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Library Journal 


Htbrarv Economy anfc Bibliography 

Vol. 36 


l v 





The work of public libraries in civic campaigns . . Purd B. Wright 3-4 

The Christinas book exhibit in libraries Mary W. Plummer 4-9 

The use of the library lecture room Samuel H. Ranck 9-14 

Pierre Bayle's dictionary Henry W. Kent 15-18 

On the college professor Lucy if. Salmon 51-54 

The psychological moment Marilla W. Freeman 55-<>2 

The library and the community Frank P. Hill 62-64 

Evening dress Merely Real Human 68-69 

The rise and distribution of literature Frederick W. Jenkins 99-111 

Two aids to library work Helen E. Haines 111-116 

The public library as a factor in civic development . Samuel H. Ranck 116-121 

Some reference books of 1910 Isadore G. Mudge 121-123 

Child welfare exhibit Ida J. Duff 125-126 

Child welfare exhibit in retrospect Georgia G. Ralph 157-161 

The standard of selection of children's books . . . Caroline Burnite 161-166 

Library work with children Henry Farr 166-171 

Outside the walls /- L. Wyer 172-177 

Class-room libraries in New York C. G. Leland 178-179 

The bibliographic work of the Library of the United 

States Bureau of Education Edward Douglas Greenman 180-181 

Story hour in Carnegie Library of Atlanta .... Julia T. Rankin 181 

What the Y. W. C. A. Library means in Brooklyn . Fanny D. Fish 181-182 

The association boy W. A. Perry 182-183 

Municipal periodical literature Clinton Rogers Woodruff 183-184 

California reading list N. if. Rttss 184-185 

Net fiction and the libraries J. I. Wyer 185-186 

Sam Walter Foss C. K. Bolton 188 

Work of the public library in Bergen. Norway . . /. Dieserud 188 

The Bogsamlingsbladet and Danish library work . . /. Dieserud 188-189 

On the establisbnent of a library J. C. Dana 189-190 

The book line (poem) Arthur Guiterman 195 

The New York Public Library John S. Billings 233-242 

The library resources of New York City and their 

increase W. Datvson Johnston 243-246 

Library clubs for boys and girls Marie H. MUliken 251-253 

Two tendencies of American library work .... Arthur E. Bostwick 275-278 

The relation of the public library to technical educa- 
tion Samuel H. Ranck 278-285 

The library as a form of extension work .... Hon. David C. Barrow 285-288 

Library publicity George E. Scroggie 289-292 

Moving the New York Public Library Harry Miller Lydenberg 296-297 

Branch library uses Oscar Leonard 299-300 

What the community owes the library; address of the 

president, American Library Association, Pasadena 

conference j am es I. Wyer, Jr. 325-328 

Effect of the commission plan of city government on 

public libraries Alice S. Tyler 328-333 

Limitations of the branch librarian's initiative . . . Cliarles H. Brown 333-336 

California county free libraries Harriet G. Eddy 336-342 

The administration of a public library, especially its 

public or municipal relations Arthur E. Bostwick 342-345 

The Pasadena exhibit of library work with children . Frances Jenkins Olcott 345-347 

How the Merced county free library system has been 

worked out Antoinette M. Humphreys 347 348 

Municipal civil service methods as affecting libraries . Judson T. Jennings 399-406 


The basis of support of organizations for public library 

work F. H. Hopper 406-410 

Classification: a brief conspectus of present library 

practice C. Martel 

Checking serial publications 

Some inconsistencies in the book binding art . 
The place of the public library in the community 

The problem of the unused book 

The state library 

The library as an aid to technical education 

Some phases of reference work 

A $5000 branch library building in Tacoma . . 
Moving the University of California Library . . 

Sources of commercial information 

The social work of the St. Louis Public Library . 
Planning for efficiency in library building . . . 

Library exams, (verse) 

Library associations and library meetings . 
Public library systems of Greater New York . 


W. R. Reinick 416-420 

John J. Pleger 4.21-422 

H. E. Haine.i 426-428 

S. H. Ranch 428-429 

Demarches C. Brown 447-45' 

George A. Houiell 451-454 

John Boynton Kaiser 454-456 

Franklin F. Hopper 457-458 

Harold L. Leupp 458-460 

Clifton B. Clapp 460-461 

A. E. Bosturick 461-463 

W. K. Stetson 467-468 

Vera Russell 470 

F rank P. Hill 487 

Dr. John S. Billings 489-492 

The literature of copyright R R. Bowker 492-496 

The library and the foreign speaking man .... Peter Roberts 496-499 

The social worker and the library F. W. Jenkins 499-500 

Symposiums on printed catalog cards Contributed by various libraries 

The Library of Congress 543-548 

Harvard University 548-SSo 

New York Public Library 55O-55J 

The John Crerar Library 551-552 

Boston Public Library 552 

Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh 552-553 

University of Chicago Library 553 

Cooperation between libraries, schools and museums . Henry W. Kent 557-560 

Organization and administration of the college library . Dr. Louis R. Wilson 560-565 

Efficiency in college and university library work . . WHlard Austen 566-569 

A new departure Mrs. Carrie E. Tucker Dracass 577 

Series number in registration Kate Wyckoff Brower 578 

Municipal reference libraries and archives . . . 
Reuben McMillan Free Library, Youngstown, Ohio 
A classification for a theological library .... 
The library of the American Geographical Society 
The multigraph and the flexotype in cataloging work 
A. L. A. analytical cards for periodical publications 

Clinton Rogers Woodruff 578-579 

Anna L, Morse 579-580 

Julia Pettee . . 611-624 

Frederick S. Dellcnbaugh 625-628 

M. L. Raney 629-632 

W. C. Lane 632-633 

As they do in Vermont Charles Knowles Bolton 633-634 

Technology and patent division of the New York 

Public Library William B. Gamble 634-635 


Library organization, 1910 I 

Library appointments I 

Library buildings I 

Agricultural libraries 2 

Report of the libran in of Congress .... 2 

A. L. A. Council meeting 49 

Affiliation of state library associations with the 

A. L. A 49 

A. L. A. secretaryship 49 

Book-buying and net fiction 49-50 

Cooperative lists 50 

Pasadena travel plans 97 

Los Angeles and San Francisco libraries . . 97 

Carnegie library gifts 97 

Canada National Library 97-98 

New York Engineering Societies Library . . 98 

Special Library Association 98 

Technical library work 98 

Pasadena travel plans 153 

Pasadena program 153 

Library week in New York City 154 

Atlantic City meeting 154 

Class-room libraries 154 

Children's reading 154-155 

Clean journalism 155 

Columbia and Harvard Universities . . . 155-156 

New York State Library fire 156 

Library Bureau 156 

New York Public Library 217-218 

New York State Library fire 218 

New Jersey Library Institute 219 

Pasadena journey 219 

Ohio librarianship and library appointments . 219-220 

Hoe private library sale 220 

Printed catalog cards 220 

Pasadena Conference 273 

Los Angeles library development .... 273-274 


Business efficiency 274 Use of Library of Congress cards by small 

Xew York Public Library opening .... 274 libraries j 542 

The Pasadena conference 321 Censorship of books . . . i 609 

Notable absentees 321 Lord Rosebery and dead books 609 

President Wyer and his successor .... 321-322 Work with penal institutions : . . . . 609-610 

The conference program 322 Chicago meetings ....,; 610 

California contributions 322 New York Public Library document collection . 610 

The Los Angeles librarianship 323 Queens Borough Public Library tjudget exhibit . 610 

Civil service appointments in the library . . 323 

Politics in Ohio State Library 323 FRONTISPIECES AND ILLUSTRAIIONS: 

Proposed change in the Council membership Jan. J. I. Wyer, Jr. 

defeated 323-324 Feb. New Bedford (Mass.) Free Public Library 

The Xew York Public Library School . . . 324 April. Reuben McMillan Free Library, Youngstown, 

Retirement of William I. Fletcher .... 324 Ohio, Children's room and Story hour room 

Xew edition of Decimal classification . . . 397 May. New York Public Library, Main Facade 

Printed catalog cards 397 New York Public Library, Rear Facade . 229 

Civil service as applied to libraries . . . 397-398 New York Public Library, Entrance Hall . 230 

New York Library School 398 New York Public Library, Main Reading 

Xew York State meeting 445 Room 231 

Library clubs 445 New York Public Library, Periodical 

Libraries and industrial development . . 445-446 Reading Room 232 

Libraries and civil service reform 446 Aug. American Library Association, Pasadena, Cal. 

Postal legislation 446 Sept. Tacoma (Wash.) Public Library, S. Ta- 

Library week 485 coma Branch (Ext. & Int.) 

Library meetings 485-486 Oct. Seattle Public Library Branches 

The budget exhibit 486 Nov. Frederick Morgan Crunden 

Death of Mr. Crunden 541 Illustrations of sample cards .... 554-555 

Development in printing catalog cards . . 541 Reuben McMillan Free Library 
Style of cards printed by different libraries . 541-542 Dec. Queens Borough Public Library Budget Ex- 
International cooperation in printing cards . 542 hibit 

PregUent American Library Atsociatit*, 1910-11, Director \e-rn Yrk State 
Library a*d fig*, Y rk State Library Stkoal, Albaxy, \. Y. 


VOL. 36 

JANUARY, 1911 

No. i 

THE jear 1910 was noteworthy in the li- 
brary world chiefly for the two international 
congresses at Brussels, whkh marked a dis- 
tinct advance in world organization, and for 
the successful national conferences at Exeter 
and at Mackinac. The A. L. A. conference 
of 191 1, in Southern California, should at- 
tract visitors from Australia and Xew Zea- 
land, from the Philippines, Japan and China, 
and from Hawaii as well as from the Pacific 
coast itself, and give it something of an inter- 
national as well as a distinctively national 
character. Representation from New Zealand 
by a visiting delegation from its newly- 
formed general library association would be 
particularly welcome and appropriate. It is 
to be hoped also that there may be a visiting 
delegation from England, which wifl em- 
phasize the fact of Anglo-American leader- 
ship in library organization the world around. 
But librarians from other countries and of 
other languages will be no less welcome, and 
those Americans who participated in the Brus- 
sels congresses will be especially pleased to 
have opportunity to return to their hosts and 
to their professional confreres who gathered 
hi that hospitable city, some recognition of 
their pleasant and profitable visit. 

OBGANIZATIOX has also progressed within the 
L'nited States. A state commission in Kentucky 
has been added to the roll of 1910. A trustees' 
association in Indiana, though established 
toward the close of the year 1909, held its 
first regular meeting in 1910. The Milwaukee 
Library Club was added to the considerable 
number of local organizations. The Profes- 
sional training section of the American Li- 
brary Association, which had a preliminary 
meeting at Bretton Woods in 1909, was fully 
fledged and held its first meeting at Mackinac 
in 1910, and promises interesting develop- 
ments in the way of standardizing and im- 
proving library schools, their methods and 
results. This list of additions, though less 
than in earlier years, wben there were more 
gaps to be filled, shows continuous and 
healthful growth. The fact that there are 
now 34. library commissions, the same figure 
as last year, as the addition of Kentucky was 
offset by the termination of one of the 
Maryland commissions: and that there are 

37 state library associations in the 48 states, 
besides the several interstate and other asso- 
ciations, and some 25 local clubs or like or- 
ganizations, indicates the large extent which 
library organization now covers in the United 

THE chief library buildings of the year 
were those for the John Hay Memorial Li- 
brary at Brown University, the cooperative 
gift of Mr. Carnegie, university alumni 
and friends, and the Howard University 
for colored people at Washington, the gift of 
Mr. Carnegie. Not less noteworthy was 
the transformation at New Bedford of 
the old City Hall, a historic landmark, into 
an adequate home for the public library, by 
a Iccal architect who has succeeded remark- 
ably in preserving the exterior features of the 
old building and developing its architectural 
character in the additions while making it a 
real practical library building. The new 
building of the Reuben McMillan Free Li- 
brary in Youngstown, Ohio, was also com- 
pleted. Progress is reported on the new 
buildings at St. Louis, Denver and Spring- 
field and the Connecticut State Library. The 
contract has been signed and ground will be 
broken early in the new year for the new 
central building of the Brooklyn Public Li- 
brary system, but the great event of 1911 will 
be the transfer of the central collections and 
of the administrative work of the New York 
Public Library to the magnificent new build- 
ing which is expected to open in May. 

THE past year has not been so noteworthy 
in important appointments and transfers as 
the year previous, but we note die passing 
from ihe library sky of that picturesque and 
effulgent library comet, Charles Fletcher 
Lnmmis, and die worthy appointment to Los 
Angeles of Mr. Pnrd B. Wright, whose place 
at St. Joseph has been filled by the selection 
of Mr. Charles Rush; and the change at 
Denver by the replacement of Mr. Charles 
R. Dudley, a veteran of the A. I*. A-, whose 
buoyant and delightful personality have al- 
ways made him a loved favorite, by Mr. 
Chalmers Hadley, whose place as secretary 
of the association it will be hard to fiTL The 
library situation at the University of Chicago. 



which was anomalous and acephalous, has 
been unified, in connection with the retire- 
ment of Mrs. Zella A. Dixon from a diffi- 
cult post, by the designation of Prof. Ernest 
DeWitt Burton, an able and learned scholar, 
as Director of Libraries, comprising separate 
and various libraries which will be brought 
together on the completion of the new build- 
ing, and the appointment of Mr. James C. M. 
Hanson, to the loss of the Library of Con- 
gress, as his distinctively professional asso- 
ciate. The Drexel Institute Library and 
School, which suffered so serious a loss in 
the death of Miss Kroeger, has secured the 
services of Miss Donnelly as fhe new head 
for both. Mr. Stevens succeeded Miss Lord 
as the librarian of the Pratt Institute Free 
Library. Mr. Borden, of New Haven, was 
appointed to an important library post in 

THE death of James Lyman Whitney re- 
moved from the library profession one of its 
most honored seniors, the contemporary of 
Winsor, Poole and Cutter, of whom few now 
survive. NewYork lost two veterans who were 
contemporaries with Mr. Whitney S. Hast- 
ings Grant, the former librarian of the Mer- 
cantile Library, and Wentworth Sanborn 
Butler, for so many years the head of the 
Society Library, both of them men of large 
acquaintance among men of letters and lead- 
ing figures in the library and literary world 
of old New York. Dr. Edward Winslow 
Hall, librarian of Colby University, passed 
away within the year, as did also Miss Pierce, 
who did good service as librarian ot Welles- 
ley College for some years. We record, also, 
with a sense of personal grief the loss of a 
former associate, in the death last summer 
of Miss Augusta I. Appleton, sister of Mrs. 
Charles A. Cutter, to whose careful and con- 
scientious work American bibliography is 
much indebted in connection with the early 
volumes of the "American catalog," some 
portions of which were directly in her charge. 
In the library world outside this country, the 
notable loss was that of Leopold Delisle, 
the veteran head of the Bibliotheque Na- 
tionale of Paris, though he had retired from 
the profession some time before his death, 
which was formally announced at the Brus- 
sels Congress and recorded with the unan- 
imous tribute of a rising vote in appreciation 
of his services. 

ONE of the features emphasized at Mackinac 
was the development of agricultural libraries, 
which is a topic of vital and growing impor- 
tance in years to come. Scientific farming is 
the solution of the problem of food supply 
which will more and more press itself upon 
this country, and in close relation to it are the 
matters pertaining to the increase of educa- 
tion among the rural populations. Travelling 
libraries and commission workers have been 
the standard bearers in this aggressive work 
of bringing books into the isolated farm 
homes, and it is now for rural libraries to 
wake up to the importance of waking up the 
farmer by progressive propagandism of the 
library gospel throughout agricultural com- 
munities. This will be greatly helped by the 
promised development of the parcels post on 
rural free delivery routes, at a rate which will 
make possible this means of delivering and 
returning books in the country at best ad- 
vantage. It is hoped that this may prove the 
first step towards a parcels post in which all 
libraries should be interested and which all 
librarians should be active in promoting. 

THE report of the Librarian of Congress is 
a remarkable document in two respects. It 
shows accessions for the past year which 
now give the library third rank in the libra- 
ries of the world, and if continued on the 
like scale promises to make it ultimately the 
foremost. Secondly, and in connection with 
this, is to be noted the success of the policy 
of Mr. Putnam in making the national library 
the permanent home for great special libra- 
ries, either by gift or purchase. In the ap- 
propriations for the new year a proposal to 
increase the salary of the librarian to $7500 
was included. The librarianship of Congress 
is not only the ranking post in the American 
library profession, but the most important 
library post in the world. While the salaries 
of chief librarians have been advancing in 
the past ten years, that of the national libra- 
rian has remained unchanged, and at least 
seven other posts are paid equal or larger 
salaries. This salary should be not less than 
$10,000, and any le^er salary is justifiable 
only for reasons of governmental economy 
and the fact that citizens are expected to 
serve the United States Government at a 
lower rate than they are expected to serve 
the public in municipal positions. 

January, 1911] 


BY PURD B. WRIGHT, Librarian Public Library, Los Angeles, California 

PUBLIC libraries conducted along progres- 
sive lines may in all sincerity be said to en- 
deavor to live up to what might be termed 
a very broad motto, expressed in words par- 
aphrasing the advice of a judicial friend to a 
law class, "To do something of everything, 
and everything of something." 

With such a broad foundation claim, it 
naturally follows that the modern, up-to-date 
library should devote more or less of its 
energy and income in furthering any move- 
ment looking to a betterment of civic condi- 

Primarily, the library was founded as an 
educational center. This is its real business 
still, and the hope is expressed that it will 
continue indefinitely. But it should be made 
plain in passing that it has broadened the 
definition of the word education far beyond 
the confines of the school, or recitation or 
lecture room. 

The public library has become, if you will 
pardon the term, the storage battery from 
which practical help as well as cultural in- 
spiration may be drawn. 

The power or energy in these "batteries" 
is not stored in a day, nor is it drawn upon 
daily, or weekly, or even monthly, for any 
considerable part of it. But the storage goes 
steadily on, so that when the demand is made 
the library responds with more or less prompt- 
ness and to a degree depending entirely upon 
governing conditions. 

Steam is not generated instantaneously, nor 
without the expenditure of heat. Electricity 
is not harnessed for man's use without cost. 
False economy in the fuel room is instantly 
apparent in the steam chest or the dynamo. 
Carrying the analogy to^he present question. 
it is plain that the community which deals 
niggardly with its library can expect at best 
but a like service in return. If the support 
given be broad and liberal its supporters have 
the right 'to expect and to demand of its li- 
brary an enlightened administration, one of 
adequate responses when the call comes. 
And the call of to-day is decidedly more 

* Abstract of an address read before a city plan- 
ning conference in Los Angeles, November, 1910. 

urgent than the call of yesterday, more com- 
plex, more diversified. In civic matters, it is 
for progressive city charters and suggestions 
by students and experts for better laws for 
the betterment of city government; for play- 
ground plans, ideas for educating attendants, 
games for developing the child mentally and 
physically; for outlines, plans and sugges- 
tions for parks and boulevards otherwise 
the city beautiful; for house and ground 
plans for the housing commission, its organ- 
ization, methods for getting the most effec- 
tive results; comprehensive plans for civic 
and educational centers, museums and art 
galleries ; statistical and expert advice for 
those interested in the study, development 
and control of public utilities ; for methods 
for the health protection organizations 
and on and on through a long list known to 
every community of high-minded, helpful 

As a matter of fact, the demand of to-day 
is but partially expressed by the questions 
raised at this meeting, voiced by the papers, 
addresses and discussions. What it will be 
to-morrow or next year, it would be folly to 
attempt to say. The world is moving fast in 
these early days of the 2Oth century, and 
the wants of the people immeasurably faster. 
Whatever these wants may be, the sort of 
library I like to think of, and the kind I hope 
all of you would like to have, will be par- 
tially prepared for the emergency and ready- 
fully to prepare itself. Remember, please, 
this is the ideal library in all its perfection, 
which we will have just as soon as we have a 
perfect people and perfect cities. The mil- 
lennium ? It is worth striving for, even if we 
know it cannot be reached in our day and 
generation if ever. 

The careful book committee or the pains- 
taking librarian may not know it, but the 
storing of the library battery with the thing 
or things sure to be needed in the future is 
going steadily on, printed page by printed 
page, from leaflet to pamphlet, from pamphlet 
to magazine, from magazine to book. For 
this charging of the battery is merely the 
keeping in touch with the trend of events, the 


[January, 1911 

watching of the formation of movements, the 
development of ideas from their infancy. 
What some may term the fad, or fancy, or 
hobby of the altruistic few of to-day may be 
the insistent demand of multitudes of earnest 
men and women to-morrow. What may have 
been smiled at as an "ism" of the few yester- 
day is accepted to-day as a matter of fact 
by millions. 

In few good movements may the library 
be only a follower. More often it is the 
leader, only it was so quiet in its leadership 
those interested did not know of it. Time and 
time again has the average library been asked 
to "join the procession," "to get behind" a 
movement attracting the attention of healthy 
minded enthusiasts, when as a matter of fact 
the inspiration for the movement came from 
the printed page on the library shelf. 

No movement worthy the name is born into 
full-fledged activity full grown. It is a 
case of growth, of development. The growth 
of anything of consequence is fully recorded, 
"writ down in words of fire," and preserved 
by the "art preservative," and it is to be 
found somewhere usually on the shelves 
of the public library in a properly apprecia- 
tive community. 

It is intended that you should gather that 
it is conceded, nay, admitted, with all the 
pride of the profession, that one has the 
right to go to the library for help on any 

civic question in which the public, or any 
considerable number of citizens are inter- 
ested, with the full expectation of receiving 
such help that it is a duty of that library 
to meet such calls as a matter of course. 

But mark you, it must be borne in mind 
that there is another side to the question, one 
which should be of as much importance and 
of as keen interest to the citizen as to those 
in charge of the library, and that is, briefly 
as it may be put, that the public library 
should be placed in position by its owners to 
meet any legitimate demands made upon it. 
Not until this has been done to the very 
last detail of management, equipment and 
housing is it a subject for criticism from 
those who should be its friends, defenders 
and users. 

For the public library everywhere, in your 
home city, in my home city, may I not make 
the personal plea for a broad and helpful in- 
terest in its affairs so that it may show a 
wide and comprehensive interest in your pub- 
lic affairs? In helping it you mereiy help 
yourselves. It is yours, and I know you will 
pardon the enthusiast in a work he believes 
in for thinking and saying of the general 
public library that it is as fully entitled to a 
movement for its betterment, for an improve- 
ment of its condition, no matter how admir- 
ably they may already be, as any advocated 
by any person on this floor. 

BY MARY W. PLUMMER, Director Pratt Institute Library School, Brooklyn N. Y. 

IN the Pratt Institute Monthly, December, 
1892, occurs this paragraph : "There is now 
on the shelves of the Reference department, 
for inspection until Christmas, a careful selec- 
tion of the books of the season best adapted 
for holiday gifts. It is hoped that this ar- 
rangement may save some of our borrowers 
the trouble of a trip to New York, as the 
library will readily forward orders for any 
of the books. Orders must be accompanied 
by cash, and may be left with the assistant in 
charge of the department. The price of each 
book is plainly marked on the title-page." 

In the January number we find the statc- 

* Read at a joint meeting of the Long Island and 
New York Library Clubs, Dec. 8, 1910. 

ment: "The gift book exhibition seems to 
have been a convenience to a number of peo- 
ple, and it has been a pleasure to us, as book- 
lovers, to find others falling down and ador- 
ing the 'Buch der Lieder' of Heine, True 
and I' in its holiday gown, the 'Wit and wis- 
dom of Charles Lamb,' etc. . . ." 

This happened eighteen years ago, and be- 
cause there was no real bookstore in Brook- 
lyn. That was, at least, the main reason, the 
convenience to buyers ; but, as so often hap- 
pens, the library builded better than it knew, 
and filled also another want quite different 
from the one it had imagined the need of 
some care in the selection of gift-books as 
regards contents, edition and illustration. The 

January, 1911] 


arrangement by which the library took orders 
for the books did not prove a very satisfac- 
tory one, as the difficulty of filling the orders, 
as Christmas drew nearer and the grand rush 
began at the bookstores, proved almost in- 
superable, and as so many people did not give 
their orders until the last minute. So that 
feature of the exhibit was given up after a 
year or two. No special effort was made to 
supply books for children, since the library 
had not then a separate room for children 
nor many children among its patrons. 

In the LIBRARY JOURNAL for 1893 there was 
a notice of the experiment in a brief para- 
graph. So far as we know this was the first 
fore-runner of the present rather widely- 
spread practice of exhibiting books suitable 
for Christmas giving. 

In preparing this paper I have written to 
67 libraries, ranging from collections of the 
size of the Montdair (N, J.) and Mankato 
(Minn.) Public Libraries to such as the Car- 
negie Library of Pittsburgh and the Public 
Library of Cleveland. So far I have had an- 
swers from 55, and of these 37 reply that they 
do make an exhibit of books for Christmas 
giving each year, 10 that they do not, and 
either do not expect to because they cannot, 
or because they question the necessity or de- 
sirability, while the rest have either tried it 
and given it up for want of room to exhibit 
or of satisfactory attendants to answer ques- 
tions, or say that they have not yet had an 
exhibit, but hope to.* 

Buffalo reports such exhibits for ten or 
twelve years past, Worcester for five, Utica 
for five, Syracuse for several years, and this 
library began its exhibit of children's books 
as soon as the children's room opened, in 
1896, and of adult books, as stated, in 1892, 
with a lapse of several years, and a resump- 
tion. So much for history. 

Libraries which exhibit or have exhibited 
both adult and children's books are Wash- 
ington, D. C. Buffalo, Utica, Pratt Institute 
Free Library; East Orange. Trenton, Perth 
Amboy; Wilkes-Barre, Pittsburgh, Brad- 
ford ; Davenport and Cedar Rapids, and Des 
Moines will add adult books this year; Man- 
kato, Minneapolis; Jackson (Mich.) will add 
adult books this year; Madison; Nashville; 

* A few replies came in after the tabulation was 
made and the paper written, and are not included. 
These would not materially change the result. 

Libraries confining themselves, so far, to 
books for children are the public libraries of 
Mt. Vernon (N. Y.) (exhibiting for the first 
time this year), New Rochelle, Children's Mu- 
seum Library, Brooklyn ; Worcester ; Evans- 
ton; Dayton; Ft. Wayne (for the first time 
this year) ; Detroit ; Omaha ; Houston and 
Galveston ; Louisville ; Atlanta (will distrib- 
ute lists this year instead) ; Seattle, Tacoma ; 

Brockton, Mass., tried such an exhibit un- 
der a previous administration, and found 
some difficulty in getting the prices published 
in the local papers. Consequently not many 
books sold, they say. The library now ex- 
hibits holiday lists of books. Grand Rapids 
advertises in its bulletin that the library will 
be glad to give information as to the char- 
acter and prices of books, and advice if 
wanted, in the children's department and the 
order department. As many as 25 or 50 re- 
quests for help have been made some years. 
Haverhill has wanted an exhibit, but has 
hesitated to ask dealers to lend copies, and 
its own copies have been too worn to be at- 
tractive. The library recommends on re- 
quest. Most of the libraries do not approve 
of taking orders for books, or of the library's 
doing anything that savors of commercialism. 

The next question asks if books are se- 
cured from publishers or dealers, and what 
conditions are made by consignors, if any. 
In reply, the majority of the libraries state 
that they buy the books outright, in whole or 
in part, sometimes using copies already owned 
if in good condition ; ten secure them as loans 
from the dealer, five from publishers, and 
one each from the state library or through 
the A. L. A. and the state library commis- 
sion. In our own case, if we want five or 
more books by the same publisher, we bor- 
row from the publisher, otherwise from the 
dealer. Two or three libraries report that 
dealers lend rather unwillingly. Stipulations 
are mentioned such as these : that the library 
buy copies of the books during the year ; that 
it pay return express charges and make good 
all damage or loss; that the books be bought 
substantially on approval. In one case, an 
excellent example of cooperation, the library 
and the local dealer issued a catalog together 
ef the bo^oks on exhibition, and the dealer 
distributed copies and referred persons to the 
library's exhibit for examination of the books. 



[January, 1911 

One library only takes orders occasionally 
to oblige, but prefers not to do it. 

A difficulty that was met in the early days 
of such exhibits was the uncertainty of find- 
ing the books recommended in the local deal- 
er's stock. Even in the large bookstores it 
seemed as if one could find everything but 
the thing one had come to get. This was 
partly due to the fact that books especially 
published for Christmas sale, unless they 
happened to be standard books in good, new 
editions, were not of the kind usually chosen 
by the library for its exhibit. The ideal of 
the exhibit has been to recommend books 
people might like to own as well as to read. 

At present nearly all of the libraries an- 
swering report that they have some arrange- 
ment with the local dealer, letting him know 
beforehand what books and what editions of 
them will be in the library's list or in its ex- 
hibit. This list is used by some dealers as a 
partial purchasing list. The Mankato library 
has secured the consent of the local dealer 
to have a library table in his shop, on which 
he is to exhibit only the recommended books, 
while the library keeps a list and tells 
people where they can see the books. If the 
dealer has a satisfactory place in which cus- 
tomers can examine the books at their leisure, 
this saves the library some work; but if not, 
examination at the library seems preferable, 
especially since, without great care, it would 
be easy for the wrong books to get on the 
dealer's library table through the carelessness 
of customers. It is not that we wish people 
to buy only what the library recommends, as 
implicitly as they might obey a doctor's in- 
structions, but that we wish those who do not 
yet realize that there is a difference in the 
quality and desirability of books to have the 
opportunity to realize this through seeing 
plenty of the best. The Omaha library re- 
ports that persons not finding the books at 
the local dealer's are given the addresses of 
agents or publishers or dealers elsewhere.. 
Twenty-one libraries report that they make 
lists of the exhibit, eight of them printing 
and the others typewriting them.. As a rule, 
the typewritten lists are posted near the ex- 
hibit rather than distributed. Eleven put a 
slip in the book, giving publisher and price, 
and all answer questions on these points very 
willingly. The Omaha library sends postal 
card notices to borrowers known to be in- 

terested, and several report that they print 
lists in the newspapers. Dayton advertises 
the exhibit through church bulletins and Sun- 
day schools. At Providence the children's 
librarian speaks to mothers' clubs on the ex- 
hibit. Louisville's list was duplicated for 
other libraries with their own imprint, and 
7000 copies of it were ordered. 

The persons who come to ask questions, 
consult lists, and look at books may be di- 
vided roughly into parents and other rela- 
tives of children, teachers from day schools, 
kindergartens, and Sunday schools. One li- 
brary reports that the chairman of the book- 
buying committee of a local Sunday school 
uses the Christmas list regularly as a buying 
list. Worcester reports occasional art stu- 
dents studying illustrations as among the vis- 
itors to the exhibit. Buffalo has more adult 
visitors than children. Hartford limits the 
exhibit to one day and that a school-day, so 
that teachers and children are not a large 
proportion of its visitors. It also sends the 
exhibit to near-by towns and to a club of 

One or two libraries which have exhibited 
express a doubt whether the value of the ex- 
hibit is in satisfactory proportion to the time 
and work required, and one doubts the value 
of all exhibits. The others judge of its value 
by different signs : i. Attendance. In the 
Pratt Institute Free library last year 400 per- 
sons examined the adult books and between 
five and six hundred the children's books. 
East Orange reported in 1909 that 630 per- 
sons had visited its exhibit. Several libraries 
report the attendance increasing. 2. Apprecia- 
tion and thanks, requests for help in selection, 
inquiries as to when the exhibit will be 
ready; many people postpone buying until 
the library list appears. 3. Visitors' note- 
taking; mothers and teachers show a grow- 
ing tendency to consult the children's library 
during the year when children's books are 
wanted. 4. Demand made on dealers. This 
can be ascertained easily in places with only 
one or two dealers. 

The question of price is an important one. 
None of the libraries replying report any- 
thing under fifteen cents except Hartford, 
where Miss Hewins says they will exhibit a 
little five-cent book this year. The highest 
price is indefinite, a number of libraries re- 
porting the inclusion of books as high as 

January. 1911] 


$10, $12 and $15. The average maximum 
limit, where any is set, seems to be $340- 

All tht- exhibiting libraries have some 
standard of selection, many using the printed 
Christmas lists of other libraries, others the 
A. L. A. Book-list, while only -one or two 
use the publishers' catalogs. A few have each 
book passed upon by the library itself, read- 
ing it always if it is a new or unfamiliar 
book. This last, of course, takes time, but 
it has decided educative value for those who 
read, and indirectly for those whom they 

What is the ebject of the exhibit as now- 
given? Is it to "boom" books that ought to 
be "boomed" by their publishers? a pro- 
ceeding to which one answering library ob- 
jects a library which does not make an 
exhibit And in that case, is the library out 
of its province, and becoming commercialized ? 

Selection does not imply booming indeed, 
as a rule, it is in modification of the pub- 
lisher's advertising that the library makes all 
its select lists. It is "business" for the pub- 
lisher to sell everything he publishes, good 
cr bad, well written or poorly written, out 
of date or up to date ; hence he advertises, 
often to the extent of booming. It is the li- 
brary's business to select for its own con- 
stituency not the boomed books, but the best 
books sometimes they are one and the 
fame. Every time it publishes a bulletin of 
books it has selected, it publishes its choice, 
a list of the books that, in its opinion, are the 
best books, all things considered. When it 
prints a Christmas list, it does not by that 
imply that all other books are undesirable, 
but it does imply that after due examina- 
tion it has found certain books desirable, con- 
sidering the character, the standard of living, 
and the tastes and needs of its constituency. 
A printed list of books suitable for the 
foundation of a children's library, one of 
books suited to certain grades in school, a 
list of recent technical books, are all open 
to the same charge, that the library is ad- 
vertising some books at the expense of others. 
That is what the library does with its open 
shelves, when it puts its standard novels 
where the public may handle 2nd come to 
know them, as an offset to the red-hot-from- 
the-press fiction which is advertised in the 
street cars and the subway. The library is 
simply making the race a fair one, realizing 

that the older book, published before many 
of to-day's readers were born, and no longer 
widely advertised, is handicapped in com- 
parison with the book whose title is almost 
megaphoned into our ears wherever we go. 
That this is realized not only by librarians, 
but by the educator, is shown by this quota- 
tion from Principal Edwin T. Reed, of the 
Moorhead (Minn.) Normal School, wh 
says: "To counteract the excessive advertis- 
ing of the bookseller, the library should take 
steps to attract equal attention to the books 
that have proved their right to endure." 
W r hat if an advantage does accrue to the pub- 
lisher of the better book? That is where it 
should accrue, certainly, not to the publisher 
of the poor or ephemeral books, as might 
otherwise be the case. It means encourage- 
ment to the man who has put out the good 
book to go on making good books accessible, 
and to put them into attractive form, while it 
may have a tendency to set the other pub- 
lisher to thinking. Even where the race lies 
between two new books, the emphasis is still 
put on quality, and it should have a tendency 
to make publishers' readers more discrim- 
inating. In children's books, particularly, 
publishers have been too lenient. 

The fact that people may buy the books 
advertised on the list has nothing to do with 
the case. A book's appearance on a list for 
schools may lead to the purchase of hun- 
dreds of copies instead of the half-dozen sold 
by means of a Christmas exhibit, and the 
same might be true of the books recom- 
mended for stocking up a library. Any list, 
made in sincerity, without collusion with 
publishers or dealers, and without the ex- 
pectation of any return or advantage to the 
maker, must be held free from the suspicion 
of commercialism. 

The same objection was made when chil- 
dren's librarians first began to taboo certain 
authors they found on the shelves. It was 
held they had no right to dispense with any- 
thing a boy or girl might like, and that they 
were injuring certain authors and publishers; 
as if one should say to a father, "You should 
let your boy smoke all the cigarettes he wants 
he likes it, and if you don't let him have 
them, you injure the cigarette factory's 
trade," or to the mother, "Why do you not 
give your little girl the candy she is so fond 
of? It must be good for her or she wouldn't 



[January, 1911 

be so fond of it; and if you don't give it to 
her, how will the candy store live?" Of the 
need of help in book selecting and a better 
knowledge of the value of books, any librarian 
who studies his or her business will tell us. 
There are many fathers and mothers unable 
to read English; there are others so un- 
familiar with books that they regard all 
printed matter as good and true; there are 
others who want the best for their children, 
but know they are not capable of judging 
what is the best; and there are still others 
able to judge the contents of a book who 
know nothing of editions and are uninstructed 
in the matter of illustrations ; there are many 
teachers and Sunday school teachers also 
who have not the time to seek different edi- 
tions of a book, to collect in one place editions 
of varying prices and degrees of merit. For 
all of these the Christmas exhibit for children 
fills a real need. 

As to the adult book, any one who has 
tried to shop for books at the bookshops dur- 
ing the Christmas season can imagine the re- 
lief it must be to go to a quiet place where 
there is plenty of room and spend an hour 
or so in looking over and dipping into attrac- 
tive copies of books on all subjects; books 
of more or less permanent value, and selected 
with a view to many tastes and interests. 

There is a pleasure in receiving a book to 
the purchase of which thought and a consid- 
eration of one's taste have been given, which 
is not felt when one receives a copy (how- 
ever luxuriously bound) of the leading gift- 
book or of some volume obviously made to 
sell, which will go straight to the shelves and 
never be taken down except for dusting. For 
the latter kind of gift, one has to make one's 
acknowledgments with a mental reservation. 

One western library sends the following 
letter, received unsolicited from a mother, 
which typifies the case of many : 

"I recall with so much pleasure the profit- 
able half day I spent browsing among your 
display of children's books last year, that I 
find myself looking forward eagerly to a re- 
currence of the event. With the aid of the 
special lists furnished, the help of the cour- 
teous attendants, and the actual books to ex- 
amine, I was able to make a selection of 
Christmas books for my little son which 
have been a joy to him ever since they be- 
came a part of his 'very own' library. I was 

particularly pleased to find so many inexpen- 
sive, but withal, attractive editions of chil- 
dren's classics. Such books are not generally 
displayed in the shops, as the tendency in 
such places is rather toward showy and ex- 
pensive editions which are often awkward and 
tiresome for a child to handle. I have found 
that half hour which I intended to spend at 
the display and which extended itself into half 
a day, and was even then reluctantly termi- 
nated, time well spent." 

One librarian tells us, what I suppose some 
of us have already observed, that the col- 
ored supplements of the Sunday papers, 
usually the depth of vulgarity, to say nothing 
worse about them, are made up into Christ- 
mas gift-books and fairly overflow the deal- 
ers' counters, and are bought because they 
are cheap, because there is very little else in 
sight, and because buyers have to overcome 
difficulties of various kinds in securing 
equally elementary and low-priced books of a 
better sort. 

Another says: "So far the exhibit has 
chiefly attracted the well-to-do and cultivated 
friends of children. The mass of people go 
to the cheap book counters at the stores and 
buy Elsie books, Alger, Meade, etc. What can 
we offer as cheap as these? If you have any 
suggestions as to cheap editions, please let us 
know. Our books average $i probably, and 
most people spend 25 to 50 cents on a child's 

The question of price is indeed a difficult 
one. Still, as I have reported, some libraries 
report purchases as low as 15 cents, and a 
number speak of books at 25 cents. A joint 
list of all these, if one could be compiled, 
ought to be of service. It is rather interest- 
ing to learn that the Elsie and Alger books 
have been driven to the low prices men- 
tioned and to the cheap book counters, for 
libraries have certainly done what they could 
to stop the free circulation of them. The 
offense must come, I suppose, but it is at 
least reassuring to think the libraries are no 
longer responsible. 

A very interesting result reported by sev- 
eral libraries is the formation of a permanent 
collection of books to be recommended, which 
forms the basis of the Christmas exhibit each 
year, and is used all the year through by per- 
sons interested in giving books to children 
or reading books to and with children. 

January, 191 i] 


Buffalo reports such a collection amounting 
to between 200 and 300 titles, and including a 
range from toy-books to expensive books 
with fine illustrations. Omaha also has pur- 
sued this plan, and now regards the collec- 
tion as a necessity, since it is so much used. 

Dayton considers that this exhibit is the 
most important of all its exhibits, saying: "It 
was an eye-opener to many mothers as to the 
high grade of books and illustrations pro- 
vided for the children at the public library. 
We suspect that the children who come to the 
library develop a better reading taste than 
many who rely on gifts not always intelli- 
gently selected." 

At Pittsburgh there is a difference of opin- 
ion as to the value of the exhibits. One view 
is that they cost more in time, money and 
strength than they come to ; also that the 
only satisfactory way of getting the books is 
to buy them, and that that is expensive. 
Another opinion is that the exhibits are val- 
uable, if properly carried on. The library 
has been having such exhibits for six or seven 

Most of the librarians exhibiting would 
agree with Miss Olcott, that certain condi- 
tions are essential for success, and most of 
them seem to have arrived at the same con- 
clusion as to what these conditions are : 

1. Attractive copies of the books, with con- 
siderable range in price. 

2. Either lists giving publisher and price, 
or slips containing same to be put into the 
books, or both. 

3. An attractive, artistic and at the same 
time more or less systematic arrangement of 
the books, where they can be easily seen and 
the handling of them supervised as much as 
is absolutely necessary, no more. 

4. Advertisements, in the papers, before 
mothers' and teachers' clubs, in the Sunday 
schools, etc. 

5. Intelligent and interested and sympa- 
thetic attendance by those appointed to su- 
pervise the exhibit. 

Miss Olcott says : "People have come and 
gone, not by the thousands, but in pleasant 
little companies. Frequently parents and 
others sit by the hour examining books. . . . 
We cannot afford to buy yearly fresh ex- 
hibit copies for each branch, so this year we 
are having our exhibit at the Central chil- 
dren's room and advertising it at the 
branches. We are also giving at seme of the 
branches talks to mothers on the selection 
of children's books. A collection of fine, 
well-illustrated books helps to show our pub- 
lic the educational value of children's books 
and reading. I think perhaps one of the 
most desirable results we have is the pleasant 
relations established between the library and 
the teacher and parents by our efforts to be 
of value to them." 

In concluding, I might say that the forma- 
tion of a permanent collection suitable for giv- 
ing at any time of the year, and the keeping of 
it from year to year, so long as the boo'cs are 
in print, in good condition, as a nucleus i'or the 
Christmas exhibit, seems to solve a la', ge part 
of the difficulty of expense. As the Jackson 
(Mich.) librarian has said in his report for 
1909, "Children, unlike their elders, want good 
books rather than new books," and th ; addi- 
tions each year of the current books need 
not be large. Unless these, too, are classics 
fit for the reserve collection they car-" easily 
be absorbed into the regular loan collection 

I must ask your indulgence for having pre- 
sented so long a report, but as this appeared 
to be the first time the subject had been re- 
ported on, it seemed to me that it might save 
future research and duplication of question- 
naires if I made my account not to say ex- 
haustive but full. 

BY SAMUEL H. RANCK, Librarian Public Library, Grand Rapids, Mick* 

IN our newer library buildings lecture 
rooms are a very common feature. They are 
not unknown in some old library buildings. 
The library that gets a new building, and 

* Read at the annual meeting of the Michigan 
State Library Association, at Jackson, Oct. 18, 1910. 

with it a lecture room gets at that same time 
a new set of problems. In looking through 
annual reports, and in visiting libraries, one 
is impressed with the different p/olicies libra- 
ries are pursuing in regard to these rooms. 
There are, of course, good reasons for this 



[January, 1911 

variety. First of all local conditions are 
most varied ; and each library ought to fit 
itself into the needs of its environment. An- 
other reason for this variety is the fact that 
the problems presented by the lecture room 
are relatively new, and the whole subject is 
still more or less in the experimental stage. 

The consideration of the use of the library 
lecture room naturally divides itself into two 
parts; first, the use of the room by local or- 
ganizations, and second, the use of the room 
under the direct auspices of the library. It 
is the former that brings up the most prob- 

And right here let me say that a lecture 
room in a library is a most valuable asset, if 
for no other reason than for the publicity 
that the library as an institution may be 
given through its use. The lecture room 
may be made to give the library more favor- 
able publicity in the newspapers than all the 
other departments together, simply because 
public meetings held in it are items of news, 
are things that are talked about (and there- 
fore g)et into the newspapers), whereas the 
library ] regular everyday routine work is not 
news. Managers of political campaigns recog- 
nize thaf public meetings are necessarynot only 
on thein own account, but because their polit- 
ical cause can best obtain newspaper notice 
in this way. Mr. Herbert Parsons' article in 
The Outlook of Oct. 15 calls attention to 
this fact, as it relates to getting political 
questions before the people. Furthermore, 
lectures bring new people into the library 
buildinp , people who have lived in the town 
for years but were never inside the library, 
and thus they are introduced to its regular 
work. The library building itself is the very 
best plac:e to bring the man and the book to- 
gether, j This is happening right along in 
Grand Rapids after six years in our new 

As I Said before, the lecture room brings 
a new set of problems, and in some cities the 
solution of these problems has been the 
source of no little ill feeling, and there are 
times when libraries would be glad, perhaps, 
if they neve.r had had a lecture room. I know 
of one instance where the more or less exclu- 
sive use of the room was given to the leading 
woman's clut* of the town, and the fact that 
this club had the exclusive use disgusted a 
lot of other people, so that in this particular 

town the lecture room was the cause of a 
great deal of contention, became a matter of 
issue at the polls, and, as I know from hav- 
ing heard it, the source of large volumes of 
profanity. The feeling in this particular case 
was that the wealthy and well-to-do were 
getting the use of a public building that was 
denied to the common everyday citizen. It 
is needless to add that a library should be 
careful not to stir up a class feeling of this 
kind. It should insure a square deal for all. 

There are libraries that make a charge for 
the use of the lecture room, and permit all 
kinds of neighborhood gatherings, entertain- 
ments, etc., to be held in it on the payment 
of a rental. Sometimes this covers only a 
fee for the janitor, sometimes it includes in 
addition to the janitor the cost of heat and 
light, and sometimes it is made a source of 
revenue. In Pittsburgh there is a sliding 
scale of charges for the use of the lecture 
room and the Auditorium (music hall) in 
the Carnegie Library and Institute building, 
the scale of prices depending on the charac- 
ter of the entertainment, meeting, conven- 
tion, lecture, etc. Last year the income from 
this source was $15,133, the expenses $10,- 
123.94, leaving a net revenue of over $5000. 
The rentals received from the lecture room 
and the auditoriums at the branch libraries 
were nearly two thousand dollars additional. 

The lecture room is much smaller than the 
music hall and the scale of prices corre- 
spondingly lower. For the auditoriums in 
the Pittsburgh branch libraries practically the 
same plan as outlined above is followed, the 
library making some sort of a charge in every 
case and varying it according to the character 
of the meeting. The use of the club rooms 
at Pittsburgh (some of which seat as many as 
TOO persons) is always given free, and these 
are in almost daily use. 

It seems to me sooner or later each library 
must recognize the fact that, through its 
management, it is responsible for the general 
character of what goes on in its building. 
This responsibility does not cease when it 
gets a sum of money for its use. I do not 
mean that it endorses all that may be said in 
its lecture rooms, any more than it endorses 
all that may be said in the books on its 
shelves, or that it should act as a censor. 
The best rule to be applied to speakers is, 
I believe, the one insisted on by Dr. Leip- 

January, 1911] 



ziger in his great system of free lectures in 
New York City "He [the lecturer] must 
speak with knowledge, sincerity, and sanity/' 
I believe in the long run it will be found un- 
wise in most instances for a public library to 
use its lecture room as a source of revenue 
(over and above the actual expenses), unless 
this matter is thoroughly understood by the 
public before the room is opened. 

In Grand Rapids the use of the lecture room 
in the Ryerson Public Library building the first 
year or two after moving into the building 
received more consideration from the Li- 
brary board than any other one phase of the 
library's work. At that time every request 
for its use from outside organizations or in- 
dividuals (and these included every variety 
of commercial and musical entertainment or 
show or meeting for money) was most care- 
fully considered by the whole board. After 
a year or two of experimenting in this way 
the board finally adopted the following rule 
with reference to its use: 

"The use of the lecture room shall be under the 
control of the Committee on administration and the 
librarian. In a general way all the exercises con- 
ducted therein shall be for the purpose of fostering 
an interest in educational, literary, historical, and 
scientific subjects and the books relating thereto in 
the library, rather than for mere entertainment." 

The adoption of this rule, however, did 
not settle the problems that came up. for 
there was constantly arising the question of 
interpretation. Perhaps after six years of 
experience even this is not fully decided, for 
occasionally matters come up which have to 
be regarded from a new angle. In a general 
way, however, the use of the lecture room by 
outside organizations has been restricted to 
the following classes of meetings : 

First, The character of the meeting must 
be in line with the general policy defined in 
the rule given above. 

Second, The occasion of an organization 
using the room is one when it brings a 
speaker from outside of the city. This means 
that the room is not given to a local organ- 
ization for its regular meetings. 

Third, The room is occasionally used by 
local organizations for regular meeting? when 
there is a subject or feature on the program 
that bears directly on the work that the li- 
brary is doing. For example, clubs some- 
times have a library day and program, when 
the meeting has been held in the lecture room. 

There are a number of reasons why the 
policy outlined above has been adopted. 
Among others we realized that we would have 
to draw the line somewhere, for it was a 
physical impossibility to grant the use of the 
room to every organization that could hold 
its regular meetings in it, simply because 
there are so many organizations with so 
many meetings that they could easily keep 
the room in continued use, thus shutting out 
the library from any lectures or exhibitions 
which it might wish to conduct itself. 

As a part of the constant use to which the 
room would be put we figured on the item of 
expense, for such use would cost from $1500 
to $2000 a year additional a most impor- 
tant consideration. Organizations which get 
the use of the room have it absolutely free of 
expense, and the library furnishes the ushers 
and helps to advertise the meeting. Further- 
more, the library has not permitted anything 
to be given in its lecture room to which the 
general public does not have free access, free 
of charge; in other words, every meeting in 
the lecture room must be open to every one 
and free to every one. As a public building 
we believe that access to the public rooms of 
the library should always be free to all, and 
that any other arrangement would be unwise 
for us. If we had a separate entrance to our 
lecture room from outside of the building. 
I am inclined to think that our board 
would have adopted a policy different in 
some respects. Committee meetings and 
other similar meetings of organizations which 
are held from time to time in the building 
are held in the study rooms. I may add that 
the position of the lecture room in its rela- 
tion to the other rooms of the building will 
have a most important bearing on the regu- 
lations governing its use. 

In many of our libraries the lecture room 
is not well placed. Often the room is rather 
an unattractive dark room in the basement. 
While this is better than nothing, at the 
same time it makes the problem of heating, 
lighting, and ventilation, and sometimes the 
control or discipline, more difficult. In fact, 
the problem of heating and ventilating a lec- 
ture room is altogether different from that 
of the other rooms of the library, simply be- 
cause the number of people who get into a 
lecture room is frequently several times as 
many as would get into the same space in a 



[January, 1911 

reading room. This requires more fresh air 
and less heat. The room, therefore, needs a 
separate ventilating apparatus to get the best 
results. I know of buildings where the heat- 
ing apparatus is so arranged that if the 
crowded lecture room is well ventilated and 
comfortable the people in the rest of the 
building freeze, and if the people in the other 
parts of the building are comfortable those in 
the crowded lecture room swelter and suffo- 
cate. In planning lecture rooms for a library, 
therefore, all these matters should be thor- 
oughly considered and provided for. 

An exception to the practice of the Grand 
Rapids Public Library as noted above is the 
relations of the library with the Historical So- 
ciety of Grand Rapids. In 1905 the Society 
reorganized in affiliation with the library, by 
this arrangement turning over to the library 
its collection of books and funds, the income 
of which is to be used for the purchase of 
material relating to the history of Michigan. 
This fund now amounts to nearly $2000. 
Both the Society and the library work to- 
gether in building up the historical depart- 
ment, so far as this relates to Michigan, and 
for that purpose the library has set aside a 
special Michigan room. The only reserva- 
tion that the Society made in turning over 
its funds and its books to the library was 
that it should have the right to hold its meet- 
ings in the Ryerson Public Library building, 
at such times and place as might be arranged 
for with the library. The meetings of the 
Society at which papers are read, etc., are 
held in the lecture room and the public is 
invited to be present. It is hardly necessary 
to add that the library regards this arrange- 
ment as a satisfactory one to all concerned. 

There are libraries where political and 
other propaganda organizations of various 
kinds hold regular meetings in the lecture 
room. So far as I know, the St. Louis Pub- 
lic Library is the most liberal in this respect. 
Here not only the lecture rooms of the 
branch libraries, but also the club rooms are 
used as meeting places for all kinds of organ- 
izations 757 meetings in four branches in 
one year. Let me quote a few sentences from 
a letter from an official of that library, so 
often the pioneer in policies that have become 

"Regarding the public rooms in our branch libra- 
ries we have no printed rules at present, nor any 

other publication outside of the report which has just 
reached you. The policy of the board, however, in 
granting the use of these rooms is very liberal. 
There is no charge for light or janitor service, 
though most of the organizations voluntarily give 
the janitor a small fee. All sorts of organizations 
are allowed to meet here, including those of a politi- 
cal nature. A socialist society is at present holding 
its sessions in the auditorium of the Crunden branch. 
We make practically but one requirement, that is 
that there shall be no admission fee charged at any 
meeting. We assume good order and we have always 
gotten it" 

Conditions in different cities vary, and the 
regulations governing the use of the room 
ought to relate directly to local conditions. 
I believe, however, that few cities are ready 
to adopt the liberal policy pursued by St. 

The second use of the lecture room, name- 
ly, under the direct auspices of the library, is 
a much simpler problem, although there are 
libraries that use their lecture rooms in this 
way very little, if at all. Newark is a good 
example of this latter use, and Newark has 
had over 600 meetings of outside organiza- 
tions in its library building in a single year, 
and few or none of its own. The chief use 
of the lecture room of the Ryerson building 
in Grand Rapids is for lectures and exhibi- 
tions under the auspices of the library. If 
any library has a lecture room and funds 
available so that its other work will not be 
crippled, it is certainly more than worth 
while for it to conduct lectures on its own 
account. The lectures should be, of course, 
worth while of themselves, but in reality they 
may be used to serve three purposes. The 
lecture room as a means of giving the library 
publicity has already been mentioned. 

The lecture announcements may be used to 
encourage the use of books on subjects to 
which the lectures relate. This feature has 
been extensively used in Grand Rapids. In 
connection with each lecture we print slips 
announcing the lecture (in addition to the 
announcements published in the monthly bul- 
letin), and on the slips are given some of the 
books in the library that relate to this subject. 
Persons bring these slips to the library and 
ask for the books on them sometimes several 
years after the lecture has been given. A 
by-product in connection with this list is that 
its preparation brings to the attention of the 
order department and the librarian weak 
spots in the library's collection of books. This 

January, 1911] 


is happening right along, and our book collec- 
tion has been strengthened in many direc- 
tions as a direct result of having our atten- 
tion called to our weaknesses in preparing 
these announcement slips. I may sum up 
this whole matter by saying that all our lec- 
tures are conducted as roads to books. 

The securing of lecturers with suitable sub- 
jects is, of course, an important part of the 
work. Endeavor to get subjects that will 
appeal to all classes of people. Do not put 
into your course a lot of subjects that will 
appeal only to the cultured few; and then, 
most important of all. make every effort to 
get speakers who can interest a miscellaneous 
audience. If the lecturer fails to interest the 
people all your other work is more or less in 
vain. So far as possible arrange subjects in 
series, for it requires less advertising for a 
series of lectures than for a single lecture, 
and the people will get more from the cumu- 
lative effect. The advertising for the first 
lecture of a series will usually carry the rest, 
if the speaker has any success in presenting 
his subject in an interesting way. Lectures 
in series given by one person are the easiest 
to handle. Where different people speak in 
the series the problem is more difficult. A 
poor speaker at the beginning of a series of 
this kind may easily quear all the rest, unless 
some of the other speakers happen to be very 
w^ell known. After each lecture the librarian 
usually discusses with the lecturer his method 
of presentation, etc., calling attention to the 
points which might receive greater or less 
emphasis in future presentations of the sub- 
ject. The point most frequently emphasized 
is that the lecture should rarely exceed an 
hour in its delivery. It is always better for 
the speaker to stop when every one wants 
him to continue, than to have him speak after 
some in the audience are wishing he would 

For our lectures in Grand Rapids we de- 
pend largely on local talent, although a num- 
ber of speakers are brought to the city eadi 
year for our lecture work. This coming win- 
ter we are arranging for about sixty lectures 
to be given at six different libraries. The 
average attendance at our lectures exceeds 
the regular seating capacity of the lecture 
rooms. It i^ not unusual for as many to be 
turned avay as can get in. 

At the beginning of each library year the 

Library board sets aside a sum of money to 
be used for the compensation of lecturers, and 
the plans are made accordingly. I might say 
that we found it best to pay all local people 
an honorarium for lectures, except persons 
in the service of the city speaking on a mu- 
nicipal subject. The Library board concluded 
that if a lecture was worth giving at all it 
was worth the small honorarium it allows 
local speakers. Many persons could not af- 
ford to get up slides and prepare lectures for 
us without some compensation which would 
reimburse them in part at least for the slides. 
Others are glad to do the work without the 
honorarium, and they frequently turn it back 
to the library for the purchase of books. 

The compensation for the lecturers is only 
about half of the expense connected with our 
lecture work. Giving the lectures proper pub- 
licity is about one-fourth the expense. The 
other expenses include the operator of the 
lantern, gas for the lantern where electricity 
cannot be used, electricity where it is used, 
u?hers, printing, general supervision, etc. 
The library has carefully studied the cost of 
this work, figuring in all of these items, in- 
cluding heat, light, and janitor service in its 
own building. In the school buildings where 
the library gives lectures these last three 
items are supplied by the Board of Educa- 
tion. Nevertheless, the total cost per hearer 
for the library is about eight cents. If our 
lecture rooms were larger it would be very 
easy for us to reduce this expense per capita 
to five cents. This, as I said before, in- 
cludes every expense connected with the 
work, for we have no free list. The lecture 
work, so far as the number of people directly 
reached is concerned, is the most expensive 
work that is done by the library. 

In building a new library building lecture 
rooms ought to be so arranged that they can 
be used for purposes other than lectures; ex- 
hibitions, for example. This means that the 
seats should not be fastened to the floor, for 
if they are the exhibition space will be limited 
to things that can be hung on the wall. 
The seats being fastened to the floor in the 
Ryerson building is a considerable limitation 
to the use of the lecture room. 

Before closing these remarks permit me to 
venture a few words on what I regard as the 
ideal lecture room arrangement for a library 
building in towns the size of Grand Rapids 


[January, 1911 

and larger, and most of this, I believe, will 
also apply to a smaller town, with but a sin- 
gle lecture room in its building. All lecture 
rooms should be equipped with a lantern. 
For Grand Rapids we need three rooms prop- 
erly to care for the kind of things which the 
library is now giving or could easily give. 
W.e need a room that will seat about 100 to 
150 people for small meetings. This room 
might have a small movable platform. Or- 
dinary chairs would be used, so that the room 
could be cleared and used for other purposes 
if desired. We need a room also to be used 
as an exhibition room that would seat 400 or 
500 persons. The seats in this should also be 
movable. In addition to the two rooms men- 
tioned we could frequently use an auditorium 
that would seat from 2000 to 3000 persons. 
This room, in addition to being equipped 
with a lantern, should also be equipped with 
moving picture apparatus, a pipe organ, and 
have a good-sized stage. The seats on the 
main floor should be movable, and there 
should be one or two galleries to give the 
best results. 

Probably few cities in America have ad- 
vanced to the stage of enlightened coopera- 
tion where the people are ready to erect and 
maintain a library building that would pro- 
vide meeting places in rooms such as I have 
mentioned for all kinds of educational, liter- 
ary, and scientific organizations, as well as for 
meetings conducted by the library itself. 
Nevertheless, I understand that municipal 
buildings of this kind are under considera- 
tion in England, if not yet in operation; but 
I can easily conceive of a library building in 
which all local organizations club women, 
professional men, and labor union men 
should hold their meetings, making the library 
the headquarters for all literary, scientific, so- 
ciological, educational, and social welfare en- 
terprises of the city, as well as the headquar- 
ters for all persons banded together for the 
betterment of mankind. The public is rapid- 
ly readjusting its idea of a public library and 
its function. It is insisting that libraries 
"function up" to their opportunities; and 
this means that they must deal with other 
things as well as things in print. We are 
coming more and more to realize that the 
business of a library is the dissemination of 
ideas through books, through conferences, 

through lectures, through exhibitions "to 
put sunshine into our hearts and to drive the 
moonshine out of our heads," in the words 
of Lord Morley; or, to use the words of 
Matthew Arnold "to make sweetness and 
light prevail." All this will be done in the 
future, I firmly believe, in library buildings 
especially equipped for such service, for prac- 
tically all these things are being done in li- 
brary buildings now, but not all in any one 
building. It goes without saying that these 
things should not be attempted without the 
proper equipment. I think too many libra- 
ries make the mistake of trying to do things 
for which they are not properly equipped, 
just because some one else with the equipment 
(which includes sufficient funds for adminis- 
tration) is doing them succeess fully. 

I shall close by quoting three paragraphs 
from my annual report for the year ending 
March 31, 1907: 

"During the year another opportunity for 
extension has presented itself in the inquiry 
from the local society of dentists of the pos- 
sibility of their having a regular meeting 
place in the library. At present this hardly 
seems possible, owing to our closing at nine 
o'clock and to the lack of an available room. 
Nevertheless, it is highly desirable that the 
library should be able to furnish a meeting 
place for all local non-exclusive, public- 
spirited societies of an educational, philan- 
thropic, scientific, engineering, or artistic 

"The dentists, and doubtless similar organ- 
izations, would gladly pay a nominal rental 
for the use of a meeting place in the building. 
The income from such a source might well be 
devoted to the purchase of books and period- 
icals relating to the work of the organization. 
If we had several rooms which could be used 
in this way it would probably be an easy mat- 
ter to organize the engineers, architects, and 
others in affiliation with the library. 

"Such organizations stimulate thought ; 
they promote study and investigation; they 
help to spread abroad knowledge among 
men. For them to meet in the library would 
be to the advantage of all concerned. It 
would bring them near the books and current 
publications which the members need in their 
work; it would help to make the library, to a 
much greater extent, the center of the best 
intellectual life of the city; it would promote 
in a larger degree the things for which the 
library stands the dissemination of ideas 
among men. For ideas, not books, after all, 
are the things that mould our lives, that make 
over, recreate, our country, our cities, our 
institutions, our industries, and ourselves." 

January, 1911] 


BY HENRY W. KENT, Assistant Secretary Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City 

OUR president told me that I was to have 
ten minutes in which to read a paper on some 
given book of my choosing and that I was to 
be as amusing as possible. I have chosen to 
speak of my favorite author, though knowing 
well that I cannot do him justice in so short 
a time, even if it were possible for me to con- 
form to the other stipulation. I very much 
doubt if I should attempt to be ten minutes 
funny in the face of Mr. Bayle's own stric- 
ture, "That writer must be vastly lavish who 
would attempt to be witty in a pamphlet of 
only seven or eight pages and aim at beauti- 
ful diction/' He never condescended to the 
humorous throughout the whole course of his 
labors from A to Z, being, we must suppose, 
careful of his style, besides having too many 
things of a serious nature to say; for you 
must know that he was a philosopher and a 
sceptic, one, according to Webster, who 
doubts concerning the truth of any particular 
proposition, one who has the tendency to 
question the virtue and integrity of most per- 
sons. Indeed, his original idea in writing 
the dictionary of which I shall speak was to 
correct therein all of the errors of other dic- 
tionaries and authors, or, as he puts it, "to 
compile the largest collection possible of er- 
rors which are found in dictionaries ; and not 
to confine myself within these limits, how 
vastly extended soever they may be, but also 
to make incursion into authors of all kinds, 
as occasion may offer," a pretty task which 
seemed to appeal to him; and it was only 
when he found that such a book would make 
him quite too unpopular with the theologians 
and other sceptics that he gave up this plan. 
Through his scepticism concerning the pop- 
ular beliefs of his day he was acquainted 
more than most men with the troubles that 
come to those who attempt to point out the 
mistakes of their friends; and so, abandon- 
ing the wholly critical idea, he changed his 
dictionary into a general one, historical and 

* Read before the New York Library Club Nov. 10, 
1910, as a contribution to the "Convention of books." 

critical, containing accounts of the most illus- 
trious persons of all ages and nations, dis- 
tinguished by their rank, actions, learning, 
and other accomplishments, an ample field 
for one of his turn of mind. 

We should not blame my friend too much 
for this inordinate desire to criticise every- 
thing; it was the fashion of his time, and 
while it was undoubtedly unpleasant for the 
subjects of his essays, it was, as may readily 
be imagined, something of a task, and a risk 
too, for the author. He should have our 
sympathy, were it not that his works have 
weathered the assaults, personal, civic, and 
hieratical, which they compelled and have 
come down to us alive and militant still after 
two centuries of attack. 

That he had suffered Bayle shows in his 
account of Christopher Helvicus, a professor 
of Divinity, Greek, and the Eastern tongues 
in the University of Giessen, a youthful prod- 
igy who died in the flower of his age and 
whose works, we are told, had he lived, 
would have filled several folio volumes. Here 
our commentator says : "Helvicus was irre- 
proachable as to his manners; he loved to 
live in peace with all men, and had never 
quarrelled, either with his colleagues or any 
other person. This was a very rare cir- 
camstance." "Rara avis in terris," he adds 

So, knowing that he but followed the dic- 
tates of conviction and nature, and that he 
suffered for his literary excesses, let us, as 
librarians, dwell rather upon the marvellous 
power of a man who produced, so far as we 
know, unaided, a great number of biographies, 
histories, and criticism?, all tinged with his 
own personality and philosophy. Just think 
of the help which Samuel Johnson had in 
making his Dictionary of the English Lan- 
guage, employing, we are told, six amanuen- 
ses Cfive of whom. Boswell joyously adds, 
were Scotchmen). Consider the army of 
clerks, editors, and scholars who were assem- 
bled to write the Dictionary of National Biog- 
raphy or even the Century Dictionary, and 



[January, 191 i 

then see what it was to be a scholar in the 
seventeenth century. Think of the many 
tomes Bayle must have known, of the libra- 
ries he must have consulted in order to bring 
together the great mass of references with 
which he fortifies his opinions. Of course, 
it must be admitted that of the pages of 
Bayle's book, a good many have only one line 
of his great primer text at the top to many 
columns of nonpareil quotations at the bot- 
tom, but even then is it not true that the 
reference librarian of to-day would faint 
with weariness if he were asked to produce 
and transcribe the apt quotation referring to 
each of the many obscure or even famous 
personages of whom our author treats? 

There are two things that ought to have 
been stated at the very outset of this paper, 
lest there be any misunderstanding anent the 
character of the dictionary, and lest any one 
of my hearers, fired by my enthusiasm for 
my favorite author, should be tempted to go 
out to get a copy of him. It must be under- 
stood, first, that the work is printed (at least 
the English edition printed for G. Strahan 
and others to which I shall refer) in ten 
tall and rather heavy volumes too tall and 
too heavy, I fear, for the average lady libra- 
rian to read comfortably under the shadow 
of the loan desk. I am inclined to be apolo- 
getic about this, because I realize how im- 
portant it is nowadays to an author's reputa- 
tion that he should be of the light and easy 
to hold pocket edition kind, that he should 
be something convenient to read in the car, 
or of the just-before-you-go-to-sleep variety. 
I am sorry that Mr. Bayle isn't one of those 
kinds. He did the best that was known in 
his day. It would be interesting to speculate 
on what he might have done had he lived 
with us and understood the art of our pub- 
lishers and the demands of our librarians. 

The ether thing of which I feel constrained 
to speak is more serious. Mr. Bayle was 
quite shocking sometimes in his language, or 
rather in his frankness, a habit which, I know, 
some librarians would feel it their duty to 
discountenance in an author, believing, I 
suppose, with the Frenchman that language 
was given to us to conceal our thoughts. 
But I would beg of you to remember that 
Mr. Bayle did not have the advantage of the 
polite ideas which prevail in our own circles, 

and, also, to note that he did have the ready 
and saving grace of his time of easily drop- 
ping off into Greek and Hebrew foot- and 
side-notes whenever he thought it necessary. 
I should not have dared mention my liking 
for Mr. Bayle in this public manner, if I were 
not secure in my own consciousness of adept- 
ness in the art of skipping notes particu- 
lary the hard-to-translate kind, which modern 
authors for various reasons find it unneces- 
sary to add to their productions. 

The reader of Bayle will have to take him 
as he is, if at all; because, I fear, it would 
never pay even the philanthropic Mr. John 
Cotton Dana, or me, to issue my friend in a 
pretty and handy form suitable to meet the 
standards of the most respectable Massachu- 
setts librarians. 

I must not neglect to say that Bayle was 
perfectly well aware of the dangers of plain 
speech and of the strictures of self-appointed 
public mentors. He devotes several pages of 
his last volume to an apology for his meth- 
ods, a practice which latter-day authors 
might well follow with good results, only per- 
haps it would be wiser to bring this explan- 
ation into the front of the book and so pre- 
vent inspection of the text until the readers 
were properly warned. 

Granted that the conscientious librarian 
after perusing this essay or apologia still 
found it impossible to conform to the author's 
point of view and to give the book a place 
on the open shelf, Bayle's physical weight 
would seem to palliate his offence, because 
no one could carry off all of the volumes ex- 
cept in a cart, an act which would imme- 
diately draw attention to him and his bare- 
facedness, and the librarian could easily keep 
his eye upon the work, and any clergyman 
found revelling in its heresies could be put 
out. If the late lamented Mary Twain, or 
even Mr. Hichens, had only known Pierre 
Bayle, they might, so to speak, have saved 
their skins in certain directions if they had 
taken a leaf out of the dictionary a large 
folio leaf bound in heavy pigskin and had 
kept their offensive passages in foot or mar- 
ginal notes. 

Literature, of course, has changed very 
much for the better since Bayle's day. Think 
of the devotion paid by him to his Bible, his 
theology, and above all his classics, the im- 

January, 1911] 


portance given by him to the exposure of 
inexactness or misstatement in connection 
with them. Scholarship was to him the end 
of the educated world. It is sad to think 
how times have changed since then and how 
lightly even you and I treat many matters 
that were serious to him. The first article 
in his dictionary will show this. It begins 
with a double a, Aaron, high priest of the 
Jews, and brother of Moses. "As we have," 
says our author, "a copious account of him 
in the Pentateuch, in Moreris dictionary, and 
that of Mr. Simon, to give a large article to 
him here would be superfluous. I shall only 
observe, therefore, that his weakness in com- 
plying with the superstitious desires of the 
Israelites with regard to the golden calf has 
given rise to a multitude of fictions. One 
Moncaius published about the beginning of 
the seventeenth century an apology for Aaron, 
which the Inquisition of Rome condemned. 
Cornelius a Lapide, the Jesuit, had foretold 
the author. Tis supposed in this apology 
that Aaron intended to exhibit the same image 
which Moses represented sometime after, 
Inecan a cherubim, and that the Israelites 
worshipped it, contrary to the intentions of 
Aaron. A Doctor of the Sorbonne, Canon 
of Amiens, completely refuted these supposi- 
tions in 1609. According to some authors, 
the only reason of Aaron's criminal indul- 
gence on this occasion was the fear he was 
under of being felled by the people, and that 
he hoped to elude their request by requiring 
the women to contribute their ear-rings, 
imagining they would desire to continue with- 
out a visible deity rather than give up any 
of their persona! ornament, but found, how- 
ever, that such minds as are intoxicated with 
superstition and idolatry will sacrifice even-- 
thing to their darling enthusiasm. The 
Scriptures don't any way favor the opinion 
of those who assert that the golden calf was 
of gilded wood. 

