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Englische Studien. Herausgegeben von Dr. Eugen Kolbing, Heilbronn. 

XVII. Band, 1892. 

I. — Ten Brink, On the Chronology of Chaucer's Writings. The suggestion 
for this article Ten Brink finds in Koeppel's double statement that Chaucer's 
Life of St. Caecilia was written after the Troilus, and belonged to the same 
period as his translation of the De Contemptu Mundi. In opposition to 
Koeppel, Ten Brink argues that the Life of St. Caecilia must fall about the 
beginning of Chaucer's second period, and the prose translation not far from 
the years 1387-8. Koeppel had made Chaucer's imitation of Dante in the 
first three stanzas of the poem, and his use of the particles forwhy and forthy, 
the crucial tests for determining the date of the St. Caecilia. As regards the 
first, the question chiefly concerned Chaucer's omission of lines 13-15 (Para- 
diso, XXXIII 1-21), in which Dante implores the intercession of the Virgin. 
Koeppel maintains that the substitution of comparatively meaningless verses 
for these was due to the author's fear of repeating lines used in a different and 
worldly sense in Troilus. Ten Brink, on the other hand, lays the omission to 
the freedom and realism of Chaucer's thought, to which Dante's mysticism 
appealed but feebly. To this he adds that the whole passage is rather a free 
remodeling than an imitation of that of Dante. He takes as decided issue 
with Koeppel in the inference to be drawn from the use of the particles 
forwhy and forthy. They are, indeed, almost lacking in the Canterbury 
Tales. But, on the other hand, they are sparingly found in the works of the 
first period, and the use of both particles in fact culminates in Troilus and 
Boethius. By the application of this test Ten Brink concludes that Troilus, 
The Hous of Fame, and The Legende of Goode Women follow each other 
closely in the order named. These results he fortifies by a re'sumS of his 
earlier arguments as to the dates of the poems: Troilus, for its maturity of 
art and thought, must be dated toward the close of Chaucer's second period ; 
the intimate connection between Troilus, The Hous of Fame, and The 
Legende of Goode Women leaves no doubt that they were written consecu- 
tively and without long interval ; these poems are of such a character that a 
religious work like St. Caecilia could not be a link in the chain connecting 
them ; the life of St. Caecilia shows so undeveloped an art that, on aesthetic 
grounds, it must be placed near the beginning of the second period ; the 
introduction is evidently written by a young man ; the St. Caecilia is the only 
poem of the second period that shows us Chaucer reproaching himself for a 
worldly life, for idleness and waste of time. It must then "belong to the 
beginning of the second period, and indeed to that part of it which lies before 
Chaucer's entrance into the custom-house. The poet who was overburdened 
with dry official business could not possibly have said of himself that he had 


written the life of a saint to keep himself from idleness." From the prologue, 
indeed, which Ten Brink regards as a spontaneous expression of his mood, he 
would date the poem before June 8th, 1374. 

The date of the De Contemptu Mundi is closely connected with those of 
the two prologues to The Legende of Goode Women. After a careful com- 
parison of these, the author concludes that the first-known and more familiar 
version (the Vulgata) was written about 1385, while the one discovered by H. 
Bradshaw in the Cambridge library (Gg) is a later remodeling of the same. 
The fixing of the exact date of the newer version would demand a careful 
study of the inner history of the Canterbury Tales. " Here," says Ten Brink, 
" I limit myself to the statement, which will hardly meet with much oppo- 
sition, that the Gg prologue must have been written soon after the so-called 
Headlink of the Man of Lawes Tale, and can hardly have come into existence 
before the year 1393." The dating of the prologues settles, at least approxi- 
mately, that of the De Contemptu Mundi, which must have been written 
between the two. The circumstances of the years 1386-88 would, moreover, 
have naturally turned Chaucer's mind toward such a work. From all consid- 
erations it was most probably written in 1387 or 1388. The hold of Innocent's 
treatise on Chaucer's thought is proved by its giving a motive to the intro- 
ductiomof the Man of Lawes Tale. 

Otto Zirwer, Notes on the Middle English Romance Generides. These 
notes are based on Wright's edition of the poem (1873-78). Zirwer wishes 
not only to correct the text more consistently than Wright, but to apply to its 
study the results of more recent scholarship. These notes fill some twenty- 
five pages. 

E. Kolbing, Notes on the Textual Criticism of the Strophic Poem Generydes. 
This article supplements the former by its application of metrical tests to the 
text criticised. 

Paul Theodor Mitschke, On Southey's Joan of Arc. I. Few poets have left 
such abundant and available material for the study of their works as Southey. 
' The Life and Correspondence of Robert Southey,' by his son, the selections 
from his 'Letters of Robert Southey,' edited by J. W. Warter, and the auto- 
biographical prefaces and notes to his various works, leave little mystery as to 
his methods. Mitschke's article begins with an account of the familiar cir- 
cumstances under which the poem was composed. It then takes up the 
alterations made by Southey in the subsequent editions. Especially inter- 
esting is the omission in the second edition (1798) of the part of the second 
book originally written by Coleridge. The reason, given by Southey in a 
letter dated July 19, 1837, was, naturally enough, that Coleridge's style was 
not in keeping with his, and that the matter was inconsistent with the plan 
in which the poem was recast. The sources from which Southey drew his 
material were most various. Earlier poems on the subject suggested, how- 
ever, little but the artistic value of the subject. Chapelain's epic (1659) and 
"Voltaire's drama (1762) were severely criticised by the poet of the revolution. 
The poems and tragedies of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries were 
hardly worth consideration as works of art. The pantomime which he saw 
in London in the Covent Garden theatre could at most prove the popular 


interest in the theme. But in any case, so painstaking a poet as Southey 
must have gone directly to original sources. Not only are the customs and 
chronicles of England and France pressed into the service, but the most 
various books are ransacked for illustrations of the manners and customs of 
the time. Selden's Titles of Honour (1614), Burney's History of Music, 
Grose's Antiquities, Montaigne's Travels, and Speed's Theatre of the Empire 
of Great Britain, were studied as faithfully as the histories for the light they 
threw on some local peculiarity. Allied to this critical accuracy is Southey's 
censorship of his own thoughts and expressions. In a note to the line 
"Worthy a happier, not a better love" (IV 477), he quotes Ovid's verse, 
" Digna minus misero, non meliore viro." To justify the phrase "entering 
with his eye the city" (VII 20), he calls to witness Silius Italicus (XII 567) : 
"Nunc lentus, celsis adstans in collibus, intrat urbem oculis." The second 
part of the article treats of the character and underlying thought of the poem. 
It belongs to the rebellious season of Southey's youth, when he was most 
deeply moved by romantic and democratic ideas; its fundamental character 
is determined by the enthusiasm of the day for poetical and intellectual 
freedom. This phase of the subject the author sums up as follows: "If we 
must look on this animosity to despotism and false orthodoxy as the funda- 
mental tone of the epic, the motto which Southey borrowed from Homer and 
placed at the beginning of his poem, elf oiovbr apiUTOQ a/iiivscrOac trepi TraTpi/c, 
appears in part ironical. The poet certainly admires the enthusiasm of a 
nation in its struggle to free the fatherland ; but he is secretly angered at the 
thought of the blood that must be shed by the people in order that a worthless, 
heartless and immoral king may mount the throne. By laying the scene of 
this action in France he is able to scourge the conditions of his own land 
more fully. While attacking English royalty indirectly by exposing the 
shamelesaness of the French king, he does not hesitate to pass the severest 
judgment on his own countrymen in his description of the past to which the 
history of England's conquest of France belongs." 

