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Library Journal 



Economy ant> 

Vol. 27 








Shelf classification of music Clarence W. Ayer 5 

The public library and the people Agnes Hills n / 

The classification of children's story-books .... Clara IV. Hunt 65 

Shelf classification of music C : A. Cutter 68 

Are literary papers out of place' in a library club? . Juul Dieserud 73 

The classification of fiction Josephine A. Rathbone 121 v 

Is individual reading increasing or decreasing? . . A. E. Bostwick 134 

Should the librarian be a bibliophile? W: W. Bishop 126 

Library visits to public schools Annie Carroll Moore 181 

School and library /. H. Hill 186 

Story-telling, reading aloud, and other special feat- 
ures of work in children's room Elizabeth P. Clarke 189 

Picture bulletins in the children's library .... Mary E. Root; Adelaide B. Maltby .... 191 

Reading for the poor W. Frank Persons *4&/ 

The public documents of the Dominion of Canada 

and the Province of Ontario IV. G: Eakins 348 

The desk assistant: an imaginary conversation 351 

The librarian: requirements and duties S: G. Ayres 309 

Intricacies of binding Charlotte Martins , , 313 

The printed catalog cards of the Library of Con- 
gress: comparisons of use 314 

Some library problems of to-morrow: address of the 
President at annual meeting of A. L. A., Mag- 
nolia, Mass /: S. Billings Ci 

Organization and administration of university libra- 
ries Anderson H. Hopkins Cio 

Incidents in the history of the Boston Public Li- 
brary James L. Whitney Ci6 

The catalogue of the Public Library of the City of 

Boston E. B. Hunt Caj 

Pains and penalties in library work A. E. Bostwick 29 

The gift extremely rare Isabel Ely Lord 34 

Branch libraries: 

I. Planning and equipment E. H. Anderson Cs8 

II. Functions and resources L. L. Ward 42 

III. Administration F. P. Hill C46 

The division of a library into books in use, and 
books not in use, with different storage methods 

for the two classes of books C: W: Eliot C$i 

The selection of technical and scientific books . . C: F. Burgess C$6 

Plan for the organization of an institute of biblio- 
graphical research A. G. S. Josephson C6i 

The work of the Division of Bibliography, Library 

of Congress IV. D. Johnston C63 

The card distribution work of the Library of Con- 
gress C: H, Hastings C6; 

Home libraries and reading clubs Gertrude Sackett C/3 

The evaluation of children's books from the point 

of view of the history of literature for children. Charles Welsh Cj6 

Report on list of children's books with children's 

annotations Caroline M. Hewins C79 

Report of the A. L. A. Publising Board W: I: Fletcher C8a 

j H. C. Wellman; W : R. Eastman; N. D. C. 

Report of the Committee on Library Administration. -j ^ 

Report of the Committee on Public Documents . . R. P. Falkner Cga 

Report on gifts and bequests, 1901-3 G: W. Cole C97 



Proceedings of the Magnolia Conference Ci 10-451 

The social side of the Boston and Magnolia meeting, 

and the post-conference excursions Ca$a 

The meaning of the public library in a city's life . J: C. Dana 755 

The scope of an American bibliographical society . A. S. Root 757 

A suggested plan for an American bibliographical 

society John Thomson 761 

Book exhibits at the Public Library of Plainfield, 

N. J Emma L. Adams 763 

The vexed question of public documents .... Adelaide R. Hasst 815 

Book indexes Florence Cragg 819 

Some fads and fallacies in library work .... Ellen F. Corwin 821 

Some general rules and suggestions for a library 

staff W . H. Tillinghast 871 

The case of the desk assistant Presented by herself 878 

The evolution of a rural library, second stage . . Anna R. Phelps 878 

Sterilization of books by vapor of formalin ... A. F. Currier 88 1 

Reference work from the librarian's standpoint . . Corinne Bacon 927 

Library book plates H: W. Kent 932 

Library rotation Drew B. Hall 934 

The "appraisal of literature": comments and opinions 991 

Critical bibliography and book annotation. ... W. Dawson Johnston 1002 

Krupp Free Circulating Library, at Essen, Prussia. Theresa Hitchler 1005 

A method of keeping statistics of expenditures for 

books in college departments Alice E. Sanborn 1007 

GENERAL ARTICLES: The purchase of current fiction for libraries 
Slavic transliteration: a final word. /. 5. S. 16 of limited means. Jonathan Trumbull . 132 
Information desk work at Pratt Institute The new net price system and public libra- 
Free Library 17 ries. G: F. Bowerman 134 

The question of fiction reading 18 Ontario Library Association 136 

Report of the Librarian of Congress ... 19 The Reid Memorial Library, Passaic, N. J 137 

Report of the Superintendent of Documents. 21 The Paterson (N. J.) Public Library . . 138 

Library legislation in 1902. W. F. Yust . 22 New building for the Boston Athenaeum . 138 

Andrew Carnegie's gifts to American libraries In memory of Edward Edwards .... 140 

in 1901 24 Leather for bookbinding 140 

Founding of the Carnegie Institution . . 25 Bi-State Library Meeting, Atlantic City, N. 

Net prices for books: Massachusetts Libra- J., March 14-17 141 

ry Club committee 25 A club for library and school work . . . 194 

The Cleveland Public Library 27 Child-study and education. James Sully . . 195 

Invoice method at Springfield (Mass.) City Children's reading at home. Charles Welsh. 196 

Library 29 The library in university and college work. 

Library Section of Wisconsin Teachers' As- W. R. Harper ... 197 

sociation 29 The public library as part of the school sys- 

Record of library associations and state com- tern 198 

missions, 1901 30 Two library lists for schools 199 

Notes on the cataloging of maps. T: Letts. 74 The problem of increased collections. C ': W. 

.Nobel Institute libraries 76 Eliot 200 

jThe novel and the library 77 The library situation in California. W. P. 

Net prices for books: statement from the A. Kimball 200 

L. A. committee 77 Hints to the public 202 

The "Variorum" Shakespeare and net prices. 78 The net price question 203, 264 

The Dallas (Tex.) Public Library. Rosa M. Best 50 books of 1901 for a village library . 204 

Lteper 79 The Free Public Library of St. Joseph, Mo. 

Library buildings of moderate size. W : R. P. B. Wright 205 

Eastman So The care of public documents 207 

Consolidation of Brooklyn libraries . . 81, 139 The Lansing (Mich.) Carnegie Library cam- 

The Carnegie Institution 82 paign 207 

About reading room tables. S. H. Berry . 82 The Librarians' Convention of 1853. G. M. 

The library post bill 83 Jones 254 

Mutilation of books 83 Living books and dead: President Eliot's ad- 

The International Catalogue of Scientific Lit- dress 256 

erature 84 President Eliot and discrimination in books. 

Societa Bibliografica Italiana 84 W. E. Foster 258 

Dr. Hottinger's Library School for Women Harvard University Library: conditions and 

in Berlin 84 problems 260 

The perplexities of gifts. Angeline Scott . 129 Report on the Bibliotheque Nationale . . . 262 


Specifications for binding used at Worcester 

County Law Library 266 

Paul Leicester Ford in memoriam . . . 367 
The typewriter for card catalogs. Caroline 

Wandell 268 

The Yorkville Branch building of the New 

York Public Library. A. E. Bostwick . 270 
The Ontario Library Association, Toronto, 

March 31, April i, 1902 271 

The true national library 318 

For international printed catalog cards . . 319 

Transportation of books for the blind . . . 319 

Rare books. C: E. Goodspeed 320 

Library methods for photographs. Aimee 

Guggenheimer 324 

The typewriter in small libraries. H, W. 

Fison 325 

Fiction at the Providence Public Library. W: 

E. Foster 325 

Fiction reading at the Homestead Carnegie 

Library. W ' : F. Stevens 326 

The Carnegie Public Library of Cheyenne, 

Wyo 327 

The institutes conducted by New York Libra- 
ry Association. Theresa W. Elmendorf. 328 
Library Association of Australasia . . . 328 
Library Section of N. E. A., and Minnesota 

meeting 329 

Western Library meeting . . . 329, 772, 828 

Mr. Carnegie's "investments" 329 

The "age of success" in library work. A. E. 

Bostwick 765 

The Library of Patna, India 766 

Reproductions of Bodleian treasures . . . 767 
Efforts towards a national bibliography in 

Russia 767 

Printed catalog cards for children's books . 769 

Appointments to the Library of Congress . 770 
The Free Public Library of Trenton, N. J. 

A. J. Strohm 771 

"Library week" at Lake Placid . . . 773, 883 
Bibliographical Society of Chicago . . 774, 1015 
Library buildings in the United States . . 823 
The London Times discussion of appraisal . 823 
Library Department of the National Educa- 
tional Association 833 

The document check lists of the New York 

Public Library 835 

Notes on Spanish bibliography. A. G. S. 

Josephson 836 

The Iowa Masonic Library. W. P. Kimball. 837 

Meeting of German librarians 894 

Discounts to German libraries 894 

The Library of Congress printed catalog cards. 895 
The work of the Documents Office. L. C. 

Ferrell 936 

Official titles of government publishing offices. 

F. A. Crandall 938 

The Bodleian tercentenary 939 

Laying the cornerstone of the New York Pub- 
lic Library 941 

Report of the Librarian of Congress . . . 1008 
Cataloging and the new A. L. A. rules. Alice 

B. Kroeger ion 

A. L. A. Catalog of 1904 1012 

The case of the desk assistant. Beatrice 

Winser 1013 

President Roosevelt on public documents . 1013 
A week's work in the children's department 
of the Providence Public Library. W: 

E. Foster 1014 


Carnegie gifts in 1901 3 

Library conferences of the year 3 

The bibliographical record 3 

Plans for the Magnolia Conference . . 63, 243 
Library consolidation in Brooklyn . . . 63, 179 

Library buildings 63 

Library of Congress budget for 1902-3 . . 119 

The report of the Librarian of Congress . 119 

The fiction question redivivus 119 

Library purchases and "net" prices . 120, 179 

The selection of books for school use . . . 179 

Use of books by teachers 179 

Effect of increased cost upon library purchases. 179 

Attendance at the Conference 243 

Paul Leicester Ford 243 

The net price question 244, 926 

The problem of increase of books .... 244 
The Library of Congress catalog cards . 307, 989 
Card catalogs from the practical point of view. 307 
The "Guide to the literature of American his- 
tory" 307 

The Magnolia Conference 308, 753 

The Carnegie endowment fund 753 

Bibliography at Magnolia 753 

Library meetings yesterday and to-day . . 754 

The old-fashioned librarian 813 

Carnegie libraries in Great Britain .... 813 

Revision of A. L. A. catalog rules .... 813 

A question of library training 869 

The desk assistant's side of the case . . . 869 

Hours of library service 869 

The New York Public Library building . . 925 

Library development in the larger cities . . 925 

The Bodleian tercentenary 925 

The question of "appraisal" 989 

The' universal bibliography 989 

A proposed index to the world's legislation . 990 


County libraries in Wyoming. W : F. Yust. 4 
To librarians of New York state. Theresa 

Elmendorf 4 

Collection of Dr. Kaibel. A. G. S. Josephson. 4 

Anne Manning: a final word. Cataloger . 4 

An index to recitations. Lucy Maderia . 64 

The classification of music. Leo R. Lewis . 64 
Indication of various editions on the shelves. 

Mary W. Plvtmmer 64 

Government documents: an old story and a 

plea. J. T. Gerould 120 

A library missionary. H. M. Stanley . . 120 
The net price question: statement of A. L. 

A. committee. W. T. Peoples . . . . 180 
Gifts and bequests: information desired. G: 

W. Cole 244 

Investigations in library archeology . . . 244 
Books for the blind: information desired. 

Etta J. Giffin 308 

Index to the A. L. A. Proceedings. Melvil 

Devuey 308 

Library legislation in Georgia. W ' : F. Yust. 308 


The cheap library pott movement. Mttoil 

Dn*y 754 

City reports for distribution. W : H. Brttt. 754 
Errata in gifts and bequests report. D. Fi- 

tarola-Caieda 814 

Committee on American bibliographical so- 
ciety. A. G. S. Jottpkto* 814 

The higher mathematics of book evaluation. 

D. B. Hall 814 

Information desired regarding books for the 

blind. Etta J. Gift* 870 

Information on Louisiana genealogy. W : Btrr. 870 
The Blood Memorial Library. : N. Goddard. 870 
First issue of the Rtvirm of Rtvitws. A. B. 

Slauson 870 

Goethe autographs desired. B. Supkan . . 926 
"Esther Burr's journal." V. L. Collins . . 926 
Francis Bacon's title. W. Strtmk .... 990 
Lord's "Beacon lights of history." W: I. 

Fletcher 990 

Annual meeting, Birmingham 896 


Boston and Magnolia meeting ... 33, 85, 208 

Committee appointments 32, 85 

A. L. A. Publishing Board, 

33, 142. 209. 775, 898, 1016 

Conference notes 173 

Representative at N. E. A. meeting . . . 273 

Proceedings, 1002 838 

Report of Trustees' Section meeting . . . 838 
A. L. A. committee on relations with the book 

trade 838 

Meeting of executive board 1016 


3*. 85. 143. 210, 273, 775, 839, 899, 1017 


33. 86, 143. 273. 33<>. 776, 839. 947. 1018 


33, 88, 145. 211, 278. 331, 778, 900, 960, 1018 


Amberst summer school 212, 900 

Carnegie Library Training School for Chil- 
dren's Librarians 93, 901 

Chautauqua Library School 212, 780 

Drexel Institute Library School, 

37, 94, 212, 280, 780, 840, 901, 965 

Iowa Summer school 336, 965 

New York State Library School, 

37, 94, 149, 213, 281, 336, 781, 902, 965, 1021 
New York State Library School Association. 782 
Pratt Institute Library School, 

37, 94, 281, 337, 781, 966 
Pratt Institute Library School Graduates' As- 
sociation 94. 337, 783. 966 

Simmons College Library Training Course . 966 
University of California Summer School, 

212, 783, 840 

University of Illinois State Library School, 

37, 213, 334, 781, 9. <>' 
Wisconsin Summer School . . 38, 149, 783, 841 


A. L. A. rules, advance edition .... 903 
Chicago Library Club. List of serials . . 95 
Christie. Selected essays and papers . . . 337 

Clark. Care of books 338 

Cockerel!. Bookbinding and the care of books. 213 

Greenwood. Edward Edwards 340 

Handbook of library organization; compiled 
by library commissions of Minnesota, 

Iowa, and Wisconsin 784 

Hasse. United States government publica- 
tions, pt. i 340 

Jesuit relations and allied documents, v. 72, 

73 '49 

Kroeger. Guide to study and use of refer- 
ence books 1022 

Library of Congress. Calendar of Washing- 
ton manuscripts 38 

Library of Congress. Classification, class Z: 
bibliography and library science . . . 150 

Literature of American history; ed. by J. N. 

Larned 784 

Lundstedt, B. Sveriges periodiska litteratur. 967 

New York Library Club. Libraries of Greater 

New York 341 

New York State L. Bulletin 70: Partial list 

of French government serials .... 905 

Office of Documents. Tables of and anno- 
tated index to the congressional ser. of 
U. S. public documents 281 

Publishers' trade list annual, 1902: Index . 905 

Steiner, B. C., ed. Rev. Thomas Bray: his 

life and selected works 786 


39, 96, 151. 214, 283, 342, 789, 844, 906, 968, 1022 


46, 104, 161, 223, 289, 351, 796, 853, 910, 973, 1026 


46, 105, 161, 223, 290, 352, 797, 853, 910, 973, 1026 


47, 106, 162, 224, 294, 352, 797, 854, 911, 974, 1027 


FULL NAMES . . 48, 162, 225, 353, 798, 855, 975 


49, 107, 163, 226, 291, 353, 799, 855, 912, 976, 1028 


INDEXES 354, 1028 

ANONYMS AND PSEUDONYMS . . 50, 108, 164, 856 

Library Journal 

^^ ^~*^- " 




library Economy anfc B!b(i60rap|?\> 


VOL. 27. No. i. 

JANUARY, 1902. 




Carnegie Gifts in 1901. 
Library Conferences of the year. 
The Bibliographical Record. 


County Libraries in Wyoming. W ' . F. 

To Librarians of New \ ork State. There- 
sa Elmendorf. 

Collection of Dr. Kaibel. A. G. S. Jos- 

Anne Manning: a final word. Cataloger. 



Hills ^ . . ii 


J. S. S 16 






LIBRARY LEGISLATION IN 1901. W. F. Yust. . 22 

RIES IN 1901 24 









COMMISSIONS, 1901 . . 30 


Boston and Magnolia meeting. 

A. L. A. Publishing Board. 



District of Columbia. 

Bibliographical Society of Chicago. 

Chicago Library Club. 

New York Library Club. 

Drexel Institute. 

New York. 

Pratt Institute. 

University of Illinois. 

Wisconsin Summer School. 

Library of Congress. Calendar of Washing- 
ton Manuscripts. 





Full names. 







Price to Europe, or other countries in the Union, ios. fitr annum ; singl* numbers^ is. 
Entered at the Post-Office at New York, N. Y. as second-class matter. 

2 THE LIBRARY JOURNAL. [January, 1902 


London Agency tor American Libraries 


Special Notice to Librarians. 

flessrs. E. Q. ALLEN & MURRAY desire to lay before you the 
advantages of this Agency for obtaining English and Foreign Books, 
Magazines, Periodicals, etc., and for General Library Work in Great 

Early Issues of Catalogues of Second-hand Books from all the Stock- 
keeping Booksellers in the Kingdom. 

Catalogues of Publishers, New Books, Government Publications, Blue 
Books, Patents, Ordnance Maps, etc. 

Advance Auction Catalogues promptly mailed thus providing early 
opportunities for securing Good and Choice Books at moderate rates. 

All Important Books Collated Before Delivery. 

Defects of Rare Books Reproduced in Facsimile. 

Continuations of Scientific Serials carefully noted and forwarded 
promptly on publication. 

Should you desire an efficient London Agency of long and extensive 
experience in exclusively Library Work, Messrs. E. G. ALLEN & MURRAY 
will be pleased to answer any questions, feeling confident that the 
thorough equipment of their establishment will enable them to meet 
every library requirement in a satisfactory manner. 

References permitted to first-class Libraries. 
Special terms for large orders. 






~r C=D 







VOL. 27. 

JANUARY, 1902. 

No. i, 

LIBRARY extension, in the sense of the de- 
velopment of individual libraries, made the 
opening year of the new century a remarkable 
one in American library history. There has 
probably never been any record of public 
benefaction equalling that made by Mr. Car- 
negie during the twelve-month just closed, 
which in the library field alone reached the 
immense sum of nearly fourteen million dol- 
lars. Mr. Carnegie's gifts have ranged in 
amount from millions to hundreds ; they have 
been scattered through thirty-three states, 
Porto Rico, the Dominion of Canada and 
British Columbia; reaching in all 153 places. 
Nor have they meant simply the establishment 
of so many public buildings. The conditions 
upon which they are granted involve the in- 
troduction, where it did not already exist, of 
a new feature into civic life, ensuring at least 
a permanent foundation, and holding great 
possibilities for the future. Indeed, this gen- 
eral development of, and interest in library 
buildings, give opportunity, as never before, 
to put into operation the theories and ideals 
of library work evolved during the last quar- 
ter century, and to a remarkable degree the 
activities of the past year have been directed 
to the improvement of mechanism and the 
co-ordination of effort. In both directions a 
first place has been taken by the Library of 
Congress, which is now assuming its proper 
place as a national center of information and 
practical help; while in the establishment of 
the great Carnegie Institution at Washington 
there is foreshadowed for the new year a 
further agency for the development of bib- 
liographical research and efficiency. 

INTERNATIONAL library gatherings were not 
a feature of the year. Abroad the English, 
German and Italian associations held their 
annual conventions, and at home the Ameri- 
can Library Association conference at Wau- 
kesha wa.s one of the largest and most varied 
in the history of that body, admirably repre- 

sentative of the enthusiasm and energy of the 
middle west. The extreme east will be the 
meeting-place in 1902, and the Boston and 
Magnolia conference, set, as it will be, in 
the region where libraries are most plentiful,, 
is likely to make a record of its own in the 
point of attendance. State library associa- 
tions, while not increased in number, held suc- 
cessful meetings, and in New York and' 
Massachusetts plans for direct local work by 
means of "library institutes" were developed. 
The list of state library commissions has been; 
extended by four Nebraska, Washington, 
Idaho and Delaware; and a beginning has- 
been made toward co-operative work among-, 
the commissions, at least in the selection ofi 
books and the issue of lists and bulletins. 

BIBLIOGRAPHICALLY, the year's record in- 
cluded the "American Catalogue" volume for 
1895-1900; the revision of the "A. L. A. In- 
dex" to general literature; the "abridged 
Poole"; and the several catalogs and check- 
lists issued in handsome form by the Library 
of Congress. The long-expected Larned bib- 
liography of American history was again de- 
ferred, but should make its appearance early 
this year. The Chicago co-operative list of 
serials and transactions, published under the 
auspices of the Chicago Library Club, ap- 
peared as an admirable example of the sort- 
of work that may be usefully undertaken by 
local library associations; and the literature 
of classification was enriched by the scholar- 
ly monograph of Dr. E. C. Richardson. The 
transfer of the issue of printed catalog cards 
from the A. L. A. Publishing Board to the 
Library of Congress has relieved that body 
from a large burden of current work, and 
leaves it free for other bibliographical un- 
dertakings ; while the enterprise of the Libra- 
ry of Congress in this direction, bearing, as 
it does, immediate relation to all the libraries 
of the country, was easily the event of prime- 
interest and importance in the year. 


[January, 1902 



CINCINNATI and Van Wert, Ohio, each 
claim the distinction of priority in the matter 
of inaugurating the county library movement. 
Indiana has also been heard. Before the dis- 
cussion is closed I wish to call attention to a 
law passed by the territory of Wyoming in 
1886. It provides that when a suitable place 
for the library is guaranteed the county com- 
missioners of any county shall levy annually 
a tax of one-eighth to one-half mill for the 
establishment and maintenance of a public li- 
brary. It shall be located at the county seat, 
and be free to all the residents of the county. 
Control of the fund and management of the 
library are vested in a board of three trustees 
appointed by the commissioners. When no 
other place can be secured without expense, 
accommodations shall be provided in the best 
situated school building available. The trus- 
tees shall appoint a librarian, keep full rec- 
ords, and make detailed reports. "The best 
possible provision shall be specially made for 
the convenient use of the books by the resi- 
dents out of the town wherein the library is 

Although this is the only law in the state 
at present providing for local libraries, it be- 
longs under the head of county library legisla- 

Albany, N. Y. f 


THE 1901 meeting of the Library Associa- 
tion of New York State emphasized the pos- 
sibility and desirability of mutual help. Since 
the meeting, the officers of the association 
have had opportunity to observe some val- 
uable work which has been done in the state; 
for example, the librarian of Ilion Public 
Library has prepared for publication a very 
excellent little list of references for Sunday 
school workers ; the Webster Free Library 
has held an exhibit of North American In- 
dian curiosities which the New York Sun 
noticed at length. 

The Ilion list would be almost, if not 
quite, as useful elsewhere as in Ilion, and the 
Sun article has much that might be sugges- 
tive to other libraries. 

Unquestionably, numbers of other individ- 
ual lines of activity are at work in all parts 
of the state which the officers of the associa- 
tion have not seen, and which are generally 

The officers of the association believe it 
to be possible and desirable to start a sort of 
clearing house where information of all these 
lines of individual effort will be gathered, 
and from whence the information so gathered 
can be again distributed to other libraries 

which could appropriately gain suggestion for 
adaptation to their own needs. 

The officers of the association therefore 
ask every librarian throughout the state to 
send to the president. Miss M. E. Hazeltine, 
James Prendergast Free Library, Jamestown, 
N. Y., every little list that they publish, every 
item of library news that is published in 
local papers, short accounts of any experi- 
ments that they may make throughout the 
year. This request is not made for Miss 
Hazeltine's benefit, but that she may have op- 
portunity to collect and compare ideas of 
library progress to redistribute for intelli- 
gence throughout the state. No one library 
originates all the bright and useful ideas. 

If every librarian in the state will respond, 
the officers of the association believe that the 
body of material brought together and the 
power of inspiration concentrated may mean 
much to the library intelligence and progress 
of New York state. 




THE writer has been asked to make known 
through the medium of your paper that the 
library of the late Dr. Kaibel. Professor of 
Greek and Latin at the University of 
Gottingen, will be offered for sale in its 
entirety, and that a manuscript catalog in a 
few copies is being prepared to be sent to 
libraries for inspection. Applications should 
be made to Professor Dr. Carl Dziatzko, 
Universitats-Bibliothekar, Gottingen, Ger- 
many. The library contains about 4000 bound 
volumes in good condition and some 3000- 
4000 pamphlets, and is particularly rich in 
periodicals, reproductions of inscriptions and 
reprints. AKSEL G. S. JOSEPHSON. 

Chicago. f 


IF C. Dalmas will again read the article 
Rathbpne, Hannah Mary, in the "Dictionary 
of national biography," he will find that Anne 
Manning and Mrs. Rathbone are not "one and 
the same person." The writer of the article 
is comparing "Lady Willoughby's diary" with 
Anne Manning's "Life of Mary Powell," and 
nowhere states that Mrs. Rathbone "in 1850 
published Anne Manning's 'Life of Mary Pow- 
ell.' " Since the apnearance of my query in 
the October LIBRARY JOURNAL, I have re- 
ceived the Supplement to the "Dictionary of 
national biography" and in v. 3, p. 137 is 
given a good account of Anne Manning, 
which confirms what I then suspected, that 
the "American catalogue, 1895-1900," and 
Kirk's "Supplement to Allibone" were wrong 
in calling her Mrs. Rathbone. CATALOGER. 

January, 1902] 



BY CLARENCE W. AVER, Librarian Brockton (Mass.) Public Library. 

To the library world in general the classifi- 
cation of music, particularly of music scores, 
has, up to within a few years, been of little 
moment, in spite of the widespread interest 
in music, from its special nature and appeal 
as one of the fine arts. Every library, no 
matter how small, must procure books on 
music : something of history and biography, 
a little theory and technique, methods of vo- 
cal hygiene and the like, because of their 
comparative popularity and cheapness in 
price. But beyond an occasional opera or 
oratorio, song-book or collection of piano- 
forte duets often the result of random 
gifts few libraries of moderate size have 
as yet been obliged to make any special pro- 
vision for music scores: for the music it- 
self, as distinguished from what is written 
about it. The needs of large college and pub- 
lic libraries, however, and the accidents of 
large gifts, liable anytime and anywhere, 
even to small libraries, call for adequate pro- 
vision by classification, not less for music 
than for any other special subject. 

Of the systems of music classification that 
have come especially to my notice, I may 
claim familiarity from experience with two 
that of the Dewey Decimal classification, 
longest and best known throughout the coun- 
try, and that of the Harvard College collec- 
tion which I helped to make a newcomer 
of only four years' standing. Of the others 
one is so simple as to be capable of dismiss- 
al with a word of explanation and commen- 
dation, that of the excellent library of the 
Y. W. C. A., of New York City. This em- 
ploys the Dewey classification for works on 
music, but shifts, for collections and scores, 
to a compact and comprehensive notation like 
that now used by many public libraries for 
the class Biography. A capital M, standing 
for the class Music, is followed by the Cutter 
symbols, to three figures, for individual com- 
posers and compilers. An opera of Wagner's, 
for instance, would be numbered M-Wi35-i, 
decimal dots marking the accessions. 

Another system, although simpler still, com- 
pels recognition because of the importance of 
one large library that employs it, the Boston 

Public Library. This is little more than a 
shelf arrangement in the most limited sense 
of the term. In some portions of the new and 
magnificent Allen Brown collection, as well 
as throughout the old music stack, the size 
of shelf determines the place of the book, 
scores in quarto form and I2tno works on 
music being consigned to separate alcoves or 
other portions of the stack room, sometimes 
regardless of composer or class. ' A fixed- 
shelf numbering, moreover, precludes, once 
for all, the possibility of class or composer 
grouping for future accessions. Only the re- 
markable completeness of the new Allen 
Brown collection, especially with respect to 
opera scores, disguises the insufficiency of the 
shelf arrangement, for each new score added 
by the continued interest and generosity of 
the original donor must be relegated to a new 
corner of the music room, far away, maybe, 
from its fellows. 

This fixed classification would, to my mind, 
be intolerable for any collection with open, 
or even restricted, access to the shelves. It 
serves, however, its purpose for the Allen 
Brown collection, because its shelves are in- 
accessible even to specialists, except through 
the medium of the shelf attendants within 
the room. It serves well enough, also, for 
the old stack, so long as it remains sealed to 
the public, but such an arrangement hardly 
deserves the name of classification. The 
books could be found, to be sure, in the course 
of time, but so could they in a library of 
1,000,000 vols., if numbered merely by acces- 
sion, from i up to 1,000,000, but that would 
not be classification. 

There remains, for consideration in passing, 
Mr. Cutter's disposition of music in his new 
Expansive classification. His scheme for 
music has been for some years in contempla- 
tion and experiment, first, at the Boston 
Athenaeum, and next at the Forbes Library, 
Northampton, by collaboration with Professor 
Gow, then of the music department of Smith 
College, now of Vassar College. A copy of 
this scheme proved of great service when I 
began work upon the Harvard collection, and 
for it I now express publicly to Mr. Cutter 


[January, 1902 

my deep gratitude. The classification not 
having yet been put forth in its entirety, being 
one of the latest classes of the Expansive 
classification to receive the author's final at- 
tention, it is not in the same position for 
comparison as the others. Its outline, as far 
as already published, suggests a cross between 
the D. C. and the Harvard classification in 
respect to grouping of details, leaning towards 
the former, in the separation of scores of in- 
dividual composers according to class, and 
towards the latter, in the order of arrange- 
ment for the divisions under the works on 

Undoubtedly the most elaborate and ex- 
haustive classification of music yet devised 
and put to the test of successful operation, is 
that of the large and valuable collection of 
the Harvard College Library. After the en- 
largement of the stack, in 1896, by the rebuild- 
ing of the old reading room in the transept 
of Gore Hall, the music collection was among 
the first to be redassified, and enjoys the dis- 
tinction of being the first to be completed. 
The brief outline of its scheme of sheif-clas- 
sitlcation and notation to follow, will have, 
perhaps, an added interest in that it may il- 
lustrate the newer Harvard system of shelf- 
classification in general, as applied to all the 
newly-arranged groups of subjects, Fine arts, 
Philosophy, Economics, etc., and as distin- 
guished from the older groups of Language, 
History and Literature (American, English, 
French, and German). The latter had long 
ago been arranged under an elaborate and 
ingenious system of fixed-shelf numbering, 
far superior to that of the old Boston Public 
Library, and indeed developed from it by 
the late Justin Winsor, but now found to 
have become inadequate to the needs of large 
and rapidly increasing subdivisions of im- 
portant groups like American and English 
history and literature. 

A consideration of the scheme of notation 
for the Harvard collection will make plainer 
its scheme of classification. The class mark 
for music is the recognized dictionary abbre- 
viation, Mus. Divisions and subdivisions of 
the general subject are given running num- 
bers from I to 895, all well within three fig- 
ures. Under each division and subdivision 
the books are entered simply by accession 
{Mus. i.i, Mus. 1.2, etc.), unless otherwise 
specified, letters for indicating notation being 

avoided after the general class mark for 
Music, (Mus.) Important and growing di- 
visions are given alphabetical numbering, by 
the use, as needed, of 26 running figures. 
The series of nearly 900 numbers is appor- 
tioned according to an arbitrary and elaborate, 
but logical arrangement of all musical knowl- 
edge and literature, as based upon an actual, 
working collection of over 5000 volumes. 

In this apportionment of numbers the first 
large block is taken up by the Works on 
Music, employing about one-half the whole 
series of running numbers, from 1-400; the 
second large block, from 401 to 600, is given 
to Collections (in the limited, technical sense 
of books containing works by more than two 
composers) ; the third block, from 601 to 895, 
disposes of the largest group of all, Scores 
of Individual composers, including individual 
biography and criticism under each composer. 
This last and most important group is ar- 
ranged alphabetically by composers, the num- 
bers from 60 1 to 895 being made into a two- 
letter alphabetical table, adapted and enlarged 
from the older one of Mr. Cutter's. In shelf 
space, as at present adjusted, the Harvard 
collection of music occupies four long rows 
of the new stack, with nine upright sections 
to each row, and from five to eight shelves 
in each section. This adjustment does not 
imply close shelving, as in the Allen Brown 
collection, but rather the distribution of gaps 
after all important groups, which will allow 
ample provision for growth for at least ten 
years to come. 

1. WORKS ON Music (Mus. 1-400.) 

30 Societies. 

35-42 BIBLIOGRAPHY, with subdivisions. 

45. 50 Dictionaries, directories. 

52, 55 Year-books, programmes, etc. 

57 Festivals and celebrations. 

59 TRACTS (General bound miscellany). 

60-85 GENERAL WORKS (essays) (A-Z). 

87-98 General specials Influence of 

music. Women in music, etc. 
100 Aesthetics. 

105, 107 BIOGRAPHY Collected, general and 

110-135 Individual Singers, players, et 

al., not composers, (A-Z). 

January, 1902] 


140-165 HISTORY General (A-Z). 

170-177 By periods, ancient, mediaeval, 

180-200 Local By countries (special list). 

202-204 Special Arabian, Hebrew, sav- 
age nations. 

210-230 By classes Sacred, with subdi- 

240-270 Secular, with subdivisions. 

272-280 Instrumental, with subdivisions. 

General and General special. 

295 Elements. 

298 Composition General. 

300-325 Harmony and thorough bass 

327-8 Counterpoint, canon and fugue. 

330 Form and analysis. 

335 Instrumentation and orchestra- 


340-2 INSTRUMENTS General History, 
construction, technique, instruc- 

345-9 Individual Piano History, etc. 

352-5 Organ History, etc. 

357-8 Violin History, etc. 

360-385 Other (A-Z), by English names. 

390 VOICE AND SINGING Physiology and 


391 Technique. 

392-4 Instruction Single voice, etc. 

396-400 School song books. 

II. COLLECTIONS (Mus. 401-600). 

(Books containing music by more than two composers.] 

401-5 COLLECTIONS General Ms., etc. 

408 Instrumental General. 

409-418 Orchestral and chamber music. 

420-445 Special instruments, not piano 

< or organ (A-Z). 

446-8 Piano Eight and four hands 


450-3 Four hands (duets) Gen- 

eral and special. 

455 Operas and overtures. 

456-7 Marches and dances. 

460-7 Two hands (solo) [Cf. 45- 

470-2 Organ General and special. 

475-8 COLLECTIONS Vocal General. 
480-2 Sacred General and special. 









By kinds, oratorios, masses, etc. 

Solo songs, special voice. 
Secular Operas. 

Cantatas, odes, incidental music, 

Part songs, quartets, etc. (mixed, 
male, and female voices). 

Solo songs General. 
Special voice. 

Local, national, etc., by coun- 

Minstrel songs. 

Patriotic and war songs. 

Society songs Masonic, etc. 

Students' songs (male and fe- 
male voices). 

Temperance songs. 

COLLECTIONS Texts and librettos 

571-596 Individual (A-Z), by original title. 


[Including Individual biography and criticisms. Dis- 
tribution of Composer numbers according to a 
two-letter alphabetical table adapted and enlarged 
from that of Mr. Cutter.] 

BOOK NUMBERS, following Composer num- 
bers (1-999). 


(with Thematic 

SEPARATE WORKS Instrumental [by 

classes, as above]. 

51-280 Orchestral Symphonies, over- 
tures, concertos, etc. (full scores 
and arrangements). 

281-400 Chamber music Nonets to duos. 

401-500 Solo Pianos, organs, and other 

501-600 Vocal Sacred Oratorios to 

601-750 Secular Operas to songs. 

75J-999 LITERARY WORKS Autobiography, 
letters, etc. ; Biography and crit- 

[The distribution of book numbers may be 
varied for composers no longer living, like 
Handel and Wagner, whose works belong 
chiefly to one class. With such the numbers 
for that class may be extended back or for- 
ward through several hundreds.] 
From this outline of the Harvard scheme 



[January, 1902 

of sheif-dassification it may be seen that the 
division Periodicals occupies the first place, 
and logically so, I think, as compared with 
the D. C. This division forms, also, the 
first alphabetical arrangement (Mus. 1-26). 
The numbering, therefore, for the first peri- 
odical whose title began with A would be 
Mus. i.i; for the second, Mus. 1.2; and so 
on, by accession, letters after the class mark 
forming no part of the Harvard notation. 
The first periodical whose title began with B 
would take the mark Mus. 2.1 ; the second 
under the same letter would be Mus. 2.2; 
and so en, the number for each letter being 
drawn from printed tables at hand, for all 
later alphabetical divisions, as well as for 

Next in order stands the closely related 
group, Societies. Its shelf number, Mus. 30, 
and the skip over the intervening numbers, 
27 to 29, illustrate the next fundamental 
characteristic of the newer Harvard shelf- 
classification, namely, the distribution of the 
divisions and subdivisions of the subject at 
varying intervals of the numbering series. 
This detail is of great importance. By pro- 
viding elasticity for the introduction of new 
divisions and subdivisions, perhaps not now 
foreseen or needed, it ensures the logical per- 
manence and workability of the whole scheme, 
without resort to the complication of the no- 
tation by sub-dots from any group; and it 
further overcomes the insuperable objections 
to a fixed-shelf classification, if classification 
is to count for anything at all. 

As to the significance of the divisions and 
subdivisions following the first two just de- 
scribed in detail, the reading of the con- 
densed outline must now suffice. At every 
step the main object and purpose of the clas- 
sification was kept in mind convenience of 
study and reference in college work. Only 
advanced pupils in attendance upon the 
courses in composition given under the direc- 
tion of Professor J. K. Paine, head of the 
Music Department at Harvard, and a few 
other musical specialists, are allowed free 
access to the shelves; but for them an ade- 
quate arrangement, especially of scores, in the 
way they should be most likely to study them, 
would bring economy oi labor and time in 
their work of research. Elaborate, indeed, as 
the classification is, it is based upon the ex- 
istence of books to justify it, and almost every 

subdivision, no matter how minute, means at 
least one book behind it, and not a mere 
scheme upon paper. Still, great care and 
study were also shown in the apportionment 
of numbers, and of gaps between them, in 
order to provide for the expansion of head- 
ings, and for all future needs, in so far as 
they might be anticipated. 

The inclusion of all the works by one com- 
poser under one general group, and the con- 
sequent disregard of grouping by class, make 
the last of the main divisions of the whole 
subject far larger and more important than 
any one group of the Decimal or the Expan- 
sive classification. This is inevitable and to 
be desired. Full recognition, however, is 
made of class grouping by the book or 
score numbers under the Individual Com- 
poser, as shown in the scheme at the end of 
the outline. For each composer of impor- 
tance the arrangement of his works upon the 
shelves is as comprehensive and detailed as 
that of the best dictionaries of music, Champ- 
lin and Apthorp's being first in mind for 
comparison. This coincides, however, with 
that given for the large group, Collections, 
editions of complete works being placed first, 
followed by editions of separate scores in the 
order of kind and form, the larger work pre- 
ceding the lesser. The entries under each 
subdivision are by accession, and as far as 
possible by opus marks, the principle of leav- 
ing gaps for editions of full scores and ar- 
rangements being employed here, as before 
in the general scheme. 

This scheme of numbering for the works 
under each composer is, as must be admitted, 
approximately fixed, and consequently liable 
to objection because it may at some time and 
place run short. Yet it is so extended and 
comprehensive that it has proved adequate to 
the demands of the most prolific and versatile 
of composers. With composers no longer liv- 
ing the problem is a comparatively easy one; 
but it is less so with living composers. Cases 
have arisen, too, in which departures from the 
strict numbering for individual scores have 
been made to great advantage, as with Handel 
and Wagner. The chief works of the former 
being oratorios, of the latter, operas, two- 
thirds of the whole series of score numbers 
might be assigned to each group, and the elas- 
ticity of the distribution increased to that 

January, 1902] 


The consideration of the notation will not 
be complete without an illustration of the 
actual process of assigning a number to a 
score of some special composer, similar to 
that given of the first group Periodicals. 
Take, for instance, a full score of the first 
symphony of Beethoven. From the two-let- 
ter table beginning with 601, the composer 
number for Be is found to be 628. Prefix 
to this the class mark Mus. : add .1 to 628 
for the first Be (for Beethoven) ; and to that 
suffix .61, from the scheme of classification 
for book, or score, numbers, and the complete 
number for the work will then be Mus, 
628.1.61. From this it may be observed that 
double dots, or decimal points, form a com- 
mon characteristic of the Harvard scheme of 
development for subdivisions. 

This classification of the Harvard collec- 
tion has been explained in some detail, not 
only because it is newer and less generally 
known than the D. C. or the E. C, but also 
because, to my mind, it stands upon a more 
logical and practical basis. It has worked 
well for four years in a large college library. 
Copies of it have been requested by a number 
of large and important libraries throughout 
the country, from the Library of Congress at 
Washington to McGill University at Mon- 
treal. It represents, indeed, principles of 
shelf-classification new and original. Modi- 
fied and condensed, it might well serve the 
purpose of the smallest library, for its main 
outlines arc simple, even if its details are 

The very limited call for scores, especially 
those for full orchestra, and their great ex- 
pense, as compared with that of the average 
work on music, will, I am free to admit, prove 
prohibitive barriers to their purchase for 
small libraries. I recognize, slso, that libra- 
ries, large or small, which follow the D. C., 
the E. C., or any other classification, would 
naturally and wisely hesitate to make radical 
departures from the classification already in 
use, in the interest of any special group like 

Still, it is worth while to note the shifts 
for convenience of shelving made by various 
libraries. Miss Hewins, of the Hartford Pub- 
lic Library, meets the difficulty by placing all 
her music scores on special shelves in the 
reference library, quite apart from the rest of 
the books of the group. The Brookline Pub- 

lic Library, which has already one of the 
best collections of music in New England, 
finds its old numbering scheme, which is a 
free modification of the D. C, unsatisfactory 
and cumbersome, but it adheres strongly to 
its preference for the arrangement of com- 
posers by classes. A most simple and in- 
genious mo'iification of the D. C. for sep- 
arating scores from works on music, and in- 
cidentally the larger from the smaller books, 
has been adopted by the Somerville Public 
Library. This consists merely in prefixing a 
capital M to the D. C. figures of the Music 
group (780-9) in the mark for scores. This 
has much to commend it, because it helps to 
solve the difficult question of shelving, upon 
which I have had little time to dwell. Most 
scores, being quartos or large octavos, de- 
mand wide shelving; most books on music 
being I2mos, need only ordinary shelving. 
In all this the D. C. fails: the Harvard clas- 
sification gains, chiefly because of its adher- 
ence to the composer arrangements for scores. 
For small libraries book-dummies may serve 
tor marks of separation, and be adequate for 
all ordinary needs. The moment, however, 
the collection begins to grow on the side of 
scores, the usefulness of dummies is much 

A gift to the Brockton Public Library of a 
music collection containing over 100 scores, 
chiefly church music, brought home to me the 
advisability of an attempt to combine some 
of the advantages of the Harvard scheme 
with those of the D. C., which is there fol- 
lowed for the main scheme of classification, 
but with radical modifications, as made long 
ago and to excellent purpose, by a former 
librarian, Miss Myra F. Southworth, now 
librarian of the Public Library of Keene, 
N. H. The result of the modification was 
shown in the "Special list" for the Brock- 
ton Library Bulletin of last June and July, 
and by it has been gained, as I think, greater 
clearness and consistency in details and great- 
er simplicity of notation, without disturbing 
the gcneial scheme. 

This modification of the D. C. may be tabu- 
lated as follows, the numbers being changed 
from 580-589, as marked in the Bulletin, to 
780-789, for the sake of conformity with the 
older usage: 

780 Music, General works on. [As D. 

C., without subdivisions.] 



[January, 1902 

781 THEORY. [As D. C, with insertion 

indicated below.] 

782 DRAMATIC Music, Works on. 
782.1 to .5 Opera scores. [As D. C] 

782.6 Light and comic opera; opera 


782.7 Cantatas and operettas. 

782.8 Pantomimes; masks; incidental 


782.9 Opera Librettos (by original ti- 


783 SACRED Music, Works on. 

783.1-9 Music, under subdivisions as 

D. C 

784 VOCAL Music (secular), Works on. 

784.1 Instruction and exercises; meth- 

ods; schools; tonic sol-fa. 

784.2 Collections Solo and General. 

784.3 Part-songs, duets, trios, quar- 

tets, choruses, etc. 

784.4 Popular ballads; national songs, 


784.5 Negro minstrelsy; plantation 


784.6 College, society songs, etc. 

784.7 Festivals. 

784.8 Other. 

784.9 Individual composers (A-Z). 

785 INSTRUMENTAL Music, Works on. 
785.1-9 Music, under subdivisions as D. C. 


Works on. [History, manufac- 
ture, etc.] 

786.1 Instruction and exercises ; methods. 

786.2 Collections Two hands (solo), 

including arrangements of or- 
chestral works. 

786.3 Four hands (duets) and more, 

including arrangements of or- 
chestral works. 

786.4 Dances and marches. 

786.5 Individual composers (A-Z). 

786.6 ORGAN, Works on. [History, build- 

ing, etc.] 

786.7 Instruction and Collections; or- 

gan methods and schools. 

786.8 Individual composers (A-Z). 

786.9 Cabinet Organ; melodeon, etc. 

[History, music, etc.] 

MENTS, as D. C. 

From this modification it may be seen that 
the groups Music in general (780), Sacred 
Music (783), Instrumental music (785), and 

the last three groups of Stringed, Wind and 
Percussion instruments (787-9) remain the 
same, the first group (780) having no sub- 
divisions whatever. Under Theory (781), 
Canon and Fugue should be included with 
Counterpoint (781-4), and the reference in 
the D. C. Index should be enlarged accord- 

Under the group Dramatic music (782), no 
separate provision having been made for Li- 
brettos, the subheadings Comic and Satirical 
opera, and Opera bouffe, are combined under 
(782.6) ; the subheadings which follow are 
pushed back one number (782.7, 782.8) ; the 
latter enlarged so as to read: Pantomimes. 
Masks, Incidental music, etc.; and Librettos 
placed Jast (782.9), with alphabetical arrange- 
ment by oriiginal title. 

The group Vocal Music (784) is much 
changed, being made to include all works on 
secular vocal music, general and special, not 
books of instruction or method. The latter, 
being generally of distinct character and large 
size are placed next (784.1). With this sub- 
division ends the Works on vocal music, att 
the remaining subdivisions being used for 
vocal music itself: Collections (784.2 to 784.8, 
rearranged) and Individual Song Composers 
in one alphabetical group (784.9). 

In this concentration of individual song 
composers into one group is shown a first 
application to the D. C. of the leading prin- 
ciple of the Harvard classification of scores, 
but this is still within the group Vocal music. 
Viewed from this standpoint, the D. C. sub- 
divisions for vocal scores seem exasperating- 
ly elaborate and superfluous. It is classifica- 
tion gone mad for no purpose. There is, to- 
my mind, no gam whatever, from any stand- 
point, in spreading the secular songs of one 
composer over a half-dozen subdivisions, 
granting that he should write in as many 
forms. Better place them all together under 
one subdivision, even if the principle of group- 
ing by Individual composers is carried no 

The next group to undergo considerable 
modification is Piano and Organ (786). Un- 
der this whole number are included Works 
on the Pianoforte (a better form) and Piano- 
forte Music, general and special, history, 
manufacture, form, etc. The first subdivisions 
(786.1) includes (as under 784.1) books on 
instruction and method. Collections of piano- 

January, 1902] 



forte music take three more subdivisions 
(786.2 to 786.4). The next subdivision 

(786.5) marks another radical departure from 
the D. C. similar to that made under Vocal 
Music, by grouping together all Individual 
composers of pianoforte music, regardless of 

The latter portion of this group is con- 
densed from the D. C. for the Organ: Works 
about the instrument, history, building, etc. 

(786.6) ; Instruction and Collections (786.7) 
a double group for the special reason that 
most books of instruction are virtually col- 
lections; Individual Organ Composers (786.8) 
and Cabinet Organ, etc. (786.9), as with the 
D. C. 

Of the remaining groups under Music 
(787-789) it can now merely be said that 
their arrangement shows logical consistency 
at the expense of practical convenience. For 
the sake of the look on paper Percussion 
Instruments are given a whole number (789), 
which is then subdivided in the usual decimal 
way. It is indeed a pity that a large and 
important group like Pianoforte Music could 
not have had the benefit of the Harvard 
scheme of running numbers, say the whole 
of 786 and 787, with their decimal subdi- 
visions; and that the relatively unimportant 

group of Percussion Instruments might not 
have been relegated to a high dot, 789.91, for 
instance, which would be sufficient for every 
ordinary purpose. This is again a radical 
objection to many other portions of the D. C. 
Indeed, right within the D. C. it is possible 
to adopt the Harvard scheme of arrangement 
for Individual Composers with the slightest 
inconvenience, simply by thrusting back this 
tail-end group of Percussion Instruments to 
a high dot under the preceding group, Wind 
Instruments, and taking the released number 
(789) for the purpose, with the Cutter sym- 
bols for the Composer number. 

After all existing schemes of shelf classi- 
fication have been duly considered, there is 
opportunity, in my opinion, for the devising 
of a still more practicable and serviceable 
scheme than has yet appeared. When de- 
vised, it will probably be based upon figures, 
rather than letters, and combine the advan- 
tages of the Harvard scheme of running num- 
bers with some indisputably possessed by the 
D. C. and with others possessed by the E. C. 
Co-operative cataloging is soon to be real- 
ized the most important single step in the 
development of library science ; co-operative 
shelf classification may follow in due course 
of time. 

BY AGNES HILLS, Librarian Bridgeport (Ct.) Public Library. 

THERE are moments when the reader of 
library journals and the attendant at the 
larger library conventions feels as though he 
had taken a long step backward in time out 
of the reign of law into the reign of miracle, 
into a land where effect bears not the slightest 
relation to cause, and where two and two 
eternally make five. For the common school 
and the public library, in spite of their con- 
stant shriek of " Progress," are really per- 
petuating more outworn ideas than any other 
institutions. The librarian, like the teacher, 
associates almost exclusively with members 
of his own profession. He gets a little out 
of touch with the rest of the world; he 
forms part of a great mutual admiration 
society; and if he is at the head of a large 

* Read before Connecticut Library Association, at 
Salisbury, Oct. 29, 1901. 

library and rarely comes into actual contact 
with the rank and file of the public, he is apt 
to think that the problems of his relations 
with them have all been practically solved. 
Such beliefs may be held quite honestly by 
people who administer their libraries by what 
the Christian Scientists call " absent treat- 
ment" ; but librarians whom necessity or 
choice compels to face the public daily know 
better. They feel that after twenty years of 
immense library activity we have still much 
to learn in the art of dealing with the great 
careless kindly public whom it is our pride 
and pleasure to serve. 

When a librarian sets out to see things for 
himself the first discovery he makes is the 
salutary one that the world does not precisely 
take librarians at their own valuation, and 
that the space they fill in 'it is not quite 



[January, 1902 

as large as that assigned to them by the li- 
brary conventions. When the average Amer- 
ican speaks of a public library, he almost 
invariably means a library building. If his 
town possesses a showy edifice, he boasts 
of its magnificent library. If it owns 
an admirable collection of books, admir- 
ably administered, but poorly housed, he 
tells you with shame that his town has no 
library worth speaking of. Women usually 
describe the woman librarian as a "walking 
cyclopaedia." It is somewhat remarkable that 
the masculine librarian is never so cataloged, 
and indeed there is some reason to believe 
that the masculine librarian keeps out of the 
reach of women's clubs. It is, however, cus- 
tomary to describe him as a very smart man. 
Still, although the average American speaks 
well of his librarian, he has no definite or 
lofty ideals of librarianship, and in many 
places he probably would not be greatly 
scandalized if he suddenly found his public 
library conducted by the butcher or the baker, 
the milliner or the cook. 

The librarian has always been told at school 
and library conventions that people are hun- 
gry for knowledge. Now people in general 
are not hungry for knowledge, and the proof 
of this lies in our tax-supported schools and 
libraries. A man who loves learning will 
get his heart's desire at any sacrifice. He 
does not wait until somebody comes along 
with a free school or a free library. When a 
subscription library is changed to a free li- 
brary the best use of the new institution gen- 
erally comes from those who cared enough for 
reading to subscribe to its predecessor. The 
great mass of the people regard the schools 
with indifference, take no interest in their 
management, and send their children to them 
chiefly because they are compelled. It would 
save an immense expenditure of that useless 
talk which is the greatest hindrance to prac- 
tical work if it were once conceded that a new 
free library faces a public which, apart from 
what the library offers in the way of recrea- 
tion, is equally, if not more, indifferent to it. 

What have free libraries done for this in- 
different public in the course of ten or twenty 
years ? "Everything," answer the people with 
the missionary spirit, bent on establishing 
more and more free libraries. "Nothing," 
-murmurs the pessimist with ever increasing 

emphasis. "Both good and evil," answers the 
librarian who believes that the work he loves 
can bear the truth. 

The great fortunes bestowed on library 
buildings are awakening inevitable jealousy 
and the world is beginning to ask somewhat 
insistently why after twenty years of library 
work in a given community fiction still swings 
between 60 and 70 per cent, in spite of 
the increase of women's clubs and similar 
organizations. And it wants to know why 
lists of popular books, furnished to vari- 
ous magazines by librarians themselves, show 
that the most popular novel is one and the 
same from Maine to California. That while 
the publishers are booming "Richard Car- 
vel" the public in solid phalanx demand 
"Richard Carvel" at the libraries, and when 
"David Harum" is advertised as the greatest 
novel of the age the public cry out with one 
voice for "David Harum." There is no in- 
dividual choice, no trying of the new comers 
by any literary standards. The public simply 
run along the grooves marked out for them 
by clever advertising like so many mechanical 
toys. And the pessimist says that all this is 
the librarian's fault, and he would be glad to 
learn why the librarian has not taught his 
patrons to love the great literature of the 

The reason why women's clubs have added 
so little to the total circulation of solid books 
is easily given. In most women's clubs, only 
a small number of members really work, and 
much of their work is done with encyclopae- 
dias, dictionaries, and other reference books, 
of the use of which most of us are unable to 
keep statistics. Furthermore, most of these 
workers are women who used to read for 
self -improvement long before the days of fed- 
erations, and so naturally became leaders in 
clubdom. Women's clubs have not greatly 
increased the amount of solid reading. They 
have simply changed its direction. 

The charge of failure to popularize the great 
literature of the world is not quite so easily 
answered. At library conventions and through 
library journals the librarian is frequently 
commanded to feed his flock upon the heights 
of literature, though he is usually advised at 
the same time to obtain his own personal diet 
somewhere else. When a new library opens 
it is customary to announce that the feeding 

January, 1902] 


of the said flock upon the said acclivities will 
be the librarian's lifework. Unfortunately, 
some eloquent speaker at the next library con- 
vention will probably direct him to do nothing 
of the sort, to let his patrons do as they 
please, and to give them anything they can 
find in the bookstores. 

But what an amount of misconception it 
would save if we would all admit that the 
order of things is pretty fairly established, 
and a part of it seems to be that people with 
tastes for the highest literature are few and 
far between. Mr. Andrew Lang, Mr. Birrell 
and other writers whose culture is beyond re- 
proach have done yeoman service to the cause 
of education by emphasizing the fact that a 
genuine appreciation of great literature must 
always be very rare 'much rarer than the 
love of great music or of great plastic art. 
Professor Woodrow Wilson tells us that since 
the "general public" has taken to going to 
college the teaching of literature has been 
obliged to consist chiefly of setting people to 
count the words great writers use, and to 
note the changes they make in successive re- 
visions ; and so, he adds, "Degrees are made 
available for the large number of respectable 
men who can count and measure and search 

The colleges have accepted modern conclu- 
sions and have frankly gone out of the mir- 
acle business. Why should not schools and 
libraries do the same? 

But, although the educated librarian knows 
that he cannot supply his patrons with the 
sense of style, the keen ear for the music of 
verse, the passionate love of beauty and the 
vivid imagination with which their ancestors 
omitted to furnish them his conscience is 
not wholly clear. 

Outside of the great realms of imaginative 
literature lies a whole world of pure and 
wholesome books which even ten years ago 
almost everybody used to read gladly. Even 
now, perhaps, the majority of the people read 
them; but the taste for problem novels, mor- 
bid boneless books, and widely advertised 
trash grows apace. The librarian cannot 
honestly deny that some of this growth is 
due to the public library. 

The trumpets have always given an uncer- 
tain sound, the race for popularity has been 
keen, and the librarian runs some obvious 
risks in letting the circulation of his library 

fall below the average. Timid librarians who 
a few years ago were trying to prevent us 
from circulating many pleasant harmless 
books are now by a natural reaction throwing 
wide their doors and admitting almost every- 
thing. It takes some degree of personal cour- 
age to urge the exclusion of a book when you 
know that the library ten miles away has just 
put in twenty or thirty copies. But even on 
the lowest ground we shall do well to remem- 
ber the central fact that public libraries are 
established for the education and uplifting of 
the people. It is our duty to maintain a cer- 
tain standard in literature and morals in spite 
of the mistakes we shall inevitably commit. 
We are all too much afraid of what we are 
pleased to call "public opinion." An old li- 
brarian once said to a young one "Why did 
you do such and such a thing?" The young 
librarian answered "I did it in deference to 
public opinion." How large was the public 
opinion?" asked the elder. The other hesi- 
tated a moment, "Well, to tell the truth," he 
said, "it consisted of one noisy old gentleman 
who kept on writing to the newspapers." Real 
public opinion, if we could only get at it, is 
a thing we should all bow to reverently. It 
is the will of that vast majority of kindly 
sensible normal people who constitute the bulk 
of the patrons of a public library. It would be 
well for us to trust that larger public a little 
more in everything. It is surely on the side of 
the dignity and purity of the public library, and 
we may even rely upon its common sense for 
support if we persist in surrounding library 
business with ordinary business safeguards. 

The great increase of reference work dur- 
ing the last few years in most public libraries 
is one of the few things over which the libra- 
rian can honestly and heartily rejoice. Most 
of the puzzles and problems of the neighbor- 
hood are brought to him for solution, and he 
can at least feel sure that he has made some, 
solid conquests in the world of fact. The 
people who always delighted in good sub- 
stantial books read still better books as his 
stores expand. Nevertheless he feels that 
more people ought to be interested in history, 
travel, biography, science, in all the wonder 
and beauty of the world. The common school 
which offers its pupils a taste of nearly every 
kind of knowledge, rarely seems to give them 
enough of anything to make them wish for 


[January, 1902 

A young girl came into a public library 
and asked for a book about worms because 
she had to teach the subject next morning. 
It was duly handed to her, "I don't want 
these," she said, "I want the worms that turn 
into butterflies." Then she added quite sol- 
emnly. "I don't know anything about the sub- 
ject, but I know the proper methods of 
teaching it. That is the important thing." 
And a few days afterwards a little boy came 
into the same library with a penny picture of 
a cold flabby modern German madonna, and 
said to the librarian, "Will you please tell 
me if this is beautiful?" The librarian told 
him that she thought it hideous. "Oh, I'm 
so glad," said the child. "Teacher gave us 
each a picture and told us to live with it 
until we could see all its beauty, and I've 
lived with this for three weeks, and the 
more I look at it the homelier it seems to get." 
The librarian is often tempted to think that 
the secret of the indifference of the younger 
generation to everything but novels may lie 
somewhere in this direction. It seems fatally 
easy to spoil the whole range of interesting 
things, even with the best intentions. There 
seems to be no way of convincing libraries 
and schools that no amount of enthusiasm 
can take the place of knowledge, that elab- 
orate methods never atone for ignorance, 
and that if the blind lead the blind the scrip- 
tural consequences usually follow. In many 
libraries the personal element is almost elim- 
inated. The seeker after knowledge is con- 
fronted with lists of various kinds; if the 
lists fail, everything comes to an end. Now 
lists are very valuable in the hands of people 
who recognize their limitations ; but they 
have all one radical defect. They "evaluate" 
the book, but they cannot evaluate the per- 
son who is to use it. Librarianship prop- 
erly so called, as distinguished from the mere 
mechanical handing out of books, consists 
very largely in this fitting of the right book 
to the right person. We have been trying to 
evade this question of genuine librarianship 
for a good many years, and the results are 
not encouraging. 

In fact, they are so little encouraging that 
there seems to be a growing tendency to leave 
adult readers to their fate, and to lay the 
whole stress of library effort upon the chil- 
dren. With this idea most of us are busily 
engaged in abolishing age limits, opening 

children's rooms, and training children's li- 
brarians largely along kindergarten lines. 
It is time to say firmly that the main business 
of a public library lies with grown people, 
for whom very little educational provision 
is made, and not with children who are ex- 
pensively, if non-efficiently, cared for by the 
public schools. A visitor from a neighboring 
state once described the library of his native 
town as "the kind of library that made a 
man think tenderly of King Herod." It seems 
more than probable that a good many other 
libraries have recently induced their members 
to think tenderly of King Herod. An age 
limit is a stupid thing; but in towns of a 
certain kind, and where there is no prospect 
of a children's room it may be just as well 
to think carefully before abolishing it. 

Separate rooms for children under 15 
are in many respects desirable things ; but 
they need to be conducted cautiously. If 
kindergarten features are made too promi- 
nent they will drive away the older children. 
Little children, who usually go to school 
far too early, are much better out in the air 
and sun than in the close atmosphere of a 
public room. There is always a temptation 
to encourage their presence because they look 
so pretty and charm the public; but it is 
really a cruel thing to do. Besides there does 
not seem to be any reason to think that we 
can essentially change the intellectual make- 
up of a child by getting hold of it very 
early. Work with children is not so easy as 
we fancy because we really know so little 
about them. A bright school-girl once said 
to a librarian, "The trouble with all you 
grown-up people is that although all of you 
have been there, so few of you can remember 
how it looked." The whole problem of li- 
brary work with children lies in that bit of 
school-girl slang. We cannot put ourselves 
in the children's places and find out what they 
want. Of course, we all direct the reading of 
nice little people who read nice little books 
and possess cultivated fathers and mothers. 
Those delightful infants would probably con- 
tinue to read and prosper if we and our li- 
braries were non-existent. The children who 
present the problems are the normal boys 
and girls with no ancestors to help them, 
sprung from races that used hands instead of 
brains, often the first of their family to learn 
to read. The wisdom of going slowly in such 

January, 1902] 


matters is shown by the excellent relations 
which have grown up naturally in many 
places between public libraries and public 
schools. A forced and formal alliance be- 
tween teachers and librarians, such as has 
so often been proposed, would have resulted 
in grotesque consequences upon both sides. 
As it is now, those whom education and train- 
ing have fitted for the task have learned to 
work together in the kindliest unity. Those 
who are not ready for the work rarely un- 
dertake it, and the gain in honesty and ef- 
ficiency is enormous. 

Two things are necessary before we can 
do the educational work the public has a right 
to demand of us. The first is that we should 
persuade our friends of the schools really to 
teach children to read. As it is, too many 
children who leave school early are unable 
to pronounce ordinary English words or to 
grasp the meaning of very simple English 
sentences. They read English as many of us 
read French. They cannot follow a printed 
argument or understand a serious book, but 
they can tear out the plot from an exciting 
story, and read the columns of a sensational 
newspaper or fierce labor paper which is 
often in its way a model of style. Until 
these people learn to read, the library can do 
very little with them. 

The second thing is that without prejudice 
to what may be called without irreverence 
the "ticket-office" ideal of librarianship, or the 
rights of the "business manager," we should 
find room, at least in the larger libraries, 
for men and women of broad education 
whose duty should be to meet the public and 
give them intelligent help. We have tried 
every possible mechanical device except li- 
brarianship by automatic figures ; we have 
tested the principle of self-help by giving the 
public unrestricted access to the shelves; and 
yet we shall soon have to face the possibility 
of there being a singular contrast between 
our gorgeous American library buildings and 
the educational values for which they stand. 
Some of the best colleges in the country with 
their broad system of electives and their new 
ideal of the successful student as one who 
can best apply his learning to the practical 
uses of life, stand ready to give us the men 
and women we need. It would be a great 
service to the cause of public libraries if 
one of the older colleges, a college of schol- 

arly traditions and unimpeachable standing, 
would establish a post-graduate course for 
intending librarians leading to a special de- 
gree. Except in regard to bibliography, such 
a course should not be technical. It should 
be merely designed to broaden and deepen 
the librarian's general culture. The training 
of men and women for the purely business 
side of library work should be left to the 
library schools, and the offices of business 
manager and librarian should be separated 
whenever possible. Place a man or woman of 
fine natural endowment and adequate training 
in a public library in actual contact with the 
people and the standard of the whole com- 
munity would be raised. All that we have 
of best and noblest in American library work 
has been kept alive by a handful of book- 
loving men and women whose names we can 
all supply. The future of public libraries 
mainly depends upon our ability to attract 
more such scholarly enthusiasts to our ranks. 

The old objections arise at once. People 
who spend money like water for every new 
appliance in the market, who advocate the 
utmost extravagance in buildings and fur- 
niture, loudly proclaim that highly educated 
assistants would demand such large salaries 
that they would bankrupt the libraries. It 
is not altogether a question of salaries. There 
are many occupations which people follow 
because they love them, knowing well that 
they can never bring them any but very mod- 
erate rewards. Is is not possible to imagine 
library work becoming so individual, so in- 
teresting and so varied that people may love 
it in much the same fashion? And, as a 
woman gently reminded the librarians who 
were discussing this question at Lake Placid, 
there are still left in the world people who 
love to serve. 

The people who love to serve are forced 
to change the fashion of their service from 
age to age and to find new outlets for the 
helpful spirit within them. There is no bet- 
ter work than library work; none more 
worthy of the patience of a woman or the 
strength of a man. Finer and finer spirits 
must come to us as the years go on. The 
scholar will interpret books to men from the 
factory and the mine, and in the dreariest 
quarter of some crowded city little wolfish 
children may learn the meaning of life from 
a new St. Francis of Assisi. 



[January, 1902 


IT is encouraging to find in the December 
LIBRARY JOURNAL further discussion of "Slavic 
transliteration." Yet the article not only leaves 
room but makes room for still further discussion, 
although at the outset its author would cut from 
under our feet common ground, when he says, "It 
is absolutely impossible to devise a system of 
transliteration of Russian which will assign a con- 
stant equivalent to each letter, and at the same 
time give an English reader some notion of the 
correct pronunciation. ... In such a case the 
only correct procedure is that of the committee, 
to adopt a consistent system [assign a constant 
equivalent to each letter], and let the pronuncia- 
tion shift for itself." While recognizing the diffi- 
culties in the case, we insist that at every step our 
constant aim should be, even at the sacrifice of 
the " constant equivalent," to give the reader an 
approximate notion of the correct pronunciation. 

If " the committee preserves consistency," it 
does not follow " Russian precedent in not dis- 
tinguishing e from e." In behalf of ya and yu, 
Mr. Noyes appeals to Mrs. Garnett's authority in 
her translation of Turgenev's works. For " Rus- 
sian precedent " we cite Turgenev himself (with 
Mrs. G.'s transliteration in parenthesis). Turgenev 
writes: Aieiia (Alyona), Aiema (Alyosha), Ensb- 
MCHKOBI (Bizmyonkov), Cepera (Seryoga), TBT- 
pe'Bi (Tiutiurov [-rI6v]), 3S3H (Zyozya). And 
where Turgenev did not consider it necessary to 
mark the distinction, Mrs. G. has made it in these 
names: BepcsoBKa (Beryozovka), FyfiapeBi 
(Gubaryov), KopojeBi (Korolyov), Mnxneui 
(Mihnyov), Heipi. (Piotr, " pron. P-yotr "), 
Gejopi. (Fyodor [and] Fiodor), POMCHI (Rom- 
yon), CeMCHi (Semyon), CesienoBT> (Semyonov), 
CeneHHTb (Semyonitch), CeneHOBHa (Sem- 
yonovna), CrenyfflKa (Styopushka), ^epaoGafi 
(Tchornobai), HyRiey.lH,H3eBT> (Tchuktcheulidzov 

The word " orel " (ortol) illustrates our need of 
the common ground of approximately correct pro- 
nunciation: Mr Noyes rejects it; we think it 
essential. While we need not expect to indicate 
the various shades of closeness or openness of e 
or of o, to let an 0-sound be represented by t, when 
it can be avoided, is too shiftless. Admitting for 
the moment that "arydwl" is correct, we chal- 
lenge the statement that orel" is hardly worse than 
' oriol.' " There seems to be much fear lest the 
latter shall be taken for that other bird, the oriole. 
There would be more reason for the fear if orfol 
had been written oriol. Doubtless it would be 
better to mark the accent (orldl), since the ele- 
mentary fact that e always bears the accent will 
not be known to the general reader; and knowl- 
edge of the place of the accent is (unconsciously) 
a guide to vowel quality: e.g., if the first o in 

orfol is supposed to be accented, it will be likely 
to be made close (and we shall have oriole} ; but if 
the second, then the first will be more indefinite in 
character, as becomes the unaccented o in Russian. 
But Mr. Noyes has adopted the erroneous method 
of representing this unaccented o by a. We need 
say no more of this than to quote the Russian 
scholar, la. la. Grot : " The generally accepted rule 
that o without the accent is pronounced a is in- 
correct ; because, for example, the words rocn<ua 
[gospoda], xopomo [khorosh6],are not pronounced 
racuaja [gaspada], xapamo [kharash6] ; in the 
first two syllables of the two words there is heard 
certainly not a pure a, but a middle sound between 
a and o" Besides, Mr. N. represents e by "yaw." 
We should use S for "aw" as being more open 
and (therefore) correct: compare English polt 
(close o not found in Russian) with p6l (Russian 
accented o), which differs considerably from (Eng- 
lish) Paul, pall. One more remark anent e: in 
following the committee's plan, what shall we do 
with words spelled in two ways, as j;in< ; , JHII,O; 
^epHumCBi, ^epHiimoBt ? Here, perhaps, the 
transliteration must shift, instead of the pro- 
nunciation I 

" Consistency " to the winds, if necessary ! For 
we need it (fe) to represent e, n at the beginning 
of words and syllables. After a consonant in the 
same syllable we would use e to represent both, 
whether accented or not. Mr. Noyes's Bohemian 
"6" would puzzle the " unlearned reader." And 
in " scientific works " any system may be adopted 
with an appropriate key. 

The committee, having used y to represent w, 
had very good reason for not making ya, yu stand 
for a, to- Here is a chance for the "constant 
equivalent " which is so desirable whenever attain- 
able : y is not needed anywhere else; /' (!) is quite 
sufficient, and seems equally unambiguous. With- 
out preconceived notions the " unlearned reader " 
is quite as likely to say Rye-azan when the word 
has y as when spelled with i and far the least 
likely when it is spelled Riazan. Mr. Noyes's 
remark about Mrs. Garnett's use of^z and_y (ye r 
yi,yo might be added) is far too general. We find 
Sophia (Coba), Varia (Bapa), both Maria and 
Marya (Mapbfl), etc. And it is noticeable that 
toward the end of her long and successful task 
she somewhat changed her transliteration for the 
better, in this particular and in others; e g., 
Bacn .ibCBHTb ( Vassilievitch, for -yevitch ) , OHtrnnt 
(Oniegin, for Onye-), AeanaCbHTb (Afanasiitch, 
for -syitch), HpaCKOBba (Praskovia), TjcmoptB-E. 
(Tiutiurov, for Tyutyurov [-r!6v]), TpHropbeBHTb 
(Grigorievitch, for -yevitch), TejtrHH-b (Teliegin, 
for Telye-) ; and examples of y (instead of /) for 
w: IIy3blpHUUHT> (Puzyritsin one y and one i) t 
MH.IOBI (Mylov), By6jHUHHi (Bublitsyn). Some- 
times Mrs. G. makes e at the beginning of a sylla- 
ble a diphthong (which it always is) : e.g., Eflremft 
(Yevgeny), Eropi (Yegor), Epsio.iau (Yermolal) 

lanuary, 1902] 


EuceeBi (Yevseyev a double example, which, if 
rendered Evseev, according to the committee's 
plan, would probably be called Evsif by the " un- 
learned reader"), EfiCTHrHtH (Yevstigney) ; and 
sometimes a simple vowel, as E(|)peMl> (Efrem), 
Eurpa(j)'b (Evgraf). (y is sometimes called a con- 
sonant, but never properly : the weak element of 
the diphthong Hi is no more a vowel than that of 

& ["jr"].) 

When Mr. N. takes a deeper look into Mrs. G.'s 
-work, he will find her authority mostly opposing 
his claims. 

Mr. Noyes says : " The committee is certainly 
right in transliterating v by_y." One good reason 
why y is not right is given above : H has pre- 
empted it. And when he refers to " Greek upsi- 
lon," he is more Greek than the Greeks: in Dal 
and other Russian dictionaries all words spelled 
formerly with v are now entered and defined under 
the spelling H, with only a reference from the v 
form. Besides, this appeal to Greek derivation 
introduces a new and distracting element into the 
discussion. Shall we, forsooth, make ph stand 
for (h, and th for e ? Certainly, with just as good 
reason 1 

J. S. S. 

Dec. 30, 1901. 




From Annual Report of the Library, in Pratt Insti- 
tute Monthly, December. 

THE "information desk" was established as 
a regular feature of the library Nov. I [1900]. 
It had previously been tried in our old quar- 
ters, and last year in the spring, with stu- 
dents in charge just enough to show that 
in proper hands it could be made a most im- 
portant factor in our work. Miss Winifred 
L. Taylor, who was called from Freeport, 
Illinois, to help us make the experiment, had 
had twelve years' experience as volunteer 
librarian of the town library, helping to select 
books for purchase and to guide people in 
their choice of reading. She had afterwards 
for years been a member of the library 
"board. Miss Taylor was left entirely to her 
own devices as to clerical work, as we wished 
Tier to feel that she could have time to sup- 
ply the wants that she herself might perceive 
in the way of lists, etc. The experiment has 
been tried for seven months and a half, and 
has confirmed us fully in our belief in the 
value of an information-desk for the giving 
not only of information but of help and 
counsel. Of course, the class chiefly bene- 
fited is young people. Those who have 
been transferred from the children's depart- 
ment have carried a line of introduction to 
the desk and made the acquaintance of the 

main library under good auspices. Young 
men and women also have not been slow to 
avail themselves of its help, as well as per- 
sons new to the library and unacquainted with 
the necessary forms. The feelings and per- 
plexities of the public with regard to certain 
customs and regulations have found voice 
and a sympathetic hearing, and many mis- 
understandings have been corrected, mistakes 
rectified, and the reasons of certain procedures 
made clear. For all this work, time is a most 
necessary element, and in the hands of a 
judicious assistant produces results well 
worth its expenditure. 

To go into some detail as to results, we 
may perhaps use Miss Taylor's own account 
of some parts of the work accomplished. 
In January she says: "A number of boys 
and girls have been transferred from the 
children's room and many others have begun 
taking books for the first time. I have taken 
these young people one by one, and taught 
them how to consult the printed lists and 
the card-catalog, explaining all their cabal- 
istic signs. I have assisted them in making 
out their first lists of a dozen numbers or 
more, representing a variety of authors; 
through this list of twelve books by different 
authors they have the groundwork for 
selections of fifty or sixty books or more. 
In making out these first lists with the boys, 
I omit the Henty, Ellis and Munroe books, 
as they all know these authors, and aim to 
enlarge their circle and to call their attention 
to writers of whom they know nothing. The 
boys and girls usually pay strict attention 
and so begin the use of the library intelli- 
gently. I have assisted a number of persons 
who, not being able to get the latest books, 
have seemed at sea in the matter of selection, 
helping them to make out fresh call-slips with 
the numbers of books not so greatly in de- 
mand. I think the public are appreciative 
of the fact that there is some one in the 
room whose time is entirely at their service. 
A number of persons, in conversation at 
this desk, have seemed for the first time to 
realize the relation of literature to character, 
and in some cases of which we know have ex- 
tended our work beyond the library by them- 
selves undertaking the guidance of the read- 
ing of younger persons, coming back occa- 
sionally for consultation. Students of music 
and art, deeply interested in their subject, 
but quite unaware that it had a literature, 
have been introduced to the theory, history, 
and biography of art and music." 
In February Miss Taylor reports : 
"I notice in looking through the shelves 
that many of the Ellis books are in, and that 
Tomlinson is gaining in popularity. I also 
hear much less regret expressed for the ab- 
sent Oliver Optic and Alger, and more opin- 
ions to the effect that the Henty books are 
all very much alike. Some of the Itoys are 
beginning to take out a second book, the 'not 



[January, 1902 

fiction,' and that gives a chance to get them 
interested in fresh lines. My list of books 
for this purpose is very popular." "I find 
my book-lists a very great convenience, but 
experience convinces me that to hand even 
a most carefully selected list to any individ- 
ual and to expect him to get just what he 
wants from it is like sending a sick man into 
a drug-store and telling him to help himself, 
that every bottle on the shelves is good for 
something. One must study the symptoms 
before recommending either book or remedy. 
... I know of perhaps twenty novels aside 
from the standard series of fiction which 
have a certain quality of all-round, bright 
mediocrity, novels of a certain indefinable 
social standing, that I feel safe in recom- 
mending to the average reader; these, of 
course, are books with no marked peculiarity 
either in the subject or the manner of treat- 
ment, or in the characteristic of the writer 
stories of steady movement and plenty of 
light and shade. A good, romantic love- 
story seems to appeal to all readers." 


THE New York Times Saturday Review, in 
a recent issue, called attention to the reduc- 
tion of the circulation of fiction, 24 per cent., 
that has tatcen place at the City Library of 
Springfield, Mass., in the four years of J. C. 
Dana's administration of that library. This 
was commented upon as a matter of interest 
and significance ; and the article was fol- 
lowed, in the issue for Dec. 28, by a sym- 
posium on "Readers of fiction," from the li- 
brarian's point of view, containing contribu- 
tions from Herbert Putnam, H. J. Carr, Dr. 
Canfield, Miss M. E. Hazeltine. A. E. Bost- 
wick, J. L. Whitney, F. M. Crunden, W. E. 
Foster, Miss C. M. Hewins and J. K. Hos- 

Perhaps the most suggestive contribution 
is that of Mr. Putnam, who states, first, 
that he is "not clear as to the necessity of 
reducing the circulation"; and second, that 
fiction circulation statistics might be usefully 
differentiated by class or value, as proposed 
by Mr. Thomson, of the Free Library of 
Philadelphia. He adds: "There is, however, 
a demand for fiction which I do not believe 
can legitimately be met by the public library. 
That is the demand for the latest new novel 
merely because it is the latest new novel. No 
free library can meet it adequately, and the 
attempt to meet it is an expense and annoy- 
ance to the reader and expense and burden to 
itself. In the Boston Public Library, under 
my administration, we commonly bought each 
year 25 or 30 copies of about 200 current 
novels. We had 65,000 cardholders. The 
chance for any particular cardholder to se- 
cure one of the 30 copies was, therefore, in 
effect infinitesimal. As a rule, he did not in 

fact secure it. But finding the book in the 
catalog he applied for it, his application had 
to be handled by the various attendants, and, 
if made through the branches, by the deliv- 
ery wagon also. It went back to him marked 
'out,' and his labor and that of the officials 
was to no purpose. This process was re- 
peated with thousands of slips from thou- 
sands of readers, of whom not one in a thou- 
sand could be successful. 

"The free library cannot supply the demand 
for current novels 'hot from the press.' In 
professing to supply it the library deludes 
the public and reduces its capacity for service 
really serviceable. I believe that free libra- 
ries would gain in resources and in the end 
in popular esteem if they would agree to buy 
no current work of fiction until at least one 
year after the date of publication. 

"They should at the same time make ob- 
vious their intention to buy the latest work 
in the arts and sciences as nearly as pos- 
sible on the day of its publication. 

"As to the reading public : The expendi- 
ture of a few cents will secure some of the 
best of the current fiction in magazines and 
newspapers. The remainder of the demand 
should, in my opinion, properly be met by 
subscription libraries." 

Suggestion from others as to ways and 
means of reducing fiction reading include 
references to the "duplicate collections" of 
new books for which a small fee is charged ; 
calling attention to generous supplies of in- 
teresting works of travel, biography, history, 
science, etc. ; issue of special reading lists ; 
the two-book method ; and the sifting out of 
novels of inferior quality. Mr. Crunden says : 
"Keep novels in the background. Advertise 
and push other books. All lists are made 
more valuable by annotation. Get them into 
the hand of readers in various ways. We re- 
duced the demand for Mrs. Southworth about 
75 per cent, in five or six months by placing 
in every volume of hers issued a call slip 
containing 20 titles of a little better novels. 
These lists should be in form available for 
use as call slips. All this is simply adopting 
the advertising methods of the publishers, 
which create the enormous call for new 
novels. People ask for what they hear about, 
whether books, or soap, or medicine. Let 
them hear about the books you desire them 
to read." 

Dr. Hosmer deprecates the suggestion that 
librarians should serve as censors of the pub- 
lic reading "except in a very limited way," 
and adds: "Novels as a class I by no means 
condemn. Like food and drink, they may be 
abused and indulged in excessively. People 
are foolish about them; but people them- 
selves, not libraries, must cure the folly. We 
can do a little; the two-card system is some 
check. We can advise, if we can gain the 
confidence of our public. Certainly we should 
discriminate in selecting." 

January, 1902] 



THE report of the Librarian of Congress 
for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1901, fur- 
nishes gratifying evidence of the advance 
made toward the ideals of efficiency and pub- 
lic service set forth by Mr. Putnam when he 
assumed charge of the national library three 
years ago. It is presented in two parts, in one 
handsome volume, the first dealing with the 
year's record of activity, and the second set- 
ting forth the historical development, present 
organization, resources and methods of the 
library. Accessions for the year are given as 
76,481 books and pamphlets, 19,341 manu- 
scripts, 4308 maps and charts, 16,950 pieces 
of music, 21,455 prints, and 2328 volumes in 
the law library. The total number of books 
and manuscripts contained in the collection is 
recorded as 1,071,647. There were 832,370 
visitors to the library building; and to the 
112,894 readers who made use of the main 
reading room there were issued 401,512 vol- 
umes. The highest number of volumes is- 
sued in one day was 2932. 

Results of the efforts made for systematic 
development are now beginning to be more 
clearly apparent. Mr. Putnam says : "The 
past four years, in particular the past two, 
have seen the collections, formerly indiscrim- 
inate, divided into certain main groups and 
in large part arranged and digested; most of 
these groups conveniently located ; and the 
physical equipment and personal service ap- 
propriate to each determined, and in part 
provided. They have seen determined also, 
and initiated in each group, a system of clas- 
sification which not merely recognizes present 
contents but provides elastically for future 
development; and catalogs which, also elas- 
tic, when brought to date will exhibit ade- 
quately the collections as they stand and be 
capable of expansion without revision. The 
larger appropriations of the past four years 
have enabled the imperfections in the collec- 
tions themselves in a measure to be remedied. 
Particular progress has been made in the 
completion of standard sets and bibliogra- 
phies, which are the tools of the classifier and 
cataloger, and guides in selection ; and con- 
siderable progress in the acquisition of mis- 
cellaneous material important to serious re- 
search, but impossible of acquisition with the 
small funds formerly available." 

The administrative force, although in- 
creased by 26 appointments, was not brought 
up to the strength recommended in the pre- 
vious report. It is pointed out that, owing 
to this, "too much of the time of $1500 em- 
ployes is now diverted to the revision of work 
of 'the $600 and $700 employes," and it is 
urged that the force be increased by addi- 
tional catalogers and "certain assistants in 
the Copyright Office, whose salaries will be 
reimbursed by the receipts of the office." 

Strong recommendation is made that the sal- 
ary of $3000 a year, which is naid to the 
chiefs of four divisions in the library, should 
be paid to at least three others. One of these 
is the post of head of the Division of Manu- 
scripts, a position left vacant for more than 
a year, and which Mr. Putnam frankly states 
that he cannot fill "until the salary is put upon 
a reasonable basis." At present the salary is 
but $1500, "the salary of an ordinary clerk in 
the government employ"; while it is pointed 
out that the sum recommended "is but the 
salary paid to a professor in a minor college 
for work involving no greater learning, no 
administrative duties, less consecutive atten- 
tion, longer vacations, and many incidental 
privileges." The importance of properly de- 
veloping this department is emphasized: 

"There is no division in the library more 
important in its possible service to historical 
research than the Division of Manuscripts. 
There is none in whose conduct thorough, au- 
thoritative scholarship is more necessary. It 
is to this division particularly (as to the Di- 
vision of Prints) that gifts must be attracted ; 
the expert judgment must be there to attract 
them. The material bought has not, like 
most printed matter, a normal or standard 
market value. Each lot, being unique, is sold 
for the most that it will bring. Only expert 
judgment can determine for the library the 
fair limit to be paid; for to determine this 
means not merely to know the market in 
general, but to estimate justly the value of 
the particular manuscript to history and the 
loss to the library if its purchase be foregone. 
The chief of this division, among other 
qualifications, must have academic training, 
facility in at least a half dozen languages, a 
knowledge of political and literary history, a 
thorough and precise knowledge of American 
history, a discriminate knowledge of 'original 
sources,' a considerable knowledge of paleog- 
raphy, and familiarity with the character and 
conduct of the manuscript collections in other 
libraries and in the archive offices abroad as 
well as in this country." 

There is a notable increase in the acces- 
sions to the library, owing to the more gen- 
erous appropriation, which "has enabled pro- 
gress to be made in the completion of sets 
and in the acquisition of standard material," 
although to a degree that is still much below 
what is requisite. Gifts have been more nu- 
merous than previously. It is noted that the 
library has never received a gift of money, 
and Mr. Putnam adds: 

"The library can indeed hope to attract 
gifts only by three means : First, by a build- 
ing which will house them safely and com- 
modiously this it has. Second, by admin- 
istration which will safeguard them and ren- 
der them useful this it is developing. Third, 
by considerable expeditures of its own in the 
acquisition of material which will bring the 
material given into honorable company and 


[January, 1902 

attract notice to it by increasing the 
reputation of the general collection. These 
expenditures it must be prepared to make. 
All three of these factors have operated in 
the case of the British Museum. Priceless 
collections have come to it by gift. They 
have come largely for the distinction of asso- 
ciation and service with a collection already 
the most distinguished in the world, made so 
by the direct effort of the government." 

Special attention is given to the collection 
of Oriental literature, based upon the collec- 
tion of the Hon. Caleb Gushing, and devel- 
oped by gifts of oriental books from Hon. 
W. W. Rockhill, which "now numbers over 
9500 volumes and pamphlets, and is under- 
stood to be, in certain directions, the most 
important in the United States. It justifies a 
separate division for its custody and admin- 
istration, and expenditure for its suitable de- 

Important purchases in the various depart- 
ments are noted, and there is appended to the 
report a "Select list of recent purchases," 
covering 71 pages and over 700 titles, classi- 
fied and annotated. The work of developing 
the document collection has made marked 
progress, when it is considered that the Di- 
vision of Documents was only organized in 
July, 1900. There are many gaps in the col- 
lection, even among publications of the United 
States government, the law providing for dis- 
tribution to the library having been formerly 
defective. Effort is also being made to es- 
tablish a uniform system for the receipt of 
state documents, and reference is made to the 
recent joint resolution of the Virginia General 
Assembly, providing for the regular supply of 
state documents to the national library. The 
additions of important manuscript material 
are also fully noted. 

In the Catalogue Division, in addition to the 
development of the system of printed cards 
for libraries already familiar to readers of 
the JOURNAL and the handling of current 
work, the entire section of American history 
and description .(some 25,000 volumes) has 
been reclassified according to the new scheme 
of arrangement and notation. The sections 
next to be dealt with are British history and 
topography, and the political and social sci- 
ences. The printed catalog card plans are 
fully described, and in conclusion Mr. Put- 
nam says : 

"There are many difficulties of detail, and 
the whole project will fail unless there can 
be built up within the library a comprehen- 
sive collection of books, and a corps of cata- 
logers and bibliographers adequate in number 
and representing in the highest degree (not 
merely in a usual degree, but in the highest 
degree) expert training and authoritative 
judgment. But the possible utilities are so 
great; they suggest so obvious, so concrete a 
return to the people of the United States for 
the money expended in the maintenance of 

this library; and the service which they in- 
volve is so obviously appropriate a service 
for the National Library of the United States, 
that I communicate the project in this report 
as the most significant of our undertakings of 
this first year of the new century." 

During the year covered the publications of 
the library have included four noteworthy 
volumes : The "Union list of periodicals, etc.," 
"Check list of American newspapers," "List 
of maps of America," and "Calendar of Wash- 
ington manuscripts," in addition to many 
varied topical lists and special reference lists. 

The reading-room for the blind was largely 
attended, there being an increase in the num- 
ber of blind visitors of 560 over the preceding 
year. For this constituency 188 readings 
were given by 190 volunteer readers, and 
there were 45 musicales. 

The matter of Sunday opening is again 
brought up, and its desirability emphasized. 
The extra administrative cost involved is set 
at $13,000 a year, and the public benefit of 
this privilege is regarded as very important. 
It is pointed out that "the Sunday opening of 
libraries and museums is now so general that 
the application to a particular institution has 
ceased to be discussed as a question of utility, 
much less as a religious question, but purely 
as a question of local need and of pecuniary 
ability. Compulsory Sunday labor is not in- 
volved. In the Library of Congress, as gen- 
erally elsewhere, the provision would be for 
a 'special service.' This might consist, in 
part at least, of week-day employes, but only 
at their own solicitation, for extra pay; and 
in no case would any employe serving during 
the week be permitted to work every Sunday, 
nor more than four hours of any Sunday. 

"The Sunday use would not be trivial. Ex- 
perience of other libraries proves it to be su- 
perior in orderliness and in seriousness to the 
week-day use. It would be in part by visitors 
from out of town, to whom now every Fed- 
eral institution in Washington, save the 
Zoological Park, is closed from Saturday 
evening till Monday morning; it would be in 
part by the men whose profession is in books, 
but whose week-day hours are occupied with 
routine research within their respective bu- 
reaus ; it would be in part by employes in the 
Executive Departments who are interested in 
serious reading, and it would be in a large de- 
gree by men and women whose week-day 
hours must be devoted to the mere business 
which is their livelihood and the work-day 
evenings to mere physical recuperation, and 
whose only opportunity for cultivation comes 
on Sunday." 

The report of the Register of Copyrights 
forms appendix 2. The total number of en- 
tries during the year was 92,351, of which 
83,813 were titles of works by residents of 
the United States; the total fees for these 
entries were $50,444.50. The various articles 
deposited in compliance with the copyright 

January, 1902] 



law amounted to 162,283, a S am of 20,839 
over the preceding year; of these 7746 are 
classified as "books proper," 5770 as "miscel- 
laneous articles," entered under the term 
"book," 9010 as newspaper and magazine ar- 
ticles, 17,702 as periodicals, and 16,709 as musi- 
cal compositions. The "Catalogue of title en- 
tries" has been improved by the addition of a 
complete volume index. A careful statement 
is given of the exact status of the current 
work of the office, and of the progress made 
in handling material received prior to July I, 
1897. Mr. Solberg calls attention to the need 
of new copyright legislation, and as a first 
step in that direction recommends the codifi- 
cation of copyright laws by a special com- 
mission appointed by Congress. 

Part 2 of the report covers some 200 pages 
and is practically an historical, descriptive 
and explanatory manual of the library; illus- 
trated with plans and numerous views. It 
opens with a statement of the staff organiza- 
tion, recording the librarians who have held 
office since the inception of the library. Then 
follows a compact and interesting historical 
sketch of the library since its beginning, pre- 
pared by Mr. Hutcheson, superintendent of 
the reading-room ; its constitution, and func- 
tions as thereby defined; a general review of 
the organization, scope and methods of every 
department, including Smithsonian Division, 
Law library, and Copyright Office; a full 
presentation of the character and status of 
the present collections; a statement of the 
equipment and administration of the building 
and grounds ; and appendixes giving the last 
appropriations act, record of library publica- 
tions, list of foreign depositories, and form 
of application for appointment. 

It is stated that this section of the report 
may form the basis of a manual to be issued 
separately later, but its inclusion in the libra- 
rian's report is most welcome, as it makes 
practicable a clearer understanding of the 
conditions upon which present work and fu- 
ture plans are based. Especially informing 
is the review of the extent and character of 
the collection books, pamphlets, documents 
and manuscripts. The general collection 
of books and pamphlets, "aggregating (with- 
out duplicates) three-quarters of a million 
volumes," is reported as almost complete- 
ly representative of American literature of 
the past 30 years, and fairly representative 
for earlier years. The most notable items in 
rare Americana and other special classes are 
noted, and the total number of works in the 
various classes are stated. 

It will be seen that the report as a whole 
is admirably representative of the past, pres- 
ent and possible future of the national libra- 
ry, and is a contribution of permanent inter- 
est and value to its annals. It will command 
the attention not only of librarians, but of 
all those who are interested in the develop- 
ment of American scholarship and literary 


THE report of the Superintendent of Doc- 
uments for the fiscal year ending June 30, 
1901, just issued, gives statistics of the 
distribution of government publications as 
follows: Received from all sources 750,495 
documents, of which 579,510 came from the 
Government Printing Office and 34,453 from 
libraries; 689,812 documents were distributed 
and sold, of which 257,945 were sent to desig- 
nated depository libraries, being an average 
of 527 documents to each library. Since the 
establishment of the Document Office in 
1895 the distribution to depositories has in- 
creased over 500 per cent. Mr. Ferrell ob- 
serves: "To many libraries the receipt of 
527 documents, more than half of which are 
large bound volumes, is embarrassing. A 
few depositories have already been dropped 
at their own request, having no available 
room for documents, while others have asked 
permission to select such as they find most 
useful. I have not yet found it practicable 
to comply with such requests because of the 
great increase in labor and bookkeeping in- 
volved. It is only a question of time, how- 
ever, until something must be done that will 
enable librarians to select documents most 
useful to their patrons." 

During the year the chief publications of 
the office included current issues of the 
Monthly Catalogue, the "Document cata- 
logue" of the 54th Congress, second session, 
and an index to the Senate document 270, s6th 
Congress (report on food furnished to troops 
in Cuba and Porto Rico). 

There is much unfinished work on hand. 
The "Document catalogue" for the first, sec- 
ond, and third sessions of the 55th Congress ; 
the "Document index" for the first session of 
the 56th Congress ; and Part 2 of the new 
check list relating to the documents of the 
1 5th to the 52d Congress, are among the most 
important publications in process of printing, 
and copy for the "Document index" for the 
second session of the 56th Congress is sub- 
stantially finished. 

The report touches upon several points 
in which amendment of existing practice is 
needed. It is suggested that "the public 
would be much better served if the Public 
Printer were authorized to print, upon the 
requisition of this office, extra editions of 
documents whenever required for sale. There 
has been some opposition to this proposition, 
however, on the theory that it would place the 
government in the position of competing with 
the regular private book trade. In my judg- 
ment there is no reason whatever for appre- 
hension upon that ground. I have never 
heard of a private firm undertaking to re- 
print a government publication for gain with 
but one exception." As the law now stands, 
250 copies or less of any document may be 



[January, 1902 

ordered, if the price be deposited with the 
Public Printer before publication ; but it is 
practically impossible for anyone not pos- 
sessed of advance information to take ad- 
vantage of this provision. "A transaction 
occurred recently which caused much adverse 
criticism, yet it was strictly in accord with 
the provisions. The editor of the report of a 
government commission knowing, by virtue 
of his position, when the document would go 
to press, and also knowing that no copies 
would be printed for free distribution, except 
to a limited number of libraries, ordered an 
extra number of copies, which he offered to 
sell at a price greatly in excess of their cost 
to him. While there was legally nothing 
wrong about it, it should be impossible for 
such a transaction to take place." Mr. Ferrell 
recommended that this section of the printing 
act be abolished, and that instead the Super- 
intendent of Documents be authorized to 
order extra copies of documents when needed 
for sale. The limitation of the sale of docu- 
ments to not more than one copy to the same 
person should also be abolished. Duplication 
in the distribution of documents is referred to 
at some length, and the most effective rem- 
edy is thought to be in securing greater 
uniformity in printing and binding. Mr. Fer- 
rell says, "The chief desire of every librarian 
and of every person who has occasion to use 
the public documents is. that each and every 
copy of a document shall have the same title- 
page and back title," and he gives examples 
of the confusion wrought by the present prac- 
tice of issuing the same publication in vari- 
ous differing forms. He adds: 

"Remedial legislation which will abolish 
such a system as I have described would re- 
sult in three very important reforms in the 
printing and binding and distribution of doc- 
uments : 

"First. The annual reports and other Ex- 
ecutive publications will be excluded from the 
Congressional numbered series of documents; 
and every copy of a document will bear the 
same inscription on the back and the same 
title page. 