"We are not, I believe, to suppose that God 
suspended the power of fire in favour of 
Aaron as he did for the three Hebrew chil- 
dren who were cast into the fiery furnace at 
Babylon, though this is the opinion of some 
writers " 

Bayle was over ready for a discussion, 
sometimes even giving an entry to a man 
for this purpose alone, as in the case of 

Lysimachus, the preceptor of Alexander, of 
whom he says, "I would not have mentioned 
him, if Imiot had well translated what Plu- 
tarch relates of him.'' He was willing even 
to confess his own ignorance in order to lay 
bare the ignorance of a rival as, for instance, 
when he says of John Kircher : "I cannot 
pursue my account of him any further; and 
I should be very blameable not to own it, 
since the learned Mr. Balliet has made no 
scruple to acknowledge that he knew nothing 
of the adventures of this person." 

But it would not be worth while for me to 
undertake to give an analysis of Bayle's work 
since it has already been done by able hands, 
particularly well and briefly by Voltaire in 
his "Dictionary- of philosophy." To me he 
stands for the delights of the Old Librarian- 
ship. Given him, heavy as he is and plain- 
spoken, I can so far forget my duties as to 
read this friend beguiling and satisfying. The 
growing multitude of books makes life a bur- 
den to the searcher after truth and refer- 
ences ; here all is brought together in one 
work biographies, histories, criticisms, bib- 
liographies and I, for one, am of the opin- 
ion of Thomas Hobbes of Leviathan fame, 
who had thought much more than he had 
read, and who was of opinion that large libra- 
ries were quite unnecessary when one re- 
flected how much in books was but repeti- 
tions of what had been said before. 

What is the use of so many books ? I am 
inclined to throw away the accessions book 
and the order blanks, and give up the busi- 
ness of collecting everything into my library 
for the education of the public and to sit 
tight with Pierre Bayle and the Bible yes, 
in spite of lists like those of President Eliot 
r.nd Mr. Lubbock. Still, you never can tell 
a duodecimo Pierre Bayle might arise while 
I was keeping company with my folio friend, 
and then I should miss the new man and the 
delights of him. It is Voltaire again, who 
puts this very well when he says : 

"A large library has this that is good about 
it, that it affrights those who look at it. 
Two hundred thousand volumes are enough 
to discourage a man intending to write a book. 
But, unhappily, he says to himself, one can- 
not read all of these books, so perhaps mine 
may be chosen. He remembers the drop of 
water that complained of being cast in pro- 



[January, ign 

fundity and forgotten in the ocean. A genii 
took pity upon her and caused her to be gob- 
bled up by an oyster and she became the 
most beautiful pearl in the Orient, the prin- 
cipal ornament in the throne of the Grand 

And now, having taken more than my ten 
minutes, I will ask your further complaisance 
while I read as a foot-note a passage from 
Voltaire, which will tell you more than I can 
about Peter Bayle. In doing so I shall ap- 
proach my author in method, at least: 

"Why has Louis Racine treated Bayle like 
a dangerous man, with a cruel heart, in an 
epistle to Jean Baptiste Rousseau, which, al- 
though printed, is but little known? 

"He compares Bayle, whose logical acute- 
ness detected the errors of opposing systems, 
to Marius sitting upon the ruins of Car- 
thage : 

Ainsi d'un oeil content Marions, dans sa fuite, 
Contemplate les debris de Carthage detruite. 

Thus exiled Marius, with contented gaze, 
Thy ruins, Carthage, silently surveys. 

"Here is a simile which exhibits very little 
resemblance, or, as Pope says, a simile dis- 
similar. Marius had not destroyed reason 
and arguments, nor did he contentedly view 
its ruins, but, on the contrary, he was pene- 
trated with an elevated sentiment of melan- 
choly on contemplating the vicissitudes of 
human affairs, when he made the celebrated 
speech, 'Say to the proconsul of Africa that 
thou hast seen Marius seated on the ruins of 

"We ask in what Marius resembled Bayle? 
Louis Racine, if he thinks fit, may apply the 
epithets 'hard-hearted' and 'cruel' to Marius, 
to Sulla, to the triumvirs, but, in reference to 
Bayle, the phrases 'detestable pleasure,' 'cruel 
heart,' 'terrible man' should not be put in a 
sentence written by Louis Racine against one 
who is only proved to have weighed the argu- 
ments of the Manichaeans, the Paulicians, the 
Arians, the Entychians, against those of their 
adversaries. Louis Racine proportions not the 
punishment to the offence. He should re- 
member that Bayle combatted Spinoza, who 
was too much of a philosopher, and Jurieu, 
who was none at all. He should respect the 
good manners of Bayle and learn to jeason 
from him. But he was a Jansenist, that is 

to say, he knew the words of the language 
of Jansenism and employed them at random. 
You may properly call cruel and terrible a 
powerful man who commands his slaves, on 
pain of death, to go and reap corn where he 
has sown thistles ; who gives to some of 
them too much food, and suffers others to 
die of hunger; who kills his eldest son to 
leave a large fortune to the younger. All 
that is frightful and cruel, Louis Racine ! It 
is said that such is the god of thy Jansenists, 
but I do not believe it. Oh slaves of party, 
people attacked with the jaundice, you con- 
stantly see everything yellow ! 

"And to whom has the unthinking heir of 
a father who had a hundred times more taste 
than he lias philosophy addressed this miser- 
able epistle against the virtuous Bayle? To 
Rousseau to a poet who thinks still less ; to 
a man whose principal merit has consisted in 
epigrams which are revolting to the most in- 
dulgent reader; to a man to whom it was 
alike whether he sang Jesus Christ or Giton. 
Such was the apostle to whom Louis Racine 
denounced Bayle as a miscreant. What mo- 
tive could the author of 'Phaedra' and 'Iphi- 
genia' have for falling into such a prodigious 
error? Simply this, that Rousseau had made 
verses for the Jansenists, whom he then be- 
lieved to be in high credit. 

"Such is the rage of faction let loose upon 
Bayle, but you do not hear any of the dogs 
who have howled against him bark against 
Lucretius, Cicero, Seneca, Epicurus, nor 
against the numerous philosophers of anti- 
quity. It is all reserved for Bayle ; he is their 
fellow citizen he is of their time his 
glory irritates them. Bayle is read and 
Nicole is not read ; behold the source of the 
Jansenist hatred ! Bayle is studied, but 
neither the Reverend Father Croiset, nor the 
Reverend Father Caussin; hence Jesuitical, 
denouncement ! 

"In vain has a Parliament of France done 
him the greatest honor in rendering his will 
valid, notwithstanding the severity of the 
law. The madness of party knows neither 
honor nor justice. I have not inserted this 
article to make the eulogy of the best of dic- 
tionaries, which would not be becoming here, 
and of which Bayle is not in need ; I have 
written it to render, if I can, the spirit of 
party odious and ridiculous." 

January, 1911] 



(Reprinted from New York Libraries, July, 1910.) 

IT is now five years since the plan formu- 
lated at the Lake Placid Conference of the 
Nev.- York Library Association of 1905, of 
holding each year a series of small district 
library meetings called "round tables," was 
first put in operation. How successful the 
plan has been and how great has been the in- 
crease of interest in these meetings during 
this period, are indicated by the figures of the 
table below. Four years ago the committee 
having charge of these meetings reported 
with great satisfaction that 194 libraries had 
responded to their efforts and that the meet- 
ings had been attended by 402 persons. With 
no additional features to interest or attract, 
and in the face of a possible weariness on the 
part of some because of necessary repetitions 
from year to year, the statistics for 1910 show 
a total of 334 libraries participating in the 
meetings, and an attendance of 983 persons. 
This is a gain in four years of 70 per cent, in 
the number of libraries represented and of 
more than 100 per cent, in the actual attend- 
ance. As a further feature of encouragement 
it will be seen from the figures given below 
that while each of these four years there has 
been an advance over the preceding, the 
degree of advance this past year, both in the 
number of libraries and the number of persons 
interested, has been the largest ever reported, 
79 more libraries and 217 more persons taking 
part than in 1909. 

Partly for local reasons and partly for the 
purpose of providing a more logical center 
for the groups, many changes were made this 
year in the place for holding the meetings, 
though the groups themselves were left very 
much as in former years. Most of the changes 
proved to be happy and were factors in the 
increased success reported. In a few sections 
of the state, it is practically impossible to 
find any convenient center for meeting and 
the attendance at these meetings is neces- 
sarily small. As in former years, the libraries 
of Greater New York were omitted in mak- 
ing up the groups, it being assumed that local 
clubs and associations provide all the stim- 
ulus of this kind needed in this center, with 
its advanced library development. In plan- 
ning for the district of western Long Island, 
however, it was deemed best to merge the 
round table gathering with a meeting of the 
Long Island Library Club held in Brooklyn, 
and this was done. The statistics reported 
for this district are for this joint meeting, as 
was the case a year ago. In point of attend- 
ance, this was naturally the largest of the 
series, but there were several others which 
had an attendance of from 50 to 85 persons, 
including those at Albany, Syracuse. Utica, 
Geneseo and Essex. Other especially well 
attended meetings were those at Watertown, 

Fort Plain, Geneva, Middletown and Olean, 
at each of which were registered from 26 to 
45 delegates. The smallest number of per- 
sons taking part in any meeting was eight, 
this being the number at Attica and Homer. 

In point of library representation, the lead- 
ing meetings were those of Albany and Buf- 
falo, 22 different libraries taking part in each. 
At both Utica and White Plains 18 libraries 
were represented, at Watertown 16, at Gen- 
eseo and Fort Plain 15 each, at Geneva 14, 
at Olean, Kingston and Middletown 13 each, 
at Tarrytown 12, at Hornell u, at Syracuse, 
Glens Falls, Oneonta and Mayville, 10 each. 
The smallest meetings in respect to libraries 
represented were those at Elmira and Mat- 
tituck, at each of which but four libraries 
were registered. 

In point of interest, due either to the char- 
acter and vigor of the discussions or to the 
esprit de corps developed, it would appear 
from the reports received that the most note- 
worthy meetings were those at Buffalo, 
Watertown, Geneseo, Geneva, Utica. Olean. 
Middletown, White Plains, Glens Falls and 
Hudson. Others may in fact have been more 
helpful and stimulating to those participating, 
but interest in these was most conspicuously 

In assigning conductors for the meetings, 
several changes from former years were made, 
due to inability on the part of some of the old 
leaders to serve this year, and, to the coming 
into the field of some new and very able 
workers'. For the first time since the insti- 
tute committee began its work, the name of 
Mr. Eastman, who had carefully planned the 
series for this year, but was in the far West 
when the meetings were held, does not appear 
among those of the conductors. The names 
of Miss Bacon and Miss Rathbone. who have 
done such faithful and admirable service in 
former years, are also conspicuous by their 
absence, both being prevented against their 
will from taking part. But the new friends 
\vho have risen up to take their place have 
shown such engaging enthusiasm and vigor, 
both in attracting to the meetings and in 
sustaining interest that some of the most 
conspicuous successes of the year are to be 
credited to their work. These new leaders 
are Caroline Webster, of Geneseo, who had 
charge of three meetings : Rena Reese, of 
L'tica, who also conducted three; Mary Z. 
Cruice, of Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, who con- 
ducted two, and Mr. Porter, of the State Li- 
brary, who presided at two. Seventeen of 
the meetings were in charge of the state 
library organizers, Miss Brown presiding at 
nine and Miss Phelps at eight. Mr. Peck, of 
Gloversville, since the beginning a member of 
the state committee, represented that com- 
mittee and gave valuable service at five meet- 
ings ; Mr. Wynkoop, public library inspector, 
represented the committee at two. Other 



[January, 1911 

leaders were Mr. Fison, of the Brooklyn 
Public Library, who conducted a small but 
very successful meeting at Amityville, Miss 
Hume, of the Queens Borough Public Li- 
brary, who had charge of the western Long 
Island meeting, and Mr. Brown, of the Buf- 
falo Public Library, who with the assistance 
of his staff conducted one of the best meet- 
ings of the kind ever held in the state. 

In the choice of topics for discussion there 
was a greater degree of uniformity than has 
ever before appeared. One topic, "How to 
increase local interest," was chosen for all 
but three of the meetings, an indication of a 
very widespread desire on the part of the 
libraries to enlarge their service to the public. 
The topic next in order of popularity was 
''Good books for children," an evidence that 
the child is receiving due attention by the 
libraries of the state. Other topics in the 
order of their choice were : "How to select 
books," chosen 15 times ; "Best three novels 
of the year," 12 times ; "Librarian's reading.'' 
10 times ; "Cooperation with teachers," 8 
times ; "Reference books most used," 7 times. 
Topics on the list submitted by the commit- 
tee which failed to receive a sufficient vote 
to get on the program of any meeting were : 
"Books for the farm," "Hours of opening," 
"Division of expenses," "Annual report," 
"Progress in my library this year." The 
omission of this latter topic was clearly due 
to an excess of modesty on the part of voters : 
in respect to the others, the omission was 
evidently due to lack of interest. 

From a study of the statistics and charac- 
teristics of the meetings for the past five 
years, two very encouraging generalizations 
may be made : First, that when libraries have 
once begun to take part in these meetings, 
they are almost sure to continue their inter- 
est and support. The libraries which ignored 
the meetings this year are. in the great ma- 
jority of cases, libraries that have steadily 
ignored them in previous years and which do 
not know from experience how pleasant and 
helpful these conferences are. When a li- 
brary i<= once won from its isolation and 
brought into active association with its neigh- 
bors, it almost never goes back to its former 
state. Thus the gains of each year are a 
positive and permanent gain, held secure 
while other gains are being made. 

Secondly, there is a very manifest tendency 
for meetings in different parts of the state to 
differentiate and to assume distinct and defi- 
nite characteristics, corresponding to domi- 
nating local forces and conditions, thus show- 
ing that the different localities are not suf- 
f< ring from undue pressure from the state 
committee or from an enforced conformity to 
a too rigid program. 

The following table sho\- s the place, date, 
number of libraries represented, number of 
persons present and name of conductor of 
each meetintr : 

New York library round table meetings, 1910 



" 19 

June 7 
" 9 
May 20 







June 3 


< in 

































A. Wynkoop and 
A. L. Peck 
C. F. Porter and 
A L. Peck 
Miss A. R. Phelps 

Miss Zaidee Brown 
Miss Rena Reese 

Miss A. R. Phelps 
Miss C. A ebster 
Miss A R Phelps 
MissC. Webster 

W. L. Brown 
Miss Zaidee Brown 

Miss A. R. Phelps 

C F. Porter and 
A. L. Peck 
Miss Zaidee Brown 
and A. L. Peck 
Miss Zaidee Brown 
and A. Wynkoop 
Miss Zaidee Brown 

Miss J. F. Hume 
H W Fison 
Miss Mary Z.Cruice 

Glens Falls 


Fort Plain 










Middletown. .. 
Tarrytown. . .. 
White Plains. . . 
Western Long 

Amity ville 

Total 31 

The following table shows the develop- 
ment of the state institute or round table 
meetings since their beginning in 1902 : 

Library institute and round table meetings in New 
York, 1902-10 







1 08 





(Rcpunted from New York Libraries, July, 1910) 

THE results of the general vote by libra- 
rians in this state and some others who had 
indicated their interest, as to the 50 books 
of 1909 to be chosen first for a village li- 
brary, are given below. 


Schauffler. Arbor day. 

Bailey. Cyclopedia of American agriculture. 

January, 1911] 



Schauffler. Lincoln's birthday. 

Arnold. A mother's list of books for chil- 

'Hastings. Dictionary of the Bible. 

Carnegie Library, Pittsburgh. Catalogue of 
books in the children's department. 

Children's Catalog ; a guide to the best read- 
ing for young people. . . comp. by M. E. 
Potter and others. 

Robbins. Selected articles on the commis- 
sion plan of municipal government. 


Bryce. The hindrances to good citizenship. 
King. The laws of friendship human and 

Miinsterberg. The eternal values. 


Eliot. The religion of the future. 
Clarke. Sixty years with the Bible. 
McComb. The making of the English Bible. 
Thompson. The churches and the wage 


Addams. The spirit of youth and the city 


George. The Junior Republic. 
Steiner. The immigrant tide. 
Abbott. Women in industry. 
Pagan. Labor and the railroads. 
Parsons. Choosing a vocation. 
Sumner. Equal suffrage. 
Eliot. Education for efficiency. 
Foltz. The federal civil service as a career. 


Rotch. The conquest of the air. 
Serviss. Curiosities of the sky. 
Chambers. The story of the comets. 
Clarke. Astronomy from a dipper. 
McCook. Ant communities and how they are 


Brigham. Box furniture. 

Hutchinson. Preventable diseases. 

Mitchell. The fireless cook book. 

Bond. Handy man's workshop and labora- 

Call. Nerves and common sense. 

Rexford. The home garden. 

Hill. Cooking for two. 

Knopf. Tuberculosis a preventable and cura- 
ble disease. 


Krehbiel. A book of operas. 

Barnes. House plants and how to grow 


Upton. Standard concert repertory. 
Melitz. The opera goer's complete guide. 
Singleton. A guide to modern opera. 
Caffin. Story of Dutch painting. 
Stickley. Craftsman homes. 

*New work in i volume. 


Hartt. The people at play. 
Holder & Jordan. Fish stories. 
Wright. The grizzly bear. 


Van Dyke. White bees, and other poems. 

Maeterlinck. The Blue bird. 

Brownell. American prose masters Cooper, 
Hawthorne, Emerson, Poe, Lowell, Henry 

Oberammergau passion play. The passion 
play of Oberammergau; tr. from the Ger- 
man text by M. J. Moses. 

Peabody. The piper. 

Zangwill. The melting-pot. 

Huneker. Egoists. 

Willcox. The human way. 

Lounsbury- English spelling and spelling re- 


Grenfell. Labrador. 

Brown. Haremlik. 

Johnson. The picturesque Hudson. 

Muir. Stickeen. 

Riis. The old town. 

Shackleton. The heart of the Antarctic. 2 v. 

Howells. Seven English cities. 

Lucas. A wanderer in Paris. 

Collier. England and the English from an 

American point of view. 
Conger. Letters from China. 
Greely. Handbook of Alaska. 

Channing & Lansing. The story of the 

Great Lakes. 

Griffis. Story of New Netherland. 
Trevelyan. Garibaldi and the Thousand. 
Laut. Canada. 


Stanley. Autobiography. 

Grenfell. Adrift on an ice-pan. 

Parker. Recollections of Grover Cleveland. 

Janvier. Henry Hudson. 

Shaler. Autobiography. 

Pryor. My day. 


Montgomery. Anne of Avonlea. 
Page. John Marvel, assistant. 
White. A certain rich man. 
Locke. Septimus. 

De Morgan. It never can happen again. 
Porter. A girl of the Limberlost. 
Glasgow. Romance of a plain man. 
Crawford. The white sister. 
Wright Poppea of the post-office. 
Rice. Mr. Opp. 
Lane. Katrine. 

Bryant. Christopher Hibbault: roadmaker. 
Barclay. The rosary. 
Lincoln. Keziah Coffin. 
Wiggin. Susanna and Sue. 
Kipling. Actions and reactions. 
Beach. The silver horde. 



[January, 1911 

Gale. Friendship Village love stories. 
Grant. The Chippendales. 


Adams. Harper's machinery book for boys. 
Bond. The Scientific American boy at 


Richards. Florence Nightingale. 
Moses. Louisa May Alcott. 
'Wyss. The Swiss family Robinson. 
Bancroft. Games for the playground. 
Beard. The boy pioneers. 
Catlin. The boy's Catlin. 
Barbour. Captain Chub. 
Ttefoe. Robinson Crusoe. 
Duncan. When mother lets us garden. 
Nicolay. Boys' life of Ulysses S. Grant. 
Rogers. Trees that every child should know. 
Wiggin & Smith. Tales of wonder. 



THE report of the Librarian of Congress 
for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1910, was 
issued before the end of the year, as usual, 
and covers 305 pages, as against 220 pages of 
last year and 143 pages of 1908. A list of 
officers precedes the report. Various plans 
of the building, namely, cellar, basement, first 
or main floor, second floor, attic, and new 
book stack are included as illustrations. An 
exterior view of the library makes the frontis- 

The report records accessions of 90,473 
books and pamphlets (net gain), as against 
accessions of 167,677 books (net gain) last 
year. The total collection of books in the 
library is now 1,793,158. The net accessions 
in maps and charts was 6822, the total num- 
ber in the library being 118,165. The net ad- 
ditions in music were 16,513 volumes and 
pieces, making a total of 517,806 musical 
works in the library. The total of prints is 
320,251 (17,215 gain). The accessions in doc- 
uments are recorded as 45,882, a greater num- 
ber than ever before. Although the amount 
of material handled annually in this depart- 
ment has more than doubled during the pa^t 
decade, no increase in the force has been 
provided by law since the Division was es- 

Continued effort has been made to com- 
-plete the sets of foreign documents received 
in part through international exchange and 
revised or supplementary want lists have 
"been sent to some 25 countries with gratify- 
ing response. Gifts from foreign govern- 
ments also include a complete set of over 
23,000 cadastral sheets of the maps of the 
provinces of Egypt, presented by the Survey 
department of that country. From state gov- 
ernments gifts of 6386 volumes and pamphlets 
have been received, as compared with 3000 

>Ne-.v edition. 

or 4000 in earlier years. This increase is 
probably partly due to a more effective meth- 
od of acquisition depending on a new under- 
taking of the Documents Division, namely, 
the issue of the Monthly list of state Publi- 
cations, begun under date of Dec. 15,1909. 
The number of subscribers to this list to date 
is 126. The six numbers for the half year 
January to June, 1910, amount in the aggre- 
gate to 219 octavo pages. Provision is made 
that each official state publication be sent to 
the Library of Congress not later than the 
last day of the month in which it appeared 
so that its title may be included in the proper 
number of the list. Current state documents 
are thus made available for the use of readers 
in a much larger number and more promptly. 

The law library has a total of 138,059 (5504 
additions). In the Division of manuscripts 
the most important accessions were the vol- 
umes of Madison papers hitherto owned by 
the Chicago Historical Society, the title of 
which has now passed to the United States. 
Accessions to this division are given in detail 
in appendix in of the report. In the Music 
division the most notable gifts came from 
Adolphe M. Forster, of Pittsburgh, and 
George W. Chadwick, of Boston. The for- 
mer presented the autographs of his op. 29, 
67, and 69, and Mr. Chadwick the autograph 
score of his "Symphonic sketches." 

The most noteworthy musical purchase en 
bloc was that of the Marquise Martorill col- 
lection, which was honored by the jury of 
the Paris exposition of 1900. It includes 
nearly 30 full scores in manuscript of old 
operas, among them Meyerbeer's "Semira- 
mide riconoscuita" and Haydn's "Isola dis- 
abitata"; it also contains about 1300 full 
scores of favorite arias from the i8th century 
operas in neat contemporary manuscripts, 
uniformly bound. 

In the Cataloging department there were 
116,038 volumes cataloged. There were also 
880 parts of volumes added on the serial 
record and shelf lists. Though the number 
of volumes cataloged was less than last year, 
this was due to the building of the new stack, 
which for six or seven months interfered 
considerably with the work in the main cat- 
alog room, and also should be attributed to 
the decrease in the number of assistants ac- 
tually engaged on cataloging owing to in- 
creased pressure of proofreading, classification, 
and shelf listing. Another serious drawback 
to the work of this division has been the 
difficulty, noted in previous reports, of secur- 
ing and retaining the services of competent 
catalogers, there having been 21 resignations 
and 23 new appointments during the period 
July I, 1909, to June 30, 1910. Among these 
resignations are an unusual number of the 
oldest and most experienced catalogers. 

In the work of recataloging 10 classes were 
completed and three classes recataloged in 
part. In connection with the work of re- 
classification classification schedules of five 

January, 1911] 


classes were printed and issued, and also an 
outline scheme of classes. This was done 
chiefly for administrative purposes and to 
satisfy demands from other libraries. There 
has been a total of 151,727 volumes classified 
and '69,834 volumes reclassified. 

"At the request of the president of the 
American Library Association, the chief of 
the Catalog division prepared a report on 
the history and status of the catalog rules 
question in America which was submitted to 
the International conference of librarians and 
archivists which convened at Brussels in the 
latter part of August. Steps were to be 
taken at this conference to secure, if pos- 
sible, an extension of the Anglo-American 
agreement on cataloging rules of 1908 to 
other countries. In case these efforts are 
successful they may ultimately lead to the 
preparation and printing of catalog cards in 
various countries according to uniform stan- 
dards, thus facilitating the interchange of 
entries and saving a large part of the expen- 
diture for cataloging and printing now in- 
curred by most libraries. The Royal Library 
in Berlin began on Jan. i, 1909, to print on 
standard size cards its catalog titles for books 
added after that date. A set of these cards 
-is received at the Library of Congress, but has 
so far not been put to much practical use, 
mainly for the reason that only one copy of 
each card can be obtained. As soon as the 
annual index for 1909 covering these entries 
is at hand it may be possible to withdraw 
from the files cards for books received at the 
Library of Congress, the cards after revision 
to be utilized as copy for the printer. It is 
hoped that the Royal Library may soon be in 
a position to furnish cards for separate titles 
in any desired number. Until this stage is 
reached it is doubtful whether other libraries 
will derive much profit from a subscription 
to a single set. . . . 

"\Vhile the Royal Library cards for general 
publications have not therefore as yet proved 
a direct saving, the entries issued by the 
same institution for German dissertations 
published after 1908 are freely utilized. It 
has even been deemed advisable to discon- 
tinue the printing of cards for German dis- 
sertations received at the Library of Con- 
gress and for which the Royal Library has 
already furnished entries." 

The chief of the card section reports that 
the number of subscribers has increased from 
1220 to 1366. The cash sale of cards, includ- 
ing subscriptions to the proof sheets, amount- 
ed to $28.408.09, an increase of about 16 per 
cent, over the sales for 1008-9. The sale of 
cards to the libraries of the departments of 
the United States government paid for by 
transfer of credits, amounted to $802.53. The 
total of the deposits received in payment for 
catalog card? was $29,368.66. Cards" for about 
45.000 different titles were added to the stock 
during the year. The whole number of dif- 
ferent titles now represented in the stock is 

approximately 440,000, including about 23,000 
"unrevised" cards not represented in the de- 
pository sets. 

The report of the Register of Copyrights 
included as appendix n records gross re- 
ceipts of $113,662.83 and salary expenditures 
of $87,761.97. Entries for title numbered 
109,074; 219,024 articles were deposited in 
compliance with the copyright law. 

"The new copyright act permitted the in- 
troduction and use of new record books of 
an improved character, securing greater ex- 
pedition in recording and greater facility of 
reference and search. This first year of oper- 
ation under the new law has demonstrated 
the administrative advantages secured there- 
by. It is possible to keep the current busi- 
ness much more closely up to date and to 
eliminate a larger proportion of uncleared 
material. The fees applied for the fiscal year 
under the new law exceeded the $100,000 
mark, and were nearly $21.000 in excess of the 
fees for the previous fiscal year. The annual 
fees have nearly doubled during the last 13 
years since 1897. 

"On the other hand, the first year of the 
new law (as was to be expected) greatly 
increased the copyright office correspondence." 

The appropriation granted the library (in- 
cluding copyright office) was $484,947.59, of 
which $108,000 was for increase of library 
and $87,860 for copyright office salaries. For 
building and grounds $855482.48 was appro- 
priated, including Sunday service ; of this 
amount $233,329. 89 was for the new book 
stack' in the southeast court of the building. 

The report includes, as usual, the separate 
report cf the superintendent of buildings and 
grounds. There- was a total of 768,911 visi- 
tors to the library building during the year. 

The new stack in the southeast court of 
the building was finished and occupied. It 
is in use by the library and already half 
filled. The court filled by this stack is 150 
feet long by 74 feet wide by 80 feet in 
height, and contains 748.000 cubic feet of 
space. "The stack comprises a cellar for ven- 
tilation, elevator and electric apparatus, nine 
stories of shelving and an attic assorting and 
store room well skylighted. The remainder 
of the structure is lighted by automatically 
controlled electricity and the whole is well 
ventilated mechanically. The materials of 
the construction are steel and cast-iron 
framework steel shelves and white marble 
decks arranged similar to the previous and 
original stacks in the building. Three auto- 
matic electric elevators and three stairways 
are provided from basement to attic, and also 
pneumatic tube communication from the 
shelving to the main reading rooms. 

"The building of this stack was begun in 
the fall of 1908 and essentially completed, 
excepting a machine book carrier in March. 
1910. The total appropriation for the stack 
v/as $310.000. of which $301,466.42 has been 

2 4 


[January, 1911 

Resignations from service of the library 
are reported upon, special emphasis being 
given to the loss sustained by the library in 
the loss of Mr. Hanson, chief of the Catalog 
Division, who has resigned to become asso- 
ciate director of the Library of the Univer- 
sity of Chicago. 


Two lists have appeared within a few weeks 
which are published on a somewhat new plan 
of cooperation between several large libra- 
ries and two manufacturers. A list of "Books 
for home builders planning, decorating, fur- 
nishing," is issued by the Sherwin-Williams 
Co., of Cleveland, the largest paint and oil 
manufacturers in the country. A list of 
"Practical books for practical boys" is issued 
by Hammacher, Schlemmer & Co., of New 
York, a firm which since 1848 has sold a high 
grade of tools and supplies for mechanics 
and amateurs. 

The lists were compiled by the District of 
Columbia Public Library, and the printing 
of about 40,000 copies of each list was under- 
taken by the two companies for the sake of 
advertising on the last two pages. The com- 
pany names appear also on the front covers 
and title-pages. Both lists were intended to 
be the same size, 4^2 x 7 inches. In topogra- 
phy and press work the lists are of excellent 
design and appearance, the house builders' 
list having a deckle-edge cover and tipped-on 
cover design. The cover imprint was changed 
for each of about 25 large libraries, which 
will distribute the lists, and good results 
should follow in bringing the books and libra- 
ries to the notice of new readers. It is pro- 
posed to carry on this plan with other sub- 
jects as opportunity permits. 



A CITY planning conference with view to 
developing and beautifying the city has been 
recently held in Los Angeles. There were 
several exhibits in connection with the con- 
ference, among them that prepared by the 
library was of special interest. Reference 
lists of books, periodicals and pamphlets in 
the library dealing with matters to be dis- 
cussed at the convention were prepared and 
submitted by Mr. Wright at the conference. 
Such topics as Baths, Depots, Fountains, 
Garden cities, Housing problem, Municipal 
arts, Parks, Playgrounds, Undeveloped city 
areas, and Water fronts were covered by 
these lists. The work indicated included 
only the artistic side of the subjects. 

As an indication of what the library is pre- 
pared to do along other helpful lines, a sec- 
ond list was made a part of the exhibit, cov- 
ering works on municipal affairs, magazine 
articles not included. A copy of this list has 
also been submitted to the public utility com- 
mission, showing to what extent calls for as- 

sistance in the book line may be made at the 

This exhibit comprises 25 pages, ;md c ivers 
the following questions : General works on 
municipal government, city charters, reports 
and council proceedings, commission form of 
government, direct primary, initiative and 
referendum, franchises, gas and electricity, 
street lighting, valuations and rates, harbors 
and docks, municipal finance, municipal im- 
provement (bill posting), municipal markets, 
public comfort stations, smoke abatement, 
municipal ownership, public works, sanitary 
engineering, refuse disposal, sewage, street 
railways and valuation of railroad properties,. 
street cleaning and paving, telephone, tun- 
nels and subways, water supply and purifica- 
tion, together with a list of periodicals on 
these subjects regularly taken by the library, 
and to be seen by those interested. 

A third portion of the exhibit was the new 
Bulletin for Teachers, issued by the library 
and circulated among all the schools of the 
city. These bulletins list the most important 
articles in the leading educational magazines 
each month. Educational books are also 

Mr. Wright also represented the interests 
of the library at the convention and deliv- 
ered an address "On the work of the public 
library in civic campaigns." {See p. 3.) 

A CHILD welfare exhibit will be opened in 
New York City at the 71 st regiment armory, 
34th street and Park avenue, on January 18. 
The purpose of this exhibit is to give a com- 
prehensive and vivid picture of child life in 
the city of New York. It aims to emphasize 
the importance of concentrating efforts for 
human betterment upon the children of to- 
day, with a view to lessening the social waste 
and financial burden of the charities and re- 
formatories of to-morrow. Various com- 
mittees have been appointed to investigate 
various fields oi welfare work for children 
and present results. These committees may 
be outlined as follows : Committee on homes 
(Mrs. William Jay Schieffelin, chairman) ; 
Committee on recreation and amusements 
(Prof. Edwin R. A. Seligman, chairman) ; 
Committee on streets (Jacob A. Riis, chair- 
man) : Committee on libraries and museums 
(Edwin H. Anderson, chairman) ; Commit- 
tee on schools (Dean Thomas M. Balliet, 
chairman) ; Committee on health (Dr. Henry 
Dwight Chapin. chairman) ; Committee on 
social settlements (Gaylord S. White, chair- 
man) ; Committee on associations and clubs 
(William M. Kingslcy. chairman) ; Commit- 
tee on churches, temples and Sunday schools 
(John H. Finley, chairman) ; Committee on 
public and private philanthropy (Homer 
Folks, chairman) : Committee on laws and 
administration (Prof. Frank J. Goodno\\. 
chairman) ; Committee on work and wages 
(Prof. Charles R. Richards, chairman). 

January, 191 i] 


The wide range of investigation covered 
by the exhibit is indicated in the list of com- 
mittees. The data obtained by them will be 
graphically presented at the exhibit, and will 
show the influences which are at work upon 
the vast multitude of the city's children. 

The aim of the Committee on libraries has 
been to show that children's rooms in public 
libraries are quiet but significant forces in 
the everyday life of thousands of boys and 
girls in New York City. Within the last 12 
vears 73 branch library buildings have been 
opened in the boroughs of Brooklyn, Manhat- 
tan, the Bronx, Richmond and Queens. In 
each of these buildings provision has been 
made not merely for the circulation of books 
to children, but also for such use ot books 
in the library for recreational reading and 
for purposes of study as the neighborhood 
seems to need. The extent to which children 
avail themselves of library privileges will be 
partially shown by a series of photographs 
forming a connected story in pictures of the 
daily life in typical children's rooms during a 
period of time extending from March to 
November, 1910. The frieze is to be broken 
at intervals by posters explanatory of the cir- 
culating, reference and reading room work 
and of the story telling carried on in connec- 
tion with the guidance of children's reading. 

A collection of books representative of the 
reading interests of boys and girls in various 
parts of the city will be grouped by subject: 
Myths and fairy tales, American history, 
Electricity, Aeroplanes, Poetry, Stories of 
adventure, Athletics, etc. The books are to 
be arranged on book shelves below the frieze. 
The book feature of the exhibit is in no 
sense a model children's library. Books have 
been treated as graphic material, and the se- 
lection has been made with a view to illus- 
trating specific subjects rather than with the 
idea of making a list of "best books." 

Some illustrations in color from a series of 
English history pictures are suggestive of 
wall decorations for a children's room which 
are directly related to reading and study. 
Albums ci scrap-books contain certain pic- 
tures not included in the frieze of photo- 
graphs of children's rooms. 

Children's librarians who are actively en- 
gaged in daily work in various sections of the 
city will be in attendance during the exhibit 
to give informal talks upon different features 
of the work and to answer inquiries concern- 
ing books and reading for boys and girls. 

The social value of a children's library to 
a neighborhood, its relation to the homes of 
the children, to the schools, the playgrounds, 
the settlements, and to whatever institutions 
are affecting the lives of children is to be 
strongly emphasized by the informal talks 
during the exhibit and at the public meetings 
to be held by the Committee in libraries and 
museums on the afternoon and evening of 
Feb. 2. 


Ix July L. j., p. 323, a record is given of 
the departure of the post-conference party 
into the woods of Temagami, amid the tear- 
ful farewells of those who "had been there 
before" and knew whereof they spoke when 
they prophesied annihilation by black flies. 
Some of these enthusiasts (?) went so far 
as to say that these enormous flies would 
bite out chunks of flesh and retire to the 
trees to eat thereof. So this report of 
the departure of the unscared few was con- 
cluded by the statement that no word hav- 
ing come of the party's return, doubtless all 
had been destroyed by the flies. 

Our ability as a '"guider" of parties being 
thus challenged, we have finally been com- 
pelled to overcome our diffidence and break 
into print to record that all the intrepid ex- 
plorers of Temagami are safely returned to 
their homes some months since, and are 
doubtless so busy recounting their pleasant 
experiences in the sub-arctic country that 
none have had time to deny the statement 
referred to. So here is the truth at last. We 
have had a letter from each and every mem- 
ber of the party, and all are at home safely. 
There was no trouble whatever with the 
black flies, and we hold the written apologies 
of those who, being so sure we were going 
into the jaws of disaster worse than death, 
caused us (even in the face of numerous let- 
ters from the region saying it was all right) 
to purchase that bolt of tarleton (not cheese 
cloth, as erroneously reported), the only use 
for which was made by a camping party to pro- 
tect them from the cold and rain at night, and 
doubtless to use in bartering with the native 
Indians for furs and other commodities, for 
no tarleton came out of the woods, while 
fox skins did, and as the undersigned held 
the party's money and jewelry while the 
camping was in progress, there could have 
been no other medium of exchange. 

The point is that we were not eaten by the 
flies, and we are on exhibition in various 
cities of the United States to prove it. 


Hmerican Xibrars association 


The mid-winter meeting of the A. L. A. 
Council has been called for 9.30 a.m. Jan. 5, 
1911, in the room adjoining the Executive 
office of the Association, Chicago Public 
Library building. 


Net Action 

There is a noticeable and growing tendency 
among publishers to issue fiction net, allow - 

* This post-mortem authentic account of A. L. A. 
travel is not printed as a timely contribution for the 
first number of the new year, but in untimely jus- 
tice to its author. 



[January, 1911 

ing libraries but 10 per cent, discount for the 
first year. The Publishers' Weekly for Oct. 
15, 1910, shows that half of all the fall fiction 
this year was published net ; and that 10 pub- 
lishers, including Houghton Mifflin and Put- 
nam, are publishing all their fiction net. The 
reason given, whenever- any is offered, is "im- 
provement of the booktrade and the status of 
the retailer." 

Should this presumably worthy aim in- 
volve as a considerable (and to librarians a 
very important) corollary, the material in- 
crease in the price of fiction to libraries can- 
not the booktrade be improved and the retailer 
once more be rehabilitated without bringing 
library prices into the matter at all? 

Does the Council wish to enact any formal 
resolution in this matter? Does it wish to 
discuss or recommend any such phases of 
the matter as 

(a) The systematic abstention from the 
purchase of net fiction during the period in 
which the short discount obtains. 

(b) The systematic preference in buying 
fiction, of novels that are not published net, 
whenever of suitable merit. 

(c) Has the public library reached a point 
where it may properly question the wisdom 
or necessity of assuming as so large a part 
of its work the furnishing of such vast quan- 
tities of ephemeral reading matter? 

Members of the Council are asked to note 
the effect which net fiction has had on book 
purchases in their own libraries, and to be 
ready to contribute to the discussion facts or 
suggestions for sound policy or procedure. 

Affiliation of state and local associations 

Miss Alice S. Tyler, chairman of a com- 
mittee of the Council which has been working 
on this matter for the past year, will present 
a report. 

International catalog rules 

The Association is advised by the secretary 
of the International Conference of Archivists 
and Librarians of the following resolution : 

1. That there should be established an in- 
ternational code of rules for the editing of 
the cards in an alphabetic catalog. 

2. That these rules should be determined 
by language. 

3. That the work of preparing these rules 
be confided to associations of librarians hav- 
ing a common language. 

4. That the code be constituted according 
to an understanding among such associations. 

Action by the American Library Associa- 
tion on the Brussels resolution is requested. 


Preliminary announcement of the Travel 

The decision to hold the next meeting in 
Pasadena, beginning May 18, offers an op- 
portunity to see California at much less ex- 

pense, and under much more favorable con- 
ditions, than ordinarily. Exact figures are not 
possible until definite rate has been settled by 
the railroads, but at this time an approximate 
can be given, and the skeleton of itinerary 
proposed by this committee. The route has 
been decided as most nearly meeting the 
wishes of those expecting to take the trip, 
and gives a rather remarkable opportunity to 
see the principal features of our West and 
Southwest, including the Rocky Mountains. 
Two methods of making the trip are possible : 
one by a personally conducted party, by spe- 
cial train out, and opportunity to return either 
with the party or by any other route at any 
time during the summer ; the other by indi- 
vidual journey, having the benefit of the re- 
duced railroad rates and, if desired, travel by 
tourist sleeper instead of Pullman. 

The proposed itinerary of the special party 
is here given, and has been made up in con- 
sultation with those familiar with the region 
to be visited, as giving the maximum of va- 
riety, and covering the most notable features 
of that part of our country. The Grand 
Canyon of the Colorado River in Arizona 
will be the only stop on the going trip, and 
the fame of this canyon is such that no de- 
scription need be given here. It is one of the 
wonders of the world. 

During the week at Pasadena it is assumed 
that side trips will be made by the delegates 
to the various points of interest thereabouts 
Los Angeles, Mt. Lowe, Mt. Wilson, Riv- 
erside and Mt. Robidoux, Redlands, Long 
Beach, Catalina Islands off the coast, and 
possibly to San Diego and Coronado Beach, 
the extreme southwestern corner of the 
United States. The expense of such trips is 
not included in the party ticket, nor the cost 
of the week at the conference in Pasadena 
("Hotel Maryland is headquarters, and ample 
cfiance nearby for accommodations at some- 
what less rate if desired). There is no 
doubt that special excursion rates will be 
made to the various points of interest men- 
tioned, and an extra day after the adjourn- 
ment of the conference is allowed in order 
thoroughly to cover the region. 

Leaving Pasadena on the homeward jour- 
ney, the party will travel north by the famous 
coast line, over the "Road of a Thousand 
Wonders," stopping first at Santa Barbara, 
where a visit will be made to the old Mission, 
one of the best preserved and most beautiful 
of the historic line of old missions extending 
from San Diego to San Francisco, built near- 
ly two hundred years ago by the Spanish 
Fathers. The Santa Barbara Mission is still 
occupied, and with its attractive gardens and 
beautiful location forms one of the attractions 
of the state. 

At old Monterey two nights will be spent at 
Hotel Del Monte, famous the world over for 
its location and beautiful grounds with palms 
and cacti, and here the famous 17-mile drive 

January, 1911] 


along the coast to the old cypress grove will 
be taken. 

At Santa Cruz there will be a chance to 
visit the grove of big trees; at Palo Alto a 
stop in order to inspect the Leland Stanford 
Jr. University. 

Arriving at San Francisco the party will 
spend three days, which will give opportunity 
to visit Oakland, the State University at 
Berkeley, the Golden Gate Park, and to as- 
cend Mt. Tamalpias. An expedition to the 
new Chinatown will also be of interest. 

From San Francisco starting eastward, 
stop will be made at Sacramento for a few 
hours to visit the State Capital and see that 
beautiful city. Then Salt Lake City, the 
headquarters of the Mormons, will be visited, 
v.-hence a day ride by train through the heart 
of the Rockies will bring the party to Colo- 
rado Springs and Manitou, where a day or 
two car. be "spent. The ascent of Pike's Peak, 
the drive through the Garden of the Gods, 
trolley trip to the North and South Cheyenne 
Canyons, and a visit to the Cripple Creek 
gold fields are among the many possibilities. 
Then, to end the sight-seeing, a day in Den- 
ver with opportunity to visit the new Public 

Those who desire to visit Yosemite Valley 
can do so by prolonging the trip about four 
days, and adding to the expense about $45, 
and if a sufficient number desire this, a sec- 
ond personally-conducted party will leave San 
Francisco for Yosemite and then on. follow- 
ing the same route as the former party. 

This trip as outlined, from Xe\v York to 
New York, without including Yosemite, will 
occupy about 31 days, and will cost, even-thing 
included except the stay in Pasadena, between 
?225 and $250, first-class Pullman service and 
first-class hotels everywhere. 


May 12. Leave eastern points. 

" 13. Leave middle-western points, form- 
ing special train at either Chicago. 
St. Louis, or Kansas City. 

" 14-15. Travel. 

" 16, a.m. Arrive Grand Canyon. 

17. Leave Grand Canyon. 

18. Arrive Pasadena for supper. 
19-26. In Pasadena. 

27. Leave Pasadena, arriving Santa Bar- 


28. Leave Santa Barbara, arriving Mon- 


' 29. At Del Monte Hotel, Monterey. 
' 30. Big trees near Santa Cruz. 
1 31. Palo Alto, and arrive San Francisco, 


June 1-2. San Francisco. 
" 3. Sacramento. 
" 4. Travel. 

" 5. Stopover several hours Salt Lake 

Tune 6. Arrive Colorado Springs and Man- 
itou, in evening. 
" 7-8. Manitou. 
" 9. Denver. 
" 10. Travel. 

" ii. Arrive middle- western points. 
" 12. Arrive eastern points. 

Those taking Yosemite, leave San Fran- 
cisco evening of June i, arriving Sacramento 
June 6, Denver June 12, middle- western points 
June 14, eastern points June 15. 

In a later announcement the committee 
will give the railroad rates, the Pullman and 
tourist car rates, and a list of the various 
lines over which this trip may be made. It 
will also be arranged that those going out 
with the special party can return home by the 
northern routes from Portland and Seattle, 
with opportunity, if desired, to visit Yellow- 
stone Park, or go through the Canadian 

Chairman A. L. A. Travel Committee. 

State Xtbrari? Gommtsefons 



Owing to the contract of a previous posi- 
tion the organizer was unable to assume ac- 
tive work until March I, 1910. Hence this 
report covers but nine months of actual duties. 

After nine months of actual experience the 
commission law has proved to be entirely 
satisfactory and to cover all necessary lines. 

Some difficulty has been experienced in the 
interpretation of the law for establishing 
public libraries. This law provides for a tax 
of 1.2 mills to 2 mills for cities, towns, vil- 
lages, etc., and varies according to the gov- 
ernment and population of same, but the law 
is not clear as to what constitutes a city or 
town and the limit of population in same. 

The nature of inquiries received from dif- 
ferent localities in the state, together with 
the kind of information desired and the spirit 
of cooperation manifested in all directions 
has proved that the library interests and ac- 
tivities were ready and anxious for help from 
the commission. 

The travelling library collections presented 
to the commission by the Illinois Federation 
of Women's Gubs are being reorganized into 
one general collection as fast as time and 
money will allow. This includes only the 
volumes in good condition. The others are 
being mended for temporary use. The per- 
centage of fiction is so large that it was found 
impossible to balance the classes of books to 
make fixed collections of them. 

The organizer has visited 20 towns in the 
state upon invitation, has appeared officially 
on the program of five conferences and con- 
ventions, lectured before the Summer School 



[January, 1911 

students of the State Normal University at 
Normal, 111., and the Library School students 
of the University of Illinois. 

A plan has been started for the organiza- 
tion of the library boards of the state, but as 
yet no definite steps have been taken. 

Through correspondence it has been found 
that there are now but 27 counties in the 
state without a public library. The addi- 
tional counties since Miss Sharp's report in 
1904 are Cass, Menard, Monroe, Moultrie, 
Saline, Scott, Union, Washington. 

Information requests to date may be classed 
as follows : 

Advice (4). 

Club work (6). 

Commencement theses (i). 

Convention program (i). 

General information (42). 

Help desired (n). 

Specific information (22). 

Organizer (13). 

Positions wanted (6). 

Program (club) (4). 

Travelling libraries (60). 

Visits made by organizer (20). 


THE Vermont Library Commission sent 
during the autumn exhibits to the Franklin 
County fair at Sheldon, the grange fair at 
Ludlow, the Windsor County fair at Wood- 
stock, and the state fair at White River 
Junction. The Vermont Commission is the 
first New England library commission to ex- 
hibit travelling libraries, plates, pictures, 
stereoscopes and library devices at agricul- 
tural fairs, and this advertising experiment 
has made the work of the commission better 
known throughout the state. 

In the town of Ludlow, where there is a 
local travelling library system the state trav- 
elling libraries were taken as a matter of 
course, while in White River Junction, where 
such work is not done locally, they were 
greeted with exclamations of surprise. More 
than a hundred application blanks were given 

State Xtbrars associations 


The seventh annual meeting of the Ala- 
bama Library Association was held on Nov. 
16, 17 and 18 in Selma, Marion and Monte- 
vallo. The night sessions were held in the 
Carnegie Library at Selma on the i6th and 
I7th, while the day sessions on the I7th were 
held at the Judson College, Marion, and the 
day sessions on the i8th at the Alabama Girls' 
Industrial School at Montevallo. Most of 
the visitors arrived in Selma by noon on 
Wednesday in time to enjoy an automobile 
ride over the city and surrounding country, 
which was given in the afternoon. 

The meeting was formally opened in the 
evening by Mr. Ernest Lamar, president of 
the board of trustees of the library, who ex- 
tended a cordial welcome to the members of 
the Association. The meeting was then 
turned over to the president, Dr. Thomas M. 
Owen. Miss Ora loneen Smith, librarian of 
the University of Alabama, was presented, 
who responded for the Association. Miss 
Mary Emogene Hazeltine, preceptor of the 
Wisconsin Library School, was the principal 
speaker of the evening, and made an address 
on "The library and its constituency." Miss 
Hazeltine defined the place the library should 
hold in a community, and then presented in 
detail some of the methods by which it 
could come to hold this place. This address 
was heard with the keenest interest both by 
the members of the Association and by the 
visitors who were present. 

On Thursday morning the Association 
members took the six o'clock train for Ma- 
rion, to be the guests of Judson College for 
the day. Two sessions were held here, a 
general session at which the students of both 
Judson College and the Marion Seminary 
were present, in addition to the faculty and 
visitors from the town, and a session for the 
librarians only, at which, however, the faculty 
and some advanced students were present. 

Dr. George Petrie, head of the departments 
of Latin and History, delivered an address at 
the general session on "The librarian as a 
statesman." He showed the very vital force 
that the librarian, through the medium of the 
library, should be in the constructive life of a 
community, and considered that librarian w?s 
a statesman just in so far as he became this 
force. Miss Hazeltine was asked to speak, 
and she gave an informal talk on the meaning 
of the librarian's profession and the special 
opportunity it offered to women. 

The next session was called in one of the 
club rooms in the library building. The gen- 
eral subject of discussion at this session was 
the college library, and it proved to be one 
of the most interesting of all the sessions. 
Miss Ora I. Smith, of the University of Ala- 
bama, spoke on "The relation of the faculty 
to the college library." Miss Smith's discus- 
sion was confined almost entirely to the ques- 
tion as to whether the faculty should hold 
keys to the library. Extracts were read from 
about a dozen letters from the librarians of 
as many southern colleges, principally state 
universities, in answer to inquiries covering 
this point. The replies gave some very in- 
teresting sidelights on conditions in school 
libraries, and the evidence seemed overwhelm- 
ingly against the practice of the faculty's 
holding keys and having the unlimited privi- 
lege of the library. This question produced 
a very lively discussion. 

Miss Susan Lancaster, of the State Normal 
School, Jacksonville, presented a brief paper 
on the subject, "Instruction on the use of the 

January, 1911] 


library in normal schools." based on her own 
experience in her present position as libra- 
rian. The course as given covers about 30 
hours, and consists of lectures and practice 
work, the whole being based on Marjory L. 
Gilson's Course of study for normal school 
pupils on the use of a library. 

Miss Anne Ogle Shivers, librarian of the 
Alabama Polytechnic Institute, spoke on 
"Scientific periodicals in technical schools," 
confining the discussion to their selection and 
use in the Alabama Polytechnic Institute at 
Auburn. The meeting concluded immediately 
after this paper, as the hour of two had ar- 
rived, which was also the hour for lunch. 

Immediately after lunch the visitors left in 
a driving rain for the station to return to 
Selma. Before leaving each guest was pre- 
sented with a facsimile of the first diploma 
issued by Judson College in 1841. 

The feature of the second evening session, 
which was again held in the Selma Library, 
was a book symposium. Those participating 
and the books discussed by each were as 
follows: Miss Ora I. Smith, "Stonewall Jack- 
son and the American Civil War," by G. F. R. 
Henderson ; Miss Lucile Virden, "The hunting 
of the snark." by Lewis Carroll ; Miss Susan 
Lancaster. "Ba-ba. black sheep." by Rudyard 
Kipline: Miss Alice S. Wyman. "Les Miser- 
able-." by Victor Hugo: Miss Tommie Dora 
Barker. "Pride and prejudice," by Jane Aus- 
ten : Miss Mary Emoeene Hazeltine. "The 
bluebird." by Maurice Maeterlinck: Dr. 
Thoma- M. Owen. "The literature of the 
South." by Montrose J. Moses: Miss Kate 
Jarvis. "Letters of Sidney Lanier." It had 
been planned to have short reports from the 
different libraries on some snecial activity 
being done by each. Miss Betty Keith and 
Lucile Virden were the only ones pres- 
ent of those who were expected to participate. 
The snecial development reported by both 
Keith and Miss Virden was the effort 
to extend the privilege of the library to all 
the people of the county. Tall adega County 
has already appropriated $200 as a besrinning 
to help make this possible for the Talladega 
Public Librarv. and the Selma Library hone? 
to get a similar appropriation from Dallas 

This was the last session held in Selma. and 
a six o'clock train was taken Friday morning 
tor Montevallo. where the dav was snent at 
the Alabama Girls' Industrial School. A ses- 
sion was held in the library of the school at 
10.30. and consisted of round table discus- 
Miss Lucile Virden was the leader in 
the discussion of the "Selection and use of 
periodicals in the small library." Magazine 
agencies, periodical indexes and the circula- 
tion of back numbers of magazines were in- 
cluded in the discussion. Mis Tommie Dora 
Barker called attention to "Some recent li- 
brarv aids" that had been published, showing 
giving price and place of purchase. 

Miss Wyman then gave a "Practical demon- 
stration in the mending of books." The whole 
process was taken up from the preparation of 
the glue to the completed book. There were 
several other topics put down for discussion, 
but those who were to present them were ab- 
sent, and as time was limited calls could not 
be made from the floor. 

The president next made his annual ad- 
dress, giving a brief survey of library pro- 
gress for the year. At the conclusion of 
Dr. Owen's address. Dr. Thomas W. Palmer 
offered the following resolution, which was 
unanimously adopted : 

"Resolved, by the Alabama Library Association, 
in its seventh annual meeting at Montevallo, Nov. t8, 
1910. that the state legislature be most earnestly 
requested and urged to make such appropriations as 
will enable the Alabama State Department of Ar- 
chives and History to enlarge and further develop 
the library extension work now being so well carried 
on under its direction. 

Resolved, further, that such additional support is 
imperatively demanded if the state is to fully meet 
its duty in this great field of educational effort, 
commensurate with the growth of our people in 
other directions, and to keep abreast with the en- 
larged aspirations of sister states. 

The meeting adjourned for lunch and was 
called again at 1.15 in the chapel of the 
school, where the members of the Association 
and the faculty and students had the pleasure 
of hearing Dr. Frederick D. Losey, professor 
of rhetoric and public speaking at the Uni- 
versity of Alabama, on the subject of "Books 
in the home." Dr. Losey emphasized the re- 
fining influence of books, and the companion- 
ship that comes from close knowledge. At 
the conclusion of this address the Association 
adjourned to meet in 1911 at Tuscaloosa and 
the University of Alabama. Miss Hazeltine 
remained at Montevallo to be the guest of 
the school until Saturday. 

The following officers were elected: 
Thomas M. Owen, president; Charles C. 
Thach, ist vice-president : Ora I. Smith, 2d 
vice-president; P. W. Hodges, 3d vice-presi- 
dent: Tommie Dora Barker, secretary ; Laura 
M. Elmore, treasurer; and for the executive 
council in addition to officers: J. H. Phillips, 
Thomas W. Palmer, Frances Pickett, Susan 
Lancaster, Mrs. F. A. Happer. 



The Colorado Library Association held its 
annual meeting at the East Denver High 
School on Monday. Xov. 21. at 9.30 a.m. 

The meeting was conducted as a section of 
the Colorado Teachers' Association, which is 
in session this week. 

There was a very good attendance of both 
teachers and librarians, and the two papers 
and the several round table topics, which 
comprised the program, were heartily appre- 
ciated and discussed with considerable in- 

A reception was given for the members of 


[January, 1911 

the association and their friends at the new 
Public Library in the afternoon, and in the 
evening a party of about 30 librarians were 
the guests of the Public Library at a most 
enjoyable informal dinner, and were enter- 
tained by Miss Anna Hillkowitz and Miss 
Janet Jerome, who told appropriate stories in 
a most approved children's story hour style. 


i. Some phases of children's library work, 
Miss Anna Hillkowitz, Public Library, 

2 The inter-dependence of libraries and 
schools, Alfred E. Whitaker, former li- 
brarian at State University. 
3. Round table : 

Affiliation of state library associations 
with the American Library Associa- 

Inter-library loans. 

Travelling libraries for country schools. 
Bibliography of Coloradoana. 

HERBERT E. RICHIE, Secretary. 


The ipth annual meeting of the Indiana 
Library Association was held at South Bend, 
Oct. 19 to 21, 1910. 

A cordial word of welcome extended by 
Mr. Weidler, president of the South Bend 
Library Board, opened the meeting. Follow- 
ing this was an address by Mr. W. M. Hep- 
burn, president of the Association, setting 
forth the conditions and needs of the Asso- 
ciation, and urging that a "clear note of ac- 
tivities" be defined, followed by the coopera- 
tion of all hearts and hands in the accom- 
plishment of the work outlined. 

A library exhibit, prepared by Mr. Louis 
J. Bailey, consisting of exterior and interior 
views, plans of buildings and brief informa- 
tion as to number of volumes, circulation, etc., 
of the public libraries in northern Indiana, 
proved to be an excellent method of bringing 
before the Association the work being done 
by the different libraries in the section in 
which it was meeting. 

Miss Browning and Mr. Brown gave inter- 
esting reports of the Brussels and Exeter 
meeting. The Association was fortunate in 
having with them also Miss Ahern and Miss 
Lyman, who brought greetings from these 

An interesting book symposium was con- 
ducted by Miss Eunice D. Henley. 

The chief subjects under discussion were: 
Special libraries, Rural extension work, and 
the Work of the Association. To the latter 
subject one entire session was devoted, at 
which time the report of the Committee on 
cooperation between the I. L. A. and the 
Public Library Commission was heard. This 
report showed careful thought and contained 
some excellent recommendations. Among 
them was the districting of the entire state 

into 10 districts, each to have a district sec- 
retary appointed by a commiitee composed of 
the Executive committee of the I. L. A. and 
the secretary of the P. L. C., whose business 
it shall be to keep the commission informed 
as to library conditions in that district, and 
to make an annual report at the annual meet- 
ing. As many meetings as desired shall be 
held in the districts during the year. The 
meetings shall be informal, with no set pro- 
gram, and one meeting each year shall be 
attended by a representative of the commis- 
sion. Two other important recommendations 
were the increased annual appropriation for 
the work of the Public Library Commission 
and funds for the erection of a state library 
building. The report, with a few minor 
changes, was adopted by the Association. 

The election of officers resulted in the 
following being chosen : president, Miss Eliza 
G. Browning; vice-president, Mr. John A. 
Lapp ; secretary, Miss Orpha Maud Peters ; 
treasurer, Miss Jennie Scott. 

The subject of special libraries was ably 
presented by Mr. John A. Lapp and Miss 
Elizabeth Abbott. Mr. Lapp pointed out 
clearly what a special library is. defining it 
as being "not a law library, not merely a 
bureau of information, not merely a depart- 
ment of a large public library. It is all of 
these things in charge of people trained in 
library methods and in the things with which 
they have to deal." The four classes of spe- 
cial libraries, said the speaker, are : the edi- 
torial library, the library as an adjunct of 
bv.siness, the industrial library and the legis- 
lative reference and municipal reference de- 
partment library. 

The Studebaker Library, of South Bend, 
is an example of the library as an adjunct of 
business. This library the delegates were 
fortunate in being able to visit, and still more 
fortunate in being able to hear about its work 
from the organizer and librarian, Miss Eliza- 
beth Abbott, who said, among other things, 
that the library which may "more properly be 
called a Reference and Service Department," 
grew out of a need for "a central place in 
which to file material of a nature too general 
to belong to any one department." One of 
the special features is the course of study 
which is offered for the development of the 
employees through the educational depart- 
ment of the local Y. M. C. A. All expenses 
of this educational feature are borne by the 
company. "For this purpose of encourage- 
ment of thrift and partial protection against 
insincerity of lessened interest on the part of 
the young men, from each pay envelope is 
taken 50 cents a week, which is deposited in 
the bank to the credit of the boy, and re- 
turned to him with interest at the satisfactory 
completion of his course." 

In addition to discussions and an im- 
promptu round table on rural library exten- 
sion, two addresses were given on this sub- 

January, 1911] 


ject. Mr. Carl H. Milam showed clearly 
wherein the township library controlled by a 
central department, the reading circle and the 
travelling libraries are each in themselves in- 
adequate to satisfy the rural demand, and ex- 
plained why library extension into the town- 
ship from the city or town seems at present 
to be the best method of reaching the rural 

Following this address was a paper by Dr. 
Stanley Coulter, of Purdue University, on 
the "Rural community and the library." Dr. 
Coulter spoke from the standpoint of the 
farmer, recognizing that the initiative should 
come from the rural community, and that in 
working out the problem of the relation be- 
tween the rural people and the library the 
factors of country life must be considered. 
Among these are the isolation, which al- 
though diminished in recent years by the tele- 
phone, automobile, electric traction, etc., has 
not entirely disappeared ; the fatigue incident 
to long hours; uniformity of occupation and 
interest ; individualism. In spite of this, the 
country dwellers "show tremendous intellec- 
tual virility and independence of thought." 
The extension of library work into the town- 
ship was approved and a careful and scien- 
tific study of the conditions mentioned, and 
of the liter?ture suitable for the use of the 
rural community was recommended. 

The social side of the meeting was not neg- 
lected, and the South Bend people proved 
themselves masters in the art of entertaining. 
A most delightful informal reception was 
given by the South Bend Public Library 
Board and an elaborate luncheon by the 
Studebaker Brothers Manufacturing Com- 
pany. ORPHA MAUD PETERS, Secretary. 


The ipth annual meeting of the Keystone 
State Library Association was held at the 
Kittatinny House, Delaware Water Gap, Sept. 
30 and Oct. i, 1910. 

The first session was called to order by the 
president of the Association, Mr. Henry F. 
Marx, of the Easton Public Library, who in 
discussing the subject assigned for the ses- 
sion, "Advertising the library," spoke of the 
emphasis placed to-day upon efforts made to 
find a book for every reader. 

Mr. William H. Allen, director of the Bu- 
reau of Municipal Research, Is 7 ew York City, 
followed with a very practical paper upon 
"Interesting the public in library needs and 
library finance." He emphasized" the need of 
advertising from the standpoint of the work 
done, by cards and by newspapers. He ad- 
vised having classified information on public 
questions available for immediate use, and 
urged a study for librarians of methods used 
in modern social work. 

After a brief discussion of this address, in 
which practical suggestions for definite plans 
of action were offered, Miss Strange, of the 

Carnegie Library, Pittsburgh, read an inter- 
esting paper upon "Advertising methods used 
by libraries." Among her suggestions were: 
use of newspapers, public posters, notices in 
schools, annotated bulletins, free lists on spe- 
cial subjects and exhibits. She recom- 
mended moving picture films of library activ- 
ities, and of dramatization of good novel-. 

Discussion followed upon "How we adver- 
tise our libraries," short five-minute talks by 
Miss Davis, of Chester Public Library; Miss 
Pennypacker, of Phcenixville, and Miss 
Skeele, of Lancaster, followed by general dis- 

The afternoon session was a special one, 
a conference of librarians of colleges, normal 
schools and public schools for the purpose of 
organizing an educational section of the Key- 
stone State Library Association. In the gen- 
eral discussion need of such an organization 
was considered, and a committee appointed to 
draw up plans for some future method of 

The evening session was presided over by 
Mr. John Thomson, of Philadelphia, honor- 
ary president of the Association, who intro- 
duced the subject of the session, "The work- 
ingman and the library." 

Mr. W. D. P. Bliss, of the American Insti- 
tute of Social Service, gave a very helpful 
address upon "What the library can do for 
the workingman." 

Mr. W. F. Stevens, of Homestead, told of 
the use of the Homestead Library by the 
wcrkingmen, mentioning the value of the 
work of the athletic clubs, night school, gym- 
nasium, billiard room, natatorium, orchestra, 
study clubs and lecture courses. 

The Saturday morning session was called 
to order by Mr. Marx, after which the re- 
port of the Nominating committee for offi- 
cers for the ensuing year was read and ac- 
cepted : president, Mr. Robert P. Bliss, Har- 
risburg; vice-president, Mr. C. W. Runkle, 
State College; secretary, Miss M. S. Skeele, 
Lancaster; treasurer, Mr. O. R. H. Thom- 
son, Williamsport. 

Mr. Peter Roberts, secretary of the Inter- 
national committee of the Young Men's Chris- 
tian Association, addressed the session upon 
"What can the libraries do to aid the foreign 
speaking people in America " 

Miss Howard, of the Wylie Avenue 
Branch, Pittsburgh, told of the work of the 
Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh for the for- 
eigner, after which a discussion followed 
upon local work with foreigners by Miss 
Rathbone, of Wilkes-Barre ; Mr. Stevens, of 
Homestead, and Mr. Wright, of Duquesne. 

After an address by Mr. R. P. Bliss, of the 
Pennsylvania Free Library Commission, upon 
the new school code and its effect upon Penn- 
sylvania libraries, announcements were made 
of a trip to be taken through the picturesque 
scenery of the Delaware Water Gap, and the 
session closed. 


[January, 1911 


The i6th meeting of the Maine Library 
Association was held Nov. 18, 1910, at the 
Bates College Library, Lewiston, Maine, 
Vice-President Hartshorn in the chair. About 
35 were in attendance at the two sessions 
held in the morning and afternoon. The 
Maine Library Commission was represented 
by Prof. William H. Hartshorn, Litt.D., of 
Bates College, Mrs. Kate C. Estabrooke, of 
Orono, and Mrs. Lizzie Jewett-Butler, of 
Mechanic Falls. 

The following subjects were discussed in 
round-table conferences : Charging systems for 
small libraries; Branch libraries, especially 
among mill operatives; Disposal of books in 
houses where there are infectious diseases ; 
Imposing fines for unnecessarily soiling books ; 
Binding in buckram ; Call numbers in white 
ink on backs of books ; Discipline, and Hours 
of opening. 

Prof. George T. Little, librarian of Bow- 
doin College, presented a tribute in mem- 
ory of Prof. Edward Winslow Hall, LL.D., 
late librarian of Colby College, and on mo- 
tion of Prof. Little the following resolutions 
were adopted: 

"The Maine Library Association, at this its first 
meeting since the death of its former president, Prof. 
Edward W. Hall, LL.D., desires to place on record 
its grateful appreciation of his life work. For over 
a generation he has been to the people of this state 
the exemplar of a learned and loyal librarian. By 
his counsel, by his experience, by his kindly sym- 
pathy, he has directly or indirectly aided every library 
here represented. His zeal, his ability and his 
fidelity to the special trust laid upon him have 
brought honor and good repute to all who follow 
his calling. And to those bound to him by family 
ties, this brief expression of esteem for him and of 
sincere sorrow for them is mcst respectfully ren- 

The recent meeting of the New England 
College Librarians was spoken of by Prof. 
Little and Ralph K. Jones, librarian of the 
University of Maine. 

At the business meeting the following offi- 
cers were elected : president, Prof. William 
H. Hartshorn, Bates College; vice-president. 
John H. Winchester, Corinna Public Library; 
Mary H. Caswell, Waterville Public Library; 
secretary, Gerald G. Wilder, Bowdoin College 
Library; treasurer, Alice C. Furbish. Port- 
land Public Library. 

The treasurer's report showed a balance 
of $60.52. 

GERALD G. WILDER, Secretary. 


The sixth annual meeting of the North 
Carolina Library Association was held at 
Winston-Salem, Dec. 7-8, in the Winston 
High School auditorium. 

At the first session Wednesday afternoon 
the Association was extended a warm wel- 
come by Colonel Garland E. Webb, of the 
library board. The reports of the officers 

were followed by papers by Miss Minnie W. 
Leatherman, secretary of the North Carolina 
Library Commission, and Miss Cornelia 
Shaw, Davidson College. Miss Leatherman 
traced the progress of the library movement 
in North Carolina from 1900 to date, show- 
ing the remarkable growth of the past ten 
years. Miss Shaw told of the new Carnegie 
building at Davidson College, and something 
of the work being done there. After the ses- 
sion a visit was made to the Winston Car- 
negie Library. 

The second session was held Wednesday 
evening in the Memorial Hall Salem Acad- 
emy and College. Bishop Rondthaler in a 
few kindly words welcomed the visitors, and 
Prof. Collier Cobb, of the University of 
North Carolina, responded. 

In the president's annual address, Dr. Louis 
R. Wilson, librarian of the University of 
North Carolina, told of the ways in which 
the libraries of the state could reach more 
people and give more efficient service. He 
laid special emphasis on work with children 
and schools, establishment of travelling li- 
braries, cooperation with teachers' associa- 
tions, and library extension. 

Dr. Edward Mims, of the University of 
North Carolina, was then introduced by Dr. 
Wilson, and gave an inspiring address to the 
Association. He spoke of the necessity for 
social reforms ; of the historic reason for the 
slow growth of public spirit in the South ; 
of the place and importance of the library 
in the community. The librarian should be 
an inspired priest or priestess in the temple 
of books. 

A reception to the librarians in the library 
of the college followed, and a very enjoyable 
hour was spent. 

At the third session, held Thursday morn- 
ing, Hon. J. C. Buxton spoke with enthusiasm 
of the work that libraries are doing, and of 
the companionship of books. 

Mr. J. P. Breedlove, Trinity College, and 
Miss Annie F. Petty, State Normal School, 
led the discussion on "Aids in book selec- 
tion," with papers on the comparative merits 
of the book-reviewing periodicals. Miss Min- 
nie W. Leatherman and Mr. Ernest Cruik- 
shank, Raleigh, discussed "Magazines, their 
purchase and use," and gave very practical 
suggestions. They were followed by Prof. 
Collier Cob'b, who spoke on "Popularizing the 
library." He laid stress on the importance of 
work with children. Miss Cora Dixon, Golds- 
boro, and Miss Emma Jones. Raleigh, told 
"How the commission can aid the libraries," 
with instances of its helpfulness in the past. 
The state offices and their publications was 
discussed briefly by Dr. Wilson, and the 
morning session was ended. 

The Association was the guest of the 
Winston United Daughters of the Confed- 
eracy at a delightful luncheon. 

The afternoon session was opened with a 

January, 1911] 



round tabie discussion of cataloging, with 
papers by Miss Carrie Broughton, Raleigh, 
and Miss Mary B. Palmer, Charlotte. Mrs. 
Mary Prather, Winston, spoke on "Work 
with children and schools," and papers on 
the some subject by Miss Bertie D. Caldwell, 
Greensboro, and Mrs. E. C. Hovey, Spartan- 
burg, S. C., were read. 

The event of the afternoon was the paper 
by Mrs. G. F. Harper, on "Children's 
books from the standpoint of ethics." She 
made a plea for fewer and better books for 
children, and for wholesome, sane stories free 
from harrowing incidents. She made mention 
of excellent stories of ethical value which 
have charmed children of all times. 

The Nominating committee then made its 
report, and the following officers were elected 
for the ensuing year : president, Mr. J. P. 
Breedlove, Trinity College, Durham; 1st vice- 
president, Mrs. S. P. Cooper; 2d vice-presi- 
dent, Mr. E. P. Wharton, Greensboro ; treas- 
urer, Miss Bertha Rosenthal, Raleigh ; secre- 
tary, Miss Mary B. Palmer, Charlotte. 

MARY B. PALMER, Secretary. 


The i6th annual meeting of the Ohio Li- 
brary Association was held at Columbus, 
Oct. 10-13, 1910. 

An informal reception to the visiting mem- 
bers of the Association was given at the Co- 
lumbus Public Library, Monday evening, by 
the trustees and staff of the Columbus Public 
Library, assisted by Miss Mary E. Downey, 
Ohio library organizer, and the staffs of the 
public school, the State and the Ohio State 
University libraries. 

