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tions with Actions for Children of Four, Five, and 
Six Years of Age. Crown 8vo, Is. 6d. 


With 21 Illustrations by W. G. Burn Murdoch. 
Fcap. 8vo, 6d. 
















IT is a matter for regret that the Kindergarten system, 
which is so well adapted to educate in the highest and 
best sense of the word, has been so little understood 
and practised in England. Any one who has carefully 
studied the subject must be convinced that, for young 
children, at any rate, it is the only right system of 
education. But Frobel's principles can never be 
understood by the superficial observer, any more than 
a knowledge of plant life can be obtained by a superficial 
glance at a plant. For this reason I would ask for 
this book, not a cursory glance at the various chapters, 
but a careful study of the whole. I have tried to show 
how ordinary school subjects may be taught on Kinder- 
garten principles, but this will only be understood by 
those who have first apprehended the fundamental 
laws of Frobel, as explained in the first Chapter, and 
illustrated by the Gifts and Occupations following. No 
Teacher will be likely to use all the Gifts and Occupa- 
tions, but to gain an intelligent conception of any, it is 
necessary to study the connection of all, so that one 
may see] how each grows out of, and complements, the 
one that precedes it, and how all are woven together 
into a complete and beautiful whole. 

Information concerning Books and Apparatus men- 
tioned is given in the Appendix, when it is thought 
that such information may be desired by the reader. 


My thanks are due to Mr. Sachs of Bradford for his 
skill and care in taking the photographs from which 
many of the illustrations have been prepared. 

I am also indebted to the Authors from whose works 
I have quoted. If in any case the Author's name is 
omitted, it is because I have failed to remember the 
source from whence the idea originally came, and my 
apology is herewith offered. 









- 19 

III. GIFT I. - 29 

IV. GIFT II. " _ 34 
V. GIFT III. - 50 

VI. GIFT IV. - _ 6Q 

VII. GIFT V. . - 71 

IX. GIFT VH.-TABLETS - ' " g4 


XI. THE LATH - 92 



XV. DRAWING - 12 8 



- 133 






XXII. PEA WORK _ _ 1?2 




- 186 











XXXV. RECITATION - - - - - - - - . - - 264 











XLIV. DUMB BELLS - - - - 301 

XLV. HOOP DRILL - - 310 

XLVI. RING DRILL - - - - - - . . . .319 

XLVII. WANDS - - 328 



L. CURVED WANDS - - 351 

LI. FAN DRILL - - - - 361 

LII. TAMBOURINE DRILL ----_.-__ 379 


- 387 


IPLATE I. facing page 19 

II. ,,80 

n HI- 82 

IV. M 105 

V. ,,125 

VI. ,,129 

VII. 142 

VIII. 144 

IX. ?5 150 

X. - 150 

XL 150 

XII. ,,150 

XIII. - ,,156 

XIV. 162 

XV. 166 

*, XVL 177 


SINCE the days of the Teacher Divine, whose infinite tender- 
ness and love for the children were expressed in those 
memorable words, " Suffer the little children to come unto 
Me," there has arisen no teacher who understood child-life 
so well or penetrated so deeply into its secrets as Friedrich 
Frobel. The early life of animals and plants has received 
far more attention than the early life of childhood, and yet 
most people will admit that the first six years of a child's 
life are the most impressionable and important. " Give me 
the first six years of a child's life, and I care not who has 
the rest." 

Everybody believes that moral training is of paramount 
importance and that the formation of character is of the 
greatest value. Surely it is a gross mistake to consider the 
child merely as a physical being, during the most impres- 
sionable years of its life ! If it is true that the well-being of 
men and nations depends on w r hat the man is, and that the 
well-being of the man depends on what the child is, then 
how important it is that the child should develop all within 
that is good and pure and noble ! Which of us knows what 
latent powers of good may have been lost in his or her own 
nature for want of tending in the early years of life, and who 
can say what forces lie in the undeveloped childhood around 
us ! Whether a man becomes a slave to his passions or a 
conqueror of self depends a great deal on the foundation laid 
in early life. 



" The child contains in germ all that it will be in man- 
hood." It is ours, then, to see that these precious germs do 
not wither for lack of culture in the little human plant. But 
how shall we cultivate them ? Frobel's teaching gives the 
answer. Every human being," he says, " is in his spiritual 
origin a particular thought of God." The child is Divine as 
well as human, and education does not fulfil its mission 
unless it develops the Divine essence in the child. 

Herbert Spencer defines education as " Preparation for 
complete living". Another writer (Baroness von Maren- 
holtz-Biilow) says " Education is emancipation the setting 
free of the bound-up forces of body and soul. Its chief aim 
should be the formation of character." 

Frobel holds that the great object of life is to develop the 
Divine in us, and that the spirit can and ought to be 
developed with and at the same time as the body and mind. 
It is this want of harmonious development of the threefold 
nature, moral, mental, physical, that causes the discontent 
and unhappiness of our race. Educational facilities are 
greater than ever, and physical development is now made a 
part of education, but, unless the moral nature is developed 
at the same time, the child is not " prepared for complete 
living ". 

Frobel says, " Man is made in the image of God, and his 
destiny is to become like Him. Man is at once the child of 
nature, the child of humanity, and the child of God, and the 
aim of education is to bring him, while he is a child, into 
harmonious relations with all the three." 

Linked together in one whole the parts of life must be, 
The end and aim of child-life is blessed unity. 

All Frobel's teaching is based on natural law. He felt sure 
that just as the physical and mental capacities are developed 
according to law, so should be the spiritual. In studying 
childhood he noticed its great love of activity and movement ; 


how the child exercises its sense of touch by grasping things, 
how it watches, and listens, and seems delighted to use its 
senses, and Frobel determined that it was by directing these 
natural expressions of child-life that the educator could aid 
in the threefold development of his nature. A child's ac- 
tivities should not be left vague and purposeless, but as 
Baroness von Marenholtz-Biilow beautifully expresses it: 
" Every delight of the senses should be used as a means 
for loosing the fetters of the child's soul, for ministering food 
to the spirit, and opening the gates into the region of the 
beautiful. Without cultivation of the senses, cultivation of 
the soul is impossible." 

The child's education begins when it becomes interested in 
the objects that surround it, and Frobel in his " Mother Play 
and Nursery Songs " shows the mother how she may aid in 
the child's development from the first dawn of intelligence. 
The child, then, is to be educated by the direction of its own 
natural activities, and in the early years of life there is only 
one right form for these activities to take, and that is play ; 
or, in other words, work is to be made such a delight to the 
children that they will love it, and be just as happy in it as 
they are at play. This was Frobel's great inspiration, to 
organise play as a means of education, and in this he mani- 
fested his genius. He saw that "to cram the child with the 
ideas of grown-up people was to choke its natural growth," 
and that the only right way to educate was to surround the 
child with favourable conditions that would assist its natural 
instincts. Frobel puts action in place of abstract learning, 
and by the Kindergarten system seeks to place the child 
in a little world of action in which it can develop itself. 
Make the child happy, for " Virtue kindles at the touch of 
joy ". Make it pleasant for the child to do right. Frobel 
does not deny the existence of a disposition towards evil, 
but he would have us give the child a bias in the direction 
of good, and it is easier for him to be good when he is happy. 


The child, then, finds its greatest happiness in the exercise 
of its faculties in work, which in the child-stage is only 
another name for organised play. 

"The games of childhood are the heart-leaves of the 
future life," in them is expressed the child's innermost 
nature. The child who plays earnestly will live in earnest 
when he grows older. " The sources of all good are in 
play." How then did Frobel use play as a means of educa- 
tion ? He noticed that children loved to work in mud or 
clay, hence he gave them clay-modelling. He saw them 
examine their toys, and try to get at the heart of them, very 
often by breaking the toy, and he invented the divided cube. 
Children love to build and construct, so he provided material 
for building ; they love colour, and in his 1st Gift, as in 
many of the occupations, this desire is gratified. They are 
fond of sketching and drawing, therefore a system of draw- 
ing finds its place in the Kindergarten, and they are always 
charmed by music and rhythmic motion, hence Frobel's 
Kindergarten games. He noticed, also, that children love 
to be out of doors, and so he would take the children of 
his Kindergarten into the fields and woods and inculcate 
a love of nature from the child's earliest years. " From 
every object in nature," says Frobel, " there is a way to 

He noticed that the year-old baby, watching a revolving 
ball, gradually took its eyes from ball to string, and followed 
the string until it came to the hand that moved it. Just so 
in nature, the child seeks to know the cause of things. 
"Who painted the flowers?" he asks. "Who made the 
glorious sun ? " The same God who made thee, dear child, 
and as the flowers and the sunshine express what God 
intended them to express, so must the child try to do the 
same. We know how readily the child's heart responds. 
To him the thunder is the voice of God, the sunshine is His 
smile, all nature is an expression of His goodness, and the 


child, seeing God in everything, loves Him. The child's first 
music lesson should be from the voices of nature. Let him 
listen to the murmuring brook, the rustling leaves, the gentle 
tinkling of the harebells or ripe golden oats, and the harmony 
will enter his soul. 

A garden or plot of ground is an essential feature in 
Frobel's system ; he would have one attached to every 
Kindergarten. The following incident told by the authoress 
of Child Nature illustrates the valuable use that may be 
made of a garden : " Two little girls, of four and five years 
of age, had, like the rest of the children, sown a few peas and 
beans in their own little plot of ground. Day by day they 
would grub up the soil with their little hands to see why the 
seeds did not grow. It was explained to them that if they 
wished to see the seeds come up they must wait patiently, 
and leave them undisturbed. So the children waited and 
watched, until one day the teacher found them bending over 
the flower bed and gazing with delight at two or three little 
green blades. Then she said, ' Who made the seeds grow?' 
and the children answered, ' It was God ! ' ' Yes,' said the 
teacher, ' He sent the sunshine and the rain to warm and 
moisten the earth, so that the damp soil could soften the 
seeds and make them grow. He did this to make you happy, 
what will you do to please Him ? ' ' We will be very good,' 
said the children, and the youngest one exclaimed earnestly, 
' I will do something to please God '. Later in the day 
when the children had been weaving little mats with strips 
of coloured paper and the teacher asked each child for whom 
its work was intended, the child before mentioned replied, 
' I am going to give mine to God '." This little incident 
shows how easily the higher nature may be touched, and 
how gladly the child responds. 

Frobel would also have the children taught to love and 
care for animals, "their little brothers and sisters lower 
down," as some one has happily termed them, and this, he 


says, will lay the foundation for the love and care of human 
beings in later life. 

Frobel says that " Work is salvation," and so it is, if the 
work be made to express the best and highest that is within 
us; it becomes then a means of spiritual development. 
When the fingers are moved by the mind, work is not a 
curse, but " the highest blessing of mankind, and that which 
bestows on it its nobility " (Baroness von Marenholtz- 
Biilow). " Learn through doing," says Frobel, but " it 
must be a doing which blossoms into being, for it is char- 
acter building which has to go on in the Kindergarten " (K. 
D. Wiggin in Children s Eights). 

Man is a creative being, because he is made in the image 
of God, and first and foremost he should be trained to create, 
not to copy or imitate. Work should be a means to know- 
ledge, and the beauty of Frobel's system is that it has dis- 
covered a plan by \vhich " children, unconsciously, and even 
while at play, are fashioned into workmen ". Eousseau says, 
" Children easily forget what has been shown to them, or 
what they have been told, but what they themselves have 
made they never forget ". This has been confirmed by the 
writer's experience. She has known boys of twelve or four- 
teen years come into the Kindergarten school to see designs 
in drawing, or other work done by their own baby fingers at 
five or six years of age, which the teacher has preserved ; 
and the boy's face has flushed with pleasure as he showed 
the work to one or other of his boy companions. 

When we can infuse into the child's work a sense of 
obligation to others, or make it a means of giving pleasure 
to others, it reaches its highest significance. The authoress 
of Children's Eights illustrates this so beautifully that the 
writer cannot help quoting the passage entire. 

" In a high dormer window of a great city, in a nest of 
quilts and pillows, sits little In grid. Her blue Danish eyes 
look out from a pinched, snow-white face, and her thin 


hands are languidly folded in her lap. She gazes far down 
below to the other side of the square, where she can just see 
the waving of some green branches, and an open door. 

" Her eyes brighten now, for a stream of little children 
come pouring from that door. ' Look, mother,' she cries, 
' there are the children ! ' and the mother leaves her wash- 
ing and comes with dripping hands to see every tiny boy 
look up at the window and flourish his hat, and every girl 
wave her handkerchief or kiss her hand. They form a ring ; 
there is silence for a moment, and then, 'mid great flapping 
of dingy handkerchiefs and battered hats, a hearty cheer is 

"'They're cheering my birthday,' cries Ingrid. 'Miss 
Mary knows it's my birthday. Oh, isn't it lovely ! ' And 
the thin hands eagerly waft some kisses to the group below. 

11 The scene has only lasted a few moments, the children 
have had their run in the fresh air, and now they go march- 
ing back, pausing at the door to wave ' good-bye ' to the 
window far above. The mother carries Ingrid back to her 
bed (it is a weary time now since those little feet touched 
the floor) ; but the bed is not as tiresome as usual, nor the 
washing as hard, for both hearts are full of sunshine. 

" Afternoon comes little feet are heard climbing up the 
stair, and Ingrid 's name is called. The door opens, and two 
flushed and breathless messengers stand on the threshold. 
'We've brung you a birfday present,' they cry; 'it's a 
book, and we made it all our own se'ves and all the chilluns 
helped, and made somefin' to put in it. Miss Mary's 
downstairs mindin' the babies, and she sends you her love. 
Good-bye! Happy birfday.' ' Happy birthday,' indeed! 
Golden, precious, love-crowned birthday ! Was ever such 
a book so full of sweet messages and tender thoughts ! 

" Ingrid knows how baby Tim must have laboured to sew 
that red circle, how John Jacob toiled over weaving that 
mat, and Elsa carefully folded the little drove of pigs. Every 


body thought of her, and all the ' chilluns ' helped, and how 
dear is the tangible outcome of the thoughts and the 

helping ! " 

Could any one imagine children trained in such an 
atmosphere of loving thoughtfulness growing up into 
selfish, cynical men and women ! This is love in practice 
(for love comes before faith), and it is the only right way 
of teaching the child to be good, for it is just as impossible 
to attain goodness without practising it as it is to attain 
mental capabilities without practising mental faculties. 
" To help is to (Jo the work of the world." To a child it is 
a great pleasure to help, he learns the joy of sharing, and it 
is the highest honour he can reach. 

The Kindergarten games teach unity, and also self-denial, 
for each must do his part before the whole can be re- 
presented, and sometimes a child may not be allowed to 
take just the part he would choose. In the " Bird " game, 
e.g., all cannot be birds, some children must be " trees," 
and others must form a " wall " round the " wood ". The 
pleasure of the one must be subordinated to the good of the 
whole, and the child thus learns to consider the rights of 
others, and to practise self-denial. He sees how other 
lives touch his own. In the care of animals and plants 
important traits of character are cultivated. We love that 
which we tend, and the child who has learned to love 
flowers and plants, to water them and care for them, and 
to nurture animals and feed them (all of which means some 
amount of self-denial), will, when older, be capable of 
making sacrifices for human beings whom he loves. If it 
is not possible to have a plot of ground in connection with 
the school, let the children sow seeds in pots or boxes, 
it will not do for the teacher to sow them ; the children 
must do it for themselves if they are to be thoroughly 
interested. If no other pets are available, there might be 
a canary in a cage. English song-birds should never be 


confined, but as the canary could not live out of doors in 
our country, it is not cruel to keep it in a cage. One teacher 
had tadpoles in a large globe in school, which the children 
eagerly watched day by day until they should see them 
change into frogs, which were then taken back to the pond. 
Other items of interest are described later, in the chapter 
"Description of a Kindergarten". 

In the early years of life the word and the object must 
never be separated, the child should see that which it names 
and learns about. Further, as Pestalozzi taught, " Every 
new idea must be connected with something already known ". 
But how? Here Frobel's " law of balance," or "reconcilia- 
tion of opposites," comes in. The new object (for during 
the first six years of life all teaching should be object teaching) 
must be connected with an object already known by com- 
parison. This is illustrated admirably in Gift II., where the 
cube and cylinder are introduced with the sphere, whose 
form the child has already recognised in the soft ball of Gift 
I. The sphere and cube present a total contrast to each 
other, and for this reason can be easily compared ; the 
cylinder partakes of qualities of both, and is therefore the 
connecting link between. This principle will be illustrated 
more fully in treating of the different Gifts and Occupations, 

The Teacher. Frobel compared the life of a little child 
with plant life, and drew this obvious conclusion : that just 
as it is necessary for the gardener to understand the nature 
of the plant he is tending, and to know what conditions are 
favourable to its well-being, even so is it of vital importance 
that the " gardener " of the little human plant should under- 
stand the nature of that which she trains, and know exactly 
what means to use for its development. Whoever would 
guide a child's soul should have some knowledge of its nature. 
" The whole principle of Frobel's teaching is based on a perfect 
love for children, and a full recognition of their nature," and 


since Divine Wisdom has so created them as to find happi- 
ness in the active exercise and development of their faculties, 
we should try to direct these energies, and find means for 
the child's activity to express itself. A true teacher becomes 
in spirit a child with the children, so that she may fully 
sympathise with them. Given the strong love for children 
and a child-like nature, and enthusiasm, without which 
nothing good or great is carried out in this world, we may 
hope to attain some of that power (\vith which Frobel was 
so richly gifted), to penetrate straight to the child's soul, and 
to call out and foster the Divine spark that is latent there. 
" Let it be our aim that every good thought should grow 
into a deed." 

To quote from Children's Eights once more, " The ideal 
teacher of little children needs strength and delicacy. She 
needs a child's heart, a \voman's heart, and a mother's heart 
in one ; she needs clear judgment and ready sympathy, 
strength of will, keen insight and oversight, the buoyancy 
of hope, the serenity of faith, and the tenderness of patience. 
The hope of the world lies in the children." 



PICTURE to yourself a bright, lofty room, with a large gallery 
at one end. The classrooms are ranged on each side of the 
principal room, from which they are separated by glass 
partitions. The room is well lighted from above, and also 
from one end, and the walls, which are of a pale green tint, 
are adorned with bright, pretty pictures, and numbers of 
brackets, on which we see vases of flowers, as also on the 
teacher's desk and on the table and piano. At one end of 
the room is the museum-cupboard, containing curiosities, 
some of them contributed by former scholars, now grown up, 
and some by interested visitors. Here is seen a lamb's foot, 
the foot of a hen, the foot of a duck, and many models of 
animals and birds. The manufacture of cotton, wool, and 
other things is shown in the different stages. 

On the top of the museum are two cages in which canaries 
live, while in front is a large box with ferns growing in it. 

Models of Objects. In another room are miniature 
representations of a farmyard, a cornfield and jungle. 
Each of these is in a wooden tray, one yard square. The 
"jungle " is made by placing a layer of soil in the tray to 
the depth of half an inch, the soil being damped before the 
grasses, etc., are stuck in. The " cornfield " is made in the 
same way, each stem being cut from nine to twelve inches 
long; half the "field" is planted with corn, and the other 
half with stubble, on which rest the sheaves of corn, and a 
toy sickle. 



The "farmyard" has a stone trough, and groups of animals, 
such as are seen in a farmyard, also a diminutive stack of 
luiv, and another of corn. 

FIG. 1. 

The " desert " is a tract of sand with a tiny oasis, and 
camels are crossing (see illustration above). There are 
other objects of interest in this room, such as a " stable," a 
" barn " and a " cowhouse " ; a mail-cart, which is used to 
give the babies rides in the playground, a rocking-horse, a 
see-saw, and a large bag containing tops, whips, skipping 
ropes, etc., for use in the playground. 

Classrooms. Now we will enter the rooms where the 
children work. Each room contains forty little chairs, and 
twenty dual Kindergarten tables, all of which are screwed 
fast to the floor. 

The sketch (Fig. 2) shows a Kindergarten table with two 
sizes of chairs. The larger size is used with an ordinary 
sloping desk for older children. The smaller chair is the 
one used with the table here given. 

In the classrooms again, we see numbers of pictures, and 
brackets with plants or flowers, the latter also adorn the 



window sills. Every room is bright and pretty, for the 
mistress believes with Frobel that it is easier for the children 
to be good when their surroundings are pleasant and 
attractive. The framing of pictures has been paid for with 
the proceeds of Mayday Festivals which are held annually. 

FIG. 2. 

Each teacher prepares her classroom for the first lesson 
before school commences. If it is building, the boxes of 
cubes are all placed ready for passing, at the end of each 
row, so that no time is wasted. The " Signal," which is 
described later, is also laid on each teacher's desk ready for use. 

Morning School. As the time approaches for beginning 
school, the patter of little feet is heard, and the teachers 
enter the cloakroom, and help the little ones to take off 


their outdoor wrappings. Then one of the teachers seats 
herself at the piano, and the children march in to the sound 
of happy music, in which the birds join heartily. By-and-by 
the pupils take their places on the gallery, and sing a simple 
morning hymn. After this is finished, a ''chord " is struck 
on the piano, which the children know means "turn to right". 

At the sound of a second chord, they turn to right again, 
so that they are now facing their seats. 

At the third chord they kneel on the seat, and the teacher 
says softly, "Hands together, eyes closed". Then they 
repeat a simple prayer. When this is finished, the chords 
are again given thus : 

First Chord. Hands down and open eyes. 

Second Chord. Stand. 

Third Chord. Turn to left. 

Fourth Chord. Face teacher. 

Now a pleasant good-morning is exchanged, and the teacher 
invariably makes this the opportunity for a little chat with 
the children. "What kind of a morning is it ? " " It is a 
bright morning." " Why ? " " Because the sun is shining." 
" Some of the children brought flowers to me this morning. 
Why do we have so many flowers just now?" "It is 
Spring." " What did you notice on your way to school ? " 
Perhaps one child mentions the blue sky or the white clouds. 
Another notices that the trees are budding, the birds singing, 
and some may have seen little lambs in the fields. It is 
quite wonderful what an amount of information is gleaned 
by the children in these morning chats, which do not last 
more than five minutes. They learn to note the seasons, 
with their various changes, and to become deeply interested 
in the springing of the flowers, the changes in the leaves, 
the return of the birds, the hoar frost, the snow, etc., and all 
the simple phenomena of nature. The teacher always 
treasures up for the benefit of the children any little ex- 
perience of her own, such as the following : 


" I went for a walk in the woods last evening and there I 
heard a bird sing that always comes with the springtime ; 
can you guess its name ? " "It was the cuckoo," say the 
children. "Do you think I saw its nest?" "No, it does not 
build a nest. It lays its eggs in another bird's nest," and 
so on. 

Bible Lesson. After this little talk the daily Bible or 
moral lesson is given. This morning it is the story of 
the " Good Samaritan," and the children listen with eager 
interest to the description of the three men and what they 
did. In answer to the question, " Which do you like best? " 
they promptly reply, " The man with the camel". The 
teacher then proceeds : " I do not think we shall be able to 
help any one just as this man did, but there are other kind 
things that we can do. I saw a little girl in the cloakroom 
just now untying a hard knot for her little sister. I wonder 
if you can think of any other way of helping? " " We can 
help the little ones to fasten their coats, and we can help 
them down the steps." "And what about mother, who does 
so many kind things for you? " suggests the teacher. " We 
will do what she tells us," says one. " There are other 
things we can be kind to," says the teacher. " I will just 
see if the birds are fed, and if not, one of you shall attend to 
them ; or the plants may need water, and we will give them 

The Teachers. The teachers make a point of being 
neat in their dress and appearance, so that they may incul- 
cate with a good grace the same virtues in their pupils. It 
is easy to see that teachers and children alike have their 
hearts in their work, which might be more correctly named 
" play," for to children " work made pleasant " is play. 
Each Wednesday after school the head mistress and teachers 
remain for an hour to talk over matters that affect the inter- 
ests of the school. The " talk " is generally preceded by a 
cup of tea, provided by the teachers in turn, then each one 


is free to introduce any point for explanation, or to state any 
difficulty that has arisen in her work. Sometimes these 
friendly gatherings afford occasion for the head teacher to 
give further instruction in Frobel's methods and principles, 
and it is here that much work of the school is arranged. 
Perhaps a new game is about to be taught, and the head 
teacher will say, " The next Kindergarten game is to be the 
' farmyard '. How can you connect it with your Kinder- 
garten lessons? " 

" My class can fold a duck or a hen," says one teacher, 
who has paper-folding. " Mine will build a trough," says 
the teacher of Class II., who teaches building. The " babies' " 
class will be delighted to have a " duck pond" in sand. 
The children who have stick-laying will lay the "hay stack," 
the " barn " will be perforated and embroidered by another 
class, the " dog kennel " and " farmyard gate." can be built 
with Gift IV., and object lessons will be given on animals or 
objects that are found in the farmyard. These suggestions 
are all noted, and subsequently tabulated and kept for refer- 
ence. (See the table showing connection of lessons at end 
of chapter.) 

Perhaps some happy idea has struck one of the teachers 
in her work, some better method of making instruction clear, 
and the happy thought is given for the benefit of all. There 
is to be no such thing as self-interest, all are working for the 
common good, and each tries to remember that the physical 
and mental culture of her charge is to be made the means 
of developing that part of it which lasts for ever its 
character. This thought that the moral training of the 
child is of first and utmost importance is frequently brought 
before the teachers, and, to help still further, they read 
together some portion of Scripture each morning, before the 
time for opening. 

The Signal.* The signal here illustrated has found its 
* See Appendix 1. 


way into a great many schools, and for saving the teacher's 
voice, and securing discipline with the minimum expenditure 
of strength, it is, without doubt, most valuable. We find it 
quite possible to stop the marching, or singing, or reading of 
a number of children with one click of this little instrument. 
It is held by the teacher as shown in the illustration, and 
can be used to indicate a number of words of command, e.g., 
suppose the children are standing, and the teacher wishes 
them to sit, she strikes the signal and then waves it down- 
wards. If they are standing in rows and the teacher wishes 

FIG. 3. The Signal. 

them to turn, she strikes the signal and points it in the 
direction required. In a reading lesson the signal may be 
used largely instead of the voice. If a mistake is made, the 
signal is struck twice sharply, and the child goes back and 
corrects the error. When another child is required to read, 
the signal is struck once, and pointed at the child who is to 
read next. It will be found that the children are on the 
alert for signs, and the attention is much closer than where 
the voice only is used, for, when the commands are given 
by the signal, the children must look up to find out what 
is required of them, and this teaches them to use their eyes. 





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= 3 





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Pigeon house 
Hay stack 
Dog kennel 

Corn stack 












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1 Object Lesson. 

Spring flowers 


-u <C 

"5 ^ E 

1-3 ^ O 





FIG. 4. (See Coloured Plate 1.) 

What it is. Gift I. consists of six wool balls, contained 
in a box, each ball showing one of the colours of the rain- 
bow. There are also six coloured strings, one for each 
ball, and three pieces of wood that form a movable frame- 
work, from which the balls can be suspended, as shown in 
Fig. 4. (See Coloured Plate I.) 

"Why chosen, Frobel chose the ball as the child's 
first plaything, because it is the most simple, and yet the 
most complete of all forms. 

The child's little hand holds it easily, for it is light and 
soft, while the various motions, of which the ball is capable, 
make it a source of delight. It is indeed a favourite play- 
thing both with the young and the old, and in the hands 
of an intelligent teacher it lends itself admirably to that 
gradual unfolding of the child's nature which is so essential 
a feature of Frobel's system. 

The eyes are trained by watching its movements. 

The ears by listening to the sounds it makes. 

The sense of touch by handling it. 

The muscles of the body are strengthened by the healthy 
actions of the games. 

Feelings of friendship and kindliness are cultivated when 
the children combine to play the games. 

20 GIFT I. 

The following pages show some of the ways in \vhich 
Gift I. may be used. 

Each division will occupy many lessons, but the divisions 
should be alternated daily thus: if we take "colour" one 
day, the " motions of the ball " might form the subject of 
next day's lesson, and so on. 

(a) Description of the Ball. Teacher : "What shape 
is the ball ? " Child : " The baU is round ". " What other 
things are round like the ball ? " " An apple, orange, the 
sun, the moon." (In each of these answers, the teacher 
should insist on a complete sentence, thus : " An orange 
is round/' then the lessons on Gift I. will prove a valuable 
means of training the children to express their thoughts, and 
to speak correctly.) Let a child grasp the ball, then ask 
how it feels. "The ball is soft." "What other things 
are soft? " " My dress, my cheeks, etc., etc." " Now feel 
the box." " It is hard." " What other things are hard?" 
" Glass, coal, stone, gold, etc." 

Teacher : " What is the ball made of ? " Child : "It is 
made of wool". 

" Tell me other things that are made of wool." " Stock- 
ings, dresses, etc," always answering in a complete sentence. 

Teacher : " Where did the wool come from ? " Child : 
" It came from the sheep ". 

Show a picture of a sheep, or, better still, let the children 
see it in the fields, if this is possible. " How kind the 
sheep is to give us its soft, warm wool to make the pretty 
ball ! " Describe the shearing how the sheep are first 
washed, and then their thick coats are taken off, because the 
warm weather has come. The sheep is much too hot in his 
heavy coat, just as little children would be if they wore 
winter clothing in summer. 




d 1 : s In : d 

s la 1 :s 

1. The ball is such a pret - ty thing, A - bout it 




s : G |s : s |f : f .n | r 
love to sing, So round it is, 

: s In : n.r I d : n 
and light and soft, I 

r :f 

hold it 




a :a ia 

hand full oft. 

2. Tis made of wool, and do you know 
That on a sheep the wool did grow ? 
Until some men the fleece did take, 
Warm clothes and pretty balls to make. 

(&) Colour. Arrange balls in box so that the red ball 
appears first when the lid slides off, then yellow, blue, 
orange, etc., follow. 

Teacher : "I will slide the lid a little way, so that you 

FIG. 5. 

may see just one ball. What colour is it? " Child : " It is 
red ". 

Teacher: "What other things have you seen that are 
red?" Child: "Some dresses are red, the fire is red, and 
there are red flowers ". 

22 GIFT I. 

Then teacher might say : " One evening just before it was 
dark I saw a great red ball in the sky, and it sank lower and 
lower, until it went quite out of sight. What was that?" 
" It was the sun." " Johnny may hold the red ball in his 
hand. Now you shall see another ball. What a pretty 
colour it has ! Who can teU it ? " " It is yellow." " Tell 
me all the things you know that are yellow." 

When children have exhausted all they know, the teacher 
may help them, thus : "I have something in my purse that 
is yellow ". C. " Some money is yellow." " And what do 
you see on mother's finger ? " " Her ring is yellow." " And 
at her throat ? " "A brooch is yellow." 

T. " What are all these made of ? " C. " They are made 
of gold." " So we will say, ' Gold is yellow '. Mary shall 
hold the yellow ball, because her hair is nearly the same 
colour it is golden hair." Then comes the blue ball, and 
the children will remember that the sky is blue, the sea is 
blue, and some children have blue eyes. Perhaps we may 
find a little girl with a blue dress, and she shall hold the ball. 

When all the colours have been talked about in some 
such way as this, the children to whom the balls have been 
given may come out, and holding up each ball in turn say : 
" My ball is red," " My ball is yellow," and so on. 

Ball Song. The children stand in a row, keeping their 
balls behind them, until the colour each holds is mentioned in 
the song, then the ball of that colour is to be held out in front. 

\.-Sj Id : :r|n: :f Is :d':l|s: mis : :f | f : :r J 
Some balls are red, and some are blue, A yel - low one I'll 

llf :- 

:n | n : 

:S| d : 

-:r|n :- 

:f is :c 

I 1 ills :-:n J 


to you, 


and pur - 

pie, too, 

are seen, And, 


:n|f : 

:ti ir : 

- : d!d:- 



a pret 

- ty ball 

of green, 

GIFT I. 23 

(c) The Ball in motion. Take a ball with string 

T. " We will now see what the ball can do." 

Draw it along the floor or table, holding by the end of the 
string, children will say, " The ball can roll ". " Why can 
it roll? " " Because it is round." " What else can roll?" 
" An apple can roll, an orange, etc." 

Now let the ball swing from right to left, children will say, 
" The ball is swinging to and fro ". " What can swing 
besides the ball?" "A child can swing, a little bird on a 
branch, a pendulum in a clock, etc." 

T. "In what other way could I swing the ball?" C. 
"You could swing it backward and forward." 

T. " Now I will tw r ist the ball round quickly, holding 
by the end of the string," the children will see that it 
makes a circle. If the string is twisted round the finger, 
while the ball is whirling round, the circle is thus made 
smaller, and children say, " The circle grows smaller, 
smaller," and as the teacher untwists the string, "The 
circle grows larger, larger, larger". Then the ball can 
jump, it can bounce, it can be tossed into the air, can be 
caught, can lie still, or can tumble. We can wind it 
up (by twisting string round finger), and can unwind it (by 
untwisting). " What else can we wind up ? " " The blind, 
wool to knit with, a reel of cotton, a watch, clock, 

Ball Game, Give balls w r ith strings attached to all the 
children, if possible, and let them stand in a ring, or 
in a row, with a space between each. The ball is held 
by the string, and should keep time to the music in 
the various movements, which are indicated by the 
words : 

24: GIFT 1. 


(In : :fjs ;--: |d' : ;1 I s : : n : :n!n :r :c 
1. Swing - ing, swing - ing, swing - ing to and 

(Is :-:-ln ;-:f Is :-:-]! ;-:t [d' :-:Ht :-:d' } 
fro, Back - ward, for - ward, pret - ty 

:-:t|d' :-:- 

ball can go. 

2. Jumping, jumping, like a child so gay, 
Rolling, rolling, what a pretty play ! 

3. Circles, circles, circles large and small, 
See us make them with the nice, soft ball. 

4. Tossing, tossing, I can catch you so, 
Please don't tumble on the floor below. 

(d) Position. The following exercise is invaluable as a 
means of training the children to answer in complete sen- 

The ball (without string attached) may be placed on the 

T. " Where is the ball ? " C. " It is on the table." 

(Then put it under the table.) 

T. " Where is it now ? " C. " It is under the table." 

The ball may be put on a chair, and under it ; on the 
floor, in teacher's pocket, on a child's head, in a drawer, in 
teacher's lap and many other places, the children always 
giving complete answers. The teacher may hold the ball 
above the table and ask " Where is it now ? " " It is over 
the table." In this way the pupils will learn clearly the 
meaning of under, over, upon, etc. Teacher holds ball 
behind her, then before ; to right, to left, etc., and all these 
terms, which are constantly used in the later Gifts, are thus 
learnt in childish play. 

Ball Song (with actions). At the commencement of the 



song, the ball is in the teacher's pocket, then she places it 
in the other places as they are mentioned. After the teacher 
has played the game, six of the children should have balls 
and play it with her, then the balls should be given to other 
children until all have had a turn. 


: d.r 'n : n 

r.d : r.n I d 

I.Where's the ball now? say, oh, say! 

: t.l | s : n 

your should-er, 

I n 


r.Pi :f 
look, I 


id 1 

:n.f s :s 

your pock - et 

your head, 




: t. dM s : n 

the ta - ble 


: r 


Id :- 

2. It will lie upon my hand, 
And my feet, if still I stand, 
In my lap it goes to sleep, 
While I sing, and safe watch keep. 

3. Near the window, on the floor, 
Next we place it by the door, 
On the chair it lies quite still, 
We can put it where we will. 

(e) The Box. Teacher might begin by saying : " You 
would like to talk about the box where the pretty balls are 
kept, let us look at it ! " Its faces have each two long edges 
and two short edges, so all the faces are oblong. Think of 
other things that are oblong " slate, door, table, window, 

"What is the box made of?" "It is made of wood." 
' ' Where did the wood come from ? " "It came from the trees. ' ' 
" Who cut the trees down ? " Show the children a picture of 
a woodman at work, or, if possible, let them see the actual 
wood-cutting. When the tree is cut down the sawyer saws 
it into slices (planks), and then who makes the box? "What 
other things does the joiner make?" "Tables, chairs, etc. 
etc." " Now look at the lid how does it come off ? " "It 


slides off." (Show a box which has a hinged lid that only 
lifts up, and another from which the lid lifts off.) 

The following illustration (Fig. 6) shows the three differ- 
ent kinds of lids. 

FIG. 6. 

The box can lie on its side, can stand on end, or can be 
turned upside down. 


(Id : d .r I n : n 
Here a box of 

{ f.n:f.s In :- 
made for me, 

ill :t.d'|s :n 
By the pret - ty 


I r .d : r .n | d 
wood you see, 


s :s 



t.lis :n 

soft balls are 

Which kind join - er 

d. :t\. :- } 

in it hid 

f :r 

slid - ing 

d :- 

(/) Ball Games. These should be interspersed with 
the conversational lessons ; and, for this reason, an appro- 
priate song or game has been given with each division. The 
following may be played with any " Ball " lesson : 




We pretend that the ball is a little bird, and the child's 
lap is its nest, or the two hands put together, palms up- 
ward, with fingers bent, may be a cradle, and the ball a 
little child being rocked to sleep. 

n : 



d : 




: r 

: s 


Ba - 





le safe 


doth lie, 

f : 


: s 

d : 


: n 



: s 



-a - 




by, rock 

, rock 

- a - bye. 


Birdie in cosy nest safely doth lie, 
Rock-a-bye, birdie, rock, rock-a-bye. 

The children, holding their hands as described above, 
sway them to and fro, keeping time to music. 

Ball Game. The children stand in rows facing each 
other, the rows being about two feet apart. One row might 
be boys, the other girls, and the latter might hold the balls, 
one each. 


{ d .r : n .f 

s : s 

1 :1 


Stand - ing 

in two ev - en rows, 

llf.l :s.f 

n .s : f .n 

r .f :n .r 


(1) To our 

part - ner each ball goes. 


n :d 

1 :1 


(2) Toss it back, and (3) hold it tight, 

(If :, 

n :n 

r :r 


(4) First in 

left hand, (5) then in right. 

Instructions continued on p. 28. 

28 GIFT I. 

(1) Girls pass balls to partners, i.e., to the boy who stands 

(2) Boy tosses ball to girl opposite. 

(3) Girl holds ball in both hands. 

(4) Ball in left hand. 

(5) Ball in right hand. 




I. What it consists of. Gift II. consists of a sphere, 
cylinder, and cube, all made of wood. They are enclosed in 
an oblong box similar to 

the box of Gift I., and 
may be suspended in a 
frame, the materials for 
which are found in the 

2. Its use. (a) Gift 

II. forms a perfect con- 
necting link between 
Gifts I. and III. 

(b) It is an excellent 
preparation for future 
Gifts and Occupations. 
The circle of the cylinder 
and the square of the 

cube prepare for drawing and writing, and also for Gifts 
III., IV., V., and VI., which are all closely connected with 
this one. 

(c) The children are happy in watching the movements 
and in learning all about the qualities of the different 

The first lesson of Gift II. might begin with a talk about 
the box. It is the same shape as the box of Gift I., but 
shorter, because it has not so many things to hold. It has 

FIG. 7. 

30 GIFT II. 

a sliding lid in which are two holes to hold the frame (see 
Fig. 7). 

3. Comparison of the Sphere with Gift I. Show 
the sphere with one of the soft balls, let a child feel both. 
" The ball is soft, the sphere is hard." " Why is the sphere 
hard?" "Because it is made of wood." "Why is the 
ball soft ? " " It is made of wool." " The sphere is smooth, 
while the ball is rough. Now let us feel the weight of the 
ball and sphere." (Let a child hold the ball on one hand, 
and the sphere on the other.) " The sphere is heavy and 
the ball is light." " If we drop the ball it makes very little 
noise, but the sphere makes quite a big noise." 

The ball is soft, but hard the sphere, 
That's why it makes the noise you hear ; 
The sphere is heavier than the ball, 
And smoother, say the children all. 

All the games of Gift I. may be played with the sphere, 
and the various motions, swinging, jumping, etc., may be 
practised also. There is a brass loop on the sphere, to 
which the string may be fastened when it is used for move- 

4. Comparison of Sphere and Cylinder. " What can 
the cylinder do that the ball can do?" "It can roll." 
" Why can it roll? " " Because it is round." " But it is 
not round like the ball. How is it different? " " It is flat 
at both ends." " The ball has only one face, but the 
cylinder has three, and on two of them it can stand. What 
have you seen like a cylinder? " " A rolling pin, a jar, etc." 

The cylinder may be suspended from the hook in the 
centre of one of the flat faces, and may be used for the 
motions of Gift I. 

The cylinder is round, 
It rolls upon the ground, 
Or stands quite still, if we 
Place it on end you see. 



FIG. 8. 

Fig. 8. If the cylinder be held with a double string at- 
tached to the hook in its side thus (Fig. 8), and rotated 
quickly, a sphere will be seen. 

Turn, turn quickly and you'll see 
Ball so round appear in me. 

Fig. 9. If the string be attached to 
the hook at the edge of the flat face 
thus (Fig. 9), a double cone is seen. 

Now another figure see, 

Two round cones appear in me. 

By means of these little exercises the 
child begins to learn that one form is 
contained in another. The sphere con- 
tains both the cube and cylinder, and 
the cylinder contains the cone. When 
the children learn clay modelling they 
prove this for themselves. 

5. The Cube and Sphere. The 
sphere is round, the cube has not one 
round face, all its faces are square. 
Let us see how many faces the cube 
has. One at the front and one at 
the back, two. One at the right side 
and one at the left, two more ; one at 
the top and one at the bottom, two 
more ; (touch each face as it is men- 
tioned, and let the children count). 
The cube, then, has six faces, while 
the sphere has only one, which is round, FlG - 9> 

and all the cube's faces are square. Then the cube has corners, 
count them, there are eight ; and the sphere has no corners. 
The cube has edges round its square faces (count th'e edges), 
there are twelve, and the sphere has not one edge. We will 
try to make the cube roll. " Why cannot it ? " "Its corners 


and edges will not let it roll." '' But it can stand. On what 
does it stand?" "It stands on one of its -square faces." 
"Can it stand on an edge or corner?" "Not unless we 
hold it." (Let the children try to make it stand on its 

The Cube. Eight corners, and twelve edges, 


And faces six, belong to me ; 
One face behind, and one before, 
One top, one bottom, that makes four, 
One at the right, at left side one, 
And that counts six, if rightly done. 

Exercises with the Cube. Fig. 
10. If the cube be suspended by a 
double string from the centre of one 
of its square faces, and rotated quickly, 
a cylinder is shown. 

Turn me quickly, and you'll see 
Like a cylinder I'll be. 

Fig. 11. When the cube is sus- 
pended by a hook in the centre of one 
of its edges, and turned quickly, a 
form is shown that resembles the hub 
of a wheel. 

A funny figure here is found, 
When I am twisted round and round ; 
You've seen it in a wheel, maybe, 
It is the hub that looks like me. 

"When the cube is suspended by a 
hook in one of the corners, and quickly 
turned, it looks like a double cone. 

Swinging by my corner, 

Quickly round I go, 
Looking like two round cones, 

With their points you know. 

GIFT II. 33 

6. The Sphere, Cylinder and Cube. The children 
should now see the three together, and note the points of re- 
semblance. The cylinder can roll like the sphere, or stand 
like the cube, it has the qualities of each, and is, therefore, the 
connecting link between them. 

Guessing Game. The children may be allowed to dis- 
tinguish the objects of Gift II. by touch only. Let a child 
come out and be blindfolded, or close its eyes without being 
blindfolded, then give to it the sphere, or cylinder, or cube, 
while the children say : 

Close eyes tight, 
That is right ; 
As you stand, 
Hold your hand : 
Feel with care, 
What is there ; 
Tell its name, 
That's the game ! 

When the correct name is obtained the teacher asks, 
" How did you know it was the cylinder ? " (supposing this 
has been the form given), and the child is encouraged to give 
the reason why he knew. 

GIFT in. 

I. What it is. Gift III. consists of a box containing a four- 
inch cube, divided into eight smaller cubes. The box has a 
sliding lid, and is just large enough to hold the divided cube. 

2. Why chosen. This Gift was chosen to meet an in- 
stinct which is seen in every child the instinct of investiga- 
tion. The child wants to look inside his toy to see what it 
is made of. He is not satisfied with an outside, superficial 
examination of an object, he would dive deeper, and get to 
the heart of things, and herein he shows wisdom. To meet 
this need Frobel invented a Gift which satisfies the child's 
desire of investigation, but at the same time provides for 
reconstruction. The ordinary toy has to be destroyed before 
it can be examined, and the child tries in vain to put it 
together again ; but in Gift III. the object can be taken to 
pieces without being destroyed, and thus the spirit of destruc- 
tion is checked. 

Gift III. satisfies the child's desire to create, invent, make 
something new. The power of representation is strength- 
ened, the faculties of perception and imagination are culti- 
vated, the child learns neatness and order, and gains an 
intelligent knowledge of common things. 

3- Gift III. compared with Gift 1 1. The children have 
become familiar with the form of the cube in Gift II., there 
they have the cube as a whole, here the same whole is 
divided into parts, and now they begin to use the cube 
(about which they learnt in Gift II.) for themselves, and to 
make various shapes and forms with it. 



Each child should have a box of cubes. The boxes may 
be placed at the end of the desks, and passed, while the 
following verses are sung : 


{'d.r :n.f 

S. rj 

l.t :d.l 

s :- 

1. Care - ful - 

ly and qui - et - 


{ r.f :n.r 

d :- 

s : s 

n : d 

cubes to 

mo ; Do not 

let it 

- f.l :s.f In.s :f.n 


box of 

slip or fall, 

f :f 

: r 

Id :- 

Gen - tie, care - ful, chil - dren all. 

2. Now my box of bricks I see, 
O how happy I shall be 
When we build some pretty thing ! 
* Clap, clap, children, as we sing. 

4. The Desk or Table. Each child should have a 
hequered desk or table on which to build. (See Chap. 

FIG. 12. 

I., Fig. 2, Description of a Kindergarten.) If this is 
not possible, a square of cardboard (Fig. 12), ruled with 

* All clap Lands. 


inch squares, should be placed on the desk for each child. 
Before proceeding to build, the children should learn 
\vhich is the centre of the chequered square (marked x), 
the front right corner (No. 1 on sketch), the front left 
corner (No. 2), the back right corner (No. 3) and back 
left corner (No. 4). Let the box be put in each of these 
positions several times until the children know them quite 

5, Drill for Opening the Box. Each child places 
its box in the centre of the table, and when the teacher 

One. Eight hand is to be placed on box. 

Two. Slide the lid off about half an inch. 

Three. Lift box up with right hand and place left hand 
under it. 

Four. Turn box over and place on table, upside down, so 
that the lid is at the bottom. 

Five. Draw the lid out gently, and put it at the top of 
the table. 

Six. Lift the box carefully off the cube, and place it on 
the lid. 

When the above drill has been given a few times, the 
children will remember what the various numbers indi- 
cate, without the words being repeated. The following 
rhyme may help them : 

One. On the box our right hands go, 
Two. Slide the lid a little, so, 
Three. Lift the box, use left hand, too, 
Four. Turn it over, that will do. 
Five. Draw the lid out, place it there, 
Six. Lift the box, take care, take care ; 

On the lid it stands quite well, 

All about your cube now tell. 

6. The Cube. Let the children count the six faces of the 
cube ; touching each face as they count. (When the bottom 



face is counted the child should put its hand under the 
table.) Then count the eight corners and twelve edges, and 
repeat the rhyme about the cube given in Gift II. " What 
is the cube made of?" " It is made of wood." "What 
other things are made of wood? Who made the cube?" 
"The joiner, etc." "What other things did the joiner 
make?" "He made the box." " What kind of a lid has 
the box? " " It has a sliding lid." " What other kinds of 
lids are there? " (See Fig. 6 in Gift I.) " How is the box 
different from the cube? " " It has a hole in it. The cube 
has no hole in it. The box is hollow because it has spaco 
inside." " What other things are hollow ? " "A cup, a jug, 
a flower-pot, etc." 

FIG. 13. 

1. Cube. 

2. \ Cube divided 

3. f in different 

4. / directions. 