Th. A. Fischer, A Collection of Words and Phrases in the Dialect of North 
Ireland. Irish dialects, Fischer reminds us, have been studied much less 
thoroughly than those of England and Scotland. Their peculiar interest may 
best be stated in a translation of his own words : " The north of Ireland, as 
far as dialect is concerned, is in a singular position. While in Donegal and 
the Mourne Mountains the Celtic language is still commonly spoken, in the 
counties of Monaghan, Tyrone and Armagh, and even more signally in those 
of Antrim and Down, there remain clinging many old Scotch expressions of 
everyday life that in Scotland itself have long passed out of use." In the list 
of dialectic words and phrases are a number that have passed into colloquial 
or vulgar English. 

Joh. Ellinger, Is it Desirable to read Lamb's Tales from Shakespeare in 
Our Schools? In answering this question the author considers only the 
fidelity of the Tales to Shakespeare. Of the six plays to which he applies 
this test, The Merchant of Venice, King Lear, Romeo and Juliet, and The 
Tempest are recommended for the use of pupils who cannot read Shakespeare 
easily in the original. For Hamlet and Macbeth they must go, if help is 
necessary, to German translations. 


Among the Book Notices are reviews of Kaluza's edition of Libeaus 
Desconus, of Shuckburgh's edition of Sidney's An Apologie for Poetrie (1891, 
from the text of 1595), Philipsen's On the Character and Use of the Definite 
Article in King Alfred's Prose, HUllweck's On the Use of the Article in the 
Works of Alfred the Great, Fricke's The Old English Numeral, Bock's Syntax 
of the Pronouns and Numerals in King Alfred's Orosius, and Jellinek's The 
Myth of Hero and Leander in Poetry. Koeppel closes his review of Shuck- 
burgh's edition (he does not seem to know mine) with these words: "Zu 
Bubonax (p. 175) ware nach deutschen begriffen Albert S. Cook's artikel in 
der Academy n. 926 zu citiren gewesen." Robert Boyle's introduction to 
Gelbcke's The English Stage in the Time of Shakespeare is adjudged the 
best brief survey in German of the development of the English drama. 

The Miscellanea contains an interesting fragment of Robert Manning's 
Chronicle. The sympathetic biography of Ten Brink by Koeppel is followed 
by a chronological list of his publications. Glode points out some striking 
parallelisms in the poems of Thomas Gray and Heinrich Heine. 

II. — E. Koeppel, On the Chronology of Some of Chaucer's Writings. In 
this article Koeppel defends the dates of The Life of St. Caecilia and the 
De Contemptu Mundi, attacked by Ten Brink in the preceding number of 
Englische Studien. 

W. Franz, Syntax of Early Modern English. I, II. Franz bases his study 
of English syntax on the writers of the seventeenth and early eighteenth 
centuries. The present numbers treat of the relative and personal pronouns. 
They are interesting to every student of language both for the lucid presen- 
tation of their subject and for their many well-chosen examples. 

J. Klapperich, Comparison of the Adjective in Modern English. 

Besides others of less importance, the Book Notices contain reviews of 
Riegel's The Sources of W. Morris's ' The Earthly Paradise,' of Buchner's 
edition of the Historia Septem Sapientum, and Dick's edition of the Gesta 
Romanorum — both from the Innsbruck manuscript, and both included in the 
Erlanger Beitrage zur englischen Philologie — and of two parts of the New 
English Dictionary. A severe criticism of Knortz's History of North Amer- 
ican Literature closes with an unflattering picture of the intellectual condition 
of America. Our state is one of hopeless intellectual mediocrity. "The 
narrow spiritual horizon, the ceaseless leveling, the blessings of an all-equal- 
izing 'pure democracy,' excessive ecclesiasticism without any deep religious 
feeling, the lack of high culture, the luxuriance of a worthless newspaper 
literature which answers the necessities of the moment, the morbid preference 
for the sensational — all these have strongly influenced American literature. 
One may say that a nation of sixty-two million people produces only weak 
sugar-and-water poems and journalistic articles, that the drama is wholly 
dead, and that, with few exceptions, the volkslieder consist of street songs. 
The small number of scholars, who fortunately do exist, receive no small 
share of their inspiration from 'effete and dying Europe,' from England, 
Germany and France, and bear no proportion to the mass of the people. 
Genius vacat, but even talents are far too few." 


This number of the Miscellanea is rich in contributions toward the eluci- 
dation and text-criticism of Modern and Middle English poems. Kolbing 
contributes valuable notes on the textual criticism of the poems contained in 
Wulker's Old English Reader, Preussner gives a number of notes on Robert 
Manning's Chronicle, Sprenger suggests various emendations in the readings 
of Peele's King David and Fair Bethsabe, and gives some interesting refer- 
ences to the sources of Byron's Bride of Abydos and Longfellow's Autumn, 
Tales of a Wayside Inn, and Miles Standish. Wiilfing has collected a number 
of valuable examples illustrating the use of Old English sum with the genitive 
of number. The account of the fifth session of the Association of Modern 
Philologists (Berlin, January 7, 8, 9, 1892) shows the influence of current 
German educational discussion. 

III. — O. Lengert, The Scottish Romance Roswall and Lillian. In this 
number Lengert gives an account of the various manuscripts of the old 
romance, an analysis of its contents, and an enumeration and brief descrip- 
tion of related European sagas. Legends showing more or less striking points 
of resemblance are found in Tartary, Servia, Russia, Italy, Poland, Germany, 
Bohemia, Norway, Bosnia, Albania and Greece, as well as in England and 
France. These stories are divided into two main groups. With the smaller 
of them, containing the Tartar, Russian, Servian, Polish and Italian tales, the 
author chiefly concerns himself. The article concludes by a consideration of 
the artistic value of the Scottish romance, and an analysis of its dialect, metre 
and vocabulary. 