The first business session was held Tuesday 
morning, in the auditorium of the Public 
Library. The president, Mr. John J. Pugh, 
called the meeting to order, and made a brief 
address. Miss Clatworthy gave an interest- 
ing account of the library conference held at 
Exeter, England, this summer. Miss Qat- 
worthy being one of the eight Americans 
who were guests of the conference. Mr. 
Galbreath, made a brief report of the A. L. A. 
conference held at Mackinac this summer. 

The reports of the secretary, treasurer and 
some of the committees were given and the 
Association adjourned. 

In the afternoon Mrs. A. P. Morris greeted 
the Association in the name of the Women's 
Federated Cubs of the Southeast district, and 
Mrs. George Hopper, of the City Federation 
of women's Clubs, made a brief address of 

Miss Boardman, of Columbus, chairman of 
the Committee on Women's clubs, reported 
much and varied work done for and by the 
libraries in' connection with women's clubs 
throughout the state. 

Miss Nina K. Preston, of the Michigan 
Library Association, briefly addressed the As- 

Miss Mary E. Downey, Ohio library organ- 
izer, reported the work done in her depart- 
ment during the year. 113 to\fns had been 
visited in the interest of the library move- 
ment, and in 20 towns assistance in establish- 
ing libraries was given. New libraries had 
been started in eight towns; assistance in 
simplifying the registration and charging sys- 
tems was given in places where too much 
time was consumed in more complicate meth- 
ods. Attendance at summer and long course 
training schools was encouraged, and as a 
result Ohio was represented at the Chautau- 
qua Library School by 13 students, and the 
long course schools have 35 students from 
Ohio this year. During the year six district 
meetings were held, which were well at- 
tended. The presence of members of library 
boards not only lent inspiration to the library 
workers, but also broadened their own con- 
ception of library matters. The presence of 
principals and teachers has stimulated coop- 
eration between libraries and schools. 

Miss Electra E. Doren presided over the 
session devoted to the small library, its work 
and experiences. Brief talks and papers, with 
informal discussion, were given on library 
organization, crowded shelves and the remedy, 
cooperation between school and library, 
count}' library extension, "personal equation 
in work with children," and the preservation 
of clippings and the best ways of preparing 
them for circulation. 

In the evening Mr. W. D. Campbell lec- 
tured on "The public library as an art center," 
and the latter part of the evening was de- 
voted to a social session. 

Wednesday morning Mr. G. S. Marshall, 
mayor of Columbus, welcomed the Associa- 
tion to Columbus, and spoke on "The relation 
of the public library to the municipality from 
the point of view of the city official." 

Dr. Rufus E. Miles, director of the Bu- 
reau of Municipal Research of Cincinnati, 
spoke on "The relation of the public library 
to municipal research." General mismanage- 
ment of municipal affairs not in dispute, but 
the analysis as to cause and the remedy, are 
at the base of every municipal problem. E ; - 
sential not only to have a good official in 
office, but also that the machinery of that office 
be efficient. Municipal research must en- . 
lighten the public as to the necessity of effi- 
cient system. The public library- can help in 
this work by maintenance of public lectures 
and discussion of municipal questions : by 
collections of special material : by gathering 
together photographs and lantern slides to be 
used as loan collections : municipal exhibits 
and by preservation of the records that dif- 
ferent officials in Ohio towns take away with 
them when they leave office. 

Mr. E. S. Martin, director of civic recrea- 
tion in Columbus, gave a short talk on the 
work done among the children in the play- 
grounds in Columbus. 



[January, 1911 

Wednesday afternoon Mr. A. D. Wilt, of 
Dayton, gave a short introductory address on 
"The public library as an adjunct to manu- 
facturing interests," and then took charge of 
a symposium, in which was discussed the fol- 
lowing topics : Can the public libraries mate- 
rially increase the amount they are now ex- 
pending for technical works and publications ? 
Would collections of considerable size in the 
public libraries be of value enough to manu- 
facturers to warrant them in contributing to 
furnish them? The special libraries as an 
adjunct to the public library. Are there 
enough expensive publications which the pub- 
lic libraries of a single city cannot afford to 
buy with the help of the manufacturers to 
warrant some plan of cooperative purchase 
and circulation by a number of cities? 

The following resolution was unanimously 
adopted : 

Resolved, That the Ohio Library Association 
heartily approves of the plans suggested by the 
Educational committee of the Dayton Chamber of 
Commerce, for the cooperation of the manufacturers 
of Ohio through bosrds of trade and chambers of 
commerce and otherwise to secure larger supplies of 
technical works relative to our industries, both by 
larger taxation and by private contribution of the 
manufacturers, and pledge our cooperation in as 
effective a way as possible, and agree hereby to 
appoint a committee in this movement. 

Mr. Galbreath reported the establishment 
of a reference department in the Ohio State 
Library, to assist members of the legislature 
in their work. 

Mr. Robert H. Jeffrey, of the Jeffrey Man- 
ufacturing Company of Columbus, spoke on 
"The public library as an asset to the work- 
ing man." The Cleveland and Columbus 
Public Libraries were used as examples of 
the work being done for the working man by 
the public library. 

Wednesday evening Prof. A. S. Root, of 
Oberlin, lectured on "History of wood en- 
graving," illustrated by stereopticon views. 
He was followed by Mr. Archer B. Hulbert, 
who -made an address on "Historical fiction 
in the college curriculum." 

Thursday morning Prof. Homer B. Wil- 
liams, president of the Ohio Teachers' Asso- 
ciation, addressed the Association and the 
pupils of the Normal School, who had been 
invited to be present, on "Cooperation be- 
tween the library and the school." 

Mr. Williams stated that such recognition 
could be effected by recognition of the com- 
mon aim the educated individual. The 
characteristics of such an individual was 
knowledge of the experience of the race ac- 
quired through acquaintance with books, 
through a love of books, and through famil 
iarity with the library itself. Cooperation 
could also be effected by library training in 
normal schools and teachers' institutes by 
sending the pupils in the schools to the library 
for help in their work, and by development 
of a taste for good reading. 

A full and interesting report of the work 
done by the committee on Relation of library 
and school, prepared by Miss Straus, was 
read by Miss Metz. This was followed by 
an informal discussion on the work done for 
the schools in different libraries. 

Miss Burnite then took the chair, and 
opened the symposium of books for children 
with a paper prepared by Miss Mabel Haines, 
(New York), "On rhythm, poetry and child- 

Dr. Hodges gave a talk about "the books 
I read when I was a boy." 

Miss Ely (Dayton) told how she used Mrs. 
Oliphant's histories with older children. 

Miss Milliken (Cleveland) read a paper 
giving her experience in the use of early 
English novels with girls in the children's 

Miss Burnite read a short paper on "Im- 
portance of the use of adult books in the 
children's room." 

A garden party was given on the Ohio 
State University campus by the Columbus 
Library Club to the Ohio Library Associa- 
tion on Thursday afternoon. At the close of 
the afternoon a business meeting was held on 
the campus. Mr. B. E. Stevenson, of the 
Committee on legislation, reported the pas- 
sage of a bill in the legislature by which im- 
portant amendments were made to existing 
laws. Where a board of education appoints 
the board of trustees of a library, the trus- 
tees levy is to be mandatory, and the trustees 
by a two-thirds vote are to be permitted to 
retain in treasury any surplus, to be set 
aside as a building and repair fund. 

The following officers were elected : presi- 
dent, Miss Linda M. Clatworthy of Dayton ; 
vice-president, Miss Caroline Burnite of 
Cleveland ; 2d vice-president, Mr. S. J. Bran- 
denburg of Oxford ; 3d vice-president. Miss 
Nana Newton of Portsmouth ; secretary, Miss 
Mary E. Downey of Columbus ; treasurer, 
Miss Mirpah Blair, of Columbus ; chairman 
of the college section, Mr. R. B. Miller of 
Ohio Wesleyan University; secretary of col- 
lege section, Miss Alice Wing, of Ohio State 
University Library. 

The conference closed with a lecture by 
Prof. S. H. Clark, of the University of Chi- 
cago, Thursday evening, in the auditorium 
of the Columbus Public Library. 

BEATRICE M. KELLY, Secretary. 


The Rhode Island Library Association held 
a winter meeting at Brown University on 
Nov. 28 and 29, 1910, with the librarian and 
staff of the John Hay Library acting as hosts. 
In honor of the recent dedication of this new 
library all the associations of southern New 
England were invited to share the sessions 
with us. 

The conference opened Monday evening 
with a meeting in Manning Hall at 8.15. Mr. 

January, 1911] 



Brigham, as president, welcomed the mem- 
bers of our own association and all visiting 
delegates. He then introduced Dean Meikle- 
john, who spoke most pleasantly and cor- 
dially for the university. 

Following him Mr. Koopman reviewed 
briefly and described somewhat in detail the 
plans of the building. He called the atten- 
tion of those present particularly to the sys- 
tem of indirect lighting, an experiment in 
which his library is a pioneer among our 
eastern libraries. 

The chief address of the evening was given 
by Mr. Charles M. Lamprey, professor of 
education in the Boston Normal School, on 
the subject "Developing the reading habit in 
children." Mr. Lamprey has devoted much 
time and attention to this special subject and 
gave a most interesting and instructive talk, 
taking the question up from the viewpoint of 
the school and the home. He gave several 
most valuable suggestions which seemed ex- 
tremely practical for librarians to follow. 
Mrs. Mary E. S. Root, of the Providence 
Public Library, was allowed a few moments 
for a little discussion of Mr. Lamprey's paper. 
She cited several striking illustrations of the 
reading done by children, choosing for ex- 
amples those who had come to her attention 
in her own library. 

After a few brief notices given by the 
president the meeting adjourned to the John 
Carter Brown Library, where a pleasant in- 
formal reception was given to the visiting 

The sessions on Tuesday were somewhat 
interfered with because of stormy weather, 
but the attendance was good. The morning 
was given up to the inspection of the John 
Hay Library and to visiting various points 
of interest in Providence. 

The conference was called together again 
by the president at 2 p.m. The question for 
discussion was "The inter-relationship of the 
libraries in the community." Mr. William E. 
Fester, of the Providence Public Library, 
gave the first paper, an introduction to the 
question. Mr. Clarence W. Ayer, of the 
Cambridge Public Library, spoke from the 
'Public libraries' point of view," emphasizing 
the inter-library loan system. Mr. William 
I. Fletcher, of the Amherst College Library, 
looking at the matter from the "College li- 
brary's point of view," suggested the use of 
the college, as a reference library, leaving the 
public library free as a lending library to the 
college and the community. 

Mr. Willis K. Stetson, of the Free Public 
Library, New Haven, in his remarks on "The 
college library and the community" took up 
the papers- given by Mr. Fletche'r and Mr. 
Je'vett at the Mackinac conference. 
^ After a little general discussion the meet- 
ing adjourned with a vote of thanks to the 
college for its hospitality and to the speakers 
for their kindness in coming to us. 

ELEANOR STARK, Secretary. 


The Library Association of Virginia held 
its regular meeting in connection with the 
Virginia Educational Conference in Rich- 
mond on Nov. 25, 1910. 

The first meeting was held in the audito- 
rium of the John Marshall High School at 
11.30 o'clock on the morning of the 25th. 
This was by far the most enthusiastic session 
in the history of the Association. The audi- 
torium was well filled, and the interest in the 
subjects discussed was evident. Ex-Governor 
Andrew Jackson Montague presided. The 
ex-governor, in introducing the first speaker 
of the morning, said that he hoped legislative 
action could be secured, through enlightened 
public sentiment, to give the Association a 
legal status. He remarked also that he had 
had the honor of seeing the establishment of 
the travelling libraries through a recom- 
mendation made by him to the legislature. 
State Superintendent of Public Instruction 
J. D. Eggleston, Jr., was the first speaker on 
the program. Mr. Eggleston praised the 
good work of the travelling libraries, and 
showed the importance of the travelling li- 
brary preceding the permanent library. Su- 
perintendent Eggleston expressed the desire 
that a library organizer be secured at the 
next meeting of the legislature. Mr. W. M. 
Black, of Lynchburg, president of the Asso- 
ciation, was next introduced. He declared 
that the next great step in educational pro- 
gress in Virginia is the extension of the li- 
brary. He advocated the enlarging of the 
powers of the State Library Board so as to 
include a library organizer under its juris- 
diction. Mayor D. C. Richardson, of Rich- 
mond, closed the session with a few encour- 
aging words to the workers for better library 

The second and closing meeting of the As- 
sociation was held in the Virginia State Li- 
brary at 5.30 o'clock on the afternoon of the 
25th. This session was chiefly a business 
session. A resolution was passed asking the 
Times Dispatch to devote some of its space 
once a month to the work of the library 
movement in Virginia. The State Library 
force was asked to contribute to the material 
for publication, provided space could be se- 
cured. It was also decided to ask for a col- 
umn in the Virginia Journal of Education, 
and further to seek space in papers through- 
out the state. The following officers were 
elected to serve for the coming year : presi- 
dent, W. M. Black, Lynchburg; vice-presi- 
dent, Dr. J. C. Metcalf, Richmond College; 
secretary, G. Carrington Moseley: treasurer, 
W. F. Lewis, both of the Virginia State Li- 
brary. The executive committee was ap- 
pointed as follows : Mr. E. G. Swem, of Rich- 
mond; Mr. J. E. Perkinson, of Danville, a 
member of the Norfolk Public Library staff, 
together with the four officers of the Associa- 


[January, 1911 


The Wisconsin State Library Association 
will hold its annual meeting in the children's 
room of the Milwaukee Public Library on 
Washington's birthday and the day follow- 

This meeting is to be of especial interest, as 
it is the 2Oth annual meeting of the Associa- 
tion. The meetings are to be an afternoon 
session on the 22d, devoted to Civics, led by 
Mrs. Anna Garland Spencer. The Milwaukee 
Library Club have invited the Association to 
a banquet at the Normal School. Toasts on 
the "History of the Association" will be 
given. Miss Van Valkenburg will be the 
toastmistress. A special speaker will speak 
in the evening. 

The morning of the 23d the subject of the 
meeting will be "New aspects in library 

A number of people prominent in the li- 
brary world will take part in the program. 

Xibrarp Clubs 


The Chicago Library Club met on the even- 
ing of Nov. 10, in the Assembly Hall of the 
Chicago Public Library. 

The topic of Reference work was discussed 
under the following headings : 

Some difficulties of reference work, Edward 
D. Tweedell, reference librarian John Crerar 

A day in a corporation library, Annebelle 
Fraser, librarian Commonwealth Edison Co. 

Reference work in the normal school, 
Helene L. Dickey, librarian Chicago Normal 

Reference work in the political sciences, 
F. Sorenson, reference librarian Newberry 

Children and reference work, Caroline L. 
Elliott, reference librarian Chicago Public 

These short and interesting papers brightly 
touched upon the various problems of the 
reference department, suggested solutions for 
seme, and pictured the different phases of the 
work of to-day. 

The attendance of 72 gave evidence that 
the theme was of more than general interest. 

Nine new members were received. 

On Thursday, Dec. 8, the members of the 
Chicago Library Club spent a delightful even- 
ing among book-plates, under the leadership 
of Chalmers Hadley, secretary of the Amer- 
ican Library Association, who in a charming 
talk touched upon the history, use, and design 
of book-plates, illustrating with examples 
from his own collection and Mr. Legler's 
larger one; later several hundred plates 

selected from these two collections and ar- 
ranged on the book shelves in the Assembly 
Hall were examined at leisure. 

Following the talk, those present had the 
great pleasure of informally welcoming back 
to Chicago and to the club Mr. J. C. M. Han- 
son, associate director of the University of 
Chicago libraries, who became a member of 
the club at the beginning of its first year. 

The attendance of about 100 was unusually 
large for a December meeting. 

Sixteen new members were received and 
the resignations of two accepted. 



The regular monthly meeting of the Mil- 
waukee Library Club was held in the chil- 
dren's room of the Public Library on Monday 
evening, Dec. 5. 

The early part of the evening was given 
over to Mr. I. N. Mitchell, of the Milwaukee 
Normal School, who spoke on "Winter birds." 
Mr. E. J. Ward, of the University of Wis- 
consin, then spoke on ''The center of the 
centers." Mr. Ward discussed the different 
phases of the work of the social centers and 
civic clubs, and showed how the library may 
be made the center of these centers. 


The club issued (Nov., 1910) a Manual 
(16 p. D.) containing constitution, by-laws, 
and membership of the club, revised to date. 


The first meeting for the season of the 
Pennsylvania Library Club, which was post- 
poned from Nov. 14, 1910, was held on Mon- 
day evening, Dec. 12, 1910, at the H. Joseph- 
ine Widener Branch of the Free Library of 
Philadelphia. The meeting was called to 
order by the president, Mr. Hedley. Upon 
motion the reading of the minutes of the 
last meeting was omitted. A number of new 
members were admitted to full membership, 
after which Mr. Hedley introduced the 
speaker of the evening, Dr. Cyrus Adler, 
president of Dropsie College for Hebrew and 
Cognate Learning, Philadelphia, who in a 
half hour talk gave the club some very valu- 
able information about the work being done 
by the college. It was very interesting to learn 
that the first Hebrew Bible printed here was 
from types of the famous firm of Binney and 
Robinson, also the first English translation 
of the Bible made by a Jewish scholar was 
made by Leeser in Philadelphia. Dr. Adler 
assumed, and very rightly too, that we are 
asked many questions relating to the Bible 
and Jewish history, and he said that while 
there is not much literature on the subject 
in English, the Jewish encyclopaedia covers 
in a very fair way, Jewish literature, history, 
etc., so that any one can hardly fail to answer 

January, 1911] 



intelligently questions relating to the Jewish 
people, it being on the whole fairly accurate, 
and containing a good bibliography. A very 
excellent history of the Jews by Graetz (an- 
other good help) was published in Philadel- 

A special society devoted to the history of 
the Jews in America have also collected a 
great deal of material on this subject. Dr. 
Kayserling, of Vienna, and Henry F. Morais. 
of Philadelphia, have also contributed several 
publications. Dr. Adler spoke at length of 
the two Jewish Colleges in Philadelphia, the 
Gratz College, the work of which is con- 
ducted on much the same lines as the public 
schools, being a school of practical work, and 
there has recently been established in Phila- 
delphia a college for the advancement of Jew- 
ish learning covering biblical and rabbinical 
subjects, also allied subjects in Syrian, Ara- 
bic and the Cognate languages. The Jewish 
Quarterly Review, formerly published in Lon- 
don, having been taken over by the college, is 
now published in Philadelphia. 

Another book which Dr. Adler recom- 
mended highly is a dictionary of Moham- 
medanism, "Hughe's Dictionary of Islam," as 
there are about a million and a half Mo- 
hammedans in the Philippine Islands. It is 
a book of interest. 

After Dr. Adler's very interesting and able 
address the meeting adjourned to the Art 
Gallery, where a delightful and informal re- 
ception was held and an opportunity given 
the members to meet Dr. Adler. 

JEAN E. GRAFFEN, Secretary. 

Xibrarg Scbools an& {Training 


The entering class this year was the largest 
enrolled since the organization of the school. 
It numbered 35, including three seniors. The 
students represented 20 colleges and univer- 
sities, and registered from Maine, Connecti- 
cut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, 
Maryland, Kentucky, Indiana, Iowa, Mis- 
souri, Ohio, Michigan, Minnesota, Wisconsin 
and Colorado, as well as from Canada and 
China. Seven members of the class have had 
previous library experience, three extensive 
teaching experience and two experience in 
social settlement work. 

The school year opened auspiciously with 
Miss Lutie E. Steam's inspirational talks on 
"Why a children's librarian : the problem of 
the boy : the problem of the girl : some inter- 
esting phases of library work." 

The first term's work was confined chiefly 
to lectures on technical subjects and book se- 
lection by members of the regular faculty. 
In addition to the regular lectures Miss 

Beulah Kennard, president of the Pittsburgh 
Playground Association, gave a series of lec- 
tures on "The social settlement: the problem 
of the girl, and the juvenile court." These 
lectures are part of a course which are to ex- 
tend through the winter term to familiarize 
the students with the social work ot other 
institutions which cooperate with public libra- 

On Dec. 8 Mr. Charles F. F. Campbell, 
general secretary of the Pennsylvania Asso- 
ciation for the Blind, gave an illustrated lec- 
ture on the work with the blind. On Oct. 26 
Miss Jane Maude Campbell, the immigrant 
expert, gave two lectures on "The work w ; th 
foreigners in the Passaic Public Library" and 
"The work of the Immigrant Commission." 

The students have matriculated at the Uni- 
versity of Pittsburgh for a course in story 
telling and the selection of stories given by 
Effie L. Power, of the Carnegie Library. 
This course is open to teachers and others 
wishing instruction in story telling. 

The regular practice work in the branches, 
home libraries and other library agencies was 
continued throughout the term. The school 
closed for the Christmas recess Dec. 20. 



The Christmas recess will extend from 
Friday, Dec. 23, through Tuesday, Jan. 3, and 
the class are preparing to celebrate the com- 
ing holidays by a Christmas party, for which 
their invitations are out. 


Miss Margaret Forgeus, '06, has been ap- 
pointed as a cataloger in the Cornell Univer- 
sity Library. 

The Pennsylvania State College has insti- 
tuted a course, required of freshmen in the 
Liberal arts course, in the study of bibliog- 
raphy and reference books. Miss Martha 
Conner, '02, conducts the course, using Miss 
Kroeger's "Guide to the study of reference 
books" as a text-book. 

The Alice B. Kroeger Memorial Fund is 
growing steadily, and it is hoped it will be 
materially increased by the proceeds of a lec- 
ture, to be given under the auspices of the 
alumnze, on Jan. 14, in the New Century 
Drawing Room, Philadelphia, by Seumas Mc- 
Manus. author and lecturer on "Irish folk and 
fairy tales." 


That many former students of the school 
have followed the familiar injunction to have 
interests outside the walls of their own libra- 
ries is shown by the following incomplete but 
representative list of recent publications : 

Elva L. Bascon ('01), "Library work for 
college women," in the Kappa Alpha Theta 
for May. 1910; Gara W. Hunt ('98), articles 


[January, 1911 

on children's reading in the Outlook for Nov. 
26 and the Ladies' Home Journal for Dec. 
15 ; Katharine B. Judson ('06), "Montana, land 
of sunshine," Chicago, 1909, and "Myths and 
legends of the Northwest," Chicago, 1910; 
Isadore G. Mudge ('oo), joint compiler of 
"Thackeray dictionary," London, 1910; Ed- 
mund L. Pearson's ('04), "When my ship 
comes in" and "The flight," in the Outlook 
for Oct. i and 22 (his "Old librarians' al- 
manac," the "Library and the librarian," and 
his Boston Transcript articles are too well 
known to need special mention) ; and excel- 
lent articles on library work for women by 
Josephine A. Rathbone ('93), and Mary L. 
Robbins ('92) in "Vocation? for the trained 
woman," published by the Woman's Educa- 
tional and Industrial Union, Boston, 1910. 

Among the articles first published in pro- 
fessional periodicals may be mentioned "What 
makes a novel immoral ?" by Corinne Bacon 
('03), first published in New York Libraries, 
October, 1909, and reprinted in the Minnesota 
Library Notes and tfews, the Publishers' 
Weekly, the Wisconsin Library Bulletin and 
the Library World; and C. P. P. Vitz's ('07) 
"Meeting the demand for a printed catalog," 
reprinted from New York Libraries July, 
1910, by Library Work, and also issued as a 
separate by the H. W. Wilson Co. 

The last Bulletin of the Bibliographical So- 
ciety of America lists nine bibliographies, 
wholly or in part, by former students of the 

An informal Christmas entertainment, to 
which the faculty and the State Library staff 
members, whose work is closely related to 
the school, were invited was given by the 
senior and junior classes in the school lec- 
ture-room, on the evening of Dec. 12. An 
elaborately decorated Christmas tree, a great 
variety of simple but appropriate presents, 
and many obviously original presentation 
verses were prominent features. 


Kaiser, Mr. John B., B.L.S., '10, assistant 
librarian, Texas State Library, was married 
Monday, Nov. 14, to Miss Gertrude Swift, 
at Los Angeles, Cal. 

Topping, Miss Elizabeth R., 'o9-'io, has 
been appointed to take charge of the legisla- 
tive reference work and debate libraries for 
the Oregon Library Commission. 

Wright, Miss Rebecca W., B.L.S., '05, has 
resigned her position as cataloger at the 
Kellogg-Hubbard Library, Montpelier, Vt., 
to accept the secretaryship of the Vermont 
Free Library Commission. F. K. WALTER. 


Since the last report the school has listened 
to a talk by Miss Winnie L. Taylor, formerly 
in charge of the library's information desk, 

on the "Suggestibility of books." As a mem- 
ber for many years of the book committee of 
a library board, Miss Taylor has had much 
experience in selecting books, and in fitting 
them to the needs and wants of readers. 

On Dec. 6 Montrose J. Moses, of New 
York, spoke on "The publisher and the child's 
book." Through the kindness of Mr. G. A. 
Plimpton, of Ginn & Co., a large number of 
chap-books and early gift-books for children, 
including imprints of E. Newbery and Isaiah 
Thomas, were on hand as illustrations. 

A joint meeting of the Long Island and 
New York Library Clubs was held the even- 
ing of Dec. 8, in the art gallery of the library, 
the subject of the program being "The Christ- 
mas book-exhibit in libraries." The exhibits, 
both of adults' and children's books were 
placed on the same floor in one of the school 
rooms, where the students assisted in answer- 
ing questions, etc. 

Eight students will remain in Brooklyn 
during the holidays, one of them acting as 
substitute in the library. 

On the 2Oth the director will entertain the 
class between term examinations, at a kaffee- 
klatsch in the north classroom, preliminary 
to the vacation separation. 


Miss Edyth Miller ('03) has been appointed 
head cataloger of the library of the Hispanic 
Society of America, New York. 

Miss Huestis ('09) has been appointed li- 
brarian of the Lincoln Memorial College, 
near Cumberland Gap, Tenn. 

Miss Noyes ('09) was married Dec. 3, at 
Oshkosh, Wis., to Mr. H. G. Barkhausen, of 
Green Bay. 

MARY W. PLUMMER, Director. 


The following lectures have been given to 

date in Bibliography in : 

"Principles of bibliography, incunabula and 
the German booktrade," and "German 
books, originals and translations, desirable 
for American public libraries," by Dr. 
Charles Kullmer. 

"Literature of European history," by Dr. 
Alexander C. Flick. 

"Literature of American history," by Dr. 

"Bibliography of political science," by Pro- 
fessor Randell. 

"Selected bibliography of American history," 
and "Brief bibliography of travel and pol- 
itics of the Nearer East," by Professor 

"Bibliography of sociology," by Dr. Philip 


Margaret B. Hawley, '03, has resigned as 
librarian of the Potsdam Normal School to 

January, 1911] 



become librarian of the Norwood branch of 
the Cincinnati Public Library. 

Laura Harris Durand, '09, has resigned as 
assistant in the Attleborough (Mass.) Public 
Library and accepted the position of refer- 
ence librarian in the Cambridge (Mass.) 
Public Library. 

Laura Milligan, '10, who has been reorgan- 
izing the high school library at Baldwins- 
ville, N. Y., has accepted the position of as- 
sistant in the public library of Attleborough, 
Mass. MARY J. SIBLEY, Director. 


Miss Eugenia Allin, B.L.S., '03, organizer 
of the Illinois Library Extension Commission, 
gave two lectures before the school on Nov. 
21. The first was a comprehensive report of 
the work done and planned by our new com- 
mission, and the second was an informal ac- 
count of her experiences in the many small 
libraries she has visited. 

Miss M. E. Ahern, 'QS-'go", editor of Public 
Libraries, lectured before the school on Nov. 
29 and 30. The subjects of her three lectures 
were : "The International Congresses at Brus- 
sels, 1910;" "American library journalism," 
and "The librarian and the business world." 
Students from the University courses in jour- 
nalism were in evidence at the second lecture. 

The Library Club, composed of students, 
faculty, and members of the University Li- 
brary staff, held its regular meeting on Dec. 
15, at the Kappa Alpha Theta House. As- 
sistant Professor Anna May Price told of her 
observations of and experiences in European 
libraries last summer. 

Recent social events of the school have in- 
cluded an informal party given to the juniors 
by the seniors on Sept. 26, a Hallowe'en party 
for the seniors given by the juniors on Nov. 
I, an at-home on Nov. 29 by the Director and 
Mrs. Windsor, in honor of Miss Ahern, and 
a Library Club reception in the parlors of 
the Woman's Building on the evening of Nov. 
19, at which the club had as guests President 
James and several of the L T niversity faculty 
who have recently given lectures on bibliog- 
raphy before the school. 


Miss Lucile A. Clinton, B.L.S., '03, has re- 
signed her position as librarian of the 
Charleston (111.) Public Library, to become 
an assistant in one of the branches of the 
Minneapolis Public Library. 

Miss Nellie M. Robertson, ! O7-'o8, has been 
appointed an assistant in the University of 
Illinois Library. 

Miss Lois Criswell, '09-' 10, has been ao- 
pointed substitute in the Tacoma (Wash.) 
Public Library. 

Miss Alice Mann, B.L.S., '03, until recently 
librarian of the Kewanne (111.) Public Li- 

brary, was married on Oct. 26 to Mr. Charles 
H. Sheldon, of Kewanee. 

Miss Carrie B. Sheldon, B.L.S., '06, until 
recently librarian of the Ottawa (Kan.) Pub- 
lic Library, was married on Dec. 20 to Mr. 
Benjamin F. Bowers, of Ottawa. 



The course of lectures in Children's work 
was opened the first week in December by 
Miss Effie Power, first assistant, Children's 
department of the Carnegie Library of Pitts- 
burgh. Miss Power gave five lectures on 
different types of children's literature and 
one on instruction in library work and chil- 
dren's literature to the normal school stu- 

In the course in Book selection a new feat- 
ture is being introduced as an experiment 
this year, namely, an occasional lecture on 
some group of authors, or of particular books, 
that are less well known to the average stu- 
dent than the standard authors on the one 
hand or the best sellers on the other, and yet 
are of real merit and usefulness in a public 
library. The first of these lectures was given 
Dec. 6 by Miss Bessie Sargeant Smith, libra- 
rian of the Carnegie West Branch. She re- 
viewed a group of presen-day novelists, both 
English and American, including such writers 
as Mrs. De la Pasture and Anne Sedgwick. 
It is planned to present later in the year be- 
sides other groups of novelists, poets, essay- 
ists and dramatists. 

On Saturday evening, Dec. 10, the class of 
1911 entertained informally in the rooms of 
the school for the faculty. 


Miss Jennie M. Flexner, '09, has been re- 
cently appointed to the position of classifier 
in the Free Public Library of Louisville. Ky. 

Miss Eliza Townsend, '05, has resigned her 
position with the Iowa State Commission to 
become superintendent of branch work and 
work with children in the Public Library of 
Spokane, Wash. 

Beyond the changes announced in the last 
report the routine work of the school has 
proceeded without interruption, excepting for 
the Thanksgiving recess from Wednesday, 
Nov. 23, to Saturday, Nov. 26. The courses 
in Alphabeting and Trade bibliography have 
been completed, including the final examina- 
tions given in both, and the lectures on Pub- 
lishing houses were concluded with an ex- 
hibit prepared by the students on the repre- 
sentative work of the more important houses. 
In the course on Book selection the general 
introductory lectures on book reviewing pe- 
riodicals, annotations, etc., have thus far been 


[January, 191 1 

considered, also history, biography and travel. 
Several special lectures have been given in 
connection with this course, two by Dr. R. G. 
Thwaites, on "How history is written" and 
"Source material." The students have in the 
Wisconsin Historical Library unusual oppor- 
tunity for the study of source material. Prof. 
D. C. Munro, of the History department of 
the University of Wisconsin, gave the lecture 
on the "Evaluation of books in European 
history." In the cataloging course the stu- 
dents are now having the usual practice in 
ordering and using Library of Congress cards. 

Miss Ahern was the guest of the school on 
Dec. 7. At the request of the preceptor she 
spoke to the students en the history and 
work of the Library Bureau. She also gave 
an interesting talk on the Brussels /Confer- 
ence and European librarians at an informal 
reception given for her at the home of Miss 
Mary F. Carpenter. The students enjoyed 
their opportunity to meet Miss Ahern per- 
sonally, and found her visit one of help and 

On Dec. 15 and 16 Miss Maude Van Buren, 
librarian of the Mankato (Minn.) Public 
Library, visited the school. She gave two 
most interesting and illuminating talks on 
some phases of her work ; one on the Junior 
Civic League of Mankato, of which she is 
the director, another on the "Library as a 
social center." Mr. and Mrs. Dudgeon enter- 
tained the faculty and students at their home 
in honor of Miss Van Buren. 

The Christmas recess extends from Dec. 
22 to Jan. 3. 


On Saturday evening, Nov. 5, the students, 
assisted by Prof. T. H. Dickinson, of the 
English department of the University of Wis- 
consin, gave a dramatic reading of Maeter- 
linck's "Blue bird" at Miss Hazeltine's home. 
So enjoyable did the evening prove that the 
students enthusiastically agreed to keep up 
these readings. After the Christmas recess 
"The piper," by Josephine Preston Peabody, 
will be read. 

Miss Hazeltine has been at home to faculty 
and students on Friday evenings of each week. 


Miss Helen D. Carson, 1907, has accepted 
a position in the Order department of the 
University of Illinois. 

Miss Lydia Kinsley, 1907, has been elected 
librarian of the Janesville (Wis.) Public Li- 
brary. After a summer in Europe she has 
been doing indexing of some private medical 
libraries in Chicago, and will enter upon her 
new duties Dec. I. 

Miss Grace Woodward, 1910, has accepted 
a ^position as cataloger of the Normal School 
Library, Bowling Green, Ky. 



DANA, John Cotton. Modern American li- 
brary economy as illustrated by the Newark 
(N. J.) Free Public Library, Part v, Sec- 
tion i, The school department room. 
Woodstock, Vt., The Elm Tree Press, 1910. 
18 p. O. 

The description of the School department 
room in the Newark Free Public Library 
commences on page II of this pamphlet. Very 
briefly it describes the organization and 
equipment of the room, and the various uses 
to which it has been put. 

The primary purpose of the room is to ap- 
proach the pupil by means of the teacher. 
The collections, therefore, are mainly for the 
teacher. They consist of the following di- 
visions : (a) the Teachers' professional li- 
brary, made up of about 600 titles on peda- 
gogy, history of education, psychology, etc. ; 
(b) Magazines for teachers; (c) text-books 
approved by the Board of Education of 
Newark, with other books suitable for com- 
parative study; (d) a model library for chil- 
dren, used chiefly as a tool in selecting 
school-room libraries; (e) a reference li- 
brary for children, for their use in the room ; 
(f) a vertical file, containing clippings, etc., 
relating to Newark, mimeographed copies of 
single poems, examination questions which 
have been put to applicants for teaching po- 
sitions, and clippings relating to the public 
school curriculum ; (g) specimens of min- 
erals and local woods to be loaned to teach- 
ers for class room work; (h) manufacturers' 
exhibits, showing the processes of the pro- 
duction of certain commodities of commerce ; 
(i) large educational and decorative pictures, 
to be loaned to teachers for the period of a 
month; and (j) exhibits of an educational 

For detailed information concerning the 
Teachers' professional library, Magazines for 
teachers, the Model library for children, and 
Large educational and decorative pictures, the 
reader is referred to three pamphlets in the 
series which have not yet been issued. 

The usefulness of the school department 
room cannot for a moment be doubted by 
any one who reads this pamphlet, and if its 
publication leads to the establishment of such 
rooms in public libraries, it will have accom- 
plished an extraordinarily useful result. 

But the portion of this pamphlet which 
has the most lively interest is that which 
precedes the description of the school de- 
partment room. It is devoted to a discus- 
cussion of "The library's limits in work with 

In these pages Mr. Dana has thrown down 
the gauntlet to those who advocate the con- 
tinuance and extension of the public library's 
work with children along the lines now gen- 
erally accepted But he has the reader at a 

January, 1911] 


disadvantage because the pamphlets in the 
series, on a Model library for children, and 
on The Children's department, have not yet 
been published. For this reason, as well as 
because the efficiency of the prevailing meth- 
ods of library work with children has not yet 
been fully tested, the time has not arrived 
for a fulldiscussion of Mr. Dana's arguments 
and conclusions. A summary of the discus- 
sion, with brief comments, may, however, not 
be out of place. 

The Newark library, says Mr. Dana, "has 
only one children's room, that in the main 
building. . . . Each of the six branches has a 
few children's books, but no special children's 
department. The library has no expert story 
tellers and gives no story hours ; organizes no 
boy's clubs ; puts out no home libraries ; 
makes no elaborate bulletins; has no picture 
books for the young; and looks upon its one 
children's room rather as a place in which 
to study typical child readers and the pop- 
ularity and value of books offered to them, 
than as a school for teaching morals, man- 
ners or the art of reading." 

The specific reason for the adoption of 
this policy in Newark is that the funds avail- 
able, or which it would be justifiable to de- 
vote to the library, would not enable the 
children's rooms to reach directly more than 
a small fraction of the children of school age. 
Proceeding then to the general subject of 
library work with children, Mr. Dana, after 
arguments pro and con, concludes that the 
library is exceeding its proper functions when 
it attempts the training of children by direct 
means. This is because, (i) the library has 
its hands full in the performance of func- 
tions concerning the propriety of which there 
is no doubt, and (2) the school has an equip- 
ment and teaching force which will enable 
it to reach more children more effectively 
and economically than lies in the library's 
power. The claim is not made that schools 
are now performing this function or that all 
teachers are equipped to perform it. But 
he believes that the library can so instruct 
the teacher that she will in the future ac- 
complish much more than would ever be 
possible for the library. Hence, the efforts 
of the school department should be concen- 
trated on the teachers, not only within the 
library, but in promoting the establishment 
of library courses of study in normal schools. 
That school department rooms and library 
normal courses should be multiplied will be 
admitted without reference to the previous 
argument, but there are many who will deny 
that children's rooms, except for laboratory 
purposes, ' should be abolished. It is to be 
hoped that some one, well equipped by train- 
ing and experience, will, in the interest of 
genuine library advancement, take up the 
gauntlet, and give adequate expression to ar- 
guments which lead to a different conclusion 
from that re--hed by Mr. Dana. Has he, for 
instance, given proper credit to library work 

with children in bringing to the attention of 
educators the necessity for just such work, 
by whatever agency performed? If this were 
its only purpose, has the time arrived when 
the work can be turned over to other hands? 
Has sufficient importance been given to the 
fact that the use of libraries by children is 
entirely voluntary? Are they not responding, 
\vhen they throng our libraries, to a stimulus 
which cannot be supplied by formal teaching? 

I put the question to a school teacher of 
many years' experience, in the following 
form : Teachers are not now trained in meth- 
ods of library work. Ought they not to be 
so trained, in order that they may, in school 
hours, develop in children the desire to visit 
the library? Would not the present elaborate 
children's rooms, picture bulletins, the story 
hour, etc., then be unnecessary? Her answer 
was that the teacher could hope to do little 
more than get the child to the library; that 
the library habit would not be formed unless 
there was something besides the books to 
hold the child, and that the pleasant adjuncts 
of children's rooms would always be neces- 
sary to continue the work which the teacher 

Is this teacher right when she says that 
Mr. Dana, by limiting the work of children's 
rooms, would destroy an agency of coopera- 
tion with the schools quite as important as 
the school department room? What pro- 
vision, in Mr. Dana's plan, is made for chil- 
dren over 14 years of age who no longer at- 
tend school ? Can the efficiency of children's 
rooms be justified or condemned by statistics? 
Of how much importance is it that children 
carry books home to adults who otherwise 
would not read? 

These are some questions of which a dis- 
cussion would be welcome. Mr. Dana's 
thoughtful pamphlet should stimulate such a 
discussion, much to the advantage of the 
library profession. FREDERICK C. HICKS. 

LAMBERTON, John Porter, comp. Supplement 
to a list of serials in the principal libraries 
of Philadelphia and its vicinity. Bulletin 
of the Free Library of Philadelphia, no. 9. 
Phil., 1910. 8+88 p. Cj. cl. 
The main list to which the above is a sup- 
plement was published in 1908 and listed 
some 12,000 periodicals found in 25 libraries 
down to September, 1907. The aim of tHs 
first supplement is threefold: (i) to list the 
periodicals of two additional libraries, i.e., 
the Divinity School of the Protestant Epis- 
copal Church and the Wistar Institute of 
Anatomy and Biology; (2) to supply certain 
important omissions in the main list, espe- 
cially i8th century periodicals and news- 
papers, and (3) to record additions to the 
collection of the libraries included in the main. 
list. These various new entries are estimated 
at loco, which makes the total number of pe- 
riodicals recorded in the two lists about 13,- 


[January, 1911 

ocx). In arrangement, rules of entry, form of 
printing, etc., the supplement follows the 
main work. 

As a revelation of the richness of Philadel- 
phia libraries in periodical literature the work 
is admirable, although some gaps are natur- 
ally revealed. In common with the libraries 
of other large cities, the Philadelphia libra- 
ries seem so far to have neglected the collect- 
ing of general college and alumni periodicals, 
such as the Cornell Magazine, the Michigan, the Yale Alumni Weekly, etc., a 
class of periodicals which is not constantly 
referred to, but which possesses a distinct 
reference value for certain topics. Some 
minor faults of form and some inconsistencies 
should be noted. While the rule of entering 
all periodicals under the first word of a title 
not an article has been followed consistently, 
the editors have made the mistake of retain- 
ing the article in certain cases, e.g., The Dial, 
The Independent, The Nation, Le Theatre, 
etc., thus throwing the main word by which 
the title is alphabeted out of its proper align- 
ment and making it possible for some one 
who is consulting the list in a hurry to miss 
such a title. There is some inconsistency, too, 
in the inclusion of certain publications which 
appear at regular intervals without being pe- 
riodicals in the ordinary sense of the word, 
e.g., Who's Who, Who's Who in America, 
and Qui etes-vous are all included, but no 
mention is made of the similar publication, 
Wer ist's, either in the main list or the sup- 
plement, although it is known to the re- 
viewer that a set of this annual is to be found 
in at least one of the cooperating libraries, 
and probably in several. 

The publication of a supplement within so 
short a time after the issue of the main list 
is creditable to the Philadelphia libraries and 
to their appreciation of the importance of 
listing the periodical resources of a region. 
In this respect Philadelphia is distinctly in 
advance of the other large cities of the coun- 
try. The New York list of 1887 is long out 
of date and the projected new edition is not 
yet completed, while the Boston list (1897) is 
also out of date and lists only periodicals 
regularly received, without making any at- 
tempt to record sets. This latter statement is 
true also of the Washington list (1001). The 
admirable Chicago list (1901, supplement 
1905, new supplement announced for 1910) 
comes nearest to the Philadelphia list. The 
importance of these regional union lists, 
not only in local reference work, but also as 
a help to inter-library loans, cannot be over- 
estimated. I. G. MUDGE. 

NOTE. The above reviews were furnished 
by the reviewers at the request of the JOUR- 
NAL. While it is customary for the JOURNAL 
to select reviewers for the professional liter- 
ature noted in this department, unsolicited 
reviews are also welcome for consideration. 

Xtbrars Bconoms anfc 


Public Libraries, December, contains "What 
are special libraries ?" by Louise B. Krause ; 
"Studebaker library and its work," by Eliza- 
beth Abbott; "How to increase the culture 
reading of college students," by Mrs. Ida A. 
Kidder, and several other brief articles. The 
account of the work of the Studebaker li- 
brary and its work is of particular interest. 

Special Libraries, November, contains "The 
Studebaker library and its work," by Eliza- 
beth Abbott ; "Cooperation of manufacturers 
and public libraries," by A. D. Wilt; "Public 
utility references," by G. W. Lee. The first 
article also is printed in Public Libraries for 

Vermont Library Commission Bulletin, 
December, 1910, contains an article on "Selec- 
tion of fiction," by Mrs. Belle H. Johnson. 

Zentralblatt fiir Bibliothekswesen for No- 
vember, 1910, reports on the international 
congress of bibliography and of librarians at 
Brussels, and prints two ministerial orders 
regarding Prussian libraries, regulating in- 
ter-library loans and the collecting of library 
fees in the royal and the university libraries. 
Summaries of the annual reports of the City 
Library in Elberfeld, the University Library 
in Vienna, the Royal Library in Copenhagen, 
and the Royal Library in the Hague are also 
given, as well as a description of the new 
building of the University Library in Utrecht, 
erected 1905-09 at a cost of 255,000 fl. (F. W.) 

Bb'rsenblatt fiir den deutschen Buchhandel, 
Oct. 15, 1910, has an article by Dr. Fursten- 
werth on "Making the public libraries of Ger- 
many useful to youth." The author finds that 
while time is past when the "appearance of a 
reader in one of the old city libraries was an 
unpleasant occurrence" to the authorities, 
there is yet much room for improvement, and 
he suggests that the bookseller might exert a 
good influence in this direction. 

- Oct. 18, 1910, has a summary of an 
article by Daniel Moret, in Revue d'histoire 
litteraire de la France, on the lessons to be 
drawn from 500 catalogs of French private 
libraries between 1750 and 1780, examined by 
the author. Bayle's "Dictionnaire" (see p. 
15) is represented most often (in 288 of the 
libraries), Buffon next (202), then Voltaire. 
The number of novels is small 392 ; that of 
periodicals and newspapers is 50,000 vol- 
umes. (F. W.) 

Revue critique des livres nouveaux, Octo- 
ber, 1910, notes particularly many new books 
on Rousseau, 10 being reviewed, biographies, 
critical works, and an iconography. 

Revue des Bibliotheques for July-Septem- 
ber contains the continuation of Seymour 
de Ricci's "Summary inventory of the manu- 

January, 191 i] 



scripts of the Plantin Museum, at Antwerp," 
a catalog of works on aerostation and avia- 
tion in the library of the University of Paris, 
by Albert Maire, and the conclusion of the 
summary of the manuscript in the Chatre de 
Cange collection in the National Library, 
Paris, by M. Prevost. 

Bollettino delle Biblioteche Popolari for 
Oft. 31, 1910, contains the preliminary an- 
nouncement of the Lombard conference of 
popular libraries and popular universities, to 
be held at Milan Nov. 13-14; also Part I of 
the catalog of the Magistrates' Library of the 
province of Reggio Calabria. 

Nov. 15, 1910, has the greater part of 

its contents given up to the report of the 
congress of popular libraries for the section 
around Venice, held at Vicenza on Oct. 30, 
1910. There is also a continuation of the 
catalog of the Magistrates' Library of the 
province of Reggio Calabria. 

De Boekzaal, March, 1910, contains an ar- 
ticle on the relation that should exist be- 
tween public libraries and municipal govern- 
ments. This topic was chosen for discussion 
by the Society for Public Libraries in the 
Netherlands at its annual meeting in April, 
1910. For this purpose three of its members 
were requested to prepare their views and in- 
vestigations, and these reports are herewith 
printed so that all members may be acquainted 
with the question when it is presented at the 
annual meeting. The first preliminary re- 
port, written by Prof. Molengraff, of Utrecht 
University, discusses very fully why public 
libraries should be supported by the munici- 
palities instead of by private organizations 
and funds. The second report is that of Mr. 
G. Van Rijn, the librarian of the Municipal 
Public Library of Rotterdam; and in the 
third report, by Dr. J. Th. de Visser, Mem- 
ber of the Second Chamber, the author 
states very clearly the reasons why he thinks 
that public libraries should be aided by the 
national government. 


Chicago (III.) P. L. At the November 
meeting of the directors of the library the 
librarian, Mr. Legler, was authorized to pur- 
chase 4000 books for the open-shelf depart- 
ment and to prepare lists for the new reading 
branches to be opened. 

Cincinnati (O.) P. L. (Rpt. year ending 
June 30, 1909. This report was issued in 
1910.) Added 32,749 v., 4820 pm. ; total 364, 
595 v., 69,086 pm. Of the volumes added dur- 
ing the year 29,225 were acquired by purchase 
and 2121 by gift and 1249 by bindings. Is- 
sued, home use 1,383,825 (473484 from cent, 
lib., 702.516 from branches, 112480 from de- 
livery stations, 33420 from travelling and 
schools libs.). Pictures issued 1,383,825. To- 
tal no. of registered book borrowers from the 

organization of the lib. in 1867 to close of 
year 308,485. During this period 235,575 mem- 
berships terminated, leaving on June 30, 1909, 
72,910. Expenses $162,589.59 (branch libs, 
and delivery stations $34,598.07, building re- 
pairs $229591, printing and stationery 

One small branch was added to the system 
during the year. The immediate supervision 
of branches, stations and travelling libraries 
was brought under the charge of a chief 
branch librarian. 

The science room or useful arts room has 
continued to prove its value and usefulness. 
The circulation from it increased nearly II 
per cent, over the preceding year. The li- 
brary's circulation of lantern slides was large, 
running into the hundreds a day during the 
season of lectures and indoor entertainments. 
The stereoscope collection now numbers about 
10,000. "Many stereoscopic photographs were 
bought, and these circulate in lots of 50, with 
or without a stereoscope. This large picture 
reading has doubtless had an effect in increas- 
ing the call for books on history and travel. 

Books in raised type for the blind were cir- 
culated to the number of 92. These books are 
now carried through the mail without charge 
under provision of the new law. 

The library has now 13 branches and 28 de- 
livery stations. Reports from all depart- 
ments are included, and show effective and 
progressive work. 

Eau Claire (Wis.) P. L. Rpt. year end- 
ing June 30, 1910.) Added, by purchase 942, 
by gift 154; total 19,255. Volumes issued 
55*559 ; pictures loaned 3398. New registration 
915; total no. registered 5901. Receipts 
$5766.07; expenses $5766.07 (books $760.95, 
periodicals $256,96). Sunday attendance 
numbered 1498. 

Evanston (III.) P. L. (37th rpt. year 
1910.) Added 2666; total 46,007. Member- 
ship 8843- 

The Medical section contains 552 volumes, 
the duplicate rental collection has 107 vol- 
umes. In the Coe music collection there are 
1207 volumes, 299 pieces, 485 rolls. This 
collection is housed in a room on the mezza- 
nine floor. A Weber pianola-piano affords 
opportunity for trying either the piano scores 
or the pianola rolls, which in large part du- 
plicate the music of the collection. 

The library has five deposit stations. 

Greensboro (N. C.) P. L. In the North 
Carolina Library Bulletin (Sept.-Dec.) a his- 
tory of the growth of the library is given. In 
February, 1902, it started with 1490 books, 32 
periodicals and 3 daily papers. From occnpy- 
ing three rooms granted by the city aldermen 
the library's present home is a $30,000 Car- 
negie building. It now owns 5773 books and 
9375 pamphlets; it receives by gift and pur- 
chase 136 periodicals and 9 daily papers. It 



[January, 1911 

has the use of 21 loan collections (1484 v.), 
including bound volumes of the Greensboro 
papers for reference use, and the Audubon 
Library for circulation. 

From 75 to 90 per cent, of all the number 
of books circulated, are fiction, and next in 
popularity are books on North Carolina his- 
tory, these being used nearly twice as much 
as those of any other class. 

Jackson (Mich.) P. L. (25th rpt. year 
ending June 30, 1910.) Added 1168; total 
33,692. Issued, home use 88,945 (79.5 per 
cent, fiction). New registration 1919; total 
registered readers 5165. 

The total number of borrowers is slightly 
smaller than it was a year ago, because the 
time limit on the large number of cards that 
were issued at the time of the opening of the 
new building expired this year. The daily 
statistics, however, are showing an increas- 
ing number of borrowers even over those of 
a year ago. The total circulation of books 
was some 4500 volumes less than that of the 
previous year, a decrease of 4.8 per cent. 
This is partly due to the fact that the library 
was able to buy only a little over half as 
many new books as it bought last year. It 
is hoped to increase the shelving facilities in 
the main library. The completion of the 
library auditorium is now well under way, 
and it is going to be a most attractive room. 

Long Beach (Cal) P. L. (Rpt. year 
ending July I, 1910; in Long Beach auditor's 
annual report for fiscal year ending June 3O> 
1910.) Added 3285 ; total 18,373. New regis- 
tration 4768. 

New Brunswick (N. 7.) F. P. L. (Rpt. 
Apr. i-Dec. 31, 1909.) Added 973; circulated 
62,660. Membership cards issued 435. 

The duplicate collection is now recognized 
as a branch of the library and is accomplish- 
ing the double purpose for which it was es- 
tablished. The library has been designated 
as a depository for government documents 
and a mass of material has been received. 

Norwich Ct. Otis L. (Rpt. year ending 
Aug. 31, 1910.) Added 2143; total 39,423. 
Issued, home use 113,985 (adult fict. 69,126). 
New book borrowers 1564. Total registra- 
tion since June I, 1893, 21,924. Receipts 
$8469.84; expenses $8400.23 (periodicals 
$245.31, lighting $285.13, salaries $3997.40, fur- 
niture $229.97). 

There is continued increase in the issue of 
juvenile books. There was a decrease of 
1313 volumes in the issue of books in foreign 
languages. The library is now attempting 
to supply books in six different foreign lan- 
guages, viz. : French, German, Yiddish, Po- 
lish, Italian and Spanish. 

Pomona (Cal.) P. L. (2Oth annual rpt. ; 
from libn's. summary.) Receipts- $9396.67. 
Disbursements $6667.99. Volumes 17,710. 
Active members 6849, amounting to 68 per 

cent, of total population. Circulation 82,972 
(fict. 56 per cent.). 

New features are: (i) vacation privilege 
of more than one 3O-day book on a card ; (2) 
the shelving of novels on the same subject, 
as Religious novels, near the new books, 
changing the group from time to time; (3) 
a loan collection, to be drawn in addition to 
books from the library proper. 

The library continues its policy of complet- 
ing periodical sets as fast as possible. It now 
contains 65 partial and 12 complete files. "Po- 
mona has the only public library of any size 
within a radius of 25 miles. Our reference 
serves not this city only, but also many of the 
neighboring towns. Thus the library is a 
lodestone, drawing people to the city. Most 
of these outsiders do some trading while here. 
The advantages accruing to our merchants 
from an attractive and efficient library are 
manifest. The rooms are, however, far too 
small. We have neither shelves for our 
books nor seats for our patrons. Unless the 
library may expand it must lose in useful- 

Providence (R. /.) P. L. (32d rpt. 
1009.) Added 8341; total 144,695. Issued, 
home use 199, 950 (1788 sent to schools, 
clubs, etc.). Cards issued 9912. Receipts 
$51,944.53; expenses $48,006.37 (books 
$5981.20, binding and periodicals $3191.78, 
pay-roll and building force $6399.34). 

The foreign department issued 10,839 vol- 
umes. There were 20 exhibits held in the 
lecture room, 15 of which were from the Li- 
brary Art Club. The library is in great need 
of a stereopticon of its own. From the chil- 
dren's department 51,591 volumes were issued, 
of which 36,133 were works of fiction. 

The use of books for the blind shows a 
striking increase, whereas the number of vol- 
umes in the collection for the bind has un- 
fortunately not been increased. 

Record of the special collections shows that 
the industrial library has a total stock of 9589 
volumes, the music library 2781 volumes, the 
art library 4722 volumes. The circulation of 
the Sprague House Branch, which has now 
completed the third year of its history, was 
16,048. The North End delivery branch, al- 
though really not yet a branch library, issued 
8361 books during the year. The need of an 
extension to the main library building is 

St. Louis (Mo.) P. L. In the library's 
Monthly Bulletin, December, 1910, is given 
the first of a series of lists of favorite books. 
Each list in the series will represent the 
choice of a different person. 

and Public Recreation Commission. In 
the proposed reorganization of the Public 
Recreation Commission of St. Louis, with 
extension of its powers, it is planned to 
have several city departments, of which 
the Public Library will be one, repre- 

January, 1911] 



sented on the commission. The librarian 
has been appointed by the mayor on a com- 
mittee to draft necessary legislation to this 


work of the public library with the children 
of Washington. Wash., Public Lib., 1910. 
12 p. T. 

This little pamphlet illustrates well the 
possibility of the development of a splendid 
cooperation with settlements, playgrounds, 
schools and other institutions, in using them 
to serve as distributing agents for the li- 
brary's books. A novel feature in the fight 
against "nickel novels" is the bookstore, sup- 
ported by private funds, which sells good 
books at a nominal price to the children of 
poor neighborhoods. Although still an ex- 
periment, the library reports it worthy of 
further trial. 

The list of books for grades, printed in 
convenient form, are worthy to be used as 
standards. C. W. HUNT. 


Aberdeen (Scotland) P. L. At the request 
of the Aberdeen Public Library Committee a 
special report on "Open access in public li- 
brary work" was prepared and presented to 
the committee. 26 p. D. Aberdeen, 1910. 

Advantages and disadvantages of open ac- 
cess are considered in this report. Statistics 
from the latest "Libraries year book" are 
given, which lists 59 libraries that have free 
access. In conclusion, the report states that 
there are altogether about 650 public libra- 
ries, properly so-called, in most of which in- 
dicators of a simple kind are in use. The 
librarian states that from what he has seen 
of such other libraries throughout England 
and Scotland that in certain of them at least 
something of the open access method would 
be preferable to present arrangements. 

Berlin. Children's reading room. The first 
children's reading room in Berlin, says the 
Borsenblatt fur den deutschen Buchhandel 
(Nov. 2, 1910), has been opened by the 
"Volksbund" founded by Otto von Leixner. 
"The rush of children has shown how great 
the need is of such institutions." 

Bodleian L. The library issued during the 
year 1910 a brief "Appendix to the Staff Kal- 
endar and supplement to the Stoff-kalendar 
for 1910." Oxford, Hart, 31 p. FF. 

Stockholm. Royal L. Dr. Gustav Schlegel 
Berghman, a Swedish physician recently de- 
ceased, left .his highly important collection of 
Elzeviers (2273 works in 2377 volumes), as 
well as about 100.000 crowns in money, to 
the Royal Library of Stockholm. His cata- 
log of the collection is to be published by the 


notes in Borsenblatt fur den deutschen Buch- 
handel, Oct. 7, 1910, that strong light has a 
more destructive effect on leather bindings 
than heat. He suggests blue or green glass 
in the doors of book-cases, or a coating of 
zapon-lacquer for the leather, this celluloid 
solution leaving the color of the leather un- 
changed. This would at least lessen the dele- 
terious effect of light, says he, which is all 
we can hope for, since "the fight against 
rapid tanning, aniline dyes and sulphuric 
acid will have but little result." (F. W.) 

BOOK BINDER. (Described in the Official Ga- 
zette of the United . States Patent Office, 
Dec. 6, 1910. 161 : 155-156.) H- 
Eighteen claims are allowed for this book 


BOOK-BUYING. Jeffers, Le Roy. List of edi- 
tions selected for economy in book-buying. 
A. L. A. Pub. Bd., 1910. 23 p. D. 
This list includes popular titles which are 
published in more than one edition. It aims 
to indicate low-priced editions in publisher's 
covers that are generally suitable in type and 
paper for library list. "The collected works 
of an author are given when there is a choice 
of editions, and when all the volumes are is- 
sued by the same publisher at a uniform price 
per volume and are sold separately." 

DAGGETT, Mabel Potter. The library part in 
making Americans. (The Delineator, Jan- 
uary, 1911. 77' i7-i8.) 
Refers particularly to the public libraries 
of Newark, N. J., New York City, Hagers- 
town, Md., and Grand Rapids, Mich. Jour- 
nalistic in style and inaccurate as to facts. 

DANA, J. C. Modern American library econ- 
omy as illustrated by the Newark (N. J.) 
Free Public Library, pt. v: The school 
department; sect. 3, The picture collection 
by J. C. Dana. 27 p. (ser. p. 367-391) D. 
Tt. 1910. 

MILAN, Carl H. Rural extension of public 
libraries. (In the Public Officials Maga- 
zine, November, 1910. 2:1156-1161.) 
Deals especially with the situation in In- 
diana, and defines the extension of the ser- 
vice of the town library into the surrounding 
country districts, for which, of course, the 
rural districts contribute their proportion of 
the expense in the form of taxation. 

NEWSPAPER HOLDER. (Described in the Of- 
ficial Gazette of the United States Patent 
Office, Dec. 6, 1910. 161 : 12.) 


[January, 1911 


BARNES, Mrs. Clara P., for 15 years libra- 
rian of Gilbert M. Simmons Library of Ken- 
osha, Wis., has resigned her position to re- 
tire from library work. Miss Cora Frantz, 
who has been Mrs. Barnes's first assistant for 
several years, has been appointed acting libra- 
rian until the annual meeting in June. 

DUDLEY, Charles R., will not continue as 
librarian of the Denver Public Library after 
Feb. 7, on which date his term expires. Mr. 
Dudley became librarian in 1899, when it was 
organized through the consolidation of the old 
City Library and the Public Library of Den- 
ver. Mr. Dudley has given 24 years of devoted 
service to the Denver Public Library. He 
has served as president of the Colorado Li- 
brary Association, chairman of the Colorado 
State Board of Library Commissioners, as 
vice-president of the American Library As- 
sociation, and has served the Association in 
other capacities as a member of various com- 

HADLEY, Chalmers, secretary of the Amer- 
ican Library Association, will succeed Mr. 
Dudley as librarian of the Denver Public 
Library. Mr. Hadley has had varied library 
experience and has won distinction in several 
fields. In 1896 he graduated from Earlham 
College, and for six years was connected with 
journalism in Indianapolis and Philadelphia. 
In 1004 he entered the Indiana State Library, 
and studied at the New York State Library 
School 1905-6. In 1906 he became secretary 
and state organizer for the Indiana Library 
Commission and held this position for three 
years. Mr. Hadley was president of the 
League of Library Commissions 1906-07, and 
contributed able service to commission work, 
especially as chairman of a committee ap- 
pointed to draw up a model library commis- 
sion law, copies of which were distributed in 
different states and used as a model for com- 
mission laws ; also, as chairman of the com- 
mittee appointed to investigate and improve 
library facilities in United States peniten- 

In 1009, with the establishment of head- 
quarters in Chicago, Mr. Hadley was placed 
in charge as secretary of the Association, and 
in addition to this important and arduous 
pest he has served as secretary of the A. L. A. 
Publishing Board, as president of the A. L. A. 
professional training section, and has repre- 
sented the A. L. A. at numerous meetings of 
state and other library organizations. 

PLUMMER, Miss Mary Wright, in her new 
book, "Stories from the chronicles of the 
Cid," published by Henry Holt & Company 
(1910), adds another welcome title for the 
children's list, to which she has already con- 
tributed her "Roy and Ray in Mexico" and 

"Roy and Ray in Canada." The legends of 
the Spanish hero are written chiefly with the 
purpose of giving to American children the 
conception of the Cid as he is known and 
loved by most Spanish children. The little 
volume is generously illustrated and appro- 
priately dedicated "to the boys who use the 
children's room of Pratt Institute Free Li- 

WARD, Gilbert O. (Pratt, 'o8>, has been 
appointed supervisor of work in the high 
school libraries of Cleveland. 

f." Gatalo0in0 and Classification 

pold. Instructions pour la redaction d'un 
catalogue de manuscrits et pour la redac- 
tion d'un inventaire des incunables con- 
serves dans les bibliotheques publiques de 
France. Paris, Champion. 98 p. D. pap. 

list of books published during the latter 
part of the year 1909, which are recom- 
mended by the Ontario Library Associa- 
tion for purchase by the public libraries of 
this province, January, 1910. Ont. Dept. of 
Educ., 1910. 12 p. D. 
Published quarterly. The names of pub- 
lishers and retail prices are included, so that 
any bookseller can order them. 

Same. v. ix., pt. 2, July, 1910. 12 p. O. 

Contains also a short bibliography of rep- 
resentative Canadian fiction (English). 


tina; with an introd. by Martin Hume; 
with a map and 64 illustrations. N. Y., 
Scribner, [imported,] 1910. 384-308 p. pis. 
8, (South American ser. ; ed. by Martin 
Hume.) $3 net. 
Bibliography (8 p.). 

AUGUSTINE, St. Simpson, Rev. W. J. Spar- 
row. St. Augustine and African church 
divisions. N. Y., Longmans, Green, 1910. 
154 p. D. cl., $1.25 net. 
Page references. 

BIBLE. Bible for home and school ; ed. by 
Shailer Mathews. The book of the proph- 
ecies of Isaiah by J. Edg. McFadyen. N. Y., 

January, 1911] 



Macmillan, 1910. c. 13+423 P- map, S. cl., 
90 c. net. 
Bibliography (2 p.). 

BIBLE. Barnes, Rev. C. R., ed. The people's 
Bible encyclopedia; biographical, geograph- 
ical, historical, and doctrinal; il. by nearly 
400 engravings, maps, charts, etc. 2 v. 
Chic., People's Publication Society, 1910. 
c. il. pis. 8, $9. 
Bibliography (5 p.). 

BRIDGE (card game}. Dalton, W. Bridge 
and auction bridge. N. Y., Stokes, [1910.] 
c. 363 p. il. D. cl., $1.20 net. 
Bibliography (4 p.).. 

BURNS, Robert. Carlyle, T. An essay on 
Burns; with selected poems by Burns; ed., 
with introd. and notes, by Julian W. Aber- 
nethy. N. Y., C. E. Merrill Co., [1910.] 
c. 133 p. pors. 16, (Merrill's English 
texts.) cl., 25 c. 
Bibliography (2 p.). 

CATHEDRALS (France). Rose, E. W. Cathe- 
drals and cloisters of the Isle de France 
(including Bourges, Troyes, Reims and 
Rouen) : with il. from original photographs 
by Vida Hunt Francis. In 2 v. N. Y., 
Putnam, 1910. c. 19+392; 12+465 p. O. 
cl., $5 net, boxed. 
Bibliography (2 p.). 

CELLINI, Benvenuto. Cellini, Benvenuto. The 
life of Benvenuto Cellini ; a new version by 
Rob. H. Hobart Cust In 2 v. N. Y., Mac- 
millan, 1910. 42+390; 20+533 p. il. 8, 
per set, $9 net. 

DANA, R. H., jr. Richard Henry Dana, jr. 
(author of "Two years before the mast") ; 
speeches in stirring times and letters to a 
son ; ed., with introd. sketch and notes, by 
R. H. Dana, 3d. Bost., Houghton Mifflin, 
1910. c. 6+520 p. pors. O. cl., $3 net. 
Bibliography (10 p.). 

DIVINE COMEDY (by Dante). Flaraini, Fran- 
cesco. Introduction to the study of the 
Divine comedy; tr. by Freeman M. Josse- 
lyn; tr., rev. and augm. by the author. 
Bost., Ginn, [1910.] c. 10+146 p. il. D. 
Bibliography (9 p.). 


English dramatic companies, 1558-1642. In 
2 v. v. i, London companies, 1558-1642; 
v. 2, Provincial companies, 1558-1642; ap- 
pendices. Bost., Houghton Mifflin, 1910. 
16+370; 12+434 P- fold, tabs., O. cl., $7.50 

Waller, A. R., eds. The Cambridge history 
of English literature. In 14 v. v. 5, The 
drama to 1642, pt. i ; v. 6, The drama to 
1642, pt. 2. N. Y., Putnam, 1910. c. 10+ 
558; 7+593 P- O. cl., ea., $2.50 net. 

GERMAN LANGUAGE. Howard, W. G., ed. 
Laokoon : Lessing, Herder, Goethe ; selec- 
tions ed. with an introd. and a commentary. 
N. Y., Holt, 1910. c. 168+470 p. front. D. 
cl., $1.50. 
Bibliography (4 p.). 

GERMAN LITERATURE, Arnold, R. S. Allge- 
meine bucherkunde zur neueren deutschen 
literaturgeschichte. [N. Y., Stechert,] 1910. 
19+354 P- O. cl., $2.25. 
A bibliography of German books on all 


GRILLPARZER, Franz. De Walsh, F. C. Grill- 
parzer as a poet of nature. N. Y., Macmil- 
lan, 1910. 17+95 P- 8, (Columbia Univ. 
pubs.) pap., $i net 

HEROES. James, G. W. Heroes of Califor- 
nia ; the story of the founders of the Golden 
State as narrated by themselves or gleaned 
from other sources. Bost., Little, Brown, 
1910. c. 22-J-5I5 p. pis. O. cl., $2 net. 
Bibliography (6 l /2 p.). 

HISTORY. Chamberlain, H. S. The founda- 
tions of the I9th century; a translation 
from the German by J. Lees; with an 
introd. by Lord Redesdale. In 2 v. N. Y., 
J. Lane, 1911, [1910.] 102+578; 7+580 p. 
O. cl., $10 net. 
References in footnotes. 

HYGIENE. Brooklyn Public Library. Per- 
sonal hygiene and physical development ; a 
list of books in the Brooklyn Public Li- 
brary. 1910. 28 p. T. 

Elliott, S. M. Household hygiene [Text 

book ed.] Chic., Amer. School of Home 

4 8 


[January, 1911 

Economics, 1910. 4+224 p. il. diagrs., 12, 


Bibliography (3 p.). 

LONDON, Eng. Foord, A. S. Springs, streams 
and spas of London-history and associa- 
tions; with 27 illustrations. N. Y., Stokes, 
[1910.] 351 p. O. cl., $3.50 net. 

MAMMALS. Osborn, H. F. The age of mam- 
mals in Europe, Asia, and North America. 
N. Y., Macmillan, 1910. c. i7-j-635 p. il. 
maps, O. cl., $4.50 net. 
Bibliography (30 p.). 

MARY, Virgin. Jenner, Mrs. H. Our Lady 
in art; with 40 illustrations. Chic., Mc- 
Clurg, 1910. 28-)- 204 p. T. (Little books on 
art.) cl., $i net. 
Bibliography (2 p.). 

MENANDER of Athens. Four plays of Me- 
nander : The hero, Epitrepontes, Periceiro- 
mene and Samia; ed., with introds., ex- 
planatory notes, critical appendix, and bib- 
liography, by E. Capps. Bost, Ginn, [1910.] 
c. 11+329 p. front. 8, (College ser. of 
Greek authors.) cl., $2.50. 
Bibliography (6 p.). 

NAPOLEON i. Sloane, W. M. The life of Na- 
poleon Bonaparte; rev. and enl. with por- 
traits. In 4 v. N. Y., Century Co., 1910. 
c. '94-'io. 13+446; 7+467; 7+425; 7+ 
527 p. O. maps, cl., $10 net, boxed. 
Bibliography (46 p.). 

NEGROES. Weatherford, W. D. Negro life 
in the South; present conditions and needs; 
with a special chapter on the economic 
condition of the negro, by G. W. Dyer. 
N. Y., Y. M. C. A., 1910. c. 9+183 p. 12, 
75 c. 
Bibliography (7 p.). 

NUMBERS. Goudy, H. Trichotomy in Roman 
law. N. Y., Oxford Univ. Press, 1910. 77 p. 
O. cl., $1.35- 
References in notes. 

PARLIAMENT (English). Mcllwain, C. H. 
The High Court of Parliament and its su- 
premacy; an historical essay on the bound- 
aries between legislation and adjudication 
in England. New Haven, Ct, Yale Univ. 
Press, 1910. c. 21+408 p. O. cl., $2.50 net. 
References in footnotes. 

RAILROADS. Vrooman, C. S. American rail- 
way problems in the light of European ex- 
perience; or, government regulation vs. 
government operation of railways. N. Y., 
Oxford Univ. Press, [1910.] 7+376 p. D. 
cl., $2. 

REFORMATION. Lumsden, C. B. The dawn of 
modern England ; being a history of the 
Reformation in England, 1509-1525. N. Y., 
Longmans, Green, 1910. 303 p. O. cl., $3 
Bibliography (19 p.). 

IRotes ano (Queries 

culars have been sent out by a so-called 
"Librarians' Progressive League" over the 
name of Ralph Ferguson, Boston, Chicago 
and San Francisco, stating that an "Organ- 
ization committee" had been formed to ad- 
vocate old age pensions. As my name has 
been mentioned as chairman of the "Organ- 
ization committee," I wish to state that I 
know nothing of this league other than the 
information contained in the circulars, and 
that I have been unable to obtain any infor- 
formation as to the address of Ralph Fergu- 
son, or the street address of the headquarters 
of the league. 