5. Wall. 

C. High Wall. 

7. Four Chimneys. 

8. Two Chimneys. 

9. Street. 

10. Grandpa's Chair. 

7. How the Cube can be Divided. " If I took an orange 
and cut it exactly in two, and gave you one part, how much 
would you have ? " "I should have a half." " Just as the 
orange can be divided into halves so can the cube. We will 
divide the cube from right to left (No. 2). How many 


halves are there?" "There are two." "What do two 
halves make ? " " They make a whole one." " What other 
tilings can be divided into halves? " " A loaf, an apple, a 
lemon, etc." " Now we will join the two halves together, 
and cut the cube in another way ; we can divide it from back 
to front (No. 3), and again there are two halves exactly alike, 
and the two halves put together make a whole cube. In 
what other way can I divide the cube?" "From top to 
bottom (No. 4)." " So you see that we can halve the cube 
in three different ways. Now we will put the two halves 
together again. Suppose I wanted to divide an orange, so 
that four little children could each have a piece, the halves 
would not be sufficient, for there are only two. What 
should I do then?" "You would cut each half in 
two." "And what would you call the four parts?' 
" We should call them quarters." "Can we divide the cube 
into quarters?" "Yes." "First we will get the two 
halves (No. 2), then we will divide each half into two 
equal parts, and put one in each corner of the table. 
How many quarters make a half? How many quarters 
make a whole one?" When the children are older they 
may learn eighths ; the above lays the foundation for 
vulgar fractions. 

8. Building. The cubes forming the larger cube should 
be named just as the corners of the table have been named, 
thus (see Fig. 12) : the front right cube (1), the front left 
cube (2), the back right cube (3), and the back left cube 
(4), so that the children will be able to take any cube 
named. The cube should always be taken out of the 
box, as an undivided whole, in order to give the idea of 

No. 5. A Low Wall. Teacher says, " Take your front 
right cube and place it in the front right square on your 
table. (Now show your left hand.) Take the front left 
cube with left hand and place it in the next square. (Show 


your right hand.) Take the back right cube with right hand 
and place it on a line with the other. (Show left hand.) 
Take the back left cube and put it next the other. 'How 
many cubes have w r e taken now? " " We have taken four." 
"How much of the whole cube have we taken" ",Wo 
have taken half." "How much is left?" "Half is left." 
"Which half have we taken?" " We have taken the top 
half." " Which half is left? " " The bottom half is left." 
"Take the cubes that are left, in the same order as the 
four top cubes were taken, and place them in a line (see 
No. 5). We have now made a low wall. What is a wall 

"Where have you seen a wall?" " Eound a field, 
garden, etc." "What is a wall made of?" "It is made 
of bricks or stones." " What might we have instead 
of a wall?" "We might have a fence." "What would 
that be made of?" "Of wood, or we might have iron 

No. 6. If we take half the low wall and place it on the 
other half, we shall have a high wall. 

No. 7. Chimneys. Divide the cube into four quarters 
and put one in each corner of the table ; these represent 
four little chimneys. 

No. 8. Take the chimney from back right corner, 
and put it on the top of chimney in front right corner, 
and the left side ditto, and we shall have two tall 

No. 9. A Street. Let the chimneys lie down with a 
space between, and we have a street. 

No. 10. Grandpapa's Chair. Suppose the cube to be 
built up again in centre of table. Take the front right 
cube and place it on the back right cube. Take the front 
left cube with left hand and place it on back left cube, 
and we have a chair; we will call this Grandpapa's 



No. 11. If we divide Grandpa's Chair (No. 10) into 
two chairs, there will be one for Father and one for 

FIG. 14. 

11. Two Chairs. 

12. Station House. 

13. Two Towers. 

14. Church. 

15. Castle. 

1C. Town Hall. 

17. Engine. 

13. Ruined Castle. 

No. 12. By placing the two chairs back to back we get 
a Station House. 

No. 13. Turning them with the seats together we make 
two Towers. 

No. 14. A Church is made from the Towers by moving 
three cubes. 

No. 15. From the Church we get a Castle by moving 
only one cube. 

No. 16. The two uppermost cubes are next placed in the 
centre, and we have a Town Hall; from- this we get the 
Engine (No. 17), then the Euined Castle (No. 18). 

Fig. 15, No. 24. Let each alternate child make a table (the 
whole cube), and place it between the Father's and Mother's 
chairs made by its neighbour. The children learn thus that 
combined labour produces better results, and a spirit of kindli- 



ness is fostered. Then will follow a conversation about the 
chairs and tables. Who made them ? What other kinds of 

FIG. 15. 

19. City Clock. 

20. Bridge. 

21. Steps. 

22. Double Steps. 

23. Throne. 

24. Table and Chairs. 

chairs are there, arid what shape of table might we have 
besides a square table ? 

31. Armchair. 

32. Garden Seat. 



The Shed (No. 25) has four cubes for the roof. The Fold 
(No. 27) has two cubes on each side. The Tunnel (No. 
30) has three cubes on each side, and two for the roof. 
The construction of the rest of the objects in Fig. 16 is 

FIG. 17. 

33. Two Crosses. 

34. Cross. 

35. Maltese Cross on Ped- 

36. Sign Post. 

37. Sentry Box. 

38. Draw Well. 

39. City Gate. 

40. Gate. 

In making the Crosses (Nos. 33 to 35) the three upper 
cubes must, in each case, be placed as they are shown 
here, before being lifted to their position on the Cross. 
The three uppermost cubes of the Sign Post (No. 36) 
are first put in position like those of the Cross, and then 
the two are turned outwards. The back of the Sentry 
Box (No. 37) is formed by two cubes standing on the top 
of each other. 

In a building lesson it is well to remember the following: 


(a) All the cubes should be used, and the children should 
never be allowed to destroy the object, but should always 
form some other figure (or the cube) from it. 

(b) Sometimes one child might build and the rest imitate, 
but, as a rule, the teacher should be the architect. 

(c) Do not alter a child's mistake if it can possibly make 
the correction itself. 

(c?) When the children can build a number of forms fairly 
well, the teacher may give different objects to be built at 
the same time, e.g., one group may build a trough (No. 29), 
another group might combine to make a field, a third may 
make a well (No. 38), and so on, and then the teacher may 
relate a story in which each object shall be named. 

Story introducing field, wall, gate, well, trough, fold (No. 
27), and shed (No. 25) : 

" Two little children went out to play in a field. There 
was a wall all round the field, and a gate' (No. 40). In one 
corner of the field there was a well a deep, cool well, with 
sweet, clear water. But the cows and sheep could not reach 
the water, so what did the kind farmer do ? He made a 
trough close by the well, and drew the water up with a pail, 
fastened to a long rope, and poured it in the trough, so that 
the sheep and cows might have water to drink. Then at 
night the sheep were safely shut up in the fold, and the cows 
went into a shed. The Spring-time had come, so there were 
pretty little lambs in the field, jumping, and frisking, and 
dancing about, and one, that was very fond of fun, the 
farmer called Frisky, for it was never tired of play. One day 
Frisky was playing by the well, and, sad to say, he tumbled 
in. The farmer was not far away, so the two children ran to 
tell him what had happened, and Frisky's mother soon called 
him with her ' Baa, baa ' to come and get Frisky out." (The 
children will be delighted when their respective objects are 

The following verses introduce other objects : 


Some have made a nice, low Wall (No. 5), 
Some have built a Chimney tall (No. 8), 
There's a chair for Grandpapa (No. 10), 
Two for Father and Mamma (No. 11), 
Here's a Tunnel, long and dark (No. 30), 
How the Engine whistles, hark ! (No. 17) 
Quickly goes the Train so fast, 
Till the Station House is past (No. 12). 

If any object is carelessly made, it should be omitted from 
the teacher's story, and another put in its place. Let the 
child understand v;hy such object is unnoticed. 

If the children are allowed (in putting the cubes away) to 
place them in the box, the following rhymes may be used : 

1. All our work is over, 

Bricks ar-a put away ; 
(1) One goes in the corner, 
(2) Two beside I lay. 

2. (3) Three is snug and cosy ; 

Just one corner more, 
(4) This nice cube will fill it, 
Then I've put in four. 

3. Now another layer, 

Five goes in, then six, 

Seven and eight will follow, 

Gone are all my bricks. 

4. Good-bye, pretty playthings, 

In your box please stay, 
Till again we want you 
With us all to play. 

Instructions. Let the empty box stand in front of the 
cube. (1) Take front right cube, put it carefully in front 
right corner of the box. (2) With left hand take front left 
cube, and put it next the first in front left corner. (3) Take 
back right cube, put it in top right corner of the box. (4) 
With left hand take back left cube, and place in remaining 


The teacher should see that these four have been put in 
properly before proceeding with the rest, which are taken 
in the same order as the first four. 

Many teachers find it better to let the children build up 
the cube, and put the box over it, and for those who prefer 
this method, the following rhymes are appropriate : 

(1) Lift your empty box up so, 

(2) On the cube now it must go, 
Hold it very straight, and then 
Cover up your cube again. 

Before proceeding, see that every child has managed the 

(3) Beady all our left hands are, 

(4) Slides the box so gently there, 

(5) Turn it over, (6) take the lid, 
(7) Put it on as you are bid. 

Directions. (1) Box held in right hand. (2) Put it over 
the cube. (3) Left hand out, palm upwards, tips of fingers 
resting under desk. (4) Slide box forward with right hand, 
until it rests on the flat palm of the left hand. (5) Box on 
table, right side up. (6) Take lid in right hand. (7) Slide 
lid on box. 

N.B. Some teachers prefer to dispense with the lids alto- 

Building with Four Bricks. For very little children, 
it will be sufficient at first to give four bricks only. With 
these they can make a wall, high or low ; two chimneys, 
a tall chimney, a street, a chair, a bridge, a well, and a 

Co-Operation. Sometimes the children might combine 
to make objects on a large scale. Take those mentioned in 
the story, e.g. A number of children w r ould use their cubes 
to make a wall round the field, which might be built on the 
floor, or on a large table. Then one child would build the 
gate, another the trough, another the well, and so on, until 


all the objects are represented, and then the story would 
follow. The children will see how much more can be 
accomplished by the many than by the one, and they will 
thus learn not to attach too much importance to their own 
unaided work. 

9. Forms of Beauty. Besides being used for the building 
of objects, Gift III. can also be used for laying symmetrical 
forms, which train the eye, and develop the sense of beauty. 
The hand is also trained to move the cubes quickly and 
correctly, and the forms laid are a preparation for drawing 
on the chequered slates, just as the laying of sticks is a pre- 
paration for writing. 

FIG. 18. Forms of Beauty. 

Before commencing, take two cubes and let them be 
placed in different positions with regard to each other. 
First, side to side (No. 1), second, corner to corner (No. 2), 
third, side to corner (No. 3), fourth, corner to side (No. 4). 

Forms of Beauty with Four Cubes as Centre. 
No. 5. Take four cubes for the centre, and place the other 
four round them. 

No. 6.--Move the four outside cubes half a cube's length 
to the right. 


No. 7. Then move them a whole cube's length to the 

No. 8. Now the sides are turned to touch the corner. 

No. .9. The corners are turned to the centre of each 
side of the square. 

No. 10. The four centre cubes are drawn out. 

FIG. 19. 

Forms of Beauty with Hollow Square as Centre. 

Starting with No. 11, the corner cubes are drawn out 
and placed alongside the other four in No. 12. Then they 
are moved to the right, and stand corner to corner, No. 13. 
In. No. 14 they are placed corner to side. In No. 15 they 
fill up the spaces, and in No. 16 the four centre cubes are 
drawn out. 

Such, pretty figures we can lay 
When with our box of cubes we play ; 
Each cube just in its place we see, 
Each face and edge exact must be. 



Fig. 20. The hollow square is again formed with one of 
the sides turned to us instead of the corner. In No. 17 the 
corner cubes are turned so that their sides face the centre. In 
No. 18 they are moved to form the cross, and in No. 19 we 

FIG. 20. 

see them corner to corner. In No. 20 they stand corner to 
side ; No. 21 takes us back to the foundation form ; the 
middle cube on each side is drawn out to make No. 22. 

The children should be encouraged to find out new figures 
for themselves ; they will have no difficulty in doing this if 
they have been taught Frobel's " law of opposites," for even 
a very young child soon learns to do the opposite of what it 
did before. 

Now try, dear children, as you can, 
To follow out this pretty plan ; 
More Forms of Beauty you may make, 
If only you the pains will take. 


FIG. 21. 

Fig. 21, Nos. 23 to 28 show Forms of Beauty made in the 
oblong. Nos. 29 and 30 are borders. 

These forms might be multiplied indefinitely, and are only 
given as examples of what can be done. 

10. Number. It has already been shown how Gift III. 
may be used as a preparation for the learning of fractions, 
and it is equally useful in teaching analysis of number. One 
example shall suffice : Divide the cube in halves. How 
many cubes in each ? Four. Four and four are eight. 
Divide the fours in halves. How many twos make eight ? 
The children will see that four twos make eight. Put three 
twos on one side the table, and one on the other. Six 
and two are eight, and so on, until the analysis of eight is 



I. What it is. Gift IV. is a cube, divided into oblon< 
bricks. The cube is the same size as that of Gift III., bu 
instead of being divided in every direction it is cut onc> 
vertically and three times horizontally, to make eight equa 

This Gift, like the third, satisfies the child's desire to in 
vestigate and construct, and it can be used to make object! 
more numerous and beautiful than can Gift III. It is i 
source of endless delight to the children, and the following 
incident shows how lasting is the pleasure thus produced 
A young lady of twenty-five said that she rememberec 
building with Gift IV. when she was five years old, and sh< 
recalled distinctly how that, on one occasion, the clasi 
made the bricks to represent two rows of soldiers, abou 
which the teacher introduced a pleasant conversation, am 
the pupil remembers it with pleasure after twenty years 
This proves how indelible are the impressions made in earb 

2. How Gift IV. may be used. The different parts o 
the table which were learnt in Gift III. should be revisec 
before building with Gift IV. 

The instructions for passing and opening the boxes giver 
in the preceding chapter are equally applicable here, and th< 
same verses may be said or sung in passing the boxes, sub 
stituting the word " bricks " for " cubes ". 

GIFT IV. 51 

Comparison with Gift III. When the boxes have 
been carefully raised, so that the whole cube is left undis- 
turbed, the teacher will say, " Now, what do you see?" 
" We see a cube." Let the cube stand so that the ends of 
the bricks face the children (No. 1, Fig. 22). " Is this like 
the cube of Gift III.?" "No." "Why not?" "Gift 
III. was divided into little cubes, this cube is divided into 
bricks." " That is because it is cut differently " (show Gift 
III.). " You remember how we divided Gift III. We cut it 
in halves from right to left. Can you divide Gift IV. from 
right to left ? " " Yes, it can be divided from right to left." 
'' Then we divided Gift III. from back to front ; can we do 
ihat with Gift IV. ? " " No, it cannot be divided from back 
to front." " Next we divided Gift III. from top to bottom ; 
can we do that with Gift IV. ? " " Yes, it is cut into four 
slices from top to bottom." " Now we see the difference 
between Gift III. and Gift IV. Gift III. is divided from 
right to left, from back to front, and from top to bottom " 
(show all these divisions with the cubes), " but Gift IV. is 
only divided from right to left, and from top to bottom ; but 
it is divided three times from top to bottom. Now take one 
brick from Gift IV., and a small cube from Gift III. The 
cube's faces are all of the same size, but how are they in 
the brick ? The brick has two large faces so large that 
it takes two cubes to cover one of them. Then it has 
two little faces so little that it takes two of them to 
cover one face of the cube ; the other two faces are of 
middle size, it would take two of them to cover the 
large face, but they are twice as large as the little faces 
are. It reminds us of the Three Bears, one was big, 
one was middle size, and the other was a tiny bear." 
Let the children point to the two large faces, to the 
two little faces, and to the two middle-sized faces. How 
many faces in all? Six, just the same number as the 
cube had. 

52 GIFT IV. 

Two faces large belong to me, 
And then two little ones you see, 
Two more I have, a size between, 
Which at the sides are always seen. 

" We will put the brick on one of its largest faces. 
What is it doing now ? " " It is lying down." " Now we 
will put it on its smallest face. What is it doing now ? " 
" It is standing up." "Now we will put it on its middle- 
sized face, and we will say that it is sitting down." Let the 
children put the brick in the different positions mentioned, 
as they repeat the following verse : 

I can stand, or I can sit, 

Or can lie, if you see fit 

Sit, or stand, or lie quite flat 

Pray what do you think of that ? 

All the faces of the brick, whether large .or small, or 
middle size, have two long sides and two short sides, and 
this shape is called oblong. 

" What other things are oblong in shape? " " The door, 
the window, the table, etc." Let the children mention all 
the oblong shapes they can think of. Gift IV. can be 
divided into halves and quarters, and may be used for 
teaching number just as Gift III. was. 

Bevise also the conversation about what the cube is made 
of, who made it, etc. All that has been written about Gift 
III. should be read and applied to this Gift. 

Suppose each child to have the blocks of Gift IV. in front 
of him. No. 1, Fig. 22. 

No. 2. Take the two topmost bricks and place them in 
the front right corner with the smallest faces towards you. 
How many squares do they cover? Take the next two 
bricks and place them with their middle-sized faces towards 

This is a Board, and we will make another just like it, in 
the front left corner. 



No. 3. These again divided give us four small Boards. 
No. 4. The bricks placed on end, side by side, make 
a Wall which will lead to an interesting conversation. 

FIG. 22. 

1. Cube. 

2. Two Boards. 

3. Four Boards. 

4. Wall. 

5. City Gate. 

6. Viaduct. 

7. Passage. 

8. Belfry. 

9. Garden House. 

10. Garden House with 

No. 5. The City Gate is easily made from the Wall. 

No. 7. The Passage has three bricks on each side, two 
at the back, and two on the top. 

No. 10. The open Garden House has two at the back, 
one at each side, and two on the top of each other for the 
roof ; the remaining two form the doors. 

54 GIFT iv. 

Fig. 23, No. 11. The Deep Shaft has a broad face of one 
block, and a long narrow face of another on each side. Above 
these' the bricks are arranged in the same way, but the 
broad side rests on the narrow side of the brick below. 

FIG. 23. 

11. Deep Shaft. 

12. Shaft. 

13. Covered Well. 

14. Fountain. 

15. Closed Field. 

16. Field with Gate. 

17. Garden. 

18. Trough. 

19. Shooting-box. 

20. Church and Buildings. 

No. 12. In the next Shaft the four uppermost bricks are 
placed round the lower four of No. 11. 

No. 13. To make the Well take the four centre bricks out 
of No. 12 and use them for the cover and the step. 

No. 14. The Fountain has the same foundation form as 
No. 13, with a brick lying on its broad face at each side. 

Fig. 24, No. 22. The Covered Way has two bricks on 
each side, and four for roof. 

No. 23. In making the Piano the two blocks which stand 



on the key-board must be put in position before the latter 
is lifted to its place. 

No. 24. The Double Settee has four bricks laid on their 
largest faces for foundation, and the two which form the 
back are placed in the middle of the foundation so that 
there is a seat on each side. 

No. 25. The two bricks which form the back of the Sofa 
rest on the two broad faces which form the seat. 

No. 26. The Garden Seat has the whole width of the brick 

27. Garden Seats. 

28. Table and Seats. 

29. Rustic Table. 

30. Two Tables. 

FIG. 24. 

22. Covered Way. 

23. Piano and Stool. 

24. Double Settee. 

25. Sofa. 

26. Garden Seat. 

for the'seat. The two bricks which form the back rest on two 
below, placed in exactly the same position as the two upper ones. 
No. 27. The Two Seats are obtained by dividing No. 26. 
The rest of the figures show the position of the bricks 
sufficiently clearly. 



Fig. 25, No. 37. The Long Tunnel has two bricks for 
each side, and four for cover. 

FIG. 25. 

31. Monument. 

32. Cross. 

33. Table Cross. 

34. Winding Stairs. 

35. Stalls. 

36. Cross Roads 

37. Long Tunnel. 

38. Chair. . 

39. Throne. 

40. Continuous Motion. 

No. 38. The Chair has three bricks for the back, and two 
for the seat. 

No. 39. The back ofthe Throne is formed by two bricks, 
one on the top of the other. 

}QT 40. Shows continuous motion, and teaches the 



children that if an impetus be given to an object forming 
one of a line, the impetus is conveyed from one to the 


FIG. 2G. 

These are numerous and beautiful. A very few are given 
as examples, showing some of the centres from which to 
work, but many more forms can be made from these centres. 
It will be seen that one figure is developed from another. 

No. 2 is obtained by pushing each of the four bricks half 
its length outwards. 

In No. 3 it is pushed quite out. 

In No. 4 the blocks are placed end to end. 

In No. 5 side to end. 

In No. 6 end to side. 

Fig. 27 (see next page) shows two centres, from each of 
which the children w 7 ill construct numbers of figures without 
any aid. 

Fig. 28 shows a larger space enclosed in centre. 



FIG. 27. 

FIG. 28. 

GIFT IV. 59 

GIFTS III. and IV. combined. 

FIG. 29. 

1. Staircase. 4. Engine and Tunnel. 

2. Tunnel. 5. House and Garden. 

3. Covered Passages. 

By using these two Gifts together many beautiful forms 
can be obtained. A few arc shown here. 

No. 1. Staircase. The first step of the staircase is formed 
by one block of Gift IV., the second step by two blocks and 
the third by three blocks. The four cubes of Gift III. form 
the fourth step, and the other four rest under the fifth step, 
which is formed by one brick of Gift IV., while another 
brick placed on its long narrow side forms the back. 

No. 2. The Tunnel. Four cubes of Gift III. are placed 
at each side ; two blocks of Gift IV. rest on the four cubes 
at each side, and four are used to cover. 

No. 3. Here the cubes of Gift III. are placed a little dis- 
tance apart and the bricks of Gift IV. form the roof. 

No. 4. Engine entering Tunnel. The Tunnel has three 
blocks on each side, and two for cover. 

No. 5. House and Garden. The cubes of Gift III. are 
used for the Garden, three on each side, and the remaining 
two are below the windows, 




I. What it is. Gift V. is much more complex than the 
preceding Gifts, and is therefore more suitable for older 
children. It can be used as a preparation for more ad- 
vanced studies, to which it is a valuable stepping-stone or 
introduction, as will be shown later. 

Gift V. consists of a three-inch cube, divided twice in each 
direction, so that there are in all twenty-seven cubes. Three 
of these are divided diagonally into halves, and three others 
are divided twice diagonally into quarters. Up to this time 
the child has had Gifts which introduced it only to the right 
angle enclosed between the vertical and horizontal lines, 
which it has called standing-up and lying-down lines. It 
will now learn the intermediate, or slanting line, which 
connects the two opposites (vertical and horizontal) and 
illustrates Frobel's law of reconciliation of opposites. The 
acute or sharp angle is seen in this Gift, where it forms an 
exact half of the right angle. 

2. How Gift V. may be used. For passing and open- 
ing the boxes see the instructions given in Gift III. 

When the box has been lifted off, and put in its place, the 
teacher asks: "What is this?" "It is a cube." " How 
is it different from the other cubes you have seen ? " " It is 
larger." " W 7 hich Gift is it most like?" "It is most like 

3. Comparison with Gift III. (Let each child have 
Gift III. as well as Gift V.) " Why is this Gift like Gift 

GIFT V. 61 

III.?" "Because it is divided into cubes." "But it has 
more cubes than Gift III., for it is larger, and is cut into 
more parts. Gift III. is cut from right to left, how many 
times?" " Only once into two equal parts." "Now look 
at Gift V. How many times is it cut from right to left?" 
"It is cut twice." " Into how many equal parts ? " " Into 
three equal parts." In the same' way, it is cut twice from 
back to front, into three equal parts ; and twice from top to 
bottom into three equal parts. Let the children now divide 
the cube in the three w r ays mentioned, and they will see 
that there are nine whole cubes in each division, in three 
rows of three cubes each. 

" In what other way is this Gift different from Gift III. ? " 
" Some of the cubes are divided." 

Let the children take a cube which has been divided into 
halves. Take one of the half cubes and tell me about its 
faces. Two of them are square, and one is oblong. The 
other two faces are a new shape. " How many edges are 
round each face?" "Only three." This is called a tri- 

Now take a cube that has been divided into four parts, 
and take one of the parts in your hand. It has one square 
face, two oblong faces, and two triangular faces. How 
many quarters make a whole one? How many make a half? 
And how many halves make a whole one ? 

4. Building with Gift V. With the previous Gifts the 
child has been able to build simple objects, such as a chair, 
table, etc. 

The increase of materials in this Gift affords scope for 
larger objects, and helps accordingly to widen the child's 
ideas. It can now build the schoolhouse, the factory, the 
mill, etc., and by interesting conversation about these places, 
the teacher may cultivate the child's sympathy with those 
who work there, and so its love to humanity is broadened 
and deepened; and not alone is the mind of the child trained, 



but the heart is developed, and kindly, noble thought is 
encouraged and strengthened. 

FIG. 30. 

1. The Cube. 

2. A Flower Stand. 

3. Three Staircases. 

4. Chair. 

5. Three Chairs. 

6. Armchair. 

No. 1. Suppose the cube to stand in the centre of the 
table. It may represent a box or a table. 

No. 2. Take the three front cubes and place them upon 
the three back cubes. " What is this? " " It is a Flower 
Stand." "What might we have on the Flower Stand?" 
" We might have plants." " What plants could we have ? " 

No. 3. Now divide the Flower Stand into three parts, and 
we have Three narrow Staircases. A conversation should 

No. 4. Join the Staircases together again to make the 
Flower Stand. Take the three middle cubes and place them 
on the three back ones. "What have we now?" "We 
have a Chair." Divide it into Three Chairs (No. 5). 

No. 6. Make the large Chair again, take the three top 
back cubes (which should be the three cubes divided into 



quarters), and put two quarters together to form an oblong 
block ; two of these blocks are used for each arm, and two 
for the footstool. 

PIG. 31. 

7. Bed. 10. Church. 
8. Sofa. 11. Mill. 
9. Trough. 12. Swiss Cottages. 


































FIG. 32. Ground Forms. 

64 GIFT V. 

No. 7. The Bed. Fifteen whole cubes are used for the 
foundation ; three cubes more are placed at the head, and 
three cubes at the foot, and on these rest the half cubes. 
The sides are formed by six oblong blocks, each of which is 
made by placing two quarters together. 

No. 8. The Sofa. The ground form shows the founda- 
tion, and on this are placed four whole cubes for the back, 
with a half cube at each side ; two whole cubes are used for 
each arm, and two quarter cubes for each bolster. 

No. 9. The Trough. The two walls of the trough 
have eight cubes each, and the two end ones four cubes 
each. The twelve quarter cubes are placed on the walls of 
the trough, broad face downwards. 

No. 10. The Church. Sixteen whole cubes are re- 
quired for the walls of the church, the remaining cubes being 
used to make the roof and steeple. Four half cubes are 
placed on each side of the four whole cubes which form the 
centre of the roof, and three quarter cubes rest face down- 
wards on three of the whole cubes to form the point of the 
roof. The steeple has two whole cubes and four quarter 
cubes, the latter being placed two together to form oblong 
blocks ; one quarter cube is left, which may be used to finish 
the steeple. 

No. 11. The Mill. The roof of the Mill is made of eight 
half cubes. A block formed of two quarter cubes connects 
the mill and the chimney, and the latter is finished by a 
similar small block. 

No. 12. Swiss Cottages. The roofs are similar to that 
of the church ; two whole cubes in the centre, two halves 
on each side, a quarter cube face downwards on one of 
the roof cubes, and the remaining quarter on the chimney. 

5 Forms of Beauty. Any number of these can be 
made. The following will serve as specimens. 

Fig. 33, No. 1, has nine cubes for the centre, with three 
whole cubes and three halves for each corner piece. 



The next five forms are made from each other by moving 
different pieces as shown in the figures given. 

FIG. 33. 

Fig. 3$. The first triangular form (No. 7) has nine cubes on 
each side. The next (No. 8) has eight. Nos. 9 and 10 have 

FIG. 34. 

seven cubes on each side, No. 11 has five cubes, and No. 12 
has four. 

6. Number. Before giving lessons on number with 

66 GIFT V. 

Gift V. it would be well to give each child Gift III., and 
take halves, quarters, and eighths, for which this Gift is so 
well adapted ; then Gift V. may be given. First divide the 
cube into thirds from right to left, then from back to front, 
then from top to bottom ; the children will readily see that 
three thirds make a whole one. Divide each third into 
three columns. " How many parts have we now ? " " We 
have nine." "These parts are called ninths. How many 
ninths are there?" "There are nine. And nine ninths 
make a whole one." "How many ninths in a third? 
How many in two thirds ? How many in three thirds ? " 
We may then add and subtract the ninths, thus : 

Four ninths and three ninths = seven ninths. How 
many more ninths to make a whole ? Or, eight ninths, 
take two away, how many are left? and so on. The child 
of course, demonstrates each step with the cube before it. 
The cube can also be divided into twenty sevenths, but for 
young children this is unnecessary. 

Another useful exercise is to teach how to add halves and 
quarters with whole numbers, e.g., 1| and 1J are 3. If 
this were simply written on the blackboard, it would mean 
nothing to the child, but demonstrated with the cubes and 
hah* cubes, it becomes tangible and real, and easy to] 
comprehend. Quarters may be added in the same way, 
1 and l\ are 2J. This may be illustrated with the whole I 
and quarter cubes, and the examples can be multiplied 

Multiplication and division of fractions can also be taugfit 
with this Gift. 

7. Geometrical Figures. Before using Gift V. for these' 
figures, it would be well for the children to get a clear idea of the 
three angles, right, obtuse (or blunt), and acute (or sharp). ( 
Draw a standing-up line and a lying-down line, thus, |x 
The angle is the space enclosed by the two lines, and 
marked with X. Whenever this space is enclosed by a 

GIFT V. 67 

vertical and a horizontal line, we have a right angle. Ask 
the children what objects have right angles. " The room has 
four right angles, so has the door." What is generally 
called the corner of a room is in reality the angle ; the 
corner is the point where the two lines meet. The jointed 
lath is very useful for the purpose of showing the difference 
between the various angles. Make the right angle with 
the jointed lath. Now push the standing-up lath a little 
nearer to the one lying down, ^X, and we have the sharp 
angle, which is smaller than the right angle. It may be a 
very little smaller, or it may be a great deal smaller than the 
right angle, but it is still a sharp angle. The same result is 
obtained if the lying-down line is pushed nearer to the 
standing-up line, ^, or if both lines are pushed a little 

nearer to each other, ^*. Let the children make the right 
angle, and the different kinds of acute angles, on their slates, 
and then show with the jointed lath again (or by a black- 
board sketch), that the blunt angle is larger than the right 
angle. It may be made larger in three ways, just as the 
sharp angle was made smaller in three ways. We may alter 

the standing-up line, pushing it further out, y , or the 

lying-down line, | , or both lines,\ , and in each case we have 

the blunt angle. These should be made on the slate. 

" Now take half a cube and try to tell me what angles you 
see on its triangular face." "It has a standing-up and a 
lying-down line, so it has one right angle." " Now put the 
two halves together and you see how many right angles." 
"Four." " Divide the cube. What have you done to two 
of the right angles ?" "We have cut them in two." "Then 
what kind of angles do we get ?" "They are sharp angles." 
"Why?" "Because they are less than the right angle." 
"How much less are they?" "They are half the size." 
"If we take a quarter cube we get exactly the same kind 

68 GIFT v - 

of angle, because here, again, the right angle has been 
cut in two." 

FIG. 35. 

1. Square. 

2. Two Triangles. 

3. Four Triangles. 

4. Two Small Square 

5. Oblong. 

6. Rhomboid. 

No. 1. Take the nine cubes which form the top thirc 
of Gift V., and arrange them so that there is a divided cube 
at each corner. 

No. 2. "Divide the square diagonally, what do we get?' 
" Two triangles." " How do you know they are triangles ?' 
" Because they have each three angles." " What kind of an 
angle is the largest ? " " It is a right angle." " Why ? ' 
"Because it is enclosed by a standing-up line and a lying- 
down line." " We call this figure a right-angled triangle. 
What other kinds of angles do you see ? " " We see sharp 
angles." " How do you know they are sharp ? " " Because 
they are less than a right angle." 

No. 3. Divide each triangle and we get four smaller tri- 
angles ; but they are still right-angled triangles. 

No. 4. Put two of these two smaller triangles together, 
and we have two smaller squares ; each contains just the 
same number of angles as did the large square. 



No. 5. Put the two squares together to form an oblong. 
" What kind of angles are these ? " " They are all right 

No. 6. " Take the triangle which forms the left bottom 
corner, and put it on the right. This is a rhomboid, and 
now what kind of angles have we ? " " Two of them are 
sharp angles." " Why ? " "And two are blunt." " Why ? " 

Because they are larger than the right angle." 

FIG. 36. 

7. Two Small Rhomboids. 

8. Trapezoid. 

9. Triangular Prism. 

10. Oblong Hexagon. 

11. Oblong Octagon. 

12. Oblong Pentagon. 

No. 7. Divide the rhomboid (Fig. 35, No. 6) into two 
smaller rhomboids (No. 7), and we see again the two blunt 
and the two sharp angles in each. 

No. 8. Take the triangle from the right, and place it with 
its broad face upwards like the one at the left, and we have 
the trapezoid. 

No. 9. Divide into four triangles (Fig. 35, No. 3), 
place triangles on each other, and we have the standing 



N.B. In the following exercises the whole cube is 

No. 10. First we have an oblong hexagon. 

No. 11. Take away the four quarter cubes, which 
made the points at right and left, and we have an oblong 

No. 12. From this we get an oblong pentagon three cubes 



I. What it is. Gift VI. consists of a cube of the same 
size as Gift V. The latter contained twenty-seven cubes, 
this Gift is divided into twenty-seven oblongs. As Gift V. 
was an extension of Gift III., so is Gift VI. a sequence and 
extension of Gift IV. Six of the oblongs are cut in halves, 
transversely, and form twelve squares. Three oblongs 
are cut lengthwise and make six pillars. We have in all 
eighteen oblongs, twelve squares, and six pillars. In build- 
ing with this Gift, a larger surface can be covered than with 
Gift V. 

2. How it may be used. The box is opened in the same 
way as Gift III., etc. Then the teacher may ask : " How 
is this cube similar to that of Gift V. ? " " It is the same 
size, and it stands on the same number of squares." ''How 
is it different from GiftV.? Look at the way it is cut." 
"It is cut in oblongs. Gift V. was cut in cubes." " What 
other Gift is cut in oblongs ? " " Gift IV." " What do you 
see that is different from Gift IV.?" "We see squares." 
"How do you think they are made? " Take two of them 
and place them on one of the oblong bricks. " They are 
made by cutting an oblong in halves." Take all the 
squares and put them in the front right corner. " Do you 
notice anything else different from Gift IV. ? " " Some 
bricks are narrow." Take two of these and place them 
on an oblong brick. " How are they made ? " " They are 
made by cutting an oblong in two lengthwise." We will 

72 GIFT VI. 

calHhese pillars. Take all the pillars and put them in the 
front left corner. " Now count the oblongs." Let these 
stand in the centre of the table. "There are eighteen." 
"Count the squares." "There are twelve." "Count the 
pillars." " There are six." 

The oblong brick has been described in Gift IV. Take 
one of the squares. "The two largest faces are square. 
What shape are its other faces?" "They are oblong." 
Let the square stand on one of its oblong faces. " How 
many pillars can be made to stand on it?" "Two." 
" Then how much larger is the oblong face of the square, 
than the square face of the pillar ? " " It is twice as large." 
Let the two pillars stand on each oblong face of the square, 
and the children will see that the four oblong faces are all of 
the same size. " Can you find a face the same size as this 
on another brick?" "The oblong has two faces of this 
size." Now take the pillar. " What kind of faces has it ? " 
"It has two square faces, and four oblong faces." Take 
two of the squares, and let them stand on one of the oblong 
faces. " How much larger is an oblong face of the pillar, 
than an oblong face of the square? " "It is twice as large." 
" How do you know ? " " Because two of the squares will 
stand on it." Let the two squares stand on each of the 
oblong faces of the pillar, and the children will see that its 
four oblong faces are of equal size. " Can you find a face 
on the oblong that will fit the oblong face of the pillar?" 
" The two side faces of the oblong are the same size as this 

3. Building. Some of the forms of Gift IV. may be 
taken as the basis for larger buildings, and the objects that 
can be built are so numerous and varied that it is possible 
for the children to combine and build on a much larger 
scale than heretofore. They might, for example, make a 
Farmyard with barns, dog kennel, trough, etc., or a Village 
with church, town hall, and streets of houses. The children 

GIFT VI. 73 

learn thus that union is strength, and that by co-operation 
great things may be accomplished. 

FIG. 37 

1. Children's Gallery. 4. School-front and Play- 

2. Stalls. ground. 

3. House. 5. Farmyard. 

No. 1. Children's Gallery. Nine whole blocks are used 
for the foundation ; three of these form the lowest step. 
For the second layer six whole blocks are used. For the 
third layer three whole blocks and three pillars (that is, 
half blocks cut lengthwise). The fourth layer has three 
whole blocks (or six halves) and the fifth layer has three 
pillars. Six half blocks now remain, one and a half for each 
side of the gallery. 

No. 2. Stalls. Ten upright blocks form the long wall, 
and four are used for each of the end walls. The divisions 
between the stalls contain each two half blocks (square) and 
one pillar. In the illustration only nine blocks are used for 
the wall, and one is left for a mounting block, but it is 
better to use ten for the wall, so that the divisions between 
the stalls may be exactly one inch (the width of a brick) 

No. 3. A House. The back wall of the house requires 

74 GiFT VI. 

seven blocks, standing in the same position as those which 
form the wall of the stable, and upon these are placed three 
blocks and a half, the blocks lying lengthwise, and three 
blocks are used for each of the side walls. The rest can be 
seen from the illustration. 

No. 4. School-front and Playground. This figure is 
obtained by altering No. 3, the House ; take the two half 
bricks which are over the door of the house, and put one at 
each end, so as to leave spaces for windows. On these place 
four bricks lengthwise, with one and a half in centre to finish. 
Three blocks are required for the porch, and the remaining 
eight are used for the playground, three for each of the 
side walls, and two halves (squares) for each side of the 

No. 5. The Farmyard. The side walls of the Farmyard 
have three blocks each, with one and a half on each side of 
the gateway. The trough has four blocks. ' The "dog 
kennel" has one square half block on each side of the en- 
trance, one square half block for each side wall, and one 
square for the back, while two oblong half blocks form the 
roof. The " barn " has two whole blocks for each side wall, 
one for the back, and three for the roof. 

Fig. 38, No. 6. Each " small chair " has one whole block 
for the back, with two halves (squares) on the top of each 
other for the seat. The " sofa " has four blocks for the seat, 
four for the back and one at each end. The " easy chair " has 
half a block (square) for seat, the same for each arm, and three 
pillars for back. The " table " has two and a half blocks for 
the top, which rests on two whole blocks. The "piano 
stool" is one square block. The "piano" has been given 
in Gift IV., Fig. 24, No. 23. 

No. 7. Ten whole blocks form the base, on which rest 
five blocks, and on these again are placed six half blocks, 
then six pillars, then six more half blocks, and lastly three 
whole blocks. 



No. 8. Seven whole blocks form the base, and on these 
are placed three blocks. When the three pillars have been 

FIG. 38. 

6. Set of Furniture. 

7. Colonnade. 

8. Triumphal Column. 

built, three whole blocks are placed on them, then two 
blocks are placed on these ; the next two pillars are again 
surmounted by two whole blocks, on which rests one block, 
and on this the final pillar. 

Khymes to accompany No. 6, Fig. 38 : 

Here's a sofa snug and cosy, 

If you like to take a rest, 
Or the easy chair might suit you, 

Choose the one that you like best. 

Now the tea is nearly ready, 

To the table chairs we bring ; 
After tea we'll have some music, 

For we love to dance and sing. 




4. Forms of Beauty. In the examples given, all the 
blocks are used, but in No. 1 the centre of each square is 
left hollow, so that the construction may be seen. A half 
block (square) should be placed in each corner square, and 
two half blocks in the centre square. Each figure is made 
from the preceding one. and each has two square half blocks 
for centre, 



IT is an acknowledged fact that in our present system of 
education, the transition from the Kindergarten or infants' 
school to the upper school is much too sudden and abrupt. 
It is impossible for the child, who has been accustomed to a 
world of concrete things, to plunge at once into the world of 
the abstract. Frobel saw this difficulty, and met it by in- 
venting Gifts which are adapted to fill the gap, and lead 
naturally, by easy stages, from the concrete to the abstract. 
The first six Gifts consist of solids, first whole, then 
divided ; now we have a Gift which introduces surfaces, 
next we shall find edges, and finally we shall come to the 
point. With the preceding Gifts the child made real objects, 
with this Gift he will make a picture of such objects. Gift 
VII. is a valuable stepping-stone to drawing, paper- weaving, 
and geometry. 

The following instance related by M. Kraus Boelte in the 
Kindergarten Guide shows that the tablets of this Gift are 
useful in the practical work of life. 

" I was at the time studying with Frobel's widow, who 
had been selected by him, from among his best pupils, to 
carry forward, under the prestige of his name, the work 
which he had inaugurated. One morning a stranger, to 
all appearances a working man, bringing with him some 
large object carefully wrapped in paper, called upon Mrs. 
Frobel. He apologised for the liberty he was taking, but 
explained that his little boy, now about five years old, had 


been for two years past a pupil in the Kindergarten. He 
stated that he himself was a joiner by trade, but as he had 
not sufficient means to carry on this occupation with profit, 
he had, some time since, become greatly discouraged and 
disheartened. It was about this tune that he noticed his 
little boy, who was accustomed to come into his workshop 
to play when returning from the public Kindergarten which 
Mrs. Frobel was conducting, and watched him as he played 
with the chips which he found scattered around the shop. 
At first the father had not paid much attention to the child's 
play, but one day he noticed that he had made a combina- 
tion of very beautiful forms, consisting entirely of triangles, 
which he changed regularly and methodically from one form 
into another. Becoming interested he sat down by the 
child's side, learning from the little one. After a while he 
too began to arrange forms in the same way, and according 
to the law of opposites, so unconsciously carried out by the 
child a law which the maturer mind of the man grasped at 
once. The result of this occupation was that in time he had 
manufactured some very beautiful tables, the surfaces of 
which, formed according to the rules practised in the 
Kindergarten, were inlaid with parti-coloured wooden 
triangles. These tables he had disposed of at a consider- 
able profit, he had been enabled to relieve the wants of his 
family and better his own circumstances ; his trade had 
materially increased and he was now becoming quite 
prosperous. He therefore called upon Mrs. Frobel to 
express his gratitude and begged to offer her as a token of 
his thankfulness the little table which he had made, and 
which showed upon examination the star forms produced 
by following the law of opposites, which his little boy had 
been taught to find in the Kindergarten." 

I. What it is. Gift VII. consists of five boxes of tablets, 
made of wood and painted in different colours. The first 1 
box contains squares of the same size as a face of a cube in 


Gift III. The second box contains right-angled triangles, 
made by cutting the square diagonally. The third box con- 
tains equilateral triangles, the fourth right-angled triangles 
with unequal sides, and the fifth obtuse-angled triangles. 

2. How used. The boxes are placed at the end of the 
desk and passed while the children sing : 

KEY Eb. 

: s | s : s f : 1 | 1 : 1 | s : t | t : 1 | s : d 1 | d 1 : s / 

1. With tab-lets I should like to play,So kind-ly pass a box this way ; Such 

PI : s | s : s 

f :1 II 

s :t It :1 s :d' | d 

pret - ty pictures we can make,If we a lit - tie troub - le take. 

2. * Just lift the lid off, gently, so, 
t Then underneath the box 'twill go ; 
The pretty tablets ready lie, 
And we will place them carefully. 

FIG. 40. (See Coloured Plate 2.) 

1. Two Squares. 4. Castle. 

2. Oblong lying and stand- 5. Engine. 

ing. 6 to 10. Forms of Beauty. 

3. Church. 

(a) Squares. Let each child take out one tablet. 
Teacher asks, "What shape is the tablet?" "It is 
square." " Where have you seen a square of this size ? " 
" On the table, on the cube." Give each child a cube, and 
let him put one tablet on each of its six faces. " Suppose 
we had a knife to lift off each of these tablets " (the Teacher 
might take hers off with a knife), " it would belike cutting a 
slice from each face of the cube. How then is the tablet 
different from the cube ? " " It is flat, and has only two 
square faces." " What is it made of? Who made it ? " etc. 
"What has been done to the tablet to give it these pretty 

* Raise the lid. 

f Put the lid underneath the box. 


colours?" "It has been painted." Refer to the four 
right angles, the four sides, etc. Let the child have eight 
tablets, and make first two squares (No. 1), then an oblong 
figure lying down and standing up (No. 2). From the 
latter the children may learn that the two long edges are 
parallel, because they are the same distance apart. Then 
the child may lay objects as in Gift III., Nos. 3, 4, 5. Two 
or three of these are given in the sketch, and many more 
may be added by a glance at the illustrations given in the 
chapter on Gift III. Every picture laid will furnish oppor- 
tunity for intelligent conversation, without which the lesson 
will be lifeless and useless. Forms of beauty made with 
Gift III. can all be made with the tablets. A few, Nos. 6 
to 10, are given, for the rest see Figs. 18, 19 and 20, Gift 

FIG. 41. (See Coloured Plate 2.) 

11. Square. 17. Coffee Mill. 

12. Right Angle in four 18. Cottage. 

positions. 19. Pigeon House. 

13. Mountains. 20 to 24. Forms of Know- 

14. Trimming. ledge. 

15. Rhomboid. 25 to 27. Forms of Beauty. 

16. Boat. 

(b) Right-angled Triangles. The box may be passed 
and opened in the same way as the box of square tablets, 
and the teacher says : " Take out two tablets. Join your 
tablets to make a square. Now you can tell me how these 
tablets were formed." "The square was cut in two, from 
corner to corner." "You will remember that the square had 
four right angles, look at the triangle, how many right angles 
can you see?" " We can see one." "Where is it?" "It 
is where the standing-up and lying-down lines meet to- 
gether." " Then you have two other angles which are 
alike. What kind are they ?" " They are sharp angles," 


FIG. 40. 

FIG. 41, 


"Why?" " Because they are smaller than the right 
tingle." " How much smaller are they ? " " They are just 
balf the size." "How do you know? " Let the child lay 
the two tablets on a square tablet, and it will then see that 
two of the right angles have been cut in halves (No. 11). 

" What kind of a line do you see opposite to the right 
ingle ? " " It is longer that the other two, which are both 
alike." " We will call this long line the base line. Where 
bave you seen a triangle of this shape before? " " In Gift 

No. 12. Place your triangle with its base line towards 
you, now turn the right angle towards you. Place the 
briangle with the base line towards the right, then towards 
bhe left. 

No. 13. Take four tablets and lay them with the base 
line towards you and we have a chain of mountains ; from 
these form two rhomboids. 

No. 14. Place the tablets in a row, with the right angles 
towards you, and it looks like pointed trimming for a dress. 

Nos. 15 to 19 are all made with four triangles. 

Nos. 20 to 24. Take the four tablets and place them in 
various positions. 

Nos. 25 to 27. Then all sorts of beautiful figures may be 
Laid (see No. 25, etc.), and the children may combine their 
productions to make a larger pattern. 

FIG. 42. (See Coloured Plate 3.) 

(c) Equal-sided Triangles. The triangle which is now 
given to the child is entirely different from the previous one. 
A. box containing nine is passed to each child, the same 
verses being sung, or said, as for the square tablets. When 
the box has been opened, the child is allowed to take out 
two triangles, and the teacher says : " Let us see whether 
these triangles are like the right-angled triangles. You 
remember that two of those made a square." 



No. 26. " Put two of these together. Do they make a 

square?" "No," say the children, or they may answer, 
"that the triangles make a slanting square". We see, then, 
that these triangles have not been formed from the square. 
Make a circle on the blackboard with one inch radius, divide 
the circumference into six equal parts, and join the points 
to make a hexagon. 

