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162 Journal New York Entomological Society. t Vo1 - xxvu. 

NOTES ON THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES OF 
HIPPODAMIA (COLEOPTERA). 1 

By P. H. Timberlake, 
Honolulu, T. H. 

The writer has been studying our North American species of 
Hippodamia for several years past, and presents the results of his 
studies at the present time as a solicitation for additional material 
much needed to complete the work. Our species have been studied 
from a new angle with gratifying result, namely by the aid of char- 
acters residing in the male genitalia. The writer has carried on 
extensive breeding work also with several of the species, which has 
thrown much light on the extent of variation in the thoracic and 
elytral markings. 

Before proceeding further it might be well to review briefly the 
work of other writers during the last two decades. Colonel Casey 
has produced two important articles 2 on our species, and has done 
much in elucidating and describing not a few of the western forms. 
Although his work can not be considered conservative and is not 
entirely free from errors of identification it has done much to stimu- 
late other workers. It is apparent now that some of his species are 
merely forms or geographical races which may be recognized as 
subspecies. Mr. Leng 3 on the other hand appears to the writer to be 
somewhat too conservative in his treatment of the species so that 
the actual status of our forms in a general way lies somewhere 
between the extremes set up respectively by him and Colonel Casey. 
Another important contribution to the knowledge of our species is 
R. A. Johnson's " Determinate Evolution in the Color Pattern of the 
Lady-beetles."* Mr. Johnson attacks the subject from the standpoint 
of the experimental biologist and is much less successful in his taxo- 
nomic treatment. On this account his treatment of Hippodamia con- 

i Contributions from Experiment Station, H. S. P. A. 

2 Journ. N. Y. Entom. Soc, Vol. 7, pp. 61-169, June, 1899; Canad. Entom., 
Vol. 40, pp. 393-421, Nov., 1908. 

3 Journ. N. Y. Entom. Soc, Vol. 11, pp. 35-45, pi. 4, Mar., 1903. 

* Carnegie Inst. Washington, Publ. No. 122, pp. i-iv, 1-104, figs. 1-92, 
June, 1910. 



June-Sept., 1919.] TlMBERLAKE : HlPPODAMIA. 163 

vergens is preposterous and the biological data and conclusions drawn 
therefrom are vitiated by the fact that he confused at least six valid 
species under this name, viz., convergens, moesta, extensa, 15-macu- 
lata, 5-signata and lecontei. His treatment of the other species is 
more sonservative and for the most part not open to this objection. 

It is also necessary to consider the status of the genus Spilota 
Billberg 5 to which Mr. H. S. Barber has called the writer's attention 
as a possible substitute for Hippodamia. Apparently this genus was 
validly proposed and is open to use. Billberg included at least eight 
described species with references to Schonherr 6 although he gave no 
description. The genus was proposed as a segregate of Coccinella 
and included those species known to Billberg which on the whole 
were more slender and spotted than those remaining in Coccinella. 
So far as the writer can determine this was practically Billberg's sole 
conception of his genus, sufficiently vague as it may seem. The genus 
has never been recognized or brought into use by subsequent authors 
and it seems advisable to reach some conclusion at this time concern- 
ing its status, whether to suppress it definitely as a synonym if that 
is possible, or let it replace some later name. 

In selecting a genotype for Spilota it seems best to pursue the 
same course that would be applicable if it had been long in use, that 
is to consider all subsequent genera as its segregates. This pro- 
cedure in some cases may distort the author's conception of the genus 
in question, but on the other hand is less liable to upset the current 
nomenclature. Pursuant to this course we find that after Anisosticta, 
Megilla, Hippodamia, Adonia and Aphidecta with their validly in- 
cluded species have been excluded from consideration there is only 
one species left in Billberg's list, viz., n-punctata. This species is 
therefore definitely chosen as the genotype of Spilota Billberg, 
although it may be observed that the first species of the list, 19- 
punctata, the genotype of Anisosticta, probably conforms the most 
closely to Billberg's conception, n-punctate of Billberg and Schon- 
herr is evidently Linne's species 7 and a slightly aberrant Cocinella, 
so that Spilota thus sinks as a synonym of Coccinella Linne. This 
may not seem quite just when Spilota was proposed as a segregate 