In behalf of the other members of the 
"Organization committee" it may be well to 
state that they also have no knowledge of 
the league, other than that given in the 
printed announcement. The names of the 
members of the committee were used without 
their knowledge or consent. They wish to 
disown any connection whatsoever with the 
Librarians' Progressive League and its pen- 
sion scheme. 

It has not yet been possible to ascertain 
who is the author of the circular or origin- 
ator of the scheme. CHARLES H. BROWN. 



3-4. League of L. Commissions. Chicago. 
Congress Hotel. 

Program: Tuesday, Jan. 3. Rural library 
extension from local centers. Wednesday, 
Jan. 4, a.m. The work of the League and 
its committees; 2.30 p.m. Relation of the 
Library Commission to the State L. Assoc. 

5. A. L. A. Council. Mid-winter meeting. 

Chicago P. L. (a.m.) 
p.m. A. L. A. exec. bd. Chicago P. L. 
19. Mass. L. C. Brookline P. L. 


VOL. 36 


No. 2 

THE A. L. A. Council held a business-like 
meeting at Chicago, with a good attendance, 
and accomplished considerable good work. 
Affiliation of other associations, national or 
state, with the main body, was perhaps the 
leading topic of discussion. The affiliation 
of the Special Libraries Association is to 
have further discussion, but the trend of 
opinion is evidently in its favor, though with 
some fear as to permitting the establishment 
of too many national bodies. In respect to 
the establishment of further sections, as one 
for Agricultural libraries, it may perhaps be 
suggested that round table discussions on a 
special topic with reference to special classes 
of libraries may be preferable to the per- 
manent establishment of sections which 
might require time each year in an inevita- 
bly crowded progrem. Round-table method 
has the advantage that it need be a part 
of the national program only so far as its 
topic is commanding and distinctive at the 

SOME organic link between the A. L. A. 
and the state associations is generally recog- 
nized as desirable; but it seems evident that 
it should be in all its relations permissive 
rather than enforced. To confine member- 
ship in the A. L. A. to members of state 
associations, or vice versa, would be most un- 
fortunate. On the other hand, possibly some 
solution of common membership might be 
worked out on the plan adopted by the Na- 
tional Arts Club with respect to the special- 
ized national organizations, such as the Mu- 
nicipal Art Society and the Scenic Preserva- 
tion Association. In this case the Club de- 
ducts from its larger membership fee, to a 
stated extent those of the affiliated organi- 
zations; and the A. L. A., if its dues were 
made $3 instead of $2 might make a reduc- 
tion of a dollar in the case of state members. 
Any requirement for financial support from 
the association should, in our judgment, be 
at a nominal fee. and it may be noted that 
the services of an A. L. A. missionary are 
most required in states which can least 
afford to pay the costs. If the president or 
other authorized representative of the state 
associations were given an official seat at A. 

L. A. meetings, and permitted official pres- 
ence, if not voice and vote, at council meet- 
ings, that might strengthen the relationship 
on both sides. Certainly the topic is timely 
and it is a wise suggestion that it should 
be made the subject of a round table con- 
versation at Pasadena. 

THE A. L. A. is to have the good fortune 
of securing as secretary George B. Utley, of 
Jacksonville, Florida, who, during some 
years' service in that library outpost, has 
done good work locally and kept in touch 
with library progress generally. He has 
done much to stimulate library development 
within the state of his adoption, and will 
come into touch happily with state association 
work elsewhere, which is at the moment 
especially important He was one of those 
who took advantage of the international 
expedition of 1910, and thus, without fore- 
knowledge of his future work, prepared him- 
self the better for equipment in it. The pro- 
fession will wish him success. 

THE attendance of publishers and the book- 
trade may fairly be asked to the very rea- 
sonable report of the committee on book- 
buying and net fiction and the discussion 
which it brought out. Naturally and prop- 
erly the libraries as large buyers in the 
interest of the public, demand the lowest 
prices on all books that can reasonably be 
had, and considering everything this is cer- 
tainly praiseworthy, while the reasonable 
tone in the report should make the sug- 
gestion the more weighty to the publish- 
ing and bookselling trade. Aside from 
any concerted action it is not to be for- 
gotten that too high prices have a boomerang 
effect, particularly with reference to library 
buying, as they tend not only to diminish 
the number of books bought, but to prevent 
their frequent replacement and encourage 
unduly the rebinding of more or less soiled 
copies. Publishers would do well to have 
an eye to this fact. Miss Marvin's letter 
brought out this point excellently and her 
objections to enforced limiting of fiction 
purchases, whether or not in the form of a 
boycott, should be heeded. The committee 



;s endeavoring to get the facts as to cost 
and prices, with a view at least to obtaining 
a discount of 15 per cent., or one-sixth from 
net prices, and the publishing trade will not 
be wise if it fails to give the committee all 
the facts it can ask. The break from the 
old uniform price of $1.50 to a price based 
on the actual physical character of the book 
seems to us a positive gain which libraries 
should encourage. 

Ax the recent mid-winter meeting of the 
League of Library Commissions closer coop- 
eration with the A. L. A. Booklist was dis- 
cussed. The A. L. A. Booklist has developed 
in scope rapidly, and the action of the A. L. A. 
Publishing Board in raising its price to Com- 
missions is a reasonable one, as it has so out- 
grown its early limitations that its original 
price would now be insufficient to pay for its 
printing. It is also planned that the A. L. 
A. Publishing Board shall hereafter handle 
all the publications of the League of Library 
Commissions. This is a step in the right 
direction, and it should really be the concern 
of the library board to provide for a cooper- 
ative and coordinated scheme of reading lists 
on current topics and the like. 

OF library publications it may truly be said 
there is no end. The difficulties of record, 
selection and use therefore become greater 
and are apt to involve loss of time and waste 
of energy. This problem has already been 
discussed more or less in print and the rem- 
edy of "cooperation" recommended. This 
remedy cannot be too strongly urged. How- 
ever it would deal with the problem chiefly 
in terms of the future, and it is to be remem- 
bered that there are quantities of lists and 
aids that are already published. It would 
seem as though some list or catalog that 
would bring together in classified arrange- 
ment all such special lists that have been 
issued within the last five years would be 
of use. As things are at present it would 
be difficult to refer a questioner to the 
library that had brought out the most re- 
cent or the most comprehensive list on avia- 
tion or to refer without considerable "look- 
ing up" to the most timely list on children's 
reading or on children's work in libraries. 
There has been an immense output of library 
energy into print without a corresponding 
care as to correlation of results. 

WITH the growing complexity of library 
interests it is not only the question of the 
printed record that assumes serious aspects. 
There is a general tendency to wastefulness 
consequent upon the rapid and outreaching 
library development itself. Just where to 
strike practical mean between the danger- 
points of the extremes is the question. The 
use of the library lecture room still presents 
a disputed field whereon conservatives and 
experimentalists may offer their opinions. To 
the social worker and to most progressive 
educators it is evident that the lecture itself 
is but one small factor in the education of 
the masses. At the recent meeting of 
the New York Library Club Mrs. Simkho- 
vitch urged a more vital stimulus to commu- 
nity life through the medium of the library 
lecture room, in the dramatic and musical 
expressions of culture and even the rhythmic 
expression of the dance. There is probably 
nothing that has so awakened the librarian 
to the possibilities of the lecture room as the 
story-telling group which for children is now 
an accepted part of library administration. 
Story-telling for adults in libraries is upon 
the threshold. How far shall it be adopted? 
In Commission work the adult story-group 
has proved ite effectiveness, and its use with- 
in the library might prove equally effective. 

THE library subjects open to debate seem 
to increase in number and vividness. When 
one prominent public librarian states that 
"college professors do not realize the value 
of their libraries," while Miss Salmon, an 
expert in college relations, states that the col- 
lege professor is trying to "create a college 
and a civic responsibility in the use of books," 
there is at once evident a wide field for dis- 
cussion. The responsibilities of the librarian 
to the college professor perhaps need stronger 

THE political revolution in New York state 
has produced Democratic aspirants for the 
office of state historian, so ably filled by Vic- 
tor H. Paltsits. This is so absolutely a non- 
political position that it is scarcely possible 
that there will be return to the spoils system 
with respect to this office. The mere sugges- 
tion of a change for partisan reasons has 
happily brought out such strong approval of 
Mr. Paltsits' fitness for the post and fruitful 
results since his occupancy of it as to make 
his retention doubly sure. 

February, 191 1] 


BY LUCY M. SALMON, Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 

THE most humble of all persons is the 
college professor. Assigned by his official 
superiors a small field to till, watched by 
his colleagues lest he cross the line that 
separates his assignment from theirs, dubbed 
by his fellow citizens a visionary and a 
theorist, the college professor quickly learns 
"to know his place." At times when he has 
looked up from the plow and he has ventured 
to hope that long experience has taught him 
how to plow deeper and to draw a straighter 
farrow, the college student and the news- 
paper reporter have been at hand also to see 
that he keeps his place, but he plows on 
cheered by the inner consciousness that 
he has at least not willfully wandered from 
the straight line that marks out his small 
plot of land. But when at other times his 
humility has been merged into a profound 
discouragement that has threatened to para- 
lyze his hand and cause him to drop the 
plow, he has sought hope and encouragement 
from his friend the librarian, "the sun that 
shines for all." 

But even this last refuge is failing him, 
for does he not read in the LIBRARY JOURNAL 
that "college professors do not realize the 
value of their libraries; do not make ade- 
quate use of them; do not impress their 
students with the importance of skill in 
using books and libraries, and do not insist 
that that skill be acquired in the four years 
of the college course."* 

The question may at least be raised 
whether these kindly strictures on what the 
college professor does not do to teach his 
students the use of books as tools as well 
as a love of books as literature are really 
deserved ; whether a too hasty generalization 
has not been made from the one professor 
who does not do the things he might do; 
whether this generalization has not been 
equipped with unlimited expansive powers 
and thus made to cover all college professors 
most of whom at least are trying to do the 

The article here quoted is "The use of print in 
the world of affairs," by John Cotton Dana, librarian 
Free Public Library, Xewark, N. J., L. j., Decem- 
ber, 1910, p. 535-538. 

things they should do; whether the city 
librarian really knows how much the humble 
college professor ought to do and might 
approve if he knew it were being done. 

The worm turns ! The humble college 
professor begs for a hearing and for a 
chance to explain what he is trying to do 
along library lines to increase the facility 
of college students in the use of books, to 
foster a love for books that shall be as deep- 
and as personal as is the love for a living 
friend, to create a college and a civic re- 
sponsibility in the use of books, to substitute 
first-hand acquaintance with the great books- 
and the great records of past time for indi- 
rect information about them that has been 
culled by others, and to bring it about that 
every student before leaving college shall 
have been impressed with the importance, 
indeed the absolute necessity, of skill in 
using books and libraries. 

The college professor craves patience 
while the explanation is made in some detail 
of what is being done by one professor in 
one college, and asks the possible reader 
to believe that it is but an infinitesimal 
part of what is being done in colleges the 
country over to achieve the end so ably set 
forth in a recent number of THE LIBRARY 

Every student in Vassar College is re- 
quired to take here, unless she has had a 
similar course in another college, a course 
in European history that comes three times 
a week and runs through the year. About 
three hundred students take the course every 
year. It is optional whether the course is 
taken in the first or second year; about 
sixty per cent, take it as freshmen and 
forty per cent, as sophomores. The three 
hundred students are divided into twelve 
sections averaging twenty-five each. 

At the beginning of the college year, the 
second time each section meets, every sec- 
tion is met by the head of the history de- 
partment and an illustrated lecture given on 
the library and its use. This lecture shows 
that the library building must be studied 
as a record of conditions that have passed 


[February, 1911 

away, that it must be studied as a building 
on whose walls history is written, and that 
it must be studied with reference to the use 
it serves. 

The Vassar College library building is of 
the ecclesiastical type and its students are 
shown that this type is a record of the time 
when all learning and all education were 
controlled by the church and libraries were 
for the most part attached to ecclesiastical 
foundations and controlled by them; that 
books were at first kept in the cloister; that 
when separate buildings were erected, libra- 
ries were public only in the sense that all con- 
nected with Ihe foundation had access to them. 

The steps in the development of the library 
are explained from the first stage when books 
were very costly and kept chained, and when 
it was the chief object of the library to 
preserve its treasures, to the second stage 
when with the advent of printed books the 
chains were removed but the idea of preserv- 
ing books was still retained and they were 
placed on shelves inaccessible to the general 
public. The third stage came when the mul- 
tiplicity of books compelled attention to the 
question of storage and from this resulted 
the stack. But the multiplicity of books has 
resulted in a corresponding multiplicity of 
readers and from this results in turn the 
question of how to make the large collections 
of books most serviceable to numerous read- 
ers. The answer to the question is the 
open shelf. The students are thus made to 
see that the college library building is in 
itself a record of the changes that have 
come from the old ecclesiastical library with 
its chained books to the new ecclesiastical 
type of building with its open shelf; that 
the barriers that have at different times in- 
tervened between the reader and the book 
the chain, the inaccessible shelf, the stack, 
the attendant page have all been the ac- 
companiments of an aristocracy of learning 
that is disappearing before the democracy 
and the responsibility of the open shelf. 

But our college library is not only a record, 
it has also much history written on its 
walls. The great west window emblazons in 
stained glass a part of the history of the 
Lady Helen Lucretia Cornaro Piscopia who 
received the degree of doctor of philosophy 
at the University of Padua in 1678. Carved 
on its walls are the college and university 

seals of the great educational institutions 
of America and England. Hanging on the 
walls of the great entrance memorial hall is 
a series of tapestries narrating the history 
of a meeting of the council of the gods on 
Mount Olympus. Its windows contain in 
leaded panes the printers' marks of all the 
early leading printers of England and the 

It is hoped that every student will thus 
see in the library building itself a record 
and a history of the past. 

But the building is but the means to an 
end, the means of providing a home for 
the books the students are to use. The stu- 
dents are therefore given full information 
in regard to the ground plan of the building, 
its basement, main floor, galleries, and 
seminary rooms ; the general contents of the 
three main divisions of the building, the lo- 
cation of magazines, newspapers, manuscripts, 
and the rooms used by the library staff. This 
supplements in another way the information 
put in the hand of every new student the first 
time she enters the library, a brief pam- 
phlet describing the location of the general 
classes of books, together with a card show- 
ing the ground plan and arrangement of the 

The question of the library catalog is then 
considered and the general evolution of the 
present card catalog system from the written 
slips on the end of the mediaeval book stalls. 
This includes a discussion of the various 
forms of a catalog both as to its subject 
matter and as to its external form, while 
the evolution of the card itself from the 
card written by hand, the card printed by 
hand, the card printed from type, to the 
distribution of printed cards from central 
bureaus, like the Library of Congress and 
the American Library Association, is all 

The lecture is accompanied by lantern 
slides that are fully explained. They include 
a view of the exterior of the college library ; 
the interior of the library of the University 
of Leyden from a print of 1610 its resem- 
blance to one of the wings of the Vassar 
College library is very close ; the interior 
of the Laurentian library showing the 
chained books ; a view of one of the incu- 
nabula in the Vassar library; the city library 
of Poughkeepsie, illustrating the civic type 

February, 1911] 



of library architecture; the stack of a public 
library ; the stained glass window of the Vas- 
ar College library; one of the tapestries on 
the wall of the entrance hall ; the Vassar Col- 
lege seal ; the seals of Oxford, Cambridge, 
Harvard and Yale; various printer's marks 
used by William Caxton ; a part of the college 
library showing the location of the table 
where the newest acquisitions of books 
are shown ; a corner of the hall showing the 
card catalog; a drawer of cards showing the 
various guide cards used for the general 
subject of history; a series of sixteen cata- 
log cards illustrating the special features used 
in cataloging a work defining history; a pa- 
per on history included in a series of papers, 
the difference between a see card and a see 
also card, an author and a subject card, a 
translator's and an editor's card, the method 
of cataloging Periods of European History 
and the Cambridge Modern History, the Cen- 
tury Atlas, and Spruner's Atlas, the English 
Historical Review, and Barnard's Companion 
to English History, all of the features on 
these cards are explained even to the small- 
est detail of punctuation ; a slide showing 
the book-plate of the Vassar Alumnae His- 
torical Association; the title-page of Mr. 
De Vinne's work on Title pages; and a 
page from Robinson's History of Western- 
Europe showing the use of different kinds of 
type to bring out specific meanings. The lec- 
ture as a whole is intended to make the 
students familiar with the conditions of the 
library and to establish friendly relations be- 
tween them and the books contained in it. 
In addition to this lecture on the library 
building and the use of its contents, every 
student beginning history has a pamphlet 
called Suggestions for the Year's Work. 
This pamphlet devotes one of its first sections 
to the library, its history, its description, 
and the meaning of its exterior and interior 
form. It also includes the ground plan of the 
library, it discusses the card catalog, and it 
reproduces from the library catalog the card 
for the text-book to be used as the basis 
of the year's work. The meaning of every 
word, and every figure and every punctuation 
mark used on this card is carefully explained 
by every instructor in charge of a section of 
the class. Moreover the pamphlet suggests 
the questions that arise in connection with 
the use of any book: its author, his nation- 

ality, residence, education, occupation, poli- 
tics, religion, and personal characteristics; 
its general form, the meaning and use of 
title-page, copyright imprint, preface, table 
of contents, chapter headings, headlines, 
sidelines, margins, signature, footnotes, il- 
lustrations, maps, charts, diagrams, genealogi- 
cal tables, appendices and index ; its struc- 
ture; the date of authorship; its authorita- 
tiveness. The pamphlet suggests that the 
students study the bibliography at the end of 
each chapter in the text book used and un- 
derscore with ink all titles of books they per- 
sonally own and with pencil all books accessi- 
ble in the College library- The students are 
also given in the pamphlet very explicit 
directions as to how to use books in the 
preparation of their history work, and speci- 
men analyses of pages or chapters are given, 
as are also illustrations of footnotes and 
references to authorities, and directions for 
making bibliographies. It also suggests a 
series of principles for testing the authorita- 
tiveness of histories used and this is accom- 
panied by an elaborate specimen chart. The 
pamphlet also gives a very full section under 
the caption Helps. This includes first bibli- 
ographies, and second works of reference, 
comprising the general classes of general ref- 
erence works, dictionaries, encyclopaedias, pe- 
riodicals, year books, atlases, and autobio- 
graphical and biographical material, and 
ecclesiastical, political, economic, and art ref- 
erence works. In connection with each class 
from one to five illustrations are given. The 
pamphlet also gives three pages of grouped 
titles of books, with prices stated, from 
which the students are urged to buy accord- 
ing to their means. 

This pamphlet of nearly thirty pages 
printed in whole or in part is intended 
from the first page to the last to show the 
student how to get the most possible out 
of one class of books histories; how to 
use these books with the greatest ease and 
facility; how to begin the formation of an 
historical library; how to judge of the value 
of histories; how to prepare bibliographies; 
and in a word, how to learn the use of the 
tools with which they are to work. In all of 
this work on our part we have been cheered 
and encouraged by the words of President 
Hadley, cited by President Lowell in his 
inaugural addres?, Oct. 6, 1909: 



[February, 1911 

"The ideal college education seems to me to 
be the one where a student learns things he is 
not going to use in after life by methods 
that he is going to use. The former element 
gives the breadth, the latter element gives the 

But the first lecture, the lantern slide il- 
lustrations, and the pamphlet are all merely 
the beginning of our efforts to teach the use 
of the tools. The history students are direct- 
ed to library shelves containing books about 
books and they are encouraged to read them ; 
they are given the first week or ten days of 
the first year numerous brief questions to 
answer through books, and these are in- 
tended to secure quickness and readiness in 
handling books ; they have frequent individ- 
ual conferences with their instructors who, 
talk over with them the best ways of find- 
ing what they are looking for in books ; 
they are given stated times for meeting 
their instructor in the library and looking 
over the book-shelves with them; they have 
had prepared for their use by their instruc- 
tors in history a large number of classified 
bibliographies that are arranged in the tin 
boxes of the Library Bureau and placed in 
the history alcoves, these boxes supplement 
but do not duplicate the library catalog cards ; 
they are required to hand in carefully pre- 
pared bibliographies with every written topic 
presented in history, and these bibliographies 
are talked over with the students individually 
and with the classes collectively; they are 
encouraged to read book reviews and to 
prepare occasional book reviews themselves; 
they are introduced to the questions involved 
in editing books and manuscripts, and to the 
use of photography in editing manuscripts ; 
they are given reprints of articles on books 
and reading, as for example one on "Pace in 
reading," for study and analysis; they are 
given talks on rare histories or rare editions 
of histories ; they are asked to prepare lists 
of histories suitable to be purchased by their 
own town or city libraries for children of 
specified ages, for adult foreigners of dif- 
ferent nationalties, for adult study clubs, and 
for various ofher possible combination of 
needs ; they are encouraged to buy books, 
to preserve with care all printed material 
found in their own homes and to deposit in 
their own town libraries whatever is of espe- 
cial local value; they are encouraged to make 

their outside reading bear on their college 
work and they are asked to report from 
time to time what outside reading they have 
done that bears on their history work; they 
are referred to elaborate lists for summer 
reading prepared by the history department 
and the first week of the college year they 
are asked to report in writing the reading 
done during the summer; they are given 
frequent topics to prepare in history that 
are systematically planned to introduce them 
to every class of historical literature and ev- 
ery kind of historical document found in the 
college library, this of course can be done 
only for those students who continue their 
history beyond their first year; they hear oc- 
casional lectures given them by officers of 
other departments, as for example a recent 
lecture by an instructor in English on "The 
making of a book" ; they are given occasional 
talks on the great historical collections in the 
libraries of this country and of Europe; 
every expedient that we can devise is em- 
ployed to teach the use of books and to fos- 
ter a love for them. 

The humble professor would also bid his 
kindly critics bear in mind that the library 
activities of any one department must be 
multiplied by those of every other depart- 
ment in the college if they are to appreciate 
fully the sum total of what is done for, by, 
and through the college student to acquaint 
him with the use of the tools he is to use 
not only during his college course but in all 
his after life, to cultivate a sense of respon- 
sibility for the library work of his own home 
community, to minister to his appreciation 
of all that is best in books, and to find in 
books the realization and expression of his 
own highest ideals. 

But again, and finally, the college professor 
must bid his critics remember that no one 
so keenly realizes his own shortcomings as 
does the college professor himself; that he 
does not reach his own ideal in pointing out 
to others standards of perfection ; that if he 
climbs the mountain side, he sees far above 
and beyond him unsealed heights never to 
be reached by him, strive though he may 
with might and main ; that when he measures 
the distance yet to be traversed with the 
distance over which he has passed, he real- 
izes that both he and his critics are at one 
and that thus "all's well." 

'(iry, 1911] 



BY MARILLA WAITE FREEMAN, Reference Librarian, Free Public Library, Neu'ark, N. /. 

EVER since hearing that insistent song which 
strikes such a responsive chord in every 
bosom "I want what I want when I want 
it," I have been haunted by the appropriateness 
of the refrain as a text to a library preach- 
ment. Over and over again have I been im- 
pressed by the fact that instead of giving our 
friends the public what they want when they 
want it, we are prone to give them what we 
want when we want to ; or, if we condescend 
so far as to give them what they want, to 
give it so long after they wanted it that 
they have ceased to want it at all. 

In other words, we fail to perceive the 
psychological moment to use a trite old 
phrase, we do not strike while the iron is 
hot. Xcv. , I am inclined to think that if we 
ji"=t become thoroughly imbued with 
the notion that to give people what they want 
when they want it is the most important thing 
the library has to do, it would go further 
toward revolutionizing our libraries and mak- 
ing them as indispensable as the United States 
Post Office than any other one thing that 
could possibly happen. 

I recognize that this is not entirely easy to 
some of us. I suspect we all have our sea- 
sons of mental inadaptability to the thoughts 
and wishes of others. We want to do what 
we want when we want to. and we want other 
people to want what ice think they ought to. 
We have our theories, good ones too; we 
have our thoroughly systematized plans of 
work, our rules and regulations. Then we 
expect the meek and docile public to fit into 
their appointed places in our system, and be- 
ing just normal, unsystematized humans, like 
ourselves really, they don't do it. They either 
rebel, kick holes in the machinery, and burst 
through our carefully nailed red-tape fences, 

'This paper, which was written three years ago as 
one of a series of" lectures for the N. Y. State Li- 
brary School, has been somewhat revised and read at 
the Chautauqua (N. Y.) Summer Library School, be- 
fore the New Jersey Summer Library School and re- 
cently before the Xew Jersey Library Association, 
and the Pratt Institute Library School. It was written 
while Miss Freeman was still in the Louisville Free 
Public Library as reference librarian, hence many 
of the illustrations are drawn from that Library. 

or they go away in disgust, and never come 
back again. And whatever happens, we do 
want them back again, in large and increas- 
ing numbers, for they are our only reason for 
being, and without their presence and appro- 
val, all our careful plans and efforts are in 
vain. So, on the whole, the best all around 
is to have what little machinery is necessary 
out of sight, where the public will not notice 
the wheels, and to take down ourselves as 
many yards of our red tape as we possibly 
can; then paint what is left a delicate rose 
color, pleasing to the eye, and like the rib- 
boned aisles at a church wedding, pleasant to 
walk in, or even to be held back by. 

To be less poetic and more specific, take the 
case of the busy man who comes hurriedly in 
some noon, on his way to lunch, and wants 
to know if we have anything on hydraulics 
which will help him to figure out what pres- 
sure of water a certain wall will stand in 
flood time, without caving in. I can't believe 
that any one of us would be so obtuse as to 
say to that man: "Please look in the card 
catalog on your left." I feel sure -we should 
go straight to the 5325 or the 6205 and after 
a little search find and bring forth the proper 
book. We hand it to the man and he says: 
"Ah, that's just the thing, just the thing," 
and with great satisfaction starts to put it in 
his pocket. Or, perchance with some premo- 
nition of evil, he asks: "Now, how do I get 
this out?" or, "Now, do I sign for this?" 
"Have you a library card " we politely ask 
him. "No," he replies, looking guilty, "I've 
never had occasion to use one before, but I 
can sign one now if you say so." 

Now, that is what I call the psychological 
moment. Let your man sign a simple applica- 
tion blank, giving his name and address, and 
if your rule requires it, stating also his occu- 
pation and place of business. Then, if he can 
wait until you write up his borrower's card, 
well and good ; if not, write his name and ad- 
dress on the book card, in place of the bor- 
rower's number, give him his book and send 
him on his way rejoicing. Then fill out his 
borrower's card at your leisure and file it 
against his next call. 


{February, 1911 

Suppose the book is a reference book and 
does not circulate. You ask him to use it in 
the library. "But," says he, "I have to show 
it to the engineer who is working with me, 
and besides, I haven't time to stop." If you 
are wise, you will charge the book on a spe- 
cial slip, get him to sign his name and ad- 
dress to the slip, ask him to return it the next 
morning, and let him go and the book with 

Now, that man wanted what he wanted 
when he wanted it, and you gave it to him. 
You can depend upon it that whether he 
uses your library again for a year, or not, he 
is from that moment its staunch friend, 
and also that when you want more money 
from the Common Council for books, he is 
one of the men who will help influence public 
opinion toward getting it. 

The above process sounds so simple and 
reasonable and inevitable that it seems in- 
credible, when we stop to think of it, that 
in some of our libraries, many of them, we 
should have to tell that man, "No, we can't 
let you take this book to-day. If you will 
sign an application and take it with you for 
the signature of a guarantor, then the second 
day after you return it, your borrower's card 
will be ready and you can get the book, if it 
is still in." 

Of course that settles the library for that 
man, unless we take pity upon him and lend 
him our own card, or some like evasion. In 
this way we may "save our face," as the Chi- 
nese say, but how much simpler and better 
not to require any evasions, but to have our 
rule alike for all : "Sign an application and 
get your book while you wait." 

Of course there are minor difficulties. In 
the large library some process of identifica- 
tion may be necessary. In this case the sim- 
ple rule of the Newark library is an excellent 
one. Give the man his card at once if his 
name and address as given are in the direc- 
tory. If not, mail him a post card the next 
day stating that his reader's card is now 
ready and may be obtained by presenting this 
postal at the library in person. If he presents 
the postal it is self proof that he has given 
the correct address. In the small library it 
is hard to write up borrowers' cards while 
they wait, on a busy afternoon. A rule which 
works well is to ask an applicant whether 

or not he wishes a book that day. If he does 
and you are too busy to make up his card, 
charge the book to his name on the book 
card and make up the card later. If he does 
not wish a book, ask him to call for his card 
any time after the following day. In this 
latter case, you also give him all he wants, 
which is to get his application signed against 
future need. As a rule, however, when a 
man applies for a card, it is because he wants 
a particular book at that particular moment 
and your rule must be sufficiently elastic to 
give it to him. 

As to the guarantor question, I will not 
go into that here, further than to say that if 
a borrower really wishes to steal a book, he 
will do it any way, and though you may suc- 
ceed in making good the loss through the 
guarantor, the latter will take care never to 
get caught that way again, and you will have 
lost more to the library by disgruntling the 
guarantor than by standing the loss of the 
book. And really the library belongs to the 
public, and if you will trust them with their 
own books, they are not likely to abuse your 
confidence. The library must follow up its 
books and borrowers; a messenger should be 
sent to collect books and fines when first and 
second overdue notices are not responded to, 
and great care should be taken about collec- 
tions, but no guarantor need be involved, no 
one but the borrower himself. 
The point is, to give people a card and a 
book when they want it, without unnecessary 
machinery, and then in a business-like fashion 
to follow the matter up, whenever advantage 
is taken of this freedom. 

Other elasticities of rule, much appreciated 
by the borrower, are the privilege of leaving 
his reader's card on file at the library when 
not in use, and still more important, when by 
any chance his card has been left at home, the 
privilege of drawing books upon his card 
number. The Newark library has a pink 
"liability slip" to meet these occasions. It 
contains space for card number and date, and 
the following statement to be signed by the 
borrower : "The undersigned will be finan- 
cially responsible for books drawn on card 
number, in case the library records show 
these not to have been returned." This slip 
is filed in front of the borrower's application 
slip, in the registration file, till its use is over. 

February, 191 1 ] 



One of our most effective instruments for 
making use of the psychological moment is 
the telephone. If a busy newspaper man can 
feel free to call you up and ask for a map of 
the Cape to Cairo Railway, or a picture of 
Walter Wellman and the America, or the 
latest figures on the population of Oklahoma, 
you can know that you are giving what he 
wants when he wants it to the man that 
makes public opinion. Encourage the use of 
the telephone for emergency information. 
During a recent street car strike in Louis- 
ville, a prominent judge, chairman of a citi- 
zens' committee, meeting the street car com- 
pany in an effort to secure arbitration, tele- 
phoned the library from the committee-room, 
asking for an account of the terms of settle- 
ment in the St. Louis strike. The Reader's 
Guide to Periodical Literature disclosed an 
article in the Independent of a certain date, 
giving the exact information desired. The 
Independent was at the bindery. We tele- 
phoned the bindery to give the required vol- 
ume to our messenger, at whatever stage of 
binding, and the messenger delivered it at 
the seat of war. Next morning's papers an- 
nounced that the strike had been settled that 
night, through information secured from the 
Public Library at a critical moment in the 

There is no good reason why renewals by 
telephone should not be allowed. The incon- 
venience to the library is slight in comparison 
with the convenience to the borrower. Pad 
and pencil should be kept fastened to the wall 
or table near telephone, and name and num- 
ber of book, and date due written upon slip 
and taken to charging case for renewal. A 
slip left under the first date will refer to re- 
newal date for book-card. 

Another use of the telephone is to notify 
readers of books received for their use, and 
to notify any one to whom you think a cer- 
tain new book or magazine article will be of 
special interest. The Grand Rapids Public 
Library is one of the libraries which makes 
systematic use of the telephone in this and 
other ways, and it considers the telephone 
one of its most effective means of library ad- 
vertising and extension. 

Of quite equal importance with giving 
promptly to people what you have is it to 
supply promptly what you have not. A small 
amount of money spent in getting readers 

books that they specially desire will go fur- 
ther in a community than twice the money 
spent in due and regular course upon books 
that the librarian and the book committee 
think they ought to have. We should have on 
our lending desk a tray with order or request 
slips, and should let it be thoroughly under- 
stood that we wish suggestions and requests 
for books from the public. We shall all 
doubtless have the experience of finding that 
some few readers will take advantage of this 
invitation too freely, and wish to dictate a 
majority of the books we buy, but this can 
easily be regulated by a notification that our 
funds will not allow us to buy all books re- 
quested, and that as a rule we can buy only 
those for which there will be a considerable 
number of readers. 

As a fact, however, a case frequently arises 
where it is wise to buy a requested book, if 
only for the use of a single reader. A car- 
penter may desire a certain book on stair- 
building, or an ambitious teacher one on ped- 
agogics, which you may not see any further 
audience for, but if the book is a desirable 
one in itself, and will fill a gap in your collec- 
tion, it is often best to get it, advertise it, 
and ask the reader at whose request you pur- 
chase it to tell others that it is in the li- 
brary. The gratified carpenter or teacher or 
lawyer for whom you have bought that par- 
ticular book will appreciate the library more 
for that one special courtesy than for five 
years of the ordinary privilege of drawing 
books for which he has no particular use. 

But quite as important as to get him what 
he wants is it to get it when he wants it. 
This is the moment to cut loose from your 
red tape. It should be thoroughly under- 
stood with your book committee that sudden 
demands and emergencies will arise, and 
you should be given freedom to act. Some li- 
brary boards vote a definite sum, in the small 
library from $10 to $50, which the librarian 
may spend for immediate book needs between 
board meetings. Others allow the petty cash 
fund to be used for this purpose. The more 
business-like and satisfactory plan is that the 
petty cash receipts from fines be turned over 
intact to the treasurer, and a monthly fund, 
say $10 to $25, voted to the librarian for 
necessary small supplies and for an emer- 
gency book fund. 

So much for the wherewithal. If the book 


[February, 1911 

purchase requested is an important one, it 
will be wise to consult the chairman of your 
book committee by telephone, but you should 
have power to act if this is not feasible. If 
the need is urgent, do not wait for your 
weekly book order. Call up your local dealer 
by telephone, or write a special letter to your 
out-of-town dealer, as the case may be, and 
have the book sent special, either by mail or 
express. Use your judgment as to asking the 
reader to pay extra cost of rush delivery. 
Often he will be quite willing and able to 
do so. 

If the book is in your local dealer's stock, 
order it sent up by messenger, while the 
reader waits, if necessary. Give it the li- 
bray stamp, accession it, if there is time, and 
give it to him on a special charge. If a day 
or two later will do him, make it a special 
item for quick cataloging and notify him 
when ready. All this makes a little extra 
trouble and expense, but it is only now and 
then necessary, and when it is, it pays. You 
have recognized and seized your psycholog- 
ical moment. 

I could give you many interesting examples 
of this. One will suffice. Mrs. George Mad- 
den Martin, author of the Emmy Lou stories, 
is a Louisville woman. She was reading 
proof from the publishers for her series of 
stories on army life then running in the 
American Magazine, when she discovered that 
she must have a copy of the United States 
Army Regulations and of the special cavalry 
regulations to verify certain points. She tele- 
phoned the library. Our edition was not the 
latest; would not do. Her publishers were 
urgent for the proof. We telegraphed the 
New York publishers of the army regulations 
and had them in two days. We needed them 
anyway, and as to the cost of the telegram 
well, Mrs. Martin was so grateful she said 
she should put us in a story. What is the 
price of a telegram to that glory? 

It is not always possible to buy the book 
or books your reader needs they may be 
too expensive, they may be too specialized, or 
out of print. Tell your reader if he will pay 
the expressage you will try to get them on an 
irter-library loan. Write to your state li- 
brary, if it is likely to have the books, or to 
the nearest large library which lends to its 
neighbors. Failing these, and in many cases 

as your first resort, write to the Library of 
Congress. It will send you almost anything 
you need within reasonable limits. 

We had recently a student working in our 
reference-room at Louisville on some Italian 
books on mediaeval history sent from the 
Library of Congress. We procured a special 
volume of the Transactions of the Society 
of Civil Engineers for two days' use by the 
superintendent of the L. & N. R. R. An en- 
tire encyclopedia article on the blood-sacri- 
fices of the North American Indians was 
written in our reference-room not long ago 
from volumes from the Library of Congress, 
supplementing those in our own collection. 
In this case a very full bibliography was sent 
us upon request, and we bought certain books 
from it, and asked Ihe library to lend us 
others. It is a great institution, our national 
library, and ready to help the least of its 
brethren upon demand. We should show our 
appreciation by calling upon its bounty. 

The Superintendent of Documents is an- 
other friend in need. If you have a request 
for the latest information on the raising of 
Angora goats, or the production of fluorspar, 
or the destruction of insect pests, send for the 
U. S. Government circular on the subject. 
Your Document catalog, or your Monthly 
catalog of government publications will give 
you the clue, or the bibliographical references 
in Bailey's "Cyclopedia of American agricul- 
ture," or the bibliographies at the end of 
articles in the "New international encyclo- 
paedia." You ought to have the necessary 
government bulletins or reports on tap in 
your own library, especially those of the De- 
partment of Agriculture, but if you have not 
just drop a note to Uncle Sam, otherwise the 
Superintendent of Documents, Washington, 
D. C, and he will do the rest. 

If a club chairman wishes help in the prep- 
aration of a year's program on Greek art, or 
the modern drama, write (or get her to write) 
to Mrs. Mary I. Wood, Portsmouth, N. H., 
secretary of the Bureau of Information of the 
National Federation of Women's Clubs. Mrs. 
Wood has innumerable programs up her 
sleeve, on every finite and infinite subject, 
from the proper management of a household 
to the problem of evil, and will save you an 
enormous expenditure of time and energy. 
The New York State Education Department, 

February, 1911] 



Albany, N. Y., has also suggestions for club 
programs. The Wisconsin Free Library 
Commission, Madison, Wis., has published an 
invaluable set of study outlines on various 
countries and literature. 

Often your own town has resources within 
call, which may give you what you need. 
Perhaps small special or private libraries, in 
science, law, medicine or local history. The 
post-office, the local office of the U. S. 
Weather Bureau and the Custom House, if 
you have one, are often useful. An electri- 
cian, engineer, teacher or professional man, 
whom you know as an authority, will be glad 
to give you any information in his power. An 
architect came into our reference room in 
Louisville and said it would be worth $10,000 
to htm to have his solution of a certain prac- 
tical problem in mechanics verified. We 
called up a specialist in physics at one of our 
manual training schools, and he verified the 
architect's solution. Then to clinch the mat- 
ter we sent to the John Crerar Library for a 
certain volume which our specialist referred 
us to, so that the architect should have line 
and page. Often by calling in this way upon 
people possessing special knowledge the li- 
brary makes friends of them as well as of the 
reader for whom the information is sought. 

The point of all this is, never to let a vis- 
itor or a questioner go away unsatisfied. A 
moment of need or of interest has brought 
him to the library, and if we meet him luke- 
warmly, and tell him "No, we haven't that 
book," or, "No, we have nothing on that sub- 
ject," or. "Look in the catalog and see," the 
golden moment passes. He goes away feel- 
ing that the library is of no use to him, and 
very likely will not trouble to come back. 
While we should not promise anything we 
cannot fulfil, our tone may be hopeful rather 
than doubtful. We all know the lugubrious 
attendant who first looks suspicious at a re- 
quest for something on an unfamiliar sub- 
ject, then shakes her head doubtfully and 
say;. "I'm afraid we haven't anything about 
that," and last of all goes reluctantly to look. 
Thaf will never do in the world. The atti- 
tude should always be, "I think we have 
something, or can do or get something," at- 
tacking the problem with all the assurance 
summonable. If you don't know what the 
man's subject means, slip over to the Century 

dictionary and look it up, find out where it 
classifies, and try the catalog under both the 
specific and generic terms. If this yields noth- 
ing, try your periodical indexes and your 
government indexes. If still nothing appears, 
tell your man that you will send for some- 
thing, and ask him the latest date at which it 
will serve his purpose. 

If it is a specific book that is wanted, do 
not say, "No, we haven't it," and stop. Add, 
"May I give you something else on the same 
subject?" or, "Have you seen such and such 
a book by the same author?" or, "Would you 
like to leave a request card for it?" or, 
"Would you like us to borrow it from another 
library?" or, "I think I know where you can 
find that information or consult that volume." 
It is an ideal worth working toward, that of 
never disappointing people. 

More than this, we must anticipate re- 
quests. We must be ready with a good list 
of books and magazine articles on the sub- 
ject of the winter's lecture course. As soon 
as the lecturer is engaged by your Woman's 
Club or your local lecture committee, write 
to him for a syllabus of his lectures. Check 
its book-list up for the things you have, buy 
as many more as you can, and get other?, if 
you can, in the form of a travelling library 
from your state commission. Get your list 
into the papers well in advance of the lec- 
tures, so that people may read up beforehand. 

Sometimes a moment of current interest in 
a subject, literary or scientific lectures, con- 
certs, an art exhibit, a presidential election, 
will provide an opportunity for putting into 
the library a good group of books on a sub- 
ject hitherto inadequately represented and so 
will help to round out your permanent col- 
lection. Club programs should be secured 
promptly, necessary books bought, with the 
help of the club or with library funds, and 
bibliographies prepared in ample time for the 
opening of the club season. Books on the 
year's Sunday-school topics and missionary 
study programs should be listed, and will be 
greatly appreciated in many communities. 

Copies and criticisms of notable plays com- 
ing to the local theaters should be gotten to- 
gether and advertised in the papers for use 
in the library reference room. Often extra 
copies of a drama will be needed for circula- 
tion both before and after the play has come, 



[February, 1911 

and when the drama itself has literary merit, 
as with the Ibsen plays, "Chantecler," and 
"The blue bird" of the present season, it 
should be duplicated as generously as a pop- 
ular novel. 

As to that same popular novel, I find a 
paragraph from a paper by Mr. Bostwick in 
the LIBRARY JOURNAL for August, 1903, which 
expresses so well what I should like to say, 
as to timeliness at least, that I will just 
quote it verbatim. 

"Remember, too," says Mr. Bostwick, "that 
he gives twice who gives quickly. Much of 
the ephemeral literature of the day which is 
purchased for recreative purposes is rightly and 
properly read for curiosity. People like to 
read the latest book and talk to each other 
about it. We all are embryo critics. This 
desire to read the last thing out, just be- 
cause it is the last, has had anathemas piled 
on it until it ought to be crushed, but it is 
still lively. I confess I have it myself, and I 
cannot blame my neighbor if he has it too. 
Unless we are wholly to reject the recreative 
use of the library or to accept it with a men- 
tal reservation that the public shall enjoy 
itself according to a prescribed formula or 
not at all we shall have to buy some of 
these books. I am afraid that otherwise 
some future historian of literature may say 
of us in parody of Macaulay's celebrated epi- 
gram on the Puritans and bear-baiting, that 
the twentieth century librarian condemned 
the twentieth century novel, not because it 
did harm to the library, but because it gave 
pleasure to the reader. Now, if we are going 
to buy this ephemeral literature, we must get 
it quickly or not at all. The latest novel 
must go on your shelves hot from the presses, 
or stay off. And this is true of much other 
literature that is not ephemeral, but that de- 
pends for its effect on its timeliness. It will 
certainly lose readers if it is not on your 
shelves promptly, and if it deserves readers, 
as much of it does, the net result is a loss to 
the community." 

The small library cannot, of course, buy all 
ephemeral literature, nor should it care to 
do so. The point is to buy promptly those 
books which we know will be both desirable 
and popular, while the bloom is still upon 
them and the wish for them hot. 

There is the deterrent, the modifying, con- 
servative, opposite side to all that I am say- 

ing. But I will leave that for some one else 
to state. My observation has been that most 
of us need the radical statement, and can 
ourselves add what is needed to modify and 
give proper ponderability. 

As to economy in purchasing, while there 
are books that do not suffer by waiting for 
the expiration of the net price limit, there 
are others that will be of but half the value 
then that they are at the present moment. A 
very little computation proves that with such 
books, whose value is in their timeliness, or 
in their fitness to an immediate need, it is 
false economy to dicker over discounts. As 
to your book dealer, if he cannot serve you 
promptly, let him know he cannot serve you 
at all. He must submit to competition, not 
only in point of prices, but of quickness of 
service, and if he is to keep you waiting a 
month for a book which should come in a 
week, he must make way for the man who 
has learned more effective control of time 
and space. 

And when your books have come, put 
them out promptly. It is true it makes a 
more impressive showing to bring out a con- 
siderable number of shining new books once 
a month, but it is far better to bring out a 
few weekly, with a short annotated list in the 
papers, to keep interest in the library fresh 
and to give people what they want when they 
want it. 

There is another and deeper aspect of the 
psychological moment. It is the function of 
the librarian not only to supply but to create 
demand. It is for us to recognize the Zeit- 
Geist, the Time- Spirit, to feel the current 
of public thought and interest, and not to 
fear to help form it by leading a little. A 
recent thoughtful monograph on evolution 
goes back into the slime of things and traces 
the progress of life from single cells. The 
soft worm was a long stage upward and" 
in order to grow a spine (that is, the in- 
vertebrate in order to become vertebrate) 
had to go and act as if it had a spine and 
suffer agony in going; but it went. When- 
ever a change was necessary, such as leaving 
the water and learning to breathe air, it was 
those who went and endured, who changed. 
So the author works down, or up, to the 
point where he says some part of the human 
race must now dare and suffer and go, in be- 
coming "Superman." He quotes Browning's 

February, 191 1] 



"Learn, nor account the pang; Dare, never 
grudge the throe." 

Now, one of the functions of our libraries 
is to furnish sustenance for the superman 
to grow upon. You remember H. G. Wells's 
phantasy, "The food of the gods." We also 
must set forth food for the gods. 

The atmosphere of our day is electric with 
what, for lack of a better phrase, may be 
called the New Thought, in all lines, scienti- 
fic, religious, social, political; the belief in, 
the reaching forth toward change, progress, 
evolution. Never has there been such a con- 
sciousness of the undeveloped forces about 
us and within us, and of the potentialities in 
man for the control and development of these 
forces. Inevitably this electric stir and con- 
sciousness has crept into the literature of the 
day, and shows its presence in such titles as 
Lloyd's "Man the social creator," Snyder's 
"New conceptions in science," Huneker's 
"Iconoclasts," Eliot's "Religion of the future," 
Wells's "New worlds for old," Worcester's 
"Religion and medicine," Lodge's "Science 
and immortality," Myers' "Human personal- 
ity"* . . . Such titles as "The true Thomas 
Jefferson," "True and false democracy," "The 
truth about the trusts," "The true story of 
the American Revolution," are characteristic 
also of our time, of the desire to know the 
truth even at the cost of our most cherished 
traditions, opinions, or even beliefs. We in- 
sist upon having things at first hand, auto- 
biographies rather than biographies. The per- 
sonal pronoun is in fashion. "Life stories of 
undistinguished Americans as told by them- 
selves," "George Meek, Bath chairman, by 
himself," "The world I live in," by Helen 
Keller, "The long day, the story of a New- 
York working-girl as told by herself." 

Let us not fear this great resistless move- 
ment of thought, this challenging, question- 
ing spirit of the time, this growing con- 
sciousness of the ego and its powers, this 
searching for the truth at all costs. Let us 
rather move forward with it, fearing not to 
furnish food for thought to the thinker, and 
gently helping him to think who has not 
thought before. 

*This list of titles, suggestive of the trend of 
modern thought, has been revised and enlarged by 
Miss Freeman, and issued as one of the mimeograph 
book lists of the Xewark Library under the caption 
"Modern views of life and conduct." It is appended 
to this paper. 

This, too, is the age of electricity, of a 
tremendous development of mechanic and in- 
dustrial arts, and here lies one of the li- 
brary's great moments of opportunity, the 
opportunity to furnish fuel for the men who 
make and do things, the men who are plac- 
ing our country at the head of the indus- 
trial world. Technical books come high and 
not every small library can afford to specialize 
in them, but we can get a good practical little 
working collection of books on electricity 
and mechanics for our boys and for the men 
who will use them, then make it known 
that we have them, and build to them as the 
demand grows. And we can take some good 
up-to-date technical and engineering periodi- 
cals, like Cassier's, Engineering Magazine, 
Popular Electricity, Popular Mechanics, Tech- 
nical World, Engineering Neu-s, Electrical 
World, and advertise them well. We owe it 
to our community and to the world to furnish 
book aid to the men who want to "learn 
how," especially those of us who have Car- 
negie libraries. . . . For a crisp statement of 
this point, and for many things which I have 
not time to say about not only supplying the 
demand of our public, but creating that de- 
mand, I wish you might read an address by 
Herbert E. Law, of San Francisco, on "The 
public library as a business proposition," 
which appeared in the LIBRARY JOURNAL for 
July, 1905. Mr. Law expresses well the 
psychology of advertising, and he has an ex- 
cellent notion of the way the library should 
treat its customers after it has caught them. 
He knows all about what "the library atmos- 
phere" should be, without knowing its name. 
He knows that it is often necessary to meet 
people, especially the timid person making his 
first visit to the library, more than half way. 
He says we must give him the feeling that 
he has come to the right place and will come 
again as soon as possible. Mr. Law write? 
from the standpoint of the business man, and 
it is the business man who can give us points 
on giving people what they want when they 
want it. 

Do I sound too strenuous? Do I seem to 
be urging quick suicide upon the librarian? 
No, I don't want you to work yourselves to 
death. I want you to recognize essentials 
and let non-essentials go. The important 
point is to know which things may be 
slighted. Usually in order to be all things 



[February, 1911 

to all men as they need us, we must leave out 
some of the things we had planned to do for 
them. We have to let go our picture bulle- 
tins, or our special list on birds (good as 
those things may be in themselves) and 
search for plans for cottages which can be 
built for $1500, for the latest word on vacu- 
um pans, or for information as to where an 
ambitious country boy can go to study for- 
estry. In other words, we have to feel for 
our reader's or our community's vital inter- 
est and try to satisfy that. Then if there is 
any time left we may carry out our own plans. 
Do not understand me as decrying plans. 
They must be laid and well laid, and the 
whole machine must move in accordance 
with them. But the point is, keep your 
finger on the public pulse while you make 
your plans, and make them flexible to allow 
for interruptions. I think that is my final 
word : Learn to welcome interruptions, for 
with them comes the psychological moment. 


Recent books 

The spirit of youth in our city streets. 


Social unrest. Brooks 
New theology. Campbell 
Heretics. Chesterton 
The religion of the future. Eliot 
New creations in plant life; the life and work of 

Luther Burbank. Harwood 
Egoists; a book of supermen. Huneker 
Iconoclasts; a book of dramatists. 

Pragmatism; a new name for some old ways of 

thinking. James 
The century of the child. Key 
'Man the social creator. Lloyd 
Science and immortality. Lodge 
Human personality and its survival of bodily death. 

Christianity and thj social crisis. 

Social psychology. Ross 
Evolution, the master-key. Saleeby 
Parenthood and race culture. Saleeby 
Social education. Scott 
New conceptions in science. Snyder 
The spiritual significance of modern socialism. 


Social engineering. Tolman 
Man in the light of evolution. Tyler 
The new world. Upward 
New worlds for old. Wells 
The old order changeth. White 
The new old healing. Wood 
Religion and medicine. Worcester. 

Free Public Library, Newark, N. J., October, 1910. 


YOUR library is already ripe with age, and 
the people of New Bedford have long appre- 
ciated its advantages. It is not a new enter- 
prise. The foundation was firmly laid many 
years ago by those who constituted the early 
boards of trustees. Indeed I cannot congrat- 
ulate you too highly upon your good fortune 
in having as sponsors at the very beginning 
such liberal and clear-visioned men. The 
early reports of the library plainly indicate 
that not only was New Bedford the first 
municipality to take advantage of the Massa- 
chusetts law providing for the establishment 
of a free public library, but record the earn- 
est efforts of the trustees to make the library 
a source of pleasure and profit to a very 
large portion of the citizens. 

I congratulate you too, because, looking 
back over your history, it is evident that the 
public library in New Bedford has had a 
normal and gradual growth. There have 
been no radical changes either in methods or 
management; the plan upon which the work 
\\-as inaugurated being practically identical 
with the present ideal of what a public li- 
brary should be. The library has grown in 
size to be sure ; it has put out new branches, 
it has brought forth many blossoms and much 
fruit; but the character of the plant has not 
essentially changed. This library has not 
been transformed from a mercantile or sub- 
scription library; it always has been free to 
the public. 

You are therefore fortunate in having been 
able to develop your resources without being 
obliged to expend your energies in reorgani- 
zation. Furthermore, this community is ex- 
ceptionally favored in having had in the 58 
years of its library history only two libra- 
rians. Those who are in touch with library 
work in this country can heartily concur in 
the acknowledgment made by the trustees of 
their indebtedness to the ability and devotion 
of your first librarian, Robert C. Ingraham. 
The work so well begun and so admirably 
conducted by him for half a century has 
fallen into the strong hands of your present 
librarian, and by him been ably carried for- 

So well have the trustees and librarians 
conducted the affairs of the library that to- 
day a new and larger building is dedicated 
to public library uses. 

You may well be proud of it, for you have 
not depended upon the generosity of any one 
person, but have willingly taxed yourself to 
provide money for its erection. It does not 
bear the name of an individual, but will be 
known for all time as the New Bedford Free 
Public Library. 

* Part of an address delivered at the dedication 
of the new building of the New Bedford Free 
Public Library. Dec. i, 1910. 

February, 1911] 


Architecturally beautiful it will serve as a 
landmark for years to come. But this build- 
ing is only a storehouse. The treasures in it 
must be accessible to all. In this age we de- 
mand of all our institutions definite and prac- 
tical results, and the library is not an ex- 
ception to this general rule. Is it living up 
to expectations? 

During the month of October last an ex- 
hibition was held in New York City which 
was known as the Budget exhibit. It was 
planned by the Board of Estimate and Ap- 
portionment of the city, and was prepared by 
the heads of departments and institutions re- 
ceiving money from the city. 

Its purpose was threefold : (a) to show 
how the money provided by the city is spent 
and to submit for examination the various 
pleas for increased appropriations ; (b) to 
afford the citizens of Greater New York the 
opportunity of making a comparative study 
of the use of appropriations made to the va- 
rious departments ; (c) to enable the people 
to form an opinion of the effectiveness of de- 
partmental work. 

As a participant in this exhibit the public 
libraries of the city were called upon to show 
the results of their work. This was done by 
means of charts, maps, statistics and photo- 
graphs showing the increase and improve- 
ment in quarters, equipment, resources and 

During the exhibit the Library committee 
realized more forcibly than ever the fact that 
the work of the library, owing to its intangi- 
bility, cannot be satisfactorily shown by 
charts, diagrams, or by any standard yet 

Through the library's influence the lives of 
the people are made richer, the conditions 
under which they live improved, and their 
characters strengthened. Such work cannot 
be presented in figures. 

The library also serves the needs of the 
work-a-day world, enabling the artisan to 
become more skillful, the mechanic more 
proficient, the housewife more capable, and 
the professional man broader-minded. 

The practical resources of our libraries are 
only beginning to be appreciated. 

This was evidenced at the exhibit to which 
I have referred. A small collection of books 
was placed on shelves as an index to the 
larger collections which the libraries con- 
tained. The list included such books as : 

Gebhardt's "Steam power plant engineer- 

Hatfield's "Modern accounting:," 

Lowe's "Electric railway troubles and how 
to find them," 

Deland's "Imagination in business." 
The interest shown in the books by the 
thousands of business men young and old 
who dropped into the exhibit as well as the 
surprise many of them expressed when they 
learned that such books could be procured 

from a public library made the committee 
feel the need of a wider advertisement of our 
resources. Most of those men probably con- 
sidered a library a desirable asset in any 
community. Many of them undoubtedly 
thought it of some service to those who had 
time to enjoy it. Others perhaps looked for- 
ward to a time when they would have the 
leisure to avail themselves of its treasures; 
but none of them had before thought of it as 
containing anything of practical use to them. 

The Budget exhibit gave us the opportu- 
nity of showing such men that the library is 
in a real sense "the people's university," and 
that hundreds had bettered their condition in 
life and fitted themselves for higher respon- 
sibilities by using the books furnished freely 
by the libraries. 

As an evidence of how the library had 
helped people a circular entitled "Results not 
shown by statistics" was prepared and dis- 
tributed. This contained expressions of ap- 
preciation by borrowers who had obtained 
assistance from books in the library. 

One example will serve as an illustration: 

"A short time ago a young man thus ex- 
pressed his opinion of one of the branch li- 
braries : 'It is the greatest place on earth for 
a poor man to get a good education.' This 
man said he had been obliged to leave school 
early in order to support his family, but that 
he always wanted to be a first class engineer. 
He studied at Cooper Institute, but did not 
gain the knowledge he desired. One day at 
this branch he found some easy books on the 
subject of engineering. After one year's 
study he returned to Cooper Institute and 
passed the examinations in which he had 
failed the year before. He gave it as his 
opinion 'that a lot of fellows failed because 
they didn't know all they could get from the 

Such testimony is worth while. 

To be able to help those who earnestly de- 
sire to educate themselves and have not the 
means to buy books is no unworthy task, and 
this is the work which our public libraries 
are doing. 

No one need now voice the sentiment con- 
tained in Lang's "Ballad of the unattain- 

"Prince, hear a hopeless bard's appeal; 
Reverse the rule of mine and thine; 
Make it legitimate to steal 
The books that never can be mine." 

The generous bequests which from time to 
time the New Bedford Library has received 
have placed it in a somewhat unusual posi- 
tion. Here the interest received from en- 
dowment funds is large enough to purchase 
such new books and replacements as are 
added to the library each year. Whether this 
income is large enough for the purchase of all 
the books which could be used to advantage 
in New Bedford is for your trustees and li- 
brarian to decide. But from my experience 

6 4 


[February, 1911 

I would say that while the book fund is al- 
ways the one which can be increased with the 
greatest benefit to those who use the library, 
it is almost always the first item to be cut 
if a reduction is to be made in the appropria- 

There are some libraries that have an ade- 
quate fund for the purchase of books and 
little enough for maintenance and salaries, 
and there are libraries moving from old to 
new quarters that are skimped in appropria- 
tion and have not enough money to pay ac- 
tual expenses. I trust that New Bedford does 
not fall into either class. 

The question of support is always a vital 
one to every institution, public or private, and 
the appropriation of money sufficient for the 
actual needs of any branch of the city's work 
depends too frequently upon other things 
than the real merits of the case. The time 
should come in the administration of our 
municipal affairs when the board charged 
with appropriating money for conducting city 
business will consider each department in the 
city government as a definite part of a whole, 
and will apportion appropriations according 
to the importance of each department and for 
its proper development. 

In spite of the long and meritorious past 
of your library, I think I may venture the 
opinion that not even in this community, 
which so early realized the importance and 
possibilities of a free public library, is the 
function of the library in its relation to other 
branches of the city's activities fully under- 
stood, nor is the appropriation granted the 
library each year made according to the im- 
portance of the work. In New York I am 
sure this is not the case. As compared with 
the incomes of other libraries the financial 
support in Greater New York may be said 
to be generous, but when the library appro- 
priation of any city is compared with that 
made to other departments or institutions in 
the same city supported by public money it 
will be found that the library suffers by com- 

Some of us remember the agitation caused 
by the introduction of "free" schools sup- 
ported by taxation. Many conscientious men 
questioned any responsibility for the educa- 
tion and training of their neighbor's child, 
and those who had no children felt it unjust 
that they should be obliged to share the cost 
of the instruction of the children in the com- 
munity. But when the idea was finally adopt- 
ed it received such hearty support that the 
development of the public school system 
throughout the country was rapid and pro- 
gressive. The idea of the "public" mainte- 
nance of libraries was introduced later, and 
met with the same opposition in many com- 
munities - that had manifested itself in the 
effort to secure money for schools. 

In the case of the schools the opposition 
has almost entirely disappeared, and liberal 

appropriations pass annually without objec- 
tion, but there is still some objection to li- 
brary appropriations. There should be no 
difference of feeling, as both are educational 
in character, the library continuing the work 
of the schools with those who have com- 
pleted its course, and affording the oppor- 
tunity for study to those who have been 
obliged to leave school at an early age. 

In the support of our schools each tax- 
payer must share the expense whether or not 
he can benefit directly from the school sys- 
tem. In the support of libraries each person 
contributing can receive a direct return. Al- 
though the amount contributed by each indi- 
vidual may be insignificant, in the aggregate 
it makes possible the purchase, care and pres- 
ervation of a collection of books larger than 
any one would find it practicable or possible 
to accumulate for his own use. 

What does each person's share of the ex- 
pense of the library amount to? In New 
York the cost of maintaining the public li- 
braries in the greater city is slightly under 
25 cents per capita, in New Bedford it is 15.7 
per capita. For this small expenditure in 
New Bedford there is placed at your disposal 
the entire resources of the library, including 
books, pictures, and the services of the libra- 
rian and his assistants. 

You will readily see that this small amount 
would not go far in providing the books, 
magazines or even newspapers which you 
personally read during the year. 

I do not know the facts in New Bedford, 
but I do know that in New York we appro- 
priate 24 times as much for our schools as 
we do for our libraries, 12 times as much for 
our police protection, 7 times as much for 
protection against fire, and more than twice 
as much for public charities. 

I do not wish to suggest that any depart- 
ment of the city should receive less than at 
present, but I do earnestly urge that in this 
and every community the public library 
should receive such financial support from 
the city government as will enable it to be- 
come an efficient part of the educational sys- 
tem of the municipality; that the services of 
librarians and assistants should be ade- 
quately compensated ; that the book collec- 
tions inherited from the past should be pre- 
served, enriched and enlarged for future gen- 
erations as well as for present use ; that the 
library being well housed should be ade- 
quately maintained, and that the building 
itself should be kept in good repair. 

If the city government and the people of 
New Bedford, having erected this beautiful 
and spacious building, will continue to pro- 
vide adequately for its maintenance, this li- 
brary will always stand in the front rank of 
library achievement, and those whose duty it 
is to administer it for your benefit will be 
enabled to increase its effectiveness and to 
extend its usefulness. FRANK P. HILT.. 

February, 1911] 



THE new building of the Free Public Li- 
brary was dedicated on Dec. I, with impres- 
sive exercises, as described in the New Bed- 
ford Mercury. 

Previous to throwing open the building to 
the public, dedicatory exercises were held in 
the lecture room, on the third floor. 

Mayor Ashley presided and introduced the 
speakers. They included Frank P. Hill, 
Litt.D., librarian of the Brooklyn Public Li- 
brary, whose subject was "The public library 
and the community;" Professor William Mc- 
Donald, professor of history at Brown Uni- 
versity, whose subject was "The public li- 
brary and the public school;" George H. 
Tripp, librarian of the New Bedford Library, 
who contributed a historical sketch of the 
library, and Horace G. Wadlin, Litt.D., libra- 
rian of the Boston Public Library, on the 
subject "What the public library means to 
New Bedford." 

The number of those at the exercises were 
limited to between 250 and 300, all that could 
be accommodated in the lecture room and 
just outside the doors. 

The old library building had long outgrown 
its original quarters and the building was for 
a long time largely devoted to city offices. 

The city hall building before its destruction 
by fire had failed to meet the requirements of 
a municipal business place. Very few depart- 
ments had quarters in it: the general uses to 
which it was put were inconsistent with its 
splendid appearance. Its general arrange- 
ments appropriate for a town were never, 
even in a small degree, suitable for a city's 
uses. Thus neither building filled its intended 
mission, and therefore when the city hall's 
interior was ruined by fire with its walls left 
standing it was evident that the opportunity to 
secure an adequate library building had come. 

The reconstruction of the building as a 
library has been accomplished with most satis- 
factory results. 

The exterior of the building is changed but 
little in general appearance from the days 
when it was the town hall and market place. 

The building was erected on the monu- 
mental plan of the Greek temple, with a cen- 
tral motive from which radiate its principal 
parts to form the disposition of the scheme. 
The changes of the exterior consisted of the 
extension of the pavilions which were left 
undeveloped by the original designer of the 
building, and the addition of the stack room 
at the rear, a modern structure of granite, 
copper, steel, and glass, in form and feature 
conforming to the main building. 

Within the walls, however, there has been 
a transformation, and the period of recon- 
struction, long- as it has been, brings many 
new features to be appreciated by the patrons 
of the library. 

While the window heights throughout the 
building remain the same, the floor levels 
have all been changed, and entrances direct 
from the lot have been made from both Wil- 
liam and Market street. The north door is 
quite likely to be the more popular, as the 
elevator is in the northeast corner of the 

On the grcund floor of the building, in the 
pavilion, are located two rooms that promise 
to be appreciated and frequented by hundreds 
of new librarv visitors. The newspaper room 
is located at the north side of the corridor, 
and the children's room at the south side. 

The newspaper room is well lighted, cheer- 
ful, and inviting, and on the walls may be 
seen what is probably the finest collection of 
whaling prints in the world, many rare for- 
eign pictures bearing on the whaling indus- 
try being among the precious and proper pos- 
sessions of the library. 

In the juvenile room across the way the 
floor is of cork, to make the sound of young 
feet less noticeable, and also not cold to sit 
on if children prefer to sit there with books 
in their laps. 

There is a toilet room for children just be- 
yond their special entrance at the south side 
of the building, and near the stack room the 
receiving department for new books, a small 
bindery for minor repair work, and from the 
receiving room is a book lift, which passes 
through the librarian's room to the accession 

Back to the front of the building, at either 
side is a marble stairway leading to the main 
staircase hall, with its Pisa lamp, the treat- 
ment of which is the plain, agreeable Doric. 
The pillars and pilasters throughout are re- 
productions of Pavanozza marble, a tribute 
to economy. Imitation though it is, it is 
nevertheless considered to be almost perfect 

The treatment of the staircase hall, the 
main corridor, and the rotunda beyond, where 
the distributing desk is located, shows Greek 
feeling all through. Even the bulletin boards 
show it, while the lamps on the distributing 
desk are of Greek design. All the furniture 
shows the same detail, without any sub- 
mouldings. The rotunda is thoroughly Greek, 
The opening of the upper part of the rotunda 
is protected by a perfectly plain circular mar- 
ble wall. The cove ceiling is supported by 
Grecian Ionic pilasters, and the square cen- 
tral light above is Grecian in detail, the sim- 
ple ornamentation being the conventional 
laurel and berries. 

At the south side of the rotunda are the 
offices of the librarian, and at the north side 
of the assistant and the room for the at- 

Ingraham hall is on the second floor in 
the south pavilion, and here it is that citizens 
will have an opportunity to get in touch with 
the treasures of the library. It is planned as 



[February, 1911 

a general reading room, and the walls are 
lined with cases containing about 5000 
books, a library in itself. This room and the 
reading and reference room across the way 
are treated much alike. Each has a large 
handsome fireplace, the furniture is mahog- 
any, and the ceilings are panelled with Roman 
Corinthian cornice, absolutely pure in detail. 

Above the reference room and Ingraham 
Hall are the art room and the lecture hall. 
The library's art collection was one of the 
surprises that the library corps received when 
the new building was occupied a few weeks 
ago. The thousands of valuable prints and 
art portfolios that were revealed had been 
tucked away where it was almost inaccessible 
in the eld library, and when the collection 
was spread out in the new building it was 
found to be too big for the quarters prepared, 
and a part of it had to be stored in the stack 

Three rooms are located at the top of the 
stack room, the genealogical room at the 
south side, the patent office records at the 
north and between these, at the west end of 
the third floor corridor, is the trustees' room. 

The room in which the patent office records 
are stored is designed to be a working room 
for the public, and among the special furni- 
ture provided are several drawing tables and 
stools, so that copies of the designs of patent 
appliances can be made conveniently. 

On the top floor also is the blind library, 
where sightless visitors will have books with 
raised print at their elbows, and an oppor- 
tunity to sit and read the many books printed 
in this type that are included in the general 


IN the number and significance of laws 
passed the even numbered year is usually 
unimportant because of the small number 
of legislatures in session, and 1910 follows 
this general rule. 

In the state of New York the revised Ed- 
ucation Law was adopted. Article 44 is the 
same as article 42 of the law of 1909 with 
the sections renumbered and with two minor 
changes in subject matter. These are in 
sections 1130 and 1135. The former law de- 
fined "neglect" to consist in failing "to pro- 
vide for the safety and public usefulness 
of its books." The new law uses the more 
general word "support" in place of "safety" 
so that a library whose trustees fail to pro- 
vide for its "support" must answer for neg- 
lect. The other change, found in section 
1135, permits others than teachers, school 
officers and pupils to borrow books from 
school libraries under rules fixed by the Com- 
missioner of Education ,(ch.i4o). 

Amendments were also adopted to certain 
sections of the general Municipal Law rela- 

tive to the creation and management of trusts 
for public parks, public libraries and for 
aiding and instructing children and these pro- 
visions were made applicable to cities as well 
as to towns and villages ((.163). 

There was some legislation applying to in- 
dividual libraries including an amendment 
relative to the accommodation and housing 
of the museum, collection and library of the 
States Island Association of Arts and Sci- 
ences (ch.2o8), a short article of three sec- 
tions on the public library in the revised 
charter of New Rochelle (ch.559), amend- 
ments to the library provisions in the char- 
ters of Poughkeepsie (ch.632) and Mt. 
Vernon (ch.49), in the latter case, extending 
the limit of the public library tax from 
$10,000 to $15,000; and amendments to the 
charter of the Brooklyn Public Library to 
provide for a reclassification of the members 
of the corporation and the arrangements of 
their terms (ch. 272). 

Kentucky passed one of the few important 
laws of the year, creating a Library Com- 
mission to consist of five members appointed 
by the governor for terms of four years. 
One member shall be a woman appointed 
from a list of three named by the State 
Federation of Women's Clubs. The Commis- 
sion shall appoint a secretary, trained in 
modern library methods, not a member of 
the Commission, as its chief executive officer 
at a salary of not more than $1500. The 
total appropriation is $6000. In addition to 
the enumerated powers which are such as 
are usually given to such a commission, it 
is further provided that "said commission 
shall perform such other service in behalf 
of public libraries as it may consider for the 
best interests of the state" (ch.27). 

Kentucky also increased the salaries of the 
state librarian and of his assistant and pro- 
vided for clerk hire for the state library 

In Massachusetts the salary of the state 
librarian was increased from $3000 to .$4000, 
and the items of appropriation for the state 
library were arranged in a new grouping with 
an increase in the total amount of approxi- 
mately $5000, most of which is in the item 
for service (ch.42i). The Board of Free 
Public Library Commmissioners were au- 
thorized to enter into much closer relations 
with the libraries than heretofore by the 
appointment of a new officer, a visiting agent, 
whose time shall be given to this work. 
Instead of $500 a year, as formerly, for cleri- 
cal assistance and expenses, the expenditure 
of $3000 for these purposes was authorized 

A general library law was enacted in Lou- 
isiana whereby, on petition of 25 citizens, the 
governing authority of any parish, city, not 
over 100,000 population, town, village or other 
political community may establish a public 
library. In the absence of any protest from 

February, 1911] 


25 or more citizens within 30 days, such 
government may set aside money to maintain 
the library and appoint a board of control, 
two for two years, two for four years and 
two for six years, their successors to serve 
for terms of six years (ch.i49). 

Ohio passed three minor amendatory acts, 
one providing that a township or school dis- 
trict, as well as a city or village, may levy 
a library tax (p.298), another enabling a 
library board by a two-thirds vote to set 
aside surplus funds for building purposes 
(p. 304), and a third to extend the limit of 
assessment for library purposes from one 
mill to one and a half mills on the dollar 

(p- 305)- 

In Rhode Island the annual appropriation 
for the state library was increased by $700 
(ch.592) and $400 were appropriated for 
state newspapers to be taken by the state li- 
brary and finally deposited with the Rhode 
Island Historical Society (ch.S7p). 

In Virginia the law of 1908 relative to the 
establishment of libraries in public schools 
in rural districts was extended so as to apply 
to cities as well (ch.3i7). 

