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By J. Hall Pleasants, Baltimore, Md. 


The Sandys family is connected with the Lovelaces of Bethersden 
through Anne Sandys the daughter of Edwin Sandys, Archbishop of 
York in the reign of Elizabeth, who married Sir William Barne of 
Woolwich. The latter's daughter Anne Barne about 1610 married Sir 
William Lovelace (1584-1627). The Sandys family is also of special 
interest to Virginians on account of the prominent part taken in estab- 
lishing that colony by two sons of Archbishop Sandys, Sir Edwin 
Sandys, the leading spirit in the Virginia Company, and George Sandys, 
the poet and colonial treasurer of Virginia, brothers of Lady Anne 
(Sandys) Barne, whose names are familiar to all students of colonial 

The family of Sandys, or Sandes, the Archbishop generally using 
the latter form, was anciently settled at St. Bees in Cumberland, as 
appears by a "certificate" given by Harvey, Clarencieux King of Arms, 
to Edwin Sandys, then bishop of Worcester, afterward Archbishop of 
York, and by him laid before the Privy Council in a dispute between 
him and Sir John Bourne, High Steward of the Church of Worcester. 
In the fifteenth century William Sandys of St. Bees came into Furnace 
Fells, Lancashire, and established there the line from which Arch- 
bishop Sandys sprung. 

The most complete account of the family is unquestionably to be 
found in A History of the Sandys Family written by Camley Vivian, 
and edited by the late Colonel Thomas Myles Sandys of Graythwaite 
Hall, Lancashire. This carefully compiled work of over three hundred 
pages, which is magnificently illustrated, was printed in 1907 for private 
circulation only, and is not to be found in American public libraries. 
The writer is indebted to Major George Owen Sandys of Graythwaite 


Hall, the son of the editor, Colonel Sandys, for a copy of this invaluable 
History. A very full chart pedigree of the Sandys family is also to be 
found in Joseph Foster s Pedigrees of Lancashire Families, 18/3. Both 
of the above pedigrees draw freely upon an earlier pedigree in West's 
The Antiquities of Furness, 1774 (pp. 266-285), apparently based as 
regards the earlier lines, upon the "certificate" previously referred to. 
These pedigrees do not entirely correspond with each other or with 
the Sandys pedigrees in the Visitation of Cumberland 161 5 (Harl. Soc. 
lviii, 17-21) and in Collins' Peerage, (ed. 1812). The writer has made 
no attempt to verify the earlier portions of any of these pedigrees prior 
to William Sandys, father of the archbishop, but feels that an attempt 
should be made to do so by modern methods of research. The Vivian 
and Sandys History will in general be followed here. The only addi- 
tion of interest which the writer has been able to make, is in fixing 
more closely the date of death of William Sandys, father of the arch- 
bishop, about which statements widely varying have been previously 

The Sandys arms are: Or, on a fesse, dancettee, between three 
crosses bottonee pitchee gules. Crest: A griffin segreant per fesse or 
and gules. 

The first upon record is Richard del Sandys. He and Robert Mow- 
bray, Chevalier, in 1377 were returned as Knights of the Shire of Cum- 
berland and attended parliament at Westminster, for which they were 
allowed £28 for seventy days expenses. Thomas del Sandys and 
William de Stapleton in 1390 and in 1394 served in parliament as 
Knights of the Shire of Cumberland. The established line begins with : 

I. Robert 1 Sandes of Rattenby Castle in the parish of St. Bees, co. 
Cumberland in the time of Henry IV [1399-1413]. He had two sons 
(1) John Sandes 2 who succeeded his father at St. Bees, and (2) Wil- 
liam Sandes 2 of Furnace Fells, Lancashire — see II. 

II. William Sandes 2 (Robert 1 ), or John as he is said sometimes to 
appear in ancient records, of Furnace Fells, who was succeeded by his 
son — see III. 

III. William Sandes 3 (Robert 1 , William 2 ). He was of Furnace 

Fells and married a daughter of Bonham or Bohun by whom he 

had issue (1) Margaret Sandes* married Richard Bray, Privy Coun- 
selor of Henry VI, (2) William Sandes 4 — see IV. 

IV. William Sandes* (Robert 1 , William 2 , William 3 ) of Furnace 
Fells. He married Margaret, daughter and coheiress of William Raw- 
son of Yorkshire, and cousin and heir to Thomas Rawlinson, Abbott of 
Furnace Abbey, who flourished between 1440 and 1460, by whom he had 
issue (1) George Sandys of Furnace Fells — see V., (2) William 
Sandys of Little Petenhow, or Petershaw, co. Surrey, whose issue 
are traced by Foster, (3) Oliver Sandys, d. s. p. 

V. George Sandys (Robert 1 , William 2 , William 8 , William*) of 
Furnace Fells. He was living in 1513. He married Margaret Curwen. 




Ph j 


£ x: 
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daughter of Garrat (or Gerard) of Turvey. He was succeeded 

by his son and heir William 6 — see VI. 

VI. William Sandys 6 (Robert 1 , William 2 , William 3 , William*, 
George 5 ). He supported Henry VIII in his policy toward the religious 
orders and was made Receiver General for the Liberties of Furnace. 
He lived in the parish of Hawkshead, Furnace Fells, on the edge of 
Esthwaite Water in the celebrated Lake District of England, where he 
owned among other estates, Esthwaite Hall, his principal residence, and 
Graythwaite Hall. Major George Owen Sandys, the present owner of 
Graythwaite Hall (1920), and a lineal descendant of Anthony Sandys 7 , 
a younger brother of the Archbishop, informs the writer that Gray- 
thwaite Hall was built in the reign of Edward IV (1461-1483), and 
has since then been continuously in the Sandys family. The house is now 
Elizabethan in style but has been twice partly rebuilt and refaced. The 
writer is indebted to Major Sandys for the photograph reproduced in 
the Magazine of Graythwaite as it exists today. In A History of the 
Sandys Family is to be found a description of the house and of the 
interesting family portraits which it contains. Major Sandys writes, 
that of Esthwaite Hall, the principal seat of the family until the end 
of the sixteenth century, nothing remains but the great hall, now the 
barn of Esthwaite Hall Farm. Some of the ancient oak panelling of 
the hall was found a year or two ago when the old corn cribs were 
being repaired. 

