inferior 
butter and skim-cheese are so abundant in the market, and 
therefore so cheap, that they do not pay the cost of production. 
The same may be said of whole-milk cheese, many dairymen 
having recently altered their practice to the making of butter 
and skim-cheese on that account. The fact is, the climate of 
Sw eden renders dairying an expensive business, even under the 
most favourable circumstances ; but under the method generally 
followed, the market for dairy products (except of the very finest 
quality) is overdone, and, owing to the combination of these 
conditions, dairying does not often pay. 

Farm Labour. 

Farm-labourers are generally hired by the year, and the agree- 
ment is made some time in advance of the period from which it 
is to commence. Thus arrangements are made in July for the 
year commencing the October following. The dates and scales 
of payment vary in different parts of the country, but the prin- 
ciple is the same throughout. 

Labourers are paid in three ways, namely, entirely in money, 
or partly in money and partly in kind, or entirely in land. The 
last-mentioned, or “.torp,’’ system is the oldest. Some farms are 
entirely cultivated by “ torpare,” in which case about as much 
land is occupied by them as by the farmer. As a case in point, 
I may quote a farm (Gammalstorp, near Satenys) recently- pur- 
chased by a Danish gentleman, Lieut. Hansen. He has 960 
acres in hand, and his labourers occupy 840 more ; but hitherto he 
has paid no money wages except to a foreman, some cattlemen, 
and the dairymaids. The proportion of land allotted as pay- 
ment for labour varies according to its quality, and to the value of 
the additional mountain-pasture, and of the wood for fuel. Both 
of these are most valuable in the more northern provinces. The 
amount of work given as rent for the land also varies with cir- 
cumstances ; but generally a labourer occupying 12 imperial 


Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 247 

acres would have to furnish 150 days’ work in the year, or, say 
three days per week, and also to supply liorse-labour, if required, 
at a fixed rate of payment. In Scane, where the agricultural 
system approaches most closely to that of Denmark, some of the 
labourers have a house and not more than 3 or 4 acres of land, 
the cultivation of which is performed by the farmer’s men and 
horses, the labourer in return giving 150 days’ labour without 
payment, and as much additional labour as is required at 10c?. 
per diem. The extent to which the “ torp ” system prevails in 
Sweden is indicated by the fact that 185,093 of the 295,983 
agricultural holdings belonged to this class in 1872 ; and 
official figures show that there is no decided tendency to sub- 
stitute other kinds of payment for it. A few landowners, how- 
ever, now give their old labourers leases of their small farms, 
and prefer to pay their successors in money. 

The mixed payment of part money and part materials, is best 
illustrated by a few examples, in addition to Mr. Dickson’s 
already given, the quantities being per annum. 



Mr. Swartz,* 
Wadstena. 

Mr. Tranchell, 
Landskrona. 

Count Platen, 
Kulla 

Gunnarstorp. 

Mr. Insulander, 
Grastorp. 


£ s. d. 

£ s. d. 

£ s. d. 

£ s. d. 

Money 

3 11 U 

8 6 8 

8 6 8 

22 5 0 

Rye 

Peas 

18 bush, 
li , , (malt) 

18 bush. 

41 ,, 

18 bush. 


Barley 

9 , , 

18 ,, 

18 ,, 


Potatoes 

Swedes 

13* ,, 

41 ,, 

160 galls. 

1 cwt. 

4 galls. 

9 ,, 

131 .. 


Milk 

Salt herrings 

Salt 

210 galls. 

160 galls. 


Firewood 

Coal 

4 cubic fms. 

22| bush. 

as required. 

as required. 

House . . 

free. 

free. 

free. 

free. 


The last example given is nearly a pure money-payment : 
Mr. Insulander pays 25 men at that rate, and his remaining 
labour is partly provided by 15 or 16 students, and partly by 
peasants who furnish 5000 days’ work in the year, at the average 
rate of 20 days’ work per annum for every Swedish tunnland 
(l ! imperial acre). 

In the more northern parts of Sweden the payment of a yearly 
labourer is sometimes arranged as follows : — in summer, Is. 8 d. 
per day ; in winter, Is. 4c?. ; house and quarter of an acre of garden 
rent-free ; and enough hay for one cow through the winter, with 


* The payment in this column is for 16 working days per month ; for every 
additional day’s work the labourer receives an additional Is. 1 |d. 


248 Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 

mountain-pasture in summer, both without payment. In Scane 
day-labourers get Is. 9 d. per day in summer, rising to as much 
as 2s. 3 d. per day at harvest-time. 

In Norway yearly labourers are also paid on the same system, 
near Christiania the payment being 45s. a month in money, 
house and wood free, 7\ bushels of rye, 7^ bushels of barley, and 
7£ bushels of potatoes. Daily labourers obtain from Is. 9 d. to 
2s. 3d. per day in summer, and their cottage ; and Is. 9 d. per 
day in winter, to as much as 3s. 8 d., when threshing, with Is. 4 d. 
for a woman to help. The system of land-payment also exists 
in a modified form : the peasant pays, say, from 5/. to 71. per 
annum for his house and farm of about 7 acres ; he works a 
stipulated number of days for his landlord, and is paid by the 
piece or the day according to arrangement ; the rest of his time 
he works for himself. 

The cost of farm-labour has increased very much in Sweden 
and Norway of recent years, owing to the demand for labour on 
the railways, in the forests, and in mining and manufacturing 
industries ; but there does not appear to be any complaint of 
scarcity of hands. In the winter, the small farmers who possess 
no forests of their own work for those who do, and thus earn 
as labourers in the winter much more money than they gain as 
farmers in the summer. A highly-intelligent “ peasant,” so called, 
in Dalarne, told me that he cultivates about 36 acres of land on 
the usual seven-course system. He keeps 6 milch-cows, about 
4 young cattle, 2 horses, and 18 to 20 sheep. The cows go to 
the Saeter, with a maid-servant, in the summer. On Sundays, 
from 20 to 30 horses are tied up in his steading, and he 
sells hay to their owners, who have come with their wives and 
families to attend church at Leksand from almost incredible dis- 
tances. This man employs 6 labourers on his farm in summer ; he 
keeps 2 maid-servants and 2 men-servants all the year round ; and 
in winter, according to the season, he employs from 200 to 500 
men in his forests. There also he works himself, and keeps a 
shop for the sale of provisions to those of his workpeople whose 
own supply has become exhausted. The wages vary from 2s. 9 d. 
to nearly 4s. per day, but there is also a great deal of piece-work. 
A man with a horse and waggon will obtain from 11s. to 18s. 
per day, and this is how the small farmers turn the winter to 
profitable account. Their wives make clothes for the family 
from the wool of their own sheep ; they eat the food of their own 
growth, taking provisions with them into the forest in winter; 
and thus they sell next to nothing off their little farms, and buy 
those necessaries that they do not produce in the summer with 
the money that they earn by working in the forests in winter. 

The cottage of a Swedish farm-labourer contains, as a rule, 


Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 249 

only two rooms occupied by the man and his family, namely, 
the living-room and the sleeping-room. It matters not how 
many rooms may be at the disposal of the family, only two are 
used by themselves, the rest being turned into a store-room, 
barn, &c. No matter what the number of the children, their age 
or sex, all sleep in the same room as the father and mother. On 
one farm which I visited, twenty of the labourers were under 
contract to provide a lad each, not less than seventeen years old, 
and these lads also shared the family room. 

The best cottages that I saw in Sweden are those illustrated 
on pp. 235-237; the married men, without families, or with young 
children, can be accommodated on the ground-floor, having only 
one bedroom to each family ; while those with children grow- 
ing up can be accommodated upstairs, in suites of rooms, having 
two or three bedrooms to a family. Mr. and Mrs. Dickson 
have been very persevering in their efforts to make the practice 
of their people conform to the designs of the cottages. 

About a quarter of an acre of potato and garden ground is 
usually attached to each cottage, or is marked out in a field at 
no great distance ; but the custom varies very much according 
to the district, and the nature of the payment which constitutes 
the labourers’ wages. 

We have already seen that the short season for farm-work 
necessitates the keeping of a large staff of horses. The following 
lists of labourers kept on two large and well-managed farms will 
tell the same story. (1) A farm of 1460 acres, of which 360 
are permanent pasture and 470 annually in artificial grass. The 
number of labourers are: 25 paid chiefly in money, “ torpare ” 
to the number of 5000 days, or 17 men at 300 days per an- 
num, and 15 or 16 working students, besides dairy-maids and 
cattle-men to attend to 170 cows. These numbers amount 
to 4 per 100 acres of the total occupation, or 9 per 100 acres 
under corn, green crops, and bare fallow, in addition to the peo- 
ple employed in the dairy and about the cows. (2) A farm 
of 1200 acres, of which 60 or 70 are permanent pasture and 
over 500 in artificial grass. There are 33 married men, 20 lads, 
3 unmarried men, and 5 women ; also 5 extra men during the 
season for farm-work, 16 women during harvest, and about 
40 boys, girls, and women engaged in cultivating 100 acres of 
sugar-beet. Excluding the harvest-women and sugar-beet peo- 
ple, there remain 66 persons, or 5^ per 100 acres of the total 
occupation, and equal to 10 per 100 acres under cultivation in 
any year. If the 20 lads were reckoned as equal to 10 men the 
figures would be not very different from those afforded by the 
first-mentioned farm, if they were equally complete. 


2 50 Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 


Agricultural Institutions. 

In Sweden there are twenty-six county agricultural societies, 
partly supported by members’ subscriptions, and partly by a 
Government grant of one-fifth of the amount of the spirit-duties 
annually paid within the district over which the Society has juris- 
diction ; and twenty-seven agricultural schools, educating 367 
pupils in practical farming, at the cost of the State. The details 
of the work done by the societies (which includes the collection 
of agricultural statistics), and of the instruction given to the 
pupils at the farming schools, would lengthen too much this 
already long Report. I must therefore be content to give an 
idea of the higher Agricultural Institutions. 

First of all, is the Royal Agricultural Academy of Sweden. 
This institution was founded in 1811, and not only discharges 
the functions of a scientific society, but also undertakes the 
management of an experimental farm, a chemical experimental 
establishment, and a museum of models of agricultural imple- 
ments and machinery. It has the supervision of the agricultural 
schools and societies just noticed, and of the model dairies,* 
which are established in different parts of the country, as well 
as of the State herds that have been mentioned in a previous 
portion of this Report (p. 209). 

The experimental farm is situated close to Stockholm, and is 
under the management of Mr. Juhlin Dannfelt. It consists of 
about fifty acres, farmed on an eight-course shift, viz., (1) bare 
fallow or green vetches ; (2) winter corn ; (3), (4), and (5) seeds ; 
(6) mixture of oats and barley ; (7) roots or green vetches ; (8) 
barley. There are also about six acres of permanent grass, and 
about seventeen being laid down, over twenty acres of garden, 
and about 190 acres occupied by woods, rocks, hill-pastures, 
roads, buildings, &c. There are all necessary farm-buildings, a 
chemical laboratory, gas-works, houses for the manager and his 
subordinates, and every means and appliance necessary for the 
purposes of an establishment where every crop that is grown and 
every animal that is bred or fed are of an experimental nature. The 
results obtained are published from time to time in the ‘Journal 
of the Royal Agricultural Academy,’ the proper title of which is 
‘ Kongl. Landtbruks-Akadcmiens Tidskrift.’ 

Travelling Instructors, in the employment of the Academy, 
give instruction, as required, in matters connected with cattle- 
breeding and dairy husbandry, as well as in those relating to wool- 
growing and sheep-keeping. The Academy also has a staff of 
Agricultural Engineers, who are accompanied on their visits by 


* There are 13 model dairies, and 2 dairy schools supported by the Government. 


251 


Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 

pupils qualifying themselves for similar positions. The land- 
owners who require the advice of any of these officials are 
required to pay only an honorarium of 5 s. per diem, the cost 
of the journeys being borne by the State. 

In addition to the agricultural schools already mentioned, 
there are two agricultural colleges, one at Ultuna, near the 
University town of Upsala, in the north ; and the other at 
Alnarp, near the University' town of Lund, in the Province of 
Scane. The following brief sketch of the Alnarp College, pre- 
sided over by Prof. Nathorst, will give an idea of the nature and 
scope of these institutions. 

In the higher school there are sixty students, who receive a 
thorough training in the practice and science of agriculture, the 
complete course extending over two years. They pay about forty 
guineas the first year, and about thirty-two guineas the second, for 
instruction, board, lodging, &c. There are also thirty-six peasants’ 
sons, who are instructed in practical farming ; they work on the 
farm as labourers, neither pay nor are paid, but get food and 
lodging free of cost. In the farriery school there are from tw T enty 
to twenty-five pupils, who are taught the true principles of horse- 
shoeing, as well as their practical application. There is a dairy- 
school, at present attended bv about half-a-dozen pupils ; and 
from the 1st of January, 1875, there has been a school for the 
instruction of ten cattle-men in all that pertains to the manage- 
ment of stock, during a course of six months’ duration. 

Alnarp is a remarkably interesting institution, thoroughly 
w r ell done in every department. No expense has been spared to 
obtain the best anatomical models and diagrams, the best illus- 
trative specimens of natural objects, the most convenient laboratory 
appliances, and so forth. For instance, in the farriery school, 
there are illustrations of almost every conceivable kind of horse- 
shoe at present in use in different parts of the world, as w r ell as 
others of antiquarian interest. There are also diagrams and 
models illustrative of the anatomy of the horse’s foot, in health 
and disease. And perhaps more interesting than anything, from 
a practical point of view, there are collections of horse-shoes, 
which illustrate the school-history of each individual student. 
Commencing with the first shoe which the “ freshman,” — an 
ordinary village blacksmith, — made on the first day of his 
school-career, according to his untutored practice at home, one 
could trace the gradual improvement in his attempts in propor- 
tion as he appreciated the instruction given him by the inde- 
fatigable Dr. Pehrsson. I quote this department in particular, 
because, so far as I know, we have nothing of the kind in 
England ; but the same system of thoroughness is applied to 
every department of the college. 


252 Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 

The farm attached to the college consists of 700 acres of good 
agricultural land, all of which has been drained 4 ft. deep, and 
10 yds. apart ; and there are 24 acres of garden. Nearly 100 
acres are in permanent pasture, and the remaining 600 are 
cropped on a ten-course system as follows : — (1) half in green 
crop and half in rape-seed, stable-manure being applied to the 
former, and afterwards, from 225 to 300 lbs. per acre of a 
mixture of Peruvian and Mejillones guano in preparation for (2) 
wheat ; (3) sugar-beet, the land having been manured as soon 
as it could be harrowed, and before sowing, with 300 lbs. dissolved 
guano, and 150 lbs. Mejillones per acre ; (4) barley ; (5) potatoes, - 
with farmyard-manure, or peas and vetches without manure ; but, 
in the latter case, the land afterwards dressed with 300 lbs. dis- 
solved guano and 150 lbs. Mejillones per acre, in preparation 
for (6) wheat, generally, but sometimes spring-corn ; (7) seeds, 
consisting of about 16 lbs. red clover, 4 lbs. white, 16 lbs. rye- 
grass, and 12 lbs. Timothy, sown the previous March ; (8) seeds, 
ploughed up in July, and manured with 150 lbs. dissolved guano, 
and from 150 to 225 lbs. Mejillones per acre ; (9) wheat or 
rye ; and (10) half in bare fallow, manured with 300 lbs. dis- 
solved guano and 150 lbs. Mejillones, in preparation for rape- 
seed, and the other half in spring-corn. The bare fallow is 
also given per acre 25 loads of sea-weed, which has been fer- 
mented in heaps and consolidated into a compost. 

The following additional details will not only illustrate the 
climate and soil of Scane, but also show that high farming 
produces good crops in that district. Wheat is sown from the 
middle of September to the first week in October, from 7 to 8 
pecks of seed being used, and the crop averaging from 38 to 
45 bushels per imperial acre. Rye is sown rather earlier, and 
yields as much as 45 bushels. Barley is sown in the middle 
of April, about 3 bushels to the acre ; if after sugar-beet, the 
crop will be from 52 to 56 bushels per acre, but otherwise about 
the same as wheat. From 3 to 4 bushels of oats are sown per 
acre in the beginning of April, and the crop is usually about 
45 bushels per acre. Rape-seed is sown at the end of July or 
first week in August, rather more than 8 lbs. to the acre, and 
yields about 45 bushels. Potatoes are planted the third week in 
May, and yield about 225 bushels. Mangolds and sugar-beets 
are got in during the middle of May, from 20 to 25 lbs. of seed 
per acre being used. The crop is from 16 to 18 tons per acre, 
mangolds being generally the higher figure ; in 1873 the crop 
of sugar-beets was 16£ tons per imperial acre, and this year 
(1874) it looked larger. The cost of cultivation of sugar-beet 
at Alnarp is reckoned as follows, per imperial acre: — Manure, 
21. 10s. ; expenses of cultivation (other than workpeople), 


Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 253 

21. 18s. 3c?.; 22£ days’ labour of men at Is. 8 d., 11. 17 s. 6e?. ; 
20 days’ labour of women at 10</., 16s. 8 d. ; harvesting, 1/. 2s 3 d. ; 
rent, &c., 1/. 3s. 4c?. Total 10/. 8s. 

The management of the cattle, and more particularly of the 
Shorthorns, has been already described on page 211 ; and a 
notice of the sheep has been given on page 221. 

The total gross produce of the farm and garden amounts to 
4750/., or an average of over 6/. 10s. per acre. The Government 
is paid as rent of the whole estate attached to Alnarp, which is 
about 1300 acres in extent, 1800 bushels of rye, 1800 bushels 
of barley, and 1800 bushels of oats; the paymen is made in 
money, and is based on the average prices of those descriptions 
of grain for the past 10 years ; it generally amounts to between 
900/. and 1000/. per annum. The college also pays the taxes 
and other burdens, which amount to about 225/. per annum. 
Nearly 600 acres of land are let to college tenants ; and the 
college receives a grant from the Government of nearly 1500/. 
per annum towards its expenses. 

A similar college is established in Norway, at Aas, south of 
Christiania. It is not necessary to describe it in detail, as its 
essential features are not unlike other establishments of the 
same nature. The Principal, Mr. Dahl, and the Professor of 
Natural History and Veterinary Science, Mr. Thesen, were ex- 
ceedingly kind in explaining matters to me, and in furnishing 
me with the annual reports on the work of the college. The 
farm consists of about 250 acres of arable land, in three portions, 
worked as follows : — 

A. 

1. Bare fallow, dunged. 

2. Rye. 

3. Roots, partly manured 

with artificials. 

4. Barley or oats, sown 

out. 

5. 6, 7. Grass. 

8. Oats. 

The cattle are partly of the Thelemark breed, partly Ayrshires, 
and partly crosses. In the year ending July 1st, 1873, 16 
Ayrshire cows gave an average of 416 gallons of milk each, 
while 27 Thelemark and cross-bred cows gave an average of 
346 gallons each. In that year the total result of the cattle- 
farming, according to the published accounts, was a loss, although 
a profit is shown on the dairy department. This is arrived at, 
however, by charging the milk to the dairy at 5 \d. per gallon, 
a price at which 10,000 gallons were actually bought in. I 
should not omit to mention that pleuro-pneumonia was once 


B. 

1. Bare fallow, dunged. 

2. Rye or wheat. 

3. Red clover. 

4. Barley or wheat. 

5. Vetches, peas, beans, 

all cut ripe. 

6. Barley or oats. 


C. 

1. Bare fallow, dunged. 

2. Rye, sown out with 

clover and Timothy. 

3. 4, 5, and G. Grass. 

7. Pasture. 

8. Oats. 


254 Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 

imported into Aas with an Ayrshire bull from Scotland. The 
bull arrived on September 21st, and the disease did not show itself 
until thebe ginning of November. One bull and one cow were 
killed, and seven other cows died of the disease before it finally 
disappeared. At the time of the Report to which I have been 
referring there were 31 students at Aas, 4 of whom received 
their education gratuitously ; 21 of these students belonged to 
the lower and 14 to the upper school. 

Another Norwegian institution of considerable interest is 
the Royal farm of Ladegaardsoen, close to Oscarshall, near Chris- 
tiania. The management of this farm reflects great credit on 
the steward, Mr. Tveter, and his responsible superior, the 
Chamberlain Holst, a descendant of the inventor of the well- 
known Norwegian harrow. The farm consists of about 165 
acres under the plough, and the park of the royal demesne, 
which furnishes grass for the cows in summer. These are 
bought at about four years old, in-calf, at about 11. each. Old 
cows fetch nearly the same price as was given for them, if they 
are of the Thelemark breed, which is generally the case ; but 
Ayrshire crosses can be made fatter and make more money. 

The cows are kept in the house nearly all the year round, 
being fed in summer on cut grass, green vetches, and a little 
hay — from July 1st to September 30th, or thereabouts. The 
rest of the year they get hay and corn as already described on 
other farms. The calves are nearly all sold to the butcher at 
about Is. each when a day or two old ; but some of the best are 
kept on a little while and sold for breeding purposes. 

The arable land is cropped with a view to the keeping of 
as many cows as possible, on the following seven-course shift ; 
(1) one-third bare fallow, one-third turnips or potatoes, and one- 
third green crop, such as vetches ; (2) rye after bare fallow, and 
barley after roots or green crop, both sown out with clover and 
grasses ; (3) and (4) grass cut twice each year ; (5) and (6) grass 
cut only once each year ; (7) oats. 

According to the official reports there were 39 cows on the 
farm in 1870, giving an average of 522 gallons of milk ; and 43 
in 1871, giving an average of 510 gallons; but I Understood 
that 60 cows had been kept on the farm in 1874. The average 
price obtained by selling the milk in Christiania appears to 
have been 8 \d. per gallon in 1871, and about the same price 
during the years immediately preceding. This left a profit, 
according to the published accounts, amounting to 221/.; but 
those accounts do not show whether the rent of the 165 acres of 
arable land, the value of the grass from the park, and the interest 
of capital, &c., are taken into account in calculating the cost of 
the food given to the cows. The figures suggest that they are 


Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 255 

included, for taking the cost of milk to be, as previously calcu- 
lated, 6<f. per gallon, this would leave a profit of 2 ^d. per gallon, 
or over 51. per cow yielding 500 gallons of milk. 

Taxation and Rural Affairs. 

In Sweden the unit of assessment is an ancient division called 
a Hemman ; but the respective areas of land constituting these 
divisions no longer represent equal values, as they doubtless did 
originally ; and great dissatisfaction exists at the consequent 
inequality of taxation at the present day. There are also four 
classes of land, on each of which the burden of taxation differs 
in a greater or less degree, viz., (1) Sateri, (2) Frdlse , (3) Skatte, 
and (4) Krono Skatte. The first of these, Sateri , is the regular 
freehold estate, and formerly could be held only by the nobility ; 
it bears no direct taxes, and is not burdened with the provision 
of soldiers ; but in case of invasion each Hemman of this class 
is bound to supply a horse for the purpose of national defence. 
The second class, Frdlse, was also, in former times, a privilege 
of the nobility ; but it has to furnish soldiers, or contribute 
towards furnishing them, according to the extent of land within 
the boundaries of the Hemman. The third and fourth classes 
are ordinary land without privileges, differing only in the fact 
that the Krono Skatte has been purchased from the Crown. The 
taxes on them are said to be heavy, and to depreciate the price 
of land ; and the present aim of the peasants in the Riksdag 
is to get these taxes and the keeping of soldiers taken off the 
land and put on the nation generally. 

All the land, except the Sateri, has to keep soldiers at present. 
The soldiers are provided with a house, a variable quantity of 
land, firewood, wood for fencing, uniform, and sometimes other 
perquisites. Legally they are obliged to work for the proprietors 
of the land, if required to do so, at the current rate of wages. 
For their house and other perquisites they do absolutely no- 
thing for the farmer ; but they attend drill two months in the 
year. If the keep of a cavalry soldier has been allotted to the 
land, a trained horse must be always ready, never put in harness, 
though he may be ridden. In some parts of Sweden it is thus 
by no means a bad thing to be a soldier. As an -example of 
the soldier-keeping, I may mention Mr. Tranchell’s farm, near 
Landskrona, consisting of about 1200 acres. It belongs to the 
second class ; and although the proprietor has no highroads to 
keep in repair, he must keep four hussars in the manner already 
described ; but by private arrangement with the men, he has 
managed to commute the perquisites of land, wood, &c., into a 
money payment. 


256 Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norwag. 

The taxes levied in money are now paid by the landowners 
direct to the Crown, which in turn pays to the various local 
authorities what is due to them ; but formerly these also were 
paid to the authorities in kind, each substance being redeemable 
at a certain price. All occupiers of land have to pay 1 per 
cent, income tax according to assessment ; but in assessing the 
amount on which this tax must be paid, the burden of other 
taxes is taken into account. 

Instead of a highway rate, all public roads, whether “ high- 
roads ” or “ parish roads,” are kept in repair by the occupiers of 
the land. The unit of administration for this purpose is the 
County Court district, by the authorities of which portions of 
the roads are allotted amongst the various Hemman, according, 
not only to the length and width of the roads, but also to the 
difficulty of keeping them in repair. As a consequence of this 
system the roads are unequally kept, and macadamising is the 
exception in the rural districts. As a rule, the roads of a 
Hemman fall to the level of the worst work that can pass the 
Government inspector ; and where there is a long stretch of 
good road, it is because its repair devolves upon the owner of 
a large estate. The only redeeming feature of the system that 
occurred to me was the regulation that, in case of a severe snow- 
storm, the farmers in the district are bound to keep the whole 
of the roads clear, each furnishing his due proportion of men, 
horses, and waggons ; although it may happen that the portions 
of the road blocked up by snow-drifts are otherwise under the 
charge of only a few of those called upon to assist in keeping 
it available for traffic under such circumstances. 

In Norway, the basis of taxation is the Skylddaler, each of 
which was originally of the estimated purchase-value of 1000 
specie daler (225/.) as an investment ; but the actual value of 
which is now very different. The local taxes include school, 
poor, church, and other rates, and amount to 10 or 12 specie 
dalcrs (45s. to 54s.) per Skylddaler per annum. The arrange- 
ments as to road-keeping are similar to those in Sweden. 

The fences in Sweden and Norway are almost invariably con- 
structed of wood, and the accompanying sketch (Fig. 18) will 
give a better idea of their ungainly appearance than any amount 
of description. 

The recent increase in the value of wood and in the price of 
labour has raised the cost of these fences very considerably, 
especially in the south ; and farmers are now relying to a large 
extent upon their open drains as divisions between their fields. 
The roads, however, are still bounded or crossed by these weird- 
looking fences; and the termination of each holding, at least, is 
still marked, as when the late Robert Chambers wrote ‘ Tracings 


Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 257 

>f the North of Europe,’* by a gate across the road, as if to pro- 
est against the improved methods of travelling which have of 
ate vears been so extensively adopted in Sweden. 


Fig. 18 . — A Scandinavian Fence. 



A comparatively small proportion of the land of Sweden and 
Norway is pipe-drained, and it is something startling to see 
lie deep and wide drains between the “ lands ” in most parts of 
he country. Even where subsoil-draining has been done, a 
certain number of these huge water-furrows are necessary, 
especially in the northern districts. The ice-bound land there 
aecomes thawed in the spring with a marvellous suddenness, and 
f a sufficient number of these open-drains were not provided to 
earry off the surface-water without delay, valuable time would 
je lost in a country where the season during which field-work is 
xissible, is, even under the most favourable circumstances, far too 
circumscribed. In addition to these deep open drains, it is usual 
;o provide surface-channels for the water when the land is not 
fipe-drained, by using an ard furnished with a double mould- 
joard, each having a comb-like wing to prevent the earth falling 
jack into the furrows. These channels are not more than a few 
nches in depth, and are from 5 to 15 yards apart, according to 
ircumstances. In appearance they somewhat roughly resemble 
he furrows at the junction of the lands in our ordinary system 
)f ploughing. 

During the year 1872, about 28,000 acres in Sweden were 


* “ There is one singular impediment in travelling : almost every few hundred 
cards — though often at very much wider intervals — a gate crosses the road, being 
•art of the system of farm-enclosures, and having a regard to the exclusion of 
attle from the corn-fields.” — Op. cit. p. 55, 1850. 

VOL. XI. — S. S. 


S 


258 Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 

brought into cultivation, 9800 were drained, over 2100 acres of 
meadow were irrigated, and nearly 23,000 acres of land were 
marled. 

In Sweden there is no limit to the permanent division of agri- 
cultural land as property farther than this : that at least three able- 
bodied persons must be able to obtain a living off each division. 
This rule does not, however, apply to the “ torpare ” belonging to 
a large estate, as their separation from it is only temporary, and 
is a matter of tenancy, not of ownership. In 1872, there were 
252,776 owners, and 200,417 occupiers of cultivated land in 
the country. The total number of agricultural holdings was 
295,983, of which 185,693 were held by agricultural labourers 
working more or less for other farmers. The annexed Table 
shows in detail how the land was subdivided, both as to 
ownership and occupation, in each of the years 1867—1872 
inclusive. 


Table showing the Number of Owners and Occupiers of Cultivated 
Land in Sweden in the Tears 1867-72. 



Number of Owners. 

Number of Occupiers. 

4 Tunnland 
(4 3 Acres) and 
under. 

Between 4 and 
40 Tunnland 
(48 Acres). 

Fxceeding 40 
Tunnland, and 
up to 200 . 

Exceeding 200 
Tunnland 
(240 Acres). 

4 Tunnland 
(4 5 Acres) and 
under. 

Exceeding 4 and 
up to 40 Tunn- 
land (48 Acres). 

Exceeding 40 
Tunnland and 
up to 200 . 

Exceeding 

1 200 Tunnland 

(240 Acres). 

1872 

62,382 

163,640 

24,366 

2,388 

89,772 

95,282 

13,760 

1.603 

1871 

62,517 

162,820 

24,707 

2,577 

92,812 

98,576 

13,946 

1,732 

1870 

63,922 

161,829 

25,137 

2,619 

93,707 

98,882 

13,902 

1,752 

1869 

63,257 

158,689 

24,716 

2,537 

91,069 

95,677 

13,535 

1,499 

1868 

63,181 

153,379 

22,744 

2,58S 

91,858 

98,665 

13,390 

1,648 

1867 

57,755 

146,819 

22,664 

2,697 

02,849 

97,092 

15,097 

1,823 


It has been shown that the payment for labour in land 
requires an acreage about as great as that of the farm to be 
cultivated. In other words, the labour bill is equal to' the rent, 
taxes, and tithes. This of itself is not an overwhelming pro- 
portion ; but when it is remembered that about one-seventh to 
one-eighth of the arable land is generally unproductive, and the 
remainder is about equally divided between artificial grass and 
corn, the cost of labour as compared with the extent of the work 
to be performed is very large, but it is a necessity of the long 
winter. Then, as the horses consume one-third of the produce ol 
the farm, and dairy-cows are fed on home-grown corn and h'ay — 
the chief object of the farming being dairying, — the sale of corn 


Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 259 

off a Swedish farm is not very large. In fact, I was frequently 
told that a small farmer does not sell produce of every kind to 
the amount of 1Z. per acre per annum off his farm ; while on 
a well-managed large farm 3 1. per acre may be considered a 
liberal estimate. In a few cases, where milk is sold at a high 
price to a neighbouring town, the return is larger, and no doubt 
the rent-value of the land is in proportion. For instance, Mr. 
Fogelmark, of Wall, near Gefle, who sells his milk at 9 \d. per 
gallon, realises 1220Z. per annum for it, and sells corn to the 
value of 120/., being together an average gross produce of 5 Z. 
per acre. This gentleman’s farm is one of the best agricultural 
schools that I visited. It must also be remembered that the 
labourers are paid in money, house, garden, and keep for a cow. 
In Scane the gross produce is larger than in the more northern 
provinces, the farms being more extensive and the climate better ; 
and an average of 4Z. 10s. per acre is said not to be exceptional. 

