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246 BRUSH AND PENCIL 

especially among the group to which he attached himself, was very 
high, and what is more, his position was unique. His death deprived 
American art of a striking personality. Yet it is impossible not to 
feel that much of his achievement, judged by the standard of his best, 
fell far short of his vision. What he might have done if he could 
have lived must remain one of the unsolved mysteries of art and life. 
In regarding those lives in which in this world the art impulse has been 
bruised, retarded, or denied its full expansion, the conviction comes 
that sometime, somewhere, it will find complete expression. 

Katharine Metcalf Roof. 

MODERN ITALIAN ART 

Modern Italian art is not degenerate; it does not fall far behind 
the best work of the Renaissance. But between the art of the period 
prior to 1830 and that of the years following 1870, a distinction is to 
be drawn. In those forty years Italy was struggling for her indepen- 
dence, and not till the fall of the temporal power was there any great 
prosperity. 

In the work of architecture in the large cities, men were hampered 
by tradition and by the presence of ancient monuments. A large 
part of the work actually accomplished has been in the way of restor- 
ation. Still there have been some very creditable achievements. 
Milan, the richest city in Italy, leads in art matters. Here the lawyer- 
architect, Cagnolo, erected an arch of peace in 1838, based on the 
models of Constantine and Severus, but more elegant than its 
prototypes. 

Another monument of the genius of the Milanese is the great 
cathedral. Unfinished as to its facade in the sixteenth century, the 
architects of that period erected the first and second stories, which 
are classic and belong to the Renaissance period. In the seventeenth 
century an architect added the Gothic buttresses, reaching to the top 
of the second story, and in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, 
men worked on the fagade. It is the work of many hands and many 
periods. Consequently it is hybrid in character. The taste of the 
present day demands a more perfect unity and the plan is to remove 
everything that is Renaissance and have a front which shall be 
entirely Gothic. The gallery of Vittorio Emmanuele and the restored 
castle are also fine examples of Milanese art. 

In Rome the architects were still hampered by the presence of old 
monuments, and very little has been done that is original. In 1823 
St. Paul's Without the Walls was burned and the work since done is 
more than a restoration of the old basilica. The transept was changed; 
chapels were added; altars and mosaics brought in. Eighty mono- 



MODERN ITALIAN ART 247 

liths of white granite, with bases and capitals of white marble, were 
added, also an imposing baldachino and coffered ceiling. Perhaps 
the alterations are a matter of regret; but of the magnificence of the 
result there can be no matter of doubt. 

In Florence the architects are conservative in the treatment of 
modern buildings. The great undertaking there has been the com- 
pletion of the cathedral front. Curiously enough the decision on the 
important question whether the fagade should be finished on a basilical 
plan or with a triple gable, like the cathedral of Orvieto,"was left to 
popular vote. The basilical plan was adopted, and it proves only 
half-satisfactory. 

Palermo has built an opera house which is ranked the third in 
Europe; but Mantua still keeps its Ghetto and even Milan has con- 
demned districts still undemolished. Venice seems to be falling 
behind the other cities. 

The work in sculpture began with a reaction in favor of classicism. 
It was the outcome of the exaggerations of Bernini and the baroque 
school. People demanded more simplicity and tranquility and they 
found it in the art of Canova. The finest characteristics of this master 
are not to be looked for in his Venus, his Hebe, or the Graces, but 
in the tombs which he erected for the great ones of his day. A 
noble example is the tomb of Pope Clement XIII., in the Church of 
es Apostolr. It shows the return to simplicity. The pope is in the 
act of benediction, and his gesture of sovereignty recalls the eques- 
trian statue of Marcus Aurelius. A detail of the tomb of- Clement 
XIV., the genius of death with the lion by his side, is a grand work. 
This lion, one of two, is finer than any sculptured during the Renais- 
sance. In the Louvre is to be seen Canova^s Cupid and Psyche. 
The lines made by the arms of the two lovers are exquisite. But 
Amor lacks the passion of the Amor of Bernini; he is cold and 
classical. 

This coldness is Canova's greatest fault. Hebe rises amid her 
drapery like a flower out of the calix. But these figures of youthful 
deities and heroes have not the artistic greatness of Canova's portrait 
statues and tombs. Perseus is effeniinate; his Venus is self-conscious. 
But the Alfieri tomb in Santa Croce, with the symbolic figure of 
Florence, is dignified and noble. But Canova's greatest tomb is the 
pyramidal monument erected for the Archduchess Maria of Austria, 
with its groups of figures, 'Mike men and women turned into stone." 
One of Canova's works was a statue of Washington, in the toga of a 
Roman, incongruous according to modern ideas. The original was 
burned; but the cast is still in existence and a replica can be made, 
if it is asked for. 