William Sandys 6 , father of the archbishop, married Margaret, daugh- 
ter of John Dixon of London by his wife Anne, daughter of Thomas 
Roos* of Witherslack, Westmorland, and of Dent, Yorkshire, who 
was lineally descended from Robert lord Roos and Isabel his wife, 
daughter of William, King of Scotland [1143-1214]. William Sandys 6 
apparently died in 1548. West who gives the date as 1558 in his 
Antiquities of Furnace is certainly incorrect, although this date is 
also given by Foster and others. Ayre, the editor of the Sermons of 
Archbishop Sandys (Parker Society; 1842; p. i.), who gives the date 
as 1546 or 1547, is more nearly correct The writer has recently found 
a suit filed in the Duchy Court of Lancaster at the Easter term, 1549, 
against William and Christopher Sandys, sons of William Sandys, 
deceased, in regard to certain iron smithies in Furnace Fells, granted 
15 November 1537, by Henry VIII, jointly to William Sandys, the 
father, and a certain William Sawrey (Lancashire and Cheshire Record 
Society, xl; p. 88). As William Sandys's will is dated 23 April, 1546, 

* "Thomas Roos, son and heir of Robert Roos of Witherslack and 
Dent, who was the son and heir of Robert Roos, baron of Kendall; and 
which said Roos was lineally descended from William lord Roos of Ham- 
lack, who died 10 Edward II., and was one of the competitors for the 
kingdom of Scotland, being great grandson of Robert lord Roos and 
Isabel his wife, daughter of William, king of Scotland." This quotation 
from West's The Antiquities of Furnace 1774 (pp. 268-9) is said to be 
taken from an old pedigree by Phihpott, but no reference is given, and the 
writer has made no attempt to verify these statements. 


his death therefore took place between this date and Easter 1549. The 
date 1548 carved over the entrance to the Sandys Choir or Chapel in 
Hawkshead Church doubtless refers to the year of his death. The 
date of death of his wife Margaret who was living when he made his 
will is not known. 

William Sandys 6 and his wife Margaret "lie entombed in the Sandys 
Choir in the church of St. Michael's, at Hawkshead, under a table 
monument upon which is expressed in alto relievo the effigies in full 
proportion of the said William and Margaret, with their hands raised 
in a praying position. At the head and on the side are the Sandys 
arms between the initials E. S. showing a crescent for distinction." 
The letters "E. S." are the initials of the Archbishop, by whom the 
monument was erected. 

The will of William Sandys is not now to be found on record either 
in the Prerogative Court of Canterbury, or in the local Archdeaconry 
Probate Court of Richmond, Yorkshire. West, however, quotes ex- 
tensively from a copy examined by him and then (about 1774) pre- 
served by the Sandys family of Graythwaite Hall. It was dated 23 
April, 1546, but the date of probate is not given. He leaves his "capital 
messuage Esthwaite Water" [Esthwaite Hall] to his son William; and 
Graythwaite [Hall] to his son Christopher, with reversion in case of 
the latter's death to his son Myles. He leaves no land to his son 
Edwin, whom he refers to as being then Vicar of Haversham, and 
after speaking of him most affectionately requests "that he will do 
the best he can to see my last will and testament fulfilled, and good 
rule and loving order be had among his mother, brethren, and sisters". 
He also names his other children Anthony and Anne, and his grandson 
Roger, son of his son George, then deceased. 

Issue of William Sandys 6 (Robert 1 , William 2 , William 3 , William 4 , 
George 5 ) and his wife Margaret Diyon : 

1. George Sandys 7 of Graythwaite and Field Head in Hawkshead. 
Killed in battle on the field of Musselburgh, 10 September, 1547. 
Married Isabella and let issue, a son Roger. 

2. William Sandys 7 of Colton Hall and Conishead Priory. Bailiff 

of the Liberties of Furnace. Married 1st, Mabel , and 

2nd, Agnes Strickland, leaving issue by both wives. He is said to 
have died in 1558. See A History of the Sandys Family (p. 179) . 

3. Edwin Sandys 7 . Born 1519; died 1588. Archbishop of York. 
Married and left issue — see VII. 

4. Christopher Sandys 7 of Killington, Westmoreland, and of Gray- 
thwaite, Lancashire, to which latter estate he removed about 1555. 
Buried 15 April, 1588, at Hawkshead church. Married Margaret 
(or Cecily) daughter of William Carus of Halton, Lancashire, by 
whom he left issue. 

Edwin Sandys, - 
Archbishop of York. 


5. Myles Sandys 7 of Latimers, and Isthampstead, Bucks, and 
Brimpsfield, Gloucester. Of the Middle Temple, London. High 
Sheriff of Gloucester. Married Hester daughter of William Clif- 
ton. He left 4 sons, all of whom were knighted, and 2 daughters. 
Ancestor in the maternal line of the last Lord Sandys of the 
Vyne and of Mattisfont, temp. Charles I. His descendants are 
traced in A History of the Sandys Family. 

6. Anthony Sandys 7 of Esthwaite. Married Anne daughter of 
Robert Mann of Bullingbroke, Lincoln. Buried at Hawkshead, 13 
November, 1591. His descendant Major George Owen Sandys 
now occupies Esthwaite Hall, which has remained continuously 
in this branch of the family. His descendants are traced in A 
History of the Sandys Family. 