The rent of land in Sweden and Norway is comparatively 
low, about 13s. per acre not unusually so ; while 1Z. per acre 
is occasionally obtained for good land. In Scane the rents 
are higher, and I have been shown an exceptionally good farm 
rented at as much as 30s. per imperial acre. Tenant-farming is 
not, however, the rule in Sweden ; but where it exists, the land is 
usually held on a lease of ten years if from a private individual, 
and one of twenty years if held from the Crown. 

Mr. Dannfelt* has given the purchase value of land in Sweden 
at hi. to 13Z. 6s. 8cZ. per imperial acre, rising in Scane to over 
16Z. per acre. Small lots of land, he says, cost 25 per cent, more 
than large lots. “ The abundance of small occupations induces 
small farmers with insufficient capital to purchase them, in most 
cases at such a price that they have no money left to farm the 
land properly ; the result is that their profits are less than if 
they had rented a farm proportionate in size to the extent of 
their capital.” With regard to leases, he observes that they 
“ seldom contain any stipulations as to cropping. It is some- 
times covenanted that hay and straw may not be sold off the 
farm, and that no paring and burning shall take place ; however, 
at the present time the right of selling fodder is granted, 
especially on farms in the vicinity of mining districts and 
large cities, where the sale of fodder for horses is a profitable 
item.” 

Conclusion. 

Swedish and Norwegian farming, as described in the pre- 
ceding pages, thus appears to be anything but a profitable 

* Vide ‘Continental Farming and Peasantry,’ by J. Howard, M.P., Ridgway, 
1870, pp. 97 and 98. 


2 GO Report on the Agriculture of Sweden and Norway. 

business. One of the keenest farmers whom I met in Norway 
calculated that his farm-profits had been in the last two years 
9s. and 13s. 6c?. per acre respectively ; and we have already- 
seen that the profits at Enskede for the three years 1865—68 did 
not average more than 5s. 6rf. per acre. If the most enlightened 
men cannot make farming pay better than this, it is tolerably 
clear that the uninstructed peasant cannot obtain an equivalent 
for his labour, and for the rent-value of his farm. But as he 
has no rent-day to provide for, he does not realise this fact, 
and never thinks of asking himself whether his small profits 
repay him for the labour which he gives as rent, if his land is 
“ torp,” or are adequate interest for the capital sunk in the live 
and dead stock of the farm, and in the farm itself, if it is his 
own property. 

I may be wrong, but it repeatedly struck me that as grass 
cannot grow in Sweden for more than five or six months in the 
year as a maximum, it must be relatively an unprofitable crop, 
although the necessity of a large area, under the prevailing 
system of dairy-husbandry, nobody can doubt. But this is one 
reason why dairy-husbandry is, as I understand it, unprofitable 
in Sweden and Norway, except under peculiar circumstances. 

The prevalence of dairying also explains the almost universal 
practice of applying pliosphatic manures to the corn-crops, when, 
that is to say, any artificial manure is used. Farmyard-manure 
is applied to fallow in preparation for rye ; then the land is laid 
out in seeds for at least three years, all mown, and given to 
dairy-cows in the houses, — this is the national system, and it 
must rob the seed-land of its phosphates. The best farmers, 
therefore, seek to restore the condition of the land by applying 
a dressing of superphosphate to the first of the two or three 
successive crops of spring-corn that follow the ley. Except at 
Alnarp and one or two other places in Sweden, the use of nitro- 
genous artificial manures appears to be entirely unknown. 

Some other prevalent practices are the result of the great 
distance of the farms from markets and centres of population 
and the difficulty and expense of transport of produce.. Thus, 
the payment of the labourers to so large an extent in corn and 
other necessaries is in some districts an immense advantage to 
them. Similarly, many farmers cannot afford the expense of 
artificial feeding-stuffs, such as oil-cake, and therefore utilise 
their home-grown corn. Nevertheless, the table of imports for 
the five years ending with 1873 shows that the Swedish farmer 
is fully alive to the value of such materials as guano and oil- 
cakes, and that as the opening of new railways brings such 
aids to advanced agriculture within his reach lie is not slow 
to avail himself of them. Until the last few years Swedish 


On Cheese-making in Home Dairies and in Factories. 261 

farming was to a great extent self-contained ; the occupier of 
land grew and consumed his own produce, for there was no 
market except in his immediate neighbourhood, on account 
of the mutual inaccessibility of the would-be buyer and seller. 
Such impediments are now being rapidly swept away. I believe, 
also, that the Swedish Parliament has at present under considera- 
tion the whole question of the taxation of landed property. If so, 
I am probably not too sanguine in anticipating that the Swedish 
railways will shortly be supplied with those necessary feeders 
— good roads ; that Swedish farmers will be relieved from the 
irksome duties of road-making and soldier-keeping, by those 
burdens being commuted into an equitable money payment ; and 
that the farming of Sweden, especially in relation to the produc- 
tion of meat, will acquire considerable development in the course 
of the next few years. 


VI. — On Cheese-making in Home Dairies and in Factories. By 
J. Chalmers Morton. 

The history of the establishment of cheese-factories in Derby- 
shire was told by Mr. Gilbert Murray, of Elvaston, four years 
ago, in the seventh volume of this Journal.* The inferior 
quality and decreasing reputation of Derbyshire cheese, which 
is the staple agricultural product of a large portion of that 
county, the impossibility of making the best qualities of cheese 
with the commonly imperfect equipment of small Derbyshire 
dairy-farms, and the increasing difficulty and expense of the 
labour employed upon them, were the main causes of the move- 
ment. And to Lord Vernon, who had, at a meeting of the 
Royal Agricultural Society, so long ago as 1868, | moved for an 
inquiry into the working of the American factory-system of 
cheese-making ; to Mr. J. G. Crompton, of Derby, the Hon. 
E. K. Coke, Messrs. Murray, Coleman, Sheldon, and others, 
whose time, labour, and money, were freely given in contending 
with the opposition which had to be encountered, is due the credit 

* The subject had been laid before an English audience so long ago as March, 
1868, by the late Mr. George Jackson, of Tattenhall, Chester, who then read a 
Paper on cheese-factories before the London Farmers’ Club. Reference must also 
be made to the Paper on the same subject by Mr. H. M. Jenkins, on December 9, 

1870, before the Society of Arts ; and especially to the lecture on “ English 
Cheese-factories — how to establish and how to manage them,” by Mr. J. Coleman, 
of Park Nook, Quorndon, Derby, before the London Farmers’ Club, on February 6, 

1871. Mr. Coleman's lecture and the speeches which followed it, reported in the 
Journal of the Farmers’ Club (Salisbury Square, Fleet Street, London), are an 
admirable discussion of the whole subject. Mr. Jenkins had directed attention 
in the Sixth Volume (1870) of this ‘ Journal’ to the applicability of the American 
factory system to English dairies. 

t See vol. vi., p. 173 : Second Series of the 1 Journal.’ 


262 On Cheese-making in lion e Dairies and in Factories. 

of the success which the movement has at length achieved. 
The two factories, at Longford and Derby, respectively, which 
were originally worked under the guarantee, by their public- 
spirited promoters, of a certain price per gallon for all the milk 
which they received, were soon followed by the establishment of 
four others, on the co-operative principle, in various parts of the 
county ; and Mr. Crompton has now given me a list of 19 in 
five counties already built or about to be erected, which will be 
in operation during the coming year, capable of dealing with the 
milk of 7000 or 8000 cows. The time has therefore come when 
the factory movement may be acknowledged a success, and when 
a report, both of recent experience under it, and of its relations 
to the existing dairy practice of the country, may be useful. 

In order to qualify myself for such a report 1 have visited all 
those cheese-factories which have been established in Derby- 
shire ;* also one in Gloucestershire, and one in Cheshire, neither 
of which, however, can be considered quite to come within the 
designation which they claim ; and I have seen factories which 
have been for some time in operation near Lichfield, Stafford- 
shire, and near Weston-super-Mare, Somersetshire, respectively. 
Reports and statistics of many of these factories, in some cases 
very complete and full, have been placed at my disposal. I 
have witnessed a day’s operations at some of them, and taken 
notes in the case of all of the process carried out in each. In 
order that the circumstances out of which they have arisen, or 
which they are intended to displace, may be understood and 
fairly represented, I have also visited for the purpose of this 
Report a number of dairy-farms in all the above-named counties 
— dairies of both average and noteworthy merit ; and ample 
opportunity has been given me of discussing the whole subject, 
both with land-owners and with farmers who advocate the 
factory-system, and with land-owners, land-agents, and farmers 
who oppose it. Many excellent dairies in Cheshire, three in 
Derbyshire, nine in Gloucestershire, and three in Somersetshire, 
— one of them belonging rather to the North Wilts district, 
have been thus inspected ; and everything that the experience of 
the dairy-farmer can suggest, for either the maintenance or the 
alteration of the old-established form of cheese-dairying, has, 
I believe, been carefully considered. 

It is of course impossible, after all these discussions and in- 
spections, now that the task of reporting them is before me, to 
affect that entire unprejudice with which it was desirable that 
the inquiry should be commenced. Having learned the history 

* My best thanks are duo to Mr. J. G. Crompton, of The Lilies, Derby, and to 
Messrs. G. Murray and J. P. Sheldon, for their guidance and assistance iu 
Derbyshire. 


On Cheese-making in Home Dairies and in Factories. 2(53 

and witnessed the results, and listened to the managers, of both 
factories and private dairies all over the country, an opinion has 
necessarily been formed ; and fairly as it may have been arrived 
at, it can no longer be in an indifferent or impartial mood that 
one endeavours to express it. Experience has, I am bound to 
report, satisfied the expectations of those who first introduced 
the American factory-system into England. Manufacture on 
the larger scale has, in the case of milk as in that of all other 
raw materials, been found more economical and more profitable. 
A manufactured article of higher average quality, because of 
more uniform excellence, and consequently of greater value, has 
been obtained. The highest skill, hitherto engaged here and 
there in isolated farms on the produce of perhaps 40 to 60 cows, 
has been engaged in the manufacture of cheese from 400 to 600 
cows. The best machinery and the cheapest power, unavailable in 
the case of small dairies, can be used when the milk of 20 or 30 
such dairies is brought to one point for the purpose. Other ad- 
vantages can also be named ; and, together, it must be admitted 
that they more than counterbalance the risks and difficulties and 
costs which are incidental to the change. 


Objections to the Factory System. 

To some of these difficulties and objections I will first 
advert : 

(1.) Some estates in dairy districts are already admirably 
equipped for the prosecution of the existing system of home- 
dairying ; and an expenditure, in man) cases both considerable 
and recent, would be rendered useless if the work of the dairy 
were henceforth to be carried on at a factory. And, where 
estates are not properly equipped, it is held with confidence by 
many, -who unquestionably have the interests of the dairy farmer 
at heart, that these must suffer by any factory scheme which shall 
relieve the landowner of the duty of providing adequate accom- 
modation on the several farms. Such accommodation is still 
the exception, not the rule, in dairy districts ; and it is alleged, 
not without plausibility, that the factory-system which will save 
neglectful landowners from an otherwise necessary expenditure, 
may at the same time hinder the much-needed improvements of 
both homes and homesteads which would probably be under- 
taken if these dairy improvements had to be taken in hand. 

Certainly an immense improvement in cheese-dairying is 
possible without resort to such a revolution in this particular 
industry as the cheese-factory involves. I had the pleasure of 
visiting a large number of farms on the Peckforton Estate, in 
Cheshire, where Mr. Tollemache has provided everything that 


264 On Cheese-making in Home Dairies and in Factories. 

the most accomplished cheese-maker can desire in the way of 
equipment. The houses where the cows are kept in winter and 
milked in summer are conveniently near ; ample room is pro- 
vided for both milk and cheese — abundant space for storing and 
cooling the one, and for making and curing and storing the 
other ; water is laid on at every point where it is wanted ; ad- 
mirable oven accommodation, required under the Cheshire system, 
is supplied ; lifts for diminishing the labour of moving heavy 
cheeses are placed wherever useful ; whey tanks are placed where 
wanted, and the waste whey, let off when exhausted of its cream, 
flows to a tank by the piggeries at a little distance — meal cistern 
and mixing cistern being at hand, and every help being thus 
given to diminish the labour of attending on the large number 
of pigs which are fed and fattened on all Cheshire dairy-farms. 
So great a saving of labour is effected by all these helps, that, 
in instance after instance which I visited, the whole work of the 
dairy was done by the mistress and her daughters — no paid 
dairy-maid being required. I saw many large and most com- 
fortable homes, on farms of 40 to 60 cows a-piece, where both 
house and dairy-work were thus accomplished, — where high 
prices, 80s. to 88s. per cwt. (120 lbs.), for the cheese had been 
this year obtained, — and where, certainly, everything appeared 
the very perfection of cleanliness and comfort. Not unfre- 
quently both the farmer and his wife had risen from the rank 
of farm and household labour. To deprive either of the accus- 
tomed daily task would in such cases be equivalent to an entire 
and most uncongenial change of life. In the case of an estate 
so perfectly equipped as this the question may be put, even with 
some degree of indignation, by a defender of home-dairying, — 
W hy should you desire me to upset all these arrangements ? why 
should I abandon a system under which the best cheese may be 
made, and by which the skill is perpetuated, on which the special 
agricultural industry of the county rests? To this one cannot 
but reply that such an estate as this does not offer a proper 
station for a factory.* It is because a high average quality of 
cheese is not generally made, because in the ordinary farm- 
dairy the much-needed equipment does not generally exist, 
because the cost and difficulty of labour are becoming year by 
year more felt, that dairy-factories are desirable ; and it is espe- 
cially in circumstances where they are thus called for that they 


* I understand that on Lord Vernon’s Derbyshire Estate, although the 
advantage of the cheese-factory system has been frequently urged upon the 
tenantry, no application has yet been made to the landlord for the erection of a 
factory. The fact is that in re-modelling the farm-buildings on this es'tate, the 
dairy arrangements, as on the Cheshire Estate alluded to above, have been made 
as perfect as the tenantry can wish. 


On Clieese-makiny in Home Dairies and in Factories. 2G5 

are being established. Nevertheless, even on estates already 
lairly equipped, the practice of the best and most successful 
manufacturers ought not to he lightly thought of either by the 
landowner or by the farmer. The manufacturer knows that, 
whatever his expenditure on existing machinery may have been, 
to continue the employment of it when others are benefiting by 
the use of the more recent improvements will only result in 
loss ; and whatever changes lead to profit he at once adopts at 
whatever cost. I am assured that the cheese made at the Long- 
ford factory, Derbyshire, during the past two years has been Ids', 
per cwt. better than that which was made by the contributors 
to that factory on their several farms in previous years. This, 
over a manufacture of 100 tons, means an increase in the annual 
receipts, over the area of only one considerable estate, of 1000/. 
per annum. If the great staple agricultural manufacture of any 
county can be improved so as to largely increase the value of 
its annual produce- — the fund out of which rent and labour and 
the tenant all are paid, — it must be pronounced mere senti- 
mental folly to oppose the improvement because estates have 
been recently equipped at some cost for the former less profitable 
process. 

(2.) Most farms in our dairy districts are dependent to a 
considerable extent for both fertility and profit upon extensive 
pig-feeding, carried on during the season when whey is available. 
All such farms are, to some extent, thus dependent ; and the des- 
patch of the whole milk from them would, it is said, put an end to 
a very serviceable and profitable part of farm management. It 
is not always nor even generally that the whey is by itself a 
great source of fertility and profit, but it is the basis on which a 
large expenditure on other foods depends. Where no such expen- 
diture is made, the whey is not considered of so much value, as 
when other food is bought to be consumed with it. Thus Mr. 
C. Bennett, a Gloucestershire dairy-farmer, quoted further on, 
considers the value of the whey to be generally over-estimated, 
and he would gladly give it to anyone who would fetch it, and 
pay him 1/. per cow per annum for it. On the other hand, Mr. 
Gibbons, of Tunley, Somersetshire, who has a dairy of from 50 
to 70 cows, on an admirably managed farm, and who holds 
many prizes for the excellence of his Cheddar cheese, attaches 
the very highest value to the whey ; on which he founds and 
justifies an expenditure of 300/. a year on meal and other foods 
lor pigs, declaring that the deterioration of the fertility of his 
larm would be inevitable if this whey and meal feeding were to 
cease. Mr. Joseph Aston, too, of Brassey Green, Tarporley, 
Cheshire, who strongly advocates the retention of the home dairv 
management, declares that the whey is worth annually 35s. to 


266 On Cheese-making in Home Dairies and in Factories. 

40s. per cow to the farmer, when it is consumed at home along 
with meal and other purchased food. And it may be named, as 
in some measure justifying this estimate of the value of the whey, 
that at the Rooksbridge cheese-factory, near Weston, where a 
large piggery is part of the establishment, those who send their 
milk receive, as payment for it, their aliquot share of the whole 
annual selling value of the cheese made from it, without any 
deductions for expense — being willing to give up the whey for the 
dairy expenses which they thus escape. These, in large dairies, 
amount to 1/. per cow, and in small ones, perhaps, to nearly 
double that amount per annum. This difficulty connected with 
the whey must, I think, in fairness be considered as a real draw- 
back to the otherwise unquestionable merit of the factory system. 
But it will not be considered fatal to it ; the whey will either he 
brought back to the farm which supplied the milk, and then it 
is only the additional cost of carriage which has to be considered ; 
or it will be sold at the factory to the nearer farms ; or it will he 
used in pigsties near the factory. In the first case, at some of 
the factories the managers permit the use of the same vessels for 
the whey as have brought the milk — which of course involves 
the need of special care in cleaning them between times. In 
both the other cases, the value of the whey returns, more or less 
perfectly, to the farmer, who will then, in respect of the alleged 
loss of the fertility due to the consumption of the whey, be only 
standing in a similar position to that of many other occupiers of 
land, in respectyd their grain and other produce which they might 
consume at home, to the great increase of the fertility of their 
land, but which they prefer to sell ; taking care of the productive- 
ness of their farms, as they are quite able to do, in other ways. 

(3.) An objection, almost certain to be fatal, if not to the 
adoption of the factory .system in a district, at least to any patron- 
age of it by individual occupiers, will, no doubt, be made on 
particular farms by those who are already in the habit of making 
the very best quality of cheese in the market. They will not be 
satisfied with only the high average price which they may 
expect by sending their milk to a factory. But this objection 
can exist only in the exceptional cases of those who have reason 
to be proud of the name and fame of their several dairies. On 
the majority of farms the cheese made is below the average 
quality ; and by sending all the milk of a district to a factory 
there is the advantage gained of putting the cheese-making ol 
the whole country-side in the cleverest hands that can be hired. 

(4). 1 must add to these objections that the carriage of the 
milk is a clear addition, which the factory system involves, tc 
the ordinary labour of the farm, already generally heavy enough 
and of course, if the balance of advantages between the home 


On Cheese-making in Home Dairies and in Factories. 267 

dairy and the factory be so close that the few shillings a week 
which are thus involved will turn the scale, there can be no 
chance of a factory succeeding. As a matter of fact, this ad- 
ditional labour does not hinder milk being sent to factories from 
farms four miles off. This is the case, I believe, both at Lichfield 
and at Longford. The cost is diminished in some cases by one 
of the more distant senders undertaking to pick up the milk of 
other contributors on his way, one horse and one lad being thus 
engaged for all, instead of one for each. The cost is thus at 
once distributed and diminished ; but the principal alleviation, 
and practically the annihilation of this expense will only be 
attained when factories are multiplied sufficiently. The land 
within the radius of a mile exceeds 2000 acres, an area which, 
in a dairy district, may contain at least 600 milking cows, quite 
enough to justify a factory, which need not thus be farther than 
a mile from any of its contributors. 

One would not, however, lightly consider an objection to 
the increase of labour on our dairy-farms, for it must be re- 
membered that the milking of the cows always prescribes a very 
considerable minimum ; and there must, in any case, always be 
hands enough to accomplish this. If only this process could be 
accomplished by machinery, there would at once be a greater 
readiness to acquiesce in any proposal for lessening the other 
necessary labour on such farms. Surely the process is not beyond 
the limits of artificial contrivance. If by offering even the 
largest prize for which they have any precedent, the Royal 
Agricultural Society could obtain a thoroughly efficient artificial 
cow-milker, it would make a most advantageous use of its 
lunds — rendering an immense service to all dairy-farmers, and 
making them readier to unite for the further economy of labour 
which the factory system enables. 

The Advantages of the Factory System. 

Some of the advantages which are claimed for the Factory 
system of cheese-making have been already gathered from this 
discussion of the objections which have been made to it. 

(1.) The importance, just alluded to, of putting the manu- 
facture in the hands of the cleverest makers, places this among the 
chief of them. The milk of 20 to 30 dairies, manipulated with 
all the aid of the best apparatus, by the cleverest of the 20 or 30 
dairymaids through whose hands, in generally poorly equipped 
dairies, it has hitherto passed, is certain to result in a higher 
quality and consequently greater value of cheese upon the whole. 
To this agrees the report of the cheese-market ever since the 
Derbyshire cheese-factories have been established ; and we may 


268 On Cheese-making in Home Dairies and in Factories. 

quote particular illustrations to the same effect. The average price 
of the cheese made at the Windley Hall Factory, near Derby, 
was 4/. 3s. 'i\d. per cwt. of 120 lbs. over 34 tons 2 cwt. 1 qr. 
made in 1873 ; and 4Z. Is. over about 42 tons made in 1874. 
At Longford the price was 4/. 2s. 4 d. over 86^ tons in 1873, 
and 4/. 2s. 3 Jrf. over 84^ tons (all that had been sold at the date 
of my information) in 1874. It is impossible to get the corre- 
sponding figures for equal quantities of cheese made in private 
dairies ; but keeping in mind how few of the whole number ol 
sales reach the highest figures given in any market quotation, 
something may be learned from the following prices, taken from 
the ‘ Agricultural Gazette,’ as representing the market prices ol 
cheese, month by month, last year, in Derbyshire, at factories 
and private dairies respectively. 



The above quotations commence only in the month of August 
but the difference in the value of home-made and ol lactory chees 
is even greater in the earlier months. The first make ol chees 
in home dairies — “Fodder or Boosey”f cheese as it is calle( 
when the cows are still in the house — is generally ol inleri< 

* The actual prices named in any case maybe lower or higher than those \vhii 
could be quoted of Cheshire, Somersetshire, or Gloucestershire. It is not eith 
as vaunting or lamenting Derbyshire experience that the figures aro quoted. 1' 
prices are stated simply for the comparison which they give of home and facto: 
cheese. 

t “ Boosey,” i. e., made while the cows are still in the house. “ Every cow 
its own boose,” or stall, is a phrase perfectly understood in Derbyshire cowhoust 


On Cheese-making in Home Dairies and in Factories. 269 


quality, owing partly, in all probability, to the small quantity 
of milk available, and the consequent need of using old curd to 
make up a full-sized cheese. Whether this be the explanation 
or not, I am informed that the cheese made in large quantity 
in the vat of a factory, is good from the very outset of the season, 
and remains of nearly uniform quality throughout the year. 

In addition to the increased value of a make of cheese, owing 
to uniformly high quality, which is realized when the milk is 
taken from the home-dairy and sent to a factory for manufac- 
ture — there is an increased value owing to the larger quantity 
of cheese which undoubtedly is made from a given quantity of 
milk at factories, owing to the more uniform and systematic 
manufacture of the curd, which is possible where large quantities 
are dealt with, as compared with private dairies ; but to this 
some reference will be made hereafter. 

(2.) The diminished cost of cheese-making at which this 
higher value is obtained is another considerable advantage of 
the factory system. This will be related in more detail when 
referring directly to factory management and experience. At 
present I may say that at the Windley Hall Factory, to which 
seventeen dairies contribute their milk, upwards of 50 tons of 
cheese (58 tons 17 cwt. 3 qrs. 3 lbs. of green cheese) were made 
last year by a manager (whose salary is 75/.), his assistant 
(29/. 14s.), and extra assistant (11/. 13s.). The materials used 
cost 33/. 11s. 9 d., petty expenses 11. 9s. 5 d., account-keeping 
10/., rent 40/. The mere labour thus amounted to 2s. per cwt., 
and the total cost of manufacture to 3s. 10Jc/. per cwt. If we 
compare with this the case of a farm of 30 cows making even 
4 cwts. a-piece, putting the cost and keep of a dairymaid at only 
40/. a year, and charging only three-quarters of it, or 30/., against 
112£ cwts. of cheese, we find a cost of 5s. a cwt. in labour alone, 
even on this moderate valuation of the labour, whether under- 
taken by the mistress or a servant. No wonder that Mr. Joseph 
Needham, of School Clough Farm, a contributor to the Holms 
Factory, near Ashbourne, declares that in the increased value 
and diminished cost of his cheese made from 30 cows he has 
gained 80/. a year by sending it to the factory. 

(3.) It cannot be alleged that I have over-estimated the cost of 
the work in an ordinary dairy at 30/. a year for 30 cows ; but 
if it be objected that this will in general be undertaken by the 
farmer’s wife, whose services hardly admit of a money valuation, 
then, except from those who pronounce hard work to be in itself 
desirable, it may be claimed as one benefit of the factory system 
that it puts a stop to the undue labour — drudgery it must often 
be in times of weakness or imperfect health — of the mistress of 
an ordinary home cheese-dairy. This would not, however, be 


270 On Cheese-making in Home Dairies and in Factories. 


allowed by any of those to whom I spoke upon the subject during 
the round which Mr. Tollemache was kind enough to take me 
amongst the farm-houses on his Cheshire estate ; but probably 
the truth is fairly told in a letter upon the subject which I 
received some years ago, soon after a speech by Lord Vernon in 
which this particular service of the factory system was insisted 
on — that it would put an end to the drudgery of the farmer’s 
wife. Mrs. Charles Bennett, of Stone, Gloucestershire, one of 
the best cheese-makers in the county, wrote to me as follows : — 

“ During the cheese-making season I find it needful to he in the dairy by 
half-past five o’clock in the morning for an hour. Then there is an hour’s 
release for breakfast. By that time the curd will be fit for breaking. Then 
there will be making it into cheese, which will take from two to two-and-a half 
hours, excepting intervals of not more than a quarter of an hour twice during 
this time. It will then be about ten o’clock. If I have a good servant, I can 
then leave the cheese to her ; and it will be necessary for her to go to it in an 
hour to dry-cloth it, and again in two hours to salt it. With her assistance 
I have done with it till one o’clock. Then if cheese be made twice a day, this 
has all to "be repeated, commencing at four p.m. Those who profess that they 
cannot see what farmers’ wives would have to do if they gave up cheese-making, 
must forget that such people are very frequently the mothers of families, and 
have them to attend to besides their usual housekeeping duties. I think there 
is really too much devolving on a farmer’s wife who looks well to her dairy, and 
wishes to do her duty in a domestic way. Now that our family has grown 
up, and can share in the work, I do not find it very burdensome, and of course 
we take a pride in it. But there are many of us who would be glad, never- 
theless, if the work could be done as well without our doing it. When I 
commenced cheese-making, about twenty-four years ago, good dairy-girls were 
not so scarce as now. At the present time it is difficult to get a respectable 
servant who will undertake the work.” 

Mrs. Bennett evidently thinks that heavy labour is not in 
itself a good. On the contrary, although there are many in- 
cidental compensations, it is in itself an evil ; and one of the 
greatest benefits which this generation has experienced is the 
gradual lightening of this evil by the substitution of horse and 
steam for hand. Why should not a benefit which has been so 
obvious on the farm and field be welcome in the dairy ? And 
why should the wife of a dairy farmer, who has been relieved 
by the cheese-factory system, be supposed more destitute ol 
occupation or home interest than the wife of anotherTarmer who 
may have never had a dairy to direct ? 

(4.) It is a distinct advantage of the factory system of dealing 
with the milk of a dairy-farm that every contributor can at an)’ 
time draw upon the funds of the Association for a certain pro- 
portion of the value of the milk which he has delivered. The 
co-operative factory does a most legitimate and beneficial bank- 
ing business in this way. And if it be alleged that this is n( 
other service than has all along been rendered to needy .tenant; 
in the dairy districts by cheese-factors, who have always beer 


On Cheese-making in Home Dairies and in Factories. 271 

ready to keep an account current with those whose cheese they 
purchase — lending money in advance of sales on the understand- 
ing that the cheese is being made for them, the essential and 
important difference between the two must be pointed out. In 
the one case the borrower is in no sense whatever the servant 
of the lender ; he does but obtain, on interest, in advance, a 
portion of what already is his own — the amount ultimately 
coming to him being in no way influenced by any limit upon 
his power of sale, such as exists where the factor is the creditor. 
In the latter case the independence of the maker certainly is to 
some extent compromised, and his power of making a full price 
is to that extent diminished. As Mr. H. M. Jenkins stated four 
years ago on this subject before the Society of Arts : — “ It is 
far better for the farmer to have a factory for his bank than a 
factor for his banker.” 

(5.) Lastly, it is an incidental advantage of the factory system 
in some districts, that an organisation of this kind lends itself 
most conveniently at certain seasons to the demands of the milk 
trade. The direct supply of milk to consumers is the most 
profitable use that can be made of it ; and it has been advan- 
tageous in more than one instance to the “ patrons ” of a cheese- 
factory, that on a demand by milk-sellers in London, the whole 
daily delivery, properly cooled in the vats of the factory, has been 
at once despatched to consumers at the higher price which could 
be thus obtained for it. And it is not improbable that the com- 
bination of cheese-making with the milk supply may hereafter be 
found the most profitable occupation of a factory in suburban 
districts, including not only ordinary dairy-farms, but lands 
where grass is grown by sewage irrigation. 

The various recommendations of the factory system, and the 
objections to it which have been thus enumerated, do not in all 
probability cover the whole of the ground under discussion 
between its advocates and opponents ; but these are enough to 
determine its adoption or rejection. They have, I hope, been 
stated fairly ; and it is plain that the balance of advantage, so 
lar as the discussion has been conducted here, is distinctly with 
the factory — those rare cases only excepted when a dairy pro- 
perty is in the hands of at once a public-spirited and energetic 
owner, and a thoroughly accomplished and equally energetic body 
of tenantry. 

The progress, however, of the factory system will depend, not 
on an argument of this kind, but upon the actual results 
attained under a sufficiently long experience of it ; and this, 
therefore, I shall immediately proceed to describe. 

First, however, it has been thought advisable to give some 


272 On Cheese-making in Home Dairies and in Factories. 

account of the modes of cheese-manufacture in our principal 
dairy districts, if only as an illustration of the fitness of the 
factory system to the manufacture of cheese on any of the several 
methods. 


Cheese-making in Home Dairies. 

(1.) The Cheddar System. — This I will describe as it is 
carried on at Marksbury, upon the farm of one of the best makers 
in England. Mr. Harding, of Marksbury, is already known to 
readers of this Journal (see vol. xxi.), and he is also well known 
to cheese-makers in Ayrshire and other counties and districts 
which he and Mrs. Harding have visited on the invitation of 
Agricultural Societies and others, for the purpose of giving in- 
struction in the manufacture of this kind of cheese. Mr. Harding 
is now disabled by illness, but he took great interest in the 
object of my visit to Marksbury last October, when I witnessed 
the process of cheese-making on his farm, and learned from Mrs. 
Harding and her son-in-law, who is now associated with them 
in the tenancy of the farm, the full details of their mode of 
cheese-making. 