"Second. The issue of but one edition of 
a document, uniform as to back title, title- 
page and binding, will enable the Public 
Printer to deliver any document as soon as 
printed for distribution to those entitled to it. 

"Third. Duplication will be greatly re- 
duced, both to individuals and to libraries. 

"Having given the subject a great deal of 
consideration during the past four years, I 
am satisfied that the only practical reform is 
to abolish the practice of printing the annual 
reports and miscellaneous publications of the 
Executive Departments and offices as num- 
bered Congressional documents." 

The Public Documents Library now con- 
tains 38,982 v. and 5934 maps, being an in- 
crease of 6965 v. and 907 maps during the 


W. F. Ywst, New York State Library, in Albany 
Argus, Dec. 29. 

THE summary of legislation for 1901, which 
is now being published by the New York 
State Library, will contain a specially large 
amount of material on libraries. In the re- 
port of the Public Libraries Division it covers 
106 laws in 31 states and Oklahoma territory. 
Thirteen local acts of New York state are 
included and one of Illinois. Thirty-nine 
laws were enacted by the central states, the 
North Atlantic division coming next with 
30. Much of this legislation aims at the ex- 
tension of the use of existing libraries, co- 
operation between municipalities and the for- 
mation of new libraries in small towns, school 
and rural districts. Cities and library boards 
are given greater freedom of action in the 
establishment and management of libraries; 
special appropriations are large and in six 
states the maximum tax limit has been 

Eight states passed acts general or com- 
prehensive in scope. Washington has fol- 
lowed the New York law very closely, Penn- 
sylvania, those of Massachusetts and New 
Jersey. At the time the laws were passed by 
their respective legislatures, Idaho had no 
free circulating library, and Delaware but 
three. The California law has a special feature, 
making it obligatory on town and city author- 
ities to establish a public library on petition 
of 25 per cent, of the voters. This corre- 
sponds to that section of the New York law 
which provides that whenever 25 taxpayers 
shall so petition the question shall be voted 
on at the next election. In California the 
ordinance may be repealed, however, on peti- 
tion of 25 per cent, of the voters and the 
library disestablished. In New York, on the 
other hand, a library once established by 
public vote or action or school authorities 
can be abolished only by a majority vote at 
two successive annual elections. The Indiana 
law is also mandatory, if a certain amount is 
raised for library purposes by popular sub- 
scription. The Oregon act fixes the maxi- 
mum tax limit at one-fifth mill, which will 
give an income so small as to make the law 
almost prohibitive for all but a few large 

In several states co-operation was encour- 
aged for the smaller and poorer municipali- 
ties. In Maine, towns may unite to form 
public libraries or may appropriate money to 
secure the free use of libraries in adjoining 
towns and receive annually from the state 
a duplicate amount equal to 10 per cent, of 
such appropriation. In Pennsylvania, cities 
under 100,000 and school districts and incor- 
porated library associations therein may co- 
operate to erect and maintain free public li- 
braries. In Wisconsin, townships, villages 
and cities may give financial aid to libraries 

January, 1902] 


free for their use located in neighboring 
places. Aiding such libraries is also to en- 
title them to a voice in their government. 

Separate laws providing for school libraries 
were passed in Missouri, Oregon, South Da- 
kota and North Carolina. In the latter state, 
if $10 is raised by subscription for a rural 
school library, $10 shall be added by the 
county superintendent of schools and $10 by 
the state board of education. The amount 
thus brought together is to form a nucleus 
for the purchase of books. Pennsylvania has 
supplemented her law relating to central free 
public libraries established by school districts, 
so that they may be divided and distributed 
among the schools of the respective districts. 
In Indiana, school trustees in cities of 15,000 
are given power to issue bonds for library 

County libraries also came in for consider- 
ation. It is interesting to note that these 
were provided for in the constitution of 
Indiana as early as 1816. No less than six 
acts were passed between 1818 and 1852 for 
their organization and management in that 
state. But only a few of these libraries still 
remain. The Wyoming law, passed in 1886, 
authorized the levy of an annual tax of one- 
eighth to one-half mill for county libraries. 
An amendment aiming to make it more ef- 
fective was passed in February last. Never- 
theless, Cincinnati and Van Wert, Ohio, are 
each claiming the distinction of priority in 
the matter of inaugurating the county library 
movement as a result of laws passed in 1898. 
This year Wisconsin passed a bill, one section 
of which is practically a copy of the Ohio 
law. It allows permanent county libraries 
to be established and maintained by a board 
of library directors. . . . 

State library commissions were created in- 
Idaho, Washington, Delaware and Nebraska. 
Acts for enlarging their powers, duties and 
funds were passed in seven other states. This 
is also a somewhat recent phase of library 
work, Massachusetts making the beginning in 
1890. At present there are commissions in 
20 states. Unsuccessful efforts to establish 
them were made this year in Illinois, Mis- 
souri and South Dakota. This is the third 
defeat in Illinois, where the State Library 
Association has been working since 1895 for 
the passage of such an act. In South Da- 
kota, even though no appropriation was asked, 
one member of the Assembly moved to amend 
the title to read "A bill to provide employ- 
ment for idle people." The commission was 
to consist of the state superintendent of edu- 
cation, the secretary of the State Historical 
Society and the librarian of the State Uni- 
versity. In each of these states new efforts 
will be made at the next session of the leg- 

The Pennsylvania commission secured an 
.annual appropriation of $1750. It has been 
in operation since 1899, but has had to de- 

pend on private sources for its funds. The 
Georgia commission, although established in 
1897, is now the only one receiving no state 
aid, the enabling act specifying that the com- 
mission shall be of no expense whatever to 
the state. 

Tennessee also passed a law establishing 
a state library commission, but its only 
function will be to have charge of the state 
library and select the librarian. The latter 
task has hitherto fallen to the Legislature and 
has been for years one of the important 
events of the session. At the last election of 
a librarian there was a deadlock among the 
gallant solons for several days, owing to the 
irresistible charms of rival lady candidates. 

The large number of acts relating to state 
libraries indicates to some extent the growing 
change in ideas concerning their function. 
Originally consisting almost entirely of law 
books and intended only for the use of the 
Legislature and state officers, they are gradu- 
ally coming to be regarded as the proper 
center of the library interests of the state. 
The view is also gaining ground that the li- 
brary commission of a state should be identi- 
cal with the governing body of the state 
library as in the case in New York state and 
in Ohio. New Hampshire has accordingly 
passed a law whereby its library commission 
and the trustees of the state library are to be 
gradually consolidated, leaving only three 
commissioners, not more than two of whom 
shall be from one political party. 

New York state added to her statutes a 
very important one relating to gifts and be- 
quests. After 25 years from the date of a gift 
for educational purposes the Supreme Court 
may administer the property without a liter- 
al compliance with the terms of the donor, 
but in such a manner as will most effectually 
accomplish the general purpose of the gift. 

Among the minor acts also there are sev- 
eral of considerable interest. California has 
made the mutilation of books in libraries a 
misdemeanor, formerly a felony. Missouri 
declares it unlawful for a person related to 
any director on the library board to be em- 
ployed in the library. The North Carolina 
Legislature has required a separate place to 
be fitted up in the state library for negroes. 
In Idaho, where teachers have heretofore been 
devoting 30 minutes per week to teaching 
pupils kindness toward one another and all 
living creatures, they are now instead to give 
one hour a week to systematically reviewing 
the works of the school library. Washington, 
in creating a library commission, weakens an 
otherwise excellent law with the senseless 
provision that the secretary must be a woman. 

Although there are competent authorities 
in almost every state who might be con- 
sulted with profit and in spite of excellent 
laws that might serve as models, such blun- 
ders are repeated annually. One of this 
year's local acts of New York permits the 


[January, 1902 

council of Cohoes to expend for the main- 
tenance of a public library not over $2500 
annually. When this amount becomes in- 
sufficient further legislation will be necessary 
to allow for ordinary growth and develop- 
ment. The enabling acts for libraries at 
Johnstown, Mt. Vernon and Ypnkers have 
similar defects. The consideration of these 
and other errors led the New York State 
Library Association committee on legislation 
in their last report to suggest that it would 
be to the interests of both trustees and found- 
ers of libraries to submit all proposed special 
legislation to the state library department 
for suggestions with regard to careful word- 
ing. Some special legislation could thus be 
made more satisfactory and others avoided 

DURING the year just closed the amount of 
Andrew Carnegie's benefactions for the es- 
tablishment or development of American li- 
braries reached the immense total of $13,- 
813,000. This sum was distributed among 
153 places in 33 states, Porto Rico, Canada 
and British Columbia, the largest individual 
items being $5,000,000 for branch libraries in 
New York City, $1,000,000 to St. Louis for 
the same purpose, and a like sum for the en- 
dowment of the Carnegie libraries of Brad- 
dock, Duquesne and Homestead, in Pennsyl- 
vania. A record of these gifts, so far as they 
have been reported, are here given ; but it is 
probable that this is not entirely comprehen- 
sive of minor gifts, that have not received 
public notice. In some cases Mr. Carnegie's 
offers have not been accepted by the com- 
munities receiving them; thus, Easton, Pa., 
voted to decline the $50,000 offered for a li- 
brary building, owing to the maintenance 
fund required; at Grand Rapids, Mich., an 
offer of $100,000 from Mr. Carnegie was later 
withdrawn in view of the almost simultaneous 
offer of $150,000 from a former citizen of the 
town; and in several cases the acceptance of 
Carnegie gifts is still pending, owing to re- 
luctance or inability to meet the conditions 
imposed. These conditions are the familiar 
ones that the city shall provide a site, and 
guarantee a yearly maintenance fund amount- 
ing to 10 per cent, of the Carnegie gift. These 
conditions have been seldom waived, the 
gifts of $500 to a school library in Staten 
Island. $1000 to the Seaboard Air Line travel- 
ling libraries, $5000 to the New York Press 
Club for books, and $5000 for the Skene Me- 
morial Library at Griffin's Corners, N. Y., 
being about the only exceptions in the past 
year's record. The record is as follows: 

Aberdeen, S. D $15,000 

Madison, Ind $20,000 
Madison, Wis 75,000 
Mankato. Minn 40,000 
Marion, Ind 50,000 

Alameda, Cal 35,ooo 
Atlanta, Ga. (addi- 

Mattoon, 111 20,000 

Miles City. Mont ... 10,000 
Moline, 111 37,000 
Montclair, N. J 30,000 
Montgomery, Ala. .. 50,000 
Montreal, Can ... 150,000 
Mount Vernon, N. Y. 35,000 

Austin, Minn 12,000 

Bloomington, III.... 15,000 
Braddock, Duquesne 
and Homestead 
Carnegie libs., Pa. 

Nashville, Tenn 100,000 

Canandaigua, N. Y.. 10,000 
Cafton City. Colo.... 10,000 
Canton, N. V 30,000 

New Rochelle, N. Y. 25,000 
New York City . . . 5,000,000 
New York PressClub 5,000 
Niagara Falls. N. Y. 50,000 
Norristown, Pa 50,000 
Norfolk, Va 50,000 

Carbondale, Pa 25,000 
Carrollton, 111 10,000 

Catskill N Y 30,000 

Charleston, 111 18,000 
Cedar Rapids, la 75,000 

Nyack, N. Y 15,000 

Oneida, N. Y 11,000 

Charlotte, N. C 25,000 
Charlottesville, W. 

Oyster Bay, N. Y. . . 1,000 
Paducah, Ky 35,000 

Pekin, III. (addi- 

Pembroke, Ontario, 
Can 10,000- 

Clinton, Mass 95,000 

Colling wood, Onta- 

Perth Amboy, N. J.. 20,000 
Peru, Ind 25,000 

Phoenixville, Pa 20,000 
Port Jervis, N. Y 30,000 
Portland, Ind 15,000- 

Cornell College, la. . 40,000 
Covington, Ky. (ad- 
ditional) 35,000 

Portsmouth, O 50,000 
Revere, Mass 20,000 

Crawfordsville. Md. 25,000 

Cumberland, Md.. .. 25,000 

Redwing, Minn 15,000 
Richmond, Va 100,000 
Riverside, Cal 20,000 

Davenport, la 25,000 

Rockford III 60,000 

Elkhart, Ind 35,000 

St. Cloud, Minn 25,000 
St. Johns, N.F 50,000 

Fargo, N. D ........ 20,000 
Fort Scott, Kan 15,000 
Fort Wayne, Ind... 75,000 
Freeport, 111 30,000 

St. Joseph, Mo 25,000 
St. Louis, Mo 1,000,000 
San Francisco, Cal.. 750,000 
San Jose, Cal 50,000 
San Juan, Porto Rico.ioo,ooo 
Sault Ste Marie, 
Mich 30,000 

Galesburg, 111 50,000 

Gloversville, N. Y. . . 25,000 

Schenectady, N. Y . 50,000 
Seaboard Air Line 
travelling libs 1,000 
Seattle Wash 200.000 

Grand Junction, Colo. 3,000 
Great Falls, Mont. . . 30,000 
Green Bay, Wis 25,000 

Griffin's Corners, N. 
Y 5,000 

Sheboygan, Wis 25,000 
Sioux Falls, S. D . . . 25,000 
South Omaha, Neb.. 60,000 

Grossdale, 111 35,000 

Guthrie O. T 20,000 

Staten Island (N. Y.) 
Academy 500- 

Hempstead, N. Y 25,000 
Henderson, Ky..... 25,000 
Iron Mountain, Mich. 17,500 
Ishpeming, Mich 20,000 
Islip, N. Y_ 10,000 

Stillwater, Minn 25,000 
Stratford, Manitoba, 
Can 12,000 

Superior, Wis 50,000 
Syracuse, N. Y 260,000 

Jackson, Tenn 30,000 
Jacksonville, 111... . 40,000 
Janesville, Wis 30,000 
Johnstown, N. Y.. . 20,000 
Joplin, Mo 40,000 
Kalispell, Mont... . 10,000 
Kansas City, Kan. . 75,000 

Tacoma, Wash 50,000 
Upper Iowa Univer- 
sity, la 25,000 

Valley City, N. D... 15,000 
Vancouver, B. C. . . . 50,000 

Wai pole, Mass 15,000 

Washington, Ind.... 20,000 
Waukegan-jll 25,000 
Wheeling, W. Va... 75,000 
Windsor, Ontario, 
Can 20,000 

Kewanee, 111 50,000 
Lake Charles, la. . . 10,000 
Lawrence, Kan 25,000 
Lead ville, Colo. .. .100,000 
Lewistown, Me 50,000 

Winnipeg, Manito- 

Los Gatos, Cal 10,000 
McKee's Rocks, Pa. 20,000 

Yonkers, N. Y 50,000 


January, 1902] 


In addition, Mr. Carnegie's gifts for library 
purposes in Great Britain are recorded as 
reaching a total of 179,500, or over $800,000. 
These were distributed to eight places, of 
which all but one were in Scotland, the 
record being as follows : 
Annan, Dumfries- Larbert, Sterling, 

Scotland... 3,000 
Coatbridge, Lanark 

Scotland 15,000 

Dalkeith, Scotland. 4,000 
Dundee, Scotland. . 37,000 

Glasgow, Scotland . 


Scotland .3,000 

Rutherglen, Lanark, 

Scotland 7,500 

Waterford, Ireland.. 5,000 



ON Jan. 9, official announcement was made 
of the establishment in Washington of a Car- 
negie Institution, for the advancement of 
learning, to be endowed by Andrew Carnegie. 
The announcement, issued by Dr. C. D. Wal- 
cott, secretary of the corporators of the insti- 
tution, is as follows : 

"Mr. Carnegie's purpose, as stated by him- 
self in requesting the various trustees to 
become members of the board, is as. follows : 

"It is proposed to found in the city of 
Washington, in the spirit of Washington, 
an institution which^with the co-operation of 
institutions now or hereafter established there 
or elsewhere, shall, in the broadest and most 
liberal manner, encourage investigation, re- 
search and discovery; encourage the applica- 
tion of knowledge to the improvement of man- 
Idnd; provide such buildings, laboratories, 
books and apparatus as may be needed ; and 
afford instruction of an advanced character 
to students whenever and wherever found, in- 
side or outside of schools, properly qualified 
to profit thereby. Among its aims are these : 

"First To increase the efficiency of the 
-universities and other institutions of learning 
throughout the country by utilizing and add- 
ing to their existing facilities, and by aiding 
teachers in the various institutions for ex- 
perimental and other work in these institu- 
tions as far as may be advisable. 

"Second To discover the exceptional man 
in every department of study, whenever and 
wherever found, and enable him by financial 
aid to make the work for which he seems spe- 
cially designed his life work. 

"Third To promote original research, 
paying great attention thereto, as being one of 
the chief purposes of this institution. 

"Fourth To increase the facilities for 
higher education. 

"Fifth To enable such students as may 
find Washington the best point for their 
special studies to avail themselves of such 
advantages as may be open to them in the 
museums, libraries, laboratories, observatory, 
meteorological, piscicultural and forestry 
schools and kindred institutions of the several 
departments of the government. 

"Sixth To insure the prompt publication 
and distribution of the results of scientific, 
investigation, a field considered to be highly 

"These and kindred objects may be attained 
by providine the necessary apparatus for ex- 
perimental work, by employing able teachers 
from the various institutions in Washington 
and elsewhere, and by enabling men fitted for 
special work to devote themselves to it, 
through salaried fellowships or scholarships, 
or through salaries with or without pensions 
in old age, or through aid in other forms to 
such men as continue their special work at 
seats of learning throughout the world." 

The board of trustees elected by the cor- 
porators to carry out the purposes of the in- 
stitution as indicated is as follows: 


The President of the United States. 
The President of the United States Senate. 
The Speaker of the House of Representatives. 
The Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. 
The President of the National Academy of Sci- 

Grover Cleveland, New Jersey. 

John S. Billings, New York. 

William N. Frew, Pennsylvania. 

Lyman J. Gage, Illinois. 

Daniel C. Gilman, Maryland. 

John Hay, District of Columbia. 

Abram S. Hewitt, New Jersey. 

Henry L. Higginson, Massachusetts. 

Henry Hitchcock, Missouri. 

Charles L. Hutchinson, Illinois. 

William Lindsay, Kentucky. 

Seth Low New York. 

Wayne MacVeagh, Pennsylvania. 

D. O. Mills, California. 

S. Weir Mitchell, Pennsylvania. 

W. W. Morrow, California. 

Elihu Root, New York. 

John C. Spooner, Wisconsin. 

Andrew D. White, New York. 

Edward D. White, Louisiana. 

Charles D. Walcott, District of Columbia. 

Carroll D. Wright, District of Columbia. 

It is understood to be the purpose of Mr. 
Carnegie to transfer $10,000,000 in 5 per cent, 
bonds to the board of trustees for the pur- 
poses above mentioned. 

The meeting for organization of the board 
of trustees and the election of officers has 
been called for January 29, at the office of the 
Secretary of State, Washington. 


A MEETING of the committee of the Massa- 
chusetts Library Club appointed to consider 
the cost of books under the net price system, 
was held at the Boston Public Library Tues- 
day, Jan. 7. at 10 a.m. There were pres- 
ent Mr. Gifford of the Cambridge Public Li- 
brary, Mr. Jones of the Salem Public Library, 
Mr. Wellman of the Brookline Public Libra- 
ry, Mr. Fleischner and Miss Macurdy of the 
Boston Public Library. Representatives from 
the following Boston publishing nouses were 
also present by invitation to participate in an 
informal discussion: Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 
Lee & Shepard, Little, Brown & Co., Lothrop 
Publishing Co., Small, Maynard & Co. 

The chairman, Mr. Gifford, opened the meet- 



[January, 1902 

ing by stating the object of the conference, 
viz. : to ask information of the publishers as 
to the generally increased cost of books under 
the net price system, a cost increased to a 
greater degree than librarians had been led to 
expect when the new scheme of discounts 
was adopted by the American Publishers' 
Association. As understoood, the plan orig- 
inally outlined was primarily to protect the 
bookseller whose business had suffered from 
undercutting and a very small margin of 
profit. To correct these unsatisfactory condi- 
tions the publishers agreed to issue their books 
at a net rate, which would be lower than the 
list price under the old system, and to supply 
them to libraries at a discount of 10 per cent. 
This was estimated to result in an average 
increase of possibly 8 per cent, in the cost 
of books for libraries, an increase which was 
accepted with reasonable grace by librarians 
as a proper advance in the interest of the 
bookseller. But as the season advanced the 
prices of certain books increased far beyond 
this average of 8 per cent, and reached in some 
cases as high as 36 per cent. This advance 
seemed to the librarians to be designed not 
so much for the benefit of the bookseller as 
for the benefit of the book publisher. A list 
of books prepared by Mr. Wellman was sub- 
mitted on which the average increase over 
former prices was shown to be 24 per cent. 
These books were continued series and had 
heretofore been issued at a uniform lower rate. 
To the small library, the chairman stated, 
to the average library even, the question of 
paying higher prices for books is a serious 
one. Their resources are none too large and 
24 per cent, increase in the price of several 
books means fewer books than formerly for 
the same expenditure. 

The publishers present were not all mem- 
bers of the Association. They were not sure 
but that mistakes had been made in some 
cases by the publishers, but thought if prices 
were analyzed all through the increase in some 
cases would be offset by a reduction in oth- 
ers. They urged "special conditions" in the 
cases cited of what appeared to be an un- 
warranted advance in price and thought it 
perhaps natural at a period of change, for 
publishers to seek some readjustment in 
prices, which would better reimburse them. 
In reply to the inquiry if there were any gen- 
eral increase in the cost of making books, it 
was stated that there were three items which 
had largely increased the cost of bookmak- 
ing: (i) Binding, which had to be decora- 
tive and attractive to meet the higher stan- 
dards of taste. (2) Illustration, which now 
cost five times as much as formerly. (3) 
Advertising, which was now expected by 
every author. The cost of type-setting has 
advanced and the cost of paper stock. 

The question of allowing the bookseller 
more latitude in the matter of discounts was 
informally discussed, also the competitive 
method in the book trade. It seemed to be 
the sense of the publishers that bookselling 

as a trade would cease if the competitive- 
method obtained. "Booksellers" one gen- 
tleman stated "cannot supply books at 35 
per cent, discount and live." 

The committee was advised by the pub- 
lishers to send a letter to the meeting of the 
American Publishers' Association to be held 
in New York, Jan. 8, stating the position of 
the librarians of Massachusetts in regard to 
the system of discounts. The suggestion was 
accepted and the meeting adjourned at 12 


The following letter was drawn up and 
approved by the committee for presentation 
to the American Publishers' Association : 

CAMBRIDGE, MASS., Jan. 7, 1902. 

Mr. George S. Emory Manager, Publishers' Associa- 
tion, 156 5* A Ave., New York. 

"DEAR SIR: The Massachusetts Library 
Club, representing about 400 librarians, ap- 
pointed at its last meeting a committee to in- 
vestigate the subject of book prices under the 
present net system. The committee has had 
an informal conference with some of the Bos- 
ton publishers and, at their suggestion, has 
decided to submit a statement for the con- 
sideration of the Publishers' Association. 

"It was understood that the adoption of the 
net system as a means of helping the book- 
sellers would cause the libraries to pay a few 
cents more than before for each new book 
published at a net price. It is for the inter- 
est of the libraries that the booksellers be 
not driven out of business ; and, accordingly, 
the committee has thus far found that the 
new system has received little adverse criti- 
cism from librarians in so far as it seemed 
likely to afford the booksellers a chance to ob- 
tain a fair profit. 

"But coincident with the adoption of the 
net system an unexpected advance has been 
made in the cost of various books and series. 
The following list, prepared by a member of 
the Massachusetts Library Club, shows in 18 
different instances, an increased cost to libra- 
ries varying from 12 to 36 %, and averaging 
24 %. The books which are not in series are 
compared with publications by the same au- 
thors, which are similar in style and binding. 
"Instances of an advance in price, where 
comparison may readily be made with books 
in the same series, make it at least supposable 
that. a price higher than would have been the 
case under the old conditions has been placed 
on other books where no such close compari- 
son can be had. The books cited in the fol- 
lowing list are widely bought by public libra- 
ries and are perhaps even more necessary to 
the libraries with small incomes than to the 
larger institutions. The publishers of some 
of these books say that the advance would 
have been made under any circumstances; 
but since the higher prices followed so close- 
ly the adoption of the net system, it is not 
unfair to assume that they bear some rela- 
tion to it. The list is as follows : 

January, 1902] 




cost to 

net price. 

cost to 

cost to 

$3 S 

1. 00 

i 5 
6 oo 






I. 00 


I 00 



I .00 
1. 00 
1. 00 
1. 00 




I. 00 



je increase 

$3.00 net 


i-35 * 

of cost to li 



I 17 


















"The increased cost of books during the 
fall publishing season was sufficient to cause 
many libraries to view with much solicitude 
the possible extension of a system of publish- 
ing which has already resulted in a decided 
curtailment of their purchasing power. For 
this reason the committee of the Massachu- 
setts Library Club respectfully requests that 
the Publishers' Association will consider the 
possibility of adopting a system of publishing, 
either by changing the discount allowed to 
libraries or by readjusting the scale of prices, 
so that the net cost of books to libraries may 
show an increase no greater than is demanded 
by the fair treatment of the other interests 
concerned. For the committee, 

"WM. L. R. GIFFORD, Chairman." 


SEVERAL months ago the Cleveland Public 
Library occupied a new temporary building, 
a view of which is shown elsewhere. The 
circumstances which led the library board to 
erect such a building for mere temporary oc- 
cupancy are as follows : 

For about 21 years the library had occupied 
free of rental two floors of the public school 
headquarters building. Several years ago a 
movement was started to erect a library build- 
ing, and in 1896 authority was secured from 
the legislature. Bonds were issued which 
sold in 1898 for $295,250 to constitute a 
building fund, and plans were considered for 
the erection of a new building. Meantime a 
strong public interest was aroused in a pro- 
ject for grouping the various public build- 
ings ; the court house, city hall, the federal 
building, and the library, which are to be 
erected within the next few years. The 
group plan is a magnificent one, and although 
there are practical difficulties in the way, it 
is by no means impossible, and has enlisted 

the efforts of many public-spirited citizens. 
The library board believed it to be its duty 
to promote this plan, and to postpone the se- 
lection of a site until the question of group- 
ing the buildings was decided. 

Meantime the board of education found it 
necessary to sell the headquarters building, 
and the library board was under the necessity 
of providing temporary quarters for the li- 
brary. The board decided to build rather 
than to rent, as being both more convenient 
and more economical. 

The building occupies free of rental a part 
of the city hall lot. It has about 28,000 square 
feet of floor space. It cost about $33,000 with- 
out stack or furniture. The library has the 
practical certainty of being able to remain in 
the building for nine years if it is desirable 
to do so. Any advantageous quarters ob- 
tainable by renting would have cost at least 
$6000 per year for not over 22,000 square 
feet of floor space, with the probability of 
having the rent increased after a short term 
of years. At this rate, in about five and one- 
half years the library board would have paid 
as rental all that this building has cost, so 
that taking into consideration the possibility 
of the library wishing to remain in temporary 
quarters for a longer time, and the prob- 
ability that this building will be salable when 
it is vacated, it seems on the financial side to 
be a good business arrangement. 

The further advantage is that the building 
furnishes much more convenient quarters 
than could be had in any rented rooms avail- 

I have been thus explicit as to the business 
conditions, as it is possible that the questions 
involved may be of interest to library mana- 
gers elsewhere. 

The building is centrally located, within a 
short distance of the Public Square, the cen- 

* Announced. 


[January, 1902 

tcr of the street railroad systems of the city. 
It is well lighted, having streets on two 
sides, an alley and court on the other two, 
and also a large skylight from which the 
light is carried to the main floor through 
a translucent glass floor in the reference 

The floor diagrams shown elsewhere will 
give an idea of the arrangement of the build- 

The newspaper room is on the ground floor, 
a few steps down from the main entrance, 
and therefore much more convenient for the 
busy people who wish to drop in a few mo- 
ments to look over the papers. 

The children's department is also on this 
floor, and is fitted up completely as a chil- 
dren's library. The low cases, tables, and 
chairs were planned and the books selected 
for their special needs, and in this room our 
little readers are being trained for intelligent 
use of the larger library. There is no age 
limit, and children can begin to use the li- 
brary as soon as they are able to read, or 
even to enjoy picture books. The general ar- 
rangement of the room is shown in the fol- 
lowing plan : 

dant daylight, and the electricity on both 
floors is so arranged as to light sufficiently 
all cases and tables, while the general il- 
lumination is diffused by globes and the eye 
is protected from the direct glow of the elec- 
tric light. 

Books which are out of date, surplus, 
which are not recommended, or for any rea- 
son are undesirable for general circulation, 
are placed in the stack room on this floor. 
The passageway at the right, next the rooms 
of the assistants, is lighted from above and 
used for picture exhibits. The assistants at 
the desks in the various parts of the room 
give assistance to readers in making their se- 
lection, and the books are charged at desks 
placed at the turnstiles for exit. 

The reference and general reading room is 
on the second floor, and also the board room 
and catalog department. The stack room for 
this floor is occupied mainly by the sets of 
periodicals and the government documents. 
The corner of the room next the board room 
is assigned particularly to the work of wom- 
en's clubs, and the board room is occasionally 
used for their meetings. 

The library bindery, which has for several 

Plan of Children's Room, Cleveland Public Library. 




cAfAi-o* ' 




1Y Oltiruu 





MiXf f 







Qors' GIRLS' 

t ' ' ' 


F i i 

N1 S' 
1 ^ 






I : 

<i i 


*i . * . 

- * 




]|*CD iNgj 
ITHB.Ut | 


ROOH. <-l 



J&U ICItMCt TfifcX/tL 




. _ _ 


^fiT msr 


The stations department, the supply room 
and janitors' rooms, the check room, and the 
public and staff bicycle rooms are also pro- 
vided for on this floor. 

The main floor contains the circulating de- 
partment and offices. The offices at the right 
of the entrance have a telephone exchange 
connecting the various departments, by il 
desk 'phones and two trunk lines, with each 
other and the outside. The registration and 
receiving desks are at the left of the en- 
trance. A. stile leading past the desk of the 
loan librarian admits to the book room, where 
perfectly free access is given to the books 
upon the shelves. The cases are low, so that 
the books upon the top shelves can be reached 
with ease. All parts of the floor have abun- 

years been operated at the West side branch, 
is about to remove to rooms in the city hall 
building, adjacent to the main library. While 
this temporary building is larger, and more 
convenient than the building previously oc- 
cupied for so many years, it is very far from 
being adequate to the library work of the 
city. While it seems clear that it is the best 
arrangement which was possible in the con- 
ditions, it is only a makeshift, and it is to be 
hoped that within a few years the library may 
be housed in a building which shall, in the no- 
bility and beauty of its architecture, be a 
civic ornament, and in the amplitude and con- 
venience of its arrangement provide ade- 
quately for the central library work of our 
growing city. W. H. BRETT. 

January, 1902] 



From the 40th Report of the Library. 

THE library will adopt a new method of 
invoicing new books and other acquisitions. 
No accession book or register is to be kept. 
The bills of any given firm during any one 
month are to receive as a determining mark 
one of the days of that month, and the year, 
and the bills from the same firm receive 
consecutive numbers. This date and number, 
standing for the bill of a certain firm, with 
such other marks as seem advisable, are to be 
placed on the inside margin of the fourth 
page after the title page. This group, of 
date and number, called the "accession mark," 
is to be written on the shelf list and on the 
face of the official author cards as was the old 
accession number. By means of it reference 
can be made from catalog or shelf list to 
the group of bills of any month in which any 
book may be found. This is sufficient for the 
few occasions on which reference to a bill is 
necessary. The price of the book and the 
source are added to the accession mark and 
to the shelf list card. 

The original bills for books are kept in the 
library ; statements only are sent to the treas- 
urer. In the case of gifts a "gift slip'' iden- 
tical in nature with the bills are made out 
and treated as if it were a bill. In the case of 
periodicals that are added to the catalog 
after being bound a similar "periodical slip" 
is made. 


THE Library Section of the Wisconsin 
Teachers' Association met at the library of 
the Milwaukee Normal School on Friday af- 
ternoon, Dec. 27. The were many libra- 
rians and teachers in attendance. Miss Julia 
Elliott, librarian of the Marinette Public 
Library, read a paper on the question, "In 
what way can librarians of public libraries 
co-operate with the teachers in order to 
make the library most useful to the city 
schools?" Miss Elliott told of the various 
lines of co-operation which were being con- 
ducted by her library and the local schools. 
Superintendent H. C. Buell, of the Janesville 
school, followed by giving the result of in- 
quiries which he had sent to the leading li- 
braries of the state, in reference to the co- 
operation betwen local libraries and schools. 
The conclusions were most gratifying, as 
showing the methods adopted by various li- 
brarians to bring about a closer relationship. 
In many cases cited the teachers were al- 
lowed to have all the books they pleased for 
reference work, while special attention was 
given to the needs of debating societies, etc. 
The use of a book mark, containing a liter- 
ary ladder, was explained, the children ad- 

vancing step by step up the rounds from, 
simple books to those more difficult. 

Professor A. H. Fletcher, River Falls, 
Wis., spoke on the subject of "The increased 
value of a high school library when properly 
organized how can this work be done when 
there is no librarian?" Professor Fletcher 
gave a humorous account of his attempts at 
cataloging his library with the aid of some 
cards and a cigar box receptacle, having 
finally thrown the ill-advised attempt into the 
stove. He then secured a trained organizer 
to do the work, which had made the library 
immeasurably more valuable to the students, 
and concluded by saying that "if you want a 
thing well done, get someone who knows 
how to do it." Miss Ella Parmele, librarian 
of the Oshkosh Normal School, then told of 
the actual library work performed by students 
in her school in fitting them to classify and 
catalog school libraries. Principal H. L. 
Van Dusen stated that he and his assistants, 
after making a careful study of the Dewey 
classification and rules for cataloging, had 
made their own catalog, which had been of 
great value to them. 

Mrs. Grace Darling Madden, of the Mil- 
waukee Normal School, gave a long talk on 
"Library reading in the graded schools." The 
talk treated of methods used in arousing the 
interest of children in various lines of read- 
ing. Mrs. Madden deplored the lack of in- 
terest in reading on the part of many students, 
and stated that she believed that there was 
not half as much over-reading done by chil- 
dren as the reverse. At her request, a teach- 
er in Indiana kept track of the voluntary- 
reading done by her students. Six of the 
S3 students were found to have read no books 
whatsoever, outside of their text books, dur- 
ing the school year; twelve confined their 
reading to that of the dime novel sort, while 
a wide range of reading was shown by two 
girls who read the lightest and the heaviest 
of literature. The account given showed the 
need of good books and proper supervision 
in reading them. 

Miss Cornelia Marvin, library instructor 
of the Wisconsin Free Library Commission, 
told of the ways in which teachers may co- 
operate with the library commission. Miss 
Marvin outlined the work of the commission, 
in giving help to villages, towns and cities 
in starting new public libraries, in reorgan- 
izing old public libraries, in training li- 
brarians, in maintaining a system of travelling 
libraries, in carrying on a clearing house for 
periodicals, aiding in book selection ; and 
solicited the interest of the teachers in work- 
ing for a public library in their respective 
towns, in securing travelling libraries, in urg- 
ing upon public libraries the collection of sets 
of periodicals for reference, in seeing that 
books purchased by libraries are selected from, 
approved lists and that the children's books 
are the best books ; in teaching the care of 


[January, 1902 

books ; and urging upon librarians and trus- 
tees the necessity of care in the reading of 
children, in guarding against over-reading 
and in helping children to find the best books. 
She also urged that the teachers advocate 
library training for librarians. 

Miss Marvin's talk was followed by a stere- 
opticon lecture on "The child and his king- 
dom the library," given by Miss Mary E. 
Dousman, superintendent of the children's 
room of the Milwaukee Public Library. A 
large number of slides were shown of var- 
ious children's departments in all parts of the 
country. Illustrations of home settlement li- 
braries and other phases of work with the 
children supplemented the talk, which was 
most helpful to teachers and librarians alike. 
L. E. STEARNS, Secretary. 


THE following list comprises state library 
commissions and library associations, general, 
state and local, reported as in active exist- 
ence at the close of the year 1901. Names of 
the chief officers and information regarding 
meetings have been included, so far as prac- 
ticable; and it is hoped that the list may 
prove a useful reference guide to present or- 
ganized library activities : 



President: Dr. J. S. Billings, New York Public 

Secretary: F. W. Faxon, 108 Glenway St., Dorches- 
ter, Mass. 

Treasurer: G. M. Jones, Public Library, Salem, 

24th general meeting: Boston and Magnolia, Mass., 
June 14-20, 1901. 


President: James Bain, Jr., Public Library, Toron- 
to, Ont. 

Secretary: E. A. Hardy, Public Library, Lindsay, 

Treasurer: A. B. MacCallum, Canadian Institute, 


President: \V. E. Henry, Indiana State Library. 
Secretary: Miss Maude Thayer, Illinois State Li- 


President: Dr. J. H. Canfield, Columbia Univer- 
sity Library, New York City. 

Secretary: Miss M. E. Ahern, Public Libraries, 



C. R. Dudley, chairman, Public Library, Denver. 

No reports received. 

Miss C. M. Hewins, secretary, Public Library, 


Members: C. D. Hine, chairman, Hartford; Miss 
C. M. Hewins, secretary; Rev. S. O. Seymour, Litch- 
field; N. L. Bishop, Norwich; Hon. E. B. Gager, 

Freear, secretary; Miss F. B. Kane, librarian, 
State Library, Dover. 

Members: John Barkley, Clayton; G. F. Bowerman, 
Wilmington; D. C. Corbit, Odessa; Manlove Hayes, 
Dover; I. K. Holland, Milford; Mrs. E. C. Marshall, 
Dover; Mrs. C. H. Miller, Wilmington; Mrs. H. A. 
Richardson, Dover; Miss Margaret Truxton, George- 
town; C. A. Freear, state librarian, ex-officio secre- 


secretary, Carnegie Library, Atlanta. 

Members: H. C. Peeples, chairman, Atlanta; Miss 
Anne Wallace, secretary; A. C. King, Atlanta; Mrs. 
E. Heard, Elberton; Mrs. N. L. Barbrey, Macon. 

cry, secretary, Boise. 

Members: Permeal French, chairman, superinten- 
dent of public instruction, Boise; Mrs. E. J. Dock- 
cry, secretary, Boise; J. A. McLean, president State 
University, Moscow; Mrs. S. H. Hays, Boise; Miss 
Eliza Kercheval, Rathdrum. 

secretary; Miss Merica Hoagland, organizer, State 
Library, Indianapolis. 

Members: J. P. Dunn, president, Indianapolis; W. 
E. Henry, state librarian, ex-officio secretary; Mrs. E. 
C. Earl, Connersville; J. R. Voris, Bedford. 
secretary, State Library, Des Moines. 
Members: Johnson Brigham, state librarian; R. C. 
Barrett, state superintendent of public instruction, 
Des Moines; G. E. McLean, president, State Univer- 
sity; Mrs. H. C. Towner, Corning; Miss J. B. Waite, 
Burlington; Mrs. L. S. Norris, Grinnell; Hon. W. 
H. Johnston, Fort Dodge. 

retary, State Library, Topeka. 

chairman, Bowdoin College Library, Brunswick. 
Members: G. T. Little, chairman; L. D. Carver, 
state librarian, ex-officio secretary; Mrs. K. C. Esta- 
brook, Orono; A. J. Roberts, Waterville; L. G. Jor- 
dan, Lewiston. 

C. B. Tillinghast, chairman, State Library, Boston. 
Members: C. B. Tillinghast, chairman; Miss E. P. 
Sohier, secretary, Beverly; S. S. Green, Worcester; 
H. S. Nourse, Lancaster; Miss Mabel Simpkins, Yar- 


M. C. Spencer, secretary, State Library, Lansing. 

Members: C. G. Luce, president, Coldwater; Mrs. 

M. C. Spencer, state librarian, secretary; Peter 

White, Marquette; H. N. Loud, Au Sable; J. M. C. 

Smith, Charlotte. 

Countryman, secretary, Public Library, Minneapo- 
lis; Miss Clara Baldwin, librarian, 514 Masonic 
Temple, Minneapolis. 

Members: Cyrus Northrop, president State Univer- 
sity, Minneapolis; J. H. Lewis, state superintendent 
of public instruction, St. Paul; Warren Upham, State 
Historical Society, St. Paul; Miss Gratia Country- 
man; Miss M. J. Evans, Northfield. 
Bullock, secretary, Lincoln. 

Members: E. Benjamin Andrews, chancellor State 
University; W. K. Fowler, state superintendent of 
public instruction; F. L. Haller, board of trustees, 
Omaha Public Library; R. E. L. Herdman, clerk and 
librarian of the Supreme Court; J. I. Wyer, librarian 
State University. 

Chase, secretary, State Library, Concord. 
Members: G. T. Cruft, Bethlehem; H. W. Parker, 
Claremont; J. F. Brennan, Peterborough; A. H. 
Chase, state librarian. 

Buchanan, secretary, State Library, Trenton. 
Members: W. C. Kimball, chairman, Passaic; M. 
Taylor Pyne, Princeton; E. C. Richardson, Prince- 
ton; E. T. Tomlinson, Elizabeth; L. J. Gordon, Jer- 
sey City; H. C. Buchanan, state librarian. 
DIVISION: Melvil Dewey, director; W. R. East- 
man, inspector, State Library, Albany. 

January, 1902] 



secretary, State Library, Columbus. 
E. Reed, secretary, State Library, Harrisburg, Pa. 
Members: J. G. Rosengarten, board of trustees, 
Free Library of Philadelphia; John Thomson, Free 
Library of Philadelphia; W. N. Frew, Pittsburgh; 
H. N. Belin, Scranton; W. M. Stevenson, Allegheny; 
Dr. G. E. Reed, state librarian. 

lotte Gibson, secretary, Fletcher Memorial Library, 

Members: S. W. Langdon, chairman, Burlington; 
Miss C. E. Gibson, secretary; H. E. Rustedt, Rich- 
ford; F. A. Rowland, Montpelier; Mrs. W. P. Smith, 
St. Johnsbury. 

T. Holmes, secretary. 

Members: F. P. Graves, president State University; 
E. A. Bryan, president State Agricultural College; 
Miss S. L. Currier, Mrs. K. T. Holmes, Dr. F. H. 
Coe; and state superintendent of education, Bryan. 
ins, secretary, Madison. 

Members: J. H. Stout, chairman, Menominee; C. 
K. Adams, president State University; L. D. Harvey, 
state superintendent of education; R. G. Thwaites, 
secretary, State Historical Society; Mrs. C. S. Mor- 
ris, Berlin; F. A. Hutchins, secretary, Miss L. E. 
Stearns, organizer; Miss Cornelia Marvin, instructor. 



President: C. S. Greene, Public Library, Oakland. 

Secretary: F. B. Graves, Public Library, Alameda. 

Treasurer: Miss M. F. Williams, Mechanics' In- 
stitute Library, San Francisco. 

Meetings: Second Friday of the month, January, 
April, August, November. 


President: H. M. Whitney, Blackstone Library, 
Bran ford. 

Secretary: Miss Anna Hadley, Ansonia Library. 

Treasurer: Miss J. P. Peck, Bronson Library, 

Annual meeting: New Britain, February, 1902. 


President: Thomas Clark, Law librarian, Library of 

Secretary: Hugh Williams, Library of Congress. 

Treasurer: F. E. Woodward, nth and F sts., N. W. 

Meetings: Second Wednesday of each month, Oc- 


President: W. B. Hill, University of Georgia, 

Secretary-Treasurer: Miss Anne Wallace, Carnegie 
Library, Atlanta. 

Next meeting: At time of dedication of Carnegie 
Library, Atlanta, probably in spring of 1902. 


President: A. H. Hopkins, John Crerar Library, 

Secretary: Miss Eleanor Roper, John Crerar Li- 
brary, Chicago. 

Treasurer: Miss Anna Hoover, Public Library, 

jth annual meeting: Quincy, April, 1902. 


President: Miss Jennie Elrod, Public Library, Co- 

Secretary: Miss A. G. Hubbard, State Library, 

Treasurer: Arthur Cunningham, State Normal 
School, Terre Haute. 


President: F. C. Dawley, Cedar Rapids. 
Secretary: Miss Margaret Brown, Chariton. 
Treasurer: W. H. Douglas, Grinnell. 


President: J. L. King, State Library, Topeka. 
Secretary: Miss L. T. Dougherty, Washburn Col- 
lege, Topeka. 

Treasurer: Miss Marion Steck, Sal in a. 


President: E. H. Anderson, Carnegie Library, 

Secretary-Treasurer: Miss H. P. James, Osterhout 
Free Library, Wilkes-Barre. 


President: Mrs. M. H. Curran, Public Library, 

Secretary: G. T. Little, Bowdoin College Library, 

Treasurer: Miss Alice C. Furbish, Public Library. 

Meetings: Magnolia, Mass., in June, in connection 
with A. L. A.; Brunswick, autumn of 1902. 


President: H. C. Wellman, Public Library, Brook- 

Secretary: G. E. Nutting, Public Library, Fitch- 

Treasurer: Miss Theodosia Macurdy, Public Li- 
brary, Boston. 

Annual meeting: Second Thursday in June; other 
meetings decided by exec. coin. 


President: H. M. Utley, Public Library, Detroit. 
Secretary: Mrs. M. C. Upleger, Mt. Clemens. 
Treasurer: Mrs. M. F. Jewell, Public Library, 

1 2th annual meeting: Detroit, October, 1902. 


President: Miss Alice N. Farr, Public Library, 

Secretary: Miss Clara Baldwin, State Library Com- 
mission, Minneapolis. 

Treasurer: Mrs. L. G. Tandy, Public Library, Red 

loth annual meeting: Probably Red Wing, October, 


President: Mrs. C. W. Whitney, Public Library, 
Kansas City. 

Secretary-Treasurer: J. T. Gerould, University of 
Missouri, Columbia. 

3d annual meeting: Sedalia, autumn of 1902. 


President: J. I. Wyer, State University Library, 

Secretary: Miss Bertha Baumer, Public Library, 

Treasurer: Miss M. A. O'Brien, Public Library, 


President: Miss Grace Blanchard, Public Library, 

Secretary: H. W. Denio, State Library, Concord. 

Treasurer: Miss B. I. Parker, Public Library, 

Annual meeting: Pittsfield, Jan. 29, 1902. 


President: S. G. Ayres, Drew Theological Sem- 
inary Library, Madison. 

Secretary: Miss B. S. Wildman, Public Library, 

Treasurer: Miss S. S. Oddie, Public Library, East 


President: Miss M. E. Hazeltine, James Prender- 
gast Free Library, Jamestown. 

Secretary: Mrs. H. L. Elmendorf, 319 Norwood 
ave., Buffalo. 

Treasurer: E. W. Gaillard, Webster Free Library, 
New York City. 

Annual meeting: Lake Placid, last full week in 


President: S. L. Wicoff, Sidney. 

Secretary: E. C. Williams, Adelbert College, Geve- 

Treasurer: Miss Grace Prince, Wittenberg College, 

8th annual meeting: Probably Columbus, October, 
1902. ..*,* 


[January, 1902 


President: Dr. H. H. Kurd, Chippewa Falls. 

Secretary: Miss B. M. Brown, Public Library, 

Treasurer: Miss Tryphena Mitchell, Vaughn Li- 
brary, Ashland. 



President: Miss M. Anna Tarbell. Brimfield, Mass. 

Secretary: Miss Mary D. Thurston, Public Library, 
Leicester, Mass. 

Treasurer: Miss Eliza Hobbs, Brookficld, Mass. 

Annual meeting: June; other meetings decided by 
exec, com. 


President: H. L. Elmendorf, Public Library. 

Secretary-Treasurer: R. F. Morgan, Grosvenor Pub- 
lic Library. 

Meetings: Monthly, third Tuesday and third Wed- 
nesday alternately, May-October. 


President: C. F. Swift, Yarmouthport, Mass. 

Secretary: Miss M. N. Soule, Hyannis, Mass. 

Treasurer: Miss E. C. Nye, Sturgis Library, Barn- 
stable, Mass. 

Annual meeting: September; other meetings de- 
cided by exec. com. 


President: A. G. S. Josephson, John Crerar Li- 

Secretary: C. R. Perry, Public Library. 

Treasurer: C. A. Torrey, University of Chicago. 

Meetings: Second Thursday of the month, October- 
May; annual election in May. 


President: Camillo von Klenze, University of Chi- 

Secretary: A. G. S. Josephson, John Crerar Li- 

Treasurer: C. B. Roden, Public Library. 

Annual meeting: April; other meetings at call of 


President: R. K. Jones, University of Maine, 

Secretary-Treasurer: J. H. Winchester, Stewart 
Memorial Library, Corinna. 

Meetings: Quarterly, beginning January. 


President: Miss M. W. Plummer, Pratt Institute 
Free Library. 

Secretary: Miss M. S. Draper, Children's Museum 

Treasurer: Miss Mabel Farr, Adelphi College Li- 

Meetings: First Thursday of the month, October, 
December, February, April, May. 


President: Dr. H. M. Leipziger, Aguilar Library. 
^Secretary: Miss E. L. Foote, New York Public 

Treasurer: Miss Theresa Hitchler, Brooklyn Pub- 
lic Library. 

Meetings: Second Thursday of the month, October, 
November, January, March and May. 


President: A. C. Thomas, Haverford College, Hav- 

Secretary: L. E. Hewitt, Law Library, 600 City 
Hall, Philadelphia. 

Treasurer: Miss M. Z. Cruice, American Philo- 
sophical Society, Philadelphia. 

Meetings: Second Monday of the month, Nov., 
Jan., Feb., March and May 


President: George Stockwell, Westfield Athenaeum. 

Secretary: Miss Ida Farrar, City Library, Spring- 

Treasurer: Mrs. A. J. Hawks, Meekins Memorial 
Library, Williamsburgh. 

Hmerican Xibrarg association. 

President: Dr. J. S. Billings, New York 
Public Library. 

Secretary: F. W. Faxon, 108 Glenway St., 
Dorchester, Mass. 

Treasurer: G. M. Jones. Public Library, 
Salem, Mass. 

24th General meeting: Boston and Mag- 
nolia, Mass., June 14-20, 1902. 


It has been decided that the general meet- 
ing of the American Library Association for 
1902 be known as the Boston and Magnolia 
Conference. The opening date has been set 
as Saturday, June 14, in Boston. June 14 to 
16 will be devoted to visits to libraries in 
Boston, Cambridge and elsewhere in the vi- 
cinity, under direction of the local committee 
of arrangements. On Monday, June 16, 
council meeting, preliminary board and com- 
mittee meetings, etc., will be held at Mag- 
nolia, followed bv an informal social session 
in the evening. The business sessions will be 
held at Magnolia from June 17 to 20, inclu- 

Magnolia is well known as one of the most 
beautiful of New England seashore resorts. 
It is 27 miles from Boston, and its natural 
attractions should make it a delightful set- 
ting for a conference that combines the feat- 
ures of a summer resort meeting with the 
advantages of a visit to a large city. The 
date chosen has made it possible to secure 
specially reasonable rates at the three largest 
Magnolia hotels (the New Magnolia, the 
Oceanside, and the Hesperus) which have 
been selected as headquarters. 

Preliminary announcements regarding the 
conference will be issued about March i. 


Public Documents: R. P. Falkner, Library 
of Congress, succeeding R. R. Bowker, re- 


Library tract no. 4, on "Library rooms and 
buildings," by C. C. Soule, is now in prep- 
aration. It will be issued at the same price 
as the preceding numbers, viz., single copies 
five cents ; or $2 per 100 in lots of 50 or more. 

State Xibrarg Commissions, 

Miss F. B. Kane, librarian, State Library, 

The commission has issued a circular re- 
garding the travelling libraries which it is 
prepared to lend to local library associations, 
schools, clubs, granges, etc. Each travelling 
library contains 50 volumes and may be kept 
for three months, the usual provisions being 
made for guarantee, provision of suitable 

January, 1902] 



quarters, etc. The commission defrays cost 
of transportation, but not local carriage. 

Hutchins, secretary; L. E. Stearns, libra- 
rian. Madison. 

The commission has issued a serviceable 
little Bibliography bulletin, no. i (December, 
1001, 4 p. O.), prepared with the co-opera- 
tion of the School of History of the State 
University. It suggests historical reading 
useful in the work of the schools, and in- 
cludes some 35 or 40 titles classed under 
broad headings. 

State Xibrarg associations* 


President: Thomas Clark, Law librarian, 
Library of Congress. 

Secretary: Hugh Williams, Library of Con- 

Treasurer: F. E. Woodward, nth and F 
streets, N. W. 

The sgth regular meeting of the association 
was held at the Columbian University, Thurs- 
day evening, Dec. 12, at eight o'clock. The 
program consisted of an address by Mr. Her- 
bert Putnam on the "Distribution of printed 
catalog cards by the Library of Congress." 

Mr. Putnam prefaced his address with a 
brief resume of the history of co-operative 
cataloging in this country, beginning with 
the suggestion in about 1850 made by C. C. 
Jewett, of the Smithsonian Institution. He 
then told of the difficulties in commencing 
the work. The differences of opinion of cat- 
alog experts in regard to the catalog rules to 
be adopted resulted in a compromise which, 
of course, was not altogether satisfactory to 
any one. The various sizes of cards used was 
also a troublesome question, but after a thor- 
ough canvass it was found that the 3x5 in. 
card was most universally used. In this con- 
nection he spoke of his many visits to library 
associations throughout the country to get 
their opinion, and to outline the plan and 
scope of the work. The library has not as 
yet adequate facilities for combining accuracy 
of work, promptness of delivery and the larg- 
est area of literature, but it is ultimately 
hoped that they will be provided, so that the 
success of the work will be assured. 

In conclusion he showed how the libraries 
of Washington could co-operate in this work, 
and thereby the benefit to them and to the 
Library of Congress would be mutual. 

The annual election of officers which fol- 
lowed resulted as follows : Thomas Clark, 
president; Henderson Presnell and W. D. 
Johnston, vice-presidents; Hugh Williams, 
secretary; F. E. Woodward, treasurer; Miss 
Josephine Clark, Miss M. A. Gilkey and C. 
K. Jones, executive committee. 

HUGH WILLIAMS, Secretary. 



President: Camillo von Klenze, University 
of Chicago. 

Secretary: A. G. S. Josephson, John Crerar 

Treasurer: C. B. Roden, Public Library. 

The first regular meeting for the season 
was held in the John Crerar Library, on Nov 
22d. The president of the society, Dr. Camil- 
lo von Klenze, read a paper on "Travels 
m Italy in the i8th century, before 1786." 
He said, in part: 

"The i8th century like the i6th, is charac- 
terized by a great desire to broaden the hor- 
izon of intellectual life. Hence the travelling 
literature of that time is extremely rich. No 
country, however, attracted more attention 
than Italy. A glance at the bibliography in 
the book by D'Ancona. entitled "L'ltalia alia 
fine del secolo xvi." Citta di Castello 1895, 
will show that the public of the i8th century 
took interest in the customs, the governments, 
the morals, the art, etc. etc. of Italy. A 
large number of books were put upon the 
market by Italian publishers adorned in some 
cases with expensive copper plates, which 
were meant to interest foreigners in the beau- 
ties of the various cities of the peninsula. 
Besides, many books appeared which de- 
scribed in detail the cities in Italy and the 
works of art which they contained. Lastly 
distinguished men, like for instance Addison, 
were fond of noting their impressions of 
Italy. Up to about 1750 all these records are 
characterized by incorrectness and narrowness 
of point of view. A book by Richard in six 
volumes, Paris, 1776, and another by La 
Lande in eight volumes, Paris, 1769, may be 
regarded as the first successful efforts to 
describe Italy to the cultured public of Eu- 
rope. These authors too, however, lack the 
ability to furnish more than a dry, though 
fairly accurate statement. Soon after them, 
the emotional wave which swept over Europe 
enabled travellers to give more color to their 
recitals. But even then, virtually only the 
remnants of antiquity were adequately ap- 
preciated. This is true of many men, among 
whom we will only mention Goethe's friends 
Tischbin and Moritz, furthermore the German 
author Heinse. Goethe does not go beyond 
his predecessors. So great is the influence 
of Winckelmann upon him that he speaks in- 
telligently only of antiquity, and then men- 
tions with great enthusiasm Raphael and 
Michel Angelo, as do his contemporaries. He 
takes no interest in the middle ages, very 
little in the works of the Early Renaissance, 
and greatly exaggerates the merit of the 
Bolognese School. In all this he merely fol- 
lows the taste of his age, as is shown in the 
works on Italian art by such writers as Rich- 



[January, 1902 

ardson, London, 1722; Cochin, Paris, 1758; 
etc., etc." 

The council reported that, in accordance 
with the decision at the meeting in Waukesha, 
it had appointed a committee consisting of 
Messrs. W. S. Merrill, C. W. Perley, and 
J. W. Thompson, to consider the question of 
founding a national bibliographical society, 
and to correspond concerning this matter 
with the non-resident members of this so- 
ciety, and others. 

The council submitted the following mem- 
orial to be sent to the Committee of Educa- 
tion of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition 
Company : 

"To the Honorable Committee on Education of the 
Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company, St. Louis. 

"GENTLEMEN: The Bibliographical Society of Chi- 
cago, an organization founded 'to encourage and 
promote bibliographical study and research," having 
due regard for the great advances made in biblio- 
graphical research and studies in the United States, 
and being of the opinion that the widespread in- 
terest now manifested in bibliographical labors merits 
the attention of your Honorable Exposition Company, 
begs leave herewith respectfully to submit to your 
Honorable Committee the following proposal, namely: 

"That your Honorable Committee recommend the 
appointment of a Commissioner of Bibliography for 
the Louisiana Purchase Exposition whose duties shall 

"i, To have supervision and final control of all 
bibliographical publications that may be issued in 
connection with the Exposition, and to undertake, 
for his own part, the editing of a series of bibliogra- 
phies of subjects relating to the Louisiana purchase, 
and the politicai, industrial and intellectual develop- 
ment of the territory concerned, and other subjects 
that may prove pertinent. 

"2, To collect a complete set of all printed mat- 
ter relating to the Exposition and to compile an 
accurate catalogue thereof. 

"3, To arrange for an international bibliographical 
exhibit, with the idea of keeping the same intact 
after the close of the Exposition as a permanent 
bibliographical library. 

"The development of public libraries during the 
last quarter century has been very remarkable, and 
it is with great satisfaction that this society learns 
of the plans of Mr. Frederick M. Crunden, the able 
librarian of the St. Louis Public Library, for a com- 
prehensive exhibit showing the development and work- 
ing of free libraries. Closely allied to the work of 
the more scholarly class of libraries is the preparation 
of bibliographical material and the pursuit of bib- 
liographical investigation, the results of which are 
so manifestly of the first importance to the student 
engaged in research. 

"ft would be particularly striking to set forth the 
wonderful growth of that part of our country known 
as the 'Louisiana Purchase,' through a bibliographi- 
cal presentation of the literature dealing with the his- 
tory of that section. Such bibliographies, besides 
rendering distinct and valuable assistance to the 
historical student, would serve at the same time to 
indicate the present standpoint, methods and achieve- 
ments of that important branch of scholarly research 
called scientific bibliography. 

"The Bibliographical Society of Chicago, in sub- 
mitting this proposal, begs to hope for full and care- 
ful deliberation of the same by your Honorable Com- 
mittee, and ventures to add that it is prepared to 
render, through its properly constituted officers, any 
assistance which your Honorable Committee may de- 
sire in the furtherance of this or similar plans look- 
ing to the recognition by the Louisiana Purchase 
Exposition of a widespread and important department 
of scientific activity. 

"Respectfully submitted, on behalf of the Society, 
"AKSEL G. S. JOSEPHSON, Secretary." 

The recommendation of the council was 
adopted and the secretary was directed to 
send the memorial to the said committee and 
also to send copies of the same to other 
societies and institutions, asking them to ep- 
dorse the plan. 

The following new members were elected : 
Miss Mary M. Nelson, Knoxville, Tenn.: 
Messrs. G. F. Bowerman, Wilmington, Del. ; 
L. H. Dielman, Annapolis, Del. ; E. W. Dow, 
Ann Arbor, Mich.; E. G. Swen and A. J. 
Norton, Chicago. 

AKSEL G. S. JOSEPHSON, Secretary. 


President: A. G. S. Josephson, John Cre- 
rar Library. 

Secretary: C. R. Perry, Public Library. 

Treasurer: C. A. Torrey, University of 

The December meeting of the Chicago 
Library Club was held on Dec. 12 at the 
public library. Mr. Josephson presided and 
about .35 members were present. Mr. F. M. 
Morris and Miss Bessie Goldberg were 
elected and Mr. J. J. McCarthy and Miss O. 
Goldberger restored to membership. It was 
reported that the finances of the club are in 
a satisfactory state, the manual is nearing 
completion, 15 copies of the union list have 
been sold so far, Miss Simpson has resigned 
owing to absence from the city, and special 
committees have been appointed as follows: 

To consider and report upon the advisa- 
bility of the club undertaking the compilation 
and publication of list, index or other similar 
work, etc., Mr. Merrill, Miss Lindsay, Mr. 
Gates, Miss Montross, and Mr. Swem. 

On "vitalizing the relationship between the 
public schools and the public libraries of 
Chicago," Miss Ahern, Miss Elliott, and Dr. 

On library work at the county jail, Mr. 
Roden, Mr. Larson and Mr. Abernethy. 

On home libraries work. Miss Dickey, 
Miss Hawley, and Miss Walker. 

On program for January meeting, Miss 
Clarke, Miss Roper, and Mr. Parsons. 

On program for February meeting, Miss 
Mabel Mcllvaine, Miss Robertson, and Mr. 

The program of the evening was a sym- 
posium of papers on some of the special 
libraries of Chicago. 

Mr. Hugo S. Grosser, librarian of the 
Municipal Library, described the difficulties 
incident to the establishment of his library, 
and then outlined the scope of its work. The 
Municipal Library was created by an act 
of the city council in March, 1900. Its pri- 
mary purpose was the collection of reports, 
documents, etc.. pertaining to the municipal 
government of the city of Chicago, but this 
was extended so as to embrace other cities 
in the United States and foreign countries 
as well. The library is for reference only, 

'January, 1902] 



and of course open to the public. Active 
work was begun in June, 1900, and with no 
means on hand, success was necessarily very 
much retarded. 

The library contains in all about 4000 vol- 
umes, representing: the city of Chicago, 
about 600 volumes; 117 cities in the United 
States, 2200 volumes; 67 foreign cities, 600 
volumes; miscellaneous and periodicals, 600 
volumes. A regular exchange has been es- 
tablished with all larger cities throughout the 
world, and it is expected that, in time, the 
Municipal Library will contain the printed 
documents of every city of note everywhere. 
Since February, 1901, a bureau of statistics 
has been connected with the library, and a 
bi-monthly publication (it will be made 
monthly next year) has been issued under the 
name of City of Chicago Statistics, which 
is being supplied free of charge to city 
officials, libraries, universities, colleges, and 
individuals interested in municipal govern- 
ment. This library is crowded into a little 
room in the city hall. The staff consists of 
three people. The volumes collected are 
already much used by every department of 
the city government, by the council com- 
mittees by the special civic commissions, and 
by the university students. 

Miss Jessie L. Forrester read an interest- 
ing paper on the library of the Art Institute 
which had its beginning in 1879, when an en- 
trance fee of two dollars was imposed upon 
every student to be expended for the pur- 
chase of books on art. Upon these matricu- 
lation fees the library has existed with oc- 
casional gifts added. Recently Mr. M. A. 
Ryerson has provided a new and beautiful 
building completely equipped as a home for 
the library. The Ryerson Memorial Library, 
as it is now called, is exclusively an art li- 
brary, and primarily for the students and 
members of the Art Institute, but practi- 
cally free to any serious student of art. 
About 2500 volumes are on the shelves and 
about 700 are for circulation. All accessions 
whether by gift or purchase have been very 
carefully selected. A valuable acquisition 
was Muybridge's great work on "Animal lo- 
comotion," eleven large volumes costing $600. 
The Pearson's Collection of carbon photo- 
graphs, valued at $30,000, overshadows all 
other single acquisitions to the library. These 
photographs, commonly known as autotypes, 
were published by Braun & Co., of Paris. 
They number more than 16,000 subjects and 
include reproductions of the paintings, draw- 
ings and sculptures of the great masters. 
Heretofore a simple classification designed 
by the librarian has met the needs of the 
library, but now that the library has a new 
building and the accessions promise to be 
more rapid it has been about decided to adopt 
the Dewey classification with modifications. 

Miss Evelyn H. Walker entertainingly 
sketched the work of All Souls library which 

is a department of the educational section of 
All Souls Church. It is a free circulating 
neighborhood library with only 1800 volumes 
on its accession book, which are replenished 
annually by a book sociable. The study 
classes of the church contribute to the sup- 
port of the library. Some few books are 
purchased each year and an attempt is made 
to provide books correlated to the work of the 
study classes and Sunday-school. An en- 
deavor is also made in the direction of 
securing and circulating books of travel, sci- 
ence, history, etc., which supplement the work 
of the public schools of the neighborhood. 
Besides doing the local work referred to, the 
library receives cast-off books and magazines, 
from any sources and sends them out to In- 
dian and colored schools of the west and: 
south, to isolated prairie homes, to small 
churches of every degree of orthodoxy and 
heterodoxy. The establishing of the public 
library delivery station within a block of All 
Souls has diminished the latter's circulation 
but slightly. This would seem to justify the 
belief that there is a place for the small li- 
brary where the librarian may come into 
personal friendly advisory contact with the 

Mr. Earl G. Swem, who but recently as- 
sumed charge of the Armour Institute of 
Technology library, was heartily greeted by 
the club. His remarks were brief, as has 
been his experience at Armour, but they were 
interesting and instructive. The library is 
primarily for the students of the Institute but 
is also open to the general public as a ref- 
erence library. It has about 15,000 volumes 
and is strongest in engineering works. The 
books are circulated among the students and 
instructors to some extent. The department 
system is used but little. The librarian con- 
ducts a course of lectures on bibliography for 
the benefit of the students. The library con- 
tains many complete sets of literary and 
scientific periodicals and is fully equipped 
with indexes for use in the reference work. 

Miss Mary E. Downey then enlightened us . 
as to the Field Columbian Museum library 
which, like all other departments of the mu- 
seum, had its origin in the World's Columbian 
Exposition, with the special collections of the 
department of mines and mining and the de- 
partment of ethnology as a nucleus. It is 
designed for reference purposes only and is 
confined to the literature of the various arts 
and sciences illustrated in the museum. It 
contains many valuable scientific and techni- 
cal works which may be consulted by the 
general public. Students are given access 
to the book shelves. There are 28,272 books 
and pamphlets in the library and they are 
classified according to a decimal system. The 
departmental system is used. The depart- 
ments especially emphasized are anthropol- 
ogy, botany, geology and zoology. In the 
reading room 123 scientific and technical peri-. 


[January, 1902 

odicals are currently received and made avail- 
able for public use. In order that the cu- 
rators may avail themselves in the most con- 
venient manner of the scientific literature on 
the shelves of other Chicago libraries, co- 
operative arrangements have been made, as 
far as possible, by which their books can be 
used at the museum. The University of Chi- 
cago library extends many courtesies and is 
extensively used by the curators. The John 
Crerar Library presents a duplicate printed 
copy of its card catalog, and buys scientific 
literature especially desired by the museum. 
The Chicago Public Library allows its ref- 
erence or other works to be drawn out upon 
requisition of the museum librarian, and de- 
livers them at the Hyde Park station. The 
three largest libraries of the city are thus in 
effective co-operation with the museum, 
avoiding unnecessary duplication of their 
tooks and giving the museum library oppor- 
tunity to develop along its special lines. 

After a short discussion the club adjourned. 
The January meeting will be a mild celebra- 
tion of the tenth anniversary of the first regu- 
lar meeting of the club which was held Jan. 
S, 1892. CHESLEY R. PERRY, Secretary. 


President: Dr. H. M. Leipziger, Aguilar 

Secretary: Miss E. L. Foote, New York 
Public Library. 

Treasurer: Miss Theresa Hitchler, Brook- 
lyn Public Library. 

A meeting of the New York Library Club 
was held in assembly hall of the Board of 
Education building, sgth street and Park ave- 
nue, on Jan. 9, 1902, at which about 200 were 
present. The meeting was called to order at 
3.15 with President Leipziger in the chair. 
Minutes and report of executive committee 
were read and approved, and a motion was 
carried that the usual annual dinner be held. 
Treasurer's report showed a balance of $360.21. 
A letter was read from the Long Island Li- 
brary Club inviting to its meetings members 
of the New York Library Club who should 
care to attend, and stating that "those mem- 
bers who particularly desire to have notices 
sent them previous to each meeting may have 
this done by applying to the secretary of 
Long Island Library Club, Miss Miriam Dra- 
per, Children's Museum Library, Bedford 
Park, Brooklyn." A letter was also read 
from the secretary of the American Library 
Association announcing the dates of the Bos- 
ton and Magnolia conference, June 14-20. 

The secretary announced the receipt from 
the Chicago Library Club of its "List of se- 
rials in libraries of Chicago and Evanston," 
and also requested note of any changes in 
address of members and names of non-mem- 
bers interested to receive notices of meetings. 
The president then announced that in response 

to the invitation of the Grolier Club a special 
meeting will be held Feb. 13, at that club's 
rooms, 29 East 23d street. 

Opening the program of the afternoon, Dr. 
Leipziger spoke briefly on "Possibilities of 
library expansion in connection with the 
Department of Education." He described the 
provision- made by the Board of Education 
for libraries in the public schools and the 
great opportunity for their usefulness there, 
and specially in connection with the evening 
schools. He explained that the four public 
evening reading rooms which had been 
opened last summer in school buildings were 
closed Dec. 31 on account of lack of appro- 
priation for their support. It is hoped they 
may be reooened later. 

Then followed a general discussion on the 
question of classification of fiction by sub- 
ject and by value, which was opened by Miss 
Rathbone, of Pratt Institute Library. She 
spoke of the necessity of such fiction classifi- 
cation for librarian and for borrowers, and 
described some of the work of "evaluation" 
done in connection with the Pratt Institute 
Library School. 

Miss Rathbone was followed by Mrs. Fair- 
child, of the New York State Library School, 
who said that we were under obligations to 
wrestle with the fiction question until we 
mastered it. It is not impossible to do that. 
She advocated the division of fiction on the 
shelves into three classes stories, standard 
fiction, historical fiction each arranged al- 
phabetically. This arrangement should be 
supplemented by book notes in each book, 
and short lists on such subjects as ghost sto- 
ries, Irish stories, dog stories, etc. She also 
laid great stress on the importance of having 
a reference attendant on duty at the fiction 

Mr. John Thomson, of the Philadelphia 
Free Library, was then introduced. Mr. Thom- 
son's idea on the subject was that some in- 
terpretation should go forth with our library 
reports and statistics, showing the value of 
the large per cent, of fiction circulated. We 
should endeavor to convince the city fathers 
that we are carrying on the educational idea 
by showing the solid character of reading 
that is done under the name of fiction. For 
convenience of comparison, and for the sake 
of economy, the classification should be uni- 
form. He advocated possibly 10 divisions 
as historical, instructive, etc., and recom- 
mended for the consideration of the Ameri- 
can Library Association two questions, viz., 
Can fiction be classified and in what classes, 
and, Should librarians exclude fiction less 
than a year old. as suggested by Mr. Putnam? 

Continuing the discussion, Mr. Gaillard de- 
scribed a classification which did not interfere 
with shelf arrangement, being indicated by 
colors of book covers, bright red, for in- 
stance, lending attractiveness to standard 



Miss Kelso thought that in regard to li- 
brary reports, some interesting anecdotes and 
other matter might interpret the statistical 
tables to the considerable enlightenment of 
boards of apportionment and other interested 
readers. Mr. Bostwick said: "Let us have 
a subject list of prose fiction, and let us mark 
our cards so that they will tell something of 
the character of the circulation, but leave the 
shelves alone. We need a classification on 
cards, not on the shelves." 

Mr. Hill thought it unnecessary to apologize 
at all for a large per cent, of fiction in the 

After some further discussion a motion was 
carried that a committee be appointed to co- 
operate with the Keystone State Library As- 
sociation in further consideration of this im- 
portant question. 

The president reserved announcement of 
the committee. 


Scbools ant) training 


Miss Mary Krichbaum, class of '01, has 
been engaged to organize the public library of 
Huntington, W. Va. 

Miss Emma C. Wells, class of '97, is or- 
ganizing the library of the Tuskegee Insti- 
tute, Tuskegee, Ala. 

Miss Edith F. Pancoast, class of '01, has 
been engaged as temporary cataloger in the 
State Library, Augusta, Maine. 

Misses Beulah S. White, Charlotte K. Han- 
num, Amy Keith, Julia E. Stubbs, Hetty S. 
Johnston, Ruth Palen, graduates of the 
school, have been engaged as temporary cat- 
alogers in the Library of the University of 


The course on library bindings by W. R. 
Eastman is being somewhat modified this year 
by an increased emphasis on small libraries 
and by the addition of numerous practical 

In the selection of books course a change 
has been made in assigning to each student 
two books which he reads and for which he 
leads the discussion before the class. This 
plan adds thoroughness and definiteness to 
the class work and also stimulates dis- 
cussion by other students. The set of 
printed readers' book notes for 1900-01, on the 
same lines as the set for 1899-1900, is now 
ready for distribution and can be secured at 
the rate of 36 cents per set of 100 cards. 
Postage is four cents. The set covers in the 
main books published within the last year or 
two but includes also Parkman's works, Bos- 

well's Johnson and Carlyle's Sterling. The 
notes are printed in such form as to be avail- 
able for the card catalogs, as well as for their 
primary purpose tipping into the book itself 
opposite the front cover. They are intended 
to be of practical service to the reader in. 
helping him to decide whether he wants to> 
take the book. 

Miss Ono M. Imhoff (N. Y. 1898) paid 
a short visit to the school on her way from. 
Newark, N. Y., where she has been engaged 
for the past year in organizing the public 
library, to Bloomfield, N. J., where she will 
be librarian of the Jarvie Memorial Library. 

Miss Anna R. Phelps (N. Y. 1901) spoke 
to the school Friday, Dec. 20, on the 
Glen Haven Public Library which was started 
through her efforts. The talk illustrated in 
an interesting way the peculiar needs of a 
little library. 

The I5th anniversary of the school, which 
opened Jan. 5, 1887, was kept on Saturday 
evening Jan. 4 by a skating party at the 
home of Mrs. Fairchild. 



A report of the work of the library school 
for the year ending June 30, 1901, is included 
in the annual report of Pratt Institute Free 
Library for that period (7n Pratt Institute 
Monthly, December, p. 43-47). There were 
73 applicants for the first-year course, of 
whom 43 passed the entrance examinations 
and 20 were selected for the class. Eleven 
states were represented. The special lectures, 
library visits, reading lists prepared, and other 
features of the class work are noted. In the 
historical course three students were entered; 
and there were four in the special course 
for children's librarians. In the latter course 
one of the "best means of developing the 
sense of responsibility, the faculty for man- 
agement and discipline, and the ingenuity 
and resourcefulness of the students" was 
found in the evening work in the children's 


The university library, because of its close 
connection with the library school, has been 
made a depository for the printed cards 
issued by the Library of Congress. 

The course in public documents, which for 
the past three years has been a special feature 
of this school, will hereafter be opened to 
students in the College of Literature and 
Arts, and a part of the instruction will be 
given by the Department of Economics. Dr. 
Hammond will treat of the documents from 
the specialist's point of view, while Miss 
Mann will, as before, treat of the reference 
and cataloging features. In this connection, 
the Department of Economics will so arrange 
its course in statistics that library students 


[January, 1902 

may take the general without the technical 
and mathematical parts. 

Further requests from the College of Liter- 
ature and Arts have been granted to open 
to their students the course in Reference, 
Selection of books, History of libraries, and 

The course in Bibliography, given by spec- 
ialists in the university and the towns, is 
proving more satisfactory than ever this 
year. Lecturers use the Decimal classification 
for an outline, and base their selection of 
books upon the needs of a 10,000 volume 
public library.. They emphasize the prin- 
ciples of selection, which change little, give 
a critical estimate of leading authorities, and 
illustrate by specific books. Where closely 
related subjects are represented by several 
departments, the college including them is 
asked to assign some one man to speak of the 
group. For example, the professor of his- 
tory is presenting the Political Science group, 
of history, economics, and public law and ad- 
ministration. The group system secures a 
more practical proportion of books than was 
gained from separate departments. 

The course has thus far included Bibliog- 
Taphies of bibliography, General bibliog- 
Taphy, Library economy, General periodi- 
cals; Philosophy, by Head Professor Arthur 
H. Daniels; Religion, by Rev. J. E. Wilkin- 
son, of Emanuel church, Champaign ; Roman- 
ic languages, by Head Professor Geo. D. 
Fail-field ; and Political science, by Acting 
Head Professor of History, D. E. Spencer. 

The library school each month prepares for 
the College of Engineering a list of articles 
of interest to engineers, which have appeared 
in the current general magazines. A list of 
interest to the classical departments is also 
posted in the College of Literature and Arts 
once a month. The class in Reference in- 
cludes a study of current events, and each 
week a summary is prepared for discussion 
in the Department of Economics. 

Much indexing is done by the various de- 
partments of the university, and the library 
school assists whenever the practice is such 
as to be of value to the students, in becoming 
tfamiliar with the subjects assigned by the 

The seniors continue to have entire charge 
<of the branch of the Champaign Public Li- 
brary, opening it every afternoon. 



The summer school for library training, 
conducted by the Wisconsin Free Library 
Commission, under the auspices of the Uni- 
tersity of Wisconsin, will hold its eighth an- 
nual session during July and August, 1902. 
The regular course will begin on Wednesday, 
July 2, and close on Friday, Aug. 26. The 
supplementary course, for more experienced 
or advanced students, will extend from Mon- 

day, July 7, through to Friday, Aug. i The 
document course will begin on Wednesday, 
Aug. 6, and close Wednesday, Aug. 27. 

A fund for lectures has been provided by 
J. D. Witter, of Grand Rapids, making it pos- 
sible to secure specialists to speak on special 
lines of work. The school will be under the 
direction of Miss Cornelia Marvin. Miss 
Adelaide Hasse, chief of the documents di- 
vision of the New York Public Library, will 
conduct the course in public documents. 
Miss Julia Elliott, librarian of the Marinette 
(Wis.) Public Library, will act as assistant 
instructor in library economy. Lectures and 
instruction will also be given by professors 
in the University of Wisconsin and by offi- 
cers of the state commission. A general 
library meeting will be held Aug. 28-29. 
Full information regarding admission require- 
ments, details of courses, etc., may be had 
on application to Miss Cornelia Marvin, Wis- 
consin Free Library Commission, Madison, 


LIBRARY OF CONGRESS. Calendar of Wash- 
ington manuscripts in the Library of Con- 
gress; comp. under the direction of Her- 
bert Friedenwald, Ph.D. Washington, 

1901. 315 p- i. o. 

It is gratifying to note that the Library of 
Congress has recently published some val- 
uable catalogs of its treasures. Among those 
which have already appeared we have a 
"Check list of American newspapers," "A 
list of maps of America," and the present 
"Calendar of Washington manuscripts." This 
volume is divided into two parts, the first 
containing such manuscripts as were written 
by Washington himself or under his author- 
ity (PP. 9-102), while the second is devoted 
to such documents as were received by him 
(pp. 105-184). Wherever the writings of 
Washington have been published, references 
are made to the publications in which they 
appear and such papers have been indexed 
with less fulness than those not so repro- 
duced. Among the more notable documents 
contained in this work are the Virginia 
Articles of Association of 1770 (of which the 
Library of Congress possesses six copies), 
the series of papers relating to General Sul- 
Ih'an's expedition against the Susquehanna 
Indians in 1779, and the letters relating to the 
founding of the city of Washington. Of 
those received by Washington not the least 
interesting are those dated from 1778-1782, 
which give insight into the means which he 
employed in obtaining information respecting 
the movements of the enemy. The work con- 
tains a very full index of names (filling more 
than a third of the volume) (pp. 187-315), 

January, 1902] 


which enables one to readily refer to any of 
the calendared papers. 

The introduction states that "In addition to 
the documents comprised in this calendar the 
library has recently acquired the letter books 
of Robert Morris which contains copies of 
73 letters from that statesman to Washington, 
8 of which were written during the years 
1781-1784. The library possesses also the 
large Toner collection of transcripts of Wash- 
ington's writings, as well as the transcripts 
of letters and documents written by Washing- 
ton during the Revolutionary war, collected 
"by Peter Force, and obtained by the Library 
of Congress in 1867." No reasons are given 
why this additional material was not incorpo- 
rated in the present work. 

This work is printed on good paper and 
in a handsome and convenient form. We are 
glad of the assurance that the future publi- 
cations of the library, not administrative, 
will appear in uniform character with this 
one. G. W. C. 

Xfbrarg Economy an& 



actions and proceedings ... at its second 

general meeting, held at Adelaide, Oct. 9, 

10, n, and 12, 1900. Adelaide, C. E. Bris- 

tow, Gov. printer, 1901. 86+114 p. O. 

The delay in the publication of these pro- 

ceedings is apologized for by the editor, 

as being due to "a variety of untoward cir- 

cumstances." The conference was reported 

in the LIBRARY JOURNAL, December, 1900, p. 

737-739- In addition to the papers, attendance 

list, and summary of proceedings the "Trans- 

actions" include programs and catalog of the 

loan exhibition held in connection with the 



Alliance (O.) P. L. (Rpt. year ending 
Sept. i, 1901.) This is the first report of the 
library since its reorganization from a pub- 
lic school library to a free public library. 
The reorganization was decided upon in the 
summer of 1900, and the plan followed was 
adopted after visits by the librarian to the 
Case Library of Cleveland. Oberlin College 
Library, and other libraries. It included 
classification by the D. C., preparation of 
a dictionary catalog, card shelf list, new 
charging system, etc. The library was opened 
to the public Sept. 15, 1900. It now con- 
tains 2527 v., and circulated 16,911 v., or a 
daily average of 58. There are about 900 
borrowers. Percentage of adult fiction is 
39.28, of juvenile fiction, 47.63. "The fiction 
percentage is high, owing mainly to our pov- 
erty of recent books in other classes." Free 
access is given to the shelves. 

Atlantic City, N. J. The board of trustees 
of the public library, now in process of or- 
ganization, has been appointed by Mayor 
Stoy as follows: T. J. Dickerson, A. M. 
Heston, Dr. J. B. Thompson, Rev. J. H. 
Townsend, and Mrs. A. B. Endicott. 

Brooklyn, N. Y. Pratt Institute F. L. 
(Rpt. year ending June 30, 1901.) This 
interesting report constitutes the greater part 
of the Pratt Institute Monthly for December, 
1901 ("Library number"), and will not appear 
in small pamphlet form as heretofore. The 
principal statistics for the year are as fol- 
lows: Added 5920; total 74,979. Issued, 
home use 238,208 (fict. 63.2 per cent). New 
registration 7747; total registration 60,639; 
total active membership (estimated) 39,913. 

In its presentation of varied activities and 
suggestions for increased usefulness this re- 
port is of marked interest and should be 
read in full. Any summary is necessarily un- 
satisfactory. Of the total home circulation 
33,847 v. were issued to borrowers under 
14 years of age; and 15,255 were drawn 
from the open-shelf collection of about 2000 
v. It is recommended that the entire de- 
livery room be equipped as an open-shelf 
room, thus giving about 2500 volumes ad- 
ditional (or about 7500 in all) accessible to 
the public. 

The large demand for advertised or popu- 
lar books was evidenced by the sale of 4865 
reserve postal-cards, a larger number than 
ever before. Miss Plummer points out that 
this reserve system means "the retirement 
from circulation for 24 hours (sometimes 
more) of the books reserved, and the fail- 
ure, therefore, of each book to do the duty 
possible to it if kept in constant circula- 
tion," and suggests that the reserving of 
books be somewhat discouraged by an in- 
crease in the price of reserve cards, which 
have been sold at a lower price than that set 
by most libraries. 

There is an interesting report of the work 
of .the information-desk, as carried on by 
Miss Winifred Taylor, noted elsewhere irt 
this issue. 

Reference attendance at the main library 
and the Astral branch is given as 37,803, with 
a total of 16,265 v. issued for consultation 
from the stacks ; but this, of course, is an 
inadequate record of the reference use. "Ac- 
count has been kept recently of the number 
of pamphlets called for from the stack, and 
we find the number increasing each month. 
An unusual demand for the Smithsonian pub- 
lications is attributed by the department to 
the printed analytical catalog-cards furnished 
by the Publishing Section of the American 
Library Association." Accessions of special 
importance to the reference, art reference 
and general collections are briefly noted. 
"Among the most interesting accessions of 
the year were 38 chap-books, published in 


[January, 1902 

Bath, Bristol, and London, in the early part 
of the century. They were bought to illus- 
trate the lectures on the history of literature 
for children; also about 50 old-fashioned 
books for children and young people, pub- 
lished between 1748 and 1842. Some books 
printed in the Confederate States during and 
immediately after the Civil War were pur- 
chased at auction, as having historical inter- 
est, while an extra set of the International 
Studio was bought for circulation, and dupli- 
cates of the last 10 volumes of the LIBRARY 
JOURNAL for class-use in the Library School." 
Especially interesting is the report of the 
work of the children's department, where 
numerous exhibitions have been held, and 
reading aloud and story-telling have enlivened 
many evenings. The classifying and catalog- 
ing of children's books is now handled in this 
department, as the books thus become more 
quickly familiar to the assistants, and the 
children's catalog is simpler in its subject- 
headings. Regular visits are made to the 
schools by the children's librarian, "to make 
sure that teachers and children know of the 
library and what it can do for them." Many 
suggestive points are brought out, and the 
record should be read in full by all interested 
in library work with children. The work of 
the library school is also fully reported upon. 

Brooklyn (N. F.) P. L. (3d rpt. year 
ending Feb. 20, 1901.) As this report ap- 
pears about ten months after the close of the 
year covered, most of the information given 
has already been noted in these columns. 
The statistics presented are as follows : 
Added 13,329; total 118,011 (of which 50,- 
521 belong to the Schermerhorn st. branch, 
formerly the Library of the Union for Chris- 
tian Work, and 16,874 are in the Bedford 
branch). Issued, home use 541,013; lib. 
use 94.411. The classified circulation is given 
only for total issue, and the percentages of 
home use are not stated. Of the total issue 
234.530 v. were fiction, and 161,804 were 
juvenile books. New registration, 12,262; 
total registration, 65.745. 

At the time of this report there were n 
branch libraries in operation and four 
branches in preparation. Summarized re- 
ports are given for each branch, and for the 
travelling library department. The report 
was drawn by Mr. Bostwick just before his 
resignation to become chief of the New York 
Public Library Circulating Department, and it 
closes with a cordial valedictory and a ref- 
erence to the remarkable growth of the li- 
brary system, which in two years had ex- 
panded "from two to 15 branches and from 
an annual rate of circulation of a few thou- 
sand to more than a million." 

Chicago P. L. The T. B. Blackstone 
Memorial Branch Library, to be given by 
Mrs. T. B. Blackstone, will be erected at 
Washington avenue and 49th street. 

Cincinnati (O.) P. L. The library trustees 
on Dec. 19 adopted a resolution providing 
"that the president appoint a commitee of 
three to prepare such legislation looking to the 
providing of a new building for the main li- 
brary and such buildings for branch libraries 
as may be deemed advisable." The committee 
was named as W. T. Porter, Drausin Wulsin, 
and Robert West. 

Connecticut State L. Hartford. The li- 
brary has adopted a new bookplate, designed 
at the request of Mr. Godard, the librarian, 
by W. F. Hopson. of New Haven, designer 
of the Yale and other bookplates. The book- 
plate is oblong, 4 by 2 l / 2 inches in size, with 
the design in the upper half. In the center of 
the design is the seal of the state, surrounded 
by a band bearing the word "Connecticut." At 
the left of the seal the charter oak is pre- 
sented, firmly rooted in front of the state 
house erected in Hartford in 1720. At the 
right of the seal the east front of the capi- 
tol is presented and beneath the buildings 
at the right and the left are rolls of manu- 
script indicating the constitution or "funda- 
mental orders" of 1639 and the charter of 

Dayton (O.) P. L. and Museum. (4ist 
rpt. year ending Aug. 31, 1901.) Added' 
4038; total 49,873. Issued, home use 138,- 
632 (fact, and juv. fict. 72.6 per cent.) ; ref. 
use 52,946. New registration 2313 ; total reg- 
istration 13,665. Receipts $17,466.89, expenses- 

The circulation during the period covered' 
was greater than that for any year previous to 
September, 1897. Use of books in the li- 
brary, however, has apparently declined in the 
past two years. "This apparent falling off 
is coincident with the attendance, in the read- 
ing room, of a reference assistant, whose 
special duty it is to wait upon the students. 
The assistant devotes himself to finding the 
exact books required, to answer the search- 
er's questions, and, with his more special 
knowledge of the resources at hand, fewer 
books are taken down at a hazard of answer- 
ing the purpose than was the case when the 
student was obliged to wait on himself alone." 
It is also pointed out that for a large amount 
of reference use no record is practicable. 
The fiction percentage was reduced 2.3 per 
cent, during the year largely owing to the 
percentage of classed books read from the 
school department and vacation branches. 

An interesting experiment was tried at 
the close of the school year, when the school 
library was broken up into four collections 
and placed at each of four districts, situated 
at a distance of a mile or two from the main 
library. Several hundred volumes of fiction 
and classed books for adults were added to- 
the collections and the whole, under the- 
charge of a teacher belonging to the district,, 
was thrown open to the public for two after- 

January, 1902] 


noons a week during the summer. The 
average issue per afternoon was 114 books; 
297 new borrowers were added. Sixty-one 
per cent, of the books taken were for adults, 
and less than 65 per cent, of the books read 
were fiction and juvenile fiction. "Two of 
these district branches (each two miles from 
the main library) will be continued as neigh- 
borhood libraries for their respective locali- 
ties. They will be open one afternoon a 
week to the public, with a collection of sev- 
eral hundred volumes added to by weekly de- 
liveries of new books from the main library." 

In closing her report Miss Doren thus 
states the controlling aim and method of the 
conduct of the library : 

"The library is not only seeking to extend 
its general usefulness as a distributor of 
pleasant books for home reading, but it is in- 
creasing the actual intensive use of books 
for study among all classes of people. A 
very great proportion, perhaps the most im- 
portant proportion, of this work is done with- 
in the walls of the library itself, where all 
the tools of the student are conveniently 
at hand and the studious atmosphere prevails. 
That the character of its work is deepening, 
and that the grasp of the needs, conditions 
and ideals of the community is becoming more 
real, we believe to be a fact. Though not 
wanting in the visible proofs of usefulness 
and progress, the work of the library is neces- 
sarily a quiet one. Without the appearance 
of haste, but without rest, it must ever be 
sympathetic to the desires of the people; per- 
suasive, not didactic in method, and, above 
all, through the selection of its books and 
the manner of bringing them to the notice of 
readers, it must mold ideals while it satisfies 

The library has issued two attractive 
Christmas book lists, one for adults and one 
for children, recording titles in varied classes 
of literature recommended by the members 
of the library staff, and including many older 
books as well as current ones. 

East St. Louis (III.) P. L. A systematic 
effort was made by the librarian at the be- 
ginning of the reading season to arouse an 
interest in the library among the workingmen 
of the city. The city is a large manufacturing 
center, and in consequence a considerable per 
cent, of the population is employed in skilled 
labor. To reach this class a small printed 
slip, setting forth a few facts concerning the 
library, was prepared and several thousands 
circulated through the pay envelopes of a 
number of the large employers of labor. 

Although too early as yet to judge of the 
net results of this campaign, from the results 
as known so far there is no reason to doubt 
but that they will be gratifying. 

Madison (Wis.) P. L. It is planned to 
open a children's room at the library, and the 

members of the Madison Women's Club have 
been asked to contribute $100 toward the 
fund of $500 necessary for its equipment. 

Mount Vernon (N. F.) P. L. The long 
disagreement in the Mount Vernon board of 
education regarding a site for the $35,000 
Carnegie library building was settled on 
Dec. 17, when it was voted to purchase for 
$16,000 a site on South First and South Sec- 
ond streets, between First and Second streets. 
The site is a central one, and seems gener- 
ally satisfactory. 

New Haven (Ct.) F. P. L. (Rpt., 1900.) 
Added 5824; total 52,033. Issued, home use 
305,284, of which school use is estimated as 
6000 (fict. 50 per cent.; juv. fict. 20.2 per 
cent.). New borrowers 8484; total borrowers 
16,678. Receipts $16,191.60; expenses $16,- 

A re-arrangement of the fiction shelves was 
made in May, to allow more room ; but the li- 
brary quarters are still overcrowded. Small 
collections of books have been placed in two 
of the local schools. 

Nashville, Tenn. Carnegie L. On Dec. 5 
the incorporators of the Howard Library, at 
a largely attended meeting, voted to transfer 
all the property of that association to the 
Carnegie Library, to be established through 
the gift of $100,000 from Andrew Carnegie. 
The Carnegie Library has been duly chartered 
and all plans for its development promise to 
be smoothly and speedily carried through. 
A site has been secured that will be deeded 
to the city when the time is ripe, and the ap- 
propriation of the city council is purely a 
matter of form, as that body has voted unani- 
mously in favor of the library. The transfer 
of the Howard Library is made on condition 
that the property "be kept available for free 
public library purposes"; that the library 
building now contemplated "be constructed 
within a reasonable time," that the Carnegie 
Library carry out the contracts now existing 
between the Howard Library and its card- 
holders; and that the new building shall "fit- 
tingly perpetuate the memory of M. H. How- 
ard." With the passing out of existence of 
the Howard Library its quarters will be oc- 
cupied and its work carried on by the Carne- 
gie Library until the new building is com- 
pleted. The Carnegie Library board is com- 
posed of directors of the Howard Library 
and three members appointed by the city 

At the final meeting of the Howard Libra- 
ry incorporators a short report was presented, 
showing that since the opening of the free 
circulating department 3219 cards have been 
issued, and an average of 300 books have been 
drawn daily. The library contains about 
1200 v. Of these only about 7000 are availa- 
ble for circulation, the others being reference 


[January, 1902 

books. 47 periodicals are subscribed for and 
10 presented. 

New York City. Carnegie libraries. On 
Dec. 26 the city Board of Estimate adopted 
formal resolutions of thanks to Andrew Car- 
negie for his munificent gift of $5,200,000 for 
65 branch library buildings for New York 
City. After reciting the terms of the gift 
and its acceptance, the board "in the name 
of the citizens of New York," extends to Mr. 
Carnegie "the sincere thanks of the muni- 
cipality, and commends his action as an impor- 
tant event in the progress of civilization and 
education in our city, which will mark an 
epoch in the enlightenment of pur citizens 
and offer much needed opportunities fo^ the 
higher education of the youth of the city." 

New York P. L. A bill was introduced 
into the state legislature on Jan. i, authoriz- 
ing an increase in the number of library trus- 
tees from 21 to 25, so that the following of- 
ficials of the city may be ex-officio members 
of the board : the mayor, comptroller, and 
president of the board of aldermen. Under 
this arrangement the municipality will have 
an adequate representation on the board of 

At the December meeting of the trustees 
George L. Rives presented his resignation 
from the office of secretary, in view of his 
appointment as corporation counsel for the 
city. Mr. Rives continues as trustee. A reso- 
lution was passed naming seven residents of 
Staten Island to act as an advisory commit- 
tee in the selection of sites for the Carnegie 
libraries for Staten Island. They are George 
Cromwell, John M. Carrere, G. A. Irving. A. 
K. Johnston, Walter C. Kerr, Ira K. Mor- 
ris and De Witt Stafford. 

At the January meeting of the board An- 
drew Carnegie was elected a trustee, succeed- 
ing Daniel Huntington. 

The Riverside branch has removed from 
261 West 69th st. to 230 Amsterdam ave., near 
70th St.. where it will occupy the entire second 
floor of a building about 25 x 90 feet. This 
library, which reaches a crowded tenement 
district, was originally established by the 
Riverside Association, a settlement society, 
and was transferred to the New York Free 
Circulating Library in 1897. 

Newark (N. 7.) F. P. L. A new library 
sub-station was opened the first week in De- 
cember in the Morton street school, and over 
90 new cards were issued to pupils in the first 
two days. 

Norwich, Ct. Otis L. (Rpt. year end- 
ing Aug. 31, looi.) Added 1626; total 26.317. 
Issued, home use 88,418 (fict. 55.90%). New 
registration 787; total registration 10,500. Re- 
ceipts and expenses $6629.69. 