W. Sattler, English Collectanea: (1) The Germanic and the French Mode 
of Numeration. Sattler has collected many examples showing English usage 
in reference to such forms as one and twenty, twenty-one, which he discriminates 
as Germanic and French respectively. Those from the various versions of the 
Bible are especially interesting. 

W. Franz, On the Syntax of Early Modern English. In this article Franz 
continues and concludes his treatment of the pronouns. The complete article 
will be of much value to students of the subject. 

E. Nader, An Attempt to use Phonographic Texts in English Teaching. It 
is needless to say that this method has proved most effective in economizing 
the teacher's energy and power. 

The Book Notices contain, among others, reviews of Skeat's Twelve Fac- 
similes of Old English Manuscripts, of Davidson's Phonology of the Stressed 
Vowels in Beowulf, of Bluhm's The Autobiographical in David Copperfield, 
and of Sweet's Shelley's Nature-Poetry. Of Davidson's paper Karsten says : 
" The paper contains not only much honest work, but also earnest thought 
and good judgment. The arrangement is so transparent that every question 
relating to Beowulf vocalism finds its prompt answer by a glance at the 
respective paragraph, so far as stressed vowels are concerned." 

This number of the Miscellanea is devoted to Lord Byron and Miss Eliza- 
beth Pigot, Byron and Dupaty's Letters on Italy, and to an account of the 
lectures on English Philology and kindred subjects in the universities of 
Germany, Austria and Switzerland in the year 1891-92. 


XVIII. Band, 1893. 

I. — R. Sternberg, On a Middle English Chronicle in Verse. The author 
considers first the chief manuscripts and the phonological peculiarities of the 
two versions of the chronicle, designated respectively as A and R. Then 
follows a brief treatment of the metre. The verse is the four-stressed riming 
couplet, and is very freely handled. The rime and alliteration of the two 
versions are carefully compared. 

P. Th. Mitschke, On Southey's Joan of Arc. II. The aesthetic criticism of 
Southey's Joan of Arc is prefaced by a brief account of its reception. The 
favorable judgment of contemporaries was, indeed, little due to the artistic 
excellence of the poem. The dearth of contemporary poetry, the romantic 
nature of the subject, and the revolutionary spirit in which it was written, 
more than account for its popularity. This Southey clearly stated in the 
preface to the edition of 1837 (p. 23). "But the chief cause of its favorable 
reception was that it was written in a republican spirit, such as may easily be 
accounted for in a youth whose notions of liberty were taken from the Greek 
and Roman writers, and who was ignorant enough of history and of human 
nature to believe that a happier order of things had commenced with the 
independence of the United States, and would be accelerated by the French 
Revolution. Such opinions were then as 'unpopular in England as they 
deserved to be ; but they were cherished by most of the critical journals, and 
conciliated for me the good-will of some of the most influential writers who 
were at that time engaged in periodical literature, though I was personally 
unknown to them. They bestowed upon the poem abundant praise, passed 
over most of its manifold faults, and noticed others with indulgence." The 
aesthetic value of Joan of Arc is tried chiefly by Southey's requirement that 
the hero of an epic poem should be the character that chiefly holds the 
reader's interest. Judged by his own standard, Southey has failed ; not Joan, 
but Conrad, forms the central interest of the poem. The heroine is deficient 
both in intense passion and in the absence of any real moral struggle. She 
thus becomes a mere puppet in the hands of fate or providence, and is inter- 
esting only when her simplicity of character and purpose is brought into 
contrast with natures more sensitive and complex than her own. Conrad, 
whose feelings are more various and conflicting, holds our sympathy far more 
continuously and completely. He is, besides, a more essential part of the 
play. We can think of him without Joan, but not of Joan without him. 
" He is the dark background against which appears the bright form of the 
Maid as she passes him. Without this background she would dissolve into a 
broad sea of light, which after a time could only pain and blind us." An 
interesting point treated by the author in discussing this poem is the peculiar 
character of Southey's romanticism. In all that he wrote appeared his predi- 
lection for the romantic; all the material that he sought for his muse bore the 
imprint of his romanticism. But while Scott was inspired by Germany and 
found material in the ballads and romances of his native land, Southey went 
to the most distant and foreign sources for his inspiration, to Spain and France 
and Mexico and Arabia and India. In Joan of Arc, however, his romanticism 
is comparatively simple and familiar, and pleases us far better than do the far- 
fetched allusions, the exaggerated pathos, and the strained fancies of some of 


the later poems. In conclusion the author ranks Joan of Arc with Roderick 
as Southey's best work. When considered in relation to European poetry it 
takes an even higher place ; Southey's epic and Schiller's drama are the two 
great representations of one of the greatest of the romantic themes. 

K. Breul, The Modification of the Mediaeval and Modern Languages Tripos 
in Cambridge. In response to the demand of schools, students, and the 
faculties of the University, this reform of the Mediaeval and Modern Lan- 
guages Tripos was announced by the senate, of Cambridge University October 
17, i8gl. As there is in England no Minister of Instruction, the task of 
examining the old system and of making recommendations for its improve- 
ment was put into the hands of a ' Special Board for Mediaeval and Modern 
Languages.' The recommendations of this Board, which, with few modifica- 
tions, were accepted by the senate, were the result not only of long study, but 
of consultation with specialists outside the Board. The new regulations con- 
cerning the conditions of the degree and the papers to be set in each of the 
six sections of the Tripos are given in full. The conclusions may best be 
given in a translation of the author's words: "If we compare the original 
regulations for examination with the new one, we reach, in the main, the 
following results. The chief points criticised in the old programme have all 
been considered and, as far as possible, done away with. The arrangement 
of the sections and their relations to one another are entirely altered. The 
examination itself is longer and more searching. It embraces, aside from the 
oral examination, which is not obligatory, six days (thirty-six hours). The 
demands in the different departments are made as nearly as possible equal to 
one another, English especially approximating to German. For the first time, 
means are provided for a wholly independent study of Anglistik and German- 
istik. Almost every paper shows indications of the change in a better nomen- 
clature as well as in the better ordering of the regulations. English now 
heads the list. 'Anglo-Saxon' is replaced by 'Old English,' and ' Moeso- 
Gothic' by 'Gothic' Unfortunately, 'Teutonic' (instead of 'Germanic') is 
still retained. . . . The greatest gain in the demands for a more thorough 
preparation consists in the granting of a fourth year of study, while it is still 
to be proved whether the long-desired admission of students from other 
triposes can be called a real gain. In this historical and classical philologists 
have been especially considered. From what has been said it is evident that 
the new course is more elastic than the old, and better suited to the tastes of 
different natures." Among the good results certain to follow the change at 
Cambridge, the author dwells on its influence on the other universities. He 
says : " In none of the higher institutions of learning has the study of modern 
languages hitherto been so carefully organized as now in Cambridge, and the 
experience of Cambridge with the new system will in the future, if the sister 
institutions are at last forced to yield to the stream of time and follow her 
example, be of the most wide-reaching significance for Oxford, Victoria 
University, and perhaps for the University of London." 