The morning’s and evening’s milk are together brought to a 
temperature of 80°, more or less, according to the temperature of 
the night. If that has been warm, a temperature of 78° will 
give as great effectiveness to a given quantity of rennet as one 
of 82° or 84° in cases where the milk has been at a lower tem- 
perature for some hours of a cold night. The evening’s milk, 
having been placed in several vessels during the night to cool, 
and being stirred at intervals during the evening, is skimmed, 
and the cream, with a portion of the milk, is heated up to 100 J 
by floating it in tin vessels on the boiler, and the whole of it 
is poured into the tub — into which the morning’s milk is being 
also strained, through a proper sieve, as it arrives — so as to 
raise the whole, as I have said, to from 78° to 82° Fahr. The 
rennet, made from two or three dozen veils, in as many quarts 
of salt water, and allowed to stand three weeks, is added — 
half a pint to 100 gallons — and the curd sets in about an hour. 
The small veils of Irish calves, which are killed at a week old, 
are preferred, and they should be 18 months old before use. 
The curd is cut with a single long blade to and fro throughout 
its depth, in lines forming a 4-inch mesh upon the surface, and 
the whole mass is gently turned over from the bottom with skim- 
ming-dish and hand. The whole is then again worked through- 
out with a ‘shovel breaker’ — a four-lingered paddle, with wires 
across the fingers — great care being taken to do it gently, so that 


On Cheese-making in Home Dairies and in Factories. 273 

the whey shall not become too white. The curd is thus broken 
up into pieces not much larger than peas, and at least half an 
hour is taken in the process. Hot water is then let into the 
space around and below the cheese-tub, and the whole is raised 
to 100° Fahr. ; and this too is done gradually, so as to raise the 
whole by degrees, not heating any portion to excess. This also 
takes half an hour. The hot water is then drawn off, and the 
curd is then stirred by hand and skimming-dish for another half 
an hour in the midst of this hot whey, being at length reduced to 
a mass of separate bits the size of small peas. The whey, 
after settling for half an hour, is then drawn off to its vat, where 
it stands about 6 inches deep, and is skimmed next day, yielding 
a butter, which should not exceed in quantity 6 to 8 ounces per 
cow per week. The curd stands half an hour after the whey is 
drawn off, and it is then cut in four or five pieces and turned 
over and left for half an hour, after which it is again cut and 
left for a quarter of an hour. After this, it should be in the 
slightest degree acid to the taste. If allowed to become too 
acid, it will not press into a solid, well-shaped cheese, but will 
be apt to sink abroad misshapen. It is now torn into pieces by 
hand, and left to cool ; and thereafter it is packed in successive 
thin layers in the vat, whence, after being pressed for half an 
hour, it is taken out (it is now probably mid-day), and broken 
up by hand, and allowed again to cool. Then — when cool, and 
sour, and dry, and tough enough (all this of course being left to 
the judgment of the maker) — it is ground up in the curd-mill ; 
2 lbs. of salt are added to the cwt. of curd, and the whole is 
allowed to cool, and as soon as cold, it is put in the vat and 
taken to the press. It is now probably 3 P.M. The pressure 
on the cheese may be 18 cwt. The cloth is changed next morn- 
ing. A calico coating is laced on it the second day, and on the 
third day the cheese may be taken from the press, placed in the 
cheese-room, bandaged, and turned daily, and at length less 
frequently. The cheese-room should be kept at nearly 65° Fahr. 
The cheese will not be ready for sale for three months. 

The process lasts nearly all the day, but it produces the best 
cheese in the world, and it is everywhere extending. Taking 
its name from a single parish, it now prevails all over North 
Somersetshire, and is gradually extending into Wiltshire. 
Many dairies adopt it in Gloucestershire. Some of its character- 
istic details are followed in Cheshire ; and in Lancashire, and 
Ayrshire and Galloway it is well known. 

The costs of a dairy in this case amount to 507. a year for 
dairymaid and her keep ; 25 7. a year for a girl ; and a man’s 
help two hours a day, which can hardly be put at less than 107. 
a year more — or 857. in all. This amount of help would be 

VOL. XI.— S. S. T 


274 On Cheese-making in Home Dairies and in Factories. 

needed for a dairy of 40 cows, but it would be equal to the 
work of a dairy twice as large. Of course the farmer’s wife 
here, in the case of small and even of large dairies, takes a large 
portion of the direction and of the labour herself ; but estimat- 
ing it, by whomsoever done, at its proper wage value, the cost 
in the smaller dairies must be nearly 21. per cow, or at least 10s. 
per cwt. And to this agrees the experience of Mr. Smith, of 
Nupdown Farm, who has introduced the system into the Vale of 
Berkeley. He estimates his cost, for a dairymaid and girl at 80/. 
per annum for a dairy of 44 cows on a farm of 153 acres. He 
makes only about 8 lbs. of whey-butter weekly, and showed me 
a remarkably fine floor of cheeses — 24 of which, weighing 22| 
cwt., he had just sold. 

In addition to Mr. Harding’s dairy at Marksbury, I also saw 
the process as carried out at Tunley, near Bath, by Mr. Gibbons, 
a son-in-law of Mr. Harding, whose daughter, Mrs. Gibbons, 
had, among other distinctions, won the gold medal of the French 
Exhibition in 1865, for the excellence of her cheese manufactured 
on this system. The Cheddar cheese is made of various sizes, 
from 70 to 120 lbs., the object being to make all the milk of 
one day on a farm of 30 or 40 cows into a single cheese. 

(2.) The Cheshire System, which varies somewhat in dif- 
ferent dairies, I saw in operation on the farms of Mr. Joseph 
Aston, of Brassey Green, near Tarporley, Mr. Robert Ankers, of 
Huxley, and Mr. Joseph Siddorns, of Broxton. Cheese is made 
only once a day. The evening’s milk is placed not more than 
6 or 7 inches deep in tin vessels, to cool during the night, on the 
floor of the dairy ; it is skimmed in the morning, and a certain 
portion is kept for butter — in early summer only enough perhaps 
for the use of the house, but in autumn more, and in some dairies 
at length nearly all is thus taken for churning. The skimmed 
cream, with a portion of milk, is heated up to 130° of Fahr. by 
floating the tins which hold it on the boiler : quantity enough 
being taken to raise the whole of evening’s and morning’s milk 
together to 90°, or thereabouts. The rennet used had been made 
the day before ; 8 or 9 square inches of veil, standing' in a pint 
of salt water, kept in a warm place, making rennet enough for 
100 gallons of milk. Mr. Siddorns, who had taken accurate 
weights and measures, found that five pieces of veil, each weigh- 
ing GO grains, standing in 12 ounces of water during the day in 
a temperature of 70°, yielded the proper quantity for 50 gallons 
of milk. The Irish veil is used, being from very young and 
wholly milk-fed calves. 

The curd is set in about 50 minutes ; it is then cut with the 
usual curd-breaker, a sieve-shaped cutter, very slowly. The 


On Cheese-making in Home Dairies and in Factories. 275 

whey is syphoned, pumped, or lifted out as soon as possible ; 
but before it is all removed a portion is (on some farms) heated 
and returned to the tub, and the curd is left in this hot whey 
half an hour. The whey is then drained away and the cheese 
left to get firm. When firm enough to stand on the hand in 
cubes of about a pound weight — this is Mr. Siddorns’ illustration 
— without breaking asunder, it is lifted out on the drainer, a 
false bottom of rods in a long tub with a stop-cock to it, and 
there left covered up for 45 minutes, after which it is well mixed 
by hand with to 4^ lbs. of salt per cwt. — then allowed to 
stand with a light weight upon it for about three-quarters of an 
hour longer, being turned over once or twice during the time, after 
being cut into squares with a knife. It is then twice passed 
through the curd-mill, and put into the vat at once, a cloth being 
pressed first into the place by a tin hoop and the salted curd 
being packed gently by hand within it. In some dairies the salt 
is not added till after the curd has been thus ground in the mill. 
As to the quantity of salt to be added, that must be determined 
by judgment of the quantity of whey which is likely to pass from 
the press. In one case mentioned by Mr. Siddorns, 6 lbs. of salt 
were added to 118 lbs. of curd, which, however, lost as much as 
48 lbs. of whey in the after-process, which necessarily carried off 
a large quantity of the salt which had been added. The vats 
will hold a cheese of 70 or 80, up to 100 lbs. ; and tin hoops, 
placed within them, are used to eke them out and give capacity 
for a larger quantity of curd, if necessary. In an ordinary Cheshire 
dairy all the milk is ready in the cheese-tub by 7 o’clock in the 
morning, the curd is set by 8, it is ready for the drainer by 9, and 
it may be put into the vat soon after 11. After standing in the 
vat, with a weight upon it, from one to two hours, according to 
the state of the weather, it is turned over and put into the oven — 
a warm chamber in or near the brickwork of the dairy-chimney 
— where it remains at a temperature of 90° to 100° during the 
night. Both when in the press and here the cheese is skewered, 
skewers being thrust into it through holes in the vat, and every 
now and then withdrawn, so as to facilitate the drainage of the 
whey. The cheese is taken out of the vat next morning and 
turned upside down in a fresh cloth. It is in the press three 
days, and it is turned in the press twice a day, being dry-clothed 
each time. It is then taken out, bandaged, and removed to the 
cheese-room, where it is turned daily, or at length only occa- 
sionally, until it is ready for sale. In some dairies all skewering 
is dispensed with, and no pressure is used at the time of making, 
nor for two days afterwards ; but the whey is allowed to run out 
of its own accord. Cheese manufactured in this way requires 
from 5 to 7 days in drying, but matures more quickly for market. 

T 2 


276 On Cheese-making in Home Dairies and in Factories. 

The cheese varies considerably in quality throughout the year, 
the earlier make of March and April being considerably less 
valuable than that of summer and early autumn. Some of this 
varying quality is owing to quality of milk, and some to the neces- 
sity of holding a portion of curd over from day to day when the 
quantity is insufficient to make either one, or it may be two, full- 
sized cheeses daily. In such cases it is common to make one 
full-sized cheese and hold the remainder of the curd over till the 
next day, keeping it wrapped up on the drainer or pan, and 
grinding it up in the curd-mill along with the curd of the next 
morning. 

The quantity of cheese made varies from 3^ to 4 cwt. per cow 
per annum on good farms. The quantity of butter made in a 
good dairy will not be half a pound per cow in the early summer 
from both whey and milk ; in the autumn, the milk being richer, 
considerably more may be made without diminishing the quality 
of the cheese. Mr. Aston, of Brassey Green, is an advocate of 
the private dairy system : — “ The labour is the ordinary farm 
life to which the mistress and her servants are all accustomed. 
The cost of fuel which might be saved were the milk sent to a 
factory would be immaterial, for all dairy vessels would in any 
case require a daily scalding, as usual ; the whey which, except 
at the cost of much inconvenient labour, would be lost to the- 
farm, is the main agent in pig-feeding, and the loss of the pig- 
manure would be a great injury to the soil. The whey is valued 
on Cheshire farms at nearly 21. annually per cow. The whole 
equipment of farm-house and dairy, often costly, and in the case 
of some Cheshire estates, very perfect and complete, would go- 
for nothing. The price at which in the Derbyshire dairies the 
annual profit shows that the milk has been sold, is less than that 
which can be made of it in many Cheshire dairies. No farmer 
making good cheese would be willing to part with his milk for 
7f d. per gallon.” — This is Mr. Aston’s statement. 

3. The Gloucestershire System, as ordinarily conducted, 
may be gathered from the practice on Mr. Charles Bennptt’s farm, 
near Stone, in the Vale of Berkeley. There is here a dairy of 40 
to 48 cows, on a farm of 260 acres, of which 32 are arable. 
Cheese is made only once a day. The evening’s milk is placed 
in the cheese-tub and in other vessels, standing not more than 
3 inches deep during the night, so as to lose its natural heat 
as quickly and completely as possible. It is there stirred occa- 
sionally during the evening and the last thing at night to check 
the rising of the cream. Any cream that has risen in the morning 
is skimmed, and so much as it is desired to keep for butter is set 
apart ; the remainder, with enough of the milk, is floated in tin 


On Cheese-making in Home Dairies and in Factories. 277 

vessels on a boiler until as hot as the hand can easily bear^-pro- 
bably about 110° Fahr. — and is poured with all the evening’s 
inilk and the morning’s, as it arrives from the yard, into the 
cheese-tub, enough being heated to raise the whole to about 
<5 4° Fahr. 

The cheese-tub is a tin vessel capable of holding about 
150 gallons, and provided with a stop-cock by which its contents 
can be drawn off. When all the milk is collected the rennet is 
added — from one to two half-pints according to the quantity of 
milk — about a pint to 100 gallons being the proper quantity. 
This rennet is made four or five times during the season, a dozen 
veils and half a dozen lemons being added to 5 or 6 gallons of brine 
for the purpose, and placed in a covered stone jar for use. The 
curd is set in an hour ; the process of breaking is performed by a 
sieve-like set of wires, with about an inch mesh, which is fixed at 
right angles to its handle and pushed down through the mass very 
gently in successive places all over the surface of the curd. The 
curd is then gently lifted and moved from the bottom and corners 
of the tub with hand and skimming-dish, and the cutter used 
again. This process takes in all about half an hour, and the 
curd is then allowed to settle, and half the whey is baled out. 
A portion of this whey is then heated to 120° Fahr. and returned 
to the tub, again raising the temperature there to 84° Fahr., and 
then it lies for a quarter of an hour, after which the whey is drawn 
off by opening the stop-cock. After settling into a firm mass, 
the curd is cut and turned in pieces over one another on the 
floor of the tub and allowed to drain ; it is thereafter placed in 
cloths in the vats, of the size corresponding to about eight cheeses 
to the cwt., and there it is pressed for a quarter of an hour. It 
is then taken out and put through the curd-mill and immediately 
vatted again. It is now about 9 o’clock or half-past 9. The 
cheeses are taken out in one hour afterwards, the vat is wiped 
and the cheese replaced in a dry cloth. About three hours later 
it is again taken out, and this time rubbed with salt, which 
salting process is again repeated at night. 

In large dairies this work is done twice a day. If any butter 
is made in these dairies, a certain portion of milk has to be set 
apart for the purpose ; otherwise the whole of the evening’s milk 
at once goes into the cheese-tub, such a portion being heated as 
suffices to raise the whole to the temperature required, after which 
the rennet is added and the morning’s proceedings are repeated ; 
and the labours of the dairy, beginning at 5 in the morning, are 
not over till 8 or 9 at night. 

On two or three successive days the cheeses are taken out of 
their vats, again rubbed with salt, and returned to the press. In 
three days they are taken to the cheese-loft and there turned, at 


278 On Cheese-making in Home Dairies and in Factories. 

first daily, afterwards at longer intervals. They are ready for 
sale in six or eight weeks. It is the practice in this dairy of 40 
to 48 cows to take about 25 lbs. of milk-butter a week, and the 
whey yields 10 or 12 lbs. in addition. The difference in quantity 
and quality of cheese, owing to this quantity of butter being 
taken, is more than balanced, in Mrs. Bennett’s opinion, by the 
receipts for the butter thus made. 

The annual make of cheese varies, of course, from year to year, 
rarely amounting to 4 cwt. per cow, while 3^ cwt. would be con- 
sidered a poor yield. The prices realised, when the best cheese 
of the summer months has commanded 70s. per cwt. (112 lbs.), 
have varied from 56s. for “ fodder” cheese, made in March and 
sold in May, to 60s. or 62s. per cwt. for April-made cheese, sold 
in May and June, and 66s. or 68s. per cwt. for summer-make. 
The whey on this farm is not considered of much value, and 
Mr. Bennett would gladly part with it for the 1/. per cow, at 
which it is generally valued. 

4. The Derbyshire System does not differ materially from 
that which obtains in Gloucestershire in making a thick (double 
Gloucester) cheese. It is usual to make but once a day, unless 
in very hot weather, when it may be doubtful if the milk can 
be got cool and kept sweet during the night, in which case 
cheese is made in the evening as well as morning. In general, 
however, the evening’s milk is put in thin layers in the cheese- 
tub and other vessels to cool during the night, tin vessels of cold 
water being put to stand in it in order to subject it to as large a 
cooling surface as possible. In the morning, if much cream has 
risen, it is partly skimmed, and, if necessary, warmed up with 
some milk and added to the morning’s milk, so as to bring the 
whole to about 80°. In the summer-time, however, the rennet 
has often to be added when the milk is naturally warmer than 
this. Enough fresh-made rennet is added to set the whole in 
an hour or less. After the curd has been broken with the common 
sieve curd-breaker, used gently for a sufficient time, a presser 
is used — a sort of heavy metallic sieve follower — which sinks 
gradually through the whey and ultimately lies upon the curd, 
enabling the baling out of the whey. After this has been for 
the most part taken out, this follower is forced hard down on 
the curd so as to squeeze and still further separate the whey 
from it. The curd may then be slightly salted, though this is 
not always done at that time. It is broken by hand into a vat 
and pressed ; taken out and broken up again, re-vatted and 
again pressed ; and this may be done more than once, as often, 
indeed, as seems to be required. It is at length finally vatted, 
in sizes of about 4 to the cwt. ; its whole surface is made to 


On Cheese-making in Home Dairies and in Factories. 279 

take in as much salt as it will hold by rubbing and pressing ; 
this gets liquified by the exuding moisture and is absorbed. It 
is dry-clothed and changed in the press daily, and is in the 
press 4 or 5 days before being finally removed to the cheese- 
room, where it is turned at gradually-increasing intervals until 
ready for the market. 

SOMERSETSHIRE. — The following is the method adopted in a 
dairy near Frome, in which district the Cheddar system has 
generally supplanted the comparatively thin cheese of North 
Wilts. During the evening, from 4 to 6 o’clock, the milk brought 
in from the cows is strained into the cheese-tubs, and into other 
tin vessels to cool. The milk is occasionally stirred ; and where 
tubs with false bottoms are used cold water is occasionally put 
under it during the summer months so as to more quickly cool it. 
Next morning the cream collected on the surface of the milk is 
skimmed, part of it being taken for butter ; in some dairies, 
however, all the cream from the night’s milk is put in the 
strainer through which the morning’s milk is being poured into 
the cheese-tub. Some makers heat a portion of the morning's 
milk adding the night’s cream to it, so that it may be better 
incorporated with the whole body of milk, and thus left in the 
cheese and not wasted in the whey. The varying practice in 
this respect is said to depend on the soil ; some land allowing 
a larger quantity of cream to be taken from the milk, the cheese 
being still of sufficient fatness without it. But the practice 
varies also with the time of year. 

All the night’s milk being put in the cheese-tub, and the 
morning’s milk strained into the same, the quantity kept back 
lor heating is made hot enough to raise the whole to 80° or 86° 
Fahr., which is considered the proper heat for adding the rennet. 

After this has been added the tub is covered over with a cloth, 
and in about one hour the curd is expected to have set firm enough 
for breaking up. It is now probably 8 o’clock, A.M., and the 
cheese-maker then commences to break up the curd. In the 
first place he cuts it in lines crossing one another with a long 
knife, and immediately afterwards it is completely broken up 
by the curd-breaker, by which the whole is lifted and stirred 
sufficiently but gently. The curd is now allowed to settle for 
a quarter of an hour, after which some of the whey is baled out. 
The process of scalding now commences. Those who have not 
an apparatus for scalding — the double-coated tin cheese-tub, 
allowing hot-water or steam to pass round its contents — heat the 
mass in the cheese-tub by whey heated in the boiler. By 
8.45 A.M., or a little earlier, the first vessel of whey taken to the 
boiler has been heated to 120°, and is being gently poured into 


2S0 On Cheese-making in Home Dairies and in Factories. 

the cheese-tub, the mass in the tub being carefully stirred the 
while, and for 15 minutes longer. It is now allowed to settle 
for another quarter of an hour, after which a portion of the whey 
is removed from the tub to the whey-tank, and a second lot of 
whey, also brought to 130°, is poured into the cheese-tub, the 
maker stirring and then allowing it to settle as before. Another 
portion of whey is then removed from the tub to the tank, 
and a third lot of whey, which has been heated to 140°, is now 
poured into the tub in the same way as the two previous lots. 
When this last lot of hot whey is in the tub the maker dis r 
continues stirring, and the mass is allowed to settle for about 
20 minutes. The curd and whey in the cheese-tub should at 
this time be about 100°. The whey is then removed from 
the tub to the tank, and the curd cut up and placed in the 
centre of the tub in such a way as to give the greatest facility 
for all the whey to run from it. When the curd has some- 
what dried itself, say in about 45 minutes, it is broken by the 
hand into pieces about the size of an orange, put in com- 
paratively thin vats, and removed to the press. It will now be 
about noon. The curd is allowed to remain in the press until 
about 3 P.M., when it is removed, ground down, and salted ; 
about 2£ lbs. salt to the cwt. being used. The ground curd is 
now allowed to remain in the cooler for about two hours, 
being turned occasionally during the time. At the expiration 
of the above time the curd is re-vatted in larger vats and removed 
to the press, where it remains till the following morning. The 
cheeses are then taken from the vats, turned over, clean cloths 
being put on them, re-vatted, and again removed to the presses. 
On the third morning the same process is gone through, and 
again on the fourth, with the exception now of covering the 
cheeses, instead of the ordinary turning cloth, with the thin 
tight cloths which are to remain on them when in the cheese-room. 
The cheeses are then taken from the press, bandaged, and re- 
moved to the cheese-room. The young cheeses should be turned 
over every day for the first week, afterwards not quite so fre- 
quently, and as they get older the less turning they wjll require. 

The whey-tank referred to in this description is the vessel in 
which the whey is kept until the following day, when the cream 
is removed from it, and the whey is allowed to run into the cistern 
in the hogs’-house. 

The quantity of butter made per cow in good Somersetshire 
dairies does not exceed half a pound weekly during the summer 
months. In the months of March and April, when cattle are 
feeding on hay and artificial foods, much more butter is taken 
from the milk. The milk is also naturally not so rich in curd 
as in the summer months, consequently a poorer but nice- 


On Cheese-makin/j in Home Dairies and in Factories. 281 

■flavoured kind of cheese is then manufactured, which is generally 
made thin, about 4 or 5 to the cwt. This cheese is known by the 
name of hay-cheese, and sells at from 56s. to 66s. per cwt. In 
the height of the season the best Cheddar-cheese commands a 
price of 80s. or more per cwt. of 112 lbs. 

As the milk diminishes in the autumn, the size of the cheese, 
generally 90 lbs. to 100 lbs. each, is maintained ; and where 
hitherto two cheeses have been made, only one is made, the 
remainder of the curd being kept over till the following day — 
enough probably with to-morrow’s curd to make two, with a 
smaller surplus of that day’s curd unused. This added to the 
curd of the following day may make two cheeses without any 
remainder, and thus three days’ milk makes five cheeses. In this 
way at length three cheeses are made in two days, four in three 
days, and so on. The cheese thus made hardly commands the 
full market value of the best cheese. 

In the dairy thus described I have found the rare example of an 
annual record of experiment in which quantity of milk, quantity 
of curd, and quantity of butter, have all been ascertained in suc- 
cessive months. The figures for four out of seven past years are 
given on page 282. The quantity of butter named is the average 
per day for that week in which the cheese was made, not the 
daily average for the month that is named. The weights of 
milk and cheese are not daily averages for the month, but simply 
the quantity produced on the particular day of the experiment 
in each month. The number of cows varied from 57 to 63 in 
the several years. In 1868 the cows were receiving a little meal 
daily during April : the grass shrank during June, July, and 
August, and it was very hot and dry. In 1870 also the cows 
received meal during April. Foot-and-mouth disease broke 
out on July 10, and on July 23 the milk was reduced to 74 
gallons daily. And again in 1874 the foot-and-mouth disease 
prevailed from April 23 to May 20, and land was dry and keep 
was short from this till August. I have taken the figures of 
only the alternate years. They may be usefully compared with 
those which we shall hereafter give from some of the Derbyshire 
cheese-factories. 

Adding all the tabulated results together we have on an 
average 1 lb. of green cheese produced by 10 lbs. 8£ ozs. of 
milk : the green cheese shrank only 6 per cent, before sale. 

The cost of labour at this dairy is put by the tenant at 47/. 
a year. This, over a manufacture of 235 cwt., which must 
be considered a maximum produce for a stock of cows vary- 
ing between 57 and 60, would correspond to 4s. a cwt. for 
labour only ; but we presume that a strict valuation of all the 
services rendered in the dairy throughout the year would exceed 


282 On Cheese-making in Home Dairies and in Factories. 

47/. One farther item of interest in the details which have 
been given me from this dairy may be mentioned : the lowest 
price of the past year was 64s., the highest 90s. per 120 lbs. — a 
range of 26s. per cwt. 



1868. 

1870. 

1872. 

1874. 

Date. 

Milk. 

Curd. 

Butter, 

Milk. 

Curd. 

Butter, 

Milk. 

Curd. 

Butter, 

Milk. 

Curd. 

Butte 




lbs. 



lbs. 



lbs. 



lbs. 


Galls. 

lbs. 

per day. 

Galls. 

lbs. 

per day. 

Galls. 

lbs. 

'per day. 

Galls. 

lbs. 

per dai 

April . . 

115 

100 

6 

109 

94 

7 

109 

99 

5 

73 

59 

4 

May . . 

165 

170 

4 

176 

161 

4} 

162 

153 

6 

62 

59 

6 

June . . 

158 

152 

3} 

165 

148 

it 

.. 



133 

124 

4 

July . . 

117 

111 

3} 

132 

117 

4 i 

163 

149 

5 

122 

114 

3? 

August . 

96 

94 

4 

98 

90 

3 

148 

142 

41 

118 

116 

21 

September 

118 

124 

5 

88 

90 

31 

137 

140 

3 

110 

121 

3 

October . 

103 

117 

4 

72 

76 


90 

103 

21 

66 

75 

2 

November 




37 

43 

1 

€9 

76 

H 

52 

58 

21 

Average . 

124* 

124 

4* 

1091 

1021 

3f 

1251 

123 

4 

92 

91 

31 


Weight of Cheese. 

Weight of Cheese. 

Green. 

When Sold. 

Shrinkage. 

Green. 

When Sold. 

Shrinkage. 

lbs. 

lbs. 

lbs. 

lbs. 

lbs. 

lbs. 

85 

801 

41 

85 

80} 

4} 

75J 

711 

4 

751 

71} 

4 

241 

23 

it 

90} 

86 

4} 

321 

30* 

2 i 

Loaf 1 .. 
cheese J ' , 

15} 

1 } 


%* No dates have been given when the above cheese was made or sold. 


The Factory System of Making Cheese. 

% 

I have now to describe the factory system and its results in a 
sufficient number of examples, and over a sufficient period of time 
to make the experience to be reported of it trustworthy. The 
history, from the beginning, of the first established factories in 
Derbyshire has been already reported in vol. vii., S. S., p. 42-60, 
by Mr. Gilbert Murray, who has told the story of the first year’s 
make — that of 1870 — and of the public-spirited labours by which 
the system was, in the midst of some hardly avoidable blunders, 
and at some consequent expense to the guarantors, introduced. 
It was not until the end of the second year that the guarantors of 


On Cheese-making in Home Dairies and in Factories. 283 

6^c?. per gallon to all contributors of milk were finally released 
from their responsibility ; and it is only to the experience of the 
years 1872-3-4, that reference will now be made. That of 1872 is 
told in a pamphlet to which the signatures of the Honourable 
E. Coke, of Longford ; Mr. J. G. Crompton, of Derby ; and 
Messrs. J. Coleman and G. Murray were appended. Messrs. 
Coke and Crompton call attention to the greater uniformity and 
superior quality of factory-made cheese, to the economy of its 
manufacture, and to the influence which an increased value of 
produce from our dairy-farms must exert on the interest of both 
the landlord and the tenant. At the Longford Factory 211,338 
gallons of milk from 458 cows (460 gallons a-piece) were made 
during 1872 into 91 tons 12 cwt. 3 qrs. 3 lbs. of green cheese, 
which, shrinking about 10 per cent., yielded 82 tons 7 cwt. 1 qr. 
and 25 lbs. of saleable cheese (4 cwt. nearly per cow), realising 
at 74«. 10c?. per 120 lbs., 6166?. 14s. 8 d. The whey (sold to 
the milk contributors at \d. per gallon) and the whey-butter 
together made 475?. 12s. 4 d. The cost of labour, in manager 
and assistants, was 215?. 18s. 3d. ; of materials 103?. 14s. 5c?. ; 
and of marketing 118?. 3s. 10c?. Besides this the rent of build- 
ing, and of plant, and the cost of repairs amounted together to 
65 ?. There was thus a balance of 6139?. 10s. 6c?. for the con- 
tributors, which was divided among the milk suppliers at the 
rate of close on 7c?. a gallon — the expense of labour and 
materials having amounted to 3s. 10£c?. per cwt. of 120 lbs. of 
cheese — while the rent of building amounted to 9c?., and the cost 
attending the sale of the cheese was Is. 5c?. per cwt. It is added, 
that 10 dairymaids had been dispensed with by the suppliers of 
milk to the Longford Factory, who thus saved 400?. on the 300 
cows belonging to those dairies at a cost to themselves (at 
3s. 10£c?. per cwt. on the cheese made from these cows) of 184?. 

The Report of the Derby Factory for 1872 was also satis- 
factory. Here 51 tons 13 cwt. 2 qrs. and 15 lbs. of green 
cheese, shrinking 8J per cent, into the 47 tons 5 cwt. and 1 qr. 
of ripe, which was sold at 74s. 6c?. per 120 lbs., was made from 
274 cows; the labour and materials having cost 3s. 6fc7. per 
cwt. ; steam and water Is. 5c?. per cwt. ; rates and taxes Is. 2^c?. 
per cwt. ; repairs 5Jc?. ; and Secretary’s salary 3fc?. per cwt. — 
or 7s. ljc?. per cwt. in all. The statement shows that the sum 
of 3517?. 17s. 8c?., including 340?. 2s. 10c?. for sale of whey and 
milk and butter, had been distributed among the milk suppliers 
at the rate of nearly 6f d. per imperial gallon, after paying the 
whole cost of working expenses and repairs. 

This pamphlet is especially interesting from its detailed 
report ol the quantities of milk received from the 39 different 
farmers who contributed to the two factories. It appears that 


284 On Cheese-making in Home Dairies and in Factories. 

while the contributors varied as much as from two and three 
cows apiece to in one instance 50, there were on the whole from 
814 cows 393,463 gallons of milk sent to Longford which 
received from March to November, and at Derby Factory which 
received only from April to October. This was at the rate of 
483 gallons a-piece upon an average ; the receipts from different 
farms varying from 624 gallons a-piece in a dairy of 3 cows to 
343 a-piece in a dairy of 38 cows. This difference cannot be 
put down wholly to sort, food, or management, for we are ex- 
pressly told that in some cases the foot-and-mouth disease had 
prevented milk being sent to the factory ; but it is plain from 
the large number of examples in which 450 gallons and up- 
wards is the return, that this is under one style of manage- 
ment, perhaps from one class of soil, the ordinary annual pro- 
duce of healthy cows, while in other large dairies more than 
500 gallons appears to have been the common experience. 

The balance sheets of Longford, and of the Windley Hall 
Factories, have been sent to me for 1873. In the former case 
the plant was purchased by an entrance fee of 10s. per cow 
on 517 cows, and thereafter the account stands as follows : — 
221,148 gallons of milk yielded 93 tons 18 cwt. 3 qrs. 22 lbs. 
{120 to the cwt.) of green cheese, which shrank 7 ton 13 cwt. or 
about 8J per cent., and was sold (86 tons 5 cwt. 3 qrs. 27 lbs.) at 
82s. 4 d. per cwt. for 7106/. 2s. Id. Besides this, 2898 lbs. of butter 
realised 167/. 14s. 5 d. ; the whey sold for 326/ 15s. Id. ; and 
there were other small receipts amounting to 13/. 6s. 3d., making 
7633/. 18s. in all; out of which, after paying the whole cost 
of working expenses — materials, labour, fuel, commission, and 
repairs — 609/. 7s., equal to 7s. Ofd. per cwt., the contributors 
received rather more than 7 Jd. per gallon. The following is 
an enumeration of the costs : — 


s. d. £ s. d. 


Labour .. .. 2 

71 per cwt. of the cheese .. 