A decrease of 2699 in books issued is noted, 
mainly in the line of work with the schools, 
which appears to have reached its limit of 
growth. The reduction of the book purchase 

appropriation is a serious difficulty, and affects 
all classes of readers by limiting the library's 
effectiveness. The more important accessions- 
of the year are noted, and reference is made 
to the prompt treatment accorded public docu- 
ments of special interest. More than half of 
those received during the year have been cata- 
loged on receipt, and placed on the shelves 
in the classes to which they belong. "For ex- 
ample : a report on civil affairs in Porto 
Rico and Cuba issued by the War Depart- 
ment in 1900 forms vol. 7 of House documents 
of the first session of the s6th Congress. In- 
stead of burying it in this Congressional 
series, we place it among the books in the 
library descriptive of Cuba and Porto Rico, 
and place in the card catalog a subject card 
for each island. This method of treating 
government publications requires careful dis- 
crimination in view of the overcrowded con- 
dition of the shelves, but results in making 
the more important publications readily avail- 
able." It is suggested that free access, now 
granted to the fiction shelves, might be ex- 
tended to other departments; "the custom is 
a growing one, and in many respects conven- 
ient and satisfactory." 

Passaic (N. 7.) P. L. Plans submitted by 
Jackson, Rosecrans & Canfield, of New York, 
have been chosen for the Jane Watson Reid 
Memorial Library, to be given as a branch 
library for the district of Dundee, by Peter 
Reid, of Passaic. Construction will begin in 
the early spring. The building will be three- 
storied, including a basement above the 
ground level, with a rear stack room, circu- 
lar in plan. There will be a children's room, 
assembly hall, and all the features of an up- 
to-date and thoroughly equipped branch li- 

Peoria (III.) P. L. (2ist rpt. year end- 
ing May 31, looi.) Added 5000; total 72,133. 
Issued, home use 174,945 (%t. 45.74%; juv. 
fict. 25.16). New registration 3838; cards 
in force 7519. Receipts and expenses $17,- 

Through the small selected libraries placed 
in nine public schools, there were circulated 
23,163 v., being 13% per cent, of the total 
issue and an increase of nearly 50 per cent, 
over the school issue of the preceding year. 
The total home circulation shows an average 
of 3^5 vol. to every inhabitant of the city. 

Raleigh, N. C. Olivia Raney L. The an- 
nual meeting of the trustees was held on Dec. 
9. Since the opening of the library on Jan. 
24, 1901, about 550 v. have been added, mak- 
ing a total of 5411. There has been an aver- 
age daily attendance of 50 persons in the read- 
ing room ; and 34,829 v. were issued for home 
use (fict. 64 %), being a daily average of 135. 
There are 2195 borrowers, of whom 506 are 
under 18 years of age. 

The library derives its income from rental 
of parts of its building, amounting to $857 for 
a period of ten months. "The necessary ex- 

January, 1902] 



penses during that time amounted to $1739-55, 
including the purchase of new books, and the 
deficiency has been supplied by the generous 
founder." A strong plea is made for a city 
appropriation of $125 per month. 

At a meeting of the city council on Jan. 3, 
the sum of $100 per month was appropriated 
for library maintenance. 

Richmond, Va. Carnegie L. On Dec. 10 
the ordinance for the management of the Car- 
negie Library, passed by the city council on 
Dec. 2, was accepted by the board of alder- 
men, and on Dec. 14 was signed by the mayor. 
The ordinance was opposed by a numerous 
body of citizens, in favor of a plan whereby 
the board of trustees should consist of one 
alderman, two councilmen, and six citizens. 
The plan adopted provides for a board of two 
aldermen, three councilmen, three citizens 
and the city superintendent of schools. It is 
looked upon as meaning that the library will 
be controlled by politics, and there has been 
much dissatisfaction at its adoption. The 
Richmond Dispatch said editorially prior to 
the final vote upon the matter, that it "would 
open the way for the directing authority to 
pass at any time into the hands of a political 
ring, and for playing the position of librarian 
as a football of favoritism. It would clear 
the field for all sorts of political jobbery and 
the exercise of all sorts of pressure, and at 
the very least, leave us in constant danger 
of "the subordination of the question of com- 
petency in electing a librarian to that of per- 
sonal popularity." The ordinance, however, 
is now law, and the outlook for the library is 
regarded as at least questionable. Several 
candidates for the post of librarian are named, 
the most prominent being W. M. Turpin, 
president of the board of aldermen, and Carl- 
ton McCarthy, city accountant. 

San Francisco (Co/.) F. P. L. The at- 
tractive branch library building at Fourth and 
Clara streets, given to the city by Mayor J. 
D. Phelan, was dedicated on the evening of 
Dec. 16. The building has a frontage on 
Fourth st. of 56 feet, and is nearly square. 
It is built of pressed brick and terra cotta, 
while the fixtures, including cases, desks, ta- 
bles and chairs, are of solid oak. In the base- 
ment there is a large room which is to be 
utilized as an auditorium and reading room. 
The building is lighted by electricity. 

Sandusky, O. Carnegie L. Despite the 
presentation of a legal opinion from the city 
solicitor that their proposed action was il- 
legal, the city council on Dec. 16 voted to 
make an appropriation of $1500 to the library 
association, or one half the sum of $3000 that 
it is pledged by ordinance to appropriate an- 
nually for library maintenance. The ordin- 
ance in question was passed to secure the 
$50,000 library building offered to the city by 
Andrew Carnegie; and its validity is now 
questioned on the ground that the library is 
managed by a "close corporation" and that 

the city has no voice in the application of the 
funds it grants. The city solicitor bases his 
opinion mainly upon the fact that the char- 
ter of the library association provides for the 
"establishment of a free library, the books of 
which shall be accessible to its members," 
phrasing which does not accord with the pro- 
vision of the state law regarding city support 
of "free public" libraries. He says: "This 
association according to the provision above 
quoted does not make the library a public one, 
it omits the word 'public' and provides that, 
'the books of which shall be accessible to its 
members.' Of course the managers may per- 
haps at their own volition permit all persons 
a free access to the books of the library, but 
it is within their power at any time to with- 
hold and deny such rights to the public. We 
must judge the character of a corporation 
by the terms and conditions of its charter, 
and I therefore hold that this library associa- 
tion, as a corporation, is not a free public li- 
brary. The city as a corporation in its cor- 
porate capacity has no property rights in this 
institution; neither has it anything to say 
as to the conduct and control of the insti- 
tution. It is powerless to curtail expenses, 
or to make by-laws, rules or regulations in 
conducting and managing the same. It has 
absolutely no voice neither directly or in- 
directly as to conducting the institution ex- 
cept as to the levying of taxes, which the peo- 
ple are called upon to pay." 

The matter seems to be largely the result 
of dissatisfaction of the public with the atti- 
tude of the library directors, and it is hoped 
that it may be smoothed over. The Sandusky 
Journal says : "The opposition to the man- 
agement has crystallized during the past two 
or three weeks in a demand that the city shall 
not be taxed to support the library unless the 
city, as a corporation, has something to say 
about the expenditure of the funds. In some 
instances this opinion is held by persons who 
are friendly to the institution, who are anxious 
to have its usefulness extended to the widest 
possible limits and who have nothing but 
words of praise for those now in control. 
They urge that it is bad public policy for the 
people to be taxed and have absolutely no 
voice in the expenditure of the money col- 
lected from them. 

"It is contended too, that if the people gen- 
erally feel that they have an ownership inter- 
est in the institution, they will be more apt 
to take kindly to it, to use it more freely and 
derive greater benefits. There is something 
in this contention. The great mass of the 
people like to feel that they are part owners 
of public institutions and that they are in 
some sense responsible for the welfare of the 
same. It seems to us that if the library as- 
sociation and the people who are not members 
of the same would get a little closer together 
the whole difficulty might be solved. It will 
not do for the people those who are mak- 
ing the complaints to carry their prejudices 



[January, 1902 

into the matter and it will not do for the libra- 
ry association to take a high-and-mighty 

Seattle {Wash.) P. L. The city council on 
Dec. 19 decided to submit to popular vote an 
amendment to the charter for reorganization 
of the library commission. That body, under 
the proposed amendment, will be known as 
the library board, and will be composed of 
seven members, who will have control of the 
actions of the librarian and actual direction 
of the public library. One of the members of 
the board, in explanation of the decision, is 
quoted as saying that "at present the library 
commission is but a figure-head. It has no 
power of action. Nominally it is the head of 
the department, but actually it is without 
power. Some additional relief was given 
some time ago by ordinance, but this might 
be taken away any time. The librarian is now 
appointed by the mayor and the board has no 
control over him. That is the fundamental 
reason for wishing a new amendment. An- 
other reason for wanting a change is that it is 
the desire of those who have the best inter- 
ests of the library at heart to make it a part 
of the educational system of city and state, 
and as the state has now a new library act 
it is desirable that the library be put under 
this and as much in unison with it as possible 
to make the library here as nearly a part of 
the state system as possible. That explains 
why the superintendent of schools has been 
added to the library board." 

The amendment, which will be submitted 
to vote at the March election, makes the usual 
provisions for maintenance, expenditures, etc., 
and includes the following sections regarding 
administration : "There shall be appointed 
seven library commissioners, who shall con- 
stitute and be known as the library board, 
and be the governing body of the library, who 
shall hold office for seven years. They will 
serve without compensation and be subject to 
removal by the mayor. The mayor, with the 
consent of the city council, shall appoint the 
trustees, each of whom shall hold office for the 
term of seven years. The present library com- 
mission, together with two new trustees, to be 
appointed by the mayor for the term of seven 
years from April I, 1902, shall be the first 
library board, and the present commission- 
ers shall continue to hold office as such com- 
missioners until the expiration of their re- 
spective terms as commissioners, and the 
mayor shall thereafter annually appoint one 

"The librarian shall be elected by the board 
and subject to removal by it. Under civil 
service rules, he shall have the appointment 
and removal of all subordinate employes of 
the board." 

Springfield, III. Lincoln L. The library 
board has not yet been able to make public 
the plans for the $75,000 building, given by 
Andrew Carnegie. Of the plans first sub- 

mitted in competition the three that seemed 
most satisfactory were sent for criticism and 
suggestion to E. H. Anderson, librarian of 
the Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh, who re- 
turned them with a letter saying: "After ex- 
amination I cannot tell you how much I re- 
gret the fact that I cannot make a favorable 
report upon any of these plans," and "I think 
I ought to say to you that if the responsibility 
were mine, I would have the whole subject 

The plans were therefore set aside, and a 
special sub-committee was appointed to secure 
an architect. Mauran, Russell & Garden, of 
St. Louis, were finally engaged, and it is un- 
derstood that their plans for the building are 
now practically completed. 

Springfield (Mass.) City L. On Dec. 18 
the directors accepted the resignation as libra- 
rian of John Cotton Dana, now librarian of 
the Newark Free Public Library, and passed 
following resolutions recording their appre- 
ciation of Mr. Dana's services and regret at 
his retirement, and adding : "They realize that 
he has largely extended the usefulness of the 
library in enlightening the minds and bright- 
ening the lives of the people of this com- 
munity, and that his leadership has been po- 
tent outside of Springfield, in this section of 
the state, in making other libraries more ef- 
fective and valuable, and they are correspond- 
ingly grateful to him." 

A resolution was also passed authorizing 
Miss Alice Shepard, as first assistant, to be 
"acting librarian, and have general super- 
vision; the board understanding that Miss 
Medlicott will, as on former occasions, co- 
operate with Miss Shepard in carrying on the 
work of the library, sharing with her the 
general responsibility." 

A committee was appointed to nominate a 
new librarian, and the board voted to con- 
tinue the policy of having a curator for the 
art department and a librarian, each to man- 
age his own department subject to the direc- 
tion of the board. 

Stanley, Wis. Moon Memorial L. The li- 
brary building erected by Mrs. Sarah F. 
Moon, of Eau Claire, as a memorial to her 
late husband, Delos R. Moon, was dedicated 
on Dec. 17. The library is a one storied 
structure, 50 by 55 feet, of Roman brick, with 
a tiled roof. It contains three large rooms, 
opening from a spacious hallway, with lava- 
tories, etc., in the basement. It is lighted by 
electricity. Stanley is a city of 2500 people, 
and it is estimated that nearly the entire pop- 
ulation attended the public reception in the 
library building, which was held in the even- 
ing, after the formal dedication. 

Washington County F. L., Hagerstown, 
Md. The trustees have issued a statement 
regarding the work and needs of the library. 
Since the library was opened on the ist of 

January, 1902] 



September. 1901, 3024 persons have registered 
and 18,227 books have been issued. "This is at 
the rate of 72,000 books per year, or an aver- 
age of 275 a day." The number of volumes 
on the shelves at the opening of the library 
was 6325 and there are now 8267, an increase 
of 1942. There have been branches estab- 
lished at Leitersburg, Boonsboro, Tilghman- 
ton, Beaver Creek and Sandy Hook, and ap- 
plications for branches at 10 or 12 other 
points are now being prepared. It is pointed 
out that although the library is maintained 
from the endowment of the late B. F. New- 
comer, the site and building were secured 
through public subscription, and its equip- 
ment has left the trustees with a debt of 
about $15,000. In view of the great success 
of the library, and the large field of work be- 
fore it, an earnest appeal is made for public 
subscriptions sufficient to clear off the in- 
debtedness existing, and to extend the li- 
brary's benefits more widely to the country 

Winona (Minn.) F. P. L. The library has 
issued an attractive illustrated pamphlet pic- 
turing and describing the beautiful Laird Li- 
brary building, the gift of William Harris 
Laird, of Winona, which was presented to 
the city on Jan. 21, 1899. Its cost, exclusive 
of site, equipment, shelving, heating, etc., was 
$50,000. The little booklet gives a view of 
the exterior of the building as frontispiece, 
floor plans, and four excellent interior views. 

Wisconsin State Historical Soc. L., Madi- 
son. The 49th annual meeting of the society 
was held on Dec. 12, when the report of the 
secretary, R. G. Thwaites, was presented. Ac- 
cessions to the library during the year were 
reported as 5712 v. and 5628 pm., giving a 
total of 226,946 titles. Reference was made 
to the great collection of books, pamphlets, 
and newspaper files bearing on the Mormon 
question 2300 titles in all which has been 
loaned to the library by Theodore Schroeder, 
a Wisconsin University graduate, now of 
New York City, but for many years one of 
the most prominent attorneys in Utah. This 
collection far surpasses any other of the kind, 
and it is expected that ultimately it will be 
presented to the society. 

It was pointed out that it will be only a 
few years before the new library building 
will need to be enlarged by the erection of 
the north bookstack wing; and the legislature 
of 1903 will be asked to provide for its con- 
struction. This would give relief for per- 
haps 25 years, at the end of which time it will 
be necessary to build a transverse bookstack 
wing upon the Park street end of the lot. 

It is intended to establish a small reference 
library at the capitol during legislative ses- 
sions, with telephonic connection with the 
central library, for the use of officers and 
members of the two houses. 

"The society's relations with the library of 
the state university continue to be of the most 
cordial character, amply justifying the ex- 
pectations of those who had foreseen that 
placing the two libraries under the same 
roof would result in broadening and strength- 
ening the work of each, to the betterment of 
the interests of higher education within our 


San Juan, Porto Rico. The Carnegie li- 
brary building will be two stories high, 75 
feet wide, fronting on Plaza Colon, and 50 
feet deep. The second floor will contain an 
assembly hall and the book capacity will prob- 
ably be for 100,000 volumes. In the base- 
ment it is designed to arrange two reading 
rooms, one of which shall be for children. 


Bradford (Bug.) P. Ls. (3ist rpt. year 
ending Aug. 12, 1901.) Added 7319; total 
108,632. Total issue 674,572 (29,000 from the 
II branches), being a net increase of 75,809- 
over the preceding year. New registration 

106 books in Braille type have been cir- 
culated among the blind persons of the city, 
and 1602 volumes of music scores were is- 

Paisley (Scotl.) F. L. and Museum. The 
library and museum has received a gift of 
$27,500 from James P. Coates, of the J. V. P. 
Coates Thread Mills, Pawtucket, R. I. 

Rome, Vittorio Emanuele L. The Athe- 
naeum states that a considerable part of the 
Chinese Imperial Library of Pekin is now 
incorporated in the Vittorio Emanuele Li- 
brary at Rome, where it is being arranged by 
Prof. Nocentini and Signor Vigna del Ferro, 
who served as interpreter during the Chinese 
campaign. It consists of historical, geo- 
graphical and philosophical works. There is 
a history of the Han dynasty and another of 
the Tsing dynasty. One geographical work 
runs to "several hundred volumes." 

Warwick (Eng.) P. L. The death of the 
librarian Thomas Carter, in November, 1901, 
called forth the following communication to 
the Athenaeum of Dec. 7: 

"Warwick has lost, by the death from 
pneumonia of Mr. Tom Carter, a public li- 
brarian of decidedly original character. Mr. 
Carter was the son of a Forest of Dean 
miner, and was sent into the pit long before 
he reached his teens. He had practically no 
school education, but taught himself to read, 
and developed a consuming passion for books. 
He went to Warwick as an insurance agent, 
and soon, by his force of character and gifts 
as a speaker, acquired such local influence 
that he was returned to the school board and 
the town council. A year ago he resigned his 
seat on the council in order to become public 


[January, 1902 

librarian. He found the library in a heart- 
breaking state. It was one of the many local 
libraries started in a fit of enthusiasm and 
stocked with books; but the enthusiasm 
cooled, and no effort was made to weed out 
the worthless volumes and maintain a supply 
of the best modern books. Mr. Carter com- 
pletely overhauled the collection of some 9000 
volumes, induced the committee to fill up 
gaps there was, for instance, not a single 
volume of Matthew Arnold and carefully 
studied the literary papers to discover the 
new books worth ordering. He constituted 
himself the literary adviser of the town, not 
only by personal counsel to the borrowers, 
but by highly intelligent notices in the War- 
vnck Advertiser of batches of new books or- 
dered on his recommendation, and of the re- 
views and magazines supplied to the reading- 
room. He was contemplating inviting literary 
men to give lectures on courses of reading to 
the studious young men of the town. Mr. 
Carter taught himself French and Latin, and 
was seeking new worlds to conquer when his 
useful life was cut short at the age of 40." 

<3ifts anfc Bequests. 

Newton (Mass.) P. L. By the will of the 
late Mrs. Elizabeth L. Rand, of Newton, the 
library is to receive a bequest of $1000, the 
income to be devoted to the purchase of 

Nonvalk. Ct. On Dec. 5 the city received 
from H. E. Bishop, of Norwalk. a deed of 
gift for a central site, corner of Mott and 
Belden avenues, for the $20,000 library build- 
ing to be given to the city by Andrew Car- 

Titusville, Pa. W. S. and R. D. Benson, 
of Passaic, N. J., and their sister, Mrs. C. F. 
Emerson, of Titusville, have offered to pre- 
sent to Titusville a $25,000 library building 
as a memorial of their parents. It is to be 
known as The Benson Memorial Library, and 
it is required that the city provide $2000 an- 
nually for maintenance. 

Wesleyan Univ. L., Middletown, Ct. By 
the will of the late Mrs. Harriet Hoxie Wil- 
cox, of Brooklyn, N. Y., the university li- 
brary is bequeathed an endowment fund of 
$20,000, and the university receives probably 
an equal amount. By the terms of the will 
the executors have 10 years in which to settle 
the estate, and interest at the rate of 4 per 
cent, per annum is to be paid on all legacies 
remaining unpaid after two years. 

Carnegie library gifts. 
The following record covers recent gifts of 
library buildings made by Andrew Carnegie : 

Akron, O. Dec. 23. $70,000. 
Bloomington, Ind. Dec. 24. $15,000. 

Canon City, Colo. Dec. 17. $10.000. 

The city already appropriates $1100. and 
$600 is added from private subscription. A 
site has been secured. 

Danville, III. Dec. 26. $40,000. 
Accepted Dec. 28. 

Elkhart (Ind.) Carnegie L. Dec. 16. 
$5000 additional, to render building more 
nearly fireproof. 

Iron Mountain, Mich. Dec. 19. $2500 ad- 
Kalispell, Mont. Dec. 28. $10,000. 

Madison. Wis. Dec. 30. $75,000. 
Accepted Jan. 10. 

Nyack, N. Y. Dec. 23. $15,000. 

The three corporations of Nyack, South 
Nyack and Upper Nyack together contribute 
$1200 annually to the support of the public 
library, and the acceptance of the Carnegie 
gift is practically assured. 

Oneida, N. Y. Dec. 31. $11,000. 
Pekin, III. Dec. 18. $5000 additional. 

Red Wing, Minn. Dec. 17. $15,000. 
Accepted Jan. 4, when site was also ac- 
cepted from James Lawther. 

Stratford, Manitoba, Can. Dec. 25. $12,000. 

New York Press Club. Dec. 18. $5000 for 
purchase of books. 


BARTLETT, Miss Henrietta C., Pratt Insti- 
tute Library School, class of 1901, has been 
engaged to assist in the reorganization of the 
Englewood (N. J.) Public Library. 

BowKER-MiTCHELL. Richard Rogers Bow- 
ker, editor of the LIBRARY JOURNAL and the 
Publishers' Weekly, was married on Jan. i, 
1902, to Miss Alice Mitchell, of Cambridge, 
Mass. The ceremony took place at the home 
of Mr. and Mrs. George P. Bingham, in 
Brookline, and was performed by Dr. Ed- 
ward Everett Hale, of Boston. Mr. and Mrs. 
Bowker will leave on Jan. 22 for a three 
months' absence in Europe. 

HASSLER, Miss Harriot E., Pratt Institute 
Library School, classes '98 and '99, has re- 
signed from the Buffalo Public Library to 
accept a position on the staff of the John 
Crerar Library, Chicago, beginning Jan. i. 

MERRITT, Miss Leslie, graduate of the Pratt 
Institute Library School, classes 1900 and 
1901, has been released from her engagement 
at the St. Johnsbury (Vt.) Athenaeum, to ac- 
cept the position of cataloger at Bryn Mawr 
College Library. 

MOTT, Henry, assistant librarian of McGill 
University Library, Montreal, retired from 

January, 1902] 



the library service on Jan. I on a .comfort- 
able pension. Mr. Mott had been connected 
with the university library for 14 years, and 
his cordiality and courtesy will be remem- 
bered by the librarians in attendance at the 
Montreal meeting of the American Library 
Association, in 19x10. His retirement was 
marked by the art students of the university 
by the presentation of an illuminated address 
and a handsome set of furs. Mr. Mott was 
born in London in 1825. He came to Mon- 
treal in 1859, and was in commercial life 
until 1879, when he joined the staff of the 
Canadian Spectator, and later became con- 
nected with the Herald. He was appointed 
librarian of the Mechanics' Institute in 1884, 
and in January, 1888, joined the staff of Mc- 
Gill University Library. 

PERRY, Miss Lucy Ware, Pratt Institute 
Library School, classes 1900 and 1901, has 
been engaged to make the typewritten catalog 
of the Millicent Library, at Fairhaven, Mass. 

PRENTISS, Miss Mabel E., first assistant at 
the Pasadena (Cal.) Public Library since 
1898, was recently granted a leave of absence 
to assist in reorganizing the Pomona (Cal.) 
Public Library, with the result that she be- 
came librarian of that library on Jan. i, 1902. 

VOGT, Von Ogden, has been appointed li- 
brarian of Beloit College Library, Beloit, 
Wis., succeeding the late Charles A. Bacon. 
Mr. Vogt was a member of the Beloit grad- 
uating class of 1901, and had been financial 
secretary of the college since June last. 

WILSON, Miss Ellen Summers, New York 
State Library School, 1896-98, has resigned 
her position as librarian of the Wylie avenue 
branch of the Carnegie Library, Pittsburgh, 
Pa., to become librarian of the Steubenville 
(O.) Public Library. 

anfc Classification. 


Dec. 7, 1901. 69:869-884.) 

A series of 10 brief articles, by Mary Mapes 
Dodge, Kate Douglas Wiggin, Edward Ever- 
ett Hale, Horace E. Scudder, Frank R. 
Stockton, T. W. Higginson, Tudor Jenks, 
Agnes Repplier, Caroline M. Hewins and 
Nora A. Smith. Most of the writers give 
lists of 10 books best suited for reading by 
children from six to 12 years of age. There 
is an editorial on the same subject. 

ral des livres imprimes. Auteurs. Tome 
6: Baade-Bancroft; tome 7: Band-Bar- 
rozzi. Paris, Imprim. Nationale, 1901. 8. 

BOSTON (Mass.) P. L. Annual list of new 
and important books added, selected from 

the monthly bulletins, 1900-1901. Boston, 

1902. 206 p. O. 

This fifth annual list is, as usual, an inter- 
esting and useful volume. It contains 18 per 
cent, more titles than its predecessor, but the 
relative proportions of the different classes 
are but little changed. 

The BOSTON BOOK Co.'s Bulletin of Bib- 
liography for January contains a further in- 
stalment of G. W. Cole's record of "Bermuda 
in periodical literature," and part first of a 
"Reading list in library science," compiled by 
Pratt Institute Free Library. 

The Brooklyn Public Library and the Pratt 
Institute Free Library have joined in the is- 
sue of a co-operative monthly bulletin of ac- 
cessions. The lists for each library are printed 
separately, and wired together, the edition 
for the Public Library having that library's 
list put first, and vice versa. 

The CARDIFF (Wales') P. L. Bulletin for 
December includes a list of additions to its 
reference library, which will also serve as a 
list of books in Welsh and relating to Wales, 
published during the last three months. 

CATALOGUS codicum manuscriptorum Biblio- 
thecae Universitatis Lipsiensis. Katalog der 
Handschriften der Universitatsbibliothek zu 
Leipzig. i : Die Sanskrit-Handschriften 
von Theodor Aufrecht. Leipzig, Otto Har- 
rassowitz, 1901. 6+493 P- 8. 
Reviewed in Centralblatt fur Bibliotheks- 

wesen, December, p. 605. 

CUTTER AUTHOR TABLES. Hitherto libra- 
ries that had adopted the Cutter two-figure 
tables, if they wished to use three figures in 
biography, fiction, English literature, etc., 
have been obliged to assign the third figure 
themselves, because the Cutter-Sanborn three- 
figure tables were made independently of the 
two-figure tables, and could not be used in 
continuation of them. Different numbers 
would fall to almost every name. But a set 
of three-figure tables has at last been pre- 
pared on the same lines as the shorter tables, 
and in fact including them. They can be 
procured from C. A. Cutter, or from the Li- 
brary Bureau. As they are a little smaller 
(and handier) than the Cutter-Sanborn 
tables, they can be furnished at a less price, 
$2.25. To librarians that already have the 
two-figure tables the two new tables will be 
sold for their own use for $1.50. 

The NEW YORK P. L. Bulletin for Decem- 
ber is largely devoted to a "Check list of for- 
eign government documents on finance" in 
the library, compiled by Miss Hasse. The 
list is alphabetical by locality, with chrono- 
logical subdivisions when the material rec- 
orded is considerable. 


[January, 1902 

by Pratt Institute Free Library, Brooklyn, 
N. Y. Part i. Boston, Boston Book Co., 
1902. 12 p. nar. D. (Bulletin of Bibliog- 
raphy pamphlets, no. 9.) 
A good classed list of the standard avail- 
able literature on Librarianship ; Library 
economy, including order department, cata- 
loging, classification, charging systems, refer- 
ence work, etc. ; and Children's libraries and 
special work for children. Reprinted from 
the Bulletin of Bibliography, January. 

The SALEM (Mass.) P. L. Bulletin for De- 
cember concludes the reading list of short 
stories begun in the November number, and 
prints short lists on Ralph Waldo Emerson 
and the Interoceanic canal. 
SYRACUSE (N. Y.) P. L. A finding list of 
genealogies and local history. Syracuse, 
[1901.] 131 p. O. 

Arranged alphabetically under the follow- 
ing main headings : Serial publications, con- 
tinuations, etc. ; Genealogical guides ; Family 
histories : Registers, etc. ; Names and epi- 
taphs ; Heraldry ; Visitations ; Local histories. 
Printed in lefthand column only, one column 
being left blank for additions or corrections. 
Entries are as brief as possible, the date being 
the only information given except author and 

letin of information no. 15: November, 
1901. Suggestive outlines for the study of 
the history of the middle west, Kentucky 
and Tennessee; prepared in conjunction 
with the School of History, University of 
Wisconsin. Madison, 1901. 32 p. O. 
An excellent example of careful and sys- 
tematic syllabus work, intended primarily for 
study clubs, but equally useful to students 
and to the reference librarian. The outlines 
for study are prefaced by "Suggestions for 
students," compactly setting forth the gen- 
eral subject, the arrangement of the course 
and the best methods for handling or adapting 
it. A selected list of authorities covers books, 
pamphlets and magazine articles ; and sup- 
plemental references include a list of sug- 
gested fiction dealing with the middle west, 
grouped to refer to nearly all the divisions of 
the study outlines proper. These are fol- 
lowed by the 15 study outlines, which form 
practically a chronological record of the his- 
torical development of the sections covered. 
Each study has from one to seven subdivis- 
ions, each forming a separate topic with its 
separate references; thus, study II, The 
Louisiana purchase, covers (i) Diplomatic 
antecedents, Napoleon's policy, the treaty; 
(2) Effects of the Louisiana purchase; (3) 
Lewis and Gark expedition; (4) Burr's con- 

spiracy. The references are as far as possible 
to more recent literature, especially in the 
case of magazine articles. The bulletin is the 
work of F. J. Turner, of the University of 
Wisconsin, and R. G. Thwaites, of the State 
Historical Society. 

WRIGHT, W. Catalogue of Syriac mss. pre- 
served in the Library of the University of 
Cambridge. London, C. J. Clay & Sons, 
1901. 2 v., 8. 


The follou-ing are supplied by Harvard University 

Allen, Walter Spooner (Development of 
street railways in the commonwealth of 
Massachusetts) ; 

Auchincloss, William Stuart (St. Peter the 
apostle of Asia) ; 

Bryan. Henry Lewis (Compilation of treaties 
in force prepared under act of July 7, 

Buck, John Henry (Old plate) ; 

Butler, Carlos Antonio (The temple in the 
time of Christ as restored by Herod) ; 

Calkins, William Wirt (Catalog of lichens 
collected in Florida in 1885) ; 

Campbell, Milo De Witte (The purpose and 
working of the Michigan state tax com- 
mission) ; 

Delhi, Arne, assisted by George Howard 
Chamberlin .(Norman monuments of Pal- 
ermo and environs) ; 

Evans, Lawrence Boyd (Handbooks of Amer- 
ican government) ; 

Gragg, Isaac Paul (Homes of the Massa- 
chusetts ancestors of Major General Jos- 
eph Hooker) ; 

Greenwood, James Mickleborough (Principles 
of education practically applied) ; 

Hall, Charles Bryan (Military records of 
general officers of the Confederate States 
of America) ; 

Hall, Micajah Otis (Rambles about Green- 
land in rhyme) ; 

Henshall, James Alexander (Ye gods and 
little fishes) ; 

Hollister, Harvey James (The importance of 
good tax laws) ; 

Holmes, Edwin Sanford, jr. (Wheat growing 
and general agricultural conditions in the 
Pacific coast region of the U. S.) ; 

Howe, Albert Hovey (The insular cases) ; 

Humfreville, James Lee (Twenty years 
among our hostile Indians) ; 

Johnson, John Edgar (The boa constrictor 
of the White Mountains) ; 

Koyl, Charles Herschel (The cause of foam- 
ing in locomotive boilers, and other 
papers) ; 

Langworthy, Charles Ford (Eggs and their 
uses as food) ; 

Letson. Elizabeth Jane .(Post-pliocene fossils 
of Niagara) ; 

January, 1902] 



Loew, William Noah, tr. (Magyar poetry) ; 
Lumley, Eleanor Patience (The influence of 

Plautus on the comedies of Ben Jonson) ; 
Morrison, Hugh Alexander, jr. (List of books 

and of articles in periodicals relating to 

interoceanic canal and railway routes) ; 
Mortimer, William Golden (Peru history of 

cocoa) ; 
Norton, Albert James (Complete hand-book 

of Havana and Cuba) ; 
Palmer, Theodore Sherman and Olds, H. 

Worthington (Laws regulating the trans- 

portation and sale of game) ; 
Park, Orville Augustus (An index to the 

publications of the various bar associa- 

tions of America) ; 
Parker, Benjamin Strattan, and Heiney, Enos 

Boyd (Poets and poetry of Indiana) ; 
Pepper, Charles Melville (To-morrow in 

Cuba) ; 
Perry^ Marsden Jasiel (A preliminary list of 

the Shakespearean collection of) ; 
Rogers, James Swift (Hope Rogers and his 

descendants) ; 
Saville, Marshall Howard (Cruciform struct- 

ures near Mitla) ; 

Simons, Algie Martin (Packington) ; 
Thian, Raphael Prosper .(Legislative history 

of the general staff of the army of the 

United States) ; 
Van Deusen, Clarence Van Cortlandt (The 

primary and general election laws as 

amended by the legislature of 1899) ; 
Willard, George Owen (History of the Prov- 

idence stage, 1762-1891) ; 
Woodlock, Thomas Francis (The anatomy of 

a railroad report and ton-mile cost). 

ANCONA, Alexandre d'. Ferrari, L., Mana- 
corda, G., and Pintor, F. Bibliografia degli 
scritti di Alessandro D'Ancona. Firenze, 
G. Barbera, 1901. 48 p. 8. 

BORMANN, Edwin. Die Kunst des Pseud- 
onyms : 12 literarhistorisch-bibliograp.h- 
ische Essays. Leipzig, Edwin Bormann's 
Selbstverlag, 1901. 11+135 P- 8. 

BOYS. Forbush, William Byron. The boy 
problem : a study in social pedagogy ; with 
an introduction by G. Stanley Hall. 2d ed. 
Boston, The Pilgrim Press, [1901.] 194 p. 
12, net, 75 c. 
Contains a 7-page classified list of books and 

pamphlets relating to boys and social work 

with them. The list includes only such works 

as the author has found helpful. 

CARDUCCI, Giosue. Salveraglio, Filippo. Sag- 
gio di bibliografia carducciana. Roma, soc. 
edit. Dante Alighieri, 1901. 15 p. 8. 

Reprinted from the Rivista d' Italia; con- 
tains record of Carducci's poetry only, al- 
though the compiler has in preparation a 
complete bibliography of all Carducci's work. 

CATLIN, George. Miner, William Harvey. 
George Catlin : a short memoir of the man 
with an annotated bibliography of his writ- 
ings. Part 2: Bibliography. (In Literary 
Collector, December, 3:79-83.) 
Lists 28 items, with careful annotations. 

There is an interesting appendix of notes by 

Miss Elizabeth Catlin, daughter of George 


CREMATION. Cobb, John Storer. A quarter 
century of cremation in North America: 
being a report of progress in the United 
States and Canada, etc. Boston, Knight 
& Millet, 1901. 8+189 P. 12. 
Contains an extensive bibliography (pages 
123-161) of works published in the I9th cen- 
tury, American and European. Titles are 
classified by countries and arranged chrono- 
logically under each country. The list is fol- 
lowed by an index of authors and one of 

CUBAN LITERATURE. Hills, Elijah Clarence, 
ed. Bardos Cubanos: antologia de las me- 
jores poesias liricas de Heredia, "Placido," 
Avellaneda, Milanes, Mendive, Luaces, 
Zenea. Boston, D. C. Heath & Co., 1901. 
4+162 p. 12, 60 c. 
Contains a five-page bibliography, nearly all 

the works being in the Spanish language. 

CHARLES EVANS, secretary and librarian of 
the Chicago Historical Society, and one of 
the veteran members of the American Library 
Association, issues a circular announcing the 
publication of his comprehensive and elabor- 
ate record of "American bibliography, 1639- 
1820, A.D." This is to be "a chronological dic- 
tionary of all books, pamphlets and periodi- 
cal publications printed in the United States 
of America from the genesis of printing in 
1639 down to and including the year 1820, 
with bibliographical and biographical notes." 
The first volume will cover the period 1639- 
1749, and it is thought that in all the work 
will comprise six volumes, one volume ap- 
pearing each year. Mr. Evans' purpose is to 
furnish a record of American literary produc- 
tion from its beginning to the period where 
the work is taken up more or less fully by 
available publications, as Roorbach (1820- 
1861), Norton (1852-1855), Kelly (1861- 
1871) and then through the "American cat- 
alogue" volumes. The publication of the 
work is undertaken as a private enterprise by 
Mr. Evans, and it will be sold only by sub- 
scription, each copy being signed and num- 
bered. The work will be chronological in ar- 


[January, 1902 

rangement, with full indexes of authors and 
subjects and printers and publishers, and it is 
estimated that when it is completed it will 
embrace about 70,000 titles. The price is set 
at $15 per volume. The circular, which will 
be of general interest to librarians, may be 
obtained of Mr. Evans, 1045 Pratt avenue, 
Rogers Park, Chicago. 

GREEN, Samuel Abbott. Ten facsimile repro- 
ductions relating to Old Boston and neigh- 
borhood. Boston, [For sale by G. E. Little- 
field,] 1901. 84-44 p.+facsim. Q. $10. 
The facsimiles included in this handsome 
volume are: Publick Occurrences, the earliest 
American newspaper, 1690, and the decree 
for its suppression ; Hubbard's map of New 
England, 1677; Rev. Samuel Willard's "Use- 
ful Instructions," 1673, the earliest Boston 
imprint ; Increase Mather's sermon, "The 
wicked man's portion," 1675 ; Thomas Thach- 
er's "Brief rule to guide the common people 
of New England how to order themselves 
and theirs in the small pocks or measels," 
1678; The catalog of "the library of the late 
Reverend and Learned Mr. Samuel Lee," 
1693, the earliest book catalog printed in this 
country; Bonner's map of Boston, 1722; the 
earliest print of Harvard College, 1726; 
Joshua Green's "Plot of Cambridge com- 
mon," 1784; and Butler's map of Groton, 
Mass., 1832. The facsimiles are admirably 
reproduced and each is prefaced by a careful 
and interesting bibliographical and historical 

HAEBLER, C. Typographic iberique du quin- 
zieme siecle : reproduction en facsimile de 
tous les caracteres typographiques em- 
ployes en Espagne et en Portugal jusqu'a 
1'annee 1500; avec notices critiques et biog- 
raphiques. Lieferung I. Leipzig, Karl W. 
Hiersemann, 1901. subs., i6m. 
GRAPHIE Bulletin, fasc. 3-6, is devoted largely 
to the addresses and report of proceedings 
of the International Congress of Bibliography 
at Paris, Aug. 16-18, 1900. The need of an 
international scheme for statistics of literary 
production is presented by Paul Otlet; bib- 
liographies of chemistry and chemical indus- 
tries are reviewed by Jules Gargon, who de- 
scribes briefly the scope of his own enter- 
prise, the "Encyclopedic universelle des in- 
dustries tinctoriales et des industries an- 
nexes"; there is a "Memorandum concerning 
the principles on which a catalog of official 
documents must be constructed," by Frank 
Campbell, based upon his "Catalogue of In- 
dian official documents"; an interesting ex- 
position of the necessity for a general inter- 
national scheme for the alphabetical arrange- 
ment of authors' names ; and other papers in 
kindred fields. 
MISSIONS. Hodgkins, Louise Manning. Via 

Christi: an introduction to the study of 
missions. New York, The Macmillan Co., 
1901. 19+251 p. 16, net, 50 c. ; pap., 30 c. 
Contains a six-page bibliography. 
TUNIS. Begouen, C. Notes et documents 
pour servir & une bibliographic de 1'his- 
toire de la Tunisie: sieges de Tunis (1535) 
et de MahSdia (1550). Toulouse, [Paris, 
Picard et fils,] 1901. 106 p. facsim. 8. 

LITERATURE. John Louis Haney and Abraham 
S. Wolf Rosenbach, of the University of Penn- 
sylvania, announce that they have been en- 
gaged for several years upon "an extensive 
bibliography of English and American litera- 
ture," with the intention of supplying "a 
definitive finding-list for all books, theses, 
monographs, magazine articles and reviews 
dealing with significant English and Ameri- 
can authors and their works." It is purposed 
to include German, French and other foreign 
material. The compilers state that they real- 
ize "that it will be necessary to ask for the 
co-operation of scholars and bibliographers 
who have paid special attention to detailed 
portions of the subject; but deem it advisable 
to defer a request for such aid until we have 
made definite arrangements for the publica- 
tion of th: work." 

Bnon^ms anfc pseubon^ms. 

THE Smithsonian Institution has received 
a letter from James Walter Smith, of Lon- 
don, stating that he is the author of an ar- 
ticle entitled "The Zeppelin air ship," pub- 
lished in the Strand Magazine, September, 
1900, and reprinted in the annual report of 
the Smithsonian Institution for 1900. The 
article appeared under the nom-de-plume of 
Thomas E. Curtis. CYRUS ADLER. 

"FEMALE life in prison ; by a prison matron." 
The fact that the late F. W. Robinson was 
the author of this book is definitely stated by 
Theodore Watts-Dunton, in the Athenaeum, 
Dec. 14, IQOI. Mr. Dunton says: "After a 
while he [F. W. Robinson] started a third 
series which he called The prison stories,' 
beginning with 'Female life in prison; by a 
prison matron.' This book was also a great 
success. It consisted of sketches and stories 
of various prison characters, based in part 
upon the personal record of a real prison 
matron. For perfect realism it was worthy 
of Defoe. No one dreamed for a moment 
but that it was the work of a prison matron, 
who had recorded her real experiences. 'Jane 
Cameron,' by the author of 'Female life in 
prison,' and 'Prison characters' were each of 
them a great success, and, like the first of the 
series, these books were believed to be gen- 
uine records of prison life." 

January, 1902] 



~N .V, 


[January, 1902 



HAVING successfully conducted an extensive Library Depait- 
ment for the past several years, handling with complete 
satisfaction the entire library business of some of the largest libraries 
of the country, we call to your attention the elaborate facilities at our 
disposal ; not only as to the prompt and complete despatch of all such 
business, but the great saving to the library in the matter of receiving 
exceptional discount. A request for estimate on any miscellaneous 
list of publications will receive the same painstaking care and minute 
attention that an order involving thousands of dollars would receive. 
Books published abroad are secured within a very short time after 
order is placed our own branch houses in London, Paris, Berlin, as 
well as two Canadian houses, enable us to accomplish this. 

We solicit correspondence, and extend a most cordial invitation 
to all interested in the Free Public, School, Circulating, or Private 
Libraries to visit our mammoth establishment, where the thousand 
upon thousands of miscellaneous volumes are at your full access. 

Yours very respectfully, 


January, 1902] TtiE LIBRARY JOURNAL. 53 

American History 


Absolutely essential to the thorough, student of American Histry. 
Every library in the land should own the complete series. 

Librarians are urged to order now any of the sets not already in their libraries. 
Later it may not be possible to secure them. 

Printed uniformly in octavo volumes of about 500 pages each, pica type, and bound in 
half leather, gilt tops. Price per volume, $5.00 net. 
These works are printed from type, and not electrotyped. 
When the limited edition is exhausted no more copies can be obtained. ' 


Edited with an Introduction and Notes by HENRY CABOT LODGE. 9 vols. 

Limited to 500 sets. Now out of print and very scarce. Sets have recently been sold for three or 
four times the original price. 


Edited by JOHN BIGELOW. 10 vols. 

Limited to 600 sets. Noia out of print and very scarce. Sets have recently sold for two or three 
times the original price. 


Comprising his Diaries and his Public and Private Correspondence, including numerous letters and 
documents now for the first time printed. Edited by WORTHINGTON CHAUNCEY FORD. 14 vols. 
Limited to 750 sets. A few sets still remain for sale. 


Including all his important writings, addresses, and decisions, from 1776 to 1824, together with 
numerous letters to him from Washington, Hamilton, Adams, Jefferson, and others, many of which 
are now printed for the first time. Edited by HENRY P. JOHNSTON. 4 vols. 
Limited to 750 sets. A few sets still remainfor sale. 


Comprising his Public Papers and his Private Correspondence, including numerous letters and 
documents now for the first time printed. Edited by PAUL LEICESTER FORD. 10 vols. 
Limited to 750 sets, A few sets still rewainfor sale. 


Comprising his Letters, Private and Official, his Public Documents, and his Speeches. Edited by 
his grandson, CHARLES R. KING, M.D. 6 vols. 
Limited to 750 sets. Now complete. 


Edited by S. M. HAMILTON, of the Department of State. To be completed in six or seven volumes. 
Limited to 750 sets. In course of publication. Volume 6 in press. 


Edited by GAILLARD HUNT. To be completed in eight or nine volumes. 
Limited to 750 sets. In course of publication. Volume 3 in press. 


Edited by HARRY ALONZO GUSHING. 4 vols. (In preparation.) 


Edited, with an Introductory Essay, by JOHN G. PALFREY, of the Massachusetts Bar. (In 



54 THE LIBRARY JOURNAL. [January, 1902 



American Library and Literary Agents, 


THIS Agency was established In 1864 for supplying American Public Libraries, Institutions, 
and Book Collectors, with English and Continental Books, Manuscripts, Drawings, Philo- 
sophical Apparatus, etc., at the lowest London prices. 

Special attention is paid to the selection and purchase of rare old books and manuscripts. 
Auction sales are carefully watched and good knowledge kept of the stocks of the old Book- 
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Lists of Desiderata have the best attention and Librarians are respectfully requested to test 
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Facsimile of the Unpublished British Headquarters Coloured 
Manuscript Map of New York and Environs 


Reproduced from the Original Drawing in the War Office, London. 
24 sheets. Scale, 6J- inches to a mile. 10 feet by 4 feet. .... 

The successive British Commanders-in-Chief in America, Generals Sir William Howe, Sir Henry Clinton, and Sit 
Guy Carleton, during their respective occupations of New York and Environs in the Revolution, caused this manu- 
script plan from time to time to be kept up. 

The plan extends from below Guanas Bay to the Heights of Spikendevil, a distance of about eighteen or nineteen 
miles. It shows the Fortifications, Defences, Topography, Streets, Roads, etc., of the whole of the Island of New 
York with the Harbor, Islands. Water Ways, and River Frontages on the Hudson and East Rivers, the Military Work* 
on Long Island including Brooklyn, the Works in Paulus Hook and parts of the Jersey Shore. It has a copious Table 
of References to various works (British and American), some of them with notes as to the time of their construction 
or destruction. 

The Original Drawing, ten feet by four feet, is on a scale of about six and a half inches to a mile. It is hand- 
somely reproduced for subscribers only, in careful facsimile on 24 sheets which can be joined up and mounted like the 
original as a Wall Map or mounted on linen if desired. It will be issued either mounted on linen to fold in book form 
with leather (slip) case, 13 x 10 inches, or the 24 sheets (22 x 15 inches each), will be supplied in a portfolio. 

No more than 100 copies have been printed and the engravings were erased as each sheet was printed off. 

A few extra copies of sheet 8 have been printed so that it can be sent as a specimen on application from intending 

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Mounted on linen to fold in book form with leather (slip) case. . . $30 net. 
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The above prices include delivery to any Public Library or Institute in the United State* or Canada, but prlvtlt 
subscriber* must also pay the duty. 

B. F. STEVENS & BROWN, 4 Trafalgar Square, Charing Cross, London, W. C. 

New York Agency, 45 William Street. 

January, 1902] THE LIBRARY JOURNAL. 55 

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56 THE LIBRARY JOURNAL. [January, iya 


The Cumulated Annual 

American Catalogue 

including in one alphabet the short title lists of the books of 1900 and 1901, giving 
the information by author, title, subject and series. This work is a successor to the 
" Annual American Catalogue," and the cumulation here begun is to continue 
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The Annual Literary Index, 1901 

Including Periodicals, American and English; Essays, Book-Chapters, etc.; with 
Author-Index, Bibliographies, Necrology, and Index to Dates of Principal 
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published in 1901 ; (3) An author-index, both to periodical articles and to book-chapters ; (4) A 
list of bibliographies issued in 1901 ; (5) A necrology of authors for 1901, extremely useful to 
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One vol., cloth, similar to "Poole's Index" and the "A. L. A. Index," $3.50, net 

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January, 1902] THE LIBRARY JOURNAL. 57 


Library Department. 

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Feuchtwanger's Popular Treatise on Gems. 

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Executive Journal of the Senate. 1789-1867. 
State Papers, Foreign Relations, v. 4. 
Markham's Letters of Vespucius. 
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Monist, Oct., 1897. 

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ences given. Address Miss A., care of LIBRARY 


'"THE recent installation of a fire-proof book stack 
* in the new book room of the Free Public Li- 
brary of Watertown, Mass., has released quite a 
number of fair wooden book shelves which we are 
willing to give, or nearly give, to some less fortunate 
library. S. F. WHITNEY, Librarian, 

Watertown Free Public Library. 

January, 1902] 




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[January, 1902 

Life of Pasteur 


Translated from the French by Mrs, R. L. Devonshire 

"The real story of Pasteur's life is the story of his successive scientific achievements, 
and it would be difficult to assign too much praise for the fashion in which Monsieur 
Vallery-Radot has written of these. . . . The reader of these pages, even if he begin with 
no scientific knowledge, will gain a clear understanding of many of the most complicated 
of modern scientific problems, and he will have the dramatic interest in learning of them 
in the order of their development." London Saturday Review. 

2 volt., cloth, 8z>*, 

Per set, net, $7.50; postpaid, $7.90 

Seen in 

should be in every public 
library, no matter how 
small." Era. 

Illustrated by George Varian 




Net, |2.00; postpaid, $2.15 

Songs of Nature 


"A decided addition to any library." 

Philadelphia Enquirer. 


Anna Karenin 

Translated by MRS. GARNETT 

A new and beautiful edition ; the most competent 
translation ever made of COUNT TOLSTOI'S master- 

2 vols. , Bvo Per set, net, $4.00; postpaid, $4.40 

years in Tub lie 

Reminiscences of GEORGE S. BOUTWELL, 
Grant's Secretary of the Treasury 

An important contribution to the personal side of current political history 
In preparation 2 vols., about $5.00 

Animals of the Past 


Curattr, Division of Comparative Anatomy, U. S. National Museum 

Life Records of the Monsters of Other Ages, as Fascinating in Style 
and Treatment as they are Valuable in Scientific Lore 

" The wonderful thing is that Mr. Lucas' volume has not a dull page in it. There is 
many a book on animals of the present that is less alive than this on animals of the past." 
N. Y. Evening Sun. 

Cloth, I2mo Net, $2.OO ; postpaid, $2.15 






Xibrarp jeconomp ant) Biblioara^ 


VOL. 27. No. 2. 

FEBRUARY, 1902. 

_ rAUt 

BRARY. Frontispiece. 

Boston-Magnolia Conference of the A. L. A. 

Library Consolidation in Brooklyn. 

Library Buildings. 

jVn Index_ to Recitations. Lucy Madeira. 

Th Classification of Music. L'. JR. Lewis. 

The Indication of Various Editions on the 
Shel-" 58 - Mary W. Plummer. 


Clara. W. H* w * <S 

RY CLUB? Juul Dieserud .72 







M. Leeper. 79 

trated.) W. 2. Eastman 80 












Boston and Magnolia Conference. 
Committee Appointment. 




New Hampshire. 


District of Columbia. 

Li2KAK ^LCut. , . . . . .88 


Bibliographical Society of Chicago. 


Long Island. 


Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh. 


New York. 


Chicago Library Club List of Serials. 












Price tf Europe, r other ctuntriet in the Union, sot. fer annum ; tinflf numbers, as. 
Entered at the Post-Office at New York, N. Y., as second-class matter. 

62 THE LIBRARY JOURNAL. [February, 1902 


London Agency for American Libraries 


Special Notice to Librarians. 

nessrs. E. Q. ALLEN & MURRAY desire to lay before you the 
advantages of this Agency for obtaining English and Foreign Books, 
Magazines, Periodicals, etc., and for General Library Work in Great 

Early Issues of Catalogues of Second-hand Books from all the Stock- 
keeping Booksellers in the Kingdom. 

Catalogues of Publishers, New Books, Government Publication ,, Blue 
Books, Patents, Ordnance Maps, etc. 

Advance Auction Catalogues promptly mailed thus providing early 
opportunities tor securing Good and Choi * wks at TP/rferate rates. 

All Important Books Collated Before Delivery. 

Defects of Rare Books Reproduced in Facsimile. 

Continuations of Scientific Serials carefully noted and forwarded 
promptly on publication. 

Should you desire an efficient London Agency of long and extensive 
experience in exclusively Library Work, Messrs. E. G. ALLEN & MURRAY 
will be pleased to answer any questions, feeling confident that the 
thorough equipment of their establishment will enable them to meet 
every library requirement in a satisfactory manner. 

References permitted to first-class libraries. 
Special terms for large orders. 


[From THE LIBRARY JOURNAL, February, 1902.] 

W. R. Eastman in Report of New York Home Education Department for 1901. 

THE rapid growth of a public library re- 
quires liberal provision for the future. The 
number of volumes and the annual increase 
for not less than 20 years should be carefully 
estimated and room provided. 

In general, the library building should have 
in front, two ample reading rooms with a 
wide passage between. If stairs are needed, 
they can be arranged in a porch projecting 
somewhat to the front. 

The central passage should end in a book 
room wide enough to overlap both reading 
rooms and having direct access to each. A 

continue to the rear line without break and 
thus secure the utmost economy of construc- 
tion. The ceiling of the book room should 
be high enough (at least 14 feet) to give 
room for two stories of bookcases when 
needed. It is desirable also to have the use 
of a dry basement under the book room with 
direct stairway between to hold the overflow 
of books not in much demand. This will be 
a great relief from overcrowding and with 
the available space above the main floor will 
give the practical advantages of a stack of 
three stories. 

Suggested plan for small library building. 

delivery desk may be at the end of the cen- 
tral passage with a narrow gate on each side 
of it, one for entrance, the other for exit, if 
public access to shelves is to be allowed as in 
most cases. 

The size of the book room will depend on 
the estimated number of books. If the walls 
are insufficient for the needed shelves, a few 
double-faced bookcases may be placed on the 
floor five feet apart, ranging from front to 
rear. An open space behind these cases, with 
small tables set between the rear windows 
will give a convenient place for study or 

Shelves should be placed on all available 
walls in the reading rooms. 

Instead of placing partitions between the 
rooms the entire floor may be in one room 
divided into departments by double-faced 
bookcases, varying from four to eight feet 
in height according as it is desired to retain 
or to cut off the view, for the sake of appear- 
ance or supervision. This will give a great 
advantage of light with possibly some slight 
liability to disturbance. 

Bookcases so placed can be moved as ex- 
perience may indicate to meet varying condi- 







-,^ H< 

111 a 







VOL. 27. 

FEBRUARY, 1902. 

No. 2 

PLANS for the next annual meeting of the 
American Library Association are now taking 
definite shape, and all indications point to a 
large and profitable conference at Magnolia 
in June. In point of attendance it is likely 
that all previous records will be broken, for 
the meeting-place is practically in the library 
center of the east, and the opportunities it 
affords of visiting the libraries of Boston, 
Cambridge and the nearby cities are especial- 
ly attractive. Three entire days will be given 
to such visiting, followed by four days of 
business sessions at Magnolia, one of the most 
delightful of the New England coast resorts. 
The constantly increasing size of these year- 
ly gatherings and the great variety of inter- 
ests represented have of recent years made 
the question of program a difficult one. Its 
only practical solution, though in some re- 
spects unsatisfactory, seems to lie in the 
splitting up of sessions into section and group 
meetings, and this year again matters of cata- 
loging and bibliography, activities of state 
commissions and state associations, the work 
of children's librarians, of reference, college, 
and state librarians, and of trustees, will have 
individual presentation. As we have often 
said, it should be a matter of ordinary busi- 
ness policy on the part of trustees to ensure 
the attendance of their librarians at these 
meetings and it may almost be said that 
the smaller the library and the more limited 
its apparent field, the more essential is this 
policy. It is to be hoped that the present con- 
ference may be especially representative of 
public libraries in the smaller towns and cities, 
not only from the east, but from north and 
west and south as well. 

BROOKLYN has followed in the footsteps of 
New York in providing a great reference li- 
brary as the hub of its free library system. 
The transfer to the city by the trustees of the 
Brooklyn Library of their immense collection 
and the building which contains it is an event 
of the first importance in the present day of 
the co-ordination of library facilities. It is 
a consummation that has long been devoutly 
wished by those interested in the provision 

of proper library facilities for Brooklyn, and 
it is especially gratifying that it has been ef- 
fected so easily and on such perfectly proper 
and reasonable conditions. There seems no 
doubt that the consolidation will be carried 
through promptly, and in a month or two 
Brooklyn should have ample material for t..e 
complete library system that it so much needs. 
The Brooklyn Library collection gives the 
basis for a fine reference foundation, its build- 
ing is centrally placed and it has been for 
years one of the familiar institutions of the 
city. There remains the need of a fine cen- 
tral building, adequate for the demands of a 
great city, but where so much is already as- 
sured this does not seem unattainable. With 
such a central building, and with the system 
of branch libraries already outlined and for 
which Mr. Carnegie's generosity has ensured 
suitable buildings, Brooklyn will at last take 
its proper place among the cities of its rank 
in its facilities for public education. 

LIBRARY buildings are the order of the day 
just at present, and are likely to remain so 
for some time to come. With all that has 
been written upon the subject, and with object 
lessons of what to do and what to avoid in 
many towns and cities, there remains a sur- 
prising fund of ignorance of the first essen- 
tials of buildings suited to the needs of a 
small city, easy of administration, and capa- 
ble of later extension. Boards of trustees 
and local architects too often feel that a li- 
brary building should be composed of an im- 
posing entrance, a rotunda and a dome, with 
Corinthian pillars and a few "literary" in- 
scriptions, and the librarian finds it no easy 
task to urge the claims of books and readers. 
The issue by the A. L. A. Publishing Board 
of a short practical "tract" upon library build- 
ings comes, therefore, at a timely moment. 
The little pamphlet has been prepared by Mr. 
Soule, and is especially intended for trustees 
and librarians of the smaller cities. It should 
prove of real usefulness, and it is to be hoped 
that it may be followed by a later supplement 
covering a broader phase of this important 

6 4 


[February, 1902 



IN answer to the communication of H. F. 
Woods, which appeared in the LIBRARY JOUR- 
NAL for November, 1901, I wish to say that a 
bibliography of poetry suitable for recitations 
is being compiled by a committee of the 
Washington Branch of the Association of 
Collegiate Alumnae. This committee, consist- 
ing of 12 members, has been at work since 
February, 1901, and hopes to complete the list 
not later than October, 1902. 

The list, which is compiled from the works 
of the best poets, dating from the Elizabeth- 
ans, is supposed to contain poems and selec- 
tions from poems suitable to be committed to 
memory By children between the ages of five 
and 14. The committee has chosen poems 
suitable not only for declamation, or reci- 
tation, but also for use in small classes or 
in the home. The choice has been broad, the 
committee thinking that in such a selection the 
sin of commission is preferable to that of 
omission. In making selections we have kept 
in mind always melody and rhythm. 

The object of the bibliography is to give to 
parents and teachers a guide to assist them in 
choosing for a child who is to be called upon 
to commit a "piece" to memory, something of 
literary value, something worthy to be learned 
by heart, not by rote a notable distinction of 
phrase made by Miss Katherine Lee Bates. 

The list under authors will be supple- 
mented by a subject index of the poems. 

LUCY MADEIRA, Secretary of Committee. 
Washington, D. C. ) 


THE publication of Mr. Qarence W. Ayer's 
thoughtful comments and careful classifica- 
tion, in your January number, prompts me 
to make a suggestion which I took the liberty 
of making to the Harvard authorities at the 
time when their classification was undertaken. 
Mature reflection has made me only the more 
convinced that, in what would appear to be a 
minor detail, the Harvard classification other- 
wise admirable, is distinctly unpractical. I 
refer to the "arrangements" of musical works. 

In my opinion, no arrangement of any work 
should be shelved by the side of the original. 
Only rarely does an individual who is look- 
ing tor the arrangement of a work have any 
desire to see the original. Arrangements are 
of very diverse nature, from the authorized 
reduction of a score, to the distortion of the 
original for flute and piano (or reed organ). 
A string quartet arrangement of a slow move- 
ment of a Beethoven symphony or sonata is 
probably a pot-boiler by some hack-writer, 
and belongs in some locality remote from the 

But it is not wholly, nor, indeed, chiefly, 
the sentimental reason which is here potent. 
Shelf classification is, I take it, not solely for 

the expert, but also for those who, for any 
reason, are admitted to the stack. It should 
also seek to minimize errors on the part of the 
(generally musically uneducated) messengers. 
The expert certainly does not want to be 
bothered by the presence of arrangements. 
The less advanced student generally seeks the 
arrangement only, and the messenger often 
gets the wrong volume or reports "out" be- 
cause there is a bit of illegibility in the slip, 
or because the messenger who last returned 
the volume misplaced it on the same shelf. 

But, without endeavoring to exhaust the 
subject, let me merely state my opinion, based 
on rather extended use of musical collections, 
that the shelf-classification which combines 
arrangements with originals is essentially 
vicious. Whether this is merely the least of 
several evils I leave the library experts to de- 
cide. I cannot help believing that a classifi- 
cation of arrangements under the headings 
"Voice and piano," "Piano, four hands," "Pi- 
ano, two hands," "Two pianos, eight hands," 
"String quartet," "Two mandolins and gui- 
tar," etc., is the desirable thing. 

Mass. f 


IT is just possible that libraries employing 
the same system of book numbering as that 
used by the Pratt Institute Free Library may 
have suffered the same inconvenience in one 
respect, and may be glad to know how we 
have overcome the difficulty. Different edi- 
tions of the same novel more especially 
novels published sometimes separately and 
sometimes bound with others by the same 
author have, of course, had to have a differ- 
ent book number, which has resulted in their 
being separated on the shelves. The book 
being called for by one of its numbers, and 
found not in, there has been no indication as 
to the book number or whereabouts of other 
editions, except by a second or third resort 
to the catalog. The borrower does not always 
know enough of the system used to do this, 
and the assistant in busy hours has not time 
to look up the other numbers. 

It is now proposed that a special dummy be 
made, somewhat thicker than the others and 
painted a light shade of green or blue, to 
stand next to the copy of one edition, indicat- 
ing where copies of other editions may be 
found. The lettering on the back of these 
dummies would be as follows : 

Call-number of copy first received and first 

Author and brief title. 

In succession below, call-numbers of other 

This device, proposed by one of the staff, 
will, it seems to us, do away with our diffi- 
culty. MARY W. PLUMMER. 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 

February, 1902] 


BY CLARA WHITEHILL HUNT, Children's Librarian, Newark (N. /.) Free Public Library. 

ALL librarians who have had experience in 
supplying the wants of boys and girls, are 
familiar with the requests "Please give me a 
good Indian story," "Have you any stories of 
the Crusades or Chivalry?" "We are studying 
about the Norman Conquest, and the teacher 
wants us to read some stories of that period." 
Teachers come to the librarian asking for 
animal stories or fiction relating to children 
of other countries; fairy tales are perennially 
in demand. Having felt the need of some 
means of getting at the fiction illustrating cer- 
tain often-called-for subjects more quickly 
than by searching from A to Z on the fiction 
shelves, it was decided by the Newark Free 
Public Library that before opening the new 
children's room, the juvenile story books 
worthy of such treatment should be so clas- 
sified that any person desiring material on the 
Civil War, or the Navy, or the French Revo- 
lution, might find by the side of the serious 
books of information on these subjects such 
good stories as would add to the child's in- 
terest in those lines. 

This step was decided upon for a number of 
reasons. In the first place, with a few excep- 
tions, children were more apt to ask for sto- 
ries by subject than by author. To give what 
was asked for quickly one must either know 
the books more thoroughly and have a mem- 
ory trained to respond more quickly than the 
average library attendant, or else one must 
have classified lists ready at hand. To con- 
sult such lists and hunt up the numbers takes 
time, and it is impossible to keep a printed 
list up to date. Again, the dividing line in 
books for children between fact in story form 
and real information books is so narrow that 
it is often a puzzle to the classifier to know 
where to place them. Much of the best in- 
formation is given in what must be classed as 
fiction, thus what would be valuable help in 
study is lost sight of. Further, in an open 
shelf room it is desirable in every way to 
help the people to help themselves, and this 
is particularly true in the children's depart- 
ment where practically all the work with the 
boys and girls is done between the hours of 
four and six on school days, and no library 

is so rich as to be able to provide attendants 
enough for answering every timid request of 
every child. 

Upon thinking over this matter with de- 
liberation we decided to classify our juvenile 
fiction, and having worked out a scheme 
which, after nine months of use we can pro- 
nounce entirely successful, it was thought 
that other children's librarians might be in- 
terested in hearing of the method. 

For months before the children's room was 
opened, while doing her regular work at the 
bureau of information, the future children's 
librarian took for her "knitting work" the 
examination of all juvenile books in the li- 
brary. First a shelf list on slips the size of 
the ordinary catalog card was made. Little 
by little each book was gone over more or 
less thoroughly. On each slip was entered 
the catalog form of author's name, full title, 
place, publisher and date of publication, with 
a note describing the book its literary merit, 
subject, scope, to what age adapted, etc. If 
the book seemed likely to be a useful addi- 
tion to the child's information on any sub- 
ject, the class number of that subject was 
written in red ink below the call number of 
the book, for future use. 

Having decided to place stories of the 
Civil War next to the histories of that strug- 
gle, the problem was how to mark the books 
so that they would be returned to such shelves, 
without really changing the class numbers, 
since it would be manifestly unfair to mark 
"Two little Confederates" with 973.7 and get 
the credit for circulating a larger "hundreds" 
per cent, than was actually the case ! Also 
if the books were really to be classified anew, 
it would mean changing the numbers on hun- 
dreds of shelf and catalog cards, a piece of 
work too stupendous to be contemplated. 

The first point was then, to mark the back 
label so that the book would stay on the 973.7 
shelf. But back labels slip off and become 
dirty, therefore the class number should ap- 
pear in some safe place within the book. The 
book plate was naturally best for this per- 
manent record. Next it was reasoned that, 
as the persons marking back labels usually 



[February, 1902 

did so from the book slip in the back and not 
from the book plate in front, this number 
must also be written on the book slip; and 
as this new number was to be merely a shelf 
direction and not an actual classification, it 
was to be always in red ink. Below may be 
seen a sample of book plate, book slip and 
back label of "Two little Confederates:" 

Book plate. 

[Form A. C. D.] 





Book slip. 


[Form B. C. D.] 

P 141 



P 141 


It will be noticed that the red ink number 
on the book slip is placed over the class and 
book numbers. In arranging and counting 
slips for each day's circulation this number 
is entirely ignored. On the back label the 
red ink number is below the book number, 
the reverse of our plan of marking in case of 
a real classification. This is done that no 
mistake be made in claiming the story as 
equal with history. 

So much for records on the book itself. 

Next it must be made easy for all atten- 
dants to find any book whether asked for by 
author, title or call number. The new num- 
ber must therefore appear on all catalog cards 
and on the shelf list. Following the plan of 
calling the red number a subject reference 
only, it is placed below the real call number. 
A sample of catalog and shelf cards is given : 

Title card. 

Two little Confederates. 
Pi4i Page, T. N. 

Author card. 
Page, T. N. 
Pi4i Two little Confederates. 


Shelf card. 
Page, T. N. 
Pi4i Two little Confederates. 



It was known in advance that when moving 
time came the juvenile books were to be 
renovated and put in thorough repair. This 
would give the opportunity for collecting and 
marking all books which were to have the 
"subject reference." In order to be able, 
when that time came, to gather such books 
quickly, the children's librarian, at the time 
of examining each story and writing its sub- 
ject reference on her shelf slip, also made two 
call slips (long, thin strips of paper) marked 

P 141 



When we were ready to begin work when 
the movers had deposited our children's books 
on the shelves in the beautiful new room, 
and the shining tables soon to be surrounded 
by eager j'oungsters were temporarily filled 
with books to be repaired, books to be marked, 
books to be covered, books to be discarded, 
new books to be accessioned, shelf-listed, etc., 
the room became a hive of busy workers. 
One of the messengers, taking a bunch of 
call slips referred to above, collected the sto- 
ries to be classified. Placing the call slip 
with its subject reference in the title-page of 
the book, they were soon separated from 
other books of fiction and ready for marking. 
Opening day saw Kirkland's "History of Eng- 
land," Bennett's "Master Skylark," Henty's 
"Wulf the Saxon," Church's "Stories from 
English history," Pyle's "Men of iron," etc., 
hobnobbing together on the 942 shelf as if 
they knew they belonged in the same neigh- 

To be perfectly candid, and to help others 
who may desire to adopt this scheme I must 
tell of a few difficulties we experienced in the 
beginning and how we disposed of them. 

When the children came to the library in 
person and made their own selections, there 
were no difficulties. But when call slips 
came in through the delivery stations with a 
long list of H39's (which few librarians need 
to be told are the Henty numbers), our mes- 
sengers were obliged to refer to the slips 
bearing reference numbers to know where 
H39S7, H3966, etc., were shelved. This took 
a good deal of time at first, but we soon saw 
a way out of the difficulty. Having no printed 
juvenile catalog we were about to issue a 
double number of our Library News contain- 
ing a fairly complete author list of books in 
the children's department. In this list we 
gave the new numbers thus : 

Goss, W. L. Jed. 0692(973.7) 

Thackeray, W. M. The rose and 

the ring. T322i(398) 

After the boys and girls had been provided 
with this number of the News, call slips came 
in through the stations so made out that books 
wherever shelved were quickly found. 

Another objectionable feature was that on 
books coming back from the bindery gilded 
with their library numbers only, we were 
obliged to paste a back label bearing the red 
ink reference number under the gilded num- 

ber. But this was such a waste of time that 
we soon had the binder gild the reference 
number also, in smaller type, underneath the 
fiction call number, thus : W 5 I 


Since these matters have been satisfactori- 
ly settled, the system has given no trouble 
whatever. I can truthfully say, and all who 
have helped in the children's room agree, 
that classifying the juvenile fiction has proved 
not only desirable but so indispensable that 
we should feel lost without it. The children 
"take to it" as naturally as ducks to water, 
and teachers apparently think there could be 
no other scheme of arranging our books. It 
is the quickest way of collecting all material 
in any line for immediate reference. You 
place the applicant before the shelves where 
her subject is represented and leave her to 
look them over at her leisure. There is no 
consulting of catalogs, sending messengers to 
hunt up a long list of numbers to bring the 
books together and later distribute them back 
to their shelf. This work is all done in ad- 
vance and the saving in time after the change 
has been made is great. 

It may be of interest to tell of some of our 
adaptations of the Decimal classification which 
would be diverting to Mr. Dewey, I have no 
doubt. For example it requires a stretch of 
the imagination to guess why "Robinson Cru- 
soe" and "Treasure Island" are classed in 
359, the number for histories of the navy. 
But the connection is obvious if you reason 
with the boy who classes together in his mind 
all books about adventure at sea, shipwrecks, 
desert islands, etc. So in our 359's we have 
Lossing's "History of the U. S. navy," Sea- 
well's "Little Jarvis," Alden's "Cruise of the 
Canoe Club," Munroe's "Dorymates," the two 
books above mentioned and others of their 
kind, and as the boys see no incongruity we 
are not concerned if classifiers do. 

In 398 we place all fairy tales, whether a 
book deserves the folk lore number or is 
merely a fanciful invention of a modern au- 
thor. Most animal stories except those on 
birds we put in 590, for in this fiction classi- 
fication we use only broad classes, not think- 
ing it worth while to carry it down to a very 
fine point. In the English history stories 
above mentioned "Wulf the Saxon," "Men of 
iron," and "Master Skylark" although relat- 
ing to the Saxon, Lancastrian and Tudor peri- 



{February, 1902 

ods respectively are placed in the general 500 

English history number 942 without any of 537 

its period subdivisions. 595-7 

When the new room opened we had taken 598.2 

about 450 story books off the fiction shelves 600 

and placed them with history, fairy tales, etc. 770 

As new books are added we treat them in the 820 
same way. 

Below is given a list of all the class num- 900 

bers we have used, with an example of stories 930 

so treated, excepting modern history, travel 932 

and biography, of which many examples will 933 

immediately occur to every librarian : 937 

353 Austin. Uncle Sam's secrets. 938 

Booth. Sleepy-time stories. 
Trowbridge. Electrical boy. 
Noel. Buz. 

Walsh. Young folks' ideas. 
Black. Captain Kodak. 
Richardson. Stories from old Eng- 
lish poetry. 

Andrews. Ten boys, etc. 
Stoddard. Swordmaker's son. 
Henty. Cat of Bubastes. 
Henty. For the temple. 
Church. Two thousand years ago. 
Church. Three Greek children. 


BY CHARLES A. CUTTER, Librarian Forbes Library, Northampton, Mass. 

Ax the last meeting of the Massachusetts 
Library Club, when Mr. Ayer described the 
Harvard music classification, I gave some 
reasons for thinking that the Forbes is better. 
In the January LIBRARY JOURNAL, p. 5-11. he 
published the Harvard scheme. The editor 
permits me to print here the class Music of the 
Expansive classification, and to briefly point 
out the differences between the two schemes. 

The Forbes plan is to an unusual extent the 
result of experiment. Owing to the fact that 
the music section has never been permanently 
classified we have been able in our first seven 
years to try different arrangements and make 
as extensive changes in them as we pleased 
without feeling that we were throwing away 
too much work. The Forbes collection is 
about two-fifths as large as that in Harvard 
College Library; and the circulation is large 
enough to give some weight to our experience. 

There are three chief peculiarities in the 
Harvard plan. First, under most subdivis- 
ions the books are arranged by accession num- 
bers, with no attempt at alphabetical order. 
Second, nevertheless, "important and grow- 
ing divisions are given alphabetical number- 
ing by the use of 26 running figures." That 
is to say, there is practically a return in the 
smaller sections to the discarded early prac- 
tice of the D. C. and for larger classes to the 
principle of Mr. Schwartz's order table com- 
posed of figures alone. About 1880, after 
converting this table to decimals, in order to 

allow of indefinite expansion, I tried it for a 
year at the Boston Athenaeum, and gave it up, 
constructing in its stead the table now gen- 
erally used in American libraries, in which 
the mark, beginning with the author's initial, 
has a meaning in the eyes of the public and 
is more helpful towards finding a desired 
book, and at the same time the capacity of 
the notation is more than doubled. 

The third characteristic is that all the 
scores of individual composers are arranged 
in one alphabet of composers and are not put 
in classes according to their musical form. 
This plan, too, we tried at the Forbes Library 
for three years, and the longer we tried it the 
less we liked it. Then we made an arrange- 
ment by forms and instruments, at first in 
very large divisions, then with gradually in- 
creasing frequency of subdivision; and the 
more we developed our scheme the better its 
practical working satisfied us. This, like the 
other, was under trial for three years and 
with unanimous approval of all concerned has 
now been definitely adopted. 

Still, it should be noted that there is not 
an irreconcilable difference between the two 
methods, since the Harvard subdivides the 
works under each composer by form and the 
Forbes subarranges the form sections by com- 
posers. Under either scheme by taking a lit- 
tle trouble you can get together all the works 
of any composer or all the pieces of any kind. 
If one piece only is wanted, we think it is 

February, 1902] 



found a little more easily by the composer or 
by the form in the Forbes than in the Har- 
vard plan. 

The main question is, however, Which do 
those who use the library and go to the 
shelves want first and want most? In the 
Forbes Library six years' experience, half 
with each arrangement, shows that our public 
ask for the forms much the more frequently. 
And it is not unfair to assume that this would 
be the case with many town libraries and 
some college libraries, for the Forbes enjoys 
the distinction of belonging to both classes. 

In one point the two plans radically differ. 
The Harvard puts individual biography and 
criticism with each composer's musical works. 
This is an attractive idea, but it has its prac- 
tical inconveniences. The lives and criticisms 
and analyses are usually small books, octavos 
and duodecimos; the music is mostly in large 
quarto or small folio. They do not go to- 
gether well on the shelf, and if the lives are 
separated from the musk and put on an up- 
per shelf they are, after all, not much more 
with each composer's works than if they were 
put alphabetically arranged by composers in a 
neighboring section. Besides which, keeping 
the biography with the works, though a tak- 
ing idea at first sight, is not really very de- 
sirable. The majority do not want a piece 
of music at the same time with the life of its 
composer, and it is only rarely that there 
would be any gain in having the two on the 
same shelf. It is enough that either of them 
can be instantaneously found when it is 

The last difference to note between the two 
schemes is in the notation; the one uses fig- 
ures, the other letters. There is not space 
here to discuss the question, nor would it be 
of much use. Those who like figures dislike 
letters, and those who like letters cannot 
imagine why the others prefer figures. At 
any rate it is certain that the letters give 
shorter marks, which those who use them 
find easier to remember. They also have a 
feeling that figures when not used decimally 
are sure in the end to have said of them what 
Mr. Ayer tells us of the "elaborate and in- 
genious system of fixed-shelf numbering" de- 
vised for the Harvard College Library by 
Justin Winsor, that it is "found to be inade- 
quate to the needs of large and rapidly in- 
creasing subdivisions of important groups,'' 

and has therefore been abandoned by the li- 

The following scheme is necessarily given 
in abridged form, and cannot be quite fairly 
judged without explanations and advice, 
which will be given when it is printed in full 
in the Expansive classification. 



Vv'2 Bibliography. 
Vv*s Dictionaries. 
Vv'7 Periodicals. 

The history of publishing societies 
comes here; but the works issued by 
them are distributed according to their 
contents; the history of performing so- 
cieties may be put here or locally in 


General and miscellaneous works. 

General specials, as Moral influence of 
music, Music and the state, Women in 
music, etc.. may be put in Vv or sep- 
arated as VvO, wit'h alphabetical subar- 



History and state of music (general) 

and Biography (general). 
Vvl"7 Yearbooks. 

History of music (kinds). 

VV!A History of music of particular kinds 
to and of music written for particu- 

Vvlz lar instruments and collective bi- 

ography of performers on partic- 
ular instruments. 

For example Win History of dance 
music, Vvlo History of operatic music 
and Lives of opera singers (Collections; 
single lives are in VvA-Vvz.) Vvip 
History of piano music and Lives of 
piano players (Collections.) 

The history or analysis of any one 
opera or any one pianoforte piece is 
best put (i) in VvA-Vvz, under the 
name of the composer; also the analy- 
sis of all the operas or sonatas, etc., 
of any one composer. 

History of music .(periods). 

Vvl2 Ancient history in general. 

Vvlsl Primitive and savage nations. 

Vvl232 Single ancient nations: Greek 1232, 

to Roman 1235, Hebrew 1261, Assy- 

Vvl27l rian 1263, Egyptian 1271. 

Vvl3 Modern history (the whole modern 


Vvl34 Mediaeval history. 

Vv3-35 Modern modern, i.e., late history. 

To be subdivided by musical periods. 

Mistory of music (countries). 

Vvl4 History and contemporary state of 

to music in particular countries. 

VvQQ . * n these divisions may be put collec- 

tive biography confined to one coun- 


[February, 1902 

try; but it will be more convenient with 
general collective biography in Vvl. 
Here will come, locally arranged, ac- 
counts of musical celebrations and fes- 
tivals; also programs. 

Biography (single). 

VVA Biography (Individual) ; also Crit- 
to icism and Analysis. 

Yv/. Includes the musician's letters and 

journals. Thematic catalogs may be 
put here with the composers' lives or 
in V'Y with the composers' musical 

Arrange alphabetically by persons 
(composers, performers, teachers, etc., 
in one alphabet.) 

In the order marks of the greater 
composers use only one figure, e.g., 
Bach Bl, Beethoven 63, Chopin C<t, 
Handel HI, Haydn Ha, Liszt 1.7, 
Mendelssohn MS, Mozart MS, Rossini 
R?, Schubert Sch7, Schumann SchS, 
Verdi Vs, Wagner Wl, Weber Wa. 
This will produce an occasional slight 
derangement of the alphabetical order, 
which can be avoided by giving to the 
less important composer a high num- 
ber from the preceding digit. For in- 
stance Mozart having occupied the 
mark M8 Moszkowski who comes also 
into the section MS could be marked 
M79&. In other words one establishes 
for composers a special order list with 
altered limits. 


VWA Musical acoustics. 

VWB Psychology of music. 

Vwc Musical esthetics. 

VWD How to hear, understand, enjoy mu- 

VWE Theory. 

VWF Nomenclature, Terms. 

VWG Notation and its history. 

Vwi Tonic sol fa notation. 

VWL Temperament. 

VWM Melody. 

Vwo Harmony and Thorobass. 

VWP Composition. 

VWQ Details, as Rhythm. 

VWR Form and special forms. 

Vws Counterpoint, Canon, Fugue. 

VWT Instrumentation, Orchestration. 

Vwu Instruments and Voice together. 

Oratorio, Opera, etc. Here will come 
Wagner's theories of operatic composi- 

Vwv Voice. 

Vww Musical analysis. 

General. The analysis of any one 
work goes under the composer in VVA- 


Vwx Instruction in general, Education, 

Training, Study. 

VWY Tonic sol fa method (or Vxvb). 
Vwz Music schools. 

With the local list. Might go in 

class I Education as IYW. 


Vx Instruments in general, the Orches- 

tra. .4 is not needed. 

VXA Single instruments, including the 
to Voice. 

Vxz This will include the history, descrip- 

tion, and representations of an instru- 
ment and its manufacture, tuning, etc.; 
also instruction on it (for which a or '1 
is to be added to the mark of the in- 
strument, e.g., Vxu Violin, VXOA In- 
struction in violin playing), also instruc- 
tion books without music; but instruc- 
tion books containing scores go in VY. 

I have drawn up an alphabetical list of 44 
instruments now in use and 10 classes of in- 
struments. 18 are marked with one letter, 
32 with two, three with three, one with four. 
These letters are to be added to Vx for the 
class Instruments and to VY for the class In- 
strumental and vocal music, e.g., Vxo Organ 
building, tuning, etc., VYP, Pianoforte music 
The classes are Ancient, Autoharp and the 
like, Brass, Mechanical, Organoid, Percussion, 
Plectral, String and bow, Wind, and Wood- 
wind. Single instruments of any class except 
Mechanical appear in their own place. Very 
few of the instruments at present unused 
will have either history or music in an or- 
dinary collection. Those which do can easily 
be inserted in their proper order. The di- 
visions under Voice are: 

Vxv Voice; physiology of the vocal or- 
gans and culture of the voice. 

With such exercise books as are con- 
fined to the development of the voice, 

VXVA Instruction in singing. 

Both single voice and classes. 
VXVB Tonic sol fa method .(or VWY). 
Vxvc Choir or chorus training. 



VY'g Collections of works by several com- 

But if any collection is confined to 
one instrument or one class of instru- 
ments (percussion, strings, wind, wood- 
wind) it goes in VZA-VZZ; if it falls 
entirely within any of the groups in 
VY it goes there. Often it will be found 
better to put a collection of several 
kinds of music under one of them, with 
dummy references from the others. 


VY Complete works of composers and 

partial collections of their works. 

But if either the partial or complete 
collection falls entirely into one class 
(as Opera or Organ) it will go with 
that class. 

The author-mark for the composers 
is the same as in Biography VvA-Vvz, 
the order-mark of the greater compos- 
ers having only one figure, as Bach 
Bl, Beethoven 63. 

The classifier can if he prefers ar- 
range all the works of composers here 
rather than in the classes VzA-Vzz, re- 
taining in those classes only collections 

February, 1902] 


Vvi 3 




of composers, but this is not recom- 
mended. He then should add to the 
author-mark the instrument mark (o 
Organ, p Piano, v Voice, etc.); and 
the group mark (YD Dance music, YO 
Opera, YOV Overture, etc.), e.g., VY.BSP 
Sonatas, VY.BSYO Opera; VY.I$3YS Sym- 
phonies. (Or Y may be omitted mak- 
ing a single alphabet.) The subarrange- 
ment may be made by opus number or 
by figures, i, 2, 3 as the sections will 
generally be so small that the suborder 
is unimportant. 

To YO the initial of the best known 
name of the opera should be added, e.g. 

VY.BSYOP or W.M8OF Fidelio. 

Vy.MSYOD or Vv.MSoD Don Giovanni. 


Vv Concerted music, excepting that for 

classes of instruments (Brass 
band, Percussion, Stringed, Wind, 
Wood-wind), that designed for 
one instrument chiefly (as Piano- 
concertos), and the following 


National music, Folk songs. 

As VY36 Italian, VY39 French, VY47 

This mark is for arrangements for 
the piano or for piano and voice; mark 
those for any other instrument by ad_d- 
ing its mark to the number, as for vio- 
lin VY39U. 

Chamber music (not solo). 

May have subclasses, as VYCQ Quar- 
tettes, VYCQU (or VYCR) Quintettes. 

Each library must choose whether or 
not to put purely string quartettes, quin- 
tettes, etc., here or in Vzs (strings), 
piano concertos here or in VZQ, music 
for the wood-wind instruments here or 
in Vzwo. I prefer to use VZQ, Vzs, 
and Vzwo, confining VYC to collections 
of music for several combinations of 
instruments and to single pieces which 
do not come under either of those 
classes. Solos at any rate are not to 
be put here. 

VYD Dance music. 

This need not include the concert 
pieces but may be confined to the prac- 
tical dance music. 

With subclasses, as VYDMI Minuets, 

Dance music for a single instrument 
will be most useful with the instrument 
in Vz; to distinguish it D may be added 
to the mark, as VZPD Dance music for 
the piano. 

VYM Military music (concerted). 

VYE Operas. 

Whether full-score, piano and voice, 
or voice with any other instrument; 
also collected selections for instruments 
and voice. Single solos, duets, trios, 
and choruses, however, go in Vzv with- 
out regard to their origin. 

But both complete and partial ar- 
rangements for instruments without the 
vocal parts will be most useful under 
the instrument. Add o to its mark, as 
Vzpo.MSn a piano arrangement of Don 

VYOC Cantatas, etc. 
VYOK Song cycles. 

VYOL Librettos for operas, cantatas, and 
song cycles. 

Strictly a libretto solo belongs in 
Literature Y[language mark]o but they 





are more useful here. They will usually 
be separated from the operas by their 


Religious music (concerted). 

With divisions, as VYRA Anthems, 
chorals, choruses, etc. VYRC Cathedral 
services not otherwise marked. VYRH 
Hymns and psalms; VYRM Masses; 
VYRO Oratorios; VYRP Sacred cantatas; 
VYRR Requiem masses; VYRS Special 
days and occasions; VYRSU Sunday- 
school; VYRT Te Deums. 

Children's symphonies. 


Music for single instruments or for 
classes of instruments. 

Arranged alphabetically with the 
same marks for the instruments as in 














__ , a few needing special re- 
mark are given here. 

Orchestral music. See Concerted 
music VY. 

I.e., collections of pieces for the or- 
chestra and single pieces for the or- 
chestra (such as Fantasias, Nocturnes, 
Suites, etc.) not coming into the 
classes National, Dance, Military, Over- 
tures, Religious, Symphonies. 


A large collection might be divided 
by forms. 

Transcriptions for the organ can be 
kept separately, marked Vzos, and a 
large collection might be divided, as 
Vzosov Overtures, Vzoss Symphonies. 

Organ with other instruments, or- 
gan concertos. 
May have divisions, as VZOTP Organ 

and piano. 

Piano: instruction books containing 

Easy music for the piano; music 
for beginners. 

The same notation may be used with 
any instrument. 

Piano solo, 2 hands. 
" " 4 " 
" 6 " 

4 on 2 pianos. 

" 8 on 2 pianos. 

Piano arrangements of dance music 
Other kinds may follow in alphabeti- 
cal order. 

Piano with other instruments. 

piano concertos. 

May have special divisions, as VZQH 
Piano and harp, and so on. 


Violin and other instruments. 

Except Violin and organ (Vzoso) and 
Violin and piano (Vzgu). 

Violoncello and other instruments. 
Voice (collections of songs). 

I.e., songs with or without accom- 

_ Vzv is for books containing collec- 
tions of four part songs, trios, duets, 
and solos, or any two of these classes. 
Single solos and collections of solos go 
in Vzvs. 


[February, 1902 

Special song collections. 

VZVCK Kindergarten. 
VZVCP Patriotic, Political, War songs. 
VZVCN Negro, coon, negro-minstrel songs, 
and so on. 

Number of voices. 



Both single duets and collections. 

In a large library the voices should 
be marked either s for soprano, ms for 
mezzo soprano, c for contralto, t for 
tenor, ba for baritone, b for bass, or by 
a shorter notation a, b, c, etc. 

Vzvoa or VZVD sc Soprano and contralto. 

Vzvob or VZVD st Soprano and tenor. 

VZVDC or VZVD tb Tenor and bass. 

This marking applies both to single 
duets and to collections of duets for a 
single combination. Collections of duets 
for several combinations are VYVD. 

To separate religious from secular 
duets add Y to VZVD and add to this a, 
b, etc., for the voices, e.g., VZVDYC a 
religious duet for tenor and bass. 

VZVF Four part songs (mixed voices). 

Both single songs and collections. 

VZVFF Female voices. 
VZVFM Male voices. 

Religious four-part songs, if separ- 
ated from secular go with Anthems in 

Vzvs Solos. 

Both single songs and collections. 
Mark the voices. 

VZVT Trios .(mixed voices). 

Both single trios and collections. 
Mark the voices. 

VZVTF Female voices (s., ms., and c.) 

VZVTM Male voices (t., ba., and b.) 

Separate religious trios, if desired, 
as religious duets are separated. 

In the music for two or three instru- 
ments as Organ and violin, Piano and 
'cello it will sometimes not be easy to 
determine which instrument takes the 
lead; but the title will usually give an 
indication of the composer's thought. 
In doubtful cases a dummy will prevent 
serious inconvenience. 

It will be seen that I have put in a few well 
marked main divisions a large number of al- 
phabetical subdivisions, an arrangement which 
without excessive elaboration of marks pro- 
vides the very minute classing which a large 
collection needs if every distinct kind of 
music is to be found readily. 

In a few places only there is sub-subdivision : 
under Voice for the special voices, which is 
absolutely necessary, and for different classes 
of collected songs, which is desirable where 
there are many; under Dance music for the 
different dances, and under Religious music 
for the different services. Those who object 
to such grouping can easily distribute these 
subdivisions in the general alphabet. 

It would be possible also to combine the 
alphabet of music for single instruments and 
the alphabet of forms and groups of music 
into a single order under VY; in this case 
the marks would occasionally have to be a 
little longer. 


BY JUUL DIESERUD, Library of Congress, Washington, D. C. 

THE question has been raised whether a 
library club should confine its activity to the 
consideration of the various phases of library 
work in its narrowest sense, or whether it is 
justified in setting aside part of the available 
time for literary and esthetic papers, and I 
beg to offer a few remarks in this connection. 
In the first place it seems to me that a local 
library club or association cannot be compared 
with the A. L. A. or with scientific, technical 
or trade associations. We all agree that a 
literary paper would be entirely out of place 
in the regular meeting of a society of civil 
engineers, of American entomologists, or, say, 
a bricklayer's union. But not so in a local 
library club. The time has not long gone by 

* Remarks made before the District of Columbia 
Library Association, Jan. 8, 1902. 

when the librarian was himself an active 
worker in some field of literature and science 
and it is even at this day eminently his busi- 
ness to be in especial touch with the esthetic 
movements of his age, since the great majori- 
ty of readers still seek most of their mental 
nourishment in the dramas, novels, poetry, 
popular philosophical essays and other lighter 
branches of literature. I do not in fact see 
why it should not be entirely proper for a 
society of librarians to slate a paper on say 
Tolstoy, or the modern German drama, or 
the Victorian poets, or on the so-called de- 
cadent movement in France. And I would 
even say that a subject like Heinrich Heine, 
a couple of years ago ably treated by a mem- 
ber of the Chicago Library Club, was not 
entirely out of place, although in such a case 

February, 1902] 



the probability would be that any one could 
read the same thing just as easily in one of 
the score or so of well-written biographies 
on the subject. As a rule literary papers 
should be limited to more modern times and 
to persons and subjects around which interest 
is still centered and where the librarian, al- 
ways busy with the daily routine of his pro- 
fession, cannot possibly get time to form a 
well-defined opinion from his own reading 
except in a very limited number of cases. 
And it goes without saying that the person 
offering a paper should select a subject 
upon which for some special reason he is able 
to give more than a rehash of what is availa- 
ble in magazines and books already issued, 
and that the program committee should not be 
bound to accept anything offered by any mem- 
ber not so qualified. As a matter of course a 
few of the most reliable books and articles on 
the subject should be mentioned by way of 

It is, I believe, a tenet in philosophy and 
one of the facts of common experience, that 
the useful defeats its own end when it be- 
comes so tedious that nobody cares to use 
it. This law to some extent applies to the 
library clubs of the present day; for they are 
too often of late acknowledged to be almost 
proverbially dull and tedious. We are, most 
of us, week out and week in, working and talk- 
ing and dreaming on catalog cards and au- 
thors' first names, and catchword titles and 
reference books, and economy here and econo- 
my there, and yet very few of us have reached 
that goal of librarianship of becoming a hu- 
man index to the books that other people 
have written and to the thoughts that other 
brains have evolved. We are still beings 
with a few human interests and ideas which 
we would like to exchange with our fellow- 
workers. And we do not see any harm in 
devoting even a good sized fraction of the 
time available in our trade meetings to such 
interests and to the pleasant feeling that we 
also might be capable of producing thoughts 
and expressing ideas to be indexed and cata- 
loged, and who knows even biblio- 
graphico-scientifically described by others. 
And if this can serve to add to the interest 
taken in the meetings of the club, to swell 
the audience and to stimulate the activity of 
the members, there seems no reason why such 
a plan should not be carried out. 

As oral discussions notoriously as a rule 

lead nowhere and convince nobody, I think 
that an ideal program for the ordinary meet- 
ings of a local library club would be one lit- 
erary paper and one paper on library economy, 
cataloging, reference work, or bibliography, 
each occupying from half an hour to three- 
quarters of an hour with an occasional even- 
ing devoted to the reading and discussion of 
a single paper. 

While, therefore, a library club is essen- 
tially a professional affair, where subjects 
treating of library economy, bibliography, ref- 
erence work and cataloging should be liberally 
represented, I would lay stress on the fact 
that the papers read and the oral discussions 
arising in a single society are rather unim- 
portant in relation to the library movement 
as a whole, in comparison with the proceed- 
ings of the A. L. A. and the discussions in 
the organs of the craft. And to those who 
offer us only papers on the best means of 
luring children away from their sports and 
studies, or on plans for park libraries, or on 
impossible labor-saving devices in the line of 
the Rudolph indexer, I would not hesitate in 
certain emergencies to apply a modification 
of the famous saying of Omar : "If your paper 
is worth something it will find its way into 
the LIBRARY JOURNAL; if not, burn it, for it is 
then probably not worth hearing." 

I am confident that the world will not fail 
to turn on its hinges, even if the library clubs 
scattered over the country once in a while 
put aside that painstaking and eminently 
tedious sense of being in duty bound for the 
benefit of mankind to rehash each season a 
certain number of shopworn subjects pertain- 
ing to library work in its narrowest sense. 
And the danger is probably not great that the 
program committees would be so overrun by 
interesting literary papers, that the majority 
of the hours available during the years could 
not be devoted to our more special profes- 
sional interests. 

We of course keep up these societies and 
meet several times a year with the ambitious 
hope that we are contributing some little to 
the general advance of the library cause, but 
we most assuredly also meet in the legitimate 
egotistic hope that we may personally derive 
some pleasure and inspiration from such in- 
tercourse with our fellow-workers; and I be- 
lieve the time has come for the latter feature 
to assume a more prominent part than has 
heretofore been the case. 



[February, 1902 


IN consequence of the entirely different 
features set forth in describing a map, and 
to save time in writing certain words which 
always recur, and also to ensure that every 
fact recorded by these words shall occupy the 
same position and thus facilitate reference, it 
was decided that cards for the card catalog 
of maps in the Lenox Library should be 
printed, only leaving the varying blanks to be 
filled in by the writer. 

The cards are regular standard size, the 
following data being printed in the lower half, 
in the order shown : 

Place and publisher: Date: 

Si*t within border: Scale: 

Engraved plain or col. 


Space must be left at the top for the subject 
or name of place to be entered in pencil, and 
the actual title must then be written as in 
regular book cataloging, or made up if neces- 
sary within the usual [ ]. In many cases, 

the data to be transcribed are extremely ver- 
bose, and particularly in old maps include 
lengthy dedications. These latter are scarcely 
ever recorded, unless a very rare and valuable 
map is noticed, when every fact or indication 
of peculiarity can be noted. In those excep- 
tional cases where the printed card does not 
allow sufficient space for all the description 
considered necessary, one or more unprinted 
cards can be used at discretion; in such cases 
I have always named the subject in pencil on 
each, but left the first line blank, and added 
both the total number of cards, e.g., (4), on 
the extreme bottom right hand corner, and 
the consecutive numbers 1-4 on the right hand 
of the perforated hole. As a general rule, the 
bare title of the map suffices, though if the 
name of a compiler, editor, or draughtsman 
is given, or the name of the surveyor or 
director of a surveying party, or the head of 
a government department, as many of these 
as can be contained on one card, should be 
given, but I do not think it necessary to put 

Now let us examine each word in succes- 
sion on our card and see what it really sig- 
nifies : 

Place. Here should be put if possible the 
city or town in which the map is published; 
and it does not necessarily follow that be- 
cause an atlas or collection of maps is pub- 
lished at a certain place, that an individual 
map in it should have been originally pub- 
lished there, so that unless such name appears 
on the map, the name of the place where the 
atlas which originally contained such map was 
published, should be given in brackets, with 
mark of interrogation. When government maps 
are concerned, the general head office of the 
government may be given. 