7. Anne Sandys 7 . Received a legacy under her father's will. Not 

VII. Edwin Sandys 7 (Robert 1 , William 2 , William 8 , William 4 , 
George 5 , William 6 ). Archbishop of York from 1577 to 1587. Edwin 
Sandys was born in the parish of Hawkshead, Furnace Fells, Lanca- 
shire, 1519, doubtless at Esthwaite Hall, his father's principal residence. 
He was educated at St. John's College, Cambridge. He took orders 
and in 1547 became master of Catharine Hall. He held various ecclesi- 
astical positions, and was Vice-Chancellor of the University of Cam- 
bridge when Edward VI died in 1553. He was deeply tinctured with 
the principles of the reformation and supported the cause of Lady 
Jane Gray. For refusing to proclaim Mary at Cambridge he was com- 
mitted to the Tower, July 25th, 1553, and a few weeks later removed to 
the Marshal sea, but was liberated and escaped to the continent in May, 
!554» where he remained until the accession of Elizabeth in 1558. He 
then returned to England and immediately rose to great influence. He 
was made Bishop of Worcester, 21 December, 1559, and in 1570 was 
promoted to be Bishop of London. He was consecrated Archbishop of 
York, 8 March, 1576-7. It is said that Elizabeth seriously considered 
appointing him archbishop of Canterbury in 1583, and the fact that he 
was a married man alone prevented his elevation to the primacy. He 
died 10 July, 1588, and was buried in Southwell Minster, Nottingham- 
shire. Archbishop Sandys figures prominently in the ecclesiastical 
and political disputes of the period. The reader is referred for further 
details of his life to an excellent sketch of him in the Dictionary of 
National Biography (Vol. 1; 238), to the introduction by Ayre to The 
Sermons of Edwin Sandys, D. D. (Parker Society: 1842) and to A 
History of the Sandys Family. A dramatic account of an attempt to 
besmirch the moral character of the Archbishop and to extort black- 
mail from him while he was on a visit to Doncaster in 1581, elaborately 
planned by his old enemy Sir Robert Stapleton, in which the wife of 
the inn-keeper, Stapleton and the inn-keeper, figured, is to be found in 


Strye's Annals of the Reformation (Vol. iii; part 1, pp. 142-158). 
Stapleton, who afterwards made a full confession of his part in the 
plot, was punished by a long confinement in the Tower and in the Fleet. 

Archbishop Sandys was married twice. By his first wife Mary 
Sandys, the daughter of William Sandys of Wadham, Essex, he had an 
only child James Sandys {Visitation of Cumberland, 1615 (Harl. So- 
ciety, vii, 17). This son died about 1555-1557 on the continent of the 
plague. His wife, whom he married about 1553, is said to have been 
a cousin; she died on the continent in 1558. 

By his second wife Cecily Wilsford* (or Wilford), the daughter of 
Thomas Wilsford of Hartridge in Cranbrook, Kent, and his second wife 
Rose Whetenhall, whom the archbishop married, 19 February, 1558-9, 
he had seven sons and two daughters. A brief synopsis of the pedigree 
of Wilsford of Cranbrook as given in the footnote seems of sufficient 
interest to present in this connection. A very full record of the births 
of Archbishop Sandys's children and a list of their sponsors is to be 
found in his own hanwdriting in the family Bible of the Archbishop still 
preserved at the Grammer School, Hawskhead, founded by the Arch- 
bishop, and reproduced in Brown's Genesis of the United States and 
in facsimile in A History of the Sandys Family. Several portraits and 
engravings of the Archbishop are in existence. The one reproduced 
here is from a painting in the National Portrait Gallery, London, of 
Archbishop Sandys and his wife Cecily Sandys. An excellent copy of 
this portrait in oil is to be found in the collection of Mr. Walter de C. 
Poultney of Baltimore. The will of Archbishop Sandys, a brief abstract 
of which follows, is an exceedingly lengthy document. The introduc- 
tion which is virtually a sermon of some thirteen hundred words, will 
be entirely omitted. This abstract and that of the will of his wife 
Cecily Sandys, probated in 1610, which is a much shorter document, 
have been made for the writer directly from the probate records. 

•Family of Wilford (or Wilsford). The pedigree of the family of 
Wilsford of Hartridge in the parish of Cranbrook, Kent, is traced in 
Hasted' 8 Kent (vii, 98-99), and In Berry's Geneaologiea ; Kent (pp. 134- 
135.) The arms are: Gules a cheveron engrailed between three leopards' 
heads or. Crest: A leopard's head, per pale, or and gules. 

The line begins with : 

I. William Wilsford of an ancient family near Wilsford in co. Devon. 
Married Margaret daughter and co-heir of Walter Corneus, son and heir 
of Sir Walter Corneus, knight. He was succeeded by his son and heir: 

II. Robert Wilsford. He was succeeded by his son and heir: 

III. James Wilsford, alderman and sheriff of London 1499. Married 
Elizabeth daughter of John Betenham of Pluckley, Esq. His son was : 

IV. Thomas Wilsford of Hartridge in Cranbrook, Kent, Esq. Mar- 
ried 1st Elizabeth daughter of Walter Colepeper of Bedgebery, Esq., by 
whom he had issue two sons and eight daughters traced in the pedigree. 
Their eldest son Sir James Wilsford of Cranbrook, knight, married Joyce, 
daughter of John Barrett ; and their second son Francis Wilsford of Non- 
ington, Kent, knight, married Alice daughter and heir of William Sympson, 
vice-marshal of Calais. Thomas Wilsford married 2nd, Rose daughter of 
William Whetenhall of Beckham, Kent.. Esq., by whom he had issue two 
children, viz: Sir Thomas Wilsford of Hedinge in the parish of Kingston, 
knight, married Mary only daughter and heir of Edward Poynings; and 
Cecelia [Cecily] Wilsford, wife of Edwin Sandys, Archbishop of York. 
These pedigrees carry down the later lines, which for obvious reasons 
need not be given here. 