227 

18 

0 

Materials .. .. 0 

81 


• • • • 

64 

8 

8 

Fuel 0 

6 


• a • • 

44 

7 

6 

Soda, brashes, &c. 0 

Of 


•• •* 

6 

11 

5 

Rent and rates .. 0 

8 


•• •• 

57 

11 

1 

Repairs .. .. 0 

2f 

>> 



20 

2 

2 

Total .. .. 4 

9f 



£420 

18 

10 

The other charges included Secretary’s 

salary and com- 




mission for sale, &c. 




78 

10 

0 

Manager’s bonus of 10 per 

cent, on value realised for 


• 


milk over 61<i. per £ 

jallon 



98 

0 

0 

Sundries 




11 

18 

2 

Total = 7s. 

Of d. per cwt. of the cheese 

£609 

7 

3 


On Cheese-malting in Home Dairies and in Factories. 285 

The Windley Hall Factory on the estate of Mr. J. G. Crompton 
was started on May 9th, and closed for the year on November 
14th, 1873. During that time 86,974 gallons of milk were 
received from contributors, and yielded 34 tons 1 qr. and 20 lbs. 
of saleable cheese which was sold at 83s. 7 \d. per cwt. (120 lbs.), 
for 2851/. 18s. 9 d . : butter and whey realised 142/. 2s. in addi- 
tion ; and the 2998/. 5s. 6c?., thus received, yielded no less than 
7fe?. per gallon to the contributors, besides paying 168/. 7s. 9c/. 
for labour, materials, fuel, rent, and sundries, and leaving a 
balance of 21/. 7s. undistributed. In this case the labour had cost 
2s. 5 d. per cwt. ; materials 10(7. ; fuel 5(7. ; rent 8 ft/. ; sundry 
payments 3f d ; and no charge appears for marketing. 

We come now to the year 1874, and before stating the results 
of my inquiries on the manufacture of the past year at no fewer 
than six factories in Derbyshire, I will relate the history of one 
of the first of these factories, which has been established sim- 
ply by the labour of the contributing tenant-farmers who had 
resolved upon having one. 

The following account of the Holms Cheese Factory has been 
given to me by Mr. J. P. Sheldon, of Sheen, near Ashbourne, 
as the first which had been established by tenant-farmers exclu- 
sively — that is, without the aid of the leading landowners of 
the district. It has, of course, been started by the activity and 
energy of only a few who at length succeeded in overcoming the 
indifference or opposition of others ; but except in so far as it 
may have been prompted by the example set on the estates of 
the Hon. E. Coke and Mr. J. G. Crompton, to whom the credit 
of establishing the dairy-factory system in Derbyshire is due, 
the Holms Factory may be said to have owed nothing to ex- 
ternal influence or assistance. 

Mr. J. P. Sheldon had, in 1871, made a trip to the United 
States, to inspect the cheese-factory system there, in order that 
he might urge with the authority of an eye-witness the feasibility 
of the scheme. His impressions on this point were given at 
some length in the ‘Milk Journal’ of January, 1872. He now 
says : — 

“ Whilst the Holms Factory was being built, the site on which it stands- 
was designated ‘Fools’ Corner; ’ but this name, and the prejudice in which it 
had its birth, have both died away, except in a few incurably * long-horned r 
instances, and, generally speaking, the factory system of cheese-making is 
now looked upon with cordial approval among us. 

_ “ Some farmers were under the necessity of, at all events, simulating opposi- 
tion to the scheme, because wives would not relinquish the butter-money. 
This perquisite they could not forego. Also pigs were an element of discord. 

‘ How about losing my pig-manure '?’ said the farmer. ‘ On what must I rear 
my calves and feed my pigs if you take all the milk away ?’ said the farmer’s 


28 () On Cheese-making in Home Dairies and in Factories. 


■wife. It is odd that we never hear such questions raised in connection with 
sending milk to cities. These and all other objections, refuted time after 
time, at length disappeared, and a sufficient number of farmers undertook to 
put up the building and furnish it with plant, taking, in fact, all the cost 
and risk upon themselves. Of the original six, however, two withdrew, and 
the work was begun and completed by the remaining four. 

“ Mr. Shirley, of Rewlach, put up the building at his own cost, on his own 
land, and the situation is a good one. Three others have done the remainder, 
and, with Mr. Shirley, form the Managing Committee. The entire cost of the 
concern has been 360?. In its present form it has capacity for the milk of 300 
cows, though for the present we have had to content ourselves with 230. By 
putting in an additional milk-vat we shall be able to work up the milk of 450 
cows. In order to supplement the storage-room we intend to put in a quantity 
of additional shelving, and the lower curing-room, where the green cheese is 
first placed, is to be furnished with adequate ‘ turning-shelves.’ If properly 
constructed these turners are most important economisers of time and labour, 
while they offer no hindrance to a proper examination of the cheese at the time 
of turning it. The best I have seen are in tiers of three shelves, the ends of 
wh'ch are secured in a strong piece of timber,"; which has an axle in the centre 
on which it readily turns. 

“Our factory fairly commenced work on May 15, 1874. From that date 
till the end of the season, in November, we received 817,149 lbs. of milk, from 
which we have made 2419 cheeses, which in their green state, after being 
taken out of press, weighed 81,288 lbs. In the first eight weeks it took an 
average of 10 lbs. 91 ozs. of milk to make one pound of green cheese. I took 
the average of five days in the early part of June, and found then that 
10 lbs. 11 ozs. of milk went to one pound of green cheese. It is therefore evident 
that, since that time, the proportion of casein, &c., in milk had increased to 
the extent of reducing the whole average for the eight weeks 1J oz. below 
that of the five days in June. The milk continued to yield a greater proportion 
of curd week by week during the remainder of the season, until at the close it 
appeared that the green cheese for the whole season corresponded, as nearly as 
possible, to one-tenth the weight of the milk from which it was made. The 
actual average is 1 lb. of cheese to 10 lbs. 084 oz., or nearly 4 oz. under the 
gallon, of milk — a gallon weighing 10 lbs. 4 oz. 

“ The labour at the factory this season has cost us alx>ut 120?., and we have 
been enabled, by means of it, to dispense with the services of eight dairymaids, 
whose board and wages, in the aggregate, could not well be estimated at a less 
sum than 300?. Nor is this a hardship on dairymaids, for they are, as a class, 
rapidly disappearing. We also secure a considerable saving in material and 
incidental expenses. I consider that, with the exceptions of wages, salt, and 
rennet skins, our incidental expenses at the factory are no higher than they 
would be in a 40-cow dairy at home. We dispense with one dairymaid at 
each considerable farm; this, however, will entail extra milking'on the re- 
mainder of the staff, for generally the dairymaid milks. 

“ We have already sold 22 tons of cheese at an average of 4?. 0s. 9fc?. per 
cwt. This is a price which is considerably above what w T e should have made 
of home-made cheese. We save considerably in being able to sell the factory- 
made cheese at six weeks old, instead of having to keep it on hand for 
periods varying from three to nine months. We also have an important gain 
in the production of more cheese from a given quantity of milk than is done 
in farm-houses. We take no butter from the milk, nor have we gathered 
any from the whey during the greater part of the season. Another season 
we intend gathering whey-butter. 

“ We allow our contributors to take the sour whey home in the same cans in 
which they have brought the milk to the factory, and with care in scalding the 


On Cheese-making in Home Dairies and in Factories. 287 


nans at home, this plan, so far as we can see, has no ill effect on the cheese. 
Still it behoves the manager to be vigilant in detecting sour or impure milk of 
any description ; and two members of the Committee should occasionally 
attend at the factory, when the milk is being received, to thoroughly examine 
all the milk-cans for signs of uncleanliness. 

“ It is to be hoped that the Legislature will add a clause, having express 
reference to milk supplied to cheese and butter factories, to the existing 
‘ Adulteration Act.’ * 

“Generally speaking landlords ought to build cheese-factories for their 
'tenantry. The milk suppliers, on their part, should supply the plant, the cost 
of which should be distributed amongst them, pro rata, on the number of cows 
each one milks. If this money be judiciously laid out, it ought, in no case, to 
exceed 15s. per cow at the outset. Repairs of course are paid for out of the 
working expenses. It would, however, simplify matters considerably if the 
landlord were to supply the heavy plant, receiving an equitable interest thereon, 
which would cover its renewal. If convenient, with reference to water and. 
roads, cheese-factories should always be erected in dry and airy situations. The 
odours arising from damp situations and from stagnant pools of water are 
inimical to the production of uniformly good cheese, as milk is peculiarly sus- 
ceptible to impure odours and liable to absorb them. I consider they also 
injuriously affect the ripening of the cheese. The water-supply to a factory 
should be cold enough to reduce the evening’s milk to 60° Fahr., at which 
temperature it will remain sweet enough. If the milk were properly aerated 
as well it would keep sweet at 68°. The supply of water should be constant, 
as it has to run under the vats all night. A 2 -in. pipe will bring ample 
water for a factory of 500 or 600 cows. 

“ It is our intention to build piggeries near, but not too near, the factory. We 
consider that wejshall make some profit from feeding pigs on the spot, though 
pig-feeding, as a rule, does not pay very well at farmhouses. We may buy the 
pigs at a cheaper rate in large quantities, and we may buy our feeding-stuffs at 
wholesale prices. The food should be steamed and given to the pigs before it is 
cold. The piggeries must be arranged so as to reduce the labour of attending 
on them. 

“ It is general in America to have piggeries contiguous to the cheese-factories, 
and they consider a cheese-factory incomplete without its piggeries. We also 
consider it a nuisance to have to take the whey home again.” 

The following is the system of management at the Holms 
Factory : — The evening’s supply of milk is received into, and 
pretty equally divided amongst, the large milk-vats, which are 
capable of holding 500 gallons each, being 14 feet long, by 
48 inches wide, and 20 inches deep. These vats are made of the 
best tin, and are supported by a stout framing of deal or pine, 
between which and the tin is a space under the bottom and 
along the sides. During the night a stream of cold water 
is kept constantly running under the vats, in at one end 
and out at the other, filling the space between the tin and the 
wood, and thus cooling the milk which the vats contain. This 
stream, as it issues from the lower end of the vats, is conducted 
by indiarubber tubing to a small water-wheel sunk in the floor. 


* The text of the State of New York Act relating, to diluted milk is given in 
a foot-note to p. 199, vol. vi., 2nd Series. 


288 On Cheese-making in Home Dairies and in Factories. 

Gradually filling the floats of this wheel, it at length causes 
half a revolution, which, by crank and lever overhead, actuates 
floating wooden rakes, sinking 2 or 3 inches in the milk, which 
are thus driven a foot or two to and fro upon the surface of the 
milk in the vat, at intervals of a few seconds all night long. 

The evening’s milk is in this way cooled before morning, 
even to 60° or 65° ; and a supply of cool water for this purpose, 
either from a spring or pumped from a tolerably deep well, is 
one of the most important requirements in order to the success 
of a factory. The object in using the agitating contrivance* is 
to prevent any cream rising on the milk during the night ; but 
it also performs the further important office of doing something 
towards aerating and deodorising the milk — an office which 
might most beneficially, during the hot weather, be performed 
on the milk before it leaves the farmstead : thus enabling it in 
some measure to get rid of the animal heat and odour which 
tend to the too early and rapid decomposition of the milk in hot 
weather, and are distinctly inimical to the production of the finest- 
flavoured cheese. This aeration should, indeed, take place as 
soon as the milk is drawn from the cow, in which case it may 
be safely taken any reasonable distance, and jolted and shaken 
over any sort of rough and uneven roads, even though contained 
in closely-lidded cans, without fear of its being injured during 
the transit to the factory. Milk obtained from heated cows 
that have been tormented by the attacks of insects during a hot 
summer’s day is obviously already in a state of heat and fer- 
ment closely bordering on actual decay. Such milk should be 
well aerated before being despatched. It is not so necessary to 
use these precautions with the morning’s milk, which, on arriving 
at the dairy, is at once mixed with the evening’s, which has 
been cooled and agitated all night in the milk-vats in the fac- 
tory. When sufficient fresh milk has run into that vat which, 
is farthest away from the weighing-machine, the pipe conducting 
the milk from the tin on the weighing-machine, where it is 
received and weighed as it arrives morning and evening from 
the several contributors, is shortened, to adapt it to the next vat, 
and so on to the last. Steam is now turned under Vat No. 1, 
and the whole mass of milk in it raised to a temperature of 80° 
Fahr., after which the rennet is mixed with it. The heating of 
the milk at this stage may with advantage be made to depend a 
little on the state of the weather and the time of the year. In 
hot weather it should not exceed 80°, and in cold it may be as 
high as 82°. The quantity of rennet to be mixed with the milk 


* Another form of this apparatus is figured in Mr. Willard’s paper on ‘Milk- 
condensing Factories,’ on page 151, vol. viii., 2nd Series. 


On Cheese-making in Home Dairies and in Factories. 289 

will also be varied according- to the season of the year : in the 
autumn more of it is required to coagulate the milk than in 
spring or summer, the milk in the autumn being more heavily 
charged with solids. The exact quantity of rennet to be added 
will depend on its quality and purity. But if it be as good as 
it ought to be, half a pint to 100 gallons of milk is sufficient. 
The test of the strength of the rennet is that the milk with which 
it is mixed shall have perceptibly thickened in fifteen minutes, 
and that coagulation shall be perfected in an hour, the vats 
meanwhile being covered to preserve uniformity of temperature. 

When the curd will break cleanly over the finger, coagulation 
is perfected, and now the curd-knife — a many-bladed cutter, the 
edges being about half an inch apart — is passed slowly lengthwise 
through the mass, from one end of the vat to the other, and back 
again, until all is cut. The edges of this knife are sharp and 
fine, so as not to bruise the tender curd. The curd is now allowed 
to rest a few minutes, until the whey begins to float over it, when 
the curd-knife is again passed through the mass, crossing the 
direction taken before, and leaving the curd in pillars of half an 
inch square. In this stage the whey rapidly escapes, while the 
curd gradually subsides towards the bottom of the vat. After 
remaining in this condition for a short time the curd is very 
slowly and tenderly turned over by the hands, after which the 
curd-knife is freely, though very carefully used, cutting the curd 
into pieces about the size of hazel-nuts. A little steam is then, 
turned into the space between the tin and the woodwork, which 
was occupied by cold water during the right, soon after which 
the curd will bear turning about a little faster. During; this 
time the whey continues to rapidly exude, and the pieces of curd 
to shrink correspondingly in bulk. Up to this stage the curd 
demands the most delicate handling, as it is very tender, in 
order that it may not be bruised, and that none of its liquid fats 
may pass off into the whey. More steam is now turned on, and 
the curd is stirred much quicker, in order to prevent it being 
scorched at the bottom of the vat. As the whey has by this 
time almost completely left the curd, the latter has lost its 
tenderness, and becomes comparatively hard and tough. A 
curd-rake may now be vigorously used to keep the curd-particles 
continually in motion. When the temperature of the mass has 
reached 90° Fahr., the steam is turned off, and the curd kept 
stirring for a time until the vat-bottom has cooled, so as not to 
injure the curd. It is now left at rest for some ten minutes. 
At the end of this interval the steam may be again turned on at 
lull pressure, and it is imperative that the curd now be kept in 
constant motion. The manager will now, as before, use his 
thermometer occasionally until it denotes 100°, when the steam 
VOL. XI. — S. S. U 


290 On Cheese-making in Home Dairies and in Factories. 

is turned finally off, and the curd, as before, kept stirring a few 
minutes beyond this, until the vat-bottom has cooled down. 
The entire mass is now allowed to rest for an indefinite time, 
during which the manager is careful to watch the development 
of the souring process. An experience of a few months will 
enable any attentive and intelligent person to determine when 
this acidity has attained the proper degree. He may do this by 
taste or smell ; but a surer plan is to take a piece of curd in the 
hand, squeeze the whey well out of it, and touch hot (not red- 
hot) iron with it. If sufficiently acid the curd will stick to the 
hot iron, and draw out in fine threads an inch or more long. 
The whey is now all run off by a syphon, and the curd is 
gathered to either side of the vat, so that the whey can run down 
the middle. There is yet some little whey left in the curd, and 
this continues to drain slowly away as the curd lies packed at 
the bottom of the vat. Presently the curd, which now adheres 
together in a mass, is cut into pieces, and turned over time after 
time until little or no whey runs from it. It is then ground in 
a curd-mill, and when ground, has salt mixed with it, at the rate 
of 2 lbs. of salt per 1000 lbs. of the milk from which it has been 
made ; in autumn a little more salt is used, or 2^ lbs. of salt 
per 1000 lbs. of milk. The curd being ground to about the 
size of raisins, and salted, is now vatted and put under the 
lever-presses for an hour, during which time the little whey still 
in it is pressed out. It is then taken out of press, bandaged, 
and put in again. Here it remains, with a good pressure upon 
it, until morning, when it is finally taken out of press, conveyed 
to the lower curing-room and weighed, has some tissue-paper 
ironed on to the flat sides of it, and is put on the cheese- 
shelves. Here it is turned daily for a few days until it goes 
to the upper curing-room, where it will be turned every other 
day. This cheese is ready for sale in six weeks to two months 
after it is made. But cheese made in autumn takes a longer 
time to ripen. The tissue-paper is ironed on the cheese with the 
view of preventing cracking. 

“ At the present time,” says Mr. Sheldon, “ there is a dearth 
of factory managers, and the committees of intended cheese- 
factories ought to send young men to our Derbyshire factories 
to be trained, so as to have a manager of their own at hand.” 

I add the Bye-Laws of the Holms Dairy, by which the con- 
tributors are bound : — 

“ 1. Persons sending milk to the above dairy shall be required to send, twic 
each day, th e pure milk from the whole of their dairy cows (excepting sucl 
milk as shall be required by them for their family consumption) during th 
making season, the commencement and termination of which shall be deter 
mined by the Managing Committee. 

“ 2. No person shall send, and the Manager of the Dairy shall have powc 


On Cheese-making in Home Dairies and in Factories. 291 

to refuse, any milk that is of an inferior quality, skimmed, sour, dirty, or 
otherwise impure ; nor shall any person keep back that portion of the milk 
known as ‘ afterings ’ or ‘ strippings.’ 

“ 3. Milk from a newly-calved cow shall not be sent to the dairy until the 
cow has been calved four days. 

“ 4. Milk will be received at the dairy from half-past five to half-past seven 
o’clock in the morning, and from five to seven in the evening. 

“ 5. The cans used for carrying milk to the dairy, and other utensils con- 
nected therewith, must be kept thoroughly sweet and clean. 

“ 6. A correct account of all milk received at the dairy, with the number 
and weight of cheese made therefrom, shall be kept by the manager at the 
dairy ; which account shall be open at all times to the inspection of any milk 
contributor.” 

The mode of dealing with the milk in the large vats of the 
factory can be varied to suit the practice of any county. The 
ordinary Derbyshire cheese is made at the Holms and other fac- 
tories in Derbyshire. The Cheddar system is adopted at Mickle- 
over, which is in the hands of Mr. Henry Harding, a son of Mr. 
and Mrs. Harding, of Marksbury, who finds that the longer heat- 
ing, the minuter subdivision of the curd, and the prolonged ex- 
posure of the curd after being ground in the curd-mill, which are 
characteristics of that method, are as perfectly well adapted to the 
scale of operations of a factory as they are to the scale of a smaller 
dairy. Mr. Livesey and Mr. Etches, who inspected the several 
Derbyshire factories last summer, in order to award the prizes 
offered by Mr. J. G. Crompton for good management and its 
results, gave the first prize to Mickleover, notwithstanding that 
it was not so well equipped as some of the other factories. Mr. 
Harding’s cheese has made the highest prices of the season, the 
later makes having fetched as high a price as 90s. per 120 lbs. 
Mr. Harding is especially anxious on the subject of the rennet 
he employs. Old Irish veils are preferred, and they are soaked 
in brine — about six veils to every 2 gallons — one lemon sliced, 
and an ounce of nitre being added to it ; and of rennet thus 
made one-third of a pint is enough for 100 gallons of milk at 
80° of temperature. 

The following is Mr. Harding’s account of the process carried 
out under his direction at Mickleover, so far, especially, as the 
character of the rennet is concerned : — 

“ The process of cheese-making followed at this factory is the same as has 
been described at Mr. Harding’s, of Somersetshire, in all its details ; but having 
a larger quantity of milk to deal with, we use the ‘ agitator,’ which, as I be- 
lieve, by preventing the cream from rising, frees the milk from any obnoxious 
gases, which would otherwise be sealed down by the layer of the cream, and 
thus prejudicially affect the milk. In illustration of this, I may mention that 
the ‘ agitator- wheel,’ being out of repair, I could not work it during two 
nights ; the cream rose, and on being stirred in the morning a peculiar odour 
was clearly perceptible, the curd retaining it throughout the day, and it was 
easily detected in the flavour of the cheese at ten weeks old. Good rennet is 

u 2 


292 On Cheese-malting in Home Dairies and in Factories. 


one of the most important items in cheese-making, its quality being the founda- 
tion of a good or bad cheese, which means a difference of 15s. or 20s. per cwt. 
in the market value. 

“ This matter is of such importance that the greatest care is required in the 
selection of the veils. The best are supplied from Ireland, where many calves 
are killed on the day of their birth, or within a day or two. The veils thus 
obtained are the smallest ; and, unimpaired by age, they retain all their coagu- 
lating properties. 

“ When the Irish feed their calves (they kill them at about ten weeks of age) 
the veil is large and fat, and the digestive organs having been called into use 
are, as I believe, impaired and weakened for coagulating purposes, hence . the 
cause of two prices for ‘ Irish veils ’ being quoted in our markets. A large sup- 
ply of this class of * skins ’ comes from Germany also, and the German skins 
are much used in this and neighbouring counties. 

“ A vast quantity of cheese is made ‘ out of flavour,’ and this can easily be 
traced to bad rennet. It is remarkable that in the West of England, where 
only the ‘ best Irish veils ’ are used, the average quality of cheese is higher 
than where the second-class skins are used. The demand for this lower class 
of skins is kept up by those cheese-makers who work by the ‘ rule of thumb ;’ 
and when their cheese is ‘ out of flavour,’ or ‘ loose in texture,’ the blame is 
laid on some portion of the land. ‘ When the cows are feeding in that pasture,’ 
it is said, ‘ the cheese will always heave.’ This hasty Conclusion ends their 
investigation ; they never think of looking for the cause elsewhere, much less 
in the rennet-jar, where the incipient seeds of bad flavour are sure to be found. 
These large, or ‘ fed veils,’ will frequently emit a 1 tallow smell ’ when kept a 
few weeks after the steep is made ; probably caused by the decomposition of the 
‘milky matter’ contained in the veils. At the commencement of this seasor 
the writer bought a few dozen of these inferior skins, and made a ‘ steep 
from the recipe given below, and all the cheeses made from them were delec 
tive in flavour, and ‘characterless.’ Knowing that cheese is made in th 
dairy, and that change of pasture has but little effect on the quality ant 
flavour of it, he came to the conclusion that the cause of imperfection wa 
more under his immediate control. He soon found the cause in the rennet 
jar. The steep, on being stirred up, had the appearance of a quantity c 
tallow being mixed with it, caused, no doubt, by the decomposition abov 
alluded to. He had a few days previous ordered a supply of the ‘ best Iris 
veils ’ from Mr. Titley, Bath, at double the cost of the inferior, and as soon r 
he could use the ‘ steep ’ made from them by the same recipe, the quality < 
the cheese improved 4s. per cwt., as the cheese made on the 19th May, froi 
the bad rennet, sold at 80s., and that made on the following day realised 84s 

The following is a recipe for making a perfect rennet: — Mix a brine 
strong salt and water, sufficient to float an egg well ; boil half-an-hour ; let 
stand till cold ; to two gallons add six veils, one lemon, sliced, and one oun 
of saltpetre. It will be fit to use in a month, and will keep any length of tim 

They have now erected a large and commodious factory ne; 
Mickleover, at which there is accommodation for the milk ■ 
600 or 800 cows. A floor of 60 feet by 28 feet 6 inches, 
provided for the whole working arrangements. There is roo 
for five vats of the usual size. On one side at the end is tl 
engine-room, 12 feet by 20 feet, and the floor over the who 
is used as a cheese-room ; the whole being warmed by stove 
and the roof, boarded under slate, with sawdust between t 
two, is of a sufficiently non-conducting material to insure . 


On Cheese-making in Home Dairies and in Factories. 293 


tolerably uniform temperature. The accommodation includes 
the usual arrangements for receiving and weighing the milk as 
it is brought up morning and evening, vats, and water-wheel 
for working the agitators, store-room for the materials employed, 
cisterns for the whey as it is drawn from the cheese-vats — and 
thence, after being skimmed, to the tank, from which it is pumped 
to the customers, a butter dairy, a well and pump and tank of 
sufficient capacity for night use, ample flooring for cheese, 
and a house for the manager. The whole, 1 understand will 
be erected and equipped for the sum of 1200/., which is about 
30s. per cow on the possible number whose milk could be re- 
ceived at it. This is being erected by Mr. C. E. Newton, the 
owner of many of the farms from which milk will be received ; 
and a rent will be charged. 

This seems to be the way in which the system can best be 
introduced. Certainly the landowner is interested in the adop- 
tion of a manufacture by which the money value of the annual 
produce of his estate is very materially increased ; and he may 
therefore be expected to erect the buildings and fixtures neces- 
sary for it, charging a sufficient rent, leaving the contributors to 
provide all the utensils and portable “ plant.” 

The respective shares of landowner and tenant, in providing 
the means for starting the factory system, were the subject of a 
discussion at Derby in December last, of which the following 
seemed to be the generally accepted conclusion. I quote Mr. 
Gilbert Murray’s letter to the * Derby Mercury ’ : — 

“ The proprietor of the land to erect at his own cost the whole of the 
necessary buildings, and obtain ; a sufficient supply of water, either conveyed 
through pipes from the nearest source, or from a well sunk on the premises, 
for which a rent-charge of 5 per cent, per annum on the amount so expended 
shall be payable to the proprietor, the tenants undertaking to repair. This 
rent, whatever its amount, should he charged pro rata on the number of 
cows, and included in the working expenses. The term ‘ fixed plant,’ which 
should likewise be erected at the cost of the proprietor, would include the 
steam-engine and boiler, with all shafting, pulleys, belts, and other connec- 
tions ; desk, and other office fixtures ; agitator-wheel, weighing-machines, 
lift, tramway and waggon, stoves and pipes, cheese-shelves, steam and water- 
pipes — the tenants or milk suppliers covenanting to repair and pay at the rate 
of 7 per cent, a year interest on the first cost, each individual milk contributor 
having no further interest in the fixed plant beyond the time he continues a 
member of the Association. Hence this payment should likewise he included 
in the working expenses. 

“ 1 he ‘ portable plant ’ will include the milk-vats, curd-knives, presses, curd- 
mill, hoops, chum, tin vessels, pails, and buckets. Those would be furnished 
by the contributors at a cost of from 5s. to 10s. per cow, which every farmer 
would be called upon to pay on entry, or at least at the expiration of the first 
working year. The probable duration of the portable plant is ten years; 
this will entail a cost of 10 per cent, per annum in order to replace it iu that 
time, or an annual charge of 6 d. to Is. per cow. This is clearly a capital 
account, and should be treated as such, and kept entirely distinct from the 


294 On Cheese-making in Home Dairies and in Factories. 

working expenses. The yearly 10 per cent, should form the nucleus of a 
separate fund, from which the portable plant should be maintained in an 
efficient state of repair ; and in the case of a milk supplier withdrawing from 
the factory under any circumstances his entrance fee would always remain 
intact, and he handed over to him on leaving the Association. This appears 
to me the most equitable means of placing the undertaking on a business 
footing.” 

Before concluding with such statistics of last year’s experience 
at these factories as I have been able to obtain, I may mention 
that at the factory in Derby, which I saw last summer, 18 farms 
were contributing milk, which, however, was at that time being 
despatched to consumers in London. At Mickleover 12 con- 
tributors were sending about 570 gallons daily from 250 cows, 
60 or 70 lbs. of butter being made weekly : the Cheddar system 
of cheese-making was being adopted. At Longford the milk of 
527 cows from 32 contributors was being dealt with, and the 
manager and two young assistants were said to be displacing 
more than a dozen dairymaids, who would have been employed 
at the several farms on the milk sent to the factory, during 
nine months of the year. At the Holms factory milk from 18 
contributors was being dealt with on the Derbyshire plan already 
described. At the Windley Hall factory milk from 18 con- 
tributors, and at Alstonfield milk from 17 contributors — about 
460 gallons daily from 230 cows at the time of my visit— was 
being manufactured. In addition to these I visited Tattenhall, 
in Cheshire, where the milk from two large farms was being 
dealt with on the factory system, the advantages of which Mr. 
Jackson’s father was the earliest to perceive and advocate. The 
necessity for Sunday work is here evaded by delaying the Satur- 
day’s manufacture till the evening, and dealing with three meals 
of milk instead of two on Monday morning. At Lichfield, too, 
I have seen a factory, now three years in operation, which 
commenced with 15 contributors, finishing off, however, last year 
with only 10, some of whom send their milk a distance of four 
miles. The milk of only 150 cows was here sent, and it had been 
a disastrous year in respect of the foot-and-mouth disease. The 
manager receives 17. a week, together with 10s., 15s., and 20s. 
bonus per ton on the cheese, according as it realises 70s., 75s., 
or 80s. per cwt. He had made only 16 tons of cheese. At 
Nethercote, by Bourton-on-the- Water, I saw a factory at which 
Mr. Wilkins makes cheese, buying milk for the purpose in 
addition to that of his own 25 cows ; and I was astonished to 
hear that he had been receiving milk from no fewer than 167 
cows, for which only 6d. a gallon was paid. At Rooksbridge 
near Weston-super-Mare, two farmers have built a factory and 
extensive piggeries, ten others sending their milk, and leaving 
the whey as their payment for the labour, fuel, and material! 


On Cheese-making in Home Dairies and in Factories. 295 

employed in the manufacture. The Cheddar system is adopted 
through the summer : thin cheese, on the Derbyshire plan, being 
made during the earlier months. About 10 tons per month had 
been made in the dry months of July, August, and September 
of last year, 13 and 14 tons having been made in May and June 
from the same cows, about 380 in number. A manager with two 
assistants, at 20s. and 16s. a week respectively, were making the 
cheese. The whey ran off to tanks, whence it was pumped 
to the large piggeries, which were too near the factory to be 
advisable or even agreeable. 

In addition to these, I hear of a factory at Sutton-on-the-Hill 
for 500 cows ; one at Hartington, in the Peak district, for 500 
cows ; one at Grange Hill, also in the Peak district, for 400 cows : 
one at Ellaston, near Ashbourne, for 500 cows ; one at Ked- 
leston, on Lord Scarsdale’s property, for 500 cows ; one at West 
Hallam, on the property of W. Drury Lowe, Esq., for 300 cows : 
all these in Derbyshire. One at Balderton, and another at 
Alford, on the Duke of Westminster’s estate in Cheshire, are 
being erected for 800 cows each ; and there is a small one at 
Worle, in Somersetshire, and one for 300 cows at Beedy, near 
Melton, Leicestershire. It is plain, therefore, that the system 
is extending; and this is justified by such facts of the year 1874 
as have been allowed to appear. 