5 Enumeratio Insectorum in Museum Billberg, p. 61, 1820. 

6 Synonyma Insectorum, Vol. 1, pt. 2, p. 185, 1808. 

7 Systema Naturae, p. 366, 1758. 



164 Journal New York Entomological Society. C Vo1 - xxvii. 

of Coccinella and included species which have been relegated to other 
genera by all modern writers, yet Billberg's work was too indefinite 
and obscure to be taken too seriously, and the writer feels that few 
workers will object to seeing the name suppressed, instead of being 
revived for such long-established genera as either Anisosticta or 
Hippodamia. Billberg's use of the name, however, invalidates Spilota 
Burmeister, 1844, a segregate of Anomala, which must sink as a 
homonym. 

Hippodamia Chevrolat. 

Hippodamia Chevrolat, in Dejean's Cat. Coleop., ed. 1833, p. 432, 1833 (or 
1834?). 

Type of genus: Coccinella 13-punctata Linne, designated by 
Crotch. 8 

Our North American species may be divided into four natural 
groups by means of the male genitalia as follows : 

13-punctata group. ^Edeagus slender, bent almost double upon 
itself, a little thickened just beyond the bend, its dorsal, subapical 
flaps small and membranous; lateral lobes of the theca (tegmen of 
Sharp and Muir 9 ) unusually large and wide; the posterior lobe of 
theca abruptly bent downward at the apical third and provided with 
a distinct chitinized plate beneath, which bears a rather long, linear 
lobe on each side at the posterior corners, and a pair of median lobes, 
much longer, reaching nearly to the apex of the theca and frequently 
after drying bent abruptly outward at their middle. 

Parenthesis group. iEdeagus slender, moderately bent in a half 
circle or a little more, enlarged or somewhat thickened at the dorsal, 
subapical flaps which are triangular in shape and rather well chitin- 
ized ; lateral lobes of theca slender ; the posterior lobe of theca rather 
small and narrow, its apex produced into a slender, simple or barbed 
point. 

Convergens group. ^Edeagus slender, moderately curved, not 
thickened or hardly so at the dorsal, subapical flaps, which are more 
or less membranous and linear; lateral lobes of theca slender; the 
posterior lobe of theca generally wider and more depressed than in 
the preceding group, its apex merely acute or produced into a slender, 
simple point. 

8 Revision of the Coccinellidse, p. 94, 1874. 

9 The Comparative Anatomy of the Male Genitalia Tube in Coleoptera, 
Trans. Entom. Soc. London, 1912, pp. 477-642, pi. 42-78, Dec, 1912. 



June-Sept., 1919.] TlMBERLAKE : HlPPODAMIA. 165 

Glacialis group. Jideagus much thickened throughout, generally 
bent nearly double upon itself, the dorsal, subapical flaps strongly 
chitinized except at apex, and undergoing various modifications in 
shape, but never exactly as described in the preceding groups; lateral 
lobes of theca slender; the posterior lobe of theca rather large, broad 
and considerably deeper than in the convergens group, its apex with 
an obliquely inclined portion limited by a strongly developed trans- 
verse keel, which is either straight or deeply emarginate. 

13-punctata Group. 

1. Hippodamia tibialis (Say). 

Coccinella tibialis Say, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Vol. 4, p. 94, 1824. 
Hippodamia 1 3-punctata of American writers, not Linne. 

This is the only species of the group in North America and 
although very closely allied to 13-punctata (Linne) of Europe it 
seems to be sufficiently distinct. In 13-punctata from Spandau, 
Prussia (Th. Pergande), the posterior lobe of the theca is abruptly 
widened close to the apex, its sides in dorsal view meet in a right 
angle at the apex and are slightly emarginate. In tibialis the pos- 
terior lobe is only slightly and gradually widened near the apex, its 
sides are straight and meet more acutely at the apex. Strange as it 
may seem at first thought, a male from Gifu, Japan (Y. Nava), 
exhibits the tibialis character slightly more accentuated even than in 
North American specimens. The writer has studied the genitalia of 
tibialis from St. Anthony Park, Minnesota (R. A. Vickery) ; Madi- 
son, South Dakota (R. A. Vickery) ; Tower City, North Dakota 
(Miriam W. Reeves) and from Taylorsville, Utah (P. H. 
Timberlake). 

Parenthesis Group. 