H. Klinghardt, New Methods of Language-Teaching Abroad. The Euro- 
pean demand for better methods makes the teaching of languages a question 
of European interest. From this point of view the author reviews the impor- 
tant books on the subject published in the chief nations of Europe. Russia is 


represented by one book, Denmark and Sweden by four each ; other countries 
by various numbers. Sweet's Second Middle English Primer is the English 
book noticed. From Charles F. Richardson's articles (School and College, 
vol. I, pp. 386-97) are taken several quotations of interest to all students of 
philology. The first concerns the great value of the comparative method in 
the teaching of Old English, another the danger of losing a sense of literature 
in the study of linguistic philology. 

Among the Book Notices are reviews of Earle's The Deeds of Beowulf, 
Fleay's Biographical Chronicle of the English Drama, Sarrazin's Thomas Kyd 
and his Circle, Kaluza's Chaucer and the Romance of the Rose, and Andrews's 
The Old English Manor. Of Earle's Beowulf, Koeppel praises the compre- 
hensive notes, which are drawn from the many-sided reading of a highly 
cultured man. Homer, modern slang, and the text of the Mikado are alike 
used to illustrate the poem. Koeppel finds the notes the most valuable part 
of the work. The translation is at least in part injured by the mixture of 
archaic and "very modern, sometimes trivial" expressions. Of these young- 
sterhood {geogo%, v. 409) and the racket (bearhtm, v. 1431) are the most striking. 
Boyle declares that, in spite of the vast collection of facts, a review of Fleay's 
book, which should be of any value, must "not only contain all the misprints 
and mistakes in the work, but also expose all the arbitrary conclusions which 
Fleay has incorporated into his material, as if they were ascertained facts." 
(See p. 112.) This he attempts to do for the plays he knows best — those of 
the Massinger-Beaumont- Fletcher group. 

In the Miscellanea are some interesting notes by Varnhagen and Sprenger 
on The Tales of a Wayside Inn and others of Longfellow's poems, and a 
further discussion by Jellinek and Frankel of the former's article on Hero 
and Leander (Englische Studien, XVII). 

II. — M. Kaluza, Thomas Chestre, Author of Launfal, Libeaus Desconus, 
and Octovian. The first step in deciding the authorship of the three romances 
is to ascertain their relation to the older Sir Landavall or Lanval. The data 
needful for the decision were only given when G. L. Kittredge published the 
better text of the poem in the American Journal of Philology (X, 1889). The 
argument, based on a careful study of the parallel passages, the verbal coinci- 
dences, and the stanzaic structure of the poems, is briefly as follows: Chestre 
had taken the general plan and action of his Launfal directly from the older 
poem, but had added to it many beautiful episodes and descriptions. The 
three poems are undeniably by the same author ; of these, Launfal is the 
earliest, Libeaus Desconus the second, and Octovian his last and greatest 
work. The argument is presented with singular lucidity and vigor. 

W. Franz, On the Syntax of Early Modern English. This article deals 
with the adverb. Especially interesting are the illustrations of the adjective 
form of the adverb common in Shakespeare and through the whole sixteenth 
century. Our 'talk big' finds its counterpart in Bacon's 'to speake great.' 
But where so much is interesting, the article itself must be studied. 

The Book Notices contain reviews, among others, of Refiner's Historical 
Outlines of English Syntax, Bright's Anglo-Saxon Reader, Haeckel's The 


Proverb in Chaucer, and Kolbing's Byron's Siege of Corinth. The choice of 
texts, the glossary, and the metrical analysis of Bright's Reader are highly 
praised. The review of Kolbing's edition of the Siege of Corinth is sugges- 
tive as to the study of the modern poets. Especially important is the account 
of his treatment of metre : " Here for the first time is the attempt made to 
obtain a scheme, already often applied to the investigation of Middle English 
texts, for the alliteration of Byron's poems." The results are not, indeed, 
wholly satisfactory. " The most of the alliterative formulas are not found in 
Old and Middle English. Yet they are not all new creations of Byron's. 
Many of them are found in other poets, but our present metrical knowledge 
does not enable us to ascertain exactly the origin of the various forms." 

The department of Miscellanea is more interesting than usual. Reichel 
contributes notes to the textual criticism of Sir Fyrumbras, and Kellner to the 
syntax of Ipomadon. Sprenger calls attention to some curious echoes of 
Milton in Goethe's Faust. The old ballad, King John and the Abbot of 
Canterbury, is elaborately discussed by Hoenig. The short biographical 
notice of Taine is accompanied by an appreciative criticism of his writings. 
In spite of the lack of appreciation for him in Germany, the author insists 
that his profound philosophy, his historic insight, his psychological intuition, 
his great and varied learning, and his literary and artistic power are extremely 
rare in historians of literature. The name that he places beside him is that 
of Ten Brink, " the other great historian of English literature." 

III. — W. Hulme, 'Blooms' of King Alfred. Under this title the author 
gives the text of the Old English translation of Flores ex libro soliloquiorum 
D. Augustini Hipponens. A brief account of the date of the writing and of 
the several manuscripts is prefaced to the text. 

R. Sternberg, A Middle English Chronicle in Verse. This article deals 
with the sources of the two forms of the chronicle and with their relation to 
each other. As to the latter point, Sprenger concludes that A is a later work 
than R. How far the author changed the original chronicle from which he 
drew, it is impossible to prove without a more perfect knowledge of manu- 
scripts. The Albin prologue is certainly peculiar to A. The chief source of 
R is unquestionably Robert Gloucester's Metrical Chronicle of England, and 
especially a manuscript copy of the same, which belongs to the class marked 
by Wright a/3yde. Besides this, the author was probably acquainted with 
Layamon B and Wace, and perhaps with Geoffrey of Monmouth. In many 
of his facts, such as the lengths of the reigns and the burial places of the 
kings, he differs widely from the other chronicles of the times. The sources 
of A are various : The story of Albin is taken from a French lay Des grauntz 
Jiauntz, etc. (Jubinal, Rec. II 354) ; The Dedication of Westminster is the 
versified form of a Latin treatise, De Dedicatione Eccl. Westmon. (Hardy, 
Desc. Cat. 1, n. 537). The story of Hengist is invented after the analogy of 
later events ; that of Cassibalan is amplified in the same way. Hine goes 
back to an unknown source ; the story of Lanzelot differs from that of the 
familiar Arthurian legend, and is largely the work of imagination. Edmund's 
Death is a free rendering of the Martyr Saga of Edmund. Inge is either the 
transcription or a poetic remodeling of a folk-saga, with use of the Rowena 


episode in RG ; Richard's Expedition to Palestine is taken from a version of 
the romance Richard Coeur de Lyon. The story of John has not yet been 
traced to its source. 