In order that I might obtain the financial results for 1874 of 
the cheese-factories of Derbyshire, I addressed a circular to each 
asking for the weight of milk received and of green cheese made 
from it month by month in each — the quantity of cheese sold 
from each at the date of my inquiry — the lowest, highest, and 
average prices which had been realised per cwt. — the quantity 
of cheese then unsold — the cost of labour, fuel, salt, rennet, 
annatto, bandages, and any other materials during the year — the 
rent of building and of plant — the number of milk-suppliers, 
and the number of their cows. It is only in three instances that 
I have received anything like the full details which are wanted 
for a complete report. Now that these factories are under co- 
operative management, bent not, as till lately such factories 
were, on convincing neighbours that the system was a success, 
but simply on realising the largest possible profit for their 
“ patrons ” and contributors, there is no such motive for publi- 
cation as formerly existed. And accordingly I have been told, 
in several instances, in answer to my application, that my ques- 
tions cannot in fairness be asked of any private association for the 
purpose of publication. I am, however, able to state pretty fully 
the lacts regarding one or two of these associations. For instance, 
of the Holms cheese-factory, of which a full report has been 


296 On Cheese-making in Home Dairies and in Factories. 

already given, I hear that they have had throughout the past 
season the milk of 230 cows, the property of 17 contributors: 
79,722 gallons of milk have been received, and 81,288 lbs. 
(677 cwt. 48 qrs.) of green cheese have been made; 614 cwt. 
3 qrs. 27 J lbs. have been sold at an average price of 80s. 9 d. per 
cwt., indicating a shrinkage of 9 per cent. The cost of labour 
had been 120/. ; of fuel, 15/. 7s. Id. ; of salt, rennet, annatto, 
and bandages, 28/. 9s. ; of rent and interest on plant, 18/. 16s. 
The balance for distribution, supposing there is no charge for 
marketing, would be close on 6J/7. per gallon for cheese alone; 
exclusive of whey and butter. 

At the Windley Hall Factory, where a considerable quantitv 
of the milk received had been sent to London, the cost of labour 
— manager, 75/., assistant, 29/. 14s., and extra-assistant, 11/. 13s., 
— amounted to 116/. 7s., or 2s. per cwt., for the 58 tons 17 cwt. 
3 qrs. and 3 lbs. of green cheese which had been made. The 
cost of materials — coal, 15/. 16s. 4 d., coke, 21. 19s. 2d., bandages 
and cloths, 4/. 14s. Id., salt, 5/. 8s., rennet, 221. 17s. 8c/., and 
annatto, 1/. 12s. — amounted to 53/. 7s. 3d., or 11 d. per cwt. of 
the cheese. The petty expenses, amounting to 11. 9s. 5c/., reached 
1 ^d. per cwt. ; the account-keeping — 10/. — came to about 2d., 
and the rent of the building and plant — 40/. — to 8c/. per cwt. 
The cost upon the whole thus reached 3s. 10</. per cwt. of the 
green cheese manufactured, or, assuming a shrinkage of 10 per 
cent., to rather more than 4s. 3d. per cwt. over the sale. De- 
ducting the charges for rent and accountant, it would amount to 
4s. exactly. And let it be remembered that this on a dairy of 
30, 40, 50, or 60 cows, yielding 4 cwt. of cheese apiece, would 
amount to an expenditure of only 24/., 32/., 40/., or 48/. respec- 
tively for the sum of the items of labour, fuel, and materials 
employed in cheese-making. Of course the milk has to be carried 
under this system, and the milking of the cows and the scalding 
of the vessels have still to be done and paid for under any system ; 
but it is not to be doubted that there is here an immense saving 
of labour and cost. And this, it is plain, is not the only nor 
the principal advantage : the value of the produce is the leading 
consideration after all, and when the prices realised at a factory 
come to be considered, it is plain that, dealing as it does with 
the milk of so many dairies, they must be compared, not with 
the maximum, but with the average experience. There are no 
doubt a few who, on hearing that the whole cheese of Windley 
Hall dairy made 83s. 74/7. per cwt. for the year 1873, and 81s. 
per cwt. for 1874, up to the date of our information, will know 
that they made as much, or even more ; but the great majority 
must confess that they would have gained considerably, apart 
altogether from the diminished cost of labour, had their milk 


On Cheese-making in Home Dairies and in Factories. 297 

been sent for manufacture to the manager and machinery of the 
neighbouring factory, both selected respectively for their skill 
and fitness. 

At Mickleover 107,852 gallons of milk, received last year 
from 250 cows in April and afterwards, till November, pro- 
duced 102,882 lbs. of green cheese. And if we here again as- 
sume a shrinkage of 10 per cent., there must have been a sale of 
upwards of 38 tons. The cheese made at this factory up till the 
date of my inquiry had made an average price of 85 s. per cwt. 
of 120 lbs. The labour in this case cost 140/., fuel 18/., materials 
12/. — 170/. in all, or rather more than 4s. 4 d. per cwt. The 
labour employed and paid for here could have dealt with double 
the quantity of milk ; the materials employed were, of course, 
in proportion to the milk on which they were employed. Another 
year will see the larger Mickleover factory at work, when the 
excessive charge per cwt. for labour will be reduced. The price 
obtained here, indicates the superior quality of the manufacture, 
to which reference has been already made. 

At Longford 246,553 gallons of milk had been made into 
250,133 lbs. of green cheese ; 84^ tons had been sold, at an 
average price of 82s. 3f d. per 120 lbs. Of the costs during the 
past year in this case I have no information. 

The particulars given, imperfect though they are, will, I be- 
lieve, convince the majority of cheese-makers who know the 
maximum quotations of the cheese-market to have been always 
iar above their experience- — especially any who may have been 
in the habit of calculating the costs incurred in their dairies 
against the quantity of their manufacture — that both excellence 
and economy of manufacture are, as might have been expected, 
especially achieved in factories where large quantities of the 
raw material are dealt with by the greater skill and the best 
machinery that can be procured or hired. 

The number, however, of those who have been in the habit 
of accurate and quantitative observation in English dairies is, 
unfortunately, very small. It is one advantage of the factory 
system that it at once awakens all who contribute to it to the 
questions of quality and quantity. The weight of the milk 
received from each contributor is recorded daily, the quantity 
of green cheese made is every day ascertained, the shrinkage 
before sale is known, and, under co-operative management, 
every one is on the look-out for deficient results of any kind. 
The “ patrons ” of a factory know perfectly how much milk it 
takes to make a pound of cheese ; but, though they had been 
making cheese for years and generations previously, not one 
in a hundred of them knew for certain anything about it 
before. 


298 On Cheese-making in Home Dairies and in Factories. 

I give here such figures as I have been able to ascertain from 
some of the factories which I have visited in Derbyshire and 
elsewhere. It is impossible to doubt that the publication of such 
figures, and the discussion of them, not only in farmers’ clubs 
hut in farm-houses at the fireside, will set people inquiring as 
to the varying value of dairy breeds, as to the effect of food on 
the milk produced, as to the influence of soil and climate, and 
the economical effect of various dairy processes — with very 
serviceable and useful results. 



WlNDLET, 1874. 

Longford, 1873. 

Longford, 1874. 

Month. 

Milk. 

Green 

Cheese. 

Milk 
to 1 lb. of 
Cheese. 

Milk. 

Green 

Cheese. 

Milk 
to 1 lb. of 
Cheese. 

Milk. 

Green 

Cheese. 

Milk 

to l lb. of 
Cheese. 

March . 

lbs. 

lbs. 

lbs. 

ozs. 

lbs. 

14,795 

lbs. 

1,404 

lbs. 

10 

ozs. 

8 

lbs. 

lbs. 

lbs. 

OZS. 

April 

161,087 

14,637 

11 

0 

134,883 

12,708 

10 

9 

158,936 

14,686 

10 

10 

May . . 

279,978 

26,524 

10 

9 

326,062 

30,921 

10 

8 

455,936 

43,768 

10 

6 

June . . 

297,592 

27,614 

10 

12 

407,315 

38,611 

10 

8 

490,890 

45,980 

10 

10 

July . . 

238,788 

22,118 

10 

13 

397,020 

37,789 

10 

8 

411,725 

33,384 

10 

lit 

August . 

200,528 

19,511 

10 

4 

362,117 

35,568 

10 

2 

344,859 

33,412 

10 

5 

September 

135,444 

14,102 

9 

10 

298,576 

31,197 

9 

9 

302,037 

31,415 

9 

10 

October . 

112,425 

12,699 

8 

14 

212,257 

23,823 

8 

14 

237,460 

27,155 

8 

12 

November 

34,955 

4,128 

8 

7 

113,745 

13,451 

8 

7 

127,009 

15,333 

8 

5 

Total . 

1,460,797 

141,333 

10 

5i 

2,266,770 

225,472 

10 

0 

2,528,852 

250,133 

10 

1 


Mickleover, 

1874. 


Holms, 1874. 

Rooksbridge, 1874. 

Month. 

Milk. 

Green 

Cheese. 

Milk 
to 1 lb. of 
Cheese. 

Milk. 

GreeD 

Cheese. 

Milk 
to 1 lb. of 

Cheese. 

Milk. 

Green 

Cheese. 

Milk 

to 1 lb. of 
Cheese. 

March . 

lbs. 

lbs. 

lbs. 

OZS. 

lbs. 

lbs. 

lbs. 

ozs. 

lbs. 

121,076 

lbs. 

12,175 

lbs. 

10 

ozs. 

0 

April 

82,550 

6,859(?) 

12 

0(?) 

.. 


, 


183,165 

17,036 

10 

11 

May . . 

219,763 

20,729 

10 

91 

82,776 

7,697 

10 

12 

302,004 

30,141 

10 

0 

June . . 

223,781 

20,774 

10 

12 

174,293 

16,389 

10 

10 

280,453 

28,428 

10 

0 

July . . 

177,801 

16,389 

10 

13 

158,246 

14,963 

10 

9i 

232,381 

23,985 

9 

12 

August . 

128,049 

12,129 

10 

9 

135,602 

13,432 

10 

li 

211,902 

23,112. 

9 

3 

September 

117,910 

12,015 

9 

13 

128,550 

13,392 

9 

9i 

199,354 

22,960 

8 

11 

October . 

93,243 

9,971 

9 

61 

101,095 

11,209 

9 

0 

? 

? 


7 

November 

35,425 

4,016 

8 

13 

36,407 

4,206 

8 

104 

? 

? - 


? 

Total . 

1,078,522 

102,882 

10 

Vi 

816,969 

81,288 

10 

0J 

1,530,335 

157,837 

9 

11 


On Cheese-making in Home Dairies and in Factories. 299 

Adding the whole of these figures together, I find that from 
9,682,245 lbs. of milk used in these factories 958,945 lbs. of 
green cheese were made, being at the rate of 1 lb. of cheese 
from every 10 lbs. 1J oz. of milk, a result which compares 
favourably with the 10 lbs. 8 ozs. of milk to every lb. of green 
cheese made on the Somersetshire farm, to which reference has 
already been made. 

This Report on Cheesemaking in Home Dairies and in 
Factories ought not to be closed without a reference to what 
may be called the general milk industry of the country. There 
were last year in England alone, according to the published 
Tables, 1,614,477 cows. These had to be milked night and 
morning, and needed therefore the services of probably nearly 
200,000 milkers. This is an enormous daily task, and it is 
surprising that invention has not yet contrived any efficient 
substitute or aid for the mere hand by which the work has 
hitherto been always done. In this laborious way we may 
probably assume there is on an average about 420 gallons 
annually drawn per cow. This is, indeed, most likely more 
than is yielded annually by the average cow beyond the require- 
ments of its calf. And considering the comparatively low 
production of Hereford, Devonshire and Sussex, and some other 
counties, the quantity of milk to be dealt with in English dairies 
upon the whole is probably not more than 650,000,000 of gallons 
annually. Of this quantity, if the average daily consumption of 
a mixed population be put at one-fifth of a pint a-piece each day 
(see vol. iv., Second Series, p. 95), or nearly 9 gallons annually, 
we may suppose that our 2LJ millions drink nearly one-third 
of the milk we produce, and that not more than 450,000,000 
gallons remain for the manufacture of butter and cheese. Take 
now the counties of Cheshire, Staffordshire, Warwickshire, Derby- 
shire, Gloucestershire, Somersetshire, and Wilts, in which there 
were, in 1874, 454,672 milch-cows — if we may put all the milk 
used in the cheese-dairies of Lancashire, Shropshire, Leicester- 
shire, and Berkshire against so much of the milk of these seven 
counties as is not used for cheese-making, then the whole cheese- 
making of the country is represented by the 450,000 cows or 
more of the seven counties I have named. The cows of these 
counties yield probably more than the average quantity of milk, 
and looking at the fact that in cheese districts the calf is taken 
away earlier than elsewhere, and that the breed encouraged is 
such as gives quantity rather than extreme richness of milk, we 
may lairly assume the average yield of a cow to be 480 gallons 
annually here. This makes the quantity of milk employed 
in cheese-making in this country nearly 220,000,000 gallons 


SOO On Cheese-making in Home Dairies and in Factories. 

annually — -equal to the manufacture of nearly as many lbs. of 
cheese — a quantity which does not now very much exceed 

that which is at present annually imported from abroad.* 

It must be admitted that the possibility of adding 10s. a 

cwt. to the value of this great manufacture, of taking 2s. 

or 3s. a cwt. from the cost of it, of doing away with the 
labour of some 10,000 dairymaids, and setting them free for 
the wants of other increasingly urgent employment, are most 
important considerations, both socially and agriculturally. It 
is not imagined that the whole of this great industry will ulti- 
mately concentrate and accumulate in factories ; but it seems 
certain that, except where landowners are willing, at consider- 
able expense, to provide the necessary home equipment, the 
course of events must tend that way. The superiority of the 
early and late makes of cheese, where large quantities of milk 
can be dealt with from the beginning till the end of the season 
— the superior quality throughout the year where the manu- 
facture is in the hands of the highest skill assisted by the 
best-arranged contrivance — the diminished cost of manufacture, 
especially in respect of labour — the higher prices that are earned 
per gallon by the factory, are together certain ultimately to have 
this result. 

This is no proposal to place quantities of live-stock under 
central management. Direct ownership, and the constant 
personal anxiety and care which only this will ensure, are 
necessary for the prosperous condition of the live-stock of the 
farm ; its management could not be safely undertaken by a 
company. But it is simply a manufacture that is contemplated, 
in which the end depends upon the behaviour of a raw material 
under the well-known processes to which it is subjected. 
There is nothing whatever in the nature of the subject to take it 
out of the rank of ordinary manufactures — nothing to hinder us 
from anticipating that the greater economy and profit of opera- 
tion on the greater scale, which are always realised in those, 
will be also realised in this. Certainly to anyone who comes 
into the dairy, of say even a 200-acre farm, during the last two 
months of the cheese-making season and sees the little mess of 
curd lying under its cloth in the cheese-tub just ready for the 
press — the whole daily result of all this great apparatus of 
milk-room, cheese-room, boilers, ovens, dairymaids, and what 
not, which has to be maintained — it must seem plain that the 
factory which unites the work of 30 or 40 dairies in a single 
apartment, with one, two, or three hands for the whole of it, must 
ultimately succeed on the score of both economy and profit. 

* Tho import of cheese in 1872, 1873, and 1874, was 1,000,130, 1,355.207. and 
1,488,223 cu ts, respectively. 


( 301 ) 


VII . — In Memoriam. By J. Dent Dent, of Ribston Hall, 

Wetherby. 

SCARCELY a month had elapsed from our last Council Meeting 
before death removed from our chamber three of its best known 
occupants ; and those who are left will miss the familiar 
presence, the friendly counsel, and the judicious help of Mr. 
Torr, Lord Kesteven, and Mr. Holland. 

Of Mr. Torr, of his energy and genius, his heartiness and 
zeal, which always met every difficulty with cheerfulness, and 
a determination not to be overcome by it, another pen than 
mine will write. 

Lord Kesteven, once President of the Poor-Law Board, 
brought to our deliberations great Parliamentary experience,, 
and an acquaintance with rural affairs and the conduct of 
country business which was of frequent value. In him strong 
common sense and knowledge of men were united to a hearty 
pleasantness of manner and great frankness and geniality of 
disposition. A feeling of weak health made him decline the 
Presidency, when it was suggested that he should be nominated, 
but he was always willing to take his share in the work of 
the Council ; and those amongst us who were with him last 
December, and found him kindly and ready as ever, and then 
saw him presiding over the deliberations of the Taunton Com- 
mittee, and endeavouring to adapt the views of the local autho- 
rities to the requirements of the Society, little thought we 
should never more meet the hearty shake of his hand or listen 
to his cheery voice. He was a thorough type of the best class 
of English country gentlemen ; fond of field sports and the 
occupations of a rural life, and yet ready to give up any amuse- 
ment for the higher duties of his position : whether to preside 
on the Bench at Quarter Sessions, or to take his share in the 
deliberations of Parliament and the cares and anxieties of a 
laborious public office. 

Mr. Holland was of a different type to either of those 
whom I have named. Quiet and gentle in manner, he was a 
martyr to ill health, and, during the time I knew him, was 
always more or less a sufferer from gout. But, under that quiet 
and somewhat reserved exterior, there was a great kindness of 
heart, an earnest desire to do good, a strong vein of humour, 
much self-reliance and perseverance. Whether as an experi- 
mental farmer, working on his strong clays with the steam- 
plough, in the early days of its development, or amongst his 
Shorthorns and Shropshire sheep, for which, at one time, he 
had a great and well-merited reputation, the quiet energy was 


302 


In Memoriam. 


always at work, seeking out what was best and most profitable 
for his much-loved pursuit. He was ever anxious to promote 
the social and moral welfare of his labourers, and he spared 
neither labour nor expense in providing them with comfortable 
homes, as the first foundation of their prosperity and well-being. 
In Parliament he was not one of the so-called “ farmers’ friends,” 
who are either leaders or followers of every cry that, from 
time to time, is raised ; but he had the courage to stand out 
boldly against what he thought were imaginary grievances, and, 
notably in the case of the Corn Laws, to hold very different 
opinions from those which were entertained by most agricul- 
turists of the day. When the repeal of those laws became 
inevitable, the proposition he made to his tenants was emi- 
nently characteristic of Mr. Holland as a landlord — it was, 
that their future rents should vary with the price of wheat : 
this was eagerly accepted by the tenants, and for two years 
had the effect of reducing the rents 20 per cent. ; but, under 
the same arrangement, the rents in 1853 increased 10 per cent., 
and then Mr. Holland volunteered to recur to the old fixed 
rents. Many more instances might be given of fthe liberal 
spirit which characterized all his dealings with his tenants ; 
but it was not for this alone that he was esteemed — it was the 
genial kindly spirit that actuated him in all his intercourse 
with them which made him so revered and loved ; and they 
all felt, and still feel, that the strongest tie between them and 
their landlord was that he was their sincere friend. 

The technical education of the farmer was with him a life- 
long cherished pursuit. The College at Cirencester owes to him 
an everlasting debt, and the good which it has done and is now 
doing is the result of his resolution and self-denial. He did not 
limit his ideas of the duties of the Royal Agricultural Society to 
its annual exhibition of stock and implements, but was anxious, 
by its means, to raise and improve the technical education of 
the English agriculturist ; and with a steady undeviating pur- 
pose he held on to this up to the last Council Meeting which 
lie attended. It was at this Meeting he announced' the first 
results of the scheme offering scholarships to boys at our public 
schools who should pass a satisfactory examination in elementary 
agricultural subjects, and to which he had alluded in his address 
to the boys of the Bedfordshire Middle-Class Public School last 
year. He then said, “ To study agriculture you must have 
practical work, and the difficulty is to get pupils to afford the 
time for practical education in agriculture. The only way in 
which this is to be met, and effectually met, is by our Society 
giving scholarships for the purpose of supporting, to a certain 
extent, those who are intended for an agricultural life hereafter, 


The late William Tori'. 


303 


and enabling them to attend some college, such as the Agricultural 
College at Cirencester. The arrangements are commenced, and 
I hope, if I have the opportunity of addressing you again, and 
of hearing of what has been done in Bedford at the Middle- 
Class School, I shall also have the pleasure and satisfaction of 
finding that agriculture has found its way into the teaching 
of this building, and that some scholar has distinguished him- 
self in the study of practical agriculture, and has gained one of 
the scholarships to which I have referred.” This desire was 
realized in the first year of the establishment of these scholar- 
ships, and it fell to Mr. Holland’s lot to announce the fact to 
the Council, and to express the hope that this connection 
between the Royal Agricultural Society and the public schools, 
so happily commenced, might widen and extend in each suc- 
cessive year. 

There were some who thought that his delicacy of health and 
his quiet reserved manner would have interfered with his 
efficiency in the Presidential Chair : but those w ho met him, 
either at the Council or in the General Meetings of Members, 
know how fairly and firmly he held the reins, how ready he was 
to listen to any well-founded suggestion ; and yet how he 
could check irrelevant or discursive talk by a few well-chosen 
words. It gave him very great pleasure to fill the office of 
President, and to a member of his own family he said “ it was 
the one honour in the world he had wished for.” His year of 
office had led him to think the Society had perhaps outgrown 
its Charter, and that some relaxations in this might increase the 
usefulness of the Society. Almost his last act in the Council 
was to take part in a movement in this direction, hoping thereby 
to extend, still farther, the usefulness of our action. 

Above all he was a thoroughly loveable man, and the gentle 
kindness and courteous manner of his intercourse with men has 
made those who worked with him in public, honour his ability 
and deeply venerate his memory. 

Bibston Hall , Jan. 2 6th, 1875. 


VIII. — The late William Torr : a Compilation from many 
Sources. 

The death of William Torr, at the age of sixty-six, has created a 
blank in the agricultural world that is not likely to be filled up 
in this generation. He was born at Riby, in North Lincolnshire, 
where his forefathers had resided for several generations ; he 
was educated in Yorkshire, but left school about the age of 


304 


The late William Torr. 


sixteen, owing to delicacy of health. Had he been able to con- 
tinue his studies, he would probably have taken up the law as 
the profession to which his inclination led him. On his health 
being restored, he made a series of annual travels, in company 
with his younger brother (at present M.P. for Liverpool), through 
England, Scotland, and Ireland ; Belgium, Holland, and other 
parts of the Continent. In all of these journeys he took a 
marked interest in the different systems of agriculture, and the 
various breeds of cattle and sheep ; and he no doubt then laid 
the foundation of that extensive and critical knowledge which 
through life he displayed in the different branches of stock- 
farming and general agriculture. He farmed over 2000 acres 
of good land, a large portion of which had been rented by his 
family for a century and a half ; he left a herd of 100 pure- 
bred Shorthorns, for half of which 10,000/. has been offered 
since his death ; and out of a flock of 1200 breeding-ewes, 500 
were pure Leicesters, direct descendants of Bakewell’s original 
stock. On his farms, in the arrangement of the buildings, as in 
the farm-roads, the gates, and the system of drainage, the origi- 
nality of the true English farmer’s mind was alike displayed.* 

Mr. Torr became a Member of the Royal Agricultural Society 
in 1839, the year after it was founded ; but for several years pre- 
viously his face and voice were well known at the Meetings of the 
Highland Society ; and he was an authority in his district, espe- 
cially on sheep and Shorthorns, ten years before he was elected 
on the Council of the Royal Agricultural Society, viz., at the 
Annual Meeting in May, 1857. 

His influence was soon felt at the Council Meetings of the 
Society, and in less than six months he succeeded in extending 
the time-honoured rule which prohibited the exhibition at the 
Society’s Meetings of bulls more than four years old. The 
result was to increase the maximum age to six years ; and it 
was not until ten years later that the restriction was abolished 
altogether. Space will not permit Mr. Torr’s career on the 
Council of the Society to be closely followed ; but it may be 
observed that his efforts were generally directed to the abolition 
of restrictive enactments. Thus, in 1861, on his motion, the 
Show-yard was first opened during the Judging of the Live 
Stock — gratuitously to the Members of the Society, and by 
payment of 11. to the public. This was his first successful en- 
deavour to promote one of his pet projects, which he termed 
“ open-judging.” In 1862 he attempted, though ineffectually, 
to dispense with the preliminary veterinary examination ol 


* Mr. Torr’s farms were described in vol. v. pp. 415-442, of the Second Series of 
this Journal. 


The late William Torr. 


305 


horses ; but five years later he was more successful, in con- 
junction with Mr. Milward. Recent discussions will give a 
more living interest to his last attempt bearing on these ques- 
tions. In March, 1870, he gave notice that he would move 
“that judges of live-stock be provided with catalogues, in the 
same manner as judges of implements now are;” but the op- 
position of a section of exhibitors induced him to modify his 
resolution so that the names of the exhibitors should be with- 
held, but that the pedigrees of the entries should be given. 
This compromise did not satisfy his opponents, while it alien- 
ated his supporters ; but the indirect result was the existing rule 
that each entry in the Shorthorn classes should be certified to 
have not less than four crosses of blood registered, or eligible 
to be registered, in the Herd-book. 

At the time he died, he was on most of the important Com- 
mittees, viz., Finance, House, Stock Prizes, Implement, Country 
Meeting, Showyard Contracts, and Selection. He was also a very 
active Member and Trustee of the Smithfield Club, and was well 
known as a Judge of Live-stock at the principal Agricultural 
Shows of the three kingdoms, and at those organised in Paris by 
the late Emperor of the French. 

The value which the Council of the Society attached to 
his opinion on practical matters was attested by his frequent 
appointment on the Committee of Inspection to visit the sites 
offered for the Annual Country Meetings, as well as by his 
selection as one of the Judges of Farms at the first competition 
carried out under the auspices of the Society, viz., in connection 
with the Oxford Meeting of 1870. As a large producer of beef 
and mutton, of original views and practice on the various 
systems of transport of live cattle and dead meat, he was called 
to give evidence before the select committees of the House of 
Commons on those subjects, which have been appointed since 
the outbreak of the cattle-plague in 1865. As a feeder, he 
attached little importance to foot-and-mouth disease ; but he 
was careful not to purchase animals at fairs and markets, except 
as a matter of necessity ; and he was especially severe in his 
estimate of the influence of small dealers in cattle, sheep, and 
pigs, in spreading contagious diseases of the animals of the 
farm throughout the country. He also attached considerable 
weight to the possibility of the importation of disease from 
foreign countries under the regulations that were in force in 
1871, and in July of that year he called the attention of the 
Council to the relaxation of the restrictions on the foreign cattle- 
trade, which had recently been made by the Privy Council, and to 
the injury which may have been thereby inflicted on English herds. 

It was his boast, not without reason, that everything on his 

VOL. XI. — S. S. X 


306 


The late William Torr. 


farm was thoroughbred, even game-fowl ; and his half-wild 
flying black ducks were carefully brought down to weigh no 
more than a teal, and pitilessly condemned if they showed a 
single white feather. 

A writer in the ‘Agricultural Gazette’* has well observed, “But 
the live-stock of the farm did not monopolize his active mind, for 
his leisure moments were frequently occupied in devising im- 
provements in farm-implements. Among other achievements in 
this direction, he invented one of the first convex mould-board 
ploughs, long celebrated as the W. T. plough ; a farm-gate which 
won the prize of the local committee at the Warwick Meeting of 
the Royal Agricultural Society in 1859 ; a pig-trough that was 
patented by Messrs. Crosskill, of Beverley ; and a spring waggon, 
an old specimen of which was the lightest in draught of those com- 
peting for the Royal Agricultural Society’s Prizes at Manchester 
in 1869. The original of this waggon gained the 20/. prize 
offered by the North Lincolnshire Agricultural Society at their 
Gainsborough Show in 1845.” He aimed at doing everything 
on his farms, from the form of a hedge to the fashion of a gate, 
in the best possible manner. 

But with this minute attention to details, as minute as .on a 
fancy or model farm, carried out with restless energy, he was as far 
as possible from a stay-at-home, ring-fence farmer. He probably 
travelled more and farther, on horseback, by sea, and by land, 
than any farmer of his generation. His extraordinary energv, 
his universal agricultural knowledge, the fluency and force of his 
tongue — whether in conversation, or in a set speech, or in debate 
— were, indeed, something truly astounding to a stranger. 

He was seen to most advantage at home ; as a host, he enter- 
tained continually from every part of the kingdom, and of the 
world ; and seemed never tired of feeding and lecturing, not only 
his friends, but his friends’ friends and most distant acquaint- 
ances, if only they loved agriculture and listened to his clever 
dissertations. He did not always please. He was too positive and 
too prejudiced to be popular ; but he impressed everyone with a 
sense of his ability, and conquered the prejudices of m'any when 
they shared his bountiful and old-fashioned hospitality. He never 
wrote anything ; for he entertained “ strong objections to every- 
thing in the shape of paper farming but he would have made 
a most popular Professor of Agriculture, had Oxford indulged in 
such a luxury ; and the shorthand writers have fortunately pre- 
served for our use his instructive practical lecture on “ Sheep 
versus Cattle,” from which the above quotation has been 
drawn, t 


* December 19th, 1874, p. 1G27. 

t ‘ Journ. Roy. Agric. Soc.,’ Second Series, vol. ii. p. 549. 


The late William Torr. 


307 


Great farmers are like great actors, they live only in the 
memory of their cotemporaries, unless like Bakewell, Colli 
Booth, Bates, and Jonas Webb, they stamp their names upon 
some tribe of live-stock. Thus it will doubtless be with William 
Torr, although his name has been before a constantly extending 
circle of agriculturists for nearly forty years ; for he went every- 
where, and wherever he went made himself heard and remem- 
bered by his ceaseless energy, his decided opinions, his caustic 
replies, his happy speeches, his perpetual flow of talk, rich in 
anecdote, and illustration of every agricultural question. 

“The first time I saw William Torr,” writes a Yorkshire 
implement-maker, “ was about forty years ago, at a dinner of 
the Highland Agricultural Society, at Berwick, where the Duke 
of Northumberland was in the chair ; he was sitting next to and 
carrying on an animated conversation with the Duke of Rox- 
burghe (Dukes were rarely seen at public gatherings in those 
days), and I never saw him look so well. He was a slim 
young man, with dark hair, a ruddy complexion, very well 
dressed, in a white waistcoat. His eyes sparkled with anima- 
tion, he so evidently enjoyed the pleasure of being able to teach 
a Duke something ; even then his voice w r as loud and con- 
fident, and he talked fluently and well. He came round the 
Showyard the next day, and looked at my stand of imple- 
ments, which had been so much appreciated that they had 
all been sold and paid for ; on hearing this he expressed much 
surprise, for, in the high tone that great farmers held at that 
time towards implement-makers, he found many faults w r ith 
everything. But that was his way ; to listen to him one would 
think that no implement-maker had ever produced anything 
he had not originally invented. I found afterwards that this 
depreciation did not prevent him from adopting the best imple- 
ments on his own farm when their utility was proved. At one 
time he had a great prejudice against iron ploughs, and professed 
to prefer those made under his own directions by the village 
blacksmith ; and he frequently declared before he adopted steam 
cultivation that it never could pay. 

“ In his own neighbourhood he was for more than thirty years a 
great authority on every farming and breeding question, and was 
treated with as much deference as if he had been a landed squire 
in some counties. He was too arbitrary and rough in his tongue 
to be popular with his equals and inferiors ; but no stranger ever 
visited him at home that did not go away delighted with his 
vigorous galloping tvay of showing his farm, and with his over- 
flowing hospitality.” 

An agricultural author writes : “ I made Mr. William Ton’s 
acquaintance about the year 1840, he was then in the prime of 

X 2 


308 


The late William Torr. 


life, living at Riby, exceedingly active, up early to ride out 
farming, sitting up later than suited me to talk over what we 
had seen, what he had done, and what he was going to do at 
Aylesby, to which he shortly afterwards removed. He had a 
famous lot of blood-ponies, and mounting me on one of the best, 
took me over the land at a hard gallop, often as straight as if we 
were riding to hcminds. As he rode he lectured ; one question 
was sufficient to bring out an essay. He was one of the best 
talkers I ever met in my wide travels. 

“ No one could have had a better guide to North Lincoln, a 
more eloquent lecturer, or a more genial host. His fixed idea was 
doing everything on his farm in the best manner. I afterwards 
visited him at Aylesby, where the house and farm-buildings 
were laid out from his own plans. They were full of ingenuity 
and thoughtful contrivances. His labourers’ cottages were very 
good. I remember that he was very severe on the cupboards 
and closets of Prince Albert’s model cottages. He had quite a 
mania for originality, and in 1854 could by no means reconcile 
himself to the important position the great implement-makers 
were taking up. 

“ He was very proud of his pure Leicesters, of which he had 
purchased in 1848 thirty ewes at the sale of Mr. Bakewell’s 
lineal representative. He was very strong on the importance of 
constitution, as well as of pure pedigree, in cattle and sheep.” 