Publisher. The same remarks apply here 
also ; and considerable confusion exists among 
the earlier maps, to decide as to whether a 
given name might be that of author, seller, 
draughtsman or publisher. In many cases, 
even down to the middle of the igth century, 
the author has been both draughtsman, seller 
and publisher, as Aaron Arrowsmith and 
John Arrowsmith of London. On the other 
hand the many maps included in the various 
editions of the so-called "Ptolemy" atlases 
and geographies, are admittedly drawn by 
one person and published by another, but none 
of them by Ptolemy himself. We believe that 
Lafreri was the first collector of maps orig- 
inally engraved and published by others, but 
he was the publisher of the atlas bearing his 
name; whilst Ortelius not only did the same 
thing, but he compiled maps himself and pub- 
lished them individually and collectively. 

Date. If a map bears a date, there is of 
course no difficulty in transcribing it; but 
if it does not, there are various methods by 
which a reasonably approximate one may be 
added in pencil within brackets and with the 
interrogatory mark. And it is in connection 
with this question of date, that it is often 
found that some one or other of the various 
names already set forth of compiler, editor, 
author, translator, engraver, seller, printer or 
publisher, may assist to place this important 
item. And perhaps it may be well to note 
here, that I have endeavored to make short 
"author" cards, referring to the specific maps, 
and by degrees have accumulated quite a long 
list of these, some having only one, others as 
many as 20, maps handled by them, and these 
having dates, have helped to some extent to 
correctly localize the time. And if that can- 
not be done, a little experience will show the 
style of the period either of engraving or 
printing. But this above all things must be 
noted: when the map bears on its face no 
date, be sure that the approximate date you 
assign to it appears on both the card and the 
map, as when you come to finally arrange and 
classify your maps, you will find that the 
chronological arrangement of each place is 
far more valuable than any other. 

Size. This question of size is quite im- 
portant, and as I have had no precedent, the 
method adopted is the result of my long 
previous experience in handling maps. This 
principle has been to give first the measure- 
ment from left to right, as the map reads, 
(not necessarily from east to west) being the 
length, and then that from top to bottom. 
Now I have been told that engravings are 
always measured first from top to bottom, 
but I have found no one who could give a 
reason for that course; but the reason why 
we have chosen the opposite plan is because 
it is natural to read from left to right, and all 
references to the points of the compass on 
maps and charts ordinarily read N. W., N. E., 
S. W., S. E., and the British Government, 
which issues by far the largest quantity of 
maps of any government has also adopted that 

February, 1902] 



plan in its classification of sheet maps, where 
a whole number is divided into four quarters. 
Then I have always considered that the meas- 
urement of a map should represent as nearly 
as possible the engraved map itself, and not its 
adjuncts of statistical tables, ornamental bor- 
der, or other extraneous matter, for the idea 
presented to the mind's eye should be the ac- 
tual surface occupied by the representation of 
the country required, which would be obvious- 
ly erroneous by any other plan of measure- 
ment. Some departments of some governments 
have absolutely no rule in this matter, and al- 
though their catalogs state that the measure- 
ment includes the border, yet such measure 1 - 
ment gives you the idea of reading one way, 
while the facts represented are both ways: 
viz., a size is given, say 24 x 40, and the map 
or chart is found to be at one time that meas- 
urement from E. to W. wide and N. to S. 
deep, and at another from 40 inches wide and 
24 inches deep. Such hopeless and useless di- 
rection is obviated by the adoption of our 
plan, based upon common sense and actual 
practice. In some catalogs no size is given, 
in others that of the full sheet of paper the 
latter more generally by the private publisher, 
who wants his publication to look as large as 

Scale. If I have given much time to the 
question of size, I desire to urge infinitely 
more attention to that of scale, as all things 
considered, this is of the first importance, and 
usually it can be inserted from the data 
shown on the map even if not actually ex- 
pressed. The most casual observer can real- 
ize that a map which would give all the in- 
formation a traveller by the rapidly moving 
railroad train might require, who only needs 
to note the relative position of points at con- 
siderable distances from each other, would be 
of no use to the cyclist, who can only travel 
in a day what a locomotive may run in an 
hour, and far less to the pedestrian or sol- 
dier who requires to see the nature of the 
ground over which he has to pass, and travels 
slower than any of them. The English-speak- 
ing community in this country and the Brit- 
ish empire naturally use the English mile or 
inch as their standard of measurements, and 
speak of a map as showing so many inches 
to the mile or so many miles to the inch, 
and it was decided by the Lenox Library to 
adopt that form of expression wherever possi- 
ble, rather than the general European plan of 
fractional or decimal denomination : as I : 63- 
360 to represent the scale of one inch to the 
mile; as there are that number of inches to 
the mile and consequently one inch on the 
paper represents one mile on the ground. 
The advantage of the continental system is 
that it is intelligible to every nationality; a 
Frenchman seeing 1-100,000 on the foot of a 
map can as readily understand the proportion 
to nature as a Russian, Norwegian or Ger- 
man; whilst the general indication on old 
maps of so many German, Flemish, Italian or 
Greek miles or leagues to an inch, a foot or any 

other local measurement can as a rule only be 
understood by the consultant of that country. 
But as the catalog of this library was primarily 
made for the use of Americans it seemed 
best to adopt the standard described, and 
consequently wherever possible I have reduced 
all mileage to it. This has been quite easy 
where the parallels of latitude have been 
given as they almost invariably are on the 
right or left hand sides of the map ; for every 
one has learned at school that a degree of 
latitude is 69^ statute miles (for convenience, 
let us say 70 miles), so that if his map shows 
that five degrees of latitude measure one inch 
then he writes down the scale as (5 times 
70=) 350 miles to the inch. In dealing with 
charts, or maps of the sea, he must remember 
that a nautical or geographical mile is not the 
same as a statute mile, but that all marine 
measurements are based on the fact there are 
60 geographical miles to the degree. This 
rule applies generally to latitude, but only to 
the equator as regards longitude; the number 
of miles in a degree of longitude diminishing 
as you approach to either North or South 

Engraved. The next point to claim atten- 
tion is the process by which the map is pro- 
duced. Up to the beginning of the last cen- 
tury, nearly every map was printed from an 
engraved copper plate or wood block, and 
even in these days the best maps are -still 
produced by the former process, consequently 
the word engraved stands, to be modified by 
the addition of "on copper," or "on wood," 
or "by wax process" as the case may be, 
with the addition of the name of the en- 
graver, when it is stated. But in these 
days of rapid printing of large quantities, 
maps are almost always produced by the litho- 
graphic process, or printing from stone or 
zinc in one shape or another. A little ex- 
perience will enable the librarian to recognize 
these differences. In all cases where the map 
does not appear to be printed direct from the 
engraved surface, I mark out the word en- 
graved and substitute "lithographed," or "pho- 
to-lithographed," or whatever it may be. Some 
few maps were engraved on steel in the '403 
and '503, but this process is discontinued now. 

Plain or colored. Nearly all maps are is- 
sued uncolored or plain, in which case, mark 
out the words or colored; but if colored, treat 
the words plain or in similar fashion, and add 
by hand, if they appear to be so produced, or 
"printed in colors," as may be. 

Sheet. As just stated the most common 
form in which maps reach your hands will be 
the uncolored sheet, and consequently, that 
word will stand alone. If it is a book map 
from a bound atlas, add "No. from Blaeu, 
Vol. 6," or "Royal atlas" or "Stieler's atlas"; 
on the other hand, if it is bound in the atlas, 
use the word in instead of from. Should 
it be folded in a paper or cloth cover, add 

"folded in cover, 6x8 inches (as may 

be) lettered gold" ; or "paper label, on back or 
side." This enables you more readily to iden- 


[February, 1902 

tify, when searching for it. If the map be 
dissected and mounted on muslin, mark out 
the word "Sheet" and write "Muslin, dis- 
sected" to fold, etc., as before, or to roll, or if 
only to lie flat, the word muslin alone will 
suffice. If not dissected, state that fact. On 
the other hand, if it be a roller map, varnished 
or unvarnished, with or without being backed 
or mounted on muslin, write the facts as, 
"Muslin, varnished, rollers," or "Sheet, var- 
nished rollers." At any rate state exactly its 

This attention to detail may seem some- 
what troublesome at first, but it saves time 
in the long run ; as according to a map's size, 
and mounting, so is its final abode, and that 
is what you must get at exactly. 

When your consultant writes out his appli- 
cation ticket for his maps the particulars re- 
quired are: i, Title of country or town. 2, 
Date. 3, The mounting. As a rule these 
particulars will suffice to find your game, for 
your map is arranged by place, and not by 
author, by chronological date and not by pub- 
lisher, and mounting, because according to 
that, must eventually be its final resting place. 

The foregoing remarks apply specifically to 
maps, or loose sheets and not to collections 
of these or "atlases," which as a rule must 
be treated somewhat as books, though in all 
cases, the number of maps should be given, 
and preferentially the name of each. Old at- 
lases like the "Ptolemies" come somewhat un- 
der the character of incunabula, on account of 
their very diverse make up. The Lenox Li- 
brary has used "salmon" colored cards for at- 
lases as showing them up distinctively. Each 
section of country commences with Atlases ; 
and "General atlases" are cataloged as 
"World" maps. 

Conclusion. After spending more than 
three years in arranging and cataloging all 
sorts and conditions of maps, and thinking 
how the ordinary librarian can handle them 
with the greatest ease and least trouble, I feel 
that the "dissected and mounted to fold" form 
is the handiest and most easily preserved, as 
approaching nearest to the condition of the 
modern book, although open to the objection 
that in making fine calculations as to dis- 
tances, trouble may be caused by the width 
between the sections : on the other hand the 
expense may be an important factor against 
such a system being generally introduced. If 
maps are ordered from Europe, and they can 
be had colored and mounted, let both of those 
processes be performed there, as they are in- 
finitely cheaper and better than anything that 
can be done here. 

As to cataloging: If you do not have the 
time, or the experience to set forth all the 
details I have enumerated, do not let that 
deter you from having a good "subject" map 
catalog. If the name of the country, date 
and style of mounting are given, they will 
do better than nothing, and other details 
can be added or included as opportunity may 
offer; but you will be surprised to find how 

much valuable cartographic matter is availa- 
ble in every library, if only the necessary 
trouble can be taken to extract the subjects 
from the encyclopedias, atlases, guide books, 
directories and books of travel in which they 
are absolutely forgotten, hidden away and in 
the pressure of other ideas, driven out of 
mind. The "Encyclopedia Britannica," "John- 
ston's cyclopaedia," and the interesting col- 
lection of "Baedeker's guide-books" would 
supply over loco different titles which even 
a small library might possess. 

As regards the housing of sheet stock, very 
much may be said. Primarily, I object to 
portfolios of any description, as they are un- 
wieldy and constantly out of order. Cabin- 
ets of drawers seem to be the handiest, and 
subject to certain restrictions they are; but 
for loose sheet maps, always open to the ob- 
jection, that every "jar" or jolt given to the 
drawer when closing it, imperceptibly but as- 
suredly slides the contents constantly to the 
back and eventually the sheets ride up and 
slide down over the back and in course of 
time accumulate to an alarming extent, 
whilst you are in absolute ignorance as to the 
cause of their disappearance. But if you keep 
your sets of sheets in manila paper folios, 
and keep those folios (say not more than 
three or four) in the drawers this evil may 
in all probability be counteracted. 

Personally, I prefer loose sliding boards, 
with no backs and no stop of any kind at the 
back: this at once removes the jarring ten- 
dency, which is the sole cause of the evil. 
Falling front flaps of wood, or stout board 
covered with buckram or fustian, can be used 
to keep the dust out: not quite so effectively 
perhaps as a drawer would, but possibly suf- 
ficient for ordinary purposes. As to roller 
maps, I am opposed to the practice of keeping 
these in a horizontal position, as they must 
occupy more room, and accumulate more 
dust, than in the perpendicular rack form I 
have recommended. THOMAS LETTS. 


THE foundation established by the late Dr. 
Alfred Nobel for the awarding of money 
prizes to "those who have contributed the 
greatest good to humanity" in the five fields 
of physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, 
literature, and international peace, has re- 
sulted in organization of Nobel institutes with 
libraries in the special subjects named. The 
Norwegian Storthung has begun to collect a 
library relating to the peace movement and 
allied subjects, such as international law, law 
of nations, etc., and the Swedish Academy 
has already organized its Nobel Institute with 
its librarian, professors and other officers. Its 
library aims at collecting a complete file of 
literary journals, encyclopaedias, bibliographi- 
cal, literary and biographical reference works, 
history, philosophy, etc. 

February, 1902] 



From the Dial, Feb. i, 1902. 

THE great preponderance of works of fic- 
tion among the books drawn from public li- 
braries has always been a subject of much 
concern to librarians and other men engaged 
in the business of public education. It comes 
up for discussion perennially, and various are 
the suggestions made for the correction of 
what is generally recognized as an evil. While 
there is nothing to say against the practice of 
reading fiction, abstractly considered, there is 
much to say against the novel-reading habit 
which seems to be fastened upon the majority 
of those who use pur public libraries. When 
the statistics of circulation show that works 
of fiction constitute from 50 to 80 per cent, 
of the books that are taken for home read- 
ing, there is certainly some reason to think 
that the library is regarded as a source of en- 
tertainment rather than of public education, 
and some reason to question the wisdom of 
taxing the people at large for such a purpose. 
Even if careful consideration of the whole 
subject convinces us that a library, put chiefly 
to such uses, is better than no library at all, 
and still on the whole a worthy object of pub- 
lic support, it is certainly obligatory upon 
those who control the supply of free books 
to use all possible vigilance in minimizing 
the evil of thoughtless reading, and in en- 
couraging the literary and studious tastes of 
readers. . . . 

Mr. Herbert Putnam, who by virtue of his 
official position is the leader of the profession 
of librarianship in America, makes a sugges- 
tion that may be pronounced radical, but that 
commends itself to the sober intelligence after 
the first shock of surprise is over. It is, 
simply, that no works of fiction be purchased 
by public libraries for at least a year after 

The exclusion of the newest fiction from the 
library shelves would doubtless occasion a 
great outcry, but the loss to the public would 
be more imaginary than real. Every librarian 
knows how hollow is the pretence of meeting 
the popular demand for the novels of the day. 
To supply that demand would entail an ex- 
penditure that no librarian could sanction. 
Take such a novel, for example, as "The 
crisis," and such a library, for example, as 
that of Chicago. Probably 500 people were 
daily clamoring for that particular novel dur- 
ing the weeks that immediately followed its 
publication. To satisfy them, it would have 
been necessary to purchase several thousands 
of copies, with the absolute certainty that 
next year they would be collecting dust upon 
the shelves, if not actually consigned to the 
lumber-room. The satisfaction of an ephem- 
eral fancy of this sort is an absolutely ille- 
gitimate demand to make upon any pubic 
library. The only library that has a right to 
spend money in this reckless fashion is the 
private enterprise of the Mudie type, which 
exists for the special purpose of catering to 
the taste of the moment. What such a library 

as the Chicago institution actually does in the 
case of a novel like "The crisis" is to pur- 
chase 40 or 50 copies of the work, and supply 
one applicant out of every 200 or 300. "In 
proposing to supply such a novel," says Mr. 
Putnam, "the library deludes the public and., / 
reduces its capacity for service really service- \V 
able." It does not really supply the demand, ' 
and succeeds only in gratifying an occasional 
applicant at the cost of creating exasperation 
in the breasts of the thousands who, knowing 
that the book is in the library, ask for it from 
day to day until they desist from sheer weari- 

We are inclined to think, on the whole, 
that every public library would be well-ad- 
vised in adopting Mr. Putnam's suggestion, 
thus forcing its patrons to take, as far as the 
library is concerned, Emerson's well-known 
advice against reading books that have not 
kept alive for at least a year. Using "The 
crisis" once more for our illustration, it is 
safe to say that by next summer the demand 
for that excellent story will have fallen to 
normal proportions. It will still be asked for 
by a few people, and it will be as proper 
to provide copies to be read as it is proper 
to provide copies of "The spy." This, of 
course, presents an extreme case, for, besides 
the two or three novels that a capricious pub- 
lic marks for its favor every season, there 
are 200 or 300 others of merit sufficient to 
entitle their claims to be recognized. But 
the reasoning to be employed is similar in all 
cases; the demand for current fiction is es- 
sentially temporary and artificial, and it is 
doubtful if it be the policy of wisdom to put 
into a public library any books for which 
there may not be some reasonable demand 
year after year. 


REFERRING to the question of the "net price 
system," I learn from the published account 
of the proceedings of the meeting of the 
Massachusetts Library Club, held on Jan. 7 
last, that it was decided to send a letter to 
the American Publishers' Association stating 
the position of librarians, etc. 

This ground has already been quite thor- 
oughly gone over by the committee on rela- 
tions of libraries to the booktrade of the 
American Library Association. 

As showing the sentiments which the com- 
mittee has found to prevail quite generally 
among the booktrade, I enclose herewith a 
copy of a letter received from Mr. Charles 
Scribner, the president of the American Pub- 
lishers' Association. 

W. T. PEOPLES, Chairman. 

Mr. Scribner's letter is as follows : 

"Herewith I return the copy of the LI- 
BRARY JOURNAL and the letters left with me. 
As I said at our recent interview, I shall be 


[February, 1902 

pleased to give any information desired con- 
cerning the Publishers' Association. It should 
be understood : 

"i. The publishers are not seeking to in- 
crease the prices received by them for their 
books. On the contrary, a careful review of 
our new net prices shows that the average 
price obtained by us is less than under the 
old system. The object of the association 
is to protect the retail dealer (upon certain 
books and for a year) from a ruinous cut- 
ting of the retail price to make it profit- 
able to deal in our publications. 

"2. We have not attempted to fix the 
prices of books. Publishers fix their own 
prices without any interference by the asso- 
ciation. What we are trying to do is to 
maintain the retail price for a year. 

"I do not think the association would be 
willing to attempt any regulation of the re- 
tail price. If the prices of net books are in 
any cases too high it would be natural and 
right that such books should suffer, and I 
hope librarians will discriminate against them. 

"Undoubtedly librarians are expected to pay 
more for their books, and this is necessary if 
-the publishers wish to make it possible for 
the booksellers to supply net books to libra- 
ries at a profit. There may also be some 
cases in which prices are too high under the 
new system .(as they would be under any 
system), but I think they are comparatively 
few in number. I have looked up the various 
books referred to, and in almost every in- 
stance the reason for the price is clear. In 
the case of Birrell's new book, published by 
us, though the price is $i, the same as the 
"Obiter dicta" volumes, published some years 
ago, it is forgotten that those books were 
published before the International Copyright 
Bill was passed, and therefore in competition 
with reprints not paying royalty. $i is not 
an excessive price for the new book. Con- 
cerning the comparison of American with Eng- 
lish prices, I would write that, so far as my 
experience goes, it is not customary to give 
much consideration to the English price when 
a book is protected by copyright. Upon the 
whole I think it will be found that the Amer- 
ican prices compare very favorably with the 
English prices, particularly upon books of 
high class, but this is due to the business 
conditions in the two countries. We do not 
inquire what the English price is to be before 
we fix our own. It should be remembered 
also that when an English book is published 
net, there is no discount to libraries. 

"As I have written before, it will give me 
pleasure to give any information desired by 
you or the other members of your committee. 
I might add that at the last meeting of the 
Publishers' Association a committee was ap- 
pointed (of which Mr. Dodd is chairman) 
to look into the question of prices and dis- 
counts. Yours very truly, 



J. I. WYER, JR., librarian of the University 
of Nebraska, sends to the JOURNAL corre- 
spondence with the J. B. Lippincott Company 
regarding the recently increased price of the 
"Variorum" Shakespeare, published by them. 
Previous to the adoption of the "net price" 
plan of the American Publishers' Associa- 
tion, the volumes of the Variorum edition, 
listed at $4, cost the library purchasing $2.60. 
The last volume, issued under the new ar- 
rangement, was listed at $4 net, and cost the 
library $3.60. In a letter written in Decem- 
ber last to the Lippincott Co., Mr. Wyer 
stated these facts, and added: "We are in- 
terested in learning why the price has been 
raised. If it is because of the recent action 
by the Publishers' Association, it is my im- 
pression that such action in this case is con- 
trary to the reasons which the publishers 
themselves have given for their action. The 
argument urged by them was that list prices 
of books would be uniformly lower so that 
with a uniform discount of 10 per cent, on net 
books prices would not be materially higher 
than in the old arrangement. As librarians 
have figured the thing out, we must pay and 
expect to pay cheerfully 10 per cent, over old 
prices. In this case, however, your volume 
in question costs us $3.60 as against $2.60 for 
the earlier volumes. This is but one partic- 
ularly conspicuous instance among a good 
many, which tend to make us think that the 
publishers are taking advantage of the new 
discount in a way which was not certainly 
announced before the discount went into ef- 
fect, and which is directly contrary to the 
objects professed." 

In reply the publishers say: "The book is 
a most expensive one to manufacture, and 
our margin of profit has been entirely too 
small, and resolved itself into one of two 
questions, whether to raise the price of the 
book to $5, subject to long discount, or make 
it $4, subject to short discount, making the 
net price of the same to us as publishers. 
The Publishers' Association had nothing to do 
with this particular case, and we should have 
made this alteration in the price if the asso- 
ciation had not existed. It was entirely a 
matter of adding the necessary profit to make 
the book remunerative. It is not our inten- 
tion in any case to raise the price direct to 
the consumer, and if possible to lower the 
price." Commenting on this Mr. Wyer says : 
"The explanation of the Lippincott Company 
seems not to give satisfaction. The best in- 
stances for comparing new and old prices are 
found in some of the standard series. For 
example, the last two volumes issued in the 
'International education series' : Search, 'An 
ideal school' ; Sheldon, 'Student life and cus- 
toms/ issued at $1.50 net, are identical in 
size with the preceding volume, Hughes, 

February, 1902] 



'Dickens as an educator,' issued at $1.50. 
The latter costs us 98 cents, the former $1.35, 
which seems to show clearly that the publish- 
ers are surely of bad faith in not reducing 
list prices of the books, as tacitly understood 
when the new net price arrangement was 
made. It was on the contrary taking advan- 
tage of the new order of things to increase 
prices on every book under cover of the new 
net price." 


THE first formal opening of a free public 
library in Texas took place on the evening of 
Oct. 29, 1901, when the Dallas Public Library 
was thrown open to the public with appro- 
priate ceremonies. 

The building, a view of which appears else- 
where, is the gift of Mr. Carnegie, and 
contains, in addition to the library quar- 
ters on the first floor and rooms for ser- 
vice in the basement, an assembly room seat- 
ing 500 persons and called Carnegie Hall, 
a class room for the use of clubs, and an art 
gallery, all on the second floor. This has 
been called the most beautiful building of its 
size in Texas. It is monumental in charac- 
ter and yet simple and adapted to its purpose, 
expressing at a glance the object for which 
it was erected. The material used in the 
construction is of the best, the columns and 
other stone work being of gray Bedford stone 
and the two front fa$ades of gray Roman 
pressed brick, with terra-cotta enrichments. 

The building is planned on symmetrical 
lines, the entrance portico and hall forming 
the central axis. The portico forms the main 
central feature of the design, embodying the 
richly ornamented doorway flanked on each 
side by a cluster of Ionic columns reaching 
from the water table to the main entablature. 
On each side of the portico the fajade is 
treated with similar detail, the main lines 
being continuous, thus giving a tone of impos- 
ing simplicity. Above the entablature over 
the center of the portico is a large tablet 
bearing the name of the giver and the date 
of erection. The entrance, with its broad 
steps, wide marble portico, massive buttresses 
and stately columns extends a dignified and 
gracious welcome. Through the main entrance 
doors, which are of oak, heavily carved, the 
delivery hall is entered. This is the principal 
decorative feature of the interior. It is fin- 
ished with marble floor and wainscoting and 
richly decorated pilasters and arches. The 
main stairway is of marble and iron, and 
starts upon each side of the entrance to a 
platform the width of the hall, thence to the 
second floor with a wide single run. 

Facing the main entrance and near the 
center of the building is the delivery desk of 
marble and oak, from which the attendant 
may see and control the entire interior. To 

the right of the delivery desk, facing the en- 
trance, are the reading and reference rooms; 
to the left the children's room and librarian's 
office; back of the desk is the stack room. 

The coloring of the main hall is white and 
old ivory; all other parts of the first floor 
are old rose, with wood work and furnish- 
ings of oak. 

The library now contains 10,550 volumes. 
The work of organization was begun in De- 
cember, 1900, and the first order for books 
was placed with a local firm in January. When 
the library was opened in October some 8000 
volumes were ready for use. This work was 
done by the librarian and two untrained as- 
sistants, one of whom was with the library 
eight months and the other five. 

On account of a lack of funds it was con- 
sidered best to start with untrained assist- 
ants. One disadvantage of this plan is that 
it sometimes takes months to prove that an 
assistant cannot get beyond the simplest 
routine work, and another is that just when 
a promising assistant is beginning to be of 
real use she sometimes marries. Both of 
these unforeseen disadvantages have stricken 
this library, and it is now being run by a 
force new since the opening. The present 
staff consists of five persons the librarian, 
two regular assistants, one extra assistant, a 
young man, for evening and Sunday work, 
and a janitor. The following statistics show 
the work of the first 10 weeks: registration, 
2908; issue, 15,208. Neither reference nor 
reading room work has been counted. 

The library is classified by the Decimal 
system and book numbers are not used 
following the plan of the St. Louis Public 
Library. The catalog so far has not pro- 
gressed beyond the author and title stage, 
though some subjects of local interest, such 
as cotton, Mexico, the race question, Texas 
history, and all biography have been brought 
out. The shelf list supplements this, and is 
made to take the place of a classed catalog 
until a dictionary catalog can be completed. 

The Newark charging system is used, and 
free access is permitted in the reference, 
reading and children's rooms. Access to the 
stack room may be had on application to the 
librarian. All new fiction and a constantly 
varied assortment labelled "Good fiction" is 
kept on the issue desk, where it may be ex- 
amined and selections made. 

Quite a feature is made of the children's 
room, which is furnished with two sizes in 
tables and chairs, has low wall cases, well 
supplied with books, several good pictures 
and plaster casts, and dainty muslin sash 
curtains. The pictures, casts and curtains 
are a gift from the teachers and pupils of the 
public schools. Beginning with February a 
series of short talks on art and literature have 
been given in the children's room by some of 
the teachers. 

ROSA M. LEEPER, Librarian. 



[February, 1002 



W . R. Eastman in Report of New York Home Edu- 
cation Department for 1901. 

THE rapid growth of a public library re- 
quires liberal provision for the future. The 
number of volumes and the annual increase 
for not less than 20 years should be carefully 
estimated and room provided. 

In general, the library building should have 
in front, two ample reading rooms with a 
wide passage between. If stairs are needed, 
they can be arranged in a porch projecting 
somewhat to the front. 

The central passage should end in a book 
room wide enough to overlap both reading 
rooms and having direct access to each. A 
delivery desk may be at the end of the cen- 
tral passage with a narrow gate on each side 
of it. one for entrance, the other for exit, if 
public access to shelves is to be allowed as in 
most cases. 

The size of the book room will depend on 

the estimated number of books. If the walls 
are insufficient for the needed shelves, a few 
double-faced bookcases may be placed on the 
floor five feet apart, ranging from front to 
rear. An open space behind these cases, with 
small tables set between the rear windows 
will give a convenient place for study or 
work. A librarian's room, closets or an ex- 
tension of the reading room may fill out the 
spaces on each side of the book room so that 
the exterior side lines of the building shall 
continue to the rear line without break and 
thus secure the utmost economy of construc- 
tion. The ceiling of the book room should 
be high enough (at least 14 feet) to give 
room for two stories of bookcases when 
needed. It is desirable also to have the use 
of a dry basement under the book room with 
direct stairway between to hold the overflow 
of books not in much demand. This will be 
a great relief from overcrowding and with 
the available space above the main floor will 
give the practical advantages of a stack of 
three stories. 

Suggested plan for small library building. 

l-'ebruary, 1902] 



Shelves should be placed on all available 
walls in the reading rooms. 

Instead of placing partitions between the 
rooms the entire floor may be in one room 
divided into departments by double-faced 
bookcases, varying from four to eight feet 
in height according as it is desired to retain 
or to cut off the view, for the sake of appear- 
ance or supervision. This will give a great 
advantage of light with possibly some slight 
liability to disturbance. 

Bookcases so placed can be moved as ex- 
perience may indicate to meet varying condi- 
tions. The library so arranged will give the 
impression of one compact and harmonious 
whole and can be readily administered by the 
least number of persons. 


A MOST important step toward the provision 
of an adequate central free library founda- 
tion for Brooklyn, N. Y., was taken on Feb. 
5, when James L. Morgan, vice-president of 
the Brooklyn Library, notified Mayor Low 
that the trustees of that library had de- 
cided to offer to the city the entire property, 
including the building on Montague street 
and its collection of over 160,000 volumes, 
valued at $750,000, to be maintained as a 
central reference library. The letter convey- 
ing the offer is as follows : 

"The trustees of the Brooklyn Library have 
been deeply interested in the rapid progress 
of library development in the Borough of 
Brooklyn during the past two years, includ- 
ing, as it has, the extension of the free public 
library system and the generous provision 
made therefor by the gift of Mr. Andrew 

"It would seem, however, that the Brook- 
lyn Free Library, wisely as it has been 
planned, must still be incomplete, until it pos- 
sesses, in addition to its circulating system, 
an adequate central reference collection. The 
accumulation of such a collection must or- 
dinarily require both a large expenditure of 
money and a long period of time. 

"Appreciating the importance to Brooklyn 
of a complete free library system, the trustees 
of the Brooklyn Library believe that they are 
able to provide for Brooklyn this important 
part of a public library by offering their li- 
brary, with its valuable collection, for incor- 
poration in the general free library system. 

'The Brooklyn Library is now possessed of 
a large library building on Montague street, 
which, with its investments in real and per- 
sonal property and its collection of over 160,- 
ooo volumes, represents a money value of not 
less than $750,000. Its collection of books, 
journals, and periodicals has been accumulated 
during a period of over 40 years, and it now 
constitutes a library difficult alike to dupli- 
cate and to overvalue. 

"For the purpose of making this property 

available as part of a general library system. I 
am now authorized, by the unanimous action 
of the trustees of the Brooklyn Library, to 
offer its entire property and estate for free 
public library service in Brooklyn, upon the 
following general conditions : 

"There shall be created by special act of 
the legislature a new corporation, to be known 
as the Brooklyn Public Library, which shall 
conform in its organization to the excellent 
precedent established by the constitution of 
the New York Public Library. The mem- 
bership of this corporation shall consist of the 
mayor, comptroller, and president of the Bor- 
ough of Brooklyn, of the city of New York, 
and of 22 additional members to be appointed 
by the mayor; n from the board of trustees 
of the Brooklyn Library and n from the 
board of directors of the present Brooklyn 
Public Library. 

"The new corporation shall succeed to all 
the powers and duties now exercised by the 
board of directors of the Brooklyn Public 
Library, and the city of New York shall con- 
tract with it for the maintenance and admin- 
istration of the free public library service in 
the Borough of Brooklyn. 

"Upon the formation of such corporation 
and the assumption by it of the functions now 
exercised by the board of directors of the 
Brooklyn Public Library and the execution 
of a contract between such corporation and 
the city of New York for the suitable main- 
tenance of the free public library system of 
the Borough of Brooklyn, the Brooklyn Li- 
brary will convey to such new corporation all 
of its property and estate, subject only to 
those conditions in respect of the tenure and 
maintenance of trust funds now binding upon 
the Brooklyn Library, and to the provision 
that the property and funds of this library 
shall be devoted, in the main, to the increase 
and enrichment of the central library collec- 

"It is our hope, if this offer shall meet with 
your approval, that this consolidation of the 
chief libraries now serving the public in 
Brooklyn may found here a great free public 
library worthy of the importance of the city, 
and which shall make library service in 
Brooklyn of increasing value and usefulness." 

This action is the result of efforts toward 
the consolidation of Brooklyn library facili- 
ties that have been going forward for several 
years past. It was at one time thought that 
the Long Island Historical Society would join 
in the consolidation, but at their January 
meeting the directors of that institution de- 
cided definitely in the negative. The accept- 
ance by the city of the Brooklyn Library of- 
fer and the formal legal steps necessary for 
the creation of the new library organization 
are likely to follow promptly. A bill provid- 
ing for the transfer of the Brooklyn Library, 
upon the terms stated, was introduced into the 
legislature by Assemblyman Morgan, of 
Brooklyn, on Feb. 6. 



[February, 1902 


A MEETING of the trustees of the Carnegie 
Institution was held in the office of the Sec- 
retary of State, in Washington, on Jan. 29, 
when officers were elected and plans laid for 
permanent organization and the initiation of 
work. The deed of gift was presented to the 
trustees by Mr. Carnegie, who made a brief 
speech, in which he said: 

"My first thought was to fulfil the expressed 
wish of Washington by establishing a univer- 
sity here, but a study of the question forced 
me to the conclusion that under present con- 
ditions were Washington still with us his 
finely balanced judgment would decide that, 
in our generation at least, such use of wealth 
would not be the best. 

"One of the most serious objections, and 
one which I could not overcome, was that 
another university might tend to weaken ex- 
isting universities. My desire was to co- 
operate with all educational institutions, and 
to establish what would be a source of 
strength and not of weakness to them, and the 
idea of a Washington university or of any- 
thing of a memorial character was therefore 
abandoned. . . . 

"This gift in nowise interferes with the 
proposed university or with any memorial. 
It has its own modest field, and is intrusted 
to co-operate with all kindred institutions, in- 
cluding the Washington University, if ever 
built. In this hope, I think the name should 
be sacredly held in reserve. It is not a mat- 
ter of $1,000,000, or $10,000,000, or even of 
$20,000,000, but of more, to fulfil worthily the 
wish of Washington, and I think no one 
would presume to use this almost sacred 
name except for a university of the very first 
rank, established by national authority, as he 
desired. Be it our part in our day and gen- 
eration to do what we can to extend the 
boundaries of human knowledge by utilizing 
existing institutions. 

"Gentlemen, your work begins. Your aims 
are high ; you seek to extend known forces, 
and to discover and utilize new forces for the 
benefit of man. Than this there can scarcely 
be greater work. I wish you abundant suc- 
cess, and venture to prophesy that through 
your efforts, in co-operation with those of 
kindred societies in our country, contribu- 
tions to the advancement of the race through 
research will compare in the near future not 
unfavorably with those of any other land." 

The deed of gift states, in substance, that 
Andrew Carnegie deems it his duty and high- 
est privilege to administer the wealth which 
has come to him as a trustee in behalf of 
others, and, entertaining the belief that the 
best means of discharging that trust is by ex- 
tending the opportunities for study and re- 
search in our country, he transfers to the 
trustees named $10,000,000 of registered 5 per 
cent, bonds of the United States Steel Cor- 

This gift is to be held in trust, the income 
from the bonds or from other securities that 
may be substituted for them to be applied to 
paying the expenses of the trustees, who are 
to receive the bonds and collect the interest, 
and may sell the same and invest the proceeds 
according to the laws of New York, Pennsyl- 
vania and Massachusetts, and who are not 
made responsible for the safety of the bonds 
or for their depreciation. They may appoint 
officers, fixing their salaries, and provide for 
the financial business of the trust. 

The income is to be expended to founding 
in Washington an institution to co-operate 
with those now or hereafter established, and 
in the broadest and most liberal manner en- 
courage investigation, research and discovery, 
show the application of knowledge to the im- 
provement of mankind, provide such build- 
ings, laboratories, books and apparatus as 
may be needed, and afford instruction of an 
advanced character to students properly qual- 
ified to profit thereby. Unexpended income 
may be kept in a reserve fund to defray the 
cost of buildings. By a two-thirds vote the 
trustees may modify these conditions in ac- 
cordance with the original purpose, which is 
"to secure, if possible, for the United States 
of America leadership in the domain of dis- 
covery and the utilization of new forces for 
the benefit of man." 

After acceptance of the deed of gift, by- 
laws were adopted, and officers were then 
elected as follows : Chairman of the board of 
trustees, Abram S. Hewitt; vice-president, 
Dr. J. S. Billings ; secretary, Charles D. 


IN planning the furniture and fittings for 
the new building erected for the New York 
Young Men's Christian Association Library, 
special attention was paid to the size and form 
of the reading-room tables, looking to the 
comfort and convenience of readers, and ta- 
bles were built which have some peculiarities 
of their own, which the writer considers 
points of improvement over the usual form; 
their use having passed beyond the experi- 
mental stage, and several librarians having 
requested specifications, a description may be 
of interest and use to others. 

Observations had led to the conclusion that 
small tables were preferable, for when four or 
more readers were seated at a t,able, there 
was always likely to be one of them moving 
about, disturbing the others more or less. 

These tables are 30 x 48 inches, accommo- 
dating a reader at each end, thus assuring him 
free elbow room, and making it clear that he 
may use all of his end of the table without en- 
croaching. They are 29^2 inches high, while 
library tables are usually 30 to 31^ inches; 
the higher are found to be very good if one 

February, 1902] 


takes a single sheet of paper, but the lower 
are better when we lay an open book on the 
tabk. All edges of these table tops have a 
long round edge carrying back from near the 
lower corner to ij inches from edge, so 
gradually blending into the level top that there 
is no perceptible break or angle, making a 
perfectly comfortable place to rest the arm, 
while reading or writing. 

To do away with a difficulty often found, 
the lack of comfortable space under library 
tables, we made them with a narrow stile 
(if that is the correct term) ; there is no need 
that this should be more than 3^2 inches 
wide, and it may be i^ thick to furnish 
the needed support; having this slightly 
rounded and finished on the lower edge adds 
considerably to the comfort of readers. 

The legs are large, and have a large foot 
4H inches across the bottom, and are set out 
as near the corners as possible, thus giving 
a firm footing. 

We arrange these tables in rows, so that 
the long sides are so near together that chairs 
cannot be used between them, and the rows 
are set alternating, thus bringing the ends of 
each table opposite a space in the next row, 
enabling a reader to lift his chair without 
disturbing other readers. 

Many readers speak of the comfort they find 
in study at these tables, and none have ever 
complained of their height, although there 
have been above 150,000 reference books used 
over them, and many more periodicals. 

The tables in the Fine Art Department are 
48x60. Instead of the usual half round 
moulding or furring strip near lower edge to 
prevent books from slipping off (and inci- 
dentally to stop the circulation of blood), we 
have a two-inch "nosing" along the edge, 
which is thicker than the sloping top ; this is 
rounded to its upper edge, thus forming a 
^-inch ledge, and not carrying with it any dis- 
comfort. These sloping tops rise 7 inches in 
23 inches, thus leaving a 4-inch flat surface 
at center ; the middle two inches of this should 
be sunk % inch to furnish a place for pencils, 
etc. These tables being large, need braces; 
we therefore put braces in, in such a way that 
they form a convenient foot rest, which is a 
real need for those working long at a time. 

A word as to the care of such furniture. 
These tables seem to look as well as they did 
three years ago, because they have never been 
"dusted," but cleaned every morning with a 
cloth that is very slightly oiled, and once a 
week thoroughly rubbed with oiled woollen 
cloths. A good mixture for oil is : 

Paraffine oil 1-3 

Boiled linseed oil 2-3 

or oils for the purpose may be bought ready 
prepared ; their use will keep the furniture 
from looking old until it is old and needs re- 
finishing. SILAS H. BERRY, 

Librarian Y. M. C. A. Library. 


THE bill providing for the reduction of 
postal rates on library books, introduced into 
Congress in January, 1900, was reintroduced in 
the Senate by Senator Lodge on Dec. 5 last. 
It is the same as when first introduced, save 
that the clause relating to society libraries is 
changed to read "maintained by endowments 
or fees" instead of "by endowment or taxa- 
tion." The bill which was printed in these 
columns when first introduced (see L. j., 
Feb., 1900, p. 68) provides that the postal rate 
of one cent per pound or fraction thereof be 
granted on "books and other printed matter 
belonging to and passing from and to" any of 
the following libraries : "Public libraries 
maintained wholly or in part by towns, cities, 
states, or other political units, or by the 
United States; school libraries supported by 
taxation or having tax exemption, belong- 
ing to educational institutions of all grades; 
society or social libraries having entire or 
partial tax exemption, or other public priv- 
ilege, maintained by endowments or fees, or 
from both sources, by religious, literary, pro- 
fessional, trade, industrial, or library associa- 


From the 83<f Report of New York State Library. 

IN common with all great libraries we 
occasionally suffer from some vandalism. It 
is highly creditable to human nature that so 
few people trusted with unusual privileges 
abuse them, but the exceptions prove the rule. 
The difficulty often comes from thoughtless- 
ness rather than malice. Some one whose 
brain is not quite normal ethically, wishes an 
extract of a half page or so and reflects that 
probably nobody else will ever want that 
particular page and that he can save himself 
time and trouble by cutting it out with a pen- 
knife. We think it unwise to give publicity 
to these rare cases lest it should suggest to 
other unbalanced minds the possibility of simi- 
lar offences, but we use every endeavor to 
detect such offenders and to bring them to 
justice under the stringent laws against muti- 
lation of the property of the public libraries 
and museums, which we post freely about the 
library. When a mutilation is discovered it 
is at once marked by the head of the depart- 
ment as noted, so there shall be no suspicion 
cast on any later user of the book as the pos- 
sible mutilator. For costly books we secure 
a typewritten copy from some other library 
and replace the part removed. Cheaper books 
we can sometimes replace from our dupli- 
cates or at small cost. It is a matter of edu- 
cating public sentiment more fully to regard 
public property as something sacred to be 
guarded by every user against abuse. One 
vandal throws a cloud over all his associates 
till it is known who is guilty. It is gratify- 

8 4 


[February, 1902 

ing to note that general sentiment is so sound 
on these matters and that there are so few 
who feel that because a thing is owned by the 
public, individual members of that public have 
a vested right to abuse it. 


THE secretary of the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion, in his report for the year ending June 
30, 1901, recently published, recites the his- 
tory of the plans for the "International cata- 
logue of scientific literature" undertaken 
under the auspices of the Royal Society, and 
notes the present status of the enterprise. 
After referring to the requests for subscrip- 
tions at $85 per year, sent out by the Royal 
Society in June, 1900, he says : "It being 
necessary to secure these before the end of 
September, 1900, the secretary, as an evidence 
of the Institution's good will, sent out a cir- 
cular letter commending the project to Amer- 
ican institutions of learning. By the end of 
September the above number had been se- 
cured, thus assuring the publication of the 
work in England, and this number has since 
been increased to the equivalent of over 66 
sets, at $85 apiece, for five years, represent- 
ing a sum of about $30,000, the largest sub- 
scription made to the catalog by any single 
country, a fact which abundantly demon- 
strates the interest felt in the catalog on the 
part of scientific men in the United States. 

"It is greatly to be regretted that no ade- 
quate provision has been made for the cata- 
loging of the scientific literature of the United 
States, which is to form a part of it. The 
secretary has provisionally undertaken to do 
this work out of the private funds of the In- 
stitution, in what is feared will be an in- 
adequate way, since only two assistants can 
be allotted for the purpose, and the secretary 
has felt able to retain these only to June 30, 
1902. It has indeed been quite clear from 
the outset that this work could not be made 
a perpetual charge upon the small Smith- 
sonian fund ; but with a full recognition of 
the importance of this project, the secretary 
is still not willing to have the Institution 
itself solicit aid from Congress for it, while 
other interests already committed to the In- 
stitution are so inadequately provided for 
and demand its first care. 

"There is yet hope that some way may be 
found by which this country may take its 
proper share in the community of nations. 
In this great undertaking, which is now be- 
ing carried on by England, France. Germany, 
Russia, Italy, and Austria, the Institution, 
which is not soliciting for itself any Congres- 
sional aid, will be glad to see Congress place 
the work in any effective hands, or, if the 
Institution itself be designated, it will do its 
part if Congress shall so direct and provide 
the means." 


THE current number of the Rivista delle 
Biblioteche (v. 12, no. 11-12), gives the re- 
sults of the election of officers of the society, 
held on Dec. 15, 1901. These are: President, 
Pompeo Molmenti ; vice-presidents, Guido 
Biagi and Giuseppe Fumigalli. In addition to 
these, 10 members of the council were elected. 

The same number of the Rivista contains 
a circular sent out by the society urging the 
keepers of archives in Italy to join the organ- 
ization, and setting forth the advantages of 
mutual intercourse between librarians and 
archivists. Here is a hint of possible activity 
in a very practical matter for American libra- 
rians, and particularly for officers of local 
library clubs. While our archives of towns, 
cities and states are meager when compared 
with those of Italy, there is no question that li- 
brarians could aid those who have charge of 
them, and could, perhaps, gain as much as 
they would give. W. W. B. 


IN February, 1900, a library school for 
women was opened in the Berlin suburb of 
Siidende by Dr. Chr. G. Hottinger, formerly 
librarian of the Bibliothek der Konigliche 
Universitats. The school, which has been 
already noted in these columns, (L. j., 
25:250, 687,) was visited a few months since 
by two graduates of the Pratt Institute Li- 
brary School, Miss Caroline Burnite and 
Miss Bertha Trube, from whose notes a later 
account is now available. 

Dr. Hottinger's school was established and 
is maintained, not with a view to the develop- 
ment of the library field on more popular 
lines for the idea of the free public library 
as it exisfs in England and the United States 
is unfamiliar in Germany but with the pur- 
pose of opening a new field of work for 
women. Its founder's special interest is the 
"woman question" rather than the library 
profession, and the school is intended as a 
first step toward a women's college, to be 
some day established. He is, nevertheless, 
much interested in the popular library move- 
ment, and has schemes for making up cheap 
libraries for poor people, to buy, however, not 
to be circulated free. The school is housed in 
a small building fitted up as a library and mu- 
seum, in which is Dr. Hottinger's personal li- 
brary of about 30,000 volumes, which includes 
an extensive collection of books by and about 
women. A one-year course is given, mainly 
devoted to the practical cataloging of the li- 
brary, and to work upon Dr. Hottinger's 
cherished enterprise, a compilation in the 
field of universal biographic-bibliography, 
which is to contain 6,000,000 titles, 200,000 
biographies and 20,000 portraits. It is to be 
printed by linotype, and its projector hopes 
to have it ready for distribution by 1904. 

February, 1902] 


He has also planned a Bibliography of 
Woman, on a similar scale, but systematic 
progress was not evident in either of these 
great tasks of compilation. Language re- 
quirements are not yet demanded of the stu- 
dents, though it is hoped before long to re- 
quire English, French, Latin and Greek. All 
instruction is given by Dr. Hottinger person- 
ally. There are few students, not more than 
four or five, and the one or two who have 
completed the course are now engaged in li- 
braries at salaries of about 1200 marks per 

It will be seen that this is hardly to be in- 
cluded among the effective and well-organ- 
ized schools for library training. It is rather 
a course of apprentice work, limited in its 
scope, its chief interest being the effort it 
represents to introduce into Germany a new 
occupation for women. 

Hmerican 3Librars Hssociation. 

President: Dr. J. S. Billings, New York 
Public Library. 

Secretary: F. W. Faxon, 108 Glenway St., 
Dorchester, Mass. 

Treasurer: G. M. Jones, Public Library, 
Salem, Mass. 

24th General meeting: Boston and Mag- 
nolia, Mass., June 14-20, 1902. 


Preliminary announcements of the 1902 
meeting give the following facts: 

The 24th general conference of the Ameri- 
can Library Association will be held in Bos- 
ton and Magnolia, Mass., beginning June 14, 
1902. The general plan may be thus out- 
lined : 

Saturday, June 14, 9 a.m. Delegates will 
assemble in lecture hall of the Boston Pub- 
lic Library, where brief exercises will be held. 
Morning and afternoon will be devoted to 
visits to the principal libraries of Boston and 

Sunday-Monday, June 15-16. Delegates 
may continue their stay in Boston for visits 
to libraries or points of historic interest, or 
may go to Magnolia, where the general con- 
vention will open Monday evening. 

Monday, June 16. Sessions of council, spe- 
cial boards, committees, etc., at Magnolia; 
general arrival of delegates in late afternoon ; 
informal social session in evening. 

Tuesday-Friday, June 17-20. General busi- 
ness sessions at Magnolia. Not more than 
two general sessions will be held each day, 
and provision will be made for the usual 
simultaneous section, round table, and special 
meetings. The National Association of State 
Librarians will hold its annual meeting, of 
two sessions, and there will be meetings of 
the state library associations of Maine, Massa- 
chusetts, New Hampshire, and other states, 
and of library school alumni associations, etc. 

Saturday, June 21. Departure for post- 
conference excursions, of which particulars 
will be announced later, but which will proba- 

bly include a, trip of inspection of public li- 
braries, b tour of historic towns, c pleasure 
excursions to (i) White Mountains and (2) 
Maine coast. Final adjournment June 27. 

J. C. Dana has been appointed a member 
of the committee on A. L. A. Exhibit at 
Louisiana Purchase Exposition, vice R. R. 
Bowker, resigned. The duties of the com- 
mittee, which now consists of Messrs. Dewey, 
Crunden, Dana, and Miss Plummer, are to 
co-operate with the exposition directors and 
the directors of the St. Louis Public Library 
in arranging for a complete and satisfactory 
library exhibit at the Louisiana Purchase Ex- 
position, and, if requested, to furnish advice 
and suggestions in regard to the design of 
the building and the arrangements of exhibit. 

State Xibrarp Commissions. 

Miss F. B. Kane, librarian, State Library, 

The commission issued on Jan. n an earn- 
est appeal for public subscriptions to enable 
it to continue the work so well begun through 
Miss Kane, its librarian and organizer. It 
stated that a point had been reached "where 
active, energetic and effective work on its 
part for the present season must cease" un- 
less more adequate financial support was re- 
ceived from the people of the state. Several 
months since a gift of $iop was offered to 
the commission, on condition that $400 be 
contributed by others, and earnest efforts to 
raise this amount are now being made. 

Henry, secretary, State Library, Indian- 

The commission will conduct a training 
school for librarians, at the state house, In- 
dianapolis, during the four weeks, April 17- 
May 15, 1902. The course will be conducted 
by Miss Merica Hoagland, library organizer, 
assisted by Miss Harriet L. Eaton, and lec- 
tures will be given by outside speakers. "Only 
those will be admitted who are creditably fill- 
ing library positions, or are under definite ap- 
pointments to them. Trustees are cordially 
invited to attend all lectures." No tuition fee 
is required of residents within the state; to 
others a fee of $10 will be charged. 
H. Chase, secretary, State Library, Con- 

The Bulletin of the commission for Decem- 
ber contains two excellent articles for the 
librarians of the smaller towns and villages 
on "Pictures, in a modest way," by Caro- 
line H. Garland, and "Library economy," in 
the sense of money-saving devices, by George 
Stockwell. There is also a sketch of the 
Nashua Public Library, with an illustration 
of its proposed building, and a careful refer- 
ence list on "New Hampshire local history." 



[February, 1902 

State Xibran? associations. 


President: Thomas H. Clark, Custodian of 
the Law Library, Library of Congress. 

Secretary: Hugh Williams, Library of Con- 

Treasurer: F. E. Woodward, nth and F. 
streets, N. W. 

The 6pth regular meeting of the District of 
Columbia Library Association was held at 
the Columbian University, Wednesday even- 
ing, Jan. 8, 1902, with the president, Thomas 
H. Clark, in the chair. 

The president stated that the absence of the 
secretary was due to his illness, and the min- 
utes of the last meeting not being in hand, 
their reading was dispensed with. Mr. W. L. 
Boyden was requested to act as secretary 
pro tern. 

The executive committee reported the elec- 
tion to membership of Miss C. Rosenbusch, 
of the Library of Congress, proposed by Miss 

A communication from the American Li- 
brary Association giving notice of the Boston 
and Magnolia Conference, commencing June 
14, was read and filed. 

The discussion for the evening, namely : 
"The work of a library association; the op- 
portunities of this association," was opened 
by Mr. W. D. Johnston, of the Library of 
Congress, and participated in by Dr. Adler 
and Messrs. Cole, Cutter, Dieserud, Solberg 
and Stefansson. 

After referring to some of his experiences 
as a student in the government libraries, Mr. 
Johnston described briefly the history of the 
investigation into the condition of the Li- 
brary of Congress conducted by the Joint 
Library Committee of Congress in the latter 
part of 1896, and the consequent attempt 
made in 1897 to reincorporate the American 
Library Association under the laws of the 
United States, with headquarters at Wash- 
ington, with a provision that the association, 
through its council or otherwise, should from 
time to time act as a visiting board of the 
national library. The incompleteness of the 
former and the failure of the latter, he ob- 
served, left certain duties to be performed by 
the District Library Association. These 
duties had been well defined by the Librarian 
of Congress in a paper upon local library as- 
sociations read before the second Interna- 
tional Library Conference in London, in 1897. 

The speaker then enumerated some of the 
problems which confront the libraries of the 
District, particularly the national library, de- 
scribed what had been done by the association 
in the past to solve these problems, and con- 
cluded by recommending that the association 
devote more attention, if possible, to these 

Mr. Dieserud, following a paper of his own, 
made the following motion : 

"The Library Association of the District 
of Columbia favors a program in which the 
literary and esthetic feature plays a more 
prominent part than has heretofore been the 
case, occupying, if possible, not less than one- 
fifth of the time available for the reading of 

The motion was laid upon the table, not in 
the formal sense, but as embodying the opin- 
ion of many of the members of the associa- 
tion, and to serve as advisory matter for the 
executive committee in making up programs. 

Mr. Woodward made a statement regarding 
the membership of the association, as follows : 
There are 181 members on the roll, at least 
77 of whom are in the Library of Congress, 
with a possible 10 or 12 more; 4 reside out 
of town; 16 are not employed under the gov- 
ernment, and 67 are employed in other libra- 
ries than the Library of Congress. Thirty- 
nine of these members joined during the year 

Mr. Johnston then presented the following 
motion : 

"That a committee be appointed to gather 
material for a bibliography of the libraries of 
the District, with power to make such expen- 
ditures out of the treasury of the association 
as may be necessary." 

The same on motion was referred to the 
executive committee, with instructions to re- 
port at the next meeting. 

The association then adjourned. About 60 
members were present. 


Secretary pro tern. 


President: C. S. Greene, Public Library, 

Secretary: R. E. Cowan, 829 Mission St., 
San Francisco. 

Treasurer: F. B. Graves, Public Library, 

The Library Association of California held 
its annual meeting on Jan. 17, 1902, and fol- 
lowing the usual custom it was preceded by 
a dinner at the California Hotel. The follow- 
ing officers were elected for 1902: President, 
Chas. S. Greene; vice-president, Miss Mary 
A. Walker; secretary, R. E. Cowan; treas- 
urer, F. B. Graves. Remarks were made by 
the president, Mr. Greene, and by Prof. 
Stringham, of the University of California, 
and Mr. John McNaught, of the San Fran- 
cisco Call. F. B. GRAVES. 


President: H. C. Wellman, Public Library, 

Secretary: G. E. Nutting, Public Library, 

Treasurer: Miss Theodosia Macurdy, Pub- 
lic Library, Boston. 

February, 1902] 


A meeting of the Massachusetts Library 
Club was held on Jan. 14 in Worcester, which 
was practically a joint meeting of the various 
library associations of the state. Members 
were present from the Massachusetts, the 
Western Massachusetts, the Bay Path, and 
the Cape Cod clubs. The session was held 
in the hall of the English high school, and was 
opened at 10.30 a.m. with H. C. Wellman, 
president of the Massachusetts club, in the 
chair. The first half-hour was devoted to 
business. There was a warm discussion as 
to the means of inducing publishers to re- 
duce the prices of books, which have recently 
been advanced, and it was voted to have the 
committee appointed to treat with the pub- 
lishers continue their work. 

At ii o'clock the regular program opened 
with a paper by Miss Ida Farrar of Spring- 
field, secretary of the Western Massachusetts 
library club, on "Library institutes in Massa- 
chusetts." She showed that these institutes 
are in line with other educational movements 
of the day. The American Library Associa- 
tion, covering the whole country, was the 
first concerted movement of librarians ; then 
came the state clubs ; then the local, and last 
the library institute, covering a section of 
from five to 10 towns and centering in the 
one most accessible. Its purpose is to awaken 
an interest in the library among the towns- 
people, to arouse discussion between libra- 
rians as to ways and means of developing 
the library and making it of greatest use to 
the people, and to bring to teachers and pu- 
pils a deeper realization of what the books 
in their midst may mean to them. The idea 
of an institute was first broached at the last 
union meeting of Massachusetts clubs, in 
October, 1900. Through letters sent out to 
librarians in the four western counties of the 
state, the secretary established a line of com- 
munication with nearly all the towns, and as- 
certained which ones would welcome the idea 
of an institute. Five have been held during 
the past year, representing in attendance be- 
tween 30 and 40 towns. Those who have 
been present as listeners have not been the 
only ones helped. The speakers have learned 
much from the devotion of the librarians in 
the smaller towns to their work. Many re- 
ceive only a nominal sum for their salary and 
sometimes devote even that to the purchase 
of books for their library ; time is given very 
freely in order to keep the books in repair 
and to accommodate the people. 

As yet the work is in an experimental stage 
and each meeting teaches new lessons. Most 
of the preparation has been made through 
correspondence, but the most successful insti- 
tute was one worked up by personal visits 
of two members of the club on librarians, 
trustees, ministers and members of school 

Miss M. A. Tarbell, president of the Bay 
Path Cub, spoke on "The relations of the 
state clubs to local clubs." After outlin- 
ing the development of the several library 

clubs of the state, and their affiliation, and 
describing the very different conditions and 
characteristics of the sections they represent, 
she said: "We are now confronted by this 
question, Shall each association work out 
its own problems, cultivate its own province 
independently, except by exchange of cour- 
tesies and of ideas, and assistance in the 
problems common to all? Or can the state 
club sustain a fostering relation to the others, 
and to all the libraries in the state those in 
sitting-rooms and meeting-houses and cor- 
ners of town halls, and the branches in mill 
offices, corner stores and electric car barps? 
Can a state association do many things for 
the general welfare that local clubs cannot 
do? and, on the other hand, can it carry 
brightness, encouragement and the sense of 
fellowship in a noble calling to the self-sac- 
rificing, often lonely, librarian in the little 
village or remote hill town? Can a state 
club help the library that has only $15 to 
spend for books to invest this most advan- 
tageously, as well as the one that has $5000? 

"I asked an eminent librarian, noted for 
pioneer work, if a state club has peculiar 
possibilities, for advancing library interests 
all over the state, and his answer was, 'Yes.' 
It is certain that a state club has more money 
more experience, more trained librarianship, 
more intercourse with other large associa- 
tions therefore more executive force and 
administrative power. Let us consider to-day 
what large things for the general good it can 
do. Let us also consider the more difficult 
question, Can the state club adapt itself in 
active helpfulness to all the varieties of library 
conditions, and lack of library conditions, in 
Massachusetts? Can its influence be exerted 
upon every community, the environment of 
every library, in the state? Can it unite in 
the sense of companionship, and inspire with 
new enthusiasm all those who are giving out 
books to the people of Massachusetts, whether 
they can be called librarians, in the profes- 
sional sense, or not? Is all this more feasi- 
ble because of the local clubs that have been 
lately organized?" 

This paper provoked a warm discussion, 
the gist of which went to prove that the local 
clubs understand the conditions of their com- 
munity and consequently can provide for 
them better than the larger state club can, 
but the state club should show its interest 
and add what it can in inspiration by sending 
a delegate to each meeting of the local clubs. 

The last address was by E. A. Oilman on 
"How periodicals are illustrated." The 
speaker had brought a variety of pictures 
representing wood engraving, steel engraving, 
zinc etching, photogravure, gelatine prints, 
lithographs, half-tones, etc., which were 
spread before the audience and copies of 
which were passed around. Not only the 
finished pictures, but also the processes and 
the blocks of wood and the plates on which 
the work is done were exhibited, and the de- 
velopment of illustration was traced from 



[February, 1902 

the earliest times to the artistic advertisements 
of modern days sent out even by junk-dealers. 
After dinner the party divided, visiting the 
libraries of the city, the Worcester Public, 
the Law Library, the American Antiquarian 
Society and the library at Clark LTniversity. 
At a joint executive committee meeting held 
in the afternoon plans of affiliated work and 
the desirability of another union meeting 
were discussed. 


President: Miss Edith Tobitt, Public Li- 
brary, Omaha. 

Secretary: Miss Clara Mullikin, State Uni- 
versity Library, Lincoln. 

Treasurer: Miss Margaret O'Brien, Public 
Library, Omaha. 

The seventh annual meeting of the Nebras- 
ka Library Association was held in Lincoln 
on Jan. i, when a dinner was given at the 
Lincoln Hotel, and a session followed in 
Palladium Hall, at the State University. 
The address of J. I. Wyer, the president, 
was a summary of library work in the state 
during the year. He said that the six larg- 
est libraries in the state are now, in the or- 
der of size, Omaha Public Library, the Uni- 
versity of Nebraska Library, Nebraska State 
Library, Peru Normal Library, Creighton 
College Library and Lincoln City Library. 
These six libraries number to-day about 195,- 
ooo volumes, as against 143,000 in 1896. The 
Omaha Public Library is the largest in the 
state, with nearly 60,000 volumes. During the 
past year it has established the first branch 
library in Nebraska. The library of the Uni- 
versity of Nebraska is growing steadily, hav- 
ing added something over 6000 volumes dur- 
ing the past year, making a total of about 
53,000 volumes. It is the largest reference 
library in the whole tier of states from North 
Dakota to Texas. 

The characteristics of the other libraries 
mentioned were briefly noted ; and the library 
legislation of the year and the work of the 
state commission were reviewed, while the 
new libraries established or under way were 
also described. 

Miss Bullock, secretary of the state library 
commission, reported upon the activities of 
that body during the year, contrasting the 
conditions that prevailed in the east and in 
the west. A useful "question box" was con- 
ducted by Miss Tobitt, of the Omaha Public 

The election of officers resulted as follows : 
President, Miss Edith Tobitt; 1st vice-presi- 
dent, Miss Jane Abbott. Lincoln City Libra- 
ry; 2d vice-president, Miss Rulon, Peru Nor- 
mal School ; secretary, Miss Mullikin, Uni- 
versity of Nebraska Library; treasurer, Miss 
O'Brien, Public Library, Omaha. The next 
meeting of the association will be held in 

Xibrarp Clubs. 


President: H. L. Elmendorf, Buffalo Pub- 
lic Library. 

Secretary: R. F. Morgan, Grosvenor Li- 

The Library Club of Buffalo met in the 
rooms of the Buffalo Historical Society. Jan. 
29, 1902, Mr. Elmendorf in the chair. In the 
absence of Miss Hawkins of the Buffalo Pub- 
lic Library, the chairman of the home libra- 
ries committee, the report was made by Mr. 
Walter Brown. 

The work is fast outgrowing the experi- 
mental period. Several of the home libraries 
have been started, and are looked after by 
some who volunteer to see that the books are 
properly used and cared for. 

The report of the committee on library 
institutes was made by the chairman, E. D. 
Strickland, of the Buffalo Historical Society. 
The committee suggested that the institute 
for the Buffalo district be held in the city of 
Buffalo some time in May, probably Memorial 
Day. Mrs. Elmendorf, secretary of the New 
York State Association, asked that the com- 
mittee make definite arrangements as to date, 
hours of meeting, program, etc., so that she 
might send the report to Albany at an early 

The club is trying in other ways to enter- 
tain and educate the citizens of Buffalo. The 
topic for the evening was the "Evening use 
of school houses" and the club was addressed 
by Hon. Henry P. Emerson, superintendent 
of the Department of Education of Buffalo. 
Mr. Emerson tried to lead the zeal expressed 
by the club into the right channel, by telling 
them of the obstacles that would have to be 
surmounted in order to get good results. 

Miss E. M. Chandler, of the Buffalo Pub- 
lic Library, read a bright paper on the "Li- 
brary club possibilities in aiding this work." 
Miss Chandler suggested how the rooms of 
the school buildings could be opened not only 
for lecture courses, but for reading rooms, and 
perhaps for games, etc. The attendants could 
be secured by volunteers from the library 

The topic was discussed by J. N. Larned, 
Henry P. Richmond and others. It was 
thought that the use of school houses in this 
way would give centers for helpful neighbor- 
hood gatherings, that would be at once edu- 
cational and interesting. They would reach 
many who are outside of the influence of the 
public library. Mr. Elmendorf was asked to 
appoint a committee of three to act in con- 
junction with the committee of the School 
Association and the board of school exam- 
iners to devise a plan of work, and to peti- 
tion the common council of Buffalo to aid 
the club in this, its new venture. 

R. F. MORGAN, Secretary. 

February, 1902] 




President: Camillo von Klenze, University 
of Chicago. 

Secretary: A. G. S. Josephson, John Crerar 

Treasurer: C. B. Roden, Public Library. 

The second regular meeting of the season 
was held at the residence of Mr. F. I. Car- 
penter, 5533 Woodlawn avenue. 

After the minutes of the previous meeting 
had been read and approved, the secretary re- 
ported that Mrs. M. H. Wilmarth, vice-presi- 
dent of the society, had resigned from the 
council, and that the vacancy had been filled 
by the election of Mr. J. W. Thompson, al- 
ready member of the council, to be vice- 
president, and of Mr. W. S. Merrill to be 
member of the council. The secretary also 
reported that the suggestion that a commis- 
sioner of bibliography be appointed at the 
Louisiana Purchase Exposition had so far re- 
ceived endorsement by the American Histori- 
cal Association, the Wisconsin State Histor- 
ical Society, the New York Historical So- 
ciety, President C. W. Eliot, of Harvard Uni- 
versity, and the directors of the John Crerar 
Library. Mr. Thompson read, in the ab- 
sence of Mr. Merrill, the report of the com- 
mittee on founding a national bibliographical 
society, in part as follows: 

"Although you are all familiar with the 
recommendation of the committee, as stated 
in their circular to members, I will repeat it 
here: 'The committee endorse the opinion of 
Mr. Andrews, given at the Waukesha meet- 
ing, viz., that the Chicago society go on a 
year or so longer, and issue a couple of credit- 
able publications, thereby proving its reason 
for existence, and drawing more non-resi- 
dent members to its ranks. At the moment 
when these outnumber the resident members 
it would be in order to change the name and 
organization of the society, and enlarge plans 
and field of work.' 

"This proposition was submitted to all 
members and to a number of outsiders 
for approbation or criticism. 112 copies 
were sent out, and up to Jan. 27 43 replies 
have been received. The returns when 
tabulated stand, in so far as they agree, as 
follows : 32 approve the plan of the commit- 
tee, 5 want local societies, 2 want a national 
society at once, 2 want Chicago to be the 
nucleus of the new society, 3 make special 
suggestions, and 3 are non-committal. . . . 

"Miss Mabel Mcllvaine has a special sug- 
gestion: 'A class of persons who, if properly 
directed, might be useful in co-operative bib- 
liographical work are the graduates from li- 
brary schools. Might we not suggest themes 
for the bibliographies compiled by these stu- 
dents and then enlarge and edit them? If 
every library in the country recognized bib- 
liography as a part of its proper duties, and 
gave its employes a portion of time for com- 
pilation, it would be profitable to all concerned.' 

"As the plan of the committee has been 

strongly endorsed by our correspondents, and 
as the suggestions offered, while of value in 
themselves, seem to call for no essential mod- 
ification in the plan proposed, the committee 
beg to report that they favor enlarging the 
non-resident membership of the society, and 
maintaining a high standard of scholarship 
in its publications until it shall deserve the 
name of the Bibliographical Society of Amer- 
ica, with all that such a title should imply. 

"The form suitable for such a national so- 
ciety, whether a central one with local 
branches, or a federation of local societies 
this is a matter for consideration when the 
time and circumstances arrive favorable for 
forming a national organization. 


The committee was continued, and asked to 
communicate with bibliographers and libra- 
rians not yet connected with the society, and 
to make its final report at a meeting of resi- 
dent and non-resident members of the society 
to be held in connection with the meeting of 
the A. L. A. in June. 

Mr. J. W. Thompson then moved that the 
society recommend to librarians of certain li- 
braries that some time be granted to mem- 
bers of their staff for independent biblio- 
graphical work, as had been suggested by 
Miss Mcllvaine. This motion was amended 
by Mr. F. I. Carpenter to the effect that the 
council be requested to formulate some plan 
to carry out this suggestion, and was then 
accepted. A short paper on "Some biblio- 
graphical desiderata and the ways and means 
to carry them out" was then read by Mr. 
Josephson, who said, in part : 

"The function of bibliography, I take it, 
is the recording, classification and evaluation 
of printed literature. Bibliographical research 
is the research into the literary sources of 
scientific investigation. The century just past 
has been one of unusual activity in the field 
of productive scholarship. The literary pro- 
duction of this period is simply immense. But 
it is only in a limited degree available to stu- 
dents on account of the scantiness and insuf- 
ficiency of bibliographical records. The first 
thing that an investigator into any subject 
usually has to do is to work out the bib- 
liography of it, thus spending on preliminary 
labor valuable time that could have been em- 
ployed to better purpose. There are certain 
minds to whom this kind of research has a 
peculiar attraction ; but it may be doubted 
whether the most vigorous and original of 
investigators are to be found among them, or 
whether these are not just the ones who feel 
this preliminary digging to be a distasteful 
drudgery. If a division of the field could be 
made by which the productive scholars could 
be relieved from the preliminary search after 
sources, and this work done for them by per- 
sons particularly fitted for that kind of work, 
it would be a great boon. It is my belief that 
before many years have gone we will have 
well on the way a central institute where bib- 


[February, 1902 

liographical research will be carried out in the 
interest of productive scholarship. Such an 
institute must be international in character 
and affiliations. As there is a great mass of 
literature that is not to be found on this side 
of the ocean, and that very likely never will 
be found here, it would be necessary to estab- 
lish relations with scientific institutions in 
Europe or to found special affiliated insti- 
tutes there." Three special undertakings were 
outlined : a bibliography of bibliographies, a 
bibliography of serials, and a bibliography of 
incunabula. The first "should not be made 
in one single volume, but as a series of mono- 
graphs, each dealing with the bibliography 
of a subject or group of subjects. It should 
be made in co-operation by bibliographers and 
specialists." The second should include or- 
dinary periodicals, serials, transactions, etc., 
giving changes of titles, publishers and edi- 
tors, frequency of issue, etc. As to the third, 
Mr. Josephson described Dziatzko's "Plan 
eines aller bekannten und noch zu ermitteln- 
den Wiegendrucke umfassenden katalogs," 
printed in no. 14 of his "Sammlung biblio- 
thekswissenschaftlicher Arbeiten," Leipzig, 
1901. To carry out these plans a bibliographi- 
cal institute, on lines previously described, 
was necessary. "Its location should be in 
New York or Washington, so as to be near 
the largest library centers and not too dis- 
tant from Europe. It should have staff of- 
ficers in such centers as Chicago and San 
Francisco, and also in London, Paris, Berlin, 
and Rome, at least. Its staff should consist 
not only of bibliographers, but of scientists 
in various fields. The institute should under- 
take bibliographical work on its own initiative 
and also compile special lists to order. The 
entries should all be made uniform, and each 
entry electrotyped so as to be always available 
for future use. The cost of running an insti- 
tution of this kind I have calculated at about 
$50,000 a year. Sale of its publications might 
be expected to bring in some money, but 
hardly more than to cover the cost of print- 
ing. What is needed, therefore, is an endow- 
ment." Mr. Josephson ended with a plea that 
the society "make suggestions to persons or 
institutions that might be likely to take in- 
terest in the founding of such an institute." 

In the discussion that followed Mr. Thomp- 
son mentioned among the desiderata a bibliog- 
raphy of glossaries. A bibliography of ar- 
ticles in scientific periodicals was also men- 
tioned, and Mr. Carpenter expressed the hope 
that the influence of the society might tend 
to improve the character of general bibliog- 
raphies, which were at the present time made 
up chiefly of titles of popular articles. 

Mr. Thompson suggested the possibility that 
the Carnegie Institution might interest itself 
in the establishment of a bibliographical insti- 
tute. On motion the question as to what the 
society could do to promote the plan was re- 
ferred to the council. 

AKSEL G. S. JOSEPHSON, Secretary. 


President: A. G. S. Josephson, John Crerar 

Secretary: C. R. Perry, Public Library. 

Treasurer: C. A. Torrey, University of 

A regular meeting was held Jan. 9 at Han- 
del Hall, President Josephson in the chair. 

Miss Harriot E. Hasder, John Crerar Li- 
brary, and Miss Estellc Lutrell, University 
of Chicago Library, were elected to member- 
ship. Mr. C. B. Rpden was appointed a mem- 
ber of the committee on future work, vice 
H. W. Gates, resigned ; and announcement 
of the Boston-Magnolia conference of the 
A. L. A. was made. 

The following formal program had been ar- 
ranged in commemoration of the loth anni- 
versary of the first regular meeting of the 
club, which was held Jan. 8, 1892: 

Address: The Chicago Library Club; its 
founding and early history, by Mrs. Zella 
Allen Dixson, University of Chicago. 

Address : The Chicago Library Club ; its 
present and future, by Carl B. Roden, 
Chicago Public Library. 

Reminiscences by members. 

An informal social, with music, readings 
and refreshments followed, and although the 
club quarters were somewhat crowded the 75 
people present seemed to have an enjoyable 

Mrs. Dixson said in part: 

"We have come here to-night to celebrate 
the loth birthday anniversary of the Chicago 
Library Club. I am to give you a very brief 
outline of the circumstances that formed the 
environment of the birth and early infancy of 
this vigorous young child. A printed circular 
setting forth the desirability of a city club 
composed of those who were interested in 
library matters was given a wide distribution. 
On Dec. 17, 1891, 18 librarians met at the 
Newberry Library to effect an organization. 
After an informal discussion the meeting 
adopted a constitution and elected its officers, 
making Dr. Wm. F. Poole its first president. 
The advent of the club was at a time of 
precious opportunity when the library history 
of Chicago was turning its brightest pages. 
The Newberry was bringing into the city rich 
collections of rare and out-of-print books, the 
Chicago Public had just accepted the plans of 
its new building; the University of Chicago 
had just moved its library from its temporary 
quarters at Morgan Park to the Chicago cam- 
pus; Armour Institute, the John Crerar and 
the Evanston Public were beginning to be 
something more than a rumor. At just this 
point in the library history of Chicago came 
the Library Club. This environment was re- 
flected in the meetings themselves. During 
its early history the club had no home, no 
regular place of meeting. It was customary 
to accept an invitation from one of the libra- 
ries represented in the club to meet with it. 
This plan had both advantages and disadvan- 

February, 1902] 


tages. It was a good thing to have the mem- 
bers visit in turn each of the libraries, and 
indirectly it afforded exercise and the broad- 
ening effect of travel to have the club meet 
one month at Pullman, the next at Oak Park, 
then Morgan Park, Evanston, South Park 
and the North Side. But there were also the 
trials and sufferings of the executive com- 
mittee anticipation as to where the next 
meeting was to be held, despair as the days 
passed and no invitation was received. When 
one did come the weather man had to be con- 
sidered. An accepted invitation to the Uni- 
versity of Chicago was more than once ac- 
companied by the worst blizzard of the sea- 
son. And yet the club grew and prospered. 
During its first year the club undertook to 
start an Illinois State Library Association, 
but the enthusiasm seemed to be confined to 
Chicago, for the effort failed. It was not until 
1896 that the Chicago Library Club succeeded 
in bringing into existence the state associa- 
tion. During the World's Fair the club be- 
came the local committee for the entertain- 
ment of the visiting A. L. A. members. In 
1894 the club suffered an irreparable loss in 
the death of Dr. Poole. In 1895 the club pub- 
lished its first manual, giving names and ad- 
dresses of the libraries of Chicago and vicin- 
ity, and also a short historical and descriptive 
account of each." 

Mr. Roden said in part: 

''We have lived 10 years ; we have elected 
10 executive committees, no two of which 
have ever interpreted their duties alike, but 
all of which, with varying views, have suc- 
ceeded in the ultimate object of keeping the 
club alive, and interest in it at least above the 
freezing point. Our membership is large, and 
though we are, broadly speaking, all engaged 
in the same occupation, that occupation is 
still too much a matter of individual opinion 
rather than of scientific principles, and its 
various departments are too sharply set off 
and specialized to permit their being treated 
in a manner uniformly interesting to all in 
such an association. Still we may say safely 
that, by their very diversity, these meetings 
must, at some time, have provided something 
of use for each one. Meanwhile, through the 
wisdom of one of our presidents in selecting 
the chairman of a committee, and the unalter- 
ing devotion of that chairman to an endless 
task, the name of the Chicago Library Club 
appears upon the title-page of a most credit- 
able publication, which in itself is ample rea- 
son for the clubs existence, and its justifica- 
tion for a full measure of pride in itself, and, 
more than that, a plain sign post toward a 
useful future. 

"We have a pleasant organization, affording 
a much-needed point of contact for a number 
of busy people, from many places, with many 
interests, and many ways of doing the same 
thing; we have a club which stands before 
the world as the representative of Chicago's 
interest in the library field, and the extension 
of that field within the city, during the period 

of our corporate existence, has been truly 
wonderful ; we have a membership embrac- 
ing a very large percentage of those engaged 
in library work within the limits of our juris- 
diction. But, I think, that besides the pres- 
ent of which we need not be ashamed we 
have a future, and a wide field before us. 

"Here in Chicago we have made a good be- 
ginning. Our 'Union list of periodicals' is a 
much-needed and much-appreciated library 
tool, but there are many besides which might 
be produced of equal value. I believe that a 
system of committees, each one charged with 
some task, the accomplishment of which shall 
be of common benefit, would tend to bind the 
club together a little more closely and stimu- 
late not only the interest but also the pride of 
members in it. I would not advocate the re- 
striction of such tasks to mere library aids, 
lists, and handbooks, and I would be very 
strongly opposed to the undertaking of any 
purely bibliographical labors, but I would fol- 
low the spirt of co-operation into fresh fields 
and pastures new ; even the fields of municipal 
improvement, of library extension, and of ac- 
tive participation in the various plans for civic 
betterment which are springing up so plenti- 

"Something of this kind is now, nominally 
at least, being done. We have a committee 
charged with the duty of compiling accurate 
statistics of the libraries of the city and 
county; we have another committee on the li- 
brary at the Cook county jail; we have a 
representative on the school extension com- 
mittee created by a number of local societies. 
This is the day of strenuous life ; let this club 
join the procession; let it cease to be a mere 
gathering place, rather let it become the out- 
ward and visible sign of the inward and spir- 
itual grace which moves in the library world." 
CHESLEY R. PERRY, Secretary. 


President: Miss W. M. Plummer, Pratt In- 
stitute Library. 

Secretary: Miss M. S. Draper, Children's 
Museum Library. 

Treasurer: Miss Mabel Farr, Adelphi Col- 
lege Library. 

The February meeting of the Long Island 
Library Club was held at the Pratt Institute 
Free Library on Thursday, Feb. 6, at 3 
o'clock. The program was interesting, and 
brought together a large attendance of mem- 
bers of the club, students of the library school, 
and others. The walls of the lecture-room 
were closely covered with beautiful water- 
color paintings of flowers by Mrs. Rowan, 
which gave an added interest to the occasion. 

The meeting was called to order by the 
president. The treasurer's report was read 
and accepted, and was followed by a report of 
the committee on districting the Island for 
library interests, signed by Miss Plummer, 
chairman. Three meetings have been held by 
the committee. A sub-committee of three 
members was appointed to draw up a circular, 


[February, 1902 

to be sent to every library on the Island. 
The committee recommended that 200 copies 
of the circular should be printed and dis- 
tributed. The circular as prepared by the 
committee was then read by the secretary 
and approved by the club. A formal vote 
was passed as follows : That the report of the 
committee should be accepted, that the circu- 
lar should be printed as recommended and the 
committee should be continued. 

The first address was made by Miss Hazel- 
tine, president of the state association, on 
the subject of library institutes. The speaker 
outlined the development of the idea from its 
suggestion at Lake Placid, and said that like 
the Teacher's Institute, the aim is to give not 
only information, but inspiration. In accor- 
dance with the spirit of the proposed plan, 
five persons volunteered to give such assis- 
tance as they are able to any librarians de- 
siring it. 

The president announced that a special 
meeting of the club would be held by invita- 
tion at the rooms of the Grolier Club, on 
Friday, Feb. 21, at three o'clock. 

Action was taken on an amendment to the 
constitution, in relation to the election of 
officers. It was voted that article iv., sec- 
tion i, should read, "Nomination shall be 
made in the following manner: the president 
shall appoint a nominating committee, which 
may present at the same meeting two tickets 
to be voted for by ballot. Those candidates 
receiving the highest number of votes shall 
be considered elected." The names of three 
persons were presented and accepted for mem- 

The subject "Photographs and other illus- 
trative material in reference work" was then 
discussed by Miss Romiett Stevens of the 
Pratt Institute High School, Miss Julia Os- 
good of Boston, Miss Bertha Bass of Bar- 
nard College, Miss Alice Stevens of the Girls' 
High School, and Mr. E. W. Gaillard, libra- 
rian of the Webster Free Library, New York. 
The first speaker showed how her pupils are 
aided in the study of Greek and Roman his- 
tory by the use of photographs of the famous 
buildings, or of the statues of the gods and 
heroes. It is impossible to give properly the 
impression of life without pictures. Miss 
Osgood advocated the use always of the best 
pictures that can be procured, as the cheaper 
reproductions do not give what artists call 
"values." Miss Bass related in how many 
pleasant ways the students of the Polytechnic 
Institute were aided in their study of history 
by the use of photographs placed in the class- 
room. Miss Alice Stevens called attention to 
the fact that the portraits of rulers and lead- 
ers could be used to great advantage in con- 
nection with the study of modern history, 
throwing light on their characters. Mr. Gail- 
lard suggested that as all librarians cannot 
have fine pictures, but must use some of a 
very cheaper kind, other illustrative material 
may be used and lent as well as books, such 
as minerals, casts of statues, anatomical 

models, boxes of specimens illustrating the 
life history of insects, etc. 

A subject of very practical interest to many 
of the librarians was presented by Miss Hunt, 
children's librarian at the Newark Free Public 
Library, in her paper on the "Classification 
of children's story books," printed elsewhere 
(see p. 65.) 

MIRIAM S. DRAPER, Secretary. 


President: Dr. Morris Jastrow, Jr., Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. 

Secretary: L. E. Hewitt, Law Association 
Library, 600 City Hall, Philadelphia. 

Treasurer: Miss M. Z. Cruice, American 
Philosophical Society, Philadelphia. 

A postponed stated meeting of the club was 
held on Nov. 18 last in the lecture hall of the 
Pennsylvania Historical Society, Dr. Morris 
Jastrow presiding. There, with the portraits 
of distinguished civil and military Pennsyl- 
vanians looking down on them, the club lis- 
tened to a most interesting address by Judge 
Samuel W. Pennypacker. 85 persons attended 
the meeting. The subject of the address was 
"The early German press of Pennsylvania." 
The speaker prefaced his remarks by a num- 
ber of stories illustrative of the elements 
which went to compose the Pennsylvania 
population. The religious orders were pre- 
ceded by Peter Cornelius Plockhoy, who de- 
clared in 1662 that no slavery should exist 
in his community on the Delaware; the story 
of James Annesley, grandson of the duke of 
Buckingham, was used as a reminder of the 
individuals driven by oppression or craft of 
one kind or another to a more noble and gen- 
erous Pennsylvania. These stories aptly in- 
troduced the prints which Judge Pennypacker 
displayed. There were religious volumes 
from Sauer's Germantown press and from the 
bindery of the mystics at Ephrata. There 
was the patriotic almanac of Francis Bailey, 
with a device of Washington on horseback, 
and describing him in German as the Father 
of his Country the first known description 
of Washington in those terms. There were 
some of the almanacs so congenial to the 
thrifty farmers from the Rhine provinces and 
to the equally thrifty Scotch-Irish. These 
and other prints attracted much attention, 
and were examined with interest after the dis- 
course. A discussion followed, participated 
in by Prof. M. D. Lamed, J. G. Rosengarten, 
Julius F. Sachse, Dr. Jastrow, Mr. John 

Mr. Thomson stated that the new Keystone 
State Library Club had appointed a commit- 
tee to consider the differentiation of fictional 

On Jan. 13, 1902, the club again met, 
this time at the beautiful building of the H. 
Josephine Widener Branch of the Free Li- 
brary, at Broad st. and Girard avenue. The ex- 
ecutive committee had decided to try the effect 

February, 1902] 



of inclosing two invitation cards with the no- 
tices of the meeting, in order that the mem- 
bers might send invitations to friends. Per- 
haps partly on this account, and partly also 
on account of the expectation of an interest- 
ing address, 150 persons attended the meeting. 
The speaker was Miss Mary Upton, a grad- 
uate of the Drexel Institute Library School 
and recently with Sanderson, the London ar- 
tistic bookbinder. Her subject was "The craft 
of bookbinding." After a historical review 
of the subject, she described present efforts 
at artistic development, and explained some of 
the practical work. Col. Nicholson then gave 
a brief survey of the artistic work in book- 
binding done in Philadelphia, a work which 
he said received an impetus at the time of the 
Centennial Exhibition. Mr. Kates expressed 
the pleasure which the club felt at hearing 
Miss Upton's address. 

Dr. Jastrow expressed the feeling of amused 
surprise with which he discovered, on one 
occasion, a poem of 100 pages which some 
lover of binding had written on that subject. 

Mr. Bowerman, of the Wilmington Library, 
moved the appointment of a committee to 
consider the subject of the negotiations with 
publishers for the purpose of securing fur- 
ther reductions in the net prices of books, this 
committee to report at the Atlantic City con- 
ference with the New Jersey Club. The presi- 
dent appointed as the committee Mr. Bower- 
man, Mr. Montgomery, of the Wagner Insti- 
tute, in Philadelphia, and Miss Randall, of 
the University of Pennsylvania. 

Announcements were made by Mr. Thom- 
son, as A. L. A. delegate, of the meeting of 
the Library Association, to be held next sum- 
mer at Magnolia near Boston. Announce- 
ment was also made of the bi-state meeting 
at Atlantic City, beginning March 14 next, to 
be participated in by the New Jersey and 
Pennsylvania clubs. 

Scboote an& 




The training school reopened for the au- 
tumn term on Sept. 30, 1901, and closed for 
the Christmas vacation Dec. 21. After a 
week of preliminary lectures upon library 
work in general, with visits to all the branch 
libraries, the regular school schedule was put 
in operation, lectures being given each morn- 
ing by members of the library staff. The lec- 
tures bearing directly on library work in- 
cluded order department routine, classifica- 
tion, government of children's rooms, anno- 
tation of children's books, studies in litera- 
ture preparatory to the story hour, with the 
theory and practice of story-telling. Other 
subjects designed to give the student a broad- 
er knowledge of how to work with children, 
and a knowledge of the social conditions of 
the time, were civic education, children's 

games, and Froebel's philosophy as expressed 
in his "Education of man" and "Mother play." 
In addition to these, the students have lis- 
tened to a number of outside lectures, includ- 
ing those given by Prof. R. G. Moulton in the 
University Extension course on "Stories as 
a mode of thinking," also two lectures by Miss 
Susan E. Blow, author of "Symbolic educa- 
tion," on "The root of deception and how to 
uproot it" and "The awakening of the ideal." 
Special lectures were also given the students 
by members of the faculty of the Pittsburgh 
and Allegheny Kindergarten College, one by 
Miss Georgia Allison, supervisor of kinder- 
gartens, on "How to tell stories to children," 
another by Miss Ruth Tappan on "Psychology 
as an aid in the selection of children's books." 
For practical work each member of the first 
year class and each special student was as- 
signed to one of the six children's rooms, her 
work being under the direct supervision of 
the librarian, and of the children's librarian of 
that branch. At the end of eight weeks each 
student was transferred to another children's 
room, and transfers will continue to be made 
at intervals of eight weeks throughout the 
year. In this way the members of the class 
gain experience in working among children 
of all sorts and conditions. Members of the 
senior class, however, having had this varied 
experience, are scheduled to one branch chil- 
dren's room for the year, in this way gaining 
a connected view of the work. Each student 
is also assigned to a home library group which 
she visits weekly, and is given special work in 
connection with the city schools, to which she 
devotes one afternoon each week. 

The following is a list of the students for 

Senior class. 

Jessie M. Carson, Pittsburgh, Pa. Appointed, 
in July, 1901, assistant in charge of chil- 
dren's room, Hazelwood branch, Carnegie 
Library of Pittsburgh. 

Helen Underwood Price, Kent, Ohio. Ober- 
lin, 1897-1898. 

Lilian Rode, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Junior class. 

Edna May Cullis, Oil City, Pa. 

Cora K. Dunnells, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Alice Gordon Goddard, Zanesville, Ohio. Ap- 
prentice in Utica (N. Y.) Public Library, 
Sept.-May, 1898. 

Josephine Louise Gutman, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Florence Janney Heaton, Hamilton, Va. A. 
B. Woman's College of Baltimore, 1901. 

Maria Louise Kennard, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Annabelle Porter, Kent, Ohio. 

Hannah Stuart, Springfield, 111. 

Special students. 

Elva Sophronia Smith, South Pasadena, Cal. 
Los Angeles Public Library Training Class, 

Marie Martin Smith, Philadelphia, Pa. New 
York State Library School, 1899-1900. Gen- 
eral assistant (including 'work in children's 
room) in Buffalo Public Library, 1900-1901. 



[February, 1902 


The annual display of picture bulletins 
made by students of the library school at- 
tracted much attention in the library exhibit 
alcove. Among the subjects chosen for bul- 
letins were: Coronations, Isthmian canal, 
Our animal friends, The stellar universe, 
James Russell Lowell, Some interesting books 
on domestic science, etc. 

The work of the second term began Feb. 3. 

Miss Inez Mortland, class of '01, has been 
engaged as temporary cataloger in the Louis- 
iana State University Library, Baton Rouge, 

Miss Annie F. Petty, class of '99, assisted 
by Miss Louise F. Buhrman, class of '99, or- 
ganized the Public Library of Greensboro', 
N. C, which was opened in January. 


Mr. Clement W. Andrews, librarian of the 
John Crerar Library, has accepted an invi- 
tation from the N. Y. State Library School 
Alumni Association to fill the Alumni lec- 
tureship this year. He will give three ad- 
dresses on "The bibliography of science," 
June 2, 3 and 4. Former students are most 
cordially invited to attend the lectures. 

Miss Edith D. Fuller began her course in 
advanced dictionary cataloging Feb. i. It 
will be followed by the elementary course. 

The school will this year have the unusual 
opportunity of attending the annual meeting 
of the American Library Association. Only 
once before, in 1892. has it been feasible to 
arrange for the attendance of the entire school, 
though individual students have been fre- 
quently present and the majority attended 
the Chicago meeting in 1893. The last ex- 
amination this year will be held June n and 
the time from June 12 to 16 will be spent in 
visiting a few New England libraries. 



The course in works of reference for high 
school teachers, begun in October, 1901, 
ended the third week in January, 1902. 13 
teachers from the Girls' High School, teach- 
ers of English, literature, history, German, 
and French, applied for the course, which was 
arranged especially for them, and there were 
seldom fewer than n in attendance on 
the 10 weekly lectures. The following classes 
of books were taken up: General encyclopae- 
dias, Dictionaries, Biographical dictionaries, 
Reference books in literature, music, art, re- 
ligion, geography, sociology, and Historical 
and miscellaneous reference books also a 
few generally useful trade bibliographies. 
When there was time, problems were given 
out to be looked up in the books mentioned 
in the day's lectures, and careful notes were 
taken. Expressions of satisfaction with the 
course were heard on every hand and of con- 
viction that the notes taken would be ex- 
ceedingly serviceable. The books referred to 

were brought into the class and examined, so 
that the acquaintance might be with the book 
as well as with the title. 

The class of 1902 will make the usual spring 
vacation visits to libraries, this year to those 
in Washington and Baltimore, the dates 
chosen being March 27 to April 3. It is 
quite likely that the school will also attend the 
A. L. A. conference in Boston and Magnolia 
from June 14 to 19, returning in time for the 
Pratt Institute commencement, the evening of 
the igth. 

During January the school had the pleas- 
ure of a visit from Mr. H. L. Elmendorf, of 
the Buffalo Public Library, and from Miss 
Isabel Ely Lord, of Bryn Mawr. Mr. Elmen- 
dorf talked to the class on the subject of 
"Open shelves," and Miss Lord's address 
was on "The qualifications of the college li- 
brarian." Both addresses were greatly en- 

In February the Library School had the 
pleasure of a visit from Mrs. Fairchild. of the 
New York State Library School, from Miss 
Hazeltine, of the James Prend,ergast Free 
Library, Jamestown. N. Y., and from Miss 
Hewins, of the Hartford Public Library. 
Mrs. Fairchild lectured before the school on 
the subject of Book annotation; Miss Hazel- 
tine on Some economies in small libraries 
followed by a short address on the work in 
children's libraries and Miss Hewins took 
up the subject of Book reviews as a guide to 
the librarian. The lectures were very much 
enjoyed by the students. 

Graduates' Association. 

The annual luncheon and business meeting 
of the Graduates' Association of the Pratt 
Institute Library School was held in New 
York on Jan. 30, 55 members being present. 

The association entertained Mrs. Fairchild 
of Albany as its guest of honor and received 
her brief address of greeting and good-fellow- 
ship with applause. She spoke of the solid- 
arity existing among library-school graduates 
as the result not of clannishness but of a 
unity of aim, and more especially of a simil- 
arity of point of view and breadth of vision 
which special educational training in any line 
gives, in contradistinction to that gained by 
entering the same field of work by other paths. 
This breadth of vision the library school 
seeks to give by teaching principles not facts 
and by fostering mental plasticity in the stu- 
dent for their application. 

Following Mrs. Fairchild's address, Miss 
Plummer read an interesting^ paper on the 
changes in the course of study in the Pratt 
Institute Library School since 1896, changes 
that have helped in placing the school on its 
present solid footing. The aim has been to 
give strength to the course by greater atten- 
tion to certain subjects and at the same time 
to insure elasticity in meeting individual 
needs, reached by a conservative introduction 
of the elective system. Miss Plummer's paper 

February, 1902] 



was written along the lines of a circular which 
had been sent out that the school might re- 
ceive the suggestions and criticism of its ac- 
tive graduates. She pointed out that certain 
suggestions made by them were not practica- 
ble, that others had already been adopted, 
and finally quoted excerpts from the answers 
received answers representative of the 
various fields of library work. 

After the speeches, the necessary business 
of the association was discharged, reports 
were heard, officers for the year elected and 
the constitution amended. Miss Rathbone 
made an informal report on the Lake Placid 
meeting of last fall. New officers were elected 
as follows : President, Susan A. Hutchinson, 
librarian of the Brooklyn Institute; vice- 
president, Susan Clendenin, of the Y. W. C. 
A. Library, New York; secretary, Annie 
Katharine Emery, of the Brooklyn Public 
Library; treasurer, Annie Mackenzie, Pratt 
Institute Free Library. 

After voting to use the surplus funds of 
the association for the purpose of a complete 
home library outfit for the Library Chapter 
of the Neighborhood Association of Pratt In- 
stitute, the meeting adjourned. 


Acting secretary. 


CHICAGO LIBRARY CLUB. A list of serials in 
public libraries of Chicago and Evanston : 
corrected to January, 1901. Chicago, 1901. 
O. 185 p. pap. 

It requires but a glance at this list, a true 
labor of love, to realize both its importance 
to Chicago libraries and the great difficulties 
which must have been encountered by its edi- 
tors. Here we have within less than 200 
pages a means whereby a scholar can dis- 
cover whether a desired file of a periodical 
is to be found in the city, whether the journal 
is currently received, and just where he can 
get it among the 15 libraries co-operating in 
the issue of the list. In any city such a list 
would be a great boon to investigators of all 
ranks, and in a city of magnificent distances 
the time saved by this means is hardly cal- 
culable. The Chicago Library Club is to be 
congratulated on the completion of probably 
the most notable task hitherto undertaken by 
any local organization of librarians. 