No. 27. Draw from each point of the hexagon to the 
centre and we have six equilateral triangles, which the 
children may call equal-sided. The teacher may then place 
a tablet on each of the triangles drawn, to show the children 
that the circle will hold six equal-sided triangles. They will 
then measure the sides of the triangles, and will find that 
these are all of the same length, that is why we call them 
equal-sided. Now give two right-angled triangles to each 
child and let them compare. " Has the equal-sided triangle 
any right angles? " " No, for all its angles are smaller than 
right angles." Then they are all sharp angles. Explain to 
the children that a sharp angle may be a little smaller than 
a right angle, or a great deal smaller, or half the size. Two 
of these sharp angles put together (No. 26) make a blunt 
angle, so you see they are larger than the sharp angles of 
the right-angled triangle. The two equal-sided triangles are 
then placed in every possible position with relation to each 
other, side to side, corner to corner, side to corner, etc. 
Then three triangles are given (see Nos. 28 and 29) and then 
six. With the latter number many forms may be made 
(Nos. 30 to 34) and the children may combine to make a 
larger pattern (see No. 35). 

FIG. 43. (See Coloured Plate 3.) 

(d) Right-angled Triangles with Unequal Sides. 
Each child would receive a box containing eight of these tri- 
angles ; the boxes are passed and opened as before. ' ' In the pre- 
vious triangle all the sides were equal, how are they here ? " 


FIG. 42. 

FIG. 43. 

FIG. 44. 


" They are all different." " Piit two of these triangles together 
with their longest edges touching each other " (No. 36), " and 
try to find out how they are made." The children will say they 
are made by cutting the oblong across from corner to corner. 
The oblong formed by joining the two triangles covers two 
square inches, and the triangles are of equal size, so that 
one of them is equal to a square inch. " Now look at the 
angles, one of them is a right angle. How do you 
know?" " Because it is enclosed by a standing-up and a 
lying-down line." " The other two angles are sharp angles. 
Are they both the same size ? " The child measures one over 
the other and finds that they are not. Put the two tablets 
together and many forms are produced (see Nos. 37 to 40). 
Nos. 41 to 44 show other designs. 

FIG. 44. (See Coloured Plate 3.) 

(e) Obtuse-angled Triangles. This triangle contains 
one blunt and two sharp angles, the latter being equal 
in size. If three of these are placed together with their 
blunt angles towards the centre, they form a large equal- 
sided triangle (No. 45). Take one triangle, place the blunt 
angle towards you, from you, to the right, to the left. Then 
two triangles are placed in various positions with relation to 
each other, then three (No. 46), then four (No 47). With 
six triangles a number of forms can be made, and these may 
be multiplied indefinitely by using more. 



I. Introductory. The laths form a stepping-stone from 
the plane surface of the tablet to the representation of forms 
by points and lines. In this Gift a broader surface repre- 
sents the edge than is the case in Stick-laying, and there is 
the advantage of being able to lift up the forms when they 
are made. 

2. What it is. The jointed lath here shown is a yard 
in length when opened out, and it is divided into nine parts 
of four inches each, which are jointed together, so that it 
folds up into very small compass. It is marked in inches 
and can therefore be used for measuring. 

3. The Uses of the Jointed Lath. (a) If the jointed 
lath had no further use than to teach the different kinds 
of angles it would not be introduced in vain. How it can 
be used for this purpose is fully explained in Gift V., page 
67, so it will be sufficient merely to show the different 
angles (see Fig. 45, Nos. 1, 2, 3). 

(b) Another important use to which this Gift can be put 
is measuring. Just as the child should have some idea of 
the relative weight of different objects, so it will be a great 
advantage if he is taught also how to measure distances. 
Without this knowledge correct drawing is impossible 

(c) A third important use is found in the facility with 
which the different forms may be changed into one another, 
as is illustrated later. 

* See Appendix 5. 



4. How the Lesson is given. No. 1. Teacher says : 
" Hold the jointed lath in your left hand, and with the 

FIG. 45. 

1. Right Angle. 

2. Acute Angle. 

3. Obtuse Angle. 

4. A Triangle. 

5. Square. 

6. House. 

7. Washing Tub. 

8. Oblong. 

right hand open out the first lath ; let the folded portion 
lie on the table from right to left, and let the open part 
stand up " (see No. 1), " and we have the right angle ". 

No. 2. Bend the standing-up part downwards, and you 
make the acute angle. 

No. 3. Let it stand up again, and bend it backwards 
towards the left for the obtuse angle. 

No. 4. Now unfold another lath and make the triangle. 
We could not enclose a space until we used three laths, 



^ o> 5. With four laths we can make a square, and if we 
pull this a little to one side it will be a rhombus. 

No. 6. With five laths we can make a little house, penta- 
gon shape, and the same number are required for 

No. 7, A Washing Tub. 

No. 8 requires six laths. 

FIG. 46. 

9. Rhomboid. 

10. Hexagon. 

11. Two Triangles. 

12. Two Squares. 

13. Rhombus and 


14. Square and Oblong. 

15. Two Pentagons. 


No. 9. The Ehomboid is made from the Oblong of No. 8, 
Fig. 45, by pulling the upper right comer a little to the 

No. 10. The Hexagon is changed into No. 11, the two 
triangles. With seven laths the heptagon may be made, 
and with eight we may make the octagon. 


No. 12 can be made from the octagon by folding two of 
its sides together, and placing them as a division between 
the two squares. The children will call this form two 

No. 13. Nine laths are used for this figure and the same 
number is required for No. 14, which shows clearly to the 
children the difference between the well-known forms 
square and oblong. 

These examples are sufficient to indicate how admirably 
this simple apparatus lends itself to the formation of 
geometrical figures, and how invaluable such teaching must 
be as a preparation for later studies, such as geometry. 

This is mostly for older children. If the jointed lath be 
used by the younger children, they should only make the 
very simplest figures. 



I. Introductory. In this Gift, as in many others, Frobel 
has noticed the natural bent of the child and has invented 
means to satisfy it. Children have always been fond of 
weaving grasses, or rushes, or even small twigs together. 
Very few shapes could be made with these materials, but 
Frobel's Gift provides material with which an infinite variety 
of forms can be constructed. 

This Gift is more suitable for older children than for the 
little ones, and to them, as well as to grown-up people, it 
may be a training in self-control, for very often, when a 
form is almost complete, a lath will slip out of its place and 
spoil it. It needs much patience to intertwine the laths so 
as to make correct shapes, and this is another virtue which 
the Gift is well calculated to develop. Another lesson 
learnt is, that to attain perfection is of more importance 
than to do elaborate work. We learn also how easily one 
misplaced lath will spoil a beautiful figure, and how im- 
portant it is, therefore, to place each lath exactly in its 

2. The Lath. The lath is a piece of wood 10 inches 
long, f of an inch wide, and only ^ of an inch in thickness. 
It wiU, therefore, bend and vibrate. The child may be 
allowed to prove this for itself. Press one end of the lath 
firmly on the table with the left hand, and raise the other 
end a little distance from the table with the right ; let it 
fall sharply against the table, and the vibrating noise will be 


heard. This shows the elasticity of the lath. The children 
will think of other things that bound back again after being 

3. How the Laths are used. The laths should be 
given to the children in bundles of about ten. If the child 
has a Kindergarten table, marked in inch squares, the lath 
can be measured, also the middle of it may be found, or the 
child may even be allowed to mark it off in inches the whole 
length. When one lath has been thoroughly examined, and 
placed in various positions, two laths may be given, and 
these can be used to show plainly the meaning of parallel 
lines. Place the two laths on the table one inch apart. 
These are parallel lines. If we move one of them so that it 
slants a little away from the other, they are no longer 
parallel. If we slant both, so that there is the same dis- 
tance between them all the way, they are still parallel. 
" Where have you seen parallel lines ? " " The railway and 
tram lines are parallel." " If the railway lines were not 
parallel, that is, if they were not the same distance apart all 
along, what would happen ? " " The train would go off the 
lines." " But if you stand on a bridge, where you can look 
along the railway, the lines do not seem parallel ; in the 
distance they seem to run closer and closer together, but 
although they look like this, they are still the same distance 
apart." With two laths, also, a right angle can be made, 
and changed into the sharp and blunt angles, as with the 
jointed lath. With two, three, four, or a larger number of 
laths forms of life may be made, just as with the sticks, 
for illustrations of which see page 95, etc. 

It is not until we use four laths that we can make a form 
which can be lifted up. Every lath must touch three other 
laths if it is to keep in its place. 



PIG. 47. 

No. 1. The first form is made thus : 

We will number the laths 1, 2, 3, 4. No. 1 is laid on the 
table in a vertical position. No. 2 is laid over it at right 
angles so as to cross No. 1 in the middle. No. 3 is passed 
wider 1 and over 2. Then 4 is passed under 1, over 3, and 
under 2. 

No. 2 is made from No. 1 by drawing the laths together 
at the ends. 

In No. 3 a fifth lath is inserted. 

No. 4 is a modification of No. 3. 

No. 5 is made from No. 4 by drawing the laths together 
at the ends. 



FIG. 48. 

In No. 6 six laths are used, and interlaced as in mat- 
weaving. If this form be held at the corner No. 7 is seen. 
Eight laths will make a large square with a smaller square 
inside it (No. 9). 


I. Introductory. As the Tablets formed a stepping-stone 
from the concrete to the abstract, so the Sticks also carry 
us another step in advance. 

With the Tablets we were able to form pictures of objects, 
with the Sticks we are able to make outline pictures only, 
as the stick represents the line or edge of the surface.. In 
the hands of a skilful teacher, a bundle of these simple 
sticks opens up to the children a veritable fairyland, so 
manifold and various are the uses to which they can be 

2. The Sticks. The sticks are round and smooth and 
about as thick as a match, the first used are two inches in 
length, and each child should receive a box or bundle 
containing ten of these. The cost of material used in this 
Gift is very trifling. 

3. Conversation. The first thing is to make the child 
thoroughly interested in the object it is about to use. The 
teacher might begin by asking : " What is the Stick made of ? 
Who made it?" 

"What other things are made of wood?" Then a little 
story might be told : " One day a little boy had some 
beech-nuts in his pocket, and as he ran through the wood 
one nut fell out, and by-and-by some one came along and 
trampled it down into the soft earth. Then the sun warmed 
the earth, and the rain made it moist, so that the nut began to 


grow. It sent its roots downward, and pushed a little green 
shoot through the earth upward, and grew bigger and 
bigger every year, until it was a fine large tree. In Summer 
it was covered with beautiful, smooth, shiny, little green 
leaves, a dress fit for a fairy, and the children loved to sit 
under its branches ; then the Autumn came, and the leaves 
turned yellow and brown, and dropped off, one by one, and 
in the cold Winter the beech tree stretched out its bare arms 
for the pretty white snow to cover them. But when the 
Springtime came round, it began to put on its green fairy 
dress again, for it was covered with tiny buds, and 
birds flitted to and fro amongst its branches. But one 
day the woodman came, and put a white cross on the tree, 
and soon it was cut down, and from it the joiner made these 
little sticks. You see, now, how much trouble it has taken 
to make them : first the seed had to be planted, and then the 
tree had to grow for many years before it was big enough 
to be cut down. How good God is to make so many trees, 
for there are plenty left for shelter, even when we have cut 
many down to make things of the wood." 

A conversation like this wih 1 invest the plaything with a 
charm which it could not otherwise possibly possess. Another 
time the teacher might talk about the different kinds of 
trees, how some of them have leaves that do not fall off, 
these are called evergreens ; and how others have lovely 
blossom in the Springtime, and in the Autumn they bear 
fruit which we eat. A Kindergarten game such as* " The 
Spring Game " or " The Autumn Game " might appropriately 
follow a lesson like this. The children would then them- 
selves be trees, waving arms for branches, and the little 
stick which came from the tree would be more deeply inter- 
esting than before. 

4. How the Sticks are used. The children are allowed 

* See Appendices 2 and 3. 


to take out one stick from the bundle and the teacher asks : 
" What does this stick look like ? " One child will answer, 
" It looks like a pencil " ; another may say, " It looks like, a 
match," and so on. When a number of answers have been 
obtained the children may be asked to repeat all the objects 
which the stick has been said to resemble. This exercise 
will strengthen their memories, and the children will be 
gratified to hear again the names of the objects they each 
mentioned. " What shape is the stick ? " " It is round, so it 
will roll." " If we try to bend it what will happen ? " "It 

FIG. 49. 

will break." " And if we throw it in the fire ? " " It will 
burn." The stick should then be held in various positions. 
We can make it stand up on the table if we hold it ; we can 
also hold it in a lying-down position, or slanting upward to 
the right, and the same to the left. We can lay it on the 
table, so as to make a standing-up line, or a lying-down line, 
or slanting lines. " When you laid one of the Gift IV. blocks 
(which is just as long as these sticks) on the table, what 
happened to the two squares on which it was laid ? " " They 



were covered up." " Now look at the stick, it is two squares 
long. What does it cover up? " " It covers only the line." 
Two sticks are now given to the child, and with them it 
makes a longer standing-up line, or two slanting lines ; then 
the two sticks may be laid parallel, and the children are 
asked: "Where have you seen other lines running along 
the same distance apart ? " " Railway lines, tram lines, 

FIG. 50. 

1. Candle-stick. 

2. Tent. 

3-. Triangle. 

4. Table. 

5. Flower-pot. 

6. Open Box. 

7. Chair. 

8. Cottage. 

9. Flower-pot. 

10. Kustic Chair. 

11. Larger Tent. 

12. Funnel. 

13. Bench. 

With two sticks we. lay a candle-stick and a tent, Nos. 1 
and 2. With three we form the objects 3, 4 and 5 ; and 
as more sticks are given, larger and more varied objects can 
be produced, as shown. 



14. Kennel. 

15. Flag. 

16. Flower-pot. 

17. Anchor. 

18. Hat. 

19. Towel Rail. 

FIG. 51. 

20. Hexagon. 

21. Flag. 

22. Streamer. 

23. Reading Stand. 

24. Picture. 

25. Pigeon House. 

Nos. 14 to 19 are each made with five two-inch sticks, the 
remaining figures on this plate have six sticks each. Every 
figure affords opportunity for interesting and instructive con- 
versation, and many of these objects can be used to illustrate 
Kindergarten games. See table of Connective Lessons, p. 18. 

Sometimes the children may be divided into groups, and 
each group may lay a different object. Suppose the objects 
given below are made by the different groups, the children 
will be pleased to hear them mentioned in the rhyme. 

An Anchor and a Reading Stand, 

And Picture we have made, 
A Kennel and a Pigeon House 

Ail evenly are laid. 



FIG. 52. 

26. House. 

27. Two Windows. 

28. Plant in Pot. 

29. Church Window. 

30. Spade. 

31. Umbrella. 

32. Street Lamp. 

33. Envelope. 

34. Cottage. 

In No. 26 six sticks are again used. 

No. 28 introduces four one-inch sticks. 

No. 30. The Spade has three two-inch sticks laid length- 
wise, then three more to form the triangle, and one for the 

No. 31. The stick of the Umbrella is formed by three sticks, 
each two inches in length ; there are two of the same length 
on each side the stick, and two one-inch sticks form the 
base of the triangle. 

No. 32. The Street Lamp rests on a stem, formed by two 



two-inch sticks, and the same length of stick is used for the 
lamp and base. 

No. 33. The Envelope takes eight two-inch sticks. 

No. 34. The Cottage requires ten. 

5. Geometrical Figures. fFor older children.) The 
right angle may be laid in four different positions, in the 
four corners of the table. Then the children may be asked 
to place the two sticks so as to form two right angles, 
thus : | . Now try to place them so that you will have 

four right angles, I . They can also form the sharp angle, 

by making the right angle smaller, and the obtuse angle, 
by making it larger. Now let one stick lie down, and 
place the other so as to make one blunt and one sharp 

an gl e b s^ Now can you place the sticks so as to 
make two sharp angles and two blunt ones, 

b ^"-~- 

With three sticks, three parallel lines may be laid, and the 
triangle may be formed. With four sticks we make the 
square and the rhombus. With five, the pentagon, the 
trapezoid and an isosceles triangle. Six sticks give the 
hexagon, the oblong, the rhomboid and the trapezium. 
From this it will be seen that the sticks, like the tablets, 
are valuable as a preparation for geometry and mathematics. 

Stick-laying is a direct preparation for drawing, and many 
of the figures laid with sticks can be copied in pencil or 
the chequered lines of the slate. It is also an aid to reading 
for the letters can be formed with sticks ; it helps largely 
in the teaching of writing as is shown in the chapter on thid 
subject, and the sticks can be used for teaching number ir 
the same way as the boxes of shells, which are mentionec 
in the chapter on Number. 



Introductory. Of all Frobel's Gifts none appeals more 
rectly to the sense of beauty than this one. Matter-of- 
ct people may object to a Gift whose chief object is the 
jvelopment of the artistic. But if we believe that the 
)preciation of beautiful things has an elevating effect on 
own-up people, what must its influence be on the tender, 
astic mind of a little child? By opening the gate "Beauti- 
1" to its vivid imagination, do we not lead it a step for- 
ard in the path of goodness, for true beauty is closely allied 
ith goodness ? 

2. Of what does the Gift consist ? The material used 
made of wire, and consists of rings and half rings of 

irious sizes an inch, an inch and a half, and two inches 
diameter the half rings corresponding to the various 
zes of the whole rings. Just as the sticks were a develop- 
ent of the cube (its embodied edge), so the rings are a 
ivelopment of the ball and cylinder, the ring being, in 
ct, the embodied edge of the cylinder. 

3. How the Gift is used. Give one ring to each child, 
ik what is its shape, what other things have the children 
sen similar in shape? "A hoop, Mother's ring, links in 
chain, etc." The children will now be able to learn the 
fference between things round like the ball, round like a 
mny, and round like a ring. " How is the ring different 
om the penny ? " " We can look through it, and put our 
iger through it." " What would have to be done to the 


penny to make it like the ring ? " " All the middle part 
of it would need to be taken out, leaving only the edge." 
" How does the penny differ from the ball? " " The penny 
is flat and round, while the ball is round all over." " Take 
up your ring and make it spin round like a top in the middle 
of the table, listen to the noise it makes when it falls down. 
Why does it make such a ringing sound?" " Because it 
is made of iron." " Hold the ring in one hand, and a two- 
inch stick in the other. How does the ring feel? " " It is 
heavy." " See ! I will put it in a glass of water, what 
happens?" "It sinks to the bottom." "Now I will put 
the stick in the water and you will see what happens." " It 
floats on the top." " Why does the stick swim, and why 
does the iron sink?" Proceed to elicit from the children 
that the iron is cold and hard, and will not easily break. 
This will be quite enough for the first lesson. 

In the second lesson another interesting conversation may 
be given about different things that are made of iron. 
" Think of the largest thing you have seen made of iron." 
The children will probably reply, "A steam engine ". How big 
and strong the steam engine must be to pull the heavy train 
along ! and yet the same iron that makes the mighty engine 
can be drawn out into a wire almost as fine as a hair, to form 
the mainspring of a watch. Let the children see a mainspring 
if possible. Other things made of iron, such as the grate, 
steam pipes, iron gate, kettle, etc., will be mentioned, and the 
children will learn that, although gold and silver are the most 
costly of metals, yet iron is by far the most precious, because 
the most useful. 

Still another lesson might be taken in describing the 
interesting process by which the iron is obtained. How 
the miners go deep into the earth to dig out the iron ore, 
which is brought up in baskets or buckets. The shaft 
may be described (which the children probably built with 
Gift IV.). " It is dark down in the mine, and each man has a 


lamp or a candle to work by. How kind the miners are to 
bring up the iron that makes so many useful things ! Their 
faces are black with working in the mine, but that is no dis- 
grace. Then the ore is melted in a furnace, and the red hot 
liquid runs down into moulds made of sand, and it is now 
called pig iron. Suppose that a little boy had an iron hoop 
and broke it, how would the blacksmith mend it ? " " He 
would take the two ends and make them red hot in the fire, 
and while they were soft, he would hammer them together, 
and the broken hoop would be whole again." " Iron will rust 
with the damp, and the rust wears it away." Such conver- 
sations as these invest the simple iron ring with a wonderful 
charm, and the children learn to be deeply interested in the 
common things around them, which, in itself, is an infinite 
advantage ; for the more interest a person takes in the 
common things of life, the more of joy and happiness he 
gets out of it, and if the Gift teaches no other lesson but 
this, a valuable one will have been learnt. 



lo II 12 

FIG. 53. 

Fig. 53 shows figures first with two rings, then with three, 
then with four, and, lastly, with four small rings and four 
large ones. 


FIG. 54. 

Fig. 54 shows four larger illustrations with whole rings, 
13 to 16, and the remaining figures, 17 to 21, introduce the 
half rings. 

FIG. 55. 

No. 22 has a whole ring for centre with four halves sur- 

No. 23. Eye-glasses. 

No. 24. Clover leaf. 

No. 25. Four halves placed as in Fig. 17. 

Nos. 26 to 28. The whole and half rings are combined to 
make these figures. 




I. Introductory. Although the material used for this Gift 
is perhaps the least costly, it is by no means the least valuable. 
In Sticks and Eings we have the line, and in Thread-laying we 
have it again, but differing from previous lines in this, that 
it is not fixed. If we attempted to bend the straight line of 
the stick, it broke, and the rings were already curved, and 
were not intended to represent straight lines. Here we 
have a material with which we can make curved or straight 
lines at will, and much useful knowledge may be conveyed 
through this simple medium. 

2. Children's fondness for string. Who does not 
remember his or her childish fondness for a piece of string or 
coloured wool ! A boy's pocket is never completely fur- 
nished unless it contains a little bundle of string to mend 
his whip or tie up the tail for his kite. 

Often we have seen children of both sexes amusing 
themselves with the game of Cat's Cradle, little thinking 
that by this simple exercise their fingers were being trained 
and developed. 

3. Materials used. Thread, slate, pencil and water are 
needed. The material used furnishes opportunity for many 
interesting conversations. The thread should be thick, red 
knitting cotton, which is cut into lengths of about twenty 
inches and knotted. Older children may learn to tie the 
knot for themselves, and the lines following Fig. 56 may be 


The children will remember the conversations about wool 
in Gift I., and how it was obtained from the back of the 
sheep. "Here we have a thread made of another material 
which you cannot see growing as you saw the wool, for it 
comes from a country far over the seas. Suppose we went 
in a ship to one of these warm countries, you would see the 
cotton growing on a tree, in a snug little pod, and when 
these pods burst open, and show the pretty white cotton 
within, people begin to pick them. What kind of people do 
you think they are who pick the cotton ? Their skin is not 
white like ours, it is black, and they have curly black hair 
and rows of shining white teeth." They are called negroes, 
and just as we think kindly of the men who go down into 
the earth, and get their faces blackened by working in the 
coal and iron, so must we try to teach the children to think 
kindly of a race, who are none the less human because their 
outward appearance differs from ours. 

The colour of the thread furnishes another topic of con- 
versation. Keference may be made to the cochineal which 
provides us with the red colour. Another conversation 
would arise from the water with which the thread is damped, 
where it comes from, how useful it is, etc. 

In connection with this play the child learns two impor- 
tant facts which were not presented in any of the previous 
Gifts. Without being troubled with scientific names, he 
learns that water travels along any hair-like thread (capillary 
attraction), and also that the wet thread sticks to the slate 
(adhesion). The teacher might take a piece of the cotton 
thread and say : "I will place one end of this thread in the 
mug of water, and you shall see what happens ". By-and- 
by she takes up the thread, and shows the children that it 
is all wet. " How has this happened?" "The water has 
travelled all along the thread." "The same thing would 
occur if the corner of a handkerchief were placed in water. 
Why?" "Because the handkerchief is composed of threads, 



(XI 2 i 


woven together, and the water travels along them. We 
should not be able to make nice figures on the slate, if the 
thread were not wetted." This Gift is an excellent prepara- 
tion for drawing, for besides giving the outline of forms, it 
teaches also lightness of touch. The outline of the form 
can be preserved by drawing round it, or if the thread be 
allowed to remain in position until it is dry, and then be 
removed, it will leave the outline of the figure on the slate, 
which the child may trace over with its pencil. 

FIG. 56. (See Coloured Plate 4.) 
l.> gee 7. Crown. 

2 ' I rhyme 8 * Ma S' 

3. 9. Dumb-bell. 

4.' 10. Egg-boiler. 

5. Lying-down Line. 11. Symmetrical Form. 

6. Square. 

No. 1. The two cord ends together bring, 

No. 2. Then twist them round to make a ring, 

No. 3. Behind the ring the two ends go, 

No. 4. And then we pull them through you know. 

The children work with the teacher, who shows each step 
on the blackboard, with a length of wet string. 

In making the figures, the string is to be moved into 
position by the point of the pencil. 

No. 7. A Crown, made by drawing the upper side of the 
square towards centre. 

No. 8. Flag, made by pushing lower side of the square 
towards centre. 

No. 9. Dumb-bell. Both upper and lower sides pushed 
to centre. 

No. 10. Egg-boiler. Eight and left sides pushed to centre. 

No. 11. All the sides drawn to centre. 

FIG. 57. (See Coloured Plate 4.) 

12. Circle. 16. Soft Hat. 

13. Mug. 17. Boot. 

14. Jug. 18. Pan. 

15. Tall Hat. 19. Spoon. 


A multitude of other forms will suggest themselves to the 
teacher, and the children will be found to invent freely in 
this simple play, and will amuse themselves for hours at 
home in constructing fresh figures. 

The oval, triangle and hexagon are excellent foundations 
from which to start, the latter lending itself especially to 
construction of forms of beauty. 




I. Introductory. There are two reasons why Drawing 
plays an important part in the child's development. 

(a) It is a preparation for the real afterwork of life ; there 
is scarcely a trade or profession in which the need of drawing 
is not felt. Just as the builder draws plans before making 
his house, so the dressmaker finds it helpful to draw the 
pattern she wants to cut, and the same is true of every 
branch of industry. 

(6) It satisfies the child's natural desire to represent, 
produce, create ; as Frobel says, "It is in drawing, particu- 
larly, that the child proves himself to be a free and capable 
being," and able, therefore, to create. Children love to 
look at pictures, and, better still, to have pictures drawn for 
them, no matter how rude the representation, and when a 
little story accompanies the drawing, the pleasure is greatly 
increased. The child likes to outline its own little hand, or 
a coin, or ring, and we have seen children drawing figures 
on a misty window-pane, in the sand, or even with milk 
spilt on the table. These rough attempts should not be 
checked, but encouraged by providing better material ; for, 
just as we like to express our thoughts in words, so does the 
child like to express his ideas in drawing. The Chinese and 
Egyptians wrote in symbols and forms, and the early 
history of the child, like the early history of these nations, 
shows the same tendency to express itself in symbols. We 


are not surprised to learn that Frobel found means to satisfy 
this innate desire on the part of the child to draw. 

2. Materials for Drawing. The materials needed are 
a slate ruled in squares, and a pointed pencil. The crude 
spontaneous drawing of the child should now be succeeded 
by more methodical attempts. The slate should not be made 
of tin, or wood, with red or wiiite squares painted on it, 
but it should be a real slate, so marked that the lines are 
grooves, in which the pencil can be guided. Our aim is not 
to get perfect work from the child, but to make the work 
a means of development. It is not necessary to make one 
set of lines perfectly before proceeding to another set. One 
row of standing-up lines is quite sufficient for the child to 
make atone time, and if these are named "little soldiers," 
as in the writing lesson, or "little children ah 1 standing in a 
row," the interest will be greater. When we come to lying- 
down lines, the little children have gone to sleep, and are 
represented as lying with one square between each. A 
great many of the objects formed with sticks (see illustra- 
tions of Stick-laying) may be drawn. Then come the com- 

FIG. 58, p. 110. 

binations of standing-up and lying-down lines, which are 
shown in the illustrations. Many of these the children will 
find out for themselves, and we must remember that what 
the child produces himself is a greater aid to his develop- 
ment than any number of patterns copied. There is no 
Gift in which the child has more scope for invention than 
in drawing. Many and beautiful are the designs which 
the little fingers produce, unaided, after they have been 
through the course of Drawing, which here follows 
FIG. 59, p. 111. 

Slanting Lines. Next come slanting lines, which cut 
the squares in halves diagonally. 

First we have a row sloping downwards from left to right, 
then a row sloping upwards from left to right. 


The two kinds of lines are next combined, first into a kind 
of herring-bone pattern, and then into diamonds, and lastly 
longer slanting lines are used. 

The children will make patterns for themselves much 
more numerous and varied than we have space to show. 

Figs. 60 to 63, pp. 112, etc. These four figures show how 
the three kinds of lines, vertical, horizontal, and slanting, can 
be combined to make fresh designs. 

Fig. 64, p. 116. In this figure lines of two lengths are 

Figs. 65 and 66, pp. 117 and 118. Half-slanting lines. 
The half-slanting lines should not be given until the child 
has had drawing lessons for a considerable time, and has ac- 
quired dexterity in using the pencil to produce firm, clear lines. 

Figs. 67 and 68, pp. 119 and 120. These show how the 
half-slanting lines may be combined with the lines previously 
learnt to produce many charming figures. 

Figs. 69 to 72, pp. 121, etc. Curved Lines. In the four 
figures shown, the curved line is introduced, and various 
examples are given of the way in which these lines may be 
combined with each other to form pretty designs. First the 
curves are only one square long, then they are taken over two 
squares, and so on. 

Fig. 73. (See Coloured Plate 5.) Design made with 
straight lines. 

Fig. 74. (See Coloured Plate 5.) Design made with 
curved lines. 

Colouring. Long before the child has gone through this 
course of drawing, he may be allowed to colour his little 
productions. Crayons can be purchased at very little cost, 
and nothing gives more pleasure to a child than to be 
allowed to work with colours. Specimens of colouring are 
given, Figs. 73 and 74. 



FIG. 58. 






















FIG. 59. 

















































































































































FIG. 61. 


























































































































































FIG. 62. 



































































































Fia. 63. 



FIG. 64. 























FIG. 65. 















FIG. 66. 







FIG. 67. 












FIG. 68, 




FIG. 69. 



FIG. 70. 



FIG. 71. 

X Or 



FIG. 72. 

FIG. 73. 

FIG. 74 




Stencilling is a somewhat me- 
chanical occupation, but it requires 
thoughtfulness and care to do it 
neatly, and it affords pleasure to the 
child. The pattern is cut out of the 
cardboard, probably by machinery, 
Fig. 75. Stencilling cards of various 
designs can be obtained in packets. 
The card is placed over a piece of 
blank paper or cardboard, and secured 
by drawing-pins ; or, the blank paper 
may be cut a little larger than the 
Stencilling Card, and then its edges 
may be folded over the latter to keep 
it in position. A finely pointed pencil 
is needed, otherwise the lines will not 
show clearly through the perforations. 
The pencil should be passed carefully 
along every slit, and pressed sufficiently 
to make a good, firm line. Then the 
card is removed, and the drawing 
appears on the paper, Fig. 76. The 
border might also be drawn if desired. 

FIG. 75. Stencilling. 

FIG. 76. 

126 DBA WING. 

Frobel's Drawing. Frobel found that a child has very 
little idea of the relative size of things ; he will, for example, 
make a man just as high as a house. Nothing could be 
simpler than the method which the great educator uses to 
teach the child proportion of things. Five lines of different 
lengths are used, arranged in every possible position, 
Fig. 77, p. 127. 

To make the lesson interesting a little story may be given, 
ir- which the lines are introduced as objects of various 
sizes, thus : the first line is a very little one, so we will call 
ii Baby's stocking. The next is longer, that shall be little 
Sister's stocking ; the third shall be the Brother's, the fourth 
the Mother's, and the fifth the Father's stocking. 

In No. 1 the Baby's stocking is first and the Father's last. 

In No. 2 we draw the long line first and the short one last. 

No. 3 begins with the short line, hanging from, instead of 
resting upon, the line, and you will notice that each "stocking " 
hangs down one square lower than the one in front of it. 

No. 4 shows the long stocking hung first, and the short 
one last. 

No. 5 shows preceding figures combined, and the four 
right angles are in the centre. 

No. 6 has the four right angles outside. The talk about 
the stockings may still be continued in these larger figures 

No. 7 is the opposite of No. 6. 

No. 8 shows a form representing a windmill. 

These are only a few illustrations of a great number of 
ways in which these lines can be used. After the vertical 
lines come the horizontal, which are used in precisely the 
same way. Then the vertical and horizontal lines may be 

No. 9 shows the longer lines in the centre. 

In No. 10 the small lines are in the centre, and this illus- 
tration shows also the relative sizes of squares. The same 
principle can be carried out with slanting lines. 



FIG. 77. 



I. Introductory. As we have used various materials to 
represent the embodied edge of the plane surface, so, in this 
Gift, we represent the embodied corner. The representa- 
tion is doubtless more or less crude, for the point is hardly 
a tangible or visible quantity. But if we can manage to 
convey to the child's mind a clear idea as to its position, 
something will have been gained. 

2. Materials used. Beads, lentils, peas or beans may be 
used, or the shells, referred to in the chapter on Number. 
Children are always fond of marking out, and enclosing spaces 
with objectsof this kind,to make " gardens, ""parks, ""houses," 
etc. A conversation on the object to be used will add interest 
to the lesson. The beads or seeds should be placed in little 
boxes or "patty" tins ; the paper box shown in Fig. 79, No. 
7, is very useful for this purpose, and the method of making 
it is fully illustrated in Fig. 103, Paper-folding, p. 160. Suppose 
the boxes to be placed at the end of each desk, they may be 
passed while the following lines are repeated or sung : 

(:PKT |d :-.r:d Id : ri :s If :1 : d 1 Id 1 : :t.l| 
Some nice, pretty box - es of beads read -y stand, And 

XI s :f :n |r :d :r n : :nr d : -.r : d I d :n :s / 
please.will you pass one to me ? From one to an - oth - er with 

d 1 :-:tJ.s : d' :n r :-.d : r 
care they must go, Up - set-ting would spill beads you see. 




FIG. 78. 
















oce ; 








a| j 









5| ; 



... j i 





I I 

FIG. 79. 


3. Guessing Game. Another way of making this 
subject interesting is to use the seeds for a Guessing Game. 
The children should first learn the names of the different 
seeds lentils, broad beans, haricot beans, peas, Indian 
corn, etc. One child is then blindfolded, and stands in 
front of the class. The Teacher places a seed in the hand of 
the blindfolded child, after first holding it up, so that all the 
children may see it, and then all repeat the lines which 
follow : 

Here are seeds, some large, some small, 

We have learnt the names of all. 

Hold your hand ! what seed is this ? 

Mind you do not guess amiss. 

The child tries to tell the name of the seed by feeling it. 
This game, of course, develops the sense of touch, and 
strengthens the memory, besides being a source of great 
pleasure to the children. 

FIG. 78. (See Coloured Plate 6.) 

4. Laying Beads. In the diagram given (Fig. 78), the 
figures are laid on the cardboard square referred to in Gift 
III., Fig. 12, and instead of beads, we have substituted split 
peas, which keep in place more easily, being curved only on 
one side. 

No. 1. The first step is to mark the intersections of the 
squares. The children should be allowed to place all their 
peas or beads where the squares cross, covering all the in- 
tersections if possible. 

No. 2. Then a lying-down line may be laid, not two 
squares long, as shown here, but the whole width of the 

No. 3. Next comes the standing-up line, which should 
also be taken across the table. 

Nos. 4 and 5 show a pea laid in the centre of the inch line 
as well as in the corners, and this is followed, 



Nos. 6 and 7, by the placing of a pea on each side of the 
one in the centre. 

No. 8. Now the centre of the square is found, and one 

pea is placed there, and one at each of the opposite 

No. 9. We see the slanting line formed by placing a pea 
on each side of the one which is in the centre. 

No. 10. Two slanting lines are combined to form a Tent. 

The remaining figures 

11. Flag; 14. Hexagon; 

12. Towel rail ; 15. Picture 

13. Beading stand ; 

are taken from Stick-laying. All the illustrations shown in 
the last-named Gift may be laid with peas, beads, etc. 

FIG. 79. (See Coloured Plate 6.) 

5. Beads on Cardboard. Another way of using beads is 
to let the children sew them on cardboard. This is a pleas- 
ing occupation for the very little ones. Take a piece of card- 
board four inches square, and perforate it at the five points 
marked, No. 1, Fig. 79. A blunt needle, or baby-threader, is 
used, threaded with a length of wool or thick cotton which 
should have a knot at one end. Bring the needle through 
the hole in the centre, then thread with four beads, and pass 
it through the hole at the top of the cardboard. Bring the 
needle through the centre again, thread four more beads, 
and pass it through the opposite hole. Continue in this way 
until the cross is completed. The manner of perforating the 
cardboard for each pattern given is shown in the square 
above the pattern. 

As the children become more proficient the patterns may 
be sewn on shaped pieces of cardboard, which are afterwards 
made into various useful objects, as the " slipper," Fig. 79, 
No. 6. 

Nos. 1 to 5 show illustrations of beads sewn on cardboard. 


["he cardboard is perforated at the points shown on the white 
square above the patterns. 

No. 6. The Slipper has the pattern No. 3 worked on the 
ioe, and No. 4 on the upper part. The edges ,are perforated 
as if for buttonhole stitch, and the children sew the beads 
round. The " toe " is then stitched in its place. 

No. 7 is the paper box for holding beads, etc., the method 
>f making which is described fully in the chapter on Paper- 
olding, Fig. 103, p. 160. 

Nos. 8 and 9 show baskets* with beads threaded on the 
sticks. In No. 8 alternate sticks are threaded, and in No. 9 
all the sticks have beads. When the beads have been threaded, 
one end of the stick is inserted in the cardboard, which forms 
she bottom of the basket, and the other end is inserted in 
the rim, but this operation is delicate and difficult, and can 
lardly be managed by the children themselves. 

* See Appendix 6. 



Up to this time, the child has played with a variety of 
material, from which he has made a variety of forms, but he 
has been able in every case to resolve the material into its 
original condition. In all the Gifts this principle is carried 
out, but with the Occupations it is different. 

These afford material for the construction of various 
designs and forms, but the forms, when constructed, are 
fixed, and cannot be resolved into the original forms as could 
the Gifts. 

It is necessary for the child's development that this should 
be so. If we could alter every mistake that we make readily 
and easily, we should not be so careful to avoid making 
mistakes. But as errors are not easily rectified in real life, 
so the child should learn this lesson in its play, for the play 
is to be a preparation for the business of life. One brick in 
the wrong place, and the design is spoiled ; one wrong line, 
and the pattern is imperfect. 

When we try to prick and sew, 

Very careful we must be, 
Or some wrong and crooked lines 

On our work we're sure to see. 

Every prick just in its place, 

Every line exactly true, 
Neat and careful all the work 

That we little children do. 



I. Introductory. This Occupation deals chiefly with the 
point. The child has already learnt to mark the points 
where the lines cross on its Kindergarten table, with shells, or 
beads, and the same principle is carried out in Perforating. 
We have often seen children take a pin and prick the outline 
of a picture on a piece of paper, or they will, in the same 
way, perhaps, outline the patterns of flowers printed on 
materials. Cowper refers to this in his " Lines on my 
Mother's Picture ". 

A lesson of twenty minutes' duration, given once a week, 
is almost sufficient for this Occupation. Children whose 
sight is weak should not be allowed to perforate, as constant 
application of the eyes is necessary. Perforating is not suit- 
able for a large class of children, because it needs such con- 
stant supervision. The class should have a room well lighted 
on the left, and even then it would be well to postpone the 
lesson if the day were dull or dark. 

2. Materials used. () Pad. Each child must be pro- 
vided with a pad of blotting-paper or felt. The latter is 
more suitable for coarse perforating. If fine work is desired 
the blotting-pad should be used, which is made as follows : 
Take a piece of blotting-paper and fold it twelve times, into 
a pad measuring eight inches by six. The pad thus made 
should be gummed to a piece of cardboard of the same size, 
and this again is gummed to the centre of a piece of brown 
paper measuring twenty inches by twelve, so that the pad 


can be folded up and kept clean, and the child's work if not] 
finished can be left inside. The child's name should be j 
written on the outside. 

(6) Perforating needle. A stout needle is fixed into a 
round handle of wood, from which it should project about 
an inch. 

(c) The paper or cardboard. A piece of cross-lined 
paper or cardboard should be used, with a network of J 
inch squares, and if the lines could be drawn in black in- ; 
stead of pale blue, as is usually the case, it would be much 
easier for the child to see where they cross, and where to 
put the point of the pricker. A piece of cardboard, three or 
four inches square, is large enough to commence with. 

3. Conversation about material. " What is the pad 
made of ? " " It is made of paper." " What is paper made 
of ? " An interesting description of paper-making should 
here be given. How the rags are ground up into a pulp with 
water, and then pressed out into thin layers to make paper 
and cardboard. " How does the blotting-paper differ from 
other kinds of paper? " " It is softer, and rougher, and not 
so shiny." " Why is it made like this? " "So that it will 
suck up the ink." 

" The handle of the pricker you know about, but what is 
the other part made of ? " " It is made of steel." " What 
else is made of steel?" "Scissors, knives, needles, and 
many other things." " We should be badly off without the 
bright, shining steel that makes all these articles with which 
to cut or pierce." 

4. How the lesson is given. The Teacher should draw 
a network of lines on the blackboard, showing as many 
squares as the children have on their cardboard, and with a 
piece of coloured chalk she should indicate the point where 
the pricker is to be placed. We will begin at the upper left 
corner, the pricker must be perfectly vertical, and the per- 
foration must be made exactly where the lines cross. When 



FIG. 80. Perforating. 


this is done, the paper is held up and the child is delighted 
to see the light shining through the little hole he has made. 
Now make another hole very carefully (the Teacher showing 
on the blackboard where it has to be made). If the blotting- 
pad is used the pricker may be sent quite through the soft 
folds until it reaches the cardboard. When a row of holes 
has been made the card is again held up to the light and 
fourteen shining points are seen. The work should proceed 
slowly, and should be frequently supervised, so that no 
careless or slanting perforations are made. In the first card 
used the child perforates every place where the lines cross 
each other. 

The method followed is very similar to that which is 
shown in the laying of Beads. 

No. 1. First the holes are made where the squares cross 
each other. 

No. 2. The next step is to perforate the line exactly in 
the middle. 

No. 3 show r s five perforations, and before proceeding 
further, squares and other combinations of vertical and 
horizontal lines should be practised, each line being perfor- 
ated like No. 3. 

No. 4 shows the perforation in the middle of the square, 

In No. 5 a prick is placed on each side of the centre to 
make the slanting line. Various patterns of slanting lines 
should be perforated before proceeding further, e.g., see 
Fig. 83, Embroidery Cards. 

Nos. 6 and 7 show combinations of slanting and other 
lines ; for further illustrations see Fig. 84, Embroidery 

When the child has learnt to place the pricks at equal 
distances, he may proceed to trace outlines of forms such as 
a leaf, a house, an animal, etc., the pattern being drawn 
in the first place on thin paper, and then placed over 


the cardboard or paper, to which it is to be transferred 
by perforating. The pattern may be kept in place by 
cutting the blank paper rather larger than the pattern, so 
that its edges may be folded over the latter. When every 
line has been evenly pricked the drawing is removed, and the 
child sees the same pattern outlined by his perforating. 

Embossing 1 or " Raising": Very pretty effects may be 
obtained by " raising " the pattern, which is done as follows. 
First the shape is outlined on cartridge paper, or very thin 
cardboard ; then the card is turned over and perforated on 
the wrong side. Suppose the pattern to be a walnut ; the 
pricks on the wrong side would, in the first row, follow the 
line of the oval pricked on the right side, the pricks for 
"raising" being kept close inside the outline. The next 
row follows closely inside again, and the plan is continued in 
every row, the oval becoming smaller and smaller with each 
row, until the centre is reached. Then if the figure be 
turned over to the right side, the " raised" pattern is seen. 
It is hardly necessary to add that a considerable strain is 
put upon the eyes in the production of such a multitude 
of fine perforations as are needed for "raising," and that 
the sight should not be sacrificed by being used too much. 





FIG. 81. 

(The above patterns are designed and worked on cross- 
lined cardboard ; the original measures about 24 in. by 12 in. 
I. Introductory. Everybody knows how delighted a 
child is to have a needle and thread given to it, with a piece 
of material on which to sew. Children like to produce 
something, and they like also to imitate the actions of grown- 
up people, both of which desires are gratified in this occupa- 
tion. Moreover, if it is gratifying to use a needle and thread, 
even when nothing definite can be produced, how much 
more gratifying must it be to work with these implements, 
when beautiful results can be obtained ! A gardener, having 
occasion one day to visit an Infant School in the West 


Eiding of Yorkshire, was struck immediately on entering 
with the appearance of a frame containing specimens of the 
children's work. They were patterns of embroidery which 
had been designed by the children themselves in the drawing 
lesson, and had afterwards been perforated and sewn on 
chequered cardboard. The gardener asked permission of the 
head mistress (by whose kindness also they are shown here, 
Fig. 81) to allow him to copy the designs for his own use in 
" carpet "-gardening. This proves that the occupation is a 
preparation for some, at least, of the after- work of life. The 
child also learns how to use a needle, which in itself is an 
important acquisition. 

The mental effect of this work is beneficial, for it soothes 
and quietens. 

Like perforating, this also teaches patience and care. 
Sometimes a knot appears on the wool, and a sudden pull 
would tear the card, or break the wool, so the child must 
wait until the knot can be undone, otherwise its work 
will not be neat, and neatness is always insisted upon 
in the Kindergarten. As drawing complements the exer- 
cises with beads or shells, so does this occupation of em- 
broidery complement the previous occupation of Per- 
forating, for it is a kind of " Drawing with coloured 
threads ". 

2. Materials used. We will suppose that the child has 
before him a piece of cardboard four inches square, marked 
with J inch squares, which he has already prepared for 
himself in the perforating lesson. The other implements 
needed are a rug needle with large eye and blunt point, and 
a length of wool crewel, Shetland, or fine Andalusian are 
the most suitable. Before commencing the work the mate- 
rials should form the subject of interesting conversations : 
how the wool came from the sheep's back and was dyed the 
pretty colours that we see, and how the needle is made of 
hard, bright steel, etc. At first the wool chosen should be 


one of the primary colours, red, blue or yellow, but later the 
secondary colours may be used. 

3. The First Lesson. The Teacher should have a piece 
of stout cardboard, 16 inches square, ruled in inch squares 
and perforated to match the children's squares ; she shoulc 
also have a large darning needle and a length of thicker wooi 
than that used by the children, so that all may be able tc 

The children might be supplied with a strip of cardboard 
(say two inches by one inch) folded in halves, with which tc 
hold the card they are working. 

A small knot should be made at the end of the wool. 
The Teacher now says : " Take the needle in your right handj 
and hold the cardboard in your left. Put the needle behind' 
the cardboard and send it through the hole in the upper left 
corner, on the wrong side of the card. Now draw it through 
on the right side, until only the knot can be seen behind." 
(The Teacher does this on her larger card, and if the class is 
large she must stand before them, holding the card in her 
right hand and the needle in the left, otherwise the children 
will be confused.) 

"Now take the needle and put it through the next hole 
below on the right side and draw it through. What have 
you made ? " "We have made a standing-up line which joins 
the two points together." The needle is then put through the 
next hole below, on the wrong side, and brought out on the 
right side ; then put it in again on the top row, and so on 
until a row of vertical lines is seen. 

If the cardboard has not been pricked correctly, the lines 
will be imperfect ; the child will thus learn that careful pre- 
paration is necessary if good work is to be obtained, and this 
is a lesson which will be useful in the later years of life. In 
the next line we work from right to left, and the wrong side 
of the card now shows four rows of lying-down lines. 

Sometimes coloured cardboard is used and makes a pleasing 



variety ; the child should be encouraged to find a colour of 
vool that will harmonise nicely with the colour of the card- 

The steps in Embroidery are the same as in Drawing. The 
llustrations which follow are taken from the A. L. Series * 
)y the kind permission of the Publishers. 


FIG. 82. 

Fig. 82 shows standing-up and lying-down lines, 
>atterns formed by combining these two. 


See Appendix 7. 


; : ^^yyyyyz \ \ >OOOOOCO< 

//////y/\\\\\\\\ i ; 

FIG. 83. 
Fig. 83. These cards show the steps in slanting lines. 