2. Hippodamia parenthesis (Say). 

Coccinella parenthesis Say, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Vol. 4, p. 93< 

1824. 
Coccinella tridens Kirby, Fauna borealis-Americana, pt. 4, p. 229, 1837. 

In this species the posterior lobe of the theca is not compressed 
beneath and its apex is produced into a short, barbed point. The 
genitalia have been examined in specimens from West Springfield, 
Massachusetts (H. E. Smith) ; Hagerstown, Maryland (J. A. 
Hyslop) ; Tower City, North Dakota (Miriam W. Reeves) ; Fort 



166 Journal New York Entomological Society. t Vo1 - xxvu. 

Collins, Colorado (C. R. Jones), and Murray, Utah (W. L. Bevon). 
The species is remarkably constant on the whole throughout its range, 
and there seems to be no tendency toward the formation of geo- 
graphical races. 

3. Hippodamia lunatomaculata Motschulsky. 

Hippodamia lunatomaculata Motschulsky, Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat., Moscow, Vol. 

18, p. 382, pi. 7, fig. 8, 1845. 
Hippodamia parenthesis in part of Crotch, Casey, Leng, Johnson, etc. 
Subspecies or Varieties : 

Hippodamia apicalis Casey, Journ. N. Y. Entom. Soc, Vol. 7, p. 81, 1899. 
Hippodamia parenthesis expurgata Casey, Canad. Entom., Vol. 40, p. 400, 1908. 

This species is distinguished from parenthesis by having the 
posterior lobe of the theca strongly compressed beneath, its apex 
truncate with a slender, median, unbarbed point. The writer has 
examined specimens of this species from Tillamook, Wilsonville and 
Forest Grove, Oregon (Creel and Rockwood) ; Salt Lake City, Utah 
(P. H. Timberlake) ; Evenston and Lyman, Wyoming (E. J. Vosler). 
A species as found in the lowlands of the Pacific Coast in California 
and Oregon has been confused with parenthesis, as the elytral mark- 
ings are practically the same, although there is some difference in 
the thoracic markings as pointed out by Johnson. In the interior 
and Rocky Mountain region it has become differentiated into a suffi- 
ciently distinct geographical race or subspecies, described by Casey 
under the name of apicalis. Casey's expurgata on the other hand 
seems to the writer to be hardly more than an individual variation, 
although it may possibly have become stabilized in some restricted 
localities. A fairly large proportion of the specimens from Tilla- 
mook, Oregon, are of this variety, the rest being typical lunatoma- 
culata, with intermediate forms. 

The writer has crossed parenthesis from Utah with lunatomaculata 
from Oregon and has found the union perfectly fertile in all cases. 
The genitalia of the resulting offspring is almost exactly intermediate 
between those of the parent species. Although the range of these 
two species overlap considerably in the Rocky Mountain region there 
is no evidence to show that they thus interbreed in nature. Since 
male Hippodamia are not at all adverse to mating with any female 
they find, even if belonging to another species, it would be too much 



June-Sept., 1919-] TlMBERLAKE : HlPPODAMIA. 167 

to suppose that mating between parenthesis and lunatotnaculata 
apicalis never takes place in nature. Such unions, however, are 
probably relatively rare, and in the case of any one female its results 
might well be nullified by the prepotency of the much more frequent 
intraspecific matings. 

The writer has also examined the genitalia of a third species be- 
longing to this group from Mineral King, Tulare County, California, 
in the collection of Dr. E. C. Van Dyke, but the specimen is not at 
hand for description. It is a heavily vittate form intermediate be- 
tween typical apicalis and lengi Johnson, and may prove to be the 
latter species. Much more material in this group is needed, how- 
ever, from the mountains of California and other parts of the West 
before our knowledge of lengi and its variations is complete. 

Convergens Group. 

The species allied to convergens, so far as their genitalia have 
been studied, may be separated as follows : 

1. Posterior lobe of theca without a small, acute tooth on each side near apex. 2 
Posterior lobe of theca with a small, acute tooth on each side near apex, 

beyond which it slopes downward and backward to an acute, slightly 
produced point, and is somewhat longitudinally furrowed on its dorsal 
surface, the concavity being most pronounced between the subapical 
teeth 4. sinuata Mulsant. 