The preface states that the time required to 
bring the list into its present form has been 
nearly five years. When we consider the great 
number of entries, over 8100 including refer- 
ences, and the fact that information from 15 
sources had to be assembled, edited, and re- 
duced to the shortest possible abbreviation 
before being sent to the printer, and further, 
when we remember that all the work has been 
contributed voluntarily by members of the 
club, the time in which the task has been done 

hardly appears excessive. The labors of edi- 
tor-in-chief have fallen on the shoulders of 
Mr. C. W. Andrews, of the John Crerar Li- 
brary, who has been assisted by a committee 
of nine members of the club, and by some 
30 collaborators. The money required to pay 
for the printing has been secured by a com- 
mittee of two, consisting of Mr. F. H. Hild, 
of the Chicago Public Library, and Mr. G. 
B. Meleney, of the Library Bureau. 

The following libraries, concerning each of 
which a brief description is given, co-oper- 
ated in furnishing material for the list: Ar- 
mour Institute of Technology, Art Institute, 
Chicago Academy of Sciences, Chicago Public 
Library, Evanston Free Public Library, Field 
Columbian Museum, Garrett Biblical Insti- 
tute, Chicago Theological Seminary (Ham- 
mond Library), John Crerar Library, Lewis 
Institute, Newberry Library, Northwestern 
University Library, St. Ignatius College Li- 
brary, the University of Chicago, and the 
Western Society of Engineers. The total 
number of volumes owned by these libraries 
on Jan. i, 1901, was a trifle over a million, 
with over 300,000 pamphlets. To get the total 
for the city and its chief suburb we should add 
the number of volumes in the libraries of the 
Chicago Historical Society and the Law Insti- 
tute. When we recall the disastrous fire of 
1871 it will be seen that the libraries of the 
city have kept pace with its rapid development 
in other lines. 

A certain discretion has been used in edit- 
ing the list which has reduced the number of 
entries of odd volumes and very small sets. 
The explanations given of the rules of entry 
and the arbitrary symbols adopted in the list 
show a practical and common-sense view of 
matters on which no little difference of 
opinion is likely to be encountered. 

The extremely abbreviated form of entry 
necessarily adopted for such a list results in 
some few peculiar titles. An extensive use of 
references has apparently reduced to a mini- 
mum the danger of misunderstanding and 
difficulty in finding titles. A number of tests 
on changed and confusing titles made by the 
reviewer has given uniformly satisfactory re- 
sults. Of course only long continued use can 
prove the accuracy of the entries and of the 
proofreading, but misprints seem to be ex- 
ceedingly rare. 

The John Crerar Library announces that 
it intends to print an annual cumulative sup- 
plement to the present list, should the useful- 
ness of the compilation prove great enough 
to warrant the undertaking. It is to be hoped 
that nothing will prevent the accomplishment 
of this design. Moreover it would be a for- 
tunate thing if other cities should follow the 
example of Chicago in this matter. A list 
of periodicals currently received is better than 
nothing, but we know from sad experience 
that the presence of a periodical on the cur- 
rent list by no means implies that a complete 
file is on the shelves of the library. And also 



[February, 1902 

a list of current periodicals gives no clue to 
possible files of "dead" periodicals and those 
no longer taken by the library. 

Some observations on the problems of se- 
rials in libraries are naturally suggested by 
this compilation. That periodicals are a dis- 
tinct feature of the literary production of the 
last century, and that they have come to stay, 
seems beyond doubt. That libraries must fur- 
nish them and also such aids to their ready 
consultation as this list presents is equally 
clear. But that libraries should recklessly ac- 
quire periodicals without reckoning the cost 
of continuing sets, binding, and cataloging 
them does not follow. It is a surprise to find 
by a count of a number of pages in the present 
list that, if the same percentage holds good 
for the entire work, over 2500 entries in the 
6640 are of incomplete sets possessed by a 
single library, which at the same time neither 
end with the last volume published, nor are 
currently received. The difficulty of com- 
pleting such sets increases with every year ; 
the work required to complete them demands 
much time from a highly trained person, and 
altogether the difficulties of the whole mat- 
ter are so great that one is tempted in the 
interest of sound librarianship to advance 
the canon that incomplete sets whose com- 
pletion would be difficult should not be 
added to a library, and that a periodical list 
should not be suddenly inflated unless a care- 
ful view of the future income will permit the 
continuance of the expenditure not alone for 
subscriptions, but for the expenses resultant 
on keeping the files. 


Xibrarg Economy anfr trtstorg, 


THE Dial for Feb. I is a "library number" 
of much interest. It opens with an editorial 
on "The novel and the library," dealing with 
the efforts made to reduce the percentage of 
fiction issued from public libraries, and the 
need of "minimizing thoughtless reading" if 
the library is to be an agent of public educa- 
tion. Mr. Putnam's suggestion that no works 
of fiction be purchased by public libraries for 
at least a year after publication is referred to 
with approval. W. H. Brett contributes a 
paper upon "The public library: its purposes 
and possibilities;" and the reviews include 
Clark's "Care of books" and Richardson's 
"Classification." A. G. S. Josephson out- 
lines, in a communication, "What the Car- 
negie Institution could do for librarianship 
and bibliography." 

FOOTE, Elizabeth L. A successful Sunday- 
school library. (In Sunday-School Times, 
Jan. II, 1902. 44:19-20.) 
This article is the third of Miss Foote's 
series. It discusses methods of charging, ad- 
vertising, and the ideals of the librarian. 

Home Education Department, Bulletin 40. 
Travelling libraries: field and future of 
travelling libraries, by Melvil Dewey; sum- 
mary of travelling library systems, prep, by 
Myrtilla Avery. Albany, 1901. 155 p. O. 
25 c. 

A comprehensive and informing exposition 
of the growth, condition and prospects of the 
travelling library system, as carried on in the 
United States, Canada, and other countries. 
There are full statistics and many interesting 
reports of work. The field covered is re- 
markable in its extent and variety, and the 
bulletin is excellent "missionary" literature. 


Baltimore, Md. Enoch Pratt F. L. The 
plan of the Booklover's Library has suggested 
to librarians and others that people might be 
willing to pay to have books from the public 
library delivered to their homes. Last Au- 
gust the Enoch Pratt Free Library consulted 
a messenger service company of Baltimore 
with reference to the company's handling the 
home delivery of books for those who might 
be willing to pay for it. After a thorough 
examination of the whole subject the conclu- 
sion was reached that the service could not 
be carried on at a rate sufficiently low to make 
it popular. 

Recently a private individual, Mr. J. H. 
Franz, came to the library with a proposition 
to try the experiment of delivering books to 
the homes of the people for what he could 
make out of it. His plan is to take only a 
limited area of the city at first, so that the 
expense of delivery may be kept at the mini- 
mum. In this section he advertises the 
scheme thoroughly. He has eight drug stores 
as stations, so selected that no person in the 
section of the city included in his experiment 
has more than three or four blocks to go to a 
station. At these drug stores finding lists 
and library blanks are supplied. Orders for 
books with the borrowers' library cards are 
left at a drug store, where the charge for 
delivery, three cents per book, is collected. 
At least once a day these orders are collected 
by Mr. Franz who then delivers the books 
called for to the homes of the borrowers. 
When the borrower has finished using the 
book he leaves it at the drug store, for Mr. 
Franz to return to the library. 

The service between the library and the 
drug stores is performed by a man ; from the 
drug stores to the homes of the borrowers 
by a boy. Mr. Franz is of the opinion that 
he can reduce the cost of service to two cents 
per book, if there are enough books to be de- 
livered to keep a boy employed constantly for 
every afternoon. This experiment has not 
been in operation long enough to predict re- 
sults, but, whether successful or not, it is not 
without interest. S : H. R. 

February, 1902] 



Bangor (Me.) P. L. (iQth rpt. year end- 
ing Dec. 31, 1901.) Added 2182; total 49,823. 
Issued, home use 95,320 (fict. and juv. 77,- 
491) ; lib. use 26,052. Membership cards sold 
2502. Receipts $7514.64; expenses $7372.40. 

Braddock, Pa. Carnegie F. L. An abstract 
of the librarian's report for 1901 gives the fol- 
lowing facts : Added 5615 ; total 30,839. Is- 
sued, 184,553 (fict. 66%). New registration 
2272; total registration 10,497. The circula- 
tion showed a gain of 21,277 over that for 
1900, and in the fiction issue there is a reduc- 
tion of 3.7 %. 

Brooklyn (N. Y.) P. L. The library has 
issued in pamphlet form the "Agreement en- 
tered into between the city of New York and 
the representatives of Andrew Carnegie for 
the erection of branch libraries in the Borough 
of Brooklyn" and the "Report of A. D. F. 
Hamlin, consulting architect to the committee 
having charge of the erection of Carnegie li- 
brary buildings." The main points in both 
documents have already been noted in these 

Mayor Low on Feb. 3 appointed seven li- 
brary directors to fill expired terms, as fol- 
lows : John W. Devoy, William D. Sargent, 
Arnold W. Catlin, Abner B. Haight, Andrew 
D. Baird, Isaac H. Gary and Jules A. Guedon. 
The directors are to serve for three years. 

Brown University L., Providence, R. L The 
report of the president of the university, for 
the year ending Sept. 4, 1901, contains the 
record of the year's work in the library by H. 
L. Koopman, and appendixes describing the 
great John Carter Brown library, by G. P. 
Winship. For the university library Mr. Koop- 
man reports accessions of 4733 y. and 1306 
pm., notable among the gifts being the 200 
volumes purchased for the Harris collection 
at the McKee sale from the $1000 provided for 
the purpose by Chancellor Goddard. The li- 
brary endowment has been increased by the 
addition of the James Tucker Junior fund of 
$2500, the income of which is to be devoted 
to the purchase of books for the classical de- 
partments "but the crowning event of the 
year has been the gift of the John Carter 
Brown Library to the university, coupled with 
provision for a fireproof building and an am- 
ple endowment." 

In all 6782 v. were issued, of which 1582 
were drawn by the faculty. "Of the under- 
graduate students, 65 % of the men and 37 % 
of the women, or 59 % of all the undergrad- 
uates, borrowed one or more books from the 
library." The librarian's course in bibliogra- 
phy was given to a class of 23 men. 

President Faunce, in his report, touches at 
some length upon "the great gift of the John 
Carter Brown Library, probably the finest col- 
lection of Americana in existence. For many 
years this rare library has been growing up in 
the city of Providence, better known possibly 
in Europe than in America, but known to all 
students of American history as a collection 

of priceless value." By the will of the late 
John Nicholas Brown, "the library, together 
with $500,000 for a permanent endowment, 
and $150,000 for the erection of a building, 
was placed in the hands of trustees with full 
power as to its permanent disposition. These 
trustees, after mature consideration, decided 
that the library should go to the university 
which bears the family name, and in whose 
halls the owner received his education. It 
will be our endeavor through all coming time 
to preserve the memorial features of this li- 
brary, and yet render its treasures accessible 
to mature and qualified students from all parts 
of the world." 

The character and contents of the Carter 
Brown library are somewhat fully described 
in two articles by its librarian, George 
Parker Winship, printed as an appendix to 
the report, which originally appeared respec- 
tively in the Brown Alumni Monthly and the 
Providence Journal. Mr. Winship notes the 
demands made upon the collection by such 
men as George Bancroft, Helps, Fiske, and 
others, and briefly reviews its wealth of early 
and rare Americana. "Whatever the field of 
study, so long as it touches ever so slightly 
upon the confines of the western world, the 
student may confidently hope to find some- 
thing to assist his researches in the John Car- 
ter Brown Library." 

Chattanooga, Tenn. At the annual meeting 
of the Chamber of Commerce, on Jan. 9, the 
library committee presented the following re- 
garding the proposed Carnegie library: "The 
library committee is pleased to report sub- 
stantial progress during the past year toward 
getting the city of Chattanooga to accept Mr. 
Carnegie's offer of $50,000 for a free public 
library, which was made to your committee a 
year ago last December. An ordinance ac- 
cepting said offer and complying with the con- 
ditions thereof, has passed the board of alder- 
men and has passed two readings in the board 
of councilmen. We have every reason to be- 
lieve that the latter board will pass it on its 
third reading at their next meeting, Jan. 20; 
therefore, we hope to have a first-class public 
library, free to the citizens of Chattanooga, 
with all its great advantages, in operation be- 
fore the close of this year. We regret that 
unfortunate conditions delayed the accom- 
plishment of this great object so long, as we 
had hoped to have it in running order last 

At the city council on Jan. 20 the library 
ordinance passed its third and final reading, 
a large petition signed by many taxpayers 
urging its acceptance having previously been 

The board of nine directors has not yet 
been appointed by the mayor. 

Chicago (///.) P. L. (2gth rpt. year end- 
ing May 31, 1901.) The statistics here given 
were noted in abstract in L. j. Jor Nov., 
1901, p. 823-824. The libraryfarCe at the date 


[February, 1902 

of this report numbered 208 persons, the sal- 
ary expenditure for the year being $135,678.76. 
For books $19,867.04 was spent ; for binding 
$10,331.31 ; and for newspapers and periodi- 
cals $4388.11. 

Dover, Del. The question whether the city 
of Dover should establish a free library was 
submitted to a vote at a special election on 
Jan. 15 and was carried in the affirmative by 
140 against 10. 

Galion (O.) P. L. The library was opened 
to the public on Jan. 29. It has attractive 
rooms in a business building on North Market 
st. A "book shower" was a feature of the 
opening, giving a nucleus of volumes for 
the library s work. Both books and magazine 
subscriptions have been given by interested 
citizens, for the library was established and is 
maintained by volunteer effort. 

Holyoke (Mass.) P. L. The new library 
building was transferred to the library asso- 
ciation by the building committee on Jan. 18. 
No formal dedicatory exercises were held. 
The total cost of the building was $06,000, of 
which $89,950 was raised by public subscrip- 
tion and contributed funds. The debt re- 
maining, about $8000, will, it is thought, soon 
be raised. 

Homestead, Pa. Carnegie L. (Rpt., 1901.) 
Added 2820; total 13,637. Issued 72,618, a 
gain of 27% over 1000 (fict. 65%). New 
registration 766; total cards in use 1891. The 
school circulation is of two classes the kind 
the teachers select, which amounts to 6300, and 
the supplementary reading, which is furnished 
in lots of 25 volumes each, amounting to 1675. 
In all. 7975 volumes were circulated through 
the agency of the school. 

Jamestown, N. Y. Prendergast F. L. At 
the semi-annual meeting of the library trus- 
tees, held Jan. 6, L. B. Warner was elected 
president of the board, succeeding the late 
Solomon Jones, and Rev. Elliot C. Hall was 
elected trustee to fill the place left vacant by 
Mr. Warner's promotion. 

The "Founder's day" celebration, on Dec. 
21 last, was not only in memory of the 
founder of the library, but in honor of Mr. 
Jones, whose death occurred early in that 
month. During all the day and evening the 
entire building, including stack room as well 
as art gallery and reference room, was open 
to the public, and the rarer books in the col- 
lection were displayed. In the evening the 
memorial exercises were held in the reference 
room, which served as an assembly hall for 
the occasion. Judge Abner Hazeltine deliv- 
ered an address reviewing the work of the 
library during the decade just closed. He 
said, in part: "There have been loaned for 
home reading more than 550,000 books more 
than half a million in the past 10 years. 
The art gallery has been visited by more than 
50,000 guests in the same period. Considera- 
bly over 162,000 have visited the reading room, 

of which annually 5000 were children and 
2100 were students. When the library was 
opened to the public 10 years ago there were 
a little over 8000 volumes. To-day the total 
number of volumes in the library is over 

The development of the collection of tech- 
nical books and of the genealogical collection 
were referred to. "Another department which 
has a special prominence in this library is 
that of children's work. We have set aside 
the room which has been called the directors' 
room as a special room for the children, and 
in every way possible, both in selection of 
books and in the attention given to the chil- 
dren in aiding their studies, they are made 
to feel at home in the library, and to know 
that their needs and wishes are a subject 
which receives full consideration from all the 
attendants. The number of children regis- 
tered as readers, amounting to almost 5000 a 
year, shows that they appreciate the interest 
which the library management feels in them. 

"It may perhaps not be deemed fitting to 
give too much praise to the librarian in be- 
half of the board of directors, but as a matter 
of fact the librarian or any librarian of any 
library is the whole thing (to use a cur- 
rent expression), and the success of the libra- 
ry depends very largely upon the manner in 
which the librarian and the assistants meet 
the public and respond to their requests. I 
am certain that the directors join with me in 
a feeling of hearty congratulation to Miss 
Hazeltine upon her elevation to the position 
of president of the state library association." 

Library of Congress, Washington. William 
Thompson, a young Kentuckian, was recent- 
ly arrested for the mutilation of a newspaper 
file in the library, and was arraigned in the 
police court on Jan. 23, upon the charge of 
destroying public property. He pleaded guil- 
ty, and was fined $500, with an alternative of 
six months in prison. 

Upon the suggestion of the library authori- 
ties and the assistant district attorney, the 
young man's personal bond was accepted and 
he was released. The article cut out was in 
a paper from his native city. He was detected 
in the act and prosecuted in order that it 
might serve as a warning to others. Thomp- 
son claimed that it was an act of thoughtless- 
ness on his part. 

Massillon (O.) P. L. (3d rpt. year end- 
ing Dec. 31, 1901.) Added 1020; total 10,- 
736. Issued, home use 45,074. New registra- 
tion 554; total cards in use 3782. Receipts 
$4106.92; expenses $3181.70. 

Muncie, Ind. Workingmen's L. The li- 
brary, which was established two years ago, 
was closed early in February on account of 
lack of funds and support by the laboring 
men. The books will be stored. Andrew 
Carnegie aided in establishing the library by 
donating $500. 

February, 1902] 



Nashville, Tenn. Carnegie L. A site for 
the new library building was accepted on Jan. 
20 by the committee having the matter in 
charge. It was offered as a gift by J. Edgar 

The former librarian of the Howard Li- 
brary, Miss Mary Hannah Johnson, and her 
assistant. Miss Kercheval, have been re-elected 
in charge of the newly organized library. 
The Howard Library regulations have been 
adopted, with slight modifications. 

The report of the Howard Library for the 
year 1901 was submitted to the directors at 
their January meeting, prior to the merging 
with the new Carnegie Library. During the 
year on April 22 the membership fee pre- 
viously charged was abolished, and the library 
was made free to the public. "Up to that 
date the library had 571 cardholders at $2 
per year, having been running on a pay basis 
for one year and seven months. Since its or- 
ganization up to two years and some months 
ago the library was a reference library purely. 
One year ago it was free as reference, but 
was on a paid basis of circulation. Eight 
months ago it was made entirely free, and 
now loans from 300 to 500 books per day, 
besides having a free reference room." 

Miss Johnson gives the following statistics : 
Added 1694 ; total 10,688. Issued, home use, 
about 50,000 (net., 69 per cent.) ; reading 
room attendance 46,800. Registration 3414. 
There were 1036 v. issued from the children's 
department in one month. 

New Jersey State L. (Rpt. year ending 
Oct. 31, 1901.) Added 3528; total 58,370. 
The more important accessions are noted and 
the need of more room is presented. The 
installation of a two-story steel stack in the 
law library is strongly urged. 

Mr. Buchanan reports at length upon the 
system of travelling libraries, operated from 
the state library, and established by act of 
April 20, 1898. There are now 62 libraries, 
of which 41 are in use. The results of the 
work are not very encouraging. "Since the 
system was put in operation, in November, 
1899, the libraries have been in use in 61 dif- 
ferent towns, of which 20 have discontinued 
them for various reasons lack of interest, 
failure to get a suitable person to act as libra- 
rian and because of the establishing of local 
public libraries. There will probably be a 
further falling off in the demand with the 
expiration of the second year, in a few weeks. 
The new applications filed during the year 
just passed were 20 the exact number that 
gave up the use of the libraries. The future 
increase, if any, is likely to be small." This 
is despite the fact that several hundred circu- 
lars were sent out calling attention to the 
libraries and giving directions for securing 
them. Tabulated record is given of the cir- 
culation of the libraries, the towns to which 
sent, circulation, number of readers, etc. Re- 
garding their use Mr. Buchanan's conclusions 

"The travelling libraries cannot become as 
popular in New Jersey as they are in some 
of the larger states, where the towns and vil- 
lages are scattered, communication with cities 
difficult, and where agents employed by the 
states give their entire time to the work of 
placing libraries in the neighborhoods where 
the need of books is felt. In New Jersey 
there are but few localities so far distant from 
large cities as to make daily communication 
impossible, and books and newspapers are 
readily obtained. Besides, there is a liberal 
provision for school libraries, and these have, 
in several cases, resulted in travelling libraries 
being withdrawn." 

New York City. Cathedral F. C. L. The 
library will remove about the middle of Feb- 
ruary to new quarters at 536 Amsterdam ave., 
corner of 86th st, where the free access sys- 
tem will be placed in operation. 

New York P. L. The bill increasing the 
number of library trustees from 21 to 25, and 
adding the mayor, controller, and president of 
the board of alderman, was passed by the leg- 
islature in January and later approved by 
Mayor Low. 

New York City. Webster F. C. L. (Rpt., 
1901 ; in loth rpt. of East Side House Set- 
tlement.) Added 1447; total 12,352. Issued, 
home use "over 125.600 v.," an increase over 
the previous year of about 34,000. Total reg- 
istration 16,676. The report brings out inter- 
estingly the work done for school teachers 
and children. Of the former 365 use the 
library in various ways. The loan exhibitions 
of Russian curios and articles relating to the 
American Indians, previously noted in these 
pages, are described. An adaptation of the 
Providence Public Library plan for a standard 
collection has been made, the books therein 
included as "books of power" being "especial- 
ly covered with a bright red book-cloth, and 
the masterpieces of literature are now being 
covered in green. 

"Special shelves have been brought into 
prominence, and thereon have been placed 
books which relate to the history and litera- 
ture of architecture, sculpture and painting 
and the fine arts in general, with suitable 
biographies, and books of appreciation. In the 
reference room the mantelpiece has been de- 
voted to music; score, history, biography and 
criticism, with a few novels that seem to be- 
long with books on musical subjects. Medal- 
lions, pictures and small plaster busts of musi- 
cians will, in the near future, add interest to 
the collection. Besides a little showcase of 
bird nests and eggs, a shelf is reserved for 
many lovely bird books. A collection of beau- 
tiful tropical butterflies calls attention to the 
books on butterflies, bees and other insects, 
and since the Indian exhibit a corner has been 
devoted to things and books which cannot 
help but lead the mind to the day of adven- 
ture and romance. 



[February, 1902 

"In a section of the city where nearly 
everyone is a wage-earner, the library of that 
section should be in a position to supply books 
which instruct those wage-earners in better 
methods. This library always supplies techni- 
cal books upon demand, but it has not gone 
out to the public and announced the fact It 
is as yet too weak to make any such attempt. 
Books of practical help to steam fitters, plumb- 
ers, and the various building trades, engineers, 
machinists, etc., would be much used, were 
they in the library, but they are not. The 
active, ambitious, intelligent boys and girls 
who attend night schools should be told and 
kept informed of the value of a library, and 
its ability to help them advance in life. The 
evening lectures of the board of education in 
this neighborhood should be supplemented 
by annotated lists of books on the subject of 
the lecture. Great good might be accom- 
plished, but with all knowledge, and the best 
will in the world, without books, the library 
is helpless. The library is less able than ever 
to meet the demands made upon it. With a 
circulation of over 125,000 upon a strength of 
12,000 volumes, it will readily be seen that the 
wear and tear must be very great." 

Arrangements have been made by which 
books asked for and not in the library will 
be supplied, when possible, from the Circulat- 
ing Department of the New York Public Li- 
brary or from the Aguilar Library. 

New York City, Y. M. C. A. L. Advance 
abstract from the librarian's report gives the 
following facts: Added 3440; total 57,620. 
Issued, for ref. use 134,137; no. readers 122,- 
109. Volumes cataloged 8834. 

"In the year's work of recataloging was in- 
cluded the Shakespeare collection of 264 vol- 
umes, which was given a special classification. 

"Notable among the additions was the Robert 
R. McBurney collection of Christian hymns 
and hymnology, and from the same source an 
extensive collection of books on angling and 
outdoor sports, 82 volumes of which were 
various editions of Walton's "Complete an- 
gler." These were so classified as to make 
them stand in one series in chronological or- 
der by date of publication." 

New York State L., Albany. (83d rpt 
year ending Sept. 30, 1900.) The reports of 
the New York State Library are always ex- 
tremely full and varied in interest, and this 
one is no exception to the rule, although, as 
usual, it appears more than 15 months after 
the close of the year covered. The accessions 
for 1900 amounted to 32,563, of which 12,929 
were bought. Total 437,733, of which 57,754 
are in travelling libraries in the Home Educa- 
tion department, and 134,876 are duplicates. 
There are 8657 serials received by gift or sub- 
scription. Details of the year's accessions, 
the special collections, duplicates, etc., are 
presented in tabulated form. 

The estimated reference use of the library 
for 1900 was 136,386, a decrease of 64,627 over 

the preceding year "due to the enforced 
closing of the library for four hours daily 
most of the busy season." There were 2661 
evening readers, who used 6966 v. "There has 
always been a limited demand for admission 
to the library on Sundays, but we have never 
had an appropriation available. For some 
time four men on the staff have volunteered 
without compensation to divide the hours of 
Sunday among them so that the other men of 
the staff might have access regularly. This 
fact has not been published, but not a few 
people learning of it have by special permis- 
sion been accommodated, a regular member of 
the staff being always present in the room. 
As the building is locked, it has not been 
practicable to admit ladies. The experience 
the world over has been so favorable to Sun- 
day opening that there is little opposition and 
a growing feeling that the state library should 
be available for a part at least of every Sun- 

Reference is made to the bill for a new li- 
brary building, introduced Feb. i, 1000, and 
referred to the committee on ways and means. 
Unless plans for this building are promptly 
carried through much-needed space must be 
secured by hiring outside quarters for the en- 
tire travelling library collection, now number- 
ing over 60,000 v. with half as many pictures. 
"The space thus gained would be filled within 
three years." The work of the various di- 
visions is reviewed and summarized, and the 
appendixes include full statistics of adminis- 
tration, accessions, gifts, and selected special 

Newburgh (N. Y.) F. L. (Rpt. year 
ending June 30, 1901 ; in Board of Education 
rpt., 1901, p. 47-49.) Added 1135; total 26,- 
387, distributed in the main library and six 
schools. Issued, home use 92,377. New regis- 
tration 807. 

Reference is made to the death of the 
former librarian, Charles Estabrook, and the 
memorial minutes adopted by the board of 
education are given. The circulation showed 
an increase of 7479 over the preceding year. 
The reference department contains 1454 gen- 
eral works and 2755 v. of government publi- 

Ohio State L. The s6th report of the li- 
brary was submitted to the governor on Nov. 
15 last. The additions for the year were 
6849; total 75.699. From the travelling li- 
brary department 762 libraries, aggregating 
20,698 v., were sent to different parts of the 
state. Mr. Galbreath says : 

"All shelf space is now occupied, and unless 
additional room is promptly provided future 
additions to the library must be stored where 
they cannot be made accessible for use. Un- 
less something is done by the coming legisla- 
ture to afford at least the relief contemplated 
by the act of the last, the library will soon be 
forced to suspend the work of some of its 
important departments." 

February, 1902] 



Orange (N. 7.) F. L. The annual meet- 
ing of the library board was held on Jan. 8, 
when the report of the librarian, Miss Eliza- 
beth Rowland Wesson, was presented. The 
formal opening of the new Stickler memorial 
building, on June 21, was noted, and the re- 
opening of the library three days later, since 
when there has been a steady growth in its 
activity, and the demands upon the staff are 
greatly increased. Accessions for the year 
amounted to 3355, giving a total of over 16,- 
ooo. There were issued for home use 43,133, 
of which 32.37 per cent, were issued to chil- 
dren (fict. 74 per cent.). Receipts $5964.56; 
expenses $5088.60. 

The year was notable not only for the re- 
moval to the beautiful and adequate building, 
but for many important gifts. These included 
the sum of $1000 from Henry Graves for the 
purchase of new books; 1135 volumes from 
the library of Daniel Addison Heald, includ- 
ing several valuable pictures, among them a 
Rembrandt etching and a Diirer woodcut ; and 
a complete set of the "Rebellion records." In 
addition, the New England Society of Orange 
passed a resolution that all unbound pam- 
phlets and periodicals and pamphlets belong- 
ing to the society, of a date previous to 1900, 
should be given to the Orange Free Library. 

"A very important part of the library is 
now the Medical Alcove, where not only the 
books from Dr. Stickler's medical library, but 
those from the library of Dr. William Pier- 
son are shelved." 

A branch in Orange Valley was established 
in January, 1901, with the aid of the Orange 
Valley Social Settlement, in whose rooms it 
is located. 

Providence (R. /.) Athenaeum L. (66th rpt. 
year ending Sept. i, 1901.) Added 1373; 
total 63,354. Issued, home use 44,634 (fict. 
28,024). Membership not stated. Receipts 
$7757-25 ; expenses $7586.75. 

There was a decrease of 6198 or about 12 
per cent, from the circulation of the previous 
year, of which "more than two-thirds, or 68 
per cent, was in the department of English 
prose fiction." Limited funds for fiction pur- 
chases and increased use of the public libraries 
are regarded as factors in this decrease. De- 
spite this, the general outlook seems to be 
encouraging. A larger number of membership 
shares were sold than for many years, and 
in its management and the value of its col- 
lection the library is of increasing usefulness. 
The question of attempting to "popularize" 
it is brought up, and submitted to the share- 
holders for consideration. It is pointed out 
that the development of public libraries should 
not diminish the value of proprietary libraries, 
but rather elevate their standards but that 
the question remains, whether an effort shall 
be made to meet popular demands for new 
fiction, multiplied copies of advertised books, 
etc., and thus avoid the possible loss of sub- 
scribers, or whether a more conservative 

course shall be followed, and the library if 
less popular, be made of still more value to 
the studious reader. 

Providence (R. /.) P. L. The Providence 
Visitor, a weekly Roman Catholic journal, 
publishes in its issue for Jan. 23, a list of the 
books by Catholic authors added during the 
past year to the Providence Public Library, 
prepared by the library authorities. The list 
includes 65 entries, and is classed to cover 
"Works issued by the authority of the church,'' 
"Historical accounts," "Biographical ac- 
counts," "Statements of doctrine, usages, etc.," 
"Publications on miscellaneous subjects," 
"Periodicals." The list is carefully printed, 
and there are some annotations. The Visitor 
prints an interesting editorial on the list, 
"which," it says, "we owe to the industrious 
courtesy of Mr. Foster, the librarian." "Now 
and then," it is added, "a broadly-read and 
tolerant official succeeds in satisfying the 
larger Catholic demands without trenching 
unfairly upon the unmapped domains of the 
intelligent Protestant body. Mr. Foster, we 
think, has done that; and those who give 
themselves the pains to examine his list will 
be grateful to him for the fine sense of dis- 
crimination he has displayed in compiling it." 

The matter of furnishing Catholic books 
from public libraries is touched upon as fol- 
lows : "One sometimes hears vague and ill- 
natured criticism of public institutions up and 
down New England from members of the 
Catholic body, who are too often misled by 
their own traditions to read a studied dis- 
courtesy into acts that may be prompted only 
by the misunderstandings of half-knowledge. 
Intolerance is on the wane everywhere in our 
great urban centers. No doubt one may de- 
tect lingering evidences of it now and then ; 
but we have never heard it gravely alleged 
as an abiding grievance against the public 

Richmond, Va. Carnegie L. The members 
of the library board have been chosen as fol- 
lows: from board of aldermen, Robert Whit- 
tet, jr., J. B. Wood; from common council, 
James Caskie, S. F. Bloomberg, D. F. Mc- 
Carthy; citizens elected by council, W. C. 
Armitage, Robert Whittet, jr., Dr. Geo. A. 
Taber; ex-officio, Superintendent of schools 

Rochester (N. H.) P. L. Added 554; total 
8299. Issued 31,036. Total cardholders 3522. 
Visitors to reading room 4567. 

St. Louis (Mo.) P. L. At the board meet- 
ing held on Jan. 18 the librarian submitted a 
summary of the year's statistics, which showed 
that for books, periodicals and binding dur- 
ing the year over $20,000 had been spent, 
and 21,225 volumes had been added. The 
gifts for the year numbered 2571 volumes and 
5900 pamphlets. 

Statistics relating to the reference work 
were encouraging, showing an increase in use 



[February, 1902 

of 31,264 volumes over the year previous. The 
total issue of books in all departments for the 
year was 990,197, a gain over the year 1900 of 
more than 70,000 volumes. 

Scranton (Pa.) P. L. (nth rpt., 1901.) 
Added 4724; total 41,336. Issued, home use 
125,518 (net. 64.98%; juv. 11.24%) ; Kb. use 
3201. New registration 4122; cards in use 
8363. Receipts $14,007.90; expenses $13,- 
176.44. These figures do not include various 
special funds and accounts, as the Mining 
Section fund, petit cash, etc. 

A room for young people was opened in 
May, equipped with a collection of about 
1600 v., to which 800 were added during the 
year. A combined reference and reading 
room was opened on the second floor, in 
what had formerly been the lecture room, 
and the new facilities thus given have proved 
entirely popular and satisfactory. 

Seaboard Air Line Travelling libs. Mrs. 
E. B. Heard announces the proposed addition 
to the travelling libraries of the Seaboard 
Air Line of a "William McKinley Memorial 
Series" of travelling libraries. These will 
be 12 in number, each containing 50 books, 
and will be sent to the rural schools in Vir- 
ginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, 
Georgia, Florida and Alabama. It is hoped 
that the books will be given by persons in- 
terested in the movement. They are to deal 
mainly with American history, including 
however biography, travel and description, 
fiction, etc. These libraries will be offered as 
prize libraries to the 100 schools which shall 
make the most improvement in the surround- 
ings of their school houses, the painting of 
their building, ornamenting the grounds, 
planting trees, shrubbery, etc. 

Shclbyville (Ind.) P. L. The city council 
on Jan. 13 appropriated $4000 for the pur- 
chase of a site for the proposed Carnegie 
Library. The city's present tax for library 
maintenance purposes is $2000. As Mr. 
Carnegie asks only $1500 annually for this 
purpose, no additional levy will be needed. 

Sioux City (la.) P. L. The librarian's re- 
port for 1901, presented Jan. 2, gives the fol- 
lowing facts: Added 1260. Issued 56,612 
(fict. and juv. 84.6 per cent). New registra- 
tion 1069. Receipts $4360.74; expenses 

Smithsonian Institution L., Washington, D. 
C. (Rpt. year ending June 30, 1901; in 
Report of secretary, p. 126-128.) Added 28,- 
134, of which 21,368 are parts of volumes, 
4063 pamphlets, and 772 charts. "In ever- 
increasing volume the operations of the li- 
brary, like those of the International Ex- 
changes, look to the strengthening of the Li- 
brary of Congress. All books, pamphlets, 
charts, and completed volumes of periodicals 
are accessioned and recorded on cards as a 
permanent record file, which both serves as a 
ledger account with learned societies and es- 

tablishments and as a catalog of the Smith- 
sonian deposit. The greater part of these 
publications are then sent to the Library of 

"The additions to the libraries of the secre- 
tary, the office, and the Astrophysical Ob- 
servatory number 374 volumes, pamphlets, and 
charts, and 2058 parts of volumes, making a 
total of 2432, and a grand total of 30,566. On 
the card catalog of serial publications about 
30,000 entries were made, of which 300 re- 
quired new title cards." 

The circulating library for employes now 
contains about 1280 v., and reached during 
the year a circulation of 2515 v. among 105 

Somerville (Mass.) P. L. The house-to- 
house delivery of books desired by readers, 
in operation for some time past, is noted in 
the library Bulletin for January, as follows: 

"It is the purpose of the library to deliver 
its books directly to the doors of every fami- 
ly in Somerville which is desirous of such 
service. This work is done by a corps of 
boys selected by the librarian for the purpose. 
To recompense the boys for this work, a 
fee of two cents is charged for each book 
delivered. This fee goes entirely to the boys 
and not to the library. This service has al- 
ready proved a great accommodation to many 
people, some of whom have hitherto been 
precluded from the use of the library on ac- 
count of the difficulty of reaching it. Moth- 
ers of small children, elderly people, and 
men whose business keeps them away from 
the city during the day find this service an 
especial boon." 

Syracuse (N. Y.) P. L. (Rpt. year 
ending June 30, 1901.) Added 5227; total 
52,472. Issued 173,468, an increase of seven 
per cent, over last year, of which 38,536 are 
juvenile. Mr. Mundy touches upon the cost 
of circulation, and reports that "the entire 
management of this library, beyond the cost 
of books, serials and binding," cost in 1900 
8.4 cents. 

The plans for the Carnegie library build- 
ing are described, and the report contains as 
frontispiece an elevation of the fagade, and a 
plan of the second floor, .which is interesting 
in its combination of open and closed stacks, 
and other features. 

Troy (O.) F. P. School L. .(5th rpt. 
year ending Nov. 30, 1901.) Added 202; 
total 3445. Issued, home use 16,630. 

All borrowers' cards were cancelled Jan I, 
1901, and during the year 914 new cards were 
issued. "The circulation would have been 
double what it was if we had the number of 
books called for." 

Tyler (Tear.) P. L. A Saturday afternoon 
reading hour for children is conducted at the 
library by Mrs. Elizabeth Herndon Potter, 
president of the board. It is attended by 25 
or more children, and has proved most sue- 

February, 1902] 



cessful. Each child contributes, if con- 
venient, five cents a week, the money being 
used for children's books, which are bought 
as promptly as possible, and plated "From 
little library helpers." 

Mrs. Potter writes: "We are very poor 
and grow slowly. We have 1200 books ; issue 
one free ticket to every responsible white 
family; have a reading table; are open all 
day; have a trained librarian. Began in 
April, 1899; have had free tickets only since 
Dec. i, 1901." 

University of Michigan L., Ann Arbor. 
(Rpt. year ending June 30, 1901.) Added 
10,064, of which 8488 were received in the 
general library; total 123,362 in general lib., 
18,827 in law lib., 10,899 m the medical lib., 
1014 in the dental lib., and 1422 in the lib. of 
Homoeopathic Medical College. The begin- 
ning of a collection of Spanish books was 
made, $550 being devoted to this purpose. 
The more important gifts are noted. 

At the general library the recorded circu- 
lation of books is given as 144,602 v., 8591 
having been drawn for home use by profes- 
sors ; "unrecorded use constituted more than 
one-half the actual use of the library." 

The reclassification of the library is re- 
ported as nearly completed. It is hoped soon 
to arrange and classify the map collection 
and set apart a map room for its use. 

ercises at the dedication of its new build- 
ing, Oct. 12, 1900; together with a descrip- 
tion of the building, accounts of the several 
libraries contained therein, and a brief his- 
tory of the society; edited by Reuben Gold 
Thwaites. Memorial volume. Madison, 
1901. 12+139 P- 1. Q- 
A handsome and fitting "memorial volume" 
devoted to the beautiful library building of 
the Wisconsin State Historical Society. The 
addresses at the dedication include Charles 
Francis Adams' fine address on "The sifted 
grain and the grain sifters," and "Greetings 
from sister libraries," by Dr. J. K. Hosmer. 
The building is described by Mr. Thwaites, 
who also outlines the history and work of 
the society. The institutions affiliated with it 
the library of the University of Wisconsin 
and the library of the Wisconsin Academy of 
Sciences, Arts and Letters are described by 
Walter M. Smith, librarian of the former, 
and W. H. Hobbs. There is also a "sym- 
posium" setting forth "What distinguished 
librarians think of the building." The vol- 
ume is well printed on highly calendered 
paper and fully illustrated with plans, views 
and portraits. 

Yazoo City (Miss.) L. Assoc. The B. S. 
Rkks memorial building was formally trans- 
ferred on Jan. i to the local library associa- 
tion. The building, which cost $25,000, is the 
gift of Mrs. F. J. Ricks, as a memorial to 

her husband. It is of gray pressed brick and 
white terra cotta, with a frontage of 84 ft. 
and a depth of 70 ft. The entrance, through 
a semicircular, columned portico, leads into a 
vestibule, 10x15, beyond which is a lobby, 
15 x 28, opening into the stack room. The 
stack room is semicircular, 31 x 64, with single 
bookcases and eight two-story stacks. The 
librarian's desk is circular, and so placed that 
all visitors must enter and pass out beside it. 
On either side of lobby and stack room are 
general reading rooms; there are also smok- 
ing and chess rooms. The Yazoo Library 
Association is more than 50 years old. It 
has had a checkered career, during and after 
the war becoming almost extinct. It now 
has a membership of over 200, and is sus- 
tained by monthly dues of 25 cents, and $i 
per year for book privileges. It contains 
about 3000 volumes. 


Cardiff (Wales') F. Ls. (39th rpt.) Addi- 
tions not given; total 95,725, exclusive of 
9363 v. in the school collection. Total issue 
457,448 (ref. dept. 89,595; central lending lib. 
172,825; school libs. 153,528). 

"The most noteworthy feature revealed by 
the statistics is that the opening of the branch 
libraries does not decrease the work of the 
central library, both the lending and refer- 
ence departments showing substantial in- 
creases for the year. The same applies to the 
school libraries. Notwithstanding the very 
large circulation through the schools the use 
of the juvenile sections at the central and 
branch libraries continues to increase." 

The Welsh department has been enriched 
by the gift of the Scott collection of 1235 
printed and 51 ms. volumes, comprising over 
2000 items. This collection is the subject of 
a separate report by the librarian, noting the 
items of special rarity and interest. 

Much work has been done in connection 
with the local schools. A select library has 
been placed in each school (39 being now 
established) which is controlled by the teach- 
er, under supervision of the librarian; school 
visits are made to the reference library, when 
the librarian gives short explanatory lectures 
upon books and their uses; and teachers are 
authorized to issue library membership cards 
to their pupils, without the regular formal- 
ities. These cards must be renewed in regu- 
lar form at the end of one year, "and it is 
found that as these tickets run out they are 
practically in every case renewed." 

Branch libraries are now established in five 
out of the six districts of the town. 

French libraries' lending departments. The 
Minister of Public Instruction has issued an 
announcement of the establishment of special 
long-term lending departments for the Bib- 
liotheque Sainte-GeneviSve, and the libraries 
of the universities of Besangon, Dijon, Lille, 
Montpelier, Nancy, Poitiers, Rennes, and Tou- 



[February, 1902 

louse. These departments are to contain sev- 
eral copies of each of the publications issued 
under the auspices of the Minister of Public 
Instruction, which are to be freely lent to 
persons desiring their use for research pur- 
poses, for a longer time than ordinary loans 
permit. The library officials may determine 
the period of loan, which is not to exceed 
five years in duration. Such loans may be 
made on condition that the borrower shall be 
pecuniarily responsible for injury to or loss 
of books, the amount of damage to be fixed 
by the library authorities ; that cost of wrap- 
ping and transportation be defrayed by the 
borrower ; that a special receipt be given by 
borrowers on which the conditions are set 
forth; and that special records, catalogs, and 
lists of borrowers be kept for this special de- 
partment. A list of the works included in 
this department is given, which includes doc- 
uments and material relating to the history of 
France memoirs, journals, collections of 
charts, correspondence, etc. 

Lindsay (Ontario, Can.) P. L. (Rpt. 
year ending Dec. 31, 1901.) Added by pur- 
chase 208 v., at a cost of $226.99. Total 
3619. Issued 19,299 (fict. 11,992). New 
membership 238; total membership 1227. 
Receipts and expenses $i 199-75 ("salaries 


The circulation of juvenile books was 3665 
for the 339 v. in that department. "The 
highest ratios of circulation were in the girls' 
section, 13.9 issues, for each volume; and in 
the little ones' section, 12.3 issues to a vol- 
ume." The meetings of the Ontario Library 
Association at Toronto in April, 1901, and 
of the American Library Association at 
Waukesha in July, 1901, are noted. 

McGill University L., Montreal. "The uni- 
versity library" is described by C. H. Gould, 
the librarian, in the first number of The 
McGill University Magazine, for December, 
1901. The total contents of the library are 
noted as nearly 87,000 v., the accessions being 
at the rate of 5000 a year. "Within four years 
there have arisen, as a result of most gener- 
ous gifts, excellent working collections on 
architecture, on chemistry, on mining and 
metallurgy; there have been received the 
valuable Ribbeck library of classics and clas- 
sical philology, the geological and palaeon- 
tological library of Sir William Dawson, and 
a choice collection of Canadian autographs 
and manuscripts, and of works on music." 

The system of travelling libraries estab- 
lished a little over a year ago is described. 
"Within the past 12 months boxes of books 
have been sent to hamlets in the far west, 
by the sea in Nova Scotia, to lumber camps 
in Algoma, to divisional and sectional rail- 
way points remote from any center and to 
many towns and villages nearer home. The 
first library was despatched on the 28th of 
January, 1901, and was, so far as can be 
ascertained, the first travelling library in 

Canada, with the exception of those which 
the government of British Columbia had in 
operation at the time." The books are lent 
to country schools, public libraries, reading 
or literary clubs, and communities possessing 
no public library ; they may be kept three 
months on payment of a fee of $3, covering 
expressage. and the time is extended on re- 
quest. The libraries are of three classes, con- 
sisting i, of general works, including fiction 
and a few books for young people ; 2, of books 
intended entirely for children and young 
people; and 3, of books on special subjects. 
Each library contains from 25 to 30 vol- 

<3itts an& Bequests. 

Ashtabula (O.\ P. L. By the will of the 
late Maria Conklin, of Ashtabula, the entire 
estate of the testator is bequeathed to "erect 
and construct in whole or in part a suitable 
building for the Free Public Library to be 
known as the "Conklin Library Building." 
The value of the estate is not given. 

Belleville, Ontario, Can. Mr. Gilbert Par- 
ker, the novelist, has offered to give a public 
library building to the city of Belleville. 

Boston P. L. It was announced on Jan. 
18 that the library would receive the sum of 
$100,000 from the estate of the late Robert 
C. Billings, who died three years ago. The 
money is to be used for the purchase of 

Columbia University L. Through the gen- 
erosity of W. C. Schermerhorn, the library 
has acquired the valuable collection of "Clin- 
ton papers," recently bought by Mr. Scher- 
merhorn from Dodd, Mead & Co. The col- 
lection includes the complete correspondence 
of De Witt Clinton, embracing noo letters 
addressed to Governor Clinton, comprising 
in all nearly 6000 pages. Among the writers 
are Presidents Adams, Monroe, Jackson. Jef- 
ferson and Van Buren ; Aaron Burr, Philip 
Freneau, Gouverneur Morris, John Jay. Hen- 
ry Clay, Chancellor Kent, Gen. Horatio 
Gates. Gen. William Dearborn, Mary Clin- 
ton, James Clinton, Robert Fulton, John 
Jacob Astor and the Marquis de Lafayette. 

The second part of the collection is made 
up of Gov. Clinton's letter books, taking the 
greater part of six volumes more than 
3000 pages. 

Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario. 
The library has received from Mr. Gilbert 
Parker a fine set of Canadian historical por- 
traits, valued at $5000. 

Carnegie library gifts. 

Bedford, Ind. Jan. 12. $15,000. A site 
was secured on Jan. 29. 

Canastota, N. Y. Jan. 10. $10,000. 

Cotumbus, Ind. Jan. 3. $15,000. A site 
was secured on Jan. 29. 

February, 1902] 



Columbus, O. Jan. I. $150,000. Annual 
maintenance fund of not less than $20,000 re- 
quired. Accepted. 

Dubuque, la. Jan. 2. $10,000 additional, 
making a total of $60,000. 

Eldora, la. Jan. 2. $10,000. Accepted. 

El Paso, Tex. Jan. 15. $35,000. 

Fremont, Neb. Jan. 4. $15,000. 

Gloversville, N. Y. Jan. 21. $50,000. This 
is a repetition and increase of a previous 
offer of $25,000. 

Greencastle, Ind. Jan. 22. $10,000. 

Guelph, Ontario, Can. Jan. $20,000. 

Huntington, W. Fa. Jan. 6. $25,000. 

Johnstown, N. Y. Jan. 16. $5000 addi- 
tional, making a total of $25,000. 

Kenton, O. Jan. 24. $17,500. 

The town is required to grant a yearly 
maintenance fund of not less than $1750, 
provide a site, and secure $10,000 endowment. 
The endowment fund of $10,000 has already 
been offered as a gift by Lewis Merriman of 
Kenton, and $5000 more has been added to 
the amount by an anonymous giver. The city 
council voted on Jan. 27 to grant the appro- 
priation required, and a committee has been 
appointed to raise a subscription fund for 
the purchase of a site. 

Kingston, N. Y. Jan. 7. $20,000. 

Lansing, Mich. Jan. n. $35,000. 

Laurel, Md. Jan. 2. $10,000. 

Lexington, Ky. Jan. 20. $50,000. 

Lindsay, Ontario, Can. Jan. $10,000. 

Louisville, Ky. Jan. 17. $250,000. 

This is a repetition of the offer made two 
years ago, but never accepted, owing to local 
differences between the city council and the 
Polytechnic Library directors. 

Melrose, Mass. Jan. 6. $25,000. 

Newnan, Ga. Jan. i. $10,000. Accepted 
Jan. 21. 

New fort (O.) P. L. Jan. 10. $6500 addi- 

Newton, la. Jan. 28. $10,000. 

Ottawa, Kan. Jan. 28. $15,000. 

The matter will probably be voted upon at 
the spring election. 

St. Catharine's, Ontario, Can. Jan. 2. $20,- 

Saratoga, N. Y. Jan. 7. $20,000. 

Sarnia, Ontario, Can. Jan. 20. $15,000. 

Tampa, Fla. Jan. 16. $25,000. 

Temple, Tex. Jan. 27. $10,000. 

Tipton, la. Jan. 9. $10,000. 

Washington, O. Jan. 15. $12,000. Ac- 

Waterloo, la. Jan. 28. $40,000. 

Xenia, O. Jan. 27. $20,000. 

The city already appropriates about $2000 
yearly for library maintenance. 


BAKER, Miss Gertrude, librarian of the Mt. 
Vernon (O.) Public Library, has been ap- 
pointed librarian of the Carnegie Library of 
East Liverpool, O. She is succeeded by Miss 
Harriet Goss, who has been connected with 
the Mt. Vernon Library for two years past. 
Both Miss Goss and Miss Baker have been 
associated with the editorial work on the 
Cumulative Index to Periodicals, published 
in Cleveland, and they were the compilers 
and editors of the "Index to St. Nicholas" 
published last year. 

BAKER, William G., formerly of Columbia 
University Library, died on Jan. 30, in New 
Bedford, Mass. Mr. Baker was born in Nan- 
tucket in 1824, and about 10 years later moved 
with his family to New Bedford. He was 
prepared for Harvard College, but never en- 
tered. In 1844 he went abroad for a year, 
and then entered the firm of Little & Brown. 
In a few years he severed his connection with 
this firm and became part owner and asso- 
ciate editor of the New Bedford Mercury. 
In 1876 he came to New York, and for a 
time was one of the night editors of the New 
York Herald. He then entered Columbia 
College as librarian for the school of mines, 
and later was appointed one of the reference 
librarians for the general library. After be- 
ing connected with Columbia for 20 years he 
retired two years ago on account of ill health. 
Mr. Baker was a linguist of considerable 
ability, a musician, and a writer of both prose 
and verse. He was always very quiet and 
reticent, and at the same time most kind and 
courteous in his manner. 

CHILD, Miss Grace A., who has for four 
years and a half had charge of reference and 
school work in the Hartford (Ct.) Public 
Library, has been appointed librarian of the 
new Harcourt Wood Memorial Library in 
Derby, Ct., the gift of Col. and Mrs. H. 
Holton Wood in memory of their son. Miss 
Child, after two years in Smith College, took 
the library course in Pratt Institute, and is 
a graduate of the class of 1897. The library 
will probably be opened within six months. 

CRUNDEN, Frederick M., completed his 25th 
year as librarian of the St. Louis (Mo.) Pub- 
lic Library on Jan. 16. In celebration of the 
event Mr. Crunden was given a dinner at 
the St. Louis Club, by present and former 
members of the library board, and on Jan. 17 
received an anniversary clock from the mem- 
bers of the library staff. 

DEAN, John Ward, for 27 years librarian 
of the New England Historic Genealogical 
Library and an authority in the field of Amer- 
ican history, died on Jan. 22 at Medford, 
Mass. Mr. Dean was born March 13, 1815, 
at Wiscasset, Me. He was for many years 
connected with, and filled several offices in, 
the New England Historic Genealogical So- 



[February, 1902 

ciety, to whose Register he made many valua- 
ble contributions and of which he was for 
many years the editor. He was the author of 
"A brief memoir of the Rev. Giles Firmin, 
one of the ejected ministers of 1662"; "Story 
of the embarkation of Cromwell and his 
friends for New England"; "A Memoir of 
the Rev. N. Ward" ; "Memoir of the Rev. 
Michael Wigglesworth," and other historical 
and biographical monographs. He also edited 
the first and a portion of the second volume 
of the first series, and one number of the 
fourth volume of the second series of the 
Historical Magazine. 

EATON, Miss Harriet L., Pratt Institute 
Library School, class of 1902, formerly in the 
Oshkosh (Wis.) Public Library, has been 
appointed instructor in the spring course to 
be given to librarians by the Indiana State 
Library Commission in May. 

FORSYTH, Walter G., has resigned his posi- 
tion as librarian of Lafayette College, Easton, 
Pa., to accept a position in the Boston Pub- 
lic Library. 

HARDIN, Miss Pauline Helm, was on June 
12 re-elected state librarian of Kentucky, for 
the two-year term beginning June, 1902. Miss 
Hardin has served two terms in this office. 

HATHAWAY, Miss Bertha F., Pratt Insti- 
tute Library School, class of 1901, has been 
engaged to reorganize the library of the St. 
Johnsbury (Vt.) Athenaeum. 

HOPKINS, Miss Julia A., New York State 
Library School, 1895-96, assistant cataloger at 
the Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh, has 
been made librarian of the Wylie avenue 
branch of this library, this position having 
been left vacant by the resignation of Miss 
Ellen S. Wilson. Miss May L. Prentiss (New 
York State Library School, 1899-1900), for 
some time assistant cataloger at the Bryn 
Mawr College Library, will take Miss Hop- 
kins' place as assistant cataloger at the Car- 
negie Library. 

ISOM, Miss Mary F., Pratt Institute Li- 
brary School, classes 1900 and 1901, has been 
appointed librarian of the Public Library of 
Portland, Ore., recently made free. Miss 
Harriet Gooch, class of '98, has been made 
head cataloger. 

NELSON, Charles Alexander, of Columbia 
University Library, has received official noti- 
fication that a "diploma of honorable men- 
tion" has been awarded to him for his exhibit 
of the "Catalogue of the Astor Library" at 
the Pan-American Exposition at Buffalo. 

NOYES, Miss Ethel Regina, Pratt Institute 
Library School, class of 1901, has been ap- 
pointed librarian of the West Side Branch 
of the University Settlement Library in New 
York City. 

OWEN, Miss Esther B., Pratt Institute Li- 
brary School, class of 1899, has been engaged 
as reference assistant in the Hartford Public 
Library, succeeding Miss Grace Child. 

RICE, Prescott C, for 29 years librarian of 
the Fitchburg (Mass.) Public Library, died 
of pneumonia at his home in Fitchburg on 
Jan. 26. Mr. Rice was born in Natick, Mass., 
April 18, 1846, and had been in charge of 
the library from its beginning with 100 vol- 
umes in a room of the city hall. He had been 
a member of the American Library Associa- 
tion since 1887. 

ROCKWELL, Miss Adaline Benson, New 
York State Library School, 1898-99, has been 
appointed assistant librarian at Hampton In- 
stitute, Hampton, Va. 

RUSSELL. Miss Florence, Pratt Institute Li- 
brary School, class of 1896. has resigned from 
the reference department of the Pratt Institute 
Library, to take charge of the reference de- 
partment of the Trenton (N. J.) Free Public 

WRIGHT, Charles E., Pratt Institute Libra- 
ry School, class of 1897, has resigned his 
position as librarian of the Andrew Carnegie 
Library of Carnegie, Pa., to become assistant 
librarian of the Cincinnati (O.) Public Li- 

WHEELER, Miss Florence E., of the Drexel 
Institute Library School, class of 1900, has 
been appointed librarian of the Leominster 
(Mass.) Public Library. 

Cataloging ano Classification. 

hundred entertaining biographies. Pitts- 
burgh, 1902. 20 p. O. 
An excellent annotated list. 

ject of cataloging public documents was well 
presented by Miss Alice C. Fichtenkam, of 
the Office of Documents, in the Index and 
Review for last September and October. Miss 
Fichtenkam treated separately the cataloging 
of government publications in general, and the 
making of the "Document catalogue" issued 
under direction of the Superintendent of 
Documents. Her clear and practical state- 
ment of methods and difficulties are of gen- 
eral interest to catalogers. 

The FITCHBURG (Mass.) P. L. Bulletin for 
January contains good short reference lists 
on ''Development of song from ballad to 
opera" and "Development of the sonata from 
suite to symphony." 

announces the reproduction in facsimile, un- 
der its direction, of the famous Pisan-Floren- 
tine codex of the Pandects of Justinian. The 
work is in charge of a commission appointed 
by the ministry of Public Instruction, and it 
is estimated that the reproduction of the 
whole manuscript, which consists of 1844 
pages, or with the preface of about 2000 
pages, will be furnished within the next three 

February, 1902] 



years, a sheet of 200 plates being published 
quarterly. A specimen of the reproduction 
was issued at the time of the silver wedding 
of King Humbert and Queen Margharita and 
presented to them and to the Emperor of 
Germany. A facsimile of the illumination of 
the binding presented at the royal anniver- 
sary will accompany the last sheet of the 
present reproduction. The phototype repro- 
ductions are executed by the firm of Danesi, 
of Rome, and the historical and palseographi- 
cal notes will be prepared by the commission 
in charge. The edition consists of 100 num- 
bered copies, of which 70 are offered for sale. 
The subscription price is 800 lire (32, $160), 
payable in 10 instalments (of 3.20, $16) on 
publication of each sheet. The price will be 
raised after publication. 

The NEW BEDFORD (Mass.) P. L. Bulletin 
for January contains reference list no. 59 on 
"The cotton industry, textiles and textile in- 

The NEW YORK P. L. Bulletin for January 
contains a check list of the general serial 
municipal documents of Brooklyn contained 
in the library, and "A calendar of the Bar- 
bour papers, 1811-1841," including letters from 
Jefferson, Madison, Monroe, Van Buren, 
and John Quincy Adams. There are also 
printed, from the Duyckinck collection, sev- 
eral letters from Edgar Allan Poe, written in 

operative Bulletin for January contains the 
first instalment of an excellent full reading 
list on "Richard Wagner and his operas," 
covering 8 p. 

The SALEM (Mass.) P. L. Bulletin for Jan- 
uary, in addition to lists of "best books of 
1901" in several classes of literature, contains 
reading lists on "Russia and England in Cen- 
tral Asia" and "Boots, shoes and leather." 

The SPRINGFIELD (Mass.) P. L. Bulletin 
for January prints a first instalment (Abbott- 
Holland) of its revised list of fiction for 
adults. This is based upon the selected list 
published in 1899, and includes a selection 
from the fiction accessions of the past three 
years, as well as "a few of the older books, 
which public demand, or further considera- 
tion by the compilers, has made it seem advis- 
able to admit." Mr. Dana says : "This list 
is probably the shortest list of fiction for 
adults presented to the public by any library 
in the country of the size of this one. We 
venture to think that if omissions and inclu- 
sions be both taken into account it is the 

New York State L. Bulletin 68, Novem- 
ber, 1901. Bibliography 32: Biography for 
young people, submitted for graduation by 
Bertha Evelyn Hyatt, B.A., B.L.S., N. Y. 

State Library School, class of 1899. Al- 

bany, 1901. p. 38-92. O. 15 c. 

This will be useful in the selection of books 
for school collections or children's rooms. 
Books indicated are intended chiefly for chil- 
dren under 16 years old. 

Hagerstown, issues the second, January, num- 
ber of its Bulletin as a "Teachers' number," 
devoted to a graded reading list on Nature 
study, and to short lists of books on Kinder- 
garten, Pedagogy, School ventilation, hy- 
giene, and psychology. 

ling library, series G : Contains a group of 
books relating to the American Revolution. 
16 p. O. 
An excellent annotated list, well adapted for 

use in study club courses or in school work. 

CITY FINANCES. Clow, Frederick R. A com- 
parative study of the administration of city 
finances in the United States, with special 
reference to the budget. (In Publications 
of American Economic Association, No- 
vember, 1901.) 
Contains an 8-page list of sources. 

history of English romanticism in the nine- 
teenth century. New York, Henry Holt & 
Co., 1901. 9+424 p. 12. 
Contains a bibliography of seven pages. 

Florence, a small pamphlet devoted to "The 
Reverend Lewis Rou, pastor of the French 
Protestant Church, New York City, and the 
missing manuscript of his tract relating to 
chess (1734)." This manuscript is referred 
to in Colden's "Letters on Smith's History of 
New York," printed in the New York His- 
torical Society collections for 1868, and it 
was described by Mr. Fiske in "The book of 
the first American Chess Congress" (New 
York, 1859, p. 340-345). This description is 
here reprinted. It was for a short time in 
Mr. Fiske's possession, in 1858-59, but later 
all trace of it disappeared. Mr. Fiske says: 
"For literary-historical purposes it is earnest- 
ly desired to ascertain the present where- 
abouts of Mr. Rou's essay. Any information 
in regard to it will be gratefully received by 
the writer of the sketch, if addressed to the 
librarian of Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y." 

HUNTER, William. Fox, R. Kingston. Will- 
iam Hunter, anatomist, physician, obstet- 
rician (1718-1783), with notices of his 



[February, 1902 

friends. London, H. K. Lewis, 1901. 8+ 

75 P. 8. 

Contains a bibliography of four pages. 

LIVINGSTON, Luther S., comp. American 
book-prices current : a record of books, 
manuscripts, and autographs sold at auc- 
tion in New York, Boston, and Philadel- 
phia, from Sept. I, 1900, to Sept. I, 1901, 
with the prices realized. New York, Dodd, 
Mead & Co., 1901. 22+626 p. 8. 
The sales of 10,042 lots are recorded in 
this volume, a gain of more than 4000 over 
those listed in the initial volume in 1895. 


Stephen S. Mendelssohn. London, J. M. 

Dent & Co., 1901. 15+307 p. 12. (The 

master musicians.) 

There are several appendixes \yhich give 
classified and annotated bibliographies more 
than 50 pages. 

MONOPOLIES AND TRUSTS. University of the 
State of New York. New York State L., 
Bulletin 67, October, 1901. Bibliography 
31 : Monopolies and trusts in America, 
1895-99; submitted for graduation by Fan- 
ny Borden, B.A., B.L.S., N. Y. State Li- 
brary School, class of 1901. Albany, 1901. 
34 p. O. 10 c. 

POPPENBERG, Felix. Buchschmuck. (In West- 
ermanns illustrierte deutsche Monatshefte. 
January, 1902. 91:479-504.) il. 
Discusses both interior and exterior book 

decorations illustrations and bindings. 

RHODE ISLAND. Mowry, Arthur May. The 
Dorr .war; or, the constitutional struggle in 
Rhode Island ; with an introduction by Al- 
bert Bushnell Hart. Providence, R. I., 
Preston & Rounds Co., 1901. 16+420 p. 


Contains a 6-page bibliography. 

SAMOA AND GUAM. Library of Congress, 
Division of Bibliography. A list of books 
.(with references to periodicals) on Samoa 
and Guam; comp. under direction of A. P. 
C. Griffin, chief of Division of Bibliogra- 
phy. Washington, Gov. Print. Office, 1901. 
54 P- 1- O. 

cial assimilation. Pt. 2. (In American 
Journal of Sociology, January, 1902. 7:539- 

This article concludes with a 6-page bib- 

STUDENT LIFE. Sheldon, Henry D. Student 
life and customs. New York, D. Appleton 
& Co., 1901. 22+366 p. 12. (International 
education series.) 

The selected critical, annotated and classi- 
fied bibliography (pages 307-351) on the stu- 
dent life of colleges and universities, mediae- 
val and modern, is a most valuable feature 
of Dr. Sheldon's book. Three hundred and 
eighteen titles are included. Although the 
heading reads "Bibliography on student so- 
cieties," it is in reality a bibliography of stu- 
dent life, as "college athletics" and similar 
headings show. The only criticism to be 
made is that the "small" colleges, outside of 
New England, are practically ignored. 


The Journal of Biblical Literature, vol. 20, 
part 2, 1901, contains a compact and careful 
"General index" to the first 20 volumes of 
that publication. There are two alphabets, 
authors and subjects, followed by an "index 
of biblical passages" and an "index of He- 
brew words." The index is clearly printed, 
in a neat two-column page, references giving 
volume number in Roman and inclusive pag- 
ing in Arabic numerals. It was prepared by 
Rev. Owen H. Gates, and is also issued in 
separate form. As the Journal publishes only 
original matter the subject index gives a 
good notion of what American biblical schol- 
ars have been writing about during the last 
two decades. The Journal is issued at the 
subscription price of $3 per year, but sets of 
back volumes (except 1889, not published) 
may be obtained by libraries at $i per vol- 
ume on application to the Congregational Li- 
brary of Boston. It is indexed in Poole, be- 
ginning with Poole's vol. 3. 

Hnongmg ant) pseu&ongtng. 

Bridgman, Lewis Jesse, is the author of 
"Gulliver's bird book. . . ." 

White, Catharine A., is the author of "A 
brief history of the church. . . ." 

Catalogue Division, Library of Congress. 

Tbumorg ant> JSlunfrerg. 

AT THE DELIVERY DESK. Diffident school- 
girl asks for " 'The fool's dictionary,' or some 
such title. My teacher says it will help me 
get up a debate.' " Her teacher had referred 
her to "Poole's index." 

An Englishman asks for the new book 
"'igh and dry," and is given "D'ri and I." 

A book called "Sizzenberg" being inter- 
preted proved to be "Citizen Bird." 

The following note was recently received 
by a delivery desk attendant: "Please send 
me, if in, either 'A siren's love' or 'Lawyer 
Bell from Boston,' or 'She loved but left 
him,' or 'Beautiful but poor.' If none of 
them are in, send a good novel." 

February, 1902] 





[February, 1902 



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February, 1902] THE LIBRARY JOURNAL. Ill 



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112 THE LIBRARY JOURNAL. [February, 1902 


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February, 1902] THE LIBRARY JOURNAL. 113 


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February, 1902] 


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Economy aiU> Bibliograpbs 

VOL. 27. No. 3. 

MARCH, 1902. 



Library of Congress Budget for 1902-3. 
The Report of the Librarian of Congress. 
The Fiction Question Redivivus. 
Library Purchases and "Net" Prices. 


Government Documents: an Old Story and 

a Plea. J. T. Gerould. 
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Rathbone 121 

ING?-^. E. Bostwick 124 


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bull 132 

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Full Names. 

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Il8 THE LIBRARY JOURNAL. [March, 1902 


London Agency for American Libraries 


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PAJ>^ Aid. - /M- 


VOL. 27. 

MARCH, 1902. 

No. 3 

THERE is cause for general satisfaction in 
the manner in which the estimates of the Li- 
brarian of Congress for the next fiscal year 
have been accepted in the consideration by 
Congress of the general appropriations bill, 
now pending. The increase of force requested 
amounts to twenty-four in the Catalogue Di- 
vision and nine in the Copyright Office, while 
various salary readjustments are desired. 
Among these, the provision of a salary of 
$3000 for the head of the Division of Manu- 
scripts has been granted, thus making possi- 
ble the development of this division cer- 
tainly one of the most important adjuncts 
of a national library by permitting the ap- 
pointment of a head of that department, a 
post that has been left vacant until the sal- 
ary granted should be sufficient to secure the 
right man for the place. The provision for 
opening the library on Sundays is practically 
assured, in accord with the principle that has 
opened art galleries and museums on the day 
when they may be enjoyed by many who at 
other times are debarred from their privilege;;. 
The propriety and value of Sunday opening 
of libraries is still a matter of question, but 
in a city like Washington which is at all times 
a goal for sightseers and tourists, and where 
there are hundreds of persons connected with 
the various government departments and bu- 
reaus who pursue special studies outside of 
office hours, it must undoubtedly be a gratifi- 
cation and a service to thousands. The appro- 
priation for the purchase of books, set at 
$60,000 in the House bill, has been amended in 
the Senate to the sum of $100,000, as asked in 
the estimates an increase that, if granted, 
will do much to round out the collection and 
strengthen its weak places. 

UNDOUBTEDLY the appreciative treatment ac- 
corded to the Library of Congress estimates 
is largely due to the admirable presentation 
of conditions and possibilities made in the 
recent report of the Librarian of Congress. 
This report takes rank among the most nota- 
ble library publications of the year, furnish- 
ing, as it does, not only a review of the libra- 
ry's past and an outline of its possibilities for 

the future, but a comprehensive presentation 
of its present equipment and activities. Nor 
is it of value only in its relation to a single 
collection, for it represents fairly the ideals 
of modern American librarianship, and its 
outline of methods will be of practical ser- 
vice in a wide field. In the preparation and 
issue of this handsome volume Mr. Putnam 
has performed a public service of great 

JUST at present the fiction question, after 
some years of tranquillity, is again a subject 
of agitation and discussion. It is curious to 
note that in the very first number of the 
LIBRARY JOURNAL, and at the organization 
meeting of the American Library Association, 
in 1876, this subject was a paramount one, 
and the arguments that a quarter of a century 
seems not to have withered were there mar- 
shalled in opposing ranks. Yet the matter 
then was in some respects a less complex one 
than it is at present. The historical novel 
had not slain its tens of thousands and the 
"boom" had not become a central motor of 
the literary machine. To-day it is a hard 
problem that confronts the librarian how 
to discriminate, how to select from the flood 
of novels new and old, good, bad and in- 
different, that pour forth each year in increas- 
ing volume. Mr. Putnam's radical sugges- 
tion that no work of fiction be purchased by 
libraries until a year after its publication is 
widely regarded as possibly the most practi- 
cal solution of the difficulty. The arguments 
in its favor are logical and cogent, and it 
would be most interesting to observe its prac- 
tical operation and results. Mr. Carnegie has 
recently given his approval to the suggestion, 
and has even recommended that the period of 
exclusion be extended to three years but 
this opens more ground for objection. The 
book of the moment whose merit lies in pos- 
ters and press notices is unlikely to outlast 
the demand of a twelvemonth; but a three- 
year ban levied upon Kipling, Barrie, Lucas 
Malet, and the goodly company of sincere and 
worthy novelists seems unnecessary and in- 



[March, 1902 

AT the recent library meeting held at At- 
lantic City it was apparent that the question 
of the moment in the library world is the net 
price system, as maintained by the American 
Publishers' Association. The report of Mr. 
Bowerman, printed elsewhere, shows that the 
new rate of discounts has meant an average 
increase in the cost of "net" books to libra- 
ries considerably in excess of the advance that 
had been expected and that librarians were 
prepared to accept. Numerous instances are 
given by Mr. Bowerman as evidence of this; 
although it should be said that in some of the 
instances cited other causes than the net sys- 
tem may have influenced the cost of the book. 
This is certainly the case in regard to Fiske's 
"Life everlasting," where the increase in price, 
as compared with its previous volumes, was 
owing to circumstances quite outside of the 
new plan. Nevertheless the fact remains that 
the net prices bid fair to press more heavily 
upon libraries than was at first apparent. 
Mr. Bowerman has noted various ways in 
which current purchases may be shifted into 
other than regular channels; but these are at 
best but makeshifts, and there is evident a 
consensus of opinion that if only as on the 
ground of their large and regular purchases 
libraries are entitled to better terms have so 
far resulted from the present system. 



IT is very evident to every one who has had 
occasion to use the documents issued by the 
government that a vast amount of valuable 
material, possessed by almost every library of 
any size in the country is in effect worthless 
by reason of the fact that it cannot be located. 

The various departmental reports can be 
found with comparatively little labor, but 
there are hosts of special reports and other 
documents, to find which often requires a 
long and tedious search. 

If we know the year or the session in which 
the required document was issued the task is 
not such a difficult one, but very frequently 
we do not have this information, and are 
obliged to stumble about until, often more by 
good luck than good management, we find it. 
Too many times we are obliged to confess 
ourselves beaten and retire from the field. 

If we do not know what document we are 
seeking, the case is even worse. What is 
there to direct the student of shipping sub- 
sidies to the report of the Commissioner of 

Navigation for 1899? How is the ordinary 
user of the library to know that we have that 
splendid monograph on the Capitol by Glenn 
Brown? Where is the librarian that can lo- 
cate the various documents printed in refer- 
ence to the pension question, Alaska or good 

What we need is an index. A few libraries 
have undertaken to catalog the collection, but 
with most of us it is one of those things for 
which we hope to have the money some day. 

There are two ways of solving the prob- 
lem. The A. L. A. might undertake the work 
along the lines adopted by the "International 
catalogue of scientific literature." It would be 
very difficult to get a sufficient number of 
subscriptions at a figure large enough to 
finance the project, but this is a possibility. 
Or, the work might be done at the expense 
of the government under the direction of the 
Library of Congress. This would be much 
the better way. I doubt if the government 
could do anything that would be of more ma- 
terial assistance to the libraries of the coun- 
try than this. It has recognized its duty in 
this sort of work by giving us a checklist and 
an index to the documents of each session in 
recent years, and, through the Library of 
Congress, by the distribution of printed cat- 
alog cards. Is it not a good time to bring 
this old question to the fore again and to 
agitate in its favor? 

It will be a work of large proportion, in- 
volving a great amount of labor and expense. 
This fact must be recognized at the outset. 
It must be done by expert indexers under the 
guidance of men who are specialists in every 
field represented in the index. Mr. Thwaites 
has set the pace in his index to the "Jesuit 
relations," and future indexes must not fall 
below it. The index must give us a direct 
reference to every document published by the 
government in the Congressional set, and tell 
us enough about its contents so that we will 
have some idea before looking up the refer- 
ence whether it is a three-line note or a three 
hundred page report. 

The coming session of the A. L. A. will be 
an excellent place to discuss this question 
and to make some plan for future action. 

Columbia, Mo. 


WOULD not a library missionary be a val- 
uable assistant that is, some one well ac- 
quainted in a certain district who would in- 
terest non-readers by leaving books at their 
houses on the sitting-room tables, to be at 
hand at all times? I think that the library 
must go more and more to the reader, and the 
library as a business proposition is behind the 
times in not giving free delivery and collec- 
tion of books. These measures would greatly 
extend circulation. H. M. STANLEY. 


March, 1902] 




BY JOSEPHINE ADAMS RATHBONE, Pratt Institute Free Library, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

THERE is no subject before the library 
world to-day of greater importance than the 
problem of fiction. As has been said, fiction 
is the great fact of the time. Hitherto we 
have for the most part dealt with it nega- 
tively; have endeavored to limit, reduce, 
check its circulation ; but we may as well face 
this fact and see what can be done with it. 
People will read fiction ; they will read a great 
deal of fiction, and it is altogether desirable 
and necessary that they should. Certainly we 
do. I venture to say that fiction forms 75 per 
cent, of the reading, or at least 75 per cent, of 
the number of books read by the majority of 
librarians and library assistants, and why 
should we expect anything else of the public? 

It makes comparatively little difference 
whether a given library circulates 75 per 
cent, or 70 per cent, of fiction, but it does 
make a very great deal of difference what 
percentage of that percentage is strong, whole- 
some, imaginative, true fiction, the product of 
the great minds and great hearts of the writ- 
ers of power, what percentage is of fiction 
dealing with the problems and interests of 
the life of the day, what percentage is of 
morbid, introspective, decadent fiction, and 
what part is of the weak, sentimental, vapid or 
commonplace sort; and it is of the highest 
importance in estimating the work done by a 
library during a period of years to know how 
these percentages have relatively increased 
or decreased, as the result of the library's 
effort to better the taste of the community. 
Statistics of this kind would come much 
nearer being an index to the work of the libra- 
ry than any mere statement of the reduction of 
the percentage of fiction circulated. But how 
are we to determine these facts? As long as 
Mary J. Holmes, E. P. Roe, et al., are 
grouped with Thackeray and George Eliot as 
fiction, as though that were all there is to 
it, we shall not and cannot know. And, 
moreover, so long as our fiction finding-lists 
are simply undiscriminating alphabetical lists 
of authors and titles, in which Mary J. and 
Oliver Wendell Holmes, Marion Harland and 
Henry Harland stand side by side, presented 
with sweet impartiality, how can we expect 

the quality of the reading done to improve 
very greatly? 

It is the experience at the information desk 
in the Pratt Institute Library, as it is doubt- 
less in every open shelf library, that many 
people come to the library wanting to read 
the best, but confessing ignorance as to what 
it is, and it is information of this sort, this 
kind of discrimination, that the reader has a 
right to expect from the library. It is a cu- 
rious thing, a result doubtless of the effort 
to reduce the circulation of fiction, that the 
libraries have been so ready to furnish this 
sort of information for every other class of 
literature. There are few libraries so poor 
that they have not some lists of books and 
articles their own or taken from the bulle- 
tins of other libraries on every subject ex- 
cept fiction. Something has been done, of 
course. There are Mr. Griswold's lists of 
descriptive novels, Mr. Dana's list of a hun- 
dred novels, Mr. Thomson's ideas, which are 
beginning to be talked about, and the recent 
symposium in the Saturday Times, that 
showed that much thought was being directed 
toward the subject; but very little has been 
actually accomplished so far as I know. 

A word just here as to what we have done 
ourselves may be pardoned. About five years 
ago a class was started in the Pratt Institute 
Library School, in an experimental, tentative 
way, which we called the Fiction Seminar. 
The plan was to study, not the standard au- 
thors, with which the students were pre- 
sumably familiar, but the more recent minor 
authors of promise and interest, of whose 
works we had found the average student 
very ignorant. I had come to realize by my 
own experience at the loan desk during the 
first few years of my work in the library the 
opportunities for helpful suggestion the desk 
assistant has, even in a closed shelf library, 
and the necessity of a knowledge on her part 
of the character and value of the largest pos- 
sible number of the writers of fiction, and 
the course was an outcome of this realization. 
The plan also included a study of what we 
may term "border-land" fiction and of the 
writers of continental Europe. The aim of 



[March, 1902 

the study is to find out the essential charac- 
teristics of the author; the kind of work, 
whether novels of incident, manners, etc. ; in- 
fluence of his work, wholesome, elevating, 
morbid or depressing; other writers he is 
nearest akin to; the kind of people to whom 
he would appeal, etc. With the border- 
land fiction, special study is made of the 
qualities that attract readers, the use that 
could be made of these books, and the writers 
next higher in rank whose works might be 
substituted, and through whom the reader 
could be led to better things. To stimulate 
thought in this direction we gave the class 
as a problem this year the construction of a 
ladder leading up from one of these "border- 
land" novelists whom they had studied to 
some author in standard fiction. The results 
are suggestive and interesting, of course not 
to be followed in any given case, but helpful. 

One or two examples may not be without 
interest : 

Rhoda Broughton : "Joan," "Nancy." 
Jessie Fothergill : "Kith and kin," "Lasses 

of Leverhouse," "First violin." 
Mrs. Walford: "Mr. Smith," "Mischief of 

Walter Besant : "Chaplain of the Fleet," 

"Armorel of Lyonesse." 
Thomas Hardy: "The woodlanders," "Far 

from the madding crowd." 
R. D. Blackmore : "Cripps the carrier," "Kit 

and Kitty." 

Charlotte Bronte : "Jane Eyre," "Shirley." 
George Eliot : "Middlemarch," "Mill on the 


Mary J. Holmes. 
Rosa N. Carey. 
Amanda Douglas. 
Edna Lyall : "In the golden days." 
Amelia Barr : "Bow of orange ribbon." 
Charlotte M. Yonge. 
George McDonald: "St. George and St. 

Walter Scott. 

Amanda Douglas. 
Clara L. Burnham. 
Amelia Barr. 
Anthony Hope. 
Marion Crawford. 
Gilbert Parker. 
Bulwer Lytton. 
Walter Scott. 

Marie Corelli psychical novel: "Romance 

of two worlds." 

"Man with the broken ear." 
"Mr. Isaacs." 
"Amos Judd." 
"Brushwood boy." 
"Peter Ibbetson." 

Marie Corelli psychological novel: "Sor- 
rows of Satan." 
"Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde." 
"Right of way." 
"Tale of two cities." 
"Scarlet letter." 
"Tess of the Durbervilles." 
"Les miserables." 

The students have been brought by the ef- 
fort to a realization of the limitations of their 
own reading from the professional point of 
view, and to an appreciation of the need for 
some assistance to aid them in grouping and 
connecting authors of fiction. Any one who 
has done circulating work, especially in a 
closed shelf library, knows that dreadfully 
blank feeling experienced when called on 
suddenly by a borrower for a nice book "like 
that" (one just returned). "That" may be 
we will say "Ardath." Here is an op- 
portunity; can she think of something "like 
that," only better? It may be that "Phra the 
Phoenician" will occur to her, or "Mr. Isaacs," 
but if no such happy thought conies, where 
shall she turn for help? The catalog is of 
no assistance, the alphabetically arranged rows 
of books on the shelves stare at her without 
response ; with a dozen other people waiting 
there is no time for prolonged search, and, 
baffled, she hands out "The sorrows of 
Satan," feeling regretfully that one chance 
has been missed. 

It seems desirable, therefore, to have some 
kind of arrangement or classification of fiction, 
first, for the sake of the reader who wants the 
best but knows not what it is, or who wants 
a story about some subject in which he is in- 
terested, or who would want it if he knew 
such an one was to be found; secondly, for 
the assistant, whose own reading is not ade- 
quate to all the demands made upon it ; and 
lastly, in order that library statistics should 
be approximately a true measure and indica- 
tion of the quality as well as the quantity of 
the work done. 

The next question is, What kind of an ar- 
rangement? There are several possible 
bases for a classification of fiction. 

ist. By type or kind. There are novels of 
manners and social life, novels of incident, 
novels of character study and development, 
fanciful and fantastic tales, humorous sto- 
ries, simple love stories. 

2d. By subject. Historical novels (these 
may be novels of incident, as "The three 

March, 1902] 



guardsmen," or of manners, like "Henry Es- 
mond," or novels of character development, 
like "Romola"), sociological, scientific, relig- 
ious, musical, novels, and so on ad infinitum. 

3d. By literary quality or the grade of the 
author, a rank determined in part by his per- 
sonal force and in part by his literary style. 
Dynamic force and literary quality are very 
different things, of course, and yet as mani- 
fested in literature they are so combined that 
it would be hardly possible to separate them 
as bases of arrangement. 

4th. By ethical influence. This I mention 
merely as a possibility. It would be too diffi- 
cult to determine to be practicable for use, 
but it would probably be found to be a factor 
in determining the rank of an author. 

Now, which of these is the more important 
and which would be the more available in 
actual use? This must, I think, be consid- 
ered in relation to the next question, which 
is of equal importance, How are we to apply 
practically this idea of fiction classification? 
On the shelves, in the catalogs, or by means 
of lists and bulletins? 

Taking up for a moment the arrangement 
on the shelves : shall we arrange our fiction 
by kind, grouping the novels of incident, 
manners, character development? That is 
probably the line of cleavage along which our 
individual preferences divide. Some of us 
dislike novels of incident, others especially en- 
joy novels of character development, but too 
often the same book is enjoyed by different 
people for different reasons, and there would 
be great difference of opinion as to what 
type of novel any given story might be. This 
basis is therefore not to be seriously consid- 
ered, I think. It is perfectly possible to work 
out a scheme for classifying novels by sub- 
ject; the Decimal or the Expansive classifi- 
cation could be used with very little difficulty, 
as there are novels that would go into all 
of the main classes and many of the sub- 
divisions. The difficulty in such a scheme is 
that it would separate the novels by the same 
author, and a very large number of people 
read novels because of their fondness for a 
given author rather than because of the sub- 
ject dealt with. 

It would be very possible to grade fiction 
into three or four classes by the rank of the 
author, an aristocracy, an upper middle class, 

a lower middle class, and a lowest class. 
These could be marked i, 2, 3, 4, with a 
Cutter number for the author. One great 
objection to this plan is that there are very 
many authors whose work belongs in more 
than one class Charles Reade, for example. 
''The cloister and the hearth" would belong 
in i, "Foul play" and "White lies" in 2, 
"A terrible temptation" in 3 or 4. Bulwer's 
work belongs in at least three classes. Many 
authors have one or two best novels very 
much above the rest, and this difference 
could not be emphasized by such an arrange- 
ment. For this reason I am strongly at- 
tracted by an idea worked out by Mr. E. W. 
Gaillard, of the Webster Free Library, for 
designating the rank of books by covers of 
different colors. By this plan the works of 
an author could be kept together, the authors 
arranged in alphabetical order, and yet the 
grade of the individual book shown unmis- 
takably. Stars or other labels of different 
colors could be used by libraries that object 
to the use of covers, and the same designa- 
tion on the book-card would enable the sta- 
tistics to be kept by class. 

But when it comes to the catalog, the thing 
is much more simple. Working on a sugges- 
tion received some time ago from Miss 
Hitchler, then of the New York Free Circu- 
lating Library, I have for several years ad- 
vised our classes to make subject headings 
for fiction in their dictionary catalogs, and 
have given them practice in so doing. They 
have done this not only for historical fiction 
but for novels dealing with social, religious, 
and other questions, and I hope have carried 
on the practice in their own library work. 
Much can be done in this way to encourage 
the purposeful reading of fiction. The man- 
ner of treatment of the subject, whether it 
be a novel of incident and complicated plot, a 
novel of manners and social life, or a novel 
of character study, could be indicated by a 
note on the card, and such facts as that of the 
narration being in the first person and the use 
of dialect, should also be noted. 

But the best field for this kind of work is 
the fiction finding-list. Instead of the simple 
alphabet of authors and titles, of which most 
of our finding-lists consist, we could have a 
classified list, with author and title and sub- 
ject indexes, the great books in each class 



[March, 1902 

indicated by an asterisk or other sign, or a 
dictionary list with subject headings and ref- 
erences, or graded lists with subject arrange- 
ment and indexes. The possibilities here are 
boundless. Of course the serious impedi- 
ment in the way is the absence of any aids 
to the making of such lists. Few of us know 
our fiction sufficiently to care to expose our 

knowledge to the rude gaze of the world. 
What is needed before any such plan becomes 
practical is a subject index to fiction, which 
to be successful must be the result of co- 
operative action. Some library association, 
or group of associations, could render no 
more important service to the cause of im- 
proved reading than by taking up this work.* 


BY ARTHUR E. BOSTWICK, Chief of Circulation Department, New York Public Library. 

MR. TEGGART'S remarks on the "science of 
library statistics" in the November LIBRARY 
JOURNAL are certainly just. It must be re- 
membered, however, that every science is the 
result of growth. Every one who contributes 
his mite to the subject is making possible its 
ultimate reduction to a system. Probably the 
one thing that would hasten this end most 
would be the adoption of a uniform scheme of 
taking and recording statistics under the 
superintendence of the A. L. A., and their 
annual comparison and discussion by a com- 
petent committee. 

I desire to call attention to one statement 
of Mr. Teggart's that is open to misconstruc- 
tion. He notes that notwithstanding the re- 
duction in the fiction percentage of circula- 
tion during the last ten years the total in- 
crease of circulation has been so much greater 
that "it is abundantly apparent that under 
the stimulus provided by the library its pa- 
trons are reading much more fiction than 

That this is literally true of the total num- 
ber of readers appears to be probable. But 
it seems to carry the inference that the 
amount of fiction read by each user of the 
library is larger. This of course depends on 
the meaning of the increase of circulation. 
Is it due to larger reading on the part of 
each individual user, or to an increase in the 
number of users? If the former, each per- 
son is of course reading more fiction, although 
its proportion to his total reading has de- 
creased. If the latter, the actual amount of 
fiction read in each case has decreased as well 
as the percentage, the total amount of indi- 
vidual reading remaining the same. 

Unfortunately the number of active read- 

ers can not be easily ascertained. What is 
an "active reader"? Are we to draw the line 
at persons who have used the library within 
the last week, or the last month, or the last 
year? The trouble is that we have to do here 
with a continuous variable. At any one time 
the status of a library's readers may be repre- 
sented by a curve in which the distance of 
each point from the vertical axis denotes the 
time elapsed since the last book taken, and 
the distance from the horizontal axis, the 
number of users who have allowed such 
time to elapse. A comparison of such curves 
for different periods of time would show 
whether the status of the users had varied, 
and how. 

An indirect way of getting at the number 
of active users and comparing them from time 
to time is to count the book-cards in the cir- 
culation tray at stated intervals. This gives 
the number of outstanding books and in case 
each user is permitted to draw only one book 
at a time, it also gives accurately the number 
of persons using books at the time. With the 
two-book system the number of books out- 
standing can not be greater than twice the 
users nor less than their actual number, but 
may have any value between these two. As 
a matter of fact, however, when the number 
of users is large the proportion of those who 
have out two books probably does not vary 
much from time to time, so that the number 
of outstanding books may be taken as roughly 
proportioned to the number of users even 
where the two-book system is in use. 

* The New York Library Club has, since this arti- 
cle was written, appointed a committee to consider 
steps to be taken toward the preparation of a sub- 
ject index to prose fiction. 

March, 1902] 



In most of the present branches of the New 
York Public Library the number of outstand- 
ing books has been counted and reported on 
the first day of each month since the year 
1896. The following table shows the aver- 
age for each library year: 


O* & 


1 8 

C t 


* O 



%+ o 

o t> 
X O 

i $ 









M uhlenberg 



34th St 




General average. . . 






* Number of books out Nov. 30, 1897. 
t Number of books out Oct. 31, 1899. 

As will be seen, the general average has 
not varied much. Its increase, however 
(about one-third), is roughly the same as that 
of the circulation during the same period, in- 
dicating that the increase of circulation has 
been due to increase in the number of readers 
and not to increased individual reading. 

For more accurate comparison of the out- 
standing books with the number of books on 
the shelves and also with total circulation, 
the following tables have been prepared: 

The percentage of a library's books that are 
out at one time is seen to vary more with 
locality than with time. From one-tenth to 
one-third are outstanding. The larger per- 
centages are usually where the stock of books 
is small. The percentage of circulation out 
at one time, which is more pertinent to the 
present investigation, is fairly steady, with a 
tendency to increase. As the actual circula- 
tion was on the increase, this means that the 
average number of outstanding books, and 
hence the number of readers, was increasing 
still faster. In other words individual read- 
ing had decreased during these years instead 
of increasing and a fortiori the decrease in 
the actual amount of fiction read by each per- 
son was even greater than that indicated by 
the decreased percentage. 

So far as these limited data indicate any- 
thing, they therefore indicate that the large 
recent increases in library circulation are due 
to the larger number of readers ; that people 
now read less, instead of more, than they read 
four or five years ago; and that they read 
less fiction, both actually and in proportion to 
the total amount read. 

These conclusions are unexpected and the 
matter should be investigated further. I make 
them public because probably few libraries 
keep record of the number of outstanding 
books, and fewer still have done so for as 
long a period as five years. This element of 
statistics is certainly important and should not 
be neglected. 

Percentage of books out at one time. 

Percentage of circulation out at one time. 

VO tx 

o? m 

"3 M - 

S o 

*"* CO 

& OS 

oo oo 



s & 

OO 00 




$ I 

"~2 * 


> & 

M - o 1 



*o . 

00 * 


i i 

1 o 

0. 0> 
00 oo 

M -2 M - 


$ f 

$ I 

I 8, 

.O 1 



s% r 

I o 















02 1 








Ottendorf er 




2 I 
























t Chatham 

* Opened June, 1897. t Opened June, 1898. t Opened July, 1890. 



[March, 1902 


BY WILLIAM WARNER BISHOP, Librarian Polytechnic Institute, Academic Depart- 
ment, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

To state this question is almost the same 
thing as to answer it. A librarian who is 
not a lover of books is indeed a sorry speci- 
men of his kind. But of late years the term 
bibliophile has gathered to itself certain asso- 
ciations which have somewhat obscured its 
real meaning; in the popular mind it is now 
generally applied only to those persons whose 
love for books has taken the form of mania 
for works of a certain rarity or of a limited 
and strictly fictitious value. If the words col- 
lector and bibliophile are to be considered as 
interchangeable; if the bibliophile is to be 
thought of only as the man in whose eyes an 
uncut first edition in the original blue paper 
wrappers is worth ten times as much as the 
same book when it has delighted the eye of its 
owner and imparted its contents to his mind; 
if he alone is a bibliophile who is a biblio- 
maniac, then by all means librarians, as all 
other people of wholesome and well-balanced 
character should strive to guard themselves 
from bibliomania as from an insidious and 
dangerous disease. 

But if by a bibliophile we mean one who 
truly loves books, in whose eyes a badly made 
book, a badly bound book, and a badly illus- 
trated book are alike an abomination, one who 
loves a book not only for its form, but for its 
content, one who knows the history and tech- 
nique of the art of printing, one whose books 
are his friends and companions, his inspira- 
tion and his solace, then by all means should 
the librarian be a bibliophile. And if we may 
read into the term, as without unduly stretch- 
ing it I think we may, an idea of a man who 
values books because they contain the goodly 
heritage of past ages, because from them and 
from them alone we learn how to interpret 
that daily experience which our contact with 
human nature brings to each one of us, then 
indeed to become a bibliophile is not only an 
attainment to be desired, but a goal to be 
striven for. 

My answer to this question might perhaps 

* Read at a meeting of the Long Island Library 
Club, Feb. 21, 1902. 

stop here. There are, however, certain con- 
siderations which induce me to continue the 
discussion further. I think few will deny that 
on the part of a great many of our American 
librarians there is a lack of equipment for 
work on the historical and artistic side of 
their calling. There may be good reasons for 
this state of things, but still I think, disre- 
garding the reasons, that it is clear to anyone 
whose observation has been at all extended 
that here we have paid but little attention to 
what I am disposed to call the higher and 
finer duties of our profession. There are too 
few of us who feel competent to attack prob- 
lems involving a minute knowledge not alone 
of the history of book-making, but even of 
such allied subjects as the political and econ- 
omic history of Europe in the Renaissance 
period. There are not many among our num- 
ber who could lend intelligent aid to a his- 
torian seeking information on the Spanish 
colonies in the West Indies from what few 
original sources our libraries might have. 
How many of us feel ourselves reasonably 
well fitted to draw up a scheme for the care- 
ful preservation and at the same time the 
ready consultation of manuscripts deposited 
with us? If a bundle of letters of General 
Washington, or some manuscript diaries of 
President Madison, or the account books of 
General Scott, or a set of letters describing 
life in Alaska in 1899 were brought to us, 
how many of us would feel 'competent to 
prepare them for publication and to arrange 
for their proper preservation? Supposing a 
collection of rare and beautiful Italian books 
of the fifteenth century should be given to the 
library, is there someone at hand able to col- 
late them, to catalog them, to say nothing 
of publishing a description of them which 
would be a lamp to the feet of scholars the 
world over? Have we many librarians 
equipped to distinguish between a true and a 
counterfeit Aldine, to describe the earmarks 
of "contemporary binding," or to tell with 
reasonable accuracy the date of a Greek or 
Latin manuscript at a glance? 

March, 1902] 



Nay, more than these things, which may 
seem to some matters of rather remote pos- 
sibility, have all our librarians the ability to 
tell good from poor paper, to distinguish be- 
tween different grades of morocco and other 
leathers? Can we all tell how a book should 
be sewed and berate the binder when he fails, 
with the perversity of his kind, to follow 
directions? Do we know the difference be- 
tween good printing and bad ? Can we appre- 
ciate that proper registration, clear and beau- 
tiful type, and serviceable bindings are more 
truly artistic than the combination of heavy 
and ugly type poorly set, muddy ink, and imi- 
tation chamois skin binding which now be- 
guiles the innocent purchaser of supposedly 
"artistic" books sent him "on approval," 
without request? And lastly are there many 
of us who know intimately the history of the 
finer and more expensive sorts of book-mak- 
ing, who love the books into whose making 
has gone the devoted skill of artist and printer 
and binder? 

That we have in the ranks of the librarian's 
calling not a few persons competent to do 
many of these things, and some able to do all 
of them and vastly more is undoubtedly 
true. But I fear that we can hardly go on to 
say that the majority of those engaged in li- 
brary work have any such qualifications. We 
are all aware that the great development in 
library work in America has been along two 
lines, first, the betterment and growth of the 
free public circulating library, and second, an 
increase in the material ease of handling books 
and making them quickly accessible to the 
reader. The number and size of our free 
libraries, the enormous quantity of books 
circulated from them, the magnificent and 
well-planned buildings recently erected, the 
mechanical devices for protection against fire 
and for compact housing of books, the card 
catalog system, our convenient, if not alto- 
gether logical, systems of classification, to- 
gether with a host of accessory institutions 
for the promotion of reading and the circula- 
tion of books ; these form at once the chief 
pride of our American librarians and their 
chief contribution to the science of librarian- 
ship. We have passed through a period of 
training in the last quarter century. Our en- 
ergies have been given to the material side 
of our work, and we have no cause to be 
ashamed of our results. But we may well 

pause for an instant to inquire seriously 
whether we have done all that we might have 
done, and whether new conditions are not 
facing us at the present moment. 