In Maryland there have been since 1902 
two library commissions, one of which was 
confined in its operations to nine of the 23 
counties of the state. The law creating this 
commission was in 1910 repealed (ch.332). 

In New Jersey, corporations for historical 
or Irbrary purposes are authorized to ac- 
quire and dispose of property and provision 
is made for trust devises ( 

In Illinois by previous laws cities of 2000 
inhabitants in levying taxes for public libra- 
ries were exempt from general provisions 
limiting the amount of tax that might be 
laid. The benefit of this exemption is now- 
extended to cities of 1500 population (p. 83). 



THE first Western Reserve Conference on 
the Care of Neglected and Dependent Chil- 
dren, Nov. 17-19, 1910, while it emphasized 
largely physical care, gave opportunity in its 
program and especially on its exhibit side, to 
set forth the educational problems of such 
children and the various kinds of help avail- 
able for them. 

The Library Board, recognizing the im- 
portance of such a conference to the com- 
munity and to the library, co-operated in the 
following ways : 

1. Committee sen-ice by Mr. M. A. Marks, 
president of the Library Board. Mr. Brett, 
the librarian, and members of the staff. 

2. By granting the time of the Supervisor 
of Schools in performing the duties of sec- 

3. A paper on "Informal education what 
is it?" read by Miss Burnite, director of 
Children's work. 

4. A Special library exhibit. 

5. Compilation and printing of a program 
reading list (3000 were distributed). 

6. Compilation of various reading lists for 
distribution from special booths, such as : 
Juvenile court, School gardens, Tuberculosis, 
The visiting nurse, and Work for the blind. 

The Library, in turn, gained from the con- 
ference a survey of the most pressing prob- 
lems of work with children and the most 
recent methods for their solution as dis- 
cussed by leaders in this work ; Mrs. Martha 
P. Falconer, Dr. Hastings H. Hart, Mr. Ed- 
win D. Solenberger and Dr. Rudolph R. 
Reeder. The library also gained a knowl- 
edge of the work of local institutions and 
philanthropic agencies, through the practical 
addresses by social workers, and through the 
individual exhibits. 

Of the 41 exhibits displayed four were 
from out-of-town, loaned by the National 
Child Labor Committee, Children's Aid So- 
ciety of Boston, the Child-Helping Depart- 
ment of the Russell Sage Foundation, and 
The Speedwell Society. 

The following Cleveland organizations il- 
lustrated their methods by giving a day's 
program : The Day Nursery and Free Kin- 
dergarten Association, and the Society for 
Promoting the Interests of the Blind. The 
opportunities to see the children in their 
daily work, which these associations afforded 
was a valuable contribution to the exhibit. 

The Associated Charities exhibited a map 
showing causes for relief and a digest of 
work accomplished. The Humane Society 
and Visiting Nurse Association exhibited ex- 
haustive charts, showing the scope of their 
work. A model of the Tent Colony for 
tubercular children was exhibited by the 
Anti-Tuberculosis League. Examples of the 
work done by the children formed a large 
part of the exhibits shown by the Orphan 
Asylums and Social Settlements. 

One purpose of the conference was to 
develop a broader spirit of cooperation 
among the child-caring agencies of the city. 
Taking this as its keynote, the aim of the 
Library Exhibit was to illustrate as graphi- 
cally as possible the various means of co- 
operation which had proved so successful in 
the extension of its own work. 

The educational methods of the library in 
its work with children were shown by pic- 
tures of the story hours, reading clubs, home 
libraries, exhibit of bulletins, and a small 
collection of standard books for children 
which were used by a surprising number of 
child visitors. 

The handbook on Work with children, 
and lists for teachers and pupils were freely 



[February, 1911 

Posters were used to set forth the methods 
of the children's work and to enumerate 
the various means by which the library co- 
operates with social agencies. These posters 
were composed of large photographs of li- 
brary activities and reading matter printed 
in bold type. . Among them were : 

1. Books for children. The statistical re- 
port for 1909, showing the children's reading 
in three districts American, Jewish, Bohe- 
mian; and the percentage by classes. 

2. A list of the various means of reaching 
the children, aggregating 278 agencies. 

3. Perkins Children's library, an instance 
of constructive co-operation : the use of a lot 
and building belonging to the Day Nursery 
and Free Kindergarten Association, remod- 
elled and maintained for library purposes by 
the Library Board. 

4. A list of The orphan asylums with their 
ways of co-operating with the library as 
suggestive for other similar institutions not 
working so actively with the library. 

5. A list of Settlements and schools co- 
operating with the public library. 

6. Posters suggestive to social workers of 
means of co-operating personally, such as 
Good books for all children. 

In 1909 the number of children's books 
circulated was almost a million but not every 
child in Cleveland borrowed books. 

Social workers tell the children about 
the libraries. 

As a means of relating the work of the 
Cleveland Public Library to the library 
movement of the country another poster set 
forth the comparative statistics of the n 
largest libraries. These statistics gave the 
population of the city, number of volumes 
in library, number of books issued for home 
use, and circulation per capita. 

The posters and bulletins, with some pho- 
tographs of library buildings, were hung on 
a soft green background, and the library felt 
that its success in making its work known 
through this exhibit was due largely to the 
fact that it was harmonious in color and ar- 
tistic in arrangement. 

It was a matter of great satisfaction to the 
organizers of the conference that the exhibit 
awakened so much interest among Cleve- 
land people in general. By reason of the 
large attendance the entire exhibit was open 
to the public for two days after the confer- 
ence closed. 


THE Child Welfare Exhibit in New York 
City opened, as announced in January LIBRARY 
JOURNAL, on Jan. 18 at the 7ist regiment ar- 
mory, 34th street and Park avenue, and will 
be continued until Feb. 8. The purpose of 
the exhibit has been already outlined, and 
further data as to its conduct and results will 
be given after its close. 


IN the Bulletin of Bibliography, January, 
1911, p. 175, there is a brief article, "Anent 
library gatherings," by A Librarian, who ex- 
presses in somewhat agitated biblical Eng- 
lish her [or his] disapproval because even- 
ing dress is indulged in by [indigent] li- 
brarians at annual conventions. 

A new complaint brought before the bar 
of library justice must always awaken in- 
terest, and the inference that librarians are 
after all unduly stylish is indeed a novelty. 

Let us consider the matter. Is it neces- 
sary that because the librarians seek profes- 
sional inspiration and uplift they should go 
clad in everyday business costume while 
attending gatherings at a $5 a day hotel. 
(The obvious answer would be, "Go to a 
reasonable family hotel." Yet if by any chance 
the cheap hotel is given preference confusion 
reigns). Suppose the President of the A. 
L. A. should deliver his president's address 
on the "opening night" (at the Hotel Su- 
perba where $30 a day suites are de regie) 
dressed in brown corduroy suit, spotted 
waistcoast, and red necktie .(home made), 
while his wife, the hostess of the evening, 
occupied a front seat dressed in a calico 
waist, stiff collar, and dark skirt (un- 
hobble). Distinguished guests from the 
American Finance Association come to study 
the methods of library appropriation, mem- 
bers of the People's Symphonic Union come 
to study the relations of harmony to libra- 
rianship, would turn away dismayed aI 
depreciative. Press notices dwelling on the 
work of the Association with rural communi- 
ties would be inclined to get twisted and 
state "the A. L. A. President, himself a 
farmer, spoke with feeling 'On the corduroy 
relations with the granger.' Undoubtedly 
this would be unfortunate. 

There is, indeed, no reason for extravagant 
dressing if librarians showed a tendency 
toward so culpable and so un-literary an 
indulgence. Near-silk evening dress for one 
whose resources will not admit of the genu- 
ine silk will always pass muster. If this 
statement arouses suspicion refer to the 
Ladies' Home Journal; or, even invite the 
editor of this periodical to talk to the li- 
brarians. He will be able to give recipes for 
a cheesecloth gown that will look like satin 
and wear like broadcloth at a cost that 
would fail to tax even the "old-maid's mite" 
so feelingly referred to by the writer of the 
article, "Anent library meetings." 

But it seems unfortunate when librarians 
are only beginning to learn how to be hu- 
man though librarians ; when they are only 
beginning to realize that the possession of a 
taste for dancing is not necessarily destruc- 
tive to the possession of executive ability; 
that skill at golf does not preclude skill at 
planning library buildings; that a good hand 

February, 1911] 


at billiards does not mean a bad hand at 
library schedules it would be unfortunate 
if at* this "psychological moment" poor, 
unoffending, simple evening dress should be 
shelved in the 1303 along with mental sci- 
ence and delusions, and the old sheepskin 
which has been discarded from all self- re- 
specting documents should be dragged forth 
to cover the young librarians who were 
just emerging into a state of vitality from 
their paleontological inheritance of fossiliza- 
tion handed down by the laws of possession 
from Jared Bean. 

Let the small-fry sit at the feet of learning 
by all means, but let them wear pretty 
clothes if they can and the results of their 
learning will be so much the more perva- 
sive. Is there any reason because a human 
being is addicted to the library calling he 
or she should cast aside all mundane attrac- 
tions and accessories? Carlisle considers Life 
as based upon a Philosophy of Clothes 
Clothes are doubtless the strongest moral 
[side] -issue in a woman's life, and a de- 
cisive one even in a man's. 

Then because we are librarians let us not 
(like some of our English brothers) ad- 
vocate Alpaca for those who may have a 
taste for messaline or crepe-de-chine, nor 
insist upon a shoe-string necktie for one who 
prefers a four-in-hand. 

Librarians' clothes are as personal as their 
characters. We do not say that any one at- 
tending a conference should not indulge in 
slang, or gossip. Even a tennis contest is 
allowable. We have only tried to improve 
each other's minds so far. We have listened 
to good papers even from ladies wearing be- 
coming gowns. Then let us stick to our sins 
of omission and commission as they involve 
our reading habits, but let us not reduce the 
habits of our dress to a hard-and-fast con- 
ference schedule on salary basis, thus : 
Professional training section : gingham. 
Children's workers : gingham with cambric 

Reference workers : French gingham or pique 

(polka dots allowed). 

Superintendents of departments : (may wear 
silk trimmings provided there is no dec- 
ollete style). 

Head librarian : (may employ near-silk gowns 
with deft touches of velvet no jet orna- 
ments allowed). 

(Assistant librarian, Same as head libra- 
rian, without the jet.~) 
There may have been a time in the days 
of the blue stocking when learning and finery 
like equal .factors in contrary equations de- 
stroyed each other, but in the days of the 
suffragette when dress a la mode and de- 
mands for equal rights are no longer antag- 
onistic, is there any reason to believe that a 
librarian may not still be a librarian in even- 
ing dress as well as in a shirt waist? 



IN response to a call sent out by Mr. 
Phineas L. Windsor, chairman of the A. L. A. 
Section on professional training for librarian- 
ship, a conference of members of library 
school faculties was held at the John Crerar 
Library, Chicago, Jan. 5, in connection with 
the other mid-winter meetings. The follow- 
ing schools were represented : Atlanta. 
Drexel, Illinois, Indiana, Pratt, School of 
Education of the University of Chicago, Sim- 
mons, Western Reserve, and Wisconsin, with 
a total attendance of 16. The New York 
State Library School was represented by the 
director at the luncheon preceding the meet- 
ing, and by a letter from the vice-director. 

The meeting was entirely unofficial and in- 
formal. Mr. Windsor was made chairman 
and Miss Eastman secretary. The folio-wine 
topics were discussed, a tentative list of which 
was sent out with the call for the meeting : 

1. Do we use the most approved pedagog- 
ical methods in our class-room work? Do 
we lecture too much and give too few 
quizzes, conferences and reviews ? Do we 
depend too much on the student's taking full 
notes, when the proper use of printed out- 
lines, or carefully selected required readings, 
supplemented by a few notes would yield 
better results? Shall the course in cataloging 
be put at the beginning of the course or 
later? How much do we use the stereopti- 

2. Are the subjects now in our curricula 
properly balanced? Is too much time given 
to learning cataloging and other routine, and 
consequently too little to a consideration of 
methods of extending the use of the library 
by the public? 

3. Would it be practicable for several 
schools to secure a lecturer on some special 
subject in library economy who should give 
the regular work in that subject in each of 
these schools? An example of a beginning 
in this direction is Miss Edna Lyman's work 
in several school?. 

4 Would it be possible for the several 
schools to combine in securing a lecturer 
each year to give a short series of lectures on 
some one subject, these lectures to be seri- 
ously worked up, and to be published after 
being delivered ? The final publication of the 
lectures, and the combined remuneration from 
several schools, might be a sufficient incen- 
tive to capsble persons to do their best work. 

5. Is it as easy to secure transfer of credit 
from one school to another as it should be ? 

6. Is it desirable, and if desirable, is it 
practicable to make the work of the first year 
of the two-year schools and the work of the 
one-year schools more nearly alike? Many 
junior students in a two-year school enter 
library work without taking the senior year's 
work; if the courses in one-year schools are 


[February, 1911 

better preparation for library work than the 
first year's work of the two-year schools, 
then these juniors are at a disadvantage as 
compared with students from a one-year 
school. Some students in the one-year 
schools may wish to go to a two-year school 
and take a second year of training; as the 
courses are at present arranged this second 
year's work is almost impossible, because it 
does not fit on to the work that the student 
has had. 

The discussions were felt to be so profitable 
that by unanimous consent it was decided to 
arrange for a similar meeting next year. 
.LINDA A. EASTMAN, Secretary. 


THE Department of Libraries of the South- 
ern Educational Association met in the Uni- 
tarian Church in Chattanooga at 2 p.m., Dec. 
28, Miss Mary Hannah Johnson, of Nash- 
ville, presiding, and Dr. David R. Lee, of the 
University of Chattanooga, acting as secre- 

The first paper read was by Dr. Lee on 
"The relation of the university library to the 
city library." This paper was a very able 
presentation of the need and advantages of 
the cooperation of libraries, especially with 
the view of utilizing their resources in com- 
mon helpfulness and also in preventing a use- 
less duplication of volumes. The paper elic- 
ited general and interesting discussion. 

Miss Lucy Holtzclaw, of the Chattanooga 
High School, read a paper on the "Relation 
of the public library to the high school stu- 

Miss Mary Hannah Johnson spoke advocat- 
ing a system of libraries making the library 
in the county seat the center of distribution 
of books throughout the county, both to the 
schools and individual readers. 

Mrs. Eugene B. Heard, of Middleton, Ga., 
supervisor of travelling libraries for the Sea- 
board Air Line, gave a most intresting talk, 
describing her work and its good and en- 
couraging results. 

In addition to the discussion? of the de- 
partment, there was much interest mani- 
fested in the Educational Association by 
school boards and superintendents in the 
matter of cooperation of the public library 
and public schools. 

An exhibit was made by the Nashville Li- 
brary of books graded from the first to the 
eighth grade, irclusive, copies of which are 
placed in the public schools of Nashville by 
the library for supplementary reading. 

The following officers of the Department 
of Libraries were elected for the ensuing 
year : president. Dr. Louis R. Wilson, Chapel 
Hill, N. C. ; vice-president, Mr. William F. 
Vust. Louisville. Ky. ; secretary. Miss Mary 
R. Skeffington, Nashville, Tenn. 




THE second annual meeting of the college 
and university librarians of the middle west 
was called to order at 10 a.m. Jan. 6, in the 
director's room of the Chicago Public Li- 
brary. Mr. Walter M. Smith, of the Univer- 
sity of Wisconsin, was elected chairman. 

Mr. Malcolm G. Wyer opened the discus- 
sion on book selection and purchase, and the 
distribution of book funds in college and 
university libraries. Book selection is not a 
large question for the librarian at the Uni- 
versity of Iowa (nor at most of the univer- 
sities), as by far the larger share of the book 
money is spent by the professors. A com- 
paratively small amount of money is left at 
the disposal of the librarian. The question 
arises as to whether the librarian should 
make up lists of desiderata in different fields 
not looked after by the faculty, or buy here 
and there as opportunity offers. The answers 
would seem to depend largely upon the li- 
brary. A new library needs rounding out, 
while in an older one much of the librarian's 
discretionary fund may have to go for new 
editions of old reference books, replacements, 
the filling out of sets of periodicals, with 
now. and then a try at the auction sales and 
some purchases of "remainders" which could 
not be afforded were it not for the reduction 
in price. A discussion of the respective 
merits of an American or a European agent 
led naturally to the report of Dr. Lichten- 
stein on the scheme of cooperative purchases 
entered into by the University of Chicago. 
The John Crerar, the Newberry. the Chicago 
Public and the Northwestern University Li- 
brary. As this report has been printed sep- 
arately and can be had by those specially in- 
terested by applying to the director of the 
University of Chicago Press, it need not be 
summarized here. 

Mr. Windsor presented the problems of the 
A. L. A. analytical cards. He said that he 
did not care to discuss the advantages of the 
eards nor the problems connected with our 
rapidly growing card catalogs, but purposed 
to confine himself to the problems confront- 
ing those libraries which were receiving the 
Library of Congress cards and using the sub- 
ject entries suggested on the latter. To these 
libraries the service of the A. L. A. card 
work seemed naturally much inferior. The 
suggestions for the betterment of the work 
were offered in the friendliest spirit, and 
the fact that much of the A. L. A. coop- 
erative work was gratuitous in its nature was 
not lost sight of in comparing it with the 
Library of Congress card work, which has 
the United States government back of it. 
Financial considerations enter largely into 
the matter. The question naturally arises, 
"Why not turn over the printing of the A. 

February, 1911] 


L. A. analytical cards to the Library of Con- 
gress and have the latter carry a complete 
stock, so that subscribing libraries could se- 
cure the requisite number of cards for sub- 
ject entries?'' Would it not be practicable 
for the A. L. A. Publishing Board to reprint 
cards for such series as might be desired by 
five or six libraries It was pointed out that 
serials of a miscellaneous nature where the 
papers were not monographic in character 
fell outside of the scope of the Library of 
Congress stock. The question arises as to 
whether the Publishing Board would print 
cards if copy were supplied for analyticals 
in sets desired by from five to ten subscribers. 
Users of the A. L. A. cards feel that the sub- 
ject entries ought to be made to conform 
with the Library of Congress subject entries 
as far as possible. Hitherto, however, the 
task of unifying the subject entries suggested 
on the copy sent in has been all that the Pub- 
lishing Board has been able to undertake. In 
this as well as in the editing of the author 
entries the Publishing Board was indebted 
very greatly to Miss Nina K. Browne. 

In presenting the matter in behalf of the 
Publishing Board Mr. Andrews explained 
that the undertaking had been strictly coop- 
erative, and that the responsibility of the 
board had been limited in the past to the 
editorial supervision of the titles and distribu- 
tion of the cards. 

The selection of the serials to be analyzed 
had been made by the five cooperating libra- 
ries ; of these two were university libraries, 
two public libraries and one occupied an in- 
termediate position. The objects of these 
libraries were not the same. The public li- 
braries desired to form indexes of current 
periodical literature. The other libraries had 
in mind the insertion in their card catalogs 
of the titles of important articles in general 
periodicals. Under such conditions a lack of 
homogeneity in the work was inevitable. 

The concentration of the publishing in- 
terest? of the Association at headquarters 
has made it desirable at this time to revise 
the arrangement, and the board has found 
that at least two of the cooperating libraries 
agree as to the necessity of such a revision. 

In doing this the board will have in mind 
the suggestions made by Mr. Windsor. Mr. 
Andrews believed that a sufficient number of 
subscriptions would warrant the reprinting of 
the back titles for any serial, and that any 
new serials that were desired by the sub- 
scribers would be added. The form and type 
would be changed to correspond with that of 
the Library of Congress if any change in the 
arrangement for printing proved to be prac- 
tical. The subscribers would be asked if 
they preferred the Library of Congress sub- 
ject headings to those of the A. L. A. list, 
which are not followed as closely as cooper- 
ative work makes possible. 

Mr. Andrews questioned whether this work 
should be carried on with a view to supply- 

ing inserts for the card catalog or for a 
special index of periodical literature, whether 
the serials and periodicals analyzed should 
include those devoted to special subjects or 
be confined to the more general serials, and 
whether the minimum length of articles 
brought out should be made ten or fifteen 
pages instead of the present four pages. 

Finally Mr. Andrews stated that he had 
just received from Mr. H. W. Wilson a sug- 
gestion that much of the material now in- 
cluded in the work might be issued in a sup- 
plement to the "Reader's guide," and Mr. 
Wilson had submitted a tentative estimate 
of a publishing cost of $10 per rooo titles for 
a subscription list of 20. This supplement 
would be issued quarterly and cumulate an- 
nually. The cost of the necessary editorial 
supervision of the work would be in addition 
to this amount, although if the number of 
subscriptions could be materially increased 
this expense also would be covered by it. 
Some of the librarians present said that if 
necessary their library would subscribe to 
several copies of such an index as that pro- 
posed by Mr. Wilson rather than not see it 

Miss Olive Jones, of the Ohio State Uni- 
versity Library, spoke briefly on the question 
of classification in college and university li- 
braries, reporting that in her library the 
Library of Congress scheme had recently 
been introduced to the general satisfaction of 
those most intimately concerned in the 

Mr. J. I. Wyer, Jr., asked permission to 
read a portion of the chapter from the forth- 
coming A. L. A. book on library economy 
relating to college and university libraries. 
The part he read and on which he wished 
the opinion of those present related to the 
powers and functions of the library com- 
mittee. From the discussion which followed 
it developed that only one library represented 
was without such a committee, that in most 
of them the meetings were at irregular pe- 
riods, and the functions were in the main 
restricted to questions of the assignment of 
book funds. 

The arrangements for next year's meeting 
were placed in the hands of a committee con- 
sisting of P. L. Windsor, chairman; J. C. M. 
Hanson, and A. S. Root. 

THEODORE W. KOCH, Secretary. 


THE i5th annual meeting of the Pennsyl- 
vania Library Club and the New Jersey Li- 
brary Association will be held at the Hotel 
Chelsea, Atlantic City, New Jersey, on March 
lo-ii, 1911. There will be the usual three 
sessions. The first under the direction of 
the New Jersey Library Association on Fri- 
day, March 10, 8 130 p.m : the second under 
the direction of the Pennsylvania Library 
Club on Saturday, March n, 10:30 a,m. ; 


[February, 1911 

and the third, on Saturday, 8:30 p.m., will 
be a general session. 


New York or Newark to Atlantic City 

and return $5-0 

(Excursion tickets good to return 
within six months from date of sale). 

Philadelphia to Atlantic City and re- 
turn, from Market or Chestnut Street 
Wharf 2.00 

Philadelphia to Atlantic City and re- 
turn, Pennsylvania R.R. Electric 
Train from Market Street Wharf 1.75 

Philadelphia to Atlantic City and re- 
turn, Pennsylvania R.R. Steam Train 
from Broad Street Station via Dda- 

ware River Bridge 2.50 

(Excursion tickets good to return 

within 15 days from date of sale.) 

For railroad tickets and schedules apply to 

any ticket agent of the Pennsylvania or 

Reading Railroads or the Central Railroad of 

New Jersey. 


The headquarters will be at the Hotel 
Chelsea at the ocean end of South Morris 
avenue, Chelsea, Atlantic City. The follow- 
ing rates have been offered by this hotel: 
One person in a room (without bath, $.3.50 

per day. 
Two persons in a room (without bath), each 

$3 per day. 
One person in a room (with bath), $4.50 per 

Two persons in a room (with bath), each 

$4 per day. 

Members and their friends who wish rooms 
reserved are requested to write direct to the 
hotel. Persons desiring to obtain special 
rates for a week or longer are requested 
to correspond with the proprietor. 

Members of other Itbrary clubs and friends 
in adjacent states are cordially invited to be 
present and to take part in the meetings. 


First Session 

Hotel Chelsea, March 10, 1911, 8:30 p.m. 

The program for the New Jersey Library 
Association session will be announced later. 
As in former years, there will be two special 
sessions held under the direction of the New 
Jersey Library Association, on Thursday 
evening, March 9, and on Friday morning, 
March 10, which will be of particular inter- 
est to New Jersey librarians. Full particu- 
lars can be obtained from the secretary, Miss 
Edna B. Pratt, State Library, Trenton, New 

Second Session 

Hotel Chelsea, March n, 1911, 10:30 a.m. 
Chairman. Mr. T. Wilson Hedley. 
"Municipal periodical literature," by Clinton 

Rogers Woodruff, Esq. 
"A library outpost," by Miss Nellie E. Learn- 

ing, librarian-in-charge of the Richmond 
Branch of The Free Library of Philadel- 

"The library and the foreign speaking peo- 
ples," by Peter Roberts, Ph.D., secretary, 
The International Committee of Young 
Men's Christian Associations, New York 

Third Session 

Hotel Chelsea, March n, 1911, 8:30 p.m. 
Program to be announced later. 

Hmecican Xibrarp Hssociation 


THERE should be wide interest and pleasant 
anticipations aroused by the decision to hold 
the 1911 conference of the American Library 
Association at Pasadena, Cal. It will be the 
third time in the 35 years of its existence 
that the Association has visited the Pacific 
coast, and it will be the second California 
conference bridging an interval of 20 years 
since the San Francisco meeting of 1891, 
which is still a delightful memory to those 
who participated in it. 

Pasadena is one of the larger southern 
California cities, with a population of about 
30,000, ten miles from Los Angeles and prac- 
tically a suburb of the larger city, with which 
it is connected by excellent electric service. 
The trolley trip to Los Angeles is made in 
half an hour, and a lo-minute schedule is 
maintained. It is also reached by the three 
transcontinental railways, and is easily acces- 
sible from the beach cities and resorts. The 
city itself is distinctively a residence town, 
given over to beautiful or attractive homes 
ranging from villas to cottages all set in a 
perpetual flower-and-fruit garden, and beau- 
tiful at every season of the year, but at its 
best in the spring and early summer months. 
The Public Library, occupying its own build- 
ing in an attractive small perk, has an ex- 
cellent collection of about 30,000 volumes, and 
is recognized as one of the best of the small 
public libraries of the state. Special attrac- 
tions to visitors are found in the elaborate 
and extensive Busch Gardens, the property 
of Adolphus Busch, freely open to the public ; 
in the ostrich farm at South Pasadena, set in 
its pretty natural park; and in the beautiful 
trip, by elevating railway, to the summit of 
Mount Lowe, where the Alpine Tavern af- 
fords rest and refreshment, and the Mount 
Lowe Observatory is open to popular inspec- 
tion. The great Solar Observatory main- 
tained on Mount Wilson by the Carnegie 
Institution of Washington is reached from 
Pasadena by a picturesque mountain trail and 
by the great wagon road built at a cost of 
$60,000. While the observatory is not open 
to the public, Mount Wilson itself is a favor- 
ite goal for week-end and vacation visits and 
for all-day walking parties, and the Mount 

February, 1911] 



\Vilson Hotel, with its adjacent cottages, 
gives pleasant vantage ground from which to 
explore the many forest trails. 

The Hotel Maryland, which has been se- 
lected as headquarters, is well known as one 
of the leading "tourist hotels" of Pasadena. 
It is centrally situated, convenient to the busi- 
ness center of the city, yet in an attractive 
residence quarter. Built of white stucco, em- 
bowered in vines and flowers, with rose- 
corered pergola and curving terrace porches, 
it is distinctively southern Californian in its 
architecture, and gives an impression of out- 
door sunshine living that is most attractive. 
Adjacent to the hotel itself are a number of 
charming hotel bungalows for the accommo- 
dation of special parties or guests who desire 
home privacy with hotel conveniences and 
gayety. An interesting feature is the large 
sunken concrete tennis count, recently estab- 
lished in the west lawn of the hotel, which 
by the ingenious adjustment of removable 
canvas roof and walls is available for ama- 
teur theatricals and for auditorium purposes, 
and will seat an audience of a thousand per- 

Special rates for the conference have been 
made by the Hotel Maryland on an unusually 
attractive scale. The rooming will be done 
by the hotel management (D. M. Lennard, 
manager), to whom requests for reservations, 
information, etc., should be addressed. In 
addition to the headquarters hotel, those de- 
siring lower-priced accommodations can be 
excellently cared for in adjacent smaller ho- 
tels and boarding houses. The handling of 
these reservations will be under the direction 
of a local committee, for it is the desire of 
the Pasadena hosts that no assistants, libra- 
rians of small libraries, or other library work- 
ers whose conference expenses must be kept 
within the smallest limits, should be debarred 
from the interest and profit of the meeting 
for this reason, and it is believed that satis- 
factory outside accommodations at very mod- 
erate cost can be assured to all desiring them. 
Among California librarians there is al- 
ready widespread interest in the conference 
plans, and a warm and friendly spirit of hos- 
pitality. The great majority of the library 
workers of the state have never attended an 
A. L. A. meeting, but have found their pro- 
fessional fellowship and stimulus in the state 
and district associations and in the ever- 
growing development of library activities 
throughout the state. The second coming of 
the national association to California has 
been long desired and is eagerly looked for- 
ward to, and every library in the state will 
join in the welcome to the visitors. The 
trustees and librarian of the Long Beach 
Public Library have already asked permis- 
sion to furnish sweet peas for the Pasadena 
conference, and have planted the seeds, which 
during the next four months will be watched 
and tended so that their blossoms may be a 
fragrant greeting. This is just one instance 

of the spirit in which California librarians 
look forward to the coming of their friends 
and fellow-workers throughout the country. 

H. E. H. 


The mid-winter meeting of the Council met 
in Chicago, Jan. 6, with 26 members in at- 
tendance. President Wyer voiced the appre- 
ciation of the Council and Association over 
the continued generosity of the trustees of 
the Chicago Public Library, not only in pro- 
viding quarters for the A. L. A. Executive 
office, but for rooms in the public library 
building for the various mid-winter meetings. 

Special Libraries Association 

On behalf of the special committee ap- 
pointed to report on the application of the 
Special Libraries Association with the A. L. 
A., the following report was read by Mr. 

The committee appointed by the president 
to report on the above petition submits the 
following : 

On general principles the committee would, 
as a rule, prefer the formation of a Section 
of the American Library Association, rather 
than of a separate organization, when it is a 
question of one or the other. 

But in this particular instance the com- 
rr.ittee is inclined to think that the formation 
of the Special Libraries Association has been 
justified by results; that the separate organ- 
ization has been able to accomplish more in 
its own behalf than it could have done as a 
section of the American Library Association. 

Further, that its affiliation would tend to 
attract to the annual conference of the Amer- 
ican Library Association a number of very 
desirable members who otherwise might not 
attend these conferences at all. That such 
members, bringing with them, as they would, 
a point of view new to most members of the 
American Library Association, could hardly 
fail to impart fresh interest to the discussion 
of familiar topics, and to suggest fresh topics 
worthy of investigation. 

On the other hand, since there is necessar- 
ily much common ground in the field occupied 
by the two associations, the younger of the 
two ought to profit largely by the experience 
of members of the senior organization. 

THEREFORE, the committee recommends 
granting the petition of the Special Libraries 
Association. The committee believes that the 
advantages enumerated more than offset the 
admitted drawback of increasing the com- 
plexity of future A. L. A. programs, and of 
the rather vague scope of the Special Libra- 
ries Association, a vagueness, however, which 
will doubtless be remedied as time goes on. 
C. H. GOULD, Chairman. 

After the discussion of the report a letter 
read from Miss Louise Krause. a mem- 



[February, 1911 

her of the Special Libraries Association, and 
further consideration of the report was made 
a special order of business for 12 o'clock. 

Net -fiction 

The next topic for discussion was in re- 
gard to net fiction, and a report concerning 
this was made by Carl B. Roden on behalf of 
the Committee on bookbuying. Mr. Roden 
said in part: "From replies to letters ad- 
dressed by the chairman of this committee, 
Mr. Walter L. Brown, of Buffalo, to a num- 
ber of publishers the reasons for that move 
appear to be the familiar ones, namely, the 
necessity of protecting the retail dealer from 
indiscriminate price-cutting, and the increase 
in the cost of materials. The latter reason 
leads to the conclusion that the manufactur- 
ers upon whom the increase in the cost of 
materials falls, i.e., the publishers, have raised 
the wholesale price of fiction to the dealer, 
and this is true in the case of at least two 
publishers, while it is distinctly denied by 
others. This may, and probably does, repre- 
sent a difference in policy. In the meantime 
the new fiction is being issued at retail prices 
ranging from $i and $1.10 to $1.35, $1.40, 
and even $1.50, all net, the variations being 
apparently accounted for by the size and 
physical characteristics of each book. It 
seems probable the $1.35 net will eventually 
be the prevailing price unless a return to 
the old figure of $1.50 will follow, without 
the old discount. At this price of $1.35 the 
new novels cost the libraries $1.21 y 2 net, a 
very material advance over our former rate, 
which varied downward from $1.08. 

"Now, while we may have no disposition to 
dispute the contention that the condition of the 
retailer is in dire need of improvement, and 
while we are also disposed not to dispue the 
allegations as to the increase in cost of man- 
ufacture, yet it seems to this committee that 
the libraries have a just cause for complaint 
in the very serious reduction in discount al- 
lowed them; a reduction which in effect in- 
volves a greater increase in cost of fiction to 
libraries than to the individual purchaser of 
single copies, for whom the whole machinery 
of the retail trade has to be maintained. It 
is palpjibly inequitable that the libraries, be- 
ing mainly buyers in bulk, if not in quantities, 
placing them on an equal basis with whole- 
sale purchasers, should be mulcted, in how- 
ever just a cause, in an amount greater than, 
or nearly as great as, the patron of the re- 
tailers for whose benefit this movement has 
been inaugurated. If libraries are not whole- 
sale purchasers, they are at least entitled to 
more consideration than retail purchasers, 
and the nominal discount of 10 per cent, by 
no means fairly represents the difference. It 
is doubtful if it represents the true difference 
in actual selling cost between handling indi- 
vidual sales and the orders of libraries. 

"Moreover, I am convinced that this 10 per 
cent, discount was not determined upon as 

the result of any careful, scientific effort to 
arrive at a true and fair basis of differentia- 
tion, and that if we can get a patient hearing 
we have a good chance of bettering that rate, 
even if we cannot hope to return to the old 
basis, which, perhaps, we have no right, in 
view of all the conditions, to expect. And I 
am further convinced that the booksellers 
themselves, with whom, rather than with the 
publishers, the libraries deal, were not con- 
sulted in the fixing of the library discount, 
and are far from certain that 10 per cent, 
represents a fair or practicable margin. I be- 
lieve that if we could get an expression of 
opinion from the dealers, we should find that 
they would agree that 15 per cent., or even 
16^3 per cent, would seem to them a far 
juster rate, and one which would be accept- 
able to them. 

"My recommendation, therefore, which I 
venture to offer as the report of the com- 
mittee, since from correspondence I am led 
to believe that the two other members, al- 
though not present, agree with these con- 
clusions, is as follows : That the Bookbuy- 
ing committee be instructed to endeavor to 
secure an expression of opinion from book- 
sellers doing business with libraries as to the 
proper and practicable discount which ought 
to be allowed to libraries on purchase of new 
net fiction." 

An informal discussion followed Mr. 
Roden's report, and several speakers ex- 
pressed the opinion that they believed the in- 
creased price of net fiction was not benefiting 
materially the retail bookseller. Mr. Purd B. 
Wright said he believed that booksellers were 
making less money on the $1.50 net fiction 
rules than formerly, and that the publishers 
were the ones who were profiting by the new 
rules regarding net fiction. 

An extract from a letter written by Miss 
Cornelia Marvin regarding fiction in libraries 
was read as follows : 

"I wish to send an emphatic protest against 
the proposition to have the public library dis- 
continue to any extent its purchase of whole- 
some fiction. We all believe that public libra- 
ries are almost as important in offering whole- 
some recreation as in their educational work, 
and as each year increases the extent of 
questionable recreation for both old and 
young, I believe we ought not to consider 
lessening the library supply of decent fiction. 
Any one who has watched the crowds at 
moving-picture shows must understand the 
very general desire to be amused, and I per- 
sonally believe that most tax payers are just 
as willing to support libraries for this pur- 
pose as for any other, and that by cutting off 
the supply of fiction, we should cut off num- 
bers of readers who are entitled to library 

"I have a great sympathy with the libra- 
rians who wish to buy fiction for less money, 
and I believe that it should be bought for 
less, as books should not be used so long 

February, 1911] 



and circulated in the filthy condition in which 
public library fiction is generally found. I 
think that libraries have not kept pace with 
general sanitary progress, and that it would 
be much belter to have a large supply of in- 
expensive editions of fiction to be very fre- 
quently renewed, rather than to try to bind 
so as to make them indestructible, the more 
expensive volumes of new fiction. 

"If you think this point of view has any- 
thing to commend it, I hope you will present 
it some time during the discussion. 

"I also wish to say that I should dislike to 
see anything that is in the nature of a boy- 
cott upon publishers of net fiction. 
"Very sincerely yours, 

Mr. Wyer then read a communication in 
regard to action about the Brussels confer- 
ence and the international catalog code, the 
purport of which was as follows : 

Brussels Congress 

BRUSSELS, Oct. 25, 1910. 
MY DEAR SIR: We have the honor to com- 
municate the following vote of the Brussels 
Congress of 1910 relative to the code of cat- 
aloging rules. 

We wish to call your attention to the para- 
graph of this vote which concerns the event- 
ual cooperation between the associations in 
the same language, and we should appreciate 
an opinion from your association concerning 
this subject. We are open to consider any 
suggestion or change you may be disposed 
to make. (Signed) OSCAR GROJEAN 1 . 


Commission of the International Code. 

The International congress of archivists and libra- 
rians, held at Brussels in 1910, gave the following 

(1) That there should be established an inter- 
national code of rules for the editing of printed 
catalog cards. 

(2) That these rules should be confined to one 

(3) That the duty of working- out these rules 
should be confided to the national library associa- 
tions of each language. 

(4) That the code should be constituted accord- 
ing to an understanding among such associations. 

The congress orders file Association of Archivists 
and Librarians of Belgium, which was organizer 
of the Brussels Congress of 1910, to serve as a 
medium between the associations. 

Council voted to refer the above communi- 
cation to the A. L. A. Committee on inter- 
national relations, with the request that this 
committee draft a suitable reply to M. Gro- 
j can's communication. 

Mr. Putnam suggested that as librarians 
we welcome the project and this opportunity 
to participate in the proposed international 
cataloging code. 

The secretary of the A. L. A. then pre- 
sented to the Council the by-laws and articles 
of organization adopted by the Catalog sec- 

tion, and the Council expressed approval of 
the plans for organization proposed by the 
Catalog section. 

A communication was then read by Presi- 
dent Wyer from the librarians of agricul- 
tural libraries, asking that Council establish 
an agricultural librarians' section of the A. 
L. A. Mr. Wyer stated that the petition com- 
plied with the requirements of the A. L. A. 
constitution and by-laws, and the request was 
referred to a special committee to be ap- 
pointed by the president 

Mr. C. W. Andrews made an informal re- 
port on behalf of the delegates from the 
A. L. A. to the Brussels conference. He re- 
ferred to the account of the conference which 
appeared in the library journals and added 
several details of interest. He presented to 
the Council an informal request from Mr. 
Shaw, of Liverpool, that American librarians 
consider meeting either officially or as in- 
dividuals with the British library association 
at its meeting at Liverpool in 1912. 

Council then took up as a special order of 
business the request of the Special Libraries 
Association to become an affiliated organiza- 
tion with the American Library Association. 
Dr. Herbert Putnam, Mary E. Ahern, G. W. 
Bowerman and other librarians discussed the 
work of the Special Libraries Association in 
relation to that of the A. L. A. Much in- 
terest was expressed in the work which the 
Association had performed and in its plans 
for the future, but it was the belief of the 
majority of those present that further infor- 
mation should be before the Council before 
final action was taken, and it was voted to 
defer further consideration of the question of 
affiliation until the next meeting of Council. 
The Program committee of the A. L. A. was 
directed to make provision for meetings of 
the Special Libraries Association at the Pasa- 
dena conference of the American Library 

Committee on affiliation 

A report of the Committee on the affilia- 
tion of the A. L. A. with state library asso- 
ciations was then called for, and in the ab- 
sence of the chairman, Miss Alice S. Tyler, 
the report was read by S. H. Ranck, as 
follows : 

Your committee appointed one year ago 
to investigate and report upon a possible plan 
for the formal connection or affiliation of 
State Library Associations with the A. L. A. 
begs leave to present the following: 

At the A. L. A. conference at Mackinac a 
summary was presented of the replies re- 
ceived from 22 State Library Associations. 
The majority of these replies expressed much 
interest in the consideration of the subject of 
some possible formal connection between the 
state and national bodies. Inasmuch as the 
subject was an entirely new one to most of the 
associations, it seemed desirable that the in- 
vestigation should be continued, in order that 

7 6 


[February, 1911 

due consideration might be given to the fun- 
damental question of whether it was really 
desirable, and also the question of methods 
of bringing about a closer sympathy and un- 
derstanding between the State Associations 
and the A. L. A. It was thought that a 
presentation of the subject by the secretary 
of the A. L. A. at the time of his visit to 
the fall meetings of several of the state li- 
brary associations might be a practical way 
to secure definite discussion of the subject, 
and would be helpful to the committee in its 
investigations. The committee, therefore, 
sent to Secretary Hadley the following state- 
ment, as a basis for presenting the matter at 
these meetings : 

"The committee appointed by the A. L. A. 
Council to report on the relation of the A. 
L. A. to state library associations is to con- 
tinue its investigations further. Responses 
from 22 library associations showed there 
was sufficient interest in the subject to justify 
the committee in concluding that some sort of 
formal connection between the national and 
state organizations might prove advantageous 
to both. The questions sent to the presidents 
of the state associations previous to the 
Mackinac meeting were as follows : 

"l. Do you believe it would strengthen 
your state library association if the A. L. A. 
required membership in the state association 
as a condition for membership in the A. L. A. 
in states where such associations exists? 

"2. Would an official representative from 
your state association, appointed as a state 
delegate to the A. L. A. conference, bring 
your association in closer touch and sym- 
pathy with the aims and purposes of the na- 
tional body? 

"3. What action would you think desirable 
on the part of the A. L. A. to give recogni- 
tion to such state delegates? 

"4. Should there be any financial obligations 
between the state associations and the A. 
L. A.? 

"5. Kindly give any suggestions as to how 
a closer relation may be brought about be- 
tween the A. L. A. and your state associa- 

"It would seem to the committee that the 
answers received, incomplete though they 
were, justified them in believing that the ma- 
jority of those to whom the matter was pre- 
sented favored some sort of affiliation. The 
committee desires fuller expression of opin- 
ion on this matter at future state association 
meetings, also an expression of opinion as to 
methods, such as sending delegates to the 
A. L. A. meetings, and the recognition on 
the part of the A. L. A. of such delegates. 
It has seemed to the committee that the sug- 
gestions given in two or three of the replies 
regarding a round table at the A. L. A. meet- 
ing for the discussion of plans and methods 
for strengthening state library associations, 
securing good speakers and topics for state 
programs, methods of holding institutes and 

district meetings, should be considered. If 
the secretary of the A. L. A. can, at the meet- 
ings of the various state library associations 
which he attends this fall, secure the ex- 
pression of opinion regarding these points, 
it will be greatly appreciated by the commit- 
tee, and will help them in preparing their 
report to the A. L. A. Council at its mid- 
winter meeting." 

As a result of this presentation by the sec- 
retary communications have reached the com- 
mittee from the library associations holding 
fall meetings in Michigan, Minnesota, Iowa, 
Illinois, Indiana, North Dakota and Kansas. 
Some of the associations appointed special 
committees to give the matter consideration, 
and resolutions in some cases, accompanied 
by suggestive letters, have been greatly ap- 
preciated by the committee. The reports from 
these states may be summarized as follows : 

Michigan. The matter of affiliation with the A. 
L. A. was quite fully discussed, a place for it being 
put on the program for the first session. The whole 
matter was referred to the Committee on resolutions. 
The Association adopted the resolution of this com- 
mittee to the effect "that the secretary be instructed 
to notify the secretary of the A. L. A. that his 
Associaion favors the idea of affiliation with the 
A. L. A. if a practicable scheme can be worked out." 
It was suggested that the most practical thing 
would be to have the Program committee of the 
A. L. A. place on the program next year a round 
table meeting for officers of the state library asso- 
ciations, and others interested, to consider some of 
the_ problems of the state association and its work 
as it relates to that of the national organization. It 
was felt that the subject was so new to many that 
they did not feel able to act intelligently upon the 
subject at this time, but that a round table would 
bring out the problems that would perhaps bring us 
nearer a working basis for some kind of affiliation. 
Nearly every one felt that the financial end would 
be the most difficult to work out. 

(The above is a summary taken from let- 
ters of Mr. Ranck.) 

_ Minnesota. The Minnesota Library Asso- 
ciation adopted the following resolution re- 
garding the matter: 

"The Minnesota Library Association, in conven- 
tion assembled, desires to express its interest in the 
Elan of affiliation with the A. L A. as presented 
y the secretary of t'ue A. L. A. on behalf of the 
special A. L. A. committee. This Association be- 
lieves that some method of affiliation would result 
in mutual benefit to the state associations and the 
A. L. A., and the Minnesota Library Association 
is ready to cooperate with the A. L. A. in carrying 
out any plan which may be formulated by the com- 

Iowa. The Iowa Association adopted the 
following resolution presented by a special 
committee : 

"That in their judgment it would be unwise and 
unfair to the smaller libraries to require membership 
in the A. L. A. as a condition for membership in a 
state association. 

"Also, unwise to require membership in a state 
Association for membership in the A. L. A., as 
many people might be interested in the broader 
problems who are not necessarily connected with 
local libraries and not workers in the local sense- 
While membership in both organizations should be 
encouraged, it should not be made a condition. 

"The committee recommends that the subject be 
considered in ^the next meetings of both state and 
national associations, with a view to closer cooper- 
ation on the lines outlined by the A. L. A com- 
mittee, that a delegate be sent from each state asso- 

February, 1911] 



ciation to be present at the deliberations of the 
A. L A. Council, and to make an official report at 
the next meeting of the state association, thus giv- 
ing both bodies the advantages of understanding the 
aims and work of the other, and tending to ^trengtn- 
n library interests throughout the country" GRACE 
D. ROSE, chairman committee. 

Illinois. The committee appointed by the 
Illinois Association have considered the mat- 
ter very carefully by correspondence, and 
submitted a report based on the questions 
submitted by this committee as follows: 

1. Yes, but it would not immediately strengthen 
the A. L. A., and might, therefore, be unwise at the 
present time. 

2. Yes. Such a delegate would not only dp this, but 
would also keep the A. L. A. more closely in sympa- 
thy with library work in his state. The mutual 
benefits probably would be more definite in the 
case of strong associations and associations of states 
near the place of holding the conference, for the 
delegates from these associations are likely to be ap- 
pointed beforehand and prepared for the conference; 

- associations and associations from states dis- 
tant from the place of holding the conference are 
likely to accredit at the last minute some one of 
their few members who go to the conference, and 
such delegates are not so likely to bring good to 
either the state associations or the A. L. A. We 
assume that the travelling expenses of delegates 
would not be paid by the A. L. A. and probably 
not by the state association. 

3. The delegate should be asked to make a report 
to the conference on the year's progress in library 
work in his state. He might well be accorded a 
seat and voice (but no vote) in the meetings of the 
A L. A. Council. The list of delegates would, of 
co'urse, be published in the A. L. A. Bulletin 
(Handbook and Conference proceedings). 

4. Yes, probably annual dues to be paid by the 
state association; these dues might be uniform for all 
associations, and amount to, say, $25. r the amount 
might be based on the number of paid-up members 
of the state association, say 20 c. per member. The 
latter plan is more likely to lead to general affilia- 
tion than the former. 

5. \Ve should like to see a round table meeting 
of certain officers, for example president, secretary 
and treasurer, or other accredited delegates of state 
library associations, held at A. L. A. conferences 
to discuss problems connected with the work of the 
state associations. For example, such a round table 
meeting might result in arranging such dates for 
certain state association meetings as to make it 
more convenient and less expensive to secure an 
A. L. A. representative or other speaker to make the 
rounds of these several state meetings than is the 
case where each association picks the date of its 
own meeting without consultation. Preliminary ar- 
rangements for joint meetings of two or more state 
associations might occasionally be made more con- 
veniently at such a round table meeting than now. 
P. L. WIXDSOB, chairman committee. 

Indiana. The Indiana Library Association, 
through its special committee, adopted the 
following : 

Question i. Answer: No. 

Question 2. Answer: Perhaps. 

Question 3. Answer: Allow the state association 
to elect a member of the Council. 

Question 4. Answer: Xo. 

Question 5. Answer: Perhaps a round table dis- 
cussion by active presidents and delegates about 
state association work. 

The committee also adds the following: If any 
other lines of action are taken looking toward helpful 
cooperation, the Indiana Library Association pledges 
its interest and support. AMALIA AICHER, chairman 

North Dakota. At the meeting of the North 
Dakota Library Association, held in Fargo 
Sept. 30 and Oct. I, the Committee on resolu- 

tions gave its report and submitted the fol- 
lowing resolution, which was adopted by the 
Association : 

"We, the committee on resolutions having under 
consideration the plan suggested by the A. L. A. 
to bring about closer relations between the A. L*. A. 
and state library associations, beg leave to submit 
the following: 

"We approve of any plan which will 
greater cooperation between the library interests o 
the country. We commend especially the appoint- 
ment of a representative from state associations t< 
the A. L A., who shall be admitted to the meetings 
of the Council." ALICE M. PADDOCK, chatrman 

Kansas. The Kansas Library Association, 
at its annual meeting at Abilene, included the 
following in the report of the Resolutions 
committee : 

"Resolved, That the Kansas Library Association 
wishes to assure the American Library Association 
of its earnest cooperation, and that it hopes to send 
a delegate to the annual meetings of said Association 
whenever possible," 

While conclusions cannot be safely drawn 
from so small a number of associations as 
compared with the total number, these re- 
sponses nevertheless indicate the sentiment of 
representative library associations of the mid- 
dle west, and as such afford suggestions look- 
ing toward a basis for tentative recommenda- 

Some facts are evident : 

1. Practically all are agreed that an official 
representative from the state association ap- 
pointed as a state delegate to the A. L. A. 
annual conference would identify the state 
association more closely with the national 
body, and would naturally lead to a report 
being made by that representative at the next 
meeting of the state library association re- 
garding the A. L. A. 

2. The A. L. A. on its part could in some 
way give recognition to this state delegate at 
the annual conference, and it is suggested 
that this be done by permitting such delegate 
to attend the A. L. A. Council meetings. Fur- 
thermore, a round table provided on the A. 
L. A. program seems very desirable where 
reports could be received from the various 
states, questions relating to the conduct of 
state and district meetings and library insti- 
tutes could be discussed, circuits of state as- 
sociation meetings planned to avoid conflict 
of dates and arrangements made for an A. 
L. A. speaker. Such round table, if provided 
for in the A. L. A. program next year, would 
also afford opportunity for the discussion of 
the question now under consideration by thi> 
committee, as to the desirability of official 
connection, or federation and the methods 

As to question 4, regarding financial obliga- 
tions, your committee would state that no 
plan has yet taken form in the minds of those 
who are considering this matter sufficiently 
definite to be presented. Formal connection 
of the state association with the A. L. A. 
would certainly necessitate an annual fee. If 


[February, 1911 

the privileges of an A. L. A. speaker at A. by which a person may serve both as an 

L. A. expense should be a part of the plan, elected member and also as an ex-ofiicio 

the fee should be large enough to justify this member. The Board decided that no official 

expense. action seemed necessary, as the remedy 

If a flexible amount consisting of a per seemed available when such dual membership 

capita fee from the state associations is occurred. 

recommended, the larger and stronger asso- A Committee on nominations for 1911 was 

ciations would with justice contribute much appointed, to be composed of A. E. Bostwick, 

more to the A. L. A. funds, while receiving chairman, W. H. Brett, W. L. Brown, Mary 

no greater benefits. If a fixed annual fee of F. Isom and Mary E. Hazeltine. 

$10, $20, or $25 be named, regardless of the The date for the 1911 A. L. A. conference 

size of the state association, it would hardly was considered, and it was decided to adhere 

seem equitable. In either case the affiliated to May 18 as the opening date, unless the 

or federated state association would be en- transportation rates in May and June show a 

titled to a speaker sent by the A. L. A., difference of $25 as a minimum. Should this 

either its president or a librarian of national difference of rates be made the secretary and 

reputation, who would come for an address the local California committee for the 1911 

without any further cost to the state associa- conference are instructed to select a date for 

tion. It would seem that such speaker might the conference between June 18 and June 25. 

also be available for state associations not Carl B. Roden then submitted his report as 

federated or affiliated, but at the expense of treasurer as follows, 

the state association. > R of the Treasurer> j an .. De c., 1910 

The committee desires a full discussion by 
the Council, in order that it may profit by the 

suggestions in case definite recommendations Jan. 9. Purd B. Wright, retiring treas- 

from the committee are desired by the M er ;;" Chalmers' Ha'dley/ headquarters ?3 ' 4 ' 

LOUncil. collections 2,142.28 

The following points are suggested for dis- May 2. Chalmers Hadley, headquarters 

cuss ; on . collections 1,203.15 

V ,, /- -i . . , . , , June 2. Chalmers Hadley, headquarters 

1. Does the Council consider that formal J collections 388.75 

connection of the state and national associa- June 13. A. L. A. Publishing Board, in- 

tions is desirable? If not, the investigations . stalment on headquarters ex ....... 

r .-, .. j e ^1 June 28. Chalmers Hadley, headquarters 

of the committee need go no further. J collections^ 389.25 

2. If some formal affiliation or federation July 19. Chalmers Hadley, refund, confer- 

is considered desirable, does the Council favor . ence deposit. ................. 400.00 

providing a round table of the officers or ^oiiec^ionf . ".^ . . . *'. . * *. 593-5 

representatives of state library associations Dec. 29. Chalmers Hadley, headquarters 

at the next meeting of the A. L. A.? collections ........ .......... 171.80 

3. Does Council favor the recognition of ^nce' on "headquarters expense. . ar . .'..?. 875.00 
representatives of the state associations by a interest on bank balane, jan.-bec. 46.50 

seat in the Council, and if so, simply as a ~I 

courtesy ^r with a vote? If by a vote, what EXPENDITURES 

changes in the constitution will be necessary? 

4- Would Council favor a sufficiently large ^Distributed" Snows!" 

fee from the state associations to provide for Bulletin $1,920.25 

the A. L. A. speakers' expenses in attendance Conference 867.95 

at state meetings? HeTdquauters-' 

ALICE S. TYLER, Chairman. Secretary's salary 2,000.00 

S. H. RANCK. Other salaries 1,800.00 

F P HlLL Miscellaneous 542.91 

s* ... ' T, ', .. ' r ., Contingencies 368.32 

Committee on Relations of the A. L. A. Travel: 123.76 

to State Library Associations. Trustees Endowment fund 

(life members) 150.00 7,908.57 


Balance Union Trust Co $2,425.97 

The Executive board of the American Li- CREDITS 

brary Association met in Chicago Jan. 5, _. 

,>.;+V, To^, ^ T \\r T TVT TT T TM Chalmers Hadley, balance National Bank 

with James I. Wyer, Jr., Mrs. H. L. Elmen- of Republic..;. 250.00 

dorf, Dr. Herbert Putnam, C. W. Andrews Cash on hand 19.23 

and Purd B. Wright present. Trustees Endowment fund (interest) 448.41 

The Board appointed a special committee '^agu^o? Library Commissions. $9.68 

to confer with publishers of newspapers as Nat'l Assoc. State Lib'ns 65.34 

to the deterioration of newspaper paper. The 

committee as named is composed of Frank P. Bills payab]e : NOV. Bulletin.. . 26.07 48.95 

Hill, chairman, Cednc Chivers and H. G. 

Wadlin. Total balance $3,192.56 

Consideration was then given to the ques- RespecjfuHy 

tion of membership in the Executive board, CHICAGO, Jan. 3, 1911. ' 

February, 1911] 



On behalf of the Finance committee Clem- 
ent W. Andrews submitted the following 
report : 
Ladies and Gentlemen: 

The Finance committee, in accordance with the 
provisions of the constitution, have considered the 
probable income of the Association for 1911 and 
submit the following estimate, showing also the 
estimate for 1910 and the actual result for 1910: 

Esti- Esti- 
mated. Actual, mated. 
1910 1910 1911 

Dues $4,720 $4,918 $5,000 

Income, Endowment Fund.. 350 448 350 

Income, Carnegie Fund - 4,45 

Sales of publications, A. L. A. 150 50 

Sales of publication, Pub. Bd 7,000 

Miscellaneous 80 43 50 

From Publishing Board 1,500 1,500 

$6,800 $6,959 $16,850 

The committee are prepared to approve appropria- 
tions to the amount of $16,850, and also the appro- 
priation to the use of the Publishing board of any 
excess of sales over the amount estimated. 

The question of the disposal of the balances of 
appropriations should be settled at this time. The 
committee are of the opinion that these balances 
should be debited with expenses properly chargeable 
against them and the remainders added to the sur- 
plus. As to the disposal of the surplus, the recom- 
mendations of the Executive beard should be sub- 
mitted to the Finance committee in the form of 
supplementary budgets. 

The chairman has been dsignated by the committee 
to audit the accounts of the secretary and treasurer, 
and has performed this duty. He finds that the 
receipts as stated by the treasurer agree with the 
transfer checks from the secretary and with the 
cash accounts of the latter. The expenditures as 
stated are all accounted for by properly transferred 
vouchers, and the bank balances and petty cash as 
stated agree with the bank books and petty cash 

The accounts of the secretary have been examined 
and found correct as cash accounts. They do not 
show bills collectable and payable, and it is a ques- 
tion whether or not they should do so. It is the 
chairman's opinion that in future the receipts both 
of the Association and Publishing board should be 
summarized and reported monthly, and that those 
of the Publishing board at least should be trans- 
ferred to the treasurer monthly. 

The committee has designated Mr. E. H. Anderson 
to audit the accounts of the trustees, and are in- 
fonr-ed that the trustees will be ready to submit 
these accounts late_r in the current month. The 
results of this audit and the final approval of the 
budget as adopted will be made a part of the formal 
report of the Finance committee to the Association 
at its annual meeting. Respectfully, 

(Signed) C. W. ANDREWS, Chairman. 

Chalmers Hadley then presented his resig- 
nation as secretary of the A. L. A., and the 
Board voted that of necessity the resignation 
be accepted. 

By unanimous vote George B. Utley was 
appointed to succeed Mr. Hadley as secretary 
of the A. L. A. at a salary of $2100 for the 
year 1911. 

The following communication was read 
from A. S. Root, chairman of the Committee 
on library training: 

"I have been delayed in answering your 
inquiry about expenditures being necessary 
by the Committee on library training, as I 
desired first of all to consult the members of 
the committee. The wish of the members of 
the committee seems to be that we renew 

our request for an appropriation of $500 for 
the purpose of inspecting library schools. In- 
asmuch as no move has been made in the 
matter because of the uncertainty whether 
any appropriation would be made, it is prob- 
able that not over $250 could be expended 
during the next fiscal year ; and if the Council 
could see their way clear to make this ap- 
propriation with the expectation that a similar 
amount would be appropriated for the follow- 
ing year, it would probably meet the wishes 
of the committee. 

"I do not see how any very intelligent 
modification of our present library school 
methods is possible until such an inspection 
as is desired by the committee has been made. 
I do not need to argue the matter, because 
it has been before the Executive board twice 
once with the favorable recommendation 
of the A. L. A. Council in addition to the 
recommendation of the committee." 

The secretary was instructed to notify Mr. 
Root of the Executive board's regret that it 
could not coirply this year with the commit- 
tee's request for the proposed appropriation 
of $250 for the first year's expenses for the 
examination of library schools. 

The Board designated James L. Gillis to 
succeed Asa Don Dickinson, who had re- 
signed from the Committee on work with the 
blind, and George B. Utley was appointed to 
succeed Chalmers Hadley, who resigned from 
the Program committee. 


The mid-winter meeting of the A. L. A. 
Publishing beard was held in Chicago, Jan. 3, 
those present being Henry E. Legler, A. E. 
Bostwick. Mrs. H. E. Elmendorf, C. W. An- 
drews, and Treasurer C. B. Roden. 

Mr. Legler submitted the annual report 
and budget for 1911, which were adopted as 
follows : 


Report and budget 

Dec. i. Balance on hand $1,865.10 

Dec. 20. Deposited P. B 1,109.78 $2,974.88 

Dec. Vouchers (incl.) 

Stanley 250 Rent. $150 2,188.23 

Balance in bank. . . 
In. P. B. cash box. 


Periodical cards 

Est. Revenue 1911: 

Endowment fund. . . 4500 
Sales 7500 

Fixed expenses: 

A. L. A. Booklist. 

Printing.... 1800 

Salaries 2400 

Rent 300 

Incidentals 300 

550.00 2,550.00 


Periodical cards. 

Printing 1200 

Salary 720 





[February, 1911 

Subject headings. 

Salary 1200 

Printing 2000 

Publications, etc. 

Hints 86 

Kroeger Suppl 100 

Italian list 75 

Polish list 100 

Advertising 250 

Addressograph 25 

Express & postage. 400 

Travel 350 

Office sundries 500 

A. L. A. Headquar- 
ters 2000 

Manual 600 

Dana 200 



Treasurer's report 

M. Roden submitted his report as treasurer for 
1910 as follows: 


Jan. 9. Purd B. Wright, retiring treasurer. $1,801.33 

Feb. 25. Trustees Carnegie fund 2,245.23 

May i. Chalmers Hadley, Headquarters 

collections 567.68 

May 2. Chalmers Hadley, Headquarters 

collections 2,070.23 

June i. Chalmers Hadley, Headquarters 

collections 615.32 

June 28. Chalmers Hadley, Headquarters 

collections 328.43 

Sept. 2. Chalmers Hadley, Headquarters 

collection 957-4 

Nov. 2. Chalmers Hadley, Headquarters 

collections 580.67 

Nov. 7. Chalmers Hadley, Headquarters 

collections 239.17 

Nov. 7. Trustees Carnegie fund 2,000.00 

Dec. 29. Chalmers Hadley, Headquarters 

collections 1,510.79 

Dec. 31. Interest on bank balance, Jan.- 

Dec 21. 16 



Checks No. 1-13 (Vouchers 84-320 Incl.) . .$12,074.21 

Balance Union Trust Co., Chicago 862.84 

Credits. Chalmers Hadley, balance: 

National Bank of Republic 250.00 

Carnegie fund, interest 1,772.21 

Headquarters, cash box 163.25 


Respectfully submitted, 
(Signed) CARL B. RODEN, Treasurer. 
CHICAGO, Jan. 3, 1911. 

The treasurer's report was adopted and 
placed on file. 

Owing to the fact that press proofs of the 
A. L. A. Booklist can no longer be sent un- 
der the second-class postal rate, the Board 
voted to discontinue the printing of the Book- 
list press proofs, and to send two copies of 
the Booklist to all unexpired subscriptions 
for the press proofs. 

After discussing the work of the A. L. A. 
Booklist, it was voted to make the subscrip- 
tion prices as follows : 

For bulk subscriptions: 

Annual subscription 40c 

For addressing and mailing ic 

For original plates (addressograph) 3C 

For changes in plates 5C 

For individual copies: 

One copy to one address $ i.oo 

For additional copies up to 10 copies, each. .50 

For 10 copies or more, each 40 

The Board voted to have prepared an an- 
nual supplement to the Subject index to the 

Miss Elva L. Bascom reported on the 
Supplement to the A. L. A. 1904 catalog, and 
stated that the list of out-of-print books in 
the 1904 catalog was prepared, and that the 
list of new editions of books in the 1904 cat- 
alog was nearly completed. The Board 
agreed to include 1910 publications in the 
Supplement to the A. L. A. catalog, 1904, and 
also agreed to include 3000 titles in the Sup- 

The proposed removal of the Booklist of- 
fice from Madison, Was., to the Executive 
office in Chicago was considered, and action 
on the proposed removal was deferred until 
the next meeting of the Board. 

Mrs. H. L. Elmendorf reported on the re- 
vised list of Subject headings, and said that 
while good progress was being made, that 
owing to the amount of work necessary for 
the revision that the work of revising the 
Subject headings could not be completed be- 
fore the end of the current year. 

The Publishing board voted to increase its 
appropriation toward the expenses of the 
A. L. A. Executive office in Chicago from 
$1500 to $2000 a year. 

The question of indexing library reports 
had been suggested by the Board during last 
year, and A. E. Bostwick submitted data on 
library reports which had been prepared by 
Miss Moody, of the St. Louis Public Library. 
Mr. Bostwick submitted the following: 

No. of libraries. No. of reports 

Public libraries 72 2000 

Library commissions.... 34 (about) 200 

State libraries 15 300 

University libraries 5 40 

Foreign libraries (Can- 
ada and England) .... 5 200 

131 2740 

Mr. Bostwick said Miss Moody estimated 
that early reports would average one card 
and late reports two or three cards. Among 
some suggested topics to be considered in the 
index were: lectures, children, school refer- 
ence collections, occupations of card holders, 
instruction in use of library, staff, pensions, 
contracts, size of rooms, periodicals, selection 
of books, training class, records, Sunday 
opening, hours of staff, open shelves, etc. 

It was voted that the chairman and Mr. 
Bostwick be appointed as a committee with 
power to arrange for an index to library re- 
ports at an expense not to exceed $300. 

The secretary submitted a statement as to 
the expense of reprinting the Index to gen- 
eral literature, and in view of the few re- 
quests for this index advised against its 

The Board appointed George B. Utley to 
succeed Chalmers Hadley, who had resigned 
as secretary. 

February, 1911] 



State Xtbrarp Commissions 


The middle-vest section of the League of 
Library Commissions held their annual mid- 
winter meeting on Jan. 3 and 4 in Chicago, at 
the Congress Hotel. There were 18 active 
commission workers present, six members of 
library commission boards, besides a number 
of librarians who were in Chicago for the 
various library meetings of the week. There 
were 1 1 commissions represented : Georgia, 
Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Minnesota, 
Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Pennsyl- 
vania, and Wisconsin. In addition there were 
representatives from California and New 
York who were interested in library exten- 
sion, although not directly engaged in com- 
mission work. 

The first session opened on Tuesday after- 
noon. Jan. 3, with Miss Clara Baldwin, the 
president of the League, in the chair. The 
general topic for discussion was "Rural ex- 
tension from local centers." Mr. Carl Milam, 
of Indiana, opened the discussion. His chief 
point was that country people should get real 
service from libraries, that they should have 
as nearly as possible the same library facilities 
which people in cities now have, and that 
they can have such service only by making 
adequate financial returns. This matter of 
financial support was discussed at some 
length. Miss Charlotte Templeton, of Ne- 
braska, brought up the subject of a library 
post, which is of particular interest to com- 
mission workers. In these days of state and 
county circulating libraries, with rural mail 
carriers going forth from every town and 
village, library facilities might be brought to 
the very doors of the most isolated, if the 
book post rates were not so high as to be 
almost prohibitive. Resolutions were passed 
asking the Executive board of the League to 
appoint a committee to consider a satisfac- 
tory library post bill, and to plan methods for 
obtaining a favorable consideration of it by 
Congress. This committee is to report at the 
annual meeting of the League next summer. 

On Wednesday morning a number of com- 
mittes of the League reported. Mr. Milam 
told of the efforts which have been made to 
obtain second-class mail rates on commission 
bulletins. Miss Bascom, editor of the A. L. 
A. Booklist, reported the action of the pub- 
lishing board in raising the price of the 
Booklist to commissions. The Booklist has 
been so enlarged in scope since the beginning 
of its publication that the original price is 
now insufficient to pay for the printing. Miss 
Hazeltine suggested that the editor include 
in the Booklist titles of monographs on timely 
subjects. Since the labor of getting together 
such material would add considerably to the 
already heavy burdens of the editor, it was 
further proposed that the League might assist 

in this work through it< publications com- 

Mr. Bliss, of Pennsylvania, then reported 
the work of the publications committee. He 
announced that arrangements have been made 
by which the A. L. A. Publishing Board will 
hereafter handle all of the League publica- 
tions at A. L. A. headquarters. Since the 
last meeting of the League Miss Hassler's 
"Graded list of books for reading aloud" has 
been reprinted as a League publication ; the 
"Suggestive list of children's books" pre- 
pared by the Wisconsin Commission has been 
issued, and the "Handbook" of the League 
is ready for distribution. Mr. Dudgeon 
spoke of the need of preparing suitable out- 
lines for study clubs. 

Mr. Dudgeon reported as chairman of the 
committee on revision of the constitution, the 
changes recommended to provide for sec- 
tional meetings. This matter will be taken up 
at the next meeting of the League. 

Mr. Dudgeon introduced a resolution ask- 
ing the Executive board of the League to en- 
courage sectional meetings in parts of the 
United States where they have never been 
held. He further moved that the middle-'.vest- 
ern section recommend to the Executive board 
the payment of the expenses of the president 
in attending sectional meetings. 

Wednesday afternoon was given up to the 
discussion of the ways in which commissions 
may cooperate with the State Library Asso- 
ciation in holding institutes, round table 
meetings, and district meetings. 


The eighth biennial report of the Vermont 
Board of Library Commissioners for term 
ending June 30, 1910, was issued during the 
later part of the year 1910 (94 p. illus. D. St. 
Johnsburg, 1910). It contains the general re- 
port of the commission's work. In this report 
is noted the amendment to the library law 
made by the previous General Assembly, 
through which the Board of Commissioners 
was authorized to assist those libraries in the 
smaller towns that render useful assistance to 
the country schools and districts remote from 
the library. For this purpose an annual ap- 
propriation of $1000 was placed at the dis- 
posal of the board. By this appropriation the 
board was able to assist 38 towns with gifts 
of carefully selected collections of books 
costing from $20 to $35 each. Of these 38 
towns. 21 have done substantial work in the 
small country schools, and several have main- 
tained branch or travelling libraries in their 
remote sections. 

During the year there were 63 applications 
for annual aid : of these 22 were from towns 
which did not apply the first year. to 
the limited appropriation the board v r^ able 
to grant assistance to only 45 of this number. 
Libraries were established bv aid of the ?tate 



[February, 1911 

in eight towns. Two towns established libra- 
ries without the aid of the state. There are 
246 towns and cities in Vermont. All but 67 
have libraries, and 17 of these have travelling 
library stations. All but 19 of the established 
libraries are free. The reason these are not 
free is generally the condition of some gift 
or the sentiment connected with some time- 
honored tradition. Increase in appropriations 
is urged. 

The report of the Superintendent of the 
Travelling Library Department, a list of trav- 
elling library stations, sample lists, catalogs, 
and directions for making application for 
state aid, with library notes complete the 

Xtbrarp Clubs 


Following the custom of years, the Jan- 
uary meeting of the Chicago Library Club 
was the annual reception, which for several 
years has been given in honor of the library 
workers, gathered in the city the first week 
in the new year, for the meetings connected 
with the A. L. A. and affiliated associations. 
Since "library week" has become an estab- 
lished event, these receptions are especially 
delightful, and this opportunity for social 
meeting is thoroughly appreciated. 

On Wednesday evening, Jan. 4, the club 
again enjoyed the hospitality of the Art In- 
stitute Board, so cordially extended last year, 
who placed at its disposal the Field Memo- 
rial, Stickney, and Munger galleries, with 
their rich collections of paintings. 

The president, Mr. Carlton, assisted by 
Mr. J. I. Wyer, president of the A. L. A. : 
Mrs. Elmendorf, vice-president; Director and 
Mrs. W. M. R. French, of the Art Institute ; 
Miss Ahern, Mr. Legler, and others received 
the guests, who at will enjoyed conversation, 
pictures, music or dancing, and later the tour 
of the galleries conducted by Mr. French. 

Mesdames Carlton, Hanson, Legler, and 
Roden presided at the refreshment table in 
the Stickney room. 

About 250 guests and members braved the 
cold and storm of the evening to be present. 