Cecily Wilford, 
Wife of Archbishop Sandys. 


The will of Edwin Sandys, archbishop of York, from which the 
following abstract is taken, was dated, 1 August 1587, and was pro- 
bated, 27 May 1590, in the Prerogative Court of Canterbury (Drury, 
30). It will be noted that the testator signs himself Sondes. 

The will of Edwyne Sandes, minister of God's Holy Word, 
Archbishop of York, dated i Bt August 1587. 
Under powers given me by indentures made 4 June 18 Eliz., 
between myself of the one part, and Miles Sandes of Latti- 
mers, co. Bucks, esq., Francis Willforde, Edward Fenner 
and Robert Brigges, esq., I assign the issues of Curse- 
wolde alias Crudeswoode Park, co. Kent, to my wife 
Cicely for the residue of the term which the said Miles and 
the others had of the grant of Henry Leonard. 
If Elizabeth Norton, daughter of John Norton, late of 
Ripon, Yorks, esq. dec d , and George Sandes, my youngest 
son, marry together, I will have settled upon them the tene- 
ments which John Samonde, gent, and Anne, his wife, 
conveyed to Thomas Spencer and Thomas Porter; and the 
said Elizabeth shall be discharged of her wardship and 
marriage, which belongeth to me; and the said Elizabeth 
shall have £300 at the age of 16. 

My wife shall have the bringing up of my children Thomas, 
Henry and George Sandes, so long as she continue a widow, 
she having for the same their portions and the annuity out 
of the manor of Umbersley. If she die or marry, their 
portions shall be submitted to Samuel and Edwyne Sandes, 
my sons. Whereas 1 have according to mine ability suffi- 
ciently preferred and advanced all my children, viz. both 
my daughters Margaret Awcher and Anne Barne by mar- 
riage, to my great charges, as also all my sons, viz. Sam- 
uell, Edwyne, Myles, Thomas, Henry and George, so as 
they ought not by the custom of this province of York to 
claim any their filial portions of my goods and chattels, I 
declare that my children shall hold themselves contented 
with their said preferments, and not challenge any reck- 
oning with my executrix; but I give to them each certain 
special remembrances, viz. to Samuell a bason and ewer 
of silver, double gift, the black armour of proof made for 
my own body, etc. ; to my daughter Margaret Awcher, one 
great salt of silver with a cover, etc. and 6 milch kine; to 
my younger daughter Anne Barne, one great salt of silver, 
double gilt, with a cover, a dozen silver spoons, and one 
ambling gelding fit for her own saddle. To my brothers 
Christopher and Anthony Sandes, £10 apiece. To my ser- 
vant and kinsman David Sandes, one good gelding. Dr. 


Tobie Mathewe, Dean of Durham, and my son Edwin shall 
dispose of all my books of learning, save as are in Eng- 
lish, which I leave to my wife [to distribute] among my 
children, reserving to the said Edwyne such as Dr. Mathewe 
shall think fittest for his study. All the rest of my goods 
to my wife, whom I make my executrix; and Sir Christo- 
pher Wrey, Lord Chief Justice of England, Dr. Toby 
Mathewe, aforesaid, my brother Miles Sandes, Francis 
Palmes and my son Samuell Sandes, esq., my overseers. 
Witnesses: Richard Hudson, Anthony Higgin, Moyses 
Fowler, Jeames Cooke, Leonard Hutton, John Johnson, 
Robert Hall. 
Proved 22 May 1590 by the proctor of the executrix named. 

The will of Cicely Sandys, widow of Archbishop Sandys, undated, 
but with a codicil, dated, 17 January i6io[-ii], was probated, 12 Feb- 
ruary i6io[-ii] in the Prerogative Court of Canterbury (Wood, 15). 
The following is an abstract: 

The will of Cicely Sandys late wife of Edwin Sandys, 
Archbishop of York, deceased, [undated] 

I bequeath to each of my sons & sons in law a black cloak 
& to my daughter Barne & my daughters in law a black 
gown. To ten poor women a gown each. To the poor of 
Woodham Ferris, £10. To the mending of the highways 
there, £4. To my servant, Richard Hearde, £20. To my 
servant, Edward Butcher, 40 s. [Legacies to other ser- 
vants unnamed]. To my son's children that I have brought 
up, mourning cloth. To my son, Edwin Sandes, £100. 
To my third son, Miles Sandys, £100. To my fourth son, 
Thomas Sandys, £200. To my son, Henry Sandys, £200. 
To my son, George Sandes, £200, if he return into Eng- 
land. To my daughter, Dame Anne Barne, my scarlet bed, 
& the furniture thereunto belonging & £100, which I lent to 
her husband Sir William Barne & for which I have his 
bond, & £40, and to her daughter, Anne Barne, £100, 
towards her preferment in marriage. To my grandchild, 
Sir Anthony Aucher, a ring; to my godson Edwin Aucher 
£30, to my daughter's daughter, Margaret Aucher, £30 & 
a cabinet, a cup & my Geneva bible which my brother, 
Francis Willford gave me. To Elizabeth, now Dame 
Haman, the cabinet her father gave me & the Geneva bible 
with one clasp, & £10. To my daughter Barne & my daugh- 
ters in law, a ring each. To Sir Thomas Willford, the 
elder, a ring, he being my brother. 

Tomb of Cecily, Wife of Archbishop Sandys, 
Woodham Ferrars, Essex. 


Executor & Residuary legatee : — my eldest son, Sir Samuel 
Sandys, knt. 

Overseers: — my brother Sir Thomas Willford & my sons 
Sir Edwin & Sir Miles Sandys. 