As to the literary qualities of the two authors, R is tolerably dry and matter 
of fact, and is content to give a literal representation of his authorities ; he 
seldom expresses, as in the case of Edelwolf's Peter's Pence, his own opinion. 
A, on the contrary, tries to make his work interesting. He inserts romantic 
stories, and himself writes poetry of the romantic character. But no less than 
R, he loses interest as he draws near to the history of his own time. More- 
over, he shows a special love of London and of the peculiar local traditions of 
that city. 

J. W. Hales, The Date of the First English Comedy. A chief problem of 
the historian of the English drama is, according to Hales, " to arrange the 
surviving fragments of the early Tudor drama in a more precise order of time 
than is at present possible, and to make clear the condition of our theatre 
when it was brought into close contact with the works of Plautus and Seneca." 
To this end he gives many, and apparently conclusive, arguments in favor of 
dating Ralph Roister Doister after 1546, instead of between 1534-41. The 
evidence may be summed up thus: the third edition of Wilson's Rule of 
Reason (1553) used, in order to illustrate 'Ambiguity,' the famous letter from 
Ralph Roister Doister to Mistress Kit Custance. If Wilson had known of it 
earlier he would most likely have used it in the editions of 1550 and 1552 ; 
but that he, an old pupil of Udall's at Eton, had not known of it, if it was 
written between 1534-41 or 2, is incredible. This is made even more unlikely 
because of the friendly relations of the two men, which are proved by the 
commendatory verses contributed by Udall to Wilson's Rule of Reason. 
These arguments are still further strengthened by the fact that about 1552 
Udall was in such high repute as a dramatist that he is mentioned as having 
set forth 'Dialogues and Interludes' before Queen Mary. The internal 
strengthens the external evidence. The points of likeness between the play 
and Heywood's Proverbs (1546) indicate a date later than 1546. The refer- 
ences to usury, especially the line 

Fifteen for one, which is too much of conscience 

would seem to show that the Act of 1546, if not that of 1552, had been passed. 
Another strong point in favor of the later date is the more natural interval 
that would thus exist between this and the later comedies. 

W. Franz, On the Syntax of Early Modern English, In this article the 
conjunction is treated with the fullness and clearness that makes this whole 
series so valuable. 

Among the Book Notices are reviews of Bright's Gospel of St. Luke, of 
Liebermann's Consiliatio Cnuti, of Brown's Language of the Rushworth 
Gloss, and of Borkowsky's Sources of Swift's Gulliver. 

The Miscellanea is wanting. 

Albert S. Cook. 


Romania, Vol. XXI (1892). 


On entering upon the third decade of their joint labors as editors of the 
Romania, MM. Paul Meyer and Gaston Paris, in an article addressed ' A nos 
lecteurs,' take a comprehensive survey of the work entered upon by them 
twenty-one years ago and still so vigorously prosecuted. The exceptional 
character of this retrospective paper invites to considerable fulness in the 
indication of its contents. After calling attention somewhat apologetically 
to the fact that the editorial contributions have constituted more than one- 
quarter of the twenty volumes of the Romania, the editors proceed : " II y a 
vingt ans, la France occupait dans le monde une position bien modeste, pour 
la science comme pour le reste, et elle en avait le sentiment peut-ftre exagere. 
Les etudes romanes notamment, prises dans leur generalite, y interessaient 
peu de personnes. L'etude plus speciale de notre langue et de notre littera- 
ture etait poursuivie par un petit nombre d'erudits dont les travaux avaient 
peu d'action sur le grand public et n'en avaient aucune sur l'enseignement 
officiel. Trois chaires seulement, reparties entre le College de France, l'Ecole 
des Chartes et l'Ecole des Hautes Etudes, toutes trois, par consequent, placees 
a Paris et en dehors de l'Universite, representaient en France certaines 
branches de la philologie romane. Au mSme temps l'Allemagne etait con- 
siderablement en avance sur nous, tant par la place qu'elle accordait a 
l'enseignement historique des langues et litteratures neo-latines que par le 
nombre et l'importance des travaux qu'elle leur consacrait. Nous avons 
voulu que notre pays devint a son tour un centre d'etude et de production 
pour la philologie romane en general, et plus particulierement pour la philo- 
logie francaise. . . . Notre domaine, restreint de plus en plus a la periode 
ancienne de la philologie romane et specialement de la philologie francaise, 
s'est, par certains cote's, singulierement agrandi depuis vingt ans. A mesure 
que les decouvertes vont se multipliant, 1'horizon s'elargit et 1'on voit mieux 
combien il reste encore a trouver. Des rapports imprevus s'etablissent entre 
les ceuvres qui semblaient isolees. L'analyse linguistique est parvenue a un 
point de perfection que Ton entrevoyait a peine lorsque nous avons commence 
la Romania. On arrive peu a peu a dater de temps et de lieu, au moins 
approximativement, les compositions anonymes qui abondent dans notre 
ancienne litterature. On a pu recemment tenter, avec chance de succes, de 
dresser le tableau chronologique de la litterature francaise jusqu'au XlVe 
siecle : on n'y eut pas songe il y a vingt ans. Bient6t, a mesure que la langue 
de chaque auteur ou de chaque ouvrage sera en quelque sorte condensee en 
des glossaires speciaux, on parviendra a grouper ensemble les ecrits anonymes 
d'un meme auteur. Notre champ d'etudes reste done, pour ainsi dire, illimite. 
Mais, a cote des recherches originales, nous devons reserver une place suffi- 
sante a l'examen des travaux d'autrui. Nous le disions dans notre programme 
de 1871 : 'La critique des ouvrages qui paraitront dans le domaine de nos 
etudes sera une partie importante du recueil.' Et cette partie devient de plus 
en plus considerable, a mesure que la philologie romane va se developpant en 
tous les sens. Nous sommes inondes de livres, de periodiques, de dissertations 
pour le doctorat allemand (dont beaucoup pourraient sans dommage Stre pre- 


sentees en manuscrit), de contributions a telle etude, de supplements a telles 
recherches. C'est une maree montante qui menace de restreindre la part 
consacree dans notre recueil aux etudes originales. On voudra bien nous 
excuser si trop souvent de bons livres n'ont pas le compte rendu qu'ils 
meritent, et si l'analyse de tel ou tel periodique est en retard. C'est que ce 
genre de travail ne peut Stre confie au premier venu. La critique exige une 
experience et, s'il est permis de le dire, un tour de main, qui ne sont pas 
communs. Et puis les jeunes erudits de notre temps ne semblent pas avoir 
pour cet exercice salutaire le gout que nous manifestions, lorsqu'en 1865 nous 
fondions la Revue critique!' 