2. Posterior lobe of theca without a transverse carina 4 

Posterior lobe of theca with a trnnsverse carina a little beyond the 

middle 3 

3. Posterior lobe narrow, triangularly tapering from base to apex ; its dorsal 

surface in front of carina slightly concave, the surface beyond the 
carina sloping downward and produced into a rather long, slender 
process as seen from above, but in side view continuous with tne 
strongly compressed cancave sides of the under surface. 

5. 15-maculata Mulsant. 
Posterior lobe rather short and wide, its lateral margins as seen from above 
slightly convex to near the apex, then abruptly narrowed and produced 
into a short, acute point ; its dorsal surface in front of the carina 
somewhat concave, but beyond the carina sloping downward to the 
apex; the under surface somewhat compressed especially towards the 
apex 6. cockerelli Johnson. 

4. Posterior lobe of theca comparatively large or about as long as the basal 

part S 



168 Journal New York Entomological Society. [ Vo1 - xxvii. 

Posterior lobe short and thick or about one-half as long as the basal part 
of theea, its dorsal surface plane except on the apical part where it is 
slightly convex; the lateral margins parallel until near the apex, where 
they abruptly converge and meet in an acute point; the under surface 
not compressed and provided with a short, rounded membranous flap 
on each side near the base, which usually projects so as to be visible in 

dorsal view 7. lecontei Mulsant. 

5. Posterior lobe of theca rather narrow, with subparallel margins arcuately 
converging near apex which is produced into a short, rather slender 
process ; the dorsal surface of lobe somewhat convex, the under sur- 
face depressed ; the dorsal, subapical flaps of asdeagus obliquely truncate 
at apex, the apical portion of aedeagus about twice as long as the flaps. 

8. convergens Guerin. 

Posterior lobe of theca wider than in convergens, the lateral margins as 
seen from above moderately arcuate, the apex produced into a rather 
long, slender process ; the dorsal, subapical flaps of aedeagus rounded at 
apex, the apical portion of aedeagus about one-half longer again than 
the flaps 9. moesta Leconte. 

4. Hippodamia sinuata Mulsant. 

Hippodamia sinuata Mulsant. Species des Coleopteres trimeres securipalpes, 

p. 1011, 1851. 
Hippodamia trivittata Casey, Journ. N. Y. Entom. Soc, Vol. 7, p. 81, 1899. 
Subspecies or Varieties : 
Hippodamia spuria Leconte, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Philadelphia, vol. 13, p. 

358, 1861. 
Hippodamia complex Casey, ibidem, p. 80. 
Hippodamia crotchi, Casey, ibidem, p. 80. 
Hippodamia americana Casey (not Crotch), ibidem, p. 80. 

This species is decidedly variable and it is divisible so far as it 
has been studied' by the writer into three well-marked subspecies. 
One, the typical sinuata (trivittata Casey) is found in the marshes of 
San Francisco Bay and along the Sacramento River in California. 
The second is the Oregon race described by Leconte as spuria, dis- 
tinguished by the heavy, more or less transverse postmedian spots 
and the expanded sutural spot. Crotchi and complex of Casey seem 
to be individual variations connecting with typical sinuata, as no 
proof has been advanced to show that they have become established 
races. The third race is that found in Utah and Colorado, dis- 
tinguished from spuria by the paler coloration, being generally 
suffused with yellowish in life, the scutellar spot narrow and often 



June-Sept, 1919.] TlMBERLAKE : HlPPODAMIA. 169 

prolonged to the middle or beyond, the humeral, postmedian and sub- 
apical spots small and generally separate, although the postmedian 
pair are not infrequently united. This subspecies has not been 
named apparently and may be called Hippodamia sinuate disjuncta 
n. subsp., described from thirty-one type and paratype specimens from 
Salt Lake City and Murray, Utah. Casey described it under the 
name of spuria and his americana (not Crotch) seems hardly more 
than an individual variation. The type of disjuncta will be placed in 
the U. S. National Museum. 

5. Hippodamia 15-maculata Mulsant. 

Hippodamia 15-maculata Mulsant, Species des Coleopteres trimeres securi- 
palpes, p. 20, 1851. 

This species which is often confused with convergens has the 
genitalia very distinct from any other species. Two males have 
been examined, one from Badger, Nebraska (W. C. Colt), and the 
other from Ba'tchawaung Bay, Lake Superior, Ontario (Hubbard and 
Schwarz). 