I bequeath to little Bridget Sandys, who waits on my son 
Henry's daughter, £100, on marriage. Signed: Cicely San- 
dys. Witnesses: — Daniell Lyndsell, Thomas Sandys, Rich- 
ard Hearde, Edward Bucherd, Charles Chadwicke. 
Proved:— 12 February i6io[-ii] by the executor. 
Codicil dated 17 January i6io[-ii] [follows the Probate 
Act in the Register]. I give my sons Thomas & Henry, 
£100 each more. To my daughter in law, Dame Katherine, 
wife of Sir Edwin Sandys, my silver tun with cover parcel 
gilt. To Mary Sandys, daughter of my son, Sir Samuel, 
my great silver porrenger. To her sister, Margaret Sandys, 
a silver salt double gilt. 
Witnesses: Char. Chadwicke, Edwyne Aucher. 

Issue of Archbishop Edwin Sandys 7 (Robert 1 , William 2 , William 8 , 
William 4 , George 5 , William 6 ) and his 1st wife, Mary Sandys. 

1. James Sandys 8 , a son who died in infancy on the continent of 
the plague, between 1554 and 1558. 

Issue of Archbishop Edwin Sandys 7 and his 2nd wife, Cecily Wilsford : 

2. Sir Samuel Sandys 8 , knight. Born 28 December, 1560. Sheriff 
of Worcestershire 16 James I [1618]. Member of Parliament 13 
[1615] and 18 [1620] James I. Member of the Virginia Com- 
pany. Died 18 August, 1623. Buried at Wickhamford, Wor- 
cester. Held manors in Worcestershire, Essex and Yorkshire. 
Married Mercy, daughter of Martin Culpeper. There is a mag- 
nificent monument to the memory of him and his wife in Wick- 
hamford church. He left issue 11 children. A daughter Mar- 
garet 9 married Sir Francis Wyatt, governor of Virginia. His 
descendants are traced in A History of the Sandys Family. 
From Samuel 8 was descended Samuel Sandys 18 , created baron 
Sandys of Ombersley in 1743. 

3. Sir Edwin Sandys 8 , knight, statesman and colonist. The part 
played by this remarkable man not only in the establishment of 
Virginia but in the development of representative government 
both in the American colonies and in England, is now uni- 
versally recognized. To him we owe the calling together of the 
first legislative assembly held in the colonies, which met at 
Jamestown in 1619, and planted in Virginia the seeds of political 
independence which came to fruition a century and a half later 
in the Revolution. 

Edwin Sandys was born December 9, 1561. He was entered 
at the Merchant Taylors* School in 1571, and was admitted as 


a scholar of Corpus Christi College, Oxford, under Richard 
Hooker, September, 1577, received his B. A. October 16, 1579, 
and became a probationer fellow January 23, 1580. He was made 
by his father a collated prebend of Witwang in the Cathedral of 
York, March 17, 1582, although he never took orders, holding 
the position until May, 1602, when he resigned to take part in 
active political life. He was entered in the Middle Temple 1589. 
He had entered parliament from Andover in 1586, and repre- 
sented Plympton in 1588-1589 and again in 1592-1593. He trav- 
elled extensively abroad from 1593 to 1599, and while in Paris 
in 1509 he wrote his Europae Speculum. This book was not 
printed, however, until 1605, when an unauthorized edition, under 
the title "A Relation of the State of Religion in Europe", ap- 
peared in London from a stolen copy of the manuscript. Sandys 
succeeded in having this pirated edition suppressed and the "books 
were burned in St. Paul's Church yard by order of the High 
Commission". It was republished at the Hague under the orig- 
inal title in 1629. He returned to England in 1599 and shortly 
afterwards entered the service of King James in Scotland, and 
came with him to England when he succeeded Elizabeth in 1603. 
He was knighted by James at Charterhouse May 11, 1603, and 
"was afterwards employed by his majesty in several affairs of 
great trust and importance". In 1604 he represented Stockbridge 
in James's first parliament and showed his interest in progressive 
measures by his opposition to the great trading companies and 
monopolies, and also by his endeavors to secure for all pris- 
oners the right to employ counsel in their defense. 

Sandy's interest in colonization apparently dates from the 
organization in 1606 of the first London Company, or as it after- 
wards came to be called the Virginia Company, and he became 
March 9, 1607, a member of the Council of Virginia of this 
Company. He was reelected to the council again, May 23, 1609. 
His influence in parliament steadily increased, and "July 3, 1607, 
on motion of Sir Edwin Sandys, a member of great authority, 
the House of Commons entered for the first time an order for 
the regular keeping of their Journals". Sir Matthew Hale 
•couples together the names of Sir Francis Bacon and Sir Edwin 
Sandys and states that these "two men of the greatest parts and 
knowledge in England" drew up a remonstrance against the 
king's conduct against the parliament during the session of 
1604-1611. Sandys from this time began to drift away from 
the court party. Probably to prevent his deserting to the oppo- 
sition or country party, the king is said to have granted to him, 
March 12, 1614, a moiety of the manor of Northbourne and other 
manors in Kent, although his will refers to his purchase of 
Northbourne from James. He represented both Rochester and 

Sir Edwin Sandys. 


Hinton in parliament in 1614. Although professing loyalty to 
the king, Sandys openly opposed James* conception of absolutism, 
and formulated the doctrine which later became the great Whig 
dogma, that the origin of monarchy lay in election, and that the 
duties of the sovereign and his subjects were reciprocal; that 
the people gave its consent to the king's authority upon the 
express understanding that there were certain reciprocal condi- 
tions which neither king nor people could violate with impunity, 
and that a king who pretended to rule by any other title such 
as conquest might be dethroned by any force sufficient to over- 
throw him. James was incensed and Sandys was summoned 
before the privy council upon the dissolution of parliament, 
June 17, 1614, and gave bond not to leave London without per- 
mission, but the case was not pressed. 