After Canova came a reaction from classicism towards naturalism 
and the movement was headed by Lorenzo Bartolini. His Carita, in 
the Pitti Gallery, brings out some of his theories. He has studied 



248 



BRUSH AND PENCIL 



the Tuscan mother with her children. But the work is not entirely 
naturalistic. Bartolini did not think modern dress could be repro- 
duced in sculpture and the hair is still classical. The Rape of Po- 
lyxena, by Professor Fedi, is a work of great merit. In Giovanni 
Dupre classicism and naturalism meet. For his Abel he took the most 
beautiful form he could find and added his own personality to the 
work by suggesting the compassion of the dying Abel for his slayer. 
The Dying Hours of Napoleon, by Vincenzo Vela, now at Ver- 
sailles, shows the emperor still rebellious. The map of Europe is 




ST. FRANCIS 
By Augustin Querol 

stretched out before him and his clenched fist rests upon Germany 
and Russia. His mind is full of images. Giulio Monteverde, too 
poor to hire models, employed the members of his family. Jenner 
vaccinating his child is one of his best known works. Emilio Zocchi 
made himself popularly famous by his figure of the lad Michelangelo 
carving the head of the satyr. In Venice the sculptor of most note 
is Antonio del Zotto, a fine technician. He carved a statue of Titian 
and it stands outside the great painter's studio. A statue of Goldoni, 
playwright and actor, in bronze, located in a square near the Rialto 
Bridge, is worthy of a voyage of discovery. 

Modern Italian painting began with classicism; this was followed 
by a reaction which took two directions, one path leading to Pre- 
Raphaelitism, the other to romanticism. Apropos of the Pre-Raphael- 
ite Brotherhood, it may be recalled that Ford Madox Brown, traveling 



MODERN ITALIAN ART 



251 



in Italy, became acquainted with a little colony of Germans, led by 
Overbeck, who called themselves the Kloster Bruder, the Brethren 
of the Cloister. He became interested in their work and told Rossetti 
about it. It was not until Pre-Raphaelitism had been established in 
Rome that the echo of it came back to Italy from England. In Italy 
the movement was called Purism. The romanticists centered their 
interest in mediaeval life, 
robbers, brigands, ban- 
ditti, the crusades, and 
also in such literature as 
Shakespeare, Byron, and 
Walter Scott. 

Little was done be- 
tween 1830 and 1870. It 
is to Naples that we must 
look for the most impor- 
tant development. Do- 
mencio Morelli, the first 
name of note, has two 
styles. He treats literary 
or romantic themes with 
the detail and finish of a 
miniaturist, or he gives his 
art impulse a broad, syn- 
thetic direction. In his 
Christ in the Desert after 
the Temptation, he fills 
his canvas with the deso- 
lation of the desert. In 
his Three Maries he tells 
a story by the very attitude 
of the figures. Morelli 
bade his pupils go into the 
streets and study life as 
they saw it there. A pupil 
of Morelli's, Francesco Paolo Michetti, is full of the savagery and 
bizarrerie of his native Abruzzi. He has subjects so Italian, so 
catholic, that they are little to the taste of foreigners. But when he 
paints the life of the people, he is simply delightful. His Sleeping 
Shepherdess exercises a fascination over foreigners which his Corpus 
Christi processions are far from doing. 

Giuseppe Sciuti, born under the shadow of Mount Etna, painted 
a historic tableau, a Replenishing of the Roman Treasury, which is 
marvelous in light, in detail, and archaeological accuracy. It was 
painted for the Italian senate house and many of the figures are 
portraits. " ^'-- ^'-•--- -' •--' ^^^^o^-.:«^ fU^ ^o^f^.^ri^t^ 




JUAN DE RIVERA 
By Mariano Benlliure 



In the Vatican is a painting representing the martyrdom 



252 



BRUSH AND PENCIL 



of some Franciscan monks in Holland. It is the work of Caesare 
Fracassini. Giulio Sartorio may be called a Pre-Raphaelite. Ciseri's 
Entombment of Christ is the work of one of the older painters who 
had new ideas. Telemaco Signorini is a versatile impressionist, 
representing the culture of London and Paris, as well as that of his 
own Italy. 

Giovanni Muzziola has something of the fondness of Alma Tadema 
for marbles and rich stuffs. Lemmo Rossi-Scotti paints idylls; 
Giovanni Segantini is the Italian parallel of the French Millet, and 
the Israels of Holland; his Ploughing in the Engadine is his best 
known work. Peruzzi's Madonnina, a girl with a sleeping child, is 
known to many through reproductions. The greatest Genoese painter 
is Niccolo Barabino; his panels will live; the finest example is the 
Madonna of the Olives, owned by Queen Margherita. 

Elizabeth Denio. 




SALUS INFIRMORUM 
By Luis Menendez Pidal