A. Thomas. La loi de Darmesteter en provencal. In his study of the 
"protonique non initiale, non en position," Darmesteter refrained from con- 
sidering the bearings of the question on the Provencal. Prof. Thomas points 
out a series of cases in the latter language in which pretonic vowels other than 
a, contrary to their destiny in French, survive. We are able to set up for the 
Provencal a very simple rule : substantives corresponding to verbs in -ir have 
* as pretonic derivation -vowel (sentir, sentimen), those pertaining to verbs in 
-e'r, -er or -re have uniformly e (tener, tenemen). This state of affairs is here 
accounted for on the theory that these words have never attained an inde- 
pendent status, have never, so to speak, " coupe leur cordon ombilical." "Ce 
qui se transmettait d'une generation a l'autre, c'etait non pas les mots eux- 
memes, mais bien plut8t le procede pour les faire." 

H. Morf. Notes pour servir a l'histoire de la legende de Troie en Italie et 
en Espagne. I. Guido delle Colonne et Dares. II. Une nouvelle version 
italienne (Version F). III. Le roman de Landomata. 

P. Meyer. Maitre Pierre Cudrifin, horloger, et la ville de Romans (1422-31). 
Incidents in the life of a certain bourgeois of Fribourg, entitled 'magister 
horologiorum,' whose correspondence with the syndics of Romans apropos of 
a clock erected by him for their town furnishes autographic documents of 

P. Meyer. Ballade contre les Anglais (1429). This ballade (to mention 
here only an incidental point) begins : " Ariere, Englois couez, ariere ! " A 
note explains that " Anglici erubescunt caudati vocari." In the legend of St. 
Augustin, the people of Dorset are said to have insulted this saint by fastening 
fish-tails to his garments. The saint cursed them, and since then the English 
are caudati. 

Melanges. Pio Rajna. A cosa si deva la conservazione testuale dei Giura- 
menti di Strasburgo (How the Oaths of Strasburg came to be textually pre- 
served). In this study, which is elaborate enough to constitute a principal 
article, Prof. Rajna points out that we owe the rather surprising textual 
preservation of what is thus far the earliest specimen of the Old French 
language, on the one hand, to the fact that the history of Nithardus is a 
contemporary document dealing in particulars rather than in general consid- 
erations, and, on the other, to the circumstance that the part of the narrative 
in which the oaths occur was written shortly after the accomplishment of the 
facts involved and at a moment when the historian happened to have an 


abundance of time at his disposal. — F. Lot. Le mythe des Enfants-c5'gnes. 
Compares with the Romance forms of this myth an Irish legend which offers 
striking analogies with it at certain points. — F. Lot. Le Chevalier au Lion : 
comparaison avec une legende irlandaise. — Egidio Gorra. La Novella della 
Dama e dei tre papagalli. Adds to the versions published in the Romania, 
vols. XVI and XIX, still another form of the story, as found in MSS preserved 
at Turin and Paris. — F. Novati. Un' Avventura di Peire Vidal. — P. Meyer. 
Le conte des Petits Couteaux d'apres Jacques de Vitri. An exemplum omitted 
by Professor Crane in his edition of the Exempla of Jacques de Vitry. — 
P. Meyer. Coussin, ancien provencal et francais coissin. Derived from 
coxinus <coxa 'thigh,' the cushion being destined to be placed under the 
thighs. — Louis Havet. Peaigne. A brace for the foot, from Lat. pedanea. — 
A. Delboulle. Perpetuon. — A. Bos. Porpos, propos. " Ne peut venir de pro- 
positum (Littre', Brachet, Scheler), qui aurait donne porpost. Propos est le 
substantif verbal de proposer, comme repos l'est de reposer." — A. Bos. Aisil. 
From acetulum, diminutive oiacetum. 

Comptes rendus. Egidio Gorra. Testi inediti di storia trojana, preceduti 
da uno studio sulla leggenda trojana in Italia (H. Morf). 19 pages. "Ce 
livre est le fruit de longues recherches. II contient beaucoup d'inedit, outre 
les textes, qui n'en remplissent qu'un tiers. . . . En resumant, dans les pages 
qui suivent, le contenu de ce gros livre, j'accompagnerai ce resume de 
remarques de detail." — L. Constans. Le roman de Thebes (P. Meyer). " II 
est douteux que les re'sultats obtenus soient en proportion du travail si penible 
que s'est impose l'editeur." — W. von Zingerle. Floris et Liriope : altfran- 
zosischer Roman des Robert de Blois (P. Meyer). Robert de Blois was 
distinctively a man of letters, well versed in the Latin authors studied in his 
time, especially Ovid. He is the "poete courtois par excellence." The 
present edition is shown to be not wholly satisfactory. — K. Vollmoller. 
Laberinto amoroso: ein altspanisches Liederbuch (A. Morel-Fatio). "II faut 
remercier M. Vollmoller de nous avoir rendu, en edition correcte, ce recueil 
precieux." — M. Gaster. Chrestomathie roumaine: Textes imprimes et manu- 
scrits du XVIe au XIXe siecle (E. Picot). The publication of this collection, 
on which Mr. Gaster has been engaged for ten years, may be regarded as an 
event by all who are interested in Roumanian studies. Detailed review. 

Periodiques. In his report on the Zeitschrift fiir rom. Phil., Gaston Paris 
discusses the so-called historical infinitive (Et grenouilles de se plaindre), 
Tobler's emendation of a controverted passage in Dante's Convivio, and 
Foerster's etymology of French prdne and of prodom. 

Chronique. W. L. Holland, professor of Romance languages and literatures 
at the University of Tubingen, died August 23, 1891, at the age of 69 years. 
Holland is chiefly known for his studies on Chretien de Troyes and on 
Spanish literature. — Prince Louis Lucien Bonaparte, who was chiefly occupied 
with studies on the Basque, but whose researches also extended to the 
Romance languages, died at Fano, November 3, 1 891, aged 79 years. He 
was the son of Lucien Bonaparte, brother of Napoleon I. He had been 
deputy from Corsica to the Constituant Assembly and Legislative Assembly, 
and in 1852 was made senator. After the fall of the Empire he lived mostly 


in England. In the Romance field his name is associated with a collection 
of translations of the Gospel of Matthew into various Romance dialects, 
chiefly Italian, and with phonetic investigations in numerous Italian and 
Spanish patois. He was one of the first to apply method and precise phonetic 
notation in the study of patois. 

Livres annonces sommairement (24 titles). 


G. Raynaud. La Chastelaine de Vergi. 49 pages. A new, critically 
established text of this charming poem of 958 verses, with preliminary study. 