FIG. 84. (See Coloured Plate 7.) 

Fig. 84. The patterns here combine the three kinds of 
lines, and also show how the cards may be coloured.* 

FIG. 85. 
Fig. 85 introduces the half-slanting lines. 

* In examining Plate 7 the book should be held sideways, so that the 
pattern showing octagons in rows appears first. 



FIG. 86. 

Fig. 86. The ''cup and saucer" pattern illustrates ob- 
jects. The "Elephant," animals; the "Daffodil" and 
" Poppy," spring and summer flowers respectively, and the 
remaining figures are selected from another packet of objects. 

FIG. 87. 


FIG. 88. (See Coloured Plate 8.) 

Fig. 88. Two " tidies " (from a packet of Embroidery 
Models *) show how the child's work may be made up into 
useful articles. 

When the child has sewn several cards he may be allowed 
to use different shades of the same colour, thus : The first 
line might be sewn in dark brown, the next in a lighter 
brown and the third in fawn. The child learns also which 
colours harmonise weh 1 together, as it is allowed to com- 
bine different colours on its designs, and we can scarcely 
conceive of a child, thus trained, wearing hideous contrasts 
of colour when it grows older, for it has learned in early life 
the proper combinations. As the child advances he may be 
allowed to choose the colours with which to work for himself. 

Inventive embroidery has already been mentioned, the 
children first making their own designs in drawing, and if 
the designs are coloured to match the wool or silk used the 
effect is very pretty (Fig. 84). Outlines of animals, flowers 
and other objects should also be given to the children to sew, 
and these again may form the subject of interesting conver- 
sations and may be used to illustrate Object, Natural History 
and other lessons as shown on page 18. Both animals and 
flowers should be sewn in colours natural to them. 

In this Occupation the results of the child's labour may 
be turned to good account. Various shapes of tidies and 
wall pockets may be worked (Fig. 88), and made up as 
presents for Mother or others at home. This is a source of 
great delight to the child, and trains him, also, in lessons of 
unselfishness and thoughtfulness for others. With a little 
care the child learns to button-hole the articles when 
embroidered, and can then make up its own work, an 
important means of training in habits of self-reliance and 
independence. The designs on these articles may be either 
plain or coloured. 

* See Appendix 8. 



I. Introductory. In some of the previous Gifts and 
Occupations, reference has been made to the utility of the 
work there introduced as a grounding for occupations which 
come later in life, but in none of these is the utility more 
marked than in paper-weaving. A boy, who had passed 
through the Infant school, and practised this occupation 
among others, acknowledged that it had been of great 
service to him when he entered the Textile school to learn 
designing in cloth. In the manufacturing districts of 
England, great numbers of the children, who pass through 
the Elementary schools, are employed in mills, where 
weaving is carried on, and if this occupation of Mat- 
weaving could be continued until the children had a 
thorough knowledge of its principles, how much intelligence 
might be brought to bear on the actual weaving, and how 
much more pleasure might the worker draw from labour 
that is often looked upon as so much mechanical drudgery ! 

Mat-weaving not only develops manual skill in both 
hands (for the left is used as well as the right), but it 
requires a considerable amount of intelligence to produce the 
combinations which make up the designs. It is a good 
training also in number, for the child cannot possibly weave 
unless he counts. The aesthetic nature of a child is also 
cultivated, for the patterns are pleasing to the eye ; the 
love of colour is gratified, and combination of colours tends 
further to strengthen the sense of harmony. 



2. Materials used. These are, first, the mat, which is &\ 
piece of cardboard or paper, cut into strips in the centre^ 
with a border left all round ; and there are also the loose! 
strips for inter- weaving. The strips of the mat are the 
warp, and those woven in are the weft. Before the lesson is I 
given the Teacher might say, " Look at your dress, you knowi 
what it is made of?" "It is made of cloth," say the 
children, " and the cloth is made of wool." " But how was- 
the wool made into the cloth ? It was drawn out and spun 
into long threads, and these were put in a machine called a 
loom, just as the strips of your mat lie before you on the 
table. Then the weaver came and took another thread, 
which was wound on a reel, and put in a shuttle " (show the* 
children a shuttle if possible), " and the weaver sent this 
thread, which is called the weft, in and out of the threads 
of the luarp, and wove the nice cloth which makes your 

Busy little weavers, 

Ready now are we, 
With our mats before us, 

Soon at work we'll be. 

First the (1) warp we'll show you, 

(2) These loose strips are weft, 
In and out we weave them, 

(3) With our fingers deft. 

(1) Hold up the mat. 

(2) Hold up strips. 

(3) Show both hands. 



The Demonstra- 
tion Frame * is a 
very useful inven- 
tion. It is so much 
larger than an or- 
dinary mat that it 
can be seen by a 
Large class, and the 
loose weaving 
" strips " (which are 
Laths of wood) can 
be easily passed in 
and out of the fixed 
vertical strips; the 
latter are made of 
worsted braid. 

FIG. 90. (See Coloured 
Plate 9.) 

The cardboard 
mat t is the best to 
learn with. The 
strips may be taken 
out again and again, 
and therefore all the 
easy steps (Fig. 93, 
No. 1, etc.) may be 
practised on the one 
mat 1 . Another great advantage is that no needle is required. 

Each child should have an envelope made of stout brown 
paper, with its name outside, in which to place the mat. 

Suppose each child to have the cardboard mat (Fig. 90), 
with loose strips, on the desk ready for working. The Teacher 

FIG. 89. 

See Appendix 9. 

t See Appendix 10. 



might say, " Take one of the strips in your right hand, put it 
behind the border, before the first strip, behind the next, 
before the third, and so on, until the other border is reached, 
when we again go behind ". If a Demonstration Frame is 
used, the Teacher would work with the children. 

The first row is accomplished with little or no difficulty, 
but in the next row, where we have to go not only be- 
hind the border again, but behind the first strip, the child 
is often puzzled, and the following method of illustration has 
been found very useful in teaching large classes of children. 

FIG. 92. 

Let four or half a dozen children, of equal height, stand in 
a row, a little distance apart, facing the class, with a taller 
child at each end of the row. The four children represent 
the strips of the mat, and the two taller ones stand for the 
borders. A length of tape is attached at one end, to the left 
shoulder of the first child (i.e., the child who represents the 
border on the right), and the other end is held by the child 


who is the weaver. Teacher says, " Now we will do the first 
row. Where will the ' weaver ' go ? " First behind the 
border, then before the next child, behind the next, before the 
next, and so on, until the left border is reached, when she 
again goes behind, and the tape is secured to the right 
shoulder of the last child. For the next row, the tape is 
fastened a little lower down, and the " weaver," beginning 
again, takes the other end of the tape in her hand, and passes 
this time not only behind the border but behind the first 
child, then, before the next, and so on, until the other side 
is reached, when the tape is secured as before. It will now 
be seen that the " borders " have no black tape in front of 
them, and that the children who had the black tape passed 
in front of them in the weaving of the first row, had it passed 
behind them in the second row, while those who had it be- 
hind in the first row, have it before in the second. However 
dull the child may be, it seldom fails to grasp the idea thus 
taught, and the second row of the mat is accomplished with- 
out much difficulty. Many teachers use the words " over " 
and "under" in teaching Mat- weaving, but "before" and 

behind " should be used in this illustration, and the writer 
has found it wise to continue their use in Mat-weaving as 
well, for " behind " generally means out of sight (to a child 
at any rate), and the end of the loose strip, when passing 
behind the strip of the mat, is out of sight. The third row 
is like the first. 

The strips should always be taken out of the cardboard mat 
by the Teacher. It is not wise to allow the children to do 
this for themselves, nor to do it when they are present, for it 
is discouraging to them to see their work destroyed. On the 
other hand, if paper mats were used, and the children 
were allowed to work a mat in each of the elementary steps, 
the cost would be very considerable in a class, say, of forty 
children. Moreover, the work is executed more quickly and 
easily with the cardboard strips, and as no needle is required, 


time is saved by not having this to thread. When the child 
has reached the key pattern, Fig. 91 (Coloured Plate 9), with 
the cardboard mat, a paper mat may be given to him, and he 
will learn the use of the needle, shown in Fig. 91 (Coloured 
Plate 9), and what it is made of, etc. 

The best needles are those that open with a spring ; the 
raised part is pressed slightly between the thumb and fore- 
finger of the left hand, until it opens wide enough to admit 
the end of the strip ; when the pressure is removed the 
spring closes, and secures the strip, which is th^n earned 
across the mat by the needle. When the left side is reached, 
the spring of the needle is again pressed to release the strip, 
which is then pushed carefully to its place. It is not by any 
means necessary for the child to weave every step, and 
great pains should be taken to give him clear ideas of the 
numbers used. To young children no pattern should be 
given that requires higher numbers than three ; and for 
children up to six years of age, patterns where the counting 
does not exceed five are sufficiently difficult. 

PIG. 93. (See Coloured Plate 10.) 

FIG. 94. (See Coloured Plate 10.) 

FIG. 95. (See Coloured Plate 11.) 

FIG. 96. (See Coloured Plate 12.) 

FIG. 97. (See Coloured Plate 12.) 

Fig. 94. The steps in Mat- weaving are shown in the 
illustrations ; the simplest, of course, is the " 1 and 1 " 
pattern shown in No. 1, then " 2 and 2 " follow, next com- 
binations of 1 and 2, and then higher numbers. 

When we come to the " step " patterns, No. 2, it will be 
seen that Frobel's law of " reconciliation of opposites " is ap- 
plied. First we have the steps sloping up to the right, then to 
the left, No. 2, and in No. 3 the two directions are combined. 

No. 4 shows broken steps. No. 5 contains patterns made 
by combining the formulas " 2 and 2 " and " 1 and 1 ". In 


FIG. 91. 

FIG. 90. 

FIG. 98 




No. 6 the patterns introduce " 3 and 3," combined with the 
smaller numbers. 

Fig. 95. In No. 8 we have the concentric and eccentric 
patterns. In working these two patterns, two strips may be 
put in the needle at the same time ; one strip being pushed to 
the top, and the other to the bottom. The last strip to be put in 
is the one in the centre of the pattern. The diamond patterns 
in No. 9 are the exact opposite of each other. In No. 10 we 
have the compound broken steps, and in Nos. 11 and 12 
more difficult patterns are shown. 

Fig. 96. In Nos. 13 and 14 the "law of opposites " is 
again seen, and also in No. 18. 

FIG. 98. (See Coloured Plate 9.) 

1. Pin-tray. 4. Spill-case. 

2. Needle-book. 5. Hair-tidy. 

3. Blotting-case. 6 and 7. Baskets. 

It is not wise to paste the children's work in a book ; it 
should be put to some practical use whenever possible. Fig. 
98 shows a few examples of how the mats may be utilised. 

No 1. An oblong or square mat pasted on cardboard, and 
turned up the width of the border all round, makes a pretty 

No. 2. The Needle-book is also made from the oblong 
mat, which in this case is folded exactly in half, the flannel 
for the needles being secured by a length of ribbon tied 

No. 3. The Blotting-case has two oblong mats ; these are 
button-holed and stitched together, and the blotting-paper is 
kept in its place by a length of ribbon tied round. 

No. 4. The Spill-case is made by joining together the two 
short sides of an oblong mat. The edges should overlap 
about half an inch. 

No. 5. The Hair-tidy is made from a square mat. Two 


of its sides are button-holed and sewn together as shown in 

Nos. 6 and 7. Baskets. In this case the paper is woven 
in and out of sticks, which make the framework of the 
basket. The cardboard pieces for these baskets can be 
purchased in packets.* The rim and bottom are connected 
by the sticks, the holes in the one part corresponding to 
those in the other. 

* See Appendix 6. 



I. Introductory. Paper is one of the most common and 
plentiful objects of daily use, and for this reason it is often 
wasted by children, but this tendency should be discouraged, 
for the child is to be taught that everything is of use, and 
that nothing should be wasted. 

What better could have been invented for this purpose 
than this wonderful Occupation, where the great Teacher 
shows us how a simple square of paper can be folded into 
hundreds of beautilul and attractive forms ! A child who 
had learnt to put a tiny piece of paper to such noble use as 
this would scarcely care to destroy and waste that which is 
so valuable and necessary in everyday life. Perhaps the 
Teacher would show some of these folded forms to the 
children before they commenced to work, and it would act 
as an incentive to the little fingers to try and produce similar 
pretty figures. 

2. Advantages of paper-folding. (a) This exercise is 
well calculated to develop the use of the fingers. Great 
delicacy of touch is required, also precision, exactness and 

(b) The child has the joy of feeling that he has produced 
something. Formerly the mother would fold objects for the 
child, but Frobel taught the children how to do it for them- 

(c) Paper-folding cultivates the child's sense of beauty, 
and strengthens his love of colour. 


(d) The simplicity of the material used is in itself a recom- 
mendation. Tools are not required, the little hands being all 
that is necessary. 

(e) The children learn the value and usefulness of paper. 
The Teacher might preface the lesson by saying, " Long ago, 
when people did not know how to make paper, they wrote 
upon the skins of animals that had been scraped and made 
smooth ; these were called parchment, and cost a good deal 
of money. Other people would write, or scratch on stone 
or wood. How funny it would be to have a note written 
on a chip of wood ! In those days the children would not 
have numbers of pretty picture books, as we have. We 
should be glad that we have paper for books, and parcels, 
and writing, etc., and we should take care not to waste or 
spoil it." 

3. Materials used. A piece of paper four inches square 
(obtained in packets of 100 *) should be given to each child. 
Paper glazed and coloured on one side only is best, and red 
is a good colour to start with. If the class is large, the 
Teacher should have a square four times the size of the 
children's, so that all can see it quite well. 

4. How to proceed. " Look at your piece of paper, what 
do you notice about it ? " " It is red on one side, and white 
on the other. The coloured side is more shiny than the 
other. The paper is smooth, and light, and thin, and it 
will bend. It has four sides all the same length, so it is 
square." "Measure these sides. They are each four inches 
long" (if the children are sufficiently advanced, they may be 
asked how many inch-squares are covered by the four-inch 
square of paper). " Hold the square by one corner and shake 
it. What do you hear?" "We hear a rustling sound." 
" What have you seen that is like the paper in shape ? " 
" A pocket-handkerchief, a window, etc." " Now place the 
square on the desk with one of its sides towards you, and 

See Appendix 11. 


the white face uppermost. Which is the right side ? Which 
is the left ? Which is the top ? Which is the bottom ? 
Take the bottom side, using both your hands, and fold it 
to the top. It must not overlap the top side, nor come short 
of it, but must just reach it." If the Teacher fastened her 
square of paper at the two upper corners to the blackboard, 
and then folded it, the children would be able to see exactly 
what was meant. The crease is made by passing the back 
of the thumb along the paper. 

FIG. 99. 

1. Book or Screen. 

2. Tunnel. 

3. Paper creased to show 

four squares. 

4. Table. 

5. Stool. 

6. Shawl. 

7. Tent. 

8. Paper creased in every 


No. 1. The first crease, made by folding the paper side 
to side, gives us a Book or Screen. 

No. 2. Place No. 1 downwards, so that the crease is at 
the top, and we have a Tunnel. 

No. 3. Now the paper is folded side to side in the 
opposite direction, and when it is opened out, we shall see' 


that the creases have divided it into four squares. (The 
creases are shown by lines in the illustrations.) 

No. 4. Next we take one side, and fold it exactly to the 
line which runs across the middle of the paper. The oppo- 
site side is then turned round towards us, and folded to the 
same line ; this opened out gives the Table. 

No. 5. Fold the two sides again to the centre, so as to 
make the oblong, and then, by folding the two short sides 
to the centre line, we make a smaller square, and this 
opened out is a Footstool. 

In No. 6 we see the square of paper folded from corner 
to corner (the Shawl). 

In No. 7 the Shawl opened out makes the Tent. 

No. 8. The square is now creased in every direction, and 
with it we proceed to make the foundation-form for 

objects, etc. 

FIG. 100. (See Coloured Plate 13.) 

No. 9 shows one corner folded to the centre ; this form 
may represent a sailing boat. 

In No. 10 we have the opposite corner folded to the 
centre (to do this the child should turn the boat, so that 
the top of the sail is nearest him). 

No. 11 shows the third corner folded to the centre, and 
gives us the open envelope. 

In No. 12 all the corners are folded to the centre, and we 
have the envelope closed. 

No. 13. Now turn the envelope over, so that the smooth 
side is uppermost, and fold one corner to the centre. 

No. 14. Fold the opposite corner to the centre. 

No. 15 is the open envelope, but of smaller size. 

In No. 16 all the corners are folded to the centre. 

No. 17. Turn No. 16 over, and we see four small squares. 

No. 18. Fold this from corner to corner, so that the four 
squares are inside, and we have the foundation-form for the 
" crown " and following figures. 

PLATE 13. 







66 67 



FIG. 101. 

19. Crown. 

20. Bed. 

21. Cradle. 

22. Trough. 

23. Cruet. 

24. Seed Vessel. 

25. Salt-cellar. 

26. Table and Cover. 

No. 19. Hold the foundation-form (No. 18, Fig. 100) in 
the left hand, and with the forefinger of the right hand lift 
up carefully from the inside the left little square. The form 
is then held in the right hand, and the opposite square is 
raised by the forefinger of left hand, and we have the Crown. 

No. 20. The Bed. This is made from the Crown by 
folding the points which stand up in the centre, outwards. 

No. 21. The Cradle. One of the little squares which were 
made to stand up is now folded down inside, exactly in 

In No. 22 both the little squares are folded down inside 
to make the Trough. 

No. 23. Make the original form (No. 17, Fig. 100), push 
the centre upwards, and then raise each square to make the 



No. 24. Push the centre of the Cruet downwards to make 
the Seed Vessel. 

No. 25. - The Salt-cellar is made from the Cruet by folding 
the loose corner of each little square to the opposite cornei 

No. 26. Table with cloth. Take No. 17, Fig.. 100, anc 
fold the point of each little square to its opposite corne} 
outwards, then turn it over so that the four squares arc 
below. Now fold each point of the form to the centre 
these are the four points on which the table stands, and thci 
Table-cloth is formed by the small squares. 

FIG. 102. Windmill form. 

27 to 30. 

31. Table-cloth. 

32. Kite. 

33. Windmill. 

Preparation of form. 

34. Claw. 

35. Double Boat. 

36. Duck. 

1^ No. 27 we see the paper folded exactly as it was in No. 
12, but instead of turning the form over and folding the 


points to the centre of the smooth side, we keep it with the 
smooth side downwards. 

No. 28 shows one point folded to the centre. 

No. 29 shows all the points folded to the centre. 

No. 30. Turn No. 29 over, and we see an unbroken surface, 
nstead of the four small squares. 

No. 31 shows the four corners dra\vn out to make a 

No. 32. The Kite has one corner drawn out. 

No. 33. The Windmill has all the four corners drawn out. 

No. 34. By folding together three arms of the Windmill 
n one direction, and one in the other, we make the Claw. 

No. 35. Fold one of the three points of the Claw backward 
until it is in a line with the hind Claw, and turn it upside 
lown for the Double Bpat. 

No. 36. Turn the Claw (No. 34) upside down. Eaise the 
centre point of the three until it makes a right angle with the 
aind Claw, and then fold it over outwards for the Duck's 
Head. The points on each side the " head " are folded back 
ior the " feet ". 

Suppose the "Table and Cover," "Cruet," and "Salt- 
cellar " to have been made by three different groups re- 
spectively, the following lines would be appropriate : 

Come to dinner, children dear, 
Ready stands the Table here, 
With its Cover clean and white ; 
Surely 'tis a welcome sight. 

You a Salt-cellar have made, 
Knives and forks will soon be laid, 
Cruets, dishes, plates as well, 
Now I think we'll ring the bell. 



FIG. 103. 

The open box (No. 43) is so useful for holding beads, shells, 
etc., that it is worth while to illustrate fully the method of 
making it. The box shown here and again in Fig. 79, Bead 
Work, is made from a piece of stout paper, eight inches 

No. 37. First fold the four corners to the centre. 

No. 38. Then without turning the form over, fold every 
corner to the centre again, as in the form (No. 29, Fig. 
102) from which the " windmill " figures are made. 

No. 39. The next step is to fold every corner to the 
centre again, without turning the form over. 



No. 40 shows the square half opened. 

In No. 41 the folded sides are turned up half way to form 
vo of the sides of the box. 

No. 42 shows one of the open ends turned over. 

In No. 43, the complete box, the other end is turned over, 
id the four corners of the paper lie together in the bottom 

the box. 

FIG. 104. 

44. Foundation-form. 

45. Pig. 

46. Double Trough. 

47. Corner Cupboard. 

48. Sofa. 

49. Sail Boat. 

50. Arch. 

51. Form. 

No. 44. The Foundation-form for the figures of 104 is 
tained in the same way as the Stool, No. 5, Fig. 99. When 
>ened out it shows the square divided into sixteen smaller 

No. 45. The Pig. Fold the two opposite sides to the 
ntre, then turn the paper over, so that the smooth side, 
lich shows an oblong shape four inches by two, is upper- 
ost. Fold in halves lengthwise, and then fold the corners 
.ckward and downward to form the legs. 



No. 46. The Double Trough is made from the precedin 
figure turned upside down. 

No. 47. In the Corner Cupboard the opposite sides ai 
folded to the centre, the corners are folded over each othe 
and then turned in to form the top and bottom of the cuj 

No. 48. The back of the Sofa is double, and the arms ai 
formed by folding the outside square of each side bad 
ward diagonally. 

No. 49. To make the Boat cut the foundation-form i 
halves, and then fold it into four, lengthwise, and into eigh 
crosswise, so that it shows thirty-two squares. 

No. 50. The Archway is the boat turned upside down. 

No. 51. The Form is made from the Arch. The centi 
ridge of the Arch is flattened and forms the seat, and the t\v 
squares on each side of the central ridge are folded over th 
latter, so that their edges meet in the middle. 

FORMS OF BEAUTY. FIG. 105. (See Coloured Plate 14.) 

This figure shows eight simple forms combined so as 1 
make a pretty pattern. No. 10 in Fig. 100 is the form usec 

The two opposite corners are folded to the centre. Fou 
of these forms are then put together to make a cross, aq 
four others are placed in the four angles of the cross. Eacj 
child might make two of these forms, and then combine h< 
work with that of three others to make the figure illustrated 

FIG. 106. (See Coloured Plate 14.) 

Here again we have simple forms combined. In tr 
former figure opposite corners were folded to the centr>| 
here the two contiguous sides are folded to the centre creaw 

FIG. 107. (See Coloured Plate 13.) 

All these figures are folded from the simple foundation 
form, the closed envelope, No. 12, Fig. 100. In No. 53 tj 

PLATE 14. 

FIG. 1O5, 

FIG. 103. 


ur corners are turned backward. In No. 54 they are turned 
wards the centre. The figures are evolved from each other, 
o. 59 is the opposite of No. 58, and so on. Nos. 66 and 67 
ow only two sides folded. The Forms of Beauty which can 

produced from the square of paper are endless. 
In addition to the foundation-form illustrated above, Nos. 

and 17 in Fig. 100, and Nos. 38 and 39 in Fig. 103, may 
be used as foundation-forms, and worked into figures 
merous and beautiful. One student alone made over 300 
these Forms of Beauty. 



I. Introductory. Some have objected to this Occupatior 
on the ground that scissors are not suitable instruments foi 
a little child. But we all know how very eagerly the little 
ones occupy themselves in using them, whenever they gel 
the chance, and how often valuable things have been de- 
stroyed by then- misguided use. This Occupation is anofchei 
instance of Frobel's genius for observing a child's natural 
inclination, and directing it into the right channel. Ij 
the child does possess an inborn desire for cutting and 
shaping, is it not much better to teach it to do this according 
to fixed laws, which produce beautiful forms, than to let it 
waste time and energy in destroying material and making as 
untidy Utter ? 

2. Cutting as a preparation for later work: It '4 
very helpful to later work in school life, if the child learnfl 
how to use a pair of scissors rightly, so that he or she knowf; 
how to cut smoothly and correctly. Any one who has hai 
experience in teaching older girls " cutting out " will kno^rt 
how clumsily and timidly they handle a pair of scissors, an 
what uneven, jagged edges are produced. The same is truij 
of classes for dressmaking. In paper-cutting the plane SUM 
face is again dealt with, but in this case it is divided and re 
constructed in a different form. Here again is a lesson in 
economy, for every piece is used. This Occupation is nqj 
suitable for large classes, as will be seen from the material! 


3. Materials used. (a) Square of Paper, which has 
already been described in the previous chapter. 

(b) Scissors. These should be blunt at the ends of the 
)lades. There should be a conversation about different 
dnds of scissors and their uses. The largest are called 
shears, these are used for shearing sheep, etc. Then there are 
Lressmakers' and tailors' scissors, and others, which are used 
>nly for button-holes, and have a little piece cut out of each 
)lade. Let the children see as many different specimens as 
possible, and speak about the Scissors-grinder, and the round 
stone on which he grinds. 

(c) Gum. The unprepared gum should be shown to the 
shildren, and they will be interested to know that these 
>retty, yellow balls are the juice of a tree, which grows in 
lot countries far away. The gum oozes out of the tree, and 
s found on the bark. Before we can use it, we must pour 

water over it, and let it stand all night. 

(d) The Brush. This should be made of camel's hair, and 
an interesting conversation would ensue about the camel. 

4. How to proceed. The first square given should be 
'olded exactly in halves by the child, and carefully creased ; 
then he cuts carefully along the crease, and two oblongs are 
)roduced. These again are each folded in halves, and cut. 
When this is done the Teacher asks, " How many pieces 
lave you now ? " " We have four." " What shape are 
they ? Put one of the squares on your table, and see how 
nany of the little squares are covered by it." " Four are 
severed." " Fold each square in halves and cut again." The 
jhild has now produced eight oblongs. Each of these is 
igain folded in halves, and cut, and the child finds that he 
las sixteen one-inch squares. Let him take a four-inch 
square of paper, and place the small -squares upon it, he will 
ihus learn that it contains sixteen square inches. The 
small squares of paper may be threaded through the middle, 
>n to a piece of string, with beads, or bits of straw between 


(the latter should be one inch long). Or the four-inch! 
square of paper may be cut into oblong strips, and these^ 
again may have the ends gummed together to form links in 
a chain, each succeeding strip being passed through the lasij 
link, before its two ends are fastened together. 

FIG. 108. (See Coloured Plate 15.) 

To prepare the ground form for all the figures shown, 
proceed as follows : 

No. 1. The paper (four inches square) is folded fronc 
corner to corner. 

No. 2. The corner marked b in No. 1 is folded over tc 
the corner marked a. The paper is now four-fold. 

No. 3. The corner marked d in No. 2 is folded ovei 
to the corner marked c. The square of paper is now 
eight-fold, and the closed end is towards the right. 

N.B. The ground form No. 3 should be held in the lefi! 
hand, with closed side towards the right, for cutting. 

No. 4. The ground form is creased as shown by the 
lines in No. 4 a. It is then cut exactly in halves, and we 
get a small square and four triangles, which are arranged 
to form a pattern No. 4. 

No. 5. Hold the ground form with the closed end towards 
the right, and cut as shown in No. 5 a. This gives ar 
octagon and four smaller triangles. 

No. 6. This cut is the opposite of No. 5, and being taker 
from the closed side, gives us a small square, while the 
larger square shows a hollow centre. 

No. 7 is a combination of Nos. 5 and 6. 

No. 8. Here we have two cuts, both on the closed side o 
the form. In every figure illustrated, the ground form 
held with the closed side to the right, and the open corner? 
to the left, and in every cut the paper is eight-fold, 

PLATE 15. 





FIG. 109. 

No. 9. In No. 9 the eight-fold ground form (No. 3, Fig. 
108) is creased horizontally, and cut on the middle crease as 
shown. This gives a pretty cross and four triangles ; the 
latter may be arranged according to fancy in the angles 
formed by the cross. 

No. 10 has two cuts, one on the centre crease, and the 
next half way between the centre crease and the base line. 
As the result of these cuts, we have a cross, four small 
triangles, and four L-shaped pieces, all of which may be 
combined to make a pretty design. 

The vertical and horizontal cuts may be combined in a 
variety of ways which are not shown here, 


Cutting" out. The remaining illustrations show pieces 
cut out of the ground form, which is now creased in both 

No. 11. Hold the ground form with the closed side towards 
the right, and cut through its eight folds as shown. We get 
four tiny squares of paper, and the large square shows four 
hollow squares. 

No. 12. The same cut is now taken on the opposite side, 
i.e., from the open side of the ground form, and this gives a 
very pretty centre piece, and eight small triangles, which 
may be arranged round the centre piece. 

No. 13 combines the cuts of the two previous figures, and 
provides material for a more elaborate design. 

No. 14 is cut from the top, and gives a prettily shaped 
centre piece, and four irregular pieces resembling a crown inj 



I. Introductory. This Occupation brings us back again to 
the form with which we started, viz., the Sphere, and the 
line is combined with it to make objects. We have had solid 
figures, followed by the plane, then by the outline of the 
plane- lines, and next by the point. Now we have the outline 
of the solid figure represented, and the child is thus enabled 
to see the construction of forms, which is a great help in 
model, and other kinds of drawing. Moreover, the forms 
have this great advantage, that they are made by the child 

2. Materials used. The original materials were peas, 
softened by being soaked in water, and sticks, considerably 
thinner than those used for stick-laying. If the latter kind is 
used, each stick must be sharpened, or it will split the pea. 

Wires and corks can be used if preferred. Each cork is 
in the shape of a tiny cylinder, and the wires, which are 
pointed, are about the thickness of a hair-pin, and may be 
obtained in five different lengths. The drawbacks to the use 
of these materials are that the corks cost more than the peas, 
and soon break with the frequent perforations ; the wires 
bend, and the objects are not so pretty as those formed by 
peas and sticks. The latter materials are used in these illus- 
trations. The peas should be soaked for twelve hours and 
then dried for one hour. The teacher will talk to the little 
ones about the peas, and show them the pod where the peas 

170 PEA WORK. 

lie so snugly all in a row. They will remember other kinds 
of seeds that grow in pods, such as haricot, French and 
broad beans, also the cotton seeds. Let each child examine 
a pea, and find the growing point, or " eye," as they will per- 
haps call it, also the " ring " round the pea. If we open the 
pea along this ring, we shall find that it is made up of two 
halves, and the "eye " will now be more clearly seen. The 
teacher would perhaps let her pupils plant a few of the 
soaked peas, so that they might see how the root shoots 
downward from the " eye," or growing-point, and how the 
stem shoots upwards. 

If the finer sticks are used the children may break them 
into the required length, measuring it on the Kindergarten 

3. How to proceed. We will suppose that each child 
has four sticks two inches in length and four peas. Teacher 
says: " Take up one pea in your left hand, and a stick in 
your right, and push the end of the stick gently into the pea. 
Be careful not to put the stick near the ' ring ' of the pea, or 
it will split in two. Now take another pea and put it on the 
other end of the stick. This looks like something that you 
drill with." "It is like a dumb-bell." " Another dumb- 
bell is made in the same way, and now we have two alike 
a pair of dumb-bells. What else can you think of that go in 
pairs ? " "A pair of hands, feet, shoes, gloves, etc." Two 
children may place their dumb-bells together, and see that 
two pairs make four, or three pairs may be put together to 
make six, and so on. "You have now used all your peas, 
but there are two sticks left. Lay the dumb-bells on the 
table two inches apart. Take the two remaining sticks and 
place them between to form a square. They must be put in 
very carefully so as not to break the peas." The various 
angles can be made with this Gift, also all the geometrical 
figures that have previously been shown. 



FIG. 110. 

1. Square. 

2. Oblong. 

3. Square with four tri- 


4. Cube. 

5. Square Prism. 

6. Triangular Prism. 

7. Pyramid. 

8. Hexagonal Prism. 

9. House. 

10. Octagonal Prism and 



I. Introductory. Those who remember the childish 
delight of handling a piece of dough, putty, or clay, in by- 
gone days will understand why Frobel places this amongst 
his Occupations. Children love to shape and mould, and 
are never happier than when they can indulge this inclina- 
tion. They will even bite their bread into shapes when 
eating, so strong is this innate desire for producing forms. 

2. Materials used. Some prefer ordinary white clay* 
and others the terra-cotta clay.* Both these have to be kept 
moist. Another material is plastiline.* It is much more 
expensive than clay, but it has the advantage of cleanliness, 
and where large classes are taught this is a consideration, 
as it takes some time for a class of forty or fifty children to 
wash their hands, which must be done after an ordinary clay 
lesson. The plastiline can be used again and again, and 
unless it is made too soft by being kept in the warm hands 
for a long time, no portion of it adheres either to the hands 
or the table. The table or desk should be covered with a 
piece of oilcloth, and modelling knives of wood should be 

3. How the lesson is given. The ball is the first 
object made, and after this is done the children learn to 
estimate quantity, thus : Divide the clay into two equal 
halves, let these be made into balls, and then the children 

* See Appendix 12. 



will be able to see if they have divided it equally. Then 
divide these two balls into halves again, and roll each into 
a little ball ; see that they are all of similar size. Now 
make the large ball again, and try to take a quarter away, 
i.e., one fourth part. It is necessary to teach this, because 
in modelling objects, such as the kettle, e.g., a proportion 
must be taken away for handle and spout. 

1. Apple. 

2. Orange. 

3. Potato. 

4. Egg. 

5. Walnut. 

6. Brazil Nut. 

FIG. 111. 

7. Pear. 

8. Nest. 

9. Cottage Loaf. 

10. Mallet. 

11. Hat. 

12. Boat. 

The above have been taken from the A. L. Box of 
Models.* The apple and orange, Nos. 1 and 2, are made 
from the Sphere. The potato, egg, etc., are made from 
the elongated sphere. To make the nest, No. 8, first form 
a sphere, and then press the thumbs in to make the hollow ; 
roll small pieces of clay for the eggs. For the Cottage 
Loaf (No. 9) two spheres are needed, the larger one is 
flattened for the lower part of the loaf, and the smaller one 

* See Appendix 13 



is pricked with a pencil to make the hole at the top. The 
mallet, No. 10, is made from two cylinders. The hat, No. 
11, has a cylinder placed on a round flat piece of clay. The 
latter is turned up at the sides. The boat, No. 12, is too 
difficult for very young children, but it is worth while to 
attempt it for the purpose of impressing the fact that the 
sharp end is the bow, and the broad end the stern ; a fact 
which the children will remember much more readily if they 
are allowed to fashion these parts of the boat with their own 
little hands, no matter how clumsily this may be done. As 
we have said before, the aim of the Kindergarten is not to 
obtain perfect work from the children, but to develop their 

FIG. 112. 

Models made by Children. 

1. Cylinder. 8. Ammonite. 

2. Cherries. 9. Hat. 
3 - A PP le - 10. Cup. 
* Pear. 11. Nest. 

5. Lemon. 12. Nest with Bird. 

6. Cottage Loaf. 13. Shoe. 

7- Chain. 14. Horse-shoe. 

Nos. 2, 3 and 4. The stalks of these are made by insert- 
ing a short length of stick. Little pieces of twig answer the 
purpose even better if they can be obtained. 


No. 7. The chain is a favourite model with children. 
First the clay is divided into equal parts. If a chain of four 
links is desired, divide the clay into four equal parts, roll each 
into a little ball, and from this make the long cylinder. The 
four cylinders should be equal in length. Take one, and join 
the two ends together ; this is the first link. The second 
cylinder is passed through the first link, then the two ends 
are joined together. The remaining links are made in the 
same way. 

No. 8 is easily made by first rolling the clay into a long 
cylindrical shape and then winding it round and round. A 
fossilised ammonite served as model for this figure. 

No. 10. The cup is made from a cylinder, the thumb 
being pressed in to form the hollow part. 

No. 11. The nest is made from the ball. Press the 
thumbs in to make it hollow, and when the correct shape is 
obtained mark it outside with the point of a slate pencil to 
roughen the surface. 

No. 12. The second nest is made differently. Two long 
cylindrical pieces are twisted together, and then the bottom 
of the nest is fashioned in the same way as the centre of the 
ammonite, No. 8, and the sides are made to slope outwards 
as shown in the illustration. 

No. 14. A long cylinder is first made, and then flattened 
for the horse-shoe, the " nails " being put in afterwards. 



I. Introductory. Any one who has noticed with what 
interest and delight children dig in the sand on the sea-shore, 
and pile up then* miniature castles and forts, will under- 
stand how eagerly Sand is welcomed as a School Occupation. 
A good-sized box full of sand, and a piece of oilcloth about 
a yard square, are all we require. If it is not convenient 
to obtain sand from the sea- shore, Calais sand can be pur- 
chased from the chemist, or the ordinary sand can be ob- 
tained * in bags. 

2. How the lesson is given. The sand should be 
damped before it is used. There are two ways in which 
sand lessons may be given : (1) the Teacher may mould the 
sand, the children looking on, or (2) each child may have a 
small quantity given to it and mould for itself. Examples 
will be given of both methods. 

(i) Sand Models by Teacher only. The oilcloth is 
spread on the floor or on a large, low table, so that all may 
see ; then the sand is turned out of the box, having first been 
damped. Teacher asks : " Why do we mix a little water 
with the sand ? " "So that we can make the shape we 
want." " What is the sand made up of ? " " It is made up 
of tiny grains." " What else do you know that is formed 
of grains?" "Sugar, rice, etc." "What can we do with 
these things something that can be done with water ? " 

* See Appendix 14. 


" We can pour them." " Why ? " " Because they are in 
little grains." "What colour is the sand? How does it 
look when the sun shines on it?" "It looks shiny." 
" What can be done to the sand ? " " We can dig in it, can 
pile it up, make a hole in it, or make pies, houses, etc." 

(a) A Farmyard. " Suppose we make a farmyard, what 
shall we want first?" "A wall all round." "We must 
leave a place for the gate. In the centre we will make a 
trough, so that all the animals may drink. What animals 
do we see in the farmyard? " " We see cows, hens, pigs, 
horses, ducks, etc." In one corner we will make a hen- 
house, and in another a barn. These are made by the 
3acher as the conversation goes on. To make the farmyard 
omplete, models of the animals mentioned should be brought 

(b) A Field. A Field is made by enclosing a larger space, 
hen the wall is made the Teacher asks : " What might we 

ave round the field instead of a wall?" "We might have 
hedge or a fence." " What flowers might be growing in 

e field?" " Buttercups, daisies, etc." "What have you 
jen in the field eating grass?" "Sheep, cows, horses." 

these can be put in the field it becomes much more real 

the children. 

(c) A Garden (Fig. 113, Coloured Plate 16). In Summer- 
me a Garden makes an excellent model. The beds may be 
ade of different shapes, with paths all round. When real 
>wers are stuck in these beds, the garden is complete, and 
akes quite a pretty picture. The flowers should be such as 
e found in a garden ; the children thus learn to distinguish 
tween " field," or wild flowers, and " garden " flowers. 

(d) A Pond. A ridge of sand, circular shape, represents 
e bank of the pond. A soup plate full of water may be 
t in the centre with a few ducks, swans, fishes, etc. (which 
n be purchased at one penny each), swimming in the water, 
lis is the children's favourite sand lesson, and it affords 



scope for much interesting conversation, e.g., "What migh 
we have in the pond besides ducks, swans, etc. ? Why ca; 
ducks swim? " " Because they have webbed feet." " Wh 
cannot hens swim?" "They have no skin between thei 
toes." Let the children see a duck's foot, also a hen's. 

(e) A Boat. " To-day we are going to make somethin 
that goes on the water. What do you think it is?" "] 
is a boat." If there is a toy boat in school, let the childre 
see it ; ask what they notice about the ends of the boat on 
is sharp, the other is square or rounded. " Why is one en 
sharp?" "It has to cut through the water." "That i 
called the bow. Which part of the boat goes first 
Why? The other end is called the stern." In making th 
boat with sand, the two ends should be clearly defined. I 
the case of young children, the conversation should be ver 
simple, but older ones may be asked: "What other kind 
of boats are there? What makes them go? Where d 
they go ? " etc. 

(/) Other objects may be made, such as steps (by formin 
the sand first into a solid block and cutting it with a lath; 
a river, or stream ; a road with causeway, and tram linei 
formed by two rows of laths. An easy chair, a hut, a couc 
or sofa, a trough, a tub, a well, a bath, a pail (with a length c 
bent wire for a handle), may be made and many other things 
Whatever the model is, the making of it should always b 
accompanied by a pleasant conversation led by the Teacher < 

(2) Sand Models by Children. Each child should hav 
a square of oilcloth, or, better still, each desk should b 
covered with oilcloth. The cost is not great, and the oL 
cloth lasts a number of years. Then the Teacher, havin 
first made the sand damp, gives a little scoopful to eac< 
child. Many of the objects made before by the Teacher mai 
now be repeated by the children themselves. A bird's nesi 
a bed, and many other things can also be made. Loave 
and cakes are favourite objects, and pies, which may b 


shaped either with the hand or with a mug. If the children 
use the little patty tins for Bead Work, the tins may be used 
to shape the pies, and the children will enjoy a little game in 
which they sell pies. 

Directions for playing the game : 

Take a large slate and cover it with oilcloth. Get a 
number of wooden lids from the Kindergarten Gifts. Let 
the children turn their pies on to the lids. Take as many of 
these as will fill the slate, and give the latter to the " Pieman," 
a little boy who walks about the room, and calls : 

Man. Hot pies, fresh pies, come and buy. 
Chil. There's the pieman, hear his cry ! 

Pieman stops in front of one of the children, and says : 

Man. This pork pie for sixpence take, 
And a bargain you will make. 

Child takes it and gives money, or pretends to do so. 
'he ''Pieman " then calls again, " Hot pies, etc.," until all are 

3. Drawing Letters in Sand. Spread the sand 
venly over the oilcloth and then draw the letter with a stick. 

If the children have been taught letters by means of the 
etter stories, the Teacher would refer to these in tracing the 
itters, e.g., " You remember the name of the little boy who 
ras glad to go to school?" The children at once reply, 

Ibby," or " Isaac ". The letter " i " is then drawn, and 
le Teacher asks again, " What was the name of his sister? " 
nd when this has been given makes "1" and so on until the 
jetter Story is finished. The children may also make the 
jtters themselves. 

4. Drawing Forms in Sand. The circle, oval, square, 
blong, and many other forms may be traced in sand, and 
lis makes a pleasant change from the shapes in wood, which 
:e found in the form and colour box. Other figures may be 
rawn, such as a chair, a bed, a sofa, etc. 



FIG. 114. 

I. Introductory. Cane-weaving is essentially an Occupa 
tion for training the hand and eye. It teaches the fingers t 
be deft and nimble, and gratifies the child's love of invention 
for the basket may be moulded to any shape that is desired. 

Another great advantage of this Occupation is that thi 
child may learn to produce by its own effort, from ra~v 
material, an object at once beautiful and useful, and thoa 
who have taught basket-making to children know hot 
delighted they are to carry home to mother the " work " a 
" egg " basket made by their own little hands. 

There is hardly any occupation more attractive to the littl 
ones than basket-making, and it may, with advantage, b 
continued in the upper schools by older children. Tb 
baskets can always be sold for as much as the cane costs 


2. Material used. Cane is the only material needed, 

ind an interesting conversation about it should precede the 

Lesson. Show the children a length of cane, and ask, " Where 

lo you think this came from? " They will probably answer, 

;< It grew ". The Teacher would then continue, " Cane grows 

in a warm country over the sea called South America. What 

her things do we get from over the sea ? " " Coffee, tea, 

ce, etc." " The cane grows in lengths, perhaps as long as 

ie schoolroom (sixty feet), and it is much thicker than the 

eces you see here. The thick cane is stripped of its bark 

id then cut into long square pieces, which are after- 

ards passed through a machine to be made round. 

.ovf is the cane different from the little sticks (Gift X.)? " 

It will bend." " That is why we use it to make the basket, 

r you know that we cannot weave without bending the 

aterial backwards and forwards." (Show the children a 

isket.) " You will notice that the cane is not all of the same 

dckness. The foundation on which we work is made of 

icker cane, and the fine is used to weave with." The 

me should be soaked in cold water for two hours before 

sing used. 

Baskets for flowers, 

And work we have here ; 
Which shall we make for 

Our mother so dear ? 

Long lengths of fine cane 

For weaving we take, 
In and out winding, 

A nice shape to make. 


FIG. 115. FIG. 116. 

3. How to proceed. Take eight lengths of stout cane,* 
about eight inches long, lay four in one direction, and four 
in the other. Hold them firmly at the point where they 
cross. Then take a length of fine weaving cane, and bind 
them together in the manner shown by Fig. 115. Commence 
to weave, going over the first, under the second, and so on, 
until we reach the point from which we started. In the 
second row two of the spokes are worked together, so as to 
make the odd number, and this is continued for several 
rounds, then one of the two spokes is cut off, see Fig. 116, 
which shows where the spoke has been severed. We have 
now fifteen spokes to work with. 

If the children have mastered the " 1 and 1 " pattern of 
Mat-weaving, Fig. 90, there will be no difficulty in teaching 
them to weave baskets, but supposing that this is their first I 
experience in weaving, they will invariably get the cane 
before and behind the same spokes, row after row, instead I 
of alternating these movements. As in Mat- weaving, we j 

* See Appendix 15. 


will use the words " before " and " behind," believing that 
they convey a clearer meaning to the child's mind than 

over " and " under ". What we want to make the child 
understand is this that if the weaving cane was carried 
behind a spoke in one row, it must be carried before that 
spoke in the next row. The following method answers 
admirably in giving a clear idea as to how this should be 

Let thirteen children form a ring, kneeling, and facing 
outwards ; the same principle is illustrated similarly in Mat- 
weaving, Fig. 92, where the children stand in a row. 

Take a ball of string, or tape, and let one of the kneeling 
children hold the end firmly in his left hand ; the Teacher 
or one of the children is to be the " weaver," unwinding the 
ball as she goes ; the tape is carried behind the first child (i.e., 
behind the child who kneels to the left of the one holding 
the string), before the second, behind the third, and so on, 
until the starting-point is reached, when the Teacher will say, 
" Now notice where the tape goes ". The children will see 
that every child in the ring, who had the tape passed 
before him in the first row, has it passed behind him in the 
second. If the weaving is continued for another row, it will 
be seen that the third row is like the first. Suppose the 
" weaver " should pass the string behind two spokes instead 
of one, the basket would be wrong at once. It has been 
found in this demonstration, as in the one which illustrates 
Mat- weaving, that if the children once grasp the idea con- 
veyed by .this method, they have no difficulty in weaving 

In the actual weaving, the cane is to be carried before 
and behind the spokes, just as the tape was carried before 
and behind the children. 

When children are learning to weave, it is well to give 
them a mat with a few rows woven to commence with ; 
they may learn to begin for themselves later. 



FIG. 117. 

This figure shows how the end of the fine weaving cane 
is pushed down the side of the spoke to finish it off, and how 
the new length of cane is pushed down the opposite side of 
the same spoke. 

The same illustration shows how the spoke is bent over, 
and pushed alongside the next spoke but one, to finish the 



FIG. 118. 

No. 1. Mat. This should be the first object attempted by 
the child. 

No. 2. In No. 2 we see how the spokes are turned up to 
make the sides of the basket. First we turn up every spoke 
which the cane passes behind. We have now turned up 
alternate spokes all the way round. In the next row we 
pass behind the remaining spokes, i.e., the ones that are still 
lying down, and each of these is bent upwards as we come 
to it. 

No. 3. The Clothes-basket has the spokes pushed quite 
down at the finish, so that the edge may be very firm. 

No. 4. The Fan is simply a mat with a strong piece of 
cane for handle. A useful little book on cane-weaving has 
recently been published.* 

* See Appendix 16. 