Those of us who are at all familiar with 
some of the great libraries of Europe are per- 
fectly well aware that they as a rule are con- 
ducted on an altogether different basis from 
most of our own. We are not a little disposed 
to ridicule the library in which the card cata- 
log is unknown, or one in which a student 
must occasionally wait 48 hours after leaving 
a request for books before obtaining them. 
But true librainship does not consist in stan- 
dard sizes or pneumatic tubes. I shall never 
forget the remark of a German librarian to 
whom I once showed a very remarkable col- 
lection of some hundreds of pamphlets on the 
early history of Methodism. As I was la- 
menting that they had never been properly 
cataloged nor properly displayed, he said: 
"Die Hauptsache ist die Biicher zu besitzen," 
the main thing is to own the books. That 
remark gave the clue to the difference be- 
tween his standards and ours. We have not 
been wrong in thinking that our collections 
must be made available by every device in our 
power; but we have not always had strong 
collections. When we contrast our best li- 
braries with those of Europe, we are painful- 
ly aware of the fact that the European insti- 
tutions have been in the field for some hun- 
dreds of years longer than we have, and they 
"own the books." As a consequence, training 
for librarianship with them involves a study 
of palaeography, for they have manuscript 
treasures ; it involves a knowledge of the 
history of printing, for their collections ex- 
emplify that history ; it involves learning and 
scholarship, for their libraries are the resort 
of scholars and of the leading men in all pro- 

Now I think that we may safely say that 
with us the period of emphasis on the ex- 
pansion of the circulating library only has 
come to an end. We shall not circulate fewer 
books, but more ; we shall not have fewer 
branches and delivery stations, but more; we 
shall not cease from our missionary activities, 
on the contrary, we shall doubtless increase 
them in ways undreamed of at present. But 
the very state where the belief in the civiliz- 
ing mission of the book is strongest, the state 
whose Free Library Commission sends out re- 



{March, 1902 

ports of the work of its travelling libraries 
which can hardly be read without emotion, 
this state has just erected for its State His- 
torical Society a magnificent building to shel- 
ter a collection of manuscripts and books 
which illuminate the early history of the en- 
tire northwest. In our own city, soon to be 
provided as a result of Mr. Carnegie's gen- 
erosity with unexcelled facilities for the circu- 
lation of books through free libraries, there 
are growing great collections of incunabula, 
of Americana, of works on architecture, not 
to mention a host of others. We need only 
to glance at a few of the great libraries of the 
country from Boston to Washington and from 
New York to Chicago to see that the day of 
specialization, of more rounded collections, 
and of great reference libraries has truly 
dawned. We have reached a point where li- 
braries are receiving endowments, and where 
a distinct purpose exists on the part of trus- 
tees to further research. 

It may not be known to all of us to how re- 
markable an extent American collectors of 
wealth have been purchasing manuscripts, 
incunabula, and rare books in Europe in the 
past two decades. In the natural course of 
things the greater part of these collections 
will in time find their way from private hands 
to the shelves of libraries. Witness the col- 
lections of Mr. Ayer and Mr. Brown in the 
field of Americana, as recent examples, to say 
nothing of a score of others. Within easy 
reach of a student in New York City it is 
now possible to find no small amount of first 
hand material for the study of both Greek and 
Latin palaeography, while a great amount of 
material of this sort may be expected in the 
future. Papyri are already finding their way 
to America in large quantities, owing to 
American assistance in financing the recent 
explorations in Egypt. 

If it is once granted that we have arrived 
at this new stage in library progress, I think 
it will scarcely be disputed that the biblio- 
graphic, the scholarly, the historical side of 
their work must in the future engage the 
careful attention of a far greater number of 
librarians than it has, with us, in the past. 
In libraries created for special purposes, or 
containing large collections on special topics, 
works illustrating the history of those subjects 
must be gathered in large quantities. These 
cannot properly be handled in any other spirit 

than that of the true bibliophile. While for 
bibliographic purposes the matters which lend 
an adventitious value to a book are scarcely 
worth noting, it yet remains true that one 
gifted with the knowledge and trained in the 
arts of the bibliophile will alone succeed in 
cataloging and classifying books whose value 
lies in their rarity, in the peculiar circum- 
stances of their manufacture, or in the form 
in which they are preserved. There are there- 
fore likely to be greater inducements for li- 
brarians to qualify themselves properly to 
handle rare books, manuscripts, and illustra- 
tive material in the future than there have 
been in the past. 

It would indeed be a sad day which should 
find our library world divided into two camps. 
If those who serve a limited public and those 
who serve the greater masses should fail to 
recognize their mutual obligations and their 
mutual dependence, much would disappear 
which now goes to make pleasant and profita- 
ble the work of the profession. To recognize 
distinctly and to appreciate fully the mission- 
ary effort of the public library are required 
equally of all of us. May we not find in the 
spirit of the bibliophile one of the bonds 
which shall hold firmly together the members 
of our calling now rapidly differentiating to 
such a degree that we are obliged to flock 
by ourselves in a yearly increasing number of 
sections? May we not properly and confi- 
dently ask of our brethren of the public li- 
brary, of the branch library, and of the de- 
livery station, that they shall love the beauti- 
ful in books, that they shall care for the fine 
samples of early printing, and that they shall 
strive to educate their immediate constitu- 
ents to some appreciation of these things? 
And may we not bid the cataloger or classi- 
fier deep in the problems of transliteration 
from the Slavic or the proper subordination 
of a special class under the general heading 
turn for a while from his labor and consider 
the beauty of the fine old Baskerville he has 
just put down? May we not confidently urge 
that the historical side of bibliography and 
the deliberate formation of collections which 
shall show the history of at least one subject 
be encouraged in every library of any size? 

There are some very practical applications 
to be made of these theoretical views. The 
busy desk attendant or children's librarian 
may think that these remarks are not meant 

March, 1902] 



for her. I think otherwise. It is in just 
these cases that they do apply. I do not 
mean that a long line of waiting applicants 
should be delayed while the desk attendant 
delivers a lecture on the superiority of mor- 
occo over sheep in bindings, or that biblio- 
graphic treasures should be turned over to 
children. But the "trivial round and common 
task" when steadfastly pursued are likely to 
result in both exhaustion and stagnation. A 
fine enthusiasm for old books, for fine books, 
for beautiful books, will be one stimulus which 
can generally be indulged in with ease and 
with safety. Moreover, I firmlv believe that 
only those who have tried it know what an 
interest a bibliographic exhibit may arouse 
among the frequenters even of a small branch 
library. Such exhibitions are not impossible, 
yet they require some little knowledge on the 
part of the attendants who explain them, 
even when labelled in the most effective 

Librarians who have charge of small col- 
lections and whose funds are limited have 
especial need of the training and the enthu- 
siasm of the bibliophile. They are far too 
prone to believe that they can indulge in 
nothing so expensive as fine editions and good 
bindings. To any one who knows the possi- 
bilities of the auction and second-hand mar- 
ket of this city such beliefs are groundless. 
A succession of reasonably low bids placed 
with reliable auctioneers will produce results 
which will astonish those who have bought 
only of agents. Moreover no one knows how 
much good a few well bound books of fine 
quality will do. Few people will abuse a 
fine book, while almost anyone is careless with 
a paper-covered and poorly printed one. A 
librarian of a small library who will investi- 
gate second-hand stores and will persistently 
study auction catalogs can soon acquire book 

In addition we may, it seems to me, make 
much more of such fine specimens of the 
printer's art or other treasures as we possess 
in all our libraries. I am a firm believer in 
the value of such things when exhibited with 
suitable explanatory labels. I well remember 
the effect on my own imagination of a few 
huddled and carelessly labelled old books and 
manuscripts placed in a show case in a 
wretched light in the public library I fre- 
quented as a boy. Had they been shown in an 

attractive manner and with full, clear, and ele- 
mentary notes, I have no doubt that they 
would have had a vastly greater influence. 
It is hardly possible to lay too much stress on 
effective explanation in such matters. I wish, 
without attempting invidious comparisons, to 
praise highly the work done in this line by 
the Museum of the Brooklyn Institute of Arts 
and Sciences for its scientific exhibits, and 
also that done last winter at the exhibit on 
the history of the book at Pratt Institute 
Free Library. If our heads of libraries will 
endeavor to show what they have of beautiful, 
rare, and costly volumes and bindings, and 
will at the same time encourage on the part 
of their assistants a devotion to the beautiful 
in books, we shall all of us have taken a long 
step forward in the direction of a larger and 
truer librarianship. 

OF the classes of gifts offered to libraries 
there are, first, new books and periodicals 
which may come from authors, publishers, or 
societies interested in a propaganda of some 
sort, or from benevolent individuals. Such 
books are desirable just in proportion to their 
usefulness. A book of privately printed 
poems by somebody's aunt who lives else- 
where may simply serve to gratify the lady 
by enrolling her among the poets in the li- 
brary catalog; but that same volume, if writ- 
ten by a resident of the town in which the 
library is placed, has a unique value there 
for just that reason, whatever its literary 

The "crank" authors, as John Fiske pointed 
out, always seem to have plenty of money for 
printing and postage, and every library re- 
ceives some of this class of new books. While 
Mr. Fiske was assistant librarian at Harvard 
he saw the need of a new term of classifica- 
tion for such literature, so that books on 
perpetual motion need not be placed under 
Physics, nor essays on circle-squaring under 
Mathematics. He called it at first Insane 
Literature, but when living authors not re- 
siding in asylums were likely to visit the 
Harvard library and be displeased by the im- 
putation, it was thought best to change the 
designation to Eccentric Literature, which 
gave less offence and even implied a pleasing 
quality of originality to some minds. The 
distinction between crude reasoning from 
lack of complete knowledge of a subject and 

* Part of a paper read at meeting of Connecticut 
Library Association, New Haven, Feb. 26, 1902. 



[March, 1902 

the vagaries of an unbalanced mind were 
duly observed. 

"Eccentric literature." says Mr. Fiske, "is 
usually marked by a shrill note of anger, as 
it is often written in a dudgeon." He re- 
remarks: "When you take up a pamphlet by 
'Vindex' and read the title, 'A box on both 
ears to the powers that ought not to be at 
Washington,' you may be prepared for inco- 
herency." He mentions also an edition of 
Plutarch's essay on Superstition, which 
seemed an ordinary Greek book until Mr. 
Fiske's eye fell on the last sentence of the 
editor's preface : "I terminate this my preface 
by consigning all Greek scholars to the spe- 
cial care of Beelzebub." "Oho!" said Mr. 
Fiske, "there's a cloven foot here; perhaps 
if we explore further we may get a whiff of 
brimstone," and it was so. 

At the present time a certain western writer 
of this class is sending at intervals to many 
libraries pamphlets called "The universal law 
of forms and signs of character," a title 
rather attractive to minds of symbolistic lean- 
ings; but it is impossible to get a single co- 
herent thought from the mass of language, 
and there is a curious punning use of words 
which betrays a mental twist, such as knoll- 
edge knowledge, fall-see false, miasma 
my-asthma, etc., and when the author re- 
marks that caged animals do not comprehend 
the irony of their situation. 

Of the same class is "Oahspe, a new Bible 
in the words of Jehovih and his angel am- 
bassadors. A sacred history of the higher 
and lower heavens on earth for the past 24,- 
ooo years. Also a brief history of the pre- 
ceding 55,000 years a synopsis of the cos- 
mogony of the universe ; the labor and glory 
of gods and goddesses in the Etherean heav- 
ens," etc. On this Bible a community was 
founded by "Faithists" in New Mexico, 
called Shalam, where orphaned and outcast 
children were to be reared in its precepts and 
taught, "at a suitable age," spirit communion. 
The book is illustrated with weird pictures, 
from originals painted by spirits, and strange 

Manufacturers often send out very desir- 
able little monographs on the history of their 
special lines, the subjects ranging from va- 
nilla to reaping machines. An author of a 
biography of some ancestor of his own, which 
might never have been written without the 
stimulus of a genealogical interest, may pre- 
sent a copy of it to a number of libraries as 
a pious act. All kinds of pamphlets and pe- 
riodicals from people of all kinds of hobbies 
come to libraries in shoals, and are often val- 
uable to have in the right classification. Then 
there are the political and religious organiza- 
tions, which gladly send their organs to the 
library if they may bz placed in the reading 
room. It is a nice question to decide the ex- 
pediency of accepting these gifts on account 
of the apparent partiality in representation. 
Another party or sect may question why you 

have, say, the Protectionist or the Christian 
Science Journal and not their organs ; but 
they ought to be pacified when they learn 
that they, too, might display their papers as a 
gift, provided they were not anarchists or off- 
color occultists. Some papers masquerade as 
gifts for a while only to send in a bill later, 
which the library does not necessarily pay. 

The next class of library gifts is that of 
second-hand books. Various indeed are the 
old books that come in ; from the generous 
gifts of really desirable and valuable books 
from private collections to the offering of 
those who say, in effect, "You take it, I don't 
want it." An old clergyman goes to Mon- 
tana to live with his daughter, and, perforce, 
leaves his books behind him. He would like 
to benefit the public library, so he bestows 
upon it a trunkful of volumes which cost him 
dear during fifty years' ministry >the for- 
gotten receptacles of the religious thought of 
those bygone years. Mrs. Thrifty clears her 
attic and discovers a store of old periodicals. 
"Not perfect sets, you know, but most of the 
numbers of Harper's, The Century, and The 
Outlook for several years. Will the library 
send for them?" One lady offered several 
volumes of Littell's Living Age to a certain 
library, and the janitor was told to call for 
them. He thought of taking a wheelbarrow 
along, but decided he would make two jour- 
neys if necessary instead, and carrv the books 
in his arms. He presently appeared with 
seven slim numbers of the periodical, and 
that was all there were of them! A greasy 
little Italian bootblack brings in a copy of the 
"Young acrobat" as an offering on the altar 
of the library, in gratitude for happy hours 
with his borrowed books. An illustrated sub- 
scription book in folio numbers is sent in 
with a message that the donor "began taking 
this book a few years ago," but dropped it 
before the work was complete, and he knows 
you will be glad to have it as "far as the num- 
bers go" for your library. Sometimes the 
organizers of a new library seek to interest 
the people of a small town in the project by 
soliciting gifts of books, and the harvest they 
reap surprises them. Truly everybody must 
love books, when you see how hard it is for 
them to give away one which anybody would 
care to read. Ancient school-books, sermons 
and moral tales, odd volumes of bound pe- 
riodicals, out-of-date science in Home Libra- 
ries and religious books in great variety of 
mediocrity emerge from dark closets to fill 
the committee's open arms. One library 
reaped as many as twelve copies of "Bringing 
in the sheaves," reminiscences of an evange- 
list, some years ago when collecting books 
from interested citizens with which to found 
a library. The wonder was, at first, how so 
many copies had been purchased, when it 
was discovered that an aged, but popular 
clergyman, had been the agent for the book, 
and it is evident that his own harvest was 
rich. And do not too lightly dismiss the unde- 

March, 1902] 


sirable, believing that the donors will never 
know you did not find their gifts "available." 
In such an hour as ye think not a feminine 
visitor will appear and ask for "Sturm's re- 
flections." She has never asked for any- 
thing before and you desire to please, so your 
wits are stimulated, and you recollect dimly 
that the title has been seen on an ancient 
book in the storeroom. While you seek it 
you wonder if "Sturm's reflections" had some 
value you know not of, and come back tri- 
umphantly to place it in the seeker's hands. 
"Oh ! no. I didn't want to take it, thanks. I 
only wanted to see if it was here. My 
father gave it to the library some years ago !" 
Then you congratulate yourself on having 
an automatic memory for book titles which 
has saved the feelings of a rich spinster, who 
might, some day, remember the library in her 

The third class of gifts likely to be offered 
to public libraries may be called that of works 
of art, curios and museum specimens. And 
this is the most delicate class of all to re- 
ceive, for its donors always expect to see 
their gifts displayed in an honorable place. 
Sir Walter Scott was once afflicted with a 
gift of eight large, badly painted landscapes 
"in great gilt frames" by a "most amiable 
and accomplished old lady," greatly to his 
discomfort, for he could not refuse them. 
The library is more fortunate than Sir Wal- 
ter under such trying circumstances in having 
"committees of directors" to whom they may 
be referred, and by whom the quality of mercy 
may be strained. A certain Massachusetts 
library had an inartistic painting of a home- 
stead left it by bequest, in which the cocks 
and hens in the door-yard were the same size 
as the cow. The family of the donor was 
wealthy. This might be only a test of the 
library's gratitude before making a more sub- 
stantial gift, so the committee dallied with 
temptation before it was finally refused a 
place in the art gallery. The "self-taught" 
amateur, who always takes his work very 
seriously and believes himself a genius whom 
the world of art jealously refuses recognition, 
is ever ready to present his masterpieces to 
a library. Our own little library was offered 
a six by four foot pastel of the "Blue grotto 
of Capri" by a day laborer of artistic ambi- 
tion, and, though we could not accept it, his 
feelings were saved by hanging it for a short 
time in a back room, to which it imparted an 
air of gloom. Then there are owls. Some 
years ago it was the fashion to have a stuffed 
pwl in one's house. Everybody had an owl 
just as, quite recently, everybody has had an 
Indian's head somewhere in their rooms. In 
time the owl's day went by ; yet the birds 
were just as good as ever. What could be 
done with .the owls? Then it occurred to 
some people that it would be appropriate for 
"Minerva's bird" to go home to roost in a 
library. Therefore you will find stuffed owls 
in many a public library, gazing wisely down 
from its high places. 

Welcome every contribution to local history 
in your library, whether books, documents or 
pictures, say the library wise men. That is 
very sound doctrine, but what shall we do 
when 25 mayors' photographs, framed sep- 
arately in deep black walnut frames, arrive, 
whose sombre monotony would blight any 

Some libraries have natural history collec- 
tions which attract incongruous gifts, and one 
librarian complains of receiving dead birds 
which were "too far gone" for the taxider- 
mist's art. 

A sword once carried in the Civil War 
found its way to an obscure corner of a pub- 
lic library, where it was hung on the wall, 
though there was no collection of relics or 
curios there; and the gift was considered 
irrelevant until, one day, a use for it was sug- 
gested by an old man. He had asked to 
leave a package at the library until he called 
again later in the day, and it was placed just 
below the sword on the wall. When he called 
for his property the old man proved too 
garrulous and presently showed himself to be 
a decided crank, so the attendant was eager 
to have him take his bundle and go. He 
offered a grimy paw in farewell, which was 
declined as she civilly but coolly bade him 
good day. The man turned to get his pack- 
age and his eye fell on the sword above it. 
Returning to the desk he leaned forward and 
asked in low but thrilling tones, "Do you 
keep that sword to cut off the heads of peo- 
ple who wish to shake hands with you?" 
Without a smile, the librarian replied, "Well, 
it might be used for that!" You see a little 
humor is sometimes necessary in order 10 
recognize the full possibilities of library gifts. 

Contributions of fresh botanical specimens, 
carefully labelled, are welcome gifts all sum- 
mer in public libraries, and the revelation to 
some people of the fact that we have native 
"orchids" (a name to conjure with) has led 
to the study of the "nature books" on the 
shelves, opening a new path of enjoyment. 

In disposing of the books which seem to be 
of no utility in the library there are a number 
of expedients, ist. By giving them to other 
libraries to which they are suited, or effecting 
an exchange. 2d. By sending those of much 
value to auction rooms to be sold. 3d. By 
sale to second-hand dealers. Superfluous doc- 
uments may be returned to the Superintendent 
of Documents at Washington, who will pro- 
vide mail sacks and franking- checks on re- 

After these channels of relief are exhausted 
there may still be some books and periodicals 
not worth selling but useful in the country 
school where no literature is ever seen ex- 
cepting text-books and dictionaries. 

The Wisconsin Free Library Commission 
undertakes to distribute all kinds of litera- 
ture sent to it among the isolated lumber 
communities in that state in connection with 
its travelling libraries. It is pathetically re- 
lated by 'one of the members of the commis- 



[March, 1902 

sion that one school was discovered which 
cherished the World's Fair number of the 
Youth's Companion for two years, during 
which time it had been lent to more than a 
score of families, and also that a cabin was 
found in which a well-printed picture of a 
coffin was tacked on the wall as the only pic- 
ture the people had. Many things which are 
valueless in a library might be a delight to 
these people. We also have our Philippine 
schools and soldiers to remember with maga- 
zines, elementary text-books and dictionaries, 
which are asked for by teachers and army 
officers in their letters to the states. 

Of course the library is often really en- 
riched by the spoils of the hunter among dis- 
carded accumulations, and last and least as 
a librarian's reward is the latent humor to be 
derived from scanning a lot of old books sent 
in, perhaps, from an attic where they have re- 
posed for fifty years. Treasures sometimes 
come in such assortments, though more often 
they are dreary masses of worthless books. 
Usually some waifs of local interest appear, 
if it is only a volume of religious controversy 
some time published in the town. The amuse- 
ment comes from such books as that by the 
Rev. John Angell James, called "The Widow 
directed to her God," whose preface intro- 
duces the author as one eminently fitted to 
comfort the bereaved since his first wife, "a 
lady of most estimable character, was early 
taken from him, and his present wife, a per- 
son of great amiability, is rapidly, though 
sweetly, passing to the skies." Then there is 
the "Peterson familiar science" in the form 
of a catechism, in which it is taught that the 
safest thing a person can do to avoid injury 
from lightning is this : "He should draw his 
bedstead into the middle of his room, commit 
himself to the care of God, and go to bed re- 
membering that our Lord has said, 'The very 
hairs of your head are all numbered.' " If 
out of doors, it teaches that it is better to be 
wet than dry in a thunder storm. Why? 
"Because wet clothes form a better conductor 
than the fluids in our body, and therefore 
lightning would pass down our wet clothes 
without touching our body at all." The italics 
furnish the instructive emphasis. This Peter- 
son text-book went through many editions, 
and is still used for instruction in a Bermuda 

The librarian is sometimes personally fa- 
vored with gifts, much as a country minister 
is treated by his parishioners with preserves, 
fresh vegetables, fruits and flowers. Alto- 
gether the gifts which come in recognition 
of the courtesy and helpfulness experienced 
by the giver from the library attendants 
bring the pleasantest encouragement, to fol- 
low St. Paul's injunction to be "willing 
to communicate, ready to distribute," which 
might appropriately be chosen for the libra- 
rian's motto. ANGELINE SCOTT, 
Librarian South Norwalk .(Ct.) Public Li- 


regarding our New England weather that 
there had been more said and less done about 
it than about any other subject within his 
knowledge. If he could have narrowed his 
observation at the time to the restricted 
sphere of those concerned in the management 
and administration of public libraries, I be- 
lieve he would have made an exception of 
the still-vexed question of fiction and its lim- 

But since the New York Times Saturday 
Review, by subtracting 61.8 from 75.5 finds 
that Mr. Dana has reduced the circulation of 
fiction in the Springfield City Library to the 
extent of 24 per cent, in a year showing an 
increased total of circulation, we must con- 
clude that something has at last been done 
about it, with very gratifying results. 

In the face of this situation, it may be said 
that never have we seen a larger crop of 
novels than during the past autumn and 
winter. As Thomas Carlyle found it seventy 
years ago, so in still greater measure do we 
find it "still does the Press toil ; innumera- 
ble Paper-makers, Compositors, Printers' 
Devils, Bookbinders, and Hawkers grown 
hoarse with loud proclaiming, rest not from 
their labors ; and still, in torrents, rushes on 
the great array of Publications, unpausing, to 
their final home ; and still Oblivion, like the 
Grave, cries, Give ! Give !" 

It is quite probable that Thomas Carlyle, 
if he were with us to-day in his customary 
atrabilious mood, would have us place in 
our public libraries only the few books, which 
Oblivion has not swallowed, thereby, no 
doubt, accomplishing the result of "the great- 
est good to the smallest number" and leaving 
an unselect and indiscriminate many to the 
tender mercies of the newspapers and the 
penny-dreadfuls. Something like this the 
Librarian of Congress proposes when he 
prescribes as an antidote for the use of fic- 
tion the exclusion of novels less than a year 

The purchase of current fiction by libra- 
ries of limited means must, of course, depend 
on the importance which is placed on the 
issue of any fiction at all. The same condi- 
tion would govern the purchase of fiction by 
a library of unlimited means. The beneficial 
and restraining influence of poverty, how- 
ever, gives to the library of limited means 
the doubtful advantage of being forced to 
buy the best, which advantage sifts itself 
down to a convenient and equivocal excuse 
for refusing frequent urgent demands to buy 
the poorest. 

In order to discuss this question intelli- 
gently, or even to discuss it at all, we must 

* Paper read at meeting of Connecticut Library 
Association, New Haven, Feb. 26, 1902. 

March, 1902] 



necessarily determine what restrictions shall 
be placed on the purchase of fiction by public 
libraries of both limited and unlimited means. 
Should the attitude of such libraries towards 
the circulation of fiction be antagonistic or 
friendly? Shall we pride ourselves on the 
issue of Mr. Dooley's dialect slang or even 
Mr. Bangs' more prolific humor, because they 
bear the magic number 817 which places them 
outside the pale of fiction and on the same 
level in the grand total with John Fiske's 
historical and philosophical works? Shall 
we at the same time refuse to deliver to the 
public Mr. Churchill's "Crisis," or Miss John- 
ston's "Audrey," or even Mr. Hornung's "At 
large," for the simple reason that they are 
not a year old, and Mr. Putnam says we 
must? I, for one, certainly hope not. 

The average circulation of fiction in a free 
public library represents numerically three- 
fourths of the issue of books of all kinds. 
This means, roughly speaking, that the taste 
and choice of three-fourths of those who use 
the library is thus indicated. Speaking only 
of free public libraries of a general character, 
it must be asserted that, whether they are 
dependent on public funds for support or not, 
they are avowedly the servants of the public, 
and must recognize the taste and choice of 
those whom they attempt to serve. Even in 
this view of the case, however, we cannot 
say that we have reduced our problem to 
mathematical demonstration by asserting that 
three-fourths of our purchases in number of 
volumes should be fiction. I know of one 
library at least, of limited means, which 
keeps its circulation of fiction at 75 per cent, 
whose current purchases of fiction are less 
than one-third of its total purchases of all 
kinds in number of volumes. 

Assuming then, that this proportion in vol- 
umes, and probably much less in money value, 
gives a fair estimate of what should be done 
in deference to the demand of the public, we 
have gone as far towards the solution of our 
problem as mathematics will take us. And 
that is not very far, after all : it is yet but a 
mere question of quantity, without regard to 
quality; and quality is, after all, the main 
consideration. How are we to reach that 
censorship which shall determine just what 
novels are suitable for circulation by our li- 
braries? By what process shall we apply that 
recently adopted library term "evaluation" to 
our fiction, and when applied, how shall we 
act upon it? There is much to be said on this 
subject too much for my present limits; 
and when all is said, we shall, I believe, have 
left us the problem of evaluating evaluation. 
There are the reviews, for example ; some of 
them fairly reliable ; yet one review of this 
class will sometimes praise a novel which 
another will condemn. Then there is the 
volunteer reading committee, composed of 
persons who know what suits their own 
tastes and views of literary merit far better 
than they know what is best adapted to the 
needs of a general public library. Then there 

is the librarian, who, especially in libraries 
of limited resources, cannot devote the time 
to reading every novel under consideration for 
purchase, and who, in my opinion, never 
ought to undertake such a task. 

The busy librarian needs such helps and 
guides in the purchase of fiction as have only 
been provided in a very limited scope by the 
Leypoldt and lies' "List of books for girls and 
women." Selected lists even without annota- 
tion or criticism are better than nothing; but 
the clear-cut, brief and frank criticism in the 
list I have referred to seems to me a better 
guide for the librarian than any other I know 

Much may be learned, too, from quiet, un- 
obtrusive observation at the delivery desk of 
the library. Those in charge of this depart- 
ment should be able, by simple observation, 
and by such information as borrowers may 
volunteer regarding novels, to learn much 
that may be of value in their selection for 
the library. The tastes and the value of the 
critical judgment of a large proportion of the 
novel-readers of the library, may be learned 
by the simple observation of an intelligent 
deliverer of books. In many cases, it will be 
found that the mere fact that a certain person 
asks for a certain book is a good and suf- 
ficient reason for buying it, if possible. 

No library of limited means can expect to 
provide a sufficiently large number of copies 
of a deservedly popular novel to supply the 
constant demand for it. The aim in such 
purchases should be to buy as many copies 
as can be actually worn out during the "run" 
of the book. This can only be done, of course, 
by watching the demand, determining the 
merit, and adding new copies gradually. And 
in replacing worn out copies of older fiction 
something can usually be saved by determin- 
ing whether it is wise to replace them at all. 
I believe that it will often be found wiser to 
devote the money to new books, for I ven- 
ture to make the assertion that American fic- 
tion especially is improving, on the whole, 
both in its literary and artistic features, though 
we often hear a wail over the absence of the 
"good old days" a wail which each succes- 
sive generation exercises the exclusive right 
of raising. 

Fiction has been with us since the begin- 
ning of the world and will doubtless remain 
to the end. The child asks for it as soon as 
he can speak and reason, and the old man 
loves it in the parables of the New Testa- 
ment and as many books and parts of books 
of the Old Testament as the higher criticism 
may select, and through the wonderful dramas 
of Shakespeare down to the novel pure and 
simple. As librarians, then, we fail if we re- 
gard the issue of fiction as an evil which we 
are forced to tolerate and reduce to a mini- 
mum, when we should regard it as a perfectly 
legitimate function of our libraries which it is 
our duty to study and provide for in its due 

Librarian Otis Library, Norwich, Ct. 



[March, 1902 


AT the outset the fact must be insisted 
upon that there is no antagonism between 
publishers and booksellers on the one hand 
and librarians on the other. There was a 
time, in the early days of the library move- 
ment, when booksellers and perhaps publish- 
ers looked askance at public libraries, con- 
sidering that for every book sold to a public 
library five might have been sold to private 
purchasers were there no public libraries. 
Leaving out of the account the large number 
of school duplicates bought by libraries and 
reference books which private persons would 
never purchase, publishers and booksellers 
will now generally concede, I think, that the 
circulation of books by public libraries still 
further increases their trade by implanting 
in the minds of readers a desire to possess 
their own private collections of books. Every- 
where that the public library goes it induces 
a love for books, but no public library takes 
the place of private libraries. Almost any 
local bookseller will agree that the public li- 
brary in his town has greatly stimulated the 
purchase of books by private individuals. 

Again, the interests of publishers, booksell- 
ers and librarians are one, in that all three 
wish to perpetuate the existence of the local 
bookstore. The American Publishers' Asso- 
ciation has announced that the purpose of the 
adoption of the new net price system is the 
saving of the local bookstore from annihila- 
tion by the department store. The book de- 
partment of the department store in many 
cases sold its wares at less than cost in order 
that it might attract trade to other depart- 
ments. This proved demoralizing to the trade 
and ruinous in its consequences to the local 
bookseller, who had to eke out his existence 
by selling not simply stationery and news- 
papers, but sometimes also tobacco, cigars and 
candy. Book departments of the department 
stores in most cases carry only the frothy 
books of the hour, whereas local dealers can, 
if well supported, carry a well-rounded stock. 
With the transference of the principal busi- 
ness from local dealers who offer worthy 
books to the great bazaars, where books that 
ought never to be bought by any one are sold 
by the cord, the standard of purchases has 
been lowered and public taste correspondingly 
demoralized. Through the adoption of the 
net price system, by which publishers are 
forbidden to furnish books to dealers who 
sell at less than net price (with 10 per cent, 
discount to libraries), the local bookseller has 
an equal chance with the department store, 
and can thus regain the trade which had been 
diverted from his establishment to the de- 
partment store. I have always believed that 
if bookstores of high grade, such, for ex- 
ample, as the Old Corner Bookstore in Bos- 

* Paper read at Bi-State Library Meeting, Atlan- 
tic City, X. J., March 15, 1902. 

ton, could be planted throughout the country 
in every town of any considerable size, thej 
would do an educational work for their com- 
munities only less important than that done 
by the public libraries. In my own work I 
therefore follow the principle that wherever 
it is possible to secure service approximately 
as prompt, intelligent and cheap from the 
local bookstore as from the metropolitan job- 
ber the former should have the library trade. 

As stated, the American Publishers' As- 
sociation announced that almost their sole 
reason for adopting the net price system was 
the protection of the local bookseller, and that 
they did not expect to make a general in- 
crease in the prices of books. The publica- 
tion in the January LIBRARY JOURNAL and in 
the February Public Libraries of the letter of 
Mr. Gifford, of the Cambridge Public Li- 
brary, to the American Publishers' Associa- 
tion, enumerating a large number of series 
on which there have been substantial ad- 
vances in price, has made it unnecessary for 
me to collect that matter independently or to 
treat this part of the subject at any great 
length. It is sufficient to refer to his table, 
which shows that seven of the most prominent 
publishers have made an average increase in 
the net cost of their publications of 24 per 
cent. This advance is calculated on series 
in which comparison can be made, and the 
assumption is that it is general throughout 
their lists. Analyzing this list we find that the 
per cent, of increased cost to libraries runs 
from 12 per cent, advance in the case of one 
item to a 36 per cent, advance in the case of 
three items. When it was first brought to the 
attention of publishers that there had been an 
advance in the cost to libraries, the publishers 
took refuge in the excuse that there had been 
an increased cost in paper stock, in labor and in 
advertising. It seems unlikely, however, that 
they will maintain that there has been an 
average advance of 24 per cent, in the cost of 
production. From the point of view of the 
librarian, this increased cost in the price of 
books appears to have been in large part an 
advance made for the benefit of the publisher 
himself, rather than for the much-beloved 
local bookseller. This is a serious matter to 
libraries. It simply means that with present 
appropriations libraries must buy 25 per cent, 
fewers books than in the past. City councils 
are ordinarily much more likely to reduce ap- 
propriations than they are to increase them. 
Every live library is constantly trying to get 
more and more readers. In turn the demands 
of those readers are such that a larger and 
larger number of books must be bought each 
year to satisfy them. But this action of the 
publishers at once reduces by 25 per cent, our 
ability to supply the demand, provided it is 
no larger than that of last year, to say noth- 
ing of meeting progressively increased de- 

If the local library associations throughout 
the country and the A. L. A. at its coming 

March, 1902] 



meeting unite in protesting asfainst this un- 
warranted advance in prices, the effect of 
which is to cripple library efficiency, it is pos- 
sible that the publishers will give us relief. 
If not, provision must be made to meet the 
condition as well as possible. In this con- 
nection attention should be called to Mr. 
Dewey's letter in The Publishers' Weekly of 
Jan. 18, in which he makes suggestions for a 
line of action, although I do not sympathize 
with Mr. Dewey in his oft-repeated proposals 
to eliminate local booksellers by selling books 
through libraries. 

To paraphrase his language, Mr. Dewey 
says in this letter: Without any disposition 
to boycott any particular publisher, it is in 
evitable that librarians will choose most lib- 
erally, other things being equal, from the lists 
of publishers who have not made inordinate 
advances in their prices on the pretext of 
helping the lo~al booksellers. Mr. Dewey's 
other suggestions of buying second-hand 
books, completing sets and making larger im- 
portations are all timely, and in fact repre- 
sent exactly what I have personally been 
doing since the adoption of the new rule. In 
my own library, after buying requested books 
and current books, the lack of which would 
obviously lay the library open to the criti- 
cism of not being up to date, I have devoted a 
large part of our book fund to buying books 
from second-hand, remainder and auction cat- 
alogs, to replacements and especially to im- 

Judging from my own observations, libra- 
rians do not make sufficient use of catalogs 
of remainders. Every year it is possible from 
remainder catalogs, chiefly English, to buy at 
one-third to one-half price books published 
the year before, and then considered too ex- 
pensive. There are large numbers of books 
which it is not at all necessary to have as 
soon as published, but which even though 
bought a year or so after publication are of 
the utmost value to libraries. These can be 
bought in practically new condition from re- 
mainder catalogs. The same is true in the 
case of purchases made through such auction 
houses as Bangs of New York and Libbie of 
Boston. Partly because English books are al- 
most always better printed on better paper 
(if not in all cases quite so well bound) it is 
a wise policy for libraries to make large im- 
portations rather than to confine their pur- 
chases to books of domestic manufacture. 
New fiction of course costs more when im- 
ported than if bought at home; but in the 
case of a large number of other books, pro- 
vided one can wait six weeks or two months, 
it is possible to get an edition equally good 
and frequently better, put down in New York 
at a lower price than the American edition 
can be bought. On this point I wish to give 
a few instances. One book not on Mr. Gif- 
ford's list is John Fiske's "Life everlasting," 
published uniform with the "Destiny of man" 
and "The idea of God," by Houghton, Mifflin 

& Co. The latter books were listed at $i 
and cost libraries 67c. each. The former, 
though having fewer pages than either of the 
others, was published at $i net and thus cost 
libraries goc. The same book is on the 
London Macmillan's list at 33. 6d., and 
would, therefore, cost delivered in New York 
74C. Other instances are the volumes in "Our 
European neighbor series," published by Put- 
nam at $1.20 net, and thus costing libraries 
$1.08; but these books are on the list of 
George Newnes at 33. 6d., and thus cost the 
library 74C., a saving of 34c. on each vol- 
ume. Dodd, Mead & Co. have just made a 
"special library offer" of a set of Helmholtz's 
"History of the world," in 8 volumes, at 
$4.80 per volume. But Heinemann's price is 
15 shillings net, or $3.75 per volume. This 
trifle of $8.40 difference on the set is quite 
worth saving. Brandes' "Main currents of 
igth century literature," to be in six volumes, 
is listed by Macmillan at $2.25 net per vol- 
ume, and so will cost the library $12.18. 
Again it is Heinmann whose price is 6 shil- 
lings, or a total of $9 for the set. Two of the 
series on Mr. Gifford's list are the "Heroes 
of the nations" and the "Stories of the na- 
tions" (both Putnam). Each volume in each 
series costs us if bought at home $1.22; but 
the former may be had from Putnam's Lon- 
don house at 5 shillings, and the latter of 
Unwin at the same price a saving of I7c., 
or 14 per cent, in each case. A series needed 
by all public libraries is the "Library of use- 
ful stories." This was published by Appleton 
at 4Oc. per volume and cost libraries 27c. 
Their price is now 35C. net and the cost to 
libraries is 32c. But volumes may be had 
tfrom Newnes at i shilling each, or 2ic. a 
saving of 34 per cent. The volumes of the 
"World's epoch makers" on Scribner's list at 
$1.25 when ordered from a domestic dealer 
cost 84c. ; but if imported from T. & T. Clark, 
of Edinburgh, who list them at 3 shillings, cost 
but 63c. a saving of 25 per cent. Harper's 
publications of 1902 include Hensman's "Ce- 
cil Rhodes" at $5 net, costing the library 
$4.50. If obtained from Blackwood by im- 
portation the price of I2s. 6d. net brings the 
cost down to $3.13 a reduction of 30 per 
cent. The new edition of "Chambers' cyclo- 
pedia of English literature" is listed by Lip- 
pincott at $15 net, and so will cost libraries 
$13.50. If imported the total will be 315. 6d. 
net, or $7.88 a saving of 42 per cent. 
Though it is not always safe to order the 
English in preference to the American edi- 
tion with the expectation of saving money, 
since some of the latter are published at a 
lower price, yet examples like those just men- 
tioned could be multiplied and it is true that 
large sums may be saved to a library by im- 
portation. This might still be true even 
should the Publishers' Association readjust 
its prices or its discounts to libraries. At the 
same time the discrepancy is now so great 
as, under the present circumstances, to make 



[March, 1902 

it decidedly worth while to read the English 
publishers' journals and catalogs with great 

But, the American publisher and bookseller 
objects, you waste more in time spent in fig- 
uring out your saving on English publications 
than you save in money. It may be answered 
that where the library appropriation for books 
is small the librarian frequently has more 
time to devote to such matters than he has 
money to spend for books. In the case of a 
large library, where the book appropriation 
is extensive, I believe that the saving, even 
though slight in some cases, would when 
spread over the large number of accessions 
be sufficient to make it worth while for the 
library to employ as the chief of its order 
department one who is thoroughly alive to 
the advantages of saving in this way. 

Our own local bookseller has viewed with 
alarm the decrease in his orders through 
their transference to second-hand dealers, and 
especially to importing houses. He tells me 
that the publishers are planning to stop all 
this by withdrawing from libraries the priv- 
ilege of free importation. Of course we know 
that in these days the lobby is very powerful, 
yet the public library has so come to be re- 
garded as a part of the educational system of 
every community that it is unlikely that any 
association of publishers could carry through 
Congress a measure to put such "a tax on 
knowledge." Even if they could receive con- 
gressional favor, it is in the highest degree 
probable that a president who in his first 
message showed so great aonreciation of pub- 
lic libraries would veto such a measure. 

It almost goes without saying that if equit- 
able conditions could be arranged libraries 
would prefer to buy American editions. This 
new system has little effect upon fiction, but 
then I am one of those who are hoping that 
Emerson's rule as restated by Mr. Putnam 
will soon be the order of the day, and that 
the question of buying new fiction will short- 
ly be eliminated. Mr. Putnam's plan pro- 
vides that new fiction purchases being dis- 
continued, the library shall undertake to sup- 
ply the most important class books imme- 
diately on publication. To do that would 
necessitate the buying of American editions 
at once without waiting for remainder or 
auction catalogs, and without having recourse 
to importations. This condition of affairs is 
greatly to be desired, and it is hoped that the 
American Publishers' Association will recog- 
nize that the libraries are customers of suffi- 
cient importance to take steps to hold their 

To sum up, let us ask why librarians apply 
to publishers for a more equitable adjust- 
ment of prices, or if not that, then for larger 
discounts. Is it because libraries are philan- 
thropic institutions, and for that reason de- 
serve special consideration? By no means. 
Our reasons are based solely on business 

principles. In the first place, libraries taken 
collectively and in many cases individually 
are large purchasers, the business is steady 
and sure and all accounts are good ; secondly, 
public libraries foster larger and larger pri- 
vate purchases, and thus make business for 
publishers and booksellers ; thirdly, the re- 
duction of their ability to buy enough to sup- 
ply needs cripples their usefulness, discredits 
them locally and thus sooner or later will 
surely decrease the volume of their pur- 
chases ; fourthly, it will compel them to re- 
duce the purchases of current net books to a 
minimum, and devote available funds to pur- 
chases from second-hand, remainder and auc- 
tion catalogs, and especially to importations. 
It may be assumed that publishers want the 
library trade. It seems to me that by the 
continuance of this system they are pursuing 
the best possible course to defeat that end. 
This is distinctly not an appeal. It is simply 
a plain statement of conditions, their effects 
on libraries and the means proposed for re- 
lief, provided the publishers persist in their 
present course. We await their action with 
interest. GEORGE F. BOWERMAN, 

Wilmington (Del.) Institute Free Library. 


THE second annual meeting of the Ontario 
Library Association will be held at Toronto 
on Easter Monday and Tuesday, March 31 
and April i. Sessions will be held in Castle 
Memorial Hall of McMaster University. The 
morning of March 31 will be devoted to 
business, reports of committees, and three 
papers "The value of a public library to 
a community," by J. Davis Barnett, of Strat- 
ford; "Some difficulties I have met in libra- 
ry work," by Miss Scott, of Owen Sound; 
"Public documents of Canada and Ontario," 
by W. George Eakins. In the evening the 
president's address will be delivered, fol- 
lowed by an address on "Library buildings," 
probably by W. R. Eastman, of New York. 
Tuesday morning a visit will be made to the 
Legislative Library and the libraries of Tor- 
onto and Victoria Universities, followed by a 
session at which papers will be read by Miss 
Carnochan, of Niagara, on "Vicissitudes of a 
library during fifty years," and Miss Rowe, of 
Brockville, on "Some useful methods in a 
small library." For the closing, afternoon, 
session, the program is as follows : "The 
training of librarians in this province," by E. 
A. Hardy, Lindsay; "Canadian literature 
fiction, periodicals," by L. J. Burpee, Otta- 
wa; "How to secure the passing of a free 
public library by-law." 

The officers of the association are: Presi- 
dent, James Bain, Jr., Public Library, Tor- 
onto ; secretary, E. A. Hardy, Public Library, 
Lindsay; treasurer, A. B. Macallum, Cana- 
dian Institute, Toronto. 

March, 1902] 




THE Reid Memorial Library, now in process 
of erection in Passaic, N. J., is the gift of 
Mr. Peter Reid, of that city, in memory of 
his wife, Jane Watson Reid. 

It is located in the heart of the manufac- 
turing district known as Dundee, the field of 
many of Mrs. Reid's good works. 

The style of architecture adopted is the 
Ionic Greek, simple and dignified, which can- 
not fail in its refining and uplifting influence 
upon the crowded and squalid life in that 
part of the city. Bedford limestone, with a 
granite base, are the materials used in the ex- 
terior. The main feature of the fagade is the 
engaged colonnade, flanked on each side by a 
wing containing a reading room, over the 
windows of which are medallions with sym- 
bolical carvings of stone. On the main floor 
are : the delivery room, 24 x 26 ft., which is 
lighted by a skylight ; a children's room and a 
main reading room, each 22 x 37 ft. in size. 

Around the walls of the reading rooms are 
built bookcases of quartercut oak four feet 

The stack room is in the rear of the de- 
livery room and directly opposite the en- 
trance. This room will be furnished with metal 
stacks having space for 27,000 volumes, and 
with tables and chairs for the convenience of 
persons using the reference department. The 
cataloging room and the librarian's office are 
also on this floor, which has been laid out 
with the especial object of promoting econ- 
omy of administration. The rooms are con- 
necting, and the partitions between the de- 
livery room and the reading rooms are of 
glass, in order to facilitate supervision by the 

On the second floor is the lecture hall, de- 
signed to accommodate 350 persons. There 
are also on this floor rooms which may be 
utilized as special collection rooms, meeting 
rooms, etc. The exterior and first floor plan 
are shown elsewhere, and the second floor 
plan is here presented: 



[March, 1902 

In the basement are located the heating and 
ventilating apparatus, coal room, repairing 
room, receiving room ; an apartment consist- 
ing of living room, dining room, two bed- 
rooms, bath, kitchen and pantries for the 
use of the caretaker: and a newspaper and 
men's club room, where smoking will be 
permitted. The building is strictly fireproof, 
and nothing but the best materials and equip- 
ment will enter into its construction, the de- 
sire being that the Reid Memorial shall rep- 
resent the best type of a modern medium- 
sized library. 

Dundee, where there is everything for such 
a library to do, is a little world by itself. The 
Botany Mill, alone, one of many, has 3600 
employes. And with these great ugly struc- 
tures have come the Slav, the Hungarian, the 
Pole, the Italian, and the Jew, bringing with 
them their native institutions. They have their 
own doctors, their priests, pastors and rabbis, 
their banks, their churches and fraternal or- 
ganizations. In the congested, ill-smelling 
tenements where they live their children are 
born and here is their children's playground. 
But while the foreign-born parents cling to 
their native customs and traditions the chil- 
dren will have none of it. They want to be 

There has been a branch of the main library 
in Dundee since 1895, when a reading room 
was opened in a store as an experiment. Its 
success was assured from the first, and the 
demands upon the library's slender resources 
grew at an alarming rate. 

With the $2000 donated by Mr. Reid books 
were purchased and a children's room opened, 
where ever since there has been a daily at- 
tendance of from loo to 200 children. It is 
not an unusual thing for the visitor to find 
every chair and every inch of available floor 
space occupied, and as the two simple require- 
ments cleanliness and order are rigidly 
enforced, there has been a marked change 
for the better in the appearance of the chil- 
dren as well as in the streets and the neigh- 
boring back yards. It is told that "Jesse 
James," the leader of a "gang" of street 
Arabs, who is still serving out his sentence 
of two years' banishment from the library, 
says "there is nothin' doin', fer the fellers is 
all inside readin' fairy tales." In place of 
this once popular organization whose motto 
was, "If youse is tough enough youse kin be- 
long," has grown the "American Boys' Club," 
with an insatiable demand for hero tales 
which the library endeavors in vain to supply. 

It is to this spirit of Americanism that the 
new library will minister. As the branch li- 
brary in its inadequate way has fostered it, 
so the new Reid Memorial, with its adequate 
equipment, will perform the same service with 
a much greater measure of power, and will, it 
is hoped, have no small part in converting 
Dundee into a section of the city, where 
sturdy patriotism, moral uprightness, and 
good citizenship shall prevail. 


THE Public Library of Paterson, New Jer- 
sey, housed in the recently enlarged and im- 
proved Danforth library building, was totally 
destroyed on Feb. 8 by a fierce fire that raged 
in the heart of the city and reduced to ashes 
property estimated at ten millions of dollars. 
The building and its contents were entirely 
destroyed, the only books saved being those 
that were at the time in the hands of bor- 
rowers. Almost immediately after the catas- 
trophe the library trustees received a letter 
from Mrs. Mary E. Ryle, of Paterson, the 
giver of the Danforth library building, offer- 
ing to give the sum of $100,000 for a new 
building, which should serve, as the former 
had done, as a memorial to her father, Charles 
Danforth. Mrs. Ryle's offer was presented 
at the meeting of the library trustees on Feb. 
18, and was accepted with expressions of sin- 
cere gratitude. The trustees will receive 
about $77,700 as insurance on the old building 
and its contents, and this, in addition to Mrs. 
Ryle's generous gift, will make possible the 
erection of a modern and adequate building, 
far better adapted to its purpose than the for- 
mer structure, which had been originally a 
residence. The new building will be erected 
upon a site at Broadway and Auburn street. 

It will be a difficult and tedious work to 
build up a collection equalling that destroyed. 
Some of the volumes can never be replaced 
notably the bound files of early New Jersey 
newspapers. The library contained in all 
about 40,000 books, on which an insurance 
of $35,000 was carried; of course a consider- 
able proportion were in circulation, and these 
will make the nucleus of the new collection. 
It is hoped to shortly secure temporary quar- 
ters, which will be used for reading room and 
circulating department until the completion 
of the new building. The trustees hope to 
have a library of 10,000 volumes in working 
order within three months. 


THE trustees of the Boston Athenaeum have 
issued in pamphlet form announcement and 
specifications regarding the new library build- 
ing, which it is proposed to erect on Newbury 
and Arlington streets, Boston. Plans will be 
secured through a mixed competition, in 
which ten architects have been invited and 
have agreed to participate, others being also 
at liberty to enter. The plans submitted will 
be judged by a jury consisting of the building 
committee, the professional adviser (Edgar 
V. Seeler, of Philadelphia), and the president 
of the Athenaeum, and selection will be made 
by majority vote. Plans must be sent in on 
or before April 30, 1902. 

The site chosen is a corner plot, 112x120 

March, 1902] 


in dimensions, overlooking the public garden. 
The building is to be of fireproof construc- 
tion, and is to cost $320,000, exclusive of 
lighting, heating, stack, equipment, etc. A 
schedule of rooms desired is given, which in- 
cludes stack room for 300,000 v., requiring 
37,500 linear feet of shelving, seven shelves 
to each story; periodical and newspaper read- 
ing room ; delivery room, with seating space 
for 20 persons and space for 2200 linear feet 
of shelving, alcove or gallery; general read- 
ing room, with 3500 linear feet of shelving, to 
open from stack ; reference room ; cataloging 
room, opening into reference room ; conver- 
sation room; trustees' room; librarian's 
room ; map and atlas room ; special study and 
reading rooms ; document room ; art room ; 
exhibition room ; and rooms for storage, du- 
plicates, bound newspapers, staff, and admin- 
istrative purposes. 


THE bill providing for the merging of the 
Brooklyn (N. Y.) Library with the Brooklyn 
Public Library, introduced into the New York 
State legislature by Assemblyman John Hill 
Morgan on Feb. 6, has met with opposition 
from a minority of the directors of the Public 
Library and others, and has not yet been 
passed. It is modelled upon the merging and 
organizing act upon which the New York 
Public Library was created, providing for an 
independent library corporation with a board 
of 25 directors, of whom n shall be appointed 
by the mayor from the board of directors of 
the Public Library, and n from the trustees 
of the Brooklyn Library, the other three be- 
ing ex-ofiicio, the mayor, controller, and 
president of the borough of Brooklyn. All 
vacancies are to be filled by the board, this 
provision, creating a self-perpetuating body, 
being the one to which most objection has 
been made. The bill was drawn in consulta- 
tion with members of the Public Library and 
Brooklyn Library boards, and was approved 
by the city controller and other officials. It 
passed the lower house of the Assembly on 
Feb. 19 by a vote of 79 to 40, and then be- 
came a center of discussion and controversy. 
The opposition was largely on the part of a 
small minority of the directors of the Public 
Library, and was based mainly upon the neces- 
sary reduction in the number of directors pro- 
vided from that library, and upon the self-per- 
petuating feature. At a meeting of the Public 
Library board on Feb. 18 resolutions denounc- 
ing the bill were introduced by A. H. East- 
mond, but were voted down by a vote of 14 to 
5. A later meeting to consider the matter was 
held on March I, when the report of the law 
committee was presented, approving of the 
bill on the whole, and recommending, several 
minor amendments. The report of the com- 
mittee was adopted by a vote of 14 to 5. At 
a special meeting of the Brooklyn Democratic 

Club held the preceding evening resolutions 
were passed disapproving of the bill as 
"against public policy, detrimental to the best 
interests of the community, contrary to the 
provision of existing laws, and the traditions 
and usages of Brooklyn," and it was decided 
to send a delegation to Albany to represent 
these sentiments. 

A Senate hearing on the measure was given 
at Albany on March n. On behalf of the 
Brooklyn Public Library there appeared, in 
support of the bill, Frank P. Hill, the libra- 
rian, and Henry Sanger Snow. The opposition 
delegation from the Brooklyn Democratic Club 
was led by Herman A. Metz. A communica- 
tion was submitted to the chairman of the 
Senate committee, signed by the officers, the 
chairman of all standing committees, and 16 
members of the board of directors of the 
Brooklyn Public Library, urging favorable 
consideration of the bill as amended. It 
expresses strongly the opinion that "the 
enactment of this legislation will serve to 
a high degree the public library interests 
of the people of Brooklyn, making avail- 
able, as it will, for free public library ser- 
vice, the large and exceedingly valuable col- 
lection of books now owned by the Brook- 
lyn Library, together with its entire real and 
personal estate, which will also be devoted 
to free public service. The aggregate value 
of the property which the corporation pro- 
posed to be created under this bill will re- 
ceive upon this enactment amounts to not less 
than $750,000. This gift which the Brooklyn 
Library proposes to make to the new cor- 
poration is hardly second in its value to the 
munificent gift of Andrew Carnegie for li- 
brary service in Brooklyn, and we believe 
that no action could be taken which would 
more fully supplement and effectuate the pur- 
pose of Mr. Carnegie's gift to create here a 
great free public library system. We be- 
lieve the bill as now amended provides every 
reasonable safeguard for the interests of the 
libraries and of the city in relation thereto 
and that public sentiment in Brooklyn favors 
the enactment of this legislation with prac- 
tical unanimity." 

During the consideration of the bill a tele- 
gram was received by Chairman Stranahan, of 
the Senate committee from Andrew Carnegie, 
who said : "Permit me to say that all parties, 
without exception, favor the consolidation li- 
brary bill for Brooklyn. It seems to all of us 
desirable, and I bespeak its passage." It is 
understood that the bill will be favorably re- 
ported, but its passage is uncertain. Amend- 
ments were incorporated giving the mayor 
power to appoint the directors at large, in- 
stead of confining himself to the membership 
of the two present library boards, but not af- 
fecting the self-perpetuating clause. The op- 
position demand that all vacancies when they 
occur shall be filled by the mayor. Among 
those who spoke against the bill was Coroner 
Flaherty, representing the Central Labor 
Union, and former Controller Bird S. Coler. 



[March, 1902 


ON February 7 there was unveiled by Dr. 
Richard Garnett, at Niton, in the Isle of 
Wight, a monument raised by Thomas Green- 
wood, the Free Libraries historian, in com- 
memoration of the life-work of Edward Ed- 
wards, the pioneer of the free libraries move- 
ment in England. Edward Edwards, who 
was born in 1812 and died in 1886. may be 
said to have been "discovered" at the British 
Museum Library. He was at all events a 
frequenter there, and ultimately, in 1839, an 
appointment was found for him there, as as- 
sistant in the department of printed books. 
He only held it for a short time, but it had 
the result of opening his eyes to the want 
that existed for libraries to which the public 
could have free and unrestricted access. He 
made it the work of his life to do something 
to remedy the existing deficiencies in that re- 
spect, and he was fortunate in securing the 
co-operation of William Ewart and Joseph 
Brotherton, who both had seats in the House 
of Commons. Mr. Ewart's efforts were suc- 
cessful in obtaining the appointment of the 
committee on public libraries, and he it was 
who drafted and introduced into Parliament 
the Free Public Libraries Act of 1850. It 
became law during the same session. Ed- 
wards was the moving spirit of the move- 
ment and of the committee, and his was the 
pioneer work of which the English public 
now reap the liberal harvest. The Manches- 
ter Free Library was the first institution of 
its kind which came into existence under the 
new act, and Edward Edwards was made its 
chief librarian. In this capacity he did useful 
service of more than local value for seven 
years, and he did good work in other ways 
besides, while his pen was seldom idle when 
there was anything to be advanced by its aid 
in the matter of free libraries.* He resigned 
his office in 1858, and for several years he 
was engaged in cataloging the library of 
Queen's College, Oxford. 

It seems curious that while it was an Ed- 
ward Edwards who did the pioneer work of 
the free libraries movement in England, it 
is a Passmore Edwards who, for many years 
past, has followed it up with a substantial 
support and an unobtrusive munificence, 
which have helped to make its work at least, 
so far as Greater London is concerned a 
reality and a pillar of educational strength to 
thousands upon thousands. 

* Among his published works are "Free town li- 
braries," Memoirs of libraries, including a hand- 
book of library economy," "Lives of the founders, 
augmentors and other benefactors of the Brit- 
ish Museum, 1570-1870," "Comparative tables of 
schemes which have been proposed for the classifi- 
cation of human knowledge," "Synoptical tables of 
the records of the realm^' and "Chapters of the bio- 


on "Newspapers" in the eighth edition of the "Ency- 

clopxdia Bntannica." 


DR. PARKER, who was a member of the 
committee of the Society of Arts that re- 
ported on leather for bookbinding in the Jour- 
nal of the Society, July, 1901 (see L. j., Sep- 
tember, 1001, p. 681-684), recently contributed 
to the Journal of the Society a paper detailing 
the various investigations which were carried 
on by sub-committees, and on which the main 
committee based its report. Dr. Parker says 
that "every statement and recommendation 
made in the report, the grounds for those 
statements, and the experimental and prac- 
tical work on which they are based, were 
confirmed by each individual member of the 
sub-committee, so that these conclusions can- 
not, as has been stated by some critics, be 
considered as being simply the 'opinions or 
fads of professional men.' " 

One of the facts that impressed the sub- 
committee very forcibly was the number of 
disguises under which ordinary sheepskin 
masqueraded. "We found books bound, nom- 
inally, in levant morocco, straight grain mo- 
rocco, pigskin, calfskin, crocodile and alli- 
gator leathers, which leathers, on close micro- 
scopic examination, were found to be the or- 
dinary common sheepskin, on which had 
been stamped, probably by electrotype rollers, 
the special grains and markings of the skins 
they were got up to imitate. In many cases 
both the bookbinders and the librarians had 
bought these leathers under the impression 
that they were buying the genuine article, the 
buyers having probably been tempted by the 
low price which would naturally be charged 
in a case of this sort." 

Dr. Parker recommends that librarians, 
when they really desire high class work, put 
in their specifications the following: "That 
the leather must be of pure sumach tannage ; 
secondly, that no mineral acids must have 
been used in any process connected with the 
manufacture of the leather ; and thirdly 
also an important point that the skins used 
must not have been pared down or split to 
paper thickness." 

A paper on "The fastness to light of leath- 
ers dyed with coal tar colors" is contributed 
by Mr. Charles Lamb to the Journal of the 
Society of Chemical Industry for Feb. 15, in 
which are described the results of experi- 
ments with reference to the fastness to light, 
made on 1500 small pieces of sumach tanned 
leather dyed with coal-tar dyestuffs, each 
piece with its own special dyestuff. The ex- 
periments were carried on in a glass house of 
the Royal Botanical Society of London, in Re- 
gent's Park. At the end of 13 months all the 
colors had gone, many of them in a much 
shorter time. In the same issue of the Jour- 
nal there appears an interesting "Analysis of 
some new tanning materials," by F. Austyn 

* Parker, T. G. Leather for bookbinding, (In Jour- 
nal of Society of Arts, Nov. 29, 1901, 50:25-35.) 

March, 1902] 




THE sixth annual meeting of the Pennsyl- 
vania Library Club and the New Jersey Li- 
brary Association was held at Atlantic City, 
N. J., March 14-17, 1902. There was an at- 
tendance of about loo, including representa- 
tives from New York, Massachusetts, Wash- 
ington, Delaware, Maryland, and other states. 
The A. L. A. Publishing Board's special com- 
mittee on catalog rules held extended confer- 
ences, and there was an interesting informal 
meeting to consider the effect of the present 
system of net prices upon the purchase of 
books by libraries. The meeting was not so 
large as the one of last year, and numerous 
changes from the program, as printed, were 
made, owing to the absence of expected 
speakers ; but it proved a thoroughly success- 
ful one. The Grand Atlantic Hotel had again 
been chosen as headquarters, and the sessions 
were held in its large assembly room. 

The first session was held on the evening 
of Friday, March 15, under the auspices of 
the Pennsylvania Library Club. The presi- 
dent of the club, Dr. Morris Jastrow, libra- 
rian of the University of Pennsylvania, pre- 
sided, and in the absence of Mr. Luther 
Hewitt, Mr. G. F. Bowerman, of the Wil- 
mington (Del.) Institute Free Library, was 
chosen secretary. Mayor F. P. Stoy, of At- 
lantic City, made a brief address of welcome, 
in which he spoke of the local movement 
which had resulted in the establishment of a 
free public library, and F. P. Hill called at- 
tention to the fact that Mayor Stoy in appoint- 
ing the library trustees had appointed the 
first woman ever named to serve on a library 
board in any New Jersey municipality. 

The general subject of the evening was then 
announced as "Some aids in book selection," 
and was presented in four ten-minute papers 
on various phases of reviewing work. The 
first, by Miss Haines, of the LIBRARY JOURNAL, 
dealt with "General reviews" the vast mass 
of current literary criticism. She said that 
the "review" of 50, or even 30 years ago, 
no longer existed, in this country at least, its 
place being taken by the "notice," ranging 
from three lines to three columns. Its gen- 
eral characteristics were noted as "super- 
ficial, trite, vaguely approving, a passive en- 
couragement rather than a warning or ap- 
praisal," and three common types of notice 
were described the "publishers' notice," 
based upon advertising material only; the 
"unfolding of the tale," in which the skeleton 
of the plot is remorselessly laid bare ; and the 
interesting discursive little essay upon the sub- 
ject treated in the book, which is readable 
but uncritical, and omits the information most 
necessary as an aid in book selection. The 
influence upon reviewing of the immense com- 
mercial machinery for the selling of books 
was touched upon ; and the need of better 
equipment, more literary knowledge and sym- 
pathy, and better taste in reviewing work, was 
emphasized. Mr. T. L. Montgomery pre- 

sented the advantages and disadvantages of 
"Reviews by specialists." He pointed out the 
standard value of reviews such as those ap- 
pearing in the Athenaeum, the work usually 
not of specialists, but of cultivated men of 
catholic taste and literary skill. In contrast 
with their work that of specialists was often 
narrow, tinged by personal theories and pre- 
judices, of which their readers were ignorant. 
"Reviewing from a bookseller's standpoint" 
was considered by C. P. Everett, of New 
York, who took the ground that book review- 
ing as a means of advertising was of very lit- 
tle help to publisher or bookseller. "Why? 
I believe it is because of the fact that the 
great reading public has become aware of the 
fact that the mass of the reviewing is being 
done by incompetent hack writers. This does 
not mean that book reviewing as a means of 
publicity is a failure, but that a favorable re- 
view does not help the sale of a book any 
more than an unfavorable one, provided the 
same amount of space is given." "Consulting 
experts" was the last paper of the series, by 
Miss Isabel Ely Lord, of Bryn Mawr, who 
gave a thoughtful analysis of the quality and 
value of the service that could be rendered to 
librarians in the selection of books by trained 

Discussion followed, opened by Dr. Jas- 
trow, who said, among other things: "The 
general reviews in the daily press are usually 
worth little. They are frequently written by 
specialists, but the copy is required in such 
haste that their value is seriously detracted 
from. The over-production of books, es- 
pecially of series, is a great evil. Publishers 
feel that they must keep their name before 
the public, even at the expense of producing 
sadly inferior books. Much reviewing by 
specialists is very unjust, on account of per- 
sonal jealousies and differences of theory. 
This is especially true in Germany, where 
most reviewing is by specialists." Melvil 
Dewey spoke in favor of the short review, or 
reader's note, advocated by George lies. He 
said that of course all experts can make mis- 
takes, but that their reviews are the best we 
have, and we should make most use of them. 
Other speakers were Mrs. S. C. Fairchild, 
who urged that more attractiveness and in- 
terest be imparted to book annotations, John 
Thomson, and G. F. Bowerman, who spoke of 
the value of unsigned reviews when the 
weight of the name and fame of the journal 
is behind the review, rather than the indi- 
vidual writer. Adjournment was taken short- 
ly after 10 o'clock. 

Saturday morning's session was held under 
the direction of the New Jersey Library As- 
sociation, and was called to order by the 
president, S. G. Ayres, at 10.30, a group pho- 
tograph having previously been taken on the 
hotel steps. The president's address, read by 
Mr. Ayres, dealt with "The librarian," and 
was an exposition of ethical and practical 
qualities at once suggestive and directly help- 

A discussion, "Co-operation among the 



[March, 1902 

smaller libraries," was opened by J. C. Dana, 
who described the work done in western 
Massachusetts, where small towns have been 
reached by special meetings and library in- 
stitutes have been held in scattered communi- 
ties. Mr. Dana emphasized the idea that li- 
brarians should not have the false missionary 
spirit, the self-righteousness of the Pharisee, 
but the kindliness of sincere fdlow-feeling. 
Mr. Elmendorf spoke briefly of the library in- 
stitutes that are to be held in New York state. 

"Reading for the poor" was the next paper, 
by \V. F. Persons, assistant editor of Chari- 
ties. It was a presentation of the condition 
of life among the "submerged tenth" in the 
great cities, and a plea for books that should 
awaken in them ideals of life and character. 
It led to an animated discussion. Dr. Jastrow 
said he thought that personal contact rather 
than reading was needed, and that before the 
library had entered this field, work had been 
done by different organizations with more or 
less success. Mr. Dana gave his opinion that 
newspaper reading, even of the yellow jour- 
nals, was better than no reading at all, to 
which Mr. Dewey replied that better did not 
mean good, and that because such reading 
was better than none we should not stop here. 
At the end of the discussion Mr. Faxon spoke 
briefly of the plans for the A. L. A. confer- 
ence in June. 

In the evening the final session was opened 
at 8.30, W. C. Lane, of Harvard University, 
presiding, and Mr. Carr, of Scranton, acting 
as secretary. The first speaker was Frank B. 
Heckman, of the Free Library of Philadel- 
phia, who gave a talk on "Some Germantown 
writers," of earlier years and the present day. 
W. W. Bishop, of Brooklyn, N. Y., read a 
paper on the question, "Should the librarian 
be a bibliophile?," printed elsewhere (see p. 
126), and G. F. Bowerman, of Wilmington, 
opened a discussion of great interest with his 
report upon "The new net price system and 
the public libraries," also printed elsewhere 
(see p. 134). The discussion that followed 
was participated in by C. P. Everett, H. L. 
Elmendorf, Melvil Dewey. W. W. Bishop, J. 
C. Dana, and others. The fact that the new 
system had raised the prices of net books 
much beyond the increase that librarians had 
been led to expect was brought out by several 
speakers, and a strong plea was made that 
libraries, by virtue of the volume and regu- 
larity of their trade, should be put upon the 
same plane as the dealer in the granting of 
discounts. A resolution was offered by Mr. 
Collins, of Princeton, expressing the opinion 
that libraries should receive the same dis- 
counts as retail dealers. This was amended, 
on suggestion from Mr. Dana, to request that 
dealers and publishers be permitted to give 
to libraries a discount up to 25 per cent, on 
net books. The resolution was adopted, and 
the meeting adjourned at 10.40 p.m. 

Sunday was generally given up to rest and 
enjoyment of the "board walk" along the 
ocean front. Several minor conferences were 
held, and in the afternoon there was an in- 

formal meeting to continue the consideration 
of the net price system, that proved most ani- 
mated and interesting. Mr. Dewey acted as 
chairman, and among those in attendance 
\yere W. C. Lane, W. T. Peoples. V. L. Col- 
lins, J. C. Dana, G. F. Bowerman, S. H. 
Ranck, H. J. Carr, W. W. Bishop, Dr. Jas- 
trow, F. W. Faxon, S. G. Ayres, W. P. Cut- 
ter. G. W. Cole, and F. P. Hill. One of the 
projects discussed was the practicability of 
forming a co-operative buying union on the 
part of libraries, with a selling agent in New 
York, although it was felt by others that con- 
cessions in discounts that would permit the 
employment of local dealers would be prefer- 
able, especially for the smaller libraries. The 
meeting was not called to take any formal 
action, but for direct personal interchange of 
opinion and experience, which it was hoped 
might result in the presentation of definite 

Monday was the day set for the breaking 
up of the convention, and although a number 
of the delegates returned on Sunday evening, 
the majority remained until the next day. 

Hmerican Xibrarg association. 

President: Dr. J. S. Billings, New York 
Public Library. 

Secretary: F. W. Faxon, 108 Glenway st., 
Dorchester. Mass. 

Treasurer: G. M. Jones, Public Library, 
Salem, Mass. 

24th General meeting: Boston and Mag- 
nolia, Mass., June 14-20, 1902. 

Library tract no. 4, devoted to "Library 
rooms and buildings," by Charles C. Soule, 
is the latest publication of the Publishing 
Board, and a most timely and welcome one. 
Mr. Soule has in this prepared a general prac- 
tical outline of the first principles and essen- 
tials in buildings for small libraries. How 
to establish a library in a single room the 
shelving, space and arrangements desirable 
is first outlined, thence passing to the con- 
sideration of two or more rooms, adaptation 
of old buildings, and the planning and equip- 
ment of new buildings. The limitations of a 
tract have unfortunately prevented anything 
but the most summary treatment unfortu- 
nately, because, in the present state of library 
affairs, nothing would be more thoroughly 
useful than a comprehensive and authorita- 
tive monograph on the desirable and undesir- 
able in library architecture, with abundant 
illustrations and examples. It is, however, 
announced that the Publishing Board may, 
if the demand warrants, issue a supplement 
to this tract, reprinting various articles on 
library buildings and including a bibliography 
of the subject and representative plans. There 
can be little doubt of the need of such a sup- 
plement, and it is to be hoped that it may be 
promptly undertaken. The tract should be or- 
dered of the A. L. A. Publishing Board, 
io l /2 Beacon street, Boston ; price, 5c. per 
copy, $2 per 100, in lots of 50. 

March, 1902] 



State Xibrarg Commissions, 

F. B. Kane, organizer, Dover. 

The handbook to be issued by the commis- 
sion is now in course of publication. It will 
be sent free to any library in the state, ac- 
companied if to a free public library by 
the gift of Miss M. W. Plummer's little book 
on library organization, "Hints to small libra- 
ries/' Miss Kane, the library organizer, 
visits on request, without charge, communi- 
ties desiring advice as to library develop- 
ment. The commission has received from 
Mr. G. F. Bowerman, librarian of the Wil- 
mington Institute Free Library the gift of an 
excellently chosen travelling library of 53 

H. C. Buchanan, secretary, State Library, 

The commission issues its second report, 
for the year ending Oct. 31, 1901, to which 
is appended a recommended list of the "First 
one thousand books for a New Jersey library." 
There is also a careful statistical tabulation 
of the libraries of the state, giving data as to 
librarian, contents, foundation, etc. Numer- 
ous libraries of the smaller towns have been 
aided by advice from the commission, and in 
several cases trained librarians have been sent 
to assist those engaged in the preliminary 
work of establishing libraries. There are 102 
libraries reported for the state, exclusive of 
academic and seminary libraries, and of the 
1495 free school libraries recorded by the su- 
perintendent of public instruction. There are 
many subscription libraries, and whenever 
possible the commission has advised that these 
be turned over to city control, under the pro- 
visions of the state library law. 

"Princeton University Library, established 
in 1746, is the oldest in the state, as it is also 
by far the largest. Burlington came 12 years 
later, in 1758, with a charter from King 
George n., and is the oldest public library. 
Then follow the Rutgers College Library, es- 
tablished in 1766, and the Library of the The- 
ological Seminary of the Reformed Church in 
America, in 1784. The total number of books 
and pamphlets in all of the public and semi- 
public libraries of the state will probably 
reach 1,200,000. 52 of the 102 libraries re- 
porting are free, and 38 subscription; and of 
the 88 cities and towns in which libraries are 
located, 76 have libraries in the public schools 

The list of looo books was prepared mainly 
under the direction of Dr. E. C. Richardson, 
and was intended for those interested in the 
organization of small libraries, and without 
experience in or facilities for selection of 
books. It includes practically all classes save 
philosophy and religion, the choice of books 
on these subjects being left to the local li- 

brary authorities. It is a classed author list, 
giving date, place of publication, publishers 
and price. While a selected list of this sort 
can never give general satisfaction, the pres- 
ent one should serve its purpose satisfactorily 
enough, though one might deprecate the large 
representation given to semi-juvenile books. 
Thus, of the 39 titles in Individual biography, 
six are the familiar Abbott volumes. The list 
is also overbalanced, naturally perhaps, in 
favor of American subjects and authors. 

State Xibrarg associations. 


President: H. M. Whitney, Blackstone Li- 
brary, Branford. 

Secretary: Miss Anna Hadley, Ansonia Li- 
brary, Ansonia. 

Treasurer: Miss J. P. Peck, Bronson Li- 
brary, Waterbury. 

At ii o'clock on Wednesday morning, Feb. 
26, the members of the Connecticut Library 
Association assembled in the hall of the new 
library building of the New Britain Institute. 
After the call for order and the reading of 
the minutes, the reports of secretary and 
treasurer, Prof. David N. Camp, of the li- 
brary committee, welcomed the association, 
and in a most interesting historical sketch 
outlined the growth and development of the 
New Britain Institute, referring incidentally 
to places in and near the city with which the 
names of Elihu Burritt, Prof. Andrews, 
James Gates Percival, Emma Willard and 
Almira Lincoln Phelps will be forever asso- 
ciated. At the close of his paper Prof. Camp 
noted certain details in the architectural plans 
of the new building, referring particularly 
to the arrangements made for the housirg of 
patent reports, a complete set of which is 
owned by the institute, for "as the United 
States leads the world in the granting of pat- 
ents for new inventions, so Connecticut leads 
the United States, and New Britain, Con- 

Miss Hewins, as representative of the A. 
L. A. for the state of Connecticut, made the 
preliminary announcements regarding the 
coming A. L. A. conference to be held at 
Magnolia during the second week in June. 
From her vivid description of the place itself, 
and the enthusiasm aroused thereby, the Con- 
necticut delegation in attendance at the con- 
ference should be a large one. A letter from 
Mr. Faxon, secretary of the American Li- 
brary Association, was read, in which he 
stated that Wednesday afternoon, June 18, 
the program (of the A. L. A. convention) is 
left free in order that various state associa- 
tions may hold meetings. "Maine, New 
Hampshire and Massachusetts library clubs 
have already arranged to meet at Magnolia 
on Wednesday afternoon, June 18," closing 
with the hope that Connecticut will also have 
a meeting at that time and place. By vote 



[March, 1902 

of the association the matter was referred to 
the officers, with power to act. 

The subject "Purchase of current fiction by 
libraries of limited means" was presented by 
Jonathan Trumbull, of the Otis Library, Nor- 
wich, with a paper calculated to open the mat- 
ter for a spirited and general discussion. 
Those following Mr. Trumbull were : W. A. 
Borden, New Haven Institute ; W. K. Stetson, 
New Haven Public Library; Miss C. M. 
Hewins, Hartford Public Library; Miss Ida 
Farrar, Springfield Public Library ; Miss J. P. 
Peck, Silas Bronson Library, Waterbury; F. 
B. Gray, Watkinspn Library, Hartford. 

After further inspection of the beautiful 
building so thoroughly adapted for the work 
carried on within its walls, the members of 
the association, at the cordial invitation of 
the library committee, gathered in the main 
corridor and proceeded to the Hotel Russ- 
win. where dinner was served. 

The afternoon session was opened at 2.30. 
The chairman of the nominating committee, 
Prof. W. J. James, of the Wesleyan Univer- 
sity Library, submitted the report of that 
committee, and by unanimous vote the same 
was accepted, which resulted in the re-elec- 
tion of the present board of officers. 

Miss Angeline Scott, of Norwalk, followed 
with an entertaining paper on "Gifts: shall 
we accept? If not, how refuse?" which is 
given in part elsewhere. (See p. 129.) 

Miss Farrar, of the Springfield City Li- 
brary, announced a library institute to be held 
by the Western Massachusetts Library Club 
some time during May in a small town near 
the Connecticut border probably Granville 
in which the Connecticut Library Associa- 
tion is cordially invited to join. 

Miss Mary E. Robbins, who at present is 
engaged in recataloging the Brookline (Mass.) 
Public Library, read an entertainng paper, in 
which she recounted many personal experi- 
ences in organization and reorganization. 

Miss Anna Culver, of Middletown, gave a 
lO-minute talk on the Congressional Library, 
noting particularly certain phases of archi- 
tectural and mural decorations. 

Net prices for books was the subject of a 
warm discussion, which resulted in compari- 
son of former and present cost of books to li- 
braries, with reference also to the action taken 
by the Massachusetts Library Club. At the 
close of the discussion it was voted that the 
matter of book-prices be left in the hands of 
the officers, with power to act. 

In the question box were found two ques- 
tions, one as to the disposal of worn-out 
books, the other as to circulation of bound 
magazines, both calling forth the various 
methods and rules followed in the many libra- 
ries represented. 

After a hearty vote of thanks to the libra- 
rian, Miss Anna G. Rockwell, and to the li- 
brary committee for their hospitality, the 
meeting adjourned. ANNA HADLEY, 



President: Thomas H. Clark, custodian of 
the Law Library, Library of Congress. 

Secretary: R. K. Shaw, Library of Con- 

Treasurer: F. E. Woodward, nth and F 
streets, N. W. 

The February meeting of the District of 
Columbia Library Association was held on the 
i2th inst, at 8 p.m., the president, Thomas H. 
Clark, in the chair, and 86 members attending. 

The resignation of the secretary, Mr. Hugh 
Williams, who is obliged to be absent from 
Washington indefinitely, on account of severe 
illness, was submitted. Mr. R. K. Shaw, of 
the Catalog Division, Library of Congress, 
was chosen to succeed him for the remainder 
of the term. 

Under the topic "Current events and nota- 
ble books of the month" Mr. W. P. Cutter, 
chief of the Order Division. Library of Con- 
gress, mentioned, among other matters of in- 
terest, the disposal of the private libraries of 
McKee and Nordenskjold ; and Miss Josephine 
A. Clark, librarian of the Library of the De- 
partment of Agriculture, referred to a method 
of indexing new botanical species, published 
as a bulletin of the "Herbier Boissier," at 
Chambezy, near Geneva. Mr. Crandall, of 
the Office of Documents, spoke of the sumpt- 
uous edition de luxe of Dickens, notice of 
which appeared in a recent number of The 
Publishers' Weekly. 

The paper of the evening was given by Mr. 
Juul Dieserud, of the Library of Congress, 
and his subject was "Henrik Ibsen and the 
modern drama." Mr. Dieserud represented 
Ibsen as an innovator of dramatic form, and 
explained his analytical method that made it 
possible for him to adhere almost strictly to 
the old law of unity of time, and also his at- 
tempt to revive, in altered form, the prin- 
ciple of destiny or fate, as exhibited in Greek 

Following the paper, which was enthusias- 
tically received, Mr. Stefansson, of the Li- 
brary of Congress, added a few remarks re- 
garding the individualism of Ibsen, to which 
Mr. Dieserud made a brief reply. The asso- 
ciation then adjourned at 9.20. 

R. K. SHAW, Secretary. 


""President: Miss Grace Blanchard, Public 
Library; Concord. 

Secretary: H. W. Denio, State Library, 

Treasurer: Miss B. I. Parker, Public Li- 
brary, Dover. 

The annual meeting of the New Hampshire 
Library Association was held at Pittsfield, 
Jan. 29, 1902. The meeting was called to 
order at 2.30 p.m. by the president, Miss 
Grace Blanchard. The minutes of the June 

March, 1902] 



meeting were read and approved. Mr. F. 
S. Jenkins, of the local library, welcomed 
the association to Pittsfield, and the re- 
sponse was made by the state librarian, 
Mr. Arthur H. Chase. The nominating 
committee reported and recommended for 
officers of the association for the coming year 
as follows : for president. Miss Grace Blanch- 
ard ; 1st vice-president, C. Edward Wright, 
of Whitefield ; 2d vice-president, Miss Har- 
riet Crombie, of Nashua; secretary, Mr. Her- 
bert W. Denio ; treasurer, Miss Bessie I. 
Parker. The report was accepted and the 
ticket was elected. The by-laws were amended 
so far as relates to the date of holding the 
annual meeting. In the future the annual 
meeting will be held on the last Thursday of 

Appropriate resolutions were passed re- 
specting the death of Miss Eldora Pickering, 
of Newington, a former member of the asso- 
ciation. A resolution was passed providing 
for the holding of the June meeting at Mag- 
nolia, Mass., June 18, during the annual ses- 
sion of the A. L. A. 

Interesting papers were read by the follow- 
ing persons: Miss Clara F. Brown, of Con- 
cord, on "Decorum in the library" ; Miss 
Lydia S. Coleman, of Newington, on "What 
can be done at the loan desk to help readers 
in the selection of books"; Miss Edith O. 
Simmons, of Manchester, on "How to in- 
crease the usefulness of the reading room, its 
Sunday opening" ; and Miss Bessie I. Parker, 
of Dover, on "Picture work in the library." 
These papers will appear in the Bulletin of 
the New Hampshire library commission. The 
report of the treasurer was given at the even- 
ing session, and then the topic of "What the 
library expects of the public" was discussed 
by Mr. Olin S. Davis, of Lakeport. and "What 
the public expects of the library," by Miss 
Cyrene Emery, of Concord. Several lists of 
desirable books for small libraries were pre- 
sented by different members, after which the 
session adjourned. 

H. W. DENIS, Secretary. 


President: Miss M. E. Hazeltine, Prender- 
gast Free Library, Jamestown. 

Secretary: Mrs. H. L. Elmendorf, 319 Nor- 
wood Ave., Buffalo. 

Treasurer: E. W. Gaillard, Webster Free 
Library, New York City. 


Arrangements are well advanced for the 
series of library institutes, to be held this 
spring under direction of the library associa- 
tion. A series of eight such institutes will be 
held during April. The first will be held in 
Cortland on April 15. Then will follow Bing- 
hamton on the i6th, Olean on the i8th, Ro- 
chester on the 22d, Ogdensburg on the 25th, 
Ilion on May 6, Albany on May 7, and New- 
burgh on May 9. 

The subjects to be considered at the meet- 
ing are : "How to select books," "How to or- 
der books," "The business record of books 
bought," "How to arrange books on the 
shelves," "Catalogs good and bad," "Prin- 
ciples of a charging system," "Necessary rec- 
ords and reports," "Suggestions as to how to 
increase one's efficiency as a librarian." In 
addition to this program, which will be car- 
ried out by short talks from different trained 
librarians in each district, one public evening 
meeting will be held in each district, to which 
all interested will be invited, and where "The 
public's interest in the public library will be 
discussed by two or three good speakers. Dr. 
J. H. Canfield will talk at most of the eastern 
institutes and H. L. Elmendorf will speak at 
the western end of the state. 

Xtbrarg Clubs. 


President: A. G. S. Josephson, John Crerar 

Treasurer: C. A. Torrey, University of 

Secretary: C. R. Perry, Public Library. 

A regular meeting of the Chicago Library 
Club was held at the Public Library, Thurs- 
day evening, Feb. 13. In the absence of the 
president and vice-presidents, Miss Mabel 
Mcllvaine, who was in charge of the program 
for the evening, was elected as chairman. 
Mary E. Downey and Jennie M. Dignum were 
elected to membership. 

For the committee on library work at the 
county jail Mr. Roden reported a recommen- 
dation that the club make an annual appro- 
priation, to be expended under the direction 
of the committee, for the jail library. Mr. 
Roden paid a tribute to W. R. Moss, a 
public spirited Chicago attorney, who has vol- 
untarily looked after this library for several 
years, giving many of his evenings to the 
work. At the request of the committee Mr. 
Moss was in attendance at the meeting, and 
upon invitation he addressed the club, pre- 
senting a vivid description of the work that 
he was doing at the jail. He thought that the 
club could be most helpful by securing dona- 
tions of money for the purchase of selected 
lists of new books, by advising in the selec- 
tion of those books, and by appointing some 
one who might always be appealed to for in- 
formation on technical questions pertaining to 
library work. The matter was referred to the 
executive committee for consideration and re- 
port. Miss Ahern's report from the commit- 
tee on library and school relations was made 
a special order for next meeting. 

Professor James Westfall Thompson, of the 
University of Chicago, the speaker of the 
evening, then addressed the club on "France 
since the Dreyfus case." It was a most in- 
teresting and instructive address, giving a 
comprehensive and at the same time a very 



[March, 1902 

clear insight into the troubles and perplex- 
ities of modern France. A vote of thanks 
was extended to the speaker. It has been 
suggested that it would be well for the club 
to arrange for frequent scholarly addresses 
in the various fields of knowledge, that our 
members may keep better posted as to what 
is going on in the world. 

CHESLEY R. PERRY, Secretary. 


President: Camillo von Klenze, University 
of Chicago. 

Secretary: A. G. S. Josephson, John Crerar 

Treasurer: C. B. Roden, Public Library. 

A regular meeting of the society was held 
in the John Crerar Library, Thursday, March 
6. The following amendment to the by-laws 
had been proposed by the secretary: "Sec- 
tion III. The affairs of the society shall be 
in the hands of a council, consisting of presi- 
dent, vice-president, secretary, treasurer, and 
three other members, one of whom shall be a 
non-resident member, to be elected at the 
annual meeting of the society," It was pro- 
posed that the words printed in italics be 
added. The amendment had been discussed 
by the council and referred to the committee 
on a national society. The committee had, 
however, not yet reported. After a short dis- 
cussion, in which it was pointed out that there 
was nothing in the by-laws to prohibit non- 
resident members from becoming members of 
the council, the amendment was laid on the 
table, with the suggestion that the nomination 
committee be instructed to nominate a non- 
resident member in case the committee on 
national society reported favorably. 

The secretary reported from the council : 
(i) that the council had decided to issue to 
subscribers a reprint of Augustus De Mor- 
gan's paper "On the difficulty of correct de- 
scription of books," jn an edition limited to 
200 copies, 25 of which were to be reserved 
for the society; (2) that $25 had been ap- 
propriated for the binding of books in the 
society's library, and that the books would 
be loaned to members, subject to rules to be 
framed ; (3) that the indexing of bibliographi- 
cal periodicals had been well started; (4) 
that the council recommended that a nomina- 
tion committee be appointed. 

A motion that the president appoint a nom- 
ination committee was carried. 

Dr. C. R. Mann read a very interesting 
paper on "Histories and bibliographies of 
physics" which will be printed in the forth- 
coming Year-book of the society. Discussion 

The secretary reported that he had re- 
ceived information from the secretary of the 
American Library Association that the pro- 
gram committee of the Association wished 
this society to take charge of a part of the 
fourth general session at the annual meeting 
of the Association in Magnolia, June 19, "for 

a report on and discussion of the Question of 
a bibliographical institute"; also that arrange- 
ments were being made for a meeting of the 
society during the A. L. A. conference to 
discuss the formation of a national biblio- 
graphical society. Both of these matters were 
referred to the council with power to act. 

The secretary read a letter which he had 
received from the Chief of the Department of 
Education of the Louisiana Purchase Exposi- 
tion Company, in regard to the proposed 
Commissioner of Bibliography, and asking 
for estimates. The letter was referred to the 
secretary for answer. 

Mr. Elmer J. Robinson was elected a mem- 
ber of the society. 

AKSEL G. S. JOSEPHSON, Secretary. 


President: Miss M. H. Johnson, Carnegie 

Secretary: Miss J. E. Lauderdale, Univer- 
sity of Nashville. 

Treasurer: Miss Anne Warren, Vanderbilt 
University Law Library. 

Upon a call issued by Miss Mary Hannah 
Johnson, librarian of the Carnegie Library of 
Nashville, Tenn., a meeting of the librarians 
of the city was held in the rooms of the Ten- 
nessee Historical Association Dec. 6, 1901, 
which resulted in the organization of the 
Nashville Library Club. 13 charter members 
were present, all active librarians of the city. 

The following officers were elected : presi- 
dent, Miss Mary Hannah Johnson, Nash- 
ville Carnegie Library; vice-president, Edwin 
S. Wylie, Vanderbilt University Library ; 
treasurer, Miss Annie Warren, Vanderbilt 
University Law Library; secretary, Miss Jen- 
nie E. Lauderdale, University of Nashville 
and Peabody Normal College Library. Execu- 
tive committee : chairman, Miss Kercheval, 
Nashville Carnegie Library; Miss Mary 
Payne, University of Nashville and Peabody 
Normal College Library; Mrs. L. B. Epper- 
son, Tennessee State Library; Miss Johnson 
ex-officio member. 

The object of the club, as expressed in the 
constitution adopted, "is to promote the 
growth of, and interest in, libraries in Nash- 
ville and vicinity." With this club as a nu- 
cleus, and by means of similar clubs in the 
other cities of the state, a state organization 
is hoped for. 

At present there are in Tennessee 77 libra- 
ries containing 392,221 volumes. Nashville 
contains 13 of these with about 133,707 vol- 
umes maintained at an average cost of $1000 
per library. The public interest in libraries, 
in their educational and moral value, is de- 
veloping rapidly, and is keeping pace with the 
material development of the state, as is shown 
by the statistics of library growth in the re- 
port of the U. S. Bureau of Education for 
1900 the south central states in which 
Tennessee lies making a gain of 39 %. 


March, 1902] 




President: Dr. H. M. Leipziger, Aguilar 

Secretary: S. H. Berry, Y. M. C. A. Libra- 
ry, 317 W. s6th st. 

Treasurer: Miss Theresa Hitchler, Brook- 
lyn Public Library. 

By invitation of the Grolier Club the New 
York Library Club held a special meeting at 
the rooms of the former on Thursday after- 
noon, Feb. 13, about 100 persons being pres- 
ent. An address of welcome was made by 
Mr. Howard Mansfield, president of the Gro- 
lier Club. He outlined the club's purpose as 
the glorification of the art of printing, by 
adorning books with the decorative dress with 
which, from time immemorial, it has been the 
instinct of man to clothe everything of value 
to him, from his own person to the temple 
in which he worships. The New York Li- 
brary Club had been invited to this exhibit 
of the Grolier Club's idea of good book- 
making because the two clubs were one in 
spirit. Beneath the finest dress, the most ar- 
tistic and costly decoration, would be found 
subject matter of value worthy of the adorn- 

Dr. Leipziger responded briefly, expressing 
the highest appreciation and praise of the 
work of the Grolier Club and of this exhibi- 
tion representing the progress of four cen- 
turies in the art of bookbinding, and pleas- 
ure that the club had been given this oppor- 
tunity to see and enjoy it. He also conveyed 
the thanks of the club for the courtesy of the 

The minutes of the last meeting were read 
and approved, followed by reports of the 
treasurer, showing balance of $356.45, the 
executive committee, and committees on din- 
ner arrangements and handbook. The last 
reported that the handbooks may be expected 
about March i. Names reported by the execu- 
tive committee were elected to membership. 

Mr. Henry W. Kent, librarian of the Grolier 
Club, then gave a most interesting address 
on "Mosaic bookbindings" which he illus- 
trated by crayon sketches. Mr. Kent was fol- 
lowed by Mr. George H. Baker with a paper 
on "The librarian's duty as a bookbuyer," 
giving many practical suggestions. 

The resignation of the secretary having 
been announced, and Mr. S. H. Berry ap- 
pointed to that office, the meeting was ad- 
journed. The members tarried for some 
time to examine the beautiful exhibition of 
bindings and the library of the club, which 
was also thrown open for inspection. 

The March meeting of the club was held at 
the 23d street branch of the Young Men's 
Christian Association, on the afternoon of 
the i3th inst, at three o'clock. Ten names 
were proposed, and the persons elected to 
membership in the club. Mr. A. E. Bostwick, 
reporting for the committee on library insti- 

tutes, stated that an institute had been ar- 
ranged to be held in White Plains in April. 

The treasurer's report was presented, show- 
ing a balance of $301.20 in the treasury. 

The feature of the afternoon was an ad- 
dress by Melvil Dewey on "Library prospects 
and possibilities." He said that if any one 
40 or 50 years ago had undertaken to proph- 
esy concerning the development of the li- 
brary movement in America, and had sug- 
gested anything approaching the real develop- 
ment, he would have been considered a 
dreamer. While the same progress has been 
made in all departments of activity and 
thought, here it has been beyond an enthu- 
siast's expectation. He who looks into the- 
future now must meet opposition, for some 
do not like to look ahead, prefer to look back,, 
and are always troubled at anything that has 
a tendency to disturb the existing order, but 
we know that it is with the human mind, and 
human institutions, as it is with a tree as 
soon as it stops growing it begins to decay. 

One of the next movements for progress 
must be the supplying of books to the people 
who live in isolated places; to the country 
homes; 52 per cent, of our people live in the 
country, they, who have the leisure to read 
and digest good books, have least reading 
matter available, and receive less than one per 
cent, of the benefit to be derived from our 
large library funds, and modern libraries. 
We are now looking for some one who wants 
to spend about $3000 to equip the first country 
circuit library giving us a team and wagon 
accommodating about 1000 volumes, and about 
1000 volumes more in the homes of the people 
on the circuit, the wagon making its trips at 
regular intervals and permitting the examina- 
tion and exchange of books. Another move 
is being made in large libraries in securing 
specialists in reference work, making what we 
might call a Faculty Library. Among these 
are children's librarians, and librarians for 
the blind, and this development of specialized 
work is bound to be one of the important ele- 
ments in the library work of the future. Mr. 
Dewey also touched on the disposal of dupli- 
cates and the possibility of libraries serving 
as centers for bookselling at wholesale cost 
to private buyers. 

In the evening the annual dinner of the club 
was held at the rooms of the Aldine Associa- 
tion, in Fifth avenue. The guest of honor 
was Andrew Carnegie, and the evening was 
a most delightful one. A reception was held 
in the club parlors from 6.30 to 7.30, and the 
dinner which followed was served at long 
tables in two dining rooms. There was an 
attendance of nearly 300. 

Dr. Leipziger presided as chairman, and* 
opened the speechmaking with a few words 
of greeting to the members and the guest of 
honor. He said that Mr. Carnegie had turned 
iron into gold and then converted that metal 
into a great spiritual force, and added that 
he felt sure that if ever there was to be a, 



[March, 1902 

saint's day in the calendar of the American 
librarian it would be "St. Andrew's day." 
Melvil Dewey followed with a stirring plea 
for libraries that should benefit country ham- 
lets and bring the benefits of books to country 
folk. He thought such libraries were more 
needed than $100,000 structures in the cities. 
He said he was not so much afraid of fiction 
as some persons were, and believed that the 
boy who deserted profane company to read a 
yellow newspaper had made an advance, and 
that when he deserted the yellow journal to 
read a weak novel he had made another step 
forward. He closed with the wish that he had 
three hours to tell those present some of his 
ideas about libraries. 

Mr. Carnegie was the next speaker, and he 
began with the assurance that it was never 
necessary for Mr. Dewey to speak for three 
hours "he strikes the nail on the head in a 
few minutes. He would never find applied 
to him what Josh Billings said about minis- 
ters : 'If a preacher don't strike ile in twenty 
minutes he ought to stop boring.' " He 
said, in part: "I have thought a great deal 
about delivering books in rural communities, 
and I was delighted to hear Mr. Dewey say 
that a practicable plan had been arrived at 
by which this large problem could be solved. 
We ought to have some plan by which books 
could reach every hamlet in the country. 