The December meeting of the Long Island 
Library Club was held on Dec. 8, 1910, at 
Pratt Institute Free Library and took the 
form of a joint meeting; the New York Li- 
brary Club being its guest. A delightful and 
literary atmosphere was created by the ex- 
hibition of books suitable for Christmas gifts 
held in an adjoining room and which proved 
to be the center of attraction both before and 
after the regular program. The meeting 
was called to order by Mr. Stevens, and all 
business with the 'exception of the election 

of new members being dispensed with for the 
evening, the two clubs listened with great 
interest to a short and informal speech by 
Mr. Anderson, and after that to the follow- 
ing papers : "The Christmas book exhibit in 
libraries," by Miss Plummer (publisher in 
L. j., Jan., 1911, p. 4) ; "Principles of selec- 
tion," by Miss Hassler; and "Management of 
the exhibit," by Miss Cowing. 

Refreshments were served in the exhibi- 
tion room and an unusually pleasant and 
profitable meeting was brought to a close. 
M. W. ALLEN, Secretary. 


A joint meeting of the New York Library 
Club and the Long Island Library Club was 
held in the assembly room of the Y. M. C. 
A., 215 West 23d street, on Tuesday evening, 
Jan. 17, 1910, with the president of the New 
York Club, Mr. Edwin H. Anderson, in the 
chair, a large number being present. Routine 
business was transacted and 10 new members 

The program of the evening was on "Our 
foreign population," with special leaning 
towards its relation to the library and the 
library's relation to it. 

Mr. Charles R. Towson, senior secretary, 
Industrial department, International Commit- 
tee, Y M. C. A., spoke of the work of the 
Association in teaching English to foreigners. 
He said that at the present time there are 
12 of its representatives at European ports 
whose duty it is to acquaint the immigrant 
with the possibilities of the Y. M. C. A. 
On his arrival here, other agents are wait- 
ing to aid him. Twelve thousand non-Eng- 
lish speaking men are now studying English 
in its classes. In New York City alone 44 
out of 100 volunteer college student workers 
are teaching English to foreigners regard- 
less of sect. Eighty-five per cent, of the 
number are engineering students. Results : 
For the foreigner, he can understand the 
"boss," he gets better wages, his economic 
value is increased. For the men who teach, 
the establishment of sympathetic relations 
with a class of men whom they will later 

Nine of these classes are held in public 
library buildings. No fees are charged at 
the beginning. After the foreigner's confi- 
dence is gained, he often volunteers to bear 
the expense of the class, especially of the 
necessary materials for carrying it on. The 
method of teaching is one which Dr. Peter 
Roberts, himself an officer of the Y. M. C. A., 
has adapted from a French method. It con- 
sists in suiting or applying the English word 
or phrase to the object or action. For ex- 
ample, "I get up in the morning," "I wash 
my face," etc., the subjective value of the 
subject often being of some consequence. The 
best results are obtained by teachers of heart 
power and dramatic instinct and not neces- 

February, 1911] 


sarily of pedagogical training. He empha- 
sized the desire of the Y. M. C. A. to co- 
operate with the libraries in their work with 

Mrs. Vladimir Simkhovitch, of Greenwich 
House, was the next speaker. She said the 
subject of emigration was the social problem 
in another guise. On the extreme East Side, 
where there are many socialists, there is 
much reading, for the social problem is one 
that requires study. Where there are Scan- 
dinavian, German and Jewish emigrants the 
library is always well patronized. It is more 
difficult to get results with Italians. They 
are more inclined to the arts. Mrs. Simkho- 
vitch suggested story-telling to adults as well 
as to children and said she would like to see 
our best English and American literature 
dramatized and suggested that after such pre- 
sentations books be at hand for circulation. 
She favored the translation of our English 
classics into the language of the foreigner. 
She referred to the question of the use of 
the assembly halls in library buildings and 
felt that the library policy should be more 
liberal; that the halls should be used for 
concerts, little plays, even for dancing, and 
mentioned the field houses in the Chicago 
Park System, used for recreation, as places 
where people found expression. 

An animated discussion was brought out 
by the foregoing addresses, several of the 
following participants touching upon the use 
of the assembly rooms in library buildings. 

It was noticed that those engaged in purely 
administrative work were inclined to think 
that the present bar of religious or political 
topics from such halls should be considered 
seriously before being removed while those 
engaged in the sociological part of the work 
felt the bar a handicap. Several favored the 
translation of English classics into foreign 

Miss Rose spoke of the work of the 
Chatham Square Branch of the N. Y. P. L.. 
of its co-operation with the neighborhood 
schools, missions and churches. She said 
the Italian people were difficult to reach be- 
cause not a reading public. The only way 
to get at them was through the small 
churches where she had always found the 
priests very willing to cooperate. In work 
with the Jews, long hours and lack of suit- 
able clothing were obstacles to be met. The 
older members of the family were suspicious 
and timid, but were often reached by giving 
the children application blanks to take home. 
Work \vith the Chinese had been started. 
Some difficulties had been encountered, as 
books must be ordered from catalogs and pur- 
chased abroad; Xe-,v York dealers are not 
familiar with this branch of the book trade; 
the cataloging and binding are difficult. She 
had found the Chinese eager to help, how- 
ever, and circulars in Chinese telling about 
the librarf have been distributed in the Chin- 
ese section. 

Mrs. Maltby, of the Tompkins Square 
Branch of the N. Y. P. L., spoke of the 
English class for Hungarians conducted by 
the Y. M. C. A. at her branch. She ad- 
vocated the assignment of a library assist- 
ant of the nationality of the foreign element 
of the locality to work with it 

Miss Burns, of the Hudson Park Branch 
of the N. Y. P. L., said that the Italian 
is retiring and dreamy, and loves literature 
and poetry and she feels that perhaps the 
aesthetic hope of the country lies with him. 
She spoke of the foreigners desire for 
books on laws and civics and recommended 
as a book, simple, popular, and most likely to 
appeal "'Guide for the emigrant," issued 
by the Connecticut Daughters of the Revolu- 
tion. [Guida degli Stati Uniti per 1'immi- 
grante italiano, by J. Foster Carr. Double- 
day, Page & Co., 1910. 15 c.] 

Mr. Adams and Mr. Wellman touched 
upon assembly room topics. 

Mr. lies gave high praise to a book re- 
cently issued by the Sage Foundation, "Wider 
use of the school plant," by Clarence Arthur 

Mr. Stevens, president of the Long 

Island Library Club, told of a movement 

by an organization of educated Italians in 

Brooklyn for work among their own people. 



The second meeting of the season was held 
on Monday evening, Jan. 9, 1911, at the H. 
Josephine Widener Branch of The Free Li- 
brary of Philadelphia. 

Upon motion, the reading of the minutes of 
the last meeting was omitted. After an- 
nouncing the election of five new members, 
and extending an invitation to members and 
friends to attend the isth annual meeting of 
the Pennsylvania Library Club and New 
Jersey Library Association at the Hotel Chel- 
sea, Atlantic City, N. J., Mr. Hedley pre- 
sented the speaker of the evening, ex-Gov- 
ernor Pennypacker, who gave an interesting 
talk on "Early Pennsylvania printers and 
their books," having a number of the early 
editions on exhibition, one of which was the 
Aiken Bible published by Robert Aiken, be- 
ing the first Bible printed in America and 
printed in Philadelphia ; also several books 
by Francis Daniel Pastorious, among others 
the "Commonplace book." The earliest print- 
ers in Philadelphia were William Bradford 
and his son Andrew, though of course we all 
know that Benjamin Franklin was the real 
printer of Philadelphia. The Dunkards in 
Ephrata printed in 1745 the "Ephrata mar- 
tyr book," a copy of which was examined 
with interest At the close of the address a 
cordial vote of thanks was extended to Gov- 
ernor Pennypacker by the Club, after which 
the meeting adjourned, followed by a recep- 
tion in the Art Galleries. 

JEAN E. GRAFFEN, Secretary. 
. .- : J~_^A 


[February, 1911 

Scbools anfc 


Three graduates of the School have re- 
cently received appointments in the New 
York Public Library, as follows: 
Miss Cara Hutchins, '09, Chatham Square 

Miss Lieze Holmes, '09, Hudson Park 

Miss Louie Smith, '10, Seward Park 


Miss Ethel Daniel, '09, has been engaged as 
a substitute in the Carnegie Library of 
Atlanta, for three months, to fill the place 
of Miss Bradley, '06, who has obtained 
a brief leave of absence. 

Miss Margaret Bryan, '09, has been ap- 
pointed librarian of the Public Library, 
Troy, Alabama. 

Miss Minnie Murrill, '10, has been appointed 
indexer in the office of the Southern Bell 
Telephone Company, Atlanta, to fill the 
place recently held by Miss Louie Smith, 
who has received an appointment in New 
York City. 

Miss Pauline Benson, '08, has been appointed 
librarian of the Library in Langley, S. C. 
JULIA T. RANKIN, Director. 


The students returned from the Christmas 
vacation Jan. 4. 

Phyllis Evers Murray, Manchester, Ohio, 
Glendale College, 1907, entered the junior 
class at the beginning of the winter term. 

Ruth Tillotson Miller, Scottsville, N. Y., 
University of Chicago, Ph.B. 1908, and 
Louise Singley, Baltimore, Md., Wells Col- 
lege, 1903-1904, who have been on the staff 
of the library, have resigned their positions 
and re-entered the junior class. 

Kate Keith, Pittsburgh, Pa., Smith College 
A.B. 1910, and a member of the junior class, 
has been appointed children's librarian at the 
Central Library. 

Miss Power, of the faculty of the Training 
School, attended the annual meeting of the 
Pennsylvania Educational Association at Har- 
risburg Jan. 3-6, and presented a paper on 
"Story telling and the selection of stories" 
at a meeting of the Child Study Section. 


The semester examinations were held dur- 
ing the last week in January, the second 
term beginning February I. 

Cataloging, reference and bibliography, 
book selection and the history of libraries 
are year courses, but during the first term 
classification, lean systems, and most of the 

short courses on the various processes in the 
physical treatment of the book were taken 
up. The class also visited the University 
of Pennsylvania and Mercantile Libraries, 
and was the guest of the Pennsylvania Li- 
brary Club at the Widener Branch of the 
Free Library of Philadelphia, enjoying espe- 
cially Governor Pennypacker's talk on "The 
early printers of Pennsylvania." 

Mr. Austin Baxter Keep gave an illustrated 
lecture on "American Colonial libraries" on 
Jan. 31, which was an auspicious be- 
ginning of the work on the American library 
movement, to which the second term's work 
in the history of libraries is to be entirely 

Miss Clara W. Hunt, of Brooklyn, gave 
a course of five lectures on "Children's read- 
ing and problems of the children's room" on 
Feb. 1-3. Practical work and reading will 
accompany this course. 

The course on binding, given by Miss 
Hopkins, will be enriched this year by two 
lectures, one by Mr. A. L. Bailey of Wil- 
mington, the other by Mr. C. W. O'Connor 
of the American Library Bindery. 


Miss Irene Winans, '03, has resigned her 
position at the University of Pennsylvania 
Library, to accept the librarianship of the 
East High School, Rochester, N. Y. 

Miss Mellie Smith, '09, has been pro- 
moted to the position of head cataloger 
at the State College Library, Ames, Iowa. 

Miss Margaret Meagher, '09, has accepted 
a position with the Metropolitan Museum of 
Art, N. Y. 

Miss O'lla Ayres, '10, is doing work in 
Washington, under Mr. C. Hart Merriam. 

Miss Katharine Rogers, '10, on Jan. I 
began work as a cataloger in the State 
College Library, Ames, Iowa. 

On Saturday, Jan. 14, Mr. Seumas 
McManus gave a most delightful evening of 
"Irish fairy and folk tales" under the au- 
spices of the Drexel Library School Alumni, 
for the benefit of the Alice B. Kroeger 
Memorial Lectureship Fund, which is stead- 
ily growing towards the limit set as the 


The lecture course of the winter term be- 
gan Jan. 3 with a lecture by Miss Car- 
oline Burnite on "The furniture and fittings 
of the children's room," a repetition of the 
valuable talk given to the class of 1910. 

On the loth, Mr. W. D. Johnston of Co- 
lumbia University spoke to the students 
on "The trained librarian in the educational 
institution;" and on the I7th, Miss Caroline 
Hewins, on the eve of her departure for 
Europe, gave a delightful talk, contrasting 
the lives of American children of a gen- 
eration ago with children's lives of to-day, 

February, 191 1] 


and shor.-ing how from the changed condi- 
tions there had developed a need for 
children's libraries and librarians. 

Several of the students attended a joint 
meeting of the New York and Long Island 
Library Clubs held in New York, the even- 
ing of Jan. 17, the subject of the evening 
being 'Our foreign population." 

The usual parties have been made up 
for visiting Pratt Institute and seeing the 
evening classes at work, always an inspiring 

Assignments for story-telling at various 
places, such as the United Neighborhood 
House, Maxwell House, the Bliss Kinder- 
garten (where a club of girls of 12 to 14 
years forms the audience), and probably the 
Settlement of the Hebrew Educational So- 
ciety. Eight students have volunteered for 
this, giving every other Thursday and al- 
ternating in couples in story-telling and in 
looking after the conditions of the room and 
of the audience. 


Miss Jane Gardner has been appointed 
head of the art reference department of the 
New Bedford Public Library. 

Miss Nathalie Maurice has been chosen as 
librarian of the Madison Square Church 
House, Nev, York. 

Miss Leora Cross has recently been ap- 
pointed librarian of the West High School 
Library. Cleveland. 

Miss Mary Dawson has recently joined the 
library staff of the American Telephone and 
Telegraph Co., New York. 

Mis; Margaret Fullerton has been en- 
gaged for temporary work by the Ohio State 
Library; Columbus. 

Miss Ruth Townsend has been appointed 
organizer and librarian of the new library 
at Harrison, N. J. 

DANA, John C. Booklists and other publica- 

tions. (Modern American library economy 

as illustrated by the Newark (N. J.) Free 

Public Library, pt. n.) Elm Tree Press, 

Woodstock, Vt, 1910. 31 p. D. 

This booklet, which appears as Part 2 of 

the Modern American Library Economy se- 

ries, is in reality an account of the practice 

of the Newark Free Public Library in the 

matter of library publications. It is in the 

characteristic style of all contributions to the 

literature of library economy coming from 

that source, and besides a de'scription of the 

book lists issued, contains many interesting 

comments on the administration of a library 

and its place in the community. 

The book lists are in the nature of selec- 
tive lists of the "best books" on special sub- 
jects, and take the place of the regular month- 

ly lists of additions which were formerly is- 
sued. It has been learned by experience that 
while the lists of additions were but little 
used, these brief lists of the library's re- 
sources on special subjects meet a growing 
demand, and have certain advantages for 
both the public and the library staff. A few 
of the lists, such as a Thousand of the best 
novels, Books for boys and girls, Best story 
books for children, School-room libraries, 
Trees and birds, etc., are published in the 
form of pamphlets of 16 or more pages, but 
most of the lists contain only about 12 titles, 
and are usually printed or mimeographed on 
slips or folders 2 x 5 in size. Full explana- 
tions of the principles governing the selection 
of subjects, the compilation of the lists, and 
the practical details of their printing and dis- 
tribution are given, and promise to be ex- 
ceedingly suggestive to librarians who are 
experimenting in the best methods of ac- 
c uainting their public with the resources of 
the library. 

It is shown, also, what the live lib ran' with 
time and funds at its disposal can do in the 
way of issuing other publications besides lists 
of books. Some of those undertaken were 
pamphlets containing classified references, 
giving specific pages in the books named, to 
subjects included in the course of study in 
the schools, a short history of Newark for 
use in the schools, extracts from city ordi- 
nances, clean city league tracts, reprints of 
entire poems, reprints from the newspapers, 
and reprints from periodicals of articles writ- 
ten by the librarian. Not all of these lines of 
activity will be found feasible for the aver- 
age library, but in general it may be said that 
they are in keeping with a growing conscious- 
ness that the library is the servant of the 
people, and they deserve the serious consider- 
ation of every librarian. C. W. F. 

hallen in Stadten iiber 10,000 Einwohner 
von Bennata Otten. Mit einer Einleitung 
von Dr. G. Fritz. 2. Erganzungsheft der 
Blatter fur Volksbibliotheken. Leipzig: 
Otto Harrassowitz. viii-fio4 P- 8. 
This list of popular libraries and reading 
rooms in German cities of over 10.000 inhabi- 
tants, by the director of the Liibeck Library, 
is arranged alphabetically by cities and gives 
summary information regarding population, 
number of volumes, number of readers, cir- 
culation, finances. It is the first statistical 
review of its kind and forms a useful refer- 
ence book. At the same time, says Dr. Fritz, 
it shows what still remains to be done to ex- 
tract full possibilities from the library as 
"ally, with equal rank," of the school in the 
work of popular education. F. W. 

LIBRARIES. Select catalog and guide. A 
classified list of the best books in all sub- 



[February, 1911 

jects in the Central, North and West li- 
braries. London, printed for the Public 
Libraries Committee, 1910. 827 p. 
This work is an interesting example of the 
printed catalog intended primarily for the 
user of the library who desires to have a 
handy compilation for home use. It is, con- 
sequently, not a complete record of all books 
in the libraries, but merely a selected list of 
the "principal books on all subjects stocked 
in the Central, West and North branches at 
March, 1910." As explanation of the fact 
that a selected rather than a complete cat- 
alog has been printed the preface states that 
"readers have access to books as they stand 
on the shelves, and it has been found in other 
libraries established on this system that com- 
plete printed catalogs are toe costly, become 
very soon out of date, and only sell to a 
limited extent." Following the preface there 
is a chapter, Guide to the libraries, which 
gives considerable information about the or- 
ganization of these libraries, including descrip- 
tions of the reference and lending depart- 
ments, reading rooms, children's rooms, lec- 
ture halls, a table of the scale of charges for 
the use of the lecture halls for non-library 
purposes, register of translators, summary of 
the classification used in the libraries, etc. 
Of special interest is the "Register of Trans- 
lators," described as follows: 

"In response to the wishes of a number of 
readers the chief librarian has established a 
register of translators who are willing, by 
arrangement, to assist persons desiring trans- 
lations from foreign languages. The Cen- 
tral library staff keep a list of persons who 
have expressed a desire to have their names 
placed on this register, and when any one 
asks for a list of translators in any language 
the register is produced, and the enquirer 
notes such names as appear most suitable 
and makes his own arrangement with the 
translator chosen. In return for the regis- 
tration the translators agree to assist the 
library staff with any special translating free 
of charge." 

The catalog is a classified subject list, with 
an alphabetical subject index to the classifica- 
tion. There is no separate author list and 
no author index, except a brief list, by sur- 
names only, of the foreign authors whose 
works are included in the catalog. The 
classification used is the subject classifi- 
cation published in 1006. As this classifica- 
tion is fairly close, the list of books under 
the various sub- heads will have some use in 
American libraries as short subject bibliog- 
raphies, particularly in those subjects in which 
an English library naturally specializes, such 
as history and description of the various Brit- 
ish colonies, London, etc. The list under this 
latter head is especially interesting because 
of its close classification by the different sec- 
tions of the great city, as Islington, Holborn, 
Shoreditch, etc. As is natural in this type of 

book list, the catalog entries are brief, giving 
only author, short title, date, illustrations, and 
number of volumes if more than one. The 
book is convenient in shape and size, well 
arranged and clearly printed, in many re- 
spects a model of this type of public library 
printed catalog. I. G. MUDGE. 

JBconcmp and tbietory 


Public Libraries, January, contains "The 
rural community and the library," by Dr, 
Stanley Coulter, dean of the School of Sci- 
ence, Purdue University, Indiana. This ar- 
ticle, which gives a wide survey of the condi- 
tions and needs of the rural community, will- 
be concluded in the February number. "The 
farmer, his book and his heart," by Frances 
Hobart, a paper read before the Agricultural 
libraries' round-table at Mackinac, and "Some 
recent poets of note," by Arthur Davison 
Ficke, complete the number. 

Librarian, The, October, 1910, contains a 
brief account of the library congresses at 
Brussels and Exeter, and an article by A. H. 
Millar on "Dual control of libraries and 
museums," in which methods of joint-admin- 
istration of library, museums and art galler- 
ies are considered. A brief list of "best 
books" and of "forthcoming books" and the 
departments complete the number. The No- 
vember number contains "Birth of the various 
booktrade catalogs," by T. W. Huck, and a 
continuation of the account of the Exeter con- 
gress. A brief article on the provincial li- 
brary of Luton and departments complete the 

Library Assistant, January, contains "Re- 
port on the library conference in Brussels, 
August, 1910," by H. V. Hopwood; "The 
Information bureau : an undeveloped possi- 
bility," by F. J. Patrick. In the last men- 
tioned article it is stated that the primary 
object of an information bureau would be 
"the organization of research work. The bu- 
reau would be provided with a card cabinet, 
sheaf, or any other form of record in which 
insertions could be made at any point, and 
in this would be permanently preserved in 
an easily accessible manner the results of all 
searches made. With such a record no 
search would need to be made twice, and in 
time a valuable store of information would 
accumulate which should prove of great ser- 
vice in answering the more difficult inquiries 
made by readers and save a considerable 
amount of time and trouble for both staff 
and public. 

"Thus, the primary object of the bureau is 
only a fraction of the work which it might 
accomplish, however, for, in addition to 
unearthing information required, the assist- 
ant in charge could record information likely 
to be asked for . . Miscellaneous collections 

February, 1911] 



of reproductions of pictures, out-of-the-way 
crests and coats-of-arms, portraits, maps, 
views and other forms of illustrations, all of 
which would often be of use if one only 
knew exactly where to find them, could be 
made accessible by means of the informa- 
tion bureau." 

The idea of the information bureau is al- 
ready familiar in this country, and the sub- 
ject received careful and broad consideration 
in an article by William C. Lane, librarian 
of Harvard University (L. j., November, 
1908), in which the scheme is carefully 
worked out and proposes to cover a more 
extensive field than the article noted in the 
Library Assistant. 

Librarv Association Record, November, 
contains "Book production and the loose-leaf 
principle," by L. Stanley Jast; also the pro- 
ceedings of the thirty-third annual meeting 
of the Library Association at Exeter. 

Library World, December, igio, contains 
an article, "On the signs and symbols in 
cataloging/' by Walter J. Jackson, which is 
largely devoted to questions concerning ac- 
cents in foreign manuscripts ; "National bib- 
liographies," by R. A. Peddie, pt xxyin, 
"Argentine Republic," and an informing little 
article on "Story-telling" complete the num- 

Bulletin of Bibliography, October, 1910, 
contains pt. 2 of a reading list on "Woman 
suffrage," by Josephine O'Flynn; "English 
drawing room annuals, a bibliography" (pt 
2), by F. W. Faxon: "Births and deaths in 
the periodical world," and also the Magazine 
subject-index, July-Sept., 1910, and the Dra- 
matic index, July-Sept., 1910. 

Special Libraries, December, 1910, com- 
pletes the first year of this periodical's exist- 
ence. It contains "The library of the de- 
partment of Legislative references, Balti- 
more," by Mary S. Wallis, describing routine 
methods in a "legislative library. It notes 
that "during the session of the legislature the 
bills are indexed as fast as they are sent 
up from the printers. At the last session 
12 copies of each bill were received, one each 
for our permanent file, six for complete sets 
to exchange with other states, and the rest 
for general distribution. The proceedings as 
printed in the newspapers are clipped and 
preserved. When the list of bills as signed 
by the governor appears, it is indicated on 
the cards by the letter "P," meaning "passed." 
In case of amendments, notes are added on 
the cards referring to pages in the journal 
proceedings 'or perhaps to typewritten copies 
in the letter file. Ordinances are received 
from the city register soon after they are 
passed by the council and approved by the 
mayor, and are also indexed under specific 
subjects. Thus we have four card indexes, 
the regular dictionary catalog, legislative 
bills, ordinances, and the bills of the different 

states received from the Law Reporting Com- 
pany. n 

"Sources of municipal information, b 
Frederic Rex, assistant statistician, Municipal 
Library, Chicago, and notes on state legisla- 
tion, public affairs, and bibliographies com- 
plete the number. 

Bollettino delle Biblioteche Popolari for 
Nov. 30, 1910, contains an account of the 
school library at Palermo, and a continuation 
of the catalog of the Magistrates Library 
of the Province of Reggio Calabria. 

Revista de Archives, Bibliotecas y Museos 
in its issue for September-October, 1910. has 
number 3 of the series of articles on the 
relation between national libraries and the 
diffusion of culture ; this paper being given 
up to foreign libraries. "National libraries," 
in the mind of the writer of these articles, 
certainly included more than libraries belong- 
ing to national governments ; so far as Amer- 
ican libraries are concerned, he seems to have 
made it synonymous with public libraries. 
It is an interesting consideration of European 
and American libraries, showing evidences 
of extensive research and with an unusual 
appreciation of the place the public library 
takes in public education. There is also a 
report of the Brussels conference, and a 
continuation of the cataloging rules for Span- 
ish libraries. H. M. L. 

For Folke-og Barneboksamlinger, vol. 4, 
no. 4, December, 1910, is largely devoted to 
the Proceedings of the third annual meeting 
of Norwegian librarians at Hamar on Oct. 
15 ult. Papers were read by J. Brock, Ha- 
mar, "On technical literature in Norwegian 
public libraries:" by A. Arnesen, Christiania, 
"On competing libraries ;" by K. Fischer, re- 
cently appointed librarian of the Norwegian 
Storthing, "On the duties of the librarian;" 
and by A. Kildal, Bergen, "On library inspec- 
tion." The papers are reported in full, to- 
gether with the accompanying discussion, and 
the meeting is stated to have been very 
successful. Mr. J. C. M. Hanson, the new 
associate director of the Chicago University 
library is in for a highly flattering sketch 
by Mr. Nyhuus. J. D. 

Folkebiblioteksbladet, vol. 8, no. 4, Octo- 
ber-December. 1910, leads with an article on 
Tolstoi by A. Jensen. Fr. Nilsson writes on 
the "Public libraries of Copenhagen," and 
there are reports from those of Stockholm, 
as well as from the Lecture bureau of the 
Society of Popular Education. The greater 
part of the number is devoted to instructive 
book reviews, special mention being due to 
that of G. H. von Koch's recent book on 
the social conditions of the United States, 
"Emigranternas land." J. D. 

Zentralblatt fur Bibliotheksu'esen for De- 
cember, 1910, contains an article in .Italian 
by Antonio Spagnolo on abbreviations in 
Veronese minuscle mss., with comments in 
English by W. M. Lindsay. 


[February, 1911 

Borsenblatt fur den deutschen Buchhandel, 
for Nov. 28, 1910, suggests, as one means of 
keeping trashy literature from youth, the in- 
stitution of reading hours for children, on 
the American plan, in the popular libraries. 

Dec. 5, 1910, reports that there has ex- 
isted for some time, in Copenhagen, an insur- 
ance library, \vith reading room, with a con- 
siderable number of books illustrating the 
subject of insurance from various standpoints. 
Subscription : I crown per quarter. F. W. 

De Bcekzaal (The Library), vol. 6, no. n, 
November, 1910, contains a description of 
"Cutter's author marks," by the editor, which 
has been revised for use of libraries in the 
Netherlands by Miss M. Wierdsma, librarian 
of the Public Library and Reading Room in 

Dr. Greve says : "Although these tables 
have been in use in America since about 
1880 and are now used extensively, they re- 
mained almost unknown in Europe. In Nor- 
way they were first used in 1906 and in the 
Netherlands a few of the public libraries 
have given them a trial." The original ta- 
bles, however, were made too largely of 
combinations of English letters to be of great 
advantage to Holland libraries. Miss Wierd- 
sma devoted several years to the revision 
of these tables. Taking the Cutter tables 
as a model she worked out the Holland 
Author-tables to three figures, although for 
the present publications the two-figure ta- 
bles are sufficient. Should the three-figure 
tables become necessary they also will be 


Alabama. Libraries. The Christmas issue 
of The Montgomery Advertiser contains an 
account of the library development of the 
state. Library progress has been rapid in 
Alabama during the last six years, since the 
state association was established in 1904. In 
1907 the state was added to the list of com- 
mission states through the establishment of 
the Library Extension division of the De- 
partment of Archives and History. There 
are now 20 separate library buildings in 
Alabama and more than 10 specially trained 
library workers. 

The Library Extension Division has con- 
ducted two summer courses in library train- 
ing, and has carried on the work of dis- 
tributing travelling libraries throughout the 
state, and also has developed work with the 

Buffalo (N. Y.) P. L. A new branch of 
the library was opened at No. 306 East Utica 
Street on Jan. 2. 

Chicago, III. John Crerar L. (Rpt. year 
1909.) Added 20, 1,35 (4773 by gift) ; total 
251,281. Total use of lib., v. and periodicals 
382,000 ( decrease 1.8 per cent, over previous 
year). Total number visitors recorded dur- 

ing year 134,579 (daily average 430, an in- 
crease of four per cent, over 1908. 

Considerable improvement was made in the 
accommodations of the library. "The mezza- 
nine platform between the fifth and sixth 
floors was completed and fitted up with 
book stacks which will hold some 100,000 
volumes. Nearly all the stacks on the sixth 
floor were removed. A small part of the 
space thus acquired was used for an exten- 
sion of the public catalog room adding 360 
trays and four seats, and the remainder 
for the administrative work of the Library, 
including new offices for the librarian and 
the assistants in charge of the correspond- 

"The space between the reading room and 
the Senn room, about 400 sq. ft., which was 
formerly occupied by the librarian's offices, 
has been added to the main reading room and 
a new delivery desk has been installed in 
an alcove adjoining this space. These changes 
add 30 seats to the capacity of the reading 
room. In the Senn room the stacks have 
been removed, the working collection of 
recent and reference works placed on the 
wall shelves, and the current medical peri- 
odicals in new floor cases, which also ac- 
commodate some 20 readers. The new mez- 
zanine floor will accommodate 20 readers 
admitted to the stacks, so that the whole li- 
brary will now accommodate 275 readers at 
one time and has shelving for 300,000 vol- 
umes. There have been secured, also, a 
more convenient arrangement of the admin- 
istrative work and a much more suitable 
entrance to the Senn room. 

"Extensive changes and improvements have 
been made in the system of electric lighting. 
In the public rooms and over the cataloger's 
desks the indirect (I Comfort) system of 
electric lighting was installed. In this sys- 
tem the light is thrown up to the ceiling 
and thence reflected and diffused throughout 
the room. Many of the old chandeliers were 
used and the same loo-watt tungsten lamps. 
In the reading-room 5400 watts are used to 
light 3600 sq. ft. ; in the Senn room 3000 
watts to light 1200 sq. ft; in the public 
catalog room 1000 watts to light 400 sq. ft. ; 
over the cataloger's desk 1600 watts to light 
800 sq. ft. The last named space has a nearly 
white ceiling while the others have as light 
tints as are consistent with the wall decora- 
tions. The extra allowance of current in the 
Senn room and the Public catalog room is in 
part necessary to overcome the disadvantage 
for this system of lighting of long and nar- 
row rooms, but in part secures better results. 
In them the light is ample, but in the read- 
ing room about one out of 10 readers ap- 
pears to need additional light from the table 
fixtures. The softness of the light, its per- 
fect diffusion, which eliminates shadows and 
lights the lowest shelf as well as the high- 
est, and the absence of all visible brilliant 

February, 1911] 


points, are features which give great satis- 
faction. The cost for the public rooms is 
entirely satisfactory, being not more than 10 
per cent, greater than direct illumination with 
tungsten lamps and holophane shades, and 
some 30 per cent, less than the old method 
with carbon lamps." 

In the fall of the year a fire on the fourth 
floor of the building threatened the library, 
but the fire was extinguished and involved 
only damage to the library walls and ceil- 
ings to the amount of $194. 

The library's department of medical sci- 
ences showed steady development. Some 
progress was made in the cataloging of the 
Senn collection and considerable in the clas- 
sification of its pamphlets. 

Chicago P. L. The library board recently 
passed a resolution reducing the three-cent 
fine applied to children who keep books be- 
yond the two-week time-limit to one cent. 

Cleveland, O. Western Resert e Historical 
Society L. The library has acquired a val- 
uable collection of historical papers belong- 
ing to Governor Allen Trimble. The Manu- 
scripts number about 2000 pieces. 

Easton, Pa. (6th rpt. year ending July 
i, 1910.) Added 1731; total 23,110 (exclu- 
sive of gov. docs, and pm.). Issued, home 
use 80,012 (fict. 68.24 per cent). New cards 
issued 1740: active adult membership 2860. 
Reading room attendance 23,293 : reference 
room attendance 11,200. Receipts $8242.95; 
expenses $8142.38 (salaries $4759.08, books 
-48, periodicals $291.98, building and 
grounds $262.44, furniture, fittings and tools 

''The experiment of purchasing sets of 
stereopticon views, placing them in cases on 
the shelves and allowing them to be taken 
from the library subject to the same rules 
and regulations that govern the taking out 
of books, has proved very successful.'' 

The library's collection of Americana and 
genealogies has grown so large that the shelf 
room provided has been insufficient to accom- 
modate the year's purchase. The need of 
new stacks is therefore a pressing one and 
also a special cataloger is needed to catalog 
the books more minutely. 

'During the year, attention was directed 
to the need of a direct library service to 
the outlying districts of the "city, and a 
plan was proposed by means of which a trol- 
ley car should be fitted up as a library, and 
be sent to the principal factories in the city, 
delivering books at the noon hour. This 
same car, as shown, could also be used two 
evenings a week as a branch library in a re- 
mote district The total outlay for this 
service would be the initial cost of $1200 for 
the car and its fittings, and $600 yearly for 
running it. Either tins plan should be 
adopted or a branch library should be opened 
'especially on the South S'ide, where, out of 

a population of 8000 people, most of them 
employed in the industries, less than four 
hundred have taken out cards in the Easton 
Public Library. 

"Nor is this the only field now outside the 
library influence. A foreign population has 
gradually formed small settlements in differ- 
ent portions of the city, and it is the duty 
of the library, as well as of the schools, to 
convert the foreigners into intelligent citi- 
zens. Small libraries, containing well-se- 
lected books in their mother tongue, should 
be provided for these people." 

Indiana State L. The need of a new state 
library and museum building has been urged. 
The recent meeting of the American His- 
torical Association in Indianapolis has prob- 
ably furthered the movement for the new 
building. A pamphlet prepared by a commit- 
tee of the Indiana Historical Society was 
distributed at the convention. In the pam- 
phlet it is urged that such a building would 
be of more lasting value than an exposition 
to commemorate the centennial of Indiana's 
admission as a state. The promoters of the 
building have in mind the completion of the 
structure by 1916, the centenary of Indiana's 
admission to statehood. 

Madison .(Wis.) P. L. The library is mak- 
ing use of moving pictures, especially in con- 
nection with the story hour. The purpose 
of the experiment is to prove the value of 
moving pictures as an aid to the educational 
efficiency of the library. Should the results 
prove fully satisfactory it is probable that 
the Wisconsin library commission would ex- 
tend the use of moving pictures to other li- 
braries of the state. 

New York City. General Theological Sem- 
inary L. (Rpt., year 1909-1910.) Added 
2720; total 49,230. 

In May. 1909, the class of the Seminary 
observed the 4Oth anniversary of its gradua- 
tion. In addition to holding a reunion sev- 
eral of its members united in presenting to 
the Seminary library a gift of books. It was 
their wish that these should be works of 
value and constant use. A small but care- 
fully chosen collection of volumes was there- 
fore made of works already in the library 
but in such constant demand that duplicates 
were exceedingly welcome. 

American Manufacturers' Exchange. 

In the Hudson Terminal building a place 
of exchange has been established by the 
American manufacturers, the main part of 
which will be a library, consisting chiefly 
of manufacturers' catalogs. Besides public 
rooms for the library, rooms for the con- 
fidential business consultations and trans- 
actions are provided. Besides a permanent 
collection of trade literature for the library 
it is planned in the Exchange plans to pro- 
vide a neutral ground in the business district 


[February, 1911 

where manufacturers or their representatives 
can arrange to meet. 

The Exchange has a membership of over 

Newark (N. /.) F. P. L. An exhibition of 
American paintings from the collection of 
Mr. William T. Evans, of Montclair, N. J., 
was held in the art gallery of the library 
Dec. 7, iQio-Jan. 15, 1911, under the auspices 
of the Newark Museum Association. A cat- 
alog of the exhibition was printed for the 
Association (n p. D. 1910). 

(2ist rpt. year 1909.) Added 21,593 

(19,391 by purchase, 1217 by gift) ; total 159,- 
578. Issued, home use 852,785. Registration 
12,650. Receipts $98,167.69; expenses $98,- 
164.02 (salaries $41,995-54, books $16,395.78, 
binding $5460.43, periodicals, main lib., 
$1421.34; periodicals, branches and schools, 

There were 58,062 books lent from deposit 
stations; 7004 from travelling libraries; 11,580 
from fire houses and police stations; 11,253 
sent out to deposit stations and travelling li- 
braries; 35,536 main library books returned 
through deposit stations. 

The business branch is to be moved into 
other quarters on May i. Through the cour- 
tesy of the American Telegraph and Tele- 
phone Company 143 telephone directories cov- 
ering looo cities and towns in the United 
States and Canada have been added to the 
directory collection; 1500 special letters were 
sent to business men calling attention to di- 
rectories ; special lists on insurance, banking 
and brokerage were mailed to 400 business 
men; 500 copies of a special bulletin about 
the branch were distributed in the business 

The Barringer High School branch con- 
tains 5000 carefully selected volumes. The 
other six library branches located in different 
parts of the city contain a total of 18,650 
volumes; II deposit stations contain 3000 vol- 
umes ; 489 libraries in different school rooms 
of the city in travelling cases contain 18,314 

The Museum of Science, the gift of Dr. 
William S. Disbrow, contains 4000 named 
botanical specimens and 10,000 specimens of 
rocks and minerals, building stones, economic 
fibres and other economic material labelled 
and suitably arranged in 66 glass cases. 

The music collection in the same gallery 
contains 1462 volumes. The medical depart- 
ment includes 947 volumes and 50 current 
medical journals. 

The staff compiled and issued in printed or 
mimeographed form 225 lists on 152 different 
subjects for free distribution, and bulletins 
to the number of 79. 

Mr. Dana's report is a concise and effec- 
tive record of the year's work 

Northwestern University L., Evanston, III. 
(Rpt. year ending June 30, 1910.) Addi- 

tions 4705; total 78,952; pamphlets 52,852. 
Books issued (faculty and special list) 20,456; 
student 5936. Books used in the reading 
room, 39, 366. The current cataloging cov- 
ered 6341, and re-cataloging 4276 volumes. 
The number of titles cataloged exceeded the 
number of the year previous by 623, and 
there were 37 more cards written. 

Pomona (Co/.) P. L. (Rpt. year ending 
June 30, 1910.) Added 1995; total 17,710. 
Issued, home use 82,972. Cardholders 6849. 
Receipts $9396.67; expenses $6667.99 (sala- 
ries $3430.07, books $1774.23, binding $558.44, 
newspapers and periodicals $319.24). 

The library's quarters are overcrowded. 

The vacation privilege of more than one 
novel on a card has been established. During 
the year 487 novels were added to the col- 

St. Louis (Mo.) P. L. The library has 
begun a house to house delivery of books 
from the main library or its branches by 
special messenger, under arrangement with 
the Missouri District Telegraph Co., for 
which service the company will make its regu- 
lar messenger charge, according to the follow- 
ing schedule : 4 blocks or less, 10 cents, 5 to 8 
blocks, 15 cents; 9 to 15 blocks, 25 cents; 
16 to 20 blocks, 30 cents ; 21 to 30 blocks, 
35 cents ; 31 to 40 blocks, 40 cents ; 41 to 50 
blocks, 45 cents; 51 to 60 blocks, 50 cents; 
61 to 80 blocks, 60 cents. (In city limits.) 

These distances will be reckoned, in all 
cases, from the library from which the book 
is taken, and not from the telegraph office. 

Any cardholder wishing to use a messenger 
for the delivery, return or exchange of a 
book should call up the Central Library by 
telephone. If he wishes to take out a book 
he should state its author and title, his own 
name, address and telephone number, and 
the number of the card. The library will- 
summon the messenger, charge the book on 
a "Public Library" card and give him book 
and card for delivery to the cardholder on 
payment of the messenger fee. The money 
goes to the Telegraph Company, the library 
simply regarding the messenger as the card- 
holder's agent. 

If the book is not in, the cardholder will be 
so informed by telephone. It is desirable 
that the title of several books be given at 
the outset, as at a delivery station. 

When a book is to be returned by mes- 
senger, he should of course be given his fee 
with the book. The card, which must of 
course go with it, will be retained at the 
library until another book is taken out in 
this way. 

If the Library finds that there is sufficient 
use of this house-to-house delivery it may 
decide to employ its own messenger, in 
which case the cost of service may be con- 
siderably reduced and made more uniform. 
The cost of the system will probably never 

February, 191 1] 


be low enough for cardholders to make reg- 
ular use of it, but it may be a valuable ad- 
junct to the library service in an emergency. 

Scottdale (Pa.) P. L. The new public 
library, the gift of Mr. A. L. Keister of the 
the town, was formally open to the public 
Nov. 5, 1910, with appropriate exercises. 
The library rooms, a reference room and 
stack room, compose the central portion of 
the new High School building. Shelving has 
been provided for 10,000 volumes and the li- 
brary now has about 4500. The evident in- 
terest in the new library was indicated by 
the number of visitors that thronged the 
rooms Saturday afternoon and evening. 

Seattle (Wash.) P. L.- (Rpt. year 1909.) 
Added 15,000 (13.823 by purchase, 1177 by 
gift) ; total 114,928. Issued, home use 579,- 
706, of which 66 per cent, was fiction. No. 
borrowers registered 20,516. Cards in force 
37,757- Receipts $233,730.66; expenses $200,- 
572.84 ($25,135.23 books, periodicals and bind- 
ing; $51,888.90 salaries; $16,753.37 general ex- 

Important events during the year included 
the adoption of a new scheme of library ser- 
vice in accordance with the provisions of the 
revised library law of the state, which be- 
came effective June n, 1909; the appoint- 
ments of new heads for the order, catalog, 
and circulation departments, the opening of a 
fifth branch library at Columbia ; the practical 
completion of the new approaches at the cen- 
tral library and the letting of the contract for 
the completion of the three remaining floors 
of the book stack: and the partial construc- 
tion of three new branch library buildings at 
Green Lake, University, and West Seattle. 

The future needs of the library are in gen- 
eral the same as outlined in last year's report ; 
more books, especially for the schools collec- 
tion, additional branch libraries, and the en- 
largement of the central building. The new 
work to be undertaken during 1910 will in- 
clude the opening of the three new branch 
libraries, a beginning in deposit station work 
with the $2000 set aside from the book fund 
for a stations collection, and the appointment 
of a regular trained assistant to devote her 
entire time to work with schools. 

The report includes an exterior view of 
each of the three new branch libraries. 

Springfield, Mass. City L. Assoc. (53d 
rpt. year ending April 30, 1910.) Added 
10,598; total 175,460. Issued, home use 
527,699 (fict, adult 152,869, fict.. juv. 37,462, 
total juv. 1x831). Receipts $57.^79.04 ; ex- 
penses $56,735.32 (gen'l expense acct.. $5427.- 
56; salaries $21,090.51, periodicals $1102.95, 
binding $1968.24, printing $848: stationery 
and supplies $1228.77. Hght and power $1070"- 
33, postage $353-53)- 

A delay of several weeks occurred early 
in the work on the new library because of a 

change from reinforced concrete to steel con- 
struction, which will make a better building 
for our purposes. Otherwise the work has 
made good progress, and should be finished by 
next winter. The chief public rooms in 
the new building are as follows: The front 
of the first story is given up to the children's 
rooms and the newspaper reading room. The 
children's rooms occupy the westerly half, 
and the newspaper room the easterly. Each 
has a separate entrance, and opposite that 
of the newspaper room is a passage through 
the building giving direct access to the Art 
Museum. Almost all of the remaining two- 
thirds of this story is devoted to the stack 
rooms, two tiers in height, and having a book 
capacity of 300,000 volumes. On the main 
floor, opposite the entrance, is the delivery 
room, the central portion of which will be 
crowned by an interior dome supported on 
graceful columns. West of the delivery 
room, and occupying almost half of this en- 
tire floor, is a fine, lofty, spacious room, 
nearly 90 feet square, which is the main 
reading room. It accommodates 130 readers, 
and with the mezzanine gallery at one end it 
will shelve a working collection of 100,000 
of the library's best books on all subjects, 
arranged for convenient use by readers. This 
is the dominant feature of the library plan. 
The east end of this story provides for a 
handsome periodical reading room on the 
front, and a still larger room in the rear for 
the art library. Ample skylights cover the 
central portion of the building so there is 
abundant daylight throughout. All of the 
public rooms are in the first and main sto- 
ries except the medical library in the upper 
story on the west front, and a large room 
occupying the east end and extending half 
across the front, that will ultimately house 
the books for artisans and mechanics, a de- 
partment which is of steadily growing im- 
portance. The building will be commodious, 
of the most thorough and substantial work- 
manship, absolutely fireproof, and will have a 
book capacity of half a million volumes. Al- 
though planned primarily for serviceableness 
it combines with interior simplicity and con- 
venience an exterior which good judges pro- 
nounce to be of rare refinement and beauty. 

The branch library buildings which were 
opened at Indian Orchard and at Forest Park 
somewhat more than a year ago have given 
great satisfaction. The circulation for the 
year from Indian Orchard was 27,182 and 
at Forest Park 65,096. 

Besides the two branches the distributing 
system comprises 276 minor agencies, 253 of 
which are school classrooms and the re- 
mainder Sunday-schools, fire stations, post- 
offices, clubs, etc. At the Ferry Street Set- 
tlement a library assistant has been in at- 
tendance on Saturday afternoons to help the 
children taking books there. 

The use of the library by foreigners is 


[February, 1911 

growing larger each year. Books in half a 
dozen different foreign languages have been 
bought recently. There is a dearth of simple 
books in foreign tongues giving newcomers 
information about this country. The library 
buys all it can find but more are needed. 

About loo elementary text books have been 
added for persons seeking self-instruction or 
preparing for civil service examinations ; 
books were also purchased for students tak- 
ing correspondence studies and collections 
were set aside for lectures and study classes ; 
and about 70 volumes too special or technical 
in character to warrant buying were pro- 
cured for readers from the Library of Con- 
gress and various state and other libraries. 
Numerous special lists have been issued. 

"In order to remind inveterate novel read- 
ers that the library contains other books of 
interest, 56 short lists were mimeographed 
comprising readable books of travel, biogra- 
phy, history and sociology dealing with sub- 
jects treated in fiction and these were pasted 
inside the back covers of the novels." 

United States. Department of Agriculture L. 
(Rpt. year ending June 30, 1910.) Added 
8156 (purchases 3101; gifts 3646; volumes 
made by binding periodicals and serials 
1409) ; total 109,630. Issued, home use 35,180 
(an increase of 4574 over the previous year). 

Yale University L. (Rpt. year 1009- 
Added 31,701 ; total (estimated) over 600,000. 
Outside use University L. (no. of borrowers) 
1824, (no of books) 17,483. Outside use, 
Linonian and Brothers L. (no. of borrowers) 
1807, (no of books), 21,112. No. of books 
specially reserved for readers in Univ. L. 
3495. Expenses of the Univ. L. $70,600.06 
(books, periodicals and newspapers $23,- 
711.83; bookbinding $3131.30; salaries $36,- 
493.40; printing, stationery and supplies 
$1497.47; heat and water $2750.72). 

"On the income side of our account the 
year ended in a deficit, largely due to a 
change in the system of assessments upon 
students adopted during the year by which a 
considerable anticipated revenue was diverted 
from the library. However, the resulting 
deficit was cancelled by an appropriation from 
University funds, and the library has been 
assured a corresponding appropriation for the 
coming year out of the same source. The 
assessment for library purposes is now uni- 
formly levied upon every student of the Uni- 
versity at the rate of $5 per student, the un- 
dergraduate academic student contributing an 
additional $i for the support of the College 
reading room in Dwight Hall. . . . The finan- 
cial difficulty of properly administering the 
library's affairs is largely due to the fact that 
this department receives but a small quid pr n 
quo from students in return for services 
rendered to them. While this, to be sure, 
is true of all the departments of the Univer- 
sity, a fact that has been emphasized of late 
years, in the case of the library the amount 

charged the students for the use of the li- 
brary is out of all proportion to the privi- 
leges they can and do enjoy." 

Efforts have been made to catalog current 
accessions with a view to making them 
promptly accessible. With the past year the 
third annual instalment of $10,000 for the 
improvement and completion of the catalog 
expired. As a result of the expenditure of 
these $30,000 the following has been accom- 
plished in the catalog department: The 
Linonian and Brothers Library, the one most 
used by the students, has been entirely recat- 
aloged and rearranged; the same is true of 
the collections of reference books in the 
reading-room. Duplicate cards have been in- 
serted in the main catalog, and, furthermore, 
the various previous catalogs have been con- 
solidated into one, which is to the great ad- 
vantage both of the users of the library and 
of its administration. The main catalog now 
aims to cover all the libraries of the Univer- 
sity, including many of the seminary libra- 

The special collections contained in fhe 
library are enumerated in the report. 


Aberdeen (Eng.) P. L. (26th rpt. year 
1909-1910.) Added 1301 v., 470 pm. in ref. 
dept., 663 v. in lending dept. ; total 37,120 v., 
8411 pm. in ref. dept., 36,591 v. in lending 
dept. Volumes issued (lending and ref.) 
21,470 (excluding delivery station issues). 
Borrowers' tickets issued 15,366, of which 
3979 were supplementary tickets not available 
for borrowing fiction and 26 were for use 
by blind borrowers. 

During the past year three volumes were 
lost from the open shelves in the reference 

"The pressure of insufficient revenue is 
being felt very much in the work of the 

Leeds (Eng.} P. Ls. (Rpt. year 1909- 
1910.) Added to ref. lib. by purchase 3110, 
by gift 357; added to lending libs., by pur- 
chase 8520, by gift 80. Total no. vols. in 
libs. 288,205. Total no. vols. issued 1,471,796; 
visitors to central newsroom 475,000; visitors 
to branch reading rooms 2,267.000. Borrow- 
ers' tickets issued 33,500. 

The total circulation is larger than any 
previous year except 1905-6, and even in that 
year the issues in the reference library were 
behind those of the past 12 months by 5793 

There is a general increase of 26.960 in the 
books issued from the lending departments, 
although a number of the libraries show a 
small falling off, the largest decrease being 
5209 volumes at the central, chiefly in juve- 
nile literature. 

France. A series of lectures on library 
science and books will be held in Paris dur- 
ing the winter under the direction of Eugene 

February, 1911] 



Morel, librarian of the Bibliotheque Na- 

The fire which was reported to have con- 
sumed the University Library at Toulouse 
luckily destroyed only the medical and scien- 
tific portion, housed in the building of the 
medical faculty; even so, the loss is heavy 
enough. F. W. 

Holland. The Hague. Royal L. Since 
the middle of last year the Royal Library has 
had a department attached to it correspond- 
ing to the "card distribution section" of the 
Library of Congress. 

Naval L. Commission. The Commis- 
sion which began its systematic work in 
1905 has its headquarters in Amsterdam, 
with branches in Willemsoord and Hel- 
levoetslui?. Its object is to furnish suitable 
literature to ships belonging to the Nether- 
lands and her colonies and to army and 
navy posts. These travelling library cases, 
which contain 50 volumes, are in great de- 
mand and are changed as often as desired. 
Many of the books, especially those that 
were in the original collection, have had to 
be discarded and replaced by others. 


BOOKBINDING. Tooling machinery for book- 
binding. (Described in the Official Gazette 
of the United States Patent Office, Dec. 
20, 1910. 161 725.) 

Five claims are allowed for this patent. 
CHILDREN'S READING. Hill, David Spence. 
The child and the reading habit. (In 
Religious Education, Dec. TO, 1910. 5 -.461- 

Discusses the subject under the following 
headings: Reading and health: Relation of 
reading to religious education : Psychology of 
childhood as related to reading; Reading as 
a habit ; Moral aim : Suggestions for reform 
effort; Selection of reading; The ethical 

On the whole the article is somewhat 

Johnson, Mary Hannah. School and 
reading: the wider responsibility of the 
school as to the reading habit in children. 
(In Religious Education, Dec. 10, 1910. 
5 :472-47S.) 

The article is chiefly devoted to a descrip- 
tion of the methods of co-operation with the 
schools and the regular library work with 
children in the Tennessee Public Library. 

Proceedings of the 6-|th annual meeting 
held at New York City, Dec. 28-29, 1909. 
Albany, N. Y. State Univ., 1910. 703 p. 
(Education Department Bulletin, no. 483.) 


CRAMPTON, Miss Susan C., reference libra- 
rian of the Tacoma Public Library, has re- 
signed her position and will leave the library 
on March i. Miss Elizabeth Haskell, of the 
University of California Library, has been 
appointed to succeed Miss Crampton. 

DOUGLAS, Miss Mary M. (Pratt, 1905), 
supervisor of the work with children in the 
St. Louis Public Library, has announced her 
engagement to Mr. Oliver Carpenter, of St. 

EMERSON-COLWELL, Miss Mabel E. Emer- 
son, reference librarian of the Providence 
(R. I.) Public Library since 1891, resigns 
that position to marry Roaldo F. Colwell, 
instructor in the Providence Technical High 
School. Miss Emerson has served the Prov- 
idence Public Library for 26 years. 

HASKELL, Miss Elizabeth (Pratt, 1905), has 
been engaged as reference librarian of the 
Tacoma (Wash.) Public Library. 

HEWINS, Miss Caroline M., of the Hart- 
ford (Ct.) Public Library, sails for Trieste 
on Jan. 18, and expects to spend three 
months in Italy and England, returning early 
in May. 

HOBART, Miss Frances, has resigned as 
secretary of the Vermont Board of Library 
Ccmmissioners, and on March i will assume 
charge of the Library department of the H. 
R. Huntting Co., Springfield, Mass. Some 
changes will be made in this department in 
the interest of better service for library 

LERCH, Miss Alice L., who for a number 
of years has been an assistant librarian in 
the Map Division of the Library of Con- 
gress, has accepted a position in the library 
of the Hispanic Society, New York City. 

MACRUM. Miss Mary F., connected with 
the Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh from its 
opening in 1895, died November i. Miss 
Macruni retired from active work in the 
library because of ill-health in January, 1909. 
Prevous to her service in the Carnegie Li- 
brary she was connected with the Mercantile 
Library of Pittsburgh. 

PERELES. Judge James Madison, for 18 
years president of the board of trustees of 
the Milwaukee Public Library and chair- 
man of the Wisconsin Free Library Commis- 
sion since 1905, died early in December. 
Judge Pereles had served as president of the 
Milwaukee school board previous to his con- 
nection with the library board. For many 
years in conjunction with his brother, Hon. 
Thomas Jefferson Pereles, Judge Pereles de- 
frayed expenses incident to the purchase 
of text-books for indigent pupils in Mihvau- 



[February, 1911 

kee public schools. The late Senator James 
H. Stout, of Menomonie, Wis., also a pioneer 
of library development in Wisconsin, died a 
few weeks before Judge Pereles. 

PHILLIPS, Grace D., graduate University of 
Illinois Library School, 1905, has been elected 
to the position of librarian of the State Nor- 
mal School, Warrensburg, Mo. Miss Phil- 
lips was assistant librarian of the Charleston 
(111.) Normal School, 1905-06, and assistant 
in the General Library, University of Mis- 
souri, in charge of periodicals and reference 
work from 1906 to Jan. 15, 1911. 

TAYLOR, Mary W., of Louisa Co., Virginia, 
died Dec. 13, 1910. Since. October, 1905, she 
was the librarian of the Bureau of Chemis- 
try, Washington, D. C, and the success of 
her work is evidenced by the following reso- 
lutions sent to her father and signed by the 
chief, Dr. Harvey W. Wiley, and his staff. 

It is with the deepest personal sorrow that we 
have learned of the death of your daughter and 
our colleague, Mary W. Taylor. No one can in the 
same way discharge the duties of the place in our 
o_fficial life which she made for herself and so bril- 
liantly filled. The keen resourceful mind that served 
us all so unremittingly and effectively, with too little 
thought for her own strength, will be to us always 
a grateful and affectionate memory, as it has been 
an unfailing source of helpfulnes in the past. The 
equipment and organization of our library will remain 
a monument to her ability. 

May we offer to you this slight expression of our 
appreciation and sorrow. Surely the Great Power, 
which conserves all forces, has saved for service in 
some other life, so beautiful a mind, with its won- 
derful gift of seeking out knowledge and giving it 
to others. 

Signed by the chief and other officials of the 
Bureau of Chemistry. 

UTLEY, George B., librarian of the Jack- 
sonville (Fla.) Free Public Library since 
1905, has been appointed to succeed Mr. Had- 
ley as secretary of the A. L. A. Mr. Utley 
was born in Hartford (Ct.), in 1877. He 
graduated from Brown University in 1899, 
and served as assistant librarian of the 
Watkinson Library of Reference. Hartford, 
Ct, 1899-1901. He was librarian of the 
Maryland Diocesan Library, Baltimore, 1901- 
05. Mr. Utley organized the Jacksonville 
library and was its first librarian. He was 
also president of the Florida Library Asso- 
ciation, 1906-08, and director of the Florida 
Historical Society, 1908-10. He has attended 
six A. L. A. conventions, first at Niagara in 
1903. He also attended the Brussels and 
Exeter meetings last summer. 

VAN BUREN, Miss Maud (Pratt, 1902), has 
resigned the librarianship of the Mankato 
(Minn.) Public Library to join the Wiscon- 
sin Commission. 

WRIGHT, Miss Rebecca W., has been ap- 
pointed to succeed Miss Hobart as secretary 
of the Vermont Library Commissior. Miss 
Wright was previously connected with the 
Boston Athenaeum library. 

652 p. 8. 

This catalog, the first edition of which ap- 
peared 15 years ago, is a classified list of 
academic dissertations dealing with subjects 
in the broad field of classical studies philol- 
ogy, literature, epigraphy, history, archaeol- 
ogy, science, numismatics. A bibliographical 
tool of decided value to the specialist, its 
usefulness is very greatly enhanced by the 
fact that the publications listed have also 
been collected by, and can be purchased from, 
the firm of Fock, which issues this volume. 

F. W. 

LIBRARY OF CONGRESS. Classification. Class 
H : Social sciences ; printed as manuscript. 
Wash., Gov't Printing Office, 1910. 551 p. 

ADVERTISING. Starch, Dan. Principles of ad- 
vertising; a systematic syllabus of the fun- 
damental principles of advertising. Madi- 
son, Wis., University Co-operative Co., 
1910. c. 11-67 P- 8, $i. 
Bibliography (i p.). 

AINSWORTH, William Harrison. Ellis, S. M. 
William Harrison Ainsworth and his 
friends; with 4 photogravure plates and 
52 other illustrations. In 2 v. N. Y., J : 
Lane, 1911, [1910.] 14+432; 7+458 p. O. 
cl., $10 net. 

beginnings of the American Revolution; 
based on contemporary letters, diaries and 
other documents. In 3 v. N. Y., Baker 
& Taylor, f'n.] (Jai4) c. '10. 8+380; 
387; 404 p. pis. pors. O. $7.50 net, boxed. 

ARNOLD-FOSTER, Hugh Oakeley. Arnold-Fos- 
ter, M. Story-Maskelyne, [Mrs. Hugh 
Oakeley Arnold-Foster.] The Right Hon- 
ourable Hugh Oakeley Arnold-Foster; a 
memoir by his wife. [N. Y., Longmans, 
Green,] 1910. 15+376 p. pors. O. cl., $4.20 
Bibliography of his works (12 p.). 

February, 1911] 



BIBLE. X. T. Revelation: Jowett, G. T., 
D.D. The Apocalypse of St John ; a brief 
contribution to the controversy as to the 
date and authorship thereof, with a short 
history of its interpretation. N. Y., Ox- 
ford Univ. Press, 1910. 48 p. S. cl, 40 c. 
Bibliography (l p.). 

HYGIENE. Hoag, E. B., M.D. The health in- 
dex of children ; with prefatory note by Fk. 
F. Bunker. San Francisco, Whitaker & 
Ray-\V.. '10, pn.] c. '10. 188 p. il. D. 80 c. 
Bibliography (3 p.). 

LAW. Bibliographic generate et complete des 
livre de droit et de jurisprudence publics 
jusqu'au 24 octobre 1910, classee dans 
1'ordre des codes avec table alphabetique 
des matieres et des noms des auteurs, 
1911. Paris, impr. R. Chapelot et Cie; 
libr. Marchal et Godde, 1911. 8, xxxm- 
183 p. i fr. 50. 

LESAGE, Alain- Rene. Gordier, Henri. Es- 
sai bibliographique sur les oeuvres d' Alain- 
Rene Lesage. Paris, Leclere, 1910. 4, 353 
P- 15 fr. 


Testing for metallurgical processes. San 

Francisco, Mining and Scientific Press, 

1910. c. 216 p. il. 12, $2. 

Bibliographies (2 p.). 
MOHAWK VALLEY, N. Y. Diefendorf, M. R. 

The historic Mohawk ; with 24 illustrations. 

X. Y.. Putnam, 1910. c. 14+331 p. 8, $2 


Bibliography (2 p.). 

PHILOSOPHY. Xietzsche, F. W. The gospel 
of superman : the philosophy of Friedrich 
-.zsche: tr. from the French of Henri 
Lichtenberger : with an introd. by J. M. 
Kennedy. N. Y., Macmillan. 'n. c. '10. 9+ 
222 p. 12, $1.75 net 

PIANOFORTE. Hamilton, C. G. Piano teach- 
ing; its principles and problems. Bost, 
Ditson, [1910.] c. 5+171 p. O. cl, $1.25. 
List of books (3 p.). 

POLITICAL ECONOMY. Giesecke, A. A. Amer- 
ican commercial legislation before 1789. 
N. Y. ; Appleton, 1910. c. 167 p. 12, (Pub- 
lications of the Univ. of Penn. ; series in 
political economy and public law.) $1.50. 
Bibliography (jo p.). 

POLITICAL ECONOMY. Smart, W. Economic 
annals of the nineteenth century, 1801-1820. 
N. Y., Macmillan, 1910. 35+778 p. O. cl., 
$6.50 net. 
References in footnotes. 

ernment documents in small libraries; re- 
printed from Report of Board of Library 
Commissioners of Ohio for the year ending 
Nov. 15, 1909. Springfield (O.) Publish- 
ing Co., 1910. 9 p. D. 

RHINE, A. B. Leon Gordon: an appre- 
ciation. PhiL, Jewish Publication Soc., 
1910. c. 181 p. por. D. cL, 75 c- 
Bibliographies (2 p.). 

SCOTT, Sir Walter. Lockhart, J. Gibson. Se- 
lections from Lockhart's life of Sir Walter 
Scott ; ed. by A. Barter, with notes. N. Y., 
Macmillan, 1910, n+144 P- I2 cL, 30 c. 

SETTLE, Elkanah. Brown, F. C. Elkanah Set- 
tle, his life and works. Chic,, Univ. of 
ChMx, PH.] c. '10. 10+170 p. O. $1-25 net. 
Bibliography (27 p.). 

SHINTO. Terry, M, S. The Shinto cult; a 
Christian study of the ancient religion of 
Japan. Cin., Jennings & Graham, [1910.] 
c. 98 p. 16, 30 c. 
Select bibliography (2 p.). 

SILK INDUSTRY. [Bibliography] (in Mason, 
F. R. American silk industry and the 
tariff; American Economic Association 
Quarterly, December, 1910, ser. 3, voL XL, 
no. 4)- 

SLAVE LAWS. List of slave laws (in Brook- 
line (Mass.) P. L, Bulletin, Jan., 1911. 
p. 62). 

STONE. Howe, J. A, The geology of build- 
ing stones. [N. Y., Longmans, Green,] 
'10, PH.] 8+455 P- pis. maps, D. (Arnold's 
geological ser. ; ed. by E. J. Marr.) $2.50. 
Bibliography (3 p.). 

STONE AGE. Moorehead, W. K. The- stone 
age in North America; an archaeolog- 
ical encyclopedia of the implements, or- 
naments, weapons, utensils, etc., of the pre- 
historic tribes of North America; with 
more than 300 full-page plates and 400 
figures illustrating over 4000 different ob- 
jects. In 2 v. Bost, Houghton Mifflin, 

9 6 


[February, 1911 

'10, ['n.] c. '10. 12+457 P.; 6+417 P- Q. 

$5 net. 

A complete bibliography covering more 
than a thousand titles is included in the 
contents (41 p.). 

SUFFRAGE. Phelps, E. M., comp. Selected 
articles on woman suffrage. Minneapolis, 
H. W. Wilson Co., 1910. 9+290 p. 12, 
(Debaters' handbook ser.) $i net. 
Bibliography .(16 p.). 

UNITED STATES. Government and politics. 
Outline (An) for the study of American 
civil government, with special reference to 
training for citizenship, for use in secon- 
dary schools; prepared for the New Eng- 
land History Teachers' Association by its 
committee : Ray Greene Huling, Wilson 
Ryder Butler, and others. N. Y., Mac- 
millan, 1910. c. 28+187 p. diagrs., 8, cl., 
50 c. net. 
Bibliography (3 p.). 

WEST (The). McCarty, D. G. The terri- 
torial governors of the Old Northwest; a 
study in territorial administration. Iowa 
City, la., State Historical Soc. of la., 1910. 
210 p. O. cl., $2. 
Notes and references. 

ZOOLOGY. Hegner, Rob. Wilhelm. An intro- 
duction to zoology. N. Y., Macmillan, 1910. 
c. 12+350 p. il. pis. pors. D. $1.90 net. 
Bibliography (14 p.). 


BAKER & TAYLOR Co. Standard library cat- 
alog of 2500 approved books; third re- 
vision. N. Y., Baker, [1910.] 114 p. T. 

"Rotes anfr Queries 

Federation of Women's Clubs, through their 
Health department, announce special cam- 
paigns as follows : February, "Common drink- 
ing cup ;" March, "Typhoid fly ;" April, "Oral 
(denial or mouth) hygiene;" May, "Social 
hygiene." Should not the libraries get ready 
for these? E. G. ROUTZAHN. 


JANUARY 16, 1911. 
To the Editor of The Library Journal. 

MY DEAR SIR : There was published in 
The Living Age, March 6 and 13, 1909, pp. 
616-622 and 681 et seq., an article from Black- 
wood's by Mr. John Buchan, entitled "The 
Company of the Morjolaine." In reply to an 
inquiry addressed to Mr. Frank Foxcroft, the 
editor of The Living Age, he very politely 
informed me that this had appeared in Black- 
wood's Magazine for February, 1909. 

As published in Black-wood's, that article 
was preceded by a statement reading, in part : 

"This extract from the unpublished papers of the 
Manorwater family has seemed to the editor worth 
printing for its historical interest," 

which statement went on to say that the ar- 
ticle was based on three letters written by 
"The Honorable Charles Hervey Towns- 
hend, afterwards our (the British) Ambas- 
sador at The Hague." Upon my asking Mr. 
Buchan for the dates of those letters and 
copies thereof, I was astonished to learn 
from Mr. Buchan that the whole story was 
"pure fiction." 

While Mr. Foxcrcft has been kind enough 
to say that he will publish a correction in 
The Living Age, and while I have written to 
the editor of Blackzvood's on the subject, it 
has occurred to me that I ought to state the 
facts to you, so that you can officially classify 
Mr. Buchan's well written and breezy narra- 
tive as "fiction," and as having no "historical 
interest," so that librarians and historians 
may at least have means of knowing these 
facts. Very truly yours, 


Tbumorg and Blunders 


Book of a thousand salads, by Olive Green. 

Charges by Jacob Rush. 

City wilderness, by R. A. Woods. 

Complete treatise on artificial fish-breeding, by W. H. 


Consumers' companion, by T. B. Cook. 
Earth and its mechanism, by H. Worms. 
Footprints of an itinerant, by M. P. Gaddis. 
Forms of religious error, by R. N. Cust. 
History of plots and crimes, by John Smith Dye. 
History of the battle of Breed's hill, by C. Coffin.. 
Honey jar, edited by D. C. Sapp. 
Humanities of diet, by H. S. Salt. 
Industrial freedom, by D. M. Means. 
Jest book, by Mark Lemon. 
Journal of the voyages and travels of a corps of 

discovery, by Patrick Gass. 
Lame lover, by Samuel Foote. 
Lamps of the temple, by M. L. Noir. 
Laws relating to the practice of medicine, by A. J. 

Lectures on the physiology of plants, by S. H. 


Life in Sing Sing, by Rev. John Luckey. 
Liquor problem, by F. H. Wines. 
Night side of nature, by Catherine Crowe. 
Savage children, by D. Kidd. 
Son of the forest, by William Apes. 
State and pensions in old age, by J. A. Spender. 
Summer tour by Mrs. H. Fteshfield. 
Tramp through Switzerland, by B. F. Leggett. 


3Ltbrars Calendar 

i. Western Mass. L. C. Westeld, Mass. 

"The stranger within our gates," by Rev. 
F. C. H. Wendel; "The library as a pro- 
moter of good citizenship among foreign- 
ers," by Louis F. Giroux. 

lo-ii. Penn. L. C. and N. J. L. A. bi-state 
meeting, Atlantic City, N. J., Hotel 


VOL. 36 

MARCH, 1911 

No. 3 

TRAVEL plans for the Pasadena Conference 
are so well advanced that librarians should 
now shape their personal plans with a view 
to participation in it. It is gratifying to know 
that the journey will be made under the effi- 
cient management of the Raymond & Whit- 
comb people, from whom the best service 
and the most convenient arrangements may 
always be expected. The start will be made 
probably from New York May 12 and from 
Chicago May 13. A week will be spent on 
the way, with a stop at the seventh wonder 
of the new world, the Grand Canyon of the 
Colorado in Arizona, a week at Pasadena, a 
third week in the San Francisco jour- 
ney, and the fourth week on the return, 
with stops in Colorado. Thus at a month's 
outlay of time and approximately $250 of 
money the traveller from the East will have 
the benefits of the transcontinental journey 
to best advantage. There will be alternatives 
for routes and plans for the homeward jour- 
ney, including visits to the Yosemite or the 
northern border lands. There could scarcely 
be a more attractive and delightful program, 
and the journey could not be made under 
happier auspices. A complete special train 
will be run westward, at least from Chicago, 
and not less than two hundred A. L. A. 
visitors should be expected. There is some 
hope of representation from England, and we 
trust that other countries may also be repre- 
sented. Those who have before made the 
A. L. A. transcontinental journey can furn- 
ish the best of evidence that the trip is well 
worth making, even at some personal sacri- 
fice in the way of economies the rest of the 

IN addition to the library attractions at 
Los Angeles, where Mr. Carnegie has prom- 
ised six new branches for the development of 
the local library system, there will be great 
interest in the situation at San Francisco, 
where valiant headway is being made in 
spite of adverse circumstances. San Fran- 
cisco lost almost everything in the way of 
library equipment in the earthquake and fire, 
and with all the demands upon her resolute 
and liberal citizens it has not been possible 
to make as much library progress at the start 

as would keep pace with the development of 
the new San Francisco otherwise. Mr. Wat- 
son's latest report shows that the public 
library has circulated about 800,000 vol- 
umes, and that the number of card- 
holders is almost as large as before 
the fire of 1906. Plans for a new 
main public library building are under way, 
and the new building for the Mechanics' In- 
stitute Library, erected on the site of the old 
building destroyed in the fire, was opened 
recently. Mr. Watson and other librarians 
of San Francisco should have cordial sup- 
port, from the visiting delegation, in their 
enterprising endeavor to bring San Fran- 
cisco forward to front rank in library de- 

MR. CARNEGIE'S gifts for 1910, the schedule 
of which has been necessarily delayed until 
this issue, show less decrease from those of 
previous years than might have been ex- 
pected, in view of the thoroughness with 
which he has been extending his library ben- 
efactions throughout America, the British 
Isles and the world at large. In fact, if to 
the benefactions of 1910 are added about 
$350,000 more, delayed until January, 1911, 
but normally associated with the gifts of the 
previous year, the total was approximately 
$1,700,000, very close to the figures of 1909. 
Sixty-two new buildings and fourteen exten- 
sions of gifts were provided for in the United 
States, and eighty gifts for eighty-two build- 
ings plus twenty-nine extensions of gifts were 
provided for in all countries together. Mr. 
Carnegie has now given in all 2062 public 
library buildings and 115 college library build- 
ings a total munificence exceeding $54,- 
000,000. Perhaps the most remarkable feat- 
ure of his giving is the careful business-like 
method of the administration of this gener- 
osity a business in itself. 