James did not call together parliament between 1614 and 1621, 
and during this period Sandys seems to have devoted himself 
largely to Virginia and other colonial enterprises. He had be- 
come a member of the East India Company prior to 1614, a "free 
brother" March 31, 1618, and served on its committee from 1619 
to 1623, and again from 1625 to 1629. He joined the Somers 
Island, or Bermudas Company, June 29, 1615. This latter com- 
pany was later merged with the Virginia Company, and the 
Sandys tribe of Bermuda derived its name from him. 

Sandys's absorbing colonial interest, however, was in Virginia 
affairs. Factions had begun "to develop in the Virginia Com- 
pany, and in 1617 Sir Thomas Smythe, one of the "merchant 
princes" of London, and the treasurer or chief executive officer 
of the Company, turned over the active management of its af- 
fairs to Sandys. "In regard to Sir Thomas Smythe's sickness 
and other imployments Sir Edwin was chosen as his assistant in 
the management of the affairs of the Virginia Company and 
he did in a manner wholie supplie Smythe's place" from early in 
1617 to April 24, 1619. It was at this time that the Leyden 
Puritans sent messengers to consult with Sandys in regard to 
their settling in Virginia and their correspondence as found in 
Bradford's History of Plymouth Plantation 1620-164/ (pp. 70-76) 
shows how well disposed and sympathetic Sandys was towards 
them and their plans. The feud between the Earl of Warwick 
and Sir Thomas Smythe resulted in Sandys's almost unanimous 
election as treasurer or head of the Virginia Company, April 28, 
1619, as the successor of Smythe. Under Sandys's wise adminis- 
tration of the Virginia Company, the struggling colony now began 
really to prosper, but he was convinced that its ultimate success 
depended upon the grant to the colonists of a large measure of 
self government. Under his direction in May 1619 a committee 
of the Company drew up a form of government for the colony. 


Governor Yeardley was thereupon directed by Sandys to issue 
writs for the election of a general assembly, and July 30, 1619, 
there met at Jamestown the first representative legislative body 
ever assembled in America. This same year Sandys made an 
unsuccessful attempt to found a missionary college in Virginia. 

The king, who had been greatly displeased by the independent 
tendencies exhibited by parliament, refused to call it together 
between 1614 and 1621. During this period the meetings of the 
large and powerful Virginia Company, to which upwards of a 
hundred members of parliament belonged, and most of whom 
were opposed to the court party, served as a sort of "open 
forum*' for the discussion of questions of general political interest, 
and Sandys was looked upon by the king as the leader of the 
opposition and his greatest enemy. When the time for the an- 
nual election of the treasurer or administrative head of the com- 
pany for 1620 approached, James is reported to have said "choose 
the Devil if you will but not Sir Edwin Sandys". The annual 
meeting was held June 28, 1620, and notwithstanding this warn- 
ing, a large majority of the members were about to proceed 
with the reelection of Sandys, when suddenly a messenger from 
the king arrived and informed the meeting that the king posi- 
tively forbade Sandys's election, but wished to suggest four 
names, all of the old Sir Thomas Smythe faction now opposed 
to Sandys, from which it was his pleasure that they should elect 
a treasurer. The meeting was at once thrown into a turmoil at 
this violation of their charter rights, and would doubtless have 
ignored the king's orders, had not Sandys requested that his 
name be withdrawn. The name of the Earl of Southampton, a 
warm friend of Sandys, was then proposed and he was elected 
by an overwhelming majority over the king's nominees. The 
king was furious and determined when the opportunity presented 
itself to destroy the Virginia Company and take the government 
of the colony into his hands, and thus avenge himself upon 
Sandys and his friends, who still controlled the policies of the 

Sandys and John Selden in February, 1621, prepared a new 
charter for the Company which was never adopted however. 
Sandys was elected to the 1621-1622 parliament from Sandwich, 
succeeding Sir Thomas Smythe. He was very active in this 
parliament and as leader of the country or popular party in its 
opposition to the policies of the court party, he further exas- 
perated the king. During a short recess, he, the Earl of South- 
ampton and Selden were arrested; Sandys was imprisoned in the 
Tower from June 21 to July 21, 1621, when he was released, 
owing, it is said, to widespread public resentment. The cause 
of his arrest was not made public, but it was generally believed 


to be a warning from the king to cease his opposition to the 
latter' s policies, rather than on account of various Virginia mat- 
ters, which the court party intimated. It was said that it was 
because Sandys "was opposed to monarchial government in gen- 
eral ; had moved the Archbishop of Canterbury to give leave to 
the Brownists and Separatists to go to Virginia, and designed to 
make a free popular state there, and himself and his assured 
friends to be leaders". In 1623 a certain unscrupulous Nathaniel 
Butler published a pamphlet in which he brought various un- 
founded charges against the colonial administrations of the Com- 
pany in Virginia. Although it was at once shown that the 
conditions complained of had existed under a former administra- 
tion when Smythe was treasurer of the Company and Argell 
governor of the colony, and that these had been long since cor- 
rected by Sandys, it gave the king his long awaited opportunity 
for revenge. In October, 1623, James brought suit against the 
Company to annul its charter, and notwithstanding its resistance 
in the courts and in parliament, and the vehement protests of 
the Virginia burgesses who were more than satisfied with the 
conditions then existing in the colony, a subservient court de- 
clared the charter of the Virginia Company null and void, July 
24, 1624, and Virginia became henceforth a royal colony. 