"I have made to-day a sort of library day. 
The idea of coming here to be with librarians 
to-night seemed so delightful that I thought 
I would make a full day of it, so I have passed 
upon 40 applications for libraries. And I am 
happy to say that all of the anolications con- 
sidered to-day were approved. I assure you 
that it was a very great privilege to be able 
to give the money that was required. Many 
of these applications came from towns in the 
west towns of from 2000 to 5000 inhabi- 
tants, and you would be surprised to see how 
many of these small places said they were 
able to raise the $1500 or $2000 a year neces- 
sary to maintain the library after it was 
built. There was also one application from 
your not highly developed city of Albany. 
I felt that I should be very lenient with a 
city where legislators and Senators met to- 
gether, so I have agreed to their suggestion 
for an endowed library among the others ap- 
proved to-day. 

"It has occurred to me. however, that it 
might be a good plan if a man intended to 
leave his fortune for books and libraries to 
so arrange that in providing for works of fic- 
tion to be contained in the library, books less 
than three years old should not be included. 
Is anything that doesn't last three years a 
book ? Of a book that does not last this long 
it may well be said: 

If I was so soon to be done for, 
I wonder what I was begun for. 

"Is it really true that we are known by 
the company we keep? Then you librarians 
belong to the highest society that this world 
can produce. If you should happen to build 

a house just as a trial to your patience 
you'll find that after it is completed a good 
deal of trouble will be encountered in furnish- 
ing it. I agree with Dean Swift that the 
finest furniture for a room is books. Why 
should you smile when I say a book is good 
to have even if it is never opened? You're 
in good company very good company if 
you only look at the backs of books. The 
lover of books when he has trials, let him 
just walk around his library, and before he's 
got all the way he must feel better. It ought 
to do him as much good as any sermon that 
was ever preached. I believe so in libraries 
that I would say let everybody have them, no 
matter whether they ever saw the insides of 
the books or not, so long as they realized 
what those insides signified. 

"You live among books. You haven't much 
time to read. But you must experience great 
delight to know that you are continually in 
the presence of the master spirits of the 
world which time has left to refine and bless 
us all. And it is strange how few books time 
leaves us ! I once asked Lord Acton how 
many books it would be necessary to put into 
a library representing the world's best litera- 
ture. Four thousand volumes was the number 
he named. That is not more than one vol- 
ume a year for all the years we have known 
man to have ever written at all. That one 
book a year has told the truth in the simplest 
form. No long words were used. The say- 
ings are pithy. Nevertheless, thousands of 
books are written which bless their own gen- 
eration, and I would always say that an au- 
thor who has helped his own generation has 
deserved the gratitude of mankind." 

The other speakers were C. C. Burlingham, 
president of the board of education, who 
spoke of the school library system of the city, 
and the need for its reform and extension ; 
John Kendrick Bangs, who made a delightful 
speech, full of happy allusions and amusing 
anecdotes; Dr. John S. Billings, as repre- 
sentative of the national library association ; 
and Miss Mary E. Hazeltine, on behalf of the 
state association of libraries. 


President: Dr. Morris Jastrow, Jr., Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania. 

Secretary: L. E. Hewitt, Law Association 
Library, 600 City Hall, Philadelphia. 

Treasurer: Miss M. Z. Cruice, American 
Philosophical Society, Philadelphia. 

The usual monthly meeting of the Penn- 
sylvania Library Club was held on Monday, 
Feb. 10, in the lecture room of the Free 
Library of Philadelphia, when Dr. Jastrow, 
the president, presided. After the conclusion 
of the usual routine business, a paper was 
read by John Thomson on "The chronicles 
and memorials forming the Master of the 
Rolls series." Mr. Thomson noted many of 
the quaint and curious narratives hidden 
away in this most interesting series, and 

March, 1902] 



pointed out the need of a careful index to its 
contents. His paper abounded in curious 
information and humor. At the conclusion 
of the address, a long discussion ensued and 
Dr. Jastrow suggested that inquiries should 
be made among the different libraries and as- 
sociations interested in this matter, whether 
a sufficient fund could be raised to enable 
the catalogue raisonnee and indexes, spoken 
of by Mr. Thomson, to be printed. Mr. 
Thomson said that he had been at work on 
this matter for several years and the whole 
thing could be printed within a year if the 
necessary funds were forthcoming. Many in- 
teresting criticisms were offered and what 
would have been ordinarily a "dry topic" 
proved a matter of considerable general in- 

Scbools ant) 


The most important event of the month is 
the decision of the faculty to require a de- 
gree from a registered college for admission 
to the school. This action has been taken 
after long deliberation, and with the knowl- 
edge that it will shut out a few who have the 
natural qualifications for library work. They 
can, however, secure library training in other 
schools. Any young man or young woman 
with fitness for library work will do better 
service with than without a good college 
course. The previous requirements for ad- 
mission to the school, though resulting in 
classes largely made up of college graduates, 
have certainly kept some from finishing a 
college course who might easily have done so. 

The following requirements for special col- 
lege courses are still in force: 

1. 15 hours a week for a year in literature 
and history. Nine hours a week in literature 
and six hours a week in history are preferred, 
but this exact balance is not insisted on. 
Courses in political economy and political 
science are accepted as history. 

2. 15 hours a week in foreign languages, 
of which five must be French and five Ger- 

A statement from the registrar of the col- 
lege that the work outlined above has been 
completed is accepted in lieu of entrance ex- 
aminations. If a student should be deficient 
in any one requirement, he is obliged to pass 
an examination in that subject. 

The limit of numbers makes it feasible to 
select from college graduates, offering these 
special courses, those who seem most likely 
to be of service in the library field. 

Of those applying later than March I, 1902, 
only those meeting the conditions stated above 
will be admitted. 



The Wisconsin Free Library Commission 
issues a special announcement of the special 
course in public documents to be given in 
connection with its summer school session of 
1902. The course, which has already been 
noted in these columns, will be conducted by 
Miss A'. R. Hasse, of the New York Public 
Library staff, and will cover three weeks, 
Aug. 6-27. "One day will be given up to 
colonial documents, three days to federal 
and state constitutions, statutes, municipal 
charters and ordinances, and treaties ; four 
days to the publications of Congress, state 
legislatures and municipal councils ; four 
days to the publications of federal, state, and 
municipal departments, and two days to the 
reports of federal, state, and city institu- 
tions. As each subject is considered, such 
bibliographies, catalogs and check-lists of it 
as there may be in existence will be reviewed. 
The collections of the state library and of the 
State Historical Society Library will be availa- 
ble for demonstration work. In addition to 
the work with United States federal docu- 
ments, the course will include instruction in 
the building up of document collections, both 
city and state, by showing what to select and 
what to discard in order to make the collec- 
tion either an intact expression of the admin- 
istration of a given city or state, or an ex- 
pression only of certain activities of its ad- 
ministration. The difficulties of long general 
series and their adaptation will be explained ; 
the importance and care of pamphlets in city 
or state collections will be dwelt upon. Some 
time will be spent in the preparation of ex- 
amples and illustrations of the distinctions 
between bibliographies, check-lists, indexes, 
calendars and catalogs." Applications for ad- 
mission must be made before May i. 



travels and explorations of the Jesuit mis- 
sionaries in New France, 1610-1791 ; ed. by 
Reuben Gold Thwaites. Vols. 72 and 73: 
Final preface, additional errata, index. 
Cleveland, The Burrows Brothers Co., 
1901 [1902.] 380, 398 p. O. 
The elaborate two-volume index which con- 
cludes the great series of the "Jesuit rela- 
tions" calls for special attention in any record 
of current bibliographical literature. Indexes, 
strictly speaking, are not bibliographical lit- 
erature, but a good index, in its analytic work, 
consistency of treatment, and handling of re- 
lated topics, demands bibliographical skill and 
thorough proficiency in subject cataloging. 
These demands are the more insistent in an 
index of the scope of the present work, which 
in extent and in precision of method is proba- 
bly the most notable example of index-making 


[March, 1902 

produced in this country. For it presents in 
compact and workmanlike form the facts, 
down to the most minute details, contained in 
the three score and ten volumes of the "Jesuit 
relations" covering, at a rough estimate, 
some 27,000 pages, and dealing with various 
aspects of what is practically a single sub- 
ject. It is this last fact, of course, that gives 
the index its special interest, for the work of 
the indexer increases in difficulty in propor- 
tion as his subject matter centers upon a 
single theme. To index a work dealing with 
a wide variety of unrelated subjects is simple 
enough, but in a field where every topic over- 
laps upon and is interwoven with others of 
the same nature, where inaccuracies and va- 
riations of a single term or statement abound, 
and where there is a constant repetition of 
persons, places and incidents, the index 
maker's task is not a happy one. In the pres- 
ent case Mr. Thwaites and his corps have 
been able to overcome the difficulties of their 
undertaking by a thorough and systematic 
scheme of work, and have carried through 
their index in a remarkably short time after 
the completion of the series of "Relations." 

In the preliminary "suggestions for use" 
the general plan of the index is outlined. It 
is based entirely upon the English text, in- 
cluding all prefaces, translations, bibliographi- 
cal data, notes, and supplementary matter. 
Distinctive classes of entries appear in class 
groupings or under form headings ; thus, in 
the former division, all lakes appear only 
under "Lakes," rivers, capes, forts, etc., being 
treated in the same way, while in the latter 
Cartography and maps. Periodicals and news- 
papers, Chapels, Libraries, Museums, etc., are 
among the headings used. As references from 
individual entry to class entry are not given, 
there is large economy of space in this plan. 
Of course it may be said that a person look- 
ing for Fort Chartres under "Chartres" and 
not finding it may not think of turning to the 
list of "Forts" but the indexer is obliged to 
take for granted an ordinary modicum of in- 
telligence on the part of the searcher. For 
the most important subjects Canada, In- 
dians, Irpquois, Jesuits, etc. careful sub- 
ject classifications have been prepared, mass- 
ing the entries into distinctive groups. Thus 
for Indians, there are eight main classes : 
Anthropology and ethnology ; Archaeology ; 
Philology; Mythology, folk-lore and re- 
ligion; Social and economic life; Oratory, 
poetry and music; Inter-tribal relations; Re- 
lations with the whites. Each main class is 
divided and subdivided, as necessary, bring- 
ing all related items into orderly arrange- 
ment. Variants of all proper names are given 
in parentheses, with references from frequent- 
ly used variants to standard form, the vari- 
ants ranging from a single term, as "moose 
of France" for horse, to twenty different ap- 
pellations for the Andaste Indians, fourteen 
for the Susquehannocks, thirteen for the 
Abenakis, and so on. 

The mass of material co-ordinated and pre- 
sented may be judged from a few examples. 
"Indians" covers nearly 50 pages; "Jesuits," 
38; "Iroquois," 10; Quebec has nearly 10 
pages, Montreal three, "Chapels," "Fur 
trade," "Beaver," "Hospital nuns," a page- 
and-a-half apiece; while the minuteness of the 
work may be judged from the fact that 
"Beads" yield 113 entries, "Calumet" over 
50, "Tobacco" 123, and "Canoes" over 300. 
Entries are as compact as possible, volume 
numbers being in heavy face and paging in or- 
dinary Arabic numerals. A somewhat careful 
examination of the index confirms its first im- 
pression of careful thoroughness. Some 
minor inconsistencies bear witness to the 
work of many hands as the fact that books 
cited are given sometimes in italics and 
sometimes in quotation marks, and that there 
are variations of practice regarding refer- 
ences, while in one case at least different 
entries referring to the same person appear 
in two places ("Bastard," "Flemish bastard"), 
without any reference or other connection. 
But these are simply evidences of human fal- 
libility. The fact remains that the present 
index is an example of the art of index- 
making at its best, and a worthy crown and 
finish to a work that must always be indis- 
pensable to the study of American history. 

LIBRARY OF CONGRESS. Classification : Class Z, 
bibliography and library science. Adopted 
1898; as in force Jan. I, 1902. Washington, 
Gov. Print. Office, 1902. 68 p. O. 

From the preface of this interesting scheme 
of classification we learn that the order of 
the main groups, the arrangement under Li- 
brary science, and many other details, are 
taken in part from Cutter's 7th Expansive 
classification. Indeed, the Class letter, Z, sug- 
gests that at once. 

As would be expected of a system devised 
to meet the needs of a great national library, 
the scheme is elaborate. Taking for a basis 
of judgment the five criteria of practical 
classification formulated by Dr. Richardson in 
his recent work on that subject, how does this 
system stand the test? 

i. "It [the classification] should follow as 
nearly as possible the order of things." As 
we are considering but one section of a 
scheme, this rule has but a limited applica- 

First and naturally comes the History of 
books and bookmaking, followed by Writing, 
Autographs, Typewriters and typewriting, 
Shorthand and Paleography. The natural or- 
der would place paleography first after writ- 
ing as a whole. Next comes Printing, its 
history and biography, followed duly by Early 
printing (Incunabula and block books), Prac- 
tical printing, Binding, Bookselling, and Copy- 

After the book, the collecting and care of 
books. We are accustomed to think of li- 

March, 1902] 


brary science as a recent development, espec- 
ially belonging to the era of the public library 
movement. But as we learn that the Alex- 
andrine library was classified into at least six 
main divisions, and that even the names of the 
four writers on cheesecakes were arranged in 
alphabetical order, with titles and full bib- 
liographical details of their works, perhaps 
we are wrong in thinking the science such a 
new one, and the maker of this classification 
may be even theoretically right in putting 
Library science before Libraries of all coun- 
tries and ages. As that topic naturally leads 
to Book-collecting, and Book-collecting to 
Bibliography, national, subject and personal, 
a vast subject the practical wisdom of 
putting Library science before Libraries is ob- 

National bibliography is divided by con- 
tinents, and under those by states and coun- 
tries, the arrangement being alphabetical in 
the main. This is followed by Subject bib- 
liography, also arranged alphabetically, and 
that in turn and lastly by Personal bibliog- 
raphy. So on the whole the development of 
the classification seems natural and har- 

2. "It should be carried out in minute de- 
tail." The last division number assigned is 
8973, and as many of these divisions may have 
topical subdivisions, the requirements of this 
rule are fully met. 

3. "It should be provided with a notation 
which will allow for indefinite subdivision, 
using mixed symbols, but with a predominant 
decimal base." In this notation the class 
number Z is followed by a consecutive whole 
number. Thus no idea of subordination is 
conveyed as in a decimal notation, and indefi- 
nite expansion is precluded. In all sections 
spaces are left for future use, a very con- 
venient way should the subjects chance to de- 
velop in just those places. Topical subdi- 
visions under the number are made possible 
by the use of Cutter numbers, e.g., 27845, 
Bibliography of sects and churches ; Z7845.AS, 
Anglican; 27845.62, Baptist. "See also" ref- 
erences and comparisons with other numbers 
are frequent. This notation has the great ad- 
vantage of being very brief, considering the 
minuteness; of the subdivision, and the great 
disadvantages of not permitting indefinite ex- 
pansion, or lending itself readily to the needs 
of smaller collections. 

4. "It should be provided with a detailed 
and specific index." The index seems to have 
been developed by practical use rather than 
made theoretically to fit the classification. 
Thus under the entry Scotch-Irish the index 
gives 5314.863, no such number appearing 
in the classification. We note also, by way of 
illustration, the omission of the printing of 
etchings and lithographs, although reference 
to presswork is made under engravings. As 
a whole, the index, which occupies 15 pages, 
is clear and detailed. 

5. "The value of such a system is increased 

in direct ratio to the generalness of its use." 
The conditions which this system has been 
devised to meet will preclude its general use. 

As an illustration of close classification in 
a specialized library, it is interesting to com- 
pare a small portion of this very full classifi- 
cation with the corresponding part in the 
"Tentative scheme of classification for the 
library of the Grolier Club." In the Library 
of Congress system, Bookbinding has an al- 
lotment of six numbers, with a seventh for 
its history by countries, arranged alphabeti- 
cally. In the Grolier Club scheme this same 
subject has 55 numbers, exclusive of ip num- 
bers for its history divided by countries. 

Viewed as a whole, this classification of 
bibliography and library science is very con- 
vincing, made especially so by the choice of 
type, the indention, and other typographical 
details. All interested in classification will 
await with interest the publication of succeed- 
ing classes. M. L. DAVIS. 

Xibrarp Economy ant) tbistorp. 

BISSELL, Fannie S. What the libraries are 

doing for the children. (In Outlook, Feb. 

15, 1902, p. 420-424.) 

An account of the children's rooms, library 
league, story-hour and like features of library 
work for children, as carried on in Pitts- 
burgh, Brooklyn, Boston, New Haven, Eau 
Claire, Hartford, and elsewhere. 

DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & Co., New York, an- 
iiounce that they have arranged to print every 
month the best eight illustrations from each 
of their magazines The World's Work and 
Country Life in America, for use on bulletin 
boards in public libraries. The Country Life 
in America pictures will follow the changes 
of the season, while the World's Work illus- 
trations will deal with current events, por- 
traits of distinguished men, etc. 

A. CONAN DOYLE'S new book, "The South 
African war: its cause and conduct," will, it 
is announced, be sent free to any public or in- 
stitutional library, upon application to the 
publishers, McClure, Phillips & Co., New 

FOOTE, Elizabeth L. How the secretary and 
librarian may work together. (In Sunday 
School Times, Feb. 22, 1902, 44:103-104.) 
This article in Miss Foote's series on the 
Sunday-school library discusses the registra- 
tion of readers and catalogs and lists for the 
Sunday-school library. 


Plummer's useful little handbook is now in 
press in a third edition and will be shortly 
issued. It will be published by Miss Plum- 
mer, from the Pratt Institute Free Library. 
The Library Record of Australasia quar- 



[March, 1902 

terly completes its first year's volume with the 
number for December, 1901, containing the 
table of contents for the year. It opens with 
a sketch of John Howard Clark, one of the 
founders of the Public Library, Museum, and 
Art Gallery of South Australia, and includes 
the usual notes, practical articles and record 
of publications. 

PUTNAM, Herbert. A national library for the 
United States. (In Bookman, March, p. 


An outline of the scope and functions of a 
great national library, presenting the various 
directions in which the Library of Congress 
may promote and serve the interests of li- 
braries and students. 

SHARP, Katharine L. Library schools on a 
graduate basis. (In Publications of the 
Association of Collegiate Alumnae, series 3, 
no. 5, Feb., 1902, pp. 24-33.) 
A study of the requirements for successful 
library work and the training the students 
receive in the New York State Library School 
and the Illinois State Library School. Of 
these schools Miss Sharp says: "Each of 
these requires two years of college work for 
entrance and gives two years of technical in- 
struction." She urges that library schools 
connected with universities require a degree 
for entrance and accept no equivalent. 

SOULE, Charles C. Modern library buildings. 

(In Architectural Review, Jan., 1902, 9:1-6.) 


An historical account of the architectural 
development of the present-day library build- 
ing. This number of the Review is a special 
"library number." Nearly 50 pages are given 
to plans of library buildings. 


Alabama State Dept. of Archives and Hist. 
Progress has been made toward the develop- 
ment of Department of Archives and His- 
tory, created by act of Feb. 27 (1901). The 
objects of the department are "the care and 
custody of official archives, the collection of 
materials bearing upon the history of the 
state, and of the territory included therein, 
fiorn the earliest times, the completion and 
publication of the state's official records and 
other historical materials, the diffusion of 
knowledge in reference to the history and re- 
sources of the state, the encouragement of 
historical work and research," etc. The di- 
rector is Thomas M. Owen, whose plans of 
work include the preparation and publication 
of the report of the Alabama History Com- 
mission; the arrangement and indexing of 
the state archives ; the collection of all printed 
and documentary material relating to Ala- 
bama ; the development of a museum and an 
art gallery ; and the compilation of the Ala- 
bama war records. 

Altoona (Pa.) Mechanics' L. The library 
report, as presented in the local press, gives 
the following facts: Added 1732; total 32,- 
750. Issued, home use 36,159. Total mem- 
bership 999. Receipts $4438.82 ; eocpenses 

Atlanta, Ga. Carnegie L. Owing to the 
failure of Miles & Bradt, contractors, to carry 
out specifications, the hard-wood floors in the 
two upper stories of the new library building 
have been rejected by the supervising archi- 
tect. These floors will have to be removed 
and new floors laid before the building can 
be accepted. Nevertheless, the library was 
opened to the public on March 4, using the 
basement and the stack. The basement has 
a rear entrance, is well lighted, and con- 
tains two large work rooms 30 x 60 feet. 
One of these rooms is entirely finished and 
furnished and makes an ideal children's room. 
The other room will be used for a delivery 
room as it communicates directly with the 
stack. The trustees greatly regret the difficul- 
ties, but as they are amply protected in a 
money way, by the failure of the contractor to 
perform his obligation, they feel justified in 
taking this time to have the work done over. 
Miss Wallace says : "Our public opening will 
not take place until the building is finished, 
but in the meantime the public will be given 
a cordial welcome and our 'back yard' will 
soon be the most popular place in town." At 
the opening only informal exercises were 
held, but these were largely attended. 

Augusta (Ga.) Y. M. L. Assoc. (53d rpt. 
year ending April I, 1901.) Added 626; 
total 9530. Issued, home use 6912, a gain of 
1620 over the preceding year. The list of 
subscribers has increased, and a reduced fee 
has been granted to teachers. A special mem- 
bership ticket at 50 c. is offered to children 
during certain months of the year June to 
September or July to October and 26 were 
issued last year. The library was closed for 
eight days in October, during which time the 
rooms were rearranged and decorated with 
most attractive results. 

Boston Athenaeum. (Rpt. 1901.) Added 
3471 ; total 202,166. Issued 57,276. Spent for 
books and binding $9466.67. The number of 
shares in use is given as 802, the total num- 
ber of non-proprietors using the building as 

During the year the special collection of 
the late Francis Hinde Groome, of Edin- 
burgh, was purchased, the sum required be- 
ing subscribed by four proprietors. The col- 
lection was received in October. It includes 
over 100 v., many rare, and all bearing upon 
the study of gypsies, while there are also over 
30 v. of manuscript notes and correspond- 
ence with Bataillard, the eminent French stu- 
dent of gypsies. 

"One of the most difficult of our problems 
in years past has been the disposition of 
pamphlets, which flow steadily in upon the 

March, 1902] 



library without regard to season. Thousands 
of our pamphlets lie in what may be termed 
the attic, covered with the dust of at least a 
quarter of a century, thousands more are in 
boxes, cataloged by authors, and many more 
are fully cataloged, but unbound. When it 
became evident that the Athenaeum Library 
would be moved it seemed best to face this 
problem at once. All of our biographical 
sketches have been arranged alphabetically 
and bound ; new pamphlets are cataloged as 
fast as they are received, and are as soon as 
possible made into bound volumes for the 
shelves. All other pamphlets, if within our 
field and of any value, are considered as 
books, cataloged and put in stiff covers, that 
they may be placed with volumes on the sub- 
jects of which they treat. We hope to dis- 
tribute throughout the library valuable ma- 
terial which has heretofore been lost to all 
except the most persistent searchers for in- 

Naturally the most important event of the 
year, in its future results, was the decision 
to erect a new library building on Arlington 
and Newbury streets. 

Boston Medical Library (26th rpt, 1901.) 
The principal event of the past year has been 
the transfer of the library to the new library 
building on the Fenway, next to the building 
of the Massachusetts Historical Society, 
which the society has erected at the cost of 
over $150,000. "The librarian and cataloger, 
realizing that the prestige of having the best 
adapted building in the country, would be 
marred were the classification and arrange- 
ment of books in the shelves not up to the 
best system endorsed by the leading libra- 
rians of the country, set to themselves the 
task of evolving from the various systems in 
vogue that which was best adapted to the 
practical requirements of the library. To 
accomplish this they have made a profound 
study of the details of the different schemes 
advocated by library experts, made several 
visits to New York, Philadelphia and Wash- 
ington to consult with other librarians, and 
have finally settled upon a classification which 
embraces the best points of all the systems 
which they have considered." 

The library has received from Dr. H. R. 
Storer, of Newport, an extraordinary collec- 
tion of medical medals numbering 2139, which 
have been arranged around the walls of the 
reading room in swinging leaves, so that both 
sides of each medal can be examined. A card 
catalog of the entire collection has been made, 
giving complete descriptions, and some 250 
engravings and photographs of medals not 
yet represented in the collection are added. 

The librarian further says : "A new depar- 
ture in library administration has been made 
by me with the assent of the executive com- 
mittee. It has been the invariable custom in 
all libraries to keep and to place upon the 
shelves every edition of every book that 
chanced to come into their possession. This 

rule is a proper one to follow with regard to 
the classics of medicine, to works embodying 
original research, and to special monographs, 
but when extended to handbooks compiled 
chiefly for the use of students, it cumbers our 
shelves with books embodying only the state of 
medicine at the time when they were written. 
After a few years they become antiquated, 
teach many doctrines long since repeated [re- 
jected?], and, as a matter of fact, they are 
never consulted. I have consequently gone 
through the whole library and thrown out 
every edition of any general treatise and hand- 
book between the first and the last that we 
have. By this process I have reduced the 
library by 1082 books, with a great gain in 
shelf room, and, as I believe, no loss of ef- 
ficiency. That we might know where we 
could find, and, in case of need, borrow, any 
edition of any book thus excluded, we have 
given to the library of the Surgeon-General's 
office in Washington all such as they did not 
already possess. The number which they ac- 
cepted amounted to 384 volumes." 

Brooklyn (N. Y.) P. L. The following 
tables have been prepared to show the 1901 
monthly circulation of the library, arranged 
according to the size of the circulation, and 
the seasons of the year. It is pointed out that 
these figures are rather curious, in showing 
that the library has no light and no heavy 








9S.44I Jan 

.89,822 Sept 

.88,382 May 

87,386 June 

.80,857 Apr 






74,635 Feb 68,245 

Dec.-Feb 231,053 June-Aug 237,575 

Mar.-May 216,007 Sept.-Nov 259,260 

On Feb. 12 the city sinking fund commis- 
sion authorized the Public Library direc- 
tors to lease one floor of the building 
known as Avon hall, on Bedford avenue, 
for a term of two years, at a rental of $1800 
per year. This step has long been desired 
by the library authorities, but there have 
been a succession of obstacles to carrying 
it out. It is proposed to transfer the Bed- 
ford branch of the library to these new quar- 
ters, leaving the present building, at 26 Bree- 
voort place, which is not well adapted for 
public use, for the administrative work of 
the library. 

A party of the directors, accompanied by 
Mr. Hill, the librarian, recently visited Phil- 
adelphia, Pittsburgh, Allegheny and Buffalo, 
on a trip of library inspection, in the interest 
of the new Carnegie branches, now planned. 
Cleveland, Toledo and Detroit were also vis- 
ited by some of the members. 

Sites have been recommended for seven of 
the Brooklyn Carnegie branches. These are 
as follows: I, block bounded by Marcy ave- 
nue, Rodney street and Division avenue, $50,- 
ooo; 2, Franklin avenue, opposite Hancock, 
between Fulton and Jefferson avenue, $25,- 



[March, 1902 

ooo ; 3, northwest corner of Clinton and Union 
streets, $26,000; 4, southeast corner of Fourth 
avenue and Pacific street, $30.000; 5, south 
corner of Bushwick and DeKalb avenues, 
$30,000; 6, corner of Norman avenue and 
Leonard street, $36,000; 7, corner of Fourth 
avenue and sist street, $12,500. 

Buffalo (N. Y.) P. L. (sth rpt., 1901.) 
Added 19,465 ; total 169,728 ; in addition there 
are 97 v. of directories, 1847 v. of permanent 
collection, and 4166 children's picture books, 
making a total of 175,838 bound volumes. 
Issued, home use 966,450 (fict., incl. juv. fict, 
.656%); issued from stack for lib. use 39,- 
488. New cards issued 20,660; total cards in 
force 58,239. Receipts $88,575.88; expenses 

The total circulation shows a decrease of 
14.785, due probably to the distractions of the 
Pan-American exposition, and to the closing 
of the circulating department for three days 
on special occasions. "The Pan-American 
had, however, a greater effect on our circula- 
tion than the small falling off would indicate, 
for if we analyze the figures, they show that 
the circulation at the main library, which 
would be most affected by the exposition and 
its attractions, fell off 68,275, while the out- 
side agencies, such as schools, branches and 
the like, made a net gain of 53,490. Mr. El- 
mendorf adds : "The percentage of fiction read 
is about as I would have it. The figures show 
a reduction from .671 to .656. This has been 
through no special effort to reduce the num- 
ber of books of fiction read, as there has been 
no such effort. There has been an effort to 
improve the class of reading, and particularly 
to improve the grade of fiction read." 

In the open shelf department from a stock 
of about 18,000 v. the home use circulation 
was 240,188, giving an average turnover of 
more than 13 per volume. "The books on 
the open shelves are all selected, recommended 
books, and it would seem to prove that all a 
good book needs in the way of recommenda- 
tion is to put it where it can make its own 
attractions felt, that is where people can see 
it, handle and examine it for themselves." 

There are now 33 schools, with 532 separ- 
ate class room libraries, using in all 25,114 
books. The home circulation for the year 
was 233,102. It is urged that the work be 
extended as fast as possible to all the schools 
of the city. 84 travelling libraries, of 2482 
v., were sent out to fire houses, police sta- 
tions, hospitals, clubs, societies, etc. 

There are now eight delivery stations, one 
having been opened during the year. There 
are three branches, only one of which, the 
William Ives branch, really deserves that 
name, the others being too small to come 
properly within that designation. 

The removal from the library building of 
several societies which have been quartered 
there since its erection, will soon give much- 
needed room for library purposes. 

Burlington (la.) P. L. (isth rpt. year 
ending Dec. 31, 1901.) Added 2088; total 
21,148. Issued, home use 49,461 ; school issue 
4998; ref. use 5000. New cards issued 534. 
Expenses $6149.41. 

"The public has been admitted to the stack 
room since the first of July. The privilege 
has been greatly appreciated and no bad re- 
sults have come to light. 

"We accomplish what libraries do not often 
attempt with the same working force, namely, 
our work with the schools and our reference 
work for the women's clubs and others. But 
we are in one particular behind even the 
small libraries which are up with the times. 
I refer to our lack of a children's depart- 

President Crapo, of the board of trustees, 
refers to the meeting of the state library asso- 
ciation held in Burlington last October, and 
urges an increase of the levy for library main- 
tenance. He says : "We must not lose sight of 
the fact that our library has been growing 
rapidly in spite of the comparatively small 
revenues. Since we have occupied our new 
building the spheres of influence of the books, 
and the other educational opportunities af- 
forded by our building, have been developing 
and increasing at a very rapid rate. We have 
no longer a small library, but a large one, for 
a city of this size." 

Burlington, Vt., Fletcher F. L. (28th rpt. 
year ending Dec. 31, 1901.) Added 560; 
total 27,319. Issued, home use 43,802 (fict. 
and juv. 33,293.) New cards issued 484. 
"About half the books circulated from the li- 
brary are taken out by teachers and scholars." 

The event of the year was the gift of $50,- 
coo from Andrew Carnegie for a new library 
building ; "no one but a librarian who has 
endured for years the inconveniences of the 
old building can understand the pleasure and 
gratitude with which we look forward to a 
properly constructed library building." 

Cedar Rapids (la.) F. P. L. The obser- 
vance of the annual "Library day" on Feb. 
14 proved most successful. A special exhibit 
of art and illustrated books, photographs, 
etc., was displayed, and there was a large at- 
tendance of interested visitors. In the even- 
ing addresses were delivered in the library 
auditorium, among the speakers being J. J. 
McConnell, superintendent of schools, Miss 
Irene Warren, of the Iowa University school 
of education, and R. C. Barrett, state super- 
intendent of public instruction. 

Chattanooga, Tenn. Carnegie L. A letter 
recently received by Mayor Chambliss from 
Andrew Carnegie suggests certain amend- 
ments in the language of the ordinance re- 
cently passed accepting Mr. Carnegie's gift 
of $50,000 for a library building and making 
an appropriation of $5000 for the maintenance 
of the library. When these amendments have 
been made, and a site for the building se- 

March, 1902] 



cured, arrangements will be made to make 
payments on the building as the work pro- 
ceeds. The amendments called for by Mr. 
Carnegie are on one point only. The ordi- 
nance, as passed, fixes the appropriation at 
$5000 for the first year and adds, "and said 
city will hereafter make suitable provision 
for proper support and maintenance thereof." 
The amendment called for by Mr. Carnegie 
is covered by the words, "at a cost of not less 
than $5000 yearly," thus binding the city to 
expenditure in the future of not less than the 
sum named each year. It is thought that- the 
change required in the ordinance will be 
promptly made. 

Cheyenne, Wyo. Carnegie L. On Feb. 4 
Ross C. Irvine was appointed librarian of the 
new Carnegie Library. He also succeeds 
Mrs. E. Mason Smi^h as county librarian, as 
the county library will be consolidated with 
the Carnegie institution. 

Cincinnati (O.) L. Soc. for the Blind. 
(Preliminary rpt., Jan., 1902.) As the work 
described in this little pamphlet is hardly 
more than a year old the report deals mainly 
with details of aims and organization. The 
purpose of the society is to reach with books 
and readings the 400 blind persons known to 
reside in Hamilton county. Many of these 
have been taught to read in the state institu- 
tion and trained in some art or trade, but 
after leaving the institution they are shut off 
from books or from further help and instruc- 
tion. Members of the society serve as vol- 
unteer readers and as guides to bring blind 
persons to and from the library, and a weekly 
course of instruction in reading and writing 
is also conducted. "For a year and longer 
there have been readings at the Public Libra- 
ry, to which the blind have come in encourag- 
ing numbers. The attendance has varied 
from three or four to 20 and more. An aver- 
age attendance has been eight or 10." There 
are now five readings each week, in courses 
on English literature, from current magazines, 
French history, political science, and current 
novels. Special authors' readings have also 
been given. The collection of books for the 
blind in the Public Library now numbers sev- 
eral hundred volumes, and is maintained by 
the society. The president of the society is 
Mr. N. D. C. Hodges, the librarian of the 
Public Library. 

Cincinnati (O.} P. L. A successful public 
entertainment was given on Feb. I by the 
Library League of Cincinnati, in the city 
Auditorium. It consisted of recitations, 
music, and the two-act play "Little women." 
The league was established in April, 1901, by 
Miss Elizabeth Abbott, who is in charge of 
the children's work at the library, and is 
modelled upon the children's library leagues 
developed elsewhere. It has now a member- 
ship of 1600, secured without the aid of the 
schools. Such entertainments as that recent- 
ly given are planned at intervals, to give a 
social interest to the league. 

Columbia University L. New York City. 
Memorial resolutions upon the death of the 
late William Goddard Baker were recently 
drawn up by the library staff and transmitted 
to Mr. Baker's family. The resolutions were 
as follows: 

"The members of the library staff of Columbia 
University have learned with deep sorrow of the 
death of William Goddard Baker, who was for 
many years connected with the library work of the 
University. Antedating us all in length of service, 
we cherish the memory of his kindly greeting, as one 
by one we came into relations with him and learned 
to know him. Quiet and unassuming in manner, 
most kind and gentle in disposition, ever ready to 
lend assistance or to give wise and helpful counsel, 
he went in and out among us a constant example of 
the courteous gentleman of the olden school. Such 
will ever be our pleasant remembrance of him and of 
his genial influence. 

"We extend to his sorrowing relatives our sincere 
sympathy, with the hope that their sense of loss may 
be tempered by the consciousness that this is but the 
close of a long and useful earthly career. 
Reference Librarian (for the staff.)" 

Columbus (O.) P. School L. (25th rpt. 
year ending Aug. 31, 1901.) Added 4371 ; 
total 47,928, of which 7094 belong to the ref. 
dept. and 24,670 to the circulating dept. Is- 
sued, home use 205,172, including 76,734 v. of 
supplementary reading; lib. use (including 
periodicals) 271,700. The percentage of adult 
fiction was 16.842%; of juvenile fiction 
37-385 % ', "this is nearly three per cent, higher 
than last year." New cards issued 2377 ; total 
cards in use 21,630. 

The report includes a brief historical sketch, 
and comparative statistics for the work of the 
last 10 years. The library now maintains spe- 
cial collections in 22 different schools, from 
which books are issued to pupils. Its policy 
is "to add to the njimber of these branches 
gradually until every elementary building de- 
siring such a branch shall be supplied, and 
then increase the number of volumes in each 
branch. At present about 100 volumes are 
sent to these libraries, though in some cases, 
especially in the larger buildings, or 'where the 
capacity for operating them is better, 25 to 30 
volumes more. Judging from the experience 
of the last two or three years, the plan of 
co-operation with the schools, as adopted by 
the library, has been so satisfactory that no 
change in the present method is contem- 

Fitchburg (Mass.) P. L. (29th rpt. year 
ending Nov. 30, 1901.) Added 1662; total 
39,228. Issued 77,181, an increase of 5626 
over the previous year. New cards issued 
1294. Receipts $8883.80; expenses $8812.02. 

"Vacation cards," each permitting the with- 
drawal of six books for four weeks, were is- 
sued for the first time in June, and were used 
by 53 persons. Nearly 3000 books were sent 
to the public schools, a gain of over 600. 
Sunday attendance in the reading room 
reached a total of over 1200. The children's 
room now contains about 400 books ; 5 v. 
were lost during the year. It was visited by 
nearly 13,000 children. In the art room ex- 
hibitions w,ere held through the facilities of 
the Library Art Club. 



[March, 1902 

Glover sville (N. Y.) P. L. The common 
council at a meeting on Feb. 17 voted to 
accept Andrew Carnegie's offer of $50,000 for 
a library building, on condition that the city 
appropriate $5000 annually for maintenance. 

Helena (Mont.) P. L. The library report 
for 1901, as printed in the local press, gives 
the following facts: Added 1784; total 30,- 
529. Issued, home use 75,132 (fict. 59%). 
New registration 711; total registration II,- 

The juvenile circulation for the year 
amounted to 40 per cent, of the total issue, of 
which fiction formed 52 per cent. "Two of 
the library assistants took the course in libra- 
ry science offered last summer at the Chau- 
tauqua assembly, thus increasing the efficien- 
cy of the staff." 

Library of Congress, Washington, D. C. 
The legislative, judicial and executive ap- 
propriations bill, now pending in Congress, 
carries the usual provisions for the mainte- 
nance of the Library of Congress. These in- 
clude the following increases in salary and 
additional service, according to the estimates 
prepared by the Librarian of Congress : 

The salary of the assistant to the chief 
clerk is raised from $900 to $1000, and a mes- 
senger at $840, instead of an assistant mes- 
senger at $720, is provided for. The salary 
of the chief of the order and purchasing di- 
vision is increased from $2000 to $2250. 

Additional assistants in the Catalogue Di- 
vision are provided for as follows: Two at 
$1800 each, one at $1500, five at $1400 each, 
five at $1200 each, three at $1000 each, three at 
$900 each, two at $800 each, and three at $720 
each, making a total increase of 24 persons at 

The salary of the chief of the Bibliography 
Division is increased from $2000 to $2500. 
The salary of the assistant in the reading 
room for the blind is increased from $1000 to 
$1200. An important increase, involving a 
new appointment, is that of the head of the 
Manuscripts Division, for which the salary is 
increased from $1500 to $3000, and two as- 
sistants at $1200 and $900, respectively, are 
given in lieu of two assistants at $720 each. 
The salary of the chief of the Maps and 
Charts Division is increased from $2000 to 

In the Copyright Office additional employes 
are given as follows : three clerks at $1400 
each; one clerk at $1200; one clerk at $1000; 
two clerks at $900 each, and two clerks at 
$720 each, making a net increase of nine per- 
sons at $9640. 

For opening the library on Sundays, from 
2 o'clock until 10 p.m., $10,000 is recom- 
mended under the librarian, and $2500 un- 
der the superintendent of the building. 

The bill as amended in the Senate increases 
the fund for the purchase of books from $60,- 
ooo, provided in the House bill, to $100,000, 
as asked for in the estimates. 

An amendment to the bill was submitted 

on Feb. 17, by Mr. Lodge, providing an in- 
crease of the salary of the chief of the Di- 
vision of Bibliography from $2500 to $3000. 

Maryland, Library legislation for. A bill 
has been introduced into the legislature pro- 
viding for county maintenance of public li- 
braries. It authorizes the board of county 
commissioners to levy an annual tax not ex- 
ceeding five cents on each $100, to be known 
as a free library fund. The commissioners 
have the power to establish libraries and 
reading rooms where desired, and the gov- 
erning boards of any municipality in which 
they are placed may levy an additional tax of 
seven per cent., which is to be paid over to 
a board of trustees, consisting of nine persons, 
to be known as library directors, who are to 
be named for the county at large by the com- 
missioners. These directors are to serve six 
years, two being appointed biennially, and 
are to have complete control of the county li- 

In addition there is to be appointed a free 
library commission of five members, to be 
named by the governor and to serve without 
pay. One thousand dollars is appropriated 
to pay incidentals, including pay for a sec- 

New Orleans, La. Howard L. The library 
prints from time to time in the local press 
short lists of books on special subjects, new 
accessions, etc., among the most recent being 
a careful and full list of the material con- 
tained in the library relating to Washington. 
This was classed under Washington as an 
author, Lives of Washington, Special periods 
of the life of Washington, Washington and 
others, Washington celebrations, Portraits, 
Washington papers, Mount Vernon, Mary 
Washington, Martha Washington. 

New York P. L. Sites for six of the Car- 
negie branch libraries have been selected, as 
follows: i, in East 79th street, between Sec- 
ond and Third avenues; 2, nos. 29, 31 and 33 
East Broadway, $102,000; 3, plot 45 feet 
frontage with 100 feet depth on the southerly 
side of 82d street, 100 feet east of West End 
avenue, $47,000; 4, on the southerly side of 
1 38th street, 175 feet east of Lincoln avenue, 
$20,000; 5, Tremont, near the Harlem Rail- 
road station and the borough building ; 6, nos. 
224, 226 and 228 East I25th street, to be ac- 
quired by condemnation proceedings at an es- 
timated cost of $17,000 or $18,000. 

The purchase of the first site has already 
been authorized by the Board of Estimate and 

Newark (N. 7.) F. P. L. The annual meet- 
ing of the trustees was held on Feb. 6. The 
report of Miss Beatrice Winser, acting libra- 
rian during the greater part of the past year, 
showed a circulation of 304,926. The esti- 
mate of expenses presented for the year 1902 
amounted to $48,121. Regarding this esti- 
mate the finance committee reported as fol- 

March, 1902] 



"This estimate provides only for the main- 
tenance of the library as it is now running. 
It allows a little for the natural and normal 
growth, which must come in any event, but 
nothing for that increase in popularity and 
usefulness which our new building makes it 
incumbent on us to use every effort to se- 
cure. In the schools, we have already come 
to a limit of use through the lack of appro- 
priate books. 5000 volumes added to the 
shelves of the children's room would find 
users almost at once, and would, through 
schoolhouse branches, carry the habit of using 
our library into hundreds of houses in every 
quarter of the city. 

"The employes of our manufacturing es- 
tablishments should have plainly presented to 
them the fact that this library is for them and 
that they will confer a favor on it, on its 
management and on their city, which built it, 
by coming often to it and using freely of its 
books. This can be done by notices in fac- 
tories, through the children in the schools and 
also, of course, through the daily press. 

"But to do this and like work calls for 
funds for 'publicity and promotion,' and es- 
pecially for technical books of every kind. 
These are expensive and soon out of date. 

"The delivery stations need more care and 
should be increased in number. More lists 
for the use of persons in remote parts of the 
city should be compiled and published. 

"A beginning should be made at once on 
a system of branch libraries. The branch is 
a much more effective method of extending 
the use of the library than a delivery station. 
It takes to the people, not only the single 
book, often not the one wanted, but a good 
collection to select from and a competent 
person to wait upon visitors. Branches could 
be established and maintained for a year for 
from $1500 to $4000 each, depending on their 
size, rent, cost of fittings, number of volumes 
and number of days per week on which they 
are open." 

The local Wednesday Club on Feb. 19 gave 
a dinner in honor of J. C. Dana, the recently 
appointed librarian. At its close Mr. Dana 
spoke of the needs of the library and its ad- 
vantages and suggested ideas for future ex- 
tension. He thought that the library should 
be open longer each day and should be open 
more on Sundays and holidays. "The assem- 
bly-room, which is not yet seated, should be 
more used for gatherings. The exhibition 
rooms should be employed for loan shows of 
pictures or collections which would illustrate 
the principal manufacturing interests of the 

"More citizens should be brought to under- 
stand the uses of the reference room. The 
collection of patents might be increased in 
usefulness by the addition of plans and speci- 
fications at a cost of about $1500. Photo- 
graphs of the great paintings might be pro- 
cured for the art room at a moderate cost. 
The reference room should be more widely 
advertised." More children's books were 

needed, and branches also were required. 
Regarding branches, Mr. Dana said : 

"Two kinds might be suggested. One is a 
new kind. I would hire a large store on the 
ground floor, near Market and Broad streets, 
but perhaps a block or two away so as to 
avoid the very high rents. Here I would have 
no novels, but a small collection of the best 
literature, belles lettres; a fine collection of 
technical books and dictionaries on technical 
subjects, maps to be hung upon the walls, 
the directories of cities, atlases and general 
dictionaries, all the trade journals and books 
and periodicals dealing with municipal im- 
provements. There would be a room in the 
rear in which smoking would be permitted. 
It should be understood that this was a work- 
ing library, a business institution. It would 
be an experiment, but I think it would be 
worth trying. 

"I would make the other branch of the more 
popular kind. It would be located in the 
southeastern section of the city, in a commo- 
dious building, say 30 by 150 feet, and this 
would be stocked with literary books, techni- 
cal books of the best kind and children's 

Niagara Falls (N. Y.) P. L. The sixth 
birthday of the library was observed by the 
annual "library day" on Feb. i. In the even- 
ing a public reception was held, which was 
attended by about 200 persons; there was 
music, and refreshments were served. The 
next birthday party will, it is hoped, be given 
in the new Carnegie building. 

Norwich (Vt.~) P. L. The handsome new 
library building was dedicated on Feb. 26, in 
the presence of a large audience. The build- 
ing was erected by public subscription, and is 
a one-story brick structure attractively and 
adequately fitted up. 

Northampton, Mass. Forbes L. (7th rpt. 
year ending Nov. 30, 1901.) Added 7647; 
total 84,543. The number of books purchased 
was 7249, at a cost of $12,890.50, or an aver- 
age of $1.78 per v. Issued, home use 88,134 
(fict. 47.3%; photographs 10.3%); lib. use 
7584. New registration 967; total registra- 
tion in force 5386. 

It is noted that the three public libraries 
of the city (City, Lilly, and Forbes) now 
contain a total of nearly 125,000 v., and have 
a total circulation of 153,038 v., with a fiction 
issue of 42 %. "The population being 18,643 
(by the census of 1900), the issue was 8.2 
per annum per inhabitant (home use 7.4)." 
Mr. Cutter states that the Forbes Library 
circulation appears to have reached its limit; 
"it is only 3^2 per cent, more than in 1900, 
and nearly two-thirds of this increase is due 
to the growing use of photoprints and pho- 
tographs." There are now seven branches in 

The Hampshire District Medical Associa- 
tion has been granted the use, for meetings, 
of the room containing medical books. In 



[March, 1902 

this connection reference is made to the de- 
sirability of the bill for cheap library postage, 
now pending in Congress. "This library is 
forming an excellent collection of the latest 
medical books, which are freely lent and 
would be much more useful if they could be 
freely ordered and sent by mail ; but medical 
books are heavy and postage and expressage 
are dear, and country doctors' receipts are 
not large. The passage of the bill would 
quadruple the usefulness of our medical li- 
brary and what we call our life-saving ser- 

The art department has grown to be un- 
usually large and comprehensive. The col- 
lection of photographs numbers 44,000. "That 
the opportunities for art study are more and 
more appreciated is shown by the growth of 
the art clubs which have become a permanent 
feature in the social life of the city." Mr. 
Cutter adds: "In the selection and showing 
of our photographs and photoprints we have 
followed no restrictive policy. We have not 
thought it necessary to exclude Murillo's and 
Raphael's Madonnas for fear of shocking 
Protestants and Hebrews, representations of 
heathen gods as offensive to Christians, war 
pictures as painful to the advocates of peace, 
drinking scenes as distasteful to teetotalers, 
or the modest nude for fear of Anthony Corn- 
stock. We have assumed and have found that 
our adult visitors are enlightened enough to 
enjoy the art of pictures whose subject they 
may not sympathize with ; and for the young 
it is not altogether the best preparation for 
life to close one's eyes or to have them ban- 
daged. So while excluding what everybody 
excludes we have put on our walls what every 
art gallery admits." 

Oberlin (0.) College L. (Rpt. year end- 
ing Aug. 31, 1901.) Added 4689 (gifts 3724) ; 
total 49,394. Total no. of readers Z3.&43; I3- 
164 v. were drawn for home use by 1023 per- 
sons. The notable increase in additions is 
mainly due to the accessioning of the collec- 
tion of Gen. Jacob D. Cox, which had been 
in possession of the library since his death, 
and the gift of 500 volumes from Mrs. Mary 
B. Ingham. General Cox's collection made a 
total of 2200 additions, rich in the literature of 
military science, the Civil War, the micro- 
scope and the diatomaceae. 

Mr. Root makes an urgent presentation of 
the need for more room and more books. It 
is thought that the annual book purchase 
fund should as soon as possible be raised to 
$5000. The overcrowding of the shelves made 
it necessary to store over 18.000 volumes of 
duplicates in a small room formerly used by 
the chemical laboratory. A rough shelf list 
was first prepared, so that the books can be 
found if desired. "The remainder of our du- 
plicates, together with our large collection of 
duplicate magazines and newspapers, are wait- 
ing until some other room can be provided. 
The shelf room in the third story of the li- 
brary building, made vacant by the removal 

of this large number of duplicates, was im- 
mediately assigned to a portion of the regular 
collection of the library, classes 500 to 799 
being transferred to that floor. In making 
this transfer the opportunity was seized to 
bring back into their regular order the large 
number of long sets which some six years 
ago were placed in the basement to give us 
more shelf room. This division of subjects, 
while unavoidable at the time, had proved in 
practice extremely unsatisfactory, and we 
were glad to take the opportunity to bring 
all the books of a class together once more." 
It is thought that this change, and the rear- 
rangement made possible by it, will provide 
for two years' growth. 

During the year two or three apprentice as- 
sistants were employed with satisfactory re- 
sults. The staff library club has been con- 
tinued, and has been very helpful "in stimu- 
lating all the staff to a higher ideal of library 
service and to that personal study of library 
problems, without which even the most ef- 
ficient is in danger of falling into ruts." 

Ohio, Library legislation for. The com- 
mittee on legislation of the Ohio State Li- 
brary Association, W. T. Porter, chairman, 
has drafted a bill providing for county libra- 
ries in Ohio. It provides that where there is 
already a public library at a county seat it 
may be made a county library by agreement 
between the library trustees and county com- 
missioners. Then stations may be established 
throughout the county and the county taxes 
help to support the system. Where there is 
no public library at a county seat the bill 
provides that the county commissioners may 
establish one. The plan is the same as is now 
in existence in Hamilton county. 

Plainfield (N. 7.) P. L. Arrangements 
have been made by the librarian by which 
each afternoon excepting Saturday is especial- 
ly devoted to giving information and refer- 
ence aid to readers. During the hours from 
2 to 5.30 p.m. the librarian remains in charge 
of the information desk, to give attention to 
all requests for assistance. So far as possi- 
ble users of the reference department are 
asked to make their inquiries during the hours 
mentioned. Persons who visit the library 
only in the evening may use the information 
desk by leaving a memorandum of the infor- 
mation desired, and any material available 
will be set aside for their use on the follow- 
ing evening. The reference work of the li- 
brary has recently received favorable notice 
in the local press. 

An interesting exhibit of books, pictures 
and designs relating to domestic architecture 
and house decorations and furnishings was 
held on Feb. 15 and 16. It included many 
valuable books from the Babcock Scientific 
Library, interesting pictures, and reproduc- 
tions of interiors, and several interested spe- 
cialists in different subjects architecture, 
woodcarying, etc. were in attendance to give 
information and explanation. 

March, 1902] 



Portland (Me.) P. L. (i3th rpt. nine 
months ending Dec. 31, 1901.) Added 1217; 
total 50,519. Issued, home use 658,412 (fict. 
59 %). Reading room attendance 23,416; ref- 
erence room attendance 13,519; Sunday at- 
tendance 2798. New registration 2784; active 
cardholders 6219. Receipts $11,847.29; ex- 
penses $9990.31. 

The young people's reading room had an 
attendance of 17,675. 

Reading (Pa.} P. L. (Rpt. 3d rpt, 
1901.) Added 2076; total 11,717; lost 18. 
Issued 79,718 (fict. 69,314). New registration 
1717; total cards issued 6902. 
An encouraging report, while "not marked 
by any such rush and enthusiasm as the open- 
ing and second year brought to us. The 
newness has passed away and the library has 
to a great extent settled down and become 
a factor of daily usefulness and interest." 
Shelving is inadequate, and more room is 
greatly needed. It is pointed out that the 
number of borrowers has increased 31 per 
cent, or nearly one-third over 1900, while the 
number of volumes has only increased 21 per 
cent., or about one-fifth, "which is out of all 
proportion to the ratio that should obtain." 

St. Joseph (Mo.) F. P. L. Removal to the 
handsome new building was begun on Feb. 20 
and completed by Feb. 24, the library being 
closed for the following week to permit in- 
ventory and other necessary work to be car- 
ried through. As an aid in the removal, the 
library board, at its previous meeting, au- 
thorized the librarian to issue double the 
usual number of books to readers, if desired. 
The books thus issued were made returnable 
two days after the opening in the new build- 

South Bend (Ind.) P. L. The library was 
founded in 1888, when it opened with about 
looo books in rented rooms. In 1895 an d '96 
a library building was erected at a cost, for 
building and lot, of $40,000. This building 
has a book capacity of 60,000 volumes, with 
lecture halls and society rooms. At present 
it houses the collections of the Northern In- 
diana Historical Society. In 1898 the libra- 
ry was classified according to the Dewey sys- 
tem and a card shelf-list was made, which has 
since answered the dual purpose of a shelf- 
list and a subject catalog. A dictionary cata- 
log was begun in February, 1902, and will be 
completed during the summer. The library 
now contains 10,041 volumes, has 3035 regis- 
tered borrowers, and during the year 1901 
circulated 37,998 volumes. Miss Evelyn C. 
Humphrey has been librarian since the open- 
ing of the library. 

Spokane (Wash.) City L. The librarian's 
report, as printed in the local press, gives 
the following facts : Total 7600. Issued. 62,- 
641 (fict. 45,449; juv. 9254); membership 
1560. The circulation shows an increase of 
89.3 % over the previous year, due mainly to 

abolition of the membership fee. "The de- 
mand for fiction remains about the same, 
while the demand for juvenile books steadily 
decreases, and for general works as steadily 
increases. The decreased demand for juven- 
ile works, we believe, is due in part to the 
unfortunate location of the library, and the 
fear many people entertain of contagious dis- 
eases owing to the proximity of the city 
health office." 

Syracuse (N. Y.) P. L. At a meeting of 
the trustees on Feb. 7 a resolution was passed 
increasing the salary of the librarian, E. W. 
Mundy, from $2000 to $3000 per year. 

Waterloo (la.) P. L. (Rpt. year end- 
ing Dec. 31, 1901.) Added 1482; total not 
given. Issued 43,682; lost 12. Receipts 
$1950.19; expenses $1942.97. 

Westborough (Mass.) P. L. Added 605; 
total 13,252. Issued 29,486; visits to reading 
room 8063. New registration 225 ; total reg- 
istration 3914. 

"Another year has passed and but little 
progress has been made toward the construc- 
tion of a library building." A site was pur- 
chased several years ago, and from bequests 
and other sources a building fund of nearly 
$10,000 has been raised. Plans and specifica- 
tions have also been drawn up independently 
by two architects, who offer, if accepted, to 
give them, together with their services, with- 
out charge to the town. Eight exhibitions 
were held during the year, through the facili- 
ties of the Library Art Club. 

Wilmington (Del.) Institute F. L. The 
library has extended a cordial invitation to 
all the residents of Newcastle county to avail 
themselves of its privileges. There are now 
694 non-resident borrowers, but this number 
would be largely increased if the possibility 
of non-resident use of the library were more 
largely known. The Rockford branch of the 
library has recently been developed in vari- 
ous ways, including the establishment of a 
children's department. The branch was orig- 
inally the Rockford Library, a proprietary 
institution, which was later transferred to the 
Institute Free Library and maintained as a 
branch. It is housed in a large room on the 
second floor of a business building. The 
original collection comprised about 2200 v., 
which has now grown to over 3000, including 
a small but good reference collection. Other 
books are sent on request from the main 

Windsor (Vt.) L. Assoc. (igth rpt., Jan., 
1902.) Added 346 (238 purchased) ; total 
8997. Issued, home use 10,778 (fict. 79%). 
New cards issued 91. "The use of books in 
the library rooms shows a tendency to in- 
crease, but is hindered and smothered by the 
continually increasing pressure of the wholly 
insufficient accommodations both for readers 
and librarians." A catalog of fiction and 
juvenile books in the library was published 



[March, 1902 

in March, and sold at half the cost of print- 
ing. But only 50 copies out of an edition of 
500 have been disposed of. The librarian, 
Mr. Goddard, says : "This is only another il- 
lustration of a well settled fact that for a 
library like ours printing catalogs is a gross 
waste of money. We are not likely to try the 
experiment soon again." 

During the year the library received a be- 
quest of $1900 from the late Hon. C. C. Bea- 
tnan. Maxwell Evarts, Mr. Beaman's suc- 
cessor on the library board, has announced 
that he will continue for the present, "in 
substantially the same form, Mr. Beaman's 
annual donation of books to the library on 
the selection of the resident clergymen." 
This donation, it is noted, has already added 
about 615 volumes to the library shelves, "of 
which about one-third represented the dis- 
tinctive denominational theology of the rev- 
erend gentlemen selecting and about one- 
fifth more were also theological books" 
not it would seem, the most satisfactory pro- 
portion in the case of a small town collection. 

Wisconsin State Hist. Soc., Madison. The 
proceedings of the annual meeting held Dec. 
12, 1901, are just issued in pamphlet form. 
The report of R. G. Thwaites on the work of 
the library was previously noted in these col- 
umns (L. jr., Jan., p. 44). The duplication 
of the official card catalog for public use is 
one of the most important tasks before the 
library staff and is receiving constant atten- 

"During the year there has been completed 
a card catalog of our large collection of gen- 
ealogy. Ours being one of the three or four 
most important collections of genealogical ma- 
terial in the United States, this department 
is largely resorted to by men and women 
from various portions of the west, either per- 
sonally or by letter. A special card catalog 
of this description is a valuable addition to 
our working machinery. We already pos- 
sess a similar catalog to our great newspaper 
collection, and one to the sources of informa- 
tion relative to the biographies of prominent 
men and women of Wisconsin. Others, de- 
voted to maps and manuscripts, and public 
documents, will be prepared in due course." 

Hamilton (Ont., Can.) P. L. R. T. Lance- 
field, for several years librarian of the Public 
Library, disappeared just prior to the annual 
meeting of the board on Feb. 7. when it was 
learned that his accounts revealed a shortage 
of about $4900 in the library funds. War- 
rants were later issued for his arrest on the 
charge of defalcation. The books were 
promptly turned over for examination by an 
expert accountant, who reported that the dis- 
crepancies in record began in July, 1900, and 
extended to the present time. It was evident 
that Mr. Lancefield had several times, in the 
absence of the chairman of the board, ob- 
tained duplicate checks for his own salary, 
and had made other salary overdrafts. From 

January, 1901, no entries were made in the 
books, the bank book and checks found being 
the only means of learning the state of af- 
fairs. The minute book, check book and or- 
der book had all been mutilated and the min- 
utes and stubs subtracted. "In the month 
of January. 1901, the larger part of the dis- 
crepancies begin, the practice apparently be- 
ing to obtain checks from different chairmen 
simultaneously, and for this purpose the 
change in the chairmanship, under the rules 
of the board, appears to have furnished the 
first opportunity." 

At a later meeting of the board, Mr. John 
Kenrick, a member of the board and a for- 
mer chairman, was appointed to act as libra- 
rian and secretary for the present year, with- 
out salary. Mr. Kenrick had offered his ser- 
vices in this way to aid in setting affairs 
straight again, and they were gladly ac- 

Mr. Lancefield was thoroughly trusted by 
his associates, and was a man of wide pop- 
ularity. It is now stated that he was an invet- 
erate gambler, and that the cause of his defal- 
cations was undoubtedly race-track and pool- 
room gambling. To his wife and family the 
news of his disappearance and the reason for 
it came as a distressing shock. Mrs. Lance- 
field at once offered to turn over her hus- 
band's life insurance, amounting to $15,000, 
to the library board, to make up the shortage ; 
the present value of the insurance is estimated 
at about $3000. 

Victoria, P. L. of Western Australia. 
year ending June 30, 1901.) Added 5212; 
total 43,940. Visitors to lib. 121,253, of whom 
5551 were women, "being the largest atten- 
dance during any one year since the opening 
of the library." The new library building, 
plans for which are now under way, is very 
greatly needed, as the present quarters are 
quite inadequate to the demands made upon 

Winnipeg, Manitoba, Can. The city coun- 
cil on Feb. 10 by a vote of six to five de- 
cided to accept without reservation the offer 
of Andrew Carnegie to give $75,000 to Winni- 
peg for a free public library building. 

Winnipeg, Manitoba, Can., Provincial L. 
(Rpt. year ending Dec. 31. 1901.) Added 
888; total 14,798. Receipts $4250; expenses 
$4365. The special feature of the report is its 
renewed emphasis upon the need of a new 

"A hope was expressed last year that the 
government would have acted upon the rec- 
ommendation of the library committee and 
the legislature upon the proposed new build- 
ing for the library and museum. The con- 
struction of such a building will take nearly 
two years, and just what is to be done in the 
interim, is a problem somewhat difficult of 
solution. The rooms at present occupied by 
the library are urgently required for other 
congested departments." 

March, 1902] 



Gifts anfc JSequests. 

Mattapoisett, Mass. On Feb. 3 at a special 
town meeting George H. Purrington, Jr., of 
Mattapoisett, offered to give $10,000 for the 
erection of a suitable library building. The 
offer was accepted, and a committee was ap- 
pointed to report upon location and cost of 
site. The site will be furnished by the town. 

Oconto, Wis. George Farnsworth, of Chi- 
cago, formerly of Oconto, has notified the 
common council of the latter city that he will 
present it with a $15,000 building for a public 

Pine Hill, N. Y. Henry Morton, president 
of Stevens Institute, has decided to erect a 
library building at Pine Hill, as a memorial 
to his wife, who died there last summer. A 
small public library, containing about 1000 
v., has been maintained in the village for 
several years, largely through Dr. Morton's 

Carnegie library gifts. 

Amsterdam, N. Y. Feb. 9. $25,000. 

Bessemer, Pa. Feb. 20. $30,000. 

Chippewa Falls, Wis. Feb. 17 $20,000. 

Dillon, Mont. Jan. 26. $7500. 

Fond du Lac, Wis. Feb. 8. $30,000. Ac- 

Grand Island, Neb. Feb. 7. $20,000. 
Kokomo, Ind. Feb. 28. $25,000. Accepted. 
Mitchell, S. D. Jan. 28. $10,000. Accepted 
Feb. 10. 

Peterboro (N. H.) Town L. Feb. 19. 

Pomona, Col. Feb. 17. $15,000. 

Port Huron, Mich. Feb. 6. $40,000. Ac- 
cepted Feb. 10. 

Pueblo, Colo. Feb. 14. $60,000. Accepted. 

Salina, Kan. Feb. 25. $15,000. 

Santa Ana, Tex. Feb. 3. $15,000. 

Smith's Falls, Can. Jan. 31. $10,000. 

Sparta, Wis. Feb. 12. $10,000. 

Watervliet, N. Y. Feb. 10. $20,000. 

Wilmington, O. Feb. 7. $10,000. 

IVinneld, Can. Feb. 18. $15,000. 


EDWARDS, Miss Ella May, of the New York 
State Library School, 1894-95, formerly libra- 
rian of the Buffalo Historical Society, is now 
engaged in cataloging the Public Library of 
South Bend, Ind. 

GARDNER, Miss Mary C, was on Feb. i 
elected librarian of the Helena (Mont.) Pub- 
lic Library, succeeding Frank C. Patten. Since 
Mr. Patten's resignation two years since Miss 
Gardner has served as acting librarian. She 
has been a member of the library staff for a 
number of years. 

HENRY, W. E., librarian of the Indiana 
State Library, is about to publish in book 
form a compilation "Political platforms of 
the two dominant parties of Indiana, 1850- 
1900." The edition is to be small and pri- 
vately printed. 

JONGHAUS, Werner, librarian in charge of 
the 23d street department of the Y. M. C. A. 
Library of New York, died suddenly of pneu- 
monia at his home in New York, on Feb. 20, 
1902. Mr. Jonghaus was born in Germany in 
1846, and since 1881 has been connected with 
the library of the New York Young Men's 
Christian Association. After the death of 
Mr. Poole, Mr. Jonghaus was acting libra- 
rian for some three years, and after the re- 
moval of the main library to its new quarters 
up town he remained as librarian in charge 
of the 23d street department. 

PERRY, Miss Lucy Ware, Pratt Institute Li- 
brary School, classes 1899, 1900, has been ap- 
pointed librarian of the Brooks Memorial 
Library, Brattleboro, Vt. 

POPE, Seth E., of the New York State Li- 
brary School, 1900-1901, has been appointed 
reference assistant in the Watkinson Library, 
Hartford, Ct. 

POOLE, Franklin O., assistant librarian of 
the Boston Athenaeum, has been appointed as- 
sistant librarian of the Association of the Bar, 
of New York City. Mr. Poole has been con- 
nected with the Boston Athenaeum since his 
graduation from Harvard, class of '95. 

TYACKE, Miss Margaret, a graduate of the 
Boston University, who served an apprentice- 
ship at the Public Library of Medford, 'Mass., 
has been elected librarian of the Walpole 
(Mass.) Public Library. For eight months 
of last year she was classifier and cataloger 
at the new Carnegie Library, at Fort Worth, 
Texas, and assisted at the opening of that 

WELLMAN, Hiller Crowell, librarian of the 
Brookline (Mass.) Public Library, has been 
appointed librarian of the Springfield (Mass.) 
City Library, succeeding J. C. Dana. Mr. 
Wellman has been actively engaged in li- 
brary work since his graduation from Har- 
vard in the class of '94, and succeeded Charles 
Knowles Bolton as librarian of the Brook- 
line library in April, 1898. He was assistant 
in the Boston Athenaeum after leaving Har- 
vard, and in January, 1897, was appointed to 
the then newly-created post of superintendent 
of branches of the Boston Public Library, 
which he gave up a year later to go to Brook- 
line. His work in that field was most suc- 
cessful, and he has also effectively developed 
the Brookline Public Library, especially in 
the direction of school reference work. Mr. 
Wellman is a member of the American Li- 
brary Association, and is now president of 
the Massachusetts Library Club, of which he 
was secretary from 1897 to 1899. 

1 62 


[March, 1902 

Cataloging anD Classification. 

BIRMINGHAM (Eng.) F. Ls., Reference De- 
partment. An index to the Shakespeare 
Memorial Library. Second part: English 
Shakespeariana. Birmingham, 1901. p. 53- 
165. sq. O. 

Like its predecessor, this is an interesting 
and well-made index, remarkable in its ex- 
position of the extent and variety of Shake- 
speare literature. Contents and analytical 
work is especially good. 

The BOSTON P. L. Bulletin for February 
prints some interesting historical manuscripts, 
taken from its collection. Especially curious 
is the letter of William Little to Samuel Til- 
ley of Sept. 29, 1901, regarding the case of 
an Indian "redeemed out of Goal" by pay- 
ment of a sum which he was to serve out ; and 
several declarations regarding the counter- 
feiting of paper money, by which it appears 
that the plates from which the counterfeits 
were struck were made "at Rhoad Island by 
the Ingraver who made the Government 
Plates, and therefore they were very good and 

The CINCINNATI (O,) P. L. issues two 
special classed reading lists in leaflet form, 
one on "History of architecture," by Mirzah 
G. Blair, the other on "History of literature," 
covering ancient literature, Chaldaean and 
Egyptian, by Stella Virginia Seybold. 

The KANSAS CITY (Mo.) P. L. Quarterly 
for January is mainly devoted to an author 
and title list of the Sociology division of the 
library, covering 32 pages. In a prefatory 
note we are informed that ''Sociology is a 
Mephistophelian fish, whose tentacles embrace 
the whole system of abstract science" 
rather a cryptic utterance, which is followed 
by an outline of the various "tentacles." The 
list is a closely-printed, short-title record, in- 
verted titles being depended upon to give par- 
tial subject references. The workmanship is 

The NEW YORK P. L. Bulletin for Feb- 
ruary is mainly devoted to the record of 
Brooklyn civic and institutional documents. 
It prints seven checklists, recording publica- 
tions relating to Brooklyn finance and com- 
merce, churches, libraries, schools, clubs, 
charities, missions, etc., and hospitals. 

alogue of the books and tracts on pure 
mathematics in the Central Library, 1901. 
4, vi-f 50 p. 

The catalog of a rich collection. About 
1800 titles are listed, and in many cases the 
library has several copies of a book. There 
are no less than nine editions of Euclid 
printed before 1600, among them being the 
first Latin edition of 1482, the first Greek 
text of 1533, and the first English translation 

of 1570. The Newcastle collection is probably 
larger than that of any American public li- 
brary except Boston, where the Bowditch 
collection had exceptional advantages from 
gift and bequest. 

The catalog is alphabetical by authors. Ref- 
erence and loan books are listed separately. 
Anonymous works have alphabets of their 
own, and there is a list of addenda, so that 
there are five alphabets in the book. The 
alphabeting differs from Cutter; L'Huile and 
La Grange come before Lachlan, Lagrange. 
The preface does not say why an author list 
was chosen. A closely classified arrangement 
with an author index is what one would ex- 
pect, but this catalog does not even contain a 
subject index. The author arrangement is 
the more unexpected because Newcastle is 
one of the few English libraries that seemed 
to realize the importance of classification. 

The SALEM (Mass.) P. L. Bulletin for Feb- 
ruary devotes its special reading list to "Dec- 
oration and ornament." 

The SPRINGFIELD (Mass.) CITY L. has is- 
sued a set of "40 lists of interesting books," 
each list containing from 20 to 30 titles. The 
selection shows good taste and wide scope, 
and the lists are so printed that they may be 
used as call slips by checking the books de- 
sired. Among the subjects covered are Sto- 
ries of travel in Africa, for boys ; American 
colonial stories ; Books everybody reads in 
youth ; Cheering-up stories ; Chemistry, en- 
gineering, building, etc. : books on cookery 
and household science; Electricity, telephone, 
telegraph, etc. ; stories of French history ; 
French novels ; German novels ; Pillow- 
smoothing books; Spanish and Italian novels; 
Thrillers, novels of surprising adventures. 

alogue of the periodicals and other serial 
publications (exclusive of U. S. govern- 
ment publications) in the library; prep, un- 
der direction of Josephine A. Clark, libra- 
rian. Washington, Gov. Print. Office, 1901. 
362 p. O. 
A careful and well-printed list, giving data 

as to dates, place of publication, size, etc. 

There are frequent annotations. 


The following are supplied by Catalogue Division, 
Library of Congress: 

Adams, Myra Winchester (Polly, and other 
poems) ; 

Bailey, Middlesex Alfred (Primary and in- 
termediate arithmetic) ; 

Baily, Rebecca Chalkley (Mabel Thornley) ; 

Bowen, Littleton Purnell .(A daughter of the 
covenant) ; 

Boyden, Henry Paine (The beginnings of the 
Cincinnati Southern Railway) ; 

Browne, Robert Henry (Abraham Lincoln 
and the men of his time) ; 

March, 1902] 



Caffin, Charles Henry (Photography as a fine 

art) ; 
Coddington, Frederick Miron (As they did 

it; or, the first church of Warden) ; 
Cunningham, Francis Aloysius (The awak- 

ening) ; 

Farquharson, Agnes Crum (St. Nazarius) ; 
Fradenburgh, Oliver Perry (Twenty-five 

stepping stones toward Christ's kingdom) ; 
Garrison, Carl Louise (Manual and dia- 

grams to accompany Metcalf's grammars) ; 
Gary, Frank Ephraim Herbert (Ober-Am- 

mergau and the passion play) ; 
Hoyt, Louis Gilman (The practice in pro- 

ceedings in the probate courts of New 

Hampshire) ; 
Jennings, John Ellis (A manual of ophthal- 

moscopy) ; 
Kingsley, Homer Hitchcock (The new era 

word book) ; 
Kirby, Ellwood Robert (Manual of surgery). 

The Bibliographer, published by Dodd, 
Mead & Co., makes its first appearance with 
the number for January. As the subtitle sets 
forth, it is "a journal of bibliography and 
rare book news," edited by Paul Leicester 
Ford. It will appear monthly, nine months 
of the year, the issues for July, August and 
September being omitted. The first number 
opens with a paper on "The Kelmscott style," 
by T. L. De Vinne, and includes reviews of 
"The first American edition of Wither's 
poems and Bacon's essays," by Wilberforce 
Eames, and "Donkin's military collections," 
by P. L. Ford. There are also bibliographical, 
antiquarian and book club notes by V. H. 
Paltsits, L. S. Livingstone and others, and 
the first instalment of a facsimile reproduc- 
tion of Hariot's "Briefe and true report" of 
Virginia. The magazine is handsomely 
printed, and contains numerous facsimiles ; 
it includes, in appendix, lists of rare books 
for sale by Dodd, Mead & Co. 

CERAMICS. Huddilston, J. H. Lessons from 
Greek pottery; to which is added a bib- 
liography of Greek ceramics. New York, 
Macmillan, 1902. 8, net, $1.25. 
The bibliography is classed and annotated, 

those books and articles which the compiler 

has found most helpful being indicated by an 


CHILD STUDY. Wilson, Louis N. Bibliogra- 
phy of child study for the year 1900. (/n 
Pedagogical Seminary, Dec., 1901, 8:515- 
An annotated bibliography followed by a 

subject index. 331 titles are included. 

CHINA. Leavenworth, Charles S. The Ar- 
row war with China. London, Sampson 

Low, Marston & Co., Ltd., 1901. 14-1-232 p. 

A classified bibliography of 7 pages is 

GREEK LITERATURE. Capps, Edward. From 
Homer to Theocritus : a manual of Greek 
literature. New York, Charles Scribner's 
Sons, 1901. 9+476 p. 12, net, $1.50. 
There is an 8-page classified and annotated 

bibliography of some importance. 

GRAPHIE Bulletin, fasc. 1-3, 1901, recently is- 
sued, is mainly devoted to a "Bibliographia 
bibliographica : repertoire annuel des tra- 
yaux de bibliographic" for 1899. The record 
includes 504 entries. They are given in a 
classed (D. C.) order, with full entries 
printed in catalog card form, each entry be- 
ing numbered continuously, this record being 
supplemented by a cumulative author index to 
the records of both 1898 and 1899, with refer- 
ence to D. C. number and entry number. 

Conwell, of the Elston Press, New Rochelle, 
N. Y., has issued a limited reprint of William 
Morris' essay on "The art and craft of print- 
ing," containing the short description of the 
Kelmscott Press by S. C. Cockerell, and the 
annotated list of Kelmscott publications. The 
original is now so rare that the publication of 
this reprint is distinctly welcome. 

son. A list of masques, pageants, etc., sup- 
plementary to a "List of English plays." 
London, printed for the Bibliographical So- 
ciety . . . February 1902 for 1901. 12+ 
36+132 p. sq. O. pap. 

Besides an essay in which Mr. Gregg has 
sought to supply an introduction to the study 
of dramatic bibliography, historical and tech- 
nical, with appendices dealing with the an- 
tiquities of the subject, this volume, which 
supplements the "List of English plays" pub- 
lished by the Bibliographical Society in 1900, 
includes a list of masques, pageants, enter- 
tainments, shows, and all such nondescript 
pieces as can make any pretence to dramatic 
form. The two volumes together supply a 
survey of the whole of the English dramatic 
literature previous to the civil war, which 
has survived in prints of the i6th and I7th 

MISSIONS. Beach, H. P. Missionary litera- 
ture of the nineteenth century : character 
and uses of recent books on foreign mis- 
sions. (In Missionary Review of the 
World, Feb. 1902, 25 181-90.) 
Mr. Beach is the educational secretary of 
the Student Volunteer movement. He says 
he knows intimately 2000 missionary books 
and has a slight knowledge of an additional 



[March, 1902 

3000. The article closes with a selected clas- 
sified list of 200 missionary works, the author 
indicating those that are of reference value, 
those of especial interest to children, to 
women, etc. 

Frederick. Redemptioners and indentured 
servants in the colony and commonwealth 
of Pennsylvania. New Haven, Ct, The 
Tuttle, Morehouse & Taylor Co., [1901.] 
128 p. 8, $1.50. 
Contains a 6-page bibliography. 

PSYCHOLOGY. Calkins, Mary Whiton. An in- 
troduction to psychology. New York, Mac- 
millan Co., 1901. 15+509 p. 12, net, $2. 
The 12-page classified bibliography is con- 
fined almost entirely to works published or 
republished since 1890. 

REGENERATION (in biology.) Morgan, Thom- 
as Hunt. Regeneration. (Columbia Uni- 
versity biological series.) New York, Mac- 
millan Co., 1901. 12+316 p. 8, net, $3. 
Contains a bibliography, pages 293-310. 

STEEL WORKS. Brearley, Harry. A bibliogra- 
phy of steel works analysis. Part 9: Cop- 
per. (In Chemical News, Feb. 14, 21, 1902, 
85:77-79, 87-89.) 

UTLEY, George B. Rare books of the Dio- 
cesan library. I. : Bibles. (In Maryland 
Churchman, Feb., 1902, 16:175-176.) 
This is the first of a series of articles by 
the librarian of the Maryland Diocesan Li- 
brary (often known as the Whittingham Me- 
morial Library) on the rare books in his col- 
lection: Among the Bibles described in this 
article are the Latin Vulgate, St. Jerome's 
translation, printed at Nuremberg in 1478, 
and the Bible printed by R. Aitken in Phila- 
delphia in 1781. An imperfect copy of the 
latter was sold to the Library of Congress in 
1891 for $650. 

min B. The printing of the Westminster 
confession. II : In the United States. (In 
Presbyterian and Reformed Review, Jan., 
1902, 13:60-120.) 

The first part of this bibliography, noted 
in the November number of L. j., was pub- 
lished in the October. 1901, number of the 
Review. It was limited to the editions of 
the confession printed in Britain. The same 
extended scholarly notes characterize this 
part. There are 88 editions noticed. Mr. 
Warfield thinks this list of American editions 
contains almost a complete set of the editions 
issued by the Presbyterian church in the 
United States of America, but only about half 
of the issues of the other churches. 

ENGINEERING INDEX, vol. 3, 1896-1900; ed. by 

Henry Harrison Sufler and J. H. Cuntz. 

New York, Engineering Magazine, 1901. 

16+1030 p. 8. 

This volume contains nearly 40,000 entries, 
taken from about 200 sources. Volume 2 
contained about 6000 entries, taken from 62 
sources. As in the preceding volumes the in- 
dex gives a short and concise, but adequate 
description of the article indexed. 

Co. announce that they are considering the 
publication of a comprehensive "Index to reci- 
tations, readings, and dialogues," to be pub- 
lished in one volume, at a price of from $3 to 
$4. It is intended to include probably 15,000 
pieces, to be found in some 200 of the best 
collections, giving the references in an index 
to titles, an index to authors, and an index 
to first lines, and to adapt the work especially 
to library use. Its publication will depend 
upon the demand existing for such a work, 
and to determine this the publishers have 
sent out advance order blanks, requesting 
subscriptions. The need of such an index has 
been recently referred to by correspondents 
of the LIBRARY JOURNAL, and if carefully and 
compactly executed it should be of constant 
service in library and school work. 

OGRAPHIE has issued a general cumulative in- 
dex to its bulletin, vols. i. (1895-96) -4 (1899). 
In addition to the' seven-page nonpareil index, 
there is a cumulative decimal index arranged 
by D. C. numbers, and an author list of con- 
tributed articles printed in catalog form and 
intended to be cut out and pasted on cards. 

Hnonpms an& pseufcoiwns. 

The following are supplied by Catalogue Division, 
Library of Congress. 

"Ariel," pseud, of Thomas Henry Kane. 
("Planetary influences and human affairs.") 

Clinton, Major, pseud, of Frank Clinton 
Culley. ("Barbara.") 

Drum, Blossom, pseud, of Blossom Drum 
Oliphant. ("A dog-day journal.") 

Ivry, pseud, for Fritz v. Briesen, tr. of 
Jones Barton Stay's "The mind telegraph." 

Lake, Frederick, is the author of "Roulette 
at Monte Carlo." 

L., B. H., see Lippincott, Bertha Horst- 
mann. "Chevrons : a story of West Point." 

Sharp. B. A., pseud, for Platon Gregorie- 
witch Brounoff. ("Stolen correspondence 
from the 'Dead letter office between musical 
celebrities.' ") 

W. H. G., see Wood, Miss H. G. "Living 
by the day; selections from the writings of 
Minot J. Savage, D.D., by H. G. W." 

Hough, P. M., pseud. ("Dutch life in town 
and country.") 

March, 1902] 






[March, 1902 



HAVING successfully conducted an extensive Library Depart- 
ment for the past several years, handling with complete 
satisfaction the entire library business of some of the largest libraries 
of the country, we call to your attention the elaborate facilities at our 
disposal ; not only as to the prompt and complete despatch of all such 
business, but the great saving to the library in the matter of receiving 
exceptional discount. A request for estimate on any miscellaneous 
list of publications will receive the same painstaking care and minute 
attention that an order involving thousands of dollars would receive. 
Books published abroad are secured within a very short time after 
order is placed our own branch houses in London, Paris, Berlin, as 
well as two Canadian houses, enable us to accomplish this. 

We solicit correspondence, and extend a most cordial invitation 
to all interested in the Free Public, School, Circulating, or Private 
Libraries to visit our mammoth establishment, where the thousand 
upon thousands of miscellaneous volumes are at your full access. 

Yours very respectfully, 


March, 1902] THE LIBRARY JOURNAL. 167 



American Library and. Literary Agents 5 


THIS Agency was established In 1864 for supplying American Public Libraries, Institution*, 
and Book Collectors, with English and Continental Books, Manuscripts, Drawings, Philo- 
sophical Apparatus, etc., at the lowest London prices. 

Special attention is paid to the selection and purchase of rare old books and manuscripts. 
Auction sales are carefully watched and good knowledge kept of the stocks of the old Book- 
sellers of Europe. 

Lists of Desiderata have the best attention and Librarians are respectfully requested to test 
the value of the Agency by sending trial orders on by submitting lists for Estimates for goods to 
be delivered, either free in London or New York, as desired. 

Auction Catalogues when printed in advance and Catalogues issued by Publishers and 
Second-hand Booksellers are mailed to Customers when desired. 

Large shipments are sent by cheapest and quickest route, or as ordered. Small shipments 
are made weekly through our New York Agency, at a minimum of expense and trouble to 
purchasers, or single books are sent by mail on receipt of order. 

Special attention is given to Bindings in all styles. 

Periodicals are supplied either direct by mail from London or by mail from New York 
Agency at lowest rates for prompt and efficient service. Send for Lists. 

Payments may be made either direct to London or in U. S. Currency through our New York 

Just Ready. 1OO Copies Printed for Subscribers Only. 


Facsimile of the Unpublished British Headquarters Coloured 
Manuscript Map of New York and Environs 


Reproduced from the Original Drawing in the War Office, London. 
24 sheets. Scale, 6J inches to a mile. 10 feet by 4 feet 

The successive British Commanders-in-Chief in America, Generals Sir William Howe, Sir Henry Clinton, and Sir 
Guy Carleton, during their respective occupations of New York and Environs in the Revolution, caused this manu- 
script plan from time to time to be kept up. 

The plan extends from below Guanas Bay to the Heights of Spikendevil, a distance of about eighteen or nineteen 
miles. It shows the Fortifications, Defences, Topography, Streets, Roads, etc., of the whole of the Island of New 
York with the Harbor. Islands. Water Ways, and River Frontages on the Hudson and East Rivers, the Military Works 
on Long Island including Brooklyn, the Works in Paulus Hook and parts of the Jersey Shore. It has a copious Table 
of References to various works (British and American), some of them with notes as to the time of their construction 
or destruction. 

The Original Drawing, ten feet by four feet, is on a scale of about six and a half inches to a mile. It is hand- 
somely reproduced for subscribers only ; in careful facsimile on 34 sheets which can be joined up and mounted like the 
original as a Wall Map or mounted on linen if desired. It will be issued either mounted on linen to fold in book form 
with leather (slip) case, 13 x 10 inches, or the 24 sheets (22 x 15 inches each), will be supplied in a portfolio. 

No more than too copies have been printed and the engravings were erased as each sheet was printed off. 

A few extra copies of sheet 8 have been printed so that it can be sent as a specimen on application from intending 

Prices to Subscribers 

Mounted on linen to fold in book form with leather (slip) case. . . $30 net. 
Unmounted, on 4 sheets in portfolio. $25 net. 

The above prices include delivery to any Public Library or Institute in the United States or Canada, but private 
subscribers must also pay the duty. 

B. F. STEVENS & BROWN, 4 Trafalgar Square, Charing Cross, London, W. C 

New York Agency, 4S William Street. 

168 THE LIBRARY JOURNAL. [March, 1902 


Library Department. 

We submit for the consideration of Librarians the following list of books 
consisting of Standard Works, History, Biography, etc., and respectfully 
solicit a careful examination of prices quoted. 

MARK TWAIN'S WORKS. 22 vols. Underwood Edition. $66.00, - - net, $37-5<> 

45 vols. Buckram, $180.00, - net, 75OO 

CENTURY DICTIONARY. 10 vol. Half morocco, net, 50.00 

STANDARD ATLAS OF THE WORLD. Latest Edition. $20.00, - - net, 6.50 

STORY OF NATIONS SERIES. 500 vols.. assorted. Per vol., $1.50, - net, 75 

ELLIS' HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES. 6 vols. Half morocco, $36.00, net, 10.00 

LODGE'S WAR WITH SPAIN. $2.50, net, 1.35 

BIOGRAPHY OF BLAINE. $2.75, net, 75 

LIFE OF SIR ARTHUR SULLIVAN. $3.50, net, 1.50 

MAHAN'S LIFE OF NELSON. $3.00, net, 1.25 



i William St. and 67 Stone St., New York City. 

| Strong Features 


1. OUR EXPERIENCE, extending over many years and fitting 

us to supply ready information with regard to Authors, Pub- 
lishers, Titles, Editions, and Bindings. 

2. THE STOCK to which we have access, comprising more of the 

standard and worthy publications of English and American 
houses than can be found elsewhere in the United States. 

3. OUR SPECIALTY of finding and importing RARE BOOKS 

duty free for Libraries. 

4. PROMPTNESS in filling orders, and Satisfactory Prices. 


A. C. HcCLURQ & CO., : : Chicago 

March, 1902] THE LIBRARY JOURNAL. 169 

I Permit Me 

to introduce an WJ" 

jr^r niggms 
Eternal Ink 

at your service. I write true black, stay black forever, and 
am proof to age, air, sunshine, chemicals, and fire. I am the 
< ; only lineal descendant of the everlasting writing ink of the 
Ancients, and am worthy of my ancestry. 

Ask your Dealer for me, or send loc. for prepaid sample by mail to 

CHAS. M. HIQQINS & CO., Mfrs., 

' Y " New York, Chicago, London. 

G. P. Putnam's Sons, 


NEW YORK n P,|t nam ! Q Oft.,* CONDON 

27 and 29 West 23d St. Ill Fl I lid I U UUIIOl 24 Bedford St., Strand. 

MESSRS. PUTNAM have peculiar facilities for handling all library business in- 
telligently and to the best advantage of their customers. 
Their Branch House in London (through which they receive English orders for 
American books) enables them to supply, promptly, English books, without the com- 
mission usually paid by American dealers. 

Their extensive miscellaneous and retail business makes it practicable to buy all 
books at the lowest prices, to carry a large stock of standard books in every depart- 
ment of literature, and to keep in touch with the current publications of the day. 
Their business experience covers more than half a century. 



Paternoster House, Charing Cross Road, London, Hug;., 

Having extensive experience in supplying PUBLIC LIBRARIES, MUSEUMS, GOVERNMENT 
INSTITUTIONS, etc., at Home and Abroad, with Miscellaneous Requisites, Books (New and 
Second-hand), or Periodicals in all Languages, offer their Services to LIBRARIANS, SECRE- 
TARIES, AND OTHERS. Careful attention given to every detail. Exceptional Facilities for 
obtaining Foreign and Scarce Books. BINDING OF EVERY DESCRIPTION UNDERTAKEN. Periodical* 
and Newspapers Promptly Supplied as issued. Books Shipped to all parts of the World at Lowest 




[March, 1902 


Make a business of fitting Library and all other 
kinds of shelving with Easy Rolling Ladders. 
This cut shows one of 10 or more styles they 



65 Randolph St., ... CHICAGO 



including in one alphabet the short title lists of the books of 1900 and 1901, giving the informa- 
tion by author, title, subject and series. This work is a successor to the "Annual American 
Catalogue," and the cumulation here begun is to continue annually until a five-yearly volume of 
" The American Catalogue " in this new shape is reached. 


f ordered and paid for in advance. 

Orders should be addressed at an early date to 

298 BROADWAY (P. O. Box 943) 



I will undertake 

to supply any 
magazine or review published, at a price 
per copy depending upon its market value, 
or the cost of finding same, if not on hand. 
I have considerably over 500,000 magazinei 
in stock, and the assortment is as varied 
a^ the production of the periodical press for 
the last one hundred years. A Busineat- 
like query with list of wants will be met by 
a prompt and business-like reply. . . . 

AC PI ARV "FulUnt.,N.Y. City. 
. J. LLAJtllV, (Opposite St. Paul's.) 



Largest Stock in Existence. 


P Street. Wuhlnfton, D. C 

Books of A II Publithert on 


We have the largest miscellaneous stock in the country 
of American and English Books on these subjects. 
Trade and Library Orders Solicited. 


1012 Walnut St., Philadelphia. 


Th Library of Congress, Washington, D. C. 

Routh, Edward John, Analytical Statics. N. Y., 1001. 
Ibsen, Henrik, Prose Dramas, ed. by W. Archer. 

N. Y., 1899. 
Stredder, E., Lost in the Wilds of Canada. N. Y., 


Charles Seribnar'* Sons, 153 5th Ave., N. Y. 
Hall's British Ballads, any ed. 
Gray, John, Lectures on Human Happiness. London, 

1825, reprinted in Phila. between 1825 and 1831. 
Allen, James Lane, John Gray. Lippmcott. 
Livingston, Edward, Criminal Jurisprudence. Pub. 

by the National Prison Association in 1873. 

H. Welter, 4 Rue Beraard-Palissy, Paris. 

Cogolludo, Historia de Yucatan. Campeche, 1842. 
Library Journal, 1897 to 1901, and at any time a 

full set of the above. 
Journal Franklin Institute, ist ser. and 30 last years. 


A LIBRARIAN of experience desires position as li- 
** brarian of library of from ten to twenty thousand 
vols. or work in reference or cataloging dept. in large 
library. Prefer Decimal classification. Best refer- 
ences. Address K., care of LIBRARY JOURNAL. 

A YOUNG LADY with degree of A.B., and a stu- 
** dent of two years in the Albany Library School, 
with seven years' subsequent experience, would like 
a position. Letters and references. Address D., 


SALE. Books bought before the \vr, 
and them. Librariani, Readers, ATTENTION! 
Write for particulars and list to FRANK BRUEN 
Bristol, Conn, 

March, 1902] THE LIBRARY JOURNAL. ! 7 I 


153-157 Fifth Avenue, New York 

Librarians and others will do well to communicate with us before placing their 

The latest publications of all the leading American and English publisher* are 
kept in stock, thereby enabling us to fill orders with utmost despatch. 

Special attention is asked to our facilities for importing books free of duty, 

Correspondence solicited. Send for catalogues and specimen copy of THE 
BOOK BUYER, a monthly magazine devoted to books, authors, and literary affairs. 


Booksellers, Bookbinders, and Publishers, and General Agents in 
Europe for Private Bookbuyers and Public Institutions in America. 

WflTH exceptionally long experience in Library Agency, they can promise the best care, dili- 
gence, and discretion in everything relating to it, and in small matters as well as great. 
Established 1816. 

A Mtnthly Catalogue of Second-Hand Book; ("Sothtran's Price-Current of Literature ") post free. 

14O Strand, W. C., and 37 Piccadilly, W. : Londoi 

AMrt: BOOKSfKN, J.ONDOX. Cadet: UlflCODB mnd A 9 O. 



We have sold books to librarians for fifty years. 

We have the largest stock in the largest book market of the country. 

We fill orders promptly, completely, and intelligently. 

We have classified our stock of books and knowledge, FOR YOUR 


(1) A Standard Library Catalogue of 2500 Books a model library. 

(2) Semi-Annual Clearance Catalogues of Book Bargains. 
We Make a Specialty of Pricing Lists. 

33-37 Cast 17th Street, Union Square, North, New York 



Library Bookbinders, 

7 EAST 16th STREET, 

(Telephone Connection) 
Nar Fifth Avenue, NEW YORK. 

Wt make a specialty of the correct arranging and lettering of works in 
foreign languages. 



[March, 1902 



^ JX. 17 Tf and w * th some emphasis because true, 
^^ that THE RAPID GUIDE is the best 

and most economical Library Guide in the world. It is sub- 
stantially made of pressed cardboard with metal projection in 
which a removable label is used. It thus provides for the 
exchange of one heading or title for another. THE RAPID 
GUIDE is practically indestructible, although very light in 
weight. There is no pasting, no breaking down, no wearing 
out, no rough edges. It is compact, economical, and was designed 
for the special requirements of the Library. It so far excels 
other known guides as to leave no room for comparison. 

We shall gladly forward a sample of THE RAPID GUIDE 
to any Librarian making the request. 

Also Manufacturers 
Complete Filing Systems. 
[Cabinets. Carets. Etc. 

Clarke & Backer, 


280 Broadway, New York. 


Library Journ 



Economy an& 

VOL. 27. No. 4. 


APRIL, 1902. 




The Selection of Books for School Use. 

Use of Books by Teachers. 

The Net Price Question. 

Effect of Increased Cost upon Library Pur- 

The Brooklyn Library Consolidation. 


The Net Price Question: Statement of A. 
L. A. Committee. 


Carroll Moore 181 


ROOMS. Elisabeth Porter Clarke. . . . 189 

BRARY. Mary E. Root and Adelaide B. 
Maltby 191 



CHILDREN'S READING AT HOME. diaries Welch. 196 

WORK. W. R. Harper j.97 





W. Eliot ^ 200 


P. Kimball 200 





P. B. Wright 205 


PAIGN 207 


Conference Announcements. 
A. L. A. Publishing Board. 


Connecticut. ^- r . 

Vermont. ^^^"' 

STATE LIBRARY ASSOCIATION!/ - , u \j i .* .^t a*o 

District of Columbi^ y> 

Keystone State. f7 / 


Buffalo. \ 

Long Island. * 

New York. 
University of Illinois. 


Cockerell. Bookbinding and the Care of 






A-PR-23 1902 

CLASSES. . . 212 

1 S ' r v f " * 

' i ? t ' - 






Price to Europe, er other countries in the Union, aor. f>er annum ; singlt numbers, at. 

Entered at the Post-Office at New York, N. Y., as second-class matter. 

174 THE LIBRARY JOURNAL. [April, 1901 


London Agency tor American Libraries 


Special Notice to Librarians. 

Hessrs. E. Q. ALLEN & MURRAY desire to lay before you the 
advantages of this Agency for obtaining English and Foreign Books, 
Vlagazines, Periodicals, etc., and for General Library Work in Great 

Early Issues of Catalogues of Second-hand Books from all the Stock- 
keeping Booksellers in the Kingdom. 

Catalogues of Publishers, New Books, Government Publications, Blue 
Books, Patents, Ordnance Maps, etc. 

Advance Auction Catalogues promptly mailed thus providing early 
opportunities for securing Good and Choice Books at moderate rates. 

All Important Books Collated Before Delivery. 

Defects of Rare Books Reproduced in Facsimile. 

Continuations of Scientific Serials carefully noted and forwarded 
promptly on publication. 

Should you desire an efficient London Agency of long and extensive 
experience in exclusively Library Work, Messrs. E. G. ALLEN & MURRAY 
will be pleased to answer any questions, feeling confident that the 
thorough equipment of their establishment will enable them to meet 
every library requirement in a satisfactory manner. 

References permitted to first-class Libraries. 
Special terms for large orders. 

1856 19O1. 