Bible lessons. Apart from the higher significance of Bible 
teaching no person can be said to be well educated without 
a knowledge of Bible history, and in the hands of a wise 
teacher imbued with its spirit, it may be made potent in the 
formation of right principles. Frobel intends all his teach- 
ing to lead up to goodness God. " Teach the children," 
he says, "to love the beautiful, and it will help them to 
love the good," for goodness is always beautiful, and evil 
is wwbeautiful. Beauty is completeness, but wrong-doing 
misses the mark, and is, therefore, incomplete. In the 
Bible we get the one complete, and therefore beautiful char- 
acter, and, studying it, we see the highest and best. The 
heart of a little child is like plastic clay, and to mould it 
after a pattern of beauty is the highest art. To lead the 
child to look up to God as a loving Father who cares for all, 
and especially for the little ones, just as a shepherd cares 
most for his lambs, is the right attitude of mind to encourage 
in a child. To speak of Him as some terrible Power, chiefly 
employed in meting out punishment to evil-doers, is at once 
untrue and unjust. How often we hear mothers say to their 
children, " If you are not good, God will not love you ". 
What a cruel libel! If we grown-up people were loved 
solely for our goodness, we should get far less love than do 


the children. But the love of God is Infinite, and we are 
loved in spite of our wrong-doing. Teach the children by 
all means that wrong-doing displeases God, and that it is 
ungrateful to displease One who is so good to us. 

In every school the first morning exercise should be an act of 
worship, and this may always be used to raise the children's 
thoughts to goodness and God. The Teacher might begin in 
some such way as this, e.g. (if it is a sunny morning) : " How 
bright and warm the sunshine is ! How glad it makes us 
feel ! Who made the glorious sun ? What else has God 
made that gives us joy? " " The birds to sing, the trees to 
shelter us and look beautiful, the bright pretty flowers, the 
kind mother to wash and dress us, and the father to work 
for us." After all these have been elicited from the children, 
Teacher says, " I am sure you would like to sing a hymn of 
thanks to God, would you not ? " or the conversation may 
be used to introduce some such prayer as the following : 
" We thank Thee, O God our Father, for all Thy love. We 
thank Thee for the sunshine and the flowers, for our father 
and our mother. We thank Thee for our clothes and food, 
but we thank Thee most because Thou dost love us, and 
didst send Thy Son to be our Saviour. Help us to live like 
Him, for Christ's sake. Amen." Then follows the Bible or 
moral lesson- events in the life of Christ, simply told how 
He blessed the children, raised the daughter of Jairus, 
healed the lunatic child, or gave sight to the blind ; all these 
are- intensely interesting to children, and need no further 
application than this : " We cannot cure blind people, but 
we can do other kind things, and if we only give a cup of 
cold water to some one who is thirsty, that pleases God. 
We do not find Christ giving long applications ; He tells the 
story, as in the ' Good Samaritan,' and then says, ' Go thou 
and do likewise '." There are many Bible stories that would 
not be understood by, and are, therefore, not suitable for, 
children of tender years. In relating incidents of history, 


the aim should be to emphasise the struggle of right and its 
ultimate victory. The horrors of war and bloodshed should 
never be dwelt upon. In the story of David and Goliath, 
emphasise the fact that Goliath was a great tyrant, that he 
defied the armies of the living God, and that David by con- 
quering him released the Israelites from serving the Philis- 
tines. It is not at all necessary to tell the children that 
David cut off the giant's head, the sling and stone are quite 
sumcient. As is remarked in the chapter on Stories, the 
children learn only too soon to like tales of cruelty. Perhaps 
it may be objected that children must know sometime, why 
not now ? To which we reply, Let the child's unconscious 
innocence remain as long as it may. It is to him what the 
bloom is to the peach, and a rude hand may soon destroy it. 
Let us take care not to destroy it before its time. 

It is essential that lessons should be given on such sub- 
jects as truthfulness, honesty, generosity, etc., and these 
should be fully illustrated by anecdotes, such as might occur 
in the everyday life of the child. Manners also should re- 
ceive special attention. It is not too much to give one lesson 
a week to this subject. Each particular point may be made 
interesting by the relation of facts which have come under the 
teacher's own notice, e.g., " I was at a railway station one 
day, for I wanted to go by train. Just as I was going to buy 
my ticket, a big rough boy pushed in front of me, and I had 
to step back. He was in such a hurry to get his ticket that 
he did not mind how any one else managed. What kind of 
a boy was that?" " He was a rude boy." "Why?" 
"Because he pushed in front of you." We must always 
remember, then, that it is rude to push in front of people. 

Many other similar illustrations will suggest themselves. 



I. Introductory. Frobel did not introduce reading until 
the children had passed through the Kindergarten, and had 
reached the age of seven years. As, however, Reading is part 
of the curriculum of our English schools, long before the 
children reach the age of seven, and as also it can be taught 
by means of stories, and made as interesting as any other 
" play," it is given here, and the writer has found that 
children taught on this system take as much pleasure in 
sounding and finding out words as they do in making de- 
signs in drawing. Where reading is so taught as to have 
this effect on the children it must be a means of self-develop- 
ment, and Frobel himself would hardly be willing to deprive 
the child of an occupation that proved so fascinating. 

2. How should Reading be taught ? Most teachers 
would say, '" Let the alphabet be taught first," yet few 
proceed to the learning of words by the old method of 

Unfortunately the learning of the alphabet, as it stands, 
does not convey to the child the true powers of the letters as 
we find them in the very simplest words. Take b, a, g, bag, 
e.g., here b does not sound bee, nor a ay, nor g gee, and yet 
the child has been taught these for the three sounds b, a, g. 

Every intelligent teacher admits that word-building is the 
most sensible system of teaching both reading and spelling, 
and for this we must have the phonic sounds of the letters ; 
then why burden the child's tiny mind tQ learn a senseless 


alphabet, out of which it can build nothing ? Let it learn 
each letter as a sound for which that letter is most commonly 
used, then it can build the sounds into little words from the 
very first. If we follow Frobel's principles, and obey his 
rule which teaches that nothing must be isolated or discon- 
nected in the ideas presented to the child's mind, but that 
every new idea must be linked with something that the child 
already knows, then the same rule must be applied here, and 
we must find a means of linking the signs of the alphabet 
with some idea already in the child's mind. Bemembering 
the great powers of imagination possessed by children who 
can readily transform a father's stick into a horse, we have 
associated each letter with a character or object, and woven 
these into little stories. This method has been tried for some 
years, and the children are fascinated and delighted with it, 
and learn to read with as much pleasure as they play a 

3. Stories for teaching Phonic Sounds. 

Story I., teaches sounds a, h, d, e, j. 

(The Teacher should have the five letters on the table 
beside her.) The " Giant " * letters are best, with long 
strings attached which can be put round the child's neck. 

" There was once a little girl called Alice, who liked very 
much to help do things about the house. One day Alice 
went to her mother, who was washing the clothes, and said, 
'May I help you, mother?' 'Yes,' said her mother, 
' you may hang out these things for me.' So Alice tied 
on the peg-bag, and took the basket of clothes into the yard. 
(Show letter a.) This is Alice you see with the peg- bag 
tied in front of her. I will give this letter to a little girl, 
and she shall hang it round her neck ; perhaps there is a 
little girl called Alice ! When Alice had finished hanging 
out all the clothes she felt a little tired, and as there was a 
nice hut in the garden, she went in and sat down to rest. 
* See Appendix 17. 


(Here show h.) This is the hut you see, and it has a little 
flag at the top. Tommy shall have the ' hut '. I will put 
the string round his neck. As Alice sat in the * hut ' she 
could see her little dog, Dombey, on the grass. He was 
sitting in the sun with his head up and his front paws out 
on the ground, as you see them here ; this is Dombey, see ! 
(Show d and give it to a child.) Soon Dombey sprang up 
and ran off to the gate barking all the time, oh, so loudly, 
what could be the matter? Alice ran after Dombey, and 
there ! coming up the street, was a circus show, and what do 
you think she saw walking first ? A great big elephant ! 
He had a long trunk that curved upwards like this (show e), 
so we will think of the elephant when we see this letter. 

" Now Alice had a brother called John, who was out in the 
field kicking his football, so she ran and called him to come 
and see the wonderful elephant (show j). This is John you 
see, he has kicked the football high above his head. Then 
Alice and John ran to ask mother if they might go to the 
circus to see the elephant there, and mother said she would 
ask father to take them, so they were very glad and happy." 

How to apply the Story. When the story is ended, 
the children who bear the letters come out and stand in 
front of the class, and the other children are asked to point 
out (individually), " Alice," the "hut," etc., etc. When the 
story has been told a few times, and the children have be- 
come quite familiar with the "dog," "John," etc., the 
Teacher will say : " Now I want you to call this picture not 
Alice but a (sounded exactly like A in Alice), that is the first 
sound in Alice's name. Then this is the first sound in 
John's name, j ; " and so on with d, e and h. " The first 
sound in ' hut ' is just a breathing sound, as if you had a hot 
potato on your plate, and gave it a little ' blow,' scarcely 
making a noise at all." 

The children soon learn to give the sound only, and they 
love to help the Teacher tell the story. 



FIG. 119. 

A frame similar to this (see Fig. 119) is very useful for hold- 
ing the letters ; the children soon grow tired of standing still, 
and should therefore be relieved after a very few minutes. 

Story II., to teach i, 1, m, s, n. "I will tell you about 
a little boy with a very funny name he was called Ibbie. 
Now Ibbie had never been to school, but one day his 
mother said he might go, and Ibbie was so glad that he 
threw his cap up in the air, for he wanted very much to go 
(show i). This is Ibbie and there is his cap as he threw it up. 

" Now, as I told you, Ibbie was only a little boy, and the 
school was a good way from his home, so he could not go 
alone. But he had a nice big sister called Lucy, here she is ! 


(showing 1), and she would take good care of little Ibbie, so 
off they went ! When they had gone a little way, they came 
bo a bridge that had two arches like this (show m), and Lucy 
told Ibbie that it was called the Mill Bridge. A river went 
under one archway and a road under the other. Ibbie and 
Lucy went under the road-arch and then they came to a 
field in which were some pretty flowers. Lucy wanted some 
ind was stooping to gather them when she saw a funny long 
wisted thing in the grass ; it was a snake, and when it saw 
jucy it said sss. Just then a man came up and said : ' Oh 
hat is my snake ; the door of its cage was left open last 
light, so I lost it '. Then he lifted the snake up and put 
t on his shoulder, saying : ' It is tame, it will not hurt 
rou,' and he walked away (show s). This is the snake, you 
ee how twisted it is. Ibbie and Lucy then set off to run, 
soon they came to another bridge, but this had only one 
brch (show n), and Lucy said this was called the Narrow 
3ridge. So they went under the Narrow Bridge and were 
oon at the school." 

Each letter should be placed on the frame, as it is shown, 
>r hung round the neck of a child. See Parag. N.B., p. 196. 

Story III., to teach r, o, t, z. "I once knew a little boy 
ailed Robert, such a nice little boy he was with a curl on 
ds forehead like this (show r). We will let this little picture 
tand for Eobert, because it has a curl like he had. One 
ay Robert's mother gave him a penny to buy an orange. 
?his is the orange (show o), and he bought it at a funny 
ttle shop, that was kept by a funny little man called Tom. 
lobert liked to go to the little shop, because Tom was always 
ind to him. We will have this little picture for Tom (show 
). As Robert went home with his orange, he met a poor 
Id woman whose name was Zilla. This stands for Zilla 
show z), and she looked so sad that Robert wanted to help 
er, and so he gave her the orange he had just bought, and 

think he felt happier than if he had eaten it himself." 
lee N.B., p. 196. 



Story IV., to teach f, v, x. " There was once a little girl 
whose name was Fanny. I think you will be able to re- 
member Fanny, for she always has a sash tied round her 
waist. Here she is (show f). One day Fanny's mother 
told her to dust the room, so she took a duster and carefully 
dusted all the things, and she was just going out of the room 
when her duster caught a pretty vase. It was this shape 
(show v), and it fell on the floor and was broken. ' What 
must I do ? ' thought Fanny. ' I will go straight to mothei 
and tell her how sorry I am.' Her mother was sorry too, 
but she soon kissed Fanny's tears away, and told her to be 
more careful another time. If you say the word ' kiss ' 
very quickly it makes this sound (show x), so you must 
think of the kiss that Fanny's mother gave to her when you 
want to remember x, and the sound has to be made, not 
with your lips, but in your throat. It is a funny little sound." 

Letters to be placed on frame, or hung as before. Parag. 
N.B., p. 196. 

Story V., to teach u, y, k, p. " There was once a little boy 
whose name was Yesso. Perhaps this picture will help you 
to remember his name (show y), though it is not at all like a 
little boy, it is like the vase that Fanny broke, only here the 
vase has a stem to stand on. Now Yesso had a little sister 
called Undine, this is the picture (show u) of Undine's 
skipping-rope, for she was always skipping when she went 
out to play. One day she went skipping along the path in 
the wood, until she came to a little house. 'I will ask for 
a drink of water,' said Undine, so she knocked at the door! 
But no one came. By-and-by she heard a footstep behina 
her, and then she saw an old man coming towards thel 
house, with a large bundle of sticks. He took a small ke\j 
out of his pocket (show k), this is the key, and opened tha 
door. When he had given Undine a drink of water he earner 
and sat on a bench outside the house, for it was a verjj 
warm day, and began to smoke his pipe. We will say thai 


this is the pipe he smoked (show p). As Undine stood 
talking to the old man, she heard a shout in the wood. It 
was Yesso calling her. ' I must go now,' said she. 
' Good-bye, and I thank you for the nice drink of water.' 
' Good-bye,' said the old man, ' come and see me again 
some day, little maid. I like to see you skipping through the 
wood.' So that ends the tale of Yesso and Undine. Here 
are the key (k) and the pipe (p) and the skipping-rope (u), 
and this (y) stands for Yesso's funny name." See Parag. 
N.B., p. 196. 

Story VI., to teach g, c, q, b, w. " There were once 
three little children, two sisters and a brother. The first little 
sister was called Gertie, you must think of Gertie when you 
see this funny picture (show g), it is not at all like Gertie, 
only she had a little feather which came out in front of her 
hat, just as this does in the picture. The next sister was 
Carrie, and she had very curly hair, it was curly all over ; I 
think this might be one of Carrie's curls (show c). The little 
brother had a very funny name it was Quilla, perhaps this 
might help you to remember Quilla (show q). One day, 
when it was Quilla's birthday, his mother bought him a 
present, can you guess what it was ? (let children try to 
guess). It was a bat and ball. Here is the bat with the 
ball quite close to it (show b), it is a little like Alice's dog, 
Dombey, only you remember the dog had his paws out on 
the floor (d). (In this way the children learn to distinguish 
b from d, two letters which are often taken one for the other 
by little children.) Then Gertie and Carrie and Quilla took 
the bat and ball and went out into the field to play. Now 
in this field there was a well, it was not very deep, and its 
shape was like Fanny's vase (show w), here I have two wells 
joined together. They had not been playing long when 
Quilla hit the ball so hard and sent it such a long way that 
it fell into the well, and the poor children were afraid they 
would never see it again. 


"But I am glad to say that the kind gardener brought a long 
ladder and went down into the well, and as it was nearly 
dry he was able to get the ball again, and all the children 
said ' Thank you/ and were very glad." 

N.B. After each story proceed according to the instruc- 
tions given after the first story, but do not separate the 
sound of the letter from its object until the latter is perfectly 
well known, and easily recognised. The stories should be 
told again and again before the sounds are given. 

Alphabetic Method. For those who prefer to teach the 
letters as they are sounded in the alphabet the stories are 
given in a different form, and the following rhymes may 
help the children, also, to remember the alphabetic names : 

A stands for Acorn, 
B stands for Bee, 
C stands for Cedar, 
A very large tree. 

D stands for Deer-hound, 
E stands for Ear, 
F is in Effie, 

A good girl, and dear ! 

" Gee-gee " says baby, 

When " horse " he does mean ; 
H sounds like Aitch-bone, 
In beef it is seen. 

I stands for Iceberg, 
J stands for Jay, 
K is for Katie, 

Who plays all the day. 

L is in Elbow, 

Two elbows have we ; 
M is in Empty, 

As all will agree. 

N is in Engine, 

Which often you see ; 
O stands for Oval, 
P stands for Pea. 


Q sounds like Cube, 

Tho' it is not found there ; 
R is in Arm, 

We each have a pair. 

S is in Esther, 

A good queen was she ; 
T is in Teapot, 

From which we pour tea. 

U begins Unicorn, 
V stands for Veal ; 
W is W 

And it begins Wheel. 

X is in Exercise, 
Y sounds like Wine ; 
Z stands for Zeddie, 
A brother of mine. 

4. Letter-stories for teaching the Alphabetic Sounds 
of the Letters. 

Story I., teaches a, d, e, j. " There was once a little 
girl called Ada, who was very fond of helping to do things 
in the house. One day her mother was washing, and Ada 
went and said, ' May I help you, mother ? ' and her mother 
said, ' Yes ; you may hang some clothes out to dry '. So 
Ada fetched the peg- bag, and tied it on, and then she 
took the basket of clothes and hung them on the line to 
dry. This is Ada with the peg-bag in front of her (a is 
shown, and if the ' Giant ' letters are used, it can be put 
round a child's neck or placed on a letter-frame, see Fig. 119). 
When Ada had finished helping mother, she went into the 
park to look for James, her brother. She knew he had gone 
there to play with his football. Here he is kicking the foot- 
ball ; it is higher than his head, you see (show j). 

" ' Oh, James,' cried Ada, ' I see a deer under the tree, let 
us go nearer and look at it.' ' We must go quietly,' said 
James, ' so as not to frighten it. See how it sits with its 
head up and its feet out in front ' (show a picture of the 


deer if possible, then show d). ' Ah,' said Ada, ' it has 
run away, I am so sorry, I wanted to see it close by.' 
' Never mind,' said James, ' we will go home now, and I 
will read to you out of my new book, it tells all about the 
deer.' So they went home, and James got his book. It 
had lots of pictures in it, and as James turned over the 
leaves Ada said, ' Oh, James, do let me look at that bird, 
how large it is, and what bright eyes it has. What is its 
name?' 'It is an eagle,' said James. 'It lives on the 
top of a mountain or on high rocks ' (show e). This is not 
a picture of the eagle, but I want you to think of the eagle 
whenever you see this." 

a d j e 

Ada Deer James Eagle* 

Teacher then says: "I want a child to come out and 
show us ' James ' " (child points to j). " Now who can find 
Ada? you know that it is Ada because of her peg-bag. 
Which is the deer and which is the eagle ? " When the 
children name them easily they may say a instead of Ada, 
d (dee) instead of deer, j (jay) instead of James, and e (ea) 
instead of eagle. (See " How to apply the story," p. 191.) 

Story II., to teach i, 1, m, s, n. " Isaac was a very little 
boy, and had never been to school, but one day his mother said 
he might go, and Isaac w r as so pleased that he tossed his 
cap up in the air, for he wanted very much to see what 
school was like (show i). This is little Isaac, with his cap 
in the air. Now the school was a long way from Isaac's 
home, and his mother could not send him so far all alone. 
But he had a kind big sister called Ellen (show r 1), and she 
would take her little brother to school, and see that no harm 
came to him. So off they started early in the morning. 
When they had gone a little way they came to a bridge with 
two arches, the river ran under one arch and a road under 
the other. ' This is Emsay Bridge,' said Ellen, ' can you 


remember, Isaac ? ' ' Oh, yes,' said he, ' Emsay Bridge is 
very easy to remember ' (show m). Here is the bridge, 
you see, with its two arches. After they had passed the 
bridge they came to a field, where pretty flowers grew, and 
Ellen said : ' Oh, I will get some for my Teacher,' and she 
was just stooping to gather them when she saw a funny, 
long twisted thing in the grass like this (show s). 'It is 
Esther's snake,' cried Ellen, ' she lives in the cottage over 
there, I will go and tell her.' So Ellen went to tell her, 
and the old woman, Esther, came out and picked up the 
snake. ' It will not hurt you,' she said, 'it is quite tame; 
how did it get out of its cage, I wonder ? ' Then she went 
home, and Isaac said : ' How funny to have a snake for a 
pet ! ' ' Yes,' said Ellen, ' but we must hurry now, or 
we shall be late for school.' By-and-by they came to 
another bridge which had only one arch, where the trains 
went under (show n). ' What is the name of this bridge, 
Ellen? ' asked Isaac. ' I do not know,' said Ellen. ' Then I 
shall call it Engine Bridge,' said Isaac, ' because the engine 
brings the train under it.' After they had passed this bridge 
they were soon at school." 

i 1 m s n 

Isaac Ellen Emsay Bridge Esther's snake Engine Bridge 

Let the children hear the story several times, and become 
perfectly familiar with i as Isaac, 1 as Ellen, etc., before 
separating the letter sound from the object. If the children 
once learn 1 as Ellen, they will have no difficulty in abbreviat- 
ing it to el, and so on with all the objects. 

Story III., to teach r, o, t, z. "There was once a little 
boy called Arthur, I think you will remember him, for he had 
a little curl on his forehead like this (show r), so you must 
always think of Arthur when you see this picture. He was 
a very little boy and wore frocks. One day his mother sent 
him out into the garden to play, and he had not been there long 


when a strange dog came up, and caught little Arthur's frock 
in his teeth. I do not think it meant to hurt him, but 
Arthur was frightened and called out ' Oh ! ' so loudly that 
his mother came running to see what was the matter, and 
when the dog saw her, he soon let go of the frock (show o). 
This is the sound that Arthur made, and his mouth was just 
this shape as he called out ' Oh ! ' The dog still stayed in 
the garden, until a boy came whistling up the road, and then 
it flew off to the gate, and waited for him. ' Is that dog 
yours ? ' asked Arthur's mother. ' Yes, ma'am,' said the 
boy as he raised his cap, * I hope he has not been in mis- 
chief, have you, Teazer ? ' (show t). This picture stands for 
Teazer, you must always think of the dog Teazer when you 
see it. 'What is your name?' said Arthur to the boy. 
* They call me Zeddie at home,' said he (show z). ' Would 
you like to have a game with my dog?' 'Yes, I should,' 
said little Arthur, so Zeddie and Teazer came into the garden, 
and they rolled on the grass and had fun with Teazer, until 
they were all quite hot and tired, and then Zeddie and 
Teazer went home." 

r o t z 

Arthur Oh ! (the sound he made) Teazer Zeddie 

Let the children distinguish the objects as at the end of 
Story I. 

Story IV., to teach f, v, x. " This story is about a little 
girl called Erne, and she was like another little girl that I told 
you about one day, she liked to help her mother. (Eefer to 
Ada in Story I.) Now Erne had a little sister called Vera, 
but she was not big enough to work, she played all the time. 
Erne always wore a sash round her waist (show f), here she 
is with her sash ! so you wih 1 always know which is Erne. 
One day she had been dusting the room for her mother, and 
she was just coming out when the bow of her sash caught a 
little cup that stood on a low table close by the door. It 


was Vera's cup (show v). Down it fell and was broken to 
pieces. Effie picked up the broken bits and went straight to 
her mother to tell her how sorry she was. Then her mother 
said she must go and find Vera, and tell her about it. So 
Effie went. At first Vera was very sorry, but when she saw 
how sad Effie looked she said, ' Never mind, Effie. I am 
sorry my present is broken, but we will not trouble about it 
any more. Let us play school and you give me exercises for 
my arms, like your Teacher does at school.' So they began 
to play, and were soon quite happy (show x). When you 
see this you must think of the exercises that Effie showed 

f v x 

Effie Vera Exercise 

Story V., to teach u, y, k, p. "There was once a little girl 
called Una, and she was very fond of skipping, this is Una's 
skipping-rope (show u). One day she went skipping along 
the path in the wood until she came to a cottage where 
Peter, the woodcutter, lived. Una liked to go to Peter's 
cottage, and she was very sorry when she found the door 
locked and no one about. She waited a little while and then 
she saw Peter and his wife coming through the wood, and 
Peter had his axe on his shoulder. The old woman soon 
took the door key from her pocket (show k) and unlocked 
the door. Her name was Katie, so you must call this little 
picture Katie's key. When they got inside the old woman 
was very tired, and began to cough, so Una gave her some medi- 
cine that her mother had sent. She soon found a wine-glass 
(show y), this is the wine-glass, and poured the medicine into 
it. Then Una reached Peter's pipe (show p), here it is ! and 
gave it to him, and they were all as cosy as could be, and I 
am sure the little girl was happy, for she had helped to make 
two other people happy." 

u y k p 

Una's skipping-rope Wine-glass Katie's key Peter's pipe 


Story VI., to teach g, c, b. " Celia was a very little girl, 
almost a baby, and she had the prettiest curly hair that you 
ever saw. She could not say her own name properly, but 
used to call herself Ceely, so we will call her Ceely too 
(show c). This is one of Ceely's curls. Ceely was very fond 
of romping, and she loved to sit on the arm of the sofa, and 
pretend it was a horse, and that she was riding. She would 
say, ' Gee-up, Dobbin ' (show g). When you see this picture 
you must remember what Ceely said to her horse ; this little 
curl (on the g) will help you to remember, because you know 
Ceely had curls. There was a little girl who would some- 
times come to play with Ceely in the garden ; her name was 
Beatrice, but Ceely called her Bea. What game do you 
think they loved best to play ? It was bat and ball. Bea 
had a stick that would do for a bat, and then she would bring 
her ball, and they would play quite merrily (show b). This 
is Bea's bat and ball." 

After each story proceed according to the instructions 
given after Story I. 

All the letters are included in these alphabet stories except 
h, q and w. 

Sometimes the children themselves may personate the 
objects or characters, the letter representing such character 
or object being hung in front of the child. Thus a little boy 
could be Isaac (having letter i) and a bigger girl would re- 
present Ellen. The Emsay Bridge could be made by three 
children standing in a row with hands joined and raised, and 
the Engine Bridge similarly by two children. 

Another way of using the stories is to let the children who 
represent the characters and hold the letters sit down in 
their places, and when the Teacher tells the story again, each 
child is to come out when the object it carries is mentioned . 
by the Teacher, and stand in front of the class. 

5- Elementary Word-building. If the phonic sounds 


have been taught (as given in the first set of stories) the 
children can begin to build little words as soon as ever the 
sound is substituted for the object. If the alphabetic 
method is adopted, it will be necessary to take each letter 
over again, and let the children learn that a (ay) says a 
(short sound as in bat) ; b (bee) says b (short sound as in 
bat). Suppose " at " to be chosen as the first combination, 
Teacher says : " Oh, here is Alice, we know her by the peg- 
bag, and who is this ? Why, it is the funny little man that 
kept the shop. Tom is his name. Wouldn't you like to 
say ' Good-morning ' to him ? " 

Children say, " Good - morning, Tom ; good - morning, 
Alice ". (If this seems absurd to any, let us remember that 
children of these tender years live in a world of make-believe, 
where fancy is everything and philosophy nothing.) " Now, 
I will take the first sound from Alice a, and the first sound 
from Tom t, and say them one after the other quickly, and 
if you listen carefully you will hear a little word, a, t," "at" 
say the children. " Now I will take the first sound from 
curl and put that in front of 'at' listen, c, a, t," and the 
children delightedly cry " cat ". 

In this way simple word-building is taught with ease, and 
the sounds may be printed on the blackboard, or traced in 
sand with a stick, after the children have become familiar 
with the " Giant " letters. 

C-at As the children grow more accustomed to the com- 

h-at binations of sounds, a list of words may be given, the 

r-at Teacher first printing " at " and the children supplying 

S-at an initial sound to make a word. The words might 

f-at be woven into a little story, thus : 

b-at " A cat saw a rat as she sat on the mat. The rat 

m-at went into Tom's hat, and Tom got his bat to send it out, 

but the rat had run off, and the fat cat went back to her place 

on the mat." Other lists of words are given in the same way, 

such as cap, lap, map, nap, sap, etc., bad, dad, fad, gad, had, 


lad, mad, sad, etc. ; then a new vowel is taken and we get bed, 
led, etc., pit, bit, etc., pot, cot, etc., and when all these lists 
have been gone through, the children will be ready to change 
the vowel thus : pat, pet, pit, pot, put. Before taking more 
difficult words it is advisable to teach the capital letters. 
These should be placed each beside the small letter of same 
name, thus, Aa, Dd, and those which are alike or similar 
should be taught first, li, Jj, Kk, Oo, Pp, Ss, Uu, Vv, Ww, 
Xx, Yy, Zz. There are now only twelve left to be learned, 
and these are very soon mastered. The same easy words, 
bat, mat, etc., should now be given again, but with a capital 
letter placed first, thus, Bat, etc., and coloured chalks should 
be used, then the first letter can be printed in one colour, 
and the other two in another colour, thus : 

C-ab M-et B-it P-ot B-ut 

M-ab L-et F-it C-ot C-ut 

D-ab S-et K-it L-ot N-ut 

When three-letter words are thoroughly well known, the 
next step is to take easy double sounds such as ee, oo, ow, 
oy, and in these three colours of chalks may be used. 

f-oo-d f-oo-t d-ee-d m-ee-t 

g-oo-d s-oo-t n-ee-d f-ee-t 

Longmans' "Ship" Eeading Sheets (coloured) which are 
reprints from the First Primer may now be used. It will be 
necessary to learn the irregular words such as " the," " was," 
"he," etc., from sight, then the little lessons may be taken 
from the Eeading Sheet, and the children will thus be pre- 
pared for the First Primer. The Beading Sheet shows how 
coloured chalks may be used for word-building. 

6. Punctuation Marks. When the Eeading Sheet is in- 
troduced, it will be necessary to explain to the children the 
meaning and value of the punctuation marks. We do not 
stop very long when we see this little thing with a tail ( , ), 


only as long as it takes to count one, but for this round dot 
( . ) we have to stop longer, until we can count four 
quickly, then we may raise our voice and go on again. Why 
must we raise our voice ? Because when we see this mark 
( . ), a full stop, it means that the sentence is ended. For 
these funny marks ( ? ! ) we must wait as long as we do 
for the full stop, but for this one ( ; ) we only count two, 
and we can remember that because there are two marks. 
After the Eeading Sheet, the First Primer should be used. 

There is nothing that a child loves better than to have a 
book in its own little hand, and the pictures in these Primers 
are so beautifully drawn and coloured that they alone are 
sufficient to make the book a delight to the little ones. 

7. How to give a Reading Lesson. ist. The first 
thing, of course, is to talk about the picture, and get the 
children to tell everything they can see in it (always in 
complete sentences). When they are thoroughly interested, 

2nd. Teacher might say, "I am sure you would like to 
know more about the picture. Listen while I read about it." 
She then reads the lesson. " Now you know the name of 
the dog in the picture " (suppose it to be p. 17, Longmans' 
First Primer, " Ship" series), "and you know where it has 
been," etc. 

3rd. " Now we will learn these words at the beginning, 
and then you will soon be able to read the lesson yourselves. 
There are only two words, ' out,' ' too '. I will write them 
on the blackboard, and you shall build some other words 
from them." 

g-out p-out too-k too-1 

4th. The next step is to master the words of the lesson, 
but as these have been learned previously in Word- building, 
the children will soon recognise them again. 

5th. The Teacher then gives pattern reading, the children 
reading after her. Great care should be taken here to 


prevent any child mis-pronouncing a word. A class was 
one day reading about " A noble dog," and when it came to 
individual reading the first boy read the title, " An oval dog ". 
If the word "noble" had been explained and talked about, 
such a mistake would hardly have occurred. Errors of this 
kind should be checked in the simultaneous reading. 

6th. Now the children should read the lesson simultane- 
ously without the Teacher's help. This gives her an oppor- 
tunity for detecting mis-pronunciations, by watching the 
children's lips and listening carefully. A Teacher should 
always be in front of her class when they are reading simul- 

7th. Last comes individual reading. If a child makes 
mistakes, they should be corrected kindly and encouragingly. 
It is easy to make a child lose its self-respect by undue 
severity and fault-finding, and once that is done the child 
loses confidence, without which it is impossible to read aloud 
with ease. Children always feel nervous when they are 
corrected before a number of other children or grown-up 
people, hence the necessity for doing it lovingly. 

8. Word-building (more advanced). Quite one third 
of the time given to reading should be occupied with Word- 
building, even when the children have begun to read from 
books. After the elementary Word- building given in the 
earlier part of the chapter, more difficult combinations should 
gradually be given. 

Blackboard Lessons. ist. To go back to such easy 
combinations as oy and ow the children have to learn that ow 
has two sounds, as ow in cow, and ow in mow. It would be 
well to write all the words sounded like " cow " in one colour 
of chalk, and the words sounded like " mow " in another. 

2nd. Several lessons should be spent in showing the 
children how e at the end of the word changes the sound of 
the other vowel, though e itself is not sounded at all in these 
words. A few examples are given, and many more can be 


added. S-am, s-ame ; f-an, f-ane ; m-et, m-ete ; w-in, w-ine ; 
c-ot, c-ote ; t-un, t-une. 

3rd. The double vowels, such as oa, ea, ai, oi, ie, need 
special attention. A multitude of words can be formed from 
these, as c-oa-t, r-oa-d, m-ea-t, v-ea-1, m-ai-d, p-ai-d, etc., 

4th. Then there are the double consonants, such as sh, 
ch, ck, bl, br, pi, fr, cr, and many others, which should be 
used with combinations already learnt, as sh-un, ch-in, 
br-an, pl-an, fr-om, etc. 

5th. Then easy double-syllabled words may be given, as 
win-dow, gar-den, etc., and words that have a double con- 
sonant in the middle, as mor-row, fol-low, etc. 

6th. For older children we have the^ doubling of the 
final consonant in many words, as drop, drop-ped, also the 
word-endings, such as le, ly, ing, ful, tion, and many others, 
and peculiar words, as knee, knead, knife, and words 
sounded alike, but spelt differently, air, ere, e'er. All these 
words should be taught on the blackboard in groups. 

9. How to cultivate a taste for Reading. Let the 
children buy copies of reading books used at school at cost 
price, and when possible, lend them books to read. Long- 
mans' " Ship " Primers and First Reader are all arranged on 
the word- building system, and the coloured pictures are 
charming. It is possible to arrange a lending library even 
for little children, and this can be done at a very small cost 
by obtaining a variety of simple reading books and stories. 



COREECT writing is the result of correct observation. It is, 
therefore, manifestly wrong to expect children to write before 
they have been taught how to observe, and for this reason a 
child should not attempt to write until it has been at school 
for some time. When we consider all that is needed to make 
writing beautiful, remembering that every letter has its own 
peculiar form, that we need a nice distinction of height and 
length, and width and slope to make even one letter correctly, 
is it any wonder that tiny, baby fingers are unable to write 
with ease ? 

1st Step. (a) Before a slate or pencil is given to a child, 
we must do all we can to pave the way to " Writing " by the 
child's favourite occupation, " play ". If the Kindergarten 
tables or desks are used (see Fig. 2, p. 13), sticks one inch 
in length may be given to each child to lay on the squares. 
The Teacher takes a longer stick (so that children can more 
easily see it) and says, " What can my stick do ? Look ! " 
(placing it vertically against blackboard). " It can stand 
up," say the children. "What else can it do?" asks the 
Teacher. " It can lie down," say the children. (Teacher 
makes it lie down.) "Now I want you to make your little 
sticks stand up all in a row, they must all stand on the 
same line, and there must be one square between each. 


Pretend they are little soldiers. I will tell you a story while 
you are placing them. 

" There was once a captain, and he was drilling his soldiers, 

there were six in a line (if children have six sticks each) and 

he said, ' Stand to line,' so all the soldiers put their feet 

(toes) to the line (just see if your little soldiers are all on the 

line). Then he said, ' I see two soldiers too close together, 

they must all have the same space between '. (Just as your 

little soldiers have one square between each.) Then the 

captain said, ' Stand up straight,' and all the soldiers held 

their heads up, and stood as straight as could be. I wonder 

I if your little soldiers are all standing straight ! I will come 

land see." (Teacher looks at children's work and corrects any 

hat is wrong.) 

See my little soldiers, 

Standing in a line, 
All so straight and even, 

Do they not look fine ? 

When their drill is ended, 

Down they all will lie, 
And while they are sleeping, 

I shall watch close by. 

(b) In another lesson, the same sticks might be used to 
each " lying-down " lines, with a story about the soldiers 
)eing tired and lying down to sleep. 

(c) Then sticks of another length should be given, two inches 
ong, these are taller soldiers, they must also stand up and 
ie down. 

(d) Now the two kinds of soldiers stand side by side, and 
he child sees that there is difference in height ; then the 
ticks are combined to make rough representations of 










FIG. 120. 

No. 1. Here we have two little sticks standing, and oncl 
lying (prepares for u). 

No. 2. Now the lying-down stick is moved to the tog 
(prepares for n). 

No. 3. Place another stick lying down, and another 
standing up (prepares for m). 

No. 4. Move the two lying-down sticks to the bottom 
(prepares for w). 

No. 5. Now we have a tall soldier standing up, a littld 
one lying down, and a little one standing up (prepares foi 

No. 6. The lying-down stick is brought to the top of thJ 
square (prepares for h). 

No. 7. Three short sticks and a tall one are used foi 
this (prepares for d). 

No. 8. The tall stick is moved down one square (prel 
pares for g). 

The Teacher will think of many other letters that can bd 
represented in the same way as those given above. 

(e) Next the half-inch sticks should be introduced ; the 
children will see that they only reach half-way up thl 


square, and they will probably call them the baby soldiers. 
When they have used the half-inch sticks alone, let them 
be combined with the others, thus : L (Z), n . (a), etc. The 
children will see a similarity between these rough repre- 
sentations and the letters they have learnt in reading. 

2nd Step. The Slate and Pencil should form the subject 
of conversations before they are used. When several writing 
lessons have been spent with the "soldiers," the children 
may have chequered slates given to them, and they should 
compare the squares on their slates with those on the table. 
They will see that they are much smaller, and that the 
" sticks " would not fit on these small squares. " We must 
find new soldiers, how nice it would be to draw them," says 

be Teacher, " but we must first learn how to use the pencil." 
Let the children show right hand, and then left hand, and 

bey must know how to distinguish each finger, long finger, 

ttle finger, forefinger, etc., then Pencil Drill may be given. 

?he following rhyme may help the children to learn the 

ames of the different fingers : 

(1) Show your thumbs, dear children, all, 

(2) Forefingers come when I call, 

(3) Little fingers bowing, greet, 
Like two ladies when they meet, 

(4) Middle fingers stand up straight, 

(5) Ring-finger for you we wait. 

Movements. (1) Hold up the thumbs. 

(2) Hold up forefingers, the thumb and other three fingers 
eing kept closed. 

(3) Hold little fingers up, and let them bow to each other, 
est of hand being closed. 

(4) Middle fingers stand up, rest closed. 

(5) Show the third finger of each hand, rest being kept 




FIG. 121. 

FIG. 121 a. 

Pencil Drill. Ready. When Teacher says " Eeady," th< 
children hold the pencil by its point between thumb am 
forefinger of left hand. When she says : 

One, Thumb of right hand is held up. No. 1, Fig. 121. 

Two, Forefinger of right hand is held up. No. 2. 

Three, Long finger is raised (thumb and forefinger beini 
still kept upright). No. 3. 

Four, Grasp pencil between thumb and long finger of rigfc 
hand. No. 4. 

Five, Put forefinger of right hand on the pencil. No. 5. 

The Teacher should have a much larger pencil, or a smai 
stick pointed, so that the children can see it easily ; and sb 


should use her left hand, as it is opposite to the children's 
right when she stands in front of them. 

The following rhyme may be used in teaching pencil 
drill : 

Beady. With your left hand pencil seize, 

(1) Hold your right thumb high up, please, 

(2) Then forefinger comes out so, 

(3) And long finger follows too, 

(4) Thumb and long one pencil hold, 

(5) Forefinger comes next we're told, 
Then we're ready strokes to make, 
And I'm sure great pains we'll take. 

The numbers refer to the illustrations. 

When the pencil drill has been thoroughly learnt, the 
hildren are allowed to make " soldiers " standing-up lines, 
ne square long on their slates, imitating the Teacher, who 
nakes them in chalk on the blackboard. A very few strokes 
hould be made at one time. Gradually the strokes two 
quares long are introduced, and the children make all the 
orms (on the chequered side of their slates) that were made 

th the sticks. 

3rd Step. The child may now be introduced to lines ; the 
ollowing style of ruling is very suitable for young children, 
nd the blackboard should be ruled exactly like the slate. 



FIG. 122. Sketches of Baby's Slate, Sponge and Can. 

Before beginning to write, the children should learn t 
distinguish the lines, middle line, top line, and bottom lin< 
A child should come out and point to middle line, anothe 
to top line and so on. When these are known, Teache 
says : " Now I want to make a soldier standing up on thi 
line (pointing to bottom line), but I must begin at the to 
line. Where is my chalk?" (placing it on line). "It i 
on the top line." "Down it goes through the middle lin< 
and when it reaches the bottom line it stops. I have mad 
the ' soldier ' just in the middle of the space (see Fig. 122 
I will make two more, then a child shall come out, and tn 
(Teacher makes three strokes.) Now Johnnie may come. 
(Perhaps Johnnie's stroke may slant a little.) Teacher asks 
" What is the matter with Johnnie's soldier? " Children : " ] 
does not stand straight up ". Another child takes the chal 
and tries. (This time, perhaps, the stroke is not in the middl 
of the space.) Teacher again asks what is wrong, and elicil 
the answer from the children, then she might say: " Don, 
you remember how particular the captain was to have a 
his soldiers standing hi their right places? and we must b 


,he same with our soldiers ". It makes all the difference in 
,he world to the children whether the lines are called soldiers 
>r simply strokes ; a soldier is invested with real living 
nterest (especially if they have seen pictures of them), but a 
.troke means very little to these young children. 

A large proportion of each writing lesson should be taken 
ip with Blackboard teaching, because the children learn so 
auch by seeing the faults enlarged, as they must be on the 
blackboard. When the Teacher has finished the Blackboard 
ractice, she says, " Now you shall try to make three little 
oldiers on your slates, just like mine, each standing in the 
liddle of its own little space ; but we must first have Pencil 
)rill ". When this has been given, the children make the 
bree strokes no more than three, for if they are incorrect, 
s they are sure to be at this early stage, the writing of a 
broke or letter several times over only intensifies the fault, 
ad makes it more difficult to eradicate. 

Every child should have a slate rag, and the Teacher should 
we a little can of water with a sponge (a Id. sponge will do) 
3d to a little stick (Fig. 122). It takes a very little time 
r the Teacher to dab each slate with the wet sponge, and 
te child then rubs it clean and dry with its slate rag. 

A great many lessons should be given to the elements 
if ore proceeding to the groups of letters as shown in Figs. 
23 and 124, and when the letters are given, very few 
lould be done by the children at one time, for the reason 
ifore stated that repetition of an error intensifies the 
fficulty of correcting it. 

The letters in one group should be fairly well done before 
'oceeding to another group. 

/ 7 I; < ^ 

tf I 

/ ', 'i" i, ii =afv 

7r 7/ ^/V, Y/, //, fT 

fy f/ /// l\j JA/ \7 


FIG. 123. Sketch of Slate Showing Letters in Groups. 





FIG. 124. Sketch of Slate Showing Letters in Groups. 


Correction of faults. Some letters are made too nar- 
row, some too wide, some are angular where they should be 
rounded, and others are badly joined. It is best to show 
all these faults on the Board, the correct way of making the 
letter being shown side by side with the fault. In this way 
the whole class gets the benefit of the correction, and until 
the children learn to make each letter fairly well, most of 
the time should be given to Blackboard teaching. Other 
faults are : smears on the writing, strokes too thick, and 
slope irregular. The latter fault may be corrected thus : 
write on the Blackboard the irregularly sloped letters, 
e.g., Tft^y, and then draw strokes through each line ; the 
children will see that as these prolonged strokes are not 
parallel, neither are the strokes of the letters parallel. 
Children will sometimes join o on the left side o ; | is often 
too wide, thus, and / is taken above the line. In the 
capital letters it is difficult to get the line of beauty, J, 
children make it thus, /. Place a pencil alongside the 
correct line, and show that the line does not correspond 
with the line of the pencil, as the child has made it 
to do. 

As the children become proficient in writing, they will dis- 
tinguish between the " light " lines (which go upward) and 
the heavier " down " lines ; the observance of this difference 
adds much to the beauty even of slate writing. As soon 
as they can write well enough to join letters, the children 
should have groups of words given to them, such as are 
found in Word-building (see the chapter on Beading). When 
Transcription is begun, it should be taken from words printed 
on the Blackboard in the first place, and from books later. 
It is always a pleasure to children to write their own names, 
and these should be given as soon as they are able to do 
them. Sometimes the children may transcribe a sentence 
which conveys some fact that has been taught in an Object, 
or other lesson, and which is thus impressed on the child's 


mind, for it is always easier to remember impressions con- 
veyed by the eye, than by the ear. For this reason Spelling 
should be taught, not orally but by writing, and chiefly 
by the grouping of words sounded alike, as in Word- 



IN a Kindergarten proper Number would only be taught 
as part of the Kindergarten Gifts and Occupations, but, like 
Beading, it is taken as a separate subject in Ordinary Schools, 
and for this reason a chapter is here devoted to it. By the 
aid of Stories, Games and little Plays, Number may be made 
as easy and delightful as any other subject. 

Perhaps the following may seem a somewhat roundabout 
way of teaching such a simple fact as "two and two are 
four " ; but remembering Eousseau's saying, viz. : " What the 
child does it easily remembers," we shall find that time spent 
in this way is far from being wasted. Moreover, the child is 
happy in these little plays, and to make it happy is our first 
aim at this early stage. The Stories which follow are intended 
for the " Babies," or children under five ; they should be 
told to the children again and again, and the rhymes should 
be learnt by heart and repeated by the class every time the 
story is told. Children who have been taught number 
gradually, in this easy, interesting fashion, develop an 
astonishing aptitude for dealing with figures as they grow 
older. This, at least, has proved true in the writer's 



FIG. 125. 

1st Step. Number Stories. I. The Farm-yard 
(Fig. 125). Objects used: several boxes of Gift III., and four 
animals (either models of these, or cows, etc., from Noah's 
ark). Several children may help to make the wall, while the 
Teacher asks questions, such as, "What is the wall for? 
Why do we have a farm-yard?" etc. The model should be 
built on a table or on the floor, so that all may see it. ,When 
the wall is finished, a kennel may be made in one corner of 
the yard, then the trough is placed in the centre, and we are 
ready to begin. (In Fig. 125 " donkeys " have been substi- 
tuted for "cows ".) 

Story. " This is Farmer Jones's farm-yard, and he has a 
great many animals, though you do not see them just now. 
What animals will he have?" Children: "He will have 
sheep, cows, hens, ducks," etc. " He has two dogs that live 

NUMBER. 221 

in this kennel ; where do you think they are ? They have 
gone to fetch the cows home. The cows are down in the 
meadow eating sweet, fresh grass and daisies and buttercups. 
The dogs will run round them and bark. That means 
' Go home, Brownie ; go home, Whiteface 'those are the 
names of the cows and away they go. See ! they are 
coming into the farm-yard (Teacher makes two cows move 
through the gate). Where will they go? Straight to the 
trough, you see, to get a drink. Now the dogs are coming. 
How hot they are with running so fast ! They are at the 
trough too. Two cows and two dogs drinking how many 
are there altogether ? There are four. Now the two dogs 
have gone to the kennel to rest ; how many are left? Two." 

Two cows drink here, two dogs as well, 
Now, if you please, the number tell. 


Two dogs have to their kennel gone, 
How many cows stand now alone ? 


The same story may be used to teach other numbers ; but 
it is better to keep to the very little numbers, 2, 3, 4 and 5, 
for a considerable time. 

Game. When this story is played as a Game, the children 
stand close together to form the wall round the farm-yard, a 
space being left for the gateway. Other children kneeling 
form the trough, and a ring of children make the kennel. 
Two little boys are the dogs, and two bigger girls the cows. 
The " cows'" go out of the room first, then the "dogs" are 
sent to fetch them. The cows come in, walking slowly, then 
they go to the trough and pretend to drink. Soon the dogs 
follow, running and barking, and go to the trough also. Then 
the first two lines of rhyme may be repeated. Dogs go away 
and the second two lines are said. 

222 NUMBER. 

2. The Hen and her Chickens. An interesting story 
may be told of the hen and her chickens. The Teacher's 
lap may be the nest where the hen sits with her chickens. 
Suppose there are three chickens, and two run out to find 
food, how many are left ? and so on. (Balls of Gift I. may 
be used for this.) 

Game. This story, again, may be played as a game, with a 
big girl for the mother-hen, and smaller children for chickens. 