6. Hippodamia cockerelli Johnson. 

Hippodamia cockerelli Johnson, Carnegie Inst. Washington, Publ. 122, p. 49, 
fig- 33, 1910- 

The type of this species in the U. S. National Museum has been 
studied and it has been the only specimen examined. 

Oregonensis Crotch and dispar, Ulliputana and puncticollis of 
Casey have not been studied. They all seem to be closely related, 
and some of them if not all are likely to prove to be forms of one 
species to which cockerelli may also belong. 

7. Hippodamia lecontei Mulsant. 

Hippodamia lecontei Mulsant, Species des Coleopteres trimeres securipalpes, 
p. 1010, 1851. 

This species seems to be distributed throughout the Rocky Moun- 
tain region, but does not appear to be readily divisible into geographic 
races. Specimens with the basal bar broken up into a scutellar and 
the humeral spots occur in most localities apparently in about equal 
numbers with the form having the basal bar complete. Mulsanti 
Leconte, abducens Casey and bowditchi Johnson are probably forms 
of this species. It is frequently mistaken for H. 5-signata (Kirby). 



170 Journal New York Entomological Society, tvoi. xxvu. 

8. Hippodamia convergens Guerin. 

Hippodamia convergens Guerin, Iconogr. Regne Animal, p. 321, 1846. 

This species throughout its vast range from the Atlantic to the 
Pacific and from Washington and Massachusetts southward into 
Mexico is remarkably constant and the writer has not discovered the 
slightest tendency toward the formation of geographic races. A 
small percentage of the beetles in any part of its range has the elytral 
spots reduced or even altogether absent, and much more rarely the 
thoracic discal spots are absent. Another uncommon variation is that 
in which the postmedian spots are somewhat enlarged and united, 
and sometimes even the outer postmedian spot may be found jointed 
with the subapical spot. The writer has never seen an individual in 
which the inner postmedian and subapical spots have become united, 
but this variation presumably occurs occasionally, and Casey's juncta, 
therefore, is probably nothing but an individal variant of convergens. 
On one occasion at Salt Lake City, Utah, a pair of convergens were 
reared from larvae collected on a sunny bank in the early spring, 
which have the scutellar and postscutellar spots united and enlarged 
to form a broad subcrescentiform band extending back nearly to the 
inner postmedian spots. From these beetles a large series was bred, 
which contained both normally and abnormally marked individuals. 
In some of the latter the band has become jointed with the humeral 
spots and in others with the inner postmedian spots. All these varia- 
tions probably occur but little more frequently if at all in the Western 
States than in the Eastern. Johnson's statement, therefore, that con- 
vergens " flies to pieces " in the West is entirely erroneous, and based 
upon his confusion with convergens of some five other species. 

9. Hippodamia moesta Leconte, 

Hippodamia moesta Leconte, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Vol. 7, p. 19. 
1854. 

This species which is apparently confined to the North West 
Coastal region is most closely related to convergens in the genitalic 
characters. The writer has examined one male from Monroe, Wash- 
ington, in the collection of Dr. E. C. Van Dyke. 

Glacialis Group. 

The four species belonging in this group may be separated as 
follows : 



June-Sept., 1919.] TlMBERLAKE: HlPPODAMIA. 171 

1. The transverse keel near apex of the posterior lobe of theca deeply emar- 

ginate 2 

The transverse keel not emarginate ; the posterior lobe of theca rather thick 
dorsoventrally, more nearly terete than in the other groups, tapering 
gradually from the base to the keel and then more abruptly to the acute 
apex ; its dorsal surface rather flat, the apical portion sloping downward 
and backward from the margin of the keel 10. 5-signata (Kirby). 

2. Emargination of the transverse keel rounded 3 

Emargination of the transverse keel acutely angled ; the posterior lobe of 

theca of the same general shape as in 5-signata, but as seen from above 
the lateral margins are slightly emarginately rounded and somewhat 
expanded at the ends of the keel ; its dorsal surface longitudinally 
grooved, the area enclosed within the emargination of the keel in the 
form of a rather deep, rounded depression; the apical portion obliquely 
inclined from the margin of the keel, the apex of the emargination 
reaching nearly two-thirds of the distance to the apex of the lobe. 