A. Neubauer and P. Meyer. Le roman provencal d'Esther, par Crescas du 
Caylar, medecin juif du XlVe siecle. 34 pages. The circumstances and 
results of this study are of a peculiarly interesting nature. While at Oxford, 
Mr. Meyer had his attention called by Mr. Neubauer to a manuscript in 
Hebrew characters but composed in a language unknown to the latter, which 
proved on investigation to be Provencal. Mr. Meyer, in his turn, was unac- 
quainted with Hebrew. Following is a part of Mr. Meyer's account of the 
joint procedure of the two scholars: "M. Neubauer me lisait un texte qu'il 
ne comprenait pas, tandisque que je m'efforcais de saisir au vol et de transcrire 
les paroles que j'etais incapable de lire, et auxquelles je faisais subir les modi- 
fications que l'usage de l'alphabet hebrai'que permet, deplacant les consonnes, 
substituant i a e\ u a 0, f k p, d cm z a r, etc., ou reciproquement, jusqu'a ce que 
le sens se revelat. C'etait la collaboration du paralytique et de l'aveugle." 
By this method of restitution, 448 lines of the Provencal poem are here 
presented, face to face with the Hebrew transliteration, together with notes 
and glossary. Although only a portion of the poem was recovered, the 
discovery is one of the most important of recent years in the domain of 
Provencal studies. 

Paget Toynbee. Christine de Pisan and Sir John Maundeville (printed in 
English). The author discovers that in one portion of her 'Livre du Chemin 
de long estude' (vv. 1191-1568), Christine has made use of the ' Travels of Sir 
John Maundeville.' 

G. Weigand. Nouvelles recherches sur le roumain de l'Istrie. All that 
was known heretofore of the Istro-Wallachian dialect, spoken by some three 
thousand villagers, is collected in the ' Rumunische Untersuchungen' of Franz 
Miklosich. The author extends the information there given, and appends 
translations of brief texts face to face with the originals. 

Melanges. L. Mirot. Valbeton dans Girart de Roussillon. Identified with 
Vaubouton, between Vezelay and Pierre-Perthuis. — G. Paris. La Chanson a 
boire anglo-normande parodiee du Letabundus. — G. Paris. La traduction de 
la legende latine du Voyage de Charlemagne a Constantinople par Pierre de 
Beauvais. — A. Longnon. Nouvelles recherches sur Villon. — A.Thomas. Jean 

Comptes rendus. Romanische Bibliothek, herausgegeben von Dr. Wendelin 
Foerster, vols. I-VIII (G. Paris). Prof. Paris passes in review the first eight 
volumes of this new collection. " Malgre ces critiques, qui ne portent en 


somme que sur des details d'execution, la Romanische Bibliothek est digne de 
toute estime et merite d'&tre vivement recommande'e a tous ceux qui s'inte- 
ressent aux langues et aux litteratures romanes du moyen elge." — J. Salverda 
de Grave. Eneas: Texte critique (G. Paris). Minute criticism, covering 
fourteen pages. "La publication du roman d'Ene'as etait souhaitee depuis 
longtemps ; le volume de M. de Grave justifie tout ce qu'on en entendait." — 
G. Rauschen. Die Legende Karls des Grossen im n. und 12. Jahrhundert 
(G. Paris). " La publication de M. Rauschen . . . apporte une contribution des 
plus importantes a l'histoire politique, religieuse et litteraire." — E. T. Kuiper. 
Karel ende Elegast (G. Paris). Mr. Kuiper's edition of this curious little 
poem renders a service to Romance as well as to Germanic studies. — Notices 
et extraits des mss. de la Bibliotheque nationale et autres bibliotheques, 
publies par l'Institut national de France, tome XXXIV, premiere partie 
(P. Meyer). — E. Forestie. P. de Lunel, dit Cavalier Lunel de Montech, 
troubadour du XlVe siecle, mainteneur des jeux floraux de Toulouse (P. 
Meyer). Offers many emendations. — J. Pichon and G. Vicaire. Le Viandier 
de Guillaume Tirel, dit Taillevent, enfant de cuisine de la reine Jehanne 
d'Evreux, queu du roi Philippe de Valois, etc. (S. Luce). "Les etrangers 
pretendent, non sans malice, que nous avons joui de tout temps, en cuisine, 
d'une suprematie moins disputee que dans les autres domaines ou notre action 
a pu s'exercer. Or, le Viandier de Guillaume Tirel ou, comme disaient nos 
peres, le Taillevent, car le sobriquet du queux, dont Foeuvre si populaire servit 
de modele pendant des siecles a toutes nos Cuisinieres bourgeoises , etait devenu 
un nom commun, le Taillevent est le monument le plus antique et le plus 
venerable de cette suprematie." 


Chronique. Adolphe Gaspary, professor of Romance languages at the 
University of Breslau and author of the excellent Geschichte der italienischen 
Literatur, which is left incomplete, died March 18, 1892, aged 43 years. 
Shortly before his death he had received a call to GOttingen. Carl Appel 
has been invited to fill the vacancy at Breslau, and A. Stimming that at 
Gottingen. — James Stiirzinger, formerly professor of Romance languages at 
Bryn Mawr, has been elected 'extraordinary' professor at Tubingen. — V. 
Crescini has been elected professor of the comparative history of the neo- 
Latin languages and literatures at Padua. 

Livres annonces sommairement (38 titles). 


W. Meyer-Liibke et G. Paris. La premiere personne du pluriel en francais. 
24 pages. Meyer-Ltlbke summarizes all the leading theories heretofore 
advanced as to the origin of the termination -om, and pretty conclusively, 
establishes the more or less current view that it is a generalization, for all the 
tenses of all verbs, of the single form -umus occurring in one tense of one verb 
(sumus). To the second part of the article Gaston Pari.s prefixes the following 
statement: "Je veux seulement revenir sur quelques points accessoires et 
esquisser rapidement, autant que nous pouvons nous la representee l'histoire 
de la propagation, en francais, de la terminaison -Umus au dela de son 
domaine originaire." 


G. Huet. Les fragments de la traduction ne'erlandaise des Lorrains. 
39 pages. Of the various mediaeval literatures, that of the Netherlands 
seems to have been the only one that possessed a translation of the extensive 
cycle of the Lorrains. Of this translation only fragments are preserved. 
After giving a bibliographical list of these fragments, the author treats his 
subject under the following main heads : l. Analyse des fragments conserves; 
2. Plan du poeme neerlandais ; 3. Comparaison avec les versions francaises ; 
4. Sources et caractere de 1'original fran?ais perdu. 