Cluck, cluck, cluck ! says mother-hen, 
Come, my chicks, come home again 

How they nestle, pretty things ! 

One, two, three, four, beneath her wings. 

First chicken comes out and says : 

One comes out to seek for food. 

Three are left with mother good. 

3. The Stable. Objects used : several boxes of Gift 
III., and four or five horses. 

The walls of the stable are made in the same way as the 
walls of the farm-yard (see Fig. 125), but the stable must 
have only three walls, the front is left open so that the 
" stalls " may be seen. 

Story. When the stable is ready, Teacher says : " Ned 
is the man who looks after the horses, and brings them 
home at night ; he brushes them down, and feeds them, and 
gives them a nice bed of straw to lie upon. The horses 
have to work so hard, we ought to be kind to them. See, 
two are coming home, here they are ! (The two horses are 
put in two stalls. Bricks will do quite well to represent the 
horses.) These are cab horses. Now Ned brings home 
two horses that have been drawing a tram-car. ' These 
are very tired,' says he, ' I must give them a good supper, 
and make them a nice soft bed.' 

NUMBER. 223 

" Two cab horses are here, 

Ned brings two horses more, 
And you will all agree, 

That two and two are four. 

" But where is Ned? He must have gone to fetch another 
horse, for here is an empty stall. He comes up whistling 
^,nd patting the horse as he walks beside it. This is a cart- 
horse, it has been drawing a cart full of coal. Thank you, 
good cart-horse, the coal makes nice, bright fires to warm 
us. Now the cart-horse goes in its stall." 

Teacher says : 

Two and two, you said, were four, 
Now I see there's one horse more ! 

That makes five, we children say, 
Horses five we see to-day. 

Game. This can be played as a game by letting the 
children form the stable, just as they formed the farm-yard 
(Story II.). Five of the children would be " horses ". One 
boy could be Ned the hostler. 

4. The Rabbits. This can be played as a game. Four 
or five children represent rabbits, holding up forefingers at 
each side of head to represent the rabbits' ears. At first the 
rabbits lie hid (pretending they are in their burrows), then 
one comes out and begins to jump about. 


One rabbit jumping we can see, 
He hops about quite merrily. 

(Two more rabbits come out.) 

Two rabbits more ! that just makes three, 
They're all as happy as can be. 
If there should come one rabbit more, 
Why, surely, there would then be four. 

224 NUMBER. 

(The fourth rabbit comes out.) 

Four rabbits jumping, oh, dear, dear ! 

What brings the cruel Sportsman here ? 

(Sportsman enters.) 

Two quickly fly ; they're out of sight, 
(Two of the rabbits run off.) 

And two will hide, they're in such fright. 
(The other two hide behind Teacher.) 


Sportsman, we beg you'll go away. 
And leave our pets in peace to play. 

Sportsman (bowing). 

Good-day, then, children ; ma'am, good-day, 
Your pets, unhurt, with you shall stay. 

Nuts or fruit may be used as the subject of other little 
stories, and some of these may teach little lessons of un- 
selfishness, e.g., Lily's mother gave her four large ripe 
plums when she went to school one morning. Would she 
eat them all herself, I wonder ? She looked at them as she 
walked along they were red on one side and yellow on 
the other then she pinched them ; they were all quite soft 
and would be sweet and juicy. " I know what I will do," said 
Lily, " I will give one to Nellie, and one to her little brother." 
So she did. How many had she left? and how many did 
she give away? She gave two away, and so she was not a 
selfish little girl, was she ? 

The number stories shall conclude with one w r hich the 
children are never tired of hearing, and never tired of playing, 
and which affords scope for little lessons in manners, courtesy, 
and kindness. 

5. Mrs. Dimple's House. Objects used : a set of doll's 
furniture, and a few small penny dolls dressed, with a larger 
doll to represent Mrs. Dimple. 

NUMBER. 225 

" There was once a lady called Mrs. Dimple. This is her 
house, you see (pointing to the chairs and other furniture, 
which have been arranged on the floor or table, so that all 
can see them), and this is Mrs. Dimple herself (holding up 
the largest doll). I will put her on the sofa. Mrs. Dimple 
expects visitors this afternoon. Listen, you will hear them 
knocking soon. (Teacher knocks on the floor.) Here are 
Lily and Nellie (producing two of the smaller dolls), they 
have come to see Mrs. Dimple. How nicely they walk into 
the room. Mrs. Dimple shakes hands with them. She 
stood up as soon as they came in, and now she asks them 
sit down. At first there was only one person in 
;he house ; how many can you see now ? We see three. 
What make three? One lady and two children are three. 
But hark ! there is another knock. (Teacher knocks again.) 
Who come now? A lady and gentleman. (Two dolls 
are produced, one being dressed like a gentleman.) Mrs. 
Dimple again rises, you see, and the gentleman takes off his 
iat, and they all shake hands. Lily and Nellie stand up when 
ihe lady and gentleman speak to them,, and then they all sit 

" How many people are in the room now ? There are five. 
How is the five made up ? Two ladies, two little girls, and 
one gentleman make five. Ah ! there is another knock ! 
[Teacher knocks.) Who is it this time, I wonder ! It is some 
one who has come to fetch Lily and Nellie. They say ' Good 
afternoon ' to Mrs. Dimple and the other visitors, and then 
ihey go. Now how many are in the room? There are 
three. How many at first? Five. Two little girls away 
from five, how many left ? Three. The lady and 'gentle- 
man are going now, they both shake hands with Mrs. Dimple, 
ind say ' Good afternoon,' then the gentleman opens the 
ioor to let the lady go out first, and he follows. He will put 
>n his hat outside the door." Teacher might say, " Now we 
will have the story with real people ". 


226 NUMBER. 

Game. The Doll's furniture is put away and ordinary 

chairs are substituted, 'a little form would serve for a couch. 
Who would like to be Mrs. Dimple? A child is chosen. 
Then two little girls are wanted for " Nellie " and " Lily," a] 
boy and girl for the " lady " and " gentleman," and a little 
girl to be the maid and answer the door. The four " visitors " 
go outside the room, and the two little girls knock at the! 
door, and enter first. The rest of the game is told in the] 
story, and acted accordingly. 

2nd Step. Recognition of Numbers. The object of- 
the preceding Stories and Games is to give the children a clear ] 
idea of number up to five. They should now be able to 
recognise 2, 3, 4 and 5, i.e., be able to tell four objects when 
they see four, without counting them, also 3, 5, etc. The: 
stories and games should be repeated again and again, until 
the children can do this easily. 

3rd Step. Analysis of Numbers. When the numbers 
can be recognised without difficulty, the children should be 
encouraged to analyse them, i.e., tell what they are made up] 
of, but objects should always be put in front of the class 
to represent the numbers. 

Suppose four ninepins to be shown, Teacher says : " How! 
can I divide the ninepins to show what make four? " " You 
can make them into twos. Two and two are four." " And 
now," says Teacher, "tell me something else that make four 
think of the Farm-yard story." " Two dogs and two cows 
make four." " But we could have had other animals drink- j 
ing," says the Teacher, " think now." "Two horses and two! 
donkeys," say children, " two ducks and two geese, etc., etc." : 
"Now look round the room, and make four out of things] 
that you see here." " Two pictures and two slates are] 
four. Two windows and two doors, etc., etc." " Now look^ 
at the ninepins again, could I divide them in any other way ?l 
think of the ' Babbits ! ' " " Two and one and one are four,' J 
say the children. "But you must give me objects," sayJ 

NUMBER. 227 

the Teacher. " Think of the orchard, or the farm-yard, and 
what you see there, then look at the ninepins and tell me." 
" Two apples and one plum and one pear are four, etc., etc." 
Shells, etc. The children should now be allowed to have 
shells, bricks, sticks or other objects, and lay number 
pictures for themselves. The writer collected some thou- 
sands of pretty little shells at Kildonan in the Isle of Arran 
one summer, and procured a number of " chip " boxes from 
the chemist at about twopence per dozen. In each box were 
placed twenty shells, and one box was given to each child. 
Suppose the number five to be the lesson, each child would 
take five shells out of its box, and lay them on the desk, 
thus : : : or : or : . : etc. The child should always 
be able to describe what it has done, thus: the first child 
would say four shells and one shell are five, the second 
shree shells and two shells are five, and so on. 



FIG. 126. 

The Number table * shown above is very useful for demon- 
strating the analysis of Numbers. Marbles are placed in 
the holes as shown, and the children are able to handle the 
marbles, which is a great advantage. 

Higher numbers. The analysis of six, seven, eight and 
nine may be taught with the table and marbles (Fig. 126), 
each number being taken separately, and thoroughly mastered, 
before proceeding to the next. The children should learn all 
the different combinations of numbers that make six three 
and three, five and one, four and two, three twos, etc. but 
always with the objects, and when they have seen the number 
analysed by the Teacher, they should do it for themselves 
with shells, bricks or other objects. 

The Ball-frame. This is a useful aid in teaching number 

* See Appendix 18. 

NUMBER. 229 

but the old-fashioned frame, with twelve in a row, should not 
be used. There should be ten balls in a row, five of one 
colour, and five of another. If there are three or four ball- 
frames in a school, one might be left with twelve in a row to 
teach analysis of a shilling later, and another might be 
arranged in twos, that is, five twos in each row, each two 
having its own colour. 

The ball-frame can easily be altered by a joiner, and the 
balls arranged in twos or fives as desired, but there should 
be ten in a row for ordinary use, as ten is the basis number. 

Suppose six to be the subject of the lesson, the Teacher 
would show it on the ball-frame as three and three, and the 
children would lay the same with their shells. Then the 
other numbers making six would be shown, and the children 
would lay each combination with their shells. When each 
has been done several times, the Teacher might let the 
children make "pictures " of six for themselves, without the 
ball-frame, and ask them to tell individually how they 
have made up their picture, as in the number five. 

Number on Slates. If the children have learnt how to 
handle the pencil, they may transfer the number-pictures 
made with shells to their slates, using dots for " shells," 
thus : : : : 

Then another " picture" may be made with the shells 
: : : and this is copied on the slate (chequered side) at some 
distance from the other. Then another is made and copied, 
and so on until the child sees on his slate all the combina- 
tions of numbers that go to make six. He should be able 
to read them all out, and because a child remembers what 
he has done himself, it will be found that numbers taught 
in this way are seldom forgotten. As the children become 
more proficient, the two signs + and = may be taught, 
+ means and, = means are. Then they may put on their 
slates : + :=:: and use these signs in the analysis of 
other numbers. 

230 NUMBER. 

Number Ten. This is the most important number of 
all, and it should be thoroughly well taught. The Teacher 
should show on the ball-frame or the table (Fig. 125) the 
different analyses that can be made of ten, and the children 
should lay these with shells or other apparatus again and 
again. It is necessary to learn these perfectly, for how- 
ever well any or all of the numbers may be learnt, they are 
comparatively useless without ten. 

Figures. When the figures are introduced they should 
invariably be shown with the concrete numbers which 
each figure represents'. Here are four balls : : I 
will show you a figure that means those four balls, 
4, and I will put the four balls beside it, thus : 4 : : 
Then the children might draw a large square or 
oblong on their slates, and combine the concrete 
and abstract as shown. 

Money. When the children know numbers up to ten, they 
might play little "shopping" games with sixpence. Show 
them a silver sixpence, and then the six pennies that are 
equal to it, also the two threepenny pieces. A very nice 
" shop " can be made by dividing a shallow box into several 
compartments. In each of these, some commodity or other is 
placed, flour in one, rice in another, and so on. Currants, 
oatmeal, salt, and other things will be gladly brought by the 
children from home at the Teacher's request. The goods are 
tied up in little packets, and have the name marked outside, 
so that each can be returned to its respective compartment 
when the lesson is finished. 

When the children have learnt w 7 hat sixpence is made up of, 
viz., six pennies, or three twopences, or two threepences, the 
play may begin. A little boy stands beside the " shop " ; 
he is the " shopman," and holds the six pennies ready to 
give change. A child has the sixpence given to it, and comes 
to buy. 

Customer : "Please, sir, I want a pound of rice ". 

NUMBER. 231 

Shopman : " Here 'tis, ma'am ! Twopence is the price." 

"How much change will the customer want?" asks the 
Teacher. Many other purchases may be made, and the 
actual value should be given to the articles as nearly as 
possible, so that the children may gain correct ideas of their 
cost. Halfpence should not be given until later. 

Numbers above Ten. We will suppose that the children 
know thoroughly the analysis of numbers to ten, and that 
they are familiar with the figures which represent those 
numbers. We may now proceed further, and analyse higher 
numbers. Twelve is a good number to take, and if one ball- 
frame has been kept with twelve on each row it will be found 
useful here, or the table (Fig. 125) will answer the purpose. 

The children will learn that twelve is made up of two 
sixes or six twos, of four threes or three fours, of ten and two, 
eight and four, etc., etc. All this prepares for the shilling, 
and when twelve is thoroughly known, the "shop" should 
be again introduced. It will be necessary to have all the 
coins that make one shilling, except the halfpence, and these 
should come later. The same " shop" may be used as be- 
fore, or a "Bakery" with cakes and loaves made in the 
" clay-modelling " lesson would answer our purpose equally 
well. We should then have penny cakes, twelve for a 
shilling, twopenny cakes, threepenny loaves, fourpenny loaves, 
and sixpenny loaves, which the children would see were sold 
six, four, three, and two for a shilling respectively. Let the 
twelve pennies be placed, one on each penny cake, and then 
show the six twopenny cakes with twopence on each, and the 
four threepenny cakes with threepence, or a threepenny- 
piece on each, the fourpenny and sixpenny cakes with their 
respective values in money placed on them, and the children 
will grasp by actual sight and experience what a score of 
abstract lessons would not teach. Other questions will 
suggest themselves ; e.g., we may buy two fourpenny 
loaves, then we shall want fourpence change, for you know 

232 NUMBER. 

there will be four pennies left out of the shilling. The 
children will not remember all this with one lesson, they 
will need to play the " Bakery " Game a great many times be- 
fore their little minds can grasp all the different prices, and 
these of course would not all be given in one lesson. The 
sixpence and penny cakes would be sufficient for the first, then 
these with the threepenny loaves added would make a second 
lesson, and so on. 

Number should be taught gradually. Number, of 
all subjects, should be taught gradually, seeing that it is to 
the brain what Physical Gymnastics are to the body. If the 
limbs are exercised too much, they become useless, and if the 
brain be used too much, it refuses to act. 

Number from Twelve to Twenty. It is a great help 
to count by twos to twenty, thus : two, four, six, eight, etc., 
at the same time using the ball-frame, also by threes, fours, 
and fives. This prepares the children for the analysis of 
twenty later. They should also learn with ball-frame, ten 
and three are thirteen, ten and four are fourteen, and so on 
to twenty. When the children have seen twenty analysed on 
the ball-frame repeatedly, they may have the boxes of shells 
given to them and analyse it for themselves. Then these 
analyses may, in turn, be copied by the children on their 

Numeration. For teaching Numeration, there is nothing 
better than Miss Wilson's Arithmetic Frame, * which is 
shown here, Fig. 127. 

* See Appendix 19. 



FIG. 127. 

The units or ones, as the children rightly prefer to call 
them, are seen on the right. If we move the sliding band 
so as to show figure 3, we put three marbles in the holes, 
so that there can be no doubt in the child's mind as to what 
the abstract three (3) signifies. Teacher says : " When we 
come to this side, the left, you see a letter T, that means tens; 
and every figure which is put on this side means so many 
tens. I will slide the band so that you may see figure 1. 
Will one marble do for this I ? No, I must have ten 
marbles, for the 1 means ten ; here they are in a little bag. 

234 NUMBER. 

Let us look in and see if there are really ten, then we will 
hang the bag on the hook. (There are nine bag's with ten 
marbles in each for the tens, and one with nine for the units.) 
Now we have ten marbles in the bag, and three in the holes, 
altogether making ' thirteen,' and you see how it has to be 
written on your slate. Make T in one square and in the 
next. Put three under the row for ones, and one under the 
T." In this way notation to twenty should be taught, and the 
children should not be allowed to write down any figure be- 
tween ten and twenty without seeing its equivalent on the 
Arithmetic Frame. When we come to twenty, two bags are 
needed, for we know that two tens are twenty, and we must 
slide the " Ones" band until we come to " 0," and that means 
none. . Any number up to ninety-nine can be shown with the 

Number for older Children. The analysis of twenty 
will prepare for the learning of money up to a sovereign, and 
here, as in the teaching of a shilling, everything should be 
shown that goes to make one pound. Cardboard coins * may 
be used. The two half-sovereigns, which the children will see 
are smaller and thinner than the sovereign, how much each are 
they worth ? ten shillings each, then the sovereign is worth 
twenty shillings. You can easily tell the shilling, because it 
has " One shilling " on it. Then there are the four crowns, 
worth five shillings each, and the eight half-crowns, worth 
two shillings and sixpence each. The four-shilling piece has 
a cross on one side with four arms, you must think that 
each arm means one shilling ; then the two- shilling piece or 
florin is worth half of four shillings, so its four arms mean 
only sixpence each. It would be well, even here, not to 
separate concrete and abstract. If the children are too big to 
play " shop," they could have twenty shilling caps, or ten; 
caps at two shillings each, or eight at half a crown, and see 
the coins laid on the caps in each case. Then questions, 
* See Appendix 20. 

NUMBER. 235 

such as these might follow : How many florin caps can be 
bought for one pound ? How many jackets at five shillings 
each, how many chairs at four shillings each, how many 
overcoats at ten shillings each, for one pound? In each 
case the coins should be placed on the articles, so that the 
children may have clear ideas of the cost. 

How to add to Twenty. Every number should first be 
made up to ten, thus if we wish to add together eight and 
seven, the ball-frame should be used to show that eight and 
iwo are ten, and the five left make up fifteen. It will now be 
seen why analysis of the number ten is so important. This 
method of making up to ten may require a little more pains 
ko make it quite clear to the children than the old way of 
counting by units, but it is infinitely easier, and secures re- 
sults far more correct when it is once thoroughly mastered. 
Take, e.g., eleven and eight. How much easier to say eight 
and one are nine, and ten more nineteen, than to say eleven 
and go on to count eight more ! It is impossible to 
adopt this method unless analysis of numbers to ten has 
been thoroughly learnt, and it would be better for children 
to know well the numbers to ten, and go no higher than this 
in the Kindergarten or Infant School, than to enter the Upper 
Departments with a confused notion of numbers up to one 
hundred. Ten should be the basis of all our reckoning, and if 
the children know ten, and the numbers which precede it, 
they can soon be taught the rest. Little children should not 
have " sums " given them to do on their slates, for " sums " 
are made up of abstract figures, and children of tender years 
cannot grasp the abstract. It only stunts their mental 
growth to give them symbols without meaning. 

If they understand what the figures really mean, the con- 
crete expressions may be dropped in analysis on slates, and 
the children may analyse with figures only, thus : 5 + 5 + 5 
+ 5 = 20, 8 + 2 + 5 + 5 = 20, and so on. It will be seen how 
readily the children may pass from this to the adding of 

236 NUMBER. 

columns of figures. " Here," says the Teacher, " we 
have figures under each other, and it means just the 
same as if they were written all in a line with ' and ' 
between, thus : 6 + 2 + 4 + 3 = , so you must just say g 
and between each of these figures in the column, and Q 
write the total underneath." 

Further illustrations of Division of Numbers. The 
children will already know something about Dividing numbers 
from learning that one shilling could be divided into six 
twos, etc. The way in which one pound was divided would 
also help them to understand more clearly the same principle. 

To teach Division further, say of twelve, bring out twelve 
boys, let them be soldiers and march first all abreast. 

How many rows of soldiers, marching twelve abreast, can 
be formed from twelve ? Only one. But suppose we have six 
abreast ? There would be two rows. Why ? Because there 
are two sixes in twelve. Then let them march four abreast, 
three abreast, two abreast. They might also march five 
abreast to show that there are two fives in twelve, and two over. 

Then questions such as these : Six feet, how many boys ? 
first letting them see the feet. Twelve hands, how many boys ? 
eight horns, how many cows ? etc. 

In learning the multiplication table, the children should 
first see it with objects. Let them see the five twos that 
make ten shown on different rows on the ball-frame, and 
when they write it, they should at first put the five twos 
thus : 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 = 10, before proceeding to the ordinary 
signs, 5x2 = 10. 

To make variety, a figure learnt in 
Drawing might be used, say for multi- 
plying by four, thus : 

Number to One Hundred. When 
the children are conversant with num- 
bers up to ten, it is very easy to teach 
them one hundred. 


NUMBEE. 237 

Show four balls (one on a row) with the ball-frame. 
" What do you see?" "We see four balls." Put the four 
balls back. Bring out four tens. Now you see, not four ones, 
but four tens, and instead of saying four tens, we say four-ty, 
or for-ty. 

Then show six tens, six-ty, eight tens, eight-y, and so on. 
Now if I asked you, "How many are four and four?" you 
would say " eight " directly, and it is just as easy to add four 
tens and four tens as to add four and four. Show four 
tens and four tens, with a space between, the children 
will soon see that 40 + 40 - 80. 

When the children understand one hundred with the 
ball-frame, they will soon be able to do notation of figures to 
one hundred. 



THE Gifts and Occupations afford material for endless 
illustrations, both of form and colour, as is shown in the 
chapters on these subjects, and where the Kindergarten Gifts, 
etc., are largely taught separate lessons in Form and Colour 
need not be given ; but as very few teachers take more than 
a small proportion of the Gifts, etc., the following notes may 
prove acceptable. 

In many schools a lesson is given on Form and Colour at 
least once a week. The different forms are kept in a box, 
in which there are also squares of cardboard, showing the 
various colours. This apparatus should however be amply 
extended. Pieces of silk or coloured paper should be kept 
in another box, and coloured wools wound on pieces of 
cardboard show the colours nicely. Whenever possible, the 
Kindergarten Gifts should be used to illustrate. 

The object of the lesson. 

The object of the lesson is not simply to teach the shape 
or colour of one particular piece of wood, or cardboard, but 
to enable the child to distinguish the same shape or colour 
whenever it sees an example of it. Thus the child is helped 
to observe and compare, and its interest in life is strengthened, 
as it learns with joy to find out things for itself. 

A little two-year-old child strayed one morning into a 
Kindergarten, and heard the teacher talking to a class of 
children about "oblong" shape. In the afternoon, as the 
little child was playing on the hearth at home, he spied the 
coal box with its shining blocks, and going up to it, he picked 


out a piece of coal of a perfect oblong shape, and carrying it 
to his mother exclaimed joyfully, " Dis oblong, mamma ". 
This shows that the lesson had achieved its object, for even 
the youngest child knew the shape when he saw it again. 


The Circle, or round, is the first form to be taught, and 
it should be illustrated by numerous examples, such as a 
plate, a round cake, coins, etc. ; all these things should be 
shown to the children, also the toy pail, coffee-pot, and 
watering can, p. 251, all of which show the round shape. 
Then the circle may be compared with the ball, and the 
children are asked : " What things are round like the ball ? " 
"Orange, apple, etc." "And what things are round like a 
circle? " "A penny, a shilling, etc." " What has the circle 
that the ball has not? " " The circle has two flat faces, and 
the ball has only one round face." 

The Square is somewhat familiar to the child, who has 
noticed the squares on his slate, and on the chequered table. 
It has four sides all the same length, this fact may be taught 
thus : Take a long stick such as is used for stick-laying. 
Teacher says : " I will measure the sides of the square. 
Johnnie shall hold it for me " (measure the top edge, and cut 
off a piece of stick just the length). Show it to the children, 
and say : " This stick is just as long as the top edge of the 
square. I will give it to Mary to hold. Now we will 
measure the bottom edge " (again cut the length). " This is 
the length of it " (holding up the stick). The right and left 
sides are measured in the same way, and the child now 
holds four sticks. Let the children count how many sticks 
there are, and notice also that all four measure exactly the 
same, and then they will see that the square has four sides 
all the same length. Then ask for objects of this shape. 

The Oblong is measured in the same way as the square, 
and the sticks are cut the lengths of its sides. The 


children then see that the sticks cut to represent the sides ol 
the oblong are not all of the same length, but that two are 
short, and two longer, so the oblong must have two lone 
sides and two short sides. Let a child point to the two long 
sides, and another to the short ones. Then the children are 
asked to name all the things they can see that are oblong ir> 
shape, such as the table, door, window. They may alsc 
name objects at home dresser, piano, bed, and many othei 

These shapes may be further illustrated in Stick-laying, 
and other Kindergarten Gifts. 

The square has four sides 
All measuring the same ; 

The oblong two short and 
Two long sides can claim. 

The Oval is frequently taught after the circle, but as the 
difference between square and oblong is more marked tharj 
the difference between circle and oval, the former com- 
parison if taken first may help the child to understand the 
latter. Take a square out of the Form box and draw a circle 
on it, then take the oblong and draw an oval shape upon it, 
Ask the children, " How is this shape different from the round 
shape on the square ? " " It is longer." " Why ? " " Because 
the oblong is longer." Now 7 show the oval from the Form 
box with the round or circle. "How is the oval different 
from the round ? " " It is longer. " " What things do you know 
that are shaped like the oval?" " An egg, a basket, a bath, a 
dish, etc." 

The Sphere, Cylinder, Cube, Cone and Pyramid 
are solid figures. The cylinder can be made from the sphere, 
the cone from the cylinder and the pyramid from the cube, 
The three former are compared in the chapter on Gift II. 

The pyramid points upward, so, 

But it is square and flat below : 

The cone is pointed, too, and round ; 

A sugar loaf like it is found, 


The children soon learn the difference between the Cone 
and Pyramid, and if they are allowed to make all these solid 
figures in clay they will remember them more easily. 

1. The oval shape is like an egg, 
The circle's round as all can tell, 
The sphere is round, just like a ball, 
The cylinder you know quite well ; 

2. We roll it gently on the ground, 
For it is very smooth and round ; 
It has two faces flat, you see, 

And stands, as well as rolls for me. 

3. The cube has six square faces, flat, 
And corners eight, just think of that ! 
And edges twelve, three fours you know, 
Which round the faces always go. 

The Pentagon, Hexagon, Octagon and other similar forms 
biould be learnt by drawing them on the chequered slates, 
'hese figures introduce the obtuse angle, and before the chil- 
ren learn the shapes, they should understand clearly the 
ifference between the right, acute, and obtuse angles. This is 
10 wn in the chapter on Gift V., p. 67. The hexagon and octa- 
on can be combined so as to make pretty designs which may 

> used for perforating and embroidery. See Fig. 84, p. 142. 

The " Forms " may be further impressed on the mind of 
le child by means of a Story; see the one given after 
Colour," at end of this chapter. 


Colour should be taught, not from the coloured cards, 
ut from objects and pictures. The six colours shown in 
ift I. are the first to be learnt ; these can be illustrated 
fruits, as an orange, a rosy apple, a purple plum, a red 
lerry. The children's dresses, their eyes and hair, can all 
3 brought into a lesson on colour. In spring and summer, 
)wers make charming illustrations, e.g., different colours 



seen in roses, and the autumn-tinted leaves can be use( 

Then there are colours in pictures, trees, etc., besides th 
coloured wools, beads, tablets, etc., used in the Kindergartei 

Ask for flowers and fruits of certain colours, e.g., wha 
flower is yellow? What fruit is red? etc., also colours c 
birds and animals, and let the children say what colour 
look nice together. In summer this may be shown b 
arranging a number of flowers in a bouquet. 

In the flowers themselves colours always harmonise, e.g 
forget-me-not is blue, and has a yellow centre, because blu 
and yellow look pretty together. 

Spring flowers are mostly yellow, and have pale gree: 
leaves, for green and yellow look pretty together. 

The red poppy and blue cornflower look pretty amon 
the yellow corn, and there are yellow flowers among th 
corn also. 

Harmony of colour may be further illustrated by th 
dressing of a doll, or a story of a little girl who was taken t 
the shop by her mamma. The little girl was to have a ne^ 
dress, cloak, and hood ; what colours would her mamm 
choose ? 

Secondary Colours. Teach that red, blue and yellow 
are the first or primary colours, from which other colours ma 
be made. A child's box of paints and six small tumbler 
(which may be bought at one penny each) are required fc 
the following illustration. Pour a little water into eac 
tumbler, and mix a little red paint in one, a little blue in th 
next, and a little yellow in the third. These are the primar 
colours. Let us see what can be made by mixing two c 
them together. Take an empty tumbler. Pour in a littj 
blue water and a little yellow. Mix together and the childre 
will see that green is produced. Now take another tumbld 
and mix blue and red in it ; this makes purple. In anothe 


tumbler show that red and yellow make orange. " What 
beautiful thing have you seen in the sky showing all these 
colours ? " "A Rainbow." 

This is a most interesting lesson, and if the tumblers, etc., 
are not obtainable, the same experiment may be shown on a 
piece of white cardboard. Paint the colours in stripes on 
the cardboard, first the three primary, which should be 
allowed to stand ; then the secondary are produced by 
rubbing one colour over another, e.g., paint over the red 
with blue, and purple is produced. Over the blue stripe 
paint a little yellow, and we have green. Over the yellow 
stripe paint red, and orange is seen. 

The primary colours are Ked, Yellow, Blue, 
The Bed and Blue mixed will show Purple to you ; 
Mix Yellow and Blue if you wish to make Green, 
Mix Yellow and Red, then bright Orange is seen. 


After the forms and colours have been learnt, they may be 
voven into an interesting story, thus : " A man had a large 
iece of land to make into a garden ; he gave a piece to 
ach of his children, and said they might make small beds 
f any shape that they liked. So Johnnie made a round 
>ed " (draw shape on board, and let children copy on slate), 
; and Willie had a square bed ; Mary said her bed should be 
blong, and Nellie made hers oval " (draw each on board, 
,nd let the children copy). " Then Gerty wanted hers to be 
he shape of a semicircle, and Harry said his should be very 
iretty, for he would make it crescent shape, like the moon." 
When the blackboard is full of shapes the Teacher might 
ay : " Now you would like to know what these children 
lad growing in their beds. Johnnie had a pink rose-bush in 
he middle of his bed." (Perhaps some child has sewn a 
ink rose in the embroidery lesson, and if so, this might 
>e pinned in the centre of the circle on the blackboard.) 



"Willie sowed red Poppy seeds in rows in his square bed, 
and Mary had a yellow Iris in the centre of hers, with 
blue Forget-me-nots all round. You remember that blue 
and yellow look pretty together." 

Whenever possible, pin the flower named on the shape 
representing the flower bed. 

The story should be continued until all the "beds" havei 
flowers in them. The children may be allowed to suggest! 
names of flowers and should be encouraged to choose colours] 
that will harmonise. 




N a school where Frobel's principles are taught, the love of 
nimals is inculcated from the child's earliest years. The 
animals introduced into the various Kindergarten Games, 
nd impersonated by the child, give it an interest in, and a 
ove for its "little brothers and sisters lower down," and if 
his love of animals has been further cultivated by the tend- 
ng of pets, as mentioned in Chapter I. the child will be quite 
eady to receive further knowledge about a subject in which 

is already much interested. 

Aim of Lesson. The aim of the lesson is to deepen 
he child's interest, to rouse its desire to investigate for itself, 
nd to make the study of animal life attractive. In this way 
;s love for all living creatures will be strengthened. 

Points to be considered. In giving a lesson on any 
nimal, the Teacher should be careful to select the chief 
joints of interest in the particular animal. 

An inspector was one day listening to a junior teacher, 
vho was giving a lesson on the " Cow ". He remarked to 
he head mistress that he had several times listened to 
essons given on this subject, but never once had he heard 

teacher tell the children that the cow had no teeth on the 
op row at the front. The mistress admitted that she her- 
elf was ignorant of this peculiarity, and yet it is one of 
he features which distinguish the cow and its companion 
uminants from all other animals. Some teachers will 


spend a whole lesson in teaching the children that the co\\ 
has four legs and a long tail ; that it is covered with hair, etc. 
forgetting that all these facts are patent to the chile 
from its own unaided observation. If we want to rouse its 
interest we must go further afield. Let the child learn the 
points which are characteristic of the animal, and by which 
it may be distinguished from other animals. Suppose the 
subject of the lesson to be the cow, the Teacher should have 
a good picture of the animal, or better still a model. Aftei 
referring to its horns, which are a peculiarity of this class, 
and other details that are readily perceived, she would say 
" If the cow could open its mouth and let you look inside 
you would see that its teeth are not like yours, for it has no 
front teeth on the top row ". (Explain to the children thai 
as the cow eats only vegetables, two rows of sharp teeth are 
not needed, but it wants very good grinders, because i1 
chews its food so much.) 

The cow has some brothers and sisters (other ruminants] 
that have just the same kind of teeth ; we shall learn theii 
names by-and-by. Next we will look at the cow's feet. The 
Teacher should show the children a cloven foot if possible. 

It is only by seeing the real foot that the children learc 
that it is divided into two parts, or cloven. We have noTfl 
learnt three things about the cow. 

1st. It has horns. 

2nd. It has no teeth in front, on the top row. 

3rd. It has cloven feet. 

" Have you ever seen a cow lying down in the field, and 
moving its jaws, as if it were eating ? It is chewing its cud 
The cow bites off a lot of grass, and swallows it ; then ii 
lies down, brings the grass up into its mouth, and chews it.1 
We have now learnt four peculiarities of the cow, thes4 
should be written on the blackboard, and then the childred 
might be asked for the names of other animals of the co^S 
family the stag, the sheep, the goat would be named. 


The writer once heard a model lesson given by a very 
clever student of Natural History (who is also an Exten- 
sion Lecturer, Victoria University) before a number of 
teachers and others. The subject of the lesson was the Cat, 
and the Teacher had a fine large cat in a basket ; she had 
also a lantern apparatus, and a home-made model of the 
cat's paw. Nearly the whole time of the lesson was spent 
in teaching and illustrating two facts, but these were so well 
taught that neither the children nor the adults who heard 
them will ever be likely to forget. 1st. The children were 
asked to look at pussy's eyes, and to notice the size of the 
pupils. Then the cat was taken into a dark room for a 
little while, and when it was brought out, its head was 
covered, so that the children might see its eyes just as they 
were in the dark room, where the pupils expanded. " Now," 
said the Teacher, "you know why the cat can catch mice 
in the dark. Look at her eyes ! " Illustrations of the 
expanded pupil were thrown on the canvas, where the eye 
was seen greatly enlarged. 2nd. The next point was the 
cat's paw. A child was asked to feel it. " How soft and 
velvety it is!" "But what can pussy do? something that 
would make you afraid to take hold of the paw." " It can 
put out some claws." The Teacher then showed, by means 
of the model, how the cat draws in its claws, or puts them 
out at will. This was further illustrated by lantern slides. 
The Teacher spoke also of the cat's "near relations" as she 
called them, the tiger, the lion, the leopard, and jaguar. 
Another lesson might be devoted to other striking character- 
istics of this family, their sharp teeth, rough tongues, and 
their liking for flesh. The children would be interested to 
know that all these animals walk on tip-toe and that they 
are called beasts of prey, and hunt for their food. 

Gnawing Animals. This class of animals is very inter- 
esting to the children, because they are often kept as pets. 
The squirrel, hare, rabbit, mouse and rat belong to this family. 


1st. They all have two sharp front teeth at the top, and 
two at the bottom. These teeth are so hard and sharp that 
they will bite such things as wood. 

2nd. They are all of a timid nature and like to hide away 
(refer to their homes). 

3rd. They all eat vegetables. 

4th. They are all covered with soft, warm fur. 

Every lesson should be accompanied by blackboard sketches. 
A Teacher who was giving the "Babbit " as a Natural History 
Lesson had prepared beforehand a sketch of this animal on 
the blackboard. She had drawn also a rough representation 
of its burrow, with a " baby " rabbit just coming out, which 
delighted the children exceedingly. Another Teacher sketched 
a pond with rushes to illustrate the home of the frog, which 
was seen lying on the bank. A lesson thus illustrated can- 
not fail to leave a vivid impression on the child's mind, and 
to fix what is taught in his memory. 

Object Lessons. 

Object Lessons, so called, are not given as part of the 
routine in a Kindergarten proper, because every subject is 
treated as an Object Lesson. But as Object Lessons do form 
a separate subject in many schools, it is necessary to devote 
a few pages to the subject. 

Aim of the Lessons. The aim of the lesson should be 
to impart to the child so much knowledge of everyday 
common objects, that it will be interested in everything 
around it. The things nearest at hand should come first, 
and the Teacher should try to give the children intelligent 
ideas about everything, and thus to help the growth of 
Intelligence. Let the children learn to define each object 
that they see, e.g., " What is a chair? " - " It is something to 
sit upon . " " What is a table ? " " It is something to put things 
on." " What is a slate ? " " It is something to write upon." 


" What is a pencil ? What is a shoe ? " " It is something to 
wear." " What is bread ? " " It is something to eat ? " Such 
questions as these should be asked every day. Then the 
children will be ready to learn a little more about these 
everyday objects. It is not necessary to give a whole 
lesson to each subject, but the children should know that 
the slate on which they write is dug out of the ground, 
that the frame has once been part of a tree, and that the 
pencil is made of a soft kind of slate. The bricks in the 
wall are made of clay, which also comes out of the ground. 
In time the children will learn also that all the things we 
eat are called foods, and instead of saying that bread is 
something to eat, they can say, bread is food. They should 
also know what their clothes are made of some are made 
of wool, that comes from the sheep ; some of cotton, which 
grows on a plant; and boots, etc., of leather, which is made 
from the skins of animals. 

A school manager once asked an inspector what he would 
consider an intelligently taught school, and the latter replied, 

A school where the children would be able to define a 
common object and tell something about it ". Heterogeneous 
lists of Object Lessons should be avoided, and such subjects 
should be chosen as can be further illustrated in Kinder- 
garten Gifts and other lessons. See the " Table of Con- 
nective Lessons " at the end of Chapter II. Description 
of a Kindergarten. 

Many of the conversations which introduce the various 
Kindergarten Gifts are Object Lessons, e.g., the talk about 
the "Tree" which precedes "Stick-laying"; the conversa- 
tion on " Iron " in " Eing-laying " ; the " Cotton " that is 
used for " Thread-laying," and many other subjects, which 
will be found in the chapters on the Gifts and Occupations. 
An Object Lesson that is connected with the various Gifts and 
Occupations has an infinitely greater educational value than 
a lesson that stands isolated from other subjects ; and the 


Teacher who has learnt how to illustrate Object Teaching 
thus, has grasped Frobel's idea of connectedness. In an 
Exhibition of Kindergarten work, done by children in the 
Infant Schools of a provincial School Board, some very good 
examples of connective lessons were shown. To illustrate 
a lesson on the " Potato," the children had : 

1. Modelled the Potato in clay. 

2. The Potato plant had been " perforated ". 

3. The " Sacks " had been drawn, perforated, and stitched. 

4. The " Cart " was drawn and coloured, also the Potato. 

5. The implements for gathering and weighing the Potatoes 
were drawn, while 

6. Paperfolding illustrated the Cruet, Salt-cellar and 

Would the children be likely ever to forget a lesson that 
had so many delightful connections ! Then there are the 
Kindergarten Games to be added, and other subjects, some 
of which are show T n in the " Table of Lessons " referred to 




FIG. 128. 

THE articles shown in the above sketch may be used as 
object lessons for very little children with great advantage ; 
they are made of tin, and can be obtained * at a very small 
cost. Toys are always interesting to children, and a toy 
kettle or tea-pot enlists the attention much more readily 
than would the same article in an ordinary size. 

The following conversational sketches will give some idea 
of the way in which these toys may be used. 

Pail. Suppose the Pail to be the subject of the lesson, the 
Teacher would ask, "What is this? What is it used for? 
What have you seen put in a pail? What shape is the 
* See Appendix 21. 


pail ? What other things are round ? " etc. Then the different 
parts may be mentioned the handle, the rim, the bottom. 
" What other things have handles ? What is the pail made of ? 
What other things are made of tin ? Where does tin come 
from ? " 

Kettle. The kettle would be talked about in the same 
way, and then compared with the pail. " We put different 
kinds of things in the pail, in the kettle we put water only. 
What has the kettle that the pail has not?" "It has a lid." 
" Why? And it has a spout. What is that for ? " 

Teapot. Proceed as with the pail, and then compare. 
' ' What has the Teapot that the kettle has ? " "It has a spout. ' ' 
" What have you seen coming out of the spout of the teapot, 
and what from the spout of the kettle? The teapot has 
something else like the kettle it has a lid. What is the lid 
for ? " " It is to keep the tea warm, and to keep the dust out." 
" Now there is something about the teapot that is different 
from the pail and kettle. What is it? " " It is the handle, 
which is at the side of the teapot instead of on the top." 

The Coffeepot is similar to the teapot. 

Watering Can. In this object we have increased scope 
for comparison ; the watering can has a " rose " in addition to 
its spout, and here the child sees both kinds of handles on 
the same object. " Why does the watering can have two 
handles? " " One is for carrying, the other for pouring." 

Bath. This object is a complete contrast to the others. 
It has no handle or spout, and the shape is different. 

All the objects may be put in various positions, as was the 
ball of Gift I., and in answer to the question, " Where is the 
kettle ? " the children reply, " The kettle is on the table, on 
the floor," etc. In this, as in all the conversations, the 
children should always answer in complete sentences. 

The following game is taken from " Guessing Games " * by 

* See Appendix 3. 


The class forms a ring, and one child, standing in the 
centre, is blindfolded ; or the class may be seated, and the 
blindfolded child may stand in front. One of the objects is 
then given to the child, who must try to tell the name by 
feeling it, while the children repeat : 

There's an object you know well, 
From its shape the name you'll tell. 

This exercise strengthens the memory, and develops the 
sense of touch ; the child should be asked how he knew the 
object, and the answer should be given before the eyes are 

Furniture. A set of doll's furniture may be made the 
means of imparting much valuable information in a pleasant 
and attractive way. The different kinds of chairs armchair, 
rocking-chair, and ordinary chairs are compared and talked 
about. " What other kinds of chairs are there ? " " Basket, 
bedroom, kitchen, and garden chairs, a baby's chair, teacher's, 
father's and mother's chairs, folding-chairs, bath chairs," 

The Couch. Compare this with the chair. "How is it 
different ? What is the couch for ? " " It is to lie or sit on." 
" What is the chair for ? " "To sit on." " What other things 
can we lie upon besides the couch? " 

The Table. " What is a table ? What is it for ? Who 
made it? What does it stand upon? Could it stand on 
anything instead of the four legs?" Some of the children 
will probably have seen tables with a pillar in the centre, or 
round tables with three legs. "What shape is this table? 
What other shapes have you seen ? " " Eound, oval, square, 
oblong, octagon shape," etc. 

The Bed. The children may learn many things from 
the bed. First name the parts head, foot and sides, then 
the mattress, bedding, pillows, sheets, blankets and quilt, 
and what all these are made of. " Two little Maids," in 


Recitations for Infants* may be recited in connection with 
this lesson. Two dolls are needed with clothes that can be 
taken off. Two little girls take possession of a doll each. 
The first doll represents a careless, little girl, and as the 
recitation proceeds, the doll is undressed, and its clothes are 
tossed about just as described in the rhymes and then the 
doll is put to bed. The second doll is also undressed, and 
now each garment is neatly folded, and placed on a chair as 
described by the verses ; and then this doll is put to bed. 
Besides making the lesson more interesting, this practical 
demonstration of the careless child and the tidy one im- 
presses the children as no abstract lesson possibly could. 

* See Appendix 22. 



PICTURES should adorn the walls of every Infant School and 
Kindergarten. There is nothing that adds so much to the 
cheerfulness of a room as bright, pretty pictures hanging 
on the walls, and of all the places that should be made 
bright, the schoolroom is one of the first in importance. 
Many beautiful coloured pictures have been published with 
the Christmas numbers of various magazines. Those which 
have children as the subject are, perhaps, the most interest- 
ing, but there are many others that are suitable also. 
Besides brightening the room, pictures are invaluable as 
lessons for developing the children's intelligence, and making 
them interested in their surroundings. They are also 
excellent as a means of teaching children to speak in 
complete sentences, and they make a delightful lesson for 
the very youngest, as well as for older children. Those 
pictures that show people doing something are the most to 
be desired. 

Blowing Bubbles. This picture is chosen as illustra- 
tion because it has been so widely circulated, and is there- 
fore well known. 

I. What we can see on the picture. The figures and 
objects to be seen on a picture will first engage the child's 
attention, and the Teacher therefore asks first, " What do you 
see on this picture ? " The children will answer, " I see a boy, 
a basin, a pipe, a log," etc. 


We do not stop to ask full particulars of these objects just 
now, for the most interesting thing to the children is 

2. What is being done. "What is the boy doing?" "He is 
blowing bubbles." "What does he blow them with?" "He has 
a pipe." " What will there be in the basin ? Why does thej 
boy look up? " " He is watching the bubble until it bursts." 
"Perhaps he is sorry to see it burst. Why should he be 
sorry?" "Because it is so pretty." The Teacher would probably 
let the children see how bubbles are blown in reality, and; 
they would then notice the pretty colours which each shows, 
and would probably remember that the colours of the rain- 
bow are the same as those seen in the bubble. When the 
doing has been exhausted the children will be glad to notice 
other details of the picture. 

3. Other details. " Where is the boy? What is he sitting 
upon? What kind of coat has he? What is the basin 
made of ? Why does the boy have a basin made of wood ? 
What else might the basin be made of ? " 

The answers to all these questions must be given in 
complete sentences. 

The above little sketch of a picture lesson will be sufficient 
to indicate how the conversation should be continued. As 
we said before, this is a subject that offers a wide field for 
developing the child's power of intelligence, and giving him 
information on a variety of subjects. Take, e.g., a picture of 
some water, and maybe a boat with people in it, on thei 
water. The Teacher, after taking the doing part of the! 
picture spoken of in the previous lesson, asks, " What kind of 
boat is this ? " (It may be a rowing boat.) " How do they 
make it go ? " " They row with oars." " What other kind of j 
boat do you know ? " " There are steamers," say the children. 
"What makes them go?" "They have a steam engine." 
" What else is made to go by steam ? " "A train, machinery," 
etc. " What other kind of boat do you know of ? " " There is 
the sailing boat." " What makes that go? " "The wind makes 


it go." "How?" "It fills the sails." "There are also 
canoes, yachts, lifeboats, etc." 

Then the water may be talked about in the same way, 
'perhaps the boat is on a river). The Teacher will ask, " On 
what other water might the boat sail." " It could sail on a lake, 
pond, sea, etc." " How is the sea different from the other 
water? " This is enough to show how various and extensive 
.s the ground covered by a good picture lesson. Sometimes 
t is possible to find a recitation or a song that will illustrate 
;he picture nicely. The recitation "Blowing Bubbles," 
p. 267, might appropriately be used with the picture of the 
same name. 





STORIES are the "spice" of childhood. The eager delight 
with which children beg for a story, and listen while it is 
told, is in itself a plea for stories, and if the school routine 
does not admit of a certain time being set apart for story- 
telling, five or ten minutes between lessons might some- 
times be utilised for this pleasant exercise. But there areji 
many reasons why stories should form part of every Infant 
School and Kindergarten curriculum. 

I. Use of Stories. a. In the first place, story-telling may 
be made the means of helping the children to acquire familiarity i 
with good English. We all know how limited is the child's i 
vocabulary, and how difficult it is for a child to express hisi 
thoughts. Sometimes when a fact is perfectly well known, 
the language is wanting in which he can express it. 

b. The child's sympathy may be cultivated and developed! 
by means of stories. He becomes intensely interested ill 
the subject of the story, and for the time being almost 
lives the incident over again in his own little life. A very 
little child was one day listening to a story about " A laz j 
boy who missed a school picnic because he was so slow in 
getting ready. The school children were all on board thl 
steamer, the bell rang, the moorings were loosed, and away 
went the boat just as the late little boy came running down) 
to the pier." The little listener followed the story intentll 
up to this point, and then burst out, " Oh ! Auntie, couldn'f 


they get a little rowing-boat and take him out to the 
steamer? I don't like him to be left behind." Stories, then, 
enlist the sympathy of the child. 

c. Story-telling strengthens the child's power of imagina- 
tion. Let us be careful to develop the imagination in a 
right direction, and not to feed it with anything coarse or 
cruel. This will be again referred to later. 

d. The stories offer opportunity for inculcating moral 
truths, as will be seen subsequently, and sometimes it is 
possible to teach by stories truths that would be difficult to 
teach in any other way. The following instance illustrates 
what is meant. 