11. extensa Mulsant. 

3. Posterior lobe of theca much as in 5-signata, but a little wider, more de- 

pressed, less tapering toward the apex and wider at the transverse keel ; 
its dorsal surface slightly longitudinally grooved in the middle on the 
basal part, the area enclosed by the keel somewhat obliquely inclined, 
but hardly concave ; the apical portion obliquely inclined from the mar- 
gin of the keel, the apex of the emargination reaching about one-half 
of the distance to the apex of the lobe ; dorsal flaps of aedeagus linear, 
rounded and membranous at apex, but heavily chitinized at base, the 
apical part of aedeagus nearly three times as long as the flaps. 

12. glacialis (Fabricius). 
Posterior lobe of theca as in glacialis except that the keel is a little more 
deeply and more broadly rounded emarginate, the lateral margins as seen 
from above nearly parallel as far as the obliquely inclined apical part; 
dorsal flaps of aedeagus chitinized throughout, a little broader toward 
the base, and somewhat emarginate on the inner side just before the 
apex, the apical part of aedeagus about twice as long as the flaps. 

13. Hippodamia sp. indet. 
10. Hippodamia quinquesignata (Kirby). 

Coccinella 5-signata Kirby, Fauna borealis-Americana, pt. 4, p. 230, pi. 7, fig. 
1, 1837- 

This species is extremely variable and has become segregated into 
numerous geographical races of which the following have been 
studied : 

Hippodamia coccinea Casey, Canad. Entom., vol. 40, p. 395, 1908. 
Hippodamia vemix Casey, Journ. N. Y. Entom. Soc, vol. 7, p. 79, 

1899. 



172 Journal New York Entomological Society. C Vo1 - xxvii. 

Hippodamia uteana Casey, Canad. Entom., vol. 40, p. 397, 1908. 
Hippodamia convergens, var. caseyi Johnson, Carnegie Inst., Wash- 
ington, Publ. 122, p. 21, 1910. 
Hippodamia ambigua Leconte, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Philadelphia, 

vol. 6, p. 131, 1852. 
Hippodamia obliqua Casey, Journ. N. Y. Entom. Soc, vol. 7, p. 79? 

1899. 
Hippodamia politissima Casey, ibidem, p. 80. 
Hippodamia punctulata Leconte, ibidem, p. 131. 
Hippodamia ambigua of authors, not Leconte. 

Besides those enumerated above it is likely that subsimilis Casey 
and perhaps leporina Mulsant belong here. 

Of the typical 5-signata only one female from Escanaba, Michigan 
(Hubbard and Schwarz) has been studied, but the pronotal and 
elytral markings are so similar to certain of the western subspecies 
and varieties that there is hardly a question but what it is correctly 
placed with them. This and the subspecies of the Rocky Mountain 
region are characterized by the heaviness of the elytral markings in 
varying degrees and in some forms by the brilliancy of the ground 
color. Of coccinea a male from Buena Vista, Colorado (Hubbard 
and Schwarz) has been studied. Of vemix specimens from Mullan 
and Helena, Montana (Hubbard and Schwarz) ; Moccasin, Montana 
(S. J. Snow) ; and Buhl, Idaho (L. P. Rockwood) have been ex- 
amined. Specimens of uteana have been studied from Enterprise, 
Utah (T. R. Chamberlin) and Kaysville and Salt Lake City, Utah 
(P. H. Timberlake). 

Uteana was found in the vicinity of Salt Lake City quite infre- 
quently during the summers of 1913 to 191 5. None was seen in the 
summer of 191 3, one male only was found on alfalfa in the fall of 
1914, but in July, 1915, some half a dozen specimens were discovered 
among great numbers of convergens and sinuata disjuncta on the 
flowers of poison hemlock infested with Aphis heraclei Koch. All 
that were found in 1915 were brought to the laboratory and kept 
under observation for weeks. It is interesting to note that two or 
three of the females proved to be infertile when captured, thus sub- 
stantiating the rarity of the spcies in that locality. From these speci- 
mens a good series was reared, showing an interesting amount of 
variation. Some of the beetles, except for the more brilliant colora- 



June-Sept, 1919.] TlMBERLAKE : HlPPODAMIA. 173 

tion and somewhat smaller size, were rather like typical 5-signata. 
The single specimen taken in 1914, however, verged toward the sub- 
species caseyi of Washington. Uteana also ranges westward to the 
mountains of California, as the form figured by Essig in his In- 
jurious and Beneficial Insects of California, under the name of 
lecontei, seems to belong here. 