OUR brethren of Canada are looking for- 
ward to the development of a Dominion Li- 
brary corresponding in its field with the 
British Museum and the Library of Con- 
gress, in which their fellow Americans on 
this side of the border will wish them every 
success. Canada is entering upon the dis- 

9 8 


[March, 1911 

cussion of a new copyright code, and it will 
be a natural outcome that the copyright of- 
fice should be associated with the national 
library, as in this country. Doubtless de- 
velopment would be on plans complementary 
to those of the Library of Congress, giving 
special attention to making the collection as 
complete as possible in works of Canadian 
origin or upon Canadian subjects. From the 
library point of view there is no reason to 
discuss the mooted question of annexation, 
for the two countries are in such mutual rela- 
tion as to admit neither of jealousy nor 
rivalry. Our Canadian brethren are mem- 
bers in full standing of the American Li- 
brary Association, and presidents are elected 
and conferences held without reference to 
boundaries or differences of any kind. On 
this side of the border the development of a 
new national library for the sister nation will 
be followed with very great interest. 

IT is to be regretted that the California 
plane will prevent as large participation of 
the profession in the opening of the New 
York Public Library as would otherwise be 
expected, but we are glad to note that 
simultaneously with the opening of the 
new building at Bryant Square, the technical 
library of the United Engineering societies, 
in the block opposite, enters upon a new 
stage of development in mutual relation 
with the New York Public Library and un- 
der the administration of Mr. William P. 
Cutter, who becomes the administrative head 
of the library formed by the union of the 
libraries of electrical, mechanical and min- 
ing engineering societies. There has been 
very free and cordial consultation between 
the administration of the New York Public 
Library and that of the engineering socie- 
ties, and Mr. Cutter comes with the purpose 
of closely gearing together, to use an engi- 
neering term, the general library and the spe- 
cial technical library. In the purchase and 
filing of periodicals, and even of books, of a 
technical character, the two institutions will 
interlock and citizens of New York who are 
patrons of the public library will have free 
access to the engineers' library. Mr. Cutter 
is himself a graduate of a technical institute, 
where he won his Ph.D. in chemistry, and 
we welcome him cordially to his new oppor- 

THE question of affiliation of the Special 
Libraries Association with the A. L. A. is 
one of the matters that will probably be 
decided at the Pasadena meeting. There has 
been some feeling among certain special 
libraries that their interests are not adequate- 
ly represented by the special association, the 
interest of which has seemed to center chiefly 
in the work of the technical library as dis- 
tinguished from the special library in other 
fields. The library that is devoted to his- 
torical, genealogical, artistic or scientific sub- 
jects has as yet benefited less by the pro- 
gressive work of the Special Libraries Asso- 
ciation than the industrial or technical 
library. It would seem unless the inter- 
ests of the Association are broadened to 
include all special libraries that the name 
Technical Library Association would be a 
more descriptive one. In considering the 
affiliation of the Special Libraries Asso- 
ciation with the A. L. A. it must be ques- 
tioned whether a segregation of "special" 
library interests as distinctive from the inter- 
ests of the general library association does 
not involve some confusion, since affiliation 
would seem applicable to associations simi- 
lar to the A. L. A. in purpose rather 
than in scope. The work of the Special 
Libraries Association if concentrated into an 
A. L. A. section might on the other hand 
lose some of its effectiveness. 

THE "special collection" must carry with 
it the question of the "special librarian." 
A general and wide acquaintance with li- 
brary work is the purpose of the library 
school training, but in the present day of 
library specialties the question naturally 
arises how far shall the library school course 
embrace qualification for special develop- 
ments in library work. There are many 
libraries that are now filling posts that re- 
quire technical equipment with material 
drawn from outside the library school as 
the majority of library school graduates are 
not prepared for such work. To libraries 
growing rapidly in industrial centers it is 
often found that the technical school gradu- 
ate, less versed in library preparation than 
in technical science, is the desirable ap- 
pointee. The time for library school work 
is limited, but might not additional attention 
be given to technical library work? 

March, 191 1] 




BY FREDERICK W. JENKINS, A.B., Manager Library Dept., Charles Scribner's Sons, 

New York City 

"CONTROLLER of the Library" is the simple 
but direct inscription on the tomb of an offi- 
cial buried at Gizeh, five thousand years ago. 
Who this man was, and what he did to de- 
serve this strange epitaph \ve do not know, 
but the simplicity of it is most impressive. 
\Yhat were his functions as controller of the 
library? Evidently the position was one of 
dignity and importance, or those rude hiero- 
glyphics would not have been carved labor- 
iously in the solid stone. What did he con- 
trol we ask? Was it his trustees? or his 
reading public? Was he of the type which 
in later times repulses our efforts to use the 
the library for our own good and impresses 
us with our mental inferiority? Unfortunate- 
ly, in this twentieth century we find occa- 
sionally such controllers of libraries. But 
concerning what he did and who he was the 
records are silent, and we must gather scat- 
tered fragments as we can. But a summary 
of the evidence leads us to believe that this 
old controller of the library controlled every- 
thing in the world of literature. The official 
buried at Gizeh one of our first librarians 
did a service for which we shall always 
owe him a debt of gratitude. For while the 
modern librarian has one great aim to get 
books used the librarian of Gizeh did a 
greater work in preserving for us of a later 
time so many bits of ancient literature. 

This incident may seem at first thought a 
strange one with which to introduce even a 
brief narrative of the rise and distribution 
of literature, but it is that one word "Con- 
troller" which makes this not only a suitable 
but even almost necessary beginning. It is 
the inclusiveness of this word, for we see 
that its possessor was at once librarian, au- 
thor, commentator, publisher, bookseller all 
in one. He created and he preserved, as did 
many others, ' the fragments of a culture 
which was to influence and shape at the be- 
ginning the richest literature of antiquity, 
that of the Greeks. 

Our worthy friend may not have sold any 

of the literary creations of his time we 

cannot even prove that exchanges were made, 

although it is highly probable for with the 
beginning of a literature there must have been 
created a demand for it. The increase of lit- 
erature in those days was a laborious process, 
and could not have been always a work of 
love that is not the history of the world 
cooperation between libraries even is only 
now in its infancy. It is therefore highly 
probable that almost as soon as there were 
the first feeble beginnings of a literature, 
there was a demand for more, and this de- 
mand must have called into existence some 
machinery for the creation, multiplication, and 
distribution of that literature. This machin- 
ery not always as mechanical as it sounds 
makes up the vocation later called book- 

If its history was to start with exact dates, 
we should begin with the Greeks, for from 
their ascendancy we can study the sources 
which method is the most satisfactory in get- 
ting at facts. But if we simply say that the 
first booksellers were Greeks, and their stock 
in trade the literature of their time, we are 
not stating the whole truth. The "glory that 
was Greece's" did not spring up in a day 
the literature which is still a delight and a 
source of wondering admiration to us thou- 
sands of years later was influenced much by 
the productions of those silent centuries which 
immediately preceded. 

As the Greeks doubtless first produced a 
salable literature, it is not only profitable but 
necessary to consider briefly the influences 
which made this literature and the first 
source of influence was Egypt. The Greeks 
owed much at the beginning to Egyptian lit- 
erature, which probably leads in antiquity. 
Whereas it was impossible a few years ago 
to write historically of events previous to the 
fourth dynasty, we are now able to speak 
with definite knowledge of the three earlier 
dynasties, through the painstaking work of 
our archaeologists. Manetho, to whom we 
owe so much for his valuable records, begins 
his numbered dynasties with Menes, the first 
king of United Egypt, and his statements 
relative to events even previous to this reign 


[March, ign 

have been proven by the royal tombs of 
Abydos. A continuous history of Egypt 
therefore begins with the first dynasty, which, 
according to Professor Petrie, dates from 
4777 to 4514 B.C. The duration of reigns and 
important events have from that date been 
recorded with great care. Writing is at least 
as old as the united monarchy, and the son 
of Menes is suspected of having been an au- 
thor. Of the Egyptian literature only a few 
papyri, and a few monuments of stone like 
the poem of Pentaur, have come down to us 
in modern times. 

The oldest piece of literature extant is 
without doubt the famous "book of the 
dead." * As a copy was buried with every 
mummy and others sold to the family, there 
are many beautiful specimens in existence. 
The volume may be considered as a part of 
the funeral ritual, although it contained a 
loving testimony of the dead, prayers for his 
or her safe journey and certain mysterious 
incantations. Much of the material was com- 
mon to all, and the prayers and ceremonials 
were probably copied from some official vol- 
ume kept by the priests of the temple. Any 
one who has examined these strange books 
must have been struck by the similarity of 
the contents. Because of the sale of this 
"Book of the dead" it has been tritely said 
that the undertaker was the first bookseller, 
and as history, this is indisputable. Business 
has certainly gained in quantity and quality, 
and the size of the edition is considerably 
larger now than then librarians will also 
agree that the reading public is no longer 
made up of dead ones. But the Egyptian un- 
dertaker, three thousand years before the 
Christian era, bringing with him on the day 
of the entombment the famous "Book of the 
dead," cannot, strictly speaking, be considered 
as the predecessor of the modern bookseller. 
That he furnished the books and sold them is 
history, but in this sense only was he a book- 
seller. It is interesting to note that the power 
of the church was even then to be consid- 
ered, for we find that our friend divided the 
proceeds with the priests perhaps for the 
use of an official copy kept in the temple. 
This whole transaction, however, belongs to 
a vocation more venerable than bookselling. 

* A fine collection of reproductions of this famous 
hook may be seen at Bible Teacher's Training School 
Library, New York City. 

The most beautiful and complete copy of the 
"Book of the dead" is now in the British 
Museum and is a famous specimen. 

Historical literature has been preserved for 
us in the Harris papyrus giving the history of 
Rameses in., which has the distinction of 
being the largest papyrus known. Rawlinson 
claims, furthermore, that Egyptian literature 
comprised "books on religion, morals, law, 
rhetoric, mensuration, geometry, medicine, 
books of travel, and, above all, novels."* 
Greek literature probably owed most of all 
to this Egyptian culture. 

The decipherment of cuneiform inscriptions 
has greatly increased our knowledge of the 
history and literature of Babylonia and As- 
syria, which form geographically and ethno- 
graphically but one country. Here the ar- 
chaeologists have -found for us a code of laws 
eight hundred years older than that of Moses 
the famous code of Khamnurabi, who 
reigned about 2000 B.C. By this code we 
know that four thousand years ago the 
Babylonians had a thoroughly practical code 
of laws superior to the famous twelve tables 
of Roman law, and as Professor Souttar 
says, "No whit behind anything that England 
could boast of before the Norman conquest."** 
To Berosos we look for Babylonian history 
and to Megasthenes for the history of As- 
syria, while a later authority is the valuable 
canon of Ptolemy, whose history is, however, 
probably based on that of Berosos. The Old 
Testament is a never failing source of in- 
formation. Accad was the literary centre of 
Chaldea, and clay impressed with a metal 
stylus and baked has made much of their 
records permanent. Papyrus probably ante- 
dated this method of writing, but we know 
more about the Chaldean clay tablets because 
they have lasted to the present time. 

From the very earliest the literature of 
Chaldea was stored in public libraries. Be- 
rosos speaks of "A book town" as one of the 
antediluvian cities of Babylonia. EVery city 
had its library, and the office of librarian 
was considered of enough importance to be 
held by the king's brother, so the authorities 
claim. Scribes were kept busy editing and 
copying old texts. If we could prove that 
they sold them, here would be a real link in 

* Wiedemann. 

* Souttar, R. 

Popular literature of ancient 
Short history of ancient peoples. 

March, 1911] 



the history of bookselling. The copies were 
made most carefully and attention to the 
breaking of a tablet always noted. The libra- 
ries of Assyria were similar to those of Baby- 
lonia and were thrown open to the public. 
The tablets, or books, were arranged in order, 
and the table of chapters in the great astro- 
nomical work compiled for Sargon's Library 
at Agade (B.C. 3800) enjoined the student 
"to hand to the librarian in writing the num- 
ber of the book or chapter he wished to se- 
cure." When the librarian of this twentieth 
century directs the reader to look up the call 
number he is only following in the foosteps 
of his predecessor of nearly six thousand 
years ago. The literature stored in these li- 
braries, for it must have been stored rather 
than circulated, comprised almost every field 
of learning known at the time. History, 
mythology, religion, law, astronomy, general 
literature and bibliography formed a large 
part, the largest of which was probably given 
to mythical and religious literature. The 
epic of Gisdhubar, written in twelve books 
corresponding to the Zodiac signs, is one of 
the most famous of Accadian titles. That 
science was far advanced is shown by their 
astronomical treatises, the greatest of which 
consisted of seventy-two books called "The 
observations of Bell," compiled for the library 
of Sargon at Agade. This classic was later 
transcribed into Greek by Berosos. Probably 
the oldest Chaldean literature extant is to be 
found in the eighteen pieces of baked clay 
now in the British Museum, which gives a 
fairly complete history of the flood. By some 
archaeologists this is said to date to about 
4000 B.C., in that case antedating the "Book 
of the dead" by 1000 years, the book of Gen- 
esis by 2000 years, and Homer by 3000 years. 

Chaldean influence made itself felt strongly 
in Phoenicia, the Accadians calling it by the 
poetical name of Martu, "The path of the 
setting sun." The Phoenicians,* if lacking 
originality, were very receptive, and readily 
assimilated Chaldean ideas, as may be 
seen in their religion, and more especially in 
their art, which is directly copied from that 
of Egypt, Babylonia and Assyria. Of their 
literature very little is known only a few 
fragments of quotations which Josephos 
quotes from the history of Tyre by Dios and 
Menander of Ephesos ; fragments from 

* Sayce. Ancient empires of the East. 

Okhos, writer of Phoenician history and a 
few remains of Philo Byblius, who lived 200 
B.C., and is credited with having translated 
into Greek older works by Sanchuniathon. 
Phoenicia could not, however, have been very 
productive of literature, trading and com- 
merce having been the chief interest. 

A brief summary of Chinese literature may 
not be out of place, although it did not to 
any great extent affect later literature outside 
of the narrow boundaries of China. It finds 
its place here because of antiquity and not 
because of any influence. Some authorities 
even claim that Chinese literature is the 
earliest known, the existence of a written 
character by some being said to be as early 
as 5000 B.C. "The Y-king," the "Book of de- 
velopments," dates only to about 1150 B.C., 
and after continuing for many centuries was 
reissued under the direction of Confucius. 
In the work of Confucius we have the very 
foundation of Chinese literature, morality 
and law. Besides the "Book of develop- 
ments" there is the "Book of chronicles," 
called Schu-king, giving the records of dy- 
nasties from 2400 to 721 B.C. "The Schi-king, 
or, Book of songs," is a collection of hymns 
and ballads arranged by Confucius. The 
fourth collection is the "Tschuntshien, or, 
Year book," a chronicle of happenings, and 
the fifth is the "Li-ki, or, Book of ritual." 
These five books have directly influenced the 
Chinese literature for thousands of years, 
and the history of their literature is but an 
exposition of commentaries on these earlier 

In Lydia the Hittites * had established 
themselves and gradually extended their posi- 
tion westward, being most powerful between 
the fifteenth to the thirteenth century B.C. 
They are mentioned in the work on Baby- 
lonian astronomy, of which we have spoken 
as compiled for Sargon of Agade. Here 
again we find the term "Book town" used 
to denote one of their settlements in southern 
Palestine. Of their literature little is known, 
as the written record has wholly perished. 
One interesting fact in passing is that their 
hieroglyphics were always carved in relief, 
even though the material was of stone. 
Xanthos, the historian, has left fragments 
showing that certain annals were kept for a 

* Messerschmidt. The Hittite?. 



[March, 1911 

The literature of Persia was of course in- 
fluenced by that great religious power, 
Zoroaster, and a great deal must have been 
in existence at one time. However, at pres- 
ent nothing is known except portions of the 
older part of the Avesta. The cuneiform al- 
phabet was used at least for monumental 
purposes, as is proven by the tomb at Mur- 
ghab. Zoroaster is said to have been born 
about looo B.C.., and is credited with having 
been the author or compiler of the Gathas, 
or religious hymns, although this cannot be 

Such were the composite influences of those 
early empires, which culminated in the great 
literature of Greece. Much has doubtless 
been lost, for the strolling minstrel and the 
chanting rhapsodist handed down from gen- 
eration to generation the history and legends 
of an older time, and much must have per- 
ished with the passing of the singer. This 
applies to the literatures of those early em- 
pires quite as much as to that of Greece, 
although we are more familiar with those 
later "sons of Homer, singers of stitched 
verses," as Pindar calls them. Wandering 
from city to city, these early rhapsodists did 
much to spread literature, even if they did 
not permanently preserve it. In more than 
one way they may be considered the pre- 
cursors of those later itinerant booksellers 
the literature of the one was in the pages of 
his books the literature of the other was 
in a fertile brain and unfailing memory 
both spread the magic influence of literature. 

Professor Jebb has given us a delightful 
picture of those early singers, closing with 
this sympathetic appreciation of their powers : 
"Those who tell how the people in an Indian 
village still hang on the lips of him who re- 
cites one of the great Indian epics, help us to 
imagine the passionate sympathy, the tears, 
the rapture with which a Greek crowd heard 
it told how the King of Troy knelt to Achilles 
in his tent by night, or how the dying hound 
in the courtyard of Odysseus just lived to 
give a feeble welcome to the wanderer whom 
no one else knew." * 

If the Iliad and the Odyssey were com- 
posed about 1000 B.C. fully four centuries and 
a half elapsed before the work was put into 
literary form other than that of the song of 
the rhapsodist. The earliest Greek writing 

* Jebb. Greek literature. 

dates back to about 600 B.C., although au- 
thorities differ, Jevons thinking it reasonable 
to assume that writing was known in Greece 
as early as 700 B.C. However, we know that 
Pisistratus, the Tyrant of Athens, saved 
Homer for us, and we know the first editors 
they are well worth mentioning Con- 
cylus, Onomacritus, Zopyrus and Orpheus. 
We are certain, too, that the good work was 
finished about 550 B.C. a literary under- 
taking which has lasted for over 2500 years 
rather famous editing. Then Pisistratus col- 
lected the poems of Hesiod, following up one 
good deed with another. 

And such a noble company followed closely 
in succession until the whole stage of litera- 
ture was brilliant with names destined to last 
for all time. The tragic poets, ^Eschylus, 
Sophocles and Euripides; the historians Her- 
odotus, Thucydides, Xenophon, Manetho, Po- 
lybius and Dionysius, the orators among the 
greatest of the world, Lycurgus and Lysias ; 
the philosophers, Thales, Pythagoras, Plato 
and Aristotle, all these and many others as 
brilliant had helped build up that great Greek 
literature and all this in the centuries be- 
fore the Christian era. Is it any wonder that 
Greece and Athens especially was the literary 
center of the world? And is it not worth 
while to make this hasty survey of a literature 
which brought into existence a vocation which 
still has for sale the works of its first 
patrons ? 

As might be expected, the Athenians quick- 
ly formed the reading habit. As early as 450 
B.C. Aristophanes in the Tagenistae speaks of 
a young man who owed his ruin to "a book, 
to Prodicus, or to bad company." Fortunately 
the library is not credited with having fur- 
nished any of these evil influences. The liter- 
ary life of Athens demanded books and there 
was certainly material enough for any one 
with the bookselling instinct in him to set up 
shop the multiplication of copies, reports 
of lectures of the great philosophers, the lat- 
est tragedy in book form these were the 
requests of an aroused appetite for literature. 

And the result is easily predicted. Diog- 
enes Laertius tells us that "Hermodorus 
makes a trade of the sale of lectures." * 
Hermodorus of Syracuse was a student of 
Plato, and evidently sold the notes which he 

* Diogenes Laertius. Lives and opinions of emi- 
nent philosophers. 

March, 1911] 



had carefully taken at the lecture. This has 
sometimes been done in college by some stu- 
dious student, but we now call such a one a 
grind, and hot a bookseller. But in those 
peaceful days, 325 B.C., Hermodorus sold his 
notes, and by that act became at once editor, 
publisher and bookseller. All honor to old 
Hermodorus then, whom Suidas says made 
sale of his master's teachings he had the 
right idea; bookselling as a vocation had 

And who were the purchasers For that 
much abused phrase, "the reading public" 
means little after all. In the first place, there 
were the scholars whose demand for texts 
and notes created the first booksellers. Edu- 
cation was becoming more and more an es- 
tablished institution, and the students re- 
quired certain books for their work. The 
scholar could not have been a very lucrative 
patron of the bookseller, however; his de- 
mand was only for lecture abstracts and in- 
expensive books. But then, as now, there 
were many private collectors men who had 
libraries in their homes, and often large ones. 
Diogenes Laertius speaks of the great size 
of Aristotle's private library for instance, so 
carefully selected and so valuable a collection 
that Plato called it "the house of the reader." 
Of course Plato and Aristotle had greater 
means at their disposal than many of the 
Athenian booklovers, but almost every one 
had a library, great or small. Diogenei 
Laertius is also our authority for the state- 
ment that Plato paid three Attic talents for 
three books of Philolaus. Gellius tells us, too, 
that Aristotle paid nearly as much for some 
books of Speusippus. As this sum is equal 
to about $3240, it must have been considered 
a very respectable sale. These were the real 
collectors, real lovers of books, who had the 
money to buy fine books and knew how to 
appreciate them a combination not always 
found in modern bookselling. 

Besides the scholars and the collectors there 
was a third class of book buyers, and their 
business must have been well worth while. 
Lucian gives' us an amusing picture of some 
newly rich but unlettered gentlemen, who 
bought books and paid large prices for them 
in order to give the appearance of being cul- 
tured, and the books were appreciated only 
by moths and mice, Lucian sarcastically adds. 
It was perhaps for this class of buyers that 

the shrewd old bookseller buried manuscripts 
in grain and kept them there until the color 
had sufficiently changed, and the worms had 
had certain precious morsels. Then he dug 
them up and sold the poor tattered remnants 
as rare antiquities, and the price matched the 
assured age. The bookseller of to-day has 
certainly improved with the passing of the 
centuries, but the foolish old world is still 
searching for rarities and antiquities. 

The fourth great purchaser was the public 
library. To be sure, the library had its own 
scribes, and copied many books; but many 
others were purchased outright from the 
bookseller, generally by the founder of the 
library. There was no book committee whose 
opinions had to be considered the donor 
did it all and the library must have reflected 
to a great extent his individuality. Athe- 
naeus gives us the names of some of these 
early founders of libraries. The list is 
headed, as we might expect, with the name 
of Pisistratus, who saved for us of a later 
time the poems of Homer and Hesiod. When 
he died, in 527 B.C., he gave his books to 
Athens for a public library, and in later years 
the city added much to its collection. Po- 
lycrates of Samos (570-522 B.C.), Euclid of 
Megara (440-400 B.C.), Aristotle (384-321 
B.C.), and the Kings of Pergamum (350- 
200 B.C.) were also founders of libraries. 
These libraries were large and covered all 
branches of literature and science as then 
known, although poetry and philosophy pre- 
dominated. The library of the Kings of 
Pergamum, in later years given to Cleo- 
patra by Antony, is said to have contained 
about 200,000 rolls, and though this does 
not mean 200,000 volumes in the modern 
sense, the collection must have been large. 

Thus we see that the Greek bookseller did 
business with four classes of buyers al- 
most exactly as now the student buying 
simple text-books or inexpensive volumes for 
collateral reading; the intelligent collector 
with money at his disposal and brains to ap- 
preciate what he purchased ; the man of 
wealth utterly lacking in culture, who selects 
books from their outsides and knows or 
cares nothing as to contents ; the public li- 
brary, administered then much differently 
than now, but still a collection dedicated to 
the service of the community. 

Such were the purchasers the men who 



[March, ign 

came to the book shops, but where these 
book shops were we cannot say, although 
some claim that the book trade was carried 
on in the orchestra of the theater. This 
statement, based on a line in the Apology, 
has gained wide credence, but the translation 
does not prove this, and Schmitz,* an au- 
thority on the subject, does not believe that 
the book shops were centered there. I think 
it is better to accept only the historical fact, 
that as early as the fifth century B.C. Greece 
had a lively book trade, and make no attempt 
to locate the individual shops, information 
which after all is of little importance. We 
do not care for biographical material rela- 
tive to those early booksellers ; and we must 
admit it is not in existence. Their methods 
are after all of first importance. How did 
they conduct their business we ask natur- 
ally, and not where? 

The first booksellers were scribes who 
copied manuscripts already in existence on 
papyius scrolls, or later on parchment. Her- 
modorus was a scribe, although he did not 
copy another's work so far as the lectures 
were concerned. He heard the lectures, took 
the notes, and later sold them, and there is 
no record that he felt constrained to pay any 
royalties to Plato. But the thing to note is 
that at the outset the bookseller did his own 
work, and sold the work of his own hands. 
The bookseller found the business a lucrative 
one no doubt, and like many another man in 
a small business, he branched out. He hired 
a clerk or two, copyists of course, then more, 
until he had a regularly organized business, 
and all he had to do was to be president of 
the concern. If it hadn't been so hard to get 
accurate copyists there might have been 
keener competition, but skilled labor was 
scarce and high. 

At best errors were bound to creep in, and 
frequent references are to be found in Strabo 
deploring the inaccuracies of certain impor- 
tant classics, which had not been compared 
with the original manuscript. From this we 
infer that some one read aloud from the 
original and several copied at the same time. 
This would make possible rather rapid multi- 
plication of books. At any rate Harpalus was 
able to purchase in Athens as early as 300 
B.C the works of Euripides, yEschylus, Soph- 

* Schmitz. Schriftsteller und Buchhandler in 
Athen. . 

ocles, Telestes, Philoxenus and Philistus, "to- 
gether with a number of rare works." Diony- 
sius of Halicarnassus refers to a large num- 
ber of copies of Isocrates which the Athenian 
bookseller had distributed among the people. 

There must have been good booksellers 
and bad, honest and dishonest. Lucian 
speaks of both. At one time he says : "Look 
at these so-called booksellers, these venders. 
They are people of no culture ; they have no 
literary judgment, and do not know how to 
distinguish the good and the valuable from 
the bad and worthless." But again he speaks 
enthusiastically of the beautiful manuscripts 
made and sold by Callinus, and Harpocrates 
commends the accuracy of the editions of 
Atticus.* In spite of Strabos' criticism, how- 
ever, we know that the Athenian manuscripts 
ranked high, and were considered far more 
accurate than those made in Rome and Alex- 
andria. The early booksellers of Greece set 
a high standard, and if their faults were 
many their accomplishments were far greater. 
Diogenes Laertius gives us an attractive pic- 
ture of the influence of at least one book- 
seller. He has been tracing the ancestry of 
Zeno, and comes to that interesting turning 
point in Zeno's life when he gives up the 
career of a rich merchant to become a philos- 
opher. This is the explanation of Diogenes 
Laertius.* "Having purchased a quantity of 
purple from Phoenicia, he (Zeno) was ship- 
wrecked close to the Piraeus ; and when he 
had made his way from the coast as far as 
Athens, he sat down by a bookseller's stall, 
being now thirty years of age. And as he 
took up the second book of Xenophon's Me- 
morabilia and begun to read it, he was de- 
lighted with it, and asked where such men 
as were described in that book lived. And as 
Crates happened very seasonably to pass at 
the moment, the bookseller pointed him out, 
'Follow that man.'" From that time forth 
he became a pupil of Crates. Such was the 
joy and peace of mind found by a discour- 
aged, shipwrecked man in the literature of a 
humble bookseller's shop. 

The capture of Corinth in the year 146 
B.C. brought to an end the last vestige of 
Greek independence, and her literary life was 
a thing of the past, or reflected perhaps in 

* Not the Roman Atticus. 

* Diogenes Laertius. Lives and opinions of emi- 
nent philosophers. 




that of the Roman conquerors. During the 
century immediately preceding the Christian 
era, the creation and distribution of literature 
was transferred from Greece to Alexandria, 
where through the influence of the Ptolemies 
and especially Ptolemy Philadelphus, a great 
book market was established in an incredibly 
short space of time. To this new book center 
came scholars and literary men, and for them 
Ptolemy founded his great museum or uni- 
versity, containing the largest library of an- 
tiquity. Callimachus notes that it had 90,000 
"Bibloi amigeis," rolls containing one work 
only, and 400,000 "Bibloi summigeis," rolls 
containing several works of different authors 
composite affairs which bring joy to the 
modern cataloger and classifier 490,000 rolls 
in all, a very respectable library, even though 
it does not mean 490,000 volumes in the mod- 
ern sense. 

To this literary center the Romans first 
sent their copies to be multiplied, and the 
later bookselling machinery was patterned on 
that of Alexandria and Athens. One innova- 
tion at this time is the introduction of smaller 
rolls, so that only a part of a work possibly 
a chapter was on one roll. Thirty-six such 
rolls are said to have been required for the 
Iliad and Odyssey, which explains somewhat 
the almost unbelievable size of some of the 
libraries of antiquity. "A big book is a big 
nuisance," said Callimachus,* two thousand 
years before Dr. Johnson expressed his pref- 
erence for a little volume. 

In 30 B.C. Rome conquered Alexandria, but 
books were made and copied there for many 
centuries, Alexandria always remaining the 
great source for the supply of papyrus. Later 
Roman booksellers, or one at least, was to 
have a regular branch of his business in the 
famous old book city. By the close of the 
first century A.D., however, Rome was su- 
preme in the literary world, and Athens and 
Alexandria were but tributaries to her great- 
ness. In fact, Athenian influence is every- 
where manifest when one studies the literary 
output of those brilliant centuries immedi- 
ately following the Christian era. Many of 
the early writers of Rome were Athenians 
by birth and culture, and it is doubtful if 
they were ever entirely free from the influ- 
ence of their glorious inheritance. 

Quoted by Putnam in Authors and their public 
in ancient times. 

We have seen how Greece assimilated the 
best of the influences of those ancient em- 
pires. Rome no less profited by the learning 
of Greece and Alexandria, with the result 
that there was brilliancy in the Roman cap- 
ital. Rome became of necessity a book-lov- 
ing and book-producing center. There were 
scholars the grammarians; education was 
an established thing; there were fine private 
collections; no villa was complete without a 
library; there were great public libraries; 
twenty-nine of them between the reigns of 
Augustus and Hadrian, and through excava- 
tions in recent years we have found out how 
large they were. There was an ever-increas- 
ing number of collectors, who really loved 
books and made sacrifices to own them. Then 
from time immemorial there has been the in- 
dividual who desired to be considered a cul- 
tured and literary personage. We found 
him in early Greece, and Lucian expressed 
his disgust for him. Martial with his sharp 
tongue berates him because of his reading 
in public, while Seneca speaks of men who 
had great collections of books of which they 
had not so much as read the titles. But all 
this necessitated a great book industry, and 
the bookseller was ready to meet the demand. 

Bookselling must have antedated the time 
of Cicero, but we have few definite records 
of it, so that it is proper to begin the history 
of Roman bookselling with Atticus. the pub- 
lisher of Cicero and the greatest bookseller 
of his time, and one of the greatest of all 
times. Through the correspondence between 
Cicero and Athens, which the latter pub- 
lished after Cicero's death, we have a very 
comprehensive picture of the industry of his 
time. Pomponius Atticus was a man of liter- 
ary tastes, and his business of banking had 
given him sufficient means with which to 
found a business along noble lines. More 
than twenty years of his earlier manhood 
(B.C. 87-65) were spent in Greece, much of it 
in study in Athens. He numbered among his 
friends the great men of his times Antony, 
Brutus, Caesar, Pompey, and especially Cicero. 
This brief summary of his qualifications may 
show how fitted he was for his beloved pro- 
fession. A bookselling establishment with an 
Atticus at its head need not fear the inroads 
of forty-nine-cent rival department stores. 

We are not surprised, therefore, that At- 
ticus became at once literary adviser of au- 



[March, 1911 

thors, friendly critic, bookseller, and friend 
both of the reading public and the author 
whose works he prepared for publication. He 
brought to Rome large numbers of librarii 
from Athens. These were copyists, who du- 
plicated books as did those early scribes of 
the Greeks. He trained young slaves for this 
work, and we find in his correspondence with 
Cicero mention of some of them. Cicero, 
writing to Atticus from Arpinum, says : 
"Hilarus the copyist has just left me."* 
Again Cicero finds that he has made a mis- 
take in his speech "For Ligarius," which he 
excuses as "a lapse of memory," but closes 
his letter with the request that Atticus will 
instruct his librarii, "Pharnaces, Antaeus and 
Salvius to erase that name from all the 
copies." * It is an interesting fact that At- 
ticus did not do this, and that the mistake 
remains to this day in the Pro Ligarius. 
Again, though the names of the librarii are 
not mentioned, Cicero writes Atticus to 
change the authorship of a quotation incor- 
rectly given "not only in your own copy," he 
writes, "but also in those meant for others." 

In spite of careful training by Atticus his 
scribes sometimes made mistakes, which is 
not surprising. When Atticus published for 
Cicero his Academica dedicated to Varro, 
Cicero writes to him from Tusculum, "there 
only remains the correction of the mistakes 
of the copyists," at the same time referring 
to his "de Finibus," which was dedicated to 
Brutus. "About these books you know that 
I have some hesitation, but I leave it to you. 
Also those I am dedicating to Brutus, the 
copyists have in hand." From these we can 
see how important it was to have skilled 
labor. Horace gives us the value of slaves 
competent to act as librarii as about 8000 
sesterces, or $400, while Seneca in his epistles 
tells us of servi literati for which their mas- 
ter paid 10,000 sesterces each, or $500. 

Atticus had branches in Alexandria and 
Athens, and as the bookseller to-day keeps 
in touch with the books of other markets 
through importation, so Atticus was able to 
supply not the "books of all publishers" sim- 
ply, but the works of all writers known to 
the literary world. It is of interest to know 
what books were asked of Atticus beside the 
works of Cicero, all of which he published. 

* Cicero. Letters, in. 19. 

* Cicero. Letters, in. 13-14. 

Cicero's letters, while he was at work on 
certain literary enterprises, is again a great 
source of information. Almost the first let- 
ters are requests for books, although they 
refer to Atticus' private collection. "Don't 
engage your library to any one . . . for I 
am hoarding p my little savings expressly 
to secure that resource for my old age," * 
writes Cicero from Tusculum; and again he 
writes, "Mind also not to let any one else 
have your books. Reserve them, as you say 
in your letter, for me. I am possessed with 
the utmost longing for them." ** But later 
we find Cicero asking for definite titles. 
"Send me the book 'On Concord,' by Deme- 
trius of Magnesia/ " he writes ; and again, 
"Please send me both the books of Dicaear- 
chus, 'On the soul' and on the 'Descent.' I 
can't find his 'Tripoliticus' and his letter to 
Aristoxenus. I should be especially glad to 
have these three books ; they would bear upon 
what I have in my mind." * And it is some 
comfort to the modern bookseller to note 
that the bookseller of old was sometimes a 
little slow in filling orders, for Cicero writes 
again later almost impatiently, "Please send 
me the books of which I wrote to you be- 
fore, and especially Phaedrus, 'On gods.' " 

That the Romans read the Greek classics 
goes without saying they almost adopted 
them as a part of their own literature. Cic- 
ero's letters to Atticus are full of references 
to Greek works which he has been reading, 
while the quotations which embellish his 
writings are almost entirely from Greek poets 
or dramatists. Even the librarii were obliged 
to be familiar with Greek literature, and of 
course wrote Greek. 

There is one attribute of the old Roman 
bookseller which modern dispensers of litera- 
ture may well emulate knowledge of books 
in general, outside of those on sale. Atticus 
as a man of culture possessed this knowledge 
to a great extent. Cicero evidently thought 
a bookseller and a reference librarian one 
and the same, for he writes : "I should like 
to ascertain in what consulship Publius 
Scaevola, the Pontifex Maximus, was tri- 
bune. I think it was in that of Caepio and 
Pompeius, for he was a praetor in the year 
of Lucius Furius and Sextus Atilius. Please 

* Cicero. Letters. i. 8. 
** Cicero. Letters, n. 301. 

* Cicero. Letters, in. 209. 



therefore, tell me the year of Tubulus' tri- 
bunate, and if you can on what charge he was 
tried. And pray look to see whether Lucius 
Libo, who brought in the bill about Servius 
Galba, was tribune in the consulship of Cen- 
sorinus and Manilius or T. 'Quinctius and 
Manius Acilius. Also, I am puzzled about 
Brutus' epitome of the history of Fannius. 
1 put down what I found at the end of that 
epitome, and, taking it as my guide, I stated 
that Fannius the author of the history 
was scn-in-law to Laelius. But you proved 
to demonstration that I was wrong. Now 
Brutn? and Fannius refute you. However, I 
had good authority that of Hortensius 
for my statement as it appears in the 'Brutus.' 
Please therefore set this matter right." * 
Certainly this was query enough for one let- 
ter, and Atticus is to be forgiven if he did 
not fill all his orders promptly if this is a fair 
examole of what he as a bookseller was ex- 
pected to do. We wonder what the libra- 
rians of those famous libraries of his time 
were doing. That Cicero had confidence in 
Atticus' ability and knowledge is expressed 
in a letter from Tusculum. "Your opinion 
about Ttiditanus is very reasonable, that at 
the time that he was at the siege of Corinth 
for Hortensius did not speak at random 
he was quaestor or military tribune, and I 
rather think it was so." Perhaps this was 
a little compliment to spur Atticus on to fur- 
ther research, for Cicero concludes with this 
request: "You will be able to ascertain from 
Antiochus, of course, in what year he was 
quaestor or military tribune. If he was 
neither, hunt him up and see whether he was 
among the Praefecti, or the Attaches al- 
ways provided that he was engaged in that 
war at all."* 

Atticus must have been a model bookseller. 
He could help his writers, and w r as able to 
find any and all difficult pieces of information, 
and was then able to get works prepared by 
careful study of sources and authorities. 
With skilled and well paid librarii, famous 
for the accuracy of their manuscripts, it is 
no wonder that his works were sought above 
those of all others. Haenny** discusses at 
length the fame of the Attican texts, and we 

*' Cieero. Letters, in. DCXI. 272. 
* Cicero. Letters, in. 276. 

'* Haenny. Schriftsteller und Buchhandler im 
Alten Rom. 

are told that the word "Atticans" grew to 
mean accuracy. It is fortunate for us of this 
day that the great works of a great writer 
like Cicero were published by a great man 
like Atticus, who was his exclusive pub- 

As the publisher and bookseller were all 
one and the same at this time, and for cen- 
turies to come, a word as to the relationship 
of Cicero and Atticus as publisher and author 
may not be out of place. We have seen how 
capable Atticus was to supply any and all 
books needed at any time, and to furnish ex- 
pert advice when needed. As publisher, Cic- 
ero reposed the same confidence in him. 
"You have done so well with my 'Pro Liga-' 
rius,'" he writes, "that I propose hereafter 
to place in your hands the sale of all my 
writings." And that Atticus had great faith 
in the versatility of Cicero is shown by his 
request for some work on geography evi- 
dently desired to meet public demands. "As 
to geography," writes Cicero in reply, "I will 
try to satisfy you, but I promise nothing for 
certain. It is a difficult business, but never- 
theless as you bid me, I will take care that 
this country excursion produces something 
for you." Evidently Atticus had some power 
in the directing and controlling of his au- 
thor's literary production. An interesting 
sentence in this same letter shows that pres- 
entation copies were not unknown at that 
time. "I have ordered the money for it to 
be paid you at once," writes Cicero, "that 
you may not put it down to the cost of 
presentation copies." * 

But it is useless to quote further. The 
whole Atticus correspondence is full of refer- 
ences to the publishing of Cicero's works, and 
gives a most delightful picture of the amic- 
able relations then existing between publisher 
and author. Only once does Cicero question 
the authority of his publisher. "Now just 
tell me, do you think it right to begin with, 
to publish at all without an order from me?" 
Hermodorus himself used not to do that 
the man who made a practice of circulating 
Plato's books, whence came the line : "In 
note-books, Hermodorus makes his gain." 
We rather resent this slur upon our worthy 
predecessor Hermodorus, really our first 
bookseller, but Cicero was evidently in one of 
his fretful moods, for he continues his fault 

* Cicero. Letters. I. 88. 



[March, 1911 

finding: "And again, do you think it right 
to show it to any one before Brutus, to 
whom, on your advice, I dedicate it. For 
Balbus has written to tell me that you have 
allowed him to take a copy of the fifth book 
of the 'de Finibus/ in which, though I have 
not made very many alterations, yet I have 
made some, I shall be very much obliged to 
you if you will keep back the other books, 
so that Balbus may not have what is un- 
corrected, and Brutus what is stale. But 
enough of that lest I seem 'to make a fuss 
about trifles,'"** just what he had evidently 
been doing. For the most part, however, 
Cicero and Atticus lived on the most amicable 
basis, and were close friends. 

Although, so far as we know, none of the 
Roman booksellers were as cultured as At- 
ticus, there were many of them, and we know, 
as we did not in Greece, where they kept 
their well furnished shops. Birt 3 tells us of 
one of the oldest retail bookstores of Rome, 
in which Clodius hid himself; this was in 
58 A.D. Later we find mention of many book 
shops the Sosii, for instance, in the Vicus 
Tuscus, close to the entrance to the temple 
of Janus. Horace says to his book, "You 
are looking wistfully, it seems, at Vertumum 
and Janus, bent (save the mark) on being 
set for sale neatly smoothed with the pumice 
of the brothers Sosii." * Then there are 
references to book shops in the Vicus San- 
dalarius, and on the Sigillaria, to say nothing 
of the innumerable open air venders of liter- 
ature, corresponding to our second-hand 
bookstores of to-day, except that they had 
no fixed shop, but sold whenever they were 
sure of a crowd. There can be no doubt, 
however, that the Argiletum was the great 
book street of Rome. Cicero and Martial 
refer to the Argiletum often, using it as a 
synonymous word for book market. Martial 
chides his little book much as Horace did, 
because it preferred "to dwell in the shops 
of the Argiletum." * Dorus, the publisher of 
Seneca, and Tryphon, the publisher of Quin- 
tilian, had of necessity large establishments 
for the multiplying of copies of their authors 
and for the display of their collections. Atrec- 
tus, Polius and Secundus paid little attention 

** Cicero. Letters, in. 292. 
3 Birt. Das Antike Buchwescn. 

* Horace. Odes. 313-4. 

* Martial. Epigrams. 

to publishing, but they maintained excellent 
book shops. How delightful it must have 
been, if a patron wanted a book not in stock 
to be able to direct the librarii to make it at 
once, and have no fear of infringement of 

We are fortunate in having had preserved 
for us the names of so many worthy Roman 
booksellers. We know what their shops 
looked like, we are familiar with their busi- 
ness methods, but of those open air book 
stalls we know not one by name. But we do 
know that there were many of them; we 
know where they stood beneath the porticos 
near the forum selling second-hand manu- 
scripts from serin ia or round boxes supported 
from their necks, much as the newsboy on a 
train displays the magazines of the month. 
And there is no doubt but that the real book 
hunter patronized these open air booksellers, 
just as a booklover of to-day enjoys the quiet 
hour spent in some dingy little second-hand 
book shop. It was by these booksellers that 
books from Macedonia and every part of the 
Levant were exposed for sale, and many a 
private library, and perhaps public, was in- 
creased by some of these bargains. Aulus 
Gellius in his "Noctes Atticae" ** tells us of 
an opportunity for enriching his library of 
which he took advantage. He was returning 
to Italy from Greece, and landing at Brindisi 
he saw a book stall. The words of that 
genuine booklover are worth quoting : "I 
was walking," he says, "after leaving the ship 
at this famous port, when I noticed a book 
stall. Immediately, with the eagerness of a 
booklover, I ran to examine it. There was a 
collection of Greek books, full of fables, pro- 
digies, strange and incredible narratives ; the 
authors were old writers, whose names are of 
but mediocre authority; I found there Aris- 
taeus of Proconesus, Isigonos of Nicaea, 
Ctesias, Onesicritus, Polystephanus, Hegesias 
and others. These books, much dilapidated 
and covered with ancient dust, looked 
wretched enough, but I asked the price of 
them. Its unexpected reasonableness led me 
at once to purchase them, and I carried away 
a great number of volumes, which I looked 
through during the two following nights." 
That certainly has the real book-loving ring 
about it, and we can imagine the enjoyment 

* Aulus Gellius. Noctes Atticsc. Book ix. 

March, 1911] 



of many hours as the result of that chance 

Who were the patrons of Atticus and his 
associates in business? The booklover like 
Aulus Gellius could not have been a very 
profitable patron, for as \ve have seen he 
bought mostly second-hand copies, for which 
he himself says he paid little. Furthermore, 
the scholars, or grammarians, were not large 
buyers, for they were always poor. The 
poverty of literary people is often noted in 
Martial, Ovid and Cicero. The public and 
the private libraries were therefore the 
sources of revenue for the bookseller, and 
as the question of net and copyright books 
was unknown in those days, we have every 
indication that the librarian, public or pri- 
vate, lived on friendly terms with the book- 
seller, and that both worked together. Private 
libraries, as we have seen, were many and 
large. We have records relative to the libra- 
ries of the Plinys that of Epaphroditus of 
Chaeronaea, the secretary of Nero; Persius' 
library, the private collection of Atticus en- 
vied by Cicero: the library of Sammoaicus, 
a physician, who collected 62,000 volumes, 
later donated to the crown, and so on. 

The library of Sammoaicus must have been 
of rather exceptional size, for we read that 
Persius' library had but 700 volumes, but 
Martial sneeringly refers to this meager col- 
lection. The libraries were on the average 
large, probably about 2000 volumes. To col- 
lect a library was the uppermost thought in 
every cultured mind. Cicero's first letters to 
Atticus were relative to books for his villa. 
The private collectors bought beautiful books 
in fine bindings, much as did those cultured 
men of Greece, and as does the cultured man 
of to-day who has wealth at his disposal. 
Cicero bids Atticus send him at once some 
parchment for labels. These small pieces of 
parchment were often brilliantly illuminated 
title pieces they were called the work be- 
ing done by slaves specially trained for this 
work. "I wish you would send me," writes 
Cicero from Antium, "a couple of your li- 
brary slaves for Tyrannic to employ as 
gluers, and in other subordinate work, and 
tell them to get some fine parchment to make 
title pieces, which you Greeks, I think, call 
sillybi."* Martial refer* to the exquisite 
bindings sometimes made for choice books, 

* Cicero. Letters, i. 224. 

paying an indirect compliment to Faustinus, a 
bookseller, who evidently paid much attention 
to fine bindings. "Is it unto Faustinus' bosom 
that you flee? You have chosen wisely: you 
may now make your way perfumed with oil 
of cedar, and decorated with ornaments at 
both ends, luxuriate in all the glory of painted 
bosses; delicate purple may cover you and 
your title proudly blaze in scarlet." ** Mar- 
tial is also our source of information relative 
to a still further embellishment the inser- 
tion of a portrait of the author on the front 
or title-page. It is not surprising that wealthy 
collectors of long ago paid fabulous prices 
for some of their beautiful editions. 

Furthermore, the small volume was pop- 
ular. Into such a little book dexterous hands 
would often concentrate the "omnia opera" 
of a poet the contents of thirty or forty 
rolls a monument of patient toil, with deli- 
cate hands and careful eyes. The fondness 
for rare books brought many frauds into cir- 
culation. Galenus complains that he found 
in the book shops works bearing the name of 
Hippocrates which the great man never wrote. 
The private collector, with plenty of money, 
must have made business brisk most of the 
time. Book collecting was the one great and 
absorbing aim of such people, and of course 
the bookseller had a sympathetic ear. 

The public library was the other great 
patron of the early sellers of books. Money 
for these libraries was not given grudgingly. 
Rome was proud of her great public libraries. 
As early as 717 A. V. C. Asinus Pollio opened 
a public library. What a fine lot of carefully 
selected books that brilliant writer must have 
brought together ! Four years later Caesar 
Augustus made libraries state institutions, 
and set aside for this purpose large sums 
of money collected during the Dalmatian war. 
The first state library opened under this plan 
was the Bibliotheca Octavia, named in honor 
of Augustus' sister, Octavia. Four more fol- 
lowed in quick succession, a part of the plan 
of the energetic Augustus and his literary ad- 
viser, Terentius Varro. Varro was the great 
critic of his time, and Pliny tells us that in 
the first public library of Rome Pollio put up 
masks of great authors, but Varro was the 
only living author represented. Varro was 
therefore an able assistant for Augustus in 
his plan for library extension. Vespasian es- 

** 'Martial. Epigrams. 



[March, ign 

tablished the fifth imperial library in the 
Forum Pads, and Trajan, the sixth in his 
own forum, and so on nearly thirty libra- 
ries founded in Rome between the reign of 
Augustus and that of Hadrian. Then, too, 
there were public libraries in the smaller 
cities. Strabo speaks of the library at 
Smyrna; Pliny gave a library to Comum, the 
modern Como, and it is from the accounts 
of Aulus Gellius relative to the library in 
Tibus, now Tivoli, that we get one of our 
strongest reasons for supposing that books 
from these libraries could be circulated. He 
tells us that while dining one day in a distin- 
guished company a discussion arose relative to 
the injuriousness of drinking iced water. One 
person in condemning the use of ice water 
quoted Aristotle, and as some of the gentle- 
men present doubted the authorship of the 
quotation, the gentleman went to the public 
library, borrowed a volume and read there- 
from the passage quoted, strongly denouncing 
the use of ice water. How fortunate for be- 
lief in that man's veracity that there was a 
library near, and that the book he wanted 
was not reserved in the reference collection. 

All these libraries must have made good 
business, and the library department of a 
bookselling establishment must have been an 
important one, for from Martial's statement 
we see that this department was at once an 
intelligence office for well trained library 
slaves, a library bureau for furnishing equip- 
ment as well as a complete bookstore in the 
modern sense of the word. I can find no 
record of library discounts, nor of any special 
library editions reinforced with canvas and 
sewn on tapes. Perhaps the libraries did a 
little reinforcing of the publishers' binding 
before the book was put into circulation, for 
they had skilful library assistants. 

The libraries were not so fond of remain- 
ders as now, and the bookseller could not 
depend on disposing of slow selling works 
by making a special price, but he had 
an avenue for the disposal of slow sellers 
unknown to the bookseller of to-day. "Make 
haste," says Martial to his book, "to choose 
a patron, lest being hurried off into a murkey 
kitchen you cover tunnies with your wet 
leaves, or become a wrapper for incense and 
pepper." "If he (Appolinaris) shall receive 
thee to his heart, and repeat thee with his 
lips, then wilt neither have to dread the suc- 

cess of the malignant nor wilt thou furnish 
parchment coverings for anchovies. If he 
shall condemn thee, thou mayst run forth- 
with to the stalls of the salt meat sellers, to 
have thy back scribbled upon by their boys."* 
What a blessing if to-day some of our lit- 
erary effusions of aspiring poets could be 
made use of as wrapping paper for fish and 
groceries. It is an assured fact, however, 
that remainders of editions were often thus 
disposed of. Haenny feels certain that the 
exported copies at least were new copies, 
and not second-hand, as some have sug- 
gested. Horace says of his book: "When 
you have begun to show the thumb marks of 
the vulgar, you will be left in silence to be 
the food of bookworms, or will run away to 
Utica (in Africa), or be sent in bonds to 
Ilerda (Spain)." I think this means simply 
exportation for the provincial book markets, 
and does not necessarily imply slow sellers. 

Such were the buyers who came to those 
old book shops of the Argiletum they were 
busy places. What a charming picture of 
activity. The better bookstores, large estab- 
lishments like that of Atticus, had two kinds 
of specially trained slaves, whose time was 
taken up, to quote Haenny, "mit Absch- 
reiben," and "mit Einbinden der rollen" ** 
that is, copying and binding the rolls. The 
librarii, as we have seen, were the copyists 
and the glutinatores were the binders, who 
prepared the illuminated title-pieces, glued 
the pages end to end, and did all the fine work 
to make the work attractive. They probably 
made an index, which pleases the modern 
librarian. And all were busy, and. we trust, 
all happy and contented with their work. 

The bookstore was the place in which to 
meet the distinguished litterateurs of the 
day the place for friendly gossip, the inter- 
change of ideas. Philosophers came to ex- 
pound their philosophy, authors recited from 
their works ; perhaps it is Statius reading 
from his Thebaid, and Juvenal tells us that 
"all the city comes to hear the reading. The 
audience is enthusiastic and applauds vocif- 
erously." Martial, the faultfinder, always ac- 
cusing his fellows of plagiarism, suggesting 
to a contemporary who quoted him that he 
pay for his epigrams, Martial, the sharp 
tongued critic of his times, gives us this quaint 

* Martial. Epigrams. 131. 

* Haenny. Schriftsteller. p. 38. 

March, 1911] 



and charming picture of the old Roman shop. 
"Whenever you meet me, Lupercus, you con- 
stantly say, 'Shall I send my servant for you 
to give him your little book of Epigrams, 
which I will read and return to you directly ?' 
There is no need, Lupercus, to trouble your 
servant. It is a long journey, if he wishes 
to come to the Pirus, and I live up three 
pairs of stairs, and those high ones. What 
you want you may procure nearer at hand. 
You frequently go down to the Argiletum. 
Opposite Caesar's forum is a shop, with pillars 
on each side covered over with titles of 
books, so that you may quickly run over the 
names of all the poets. Procure me there: 
you will no sooner ask Atrectus such is the 
name of the owner of the shop than he will 
give you from the first or second shelf a 
Martial, well smoothed with pumice stone, 
and adorned with purple for five denarii. 

'Your are not worth so much,' do you say; 
you are right, Lupercus."* 

To those old booksellers of the Argiletum 
we owe much, for it was they who multiplied 
by thousands some of the classics of Latin 
literature. They received a great inheritance 
from the Greeks, but added to it and left a 
larger and richer literature for later genera- 
tions. The printed page should never efface 
from memory the everlasting debt of grati- 
tude we owe to those old controllers of libra- 
ries who preserved so much for all time to 
the rhapsodists who helped diffuse the first 
feeble beginnings of a noble literature, to the 
great army of scribes who laboriously copied 
the manuscripts, and to those early book- 
sellers who made and sold thousands of those 
precious copies. But for these agencies the 
records might have been forever lost. 

* Martial. Epigrams. 83. 


BY HELEN E. HAINES, Pasadena, Cal. 

THE aids that I have in mind are but two in 
number, and they are not found in the formid- 
able array of "Librarians' helps" that range 
from patent pamphlet binders to revised card 
catalog rules and author tables. They are the 
last two items in that list of the three posses- 
sions that, we are told, will carry us safely 
alike through the joys and the trials of this 
uncertain world Religion, Love of books, 
and a Sense of humor. To be sure, the libra- 
rian needs all three of them ; but it is the two 
latter that I would touch upon as important 
in the specific category of aids in library 

Love of books is seldom included in the re- 
quired qualifications of a library worker. Li- 
brarians are sadly familiar with the young 
woman whose application for a place in li- 
brary service is based upon the all-sufficient 
reason that it is such light ladylike work, and 
that she is so fond of reading ; and it is, per- 
haps, owing to her persistence that the ques- 
tion of a liking for books seldom figures in 
library examinations. Indeed, I do not count 
this love of books as a qualification for li- 
brary service, but as an aid in library work. 
The love of books will not make one a quick 
or accurate indexer ; it will not give efficiency 

in the rush of the charging desk, a clear mind 
in classification, or the power to direct a 
board of directors; its gifts are intimate and 
personal ones, and its influence upon work 
comes mainly through its influence upon char- 
acter. In considering it, we step aside from 
the machinery of the workshop and enter a 
dominion of the spirit, which is the heritage 
of all the world. The vast majority will 
never claim their share in that heritage. Li- 
brarians are too apt to regard the love of 
books as a quality that may be implanted in 
the average breast by a judicious issue of 
two books (one non-fiction) on a single card, 
or by cherishing the youthful mind in the 
warmth and sunshine of the children's room. 
To these measures and others like them we 
owe an immense development of the reading 
habit and a greatly increased knowledge of 
the usefulness of books as tools ; but the love 
of books is a thing apart from these; it may 
be developed, but it cannot be created. It is 
like the wind of the spirit; it bloweth where 
it listeth, and it is no more a universal at- 
tribute of mankind than brown eyes or math- 
ematical skill or any other physical or mental 
characteristic. W r herever it exists, no matter 
how various in degree or manifestation, it 



[March, ign 

means the enrichment of life and the deepen- 
ing of capacities for enjoyment and for effort. 
Its aids are various forgetfulness of trials, 
courage for fresh endeavor but of them all 
I would put first that of pure pleasure, the 
sheer joy that comes in association with the 
beloved figures that are dearer and more vital 
than many an every day acquaintance. What 
complete happiness was that which long ago 
glowed in the small reader's every fibre, when, 
before the entranced inner vision, the Knight 
of the Leopard was seen emerging free from 
dishonor and the secret of "The talisman" 
was revealed ! Or when for the first time we 
saw Fitzjames stand with covered head in the 
court circle, and watched as 

"His chain of gold the King unstrung, 
The links o'er Malcolm's neck he flung, 
Then gently chew the glittering band 
And laid the clasp in Ellen's hand." 

This is the happiness of romantic senti- 
ment; very much like falling in love, which 
indeed it frequently results in. I do not know 
how far the heroines of fiction are irresistible 
in this direction (though I fancy Rebecca the 
Jewess, and Ethel Newcomb, and the Mistress 
of the Crossways have made their conquests), 
but falling in love with heroes is a delightful 
occupation, and can be varied with perfect 
propriety and safety to suit the demands of 
the mood and the moment. 

Then there is the happiness of laughter and 
good cheer. Think of the joy that Mrs. 
Gamp has diffused in "this pilgian's projiss 
of a mortial wale;" of the debt tired and 
troubled mortals owe to the Wilfer family, 
and Mr. Silas Wegg, to the ingenious Mr. 
Charles O'Malley, to the Snark and the Che- 
shire cat. and all the familiar figures that 
have added to the gayety of the world. There 
are other phases of this gift of pleasure in 
the storm of tragic emotion, the charm of 
melody, and the happiness of being miserable 
over other people's woes and it seems that 
this gift must come first among the aids that 
the love of books brings to the brightening 
of life. 

The bond between others created by a 
common sympathy is another of the aids that 
comes to us from this source. For the libra- 
rian, brought into direct relations with the 
public, there can be few more potent aids 
than this. We all are quick to recognize this 
bond. In casual acquaintance a phrase, an 

allusion, gives the sign of the freemasonry of 
books, and there is open instantly that de- 
lightful prospect of a common ground where- 
in to project mutual ventures of exploration. 
In the library, of all places, should prevail 
this fellowship of books. Not the most per- 
fected charging methods or the freest access 
can take the place of the sympathy between 
librarian and reader which it will give. The 
public is quick to realize and respond to this 
freemasonry. Many a time have I seen read- 
ers wait determinedly to consult a certain 
assistant on the choice of some book, for no 
other reason but that they were sure of an 
interested answer; many times have I en- 
countered the quelling rebuff of utter indif- 
ference that is too often regarded as the "offi- 
cial manner" of those that serve in libraries, 
and that doubtless inspired the irate Irish- 
woman's protest against "thim young divils 
forninst the counter." If this feeling of the 
fellowship of books is a boon to the reader, 
whose connection with the library is infre- 
quent and temporary, how much more must 
it be a precious aid to the librarian, whose 
working hours are passed in a constant asso- 
ciation with books that is apt to breed indif- 
ference if not distaste ? For it will bring the 
magic leaven of interest to lighten labor, and 
what that means only those know who have 
gauged the difference between congenial 
work and uncongenial drudgery. 

There is a third aid to add to these gifts 
of pleasure and of sympathy with others 
the broadening of mind and deepening of per- 
ceptions that must come with a real love of 
books. Personal experience here disproves 
the arguments which would show that there 
is no sound basis for the theory of "evolu- 
tion in reading" an expression that means 
simply that persons who at first care only for 
books of slight value may by the simple proc- 
ess of reading be brought to care for better 
and higher literature. Given the love of 
books and this result must follow. See in 
one's own experience how through books 
one's standards have been changed and one's 
horizon broadened. Books that ten years 
ago meant nothing to us are to-day almost as 
fibers of our being; books that ten years ago 
seemed revelation of life were long since 
sloughed off and forgotten. Formal educa- 
tion with its drill and its insistent claims, 
gives the best equipment for the world's 

March, 1911] 


work: add to it the love of books, and we 
have the crowning touch; but the love of 
books alone means education in its truest 
sense, through association with ideals and 
images of knowledge, beauty and power, that 
must unconsciously impart their influence. 
Such education is in large measure an un- 
conscious process. Study there must often 
be, and a receptive mind always, but never do 
books give of their treasures so generously 
as when, with Mrs. Browning, 

"we read our books, 

Without considering whether they are fit 
To do us good. Mark there. We get no good 
By being ungenerous, even to a book, 
And calculating profits. ... So much help 
From so much reading. It is rather when 
We gloriously forget ourselves and plunge 
Soul-forward, headlong, into a book's profound, 
Impassioned for its beauty and salt of truth, 
'Tis then we get the right good from a book." 

'Reading for profit" in the sense of a 
transaction undertaken for value received is 
a popular pursuit; but it is not directly con- 
nected with the real education that books im- 
part. I do not believe that this education is 
likely to be secured through "courses" of 
reading, except in so far as these are made 
personal and individual, and I am sure libra- 
rians of all people must know how superficial 
and unsound is much of the "culture" ex- 
ploited through this medium. For it is very 
apt to be a second-hand article, and to suffer 
from the influence of manuals, epitomes, com- 
mentaries and interpretations. To its devel- 
opment we have "The best of Browning," 
chosen for us, with explanatory diagrams ; 
the "World's best literature," labelled and 
condensed into handy digestive tablets; and 
the Rubaiyat prepared with an introduction 
"for those who on their first introduction to 
Omar Khayyam find it difficult to understand 
FitzGerald's rendering.'' In this last work 
there is to be found an explanation of the 
abstruse stanza: 

"The Worldly Hope men set their Hearts upon 
Turns Ashes or it prospers; and anon 
Like Snow upon the Desert" s dusty Face, 
Lighting a little hour or two is gone. 

We may be grateful to be informed that this 
means that life is short, and that human 
hopes are like snow melting in the sunshine ; 
but it seems as if the human intellect, un- 
aided, might have found a fairly satisfactory 
solution of those verses. When we take our 

reading like a medical prescription its results 
are not likely to be very vital, or its in- 
fluence permanent. The preparation of indi- 
vidual courses of reading, on the other hand, 
is a wholesome and agreeable pastime in 
which most people who love books indulge 
freely. Like the preparation of New Year's 
resolutions it is more an exercise for the 
conscience and the imagination than for prac- 
tical execution. This is inevitable because 
the love of books is always influenced by that 
unknown quantity, the personal element. It 
is that which makes futile the attempt to 
specify just what are "the best books" an 
occupation beloved of newspaper editors. For 
what that phrase "the best books" really 
means, within certain canons, is "the books 
that are best to me." To many of us it is 
more apt to mean "the books that I think I 
ought to think are best ;" and we try to. be- 
lieve that if we were cast away on a desolate 
island we should choose to have with us for 
comfort and inspiration Buckle's "History of 
civilization" and De Quincey's essays, and 
Chaucer's works, or the other five or six or 
ten books that Sir John Lubbock, or Hamil- 
ton Mabie or somebody else has chosen for 
us although we may feel a lurking cer- 
tainty- that we never intend to choose them 
until we are reduced to that extremity. Those 
books that u'e have chosen, that we love and 
return to and that have become part of our- 
selves, as beloved books do, are the "best 
books" so far as we are concerned ; and it is 
rather pleasant to feel that no other person 
is likely to have just the same selection. 
They may not all be counted in a prize-list 
of masterpieces but that is of very little 
moment. For I do not believe that among 
any half dozen persons, really loving and 
knowing books, you will find one who, if 
honest, will not confess utter indifference to 
some acknowledged masterpiece of litera- 
ture. In the cause of literary honesty it 
would be interesting some day to supplement 
the stock "symposiums" upon "Great books 
that have helped me" with a symposium upon 
"Great books that have bored me." A little 
experiment once undertaken in that direction 
brought some amusing results. One con- 
fessed that in youth and age he had never 
been able to read "Robinson Crusoe ;" an- 
other looked back upon Dante as producing 
the most unmitigated boredom she could re- 

1 1 4 


[March, 1911 

call ; another, in a whisper, added "Sartor 
Resartus" to the list; one unfortunate being 
remarked that Scott had always seemed dull 
to him; and my own contribution to the 
record embraced "Paradise lost" and the 
"Faery queen." 

This freedom of choice lies, of course, 
within certain canons. We may be bored by 
Robinson Crusoe if we find delight in Steven- 
son, or Wordsworth, or Marcus Aurelius, or 
their fellows; admiration for Gibbon and af- 
fection for Meredith are quite compatible 
with joy in the high-piled mysteries of Du 
Boisgobey, or a weakness for the marsh- 
mallows of Mrs. Burnham or the Roman can- 
dles of Miss Corelli; but if the only books 
that have not bored us are "The master 
Christian," and "Peck's bad boy," and "Lena 
Rivers" why then our tastes and inclina- 
tions have no concern with the real world 
of books. 

The education that books impart is of all 
things eclectic. I suppose there is nothing 
except travel that is so broadening to the 
range of vision as a wide and varied love of 
books. It sets in contrast prejudices, ideals 
and tenets of every shade and quality, and 
from the conflict brings recognition of the 
good in each. It gives quickness in sym- 
pathy and deliberation in judgment for 
where so much is good that varies in kind 
and in degree, who can venture a hasty opin- 
ion? It imparts a familiarity with history 
and the social life of the world, and of the 
impulses and characteristics of our own day 
that can be gained in no other way; and in 
bringing to us this knowledge it should fit 
us to make the best of all the world gives 
us. To the librarian its supreme gift should 
be the power of entering into the minds of 
his public of putting himself in the place 
not of one class of readers, but of al- 
most every class. For it should teach him 
not only to sympathize with the ardor of the 
scholar, to tolerate his eccentricities, and to 
know, from his own experience, how to meet 
the demands of those who seek the best and 
highest; but also, with a real understanding, 
to meet half way those whose demands are 
on a lower plane, and who are entering ig- 
norantly and with hesitation into paths he 
too has strayed in, that may lead them to 
wider fields of knowledge and of beauty. 

We have noted the three chief aids that 

the love of books brings to the enrichment of 
life pleasure, that is independent of exter- 
nal conditions ; sympathy with others of like 
tastes; and development, almost unconscious, 
of mind and spirit. There is a danger com- 
monly associated with the love of books that 
has not been touched upon partly because 
that danger does not, so far as I have found, 
seriously threaten the librarian of to-day. 
This is the danger of becoming a bookworm. 
The character is more familiar through the 
pages of fiction than in real life; but it ex- 
ists, and while it has its faults these are not 
without compensating virtues. The book- 
worm is not usually either unmanageable or 
dangerous; indeed, he is generally tractable 
and helpfully disposed and to his kindly 
services many a library reader will give grate- 
ful testimony. But it is true, nevertheless, 
that books should not shut human beings 
from our mind, or wrap us in a veil of ab- 
straction from practical things. The proper 
study of mankind is man, and books should 
make us find people more interesting and 
help to the interpretation and understanding 
of human impulses, emotions, and achieve- 
ments. It is the humanity in books that 
makes them so dear. Think of the revela- 
tions of the human soul that have come to 
us through the pages of romance. Becky 
Sharp, Tito Melema, poor foolish Hetty of 
"Adam Bede" do they not set us in the 
midst of the current of human life? So, to 
have enjoyed "The egoist" should be to look 
henceforth with clearer vision upon the subtle 
mysteries of Self; and to have shared the 
friendship of Mulvaney, Otheris and Learoyd, 
should be to know more fully how strong are 
the bonds that knit all sorts and conditions 
of men into one fellowship. 

If the love of books is a gift that influ- 
ences most strongly the inner life of its pos- 
sessor, the sense of humor is a quality that 
interweaves happily and usefully in every 
relation of life. Nowhere do we need it more 
than in our daily work, to soften the small 
asperities and temper the little frictions that 
are far more trying in the long run than any 
quick, frank collision of wills or opinions. I 
remember one librarian telling of the lamenta- 
tions of a friend who had just learned of her 
entrance into the profession. "Oh, dear," 
said the friend, "now I suppose you will be- 
gin to grow cross." And she replied to an 

March, 191 1 ] 


amazed interrogation, "Well, I don't know 
tc'/iy. but cooks and librarians are always 

There is, perhaps, a grain of truth in the 
sweeping accusation ; for library work, like 
most sedentary pursuits, is apt to bear upon 
the nerves, and rasped nerves will make cross 
librarians. But there is no better nerve seda- 
tive than a sense of humor; it shows petty 
annoyances in their true pettiness, and it 
turns exasperation into amusement. It sets 
things in their proper relative proportions, 
and it is an admirable check upon that com- 
mon tendency to regard ourselves as rare 
exotics of commonsense and brilliancy flour- 
ishing unheeded in a world of incapables. 
There are always times when we share the 
feelings of the old 'Quaker lady, who philoso- 
phized to her husband : "This is a queer 
world, John. Everybody is queer but thee 
and me, and thee's a little queer." But a 
wholesome sense of humor keeps us from 
taking these moods too seriously. We appre- 
ciate how sound are our criticisms of the 
world in general, but we can smile also at 
our tendency to hold the world to an account 
for disregarding those criticisms. Reformers, 
it is said, seldom possess a strong sense of 
humor, and this must be true; if they did, 
many great movements, perhaps, would never 
have been carried through, and many foolish 
ones would certainly never have been begun. 
For it is true that in some respects the sense 
of humor does rather debar one from enter- 
ing into intense enthusiasm fanaticisms 
often and its cultivation carried too far 
may limit our spiritual vision. Yet though it 
may now and then have been a brake upon 
some of the wheels of progress, think on the 
other hand what it has done to reveal shams, 
and to laugh out of existence false and foolish 
customs. It is hardly worth while to con- 
sider its dangers for there will never be 
enough of it to go around, and if we have 
received our share we may well be thankful ! 

If the sense of humor may be sometimes 
dangerous when applied to the large things 
of life, I doubt if it is ever other than help- 
ful in its relation to the smaller things. It 
is a common charge that women lack this 
quality and as a rule we must admit, I 
fear, the soundness of the charge. Women 
have often a quicker sense of the ridiculous, 
and a sharper wit, than men; but they are 

not usually endowed with a sense of humor 
as broad or as quickly wholesome in its in- 
fluence. One notes this in the various fields 
of women's work, and where men and women 
work together one must often perceive fhe 
contrast I have tried to indicate. In schools, 
in libraries, in literary and journalistic work, 
one is too apt to step within a network of 
fatal feminine "feelings," petty heartburnings 
and bickerings, that are as absurd as they are 
distracting. A look, a smile, a casual word 
rankles, becomes a slight, and then a griev- 
ance, and then a permanent barrier between 
workers in a common field and for a common 
cause. Men have the same weakness, but as 
a rule it is less evident. Two men who dis- 
agree are most likely to adopt the simple 
course of openly characterizing each other, 
with entire frankness and sincerity, as pirates, 
horsethieves, and blackguards. Thus they re- 
lieve their minds; then in a few hours they 
disappear amicably to lunch together, and the 
paths of peace are smooth and untroubled. 
With them also the sense of humor is more 
apt to come into play to settle differences of 
opinion and turn a pending quarrel into 
laughter. The familiar story of Fitzjames 
O'Brien and Norman McLeod turns upon 
this point. I do not know how many readers 
of to-day know those two names ; but Mc- 
Leod was a young writer of much poetic 
promise whose "Pynnshurst" may not yet be 
quite forgotten, and O'Brien was the brilliant 
young Irishman whose short stories and stray 
verses belong permanently to American liter- 
ature. Both belonged to the group of young 
writers, artists and journalists that flourished 
in New York in the late '503 of whom 
Theodore Winthrop was one, and William 
Winter and perhaps one or two others are 
still with us. O'Brien and McLeod were 
good comrades, and at a certain season of 
great financial depression they shared to- 
gether one small room and a single bed. 
Here late one night an argument arose be- 
tween them, which was continued with heat 
and vehemence. Then a statement by one was 
contradicted by the other, and instantly the 
two hot-headed youths were on the brink of 
a duel. In a few angry words the challenge 
was made and accepted. Then O'Brien, turn- 
ing upon his shoulder and heaving the bed- 
clothes about his form, remarked with wrath- 
ful dignity: "Very well, sir; you kno\v where 



to find me in the morning." And then the 
absolute absurdity of the words under exist- 
ing circumstances overcame them both, and 
the quarrel vanished in a shout of laughter. 