Melanges. G.Paris. Bascauda. A word 'britannique' known to Martial 
and Juvenal, in the sense of large basin, from which Paris derives Old French 
baschoe {bascauda) and Mod. Fr. bdche (bdscauda), whence English basket, through 
a probable French diminutive baschete. — G. Paris. " Longaigne. Properly a 
term of monastic a.rchitectme<.longanea<longum, a translation of Maxpav, 
name of a celebrated portico at Constantinople. The word longanea came to 
be used euphemistically in the sense of 'latrines.' "Les latrines, dans les 
couvents peuples, occupaient de ve'ritables galeries, place'es en dehors de la 
maison, et souvent sur 1'eau." — G. Paris. Boute-en-courroit. This phrase, 
which has been an old-time puzzle to the lexicographers, is here explained as 
a sort of three-card-monte trick, only that it is worked with a strap. The 
sharper who plays the game is also designated by the same term. " Diabolus 
. . . est sicut ille qui ludit de corrigia, qui vocatur boute en corroie, qui facit ibi 
ad terram duos laqueos, et dicit : ' Ponam tecum quod nunquam poteris ita 
figere digitum tuum quin quando traham ad me corrigiam sis extra, et nunquam 
intra.'" — P.Meyer. Fragment de la Vengeance de Raguidel. — A. Jeanroy. Sur 
deux chansons de Conon de Bethune. — A. Thomas. Le Mystere de la Passion 
a Saint- Flour en 1425. — A. Piaget. Remarques sur Villon, a propos de l'edition 
de M. A. Longnon. — A. Piaget. La Quistione d'amore de Carlo del Nero. 

Comptes rendus. Ernest Langlois. Origines et sources du Roman de la 
Rose (Charles Joret). "Suivant pas a pas son auteur, M. Langlois a mis en 
lumiere, avec une grande perspicacite, les emprunts que celui-ci a faits a pres 
de quarante auteurs, tant de l'antiquite que du moyen age, parmi lesquels 
figurent au premier rang Ovide, Boece, et Alain de Lille. Mais que d'autres 
noms il cite dans sa patiente enumeration ! Aristote, Cice'ron, Virgile, Horace, 
Suetone, Solin, Macrobe, Geber et Roger Bacon, Jean de Salisbury, Alhazen, 
Huon de Mery, etc., passent tour a tour sous nos yeux." — P. J. Rousselot. Les 
modifications phonetiques du langage e'tudiees dans le patois d'une famille de 
Cellefrouin (Charente). These franchise. — De vocabulorum congruentia in 
rustico Cellae-Fruini sermone (A. Thomas). These latine. The most 
remarkable portion of the former of these works is the chapter entitled 
' Methode graphique appliquee a la phone'tique.' " Pour e'crire un travail de 
ce genre il fallait des connaissances en physique que possedent bien peu de 
linguistes de l'heure pre'sente et qui s'imposeront sans doute de plus en plus 
aux linguistes de 1'avenir." The following statement of the author himself 
concerning this chapter is especially noteworthy : "Les conclusions de cette 
premiere partie sembleraient appeler des modifications importantes dans la 
graphie de mon patois. Toutefois je resiste a la tentation de les faire. 
Comme elles echappent toutes au contrSIe de mon oreille, je serais expose a 


une foule d'erreurs. Je continue done a ecrire mon patois comme je l'entends." 
— Goddard Henry Orpen. The Song of Dermot and the Earl, an Old French 
Poem (P. Meyer). "C'est assurement la meilleure publication d'ancien 
francais qui ait ete faite jusqu'a present par un Anglais. Mais ce n'est meme 
pas dire assez, car les rares editions de textes francais ou anglo-normands que 
nous devons aux savants anglais sont souvent bien peu recommandables." In 
a footnote Mr. Meyer adds : " II faut cependant faire une exception en faveur 
de la ' Vie de Saint Auban ' de M. R. Atkinson, un irlandais comme M. Orpen." 
— J. Ulrich. Les Merveilles de l'Irlande: texte provencal (P. Meyer). "Ce 
n'est malheureusement pas la premiere fois que M. Ulrich s'acquitte d'une 
maniere insufEsante des taches qu'il s'impose." 


Chronique. Giovanni Flechia, Italian senator, and professor at the Univer- 
sity of Turin, died July 3, 1892, at the age of 80 years. "Flechia etait 
indianiste de profession, mais c' etait aussi un romaniste de premier ordre." — 
Professor Schuchardt, of Graz, having published a note in the Litteraturblatt 
flir germ. u. rom. Phil, calling upon linguists to unite, in order to avoid ambi- 
guity, in using the signs < and > to mean respectively whence and from (Ital. 
cuore>'La.l. cor), various scholars have published protests against this interpre- 
tation and employment of the signs in question, which, as it appears, were 
independently introduced at about the same time (1870) by Prof. Francis A. 
March and Karl Verner, and have ever since been used, with almost universal 
agreement, in the sense opposed to that championed by Schuchardt. [Prof. S. 
continues, in his numerous and highly valuable contributions to philology, to 
disregard what has been shown to be the accepted usage.] 

Livres annonces sommairement (23 titles). 


P. Meyer. L'Image du Monde, redaction du ms. Harley 4333. 

A. Thomas. Aise, essai etymologique. 22 pages. Masterly study, deriving 
this much-discussed word from Lat. adjacens. Ital. agio and Port, azo, which 
do not accord with this etymology, are presumably loan-words. 

F. Novati. Le Livre de raisons de B. Boysset, d'apres le ms. des Trinitaires 
d' Aries actuellement conserve a Genes. 

P. Meyer. Les manuscrits de Bertran Boysset (premier article, avec 

A. Piaget. Une edition gothique de Charles d'Orleans. 

Melanges. G. Paris. Mastin. Not from mansionatinum (canem) (Diez), but 
from mansuetinum (cf. consuettidinem~> costume). — G. Paris. Antenois {<,anti- 
nesem<antinum<annotinum). — P. de Nolhac. Le Gallus Calumniator de 
Petrarque. — A. Thomas. Le theatre a Paris et aux environs a la fin du XlVe 
siecle. — A. Thomas. Jean de Sy et Jean de Cis. — A. Piaget. Michaut pour 
Machaut. — Paget Toynbee. Estaler. Derives this word and Eng. stale, in 
sense both of 'uriner' and of 's'arreter,' from Germ, stal, Anglo-Saxon steal, 
Eng. stall (cf. A. J. P. XII 239). 



Chronique. Eduard Mall, professor of Romance and English philology at 
the University of Wilrzburg, editor of the works of Marie de France and 
other Old French texts, died in March, 1892, aged less than 50 years. — Rein- 
hold Kohler, librarian at Weimar and most eminent scholar of his time in the 
comparative history of folk- tales, died April 15, 1892, aged 62 years. — The 
death of Ernest Renan, October 2, 1892, at the age of 69 years, suggests the 
propriety of reminding the general public of his important contributions to 
the history of Mediaeval French and Provencal literature, contained in 
several volumes of the Histoire litteraire de la France. 

Livres annonces sommairement (27 titles). 

H. A. Todd.