As we proceed westward we find the forms of 5-signata char- 
acterized by a gradual obliteration of the elytral markings, until on 
the Pacific Coast we encounter the spotless subspecies, ambigua and 
punctulata. In the case of ambigua this condition is coupled with 
enlargement of the white discal marks on the pronotum, and with the 
reduction or even the total obliteration of these marks in the case of 
punctulata. In the interior valleys of Washington, however, we find 
the small-spotted subspecies, caseyi, in which the spots are arranged 
much as in convergens. So similar indeed is the arrangement, shape 
and size of the spots that some specimens cannot be separated from 
convergens with any degree of certainty, unless the student takes 
cognizance of the male genitalia. During the summer of 1915 the 
writer crossed uteana with punctulata and thus produced a form 
similar to caseyi, but with the elytral spots still further reduced or in 
part absent. The scutellar and postscutellar spots proved to be the 
most constant in the hybrid offspring. 

Of caseyi the writer has examined numerous specimens from 
Pullman, Washington (G. I. Reeves), and Wenatchee, Washington 
(E. J. Newcomer). This form, as mentioned above, might easily 
pass for convergens. Mr. Newcomer found it and convergens about 
equally abundant at Wenatchee. Ambigua is abundant in parts of 
Oregon and the writer has seen many specimens from Forest Grove, 
McMinnville, Wilsonville and Millsboro of that State (Creel and 
Rockwood), and one specimen from Vancouver, Washington (G. I. 
Reeves), which belongs here rather than with caseyi. Punctulata 
is extremely common in the lowlands of California and the writer 
has examined large series from Berkeley, Milbra, Sacramento, Pasa- 
dena, Whittier, San Diego, etc. (P. H. Timberlake). It has been 
called ambigua universally in recent years, although the true ambigua 
is the subspecies later redescribed by Casey under the name of obliqua, 
of which pollitissima seems to be either a synonym or a minor 
variation. 



174 Journal New York Entomological Society. t Vo1 - xxvn. 

ii. Hippodamia ertensa Mulsant. 

Hippodamia extensa Mulsant, Species des Coleopteres trimeres securipalpes, 
p. is, 1851. 

This species probably has the most limited range of any North 
American species, as apparently it is confined to the salt marshes of 
San Francisco Bay region, California. The writer has examined 
specimens from Alameda and Milbrse (E. C. Van Dyke). 

12. Hippodamia glacialis (Fabricius). 

Coccinella glacialis Fabricius, Systema Entomologise, p. 80, 1775. 
Coccinella abbreviata Fabricius, Mantissa Insectorutn, p. 54, 1787. 
Coccinella retnota Weber, Observationes entomologicae, p. 49, 1801. 

This common Eastern species has been examined from Melrose 
Highlands and Forest Hills, Massachusetts (P. H. Timberlake) ; 
West Springfield, Massachusetts (H. E. Smith) ; Salisbury, North 
Carolina (R. A. Vickery) ; and Tower City, North Dakota (Miriam 
W. Reeves). 

13. Hippodamia species. 

One male from Soda Springs, Idaho, remains undetermined. It 
runs to subsimilis in Casey's tables, and may possibly be that species, 
although subsimilis on the other hand might as likely prove to be a 
form of 5-signata. 



ON THE GENUS RHODESIELLA C. F. ADAMS 
(DIPTERA). 

By M. Bezzi, 
Turin, Italy. 

In 1905 Mr. C. F. Adams erected the genus Rhodesiella for a 
small South African fly collected in Rhodesia, near Salisbury, Jan- 
uary, 1901, by Mr. Frank L. Snow. The new genus was placed in 
the family Agromyzidae, but nothing was said about its natural affini- 
ties; the name has subsequently appeared only twice in the diptero- 
logical literature, besides the citation in the Zoological Record for 
1906, vol. XLIII, p. 391. It was conserved by me in the family 
Agromyzidae in my Catalog of the African Diptera (1908, p. 194). 
but Prof. Melander has removed it to the Milichiinae in his table of 
the genera 6f the subfamily (191 3, p. 237).