Sandys from this time ceases to be a factor in Virginia affairs, 
although maintaining an interest in the East Indian Company 
until his death. He continued in parliament, however, repre- 
senting Kent in the session of 1624, and Penryn in 1625 and 1626. 
He died in October, 1629, and was buried at Northbourne church 
where there is a monument to his memory. Northbourne Court 
where he lived was built upon the site of an old monastery. 
Of the mansion nothing now remains except some picturesque 
ruins and the old terraced gardens. Sir Edwin Sandys was a 
man of varied interests and wide culture. Richard Hooker is 
said to have submitted his celebrated Ecclesiastical Polity to him 
for criticism and suggestion before its publication. Sandys in 
his will left £1500 to Oxford to found a lectureship on "Meta- 
physic Philosophic" and £1000 to Cambridge for the like pur- 
pose. His religious views as found in his Eitvopae Speculum 
show him to have been singularly broad minded and tolerant. 

Sketches of Sir Edwin Sandys's are to be found in Brown's 
Genesis of the United States (pp. 992-4) and in the Dictionary 
of National Biography (1. 286-290). His descendants are traced 
in A History of the Sandys Family and in Foster's Lancashire 

Sir Edwin Sandys 8 married four times. By his first wife 
Margaret, daughter of John Everleigh of Devan, he had a daugh- 


i. Margaret Sandys 9 ; married Sir Thomas Wilsford. 

By his second wife Anne, daughter of Thomas Southcoat, he 
left no issue. 

By his third wife Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Nevinson of 
Eastry, Kent, he had a daughter: 

ii. Anne Sandys 9 ; not traced. 

By his fourth wife Catherine, daughter of Sir Richard Bulke- 
ley, he had seven sons and five daughters, viz: 

iii. Henry Sandys 9 (1605-1640) of Northbourne Court; mar- 
ried Margaret, daughter of Sir William Hammond, died without 
issue, Northbourne passing to his brother Edwin. 

iv. Edwin Sandys 9 of Northbourne Court; a colonel in the 
Parliamentary army; killed at the battle of Powyck, 1642; mar- 
ried Catherine Champeney and had issue five children; the 
baronets Sandys of Northbourne are his descendants. 

v. Richard Sandys 9 of Downe Hall, Kent, a colonel in the 
Parliamentary army, died 1669; married Hester Aucher and had 
issue six sons and four daughters. 

vi. Robert Sandys 9 . Living 1629. Not traced. 

vii. William Sandys 9 . Apparently died before 1629, as he is 
not named in his father's will. 

viii. Thomas Sandys 9 . Living 1629. He is referred to as Sir 
Thomas Sandys, knight, by Foster, but he does not appear in 
Shaw's Knights of England. 

ix. Francis Sandys 9 . Apparently died before 1629. 

x. Penelope Sandys 9 . Married ante 1643 Nicholas Lechmere, 
esq. of Hanley, Worcs., baron of the Exchequer. 

xi. Elizabeth Sandys 9 . Living in 1629. 

xii. Frances Sandys 9 . Living 1629. 

xiii. Catherine Sandys 9 . Married Gerard Scrimshire of 
Aquelate, Staffordshire. 

xiv. Mary Sandys 9 . Died 26 Oct. 1675. Married Richard, 
3d son of Robert, Lord Spencer, later Duke of Marlborough. 

The will of Sir Edwin Sandys, of which the following is an 
abstract, dated 20 August 1629, was probated 31 October, 1629, in 
the Prerogative Court of Canterbury (Ridley, 64). 

Sir Edwin Sandis of Northborne, in co. Kent, Knt. 
For the more speedy paying of my debts wherein I com- 
prise the redeeming of my land at Stonham now in mort- 
gage to Mr. James Dorville I desire my whole es- 
tate be kept "intirelie united" until the year 1633 and then 
my wife Dame Katharin Sandis to enjoy, as her jointure 
during her life, my house and lands of Bishoppbarne 
alias Bishoplathes, commonly called Bishop feildes neer 
the walles of the City of Yorke, which I purchased of 



o a 






Queen Elizabeth; and my Mansion house at Northborne, 
in co. Kent, with all the lands belonging, parcel of 
the Manor of Northborne the inheritance whereof I pur- 
chased of King James, also my capital messuage with all 
the lands belonging called Stonham farme neer Dartford in 
said co., (being redeemed out of mortgage, which I pur- 
chased of my brother Sir Miles Sandis and hee of Queen 
Elizabeth, also my Marshland in Bilchington in said co. 
After the decease of my said wife, to my eldest sonne 
Henry Sandis and his heirs male. In default of issue, 
then to my second sonne Edwin Sandys and his heirs male : 
In default of issue to my third sonne Richard Sandis and 
his heirs male: In default of issue, to my fourth sonne 
Robert Sandis and his heirs male: In default of issue to 
my fifth sonne Thomas Sandis and his heirs male. In de- 
fault of issue to my right heirs for ever. 
To my said Wife Dame Katharine, the lease of my house 
within Aldersgate. 

To my three daughters, Francis Sandis, Elizabeth Sandis 
& Penelope Sandis, these portions vizt., to Francis, £500 
which I have lately adventured and payd to the East India 
Company for the first Persian voiage with the whole proceed 
thereof; to Elizabeth, £500 which I have subscribed to ad- 
venture in the second voyage; and to Penelope £500 to be 
adventured for her in the third voyage. 
Concerning my other leases in the co. of Yorke vizt., the 
lease of the prebend of Westwang and of Wildon grange 
and of the rectorie and tieth come of Felkirke, held of the 
Archbishop of York, my will is the profits of the same be 
allowed for the maintenance and education of my fower 
younger sonnes at the rate of £40 a years each; and out 
of the remainder of the profits, £1,500 to be employed in 
purchase of land to be conveyed to the University of 
Oxford for the raising of an annual stipend for a lecture 
of Metaphisic Philosophic Also £1,000 for the purchase 
of land to be assured to the University of Cambridge for 
the raising of a stipend for a like lecture, "which lecture 
my desire is may bear the name of my freind Francis 
Mecham esquire, deceased." 