A governess, who had three or four little children under 
her care, found one of them, a little girl named Olive, 
particularly disobedient and tiresome. No amount of talk- 
ng seemed to have any effect, and the governess was puzzled 
o know what to do. One morning, however, as little Olive 
tfas being dressed, she begged for a story, and the governess 
old one about the doings of a naughty child, which Olive 
quickly recognised as her own actions of the previous day. 
\fter this her behaviour was a little better, and the next morn- 
ng she asked, " Will you tell some more about the little girl, 
please? " This time the story was a little more hopeful, and 
jo it went on day after day, until it came to pass that a good, 
bedient child was the subject of the story, instead of the 
laughty, disobedient one. The governess told the writer this 
ncident herself, and said that the child was transformed by 
neans of these simple recitals, where she saw herself in a 
lifferent light, and realised that her conduct caused un- 
lappiness to others. 

Another instance might be given of a little boy, who had 
violent temper, and would throw himself on the floor in a 
mssion when his will was crossed. One day in his cooler 
moments the Teacher told him a story of a little boy who 
grew up with a bad temper, and became a wicked man, and 


at last lost his life through his cruelty. The story mad 
such an impression on the passionate child, that from tha 
day forward he tried to control his temper, and was in th 
end quite successful. 

2. Kinds of Stories. (a) Stories of real life of event 
which have actually happened, or would be likely to happer 
It is in this kind of story that moral truths can be illustrate^ 
most frequently. 

(b) Fairy Tales. Some people object to fairy tales, bu 
innocent fairy tales feed the imagination, and often point 
moral. Stories of horror and cruelty should never b 
recounted. Children soon learn to take delight in this clas 
of story, and as a consequence, their moral tone deteriorates 
Such stories as " Bluebeard " have this effect, but " Cinder 
ella," " Sleeping Beauty," and many others, show that right i 
victorious in the end, and cannot have any bad effect on th 
children. The writer remembers the fascination with whicl 
the children listened for the first time to the fairy tale of " 1 
dog, a cat and a fox," which was afterwards written in simpL 
language and published * as a reading-book for children. Hov 
closely they followed the fortunes of the poor dog, who at firs 
met with such adverse fortune, and how their little faces bright 
ened when he was once more released, and when in the end th< 
scheming fox was outwitted. The children always want th< 
right to triumph, and this attitude of feeling is worth carefu 

(c) Stories of Nature. Flowers, rocks, trees, and othe 
objects in nature may be made the subject of pleasan 
stories, interesting as a fairy tale, and many important truth 
may be taught in this way. A story of the kind is givei 
as an example. 

Story of an Oak Tree. " One day a little girl namec 
Marian went out with her mother to walk in the park. The; 

* See Appendix 23. 


saw a great many trees, and flowers, and there was one very 

large tree that they looked at for a long time. It was an oak 

tree. Marian's mother told her many interesting things about 

the oak tree, which she liked very much to hear, and then 

they went home. Next day the little girl came alone to the 

park, and stood looking again at the old oak tree. Then 

she swung on the branches until she was tired, and at last 

she said to herself, ' I will sit down and rest, and think of all 

that mother told me about this tree '. But the day was warm, 

and Marian was so comfortable, with her head leaning 

against the old oak, that she soon fell asleep, and then she 

thought that the oak tree began talking to her. ' They 

call me the King of the Forest,' said he. ' I suppose that 

is because I am so old and strong. My trunk is very rough 

and rugged, and you see it is broad at the bottom, and grows 

narrower at the waist, and then curves out broader again. 

?he fresh, green, dancing leaves which you see were at one 

me folded up in tiny golden buds. What a number of 

wrappings they did have, to be sure ! That was to keep 

lem warm, you know, all through the winter, for this year's 

uds were formed on my branches last year. Do you see 

lese round apples ? They were buds once. How did 

ley grow like this, do you ask ? Well, a little insect came 

ne day ; she found a nice little bud, and made a hole in it. 

hen she laid some tiny eggs, and put round them some 

lice which the bud did not like at all, for it spoilt the little 

Ided leaves. So instead of sending out pretty green leaves, 

le bud grew into a little house and the eggs are all inside. 

V^hen the tiny grubs come out of their eggs, they will eat 

leir way through the oak apple and so get out. Do you 

now that the oak apples help to make the ink with which 

ou write ? 

" * Sometimes a caterpillar comes and rolls himself in one 

my little leaves ; and in the autumn, when my nuts are 

pe, the squirrel comes to visit me.' 'Yes,' said Marian, 


1 your nuts are acorns, how pretty they are ! each one of 
them has a little cup. I do not wonder that the squirrel 
comes to see you, for he likes your nuts so much.' " This 
shows the method pursued in these stories. The oak tree 
would make many such. 

(d) Stories for very little ones. These should be exceed- 
ingly simple. A dog, a kitten, a bird, anything that comes 
into the life of a little child, he is delighted to hear about. 
Many such stories are given in the chapters on Numbers and 
Beading, and others will suggest themselves to the Teacher. 
They should all be told in baby language, i.e., in language 
that the child can comprehend. Pictures often suggest a 
story, which is all the more interesting for being thus 

The children should sometimes be encouraged to tell what 
they can remember of the story. In this way they learn 
to express themselves. 

3. The Story-Teller . (a) We have said before that the 
language should be simple and easy to understand. 

(b) The voice should be modulated, and the story-telling is 
much more effective when gesticulations are used. The flying 
of birds, the rustling of leaves, etc., should be accompanied 
by hand movements on the part of the Teacher. 

(c) The story-teller should be in sympathy with the subject 
of the story, and also with the listeners, otherwise the! 
interest will be lost. 

(d) Just as pictures add interest to a story, so do illustra- 
tions on the blackboard, and these should be frequently given. 
Sometimes the children may be allowed to draw for them- 
selves objects which have been mentioned in the story. 

4. The after-effect of Stories. It is well to remember] 
that the child's taste for reading is largely influenced by the 
class of stories told to him in early life, and in these days on 
plentiful, cheap literature, how important it is that thJ 
youthful mind should be trained to appreciate that which! 


is good. If a child has learnt to gloat over horrible stories, 
he will gratify this morbid taste by reading ghastly tales 
as he grows older, and if, on the other hand, he has learnt 
to love stories that are simple and pure, he will choose 
reading that is good and elevating. 



EECITATION, like story-telling, increases the child's power of 
language, and it also has the advantage of strengthening the 

I. Choice of Recitations. The words should be simple 
and easy to pronounce. Verses which tell a little story are 
interesting. The pieces should not be too long, and for the 
very little ones the lines should be short also. It is very 
difficult for children to learn rhymes that have two or more 
lines commencing alike, thus : 

Little baby, point to baby, 
Little baby, stoop my baby, 
Little baby, curtesy baby, 

would be confusing to a little child. Songs of nature are 
very suitable ; take, for example, the little poem by William 
Blake : 

Little lamb, who made thee ? 

Dost thou know who made thee ? etc. 

Nursery rhymes are always liked by the children, and 
fairy tales put into verse are acceptable. In Recitations 
for Infants* two of these will be found, viz., " Eed Biding 
Hood" and "The Three Bears". The Recitations in this 
book have the actions specified. 

It is well sometimes to let the children learn something 

* See Appendix 22. 


comical and amusing, but this should never degenerate into 
descriptions of cruelty. 
2. How the Recitations should be taught. (a) The 

recitation should be read to the children by the Teacher, 
and should be made the subject of conversation, so that 
the children may have a clear idea of what they are 
going to learn. 

(b) Then the children repeat slowly after the Teacher, who 
must be careful that each word is pronounced correctly. 
Sometimes it may be necessary to give only one word at a 
time, e.g., if the Teacher said " morning light " the children 
might repeat " mornin' light," so " morning " should be given 
alone, and it is well to exaggerate the ing somewhat to 

nake it noticeable to the children : h's, d's, t's, and r's at 
be ends of words should also be very clearly pronounced, if 
ot exaggerated, and it is absolutely necessary for the 
hildren to watch the Teacher's lips all the time, if they are 
o get the correct pronunciation. 

(c) Emphasis is another point to be considered. If the 
oaportant words are not emphasised, the recitation becomes 
Qonotonous, and does not convey half so much meaning to 
he children. A few well-timed questions would soon show 

hich words needed emphasis. In the following rhyme, e.g., 

A fox went out to walk one day, 

And to the farm-yard came, 
The ducks and hens soon scuttled off, 

They knew his little game, 

uch questions as these might be asked, " Who went out? " 
The fox went out." Then we must put " force " on the word 
fox ". " Why did he go out ? " " He went out to walk." 
Where did he go? " "He went to the farm-yard," and so on, 

Iways emphasising the word that answers the question. 

(d) The voice should be modulated according to the words 
lat are being recited, the children should never be allowed 


to shout, and monotonous recitation should be carefulh 
avoided. The children should recite as they would talk 
naturally, and as if they were telling the story contained ir 
the verses. 


1. A poor fly one day 

To some milk found his way, 

And thought he would take just one sip, 

But ere he could stop, 

He tumbled, flip, flop ! 

And instead of a sip got a dip. 

2. " Oh, my wings are all wet, 
And if out I could get, 

I never would come here again ! " 

'Twas thus spoke the fly, 

Who longed to be dry, 

And fly back to his old window-pane. 

3. Just then cook came by, 
And, seeing the fly 

Try so hard to get out of his plight, 

She lifted him up, 

To the rim of the cup, 

Where soon he did put himself right. 


1. You pert little, sweet little robin, 
Perched there on the old garden wall, 
Half tame, and half shy, you are peeping, 
I wish you would come at my call ! 

2. I'm sure you're a dear, pretty creature, 
Your feathers, so bonnie and green, 
With the red on your breast, make a dress 
That is fit to be worn by a queen. 

3. Come near, robin red, and don't fear me, 
Come eat up the crumbs from my hand, 
You would not look timid and frightened, 
If only you could understand. 


4. For, surely, I never would hurt you, 
I'd pet you, and keep you so warm, 
And love you from morning till evening, 
And nothing my darling should harm ! 


1. Seven little toddlekins 
In a long, straight row, 
Sitting on a high, stone wall, 
In the sun you know. 

What can they be doing, pray ? 
Let us go and see 

Why they laugh, and why they shout, 
All so merrily. 

2. Freddy has a long, clay pipe 
In his little hand ; 

Annie holds a mug in hers ; 
Now, I understand ! 
Soapy suds are in the mug, 
And the children there 
Watch the bubbles, as they rise 
High into the air. 

3. Some are large, and some are small, 
Some go very high, 

Now the boys are running, see 1 

They to catch them try. 

One went higher, higher far 

Than a tall, tall tree, 

And the breezes play with some, 

Floating light and free. 

4. Red and purple, yellow, green, 
And blue the bubbles show, 
Orange, too, and indigo, 
Like the big rainbow. 

May your life be always brigh 
Dear children, as you grow, 
Only troubles light as bubbles 
May the bairnies know ! 



Preliminary. Fortunately for the children, fine speci- 
mens of needlework are not required from the pupils in the 
Kindergarten or Infant School, the elementary steps in 
sewing being all that is needed at this early stage. The 
teaching of this subject is greatly facilitated by the use ol 
drill; first there is needle drill, which is begun with the 

Needle Drill. 

One. Hold the needle in the left hand. 

Two. Hold the cotton in the right hand. 

Three. Thread the needle. 

Four. Draw r the thread through the needle. 

Thimble Drill. 

First let the children learn which is the long or middle 
finger of right hand. " We will call it the ' thimble ' 
finger, because the thimble fits on the tip of it." 

One. Hold up the " thimble " finger. 

Two. Hold thimble (by the top) between thumb and fore- 
finger of left hand. 

Three. Put thimble on. 

Four. Show right hand. (Teacher looks at each hand to 
see if thimble is put on right finger.) 


FIG. 129. 

For teaching hemming, the Paragon Demonstration 
Specimen * shown in the illustration is a great help. It is 
made of glazed linen and has brass eyelet holes for the 
needle to pass through. 

Conversation. The lesson would, of course, be pre- 
ceded by conversation. Teacher might say, " Look at the 
Bottom of your pinafore. What do you see there? " " We 
see a hem." "Why do you have the hem?" " Because 
ihe pinafore would look untidy without it." (Show a piece 
)f frayed calico.) " If you did not have the hem, the 
Dottom of your pinafore would be like this. How untidy it 
would look, and how soon it would wear out ! The pinafore 
s sewn in other places up the sides, those are seams, round 
ihe neck, etc., but hemming is the first stitch to learn. All 
ittle girls should learn to hem, and sew, so that they will 
3e able to keep their clothes tidy when they grow older. 

* See Appendix 24. 

270 SEWING. 

"Let us see how the hem is made?" "It is made byi 
turning the edge of the material over twice." (Each child 
might have a slip of paper two inches by four with which to 
fold the hem on the desk.) " First we fold the edge down a 
little way." Teacher shows how it is done with her 
specimen, which might be fastened on the blackboard, and 
the children then fold down one long edge of their paper. 
" Then we fold again (this time a little broader, to make the 
hem), and press the fold so that it will lie flat." Before 
using the needle and cotton, the Teacher would talk about 
them where the cotton comes from, what the needle is 
made of, etc. The Calico or Holland should also be made 
the subject of conversation. 

1st Lesson. In the first lesson the Demonstration Speci- 
men is all that is needed, the Teacher first using it herself 
and then allowing the children to come out and follow hed 

Sewing Drill. If the sewing drill be used for this first 
lesson, it will be a preparation for later lessons, when tha 
children work with their own specimens. 

One. Hold the needle in the right hand. 

Two. Take a stitch (this is shown on the specimen^ 
Fig. 129). 

Three. Turn the sewing over to see if the needle shinea 
through on the right side. 

Four. Push the needle with the thimble. 

Five. Take the point of the needle, and draw it out. 

The Teacher may repeat the numbers of the " Drill," and 
allow the children to give the movements indicated by thd 
numbers, when they have learnt them. After the Teachei 
has taken several stitches, the children may come out and 
try individually. 

They should become thoroughly familiar with hemming 
on the Demonstration Specimen before they have pieces 01 
their own. 

SEWING. 271 

The children's material may be dotted, to show where 
.he needle is to go in and come out. The eyelet holes in 
,he specimen show where the marks should be placed on 
,he calico; the dots on the hem should be red, and those 
)elow it black. The pieces should have about half an 
nch hemmed ready, and even then the Teacher will find 
hat very few children succeed in taking the stitch correctly at 
irst. Many attempts have to be made, and much patience 
s needed. The little hands grow damp and hot, needles 
break, cotton gets knotted, and sometimes fingers are pricked ; 
)ut in spite of all this, the work may be accomplished 
satisfactorily, in the end, if the drill is perseveringly adhered 
o it is a slow method but sure. 

The children should show their work, that is, hold it up 
or the Teacher to see, when they have taken the stitch 
Two). The difficulty is to get the stitches slanting on both 
sides of the material, this is why the dotted hern is recom- 
mended. If the stitch is correctly taken, the other exercises 
Three " and "Four" are easily accomplished. It is a mistake 
io expect children to be able to sew after a few lessons ; the 
Irill should be given again and again, but a lesson of twenty 
minutes or half an hour is quite long enough. It is more 
mportant that the stitches should be correct, that is, slanting 
n the proper direction, on both sides, than that they should 
)e very small. It is necessary at first to have the stitches 
arge, so that the child may see her mistakes magnified. 

Fine sewing is likely to injure the child's eyes, and six 
3r eight stitches to the inch are quite sufficient for children 

six or seven years. 

Coloured cottons should be used, with needles, size 6 or 
7, and coarse calico or holland. 

As soon as the children hem nicely, their work should be 
put to some practical use. It is discouraging to a child to 

continually hemming specimens, which are of no use, and 
ultimately find their way to the rag bag. 

272 SEWING. 

Pocket-handkerchiefs, tea-cloths and aprons may be made ; 
the latter have a narrow hem at the top, for the tape to pass 
through (which should be long enough to serve for strings), 
and a broader hem at the bottom. 



:E teaching of knitting is easier than that of sewing 

wooden knitting pins are used, and thick wool, such 
s fleecy or double Berlin. There should first be a 
onversation about the pins and wool, and also about all the 
rticles that are made by knitting, of which stockings are 
chief. Why are stockings made in this stitch ? Because 
ley will stretch. Enumerate all the different kinds of 
tockings woollen, cotton, silk, men's, women's, children's, 
Babies', etc. 

" How nice," says the Teacher, "to be able to knit our own 
tockings, for they wear so much better than those which 
re woven in a machine ! " 

Knitting pin drill. This may be taught first with the 
eedles only. 

Heady. Hold the needles in position. 

One. Take a stitch, i.e., put the point of right needle 
nder the point of left. 

Two. Throw the wool over, i.e., pretend to pass the 
vool round the point of the right hand needle, holding the 
eedles in position with the left hand. 

Three. Bring the right needle to the top. 

Four. Slip the stitch off the left needle, i.e., slip the 
ight needle away from the left. 

When this drill is thoroughly mastered, each child may 
iave a piece of knitting with about twenty stitches cast 



on beforehand. The needle which holds the stitches is 
put in the left hand, and the empty needle in the right. 
" Now," says the Teacher, " we are going to do real knitting, 
still saying the numbers which we learnt with the knitting 
pins. The first stitch does not need to be knitted like the 
other stitches, but requires only One * Take a stitch,' and 
F our < Slip it off '. We commence to knit properly at the 
second stitch." 

One. Take a stitch. 

Two. Throw the wool over. Be careful to pass the wool 
round the end of the right hand needle ; mind it does not 
slip off, for this is the stitch which has to be brought to the 
top at Three. 

Three. Bring the right needle to the top. (See that the 
new stitch is on it.) 

Four. Slip the stitch off the left needle. Children soon 
learn to take the stitch (One), and to throw over (Two), 
but " Three " is more difficult, and the Teacher will probably 
find it necessary to go round to each child, after " Three " 
has been called, and in many cases she will need to help 
them to bring the new stitch to the top. 

As soon as the children can knit nicely they should be set! 
to work on something useful. Scarfs, caps, muffs, and tea 
cosies can all be made with straight strips of knitting. The 
knitting of a strip which is not to be put to any particular use 
is dull and uninteresting. 

Mrs. Hibbert's Knitting Frames make a pleasing variety: 
With these, children who can knit well may be set to maka 
petticoats, scarfs, balls for the babies, and many othel 




SINGING forms a very important part of a child's education. 
It is as natural for a child to express himself in song, as 
it is for a bird to sing, and frequent opportunity should be 
given for this exercise of the voice. Singing divides itself 
into several branches, Kindergarten games, Action songs, 
Marching songs, etc., which we will take in order. 

Kindergarten Games. If the invention of the Kinder- 
garten game had been the sole outcome of Frobel's work, 
he would not have lived in vain. 

What a world of delight it opens up to the children ! and 
why ? Because children are born actors, and imitators, and 
the Kindergarten game affords full scope for the exercise of 
these faculties. Those who have witnessed the childish glee 
and " abandon " with which children give themselves up to 
the full enjoyment of playing a Kindergarten game, will 
testify that it is a touching sight, and one which has many a 
time brought tears to the eyes of the sympathetic beholder. 

To get at the true essence and meaning of Frobel's ideas 
on this subject, it is necessary to understand, in some 
measure at least, his Mutter und Kose-Lieder. It is not 
easily understood, for, unfortunately, Frobel had not the 
faculty of expressing himself very clearly, and the 
translation into English has, perhaps, had the effect of 
making his meaning even less clear, but to any one who will 


sincerely study the book, there cannot fail to be revealed a 
rich mine of deep, beautiful, and often sublime thought. 
Frobel's wife says : 

A superficial mind does not grasp it. 

A coarse mind makes fun of it. 

A thoughtful mind alone tries to get at it. 

Perhaps some day we may have the Mutter und Kose- 
Lieder with more simplified songs and music, but nothing 
can add to its lofty continuity of thought and moral sig- 

We must remember that, at this period, all the child's 
impressions come to him through his physical nature, and 
that it is, therefore, much more easy for him to understand 
when he represents, e.g. : Let the child be a little " farmer " 
sowing seeds, the action will convey to the child so clear an 
idea of the real sowing, that he will not be likely to forget 
it, and he will be quite prepared to recognise the real farmer 
at work at the first opportunity. In this way the powders of 
observation are cultivated and strengthened. The games 
also convey to the mind of the child clear ideas of the life 
and habits of animals. In the game of hens and chickens, 
e.g., the children do not pretend to be chickens, the play to 
them is real, and, in imagination, they are little chickens, 
and nestle under the wings of the human mother-hen with| 
the same confidence that the chickens have when they fly to 
their mother for protection. This, like the care of animals, 
cannot fail to develop love for dumb creatures ; and it is 
certainly calculated to strengthen the bond of affection 
between the children themselves, and also to develop the 
child's spiritual being. 

The Kindergarten Games then afford opportunity for 
development of the child's nature in many directions. 

1. The learning of the words strengthens the memory. 

2. Singing develops the voice. 


3. The child learns to observe. 

4. The physical nature is brought into action. 

5. The moral nature is elevated. 

It is needless to say that conversation should precede the 
introduction of a Kindergarten game. The children cannot 
enter into the spirit of the game unless they understand it, 
and the learning of the words may be accompanied by so 
much pleasant talk, that it is no task to the children. 

Another essential is : that the Teacher should enter into 
the spirit of the game, and, like Frobel himself, become for 
the time being " a child with the children ". A Teacher who 
can do this will realise that the influence of the children has 
a wonderful effect, and that we gain from them perhaps 
more than we give. 

The following quotation from Children's Rights illustrates 
this : 

" How well I remember, years ago, the first time I ever 
joined a Kindergarten game. I was beckoned to the charm- 
ing circle, and not only one, but a dozen openings were 
made for me, and immediately, though I was a stranger, a 
Little hand on either side of me was put into mine, with such 
friendly, trusting pressure that I felt quite at home. Then 
we began to sing of the spring-time, and I found myself a 
green tree waving its branches in the wind. I was frightened 
and self-conscious, but I did it, and nobody seemed to notice 
me ; then I was a flower opening its petals in the sunshine, 
and presently a swallow gathering straw for nest building ; 
then, carried away by the spirit of the Kindergartner and 
her children, I fluttered my clumsy apologies for wings, and 
forgetting self, flew about with all the others, as happy as a 
bird. Soon I found that I, the stranger, had been chosen 
for the ' mother swallow '. It was to me, the girl of eighteen, 
[ike mounting a throne and being crowned. Four cunning 
curly heads cuddled under my wings for protection and 
slumber, and I saw that I was expected to stoop and brood 


them, which I did, with a feeling of tenderness and re 
sponsibility that I had never experienced in my life before 
Then, when I followed my baby swallows back to thei 
seats, I saw T that the play had broken down every barrie 
between us, and that they clustered about me as confidingly 
as if we w r ere old friends. I think I never before felt nr 
own limitations so keenly, or desired so strongly to be full 1 
worthy of a child's trust and love." 

Perhaps the favourite Games are those in which animal; 
are represented, but there are other Games that are equall; 
interesting and instructive. Of these we may mentioi 
games of "Trades," and "Nature" Games such as " thi 
Brook," and " the Trees ". 

The Games of Trades should be used to inculcate in thi 
child a love for its fellow-creatures, and a sense of depend 
ence upon others. The child should be shown that he ii 
indebted to very many for the comforts he enjoys ever 
day. "Who made the bread that we eat? Who grouru 
the wheat into flour? Who sowed the seed? Then w< 
must thank the Baker, the Miller, and the Farmer for thi 
nice bread. But there is some one else ; we must not for 
get the Miner, who goes down into the dark earth, to ge 
the nice coal to make the oven hot, to bake the bread 
His face and hands are black with working in the coal, bu 
he cannot help that." The child thus learns that the " soil 
ing " that comes of toil is honourable, and not to be despised 
and when he has himself been a little "Joiner," or "Black 
smith," in the Games, this feeling will be strengthened. 

Before playing a Kindergarten Game, the children general!] 
form a ring, which, as Frobel teaches, gives the idea o 
unity ; and it is customary for a Eing song to precede ttu 



KEY E. (Three-pulse measure.) 

: d .r n : n : n.f 

n : r : r .n 

n :- 

1. Little children, all togeth-er, l Join to make a merry ring, 


All so 

: r 



hap - py, all so joy - ful, Stand in cir - cle 

(Four-pulse measure.) 

d .n : s .1 

2 Tra la la la la 

: n 

d .n : s .1 I s : 

Tra la la la la 

: f .r d 

as we sing. 

Tra la la la la la 

Is f:n .r 

d r- 

Tra la la la la. 

2. 3 To the left we step so lightly, 

On our toes we gently go, 
4 Now to right our way we're wending, 
Then we dance around, you know. 


3. 5 Clap your hands, all, happy children, 

6 Beat your knees one, two, three, four, 
7 See the children all are bowing, 

8 Join hands, now, and dance once more. 


Actions. l Join hands. 2 Dance round to music. 3 Step to left 
(keeping time to music). 4 Step to right. 5 Clap hands. 6 Beat 
knees. 7 Hands on sides ; all bow. 8 Join hands, ready to dance 
round when chorus commences. 



Instructions. The frontispiece illustrates this game. 
In the foreground a " farm-yard " is seen, the walls being 
made by the children, who stand with hands joined. In 
the centre of the " farm-yard " is a group of " chickens," and 
the "cock" stands near, with wings outspread. To the 
left and right are small groups of "ducks" and "geese" 
respectively. In the background, the children stand waving 
branches of trees, to represent the "jungle," where the 
animals, mentioned in verse one, live. Between the "farm- 
yard " and the " jungle " is a " road," the two sides of which 
are made by children kneeling ; and at the end of the road 
is seen the " den " of the " wolf ". To make this, the 
children stand facing each other, and hold their branches so 
that they meet above. The " wolf " is seen coming out of 
his den, with the little cubs behind. The " lion " and 
" tiger " are represented by boys stooping, these are seen 
near the hunters, who stand on the left side of the " jungle," 
gun in hand, with their " horses " near them. The biggest 
and strongest boys should be chosen for horses, and very 
little boys should ride them. 

1st Verse. In the first verse the " wolf " keeps in his 
den. During the singing of the chorus, the hunters mount 
their horses, and ride through the jungle and back again, 
and then dismount (the horses will get tired if the riders 
remain mounted for any length of time). 

2nd Verse. In the second verse the " wolf " conies out of 
his den, and goes to the farm-yard. As soon as he appears, 
the ducks, chickens, etc., run away quacking and clucking. 
When the chorus begins the riders come round the farm- 
yard to see what is the matter, but by this time the " wolf " 
is away to his " den ". 

3rd Verse. In the third verse the "wolf" comes out 
again and prowls about the jungle, and during the singing 
of the chorus, after this verse, the hunters catch him. 




(Two-pulse measure.) 

d .d :d .d 

s. .s. : Si .s 

n .n : n .n / 

this dark forest we shall find Some creatures, great and 







d .d :r .r |n .n :f .r Id 

.d :t, .t, / 

The lion, 

||.n,rid . 

tiger, savage wolf, And el-e-phant so 
d .d |S| .Si : Si .S| n .n : n .n J 

So mount your beasts, my trusty men, And come along with 

d .d : r .r n .n : f .r 

d .d :t, .r 

For off a - hunting we will go, As merry as can 

2. Last night the wolf came prowling round, 

On mischief he was bent, 
And for to find a nice fat goose, 
He to the farm-yard went. 


3. Now, Mr. Wolf, we're after you, 

And if your den we find, 
You'll have to come with us, my dear, 
And leave your cubs behind. 







s :d :d 

d :r 

: n n : r : r 

r : :s 

1. The 

fowls are 


- ing snug and warm, Un - 


: :n i 


r d : : S, 

S: : d : d 


the day shall dawn, With 

moth - er 


:r : n n 

: r 

r r : - : s 

n : : n 


are safe 

from harm, All 

sleep - ing 

(Four-pulse measure.) 



:d :r d 

:n s : f (n : r 

d :r n :n . 


the morn. But when the sun peeps o'er the hill, The 


:f In :r 

d : 

r 'n : s.s 

: s .s ( s : n 

cock crows loud," What, sleeping still ! Cock-a-doodle-do ! 

(If :r Id ! 
Wake, I say." 

2. Then all the chicks come flying out, 

To follow mother's lead, 
Now here, now there they run about, 

Till Molly comes to feed. 
She scatters for them all nice food, 
The cock cries out, " 'Tis very good, 
Cock-a-doodle-doo ! Very good ! " 

3. Ah ! here's the rain ! each tiny chick 

Runs straight to mother dear, 
While bigger chickens seek the barn, 

And shelter safe from fear. 
The little ones 'neath mother's breast 
Are snug and warm, and safely rest, 
Cock-a-doodle-doo ! Safely rest. 


4. Just as the hen bird shields her young, 

The tender, pretty things ; 
So God protects and shelters you, 

Dear children, 'neath His wings. 
The rain is o'er, so come away, 
And pick up food, and run and play, 
Cock-a-doodle-doo ! Run and play. 

Instructions. A " farm-yard " is needed where the 
" hen " and " chickens " may run about ; a big girl is chosen 
for the mother-hen, and smaller children represent the 
chickens. Another girl is required for " Molly," and a boy 
for the " cock ". The farm-yard is made as in the Jungle 
game, but at one end of it there should be a barn, formed 
by a ring of children, and at the other a little hen-house, 
made in the same way. 

1st Verse. In the first verse the fowls are sleeping in the 
hen-house, but at the call of the cock, "Wake, I say," they 
come out. 

2nd Verse. In verse two they run about, looking for 
food, until the little girl comes to feed them. Then they 
pretend to pick up the food, which she scatters from her 

3rd Verse. In the third verse the little chickens (of which 
there should be about six), run to the mother (a bigger girl), 
who covers them with her wings (arms), and the rest seek 
the barn. The chickens remain in this position, until verse 
four, when they run out at the words, " The rain is o'er ". 



ACTION songs are a good preparation for drill, as they teach 
the children to move all in time. It is well to remember 
that more strength is required to sing and drill at the same 
time than to practise either of these exercises singly. The 
movements, therefore, should not be violent, and not many 
action songs should be sung consecutively. It is a very 
pretty sight to see an action song performed by a school full 
of children, when ,the little hands and feet all keep time to 
the music. A couple of action songs are given as examples- 




: d .,ri 


: r 



:d .,n 

r.t, :s, 



(2) (1) 

all your fing 


- ers, 

your fing - 

ers, your fing - ers, 


: d .,n 


:r .f 

n .,d 

: r .,ti 

d :- 


them, and bend them 

, just as I 

do with mine, 


: s ,,d' 


: s 


n .,d 

: n 

r .ti : s. 

(3) (4) (3) (4) (3) (4) (3) (4) 

Then we move the wrist ]oint, the wrist joint, the wrist joint, 

n .,s 

; s ,,d 


: s . 


n .,d 

' r .,ti 

d :- 


Now it 

(C) (5) 

is the el - 


(5) (6) (5) (6) 

with arms all in a line. 





: r 



: d .,n 

r .ti : s. 


clap to - geth 

- er, 


and twist 

all in this way, 


: d .,n 


: r 


n ,d 

:r .,t, d 



Beat, then, just four times, and cross on chest, I say. 


(I) Close hands. (2) Open. Continue these two movements to end 
second line. (3) Drop hands from wrists. (4) Kaise hands. (5) 

lands out, elbows being kept close to sides. (6) Hands brought back 
o shoulders. (7) Clap four times. (8) Twist four times. (9) Beat 
nees. (10) Cross hands, and tap chest with tips of fingers. 

(II) (ii) (ii) (ii) 

2. Shrug all your shoulders, your shoulders, your shoulders, 

(12) (13) 

Then stretch your hands up, as high as they can go, 

(14) (15) 

Now to right and left stretch together, together, 

(16) (17) 

Next from sides to shoulders the hands move briskly, so. 
Chorus : Clap, clap, etc. 

(18) (19) (20) (21) (18) (19) (20) (21) 

3. All point your toes out, to left, and to right, see, 

(22) (23) 

Up spring on tip-toe, as far as far can be, 

(24) (25) 

nd your knees so gently, so slowly, and carefully, 


ose your toes, and open, and keep in time with me. 
Chorus : Clap, clap, etc. 

(28) (29) 

4. Point to the Northward, point to the Southward, 

(30) (31) 

Then point to Eastward, and next we turn to West, 

(32) (33) (32) (33) (34) (33) (34) (33) 

Stretch your neck to left, and to right, as you stand all, 

(36) (36) (35) (36) (37) 

Backward, forward, stretch, then just drop your chin on chest. 
Chorus : Clap, clap, etc. 

(11) Move the shoulders four times, once at each place indicated. 
.2) Hands up. (13) Hands down (continue to end of line). (14) Hands 
it to right and left. (15) Hands on shoulders (continue to end of line). 
6) Hands down. (17) Hands on shoulders (continue to end of line). 
.8) Hands on sides, left foot out. (19) Feet together. (20) Bight foot 
it. (21) Feet together. (22) Spring up on toes. (23) Heels on floor 
ontinue to end of line). (24) All -bend. (25) Stand up (continue 

end of line). (26) Toes together. (27) Toes apart, heels being kept 
ose together (continue to end of line). (28) Turn to North, and 
Dint. (29) Turn to South, and point. (30) Turn to East, and point. 
1) Turn to West, and point. (32) Incline head to left. (33) Hold 
sad erect. (34) Incline head to right. (35) Stretch head backwards. 
6) Incline head forward. (37) Remain in this position to end 



The following song is suitable for very young children : 

{: n .f I s : n : n In : r :r .n If : r 

1. Ah, l Kit - ty, I see you Lap, lap - ping your 

n.f s : n : n 

n : r : r.n f : t, : t. 

d :- 

milk, I'll 2 stroke your fur gently, 'Tis soft as fine silk. 

2. You s sit on the hearth-rug, 

And 4 fold up your paws, 
They 5 feel soft as velvet, 
But 6 where are your claws ? 

3. 7 Come, puss, show your 8 whiskers, 

Your 9 eyes large and bright ; 
And then you shall 10 jump, for 
That is quite a sight. 

Hold up forefinger of right hand. 2 Stroke left arm with right 
hand. :J Point downwards. 4 Fold right hand over left. 5 Grasp dress 
with both hands. 6 Hold up the forefinger of right hand. 7 Beckon. 
8 Touch each side of face. 9 Touch eyes. 10 Spring up on toes. 



N most schools, the children march for five or ten minutes 
efore taking their places for the opening exercises, 
[arching is much enjoyed by the children, and it is also 
great value, for it gives the Teacher opportunity to notice 
ow the child walks, and to correct errors. It also teaches 
ow to step in time. The head should be held erect, the 
loulders well back, and the arms straight down at the 
des, or the hands may be folded behind. The children 
lould step lightly, they should never be allowed to stamp 
le feet, and they should learn to put down the left foot at 
heavy beat of the music. Singing often accompanies 
aarching (four time should always be used), and a few 
aarching songs are here given. The verses referring to the 
mr seasons are intended to be sung during those seasons, 
e., the verses about Spring should be sung in the Spring- 
me, those about Summer in the Summer-time, and so on. 

.EY E. (Four time.) 

s : n I d 1 : 1 s : -.f | n : n r : s | f e : 1 I 
The sweet spring-time is here once more, With flow'rs so bright and 

s : I :s l.t:d'.l|s :n I l.t : d'.l I s : n 
gay, The trees are dressed in pret - ty green, The 

I r : 1 |s : t I d 1 : - | - I 
cuck - oo sings all day. 

2. I see the tiny chicks and ducks, 
And lambs that frisk in glee ; 
The world seems full of life and joy, 
I'm glad as glad can be. 


(See tune of Spring.) 

1. The gladsome Spring has passed and gone, 

And Summer now we greet, 
The air is filled with scent of rose, 
And honeysuckle sweet. 

2. Ah ! now we hear the mowers' scythes, 

And smell the new-mown hay, 
The bee sucks honey ; butterflies 
Flit gaily all the day. 



n.rrn.fls :n Id 1 :1 s : s .n : f .1 s : n I 

1. Rust-ling leaves of gold and brown, These are Autumn's 

Xlr :1 [ :- Id 1 :d' d 1 :s 1 :1 's :- 
pret - ty gown ; Ap - pies, pears, and pur-pie plums, 


1 .d 1 : t .1 ! s : n 

:s d :- J| 
All are ripe when Autumn comes. 

2. Hips and haws, nuts, blackberries, 
All are hanging on the trees. 
To the woods away, away, 
Gathering nuts is merry play. 

(See tune of Autumn.) 

1. Winter, you have come at last, 
Icy cold and biting blast, 
These will follow in your train, 
Frost and snow will come again. 

2. All the trees are black and bare, 
Robin looks for food with care. 
Sliding, skating, oh what fun ! 
Now the winter has begun. 

Sometimes the children may be allowed to march in twos, 
dividing when they reach the end of the room, and marching 
singly to the other end, then rejoining partners, as in GUE 
Drill, First Movement. 



Circle marching is very good for teaching how to step to 
he music. The children form a ring, and then turn, so that 

1 the left feet are inside the ring. If the Teacher stands in 

ie centre of the ring, she can easily see when any child gets 
at of step, and the children themselves being able to see 
ach other's feet will more readily perceive when they make 


The following marching song is much enjoyed by the chil- 
ren. First a ring is formed, then it is 

oken at b, and the children march round 
ad round, until point a is reached. Now 

ie children at the places marked x raise 

teir hands to make the "archway," and 

ie child who is leading, and who now 

ands at <x, comes out, and the rest follow. It is very im- 

>rtant that the hands be kept joined all the time. 


d.rrn.f s 

Come, you children, glad and free, 

f :f in :n 
Come and march a - 

r :r d :- 
round with me, 

:s if :f 

Winding, winding, children all. 

s :s f :f | n :n i r : 
Soon we'll make a nice, round ball, 

d .r : n .f ! s : s / 

Trot and march a - 


r : 

s :- 

way, a - way, 

f :f |n :n r :r Id :- 
All so hap - py, and so gay. 

2. Make an archway, children dear, 
From the centre march out here, 
Soon the ball will be unwound, 
Marching gently, round and round ; 
Trot and march, away, away, 
All so happy, and so gay. 



THE EEV. J. CURWEN conferred a great benefit on childre 
when he invented the Tonic Sol-fa method of teachin 
singing. It is so easy and simple that children of five or si 
years of age may begin to learn it without difficulty. 

Singing, whether from note or words, should always I 
sweet, never " throaty " or loud. 

A piano helps to keep the right pitch, but often there ai 
numbers of children who have no notion of tune, and thei 
cause the singing to be flat. 

It is a good plan to suppress these discordant voices, ai 
to allow such children to sit near those who sing perfectly ; 
tune, and listen carefully. This has sometimes had tl 
effect of producing tuneful singing from children, wh 
previously, sang quite out of tune. 

An excellent method of securing melodious singing 
to allow the children to run up and down. the scale, ai 
sing the notes of the Doh chord (d., m., s., d.) with the had 
signs before beginning to sing their songs or even the mon 
ing hymn. In teaching Tonic Sol-fa, the hand signs coij 
first, then follow the names of the notes on the Modulate 
The Kindergarten Modulator * is the simplest and best. 

When the names of the notes have been learnt, I 
sounds may be given ; first in rotation, that is, up and do^ 
the scale, and then the notes of the Doh chord taken! 

* See Appendix 25. 



order, d., m., s., d., and afterwards varied. It is well to call 
attention to the different sounds of the notes " doh " is a 
trong sound, ''me" is not so strong, "lah" is mournful, 
nd so on. Modulator practice should be given at least 
nee a week, and the children should be thoroughly pro- 
cient in this practice before notes are written in a line on 
e blackboard. 



THE object of Drill, is to develop the children's bodies, so a 
to make them strong, lithe, and graceful, and also to gratif 
the child's natural desire for pleasurable movement. Ii 
this, as in every exercise, the first question to be asked ii 
" What is good for the children?" Then, but not till theil 
may be considered what has a pretty effect. The Teachc 
of drill needs to be energetic, else the children move tl 
arms slowly, and get out of time. It is a good plan 
encourage the scholars, by letting one who does it nice 
be the " Captain," and lead, while the others are litd 
" soldiers " following the Captain's movements. Drill son I 
are a good preparation, take, e.g., the one given on p. 28j 
The drill lesson should never be a long one, and the exerci&j 
should not be too violent. It is well to remember that M 
are dealing with undeveloped limbs, and that the tend! 
muscles of a little child should be used mercifully. T] 
writer has known a little girl to come home from school 
exhausted with dancing and drilling, that she was glad 
lie down. In this instance the good of the child had i 
been the first thought in the Teacher's mind, or the lit 
one would not have been overworked. If this thought w 
kept prominent it would enable one to have more patier 
with the many who get out of time. All children have 
the same ear for music, and what is perfectly easy to 
is exceedingly difficult to another. A college student 1 
been known to find it almost impossible to keep time 


simple drill exercises, even after long and careful training, 
so it is no wonder if some of the children find it difficult. 
Some kind of Drill should be taught to all the children, 
though for the younger ones the Kindergarten Games provide 
sufficient movement. Where " drill" is given to these no 
apparatus is needed, and if any is used, it should be of the 
very lightest description. Musical Bells are the most 
appropriate. The exercises should always be taught in six- 
ieens, so that eight bars of music may complete each 
exercise, except in waltz music, when sixteen bars will be 

In beginning drill with very little ones % let it be introduced 
by a story: "There was once a little boy who went with 
tiis Mother in the train to see his Grandmamma. How 
does the train go? " (Imitate the motion of the wheels with 
the arms, and let the children do it sixteen times.) "His 

randmamma lived in the country. What would they see ? 
The little boy saw some birds flying. Let us make 
little birds fly." (Join tips of fingers overhead and then 
wave hands outwards. This also sixteen times.) " Next 
they came to a blacksmith's shop, and stood by the door to 
watch the blacksmith swing his heavy hammer." (Make a 
lammer with fist of right hand, and strike open palm of 
.eft sixteen times. Then the left hand should be the 
aammer, and strike the right hand another sixteen.) "In a 
ield they saw a little boy, who made a noise to scare the 
tirds away, lest they should eat the seed which the farmer 
lad just sown." (Let the children imitate sowing of seed, 
irst with right, and then with left hand, each sixteen times.) 
This story may be continued at the Teacher's discretion, 
md, in time, the exercises may be done to music, or, where 
ihere is no piano, half the children should sing or hum the 
iune while the others do the exercises. To drill and sing at 
ihe same time is much too hard. 

At first the children should drill to numbers, simply 


counting to sixteen for every exercise. The little ones 
should sometimes be allowed to watch the older ones drill 
then they will learn more readily when they have to do il 


General Instructions. It will be found that each dril 
is divided into Exercises, and that these Exercises are agair 
divided each into four parts, called Movements. To each on( 
of the movements sixteen is counted. The following tun( 
shows the manner of counting : 


f 1 * I 1 

11 pi :d.,nlf : r .,f n : d .,n | r .,ti : s, n : d .,n J 

One, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten, e - 


f :r .f 

n .d :r 


leven, twelve, thirteen, fourteen, fifteen, sixteen. 

In the above we count two to each bar, so that eight ban 
are sufficient for one movement ; but where waltz music ii 
used, sixteen bars will be needed for each Movement, as w< 
only count one to each bar in waltz time. Where slow timi 
is indicated, w r altz music is best. The position in \vhich thi 
child should stand for each Movement is given after the won 
" Beady," which may or may not be repeated by the Teache 
at her discretion. It is advisable, however, to use the wor< 
in the earlier drill lessons, but as children become mon 
proficient the different Movements may follow each othe 
with only a slight pause between, or a chord may be struc] 
on the piano for the "Ready" of each Movement. Th 
children should rest between each Exercise for a shor 
space of time. 

It is necessary to put as much distance as possibl 
between each child. The children should be placed so tha 
they cannot touch each other. 




(See General Instructions, p. 294.) 

THESE consist of a light bar of wood, about six inches long, 
with a bell fastened at each end. They are suitable for the 
very youngest children; the bar is easily held, it helps to 
keep the little hands in position, and the child likes to hear 
the tinkle of the bells. If the bars are painted or enamelled 
in pretty colours this drill will give still greater pleasure. 

FIG. 130. 

FIG. 131. 


1st Movement. Beady. Hold bars vertically as shown 
in Fig. 130. 

One. Hands straight out. Fig. 131. 
Two. Hands drawn back. Fig. 130. 
* See Appendix 26. 


(Continue these two movements until sixteen has beer 

2nd Movement. Ready. Bars held vertically. Fig 

One. Hands straight up. 

Two. Bring back to position. Fig. 130. 

(Continue these two movements until sixteen has been 

3rd Movement Ready. Hands on shoulders. 

One. Hands out to right and left. 

Two. Hands on shoulders. 

(Continue these two movements until sixteen has been 

FIG. 132. FIG. 133. 

4th Movement. Ready. Hands under arms. Fig. 132. 
One. Hands straight down. Fig. 133. 
Two. Hands under arms. Fig. 132. 
(Continue these two movements until sixteen has been 


FIG. 134. FIG. 135. 


1st Movement (for exercising muscles of the neck. Slow 
time). -Ready. Hands on sides. Fig. 134. 

(Keep the hands in this position during the next two move- 

One. Look to left. Fig. 135. 

Two. Look straight in front. 

Three. Look to right. 

Four. Look straight in front. 

(Continue these four movements until sixteen has been 
counted in slow time.) 

2nd Movement (continues neck exercises. Slow time). 
Beady. Hands on sides. Fig. 134. 

One. Drop head on chest. 

Two. Head as far back as possible. 

(Continue these two movements until sixteen has been 



3rd Movement. Beady. Bars held as in Fig. 130. 

One. Hands straight up. 

Two. Hands on heads. 

Three. Hands on shoulders. 

Four. Hands down by sides. 

(Continue these four movements until sixteen has been 

4th Movement (slow time). Beady. Bars held as in 
Fig. 130. 

One. Hands together on chest. 

Two. Spring up on toes, throw hands outwards, and 
bring to sides. 

(Continue these two movements until sixteen has been 
counted slowly.) 

PIG. 136. FIG. 137. 


ISt Movement. Ready. Hands out to right and left 
Fig. 136. 


One. Hands turned round to position shown by Fig. 137. 

Two. Hands turned back to position shown in Fig. 

(Continue these two movements until sixteen is counted.) 

2nd Movement. Beady. Hands straight out in 

(Continue the wrist exercises with hands in this position, 
ntil sixteen is counted.) 

3rd Movement. Beady. Hands held straight up. 

(Wrist exercise continued, with hands in this position, until 
ixteen is counted.) 

4th Movement. Beady. Hands down. 

(Wrist exercise with hands in this position until sixteen is 


1st Movement (slow time). Beady. Hands on sides 
s in Fig. 134. 

One. Left foot out at an angle of 45. 

Two. Bring foot back to position, and spring up on 

Three. Eight foot out at angle of 45. 

Four. Bring foot to position, and spring up on toes. 

(Continue these four movernents until sixteen is counted.) 

2nd Movement (in slow time). Beady. Hands on sides 
s in Fig. 134. 

One. Bend the knees. 

Two. Stand upright. 

(Continue these two movements until sixteen is counted.) 



FIG. 138. 

FIG. 139. 

3rd Movement. Beady. Body bent forward. 
One. Thrust left hand downward as if kneading. Fig. 138. 
Two. Thrust right hand downward. Fig. 139. 
(Continue these two movements until sixteen is counted.) 
4th Movement. Beady. Hands on sides as in Fig. 134. 
One. Toes together. 
Two. Toes apart. 

(Continue these two movements until sixteen is counted, 
keeping heels together all the time.) 



(See General Instructions, p. 294.) 

THESE are made in Iron or Wood ; the latter are best adapted 
for young children. For children of six years of age they 
should not be more than six or eight ounces in weight. 
This apparatus is more suitable for boys than girls, and is 
excellent for promoting muscular development. 

FIG. 140. 

FIG. 141. 