His Lincolnshire friends, after the Gainsborough Show of the 
North Lincolnshire Agricultural Society, in 1864, subscribed 
and presented him with a testimonial, in the shape of a full- 
length portrait of himself, in recognition of his services to agri- 
culture. 

His picture was well drawn by ‘ The Druid,’ so late as 1870, 
in the following sentence * : — “ When behind ‘ the iron horse,’ or 
flying over the grass by the roadside on the ‘ woldsman’s pony,’ 
he makes very little account of time and space ; and what with 
home (to wit, calling his orders out of his bedroom-window at 
5 A.M.) and county and Royal Agricultural business, few men 
have thrown such an intense earnestness into life, or worked so 
hard for others. At home, if you see a distant and ever-moving 
figure in the park, and not unfrequently in shirt-sleeves for 
coolness, among the heifers or the ewes, there is no mistaking 
‘ Torr of Riby,’ although he is not exactly ‘ composed ’ after 
his presentation-portrait by Knight, R.A., a 340-guinea tribute 
from his friends. Inventing a prize gate, or sketching out a 
new set of farm-buildings, or planning a model-cottage, or 
giving evidence on cattle transit before the Privy Council, or 
making an after-dinner speech, or rising on a point of finance, 


* 1 Saddle and Sirloin.’— North, p. 474. 


Wool in Relation to Science with Practice. 


309 


or a change in the prize-sheet at the Smithfield Club and 
Hanover Square, come equally natural to one ‘ with the con- 
centrated energy of half-a-score of men.’ ” 

In a word it might be said of him — 

“ He was a man, take him for all in all, ' ‘ 

We shall not look upon his like again.” 


IX. — Wool in Relation to Science with Practice. By Earl 

Cathcart. 


Contexts. 


Introduction 309 

The Wool of the World .. .. 310 

American Opinion 310 

The First Imperial Census .. 311 

The Wool-Grower’s Aim and Ob- 
ject 312 

History of Wool and the Wool 

Trade 313 

The * Journal’ of the Society as 
it relates to the Subject .. 315 

Science of the Subject .. .. 316 

Definitions 317 


PACE 

Physical Geography 319 

Geology 319 

Meteorological Considerations .. 321 

Animal Physiology 322 

Chemistry 326 

The Yolk 327 

Mechanics 329 

Statistics 330 

The Flocks of the World .. 338 
Essentially practical, and prac- 
tically suggestive 340 


Introduction. — Breeding, feeding, and wool, are three words that 
sum the essentials of sheep-husbandry, which the foreigner tells us 
truly is the basis of our agricultural system. Sheep-husbandry — 
meat and ■wool — is, without doubt, more than ever characteristic 
of English farming — the largest return in the shortest time. 
But whilst their great importance is fully acknowledged, the 
design of this essay touches the two first of these essentials inci- 
dentally only to dwell chiefly on the quality of English wool, 
as affected by its farm preparation for market, and this in 
relation to Science with Practice. 

I would endeavour for the first time in history to bring the 
English wool-consumer and the English wool-grower into 
friendly relations, uniting them on the only sound basis of a 
mutual understanding of intercommunity of interests — promoted 
bv free association and co-operation. 

Mr. Stephens,* one of the most practical writers in the whole 
range of English agricultural literature, tells us — it would be 
well for wool-growers to receive lessons from wool-staplers : 
wool-growers at present grow their wool in ignorance of the 
requirements of the home manufacture, and consequently prices 
and interests are seriously affected. As the sequel will show, 
the truth and prescience of these words have been practi- 
cally laid to heart by our shrewd Colonial brethren, and by our 


* Author of the ‘ Book of the Farm.’ 


310 


Wool in Relation to Science with Practice. 


American cousins : on some parts of the Continent the know- 
ledge of wool is educationally treated as an important branch of 
science. Mr. Darwin tells us : — Lord Somerville, speaking of 
what breeders have done for sheep, says : — “ it would seem as 
if they had chalked out upon a wall a form perfect in itself, and 
had then given it existence.”* In Saxony the importance of the 
principle of selection in regard to Merinos is so fully recognised, 
that men follow it as a trade : the sheep are placed on a table 
and are studied, like a picture by a connoisseur ; this is done . 
three times, at intervals of months, and the sheep are each time 
marked and classed, so that the best may be selected for breeding. 
My object is thoroughly practical : I have lived, farmed, and 
observed for twenty-five years in a district in which the wool 
is famous ; t but I claim no authority of my own : it has 
been well said that “ the knowledge of smatterers is but mixed 
ignorance.” $ I do, however, claim that I have gathered and put 
together much important and authoritative information, and some 
other matter that is calculated to excite curiosity and to suggest 
inquiry. In the words of the Ettrick Shepherd— “ the subject 
has almost made a sheepfold of our understanding.” 

At the outset, I must ask the reader to bear in mind through- 
out this inquiry, that however much I may digress — and, 
amongst other things, I must make a flying visit to the flocks 
of the world, and especially to our most distant colonies — I shall 
always return to the main channel of my indicated course, which 
leads directly to the solution of two very practical questions : 
(1) Does the English farmer now prepare his wool for market to 
the best advantage ? (2) And if not, where practically shall we 
find the farmer’s shortcomings? 

The Wool of the World, as exhibited at Paris at 1867, and at 
\ ienna in 1873, I shall, to some extent, consider here as intro- 
ductory matter : I may have more to say when I come to 
treat the subject practically. At Paris, in 1867, the collection 
of wool from almost all parts of the world under one roof, 
rendered two facts very striking : the one, the absence of any 
adequate substitute for English deep-grown wools ; and the 
other, the slow rate of improvement in those wools of foreign 
growth, which are used in aid of the lower qualities of English 
combing-wool. 

American Opinion. — Our American cousin, to whom I have pre- 
viously referred, is keenly alive to the importance of “ fine wool 
husbandry,” although he is not yet awake to the advantages of free- 
trade : there have long been in the United States National and 
State Wool-Growers’ Associations : the Government Department 
of Agriculture consults these Associations, and I need scarcely 


* Darwin’s ‘ Origin of Species.’ t See p. 320. X Lord Chief Justice Coke. 


Wool in Relation to Science with Practice. 


311 


say that they do not fail to exercise the characteristic political 
virtue which is described in this phrase — “ admirably outspoken. ” 
It is said a uniform manner of preparing United States’ wools 
for the market is very desirable ; it would save trouble, and give 
character and stability to the business.* 

The Americans say, further, considering the importance of 
the combing-wool manufacture to England, it is surprising 
how little attention is given by agriculturists to the qualities 
or quantities of the wool produced. The American farmer is 
plainly told that it is not only interesting, but it pays him to 
know and understand the requirements of the wool manufacture. 
In the United States home-wool is the foundation of the home- 
wool manufacture, which clamours for more ! There at least 
it is understood and proclaimed, that mutual interest cordially 
unites the wool-manufacturer and the wool-grower. 

The Austrian official reports of the Vienna Exhibition of 
1873 remind us that England is the first manufacturing State of 
Europe ; and her manufactures of woollen goods are so important, 
that the mighty Island Empire is at the apex of this industry 
also. The wool growth of Europe is now superseded by the 
abundance of Australia, the Cape, and La Plata. A character- 
istic of wool is its transportability ; on an average, its price is 
twenty or twenty-five times as high as that of corn, hence trans- 
oceanic competition is easy, and the wool trade is an essential 
part of the commerce of the world. | It is calculated that England 
now* annually consumes more than one fleece for every inhabitant : 
the consumption of wool is steadily increasing, and already 
quantities of so-called artificial wool are brought into use ; clean 
fleeces being required to work up this unstable shoddy. 

The general consumption of wool in England is said to be 
44 lbs. per head of the population — some 3 lbs. per head in 
Germany. In Europe', there is no country but Russia which is 
capable of greatly developing in respect to quality and quantity 
the production of wool : London is the central market for the 
wool trade : auctions are held where buyers congregate from all 
parts of the world. England being the largest consumer of 
wool, the fluctuations of the European wool trade have from 
olden times depended on those of the English market. 

“ The commercial movement of the wool trade in the leading 
states of Europe and the United States of North America for the 
year 1870, is exhibited in the following Table (p. 312). 

“ As to the consumption of the most important European 
States, England, engaged in progressive development, and 


* Department of Agriculture, United States of America. ‘ Monthly Deports.’ 
Washington, 1873. 

t Professor Carl Eichter. ‘ Vienna Deports,’ 1873. Part I., p. 795. 


312 


Wool in Relation to Science with Practice. 


France stand at the head of the wool manufacture. In the 
year 1870-71, England manufactured 330,000,000, and France 
300,000,000 pounds of wool of all descriptions.” * 



Imports. 

Exports. 


lbs. 

lbs. 

England 

238,820,892 

94,911,916 

France 

167,422,200 

25,711,412 

Belgium 

147,092,128 

66,543,920 

Germany 

90,000,000 

25,000,000 

Austria 

21,680,900 

16,392,700 

Netherlands 

16,991,972 

13,906,260 

Russia 

2,648,700 

28,558,577 

North America 

62,202,714 

12,067,689 


One other important lesson English farmers may learn from 
the Vienna Exhibition of 1873 : leaving out of present con- 
sideration the very suggestive terms “ Lincoln Zackels,” “ South- 
down Silesians,” and “ German Soutlidowns,” we are taught that 
in Germany, as in England, the tendency towards breeding for 
weight is very evident : trans-oceanic competition in wool- 
growing causes German sheep more and more to be bred for 
their meat — wool and meat. 

Let me here exhort the English farmer and ram-breeder to lift 
up his heart to profit by the lesson he is for the first time taught 
by an Imperial census, that he is a unit in an empire that 
numbers 235 millions of British subjects, scattered over 8 millions 
of square miles, distributed upon every considerable portion of 
the face of this’ earth ; and therefore it is profitable, before 
averting our theoretical glance from the wool of the world, to 
study the universal trade requirements, which should be the wool- 
grower's aim and object. 

We are told by authority :f — 

“There is every probability that the worsted manufacture will long be 
able to afford remunerating prices for any quantity of good, serviceable 
combing-wool which the world may be capable of producing. 

“ It is desired to call the attention of all flock-masters to the fact that wool, 
to be fit for combing purposes, and to obtain the higher prices \Miich such 
wool commands, must possess qualities which, in most instances, can be 
imparted to it. 

“It may be useful to draw attention to a few general observations on the 
qualities of the staple, which all owners of sheep ought to aim at, so far as 
the nature of climate, soil, and other circumstances may permit. 

“ The wool most in request, and always fetching the highest price, has a 
staple from four to ten inches long, according to its fineness ; it ought to be, 
as far as possible, uniform in quality throughout its whole length; bright 


* Census of England and Wales, 1871. ‘ General Report,’ vol. iv., p. vii. Tko 

vastest census that has ever been taken in one empire. 

f ‘Circular Address and Reports’ (for all parts of the world). Bradford 
Chamber of Commerce. 18G9. 


Wool in Relation to Science icith Practice. 


313 


and lustrous * in appearance, or soft and kind to the touch ; of good spinning 
qualities, and free from burrs or other vegetable fibre. 

“ "Where possible, the breed of sheep should be improved by the introduction 
j of carefully-selected English rams. 

“ It is most desirable to obtain the whole natural length of the staple by 
Only d'pping the lambs or sheep once during the season’s growth. 

“ When the sheep cannot be pastured all the year round upon succulent 
grasses, a constant supply of artificial food will prevent the staple becoming 

tender. 

“ The two last-mentioned points are of the greatest importance ; for insuffi- 
cient food during one season, and frequent clipping, more than anything else , 
deteriorate the quality and depreciate the value of otherwise good and useful 

wool. 

“ The sheep should be well washed before they arc clipped, and the fleece 
properly docked or cleaned. 

“It is also desirable that a proper classification of wool should be made in 
{lacking, and that the packing itself be thoroughly trustworthy and honest.” 

Agriculturally, the history of Wool and the Wool-trade, for 
centuries the principal craft of Great Britain, is particularly in- 
teresting and instructive ; and it is essential to a right and com- 
prehensive understanding of an important branch of the subject 
now under consideration. Aided by geographical position, and 
favoured with mineral and vegetable wealth, the energetic spirit 
of the mixed British race triumphed over the ruinous restraints 
of so-called statesmanship and every conceivable legislative 
blunder. Until the fourteenth century England exported wool 
and imported woollens. Then the Flemish manufacture attained 
its zenith ; glutted with wealth, these prosperous people became 
discontented ; and industrial insubordination and endless revolts 
drove the life-blood of trade, sensitive capital, away from their 
doors, established our staple manufacture, and placed in the 
English House of Lords its typical woolsack. The paths of 
peace are essential alike to commerce, to manufacture, and to 
agriculture. Twice over, in the history of the English wool 
trade, religious bigotry and the Inquisition drove the best and 
most skilful craftsmen of the Continent to share our insular 
freedom : bigotry tore up by the roots the tree of industry, 
because it liked not the vigour of the most promising shoots. 
Here we have a fine example of the certain action of freedom 
in producing beneficial co-operation. Checked during our own 
revolutionary times, the wool trade steadily increased during the 
whole of the eighteenth century, and culminated when steam and 
machinery were introduced and all restrictions removed. Cotton- 
spinning, whilst it reduced the woollen manufacture to the second 
rank in our textile industries, nevertheless gave fresh impetus 
to the woollen-trade ; so true it is that the creation of any one 


* Lustre is not colour ; it is intrinsic silvery brightness, not lost in manufacture. 
Between good and bad wool in this respect there is as much difference as between 
a polished silver plate and a wooden trencher. — Mr. Turner. See note, page 34U. 


314 Wool in Relation to Science with Practice. 

exceeding industrial momentum is certain to excite on endless 
parallel and converging lines an unexpected and often mar- 
vellously rapid progress. 

The four great landmarks in the history of English wool and 
woollens are then unmistakably these : — the Flemish emigration 
in the time of Edward III. ; the Continental endeavours to 
stamp out the Reformation ; the panic caused in France by the 
revocation of the Edict of Nantes (1685), which Edict tolerated 
Protestants, its revocation drove into this country the most skilful 
spinners and dyers of silk, linen, and wool ; and lastly, the in- 
troduction and multiplication of steam-power and machinery. 

I now proceed to map in practically a few more suggestive 
historical details. Spanish wool was introduced into Flanders to 
replace the English wool consumed at home : in 1521-49 home 
wool was in such demand that complaints arose that the country 
was being depopulated to make sheep-walks : some eighty years 
afterwards Spanish wool was in demand all over Europe — the 
wool of the now famous Merino. The Reformation increased the 
manufacturing classes, and the English trade attained the highest 
pitch of prosperity. The Act 8 Elizabeth, c. 6, shows the ex- 
treme jealousy of the English wool-producer ; the export of sheep 
was strictly forbidden : later, an Act of 1616, prohibiting the 
export of “ white cloth ” — undyed cloth — drove the English 
sheep-farmer from the fleece to the carcass, and gave a new 
impulse to sheep-farming — high feeding, more flesh, more wool — 
but this at the expense of the fineness and softness of the staple. 

In 1672 (12 Charles II. c. 32), exportation of wool was made 
felony. Meanwhile Spanish wool was brought to great perfection 
— a truly “golden fleece” — and was introduced into England. 
In 1665 our export trade was only nominal; many of our best 
hands emigrated : the Plague and the Great Fire made matters 
worse : the law meddled and coddled : and in every direction it 
bound the masters, it tied the hands, it hindered the looms, it 
stinted the raw material, interfered with the clipping, regulated 
the packing, and afterwards it dictated the fabrics into which 
alone the raw material might be woven : and lastly, i>n 1679, the 
law, as a climax of absurdity, insisted upon burying manufacturer 
and craftsman, as well as everybody else, in shrouds of sheep’s 
wool. There was a mania for monopoly. So late as 1792 the 
statute-book contained no less than 311 laws relating to wool and 
woollens. In 1680 the Dutch were ransacking the world for 
raw material. The Revolution of 1688 gradually restored pros- 
perity to the English wool trade: the Manchester Act, 1736 
(9 Geo. II. c. 4), annulled an Act passed 15 years before against 
cotton as opposed to wool, and thus by an Act passed in favour ol 
freedom for cotton, an impetus was actually given to the woollen 
trade. In 1802 the multiplication of machinery caused industrial 


Wool in Relation to Science with Practice. 


315 


iots : four years afterwards a Committee of the House of Com- 
mons reported in favour of the free use of machinery. YY ar in 
Spain caused the Spanish wool-clip to decline; but hy this time 
die famous Merino had found his way over Europe, and, further, 
he had reached our most distant colonies, there wonderfully to 
increase and prosper. The history of the more recent importation 
of wool into this country is simply this : the German supplanted 
the Spanish, and then both gave way to our Colonial imports, 
which in 1825 were admitted duty free.* * It was said, years ago, 
with truth and prescience, “ that with labour on the sheep, and 
more care and labour in cleansing the wool, Colonial wools might 
successfully rival those of Saxony and Spain.”! 

The right knowledge of anything in great measure depends 
upon the knowledge of its history, and the more Ave study the 
history of this subject the more Ave are taught that avooI and the wool 
trade Avas the foundation of our English commercial prosperity. 

The 1 Journal' of the Society as it relates to our Subject . — 
I noAV should, before going farther, run through the 36 Aolumes 
of the ‘ Journal of the Royal Agricultural Society,’ to pick up 
such manna as may sene to feed out my present object : there 
are here and there spasmodic indications of a desire to consult 
the wool-stapler and the wool-trade, but no sustained effort. In the 
6th volume Professor Wilson gives us a paper “ On Sheep and on 
YY ool, its Character and Y alue : ” he deals more with details than 
with principles ; and, second-hand, the Professor works up informa- 
tion originally obtained for Board of Trade purposes. Mr. Smith, 
in the 8th A'olume, tells us to assist Nature by fitting the sheep 
to the soil, situation, and climate. Mr. Rowlandson (a t o1. x.) 
Avrites well “ On the Breeds of Sheep best adapted to Different 
Localities : ” but the good seed of conception is here rather 
sown on the’ stony ground of too limited execution. He men- 
tions the “ smearing,” Avhich Stephens calls a “ filthy practice.” 
The result of every inquiry undertaken by Mr. Lawes Ave recewe 
Avith gratitude and respect ; but his “ Sheep-feeding Experiments” 
(vol. xii. pp. 13 and 16) are more directed to meat than to avooI : 
he tells us, however, that in several lots where respective rates 
of increase of meat were nearly equal, there was great individual 
irregularity in regard to the groAvth and the weight of wool. 
The first A olume of the new series contains a scientific paper, 
by Professor Simonds, “ On Animal Parasites,” interesting here 
because of the drawing of an Australian sheep-dip on a grand 


* By Mr. Huskisson, after a severe struggle. Colonial wool free — in 1844 all 
wool free. In 1828 it was conclusively shown that freedom was beneficial to the 
Homo wool-grower, because it stimulated trade and manufacture. 

t See further on this subject, Bisehoff, on ‘Wool, Woollens, and Sheep,’ 
London, 1842; ‘Wool and Woollens,’ Samuel Brothers, London, 1859; and 

* Europe during the Middle Ages,’ Hallam. 


316 


Wool in Relation to Science toith Practice. 


scale, suggestive as to the mechanical details in manoeuvring 
large flocks, of pens, runs, and the use of decoy sheep (vol. iiq. 
That genial man, that admirable husbandman, my late friend Mr. 
Torr, gives his experiences in a lecture on “ Sheep versus Cattle : ” 
1 shall have to refer to his influential opinions hereafter. I 
cannot now resist quoting two characteristic observations — “ Dif- 
ferent breeds of sheep have different tribes, which even the breeder 

cannot distinguish It is my sacred resolve to keep the 

Aylesby flock pure, as it has been for something like 80 years.” 
Mr. Dixon (vol. iv.), an admirably readable writer, sketchesthe 
•“ Rise and Progress of the ‘ Rent-paying ’ Leicesters.” We have a 
portrait of our “ shepherd king,” Bakewell, and the famous maxim, 
“ strong loin, strong constitution.” There is also much about Sun- 
day and Holme Pierrepont : it is very interesting and suggestive 
to trace the spread of the Leicesters. Passing over Mr. Tanner's 
interesting paper, “ Climate and Sheep ” (vol. v.), to notice it else- 
where — I find in the same volume, in the “ Farm Reports,” that 
Mr. Torr sent rams to England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, France, 
Australia, California, Jamaica, and St. Helena. Professor Wright- 
son’s Vienna paper, in the 10th volume, is noteworthy : but for 
a fitting conclusion to this reference to the ‘ Journal,’ I return 
■to Mr. Dixon, and his pleasant quotation of a Cumberland 
Dalesman’s toast — which I heartily honour — “ Pack sheets and 
ready money ! ” 

The Science of the Subject must new command our best atten- 
tion. What is science ? It is generality as opposed to mere par- 
ticulars, system as opposed to random, verification as opposed to 
looseness of assumption. Would that some world-famed Somer- 
ville might arise to write from an agricultural point of view ‘ A 
Connection of the Physical Sciences ! ’ * Certain it is that agricul- 
ture bears a close relation to more branches of science than am 
other art. The branches should perhaps be treated as Professoi 
Ansted has treated in this ‘Journal’ (vol. ii. N. S.) “ Raintal 
and Geology.” We observe that this year the Highland Society 
of Scotland has made an advance in this direction ; it offers ; 
premium, according to merit, for the “Best Text-bdok on Agri 
culture as a branch of Physical Science, including the applicatioi 
of Botany, Geology, Chemistry, and Animal Physiology.” J 
general characteristic of our day is the determined searching afte 
principles : the spirit of investigation stalks throughout the land 
knocking loudly but impartially at the doors of the Hall and th< 
Farm, and of the Parsonage and the Cottage. This extract fron 
Mr. Leach’s 1871 ‘Report on Wool and Woollens,’ | is practi 

* Chemistry — or whatever magnetism may bo — now aids and simp]. fit 
mechanism in a manner that is startling. In delicate processes, cranks, lever 
hooks, wheels, &c., are supplanted by the simple attraction of magnetism. 

f Official Reports, London International Exhibition, 1871. 




Wool in Relation to Science with Practice. 317 

allv suggestive : — “ There should be no vain boasting that a 
lonopoly has been preserved in the heavier class of woollen 
uods. Time is fleeting, and changes are rapid in these ad- 
anced days ; and before competition waxes keen in these 
tational productions, it is wise to endeavour to estimate the 
osses we do suffer, and have suffered, from interlopers in other 
nstances, and to ascertain their causes, in order to apply the 
emedy, and arrest the injury we run the risk of sustaining. 
Vnd what is the remedy ? In one word, ‘ Education /’ — education 
n natural and physical science .” 

By Chance, the Divinity of the ignorant, we are still too much 
nfluenced ; by English farmers generally principles are not 
mderstood — their value is not appreciated : — “ The agricultural 
mprovement in Germany is due to the same cause that during 
i century past has been raising Prussia from a comparatively 
nsignificant position to the first rank among the Powers of 
Europe, to wit, science and system. It is a spirit of careful 
economy, coupled with an understanding of the w hys and where- 
fores of things. In agriculture it has manifested itself in the 
general diffusion of scientific knowledge among farmers, in the 
establishment of agricultural schools and experimental stations, 
where science and practical experience are so combined as to 
make them of the highest service to the community.” * 

Definitions. — Agriculture, an ancient, and until recently a 
Rule-of-Thumb Art, suffers from extreme looseness of definition : 
definition is the technical statement and explanation of the 
meaning of words. Every district has its own terms ; and un- 
fortunately writers on agriculture too often tender the first wordy 
small coin that comes to hand, never thinking whether or not it 
will pass elsewhere : we can only touch the fringe of this subject 
here ; but it is to be hoped that something may be done, and that 
all writers will remember that agriculturally there is no reason why 
a literary coinage should not be put into circulation which would 
be gladly accepted by all the farmers of the English-speaking race. 

This extract from the 1871 Report is suggestive : — “ Unfor- 
tunately, the number of the denominations of the lengths of yarn, 
or the lengths of the skeins adopted in the different woollen 
districts, are as many as weeks in a year. To reduce these 
measurements into Yorkshire skeins per ‘whartern’ would be 
as ‘ Greek 5 to the West of England or Scotch foreman. This 
want of a common standard definition produces many hindrances 
to the general trade, and offers a fit subject for the consideration 
of our intelligent Chambers of Commerce.” 

Premising that staple means any one lock of wool that natu- 


* 1 Applied Science in Farming.’ Professor Abwater, U.S.A. 


318 


Wool in Relation to Science ivith Practice. 


rally sheds itself from the rest, we beg the reader clearlv to 
understand that which is well explained in the 1871 Report: — 

“ The woollen and worsted trades are very dissimilar, the manufacture differs 
in almost every process. 

“ The work-people engaged in each require a separate experience altogether, 
whilst the machinery employed is as opposite in principle as woollen machinery 
is to that of cotton or silk. 

“ As a rule the ‘ woollen manufacturer ’ — and especially the maker of 
‘broadcloths’ or felted goods — uses a fine-haired, short-stapled woo!, and 
endeavours to produce from it a yam, in which the fibres are transversely dis- 
posed to the axis, or length of the thread. The points or ends thus projecting 
from the exterior or circumference must he as numerous as possible. The 
limit of the quantity of fibres in a given length of thread desired is determined 
only by the tensile strength necessary for weaving and holding the fabric 
together, and imparting to the same the required firmness. This feature in 
‘woollen’ yarn is termed ‘pile,’ and subserves two purposes. The first, that 
the felting process may knit together, or interlock this multiplicity of fibres 
into a compact mass of matted fabric ; and the second, that from this same 
felted substance additional points may he subsequently raised to the surface in 
the finishing process, so that it resemble as much as possible a fine short fur. 

“ The worsted spinner’s aim, on the contrary, is to elongate or stretch the 
fibres, and lay them parallel to each other, and thus produce a yarn which 
shall he even and strong, and yet he composed of few hairs or filaments. 

“ The character of worsted goods is estimated not only by the peculiar 
staple, or the properties which the various growths of wool or hair possess, but 
also by the fineness or length to which yarn can be spun, and the corresponding 
increased number of picks or shoots which may form a square inch of the 
fabric. In worsted stuffs the number of the warp and weft threads per square 
inch may be counted by the aid of the usual magnifying eye-glass. In felted 
dressed woollens, such as broadcloths, this is not possible, inasmuch as the 
threads are hidden from view r by the felting process before referred to.” 

With regard to wool-stapling terms, I am favoured by the 
W ool Supply Committee of the Bradford Chamber of Commerce 
with information and observations as to the terms there under- 
stood by the wool-sorter, by whose trained eyes, delicately expert 
and nimble fingers, the w ool of the various fleeces is selected and 
sorted. 

On a Southdown fleece the sorts, in order of transverse division, 
would be called Breech, next Super, then Prime, and the rest 
Diamond.* * 

Taking a Leicester fleece, as an average of English wool, it 
would be sorted, and in Bradford named in order thus : 

Breech, or 24’s. 

Brown, or 30’s. 

Neat, or 36’s. — About the centre transverse division. 

Blue, or 40’s. — Transverse division, together with ridge of neck. 

Fine, or 44’s. — Part of neck and all on the shoulders. 


* “ It is now a fact generally admitted that English long wool has recently mucl 
deteriorated in the quality of its fibre ; so that whereas ten to fifteen years age 
a yarn might be spun to 52’s, the same is now, with rare exceptions, possible 
without an admixture of a certain proportion of colonial or other finer wool.”— 
1871 Report. 


Wool in Relation to Science with Practice. 


319 


A hank* of worsted yarn is 560 yards in length. A pound of 
Breech wool will spin 24 hanks. A pound of Brown will spin 
30 hanks ; hence the names 24’s, 30’s, &c. 

It must be observed, however, that the wool-sorting divisions 
in question vary according to the breed of sheep and the con- 
ditions of their keep, &c. On this point it should be observed 
that great attention on the part of the farmer should be paid to 
the keeping of their breeds of sheep pure and select, as by wide 
crossing even of good breeds, or crossing of a good breed with 
an inferior, a much larger proportion of the less valuable sorts of 
wool is produced. 

In addition to the sorts hereinbefore described, which are all 
long-wool sorts, there is, fringelike around the edge of the fleece 
and especially at the centre of the sides, a short kind of wool or 
skirt, which is called “ Shorts,” or clothing wool. 

Physical Geography. — The sheep is vitally influenced by all 
the movements which are constantly going on upon the surface 
of this earth — climate, waters over and under the earth, elevations, 
winds, rain, clouds, and the geographical distribution of animals 
and plants, — that is to say by physical geography. How much of 
philosophy there is in the common phrase, “ the lie of the land ” ! 
temperature, rainfall, herbage, all, more or less, regulated by alti- 
tude ; exposure and nature of soil as indicated by inclination and 
prevailing kind or by the absence of trees. To do justice to these 
subjects one should indeed be a philosophic Darwin and many 
other scientific gentlemen “ rolled into one ” ! If, practically, the 
flockmaster does not consider physical geography, the sheep un- 
mistakably tells him “ I will not thrive.” The starting-point, the 
essential question, then, is the perfection of the sheep in relation to 
the physical influences ; the adaptability of the sheep to the land, 
of the kind to the run. The range of sheep-walk all over the face 
of the earth is practically unlimited, boundless. Mr. R. Smith 
in this ‘Journal’ (vol. viii.) tells us to assist Nature by fitting the 
sheep to the soil, situation, and climate : he tells us that a flock 
impartially divided and kept for twelve months on different soils, 
when put together again were found — excepting only the family 
head — to have lost almost all resemblance. I have before me 
Mr. William Brown’s thought-engendering ‘ Map of the British 
Isles, showing the existing distribution of prevailing kinds of 
Sheep : ’ f there is no reason why a sheep and wool map of the 
world should not be constructed on the same instructive principle. 

Geology. — The relations of the geological formations to the 

* Mr. Turner (see page 346, note) says, a pound of wool off the shoulder of a 
good sheep will make five miles more yarn than a pound off the breech of the same 

animal. 

t ‘British Sheep Farming:' William Brown. Edinburgh: Adam and 
Charles Black. 1870. 


320 


Wool in Relation to Science with Practice. 


nature of the water-supply of districts and countries, as we shall 
see, raise important economic questions involving the expen- 
diture of thousands and thousands of pounds. Wool-brokers’ 
reports constantly refer to droughty seasons abroad, and conse- 
quent large mortality amongst lambs. An Australian corre- 
spondent says : “ I have seen a wash-pool that cost 10/. turn out 
wool cleaner and softer than another pool in another district that 
cost 5000/. : in the one case a clean country, and plenty of water, 
pure and soft ; in the other, clouds of dust and rivers of hard 
water.” I am indebted to Mr. Fairley, the obliging and able 
Consulting Chemist of the Yorkshire Agricultural Society, for 
the following generally suggestive note : — 

“ The softer the water, or the smaller the quantities of lime and magnesian 
salts, or other hardening materials, the better the water is for the process of 
wool-washing. Such waters come from strata consisting of the older rocks, 
which contain their bases in the form of silicates, little acted on or dissolved 
by water. 

“ In England and the Lowlands of Scotland we find, as a general rale, that 
the strata lie in the order of their age, beginning with the west coast, where 
we find the older rocks, and that the later rocks crop up in succession of age 
as we proceed towards the east. Most of our large rivers and tributaries, with 
the exception of the Severn, flow eastwards, and we find the upper waters 
comparatively soft and pure, and hence more suitable for the purpose of wool- 
washing. 

“ The Severn, in its upper course, also flows eastward, and there its water is 
pure and soft, while, as its course curves first to the south and then to the 
south-west, it drains a country containing later strata — such as ... . rocks 
readily acted on by water. 

“In the Highlands of Scotland we have the older primitive rocks, gneiss, 
granite, &c., all consisting of insoluble silicates. Hence we have there pure, 
soft waters often as low as two degrees of hardness. We have similar waters 
in many parts of Wales, where Bala Lake and the upper waters of the Severn 
and Wye are also of a very low degree of hardness. 