To my sonne Henry Sandis, and his heirs male, my 
5 shares of land in Sandys Tribe in the Summer Hands 
and the other 5 shares in Smiths Tribe in the said Hands, 
which I purchased of the widow and executrix of Georgt 
Barkeley of London, merchant in the name of my frend 
Mr. John Ferrar, late of London, merchant. Residuary 
Legatee and Executrix: my wife Dame Katharine Sandys, 
in the event of death, then my sonne Henry Sandys esq., 


and my freind Mr. Nicholas Ferrar, now or late of London, 
gentleman, to be executors. 

Overseers : Sir Robert Naunton, my ancient freind, master 
of the Wards and Liveries, my sonne in law, Richard 
Spencer, esq., my sonne in law Sir Thomas Wilsford, Knt. 
my freinds Mr. Thomas Keightley of London, Merchant, 
Mr. Gabriel Barbor, Esq., Mr. John Ferrar, late of London, 
Merchant and Mr. Richard Casewell, citizen of London 
and to each of them a ring of 40 s. 

To my bretheren and sister, to my wife's brother and sis- 
ters, to my sonne in law, Gerard Skrymsher [Scrimshire], 
to my daughter in law Margaret Sandis, my brother in law, 
James Evelegh, a gold ring of 20 s. each. To Richard 
Facie, teacher of my children 40 markes. 
Gerrard Skrymshire, Katherine Skrimshire, Frances Sandis, 
Elizabeth Sandis, Edwin Sandys, Richard Sands, Robert 
Sandis, Thomas Sandis, Richard Facie, Henry Thackham, 
Owen Meredith, Elizabeth Lawes : Witnesses. 
Proved 31 Oct. 1629 by the sole Executrix named. 

4. Sir Myles Sandys 8 , knight, of Wimberton, Isle of Ely. Born 
29 March, 1563. Knighted 11 May, 1603. Created a baronet 25 
November, 1612. Married Elizabeth, daughter of Edward Cooke 
of North Gray, Kent. Member of parliament from the Uni- 
versity of Cambridge 12 James I [1614], and from Worcester 3 
Charles I [1627). Died 1644. Left issue. The baronetcy be- 
came extinct in 1644. See A History of the Sandys Family for 
his descendants. 

5. William Sandys 8 of London. Born 13 September, 1565. Died 

6. Margaret Sandys 8 . Born 22 December, 1566. Married Sir 
Anthony Aucher of Bishopsbourne, who was a brother of Eliza- 
beth Aucher, wife of Sir William Lovelace, the elder (see ante 
xxviii; 380). They had a daughter Elizabeth Aucher who mar- 
ried Sir William Hamour of St. Albans Court, Kent. 

7. Thomas Sandys 8 of London. Born 3 December, 1568. Member 
of the Virginia Company. Left numerous issue. 

VIII. 8. Anne Sandys 8 . Born 21 June, 1570. "vii, Anne Sandes 
was born on June 21 at eight of the clock on the morning, 1570. 
Her godfather, John Packington, Esq.; her godmothers Mrs. 
Anne Washbourne, Mrs. Anne Colles." Married about 1586 
Sir William Barne, knight, of Woolwich, Kent, by whom she 
had issue seven children, the youngest of whom, Anne Barne, 
married 1st, Sir William Lovelace (1584-1627), the younger, 
and 2nd, Dr. Jonathan Browne, D. D., leaving issue by both 
husbands. She was the ancestress of the Lovelace family traced 


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George Sandys. 


in this magazine — see Lovelace — Va. Mag. xxvii-xxviii ; for 
further details. 

9. Henry Sandys 8 . Born 30 December, 1572. Not traced. 

10. George Sandys 8 . Poet, colonist and traveller. Born 2 March, 
1577. Of Carswell, Oxfordshire. He studied at St. Mary's Hall, 
Oxford. His travels, which began in 1610, extended to France, 
Italy, Turkey, Egypt, Cyprus and the Holy Land. A narrative 
of these travels under the title The Relation of a Journey begun 
An. Dom. 1610, was published in 161 5 and attained much popu- 
larity. He took a great interest in colonization, and in April, 
1621, became colonial treasurer of the Virginia Company, accom- 
panying Sir Francis Wyatt the new governor, who had married 
his niece Margaret, daughter of Sir Samuel Sandys, to Virginia 
in that year. Sandys was appointed a member of the Council 
of Virginia in 1624 and again in 1626 and 1628. He probably 
remained in Virginia until 163 1, or possibly later. While in 
Virginia he completed his translation of Ovid's Metamorphoses, 
the earliest English poetry written on the American continent. 
After his return to England he published in 1636 his Paraphrase 
upon the Psalms and Hymns; in 1640 his translation of Christ's 
Passion from the Latin of Grotius; and in 1641 his Paraphrase 
of the Song of Psalms. His verse is of a high order. In char- 
acter he was exemplary. He died unmarried, although his 
father's will shows that a certain Elizabeth Norton had been 
chosen when he was still a child of nine for his wife. He was 
buried at Bexley, Kent, in 1643. A very full sketch of George 
Sandys's life is to be found in the Dictionary of National Biogra- 
phy (1; 290-3), and in the introduction to his Poetical Works 
in two volumes edited in 1872 by Richard Hooper. His connec- 
tion with Virginia is fully detailed in BrowWs Genesis (p. 994). 



Gawin Corbin, 4th son of Thomas Corbin, of Hall End, was a mer- 
chant in London and did an extensive trade with Virginia. On 
December 5th, 1666, Gawin Corbin and Company of London submitted 
a petition to the Privy Council, reciting that they had built the ship 
Virginia Berkeley, of 80 tons, in Virginia, had sent her over to Eng- 
land to be made fitter for service, and that she was to return to Vir- 
ginia again with the commodities and necessities for building and 
beautifying a church there, that her master and sailors were all Vir- 
ginians, and they asked a pass allowing her an indefinite stay there. 
The petition was granted.