1st Movement (slow time). Ready. Hands in posi- 
tion shown by Fig. 140. 

* See Appendix 27. 


One. Hands straight out in front, dumb bells touching 
each other in a horizontal position. 

Two. Bells touching over head. 

Three. Hands out to right and left in a line with shoulders. 

Four. Hands by sides. 

(Continue these four movements until sixteen is counted.) 

2nd Movement. Beady. Hands in position shown by 
Fig. 140. 

One. Hands out in front with bells apart. Fig. 141. 

Two. Strike bells together gently. 

Three. Turn to left with bells out, and apart, as in Fig. 

Four. Strike bells together gently. 

Five. Hands out in front with bells apart. 

Six. Strike bells together. 

Seven. Turn to right with hands out and bells apart. 

Eight. Strike bells together. 

(Eepeat these eight movements so as to complete sixteen.) 



FIG. 142. 

FIG. 143. 

3rd Movement. One. Swing bells to left. Fig. 142. 
Two. Bring bells to position shown by Fig. 143, still 
turning to left ; feet may be turned to the left also. 
Three. Swing bells to right. 

Four. Bring bells to position, still turning to right. 
(Continue these four movements until sixteen is counted.) 



FIG. 144. 

FIG. 145. 

4th Movement. One. Swing arms to left, keeping the 
left hand uppermost and both dumb bells in a vertical posi- 
tion. Fig. 144. 

Two. Keep the left hand still, and strike upwards with 
the right, looking up at the same time. Fig. 145. 

Three. Swing to right, keeping right hand uppermost, 
and dumb bells in a vertical position. 

Four. Strike upwards with left hand. 

(Continue these four movements until sixteen is counted.) 


1st Movement. Ready. Hands in position shown by 
Fig. 140. 

One. Hands straight up. 
Two. Position. Fig/140, 



Three. Hands out in front. 

Four. Position. Fig. 140. 

Five. Left hand out in front, holding dumb bell in up- 
ight position. 

Six. Strike left dumb bell with right. 

Seven. Eight hand out in front, left brought back to 

Eight. Strike right dumb bell with left. 

(Continue these eight movements until sixteen is counted.) 

2nd Movement. Ready. Hands on shoulders. 

One. Left hand on left shoulder, while right hand is 
traight out to the right. 

Two. Eight hand on right shoulder, while left hand is 
>traight out. 

(Continue these two movements until sixteen is counted.) 

3rd Movement (to the tune of " The Campbells are 
Coming "). Ready. Hands in position shown by Fig. 140. 

One. Strike together out in front. 

Two. Strike together over head. 

Three. Strike in front again. 

Four. Strike behind twice quickly at "and four" in the 
music. The tune should be played in quick time. In this 
measure there are three pulses to each beat, and we count 
one to every beat. 
EY C. (Six-pulse measure.) 




s : n 

:d n :- 


In :- 






: n : 


r : 

: r 

r :- 

= a} 





:n : 


s :-.! 

: S 

d 1 : - .r 

'in 1 / 





:n : 


n : 


n : 








n :s :1 I 


d 1 :1 id 1 j 

(Continue these four movements until sixteen is counted.) 



4th Movement. Heady. Hands on shoulders. 

One. Left hand on head, while right hand is straight ou 
to right. 

Two. Hands on shoulders. 

Three. Bight hand on head while left hand is straigh 
out to left. 

Four. Both hands on shoulders. 

(Continue these four movements until sixteen is counted.) 

1st Movement. Ready. Fig. 140. 

One. Charge to left, with left foot, i.e., send out left foo 
at an angle of 45, and left hand in same direction. 

Two. Position. Fig. 140. 

Three. Charge to right. 

Four. Position. Fig. 140. 

(Continue these four movements until sixteen is counted.) 

2nd Movement. Beady. Fig. 140. 

One. Hands out to right and left. 

Two, Three \ Wrist exercise with hands in this position 
and Four. J see Figs. 136 and 137 of Musical Bells. 

Five. Hands straight out in front. 

Six, Seven ^ Wrist exercise with hands in thi 
and Eight. J position. 

Nine. Hands up. 

Ten, Eleven } ^ T . ' 

r vvnst exercises with hands up. 
and Iwelve. } 

Thirteen. Hands down. 

Fourteen, Fifteen, \ Wrist exercises with hands in thii 
Sixteen. J position. 

3rd Movement. Ready. Body bent forward. 

One. Left hand thrust downwards as if imitating knead 
ing. Fig. 138, Musical Bells. 

Two. Eight hand thrust downwards as if imitating knead 
ing. Fig. 139, Musical Bells. 

(Continue these two movements until sixteen is counted.) 



4th Movement (slow time). Ready. Fig. 140. 

One. Touch floor with bells. 

Two. Position as in Fig. 140. 

Three. Send hands up and look up. 

Four. Position. Fig. 140. 

(Continue these four movements until sixteen is counted.) 

For Exercise IV., see p. 309. 



FIG. 146. 

FIG. 147. 

PIG. 148. 

FIG. 149. 


1st Movement (boys only). Ready. Fig. 140. 

One. Hands up. 

Tivo. Position. Fig. 140. 

Three. Eaise the left leg and strike under left knee. Fig. 

Four. Position. Fig. 140. 

Five. Hands up. 

Six. Position. Fig. 140. 

Seven. Eaise right leg, and strike under right knee. 

Eight. Position. Fig. 140. 

(Eepeat these eight movements so as to complete sixteen.) 

2nd Movement (boys only ; slow time). Ready. Fig. 
140, with feet apart. 

One. Bells together high above the head. Fig. 147. 

Two. Swing downwards. Fig. 148. 

(Continue these two movements until sixteen is counted.) 

3rd Movement (slow time 1 ). Ready. Hands on shoul- 

One. Eight hand straight out to right, and left hand to 

Two. Eight hand down while left hand is up. Fig. 149. 

Three. Hands straight out to right and left. 

Four. Left hand down while right hand is up. 

(Continue these four movements until sixteen is counted.) 

4th Movement. March out with bells in position. Fig. 



(See General Instructions, p. 294.) 

THE hoops shown here are made of wood, and measun 
eighteen inches in diameter. For cost, etc.* They can b< 
obtained with bells attached, and may be wrapped wit! 
coloured muslin to match the children's sashes for entertain 
ments, or they might be painted to match sashes, etc. 

FIG. 150. FIG. 151. 


ISt Movement. Beady. Hoop in position shown b} 
Fig. 150. 

* See Appendix 28. 



One. Touch floor with hoop. 

Two. Position. Fig. 150. 

Three. Hoop out. Fig. 151. 

Four. Position. Fig. 150. 

(Continue these four movements until sixteen is counted.) 

Hoop to be held vertically in above exercise. 

FIG. 152. 

FIG. 153. 

2nd Movement. Heady. Hoop over head. Fig. 153. 
One. Hoop on neck. Fig. 152. 
Tivo. Hoop over head. Fig. 153. 

(Continue these two movements until sixteen is counted.) 
3rd Movement (slow time). Beady. Hoop in position 
lown by Fig. 150. 

One. Hoop held over head as in Fig. 153. 
Ttvo. Drop hoop on shoulders. Fig. 152, 



Three. Place hands on sides. 
Four. Bow. 

(Continue these four movements until sixteen is counted. 

FIG. 154. 

FIG. 155. 

4th Movement (slow time). Heady. Hold hoop wi 
hands close together. 

One. Hoop down. Fig. 154. 

Two. Swing hoop over head until hands are behind nee 
Fig. 155. 

(Continue these two movements until sixteen is counted/ 



FIG. 156. 

EXERCISE II. (with partners). 

1st Movement. Beady. See Fig. 161, Sing Drill. 
One. Left arms out. 
Two. Eight arms out. Fig. 156. 

(Continue these two movements until sixteen has been 



FIG. 157. 

2nd Movement. Eeady. See Fig. 161, Ring Drill. 

One. Hoops to A's shoulders. Fig. 157. 

Two. Hoops to B's shoulders. 

(Continue these two movements until sixteen is counted.) 



FIG. 158. 

3rd Movement (slow time.) Ready. See Fig. 161, 
Ring Drill. 

One. Meet hoops over head. Fig. 158. 

Two. Meet hoops below horizontally, bending the body 
as in Fig. 175, Wand Drill. 

(Continue these two movements until sixteen is counted.) 

4th Movement. Beady. Fig. 161, Ring Drill. 

One. Send feet out and look under hoop. See Fig. 162, 
Ring Drill. 

Two. Position. Fig. 161, Ring Drill. 

Three. Send feet out in opposite direction, and look under 

Four. Position. Fig. 161, Ring Drill. 

(Continue these four movements until sixteen is counted.) 



FIG. 159. 
EXERCISE III. (with hoops joined in rows ; Fig. 159). 

1st Movement. Ready. Fig. 159. 

One. Send hoops up and spring on toes. 

Two. Position. Fig. 159. 

Three. Touch floor with hoops held vertically. 

Four. Position. Fig. 159. 

(Continue these four movements until sixteen is counted.) 

2nd Movement Beady. Fig. 159. 

One. Bend the body, turning hoops over into a horizon ta 
position at the same time. 

Two. Position as in Fig. 159. 

(Continue these two movements until sixteen is counted.) 

3rd Movement. Ready. Fig. 159. 

One. Hoops out and left foot out at same time. Fig 
230, Tambourine Drill. 

Two, Position as in Fig. 159, 


Three. Hoops out, and right foot out at same time. 

Four. Position. Fig. 159. 

(Continue these four movements until sixteen is counted.) 

4th Movement. Ready. Fig. 159. 

One. Step to left. 

Two. Feet together, spring up on toes. 

Three. Step to right. 

Four. Feet together and spring up on toes. 

(Continue these four movements until sixteen is counted.) 

The following lines might be sung before Exercise III. : 

See the children ready stand, 
All in rows with hoop in hand, 
When we drill, the hoops will go 
Up and down, or to and fro. 

Now we're springing up on toes, 
To the floor, next, each hoop goes, 
Step to left, or step to right, 
Moving all with footsteps light. 

EXERCISE IV. (in fours). 

1st Movement. Ready. Four girls form a ring. Each 
girl holds her own hoop with left hand, and her neighbour's 
with right. 

One. Send hoops up. 

Two. Position as in " Eeady ". 

Three. Swing hoops down horizontally. 

Four. Position as in "Eeady". 

(Continue these four movements until sixteen is counted.) 



FIG. 160. 

2nd Movement. One. Step to centre and send hoops 
up. Fig. 160. 

Two. Position as in " Eeady " of first movement. 

(Continue these two movements until sixteen is counted.) 

3rd Movement. One. Step to left. 

Two. Feet together and spring up on toes. 

Three. Step to left again and continue this until Eight 
has been counted. 

Nine. Step to right. 

Ten. Spring up on toes. 

(Continue until sixteen is counted.) 

4th Movement. Beady. Place the four hoops on the 
top of each other. Left hands on hoops, right hand on hip. 
Walk round until eight has been counted. At Nine, turn 
round, place right hands on hoops, and left on hip, and walk 
round until sixteen is counted. 



(See General Instructions, p. 294.) 

THE rings are made of wood, and measure three and a half 
inches in diameter. For cost, etc.* This apparatus has the 
advantage of being very durable. If the children stand in 
rows for the Eing Drill, the last child in each row walks 
along with arm outstretched to collect the rings, and if the 
children hold their rings straight out, she can slip her arm 
through all the rings in the row and collect them, in less 
time than it takes to describe. The rings are slipped from 
the arm on to a length of window cord, which is then tied 
and hung up. 


1st Movement. Ready. Eing held with both hands. 
See Fig. 150, Hoop Drill. 

One. Eings straight out in front. Fig. 151, Hoop Drill. 

Two. Position as in "Eeady". 

(Continue these two movements until sixteen is counted.) 

2nd Movement. Beady. Fig. 150, Hoop Drill. 

One. Eings up. 

Two. Position as in " Eeady ". 

(Continue these 'two movements until sixteen is counted.) 

3rd Movement. Heady. Hands close together on ring. 

One. Eing on knees. Fig. 154, Hoop Drill. 

Two. Eing on chest. 

* See Appendix 29. 


4th Movement Ready. Fig. 150, Hoop Drill. 

One. Eings out. 

Two. Position as in " Eeady ". 

Three. Eings up. 

Four. Position as in " Eeady ". 

Five. Eings on knees. 

Six. Position as in " Eeady ". 

Seven. Eings on knees. 

Eight. Position as in "Eeady". 

(Eepeat these movements so as to complete sixteen.) 

EXERCISE II. (in rows, rings joined ; Fig. 159, Hoop Drill). 

1st Movement. One. Spring up on toes, sending rings 

Two. Heels on floor, and swing rings back. 

(Continue these two movements until sixteen is counted.) 

2nd Movement. One. Bend knees, keeping rings in a 
vertical position. 

Two. Stand as in Fig. 159, Hoop Drill. 

(Continue these two movements until sixteen is counted.) 

3rd Movement. One. Send rings out and left foot out 
at the same time. 

Two. Feet together. Spring up on toes. 

Three. Send rings out and right feet out at the same time. 

Four. Feet together. Spring up on toes. 

(Continue these four movements until sixteen is counted.) 

4th Movement. One. All step to left. 

Two. Spring up on toes with feet together. 

Three. All step to right. 

Four. Spring up on toes with feet together. 

(Continue these four movements until sixteen is counted.) 



FIG. 161. 

EXERCISE III. (partners stand facing each other ; Fig. 161). 

1st Movement. One. Send out left arms. 

Two. Send out right arms. Fig. 156, Hoops. 

(Continue these two movements until sixteen is counted.) 

2nd Movement. One. Eings to A. Fig. 157, Hoops. 

Two. Eings to B. 

(Continue these two movements until sixteen is counted.) 

3rd Movement. One. Touch rings over head. Fig. 
158, Hoops. 

Two. Touch rings below, bending the body as in Fig. 175, 
Wand Drill. 

(Continue these two movements until sixteen is counted.) 




FIG. 162. 

4th Movement. One. Send feet out, and look under 
ring. Fig. 162. 

Two. Feet together. Eings in position. Fig. 161. 

Three. Send feet out and look under ring in opposite 

Four. Position as in Fig. 161. 

(Continue these four movements until sixteen is counted.) 


In this exercise the partners stand back to back. Sup- 
posing them to be standing at position shown in Fig. 161, 
the three Figs, which follow show how the " back to back " 
position is assumed. 



FIG. 163. 
Teacher calls " One ". Eing is raised. Fig. 163. 

One we raise a ring like this, 
Soon beneath it we shall go, 

Very careful we must be, 

Doing this nice drill you know. 

(Fig 163.) 



FlG. 164. 

When " Two " is called, both faces look under ring. Fig. 

Iwo we peep beneath the ring, 
Holding it above, quite high, 

Three, our heads go under ; now 
Each to do her best will try. 

(Fig. 164.) 



FIG. 165. 

When the Teacher says " Three," the partners pass under 
the raised ring, and take the position shown in Fig. 165. 
ISt Movement. One. Kings straight up. 
Two. Position. Fig. 165. 

(Continue these two movements until sixteen is counted.) 
2nd Movement. One. Rings straight out. 
Two. Position. Fig. 165. 

(Continue these two movements until sixteen is counted.) 
3rd Movement. One. Rings down. 
Two. Position. Fig. 165. 
(Continue these two movements until sixteen is counted.) 



FIG. 166. 

4th Movement. One. King out and feet out. Fig. 166. 
Two. Feet together, and rings in position. Fig. 165. 
Three. Opposite ring sent out and feet on same side. 
Four. Position. Fig. 165. 



FIG. 167 

To return to position, Fig. 161. When Teacher calls 

One One ring is raised, Fig. 167. At 

Two The children turn their backs towards the raised 
ring. They are now in position shown by Fig. 164. 

Three. At three, the raised ring is brought down in front 
of the girls' faces, and the children stand as in Fig. 161. 



(See General Instructions, p. 294.) 

THE wands should be thirty-six inches in length. For cost, etc.* 
They are excellent for developing the physique, but should 
not be given to delicate children, as some of the exercises 
would require more strength than these would be likely to 
possess. The wands should not be used by children under 
six years of age, and may with advantage be kept until the 
children are past six. 

FIG. 168. 

FIG. 169. 

Children march to places holding wands over heads. Fig. 

* See Appendix 30. 

WANDS. 329 

(The same as Exercise I. of Ring Drill.) 

1st Movement. Beady. Wands in position shown by 
Fig. 168. 

One. Wands straight out in front. Fig. 169. 

Two. Position. Fig. 168. 

(Continue these t two movements until sixteen is counted.) 

2nd Movement. Beady. Wands as in Fig. 168. 

One. Wand up. Fig. 172. 

Two. Position. Fig. 168. 

(Continue these two movements until sixteen is counted.) 

FIG. 170. FIG. 171. 

3rd Movement. Beady. Fig. 168. 

One. Wands on knees. Fig. 170. 

Two. Position. Fig. 168. 

(Continue these two movements until sixteen is counted.) 

4th Movement. Beady. Wands held as in Kg. 168. 

One. Wands out. Fig. 169. 

330 WANDS. 

Two. Position. Fig. 168. 

Three. Wands up. Fig. 172. 

Four. Position. Fig. 168. 

Five. Wands on knees. Fig. 170. 

Six. Position. Fig. 168. 

Seven. Wands on knees. Fig. 170. 

Eight. Position. Fig. 168. 

(Eepeat these eight movements to complete sixteen. ) 


1st Movement. Ready. Wands as in Fig. 168. 

One. Charge to left. Fig. 171. 

Two. Position. Fig. 168. 

Three. Charge to right. 

Four. Position. Fig. 168. 

(Continue these four movements until sixteen is counted.) 

2nd Movement. Ready. Fig. 168. 

One. Touch floor with wands. 

Two. Position. Fig. 168. 

Three. Wands straight out in front. Fig. 169. 

Four. Position. Fig. 168. 

(Continue these four movements until sixteen is counted.) 



FIG. 172. 

FIG. 173. 

3rd Movement. Ready. Fig. 168. 

One. Hold wand over head. Fig. 172. 

Two. Behind neck. Fig. 173. 

Three. Over head. Fig. 172. 

Four. Position. Fig. 168. 

(Continue these four movements until sixteen is counted.) 

4th Movement (slow time). Beady. Fig. 168. 

One. Wand on knees. Fig. 170. 

Two. Swing wand over head and behind neck. Fig. 173. 

(Continue these two movements until sixteen is counted.) 



FIG. 174. 

FIG. 175. 

WANDS. 333 

EXERCISE III. (with partners). 

1st Movement (slow time). Ready. Stand face to 
face holding each other's wands. 

One. Touch wands over head. Fig. 174. 

Two. Touch wands below, bending. Fig. 17-5. 

(Continue these two movements until sixteen is counted.) 

2nd Movement. Beady. Same as for first movement. 

One. Left hands out. 

Two. Eight hands out. Fig. 156, Hoop Drill. 

(Continue these two movements until sixteen is counted.) 

3rd Movement. Ready. Same as for first movement. 

One. Step and look under wand as in Fig. 162, King 

Two. Position. 

Three. Same as " One " in opposite direction. 

Four. Position. 

(Continue these four movements until sixteen is counted.) 

4th Movement. See next page. 



FIG. 176. 

4th Movement. Marching, see Fig. 176. When a stej 
is taken with the left foot the wand held by the left hands 
is sent forward, Fig. 176, and when a step is taken with the 
right foot the right wand is sent forward. 



(See General Instructions, p. 294.) 

THE Scarfs are made of coloured sateen and can be purchased 
ready for use.* Two colours are generally used, pink and 
blue, or red and green, so that one row may have one colour, 
and the next the other. The scarfs shown in the illustrations 
are forty-five inches long, and seven inches wide, so that 
four could be made out of one and a quarter yards of sateen. 
They are pleated four inches from each end. The ends are 
kept in shape by a piece of strong cane such as the children 
use for basket- weaving. This is run through the hem at 
each end of the scarf, and made secure by stitching up the 
hem at each side. Scarf Drill is similar to Wand Drill, only 
as the apparatus is pliable the exercise is less violent. 

At a Children's Entertainment half the girls wore white 
dresses crossed from shoulder to waist with mauve sashes 
(made of Indian muslin at twopence a yard), and had scarfs 
for drill to match ; while the other half had gold-coloured 
sashes and scarfs to match. The scarfs should be numbered, 
or have the children's names written upon them, so that 
each child may always get the same. i 

EXERCISE I. (with scarf held as a wand). 

1st Movement. Beady, as in position shown by Fig. 168, 

One. Scarfs straight out in front. 
Two. Position. Fig. 168, Wands. 

(Continue these two movements until sixteen is counted.) 
* See Appendix 31. 



2nd Movement. Beady. Fig. 168, Wands. 
One. Scarf over head. See Fig. 172, Wands. 
Two. Position. Fig. 168, Wands. 

(Continue these two movements until sixteen is counted.) 
3rd Movement. Beady. Fig. 168, Wands. 
One. Scarf out, and left foot out at an angle of 45. Fig 
171, Wands. 

Two. Feet together. Fig. 168, Wands. 

Three. Eight foot out and scarf out. 

Four. Feet together and scarf in position. Fig. 168, Wands 

(Continue these four movements until sixteen is counted.) 

FIG. 177. 

FIG. 175. 

4th Movement (charging in every direction). Beady 
Fig. 168, Wands. 

One. Charge to left. Fig. 177. 

Two. Feet together and scarf across chest, still facing tc 

Three. Charge again to left. Fig. 178, 



Four. Feet together, scarf in position, still facing as in 
ig. 178. 

Five. Charge again to left. This position is the exact 
>posite of Fig. 177. 

Six. Feet together, scarf in position. 

Seven. Charge again to left. 

Eight. Feet together, scarf in position 

(The child is now in the position from which it started, 
., facing the front.) 

Nine. Charge to right instead of left, and continue as in 
e first eight movements, until sixteen is counted. 

FIG. 179. FIG. 180. 


1st Movement (Neck exercise. Slow time). Ready. 
3arf round face. Fig. 179. 

One. Incline head and stretch neck towards left shoulder. 




Two. Head erect. 

Three. Incline head and stretch neck towards righ 

Four. Head erect. 

(Continue these four movements until sixteen is counted. 

2nd Movement. Ready. Scarf over head. Fig. 180 

One. Scarf round face. Fig. 179. 

Two. Over head. Fig. 180. 

(Continue these two movements until sixteen is counted. 

FIG. 181. 

FIG. 182. 

3rd Movement Beady. Scarf behind neck. Fig. 18; 

One. Bound neck. Fig. 181. 

Two. Scarf straight out. Fig. 182. 

(Continue these two movements until sixteen is counted 



FIG. 183. 

FIG. 18i. 

4th Movement. Beady. Fig. 168, Wand Drill. 

One. Cover eyes as if crying. Fig. 183. 

Two. Scarf straight out. Fig. 184. 

(Continue these two movements until sixteen is counted.) 


ISt Movement. Beady. Scarf held straight out in 
ront. Fig. 169, Wands. 

One. Scarf round waist, hands meeting behind. 
Two. Scarf out in front. Fig. 169, Wands. 
(Continue these two movements until sixteen is counted.') 



FIG. 185. 

FIG. 18G. 

Fig. 186. 
Fig. 180. 

2nd Movement. Ready. Scarf held out in front. 

One. Hands together in front. Fig. 185. 

Two. Scarf over head. Fig. 180. 

Three. Behind neck. 

Four. Scarf over head. 

(Continue these four movements until sixteen is counted 

3rd Movement (slow time). Ready. Scarf over heac 
Fig. 180. 

One. Bend knees with scarf held straight over head. 

Two. Assume upright position, still holding scarf ovt 

(Continue these two movements until sixteen is counted 

4th Movement. Ready. Position as in Fig. 168, Wand 

One. (Hold the scarf by the two ends in left hand, so ; 
to make a loop.) Left hand out to left. 

Two. Shake scarf. 


Three. Position. Fig. 168, Wands 
Four. Bow. 

Five. Hold scarf by tho two ends in right hand. 
Six. Shake scarf. 

Sci'cn. Position. Fig. 1G8, Wands. 
Eight. Bow. 

(Eepeat these eight movements so as to complete sixteen.) 
The children may go out " Ducking under," as in Exercise 
., Gun Drill, the Girls holding each other's Scarfs, where 
the Boys point Guns together. 



(See General Instructions, p. 294.) 

FIG. 187. 

EXEECISE I. (marching). 

1st Movement. Marching two abreast. Fig. 187. 
* See Appendix 32, 


If the boys are in position (a, b) before sixteen is counted, 
let them mark time. 


x x 

x x 

x x 

x x 

x x 

X X 

X X 

X X 

2nd Movement. Marching in fours. 

Suppose there are eight " twos " standing behind each other 
(see diagram at the end of 1st Movement), the first couple 
march round to the left, the second couple to the right, third 
to the left, and so on, the first two meeting the second two at 
point a, and marching down four abreast to point b. If this 
movement requires more than sixteen, the latter may be 
counted twice over. 

3rd Movement. Marching eight abreast. 

At the end of 2nd Movement, the boys will be standing in 
fours. The first four march round to the left, the second four 
to the right, the third to the left, etc., meeting as before at 
point a, and now they march down to point b eight 

4th Movement. Step sideways and open out to places 
for drill. 

The end boy in each row remains stationary. 



PIG. 188. 

FJG. 189. 


ISt Movement. Beady. Stand with gun in position, 
shown by Fig. 188. 

One. Guns out. Fig. 189. 

Two. Guns in position. Fig. 188. 

Three. Guns over head in horizontal position. 

Four. Position. Fig. 188. 

(Continue these four movements until sixteen is counted.) 



FIG. 190. 

FIG. 191. 

2nd Movement. Ready. Fig. 188. 

One. Gun on knees. Fig. 190. 

Two. Position. Fig. 188. 

Three. Gun over head. 

Four. Position. Fig. 188. 

(Continue these four movements until sixteen is counted. "> 

3rd Movement. Ready. Fig. 188. 

One. Charge to left. Fig. 191. 

Two. Position. Fig. 188. 

Three. Charge^to right. 

Four. Position. Fig. 188. 

(Continue these four movements until sixteen is counted.) 



FIG. 192. 

FIG. 193. 

4th Movement (slow time). Ready. Fig. 188. 
One. Swing to left. Fig. 192. 
Two. Position, stiU turning to left. Fig. 193. 
Three. Swing to right. 

Four. Position, still turning to right. (The feet may be 
turned with the body.) 

(Continue these four movements until sixteen is counted.) 



FIG. 194. 


In fours, boys standing at points marked thus, 

1st Movement. Beady. Boys stand at points marked, 

with guns in position. Fig. 188. 

One. Guns out to form squares. Fig. 194. 

Two. Position. Fig. 188. 

Three. Guns over head. 

Four. Position. Fig. 188. 

(Continue these four movements until sixteen is counted.) 

2nd Movement. Beady. Stand to marks as for 1st 

One. Touch floor with guns. 

Two. Position. Fig. 188. 

Three. Send gun over head and spring up on toes. 

Four. Position. Fig. 188. 

(Continue these four movements until sixteen is counted.) 



FIG. 195. 

FIG. 196. 



3rd Movement (slow time). Rmdy. Turn to right, 
still standing at points marked, and hold gun in left hand 
Fig. 195. 

One. Send gun high and touch in centre. 

Two. Kneel, Fig. 196, still holding guns as in " One ". 

Three. Let guns rest on floor. Fig. 197. 

Four. Position as shown in Fig. 195. 

(Continue these four movements until sixteen is counted.) 

4th Movement. Ready. Fig. 195. ' 

One. Meet guns in centre, as in 3rd Movement, holding 
them as high as possible, and march round until eight is 

Nine. Change guns into right hand, hold high, so as to 
touch in centre, and march round until sixteen is completed. 


(One of the boys should be " Captain " and call out the 
words of command.) 



Ready. Stand in places as for Exercise II. 
Prepare I All kneel on right knee. 
Charge ! Prepare gun for firing. 
Present ! Point guns outward. 
Fire ! Pull trigger. 

FIG. 198. 


Ready. Stand in couples facing each other. 

The first two point their guns upwards, so as to touch in 
the centre, the next two march under, Fig. 198, and then point 
their guns, and so on, just as in the game of " Ducking 
under ". 



(See General Instructions, p. 294.) 

THE curved wand consists of cane thirty-six inches long, 
with or without bells.* These are not so good as the 
straight wands for actual physical development, but they 
make a pleasing variety, and can be trimmed with leaves to 
look very pretty for a May festival, or other entertainment. 

FIG. 199. FIG. 200. 

The children run to their places holding wand in position, 

i.e., over head. See Fig. 199. 

* See Appendix 33. 



ist Movement Ready. ' Fig. 199. 

One. Wand up. Fig. 200. 

Two. Position. Fig. 199. 

Three. Wand touch floor. Fig. 201. 

Four. Position. Fig. 199. 

(Continue these four movements until sixteen is counted 

FIG. 201. 

FIG. 202. 

2nd Movement. Ready. Position. Fig. 199. 

Om. Wand touch floor. Fig. 201. 

Two. Over head. Fig. 200. 

Three. Across shoulders behind. Fig. 202. 

Four. Wand over head. 

(Continue these four movements until sixteen is counted.; 



FIG. 203. 

FIG. 204. 

3rd Movement. Ready. Fig. 199. 
One. Swing to left. Fig. 203. (Turn feet to left also.) 
Two. Wand in position (Fig. 199), still turning to left. 
Three. Swmg to right. 

Four. Wand in position (Fig. 199), still turning to right. 
(Continue these four movements until sixteen is counted.) 
4th Movement. foody. . Fig. 199. 
One. Wand to left. Fig. . 204. 
Two. Position. Fig. 199. 
Three. Wand to right. 
Four. Position. Fig. 199. 

(Continue these four movements until sixteen is counted.) 




FIG. 205. 

EXERCISE II. (with partners standing face to face, Fig. 205, and 
joining wands). 

ist Movement. Ready. Fig. 205. 

One. Send wands up. Fig. 206. 

Two. Position. Fig. 205. 

Three. Wands out. 

Four. Position. Fig. 205. 

Five. Wands down. Fig. 207. 

Six. Position. Fig. 205. 

Seven. Wands down again. Fig. 207. 

Eight. Position. Fig. 205. 

(Repeat these movements to complete sixteen.) 

2nd Movement. Repeat 1st Movement. 

3rd and 4th Movements on p. 356. 



FIG. 206. 

FIG. 207. 


3rd Movement. Ready. Fig. 205. 

One. Wands to self. Fig. 157, Hoop Drill. 

Two. Wands to partner. 

(Continue these two movements until sixteen is counted.) 

4th Movement Ready. Fig. 205. 

Onr. Look under wand and send feet out. Fig. 162, 
Eing Drill. 

Two. Position. Fig. 205. 

Three. Look under wand in opposite direction, and send 
feet out. 

Four. Position. Fig. 205. 

(Continue these four movements until sixteen is counted.) 



FIG. 208. 

EXERCISE III. (in sets of four). 

ist Movement. Ready. Fig. 208. 
One. Step round to left with wand in position. Fig. 208. 
Two. Feet together, spring up on toes. 
(Continue these two movements until eight is counted, 
then step to right until sixteen is completed.) 
2nd Movement. Ready. Fig. 208. 
One. Step to centre. 

Two. Send wands up, and spring up on toes. 
Three. Step back to places and swing wand downwards. 
Four. Swing wands to position. Fig. 208. 
(Continue these four movements until sixteen is counted.) 



FIG. 209. 

3rd Movement (slow time). Ready. Fig. 208, each 
child holding its own wand. 

One. Wands touching in centre. Fig. 209. 

Two. Position. Fig. 208. 

Three. Swing wands down to toes. 

Four. Position. 

(Continue these four movements until sixteen is counted.) 



FIG. 210. 

4th Movement. With wands crossed. 

One. Step to centre and send wands up. Fig. 210. 



FIG. 211. 

Two. Step back to places. Fig. 211. 

(Continue these two movements until sixteen is counted.) 



(See General Instructions, p. 294.) 

FAN Drill is very pretty, and much liked by the children. 
It is invariably used for girls, and is more adapted to produce 
graceful movement than muscular development. The great 
drawback to fan drill is that the apparatus is so frail and 
so easily torn. For cost, etc.* A much stouter fan may 
be bought for twopence. 


Ready. Fans closed and held in position. Fig. 168, 

Exercise I. of Ring Drill may be used for this. 

* gee Appendix 34, 



FIG. 212. 

FIG. 213. 


1st Movement. Ready. Fig. 212. 

One. Open fan to left. Fig. 213. 

Two. Close in front. Fig. 212. 

Three. Open to right. 

Four. Close in front. 

(Continue these four movements until sixteen is counted.) 



FIG. 214. 

FIG. 215. 

2nd Movement (slow time). Ready. Fig. 214. 

One. Fan turned over on knees. Fig. 215. 

Two. Position shown in Fig. 214. 

Three. Fans on knees (Fig. 215), turning to left. 

Four. Position (Fig. 214), still turning to left. 

Five. Same as " One ". 

Six. Same as " Two ". 

Seven. Fan on knees (Fig. 215), turning to right. 

Eight. Position (Fig. 214), still turning to right. 

(Repeat these eight movements to complete sixteen.) 

3rd Movement. Ready. Fig. 214. 

One. Cover face with fan. 

Two. Lower the fan and peep over. 

(Continue these two movements until sixteen is counted.) 



FIG. 216. 

4th Movement (slow time). Read.y. Fig. 214. 

One. Swing fan to left. Fig. 216. 

Two. Put fan on like a bonnet. Fig. 217. 

Three. Swing fan to right. 

Four. Put fan on like a bonnet. 

(Continue these four movements until sixteen is counted.) 



FIG. 218. 

EXERCISE III. (with partners). 

ISt Movement (slow time). Ready. Hold partner's 
fan, and face each other. 

One. Bend knees. Fig. 218. 

Two. Stand up straight, still holding each other's fans. 

(Continue these two movements until sixteen is counted.) 



FIG. 219. 

2nd Movement. Ready. Fan in right hand. 
One. Touch partner's shoulder. Fig. 219. 
Two. Touch own shoulder. 

(Continue these two movements until sixteen is counted.) 
3rd Movement (slow time). Ready. Fan in righ 
hand, partners still facing each other. 
One. Fan self. 
Two. Fan partner. 
(Continue these two movements until sixteen is counted.) 



FIG. 220. 

4th Movement (very slow time). Ready. Same as for 
3rd Movement. 

One. Heads bent forward as if whispering, and fans held 
at the side of the face. Fig. 220. 

Two. Fan on chest. 

(Continue these two movements until sixteen is counted.) 



FlG. 221. 

FIG. 222. 

KEY C. (Four time.) 

{: sin : 

s | s : s 

f : 1 H : 1 s : t | t : 1 

s |s :s f : 

:1 is :t |t : 

s : d ! i d 1 
s :d'|d' 

1. With bonnet on (Fig. 221) we bow to you (Fig. 222), 
Once more to say " Adieu, adieu," 
Now down, now up, our heads do go, 
And all must keep in time, you know. 

The " bowing " is continued all through the first verse, the 


heads going down with each heavy beat of the music, i.e., 
the first note in each bar. 

2. Our drill is nearly at an end, 
So good-bye kisses we will send, 
" Good-bye, Good-bye," to all we say, 
Before we lightly dance away. 

Fan held in right hand during second verse. The tip of the 
fan is held near the lips at each heavy beat, and waved out- 
wards at the third beat. 




(See General Instructions, p. 294.) 

THIS drill affords scope for good physical exercise and many 
graceful movements. Tambourines of different sizes may 
be obtained. Those shown in the sketches are six and a 
half inches in diameter. For cost.* The wood part of the 
tambourine may be painted in a bright colour, and made 
pretty with streamers of coloured ribbons. At an entertain- 
ment where the girls did tambourine drill, half of them had 
gold sashes made of Indian muslin (twopence a yard) with tam- 
bourines painted blue, and gold ribbons tied in for streamers, 
while the other half wore blue sashes on their white dresses, 
and had the tambourines painted gold, and tied with blue 

* See'Appendix 35. 


FIG. 223. FIG. 224. 

The girls march to places with tambourines on their heads, 
ig. 224. 

The two verses which follow may be sung to the tune 
iven on p. 368, as girls march to places. 

The children all come inarching in, 
Their Tambourine drill to begin, 
Such pretty movements you will see, 
As we are working merrily. 

We swing to left, or swing to right, 
And tap it, tap with touch so light, 
Or hold the tambourine straight out, 
And twist it, twist it round about. 

Words to accompany 4th Movement of Exercise II., p. 
75. Tune " The Campbells are Coming ". 

One. Two. Three. Four. 

In front, and above, and in front, behind, 
Keep time to the music, and if you mind, 
In front, and above, and in front, behind, 
To " Campbells are Coming " will go you'll find. 



FIG. 225. 

FIG. 226. 

(slow time). Ready. 

Tambourine i 

ist Movement 

left hand. 

One. Swing tambourine upwards to the left, with thl 
left hand, and look at it. Fig. 225. (Turn feet to left also.] 

Two. Strike with right hand, still looking up. Fig. 226; 

Three. Swing to right, with tambourine in right hand : 
and look at it. 

Four. Strike with left hand, still looking at tambourine. 

(Continue these four movements until sixteen is counted.' 

2nd Movement. Ready. Fig. 223. 

One. Charge to left. 

Two. Position, Fig. 223, and spring up on toes. 

Three. Charge to right. 

Four. Position, Fig. 223, and spring up on toes. 

(Continue these four movements until sixteen is counted. 


FIG. 227. FIG. 228. 

3rd Movement (Wrist Exercises). Ready. Tambourine 
straight out. 

One. Twist so that right hand is on the top. Fig. 227. 

Two. Twist so that left hand is on the top. Fig. 228. 

(Continue these two movements until sixteen is counted.) 

4th Movement. Ready. Fig. 223. 

One. Hold tambourine over head with both hands. Fig. 

3, Hoop Drill. 

Two. Let tambourine rest on head. Fig. 224. 

(Continue these two movements until sixteen is counted.) 


ist Movement. Ready. Fig. 223. 

One. Swing tambourine to left, turning body at the same 
me. Fig. 216, Fan Drill. 

Two. Tambourine on head like a hat. Fig. 224. 
Three. Swing to right. 
Four. Same as " Two ". 
(Continue these four movements until sixteen is counted.) 



FIG. 229. 

2nd Movement. Ready. Tambourine in right hand. 

One. Touch own right shoulder with tambourine, held in 
the right hand (left hand on waist). 

Two. Touch the next girl's shoulder. Fig. 229. 

(Continue these two movements until eight is counted.) 

Nine. Change tambourine to left hand, and touch own 

Ten. Touch next girl's shoulder, and so on until sixteen 
is counted. 

3rd Movement. Ready. Tambourine in left hand. 

One. Step sideways with left foot, swinging tambourine 
upward at the same time. 

Two. Look at tambourine, hop on the left foot, and strike 
with right hand at the same time. 

Three. Same as " One " with tambourine in right hand, 
and stepping to right. 

Four. Same as " Two " to right. 

(Continue these four movements until sixteen is counted.) 


4th Movement. Ready. Tambourine in left hand. 

One. Hold tambourine straight out in front and strike 
with right hand. 

Two. Strike over head. 

Three. Same as " One ". 

Four. Strike tambourine twice behind, quickly. 

This exercise is done to the tune " The Campbells are 
Coming ". See Exercise II., 3rd Movement, Dumb Bell 

FIG. 230. 


1st Movement. Ready. In rows with tambourines 
joined, fingers in holes of tambourine. 
One. Charge to left. Fig. 230. 
Two. Feet together. Spring up on toes. 
Three. Charge to right. 
Four. Feet together. Spring up on toes. 
(Continue these four movements until sixteen is counted.) 


2nd Movement. Ready. Stand in rows with tam- 
bourines joined. 

One. First and third rows step to left, while second and 
fourth step to right. 

Two. Feet together. All spring up on toes. 

Three. First and third step to right, while second and 
fourth step to left. 

Four. Same as " Two ". 

(Continue these four movements until sixteen is counted.) 

If this movement is found difficult, the rows may all 
step in the same direction, i.e., all to left, or all to right. 

FIG. 231. 

3rd Movement. Ready. First and second rows face 
each other, and third and fourth face each other, standing 
about three feet apart. 

One. All step forward with left foot. 

Two. Feet together. Spring up on toes. 


Three. Eaise tambourines, and strike tambourines of row 
facing. Fig. 231. 

Four. Strike again. 

Five. Step back with right foot. 

Six. Same as " Two ". 

Seven. Swing tambourines down and bow. 

Eight. Position as in " Eeady ". 

(Repeat these eight movements until sixteen is counted.) 

If it is desired to omit the 4th Movement, repeat the 

4th Movement. Ready. Second and third rows face 
each other, first and fourth face outwards. 

One. Second and third step together, while first and 
fourth step outwards. 

Two. Second and third rows strike together, Fig. 231 ; 
first and fourth each strike own tambourine. 

Three. All step back to places. 

Four. Spring up on toes. 

(Continue these four movements until sixteen is counted.) 

Girls may skip out with tambourine on head, or they may 
dance out to polka step, striking tambourines to right and 
left alternately. 



Preliminary. Some Maypoles* are made with sixteen 
ribbons, and some with twenty-four. The Maypole illus- 
trated here has the latter number. Twenty-four brass-headed 
nails may be placed at equal distances apart, to form a large 
circle, round the Maypole, or a large circle may be drawn in 
chalk, and divided into twenty- four (or sixteen) equal parts. 
To draw the circle, tie a piece of string round the Maypole 
loosely; fix the diameter of the circle required and cut the 
string accordingly. Then tie a piece of chalk at the loose end 
of the string, draw the circle carefully and place the marks 
at equal distances. 

In the same way, a smaller circle within the larger one is 
drawn. The position of the small circle is shown in Fig. 232, 
where the boys are kneeling. In these illustrations the 
circles are marked with brass-headed nails, which do not 
show in the picture. 

Maypole Dance. The boys, twelve in number, stand 
with their girl partners on the left side of them. The couples 
should be one behind the other in a straight line. 

Ready. Boys place right hand and girls place left hand 
on side, the other two hands (boy's left and girl's right) are 
joined and raised. 

1st Movement (to dance music, four time). Eun round 
the Maypole on the larger circle twice, then drop hands, face 

*lSee] Appendix 36. 




the Maypole, and stand to marks. The ribbons are now 
given to the children and held with both hands. The boys 
have blue, and the girls white. Some Maypoles have six or 
eight various colours. 

2nd Movement (waltz music). The children must count 
softly in every movement. 

One. Boys move left foot one step to the left and slide 
right foot to it. 

Two. Move right to right and slide left foot to it. 

Continue waltzing to centre thus, until twelve is counted. 
By this time boys should have reached the smaller circle. 

Thirteen. Boys kneel on left knee, Fig. 232, and girls, 
who have been standing still until now, take ribbon in right 
hand, place left hand on side, and turn to left, Fig. 232, 
ready to run round as soon as the sixteen of the 2nd 
Movement is finished. 

3rd Movement (dance music, four time). Girls run 
round until two sixteens are counted, then turn, and run 
round again until places are reached at the end of four six- 
teens. They then face Maypole. 

4th Movement (waltz music). Ready. A chord is 
struck for boys to rise. Boys waltz back to places, which 
they should reach by the time sixteen is counted. 

5th Movement. Same as 2nd Movement ; this time 
girls waltz to centre, and boys prepare for dancing round 

6th Movement. Same as 3rd Movement. Boys run 
round, while girls remain kneeling. 

7th Movement. Same as 4th Movement. Girls waltz 
back to places. 

8th Movement (four time). 

One to Four. Bow to partners. 

Five to Eight. Turn back to partner, and bow to child 

Nine to Twelve. Bow to Maypole. 

Thirteen to Sixteen. Boys turn to right, while girls turn 




to left, and step to the position shown in Fig. 233. The 
children are now ready for plaiting the Maypole. 

pth Movement (four time). Suppose the tune to be the 
" Keel Eow ". (See Drill, General Instructions, p. 294.) 

One to Four. Both boys and girls step forward with left 
foot at "One," with right at "Two," left at "Three," and 
when " Four " is counted they should be in the position 
shown in Fig. 234, i.e., boys inside and girls outside. 

Five, Six, Seven and Eight. The children step to the 
position shown in Fig. 233. 

Nine to Twelve. Step to the position in Fig. 234. 

Thirteen to Sixteen. To position shown in Fig. 233. 

Continue these movements as long as the children can 
move comfortably. 

To unplait the ribbons, each child turns in the oftpoaite 
direction to that in which it was previously moving, the 
ribbon is changed into the other hand, and the children 
proceed as before. 

N.B. If any mistake has been made in the plaiting, the 
2m-plaiting will discover it, and unless it is detected at once, 
a hopeless tangle will ensue. The ribbons should be closely 
watched at the time of plaiting. The following rhyme may 
help the children : 



One two three four froc six seven eight 

:s.s d 1 : 1 .s I f : r .r ! n : r .d n : s .s j 
Girls out, while boys are in, Next all the boys are out, Girls out, while 

d' :!.B If :r.r In :r .d 
boys are in, Girls, boys, take turns about. 







1. Signal. Ordinary size, Is. 2d. ; large size, Is. 9d. 

2. Saltaire Action Songs. Published by J. Curwen & Sons. 

3. Guessing Games. Published by A. Brown & Sons, Hull. 

4. Saltaire Kindergarten Games. Published by J. Curwen & Sons, 

5. Jointed Laths. Id. each, lOd. per dozen. 

6. Basket Frames (brown). 6d. per packet of 8. 

7. A. L. Embroidery Cards. 12 packets, 4d. per packet of 10. 

8. A. L. Embroidery Models. 4 packets, 12 in each, Is. 4d. per packet,. 

coloured ; Is. per packet, uncoloured. Arranged by Lois Bates, 
Published by E. J. Arnold & Son, Leeds. 

9. Demonstration Frame for Mat-weaving. 6s., or with stand 11s. 

10. Cardboard Mats. Is. 3d. per packet of 25. 

11. Paper for Folding. 5d. per packet of 100, Is. 6d. per packet of 500. 

12. Clay for Modelling, white. Is. 4d. per stone, 9s. 6d. per cwt. 
Clay for Modelling, terra cotta. 2s. 3d. per stone, 9s. 6d. per cwt. 
Clay for Modelling, pink plastiline. 2s. Id. per Ib. 

13. A. L. Box of Models. Published by E. J. Arnold & Son. 

14. Sand. lOd. per stone. 

15. Cane. Coarse, Is. 9d. per Ib. ; fine, 2s. per Ib. 

16. Cane- weaving, by Miss Otty. Published by E. J. Arnold & Son. 

17. Giant Letters. Published by Joseph Hughes & Son, London. 

18. Number Table, invented by Miss Wilson. 4s. 6d. E. J. Arnold & 


19. Arithmetic Frame, invented by Miss Wilson. 15s. E. J. Arnold & 


20. Cardboard Coins. Box of 220, Is. 8d. 

21. Toys for Babies' Object Lessons. Id. each. E. J. Arnold & Son. 

22. Recitations for Infants, by Lois Bates. Longmans, Green, & Co. 

23. Fairy Tale of a Dog, a Cat, and a Fox. Longmans, Green, & Co. 

24. Paragon Demonstration Specimen, Hemming. Is. 

25. Kindergarten Modulator. J. Curwen & Sons. 2s. 

26. Musical Bells. 3s. per dozen pairs. 



27. Dumb Bells, Iron, 8 oz. each. 2s. per dozen pairs. 
Dumb Bells, Wood, 5 oz. each. 4s. 3d. per dozen pairs. 

28. Hoops. Is. 6d. per dozen. 

29. Rings. 3s. 4d. per dozen. 

30. Wands, 36 inches long, plain. 2s. 9d. per dozen. 

31. Scarfs. 4s. 6d. per dozen. 

32. Guns. 6s. per dozen. 

33. Canes for Curved Wand Drill. 3s. per dozen. 

34. Fans. 9d. per dozen. 

35. Tambourines, 6 inches diameter. 2s. 3d. per dozen. 

36. Maypole, 25s. 




This book is due on the last date stamped below, or 

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Renewed books are subject to immediate recall. 


FEB 8 


LD 21A-50m-ll,'62 

General Library 

University of California