“ The upper -waters of the rivers of Yorkshire, which rise to the south of the 
limestone-district, arc, though not so soft as the waters previously mentioned, 
still much more so than waters in other districts.” 

Within my own experience there is the fact that the Ripon and 
Thirsk district has the reputation, especially amongst foreigners, 
of producing from the same sheep wool of more than average 
quality ; and it has been stated that when for the purposes of 
sale wool was sent in from just without this district, the fraud 
was immediately detected. The subtle causes of this supposed 
local superiority would well repay patient investigation.* The 

* A practical neighbour, Mr. Frank Barroby, of Dishforth, near Thirsk, writes to 
me as follows : — “ I may mention tiiat I showed my wool in a class of nearly twenty 
exhibitors, at the Royal Agricultural Show at Leicester, the headquarters of the 
pure-bred Leicester, and had the first prize awarded to my wool. As to the 
superior quality of the Ripon district wool, I have heard the wool-dealers assign 
two reasons, each of which is very probable. One is that the snb-strata of red 
sandstone and freestone which underlie the greater part of this district act as a 
natural drainage, and the soil on these formations is invariably of a sound, and, in 
moat cases, a good-bodied kind. The ether reason assigned is, that the climate 


Wool in Relation to Science with Practice. 


321 


late Mr. Torr,* * whose opinion in many respects I regard as a 
student reverences the teaching of a consummate master, tells us 
this : — “ On my own farm I can grow better wool on some por- 
tions than on others : in South Lincolnshire, about Spilsby, 
wool grows in an extraordinary manner : north of Fife, and 
south of the English Channel, the quality of the wool falls off ; 
it then becomes hair or moss. The valuable fine lustre wool is 
pretty nearly confined to a few degrees of latitude ; so that space 
being limited, there is little or no danger of wool ever glutting 
the market — fine lustre wool will ever bear a great value.” 

Valuable discoveries are made by attention to simple facts. 
The geological formation has a close relation to the nature of 
the soil, and the nature of the soil materially affects the quality 
of the wool grown upon it. Bakewellf classes wool-soils thus : 
Clay the best ; next, sand ; and then lime, or of that nature : 
the fellmonger knows well the effect of lime-water on skin-wool ; 
it acts unfavourably on the fibre and gives it hardness : chalky 
soils make wool rough : the lime is said to act on the yolk, 
forming an imperfect soap, readily washed away : sand does 
not so combine. The particles of the soil, besides, have a chemi- 
cal and mechanical action on the fleece ; the wool becomes 
coloured : the colour is often indelibly fixed in the wool, a 
tint which remains after scouring. Also the nature of the soil 
is said to have an effect on the felting quality of the wool : we 
are told that Southdown wool grown on limestone does not felt 
well, but improves when the sheep is removed from that forma- 
tion ; but, at the same time, it is known that on the same 
soil different breeds vary in regard to the felting quality. I 
have much to ask the Professor of Applied Geology : to me the 
Ordnance and the Geological Surveys should be especially in- 
teresting : meanwhile I can only stay here to commend to the 
Professor the following illustration : — In the northern parts of 
Derbyshire, where the strata are abruptly broken, the difference 
of wool from the same kind of sheep was so marked and well 
known, that both by buyer and seller this language was quite 
understood — “ My wool is grit, Sir ; and I expect a better price 
than my neighbour’s, which is limestone.” 

Meteorological Considerations. — In regard to “ tempering the 
wind to the shorn lamb,” the meteorological considerations affect- 
ing my subject are very important. The evidence before me tends 


is specially adapted to the growth of wool. I know that lambs, bought in the 
North and brought into the liipon district, always produce wool much superior to 
that produced by the same class when grazed in their native climate.” See p. 343. 

* ‘Journal,’ New Series, vol. ii. p. 549. 

t ‘ Observations on the Influence of Soil and Climate upon Wool.’ — By Robert 
Bake well. London, 1808. 

VOL. XI. — S. S. 


Y 


322 


Wool in Relation to Science with Practice. 


to show that amongst the ablest agricultural minds there is a grow- 
ing tendency towards shelter for the sheep, with a view to rendering 
climates more uniform : unsheltered fleeces are not so valuable 
as those better cared for : yolk may he washed away faster than 
it can be reproduced, as if shorn wool were exposed for a long 
time to the action of rain. Professor Wrightson’s Vienna Reports 
in this ‘Journal,’ give us some idea of the Continental system, 
“ Dry food and nightly shelter.” Mr. Brown goes so far as to 
tell us that at home the day is coming when in winter low- 
land and upland sheep will be housed animals. In raising 
wool and mutton — and with the farmer of the United Kingdom 
proper these two considerations can never be dissociated — regard 
should be had not only to the rainfall generally, but to the mean 
local and monthly tables : in any country herbage and the well- 
doing of the flock does not depend on the annual rainfall, but on 
the even distribution of moisture, weekly and bi-weekly.* Mr. 
Torr has much to tell us on the subject of shelter, and he 
quotes his friend, Mr. Randell’s, well-known experience and 
practice on clay-land, cheap thatched sheds on posts, filled in 
between with hurdles and straw, the sheep standing on burnt 
clay. Mr. Brereton uses sea-sand for this bedding purpose. In 
the 5th volume of the new series of the ‘ J ournal ’ there is a 
valuable paper “ On the Influence of Climate on Sheep,” by Mr. 
Tanner. He tells us wool is materially influenced by climate 
and soil. Kempy j" fleeces are in proportion to the rain and 
severity of the climate, and the poverty of soil ; this injury may 
be checked by management ; wool is better on some farms than 
on others more favourably situated. There are curious variations 
from wool to hair : independently of circumstances, there is 
nothing in the structure of a sheep to render it necessarily a wool- 
bearing animal : hair and wool are both produced from vascular 
bulbs beneath the skin : there is no essential difference whether 
wool or hair be produced. 

Animal Physiology . — This introduces us to the Animal Physio- 
logist, who can tell us something, but I think should tell us a 
vast deal more. To old Mr. Youatt we are greatly ihdebted for 
really good work ; but in my present direction little has been 
done since his day. Especially as regards wool there is a void 
in agricultural literature which should be closed by some com- 
prehensive paper “ On the Animal Physiology of the Sheep,” 
indicative of all authorities on the subjects quoted. In the 
Austro-Hungarian Agricultural Colleges wool, as has been 


* See further on this subject a good paper in the fourth volume of-the new 
series of the ‘Journal,’ by Mr. Whitley, “Tho Climate of the British Isles. ’ 
f By Kempy wool is meant the presence of short white hairs at the roots of 
tho staple, which never take the dye, and disfigure all goods into which they arc 
introduced. 


Wool in Relation to Science with Practice. 


323 


stated, is made a special branch of study : the nature and habits 
of the sheep require more study : little or no attention is 
given to the action of external causes on the unshorn fleece. 

It has been said that the fineness of the pile of wool is pro- 
portioned to the fineness of the skin-pores. Fleischmann states, 
in reference to the persistent endurance of a single cross, that 
the original coarse German sheep have 5500 fibres on a single 
inch ; grades of the third or fourth merino cross produced about 
8000 ; the twentieth cross 25,000 ; whilst the pure merino 
had 40,000 to 48,000 ; so that twenty crosses were not sufficient 
to make the race pure merinoes.* Wool is finer at the bottom 
of a full-grown staple than at the top : in short, there are any 
number of interesting lines of scientific inquiry. Hairy African 
sheep, with yolk all baked out, might improve by removal to more 
favourable influences. Here is a statement constantly cited, which 
cannot be explained physiologically, and from a scientific point 
of view it is scarcely creditable that the thing is not finally 
settled : If a lamb is suckled by a goat, the wool becomes hairy ; 
a kid suckled by a ewe, the hair becomes woolly ? 

I beg the reader to give his best attention to the following 
description, with diagram, by Professor Archer, explaining the 
essential character of wool. For this I am specially indebted 
to Her Majesty’s Commissioners for the London International 
Exhibition of 1871 : — 

“ The essential characters of wool can only he learned by a very careful, 
and even a microscopic examination of the material. Most of the terrestrial 
mammals with hairy coats produce two kinds of hair. The first and most 
apparent is that which is usually called hair, the other which is generally 
shorter, and underlies the former, is called either wool or fur. Hair is almost 
' invariably cylindrical, with a smooth surface, whereas wool and fur are 
covered with scales, and some kinds have a waved or otherwise varied outline. 
The scales are of the utmost importance, and upon their number in a given 
space depends, in a great measure, the quality of the material. But besides 
being scaly, as shown in Fig. 4, wool from the sheep is also waved, as shown 
in Figs. 1 and 2, and in Fig. 3, the two former representing a single fibre of 
short and of long staple wool, the other a small lock of wool. Now it is 
attempted to show in Fig. 6 that the scales on each fibre are only attached by 
their bases, so that if we bend one, its scales are lifted up and project, their 
points, however, being all in the same direction. And it is further intended 
by Fig. 5 to show that if two fibres are brought side by side in opposite 
directions, the scales of one will catch in those of the other, and if we encou- 
rage this by mechanical means the result will be such an interlocking as will 
not easily be disconnected. Moisture will facilitate this combination very 
much, so that if a handful of wool be wetted and rubbed or beaten, the fibres 
will work into one another and form a compact mass. Upon this quality 
depends the shrinkage of flannels and other woollen goods when washed, and 
also the process called felting. The waviness of the fibres, too, enables them 
to remain intertwined when they have been spun into threads, and is, couse- 


Y 2 


* See ‘ Spooner on the Sheep.’ London, 1874. 


324 


Wool in Relation to Science with Practice. 


sequently, a very important quality’; for if we take fibres whicli lack this 
property, and twist them, if they possess any elasticity they will not remain 
twisted, not having any hold upon each other. Human hair will illustrate 
this. 

FIC i 


N 


3 




.5 



6 



“ These structural peculiarities of wool are found to he so permanent, that 
hardly any amount of wear will injure them ; hence it is found that woollen 
clothing reduced to the veriest rags may be torn up and its fibres separated 
into the state of wool again, and then recarded and spun into yarns for the 
weaving of excellent cloths. The discovery of this fact during the present 
century has added very much to our national wealth, by the prevention of 
waste and the creation of a new class of manufactures.” 

But here I am bound to say that \ ouatt's “ Serration as 


Wool in Relation to Science icith Practice. 


325 


affecting Felting Theory,” really first suggested by M. Monge,* * * § 
is opposed by those who attribute this remarkable property 
to the yolk (sebaceous secretion) : the practical Bakewell tells us 
that “ cotted-wool ” is where, from adverse causes, yolk ceases, 
and wool partially felts on the sheep’s back. On the whole, 
upon the evidence, I incline to the opinion of Professor Brown, | 
who, amongst other replies, has kindly favoured me with the 
following observation : — “ The essential character of the felting 
property has not yet been determined ; neither serration nor the 
presence of yolk sufficiently explains it.” There can be little 
doubt that the invaluable English long wool has deteriorated ; 
what it has gained in quantity it has lost in quality.^ It has been 
said that a fine open winter produces more wool than a severe one, 
but the wool is coarser. Flush of food increases quantity at the 
expense of quality : naturally too rapid growth is inconsistent 
with perfection — true uniform fibre from root to point — elastic, 
not easily broken, with shining silvery lustre — and, above all, of 
great density. The famous Mr. Bakewell, of Dishley, said, to grow 
fine wools on rich pastures you must overstock them. Disease, a 
want of food and warmth, causes the secretion of the wool-forming 
fluid to cease, making a jointed staple which breaks where the 
stoppage took place. It would appear there is a general impression 
we have too much indiscriminate breeding — too much uncertainty 
in regard to food and treatment — and both at home and in the 
Colonies there would appear to be many ideas and opinions all 
converging towards the establishment of sheep studbooks. 

Before conducting the Animal Physiologist for the purpose of 
consultation with the chemist, especially in regard to yolk, its 
uses and properties, perhaps the most practically interesting 
point in my scientific inquiry, I have a word to say in regard 
to that all-important scientific instrument, the improved micro- 
scope. What may not be done for us by the combined use of the 
photo-electric microscope, § photography, micrometer measure- 
ments, and the other scientific great guns with which science 
now batters down ignorance and prejudice? Old Mr. Youatt, to 
whom we are so much indebted for important investigations in 
this direction, confidently expected that advances in optical 
science would certainly lead to further discoveries. Mr. 
Bakewell also pointed to a fine field for microscopical inves- 
tigation, which field has not hitherto, so far as I am advised, 

* M. Monge (‘Ann. de Cliymie,’ tom. vi. p. 300). The felting of wool is an 
effect resulting from the external conformation of the several fibres which have 
lying one over the other from head to tail scales like those of a fish. 

t Professor of Physiology, Royal Veterinary College. I have had a kind offer 
of assistance from Professor Brown. He would apply the most recent optical appa- 
ratus to the study of particular specimens of wool. 

} See note, page 318. 

§ Ganot’s 1 Physics,’ Atkinson’s edition, 1873, p. 488. 


326 


Wool in Relation to Science with Practice. 


been satisfactorily explored. Let us, under the microscope, com- 
pare and fix the images of various wools of known properties, 
and so “ mark, learn, and inwardly digest ” the characteristic 
and essential differences of structure, upon which depend their 
respective economic values. 

Chemistry. — Dr. Yoelcker, whose kindness is proportioned to his 
abounding stores of available knowledge, has favoured me with the 
following interesting communication on the chemistry of wool : — 

“39, Argyll Eoad, Kensington, W. 

“February 5th, 1875. 

“My Loud, — The most recent investigations on the chemical constitution 
of wool I find were made a year or two ago in Germany by M. Marker and 
E. Schulz. 

“ Eaw sheep’s wool contains : — 

1. Hygroscopic water (moisture). 

2. Fatty matters. 

3. Yolk of wool (fatty acids combined with potash, and soluble in 

water and partly also in alcohol). 

4. Pure wool-fibre. 

5. Dirt. - 

“The relative proportions of these constituents vary greatly in different 
species of wool. 

“According to Marker and E. Schulz’s analyses, raw wool yields from 42 to 
50 per cent, pure wool-fibre (dried at 212° Fahr.), 10 to 18 per cent, of 
moisture, 7 to 10 per cent, of fatty matter, 20 to 22 per cent, of yolk (soluble 
in water), and variable proportions of dirt. 

“The portion soluble in water (yolk) amounting to 20 to 22 per cent, 
contains fatty acids — oleic and similar fatty acids — combined chiefly with 
potash and a small proportion of nitrogenous organic matter. The watery 
solution, or the washings of wool with water evaporated to dryness, yields an 
extract which consists of : — 

Organic matter, chiefly fatty compounds, con-) r n. Q9 

taining nitrogen ( P82) j 

Mineral matter (ash) t .. 41 ’08 


100-00 

“ The mineral portion (ash) of this extract yields from 59 to 84 per cent, of 
potash. 

“ In some places the potash is recovered technically from (hesc wool- 
washings. 

“ In an air-dry state raw wool contains about 85 per cent, of mineral matter 
(ash), which is removed by washing. Washed wool (wool deprived of the 
yolk by washing in water) seldom contains more than 1 per cent, of mineral 
matter (ash). 

“ Pure wool (fibre) dried at 212° Fahr. consists of : — 


Carbon 49 • 25 

Hydrogen 7 "57 

Nitrogen 15 '86 

Sulphur 3 '66 

Oxygen .. .. 23-G6 


100-00 


“It will be seen that wool not only is rich in nitrogen, but also contains a 


Wool in Relation to Science with Practice. 


327 


considerable proportion of sulphur. E. Schulz further has shown that the 
portion of the yolk of wool, which is soluble in alcohol, consists principally of 
cholesterin, a peculiar well-defined fat. 

“ Raw sheep’s wool was also analysed in 186G by Dr. Edward Heiden, who 


gives as its composition : — 

Moisture 10 '443 

Fatty matters 27 '018 

Mineral matter (ash) 1 ■ 028 

Sand 1 ' 914 

Pure wool-fibre 59 "597 


100 '000 

or in a more detailed form the composition of raw wool is given by Dr. Heiden 
as follows : — 

100 parts contain : — 


Moisture 10 '443 

Fatty matters 27 '018 

Pure wool 59 '597 

Oxide of iron '181 

Lime ’246 

Magnesia ' 060 

Potash * 191 

Soda *027- 

Chlorine ' 008 

Carbonic acid ' 031 

Phosphoric acid '031 

Silicic acid '253 

Sand 1 ' 914 


100 '000 

“ It appears from Messrs. Marker’s and Schulz’s researches that raw wool 
contains both oil or fat in a free state, and fatty matters chiefly in combina- 
tion with potash, forming a kind of soluble soap, which explains the loss 
in weight which wool sustains by the removal of the greater part of the fatty 
matter of raw wool. 

“ Believe me, my Lord, yours faithfully, 

“ Augustus Voelcker. 

“ Eight Hon. Earl Cathcart.” 

The Yolk. — The quality of the wool is said to depend on the 
yolk ; hence the interest of the preceding information and of all 
investigations regarding its properties and effects. I should be 
glad to know chemically the essential difference between yolk and 
tallow : until now the subject has been neglected, and previously 
to my application to Dr. V oelcker, I knew not where to find any 
reliable chemical facts. All I could discover was that yolk is 
a soap of potash,* and compounds of potash with lime and animal 
matter, that imparts to wool its characteristic odour. The satu- 
ration with yolk gives wool the silvery lustre so much desired : 
how far can art supply this copious secretion, and what are the 

* Sheep are often washed in running-water, so that the valuable scouring 
properties of the yolk are lost. The greasier the water the whiter the wool. — 
Mr. Turner. See note, page 340. 


328 


Wool in Relation to Science with Practice. 


effects on it of extremes of heat and cold ? This also is known, 
that the free secretion of yolk gives that most desirable quality in 
wool — density. In washing, wool loses about one-tliird* of its 
weight — at least, from one-third to half weight is deducted when, 
unwashed on the sheep’s back, wool is bought— called wool-in- 
grease. When the wool is washed on the sheep’s back, the soap 
of yolk is of course dissolved, and takes the salts along with it. 
M. Raspail estimates that the grease from French wool-washing 
would manure 370,000 acres. On the Continent, potash, which 
Dr. Voelcker somewhere puts at 1 \d. a pound, is in wool-washing 
and scouring operations carefully saved. The 1871 experience, 
in the words of the Report, teaches us — 

In reference to our ‘wool-scouring.’ The best labour-saving machine we 
possess, up to a certain stage, is undoubtedly the machine of Mr. Petrie ; but 
we still need an improved apparatus, amply supplied with water for washing 
off the suds, so as to rid the wool entirely from all unctuous matter before it 
is dried. 

“ Let not our manufacturers, therefore, be taken unawares, if a couple of 
intelligent Continental wool-scourers, technically educated in chemistry, be 
presently found located within a few hundred yards of Mr. Petrie’s works, 
introducing a new process of scouring altogether (as regards the chemicals 
used), yet in connection with Mr. Petrie’s machines ; employing, after his 
squeezing rollers, a ‘ washing-off ’ apparatus from the Continent, to complete 
this important operation. 

“ It is also not improbable that instead of the usual alkali an ingredient 
will be used which can be reclaimed or distilled from the ‘ suds ’ by a small 
still, so as to be used over and over again. This, too, in addition to the 
reclamation of grease from the sud.” 

Mr. Fairley, the Yorkshire consulting chemist, who, from resi- 
dence at Leeds, is peculiarly qualified, has favoured me with the 
following practical note : — 

“ The process of wool-washing, or rather scouring, in Leeds and similar dis- 
tricts, is essentially a different process from that on the sheep-back of wool- 
washing by the wool-grower. The materials used for the ‘scour’ are lant 
(stale urine) and soap ; or lately, in place of the latter, soda-ash. This crude 
but powerful alkali must be used with the greatest care, as the slightest 
excess seriously injures the wool. The scouring is either done by hand or by the 
aid of the patent wool- scouring machine (Petrie’s and other combined patents)*, 
The wool-scouring is simply the first stage in the manufacture of wool into cloth. 

“ In wool-washing, wherever practicable, the rain should be collected from 
the roofs of the farm-buildings, &c., and utilised. If the washing were per- 
formed with successive small quantities of water in vats, &c., through which 
the sheep could be passed successively, the minimum quantity of water would 
suffice; and the valuable potash now wasted, which forms, reckoned, as car- 
bonate from 7 to 8 per cent, of the raw wool. This potash is abstracted from 
the soil, and ought to be returned to it in a perfect system of wool-growing.” t 

From the point of view of one of the most celebrated, ram- 
breeders in England, a professional farmer of great culture and 

* See page 331, note. See also Chemistry, page 326. It seems clear that the 
grower who sells wool-in-greaso is unthrifty. 

t Sec the late Mr. Torr's practice, page 315. 


Wool in Relation to Science with Practice. 329 

experience, yolk is simply the insensible perspiration which 
diffuses itself over the wool. It is more, but how much more is 
not accurately known ; Mr. Bakewell suggests that, by some un- 
known process, the secretion in part forms the fibre or filament : 
or is it a mere lubricant, as oil lubricates leather? Mr. Youatt 
observes : “ There is most yolk about the neck and breast, and there 
is the best w ool ; softness of pile and yolk go together.’’ Mr, 
Bakewell further dwells on the bad effects of heat on wool growth, 
and on the analogy of wool, hair, feathers, and the viscous fluid,, 
the secretion of the silkworm and the spider, and the possible 
action of the absorption of oxygen near the surface of the skin. 
I am, however, by authority physiologically advised that the 
chief object of yolk is simply to keep the skin soft and pliable, 
and incidentally to keep the hair or wool in an elastic condition. 
Upon the evidence, then, taken as a w r hole, I in this day quite 
concur in Mr. Youatt’s conclusion ; the great practical question 
is, in addition to care in breeding, how to promote the growth of 
yolk? Mr. Youatt says, on yolk farmers never bestow a thought,, 
and neither understand nor care about it ; this question, without 
doubt, will some day be regarded as one of the very cardinal and 
essential points of the sheep. 

We’must hasten through the wool-room* to speak a word to the 
agricultural engineer. The cloths to prevent undue evaporation 
of yolk, the darkness to maintain the bright lustre, the damp that 
causes wool to “ clag together,” and the yellow mould, are all 
well known ; we would also gladly, were it possible, squash 
once and for ever the wool-moth, Tinea sarcitella. 

Mechanics. — Great things have been done for agriculture by 
our mechanically scientific agricultural engineers. Machinery 
has been constructed by which a pound of wool has been spun 
out to the incredible distance of 95^ miles ; why do not our 
engineers a little regard the wool whilst still on the sheep’s back ? 
Here is such a picture for a painter, but not for the student of 
economic science — the frightened sheep, the rheumatic shepherd 
up to his middle in the dirty hard water, the muddy banks, the 
intonations of the ewes and the responses of the lambs, the long 
and dusty road home, full of unwilling sheep, all aggravated by 
the inevitable barking and frisking of the “ officious dog.” Clip- 
ping on a dirty skin makes rough work. By the way, in these 
days of labour difficulties, are we to have patent shears, on sound 
mechanical principles, some adapted for power, others for un- 
skilled labour? Some close pile-wool cannot, in the usual way, 
be washed at all. The importance of the inverted position of the 
sheep — the sheep on its back — is much and properly insisted 

* It is observed in the wool trade that the farmer is most willing to force his 
wool on the market when prices are low, fearing further flatness. With high 
prices he holds for a rise. 


330 


Wool in Relation to Science with Practice. 


upon ; it is most favourable for the rapid falling away of earth v 
matter.* Swedish sheep are always washed on their backs ; tub- 
washing — they say that they cannot cleanse if they brook-wash. 
Spout-washing, t 5 or 6 feet fall, has long been practised in Ger- 
many : first on head and shoulders, then on belly, the sheep is 
reversed, lastly, on back ; the sheep is first soaped in a trough, 
and all this done at a cost, per head, of one penny. Those who 
visited the London International Exhibition of 1871 may re- 
member the apparatus for washing wool on the sheep, and also 
that for sheep-shearing, both on a grand scale. The principal 
features of the complete apparatus for steam-power sheep- 
washing, now used by some of the greatest wool-growers in the 
world, are shortly these : a rain-yard, hot-water tank, swim- 
ming-tank, and lastly, for finishing off, a cage of tubes, with inner 
and all-round perforations, which squirt converging jets of water 
upon the centrally-placed sheep. I am charmed to find that, 
quite independently, the well-known engineering firm, Messrs. 
Gwynne, the eminent exhibitors in question, are travelling with 
me by a road of their own towards the same longed-for desti- 
nation ; I need only add, in addition to their obliging com- 
munication which follows, that it is to be hoped that they, with 
many of my readers and myself, may meet together in the 
show-yard at Taunton : — 

“We have at present in prospect an entirely new operation for purifying 
wool, which will enable us to cleanse it thoroughly from all impurities, and 
make it fit for the market at a merely nominal cost ; or, in other words, that 
the waste product we derive from the washing of the wool will more than pay 
the cost of washing.” 

Statistics . — A chapter on the political economy now involved 
would be interesting, but with a very few words we must pass on 
to its essential statistical handmaiden. We see in imagination the 
finger of the Editor good-naturedly uplifted to warn us, that in 
the ‘ Journal,’ as in this old and populous country, all available 
space must be carefully husbanded. The food of the people in 
England is the English farmer’s chief consideration : trans- 
oceanic competition is even fast driving the Continental farmer 
from the wool to the carcass : yet it must ever be remembered 
that the means of obtaining food depends on industrial employ- 
ment : nearly the greatest of English industries depends on 
wool, a cultivated article regularly cropped. The question of 
wool supply can never be disregarded, especially the supply of 
the invaluable English long wool so useful in assisting to work 

* See Mr. Cox’s sketch, page 341. 

t In a pleasant note, which is much like the writer, my colleague, Mr. Milward, 
tells me spout-washing was established at Thurgarton at the end of the last century, 
and in combination with a wooden T-like instrument, to work the sheep’s back, 
the practice has since been advantageously continued. 


Wool in Relation to Science with Practice. 


331 


up other kindred raw material. We can never disregard the 
importance of our great staple manufactures which so advan- 
tageously act and re-act on agriculture. It is interesting to 
observe that the wool manufacture, the spoilt child of English 
legislation, was never thoroughly happy and prosperous until it 
was left free to run alone and unaided : that freedom in the 
Colonies, in which we are all personally or relatively interested, 
induces practical men to expend, without hesitation, 6000/. in a 
single sheep-wash pool and its plant. We of the Royal Agri- 
cultural Society rejoice in the much-to-be-desired spirit of unity 
and co-operation which has promoted such Societies as that re- 
cently established in New South Wales,* and which promises 
valuable periodical contributions to agricultural literature. The 
political economist and student of history may further reflect 
upon the diversion of the stream of commercial transport, which 
was long ago revolutionised by maritime discovery and the 
mariner’s compass, and is now again returning to its ancient 
channels by Alexandria, the Suez Canal, and the narrow seas. 

The ‘Journal ’ of the Statistical Society contains in the Quar- 
terly number, published in December 1870, a valuable paper by 
Mr. Hamilton “ On Wool Supply.” Unfortunately, unlike the 
statesman, the merchant, and the manufacturer, the English 
farmer, perhaps from the want of an organised educational 
system, does not, as a rule, duly appreciate the value of statistics : 
it is quite otherwise in Scotland and in America ; in the Report 
of the United States Commissioner of Agriculture for 1871, we 
find that the statistician of the department occupies with interest- 
ing and suggestive matter some 60 large pages. Tub-washed 
wool is a regular quotation. In 11 years, 1861—71, United States 
sheep increased from 21^ millions to 32 millions ; home-grown 
wool from 55 millions of lbs. to 128 millions : this dispro- 
portionate rate of increase in wool is attributed to care in breed- 
ing. The average fleece in 1850, 2'42 lbs. ; 1860, 2’73 lbs. ; 
1870, 3-51. For the average weight of the English fleece, see 
the most interesting estimate compared by me with various 
authorities, and which follows : “ Estimate of British Home- 
Grown Wool.”t 

Before arranging the statistics of my subject in the manner 
which I hope my readers will find most convenient and instruc- 
tive, I would make one or two extracts from Mr. Hamilton’s 
statistical paper. The importation of 

Per cent. , Per cent. 

Flax in 30 years has increased 25' | Cotton in 30 years has increased 1 10* 
Silk » „ „ 59- Wool „ „ „ 349- 


* I beg to thank Captain Jopp, of the N. S. W. Government Office in London, 
for ready assistance. f See pp. 333 and 334. 


332 


Wool in Relation to Science tcit/i Practice. 


He says, speaking of the weights of English fleeces : — 

“ Mr. Luccock in the year 1800 published a detailed estimate of the weights 
of fleeces, which was revised in 1828 by Mr. Hubbard, and again in 1840. 
In 1851, Mr. Thomas Southey, after extensive inquiries, took the average 
for the United Kingdom at five pounds. 

“ Since the earlier of those dates, considerable changes have taken place in 
the actual weights of fleece, owing to improved breeding : and even during 
the last twenty years this has been the case with the sheep bred in agricul- 
tural districts, though not so much with those bred on pasture-lands. The 
weights, moreover, are considered to vary from year to year as much as from a 
quarter to half a pound per fleece, according to the seasons and breed. 

“I am indebted to Mr. Legg, of Bermondsey, and Messrs. J. and J. Hub- 
bard, of Bradford, for much important information on this subject ; and the 
latter gentlemen write, that ‘ in all the counties suitable for the heavier class 
of sheep, the weight of fleece has very considerably increased during the last 
twenty years, it having been found to the profit of the grower to cross with 
Leicester, &c., sheep, both as regards the wool and the mutton. A consider- 
able buyer of wools in Cambridgeshire writes us, that “the weight of wools 
grown in that district has doubled or almost trebled during the fifty years I 
have been a buyer, not only as regards the number of sheep kept, but the 
weight of fleece.” ’ 

Mr. Hamilton remarks, and this is very noteworthy, fluctua- 
tions in the prices of Colonial wool depend not so much on 
supplies as upon variations in demand, owing to commercial 
vicissitudes and political circumstances. 

The intelligent agricultural mind will probably most readily 
assimilate the essential statistical details of my present subject, 
when stated in the method which follows. 

Table I. shows the persons in England employed in working 
up the raw material : — 


TABLE I. — From Cexsus, 1871. 


Employed in Wool Trade. 

Total of 
both Sexes. 

Males. 

Females. 

Woollen Cloth Manufacture 

128,464 

71,683 

56,7S1 

Woolstapler 

1,964 

1,957 

7 

Wool, Woollen, — Dyer 

2,606 

2,603 

3 

Wool and Worsted, others working'! 
and dealing in J 

40 

11 

29 

Worsted Manufacture 

94,706 

34,053 

CO, 713 


227,810 




Tables II., III., and IV. respectively show the home and im- 
ported wool manufactured in England, and the countries Iron 
'which imported: — 


Wool in Relation to Science with Practice. 


333 


TABLE IT. 

stimate of Home-Grown Wool, taking the Average Be turns of Sheep One 
Year old and above, for the Years 1867-69, and the Weights of Fleece as 
supplied by Messrs. J. and J. Hubbard, of Bradford. 


Counties. 


edford . . 
erks 

uckiugliam . 


ambridge 

Fester . . 
!omwall . . 
'umber! and . 

derby 

)evon 

)orset 

lurham . . 


issex 


Gloucester 

Hants 

Hereford 

Hertford .. 

Huntingdon . 
Kent 

Lancaster 
Leicester . . 
Lincoln . . 


Middlesex 

Monmouth 


Sheep. 

Weight 

of 

Fleece. 

Pounds 
of Wool. 

[ 000 ’s 

omitted.] 

Memoranda. 

| 

lbs. 



564,314 

6 

3,386, 

j'Half-breds, 6 to 7 lbs. 

215,454 

6 

1,293, 

iLeicesters, 7 „ 8 „ 
j Downs, 4 ,, 44 „ 

I All grown in this county. 