April, 1902] 






Simple, Strong, Durable 

It never fails at critical moments. It can 
always be depended upon to do the highest 
grade of work 

The Remington Typewriter has demonstrated its superi- 
ority for all kinds of library work. 

FOR CARD INDEXING it greatly excels the pen. It is more convenient and 
easier to operate, and its work is far neater, more rapid and more legible. 
It is now in successful use in leading libraries in all parts of the country. 
Send for special pamphlet giving specimens of card work. 

Wyckoff, Seamans & Benedict 

(Remington Typewriter Company) 



176 THE LIBRARY JOURNAL. [April, 1902 


We now bind especially for Librarian's use an edition of our 








The material is Buckram, which we have found stronger than leather, and of a 
non-fading color ; the sewing is double stitched, to last through the roughest wear. 
Instruct your Bookseller to order Special Library Binding. 



"Announcement is made by DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & Co. that they are arranging to print 
every month the best eight illustrations from each of their magazines, 




The plates are printed on beautiful and substantial paper, with the idea of their being used for 
bulletin boards, which are now regarded as essential in the work of every library. 

"The 'COUNTRY LIFE IN AMERICA' pictures will follow the changes of the seasons, 
while the 'WORLD'S WORK' illustrations will more closely follow current events, with 
portraits of distinguished men and incidents of contemporaneous importance. Bulletins in 
every department of Public Libraries are now a permanent feature, and nothing could be more 
welcome than worthy pictures of current events, men of the times and nature studies. Various 
well-known collections provide copies of famous paintings, statues, buildings, historic scenes, 
and portraits of leaders of the past. But it remains for the publishers of a magazine of contem- 
porary history to share with the libraries and their patrons pictures of history in its making, and 
also seasonable pictures to point the way to a closer observation of nature and a more careful 
reading of nature books." From N. Y. Times. 

Send a yearly subscription (covering cost only), price $3.60 a year, for aoo superb pictures, 
including postage mailed in tubes. 


34 Union Square, East ... New York City 


34 Union Square, East, New York 

Enclosed find $3.60 for which send monthly your prints from " The 
World's Work " and " Country Life in America " in tubes. 



April, 1902] 




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When Knighthood Was in Flower. By Cha 

Alice of Old Vincennes. By Maurice Thorn 
My Lady Peggy Goes To Town. By France 
r Jhe Puppet Crown. By Harold MacGrath, 

Lazarre. By Mary Hartwell Catherwood. 

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178 THE LIBRARY JOURNAL. [April, 1902 


Library Department. 

WE are furnishing books to a large number of the representative libraries 
located in every section of the country and are giving satisfaction in all our 
dealings as any of the librarians can testify. An essential qualification for the reten- 
tion of this desirable class of trade is the ability to furnish books promptly and at 
the lowest rates, a faculty which we possess in a very marked degree as is amply 
attested by the significant fact that our library trade has increased four fold within 
the past twelve months. Our stock at present is larger and more diversified than ever 
before, and from it we have selected the following items to convey to librarians with 
whom we have had no dealings a faint idea of the prices at which we can furnish books. 

BALZAC'S WORKS. i6vols. Cloth. Introduction by Gio. SAINTSBURY. $32.00, net, $12 oo 

BALZAC'S WORKS. 53 vols. Cloth. Edition de Tours. $180.00 net, 90 OO 

FIELD'S, EUGENE, WORKS. Uniform Edition. 10 vols. Cloth. $15.00.. . .net, 9 OO 

ard Library Edition. $30.00 net, 1850 

KIPLING'S, RUDY ARD, WORKS. 15 vols. Cloth. $15.00 net, 500 

The Same Edition in half calf net, 15 o 

KIPLING'S WORKS. Outward Bound Edition. 1 8 vols. Cloth. $36.00 net, 2400 

The Same. Three-quarter morocco. $72.00 net, 43 OO 

LOWELL'S COMPLETE WORKS. 10 vols. Cloth. Standard Library Edition. 

$2O.OO net, 12 50 

SCOTT'S WAVERLEY NOVELS. 24 vols. Gilt Top. Illustrated. $36.00.. .net, 1 6 OO 
SHAKESPEARE'S WORKS. 15 vols. Knickerbocker Edition. Half vellum. 

$25.00 net, 14 OO 

TWAIN'S, HARK, WORKS. Underwood Edition. 22 vols. Cloth. $66.00.. net, 3750 
WHITTIER'S, JOHN G. t COMPLETE WORKS. Standard Library Edition. 

7 vols. $14.00 net, 8 75 

CENTURY DICTIONARY. 10 vols. Half morocco net, 4500 

ENCYCLOPEDIA BR1TANNICA. Edinburgh Edition. 25 vols. Full sheep. 

$150.00 net, 67 50 

STANDARD DICTIONARY. 2 vols. Half russia. $22.00 net, 10 oo 

UNIVERSAL CYCLOPAEDIA. 12 vols. Cloth. $54.00 net, 42 50 


Edition de Luxe. Buckram. $180.00 net, 9000 

WORLD'S GREAT BOOKS. 40 vols. Buckram. Aldint Edition. $120.00. .net, 5500 

CRAWFORD'S RULERS OF THE SOUTH. 2 vols. $6.00 net, 4 oo 


by RIPLEY. Edited by MAHAFFY. 16 vols. Half morocco. $160.00 net, 5000 


by RIPLEY. Edited by MAHAFFY. 8 vols. Cloth. $80.00 net, 31 50 

STORY OF THE NATION SERIES. 500 vols., assorted. $1.50 net, per copy, 8lC 


MAHAN'S LIFE OF NELSON. $3.00 net, I 35 



morocco net, 35 OO 



i William St. and 67 Stone St., New York City. 

5121 Broad. 

rmT rLoort PL./M-I 



VOL. 27. 

APRIL, 1902. 

No. 4 

SERVICE from the public library to the public 
school is, to a greater or less degree, an ac- 
cepted fact. Theory and practice are still 
to be fitted together, and the most efficient 
working methods have not yet been fully 
tested; but the principle that one of the 
functions of the public library is to induce 
the use of books by the teachers and scholars 
of the public schools is no longer ques- 
tioned. This granted, and granting also the 
practical and ingenious methods by which 
this use of books is being fostered by the pub- 
lic libraries in their children's departments, 
their school work, school visits, special school 
lists, picture bulletins, and story-hours it 
should be pointed out that after all the use 
of books is of less importance than the choice 
of books, and that the step that counts for 
most, in the public library's work with chil- 
dren and young people is not the provision of 
a great mass of juvenile literature, but the 
selection from that mass of what is the best 
and the most wholesome. Good work in this 
direction has been done in the publication of 
special lists, to which interesting additions 
have recently been made. But these should 
be simply stepping stones toward that knowl- 
edge of the books themselves that is a first 
essential in the work of the children's libra- 
rian or the librarian teacher. 

WITH the increasing establishment of class- 
room libraries and school collections of books, 
for the use both of teachers and pupils, there 
comes the difficulty of securing the best use 
of books by the teacher. As Miss Moore has 
pointed out, public school teachers are heavily 
burdened with tasks and responsibilities, and 
most of them simply do not know how to 
make the use of books a help instead of an 
additional burden in their work. It will 
not be until the training of teachers includes 
drill in the use of books and an effort to im- 
part at least a surface appreciation of the 
essentials and influence of good literature 
that the best kind of library work will be 
done through the medium of the schools. 

There has been more than a beginning in 
this direction. Many of the normal schools 
give special instruction regarding books for 
children, in addition to the usual literature 
courses, and in New York there is sys- 
tematic and organized work by the state 
literature inspector of the public schools. The 
public library can also be a potent factor to- 
ward this end, by work along the lines of the 
school visits described by Miss Moore, but 
especially by bringing teachers to the- per- 
sonal use and appreciation of the library's 
resources, and cultivating in every way pos- 
sible the sense of the relationship and mu- 
tual dependence of these two instruments of 
public education. 

THE statement of Mr. Peoples, chairman of 
the American Library Association committee 
on relations of libraries and the booktrade, 
gives hope that a readjustment of the library 
discount will be made by the American Pub- 
lishers' Association. In the meantime, the 
resolutions passed at the Atlantic City meet- 
ing have been widely circulated among state 
and local library associations, and have re- 
ceived general endorsement. If this united 
protest is brought definitely before the Pub- 
lishers' Association, with a cogent presen- 
tation of the facts upon which the libra- 
ries base their claim for better rates, it 
should and will, we have reason to believe, 
receive considerate and favorable attention. 

Much of the library criticism has taken 
the form of statements that the prices of spe- 
cific books have been scaled higher. This is a 
matter difficult to gauge, and is one over 
which the Publishers' Association has not as- 
sumed jurisdiction. But in the long run it is 
likely to adjust itself, for if publishers make 
mistakes of this sort they must expect to 
reap the result of limiting the sale of books 
that are too high priced. Libraries, especially 
the smaller ones, are confined, by their fiscal 
limitations, to a given sum for book pur- 
chases, and higher prices will necessarily 
mean fewer purckasers. Tis an ill wind that 



[April, 1902 

blows no one good, and a more conservative 
buying policy, and a consequent decrease in 
the purchase of new books, recommended only 
by the publishers' imprint or the advance no- 
tices, would have manifold and manifest ad- 
vantages. How far this will affect the volume 
of publications of books that are made only as 
"sellers" new novels, new series, new man- 
uals depends of course upon how important 
a factor in the book market library purchases 
are, a question upon which librarians and pub- 
lishers hold different opinions. But in any 
event a modified working policy is likely to 
have good results, for it will necessitate a 
more careful selection and a serious weighing 
of the claims of various elements in the li- 
brary's constituency; while on the side of the 
public it will make evident the fact that the 
unlimited supply of new books, simply be- 
cause they are new, is neither proper nor prac- 
ticable for a public library. In this connec- 
tion it is interesting to note that in at least 
one library a modification of Mr. Putnam's 
suggested rule for book purchases has for 
some time been in force. At the Brooklyn 
Public Library, for several months past, the 
rule has been that no book issued by an un- 
known author should be bought until it has 
been published at least six months. So far 
the rule has worked successfully, and there 
has been no evidence of public dissatisfaction. 

WITH the passage of the bill providing for 
the consolidation of the Brooklyn Library 
and the Brooklyn Public Library there is 
assured a development of library interests 
in Brooklyn that should place that city in a 
few years on a level with the goodly num- 
ber of other cities where the public library 
is a recognized factor in the municipal life. 
It is a curious illustration of the difficulties 
under which the library movement in Brook- 
lyn has labored from its beginning that this 
consolidation has been effected only in the 
face of determined and persistent opposition. 
The opposition centered upon the feature of 
the bill that provides for the creation of a 
new library corporation, representing both 
the Brooklyn Library and the Brooklyn 
Public Library, with the power to fill 
vacancies in its membership. There is force 
in the argument that a public institution 
should be subject to the control of the tax- 
payers who support it; but in the present 

case this argument is practically provided for. 
As Mayor Low has pointed out, representa- 
tion is given on the library board to the 
mayor, controller and president of the bor- 
ough, all expenditures come under the super- 
vision of the city board of estimate, and the 
right to modify the library contract, or 
amend the act, remains with the city or state 
authorities. Continuity of administration is 
as advantageous in the building up of a li- 
brary as it is in any business enterprise; and 
the freedom from changes of policy and from 
political influences that the new organization 
should ensure ought to count for a great deal 
in the development of the Brooklyn Public 



I WISH to be conservative and not make any 
rash statements, but my intercourse with 
various publishers during the past few weeks 
leads me to think that the American Pub- 
lishers' Association will accede to the demand 
of the libraries for a more liberal discount. 
I have strong assurances to this effect. 

Our committee has been urging and press- 
ing for an early meeting of the American 
Publishers' Association so that a decision may 
be had in time to report something definite to 
the Magnolia meeting of the A. L. A. This 
has been conceded, as is shown by the sub- 
joined letter of Mr. Charles Scribner, the 
president of the American Publishers' Asso- 

The extent of the concession cannot be 
stated, but we hope to obtain a substantial 
increase over the present rate. 

Chairman A. L. A. Committee on Relations 

to the Booktrade. 

Mr. Scribner's letter is as follows : 

NEW YORK, April i, 1902. 
DEAR MR. PEOPLES : According to my prom- 
ise I send this letter before leaving. Mr. 
Dodd and I had a conference yesterday on 
the library question and were waited upon by 
a committee of librarians. We are agreed 
that some further concession in discount 
should be made, though as you know the 
question must be brought for action before 
the entire Association. While no date for a 
meeting has been fixed, I think it strongly 
probable that there will be a meeting in May, 
which would be before the annual meeting of 
your Association. More than that I could not 
say to-day. I shall be home about Mav 2oth. 
Yours sincerely, 
To W. T. Peoples, Esq. 

April, 1902] 



BY ANNIE CARROLL MOORE, Children's Librarian, Pratt Institute Free Library. 

THE subject of co-operation between libra- 
ries and schools from the standpoint of the 
supply of books and methods of circulating 
them has been admirably presented from time 
to time by librarians who have been doing or- 
ganized work with schools for many years. 
The object of this paper is to present the so- 
cial side of a most desirable relationship by 
a partial record of personal experience in un- 
organized work with the elementary public 
schools of a large city. 

During the very first month of work in the 
children's library of Pratt Institute the need 
for active human relations between the chil- 
dren's librarian and the teacher, the children 
of the library and the children of the school 
room was felt, and efforts, often spasmodic 
rather than systematic by reason of the con- 
ditions to be taken into account, have been 
made to bring this about. While gathering 
statistics of the number of schools repre- 
sented by our clientele by means of a check 
list kept upon cards and arranged by school 
and grade, both of which facts are recorded 
on the application blank and in the children's 
register, we were endeavoring to make per- 
sonal acquaintance with every teacher who 
visited the room, studying the public school 
reports, the location of the various school 
buildings, etc., and reading with interest the 
various records of public school and public 
library conditions in other cities. 

There are about 130 public school buildings 
for the primary and grammar grades in the 
borough of Brooklyn, covering a very large 
area. Up to the time of the establishment of 
the Brooklyn Public Library, our own li- 
brary, with its two branches (one since dis- 
continued and the other transferred to the 
Brooklyn Public Library) and the Union for 
Christian Work (also transferred to the 
Brooklyn Public Library) were the only free 
libraries in the city. There was no seeking 
after library privileges except in the case of 
a very few individual teachers. The major- 
ity of the teachers in the elementary schools 
were not aware of the privileges afforded by 
the libraries mentioned. With facilities for 

organized work it was and is a field of splen- 
did prospects. We, however, were not pre- 
pared to supply school duplicates nor to send 
books to the schools. We were prepared to 
receive the teachers and the children at the 
library and to give them every possible means 
of assistance in connection with their school 
work as well as in their general reading. 
Our problem then was how to make this fact 
known in such a way as to make children and 
teachers really want to come. 

We wrote letters of invitation to school 
principals and teachers, telling them that the 
library would be glad to lend assistance in 
various branches of the school work, partic- 
ularly in the study of English, in nature study, 
history, geography, etc. The letters sent to 
school principals received a little more notice 
than a general circular. They were usually 
read at the opening exercises of the school, 
and were sometimes passed about among the 
teachers. The letters sent to individual teach- 
ers brought more satisfactory results. Many 
of them visited the library and procured ap- 
plication blanks for their classes and teachers' 
cards for themselves. The teacher's card en- 
titles the holder to six books for school room 
use. The books may be kept one month. 

We sent, and continue to send, notices of 
the exhibitions which are to be held in the 
art gallery of the library during the year. A 
great many teachers have responded to this 

In order to get a better idea of actual con- 
ditions in the schools, and a better knowledge 
of the reading ability of the average child in 
a given grade, it was decided that the chil- 
dren's librarian should visit five representa- 
tive schools noted upon our list. Out of the 
130 schools 50 at least have been represented 
in our records. 

The school visits began in the principal's 
office, where half a precious morning was 
sometimes spent before an opportunity of 
speaking to the chief functionary could be 
granted. The visitor was invariably treated 
with great politeness, the library was spoken 
of as "an important part of an admirable in- 



[April, 1902 

stitution doing noble educational work," but 
there was no apparent desire on the school 
side for a union of forces. The request to 
visit certain classes was readily granted, and 
the principal frequently offered to conduct the 
visitor through the building. One such visit, 
at the very beginning of the work, filled her 
with great awe of the "system." The tour of 
the building was made in breathless haste, and 
there was no time for visits to the class room. 
We simply rushed through the rooms. How 
might one hope to penetrate walls of apparent 
impenetrability and really come to know the 
inmates? That even such a visit might have 
results was a great surprise, but was evi- 
denced by the return of one of our old boys 
with several new ones, who were introduced 
after this fashion: 

"These fellers here want to join. I told 
'em about the lib'ry. I left my card here and 
forgot all about it. When I saw our principal 
chase you through our school yesterday I 
thought I'd like to belong again. I told the 
teacher you was from Pratt's, and she said 
she guessed she would come to the lib'ry 
some day. She's never seen it." 

The visitor was usually introduced by the 
school principal to the head of the depart- 
ment, and by her to the grade teacher to 
whose class the visit was to be paid. The 
same grades were visited in each school and 
a very striking demonstration of the value of 
books, other than text-books and supple- 
mentary readers, in the primary grades was 
furnished by a comparison of the efforts of 
individual children and by the testimony of 
their teachers. 

It had been requested that the regular 
school work should not be set aside on the 
occasion of these visits, and that an exercise 
in reading should be introduced at the close 
of the regular lesson when it did not form the 
ubject of the lesson itself. We, therefore, 
listened to a great many interesting and un- 
interesting exercises; some remarkable feats 
were performed in the field of phonetics, by 
one of which a little boy, who read delight- 
fully, was cured of saying "twistles" for 
"twirls," and promised, to my great regret, 
never to say "twistles" again. Among il- 
luminating sentences for blackboard sight- 
reading the following seemed worthy of note : 
"There are many wild scenes in Africa," read 
a boy with lusty lungs. At the mention of 

Africa several dull faces brightened. "Boys, 
what is a scene?" "Another kind of animal" 
seemed a very natural reply. "Boys, a scene 
is anything you can see. There are many of 
these wild in Africa." The class sank back 
into lethargy. 

Lessons in drawing, sewing, singing and in 
physical exercises were observed, and after 
filling out a list of the requirements made 
upon the grade teacher we ceased to wonder 
that a letter or a proposition upon any sub- 
ject, however closely allied to her own work, 
fails to produce more than a faint shade of 
interest on the teacher's part. What with the 
pressure of the closely crowded school curric- 
ulum, demanding semi-annual promotions, the 
lectures on psychology, pedagogy, art, nature 
study and other subjects recommended by 
the school board, and frequently with most 
exacting demands in her home life, the public 
school teacher of the conscientious type feels 
herself too heavily burdened to undertake 
what is bound to seem like another task if 
presented from the outside, even when pre- 
sented in the light of a help. She must feel 
that it will help before she can commit her- 
self to it. 

From this introductory round of visits we 
gathered a good deal of practical information 
concerning the conditions under which public 
school work is done, and the various ways of 
doing it, as expressed by the personalities of 
the teachers as well as by the attitude of the 
children. We enlarged our circle of acquaint- 
ance very appreciably and found here and 
there a teacher with the book sense and the 
child sense so united that her work was an 
inspiration. We noted a decided gain in the 
readiness with which we were able to recom- 
mend books to the children of the grades vis- 
ited. The reading ability of individual chil- 
dren in a grade varies greatly of course. I 
have frequently noted that a child will read 
and enjoy a book from the library which 
would be considered out of the range of his 
comprehension by his teacher. On the other 
hand, the library assistants may be so eager 
to swell the circulation of non-fiction that the 
children may be encouraged to take books 
from which they would get no enjoyment 

A year later we used the various picture 
exhibitions the animal exhibition, the hero 
exhibition, the spring exhibition, as occasions 

April, 1902] 



for school visits. Supplied outwardly with 
lists, pictures, and two or three books, and 
inwardly with a neat little speech about the 
animal pictures the visitor presented herself 
at one of these same schools, feeling sure that 
this time she would be asked to say some- 
thing to the children. 

Vain hope. The principal received her with 
the most polite expressions of interest, and 
said he himself would take great pleasure in 
speaking of the exhibition at the opening ex- 
ercises of the school, to which no invitation 
was extended. On her way down stairs the 
visitor, feeling very dubious about ever mak- 
ing what she considered successful school 
visits, was attracted by the strains of a violin. 
Looking through the stairway window she 
saw an old man, with the sunniest smile, 
standing in the midst of a room full of happy- 
faced children and drawing his bow across 
his fiddle as if he loved it and could not help 
it. Presently they all began to sing, quite 
naturally and spontaneously. One felt at 
once, even through dingy glass, that the rela- 
tions were absolutely harmonious between the 
children, the teacher, and the old violin player. 

A teacher who passed on the stairs was 
asked if the old man came often to the school. 

"Oh, yes," she said, "he teaches the chil- 
dren music, and they look forward to his 
coming with the greatest delight." The in- 
cident, trivial though it may seem, was full 
of suggestion for the matter in hand. It was 
quite evident, if he had any other business, 
the old violin player had left it all behind 
when he came into the school room. He 
came to make music, and he played till the 
children wanted to sing. While we cannot 
hope to strike the same chord with library 
books and library privileges that is reached by 
a violin note, for the charm of music is more 
subtle than the charm of books, may we not 
hope to so master the technique of our sub- 
ject as to be able to present its essence as 
the violin player presents his melody, rather 
than the exercises which have made more per- 
fect melody possible? Books must seem to 
us like real life, and human experiences must 
seem like chapters from unwritten books. 

There is a certain technique of library visits 
to schools which seems to me to consist in 
taking things exactly as one finds them, and 
adapting one's self so completely and cheer- 
fully to the situation, whether it means sitting 

in an office, standing in a passage way, rush- 
ing through class rooms, receiving polite but 
immediate dismissal, or having pleasant talks 
with children and teachers, as to make it 
seem the most natural experience in the 
world while it lasts, and to make it the basis 
for future experiences. Theories, methods, the 
habit of looking too early for results, and, 
above all, an aggressive or a too retiring per- 
sonality, must be got rid of at any cost if we 
are to beget a love for books and win confi- 
dence and respect for our ways of giving 
them into the hands of those who want them, 
or who may be induced to want them. After 
having made a great many experimental visits 
and having at last received several invitations 
to speak to the children, a more definite plan 
of action for the school year 1900-1901 was 
carried out in two of the public schools in 
our neighborhood. 

In accordance with this plan short lists of 
books, twelve in number, were prepared for 
eight different school grades, beginning with 
the third year in school and extending through 
the sixth school year. 

These lists were presented in two forms, 
on catalog cards (i size) with the subject 
headings in red ink, and on a typewritten 
sheet divided by subject headings correspond- 
ing to those upon the cards, the two forms 
illustrating the card catalog and the printed 

The typewritten sheet was headed "Good 

Books for Boys and Girls in Primary 

Grade," and was pasted in the center of a 
bulletin sheet 22^ x 28 in. of dark green pa- 
per, with one picture of the children's room 
above and another below the typewritten 
sheet. The list upon cards was arranged at 
the sides of the central sheet with a small 
picture of the children's room below each 
row of cards. The heading "Pratt Institute 
Children's Library," with red initial letters, 
was placed at the top of the bulletin. 

The bulletins were designed to illustrate 
talks to the children on tHe use of the library, 
not as model reading lists for the different 

It was suggested by the head of a depart- 
ment that it might facilitate matters to speak 
to four classes at once, about 200 children. 
She was quite willing, however, to yield to 
my preference to visit each class in its own 
class room, a plan which has very decided 

1 84 


[April, 1902 

advantages over that of addressing children 
en masse at morning exercises, affording as 
it does the opportunity to become a little ac- 
quainted with the class teacher, to observe in 
some measure the effect of her personality 
on her class, and, above all, that of meeting 
the children on their own ground, in a room 
they are used to. 

How important a part atmospheric effort 
plays in the process of "getting at" children, 
it needs only a few visits to different school 
class rooms even under the same roof to de- 

The general outline for the talk, which was 
always informal, in the form of question and 
answer, and adapted to the ages or under- 
standing of the children and the condition 
under which it was given, was as follows: 

How many boys or girls have ever taken 
books from Pratt Institute Free Library? 
How many are now taking out books? Why 
did those of you who are not taking out 
books stop? After a show of hands, they 
were called upon one by one to state reasons. 
Some of the reasons called for explanation 
on the part of the visitor. Many children had 
lost their cards and did not know how to get 
new ones, others had moved away for a time 
and had come back into the neighborhood 
again, but supposed their library connection 
was severed forever. Several children had 
given up taking out books because they said 
they had to study, and to these we must ex- 
plain how the library may be made a means 
of help in school work. "Got tired of read- 
ing," "No time for reading," were very com- 
mon reasons; "Owe fines," less often stated, 
but very often the real reason. "Too cold" 
or "too warm," "moved too far," "eyes hurt," 
"German school," "music lessons," and many 
children who had forgotten all about taking 
books. The latter swarmed back to the li- 
brary to take up their cards again. 

In presenting the bulletin to the children 
they were told that the pictures represented 
different parts of the children's library. Very 
often a child who was familiar with the li- 
brary enjoyed telling about it. The cards for 
the reading list were explained part by part, 
beginning with the subject heading as indi- 
cating the kind of book ; the author's name as 
telling who wrote the book ; the title as giving 
the name of the book itself, and the class and 

book number as showing the arrangement of 
the books on the shelves. An illustration 
which seemed to make quite clear the distinc- 
tion between subject and title was afforded 
by the particular school grade and an indi- 
vidual boy or girl usually known to me by 
name. Every book has a name just as every 
boy has a name, and if a boy wanted to get 
"Red mustang" at the library he would not be 
likely to get it if he simply asked for a book 
about Indians he might be given the 
"Hiawatha primer." This proved an interest- 
ing point in several classes, and there have 
been many evidences of greater familiarity 
with book titles on the part of the children of 
those classes. 

Another question which was productive of 
interesting replies when asked at the proper 
psychological moment was, How do you 
know what book to take home with you from 
the library? "Look at the pictures," "Read 
the headings of chapters," "Ask the lady at 
the desk," "Look at the tins" (shelf labels), 
"Know what kind of a book I want and ask 
the lady who knows all the books for that 
kind," "Somebody says it's nice" (very com- 
mon experience with girls), "Read in the be- 
ginning, middle and end." 

How many of you have ever taken books 
to help you in writing compositions or in his- 
tory or nature study lessons? In every class 
in the grammar grades a fair number had 
taken books with this object in mind, some- 
times finding help, very often failing to find 
it. A small tray of cards taken from the 
subject catalog was used to illustrate the 
variety of subjects to be found in books. The 
boys were immensely interested in a discus- 
sion of subjects, and many of them gave up 
their recess time to ask questions. It was 
much more difficult to get response from the 
girls, especially in the higher grades, the 
range of subjects with which they seem to be 
familiar is so very limited. In the primary 
grades the girls were decidedly freer and more 
spontaneous, and when called upon to describe 
the children's room showedrexcellent powers 
of observation. The attention of the younger 
children was especially called to the careful 
handling of books at the library, putting them 
back in the right places on the shelves with 
the backs out. 

Five or six books were usually taken along 

April, 1902] 



to show the arrangement on the shelves, the 
position of the number on the back, where to 
look for the author's name, the title and the 
index, if there was one. These books were 
usually selected with an eye to the teacher's 
interest, as being particularly suitable for 
reading aloud or for use in connection with 
special work for the grade. 

At the conclusion of the talk, which was 
very much modified for each class, occupying 
in time from 10 to 20 minutes, opportunity 
was given to all children who had never 
taken books to sign applications then and 
there. The application form was read and 
explained by the visitor. 

The bulletin was left in the class room for 
which it was intended, and was allowed to 
remain for one month. At the end of a 
month a second visit was paid in order to 
find out whether the bulletin had been of 
practical use. The twelve book titles were 
read off one by one, and the children were 
asked how many had read each one or had 
tried to get the book at the library. The re- 
sults do not go to show that as reading lists 
the bulletins were successful. They were 
more so in the case of the boys than in the 
case of the girls, but in order to test them as 
reading lists it would be necessary to send the 
books with the bulletins to the schools. 

Many of the teachers delivered up the bulle- 
tins with real regret, "because they looked so 
ornamental" rather than because they had 
found them distinctly useful and helpful. 

During the second visit the children in each 
class were given an opportunity to mention a 
favorite book. All who wished to do this, 
and in all classes, except the higher classes 
of girls, both boys and girls were eager to 
mention books, raised their hands and were 
called upon in turn. The results, to such an 
extent as seemed practicable, were noted for 
future reference, and some very unique 
graded lists might be made from them, pref- 
erences for "Ben Hur," "Fighting dogs," 
"Tale of two cities," "Little lame prince," 
and "Bessie on her travels," all existing in 
one class of girls. It is, of course, quite often 
the case that a child mentions a book he has 
just read, or a book mentioned by a friend 
whose opinion is well regarded rather than 
the book he actually prefers, or he may have 
no decided preference. In order to get at de- 
cided preferences or to lead children to form 

preferences, it is quite necessary to talk with 
them familiarly about the books. They were 
frequently asked who wrote the books they 
mentioned and to tell a little of the story. 
I also asked them about different characters 
in the books. Who was Robin Hood? One 
boy confused his identity with that of Rob- 
inson Crusoe, another promptly responded. 
"He was a first-class bow and arrow shot." 
I sometimes read aloud from one of the books 
I had brought, and at others told anecdotes 
of authors. 

In the first school visited, many of the 
children came from homes where books were 
talked about, and seemed in consequence 
much less dominated by the teacher's attitude 
toward books and reading. 

In the second school very few of the chil- 
dren had books at home, and the personal 
influence and interest of the teacher was 
very marked. One of the teachers who con- 
ducts a class in connection with the New 
York City History Club, had a travelling li- 
brary of loo volumes in her class room. This 
teacher told me she never recommended a 
book to a boy which she had not first read 
herself. She reads aloud five or 10 minutes at 
every session, and has read several of Henty's 
books, skipping the parts the boys usually 
read and reading the parts they are in the 
habit of skipping. 

The results of these school visits have been 
manifest in an increase in the circulation of 
books and in membership, in the return of 
large numbers of former users of the library, 
and notably in a very much more intelligent 
use of the children's library on the part of 
children and of teachers. Interest in the 
room itself, in the pictures and bulletins, the 
catalogs and lists, the care of the books, etc., 
has been greatly stimulated and in some cases 
has been created. 

Social relations have been vitalized, the de- 
sirability of self-expression along new lines, 
as exemplified in talking about the books one 
likes with somebody else who likes them, has 
been suggested to many children and to some 
teachers. Teachers who would never have 
visited the library except by personal invita- 
tion have come and have brought friends from 
time to time, and teachers who had never 
thought of studying in the library itself have 
become devoted patrons of the reference de- 
partment. Best of all, the strange and rather 



[April, 1902 

strained feeling of establishing a relationship 
has quite worn itself away, and we are con- 
scious of a warm welcome whenever it i? 
possible to claim it from the schools already 
visited, and from other schools whose prin- 
cipals or teachers have expressed a desire to 
receive visits. 

Though full of interest and not altogether 
lacking in a certain spice of adventure, no 
kind of library work I have yet undertaken 
has proved so exhausting mentally and phys- 
ically as public school visiting. If half a day 
is given to this work the remaining half 
should be spent in doing the easiest kind of 
work possible. 

One should never start out on a round of 
visits unless she is able to command any sit- 
uation which may be presented. 

It is far better to break a statistical record 

of visits paid than to be conscious of a moral 
record of visits which never should have 
been paid. It is true that teachers often have 
to teach when they are manifestly unequal 
physically or mentally to the task ; but that is 
all the stronger reason why the occasional 
visitor should never bring less than a healthy 
effect to the school room. 

She must be able to command her resources ; 
therefore, she needs time to read the books 
the children are reading, and those they 
ought to read; she needs time to study the 
curriculum which the teacher must follow 
out; and she needs time to enable her to give 
such expression to her interpretation of the 
place of the children's library and its libra- 
rian in the larger educational scheme as 
shall make her work practical, vital and in- 


BY J. H. HILL, State Normal School, Emporia, Kan. 

I HAVE interpreted the theme here sug- 
gested to mean the relation of the public li- 
brary to the public school and the purpose of 
the discussion to grow out of it to be the 
suggestion of the best methods of co-opera- 
tion for these two educational agencies, so 
as to secure the common end which they have 
or ought to have in view, the enlargement and 
enrichment of the community life. 

First, in the study of this subject let me 
say that I am not particularly concerned as 
to the organic relation of the public library 
and the public school. They are both com- 
munity interests. They are both educational 
agencies. Each is managed by people who 
as a class are doing the work the community 
sets them to do with high ideals of consecra- 
tion for helpful service. Each has its speci- 
fic field, yet each can help the other in fur- 
thering the ends for which both are organ- 
ized; but that the question of the form of 
organization is a matter of secondary impor- 
tance to be worked out according to the tra- 
ditions, the local circumstances and the spe- 
cial needs of each community is well illus- 
trated by the fact that in the two great cities 
of this commonwealth of Missouri admira- 
ble results are being secured in the line of 

* Read before Missouri Library Association, Kan- 
sas City, Oct. 25, 1901. 

co-operation of school and library, in the one 
with the two organically united, in the other 
with entire independence so far as the gov- 
erning bodies are concerned. The question 
then resolves itself into a matter of personal 
co-operation. Understanding between teacher 
and librarian, understanding of the possibili- 
ties of mutual helpfulness, harmony of aims 
and methods, appreciation of each other and 
each other's work, it is through these that 
the ideal relationships are to be wrought out 
and ideal results secured. 

Mr. Dana in his report at Waukesha last 
summer for the committee on co-operation 
with the National Educational Association, 
while making honorable exceptions of lead- 
ers in the educational field, complained that 
the teaching profession as a whole is not 
fully alive to the possibilities of the library 
as an agency co-operating with the public 
school. While some facts that he presented 
gave strong color to his assertions, I was 
inclined to feel that on the whole, Mr. Dana 
was a little pessimistic and that while to one 
who sees clearly the modern library movement 
and its possibilities, some degree of impa- 
tience is pardonable because those possibili- 
ties are not fully and immediately grasped, 
the attitude of the teaching, body in general 
toward that movement is most hopeful, so 

April, 1902] 



far as they know about it. The facts are that 
librarianship as a profession is itself so re- 
cent a thing, that uniform methods of classi- 
fication, systems of card cataloging on a sci- 
entific basis, and all the other means by 
which the library has been made available 
for use, something more than a mere collec- 
tion of books, have been advance strides so 
bewildering and taken so rapidly that it is 
little wonder that their full significance is 
not yet fully appreciated save by the few 
whose work brings them constantly in con- 
tact with large collections of books. The li- 
brary method, as a method of instruction, is 
but now working its way downward from the 
universities into the common schools. We, 
who are teachers, are just beginning to real- 
ize the possibilities of the library as a labora- 
tory, but we are beginning to realize them; 
and once realized even in part, the strides in 
the direction of the use of the library by the 
school may be just as rapid and bewildering. 

The point that I am trying to make is that 
there is no particular essential contention 
as to which is the farther reaching or the 
more important educational agency. Both be- 
long to the community. The efficiency of the 
library for the future depends very largely 
upon what it can do for the children of to- 
day, and the school is an inadequate educa- 
tional agency if it does not lay the founda- 
tions, if it does not develop the taste and 
interest for that after-school education so 
hopefully characteristic of our time edu- 
cation represented by the club, the Chautau- 
qua circle, the university extension lecture 
nd the multitudinous other impulses toward 
self culture of which the library is the very 
center and the source of power. The libra- 
ry then enlarges the possibilities of the school. 
The school or its equivalent is neces- 
sarily antecedent to the library. 

The common school as the means of popu- 
lar education has been the glory and the 
boast of this civilization of ours. We are 
just beginning to realize that there must be 
for this people an intellectual life that pro- 
jects itself into the years of maturity; if we 
are to be well governed and well ordered so- 
cially and morally, an intellectual life that is 
something more than the scanning of the 
daily newspaper or the street corner or street 
car discussion of the issues of the last politi- 
cal caucus. For such an intellectual life, the 

library of the future is to be the institutional 
center. From this point of view, the library, 
with the art museum and other related agen- 
cies, as a community force, with the growing 
complexity of our civilization has possibili- 
ties that were they not so full of inspiration 
might well evoke from those who are en- 
gaged in that form of service the cry: "Who 
is sufficient for these things?" 

That something of this ideal has been in 
the minds of the educational workers and the 
social reformers who have been face to face 
with the problems of city life, of the libra- 
rians and those who have founded the great 
popular libraries and art institutes is appar- 
ent; yet the school as an organized institu- 
tion taken as a matter of course reaches 
practically every part of the community; the 
library as a popular educator will never real- 
ize its full mission till popular sentiment 
accords it, and its organization enables it to 
reach, a field co-extensive with the school. 
Hence the special importance both to school 
and library of practical plans for co-opera- 
tion along the lines in which their work can 
touch. Naturally, so far as such plans have 
already been evolved, the best results have 
been the outgrowth of the experience of the 
superintendents, teachers and librarians who 
have been at work in the larger communities. 
They doubtless see much more that can be 
done, but there are communities, and com- 
munities too with good schools and efficient 
teachers, where practically nothing is being 
done at all. 

Ideal co-operation between school and li- 
brary is just as attainable where both are 
side by side in the smaller community as it 
is with the resources of the great library and 
the machinery of the great school system in 
the larger one. Put a genuine book lover in 
the school room and a genuine lover of chil- 
dren in the library and there need be no 
trouble about it. 

Just here, that expression "a genuine book 
lover" tempts me to this digression. We may 
consider the library from the point of view 
of an instrument of study and thus as an aid 
to the school, a place for reference, for the 
collection of information, for the comparison 
and weighing of authorities, but more impor- 
tant, from my point of view, is the library as 
the place where the children may in some 
sense enter into the intellectual life, cultivate 



[April, 1902 

the genuine reading habit, learn the delights 
of the companionship of books, be introduced 
to the great thinkers of the ages and live with 
them the ideal life of beauty and of power. 
This cannot altogether be taught, but it must 
be felt; and only he who has felt and knows 
and loves the companionship of books can be 
to others in the world of books an inspiration 
and a guide. 

The danger in the schools is from the me- 
chanical teacher and from the mechanical pro- 
cesses. On the other hand from the side of 
the library there is a danger. The value of 
the reading habit is not to be measured by 
the number of books that we read, and there 
is a sense in which access to a great library 
with the very bewilderment of its treasures 
is to some, so far as the development of the 
real intellectual life is concerned, a genuine 
misfortune. The craze for new books, for 
books about books, the temptation to let the 
ideal standard be "What do people call for?" 
make the great library to many a means of 
literary dissipation rather than a source of 
strength. The adult constituency of such a 
place is often perhaps too far gone to do 
other than let it have what it calls for, but 
for the children, the joint work of the appre- 
ciative teacher and the appreciative and dis- 
criminating librarian ought to be to introduce 
them to the lofty companionship of the great 
world thinkers, the few rather than the many, 
the best rather than the good. Such an end 
can be attained wherever a few books, a few 
children, a librarian, a teacher can be gath- 
ered together. 

In the line of specific suggestion let me say : 

1. Every community library should have at 
least its nook or corner, and, if possible, its 
room specifically designated as the chil- 
dren's reading room. Where the library is as 
yet a subscription library, a special children's 
ticket is desirable. 

2. Emerson said a generation ago: "The 
printing press daily brings a university to the 
poor man's door in the newsboy's basket." 
He was mistaken about the daily newspaper 
as a real university, but he might have said 
that about the printing press had he foreseen 
the travelling library. Now the travelling 
library idea is feasible in every town that has 
half a dozen school houses (or perhaps we 
may better say half a dozen school teachers), 
in the distribution from the library as a cen- 

ter, through responsible agencies, of selected 
and appropriate books to the grades. 

3. Teachers may adjust their courses of 
study and their reading suggestions definitely 
to material that is accessible in the public li- 
brary; librarians may advertise in schools 
what books are on the shelves for certain 
parts of the course, and may bulletin in 
schools literature bearing on school work. 

4. Librarians may invite teachers to bring 
classes to the library for reading and re- 
search; teachers may invite librarians to join 
in patrons' meetings held by the schools and 
to give library talks to parents as well as to 
teachers and children. 

5. This co-operation in making material 
accessible and in bringing library and school 
together must always be reinforced by indi- 
vidual interest in the individual child. It is 
after all the mind that touches it that makes 
the book vital. It is the child we are after. 
The true librarian as well as the true teacher 
is a worker not alone with books but with 
boys and girls, with men and women. 

There has been growing in my mind an 
ideal of what I would like to see, and what I 
am visionary enough to believe some of us 
here may yet see, widespread in the villages 
and rural communities. 

The philanthropic impulse that Mr. Car- 
negie has given to the brick and mortar side 
of the library movement has made it a pos- 
sibility that we shall soon see in every city 
large or small, either through public taxation, 
local philanthropic enterprise or the munifi- 
cence of wealth, well housed and endowed, 
with adequate attendance, a respectable public 
library equipped for the carrying forward of 
these ideal ends for which the library stands 
as a community force. Why not an ideal for 
the village and the rural community, not of 
the school house which is a matter of course 
everywhere, but of the public building which, 
at twice the cost perhaps, shall in the coun- 
try include under one roof its school room, its 
hall or place of public meeting, its reading 
room and library, an institutional and social 
center for the school district, a combination 
of educational forces that in rural and village 
life would work a marvellous transformation? 

For such an ideal possibility in community 
life, however the form of its realization may 
be modified, to my mind the library move- 
ment stands. 

April, 1902] 




BY ELIZABETH PORTER CLARKE, Reference Librarian, Evanston (III.) Public Library. 

WHAT a potent influence the telling of 
stories has ever possessed over mankind 
for good or evil ! From the days when 
blind old Homer told his tales of love and 
war, and the wanderings of Ulysses over the 
wine-dark seas to the Saturday morning 
story-hour and the group of eager children 
clustered around their librarian as she re- 
peats the same old story, ever new the 
charm has never failed. And how helpful 
this influence has been in arousing an inter- 
est in history and travel, and in drawing 
the child into those delightful realms of my- 
thology, poetry and romance into which his 
feet might otherwise have never strayed, 
enthusiastic reports from all over the country 
give their testimony. There seems not one 
dissenting voice in every place where story- 
telling and reading aloud have been tried, 
the results have been the same, and many a 
child has been led up to the "Idylls of the 
King," and the "Vision of Sir Launfal" by a 
simple recital of the tale of the "Knights of 
the Round Table," or has developed a taste 
for nature study from a few talks on the 
habits of birds and animals. 

The pioneer in this work is Miss Hewins, 
of Hartford, who for twenty years has read 
aloud on Saturday mornings to a club of 
young people. For the last three years she 
has also given vacation book-talks, in her 
office, to the school children. "Indians," "The 
north pole," "Wonderful adventures," "Ani- 
mals and out-of-doors," "Fairy tales old and 
new" are some of the fascinating subjects 

Miss Hewins writes : "What children need 
most is a wider knowledge of books. The 
children's range is very limited and they have 
no power of comparison or discrimination. A 
children's room can easily have a book-talk 
every week, if it has the right kind of a libra- 
rian. It is of the greatest importance that 
she should know both grown-up books and 
children's books and should be able to seize 
upon whatever she finds in her reading that 
children would like and assimilate." 

* Report prepared for Club of Children's Libra- 
rians, for presentation at Waukesha Conference of 
American Library Association, July, 1901. 

Probably the library in which story-telling 
is carried out most systematically is the Car- 
negie Library of Pittsburgh, Pa. There are 
six children's rooms in this library and its 
branches. Once every week a story-hour is 
held in all the rooms at once, and the books 
from which the story is taken are brought 
together for circulation. The result has been 
a great increase in the attendance of the chil- 
dren and the circulation of the books. Each 
group is limited to 30 and many have to 
be turned away for lack of room. Last win- 
ter an interesting course of stories from 
Homer was given. For this the librarians in 
charge were prepared by a course of seven 
lectures on Homer. These lectures were de- 
signed solely to arouse a literary interest in 
the Homeric epics and serve as an inspira- 
tion, the story-tellers later adapting the sto- 
ries to the capacity of the children. Stories 
from Greek mythology and Homer were* 
placed on special "story hour" shelves and 
circulated 2051 times, and the story-hour at- 
tendance from November to April was over 
5000. A charming picture bulletin, composed 
of the colored plates illustrating Church's 
"Story of the Iliad" and "Story of the Odys- 
sey" was made by Miss Wallace, and ex- 
hibited in each of the children's rooms in 
turn, adding much to the pleasure and inter- 
est in the subject. 

In the Pratt Institute Free Library work 
along these lines has been carried on in the 
evenings, when the room is filled with chil- 
dren, many of whom are employed in the 
daytime. The students of the library school 
have had this work in charge, and many de- 
lightful evenings have been planned and car- 
ried out by them for the children's enter- 
tainment and profit. "Rhine legends," "Bur- 
roughs and the birds," and "Norse myths" are 
some of the subjects presented, always well 
illustrated by books and pictures, and the 
interest created has been proved by the sub- 
sequent demand for the books. Some of our 
less familiar children's books, as the "Fran- 
conia stories" and the "William Henry let- 
ters," have been introduced to the children by 
brief extracts read aloud, and a liking for 
poetry has been created in the same way. 



[April, 1902 

In the Buffalo children's room stories are 
read aloud from eleven to twelve every Sat- 
urday morning during the winter. Reading 
aloud is also a feature of the work in the 
branch libraries at Cleveland. 

At Cedar Rapids, Iowa, there is a story- 
hour every Wednesday evening, primarily for 
the boys. The librarian reads aloud for one 
half-hour, and short stories, and talks on 
travel and current topics take the rest of the 

At Oak Park, Miss Lyman, like Miss Hew- 
ins, gives talks on summer afternoons on 
groups of books, as for instance "Stories 
in verse" illustrated by "Paul Revere's ride," 
Browning's "Pied piper"; "Arctic explora- 
tion," De Kane, Nansen, etc. "with the 
direct purpose not of entertaining but of 
suggesting books not much used but full of 
interest when once begun." This has been 
carried on, though not regularly, through the 

In many of the smaller libraries, as Men- 
asha and Oshkosh, Wis., and Champaign, 
111., story-telling and reading aloud have been 
tried with gratifying results. Indeed, this 
work seems more practicable in a small chil- 
dren's room than a larger one. 

Miss Dousman, of Milwaukee, reports 
reading aloud after library hours, and I am 
inclined to agree with her opinion that a 
large library should provide a place for lec- 
tures, story-telling, etc., outside of the chil- 
dren's room. In a large, crowded room 
where circulating department and reading 
room are all in one, it must be difficult to 
attain the needed quiet and extra help neces- 
sary to a story-hour without interrupting the 
regular work. A club room or study room 
for those who came to do reference work 
might solve the difficulty, and often volun- 
teers from the women's club would gladly 
come in to assist in this work. 

A valuable suggestion comes from Miss 
Elliott of Marinette, Wis. She writes "Not 
having room in the library, the teachers have 
been asked to read aloud to the children each 
week on special topics, which many have done. 
Result largely increased attendance, and 
interest in the books read from." 

Other features of children's work reported 
from many libraries include illustrated lec- 
tures and talks, clubs, games, etc. One of 
the most successful boys' clubs is at Men- 

asha, Wis., which numbers 78 members. 
Their pledge somewhat resembles that of the 
Library League "To read the library books 
and be quiet in the reading room. To learn 
something new to tell the club every week." 
This is certainly admirable for its simplicity 
and spirit. Military drill is a feature of the 
exercises, followed by music and a story read 
or recited. Bad conduct results in suspen- 
sion and this has had an excellent effect on 
the behavior of the boys in the library. 

At Chippewa Falls, Wis., there is a girls' 
club whose members are pledged to help the 
librarian in every possible way. Their princi- 
pal work has been that of making the reading 
room attractive, bringing fresh flowers daily 
and providing pictures for the walls and bulle- 
tin board. The Cedar Rapids library owns a 
hand printing press on which the boys print 
the library bulletins. At Providence a dark 
room is provided for photographers, and they 
exhibit in the children's room all original 
work in electricity, etc., having had, in the 
last few months, two hand-made cameras, 
two telegraph machines, an induction coil and 
a motor. 

Quiet games are allowed in some children's 
rooms and the use of a microscope has been 
suggested. The advisability of the introduc- 
tion of amusements of various kinds to at- 
tract children to the library seems to be a 
debatable point. Whether games and amuse- 
ments pure and simple do not belong more 
properly to the Y. M. C. A. and how far 
they should be introduced into a public libra- 
ry is a question. Perhaps it is as well that a 
gymnasium should be attached to the library 
in which the children may work off their ani- 
mal spirits, and prevent them from turning 
the library into a gymnasium, as seems their 
inclination at times. If this is the case, the li- 
brarian will be careful to prevent its location 
over the reading room. 

Where there are suitable rooms, splendid 
work may certainly be done for our boys and 
girls in encouraging a taste for science and 
the arts, and in the formation of study clubs. 

Much has been done even under the rnosj 
discouraging conditions. And with new li- 
braries, with fine equipments of children's 
rooms and club rooms springing up all over 
the land, next year's report will undoubtedly 
make a much larger showing along these lines 
of work. 

April, 1902] 




BY MARY E. ROOT, Children's Librarian, Providence (R. 7.) Public Library; and ADELAIDE 
B. MALTBY, Children's Librarian, Buffalo (N. F.) Public Library. 

THERE has been a rather marked difference 
in activity between the eastern and western 
libraries on this subject of picture work, we 
of the east seeming more conservative, some- 
what prone on the whole, because there is not 
time for elaborate work, to doubt its practi- 
cal usefulness. The questions upon which 
this report is based were sent out in a cir- 
cular letter to different libraries. Thes 
questions with their answers may be consid- 
ered in order : 

Question i. If you make picture bulletins 
in your library, what is your object in so 

To supplement school work, advertise the 
books, stimulate non-fiction reading and cele- 
brate anniversaries are the four answers 
which the majority give. 

There is no question but bulletins made 
for school helps are useful, help teacher, 
pupil and library; but we are all studying to 
do away with suggestions of a school atmos- 
phere in our rooms, as far as possible, so, 
primarily, these bulletins should give pleas- 
ure. They offer a strong point of contact 
between the children and the librarian, and 
if too strongly labelled with "school work," 
do we not rob the child of the one place 
where he could have the indescribable charm 
of learning what his natural tastes prompt 
him to acquire? It is easy enough in our 
libraries to teach without calling it teaching. 
Again, a bulletin to "advertise our books," 
especially new ones, seems misdirected en- 
ergy, as the new books are always eagerly 
sought and there is often need of checking 
in some way the desire for the new just be- 
cause it is new. If the books to which the 
attention is directed by the bulletins enlarge 
the child's experience, well and good, but we 
do not need to post a bulletin merely to cir- 
culate the books or with the feeling of ad- 
vertisement in any sense of the word. 

* Report prepared for Club of Children's Libra- 
rians, for presentation at Waukesba Conference of 
American Library Association, July, 1901. 

Question 2. Are these bulletins used only 
to illustrate books owned by the library or 
are they general, commemorating anniver- 
saries, etc. ? 

The majority of bulletins seem of the most 
general character book bulletins, illustra- 
tions of school work, holidays and anniver- 
saries especially dear to childhood. Miss 
Putnam, of the library at Los Angeles, offers 
a most serviceable suggestion in her guide to 
the books in the children's room : "This is 
composed of pictures, each representing a 
book, clipped from the publisher's catalogs, 
each author kept separate, mounted on large 
sheets of tagboard, and when the author's pic- 
ture, call number, criticism of books are 
added, the sheets are kept on the tables for 
the children's use." At Detroit there is con- 
stantly on the walls a bulletin board about 
28 x 32 in. covered with dark green burlap, 
on which are placed lists of books, pictures of 
their authors, illustrations, current events, 
public affairs, etc., not of sufficient interest to 
demand a separate bulletin. Some change is 
made in this every week, keeping two lists of 
books, taking down one and moving the other 
as a fresh list is added. 

Question 3. Of what material and by whom 
are your bulletins made? 

The best material is classified clippings and 
pictures from duplicate magazines and illus- 
trated papers. Braun & Cie photographs, 
Perry prints, bird portraits from Chapman's 
"Bird manual," and from Birds and All Na- 
ture, Fitzroy prints and Perkins' Mother 
Goose pictures can also be used to advantage. 
Card board can be obtained at slight cost, in 
some cities at $4.20 per hundred. Pulp board, 
book cover paper and charcoal paper, all can 
be utilized for this purpose. Where the book 
cases are low enough to admit of it, red 
denim stretched above the top of the cases 
makes an effective background for the bulle- 
tins. Where the cases are five feet in height 
this is not practicable, as the pictures must 
be opposite the eyes of our small readers. 



[April, 1902 

In the Providence Public Library an excel- 
lent substitute for this is in the shape of a 
six-panelled mahogany bulletin surrounding 
the large circular pillar in the center of the 
room. The mahogany serves as an excellent 
frame to the panel and the many sides offer 
opportunities for a series of bulletins on a 
given subject, each simple in itself and con- 
veying one idea to the child, which seems far 
preferable to us than trying to crowd all on 
one bulletin. 

Other libraries use a stationary framework 
across the tables, with glass each side, so that 
pictures may be slipped in between. 

At Minneapolis Public Library an interest- 
ing experiment was tried with success by 
Mrs. Ellison. Arrangements were made with 
the Director of Drawing to have the pupils 
furnish the picture bulletins, Mrs. Ellison 
furnishing the subjects and doing the refer- 
ence work. 

The making of bulletins in most cases de- 
volves on the children's librarian, but we 
hear from several libraries where different 
members of the staff take their turn, all 
showing a keen interest in gathering ma- 

Questions 4 and 5. Do you have more than 
one bulletin at a time? Have you noticed 
any poor results from exhibiting more than 
one at a time? 

The returns as to this point were not all 
that had been hoped. Two bulletins seem to 
be an accepted number, but more than that 
a question. We do not desire to confuse our 
children, or to detract in value from a bulle- 
tin when once posted, and most certainly not 
to cheapen our rooms ; but if the standard is 
held high in each case, the number would not 
matter. Take for instance a hero bulletin. 
Here is a wealth of material which over- 
whelms us, and even when we have selected 
with the utmost thought our heroes and 
placed them side by side, we realize we have 
more or less of a jumble and have not told 
our story simply enough. Some division is 
absolutely necessary. We saw a bulletin on 
this subject grouped under three excellent 
heads : When all the world was young ; In the 
glorious days of chivalry; Heroes of modern 
times. We should like to adopt this sugges- 
tion, but instead of one, offer three bulletins, 
as a safeguard against confusion. 

Question 6. Can you show by citing cases 
that this picture work is of sufficient practi- 
cal use to the children to pay for time and 
money spent? 

One library and this is an eastern one 
gives us an encouraging, inspiring reply: 
"Case after case, actually hundreds of letters 
from teachers thanking us for the work." A 
general summary of reports from all the 
libraries shows an increased demand for the 
books on the subject posted. The perfectly 
evident pleasure of the little ones in the mere 
looking, to say nothing of their joy in telling 
at one time or another something they have 
seen before, shows with what keenness they 
observe. At the Buffalo Public Library there 
have been on exhibition some excellent sil- 
houtte pictures made by cutting figures, trees, 
etc., from black paper and pasting them on 
white backgrounds. "The pied piper" was 
one subject illustrated. To appreciate this 
it should be understood that the figure of the 
piper and of each little rat, some not more 
than a half inch high, were cut with scissors, 
without any drawing whatever. These were 
labelled "Scissors pictures. Can you make 
them?" When they had been up a week, one 
of the boys, 14 years old, brought in four, 
one of which was better in composition than 
any of those exhibited. This was posted as 
showing what one boy had done, and this boy 
is studying drawing and designing this sum- 
mer, with good promise. Another library 
cites a case in relation to school work, where 
the superintendent of schools offered rewards 
in each school of five of Landseer's pictures 
for the best five compositions on Landseer and 
his work. A collection of his pictures was 
gathered, a bulletin made with lists, which at 
once attracted the boys and girls, set many 
earnestly to work who would not otherwise 
have given it much thought, and finally re- 
ceived the hearty commendation of the super- 
intendent. Miss Clarke, of Evanston, says: 
"We have no children's room, and have not 
done enough of bulletin work to be able to 
speak very surely of results." Yet she can give 
us this, which speaks for itself : "An Indian ex- 
hibit which we gave, where among the Indian 
curios and Navajo blankets I had all our books 
on Indian life and customs and our best In- 
dian stories displayed, aroused a great demand 
for the books. I kept the list of Indian books 

April, 1902] 



and stories posted for some months, and it 
was worn out and had to be replaced by a 
new copy, owing to its constant use. Our 
boys at that time really read a great deal of 
good literature on the subject, including Mrs. 
Custer's books and those by Grinnell and 
Lummis." These are but a few of the many 
interesting illustrations, yet we all know there 
is a great part of our work of which we can 
see no results, but if these bulletins beautify 
the room, offer some new thought to the 
child and give pleasure, then the time and 
work spent on them is a small factor, and 
even in that we are the gainers, as we un- 
consciously acquire in the making of these 
bulletins much general information, and an 
ability to present subjects in their relative 
value to each other which is invaluable. 

Question 7. Are these bulletins allowed to 
circulate ? 

In most cases, no. Several libraries allow 
them to go to schools and a few make dupli- 
cates for both library and school, and in In- 
dianapolis the bulletins are sent to other li- 
braries in the state. This should prove very 
helpful to small libraries which are open but 
a few hours in the week. The bulletins may 
wear out, but a bulletin once planned, three- 
quarters of the work is accomplished, and it 
is little labor to make the duplicate one. 

Questions. Please describe the exhibit 
which has proved of the greatest interest in 
the past year. 

We wish that time and space would allow 
a repetition of all the replies to this question. 
Miss Hewins says : "The exhibit which has 
proved of the greatest interest is on Queen 
Victoria. Within an hour after we heard the 
news of her death we had the bulletin for her 
last birthday and 40 portraits of her on our 
walls. I made one bulletin on her for the 
children out at Settlement Branch, and gave 
them a little talk about her. In this bulletin 
there were pictures of the dolls' house and 
toys that she gave the nation, and I told the 
children how careful she must have been of 
them to be able to keep them so many years, 
and something about how careful she was 
taught to be also of her spending money, and 
that even although she was a princess and 
lived in a palace, she never could buy any- 
thing until she had the money to pay for it. 
I made a Stevenson bulletin for them on his 

birthday, and we had Stevenson songs and 
a talk about him and his childhood, his lov- 
ableness, courage and cheerfulness." At Buf- 
falo the most popular exhibit was one illus- 
trating the changes of the last century, tak- 
ing the post-office methods, transportation of 
all kinds, i.e., carriages, boats, railroads, elec- 
tricity in all its uses and those which could 
be appreciated by the children guns, life- 
saving methods, diving, etc. In each instance 
an old and a new type was shown. The chil- 
dren swarmed around the boards every day for 
the two months it was up, one of the pages 
who was interested in numbers having counted 
60 an hour. Nature exhibits are always popular 
with the children. "Our own birds" was the 
title of a bird-day bulletin at Evanston. A 
green poster board, on which were tied 
bunches of pussy-willows, among whose twigs 
were perched some of the common birds 
around Evanston, was used. The plates used 
were the nature study bird plates, brightly 
colored, which were cut out and pasted on 
the board in such a way that the effect was 
very lifelike. Much the same idea was car- 
ried out in Providence, only in this library 
the title is "Procession of the birds and 
flowers," each bird being added as it arrives. 
At the same time in the class room adjoin- 
ing this library there was an exhibit of 150 
photographs called "Joy in springtime," all 
being charming pictures of flowers, birds and 
happy children, with appropriate selections 
of poetry affixed. The long windows were 
hung with transparencies, a framework being 
built in which to slide the transparencies, that 
they may be changed from time to time. In- 
vitations were sent to all the schools, and the 
exhibit was a great delight to the little ones. 
Miss Moore, of Pratt, tells of a picture bulle- 
tin illustrating life in Porto Rico and a com- 
panion bulletin illustrating the Porto Rican 
village at Glen Island (a summer resort ac- 
cessible to the children), with objects such 
as water jugs, cooking utensils made from 
gourds, etc., a hat in the process of making, 
musical instruments made from gourds, such 
as were used by the native band at Glen Isl- 
and. The objects were carefully selected 
with the aid of the gentleman who instituted 
the village at Glen Island, and who had made 
a study of the country and people of Porto 
Rico. "The bulletin led not so much to the 



[April, 1902 

reading of books, because there are few on 
the subject, but it gave the children a very 
clear idea of the manner of living of the 
Porto Ricans and drew the attention of many 
visitors to Glen Island, as an educational 
point as well as a pleasure resort." 

Question 9. Do you do anything with Perry 
pictures, scrap books, etc., for the little chil- 

At Medford scrap books are made by the 
children themselves, much to their delight. 
Several librarians make their own scrap books, 
Miss Hammond, of St. Paul, sending per- 
haps the best description of work of this na- 
ture. For the little children she always keeps 
on hand several scrap books made from worn 
out books, by Howard Pyle and Walter Crane. 
Other scrap books enjoyed alike by the older 
children and the little ones are "Colonial pic- 
tures" and "Arctic explorers," the last espe- 
cially liked by the boys. Miss Hammond also 
cuts whole articles from discarded magazines, 
putting on heavy paper covers, labelling and 
arranging in a case according to subject for 
the use of teachers and pupils. 

Question 10. Mention five examples of pic- 
tures suitable for a children's library. 

The pictures suggested are given in order, 
according to the number of votes assigned tc 
each one: 

Raphael, Sistine Madonna, 6 

Watts, Sir Galahad, 6 

Guido Reni, Aurora, 4 

Bonheur, Horse fair, 4 

King Arthur, 
(Chapel of Inn- 

spruck), 3 

Corot, Landscape, 3 

Hardie, Meeting of Scott and 

Burns, 2 

St. Gaudens, Shaw monument, 2 

Murillo, Children of the shell, 2 

Stuart, Washington, 2 

VanDyck, Baby Stuart, 2 

The selection of these pictures must, of 
course, depend on the library, but there are a 
few other suggestions which are worthy of 
mention : 
Regnault, Automedon and the horse of 


Raphael's Madonna of the chair. 
Reynolds, Penelope Boothby. 
Question n. In preparing your lists of 

books to accompany bulletin, do you prepare 
an analytical list or refer to book only? 

An analytical list seems preferable where 
any list is used, although some librarians seem 
to question the advantage of lists. Miss 
Brown, of Eau Claire, says : "I have, however, 
decided for myself that the bulletin that pays 
is the one which tells something of itself and 
has no long list of books. If the child is in- 
terested in the bulletin it is no sign that he 
will take a book listed, but if he gets a fact 
from looking at it he has gained something 
and you lose the bad effect of having him get 
into the habit of skipping the books on the 
bulletin, which he usually does." On the 
other hand, lists help the systematic reader 
and relieve the librarian. 

In closing we will quote a criticism of an 
eastern librarian, as a thought on which we 
all need to dwell : "From the artistic point 
of view such bulletins as I have seen are 
commonly too scrappy, ill arranged and given 
too much to detail. One or two pictures on 
a large card, with a brief descriptive note, all 
conveying one idea or emphasizing one point 
only, is the best form. In bulletins, as in 
many other things, the rule to follow first 
of all is simplicity." 


A LOCAL library club on somewhat novel 
lines has been formed in the organization, 
on March 13, of the East St. Louis (111.) 
Library Club. This is intended solely for 
co-operative work by the East St. Louis Pub- 
lic Library and the teachers in the local 
schools, and its immediate undertaking will 
be the preparation of select reading lists for 
the use of children and young people, espe- 
cially those who have been obliged to leave 
school at an early age, and have not become 
familiar with the use of the Public Library. 
Members of the club are expected to give ad- 
vice and guidance in reading, and to bring the 
library in every way practicable to the atten- 
tion of school children. An executive com- 
mittee, with H. F. Woods, librarian of the 
Public Library, as chairman, has been ap- 
pointed to prepare the graded reading lists 
desired. The foundation of such a club had 
been discussed at several preliminary meet- 
ings of the city school superintendent and 
principals with Mr. Wood, and the organ- 
ization meeting was a large and enthusiastic 
gathering of principals and teachers. James 
P. Slade was elected president, to serve for 
one year. 

April, 1902] 




James Sully, in International Monthly. 

NOTWITHSTANDING the many good things 
achieved by child-study it can hardly hope to 
avoid the critic's salutary castigation. It is, 
alas, the way of enthusiasm to swell into tur- 
gid exaggerations and expectations. Further, 
it is to be looked for that a movement like 
child-study, which has broadened out into a 
wide, popular current, should take on some- 
thing of shallowness here and there. The ill- 
prepared amateur has been rather too promi- 
nent, the scientifically trained student not 
prominent enough. Given fervid zeal and de- 
fective training in the student, any study is 
pretty sure to yield a certain crop of absurdi- 
ties ; and the worst of it is that when a move- 
ment like child-study has gained volume and 
momentum, the guiding hand of the connois- 
seur, even when gently proffered, is wont to 
be roughly declined as a restraint. Critical 
advice will be rejected as "uninspiring." 

The common mode of inquiry by setting 
questions to numbers of children and young 
persons and collecting the answers can have 
but little if any scientific value. For one 
thing, it is open to the objection that applies 
to every form of questioning, that we cannot 
be sure of obtaining an honest "shelling out" 
of the inner self in answer to our question. 
Of this more presently. Another objection 
is that the particular points investigated in the 
"questionnaire" are apt to be small and unim- 
portant. How much dp we learn of child- 
nature when we ascertain that a certain pro- 
portion of children of a particular country 
and class think George Washington or the 
Duke of Wellington the biggest of the world's 
heroes? Whatever statistical reasoning is 
carried out on the basis of such observations 
could, one imagines, have, at best, only an 
ethnological or sociological value. A study of 
the various forms of the doll-cult among dif- 
ferent races has, as we know, an ethnological 
significance. A comparison of the ideas and 
sentiments of different classes of English chil- 
dren at this moment with respect, say, to the 
right and wrong of the war in South Africa, 
would possibly be interesting as bringing out 
certain differences in the intellectual and 
moral atmosphere of the homes of these 
classes. The most likely direction for ob- 
taining useful results here would seem to be 
the elucidation of the mental differences of 
the two sexes. Yet the difficulty of making 
sure that we are evoking children's ideas and 
feelings is a formidable obstacle to our ac- 
quiring certain knowledge in this domain of 
inquiry. . . . 

Yet experimenting on a child's mind has its 
serious risks. An untrained person is pretty 
certain, when "teasing" the young mind, to go 
wrong by overlooking this and that influence 
which he has introduced and the effect of 
which makes the meaning of the result other 
than he supposes it to be. To go back to the 
simple experiment of a question : the supposi- 

tion that a child's answer to your question will 
certainly give you his net idea or his unadul- 
terated feeling shows a touching simplicity of 
faith. When you take up the attitude of ques- 
tioner he will be apt to take up the attitude 
of one who wants to know what sort of an 
answer you are in pursuit of, whether from 
the amiable desire of giving it to you, or, as 
may happen with the "contrary" sort of child, 
from the less amiable wish to baffle or "dish" 
you. In this way he may, without having a 
clear intention to deceive you, mislead you as 
to the character of his real ideas and feelings. 

In addition to these sources of error in par- 
ticular cases, there is in much of this question- 
ing of children a tendency to induce in the 
unformed mind a precocious habit of "intro- 
spection," of digging up, so to speak, and ex- 
amining its thoughts and feelings. The de- 
velopment of such a habit must be fatal to all 
our attempts to get at child-nature, for the 
very good reason that this, in its genuine and 
characteristic modes of working, has ceased to 
be. A child that has begun to think about 
his fears, his preferences, and so forth as a 
matter of importance, since you care to ask 
him about them, has begun unconsciously to 
transform them, so that you can no longer 
get into touch with them in their original 
form. . . . 

One warning seems necessary as a last 
word on the subject. The parent and the 
teacher must not suppose that child-study, 
even after it has been greatly improved, will 
meet all their wants when they take on them- 
selves the weighty business of educating chil- 
dren. Much of the extravagant talk of the 
advocates of this child-study seem to imply 
that the whole problem of training a child 
consists in understanding its nature. This 
idea has come to us from Rousseau, who, by 
the way, had the courage of his convictions, 
and bade the would-be trainer stand by 
and allow the child to unfold himself in na- 
ture's own beautiful way. Rousseau urged 
the need of a careful study of the child in 
order that we might not clumsily interfere 
with this natural self-development. It is to 
be feared that this idea of being merely a 
handmaid of nature in her work of unfolding 
child-nature lurks to-day in the twilight back- 
ground of many a parent's consciousness. 
Teachers, too, though they cannot but see how 
Rousseau's theory leaves no room for their 
work, are, I believe, still infected with this 
idea of studying nature in order to follow her 
as though she were supreme. 

Those who reflect even but little know how 
far this is from being an adequate view of the 
educator's task. To try to educate a child 
means surely to work for the consummation 
of human development, for the fruition of 
the full potency of manhood. If, then, we are 
bold enough to essay the work, we must have 
at the outset a clear conception of the make 
of this high man-soul which we wish to help 
in forming, and we need to make and to keep 
the conception very clear. That would be a 



[April, 1902 

fatal day for a community in which its educa- 
tors became wholly preoccupied with problems 
of child-study. The ideal conceptions, too, 
of a wise man, of one strong yet gentle, and 
the rest, need to be considered and reconsid- 
ered. The whole of ethical literature, ancient 
and modern, cannot supply us with such 
firmly drawn outlines of the ideal types of hu- 
man character that we parents and teachers 
have nothing to do for ourselves in the way 
of hard reflection. Nor can we blame the 
writers as if they had omitted something. 
For ethics is bound to treat of the virtuous 
man in a somewhat abstract manner, to as- 
sume that every individual may be trained to 
grow into one and the same type of person- 
ality. We know, every experienced parent or 
teacher knows, that the problem of training 
is often made grievously hard just because 
human nature is so various, because it seems 
almost impossible for us to say beforehand 
what is the best, so carefully hidden away, as 
it often seems, in the boy and girl ; or what 
is the ideal self which has never been before, 
and will not be now if we fail to discern the 
rich diversity of human excellence, and the 
hints of their potential realization which may 
announce themselves only in faint, fugitive 
flashes in the raw, unformed child-soul. 

Nor is this all. The world is ever moving 
on and the spirit of the age becomes a new 
one. In the common consciousness of a com- 
munity, that reflected, say by our better class 
of journals and our imaginative literature, 
new types of the admirable emerge and get 
accentuated. At this moment new modifica- 
tions of the idea of the "fine man" may be de- 
tected, among which the trinity of virtues 
smartness, strength and daring, the sure harb- 
ingers of "success in life," is conspicuous. 
These changes in our conception of what sort 
of character is desirable will affect the ideas 
of the parent and teacher. Half unknowingly, 
perhaps, the mother of to-dav is aiming at 
preparing her boy to take his place in society 
as it is, and that means at fashioning him 
after society's standards. Those who aspire 
to the high dignity of the educator must care- 
fully guard themselves against the insidious 
influence of the vulgar extollings of the hour. 
Let them remember the words of Kant: "Pa- 
rents usually educate their children in such a 
manner that however bad the world may be, 
they may adapt themselves to its present con- 
ditions. But they ought to give them an edu- 
cation so much better than this, that a better 
condition of things may thereby be brought 
about in the future." 

I take it that there is a special behest laid 
on us just now to raise our ideals in educa- 
tion. It is not necessary to say that we have 
fallen on a day of vulgar aims and lowered 
standards of life. It is enough to remind the 
reader that the air is full, as, perhaps, it has 
been full before, of the worship of what is 
not the best, not the best attainable ; full, too, 
alas, of a cynical laughter at any suggestion 
of aspiring to this higher moral level. The 

minds of the young come at an alarmingly 
early age in contact with the newspapers and 
magazines which reflect this worship of the 
less worthy. What chance, then, of our chil- 
dren growing up so as to help to bring about 
"a better condition of things" ? Shall we trust 
in these days to the pulpit to neutralize the 
effect of the worse features of the popular 
temper? It may suffice to say that this would 
be risky. If the parent and teacher fail to 
hold up the standard of a "nobler good" we 
can have no assurance that our children will 
ever get near it. One cannot ignore the fact 
that there is much in the state of education at 
this moment to make one feel uneasy on this 
point. The moral training of the home, the 
most vital of influences, is apt in these days 
to be shirked, and where it is undertaken 
with some degree of seriousness hardly es- 
capes the lowering effect of easy popular 
standards. Teachers, again, with the pressure 
of the examiner and the inspector ever behind 
them, have but little time to consider any 
more remote end than school-successes. It is 
to be added that in this scientific age the tend- 
ency of thought about education with parents 
and teachers alike will be towards child-study 
rather than towards any thoughtful recon- 
struction of ideals of character. 


From lecture on "The choice of books for children," 

by Charles Welch. 

EVERY teacher knows that the brightest and 
aptest pupils are, generally speaking, the chil- 
dren who read the best books at home. In- 
deed, what the children read out of school is 
perhaps more important than what they read 
in school, for they will read of their own 
choice the books they like, and the books we 
like are the books which influence us. 
"Books," as Bulwer says, "suggest thoughts, 
thoughts become motives, motives prompt to 
action. Man is a complicated piece of ma- 
chinery. Hundreds of nerves and muscles 
must act and react for the slightest turn of 
the body. Yet the very wind of a word, a 
casual hint or association, can set the whole 
in motion and produce an action. Actions 
repeated form habits, and determine the char- 
acter, fixed and firm and immovable for good 
or for evil." 

As soon as the child has acquired the power 
of getting at the sense of the printed page, 
the taste for the good or the bad in litera- 
ture may begin to grow, and it may do so 
even while he is acquiring this power. Then 
he enters on the perilous path so well de- 
scribed by Mrs. Browning in "Aurora Leigh" : 

"To thrust his own way, he, an alien, through 
The world of books. . . . The world of books is 

still the world; 

The worldlings in it are less merciful 
And more puissant. For the wicked there 
Are winged like angels. Every knife that strikes 
Is edged with elemental fire to assail a spiritual 


Many of the public libraries do a great 
work in guiding children's reading, but hun- 

April, 1902] 



dreds of thousands of parents need enlighten- 
ment as to the right books to place in the 
way of their boys and girls. To direct pa- 
rents how wisely to choose the books their 
children should read is a problem well worth 
attention, and it is far more important than 
most people are apt to consider it. Not only 
are there the vicious books which children 
find on the newsstands, or which are brought 
to their attention by other means, but there 
is a vast quantity of weak and frivolous ma- 
terial not precisely or immediately harmful, 
perhaps, but which ought to give place to 
stronger, sounder, and more healthful mental 

The reading of newspapers and magazines, 
for example, which are placed almost un- 
reservedly in the hands of children all over 
the country, tends to beget a loose habit of 
mind, and to weaken the power of sustained 
concentration in reading. Many and many 
a grown up person has had cause to regret 
the hours of useless reading which he has 
frittered away, thus destroying his power of 
getting at the content of more valuable works 
with which, when it is too late, he desires to 
make himself familiar. 

The influence that indiscriminate news- 
paper and novel reading has in presenting 
distorted views of human life, of human en- 
vironment, and of human character, it is 
scarcely possible to realize. Many a boy and 
girl is in a constant state of expecting some- 
thing to turn up which will change their 
lives in some wonderful way, after the fashion 
of some story they have read, and they are 
thus made more or less unfitted for the prac- 
tical realities of life and for the everyday 
conditions which surround them. Instead of 
manfully obeying the old English motto, "Do 
the next thing," they are always waiting for 
some great and unexpected turn of fortune 
which will place them beyond their present 
surroundings in some lofty imagined sphere. 
As John Ruskin says : "The best romance be- 
comes dangerous if by its excitement it ren- 
ders the ordinary course of life uninteresting, 
and increases the morbid thirst for scenes 
in which we shall never be called upon to 

Few people to-day ever think of opening 
the pages of Southey's "Doctor," but there 
is a passage to be found there on the influ- 
ence of books which is worthy of printing in 
letters of gold. He says : "Would you know 
whether the tendency of a book is good or 
evil, examine in what state of mind you lay 
it down. If it induces you to suspect that 
what you have been accustomed to think un- 
lawful may, after all, be innocent, and that 
that may be harmless which you have hitherto 
been taught to think dangerous ... if so 
. . . throw the book into the fire, whatever 
name it may bear upon the title-page. Throw 
it into the fire, young man ! Young lady, 
away with the whole set, although it should 
be the prominent feature in a rosewood book- 
case !" 



From "The trend of university and college educa- 
tion in the United States." by William R. Har- 
per; in North American Review, April, 1902. 

THE place occupied by libraries and labora- 
tories in the educational work of to-day, as 
compared with that of the past, is one of 
commanding importance. Indeed, the library 
and the laboratory have already practically 
revolutionized the methods of higher educa- 
tion. In the really modern institution, the 
chief building is the library, with the stacks 
for storage purposes, the reading room, the 
offices of delivery, the rooms for seminar 
purposes; it is the center of the institutional 
activity. The librarian is one of the most 
learned members of the faculty; in many in- 
stances, certainly, the most influential. Lec- 
tures are given by him on bibliography, and 
classes are organized for instruction in the use 
of books. The staff of assistants in the li- 
brary is larger even than was the entire fac- 
ulty of the same institution thirty years ago. 
Volumes are added at the rate of thousands 
in a single year. The periodical literature of 
each department is on file. The building is 
open day and night. It is, in fact, a labora- 
tory; for here now the students, likewise the 
professors, who cannot purchase for them- 
selves the books which they must have, spend 
the larger portion of their lives. A greater 
change from the old order can hardly be con- 
ceived. The days are coming when, in addi- 
tion to the library of an institution, each 
group of closely related departments will have 
its separate departmental library. This will 
include the books in most common use, the 
maps and charts of special value. It is true 
that the cost of administration will be great, 
but the need will be still greater. The stu- 
dent of the future will do little of his work 
in the study; he must be in the midst of 
books. No ordinary student can afford to 
own one book in a hundred of those which he 
may wish at any moment to consult. As the 
scholar, though having thousands of volumes 
in his own library, must find his way to the 
libraries of the Old World when he wishes 
to do work of the highest character, so the 
student, though having hundreds of volumes 
in his own room, must do his work in the 
departmental library of the institution. His 
work must be done where, without a moment's 
delay, without the mediation of the zealous li- 
brarian, who may think more of the book than 
of its use, he may place his hand upon that 
one of 10,000 or 20,000 books which he de- 
sires to use. Some of us will see the day 
when, in every division of study, there will 
be professors of bibliography and methodol- 
ogy, whose function will be to teach men 
books and how to use them. The equipment 
of the library will not be finished until it 
shall have upon its staff men and women 
whose entire work shall be, not the care of 
books, not the cataloging of books, but the 



[April, 1902 

giving of instruction concerning their use. 
That factor of college work, the library, fifty 
years ago almost unknown, to-day already the 
center of the institution's intellectual activ- 
ity, half a century hence, with its sister, the 
laboratory, almost equally unknown fifty years 
ago, will have absorbed all else, and will 
have become the institution itself. . . . 

The libraries and the laboratories with 
their equipment might be said to constitute the 
outside of educational work. But that would 
be only partially true. When we realize that 
the method and spirit of the work are largely 
determined by these outside factors, we may 
consent to allow them a place on the inside. 


AN interesting argument for the public li- 
brary as a component part of the public school 
system is given in the brief for the appellee, 
submitted in the case of the Board of Educa- 
tion of Covington, Ky., now pending against 
the trustees of the Public Library of that city. 
The suit rests upon the contention of the Board 
of Education that the law granting an appro- 
priation of three per cent, of the school levy in 
cities of the second class in Kentucky for the 
maintenance of a free public library "is un- 
constitutional, on the ground that the library 
is no part of our educational system, and that 
said appropriation is a diversion of the pro- 
ceeds of taxation from the purpose for which 
it was imposed." A decision was rendered in 
favor of the Public Library, on the ground 
that the legislature had made the public li- 
brary a part of the public school system of 
the city, and the case was then carried to the 
Court of Appeals. 

In the brief for the appellee it is pointed 
out that "this appeal presents the anomaly of 
a Board of Education protesting against an 
act of the legislature which marks an epoch 
in the history of the progress and develop- 
ment of the public educational system of Ken- 
tucky; an act which incorporates with that 
system the one element necessary to its com- 
pleteness and efficiency; an element which 
has always been considered absolutely essen- 
tial to education, and without which no pri- 
vate educational institution, from the univer- 
sity down to the most unpretentious academy, 
can be conceived to exist." A general sum- 
mary is given of the legislation existing in 
relation to libraries and schools, with cita- 
tions from the laws of Arizona, Colorado, 
Florida, Maryland, Ohio and other states 
which provide for the establishment of school 
libraries or public libraries maintained from 
school taxes. The Kentucky act is an out- 
growth and development of the earlier laws 
of the state relating to distinct libraries ; ac- 
cording to its provisions "the free public li- 

* Kentucky Court of Appeals: Board of Education 
of Covington, Ky., plaintiff, vs. Trustees of Public 
Library, defendant. Brief for appellee, H. C. Thies- 
sen, attorney for appellee. 

braries of cities of the second class are not 
made dependent upon the school fund entirely, 
but other sources contribute to its mainte- 
nance; in consideration of which it is free to 
all the citizens. But it must be clearly un- 
derstood that the library is a school institu- 
tion, and that it is the city that comes to the 
aid of a school institution, and not the school 
coming to the aid of a merely municipal in- 

"The argument of appellant is based upon 
the idea that the public library is not at all 
or not sufficiently connected with public edu- 
cation to justify an appropriation of part of 
the school fund to its support and mainte- 
nance. The foregoing citations, however, 
show that all legislation in relation to free 
public libraries had its origin in the idea that 
the library is essential to the success of the 
public school system, and they show that all 
legislation relating to free public libraries be- 
gan with the district school library and is 
nothing but a development of the district 
school library laws." 

The Kentucky law at first placed the public 
library under the control of the Board of Edu- 
cation, but by the amendatory act of 1898 it 
was placed under the direction and control 
of a board of five trustees, and at the same 
time the appropriation was increased from 
one per cent, to three per cent, of the net 
amount of taxes levied annually in the city 
for school purposes. "The fact that the man- 
agement is now vested in an independent 
board of trustees does not in any manner alter 
the case. The legislature can take away the 
management of the whole school system from 
one board and vest it in another body ; or 
vest part of it in one board and part in an- 
other. If the legislature thinks that any part 
of the public school system can be better man- 
aged by some board other than the regular 
Board of Education, it has the power to order 
accordingly. The wisdom of the change in 
our very city has been attested by magnifi- 
cent results. Our present board of trustees 
has by its efforts secured by donation alone 
the sum of $75,000." The work done by 
public libraries in aid of school studies is 
described, with many citations from the 
LIBRARY JOURNAL, World's Congress papers, 
Journal of Education, and elsewhere ; and 
in conclusion Mr. Thiessen says : "I have 
not undertaken to prove that a library is 
an essential part of all education, but my 
aim was to show that the free public libra- 
ries of the United States had their origin 
in the public schools, and that, although the 
privileges of these libraries have been ex- 
tended to all citizens of the district or city, 
that nevertheless these libraries have contin- 
ued to be considered or conducted as part of 
the public school system. It seems to me that 
if the legislature has the right to impose any 
taxation in aid of a public library, it is pre- 
cisely because of its educational character. 
Municipal expenditures for library purposes 
can be justified upon no other ground." 

April, 1902] 




THE lists of books chosen for school use 
issued by the public libraries of Buffalo and 
Evanston are interesting evidence of the way 
in which the public library's relation to the 
public schools is being constantly developed 
and strengthened. These are the most nota- 
ble publications of the sort, since the issue of 
the "Graded and annotated list" of the Car- 
negie Library of Pittsburgh, and they will 
take place with that among the working tools 
of children's and school librarians. 

Although intended for practically the same 
use, there is some difference in the aim and 
scope of each list. The Buffalo list seems to 
provide more fully for the use of books by the 
teacher and in school work; while in the 
Evanston list the selection of books for gen- 
eral and home reading is a strong point. Each 
list is graded, though in a different arrange- 
ment, and each contains an author-and-title 

The Buffalo list is in four divisions : graded 
author lists, from the first to the ninth grades 
(27 p.) ; author-title list (26 p) ; subject index 
to books in graded list (65 p.) ; and "Books 
suggested for reference libraries in public 
schools" (200 titles). In the first and last 
divisions publisher, price and series are noted ; 
and in the author-title list the grades to which 
books are assigned are indicated. Books given 
in two or more grades are repeated in each 
grade list. There are no annotations, that 
feature being in a measure supplied by the 
subject index. This index is interesting and 
suggestive, and represents much careful ana- 
lytic work. Naturally the majority of the en- 
tries are analytic, and in the case of such se- 
lections as Holmes' "Old Ironsides," Lin- 
coln's "Gettysburg address," etc., half a dozen 
or more references are given. A wide va- 
riety of subjects is represented, ranging 
through biography, history, nature, science, 
holidays, different countries, useful arts and 
games; and an attractive, though not essen- 
tial, feature is the selection of short intro- 
ductory quotations for many subjects. Thus 
the references to Africa are headed by Mont- 
gomery's lines 

"Regions immense, unsearchable, unknown, 
Bask in the splendor of the solar zone." 

The general division of American history 
opens with Longfellow's invocation to the 
"Ship of state" ; for the French and Indian 
wars Holmes' lines, 

"The lilies withered where the lion trod," 
have been chosen, and so on. In biographical 
subject headings dates of birth and death are 
given. Analytical references indicate paging, 

* Buffalo (N. Y.) Public Library. Class-room li- 
braries for public schools, listed by grades; to 
which is added a list of books suggested for school 
reference libraries. Buffalo, February, 1902, 
134 P- O. 

Evanston (Ilj.) Free Public Library. Graded and 
annotated list of the 500 books in the school libra- 
ries. Evanston, January, 1902. 61 p. O. 

in the case of collections or composite books. 
Subjects in American history and biography 
are most fully given, but care has been taken 
to cover other topics sufficiently, and to give 
stories and poems as well as descriptive lit- 
erature. Thus, for Austria-Hungary the ref- 
erences are to Benedict's "Stories of persons 
and places in Europe," p. 252; Brooks' ac- 
count of Kossuth, in his "Story of the iQth 
century" ; Mrs. Jackson's "Salzburg," in "Bits 
of travel" ; Knox's "Boy travellers in central 
Europe," Stevens' "Around the world on a 
bicycle" ; Miss Yonge's "Book of golden 
deeds"; and Adelaide Proctor's poem, "Leg- 
end of Bregenz." The permanent usefulness 
of this index, as a prompt and exact guide to 
reading on special topics, for school or home 
use, will be at once apparent. Perhaps the 
only criticism to be made is that the selection 
is limited in some directions and too com- 
plaisant in others. Thus, among others, we 
miss Bynner's "Zachary Phips," Kingsley's 
"Hereward," and Doyle's "White company" 
and "Refugee," for whose absence the noble 
army of "Boy travellers" can hardly make 
amends. For a story of Shakespeare's time 
we are given Imogen Clark's slight tale, "Will 
Shakespeare's little lad," while John Ben- 
nett's charming story "Master Skylark" is ab- 
sent ; and surely some of Hawthorne's "Twice- 
told tales" or "Mosses" might have been indi- 
cated as illustrative of New England life 
as "Main street," with its historic panorama, 
or the glimpse of "Morton of Merrymount." 
On the other hand, the Abbott books, 
Church's adaptations, the "Zigzag journeys," 
"Boy travellers" and others of that ilk have 
perhaps an undue representation. For the 
200 books suggested for school reference li- 
braries there can be only praise ; it is a capital 
selection, practical and well balanced. 

The Evanston list in its main divisions cov- 
ers 500 books suggested for the first to the 
sixth grade, and available in one graded col- 
lection for school use. The arrangement is 
in a classed list, with separate grade lists in 
each class. Thus, under the class division 
"Mythology fairy tales," etc., we have five 
titles for grades 1-2, 18 titles for grades 3-4, 
15 titles for grades 4-5, and so on. There is 
no repetition of titles in the grade lists, but 
the inclusive numbering makes it possible to 
put the same book in two or more grades. 
Following this list is a classed list of refer- 
ence books for children; three lists of "Good 
stories of adventure for boys," "Good stories 
for girls from 12 to 13," and "Stories of In- 
dians and cowboys;" and an author-and-title 
index to the graded list. As the graded list 
goes only to the sixth grade, it is more dis- 
tinctly of children's books than the Buffalo 
list. The selection is creditable, and there 
are good compact annotations. Of course 
there are always titles that one looks for and 
does not find, and here we miss Stevenson's 
"Child's garden of verse," Hughes' "Tom 
Brown at Rugby," Flora Shaw's "Castle 



[April, 1902 

Blair," Jean Ingelow's "Mopsa the fairy" 
(also absent from the Buffalo list), and other 
children's classics. The two separate lists of 
adventure stories, and stories for girls, are 
excellent. This list is the work of Miss Eliz- 
abeth Porter Clarke, assistant librarian in 
charge of reference and school work. 

A comparison and examination of these 
lists is interesting and encouraging. The 
work of book selection for children is un- 
doubtedly reaching better standards of dis- 
crimination and method, and there is evident 
a growing effort toward a working system 
for their intelligent and most efficient use. 
There remains the need of more careful se- 
lection, based upon real knowledge of the 
books ; and the courage to eschew the great 
mass of wishy-washy, superficial and com- 
monplace "juveniles," even though such a 
policy means fewer books. H. E. H. 


Prtsidtnt C. W. Eliot, in Report of Harvard Col- 
lege, 1900-01. 

THE increasing rate at which large collec- 
tions of books grow suggests strongly that 
some new policy is needed concerning the 
storage of these immense masses of printed 
matter. The university teachers in arts and 
science, asked to indicate every year the books 
which in their judgment should be freely ac- 
cessible to students in their several depart- 
ments of instruction, are content to have 
about 55,000 volumes accessible without re- 
striction to the direct handling of their stu- 
dents. These freely accessible books may be 
called the contemporary working-library for 
arts and science, or the total number of books 
which 2500 students, distributed among about 
360 courses of instruction, may be expected 
to utilize. Again, 63,673 books were bor- 
rowed from the College Library during the 
year 1900-01. It may safely be inferred from 
these figures that there is already a large mass 
of unused, or very little used, books in the 
Gore Hall collection of 367,000 volumes. 

It may be doubted whether it be wise for a 
university to undertake to store books by the 
million, when only a small proportion of the 
material stored can be in active use. Now 
that travel and the sending of books to all 
parts of the country have become safe and 
cheap, it may well be that great accumula- 
tions of printed matter will be held accessible 
at only three or four points in the country, 
the great majority of libraries contenting 
themselves with keeping on hand the books 
that are in contemporary use, giving a very 
liberal construction to the term "contempor- 
ary." If the Congressional Library, the com- 
bined libraries in New York City, and the 
combined libraries in Chicago would under- 
take to store any and all books, making them 
accessible to scholars in every part of the 
country, the function of the thousands of 

other libraries in the United States might 
safely be considerably simplified. 

In every well-conducted library, the stamped 
date, put inside of each book when it is lent, 
supplies, in the course of years, the needed 
information as to whether the book is, for 
present use, dead or alive. An examination 
of the books once in five or ten years might 
divide the unused from the used. The un- 
used might be stored in a much more com- 
pact manner than they are now, even in the 
best-arranged stacks. The card catalog of a 
great library might also be divided into two 
distinct parts the catalog of the dead and 
the catalog of the living books. When a 
card catalog numbers millions of cards, its 
daily use is greatly obstructed by the mere 
multitude of its cards, and much time is 
wasted in handling it, both by readers and 
the library staff. Such a division of the 
books in a library is repulsive to librarians, 
and to many learned men who like to think 
that all the books on their respective subjects, 
good, bad and indifferent, alive and dead, are 
assembled in one place. In a university, how- 
ever, the main object of a library must al- 
ways be to teach the rising generation of 
scholars. Whatever injures a library for the 
use of learning's new recruits should be 
avoided, but without making it impossible for 
the library to serve also the needs of veteran 


WE cannot dignify the free libraries of Cali- 
fornia as being parts of a system. There is 
no system. It is true that 50 odd libraries ex- 
ist by reason of a certain law providing for 
their establishment and support, but they are 
50 separate institutions without bond of con- 
nection or sympathy excepting as the per- 
sonality of their librarians draws them into 

A score of these libraries receive a support 
which enables them to do moderately good, 
and, in some cases, excellent work ; the others 
are meagrely sustained. 

There is no advisory supervision or sug- 
gestive assistance supplied by the state ; when- 
ever a new library is organized it must find 
its own pathway, perhaps by costly experience, 
or be content with the hints that may be 
given at the nearest library. 

There are no public libraries which supply 
books free of charge beyond their city limits. 

The library cause seems to have few friends 
who believe that it is the birthright of every 
boy and girl in the state, whether in the city 
or the country, to have the broadest possible 
education which the times afford. Public 
sentiment is inert, apathetic, profoundly in- 

And what are the local conditions of rural 

* Part of address delivered before the California 

April, 1902] 



California, in the vast area of over 150,000 
square miles? 

Look into the homes of all but the pros- 
perous. Rarely will books be found or even 
newspapers in thousands of homes ; there is 
blank, gaunt poverty of all mental resources. 
There are no book stores, no reading rooms, 
no libraries save school libraries nothing 
whatever in the large majority of California 
towns to which the boy and girl who have 
early become breadwinners can resort for 
healthful instruction and stimulus. But there 
are ample supplies of flash newspapers, weak 
novelettes and salacious stories ; the evil place 
and evil associates are in frequent evidence ; 
all these have the common aim of corrupting 
and destroying our young manhood and our 
young womanhood. 

To-day there are 28 counties in California 
with a school population of 64,000 and a total 
population of over 300,000 which do not pos- 
sess one free public library, so far as is known, 
and 18 other counties which own but one free 
library in each county. 

A good library law is indispensable to suc- 
cessful efforts in the expansion of library 
work. The new statute, passed last winter 
through the efforts of the League of Cali- 
fornia Municipalities, provides for an ap- 
pointive board of trustees, with partial change 
of membership yearly; that men and women 
are equally eligible as trustees; authorizes 
contracts between library boards and county 
supervisors for the use of travelling libra- 
ries, and allows increase of library tax in 
smaller cities from one to two mills on the 

Its distinguishing feature is the mandatory 
provision for the establishment of free libra- 
ries in all incorporated cities upon petition of 
25 per cent, of the legal voters. 

Coming directly to the discussion of impor- 
tant measures which should be undertaken to 
promote public library interests, perhaps the 
most important of all is the creation by the 
legislature of a state library commission. 

The functions of such a board would be to 
sustain advisory not supervisory relations 
with all free libraries in the state wishing 
assistance. Manifestly, its special duties 
would be to foster the founding of new libra- 
ries, extend all possible assistance to strug- 
gling libraries already established, advance 
travelling library interests, and to render 
counsel and directive aid in the settlement 
of questions constantly arising in library ad- 

All library interests in the state, of what- 
ever nature, should feel authorized to call on 
the board for expert counsel and assistance. 
Among these needs are the preparation of 
lists of new books ; information as to purchas- 
ing both old and new publications ; advice 
upon charging systems, classification and cata- 
loging, and, what is of exceeding importance, 
suggestions concerning the planning of new 
library buildings. 

Without doubt, the commission could also 

render constant valuable aid to the long-es- 
tablished system of school libraries by supply- 
ing lists of juvenile and miscellaneous works 
to the various county boards of education. 
Under the school library law these county 
boards have the sole power of adoption of 
books for their respective libraries ; many of 
these in the remote mountain counties are 
badly handicapped for lack of opportunity to 
make careful selections of publications. 

Among the many efficient library commis- 
sions, those of Massachusetts and Wisconsin 
(the latter haying a field most like our own) 
have accomplished results notable in them- 
selves and of special value to the country as 

There can be no question that when a com- 
petent library commission begins its efforts in 
California it will become a red letter occasion 
in the library annals of the state. In due 
time public confidence will be freely given to 
such a board; private benefactions will rapid- 
ly increase when it is seen that the state has 
created and will foster a system of free libra- 
ries, and, eventually, a great tide of benefits 
will be realized by the owners the people. 

Only second to the need of a library com- 
mission is our want of a school of library 
science for the training of librarians. It is 
gratifying to be able to report that the state 
university authorities have taken up this sub- 
ject after careful consideration; that they will 
probably in the near future perhaps next 
summer open a summer library school, and, 
further, will probably establish a regular li- 
brary course as part of the curriculum, when 
space can be had at a later day in the pro- 
jected library building. This also will be an 
advance of the utmost importance to the li- 
brary cause. 

The travelling library system should also 
prove an important factor in library extension 
in the state. What shall be its line of devel- 
opment in California? So important a ques- 
tion can receive but a partial reply at present. 
Briefly, travelling library legislation is to-day 
in an experimental co