124,332 

4 

497, 

1,993, 


265,702 

rj 1 

/ 2 

These are unwashed. 

350,622 

5 

1,753, 

Several breeds grown here. 

164,480 

5? 

864, 


592,157 

li 

4,441, 

These are unwashed. 

344,211 

4i 

1,635, 

( Horns, 5 J lbs. 

(Downs, 34 




( Both sorts grown. 

140,900 

4 

564, 

j Kents and half-breds, 5 to 6 lbs. 

312,945 

5 

1,565, 

j Both these breeds grown in 




( this county. 

296,803 

7 

2,078, 

This is the regular large breed. 

406,649 

6 

2,410, 


226,773 

Si 

1,247, 

[Half-breds, 5 to 6 lbs. 

142,771 

5 

714, 

Downs, 4 „ 44 >• 

| Both breeds grown in this 




f county. 

100,606 

6 f 

679, 


721,517 

6 

4,329, 


197,960 

Si 

1,089, 


297,435 

H 

2,008, 


1,005,340 

8 

8,043, 

j'Half-breds, to 7 lbs. 

34,802 

5 

174, 

I Downs, 4 „ Ah „ 

j There is no regular breed 




peculiar to this county. 

132,108 

a* 

330, 

A light Welsh class of sheep. 


334 


Wool in Relation to Science with Practice. 


TABLE II. — Estimate of Home-Grown Wool, &c. — continued. 


Counties. 

Sheep. 

Weight 

of 

Fleece. 

Pounds 
of Wool. 

[ 000 ’s 

omitted.] 

Memobaxda. 



lbs. 


(Half-breds, 5 lbs. 

Norfolk 

480,511 

4 

1,922, 

1 Downs, 3 lbs. to 4 lbs. 





( Both sorts grown. 

Northampton .. 

368,519 

6 

2,181, 

3,937, 


Northumberland .. 

572,764 

6 


Nottingham . . 

189,914 


1,187, 

Deep staple and bright hair. 

Oxford 

229,916 

Si 

1,265, 


Rutland 

70,262 

7 

492, 


Salop 

306,295 

Si 

1,685, 


Somerset 

Stafford 

521,675 

207,860 

7 

Si 

3,652, 

1,195, 

(Half-brcds, 6 lbs. 

Suffolk 

317,628 

4f 

1,509, 

| Downs, 4 to 5 ^ „ 




( Both sorts grown. 

Surrey 

87,694 

4 

351, 


Sussex 

379,064 

4 

1,516, 


Warwick 

251,676 

Si 

'1,447, 


Westmoreland 

218,416 

5 

1,092, 

Several breeds grown. 

Wilts 

473,237 

3i 

1,656, 

915, 

Downs. 

Worcester 

166,281 

Si 


York, E. Riding . . 

320,225 

8 | 

2,722, 

Deep staple and bright hair. 
(Masham, 5 lbs. 

., N. Riding .. 

437,561 

Si 

2,516, 

1 Scotch, 4 to 4 ^ „ 


( These also grown here. 

„ W. Riding .. 

476,613 

Si 

2,740, 

Deep staple and bright hair. 
(General average, as per Mr 

Wales 

1,733,078 

4s 

8,232, 

< Bottomley’s estimate, Octo 
| her, 1870. 

Total 

14,442,100 


83,334, 


Ireland 

3,098,947 

6 

18,594, 

(General average, as per Mi 

Scotland 

4,605,315 

4i 

21,875, 

< Bottomley’s estimate, Octo 
( her, 1870. 

Isle of Man andl 
Channel Islands / 

43,442 

| about | 

217, 

% 

Total in Unitedl 
Kingdom . . / 

22,189,804 

•• 

124,020, 



Note . — Allowance should be made in all wools unwashed, or in the grease, ( 
one-third in weight for clean wool. 

This comprehensive Table can of course at any time be made to fit the Agricul 
tural Statistics of the day by a simple Rule-of-Three process. — C. 


Wool in Relation to Science with Practice. 


335 


TABLE III. 


Imports of Wool, Woollen Manufactures, Yarn, &c., into and from Great 
Britain (according to the Board of Trade Returns) during 



1874. 

1873. 

Average 

1869-1873. 

nports of Wool from Australia 
, , , , , , Cape of Good Hope 

, , , , , , British India . . 

, , , , , , European Countries 

, , , , , , Other Countries 

lbs. 

225,426,101 

42,015,777 

19,099,273 

34,758,391 

17,500,939 

lbs. 

186,281,953 

42,332,062 

19,265,145 

34,380,693 

30,801,391 

lbs. 

175,172,272 

35,575,168 

17,423,811 

35,685,683 

26,144,220 

otal Imports of Foreign and Colonial Wool 
,, ..Exports ,, ,, ,, 

338,800,481 

144,362,359 

313,061,244 

123,236,636 

290,001,154 

120,994,041 

eaving for Home consumption 

194,438,122 

189,824,608 

169,007,113 

nports of Alpaca, Vicuna, and Llama . . 

, , Goats’ Hair 

nports of Woollen Rags torn up or noth 
to be used as Wool / 

4,186,381 

8,013,706 

57,361,920 

4,422,181 

6,297,447 

55,888,000 

3,807,497 

5,805,926 

49,818,810 


TABLE IV. 

Importation of Colonial and Foreign Wool into the United Kingdom, 

1865 and 1874.* 



1865. 

1874. 

New South Wales and Queensland 

Victoria 

' Tasmania 

South Australia 

West Australia 

New Zealand 

79,672 

135,513 

16,082 

45,505 

2,991 

52,797 

136,748 

265,417 

17,223 

85,590 

6,285 

140,313 

Australasian 

Cape 

332,560 

99,991 

651,576 

164,194 

Colonial 

German 

Spanish and Portuguese 

East Indian and Persian 

Russian 

River Plate 

Peru, Lima, and Chili 

Alpaca 

Mediterranean and African 

Mohair 

Sundry 

432,551 

24,696 

13,561 

54,228 

37,147 

14,636 

46,338 

23,653 

20,748 

27,441 

18,676 

815,770 

35,003 

8,640 

63,291 

32,570 

11,373 

36,661 

35,095 

33,857 

47,551 

19,493 

Total bales 

713,075 

1,139,304 


* For several of these Tables I am indebted to Messrs. Helmuth, Schwartzc 
aud Co., Wool-Brokers, of Moorgate Street. 


S3 6 


Wool in Relation to Science with Practice. 


The rise and progress of these imports may be gathered from 
the following facts. I find the first importation of wool from 
Australia and New Zealand quoted in 

1814 . . . 33,000 lbs. 

1838 . . . 7,837,000 lbs. 

1869 . . . 158,478,000 lbs. 

1838 was the year of the formation of the Royal Agricultural 
Society. In regard to Australian progress, the ‘ Melbourne Argus’ 
has compiled a short statistical account of the Australian colonies, 
made up to the close of the year 1873, showing their relative 
position and aggregate importance. An account of the live 
stock shows that the number of sheep in the colony of Victoria, 
in 1873, was 11,323,080; in New South Wales, 10,928,590; 
in South Australia, 5,617,419; in Tasmania, 1,490,738; in 
Western Australia, 748,536; in Queensland (in 1872), 6,687,907: 
making a total of 45,796,270 in the six colonies. Adding 
9,700,629, the number in New Zealand in February, 1871, we 
have a total of 55,496,899 sheep in Australasia — a number 
larger probably than any other country in the world can 
boast.* 

The ‘Times’ of January 4th last contains a letter from its 
correspondent in New South Wales, who says Our pro- 
duction of wool is likely to be much larger proportionally in 
the next twenty years than it has been for the last, as our 
squatters have been expending their energies (and their splendid 
profits for the last three years also) in fencing in their runs, 
securing good blocks of country as freeholds, and building dams 
to secure permanent water. Also there is much more attention 
being paid to ‘breed’ than previously, and the squadrons (?) of 
half-wild ‘ jinnbucks,’ w ith their ragged 2 lb. fleeces, are growing 
into quiet flocks of double the weight and quadruple the 
value.” 

Table V. (p. 337) shows the relative values, per lb., of 
home and imported wool. It gives the value in pence, per lb., 
of several representative descriptions of wool on fhe 1st of 
January of the past ten years : — 

Table VI. (p. 337), for which I am much indebted, is specially 
prepared by the Bradford Chamber of Commerce to show the 
yearly average price of English wool, per tod, from 1812 to 1873 
inclusive. 


* I should not forget McArthur — that national benefactor — that wonderful 
Captain of Infantry — who in 1791 founded the sheep husbandry which is the 
source of Australian prosperity. See his own official statement, ‘ Bischoff,’ vol. i. 
p. 306. 


Wool in Relation to Science with Practice. 


337 


TABLE Y. 


Value on tue 1st Jan. 

1866. 1867. 

1868. 

1869. 1870. 1871. 

1872. 

1873. 

1874. 1875. 

i 

Wool 

d. 

d. 

<1. 

d. 

d. 

d. 

d. 

d. 

d. 

d. 

Lincoln Hogg Fleeces . . 

29 

24 

17 

20* 

19! 

18 

27* 

28 

26 

23* 

East India, ordinary yel- ) 
low S 

10* 

n 

7+ 

8 

6+ 

7+ 

9} 

12 

10 

9+ 

Donskoi, average white) 
fleece J 

12+ 

11 

8 

9 

8+ 

9+ 

14+ 

13* 

10 

10+ 

Pern, middling . . . . 

17 

15 

10 

10+ 

9+ 

10+ 

16 

15+ 

14 

14 

Buenos Ayres, fair Mes-) 
tizo grease 5 

9 

8 

6+ 

5+ 

5+ 

5+ 

8* 

7! 

7 

7+ 

Australian, average ) 

fleece washed . . . . ) 

24+ 

22* 

20* 

19+ 

18 

17+ 

25 

27 

25 

23* 

Cape, do. do 

17 

15+ 

12+ 

12+ 

n+ 

11+ 

17+ 

18 + 

16 

16+ 


TABLE YI. 

Table shewing the Average Price per Tod (28| lbs.) of Wool from 
1812 to 1873. 


Year. 

Average Price. 

Year. 

Average Price. 

Year. 

Average Price. 


£ 

8. 

d. 


£ 

s. 

d. 


£ 

s. 

d. 

1812 

T 

5 

0J 

1833 

l 

6 

9 

1854 

1 

15 

2 

1813 

i 

10 

8 

1834 

i 

16 

7 

1855 

1 

6 

61 

1814 

i 

19 

0 

1835 

2 

4 

3 

1856 

1 

10 

11 

1815 

2 

4 

51 

1836 

1 

17 

0 

1857 

1 

16 

5 

1816 

2 

8 

6 

1837 

2 

1 

2* 

1858 

2 

0 

6$ 

1817 

1 

11 

U 

1838 

1 

10 

2 

1859 

1 

13 

7| 

1818 

1 

15 

3 

1839 

1 

17 

10 

1860 

1 

19 

91 

1819 

2 

12 

Of 

1840 

1 

12 

n 

1861 

2 

5 

4 

1820 

1 

16 

7 

1841 

1 

8 

i 

1862 

1 

18 

01 

1821 

1 

14 

n 

1842 

1 

4 

6 

1863 

2 

3 

0| 

1822 

1 

1 

n 

1843 

1 

2 

81 

1864 

2 

10 


1823 

1 

4 

8| 

1844 

1 

4 

4 

1865 

3 

0 

6 

1824 

1 

5 

10 

1845 

1 

9 

2 

1866 

2 

17 

01 

1825 

1 

10 

2£ 

1846 

1 

9 

10 

1867 

2 

6 

6 

1826 

1 

16 

6 

1847 

1 

7 

0 

1 1868 

1 

17 

5f 

1827 

1 

4 

8 

1848 

1 

3 

10 

1869 

1 

18 

3f 

1828 

1 

2 

10 

1849 

1 

0 

1 

1870 

1 

15 

9| 

1829 

1 

0 

6 

1850 

1 

1 

9 

1871 

1 

14 

9| 

1830 

0 

18 

4 

1851 

1 

6 

2 

1872 

2 

5 

6.1 

1831 

1 

4 

0 

1852 

1 

7 

0 

1 1873 

2 

15 

8f 

1832 

1 

7 

6 

1853 

1 

9 

1 

1 





Having gone thus far, I have now only to consider the 
British exports of raw and manufactured wool not consumed 
in this country, and the places abroad to which exported, 
Table VII. (p. 338). 

It is so very important, I feel constrained to add Table VIII. 
(p. 339), Mr. Hamilton’s estimate of the wool supply of the world. 
He says : — “ In conclusion, I will attempt to estimate the entire 
supply of wool available for the consumption of Europe and 
America, because, as soon as the latter sees fit to adopt free trade 
in wool, all manufacturing countries will have a common interest 
VOL. XI. — S. S. Z 


338 


Wool in Relation to Science with Practice. 


in the supply, and all will benefit by the free importation and 
tree interchange of the numerous descriptions of wool. 

“ 1 base the following estimate (Table VIII.) on the numbers of 
sheep given in the ‘Agricultural Returns’ for 1869, though the esti- 
mate will readily be understood to be merely an approximation." 

TABLE VII. 


Extorts of Wool and Woollen Manufactures, Yarn, &c. 



1874. 

1873. 

Average ' 

1869-1873. 

.Exports of Domestic Wool — - 

To Germany 

, , Belgium 

, , France 

, , United States 

, , other Countries 

£ 

3,016,955 

1,359,484 

3,077,167 

930,733 

1,662,994 

£ 

2,803.794 

1,195,313 

1,322,509 

820,974 

892,145 

£ 

1,994,054 

1,445,831 

2,636,361 

2,370,076 

1,175,437 

Total Exports of Domestic Wool 

10,047,333 

7,034,735 

9,621,759 

Total Exports of Woollen and Worsted 1 

Manufactures 1 

Total Imports 

22,794,977 

4,022,669 

25,349,878 

3,840,096 

25,849,944 

3,720,481 

Excess of Exports over Imports 

18,772,308 

21,509,782 

22,129,403 

Total Exports of Woollen and Worsted) 

Yarns j 

Total Imports 

5,558,963 

1,492,715 

5,393,493 

1,495,343 

5,627,380 

1,433,320 

Excess of Exports over Imports 

4,066,248 

3,898,150 

4,194,000 

Exports of Woollen and Worsted 
Manufactures and Yarns — 

'To Germany 

, , France 

, , United States 

6,00S,771 

4,695,478 

6,482,465 

3,587.763 

5,945,818 

9,060,321 

3,242,005 

5,320,567 


In now taking leave of the statistical branch of my subject, 
I cannot too strongly enforce this consideration, that if it is 
desired to forecast the future, we must diligently study the ten- 
dencies of the familiar lines in which the past has run, and then, 
with the necessary deviations, let imagination boldly project these 
lines into unknown space. 

The Flocks of the World . — I am now to make a rapid practical 
tour of the wool-growing districts — the sheep-walks of the world. 
Leaving Iceland, where crossing with English sheep has done 
much, I traverse the Atlantic to scamper round the Americas : 
in Canada I find neglected Leicesters and a want of new blood : 
in California they say they can raise any breed, but now produce 


Wool in Relation to Science with Practice. 


339 


TABLE VIII. 




’ I 

[000 s omitted.] 







Countries. 

of 

Sheep 



Memoranda. 


Returns. 

and 

Lambs. 

Weight. 

Value. 




Average 

34,138, 

lbs. 

£ 


United Kingdom . . 

o 

1 

I- 

CO 

00 

} 159 , 969 , 

.7,998, 


Australia 

1868 

37,441, 

152 , 200 , 

11,356, 

Grease allowed for. 

Tasmania 

1868 

1,742, 

6 , 13 b, 

474, 

10 per ct. greas •• 

New Zealand 

1868 

8,418, 

28 , 375 , 

1,564, 

60 , , 

Cape of Good Hopei 
and Natal . . . . / 

1865 

10 , 001 , 

33 , 001 , 

2,533, 

15 

River Plate . . 

CO 

CO 

00 

Unknown 

133 , 070 , 

3,452, 

Grease — Exports. 

East India . . 

1869 

y y 

18 , 797 , 

627, 

[Imports to United 

1 Kingdom. 

Russia 

1859-63 

45,330, 

90 , 760 , 

3,777, 


Sweden 

1S67 

1,622, 

6 , 082 , 

228, 

) 

Norway 

1865 

1,705, 

6,395, 

225, 

I Imports to United 
f Kingdom trifling. 

Denmark 

North Germany,) 

1866 

1863, ’66.) 
and ’67 / 

1,875, 

7,03 b 

322, 

) 

Wurtemburg, and) 
Bavaria . . . . ) 

25,251, 

52 , 080 , 

4,340, 


Holland 

1867 

1,027, 

6 , 163 , 

231, 


Belgium 

1856 

583, 

o' 

0 

131, 


France 

1866 

30,3S6, 

9 r , T 5 8 , 

3,408, 

Grease. 

Spain 

1865 

22,055, 

74,433, 

6 , 202 , 

> » 

Italy 

1867 

11,040, 

24 , 840 , 

1,035, 

(No Imports to 
\ United Kingdom. 

Austria 

1SG4 

16,573, 

3b075, 

2,331, 

/Very trifling Im- 
\ ports. 

Switzerland .. 

1866 

445, 

b336, 

50, | 

(No Imports to 

Greece 

1867 

2,540, 

7 , 618 , 

222 , f 

| United Kingdom. 

United States* .. 

1867 

32,796, 

177 , 000 , 

14,105, 

[$ 75 , 225 , ooo cur- 




1 rency. 




r , I2I ,5 r 9> 

64,611, 



Note . — Allowance for lambs and skins used in Russia, one-third the number of 
sheep ; and for lambs in other countries one-fourth the number of sheep. 


only mongrels : running down the P.acific to Peru, I may note 
with pleasure great improvement : rounding Cape Horn, I come 
to the River Plate, and complain of short weak staple, bad washing 
and worse packing, a want of English rams. Returning by the 

* Mr. Wells’s R< port, 1869. 

z 2 


340 


Wool in Relation to Science with Practice. 


usual track to Lisbon, I find flocks requiring attention as regards 
breed and management. Making a circuit of Europe, I see that 
the splendid Dutch wool might be improved bj crossing and bv 
better washing ; the Flemish wool requires also attention in wash- 
ing, and freeing from straw and dirt : the Russian native sheep, 
Donskois, are capable of great improvement ; the South-Russian 
Merinos are magnificent : the Austrian sheep, the Zackels, the 
Wallachians, and others, are being improved by English crosses, 
but attention is required in washing the wool : all contain the 
burrs which are so objectionable : Turkish sheep should be crossed 
with the Leicester ; there is the basis for capital combing-wool — 
hitherto the wool has been scurvy and kempy. To circumnavigate 
Africa, at Mogador I find English blood required to cross, and 
more attention to washing and cleaning : at the Cape, Leicester 
and Lincolnshire sheep, in many districts, might be introduced 
with great advantage : much wool is now scoured and sent to 
London in good condition, known as a “snow-white” wool: 
Natal possesses great natural advantages ; the amalgamating 
Leicester is wanted. Egyptian wool is apt to be spoilt by grey 
hairs, but the wool is soft, bright, and silky ; it comes near many 
classes of English wool. Taking Persia and the East Indies on 
my way to China, I find improvement on the march towards a 
large field awaiting development : in the more temperate regions 
I find wool of long and sound staple. China, with its won- 
derfully reproductive sheep, promises by judicious crossing and 
cultivation great improvement. From China to Australia is 
plain sailing : Sydney, with room for improvement, I leave, to 
admire at Port Phillip * combing-wools more perfect than any in 
the world, and also the Leicester Merino : having lingered there, 
I go on to Adelaide, with parched sheep-runs ; but the better 
flocks produce good combing-wool. In New Zealand I conclude 
my flying tour ; that colony is well calculated to produce long- 
stapled wool ; the large supplies now sent to London are very 
much in favour, but more care should be exercised in washing.! 

Essentially practical and practically suyyestive. — Mr. G. H. 
Cox, a member of the Legislative Council of New South Wales, 
an eminent agricultural authority there, has, on my suggestion, 
favoured the Royal Agricultural Society with the following de- 
scription of his mode of spout-wasliing sheep. My best acknow- 
ledgments are due to this very able gentleman: — 


* The ‘ Pall Mall Gazette’ of December 19th last, says : — “ It is stated in Aus- 
tralian papers that a pure-bred Merino ram, owned by a Mr. Gibson, of Tasmania, 
and reared by him there, was sold in Melbourne a short time ago for thc-sum of 
080 guineas. While the ram was in Mr. Gibson’s possession the amount of mono.' 
raised by the animal’s male progeny alone was estimated at upwards of f>000 guineas 
f Information received 1869. See further, the ‘Vienna Reports’ of 1873. 



F. Slide.' 

G. Drain to carry away dirty 

hot water. 

H. Wash-pen. 

I. Outlet for washed sheep. 

K. Outlet for dirty water. 

L. Boilers. M, M. Pipes. 

N. Engine. 0. Belt. 

P. Pump. Q. Shoot. 

R. Stream. 

S, S, S, S. Sheep-pens. 


A. Tank supplied with centrifugal pump. 

B. Four jets, 2 ft. 9 in. wide, f-m . orifice. 

T. Tubs for men to stand in, 3 ft. 6 in. XI ft. 6 in. 



J. Sheep supports (double rollers). 

E. Hot-water soak-tank. 

F. Slide. U. Water level. 


V . Sheep on back. 


SMALL ELEVATION. 

W, W. Rollers. | X. Slide with key. 


342 


Wool in Relation to Science with Practice. 


“ The accompanying sketch of my wash-pen shows the position of all the 
parts, hut the measurements are only approximate, as no actual scale was used 
in drawing it. There are four spouts, B, having an 8-feet pressure, 2 feet 9 inches 
wide, with an orifice of a quarter of an inch. The tank, a, above is sup- 
plied by a centrifugal pump, p, of 10 inches diameter, driven by an 8 horse- 
power engine, x. 

“ The hot water soak-tank, e, will hold twelve sheep, and is 15 ft. x 4 ft. 
x 3 ft. 6 in. deep, divided by sliding gates into three compartments. There 
is a grating at the end, D, and a slide, f, from it to the wash-pool or pen, h, a 
section of which is shown in the elevation. 

“ The wash-pen or pool, h, is bricked, and has an inclined plane at the 
outlet, k. 

“ A low dam is thrown across the bed of the stream, which raises the water, 
say 2 feet, and thus lessens the lift of the pump, which is fed by a drain or 
trench cut from the bed of the stream, r, into the tank, also bricked. 

“ The hot-water soak-tank, e, is fed by two boilers, l, of 400 gallons each, and 
these latter are filled by a small pipe, ji, from the pump, p, the cold water required 
being obtained from the tank over the wash-pool by means of a hose, c. 

“ Now for the modus cperandi. 

“ Twelve sheep are caught and thrown into the hot-water tank, e (making 
four in each compartment), which has previously been filled to within 6 inches 
of the top with water, heated to from 100° to 110° Fahrenheit, and in which 
also has been dissolved from 15 to 20 lbs. of soft-soap. 

“ The sheep then walk up an incline, or are lifted upon a grating at the end 
of the tank (see elevation), and after the fleece has been squeezed, are made 
to slide down an incline, F, into the hands of the washers (who stand in zinc 
tubs, t) and are placed upon the supports, J, immediately under the jets or 
spouts, b, where they are turned round and round until thoroughly cleansed ; 
they then swim to the end of the pool and walk up an incline, k, to the top of 
the dam'or causeway, after which they pass at i to the drying paddocks. 

“ The hot-water tank, e, is emptied twice a day, that is, at dinner-time 
(noon), and in the morning. 

“ I can wash as white as snow from 500 to 700 sheep a day. 

“ The sheep-supports, J, are a new invention, and sustain the weight of the 
sheep directly under the jets, preventing the great force of the jets driving 
the sheep too far under the surface of the water, and thus lessening the action 
of the jet upon the fleece. They are formed of small rollers or cylinders, w, 
which turn with the sheep placed between them, and can be set higher or 
lower at pleasure by means of a sliding bar and key, x.” 

Further, in an admirably practical lecture delivered by him, 
Mr. Cox observes : — 

“ Having touched upon the principles that should guide the sheep-breeder, 
I cannot conclude without a short statement with respect to the getting up of 
the article produced for the market. Sly experience goes to prove that, how- 
ever carefully you may breed your sheep, and however superior the wool may 
be which they grow, your returns will be disappointing unless the greatest 
attention is bestow r ed upon the washing of your clip. 

“ Everyone who has judiciously expended money upon the necessary plant 
and appliances for spout-washing his wool will freely admit that the returns 
are one hundred-fold. 

“ Some three or four years ago our sheep-owners were anxious to obtain the 
opinion of English manufacturers as to the general getting-up of their wool 
and the sorting of their fleeces. We used to get periodically the brokers' 
stereotyped report that ‘ so many bales of wool were sold — that the attendance 
of buyers was limited or otherwise — that some bales were seedy and moity. 


Wool in Relation to Science with Practice. 343 

and others ratber tender’ — all of which we knew, and, knowing, could not 
remedy; but we could never learn what the manufacturer said about it; 
whether it contained too much or too little yolk ; too dry from over-washing, 
or too heavy from under-washing; was the sorting satisfactory, &c., &c. 

“ Well, we engaged the services of a gentleman who went through the cloth 
manufacturing districts, and who supplied us with much valuable information, 
which we utilised, and which I shall now be happy to impart to others. Our 
directions were never to use water for the soak beyond 110° Fahrenheit ; never 
to use alkalies — such as potash, soda, or hard soap; but that any quantity of 
soft soap might be used ; in fact, using it to any extent was merely a matter 
of £ s. d. ; but that all alkalies destroyed the fibre of the wool, making it harsh 
and dry, and what the manufacturers say, making it work unkindly. The 
great object to be obtained in washing wool is not only to make it white, but 
to make it bright. After leaving the spout, the fleece, when squeezed by the 
hand, should puff out again, not feeling sticky, and should glisten in the sun 
with a peculiar brilliancy ; if too little yolk is left in the wool it will be 
wanting in softness ; if too much, it will become sticky, and, after a time, turn 
yellow.* The number of days that should intervene between washing and 
shearing must depend partly upon the state of the weather as well as upon the 
condition of the sheep. Yolk will rise quicker in fat sheep than in poor ones, 
but from two to three clear days is generally sufficient. In sorting we skirt 
very heavily, taking about one-half from the fleece, and making it into what 
we call broken fleece, or pieces and locks. The remainder is sorted ink' 
combing and clothing sorts.” 

In regard to English practice, two most experienced agricul- 
tural colleagues, altogether representative men, have kindly written 
in reply to my queries. One says : “ I have never heard the 
opinion of any wool-stapler as to the best mode of managing- 
wool, either before or after shearing.” The other, in reply to a 
query as to the lingering custom of selling wool in grease, says : 
“ It is quite true a great portion of the wool grown in Devon, 
Somerset, and Cornwall is sold in the grease, not having been 
washed on the sheep’s back ; and there is a great difference of 

opinion amongst farmers about it The buyers prefer it 

well washed, and it is more marketable : in consequence, washing 
is becoming more general.” I may add that the United States 
Agricultural Reports testify strongly to the same effect, viz., that 
wool should not be clipped “ in the grease,” but well washed on 
the sheep’s back. 

Mr. F. Barroby,t of Dishforth, near Thirsk, has recently lec- 
tured on sheep with due regard to the most wool and mutton in 
the least time. The sheep of the district were originally the Tees- 
water, improved by Dishley rams. The flesh was improved, still 
the wool was hard and not uniform in staple, with a large propor- 


* The desirableness of this brilliancy in the wool is that manufacturers of 
merinos, de laines, and other light fabrics, will give extreme prices for it, as this 
bright wool only will take delicate dyes. Frenchmen are the best customers for 
this kind of wool, and their absence from or presence at the sales makes a differ- 
ence of at least Is. per lb. in the price, 
t See his note, p. 320. 


344 Wool in Relation to Science with Practice. 

tion of coarse “ kempj ” Breech wool. As wool became of more 
and more importance, careful selection of both sexes remedied 
defects, and we inherit the improved as distinguished from the 
pure-bred Leicester. Experience in these matters is costly, but 
it is the best guide. A great objection to half-bred flocks is the 
loss in the wool of the breeding ewes : he speaks of wool improved 
by climate and keep. 

Compared with the Lincoln Leicester, the improved Leicester 
is a rapid feeder : wool now-a-days is of quite as much import- 
ance as mutton. 

Mr. Barroby said : “ I will give the prices my wool has made 
since 1863, and leave you to judge as to the merits of my sheep 
as wool producers ; the average weight for the twelve years being 
8£ lbs., and about 14 hogg to a ewe on the average. In 1863 thev 
were Is. ILL; in 18 r 64, 2s. 3 id.; 1865, 2s. 3d.; 1866, 2s.; 1867, 
1868, and 1869, 2s.; 1870, Is. ILL ; 1871, 2s. ILL; 1872, 2s. 7 d.; 
and 1873, 2s. 2d. I have not heard of any fanciers of the Lincoln 
cross being able to show any better return on their wool account, 
and I may add that during these twelve years my father first, 
and afterwards I myself, took many prizes for wool at both the 
Royal and the Yorkshire shows, having to compete with both 
the Lincoln and Leicester cross, and the pure (or as I term them 
“ showyard ”) Leicester. The Lincoln cross requires both judg- 
ment, consideration, and caution. To sum up, I prefer the im- 
proved Leicester to all the other breeds, because you can get 
them off sooner, then fill their places up with sheep bought in, 
and so turn your capital.” Mr. Barroby entered upon the feeding 
of sheep, so as to produce the most wool and mutton in the least 
time. He said: “ About the last week in June in my district, the 
lambs should be weaned. My practice is to have winter-sown 
tares, on which I put the lambs : the lambs should be allowed 
about a quarter of a pound of corn and a quarter of a pound 
of mixed cotton and oil-cake per day at first, with hay or straw. 
After the tares, I put them on either clover or grass fog, and 
follow up with either rape or early soft turnips. About the 
second week in September, as soon as the lambs begin swedes, 
they should be cut for them. By gradually increasing the 
quantity of corn and cake to a half pound of each per day and 
plenty of cut turnips, you can send most of your hoggs to market, 
after clipping them, in April. About seventy or seventy-five 
per cent, should go then if the season has been favourable, and 
although the wool may not be quite so good in the lustre as that 
clipped about the third week in May, still the good keep makes 
fleeces heavy and better grown.” * 


Mr. Barroby, a neighbour of mine, lias kindly revised this note. 


Wool in Relation to Science with Practice. 


345 


The English wool-trade in 1869 found it necessary to issue to 
wool-growers the following caution : — 

“ Wool is sometimes shorn in places containing chopped straw or chaff, 
when particles of the latter get mixed, and cannot afterwards be separated 
from the wool, to the great deterioration of its value ; but the Council refer 
more particularly to cases of a more reprehensible character. Thus, loss arises 
from the sheep not being properly docked or clagged before clipping ; from 
the dockings and cots being sometimes wound up in the fleeces ; and from 
want of proper attention in cleaning the fleeces when clipping, so as to keep 
them free from tar, stones, sand, earth, clay, dung, straw, grass, or other 
substances. 

“ This, which many years ago it was found necessary to guard against by 
special Acts of Parliament, frequently remains undiscovered for months, until 
the wool goes into consumption, and a notion has prevailed that by the repeal 
of these Acts of Parliament the buyer has been deprived of his legal remedy. 
The Bradford Chamber of Commerce have, however, in conjunction with the 
Worsted Committee of Yorkshire, Lancashire, and Cheshire, taken the opinion 
of an eminent Counsel on this matter, and they are assured that the purchaser 
of such wool has a remedy at Common Law quite as effective as he formerly 
had by Statute. Actions have been brought, and damages recovered, both in 
the Assize and County Courts. 

“ It is to be hoped that flock-masters will take due precau