It is not possible to touch upon the various 
ways in which a sense of humor lightens 
routine and gives interest to many a task 
that without it must be passive drudgery. 
Nowhere has it better possibilities for mani- 
festation than in work which brings one into 
contact with people, and in his relations with 
the public the librarian must often bless its 
cheering influence. Even in the humblest 
work it makes performance less mechanical 
and one comes across its manifestations in 
many an unexpected way. In one library an 
assistant charged with the tiresome task of 
running through catalogs of books printed 
between 1800 and 1860 and checking the is- 
sues of certain years, found amusement and 
really interesting results in noting odd and 
absurd titles, mainly of old sermons, admon- 
itory counsels for the edification of youth, 
?.nd other quaint and curious literature of ot;f 
fathers. Another evolved an ingenious de- 
velopment of attendance statistics. She was 
assigned one afternoon in place of her regu- 
lar work to the charge of a men's reading 

room, and was asked later if she had not 
found it very stupid. "Oh, no," was the re- 
ply, "I thought it was quite interesting. I 
kept the record of attendance in a new way. 
Usually they just put down a little straight 
mark for every reader that comes in, but I 
changed that. If he was tall, I put a long 
mark, and if he was short I pat a little mark, 
and if he was good-looking I put a curly 
mark. Of course," in a reflective addition, 
"sometimes you make mistakes. Once I put 
one man down as a plain straight mark, and 
then after I had looked up some magazines 
for him I found he was quite nice looking, so 
I had to rub him out and make him curly." 

This is but a partial and inadequate presen- 
tation of the arguments that can be advanced 
for the two qualities of love of books and a 
sense of humor, as aids in library work. All 
who have tested them can bear witness to 
their strength and value, but if that were 
attempted the "experience meeting" might 
outlast the century. All that I would say in 
conclusion is to urge that every library work- 
er in making out lists of personal supplies 
for professional service should include, among 
card trays, red ink, clips and pins and rubber 
bands these two aids in library work. 

BY SAMUEL H. RANCK, Librarian Grand Rapids (Mich.) Public Library 

A DEFINITION or two may help to put the 
speaker and his hearers on common ground 
to the advantage of both. By public library 
we should understand a library that belongs 
to the people and is managed by them through 
their chosen representatives. It is more than 
a free library or a charitable institution. The 
first business of a public library is to make 
its constituency realize that the library be- 
longs to them ; and this is the first and the 
most important step in making it a factor in 
its community. Let me illustrate the feeling 
many people have on this matter of owner- 
ship. For a number of years a branch li- 
brary in Grand Rapids was maintained in a 
settlement house, but many people in the 
neighborhood would not come to it, simply 
because it was in a settlement house, which 

* Read before the National Municipal League, at 
Buffalo, N. Y., Nov. 15, 1910. 

was associated in their minds with charity. 
A year ago this branch was moved to a 
public school building in the same neighbor- 
hood, and at once the use of the library 
more than doubled, many persons coming to 
it who would not come before. 

We need to re-define our conception of a 
library, especially a public library. The 
newer conception is more than an institution 
for the circulation of books, or in which 
books and periodicals may be read. It is 
rather an institution for the dissemination of 
ideas, a municipal bureau of information, 
and therefore it must use other agencies than 
books and periodicals in carrying on its 

The word civic is one toward which I have 
always had a feeling of prejudice, for it sug- 
gests the man from whom I first heard it, a 
former Congressman from the state of Penn- 




sylvania. This most excellent gentleman in 
my early boyhood was constantly talking 
about "civic" and "civics," and somehow I 
associate the word with his habit of using 
words more or less high sounding. For ex- 
ample, referring to a question he had just 
asked, he put it in this wise: "And I pro- 
pound the interrogatory with supereminent 
disquietude." In this paper I shall use civic 
in its largest sense, that is, relating to man 
as a member of society rather than in the 
limited sense of "city" or "municipal." 

The next most important work of the pub- 
lic library is to get hold of children and to 
develop in them a taste for the reading of 
good books and the ability to get ideas from 
the printed page an ability which comes 
only through extended practice. The child 
of to-day is the citizen of to-morrow, and 
when we think of development we have in 
mind to-morrow rather than to-day. The 
library in dealing with the child is therefore 
preparing the way for future civic growth. 
Now it is a fact that the average school child 
does not get enough reading in his regular 
school work, or in his home, to develop in 
him the ability to get ideas with ease from 
the printed page. He often gets only the 
ability to say words. To the extent that a 
child fails in his ability to get ideas from 
print, he is handicapped in much of his work 
for life. 

In recent years it has been my privilege to 
interview personally a good many boys and 
girls who have left school permanently by 
the time they have reached the eighth grade 
or before, with reference to reading that 
would enable them to fit themselves better for 
the work that they were doing; and the 
thing that has impressed itself most in these 
interviews has been the fact that so many of 
them have so little reading power, with the 
result that they cannot readily get the ideas 
of others as they are to be found in print. 
Everyone here will realize that this is a 
serious handicap. 

Another point in this connection is that 
some people read the same matter six times 
as fast as others, as was demonstrated some 
years ago in a number of experiments by the 
department of psychology at Wellesley Col- 
lege; and, furthermore, that those who read 
six times as fast get more out of their read- 
ing as a rule than those who read only one- 

sixth as fast. The boy or girl who has 
acquired the ability to get ideas in one-sixth 
the time of others, and at the same time get 
them better, has in many ways the same 
advantage that the modern express train has 
over the means of travel that was used by 
our great-grandparents. 

Another phase of the library's work with 
children is the relation between reading and 
retardation. There are, of course, many ele- 
ments that enter into retardation physical 
or mental deficiency, poor teaching, also 
overcrowding in the schools. The school 
systems of some of our cities are spending 
as much as thirty per cent, of their time and 
effort in repeating work, through the fact 
that so many of the children cannot make 
their grades, and consequently are obliged to 
take the work over spend two years on the 
work that should be done in one. It is sig- 
nificant in this connection that, with few ex- 
ceptions, the cities that have the highest per- 
centage of retardation are the cities where 
the public library is reaching the lowest 
number of children : in other words, a highly 
developed system of work with children in 
our libraries helps greatly to reduce the 
number of repeaters in the schools. It may 
be said in passing that some of the very best 
work of the library with school children may 
be seen right here in Buffalo. 

What retardation means in taxation was 
shown most clearly in a recent article in the 
Boston Globe, discussing the school expen- 
ditures in Boston, by Dr. Albert E. Winship, 
editor of the Journal of Education. In the 
last ten years fuel and light for the Boston 
schools increased 37 per cent. ; in recent years 
the size of the classes has been reduced about 
20 per cent., thereby tending to increase to 
that extent the salary account and cost for 
the additional school rooms and their main- 
tenance; the number of high schools, where 
the cost is about twice that in the first six 
grades, has increased about 25 per cent, in 
recent years, the number of pupils entering 
in 1910 being more than three times the num- 
ber entering in 1890; kindergarten, sloyd, 
physical training, medical inspection, school 
nurses, pensions for teachers, all require 
wholly new expenditures in Boston as com- 
pared with thirty-five or forty years ago; 
and other items increasing the cost of schools 
might be mentioned. But the significant 



[March, 1911 

thing in Boston, in spite of the increases just 
enumerated, is the fact that the expenditures 
per pupil in 1908 (the last published report) 
were more than two dollars less than 
they were in 1875, the exact figures 
for the two years being $34.52, 1908, 
and $36.54, 1875. How has this reduction in 
the cost per pupil been possible? Let me 
use Dr. Winship's exact words : "The reduc- 
tion of the course from nine to eight years 
has already had its influence. But the great 
reduction comes from the 30 per cent, who 
used to take two years to do one year's work, 
to 10 per cent." In other words, the retard- 
ation in 1908 was only one-third as great as 
in 1875. 

This relation between the reading of the 
children and retardation has been recently 
shown from a different point of view by 
Superintendent E. E. Ferguson, of the public 
schools of Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan. For 
a number of years Mr. Ferguson has been 
getting the names of the books read by each 
child each year while he was in the different 
grades. In this way for a number of school 
buildings he has each child's reading in the 
4th grade, the 5th grade, the 6th grade, 
and so on. His records in this particular 
show that the children who read the fewest 
books or the poorest books are the ones who 
fail to make their grades, and that those who 
read the most good books (not too many of 
course) are those who make their grades, 
and that the children of poor standing who 
can be induced to begin reading books worth 
while steadily improve in all their work and 
have no more trouble to make their grades. 
The point of Mr. Ferguson's investigations 
is that whenever the child is led to read 
good books his standing and work imme- 
diately begin to improve in all his subjects. 

Space prevents my discussing the work our 
libraries are doing in displacing vicious books 
and reading for the young, and how the 
opening of a branch library often reduces 
the number of cases that get into our juvenile 

In developing the reading work among 
children in public libraries the story hour, 
systematic instruction in the use of books 
and the library, and various other features 
have been used as means. The story hour 
when rightly used is an introduction to liter- 
ature, and to the reading of books, and as 

such belongs in the modern public library. 
The use of pictures, illustrated lectures, etc., 
may all be used for both children and adults 
in the same way as roads to books. 

The library as a factor in the business life 
of our cities is very little developed. I mean 
by this that in few cities do our business 
men and our working men use books and 
periodicals in connection with their daily 
work to the extent that they might. Some 
of our corporations have recently learned the 
value of libraries as tools of business, and 
are putting in regularly trained librarians to 
look after and keep in touch with things of 
this kind. Ideas, facts, knowledge, are ever 
of the greatest value to the business man. 
These things are always worth dollars and 
cents, and most business men and corpora- 
tions spend loads of good money to get them. 
The public library as a factor in greater busi- 
ness and industrial efficiency is only at the 
beginning of its development. The libraries 
of Newark, Pittsburgh, and Detroit are 
among those that have developed certain 
lines of this work in a most interesting way. 

Another field of the library's activity until 
recently but little developed is its relation 
to municipal problems and municipal admin- 
istration. Personally I believe that bad gov- 
ernment in our American cities has been due 
more to ignorance and inefficiency than to 
dishonesty. With the constant changing of 
officials new men have been making the same 
mistakes in every department of municipal 
government which the study of reports or a 
knowledge of what other cities are doing or 
have done would have prevented. The li- 
brary ought to be the fact-well for the city 
official, and the time is coming when public 
opinion will demand that he use its resources 
to aid him. 

But in this department the library can do 
even more important work for the citizen 
than for the public official, for after all an 
intelligent public opinion is absolutely essen- 
tial to maintain efficiency in city administra- 
tion. A collection of books and periodicals 
on all kinds of municipal problems is of the 
utmost importance to the community and to 
its civic life. When our people can act on 
sound knowledge we can have good govern- 
ment in our cities and not before. In many 
of our cities the public library is the arsenal 
to which members of all sorts of local or- 

March, 1911] 



ganizations women's clubs, study clubs, im- 
provement associations are constantly go- 
ing for material for discussions, debates, 
and papers on every kind of public question. 
Some of our libraries systematically follow 
up all local programs and announcements to 
invite those scheduled for papers or talks 
to call on the library for information on their 
particular topic, offering to assemble the ma- 
terial they will need in advance of their 
coming. Several hundred letters a year are 
written to such persons regularly in Grand 
Rapids, and most of these people make use 
of the material provided for them in this 
way. In its direct effect on the public opin- 
ion of the community I regard this work as 
of much importance. 

Let me illustrate in some detail how the 
library may aid in creating public opinion. 
In March, 1905, the Public Library of Grand 
Rapids, in its course of free lectures, brought 
Dr. Victor C. Vaughan, dean of the Medical 
department of the University of Michigan, to 
the city to give a lecture on tuberculosis. As 
part of the advertising of its lectures the 
library always pushes its books on the sub- 
ject of the lecture, and for information on 
the latest books on tuberculosis we wrote to 
Dr. Livingston Farrand, then secretary of 
the National Society for the Study and Pre- 
vention of Tuberculosis. Dr. Farrand urged 
that the occasion should be used for the 
formation of a local society. The library 
did not feel that it was its function to or- 
ganize a society in this way, but turned the 
suggestion over to persons who were inter- 
ested and who used the lecture at the library 
as a means for working up interest in the 
formation of an organization. A society was 
formed, and a few months later the society, 
in cooperation with the library, brought to 
the city a large tuberculosis exhibition, with 
lectures during the day and evening. Some 
twelve or fifteen thousand persons were 
brought to the exhibit in the library building, 
nearly one hundred thousand pieces of printed 
matter were distributed, and the people were 
thoroughly infocmed on the whole subject 
of tuberculosis in a way that they had never 
been before. After these ideas had been so 
widely disseminated in the community there 
was little difficulty in getting from the city 
council money for pushing municipal work 
to care for and to eliminate this disease. As 

a result of the campaign inaugurated in this 
way, and kept up ever since by the society, 
the death rate from tuberculosis in Grand 
Rapids as compared with the previous five 
years has materially decreased, from no per 
100,000 population to 91, so that now the 
death rate for the city is much lower than 
the rate for the state, whereas before it was 
much higher. For the last two years the 
death rate from tuberculosis was less than 
80. It should be added, however, that the 
low rate of the last two years is partly due 
to the fact that the deaths which occur at 
the city's tuberculosis sanitorium do not ap- 
pear in the city's -vital statistics, for this 
sanitorium is outside the city limits. Never- 
theless, if all the deaths at the sanitorium 
were charged to the city there is still a most 
satisfactory showing for the efforts put forth 
to check this disease. 

Do not get the idea from this illustration 
that the library was responsible for all this. 
It simply set things in motion for spreading 
abroad the latest scientific information on 
this subject, and the public did the rest; and 
that I believe is all that a library should do 
on matters of this kind. It would be a fatal 
mistake for the library to use its energies 
directly for propaganda work. Its great 
business is the spreading of knowledge and 

President Woodrow Wilson, or perhaps I 
should say Governor-elect Wilson, in an ad- 
dress before the Civic League of St Louis a 
year ago last March, in referring to the func- 
tion of knowledge in a democratic society, 
used these words: 

"And, if you want the real free judgment of 
opinion which is genuinely democratic, how are you 
going to get it? There is only one channel, the 
channel of knowledge. The only way in which to 
have a common knowledge is to have a common 
information with regard to what is going on; to 
have that information absolutely candid; to have it 
abundantly full, so that there will be no debate as 
to the facts after the people know the circumstances, 
and then let opinion form as it will." 

This thought of Dr. Wilson is the idea 
that is back of the movement that has estab- 
lished municipal reference libraries such as 
those in Baltimore, Newark, Chicago, Mil- 
waukee, and recently in Kansas City, or mu- 
nicipal reference departments in public li- 
braries. I could easily use all the time al- 
lotted me in giving instances where cities 



[March, 1911 

have profited immensely by having access to 
accurate knowledge of this kind from the 
public library or a municipal reference li- 
brary. The value of knowledge in this di- 
rection will of course be appreciated by 
everyone here. Not one of us believes that 
ignorance is a foundation for progress. 

Perhaps in no one phase of municipal ad- 
ministration have our cities been weaker than 
in a complete knowledge of the facts bearing 
on municipal business. The corporation or 
private interests which a city must deal with 
are generally loaded with information or mis- 
information from a wide range of cities or 
sources, while the city usually is not, and 
therefore is at a great disadvantage. Not 
long ago I was present at a little dinner party 
where the matter was discussed in a casual 
sort of way how the street railway company 
in that town was quietly at work gathering 
facts to use in its campaign for a new fran- 
chise even now ten years in the future. 
I asked the question, "And who is gathering 
information in the interests of the city on 
this franchise question ten years hence?" 
The answer was, "Why, no one, of course." 
Every city needs a department to gather in- 
formation of this kind, and it requires no 
lengthy argument to show that the library 
can be, and ought to be, the most important 
municipal agency in the city for the gather- 
ing and spreading of accurate knowledge on 
all matters relating to the welfare of the city 
and the citizen. 

In this connection permit me to quote these 
words from Mr. E. S. Martin in a recent 
number of Harper's Magazine, because they 
express so admirably the one thing for which 
the modern public library stands : 

" The great hope of the world is in the accumula- 
tion and diffusion of knowledge including that 
better understanding of human relations which came 
to earth with Christiai ity nd its transmutation 
into wisdom and power." 

Our public libraries are performing a most 
important civic work, not only for the cities, 
but for the country at large, in bringing to 
our foreign population a consciousness of 
what American ideas are and stand for. 
Much of the best work in this direction is 
done not alone through books but through 
lectures, and great free public lecture systems 
such as those conducted by the Board of 
Education in New York City and by the 

public library of Philadelphia are coming to 
be more and more important as factors in the 
education of all classes of citizens. For the 
illustrated lecture can reach many where the 
book will fail. All this work is far removed 
from propaganda, and many of the people in 
the audiences will come to these lectures 
chiefly as a means of recreation a most ex- 
cellent reason. Lectures on other cities, with 
pictures and incidental reference to all kinds 
of civic improvements carry with them un- 
consciously the seeds for future progress 
among the thousands who hear them. An- 
other important factor in lectures, as well as 
books, periodicals, etc., is the appeal to, and 
the arousing of, the imagination. Woods 
Hutchinson has well said, "A stolid, impene- 
trable, pachydermatous imagination is the 
greatest foe of progress and enemy of human 

Some of our public libraries, and Newark, 
N. J., is perhaps the best example, are doing 
a most splendid work in developing in the 
people of the city a city consciousness. It is 
a fact that most of the people in our cities 
have little conception of what their city is or 
stands for. The work that is being done and 
is still to be done in this direction is largely 
pioneer work. Most of the work libraries 
have done so far has been through lectures 
and exhibitions, but Newark has gone even 
further. The public library of that city, be- 
cause satisfactory material for the purpose 
did not exist (and this is true of almost 
every city) has had written and has pub- 
lished and widely circulated books and pam- 
phlets which give the people, and particularly 
the rising generation, a consciousness of how 
the city came to be, why it is what it is, and 
what it hopes to be. 

One reason why the library can do work 
of this kind better than any other municipal 
institution is the one so well expressed in a 
recent -article in the Architectural Record, 
that "in any modern American city the public 
library is the institution which is most repre- 
sentative of the aspirations of the commu- 
nity"; for the public library is the one insti- 
tution that belongs to all the people, some- 
thing that cannot be said of our public 
schools in cities where sometimes one-third 
or more of the children are going to private 
or parochial schools. 

The primary business of our cities, how- 

March, 1911] 



ever, is not economic administration im- 
portant as that is but the making of citi- 
zens intelligent, industrious, healthy and 
happy men and women. In this busi- 
ness the city of the future will con- 
cern itself more and more with social 
problems primarily, and with financial and 
administrative problems secondarily, to the 
extent that questions of finance and ad- 
ministration relate to fundamental social 
problems. The ideal city of the future will 
be the city where every man will be willing 
to have every other man in the city as his 
next door neighbor willing because every 
other man will be worthy worthy in in- 
telligence, in healthfulness, in cleanliness, and 
in character. In the civic development which 
will produce this city of the future, the public 
library is one (I shall be modest) of the 
most important factors. 

NOTE. After reading this paper Mr. Ranck used 
about three dozen lantern slides to describe and 
illustrate in greater detail some of the points made 
in the paper. The slides used referred to work 
being done by the libraries of Newark, Hagerstown, 
Md., Pittsburgh, Detroit, and Grand Rapids. 


THE following list of new books is intended 
not as a bibliography of the reference works 
of 1910, but merely as a rapid survey of cer- 
tain useful or representative books of this 
class published during the year in England 
and the United States : 


In this class the event of the year has 
been the issue of part of the nth edition of 
the Encyclopaedia Britannica .'Cambridge 
University Press), of \vhich vols. 1-14, A- 
Italic, were issued with the date 1910. The 
nth edition is the first complete revision 
since Ed. g, and differs from previous editions 
in being arranged by more specific subjects. 

Two inexpensive encyclopaedias have been 
issued during the year. "Appleton's new- 
practical cyclopaedia"' (N. Y., Appleton, $18) 
is a popular work in six volumes, planned 
especially for home and school use. but use- 
ful also for a small library which cannot 
afford one of the larger encyclopaedias. The 
make-up of the work is fair and the colored 
plates especially good for so inexpensive a 
publication, but some errors have already 
been pointed out. A much smaller work is 
"Every man's encyclopaedia,'' by Arnold Vil- 
liers (London, Routledge, 35. 6d. ; N. Y., 
Button, $1.50), a concise, well arranged one- 
volume work, useful either as a desk ency- 

clopaedia, or as an addition to the collection 
of handbooks of general information. 


Several of the standard dictionaries have 
been revised or supplemented. Two new vol- 
umes have been added to the "Century Dic- 
tionary" (N. Y., Century, 1909-1910, $12), 
incorporating new words not in the main 
list and additional information about words 
already there. The second of these volumes 
contains a supplement to the "Century cyclo- 
pedia of names,'' which brings that useful 
work to date. A new and revised edition 
of Skeat's "Etymological dictionary" (N. Y. T 
Oxford University Press, $11.75) represents 
for this larger work the same thorough re- 
vision that was given his "Concise etymo- 
logical dictionary" in 1901. 


The new five-yearly volume of the "Read- 
er's guide" (Minneapolis, Wilson, $24) in- 
dexes some 99 periodicals for 1905-1909, in- 
clusive. The general plan of the work is the 
same as that of the volume for 1900-1904, 
with the important exception that the new 
volume also indexes in the same alphabet 
some 430 works of general literature, thus 
practically forming a supplement to the "A 
L. A. index to general literature." An im- 
portant new index in a field not before cov- 
ered is the "Dramatic index for 1909, cover- 
ing articles and illustrations concerning the 
stage and its players, with a record of books 
on the drama and texts of plays" (Boston 
Book Co., $3.50), which appeared originally 
in the Bulletin of Bibliography, and has been 
reprinted both as a separate volume and as 
part 2 of the "Annual magazine subject in- 
dex" for 1909. The field is well covered, 
portraits and other illustrations are indexed 
with especial fulness, and the system of cross- 
references is good. 


In this subject four important reference 
sets are now being issued in parts or vol- 
umes. The "Encyclopaedia of religion and 
ethics" has now advanced as far as volume 2, 
the "New Schaff-Herzog" as far as volume 8, 
and the "Catholic encyclopaedia" as far as 
volume 9. Of the "Encyclopaedia of Islam's 
(London, Luzac, 35. 6d. per pt), which is 
planned for three volumes of 15 parts each, 
seven parts have now been issued, nearly 
completing the letter A, which for this sub- 
ject is one of the most important parts of 
the alphabet. The articles so far included 
are excellent and scholarly, and the biblio- 
graphic features are especially good. The 
geography, ethnology and biography of the 
Muhammedan peoples are dealt with, as well 
as their religion. The "Temple dictionary of 
the Bible," by R. W. Ewing and J. E. H. 
Thomson (London, Dent, los. 6d. ; N. Y., 



[March, 1911 

Button, $4) is a well printed work with good 
illustrations, which leans strongly to 'the 
older conservative school of Biblical criticism. 
For statistics of religious organizations in 
this country the special report on Religious 
bodies, issued by the Bureau of the Census 
(2 vols., Washington, Govt. Print Off.) is 
of great importance. 


The U. S. National monetary commission 
has issued a large quarto volume of 
"Statistics for Great Britain, Germany and 
France, 1867-1909," which should prove very 
valuable for reference purposes. The sta- 
tistics, which are largely those of money, 
banks, etc., although some more general 
topics, such as population, commerce and 
transportation are represented, have been 
furnished by various foreign experts. The 
"Bibliography of economics for 1909," a 
cumulation of bibliographies appearing in 
the Journal of Political Economy, Feb- 
ruary, 1909, to January, 1910 (University 
of Chicago Press, $2.50) is a classified list 
including books and periodical articles in 
English and foreign languages. The publi- 
cation of the first volume of the "Interna- 
tional insurance encyclopaedia," edited by Dr. 
Isidore Singer (London and N. Y., American 
Encyclopaedic Library Assoc., $5) marks the 
beginning of a new reference book in a field 
hitherto not well covered. This first volume 
is limited to biography of prominent men in 
any way connected with the history of insur- 
ance. Names of living men are included, the 
articles are in general adequate and the bib- 
liographic feature fairly good. Later vol- 
umes will deal with other aspects of the sub- 
ject than biography. 


A new edition, the sixth, of Dr. G. M. 
Gould's "Illustrated dictionary of medicine" 
has been issued (Philadelphia, Blakiston, 
$14), and a new work based upon an older 
one in this same field is Cattell, H. W., "Lip- 
pincott's new medical dictionary" (Philadel- 
phia, Lippincott. $5). based upon "Lippin- 
cott's Medical dictionary." In electricity a 
convenient one-volume dictionary which will 
be useful in the smaller public library, is 
"Hawkin's electrical dictionary, a cyclopedia 
of words, terms, phrases and data used in the 
electric arts, trades and sciences" (N. Y., 
Audel, $3.50). In form and plan this work 
is similar to "Hawkin's mechanical diction- 
ary," published by the same firm last year. 
The flood of non-alphabetical technical ency- 
clopaedias published by the various corre- 
spondence schools has continued. Among 
these may be mentioned : "Cyclopedia of au- 
tomobile engineering," 4 vols., $12, and "Cy- 
clopedia of carpentry and construction." 4 
vols., $12, both published by the American 
School of Correspondence, Chicago. The ex- 

cellent revised edition of "Spon's workshop 
receipts" which was begun in 1909 has been 
extended by the publication of v. 4, covering 
the letters R Wines (London, Spon, 3 s.) 


The new edition of "Grove's Dictionary of 
music and musicians" has been completed by 
the publication of vol. 5 (N. Y., Macmillan, 
$5), which finishes the alphabet and adds a 
supplement. A "Dictionary catalogue of 
operas and operettas," by John Towers 
(Morgantown, W. Va., Acme Pub. Co., $7) 
is a title-a-line list of some 28,015 operas 
which have been performed on the public 
stage. For each title the composer's name, 
nationality and dates are given, but no de- 
scriptive note or outline of plot. The main 
use of the work is for quick reference in as- 
certaining the name of the composer of any 
given opera. For outlines of plots of operas, 
an inexpensive new publication is "Opera 
stories," by H. L. Mason (Boston, Mason, 
50 c.), which gives the plots, by acts, of 
something over 100 operas. Publications in 
other departments of the fine arts have been: 
Solon, L. M. E., "Ceramic literature, an ana- 
lytic index to the works published in all lan- 
guages on the history and technic of the cer- 
amic art" 660 p. (London, Griffin, 425.), a 
very full and elaborate index-bibliography, 
sumptuously printed; "Art prices current, 
1908-1909, a record of sale prices at Chris- 
tie's" (London, Fine Arts Trade Journal, 
IDS. 6d.), and, for the subject of sports and 
amusements, a new enlarged edition of the 
"Encyclopaedia of sports," by the Earl of 
Suffolk and Berkshire, of which only volume 
i is out so far (London, Heinemann, 10 s. 
6d. a vol.). 


Most of the new reference books in this 
subject are author dictionaries. Of these the 
most important is: Cunliffe, R. J., "A new 
Shakespearean dictionary" (London, Blackie, 
9s.; N. Y., Scribner, $2.50), which aims to 
register all of Shakespeare's words no longer 
forming part of the language, and to give 
for these definitions, quotations and refer- 
ences to the text. Proper names except cer- 
tain obscure geographical names have gen- 
erally been omitted. "A dictionary of char- 
acters in the Waverley novels of Sir Walter 
Scott," by M. F. A. Husband (London, Rout- 
ledge, 8s. 6d. ; N. Y., Dutton, $3) differs from 
the earlier "Waverley dictionary," by May 
Rogers, in giving all the characters in one 
alphabetical list, instead of in separate lists 
for each story, and in referring to titles only, 
not to chapters. A companion volume to the 
Waverley dictionary is the "Thackeray dic- 
tionary," by I. G. Mndge and M. E. Sears. 
A new bibliography of fiction which should 
be useful is Brown, Stephen J., "Reader's 
guide to Irish fiction" (Longmans, 35. 6d.), 
a classified list, with author but no title 

March, 1911] 



index, of stories about Ireland and by 
Irish writers. There are full notes, which 
are descriptive rather than critical, and the 
main incidents and the bias of the stories are 
usually indicated. 


A second supplement (vol. 7) to Larned's 
"History for ready reference" has been is- 
sued (Springfield, Nichols, $5), which covers 
the period 1901-1910. The new edition of 
Haydn's "Dictionary of dates," Ed. 25 (Lon- 
don, Ward Locke, 21 s) brings this record 
down to the summer of 1910. A new 
edition of Low and Pulling's "Dictionary 
of English history" (London and N. Y., 
Cassell, $3.50) is not entirely revised, 
but has such alterations and additions as 
are necessary to bring it to the acces- 
sion of George v. The history of the 
treaty relations of the United States is 
covered in the new compilation of "Treaties 
and conventions, 1776-1909," 2 vols. (Wash- 
ington, Govt. Print. Off.)- This supersedes 
all previous collections, and gives all treaties, 
etc., of the period 1776-1909, whether now in 
force or not. Historical bibliographies of 
the year are : Andrews, C. M., "A bibliog- 
raphy of history for schools and libraries, 
with descriptive and critical annotations" 
.(N. Y., Longmans, 6oc.). an excellent list; 
Cannon. H. L.. "Reading references for Eng- 
lish history" (Boston, N. Y., etc., Ginn, 
$2.50) : and Griffin, G. G., 'Writings on 
''American history, 1908" (N. Y., Macmillan. 
$2.50), continuing her similar lists for 1906 
and 1907. 


Xe\v referenc" books in the subject of 
biography have been principally in the form 
of additions to the rapidly growing collection 
of dictionaries of contemporaries. The first 
issue of the "Canadian who's who" (London, 
The Times, 45. ; Toronto, Musson Book Com- 
pany") is a small volume of 242 pages, com- 
piled on the same general plan as "Who's 
who in America'' and including approxi- 
mately 2000 names. The sixth biennial issue 
of "Who's who in America," 1910-1911 (Chi- 
cago, Marquis. $5) contain* 17.546 biogra- 
phies, 2831 of which are entirely new, and 
6.11 1 references to articles not reprinted from 
earlier issues. "American men of science," 
edited by T. M. Cattell (N. Y.. Science Press, 
$5)_ has appeared in a second edition, much 
revised and enlarged, including about one- 
third more names than the original edition 
of 1906. 

The important genealogical reference book 
of the year has been "American and English 
genealogies in the Library of Congress, pre- 
liminary catalogue" (Washington, Govt. 
Print. Off.). This lists some 3750 family his- 
tories, and with its full information and 
abundant cross-references should be of much 

use as a bibliography and check-list and for 
purposes of inter-library loans. 


The principal trade catalog of the year has 
been the new edition, 1910, of the "Reference 
catalogue of current literature" (London, 
Whitaker, 2is.; N. Y., Publishers' Weekly, 
$5), now issued in three volumes instead of 
two volumes, as heretofore. The extra vol- 
ume contains the very full authors, titles and 
subjects index. In American national bib- 
liography, Evans' "American bibliography" 
has been brought one step nearer completion 
by the publication of volume 6, which covers 
the years 1779-1785. In selection of books, 
a valuable aid is the new and revised edition 
(Ed. 3) of Sonnenschein's "Best books," part 
I of which has been published (London, 
Routledge, 145.; N. Y., Putnam, $3.50). Tv.o 
works useful as bibliographies or catalogues 
of incunabula are: Peddie, R. A., "Conspec- 
tus incunabulorum, an index catalogue of 
1 5th century books" (London, Libraco, IDS. 
6d. a pt.), of which part I, A-B, has now- 
been published, and the very' fine catalog of 
the 540 choice incunabula in the Annmary 
Brown memorial at Providence, prepared by 
Mr. A. W. Pollard and printed at the Ox- 
ford University Press at the expense of Gen. 
Rush C. Hawkins. The "Conspectus" will 
be of use to anyone desiring to know what 
incunabula have been listed and where they 
are described, but Mr. Pollard's catalog, with 
its full descriptions and scholarly historical 
notes on the work of the different printers 
represented, will serve also as a history of 
the growth of printing in the I5th century. 




Ashfield, Mass 

Bountiful, Utah 

Mill Valley, California 

Rockford, Ohio (Town and Township) 

Theresa, New York 

Wallace, Idaho ......'. 

West Point, Georgia 

Caraden, Maine 

Edmonds, Washington '.'.'. 

Yates Center, Kansas 

Elizabeth, New Jersey 

Lavonia, Georgia 

Willows, California 

Caribou, Maine . . 

De Funiak Springs, Florida. 

Manti City, Utah 

Palouse, Washington 

Springvale, Maine 

Vincennes, Indiana. 

Belvidere, Illinois 

Grtmdy Center, Iowa 

Marshfield, Missouri 

North Manchester, Indiana... 
North Platte, Nebraska 

























* Library donations to the amount of about 
$350.000 were made to Jan. 6, 191 T, which should 
count in 1910, having been delayed for federal 
census results. This explains apparent slackening 
of library work. 



[March, 1911 

Peru, Illinois 15,000 Sunderland M3 

Union City, Tennessee 1 0,000 Fulham 

Walker, Minnesota 6,500 Twickenham 864 

Westfield, Indiana 5,ooo Hackney, London (i branch building) 3,000 

Brockton, Massachusetts 75,ooo Deptford, London 3,000 

Chadron, Nebraska 5,000 Stockport 

Hollister, California 10,000 

Osawatomie, Kansas 7,500 Tota j 9 increases to previous gifts 

Reading, Pennsylvania 100,000 (inc i x new building) i3,55i 

Sunnyside. VV asmngton 5,ooo 

Gary, Indiana 1 50,000 ORIGINAL GIFTS, SCOTLAND 

Hays City, Kansas 8,000 

Mobile, Alabama 50,000 Wallyford (library and hall building) 

New Richmond, Wisconsin 10,000 Irongray 108 

Houston, Texas (colored) 15,000 Thankerton 

Worcester, Massachusetts (3 branch bldgs.). 75,000 Guildtown (library and hall building) 

Bronson, Michigan 7,000 Bowness on Solway (library and hall bldg.). 158 

Duluih, Minnesota (branch bldg.) 20,000 Craigellachie (library and hall building) ... 245 

Warren Township, Illinois 5,000 Troon 3,000 

Savannah, Georgia (colored) 12,000 

Muskogee, Oklahoma 45,ooo Total, 7 buildings 4,193 

Enfield, Connecticut 12,500 

Boswell, Indiana (Town and Township) . . . 8,000 INCREASES, SCOTLAND 

Brookville, Indiana 10,000 

El Dorado, Kansas 10,000 Symington 

Hemet, California 7,5oo Bonnyrigg 

Knoxville, Iowa 10,000 Kirkwall 

Tulsa. Oklahoma 35, ih wso 

New Canaan, Connecticut 10,000 

Four library increases 842 

Total, 55 library buildings $920,000 ORIGINAL GIFTS, IRELAND 


Dell Rapids, South Dakota $1,000 Powerscourt 

Eureka Springs, Arkansas 3,000 Coachford 

Winchester, Illinois 1,000 

Summit, New Jersey 3>50O Total, 3 library buildings 1,750 

Ballinger, Texas 5> 

Osceola, Iowa 1,000 INCREASES, IRELAND 

Laurens, Iowa 300 

Aitkin; Minnesota 1,500 JUorglin 

Bray , -:oo 

Eight library increases $16,300 

Two library increases 300 


Hespeler, Ontario $9,000 

Simcoe, Ontario 10,000 Barberton, Transvaal 900 

Leamington, Ontario 10,000 

Midland, Ontario 12,500 One library building 900 

Regina, Saskatchewan 50,000 

New Liskeard, Ontario 10,000 GIFTS TO COLLEGE LIBRARIES 

Beaverton, Ontario 5,000 

Increases to previous gifts. 

Total, 7 library buildings $106,500 University of South Dakota, Vermillion, S.D. $10,000 

INCREASES, CANADA Farg C Hege ' FargO ' N " ' 5 ' OO 

Elora, Ontario $400 T WO library increases $15,000 

Orillia, Ontario 1,000 


Port Arthur, Ontario 1 0,000 

Dundas, Ontario 2,000 \j 5. and Canada, 62 buildings $1,026,500 

Preston, Ontario 2,000 u. S. and Canada, 14 increases to pievious 

gifts 39,200 

Six library increases $22,900 United Kingdom, 19 buildings 203,900 

. United Kingdom, 15 increases to previous 

ORIGINAL GIFTS, ENGLAND AND WALES gifts, incl. i new building 73,465 

South Africa, i building 4,500 

Granborough England 200 go new giftg; cornpr i sing g 2 new buildings. 

Yardley, England ic.ooc increases to previous gifts, incl. i new 

Lincoln, England 10,000 building 

Llanddeiniolen, Wales i,50( Tota i ( g 3 new library buildings. .. .$1,347,565 

Coventry England io,oo( i ncrea ses to previous college library gifts. 15,000 

Worton, England 77 

Bulvan, England (library addition to Insti- .'.., , fi 

tute building) 60 This makes the total of Mr. Carnegie s gifts 

Dolgelley, Wales 1,000 f or public and college library buildings in 

Huthwaite. England 2,000 IQIO $j ,362,565, as against $1,876,250 in 1909. 

Total, 9 library buildings 34,837 , The total of Mr. Carnegie's library gifts to 

date (Dec. 31, 1910) is as follows: 


2062 public library buildings $51,159,905 

Wcdrcsbury 636 115 college library buildings 3,675,753 

Failsworth 35O 

Rowley Regis 303 2177 library buildings $54,835, 7'8 

March, 1911] 




FROM Houghton Mifflin Company a letter 
making the following statement in connection 
with the report of the Committee on Book- 
buying on net fiction (see L. j., Feb., p. 74) 
has been received : 

"In the report of the midwinter meeting 
of the A. L, A. Council we notice a report of 
the Committee on Bookbuying in reference 
to net fiction. We regret to find in this re- 
port some statements which seem to us mis- 
leading, and which we feel should be cor- 

"Alluding to the discount to libraries the 
report says that the 10 per cent, discount 
'was not fixed as the result of a careful, 
scientific effort to arrive at a fair basis of 
differentiation, and that the booksellers them- 
selves, with whom we deal, were not con- 
sulted.' If you will refer to the discussions 
on this subject in the Booksellers' Associa- 
tion as reported in the Publishers' Weekly 
during the past years, and also refer to the 
communications of individual booksellers in 
the same periodical, we think you will find 
that this rate was adopted not only at the 
special request of the booksellers, but because 
they held that the conditions of the trade 
made this limited discount absolutely neces- 
sary for them, and that this decision was 
reached after a most careful and scientific 
study of the cost of doing business. We are 
glad to see that the A. L. A. has appointed a 
committee to confer with the booksellers, as 
we feel sure that it will be found that the 
facts do not justify the statement which we 
have quoted. 

"It will also be found that while the net 
system has been in operation for about ten 
years, the publishers have refrained from in- 
cluding fiction until recently, and that they 
are now including it at the urgent request of 
the booksellers, a request which we feel the 
conditions of the business make necessary. 
Perhaps we may be pardoned for saying that 
one of the causes for the demoralization in 
the booktrade which led to the adoption of 
the net system was the competition for the 
library business, which had brought the 
prices at which books were sold to libraries 
down to a point where the business was done 
at an absolute loss. 

"We also note that in the discussion fol- 
lowing the reading of the committee's report 
a speaker said 'he believed that the book- 
sellers were making less money on the $1.50 

et fiction rules- than formerly, and that the 
publishers were the ones who were profiting 
by the new rules regarding net fiction.' It 

eems almost unnecessary to reply to this 
statement, and yet it may be accepted as cor- 
rect and lead to further misunderstanding. 
Under the old system a novel published at 
we sold at wholesale (except in quan- 
tities) at 90 c., and it was retailed from Si.oS 

to $1.20 east of the Rocky Mountains, ac- 
cording to localities; $1.15 is perhaps a fair 
average price. On the other hand, a novel 
published at $1.35 net we also wholesale at 
90 c. ; therefore it is not difficult to see which 
is the most profitable for the retail book- 
seller and which method means a loss to him 
after he has deducted the cost of doing his 
business. Further, as we wholesale our $1-35 
net novels at exactly the same price which 
we formerly sold the $1.50 books, the return 
to us is precisely the same. On novels priced 
at $1.25 net and $1.20 net, most of which 
have formerly been published at $1.50, our 
returns are proportionately less. It is most 
unfortunate that so erroneous a statement in 
regard to profit as that which we have men- 
tioned should have been given wide circula- 
tion, and it certainly is most unjust to the 

"We assure you that we sympathize with 
the libraries in their desire to obtain their 
books at as low a price as possible, but we 
feel that they have not fully realized the posi- 
tion of the bookseller to-day, and how serious 
a matter it will be for libraries, authors, the 
public in general, in short, for all interested 
in good literature, if the gradual extinction 
of the bookseller continues in the future as 
we have seen it going on during the past few 
years. To prevent this he must have a liv- 
ing profit." 


THE Child Welfare Exhibit held in the 
Seventy-first Regiment Armory, New York, 
Jan. iS-Feb. 12, 1911, very directly pointed the 
way toward lifting the burdens of heredity, 
environment, prenatal influences, lack of play, 
insufficient food, poverty, sorrow and sin 
from the shoulders of children. It aroused 
widespread interest and on some days, ac- 
cording to the press, attracted as many as 
10.000 persons, many of whom gave it 
serious attention and thought. The ex- 
hibit showed in graphic form all phases of 
child life in New York, much that is good 
and to be encouraged, much that is bad and 
to be remedied. The graphic exhibits were 
supplemented by daily conferences, addresses, 
children's choruses, play festivals and gym- 
nastic drills. More than three hundred of 
the leading social workers, thinkers and in- 
vestigators, and persons deeply interested in 
the well-being of children freely volunteered 
their time and skill to make it complete and 
useful. It had definite, practical aims, being 
intended not merely to provide interesting 
spectacles, but also to furnish information of 
the kind that leads to action. The issue is, 
shall the city do something for the child or 
shall the child be made over to fit the city? 

The Libraries exhibit served to show that 
children's rooms are a potent factor in so- 
cial uplift. There are 88 library build- 



[March, 1911 

ings in the five boroughs of Greater 
New York in which books for children may 
be found and where provision has been made 
not only for the circulation of such books, 
but also for the use of books in the library 
for recreational reading and for purposes of 
study. A series of photographs making a 
connected story in picture of the daily life 
in typical children's rooms formed a frieze 
around the room reserved for this section. 
This was broken at intervals by posters ex- 
planatory of the circulating, reference and 
reading room work, and of the story-telling 
carried on in connection with the guidance 
of children's reading. The book collection 
was in no sense a model children's library, 
but was representative of the reading inter- 
ests of boys and girls in the various parts 
of the city. Well-illustrated picture books 
and fine editions of the children's classics 
added to the attractive appearance of the 
room and awakened much interest in the 
visitors. The books were supplied by the 
publishers and the book shelves, tables and 
chairs with which the room was fitted were 
furnished by the Library Bureau. 

The conference on Feb. 2 was devoted to 
the work with children of the museums and 
libraries of Greater New York. The speak- 
ers for the Museum Section included Miss 
Gallup, of the Children's Museum, Mrs. Roes- 
ler, of the American Museum of Natural 
History, Miss Fenton, of the Metropolitan 
Museum of Art, and Dr. Britton, of the 
Botanical Gardens. Miss Plummer gave a 
comprehensive outline of library work with 
children; Dr. Billings spoke on "Children in 
the libraries," and Miss Anna C. Tyler closed 
the evening session with lantern slide illustra- 
tions of this department of library work. 

Hmertcan Xtbrar# association 


The granting of a round trip rate from 
Chicago to Pasadena of $72.50 for the A. L. 
A. conference May 18, makes certain that 
this date will be the opening of the week's 
session as originally decided upon. Tickets 
will be good returning until July 31, which 
should give ample time to all. 

The itinerary of the special party will re- 
main as outlined in the January LIBRARY 
JOURNAL, outward over the Santa Fe route 
with two days at the Grand Canyon of Ari- 
zona, returning through Colorado with stops 
at Sacramento, Salt Lake City, Manitou and 
Denver. A week will be spent in a trip up 
the coast of California, taking in Santa Bar- 
bara, Monterey and Hotel Del Monte, Santa 
Cruz and the big trees, San Jose, Palo Alto 
and the Leland Stanford Jr. University, and 
San Francisco (three days). 

This trip, occupying 31 days from New 
York and Boston and 29 days from Chicago, 

will be in charge of Raymond & Whitcomb, 
who did so well by us on the Portland trip 
in 1905. The travel committee have worked 
long and carefully on the details and can 
assure all members and friends that this trip 
will be less expensive and much more en- 
joyable than any ordinary tour with the ex- 
cursion companies. The price of this trip, 
including railroad transportation, lower berth 
in Pullmans, all meals, transfers and hotels 
at stop-over points (exclusive of the week 
in Pasadena) will be $196 from Chicago, 
and between $240 and $250 from New York 
according to which rate we are granted 
by the Eastern roads. Those desiring state- 
room, or drawing-room space on the special 
train, a room alone or with private bath 
at the stop-overs, will pay extra. The state- 
room (for 2 persons) or the drawing-room 
(for 3 persons) will increase the expense 
per person of the trip out by about $6 and 
$3 respectively. 

On the other hand, we can for the first 
time this year offer those who take an upper 
berth (either from choice or because they 
do not apply in time for a lower) a reduc- 
tion of about $6 on the round trip from 
Chicago to Chicago, and several dollars more 
from New York and Eastern points. 

For the going trip the Travel committee 
can offer a de luxe electric lighted special 
train from Chicago to Pasadena, with obser- 
vation car, buffet-smoker, diner, stateroom 
car, and standard Pullman sleepers, and a 
high-backed day coach for meeting place 
while wating for berths to be made up, 
or for meals to be made ready. This is a 
feature we are sure will be appreciated. 

The plans provide for a five-day trip to 
Yosemite Valley ($45 extra), in charge of 
personal conductor, and those taking this trip 
will return through Colorado with the same 
stop-overs as the first party. 

Those desiring to travel out with the spe- 
cial party and return by themselves either 
from Pasadena or San Francisco will be 
accommodated. ^Return via the Northern 
railroads will be possible at an increase of 
about $15. 

Yellowstone Park is available now by its 
new entrance on the west, from Salt Lake 
City, but the Park does not open until 
June 15. 

Those desiring to take the Pasadena trip, 
either outward or entire, will please send de- 
posit, a first payment on ticket, of $5, to 
F. W. Faxon, chairman of the Travel com- 
mittee, 83 Francis St., Boston, stating name 
of roommate, or if desired asking the Com- 
mittee to provide roommate. 

F. W. FAXON, Chairman Travel 


Although the publishers have not yet sent 
definite assurances, the A. L. A. Committee 
on binding believes that there will be three 

March, 1911] 



library editions of the Encyclopaedia Britan- 

1. Sets bound by Mr. Olivers, according 
to his own specifications. These will be sold 
by the publishers and not by Mr. Olivers. 

2. Sets bound according to the specifica- 
tions of the Library Association in Great 
Britain. These specifications are somewhat 
elaborate, calling for leather backs and va- 
rious reinforcements. 

3. Sets bound according to the specifica- 
tions of the A. L. A. Committee on bind- 
ing. These are to be bound in cloth. 

The Committee regrets that at this time 
no statement of the extra cost of these 
editions can be given. 

State Xtbrars Commissions 


The meeting of the Eastern Section of the 
League of Library Commissions was called to 
order in the lecture room of the Boston Pub- 
lic Library, Friday morning, Jan. 27, by Mr. 
Charles Belden, chairman of the Massachu- 
setts Free Public Library Commission. Mr. 
Jelden briefly explained the purposes of the 
leeting and then called upon Mr. Josiah H. 
Jenton, president of the Board of Trustees of 
the Boston Public Library, for a few words 
jf welcome. Mr. Benton, in warmly welcom- 
ing the delegates from the different states, 
advanced a plea for greater cooperation and 
consultation between the librarian and the 
library trustee. 

After Mr. Benton's address Mr. Hiller C. 
Wellman. vice-president of the League of 
Library Commissions, took the chair. Miss 
Clara F. Baldwin, the president of the League 
of Library Commissions, was present and 
gave a brief history of the League of Library 
Commissions and an excellent resume of the 
work that it had accomplished. Her talk 
brought forth many questions, especially that 
part of it which related to the publications 
of the League, and the necessity of prevent- 
ing, if possible, duplication of similar lists by 
different commissions. 

After this discussion the chairman called 
upon representatives from each state present 
to tell about recent phases of commission 
work. Delegates from Connecticut. Dela- 
ware, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hamp- 
shire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, 
Rhode Island, and Vermont reported, and by 
far the greater part of both morning and 
afternoon sessions was taken up with these 
interesting reports. Connecticut reported that 
it had tried sending out a wagon with books 
on a plan similar to that adopted by Miss 
Titccmb. in Hagerstown, Md. New York re- 
ported that the fee hitherto charged for trav- 
elling libraries had been greatly Deduced, and 

Massachusetts that Miss Zaidee Brown had 
been appointed as secretary to give her full 
time to commission work. AH the reports 
were interesting, and brought forth much 
discussion which was of unquestionable value 
to all present Not the least interesting was 
Miss Loring's account of the work of the 
volunteer visitors to Massachusetts libraries. 

The meeting closed with a discussion of a 
library post, and it was voted that the meet- 
ing endorse the action of the Chicago meeting 
relating to this subject. 

On the social side Boston fully lived up to 
its reputation for cordial hospitality. Those 
members of the League who were in Boston 
on Thursday night attended a dinner at 
Young's Hotel, given by the Massachusetts 
Library Oub, and listened to a fine address 
by Prof. Bliss Perry, of Harvard. On Friday 
Miss Sawyer and Miss Loring entertained 
the members at luncheon at the Mayflower 

The Maryland Public Library Commission, 
which under the revised library law succeeds 
the Maryland State Library Commission, pre- 
sents its first report for the year ending No- 
vember, 1910, in a pamphlet of some 14 pages. 
The Maryland State Library Commission was 
organized" in 1902 and submitted seven re- 
ports to the Governor. During 1910 two im- 
portant bills were legislated which affected 
libraries. One of these repealed the act of 
1902 which established a county library com- 
mission, and the other revised the library 
law of the state prepared by the Maryland 
State Commission. By this revision the Com- 
mission, besides having as its functions the 
care of travelling libraries and the advice of 
the authorities governing public libraries of 
municipalities and schools and of those per- 
sons endeavoring to establish such libraries, 
now has the power to advise and stimulate 
.he establishment of county and election dis- 
trict libraries and of purchasing and sending 
one hundred dollars' worth of books to libra- 
ries established under this act. This law as 
introduced carried an annual appropriation of 
$5000. It passed, but the appropriation was 
reduced to $1500, and Baltimore County was 
taken out of the scope of the law. Though 
the new law is an improvement upon the old, 
the work of the Commission is inadequately 
financed and makes it impossible for the 
Commission to employ permanently a field 

During the first six months of the year 
covered by this report the Commission had 
the valuable services of Miss Mary P. Farr, 
who had been field secretary- and library or- 
ganizer during the previous year. Her re- 
port covers six pages and is given separately. 

The expenses of the Commission from Oct. 
I. 1909, to Oct. I, 1910, were $1030 (printing 
and stationery, $294.57; books. $198.79; sal- 
ary (including expenses) of field secretary, 



[March, 1911 

$1025; clerical work of secretary's office, 

Miss Farr reported 347 towns visited, and 
a greater demand for books than could be 
supplied by the Commission. 


The fifth biennial report of the Commis- 
sion for the period ending Nov. 30, 1910, was 
issued late in 1910. There are 76 active 
libraries in the state. Of these 56 are sup- 
ported by tax ; 17 are maintained by library 
associations free to the public; and the re- 
maining three are subscription libraries, the 
borrowers paying for the use of the books. 
There are but three towns with a population 
of over 2000 without libraries. Two years 
ago the public libraries numbered 67 and 
nine years ago 26. There are 29 public li- 
braries now in the state with buildings of 
their own. 

The Commission has given assistance in 
organizing 14 libraries and the secretary of 
the Commission has visited 51 libraries. Dur- 
ing the period covered by this report 17,932 
volumes have been sent in response to 442 
requests for general travelling libraries, com- 
pared with 17,280 volumes and 432 requests 
during the last biennium. In special loan 
work the library has sent out 4921 volumes 
in response to 636 requests, as compared with 
2789 volumes and 388 requests of two years 
ago. The total number of volumes sent 
out was 22,853 and the total number of re- 
quests 1078. There are 25 libraries of Bo- 
hemian books included in the travelling li- 
brary collections. These have circulated 94 
times since the spring of 1908. The Com- 
, mission has assisted in the selection of books 
for school libraries. The secretary serves as 
an advisory member of the Reading Circle 
Committee which makes up each year sug- 
gestive lists of books for school libraries. 

The need of an appropriation for the pur- 
chase of new books to be sent to state 
institutions is urged. 

It is interesting to note that in the trav- 
elling library collections a greater considera- 
tion has been given to fiction. 

The following statement from this concise 
and progressive-spirited report is worthy of 

"From the rapidly increasing number of 
libraries we may complacently consider that 
we have adequate library facilities, but when 
we come to study figures, we find that we 
have not reached an ideal condition by any 
means. While the inhabitants of our large 
towns are fairly well provided for in the 
small towns the book collections are usually 
pitifully meagre and there still remains our 
large rural population practically untouched 
by the library movement. We have in Ne- 
braska, by the census of 1900, 1,068,539 per- 
sons. The towns having libraries have a 
total population of 308,736. It will be seen 
that only 28 per cent, of our people have 

access to libraries. The total number of vol- 
umes in the public libraries of the state is 
203,946. So it will be seen that even the 
fortunate 28 per cent, have less than a book 
apiece. To be sure each library has a few 
out of town patrons but the number is so 
small as to be almost negligible. Let us 
estimate it at 2 per cent, of the total popula- 
tion and consider that 30 per cent, of our 
people have some sort of library privileges. 
There still remains 70 per cent, unprovided 
for. The state travelling library is doing its 
best with the limited resources at its com- 
mand, but it can reach comparatively few. 
What we need is a strong system of local 
libraries supported by town and country peo- 
ple alike, so that it cannot be said, in this 
democracy which should mean "an equal op- 
portunity for all" that less than one-third of 
our people have the free use of books." 


The forthcoming biennial report of the 
North Dakota Public Library Commission 
for years 1908-1910 contains some interest- 
ing statistics : The number of travelling libra- 
ry stations in 1908 was 19, in 1910, 138; num- 
ber of travelling libraries, in 1908, 19, in 1910, 
117; number of books in travelling libraries 
(1908) 851, (1910) 6158; number of farm- 
er's libraries (technical) (1910) 25; number 
of public and institutional libraries (1908) 27, 
(1910) 32; number of Carnegie library build- 
ings (1908), 6, (1910) 8. 

The growth since July i, 1910 has been 
even more rapid. In September, 1910, n new 
stations were established, 15 were established 
in October and 22 in November. Other 
branches of the Commission's work legis- 
lative reference and educational reference 
are meeting with the same appreciation from 
the citizens of the state. Two new library 
buildings a $15,000 Carnegie building at 
Fargo College and a $20,000 Memorial build- 
ing at Williston are being completed this 

The work of the Commission, which is in 
charge of Mrs. Minnie Clarke Budlong, sec- 
retary, received the following endorsement 
from the State Teachers' Association at its 
annual meeting in October. 

The assocjation commends the work of the Li- 
brary Commission in preparing travelling libraries 
and fanners' libraries for rural communities, appre- 
ciating especially the efforts to furnish books that 
shall be helpful in country schools, and recommends 
the extension of field work among library stations 
?s an important factor in the educational system of 
the state. 


The State Board of Library Commission- 
ers held its quarterly (and annual) meeting 
at Northfield, in the Brown library, on 
Jan. 18. 

The subject was "Work with the library 
for the rural sections." An attendance of 

March, 1911] 



Northfield professors, club ladies, teachers, 
ministers, and others interested, librarians 
from nearly towns and far away places, took 
part. The school children came in to enjoy 
the pictures of animals, birds, Indians, Proc- 
tor marble quarries, and stereoscopic views, 
interspersed with Miss Hewins's "Library 

In the evening Prof. A. B. Myrick, of the 
University of Vermont, gave an interesting 
paper on "Books and culture." 

As usual, the hospitality of the town was 
given to those librarians who wished to 
stay to supper and over night. 

State Xtbrar? associations 


The first meeting of the Arkansas Library 
Association was held at the Little Rock Pub- 
lic Library, Little Rock, Ark, on Jan. 26, 
191 1, the result of the cooperation of the 
Carnegie Library, Ft. Smith, Ark., and the 
Little Rock Public Library. The meeting was 
in two sections. The business meeting to or- 
ganize the. association was held in the after- 
noon at two o'clock, the general open meet- 
ing at eight o'clock that evening. 

The business meeting was called to order 
by Miss M. M. Pugsley, librarian of the Little 
Rock Public Library, followed by invocation 
offered by the Rt. Rev. Bishop Morris. Mrs. 
Logan H. Roots, prominent in the state, de- 
livered the address of welcome, to which Miss 
Caroline V. Langworthy, librarian of the Car- 
negie Library, Ft. Smith, responded. Miss 
Laura Longley, of Little Rock, gave two 
vocal selections, after which the association 
was formally organized. Mrs. John Fletcher, 
president of the Arkansas Federation of 
Women's Clubs, was elected temporary chair- 
man, with Mrs. Louis Flickinger temporary 
secretary. Election of officers resulted as 
follows : president, C. W. L. Armour, Ft. 
Smith ; vice-president, Mrs. Lora Coolsby, 
Waldron ; secretary, M. M. Pugsley, librarian 
Little Rock Public Library; treasurer. Caro- 
line V. Langworthy, Carnegie Library. Ft. 
Smith. Mr. Simmons, librarian Hendrix Col- 
lege, Conway, and the four officers were ap- 
pointed as Executive committee. A constitu- 
tion was adopted, list of members read and 
Legislative committee appointed, after which 
Dr. Bostwick, librarian of the St. Louis Pub- 
lic Library, who represented the American 
Library Association, spoke briefly on library 
legislation and the best way of converting 
subscription and private libraries into public 
libraries. Delegates from the different towns 
in the state were asked to speak from the 
floor and six responded, after which the 
meeting adjourned. 

A reception to the new association was 
given in the evening by the trustees of the 
Little Rock Public Library, following which 

was a general open meeting. Hon. G. W. 
Donaghey, governor of Arkansas, presided, 
and introduced the speakers as follows: C. 
W. L. Armour, Ft. Smith, who told of the 
work of organizing their public library ; Mrs. 
Carl Voss, Little Rock, spoke for the work 
of the women, and J. N. Heiskill, editor of 
the Arkansas Gazette and secretary of the 
Board of Trustees, spoke for the trustees of 
the library. Dr. Bostwick, who was the 
speaker of the evening, discussed the public 
library as a public utility, and left no doubt 
in the minds of his hearers as to its need and 

The library was decorated in palms and 
roses, and a large and fashionable audience 
filled it to the exclusion of readers. The 
following morning Dr. Bostwick addressed 
both houses of the state legislature, now as- 
sembled in the capital city, this being the 
first step in an effort to secure a better li- 
brary law for Arkansas. 

M. M. PUGSLEY, Secretary. 


The annual meeting of the Association was 
held on Dec. 4. After the reading of the 
yearly reports, the following elections were 
made : president, William W. Bishop, first 
vice-president, Willard O. Waters; second 
vice-president, Miss C. R. Barnett; secretary, 
M. N. Smull; treasurer, Miss Emily A. Spil- 
man; executive committee, Paul Brockett, 
J D. Wheeler, and H. H. B. Meyer. The 
president, Mr. William W. Bishop, read an 
unusually interesting paper on "Training in 
the use of books." He began by describing the 
library of Thomas Jefferson, relating how it 
became the nucleus of the Library of Con- 
gress, and contrasting the library conditions 
of Mr. Jefferson's day to the present current 
"literary deluge." The only way, the speaker 
said, to help the reader with this flood of 
books is to train him in the use of books. 
This training should start while the child 
is in school. He should learn then that 
books are written by people, that they have 
a definite name, and that frequently they 
appear in different forms. He should be 
taught the make-up of a book, the meaning 
of the table of contents, the index, the pre- 
face, and the introduction. If he is taught 
these things, he will be in the way to acquire 
an intelligent attitude towards books, a 
knowledge that they are made by people 
who differ in gifts and in purpose, in ability 
and design. The speaker urged that teachers 
instruct the child in the use of dictionaries, 
encyclopaedias, and atlases. When the child 
enters the secondary schools, he should learn 
the elements of dealing with books in libra- 
ries, and he should learn by formal instruc- 
tion of the high school librarian that books 
have to be arranged or classified in some sort 
of a system. The use of indexes to maga- 
zines is also important to know. Elementary 



[March, 1911 

training in the use of books consists, then, 
in the habit of using books as tools, an in- 
telligent direction of the pupil's attitude 
towards the books he has at hand by a care- 
ful and tactful teacher, and the fullest possi- 
ble use of the school library under competent 
guidance. Hence, when he is ready for col- 
lege, he may be supposed to have an elemen- 
tary equipment in the use of books. Mr. 
Bishop next spoke of the indifference on the 
part of college and university authorities, 
including their librarians, toward the devel- 
opment of cultural reading and the sense of 
mastery of books. 


The January meeting of the Association 
was held on the nth of the month with a 
good attendance. After the president's in- 
troduction of the subject for the evening: 
"Publications of foreign governments and the 
means of access to the publications," Dr. J. 
D. Thompson, chief of the division of docu- 
ments of the Library of Congress, spoke of 
the collection of foreign documents in that 
library and the indexes to them present 
and prospective. This collection is disposed 
by subject and is about the largest in the 
world, numbering about 400,000. The prin- 
cipal sources of this material are the inter- 
national exchange relationship existing be- 
tween this and foreign countries ; direct 
transmission from foreign governments ; 
from the Department of State; and trans- 
fer from the different government depart- 
ments and bureaus. After the documents 
are recorded, they are bound and then sent 
through the regular courses. The best index 
to documents is the public catalog of the 
Library of Congress. 

Mr. C. E. Babcock, librarian of the Pan- 
American Union, described the documentary 
collection gathered there. In order to com- 
plete their file of documents, men had been 
sent to Central America and to South Ameri- 
ca to procure the missing material, which is 
often difficult to obtain since a number of 
these southern countries print but few copies 
of their documents sometimes only a hun- 

Papers were read by Miss C. R. Barnett, 
librarian of the Department of Agriculture, 
on the International Agricultural Institute 
of Rome, and by Miss H. W. Pierson, of the 
Library of Congress, on the "Annuaire de la 
vie Internationale" published in Brussels. 


The New York Library Association will 
hold its annual fall meeting in New York 
City, beginning Sept. 25, 1911. The selection 
of Greater New York as meeting place for 
the State Association should give valuable 
library opportunities to the librarians of the 
small, middle and up-state libraries to study 
and to familiarize themselves with the library 

facilities and conditions of the three large 
library systems of Greater New York, the 
library of Columbia University, and other 
libraries in and adjacent to the city. The 
opening of the new building of the New 
York Public Library will offer further oppor- 
tunities of library interest to visiting libra- 
rians. The program will be broad and gen- 
eral, and may prove of interest to a certain 
number of the A. L. A. members who will 
not be able to attend the Pasadena A. L. A. 
meeting. The universities and libraries of 
the different boroughs, not forgetting the 
seashore, will be selected as meeting places 
for various sessions. The program will ar- 
range for a definite schedule of library visits, 
in which special and subscription as well as 
public and university libraries will be in- 
cluded. Full announcements of the meeting 
will be given later. 

Xibrarp Clubs 


On Thursday evening, Feb. 16, the mem- 
bers and friends of the Chicago Library Club 
gathered in the Directors' room, Chicago 
Public Library, to listen to an address on 
the relation of the library to the school by 
Dr. Charles Hubbard Judd, director of the 
School of Education, University of Chicago. 

In substance Dr. Judd emphasized the need 
of more cooperation between teachers and 
librarians, stating that this would be brought 
about by a clearer understanding and recog- 
nition of the differences between and the 
scope of the work of each. He considered it 
the school's place to lay the foundation of the 
art of reading, and for the first three years 
the librarian can do little until this technique 
has been mastered, then it is her opportunity 
to stimulate the love of reading through wise 
supervision, and by carefully selected lists 
and fiction, books easy to read and with good 
pictures. Both librarian and teacher should 
recognize that change, too often ignored, 
which comes during the fifth or sixth school 
year, when the boy or girl wants to "do 
things." That is the time for industrial 
training, and the opportunity for the librarian 
to guide toward the practical application of 
the art of reading the use of books as 
tools, fiction for the most part being super- 
seded by "informational reading." Dr. Judd 
also advocated greater supervision and more 
careful selection on the part of librarians, 
saying this was their privilege and not the 
teacher's : and he deprecated the too often 
"wholesale" amount of material offered. 

Mr. George B. Utley, the newly-appointed 
secretary of the American Library Associa- 
tion, was then introduced, and expressed his 
appreciation of his welcome to Chicago. 

Four new members were elected to mem- 
bership. JESSIE M. WOODFORD, Secretary. 

March, igji] 


At its regular monthly meeting, Tuesday 
evening, Feb. 7, The Milwaukee Library 
Club was entertained at a book party given 
by the Cataloging Department of the Mil- 
waukee Public Library. This meeting 
marked the first anniversary of the organiza- 
tion of the Club. During the year a mem- 
bership of 60 has been attained. Many inter- 
esting meetings have been held at which the 
Club was addressed by speakers of both 
local and national reputation. Better fel- 
lowship has been established among library 
workers of the city, and on the whole the 
members agreed that the undertaking has 
been a success. 

DELIA G. Ovrrz, Secretary. 


The March meeting of the New York 
Library Club will consist of an inspection of 
the ne'w building of the New York Public 
Library at 3 o'clock on March 23d. Indi- 
vidual tickets will be sent to members of the 
Xev, York Library Club, but these are not 
transferable. It is necessary to limit ad- 
mission to club members only, owing to the 
difficultie- of handling a large inspection 


Professor William Lyon Phelps, of Yale 
University, will address the New York Li- 
brary Gub at its meeting on the afternoon 
of May ii. 

Xifrrarp Scbools anfc TTrainins 


amphlet of 19 pages outlining the course 
of the Drexel Library School, 1911-1912. has 
been recently issued. Information as to fac- 
ulty and instructors, admission, entrance ex- 
aminations, fees and other expenses, course 
of instruction and organization and equip- 
ment of the Library department is included. 


The third annual summer school of library 
methods, a part of the regular summer ses- 
sion of the University of Michigan, will 
open July 3 and run for eight weeks, closing 
Aug. 25. The course is especially designed 
to meet the needs of those engaged in library 
work who have not had the benefit of sys- 
tematic training. Instruction will cover cata- 
loging and classification, book selection, ref- 
erence and loan desk work, charging sys- 
tems, etc. There will be special work in 
bookbinding every Saturday morning from 8 
to 12. The fee of $20 covers the entire 
course, and entitles the student to all of the 
privileges of the summer session. 

For further information address THEODORE 
W. KOCH, Librarian. University of Michi- 
gan. Ann Arbor. 

Miss Mary E. Hall, librarian of the Brook- 
lyn Girls' High School, addressed the school 
on "The purpose and scope of high-school 
libraries" Feb. 18. Miss Hall's address 
formed part of the informal course on work 
with schools. Four of the senior appoint- 
ments have also been devoted to the discus- 
sion of this general subject 

The School Libraries Division of the State 
Education Department has sent a circular 
letter to the school superintendents of the 
state emphasizing the value of training in the 
care and use of school libraries, and calling 
attention to the fact that the school librarians 
of the state will be admitted to the summer 
session of the New York State Library 


The summer session of 1911 will begin 
June I and end July 13. There will be one 
general course of six weeks devoted to sub- 
jects of special interest to the smaller libra- 
ries, including cataloging, classification, sub- 
ject headings, book selection, binding, loan 
work, reference and government documents 
and bibliography. 

In addition to the work offered by mem- 
bers of the regular school faculty there will 
be lectures by visiting library workers of 
experience. A special circular of the course 
is in press. As usual, admission will be lim- 
ited to those in actual library work or under 
appointment to it The tuition for students 
outside the state is $20 for the course. Resi- 
dents of New York state are charged no tui- 
tion. Circulars and other information may 
be obtained by addressing the Registrar, State 
Library School, Albany, N. Y. 


Blair, Miss Irene E.. 'oj-'oS, has been ap- 
pointed reference assistant at the University 
of Texas Library, Austin. 

Gilbert, Miss Gertrude M., '09-' 10, has re- 
signed her position as cataloger in the library 
of the L T . S. Education Department at Wash- 
ington to accept a similar position with the 
U. S. Department of Agriculture Library. 

Goodrich, Mr. F. L. D., B.L.S., '06, in 
charge of accessions at the University of 
Michigan Library, has been appointed editor 
of the semi-annual bulletin, Michigan Libra- 
ries, which began publication in December. 

Kimball, Miss Florence B., 'o6-'o7, has been 
engaged to complete the cataloging of the 
Kellogur-Hubbard Library. Montpelier, Vt 

Leonard, Miss Mabel E., B.L.S., '06, and 
Mr. Adelno Gibson, lieutenant Coast Artil- 
lery Corps, U. S. Army, were married at Al- 
bany, N. Y., Wednesday. Dec. 28. 

Mudge, Miss Isadore G.. B.L.S.. 'oo. has 
been elected editor of the annual supplements 
and the five-yearly consolidation of Kroeger's 
"Guide to the study and use of reference 

Stebbins, Mr. Howard L., B.L.S., '08, and 



[March, 1911 

Miss Lucy Marsh Poate were married at 
Rush ford, N. Y., Thursday, Dec. 29. 

Stronge, Miss Lulu A., '09-' 10, has resigned 
her position as assistant in the Aguilar Branch 
of the New York Public Library to become 
assistant in the legal department of the Amer- 
ican Telephone and Telegraph Company, New 
York City. 

Warren, Miss Ruth E., B.L.S., '10, and Mr. 
Louis Charles Shaul were married at Towns- 
end, Mass., Wednesday, Jan. n. 



The lectures of the past month have been 
as follows : 

Jan. 26, Mr. Edward F. Stevens, on "Spe- 
cial libraries and technical collections in 

Jan. 31, Miss Marilla Freeman, on "The psy- 
chological moment" in the library's work. 
Feb. 14, Mr. James I. Wyer, on "Govern- 
ment documents." 

The annual business meeting and luncheon 
of the Graduates' Association took place 
Jan. 25, at the St. Denis Hotel, New York. 
Mr. Stevens presided, and Miss Marilla Free- 
man was the guest of the occasion and made 
a very pertinent address full of originality 
on the work of the librarian with the pub- 
lic. There were 94 acceptances and 88 per- 
sons present, including 13 of the staff of the 
Pratt Institute Free Library. At the busi- 
ness meeting several amendments to the con- 
stitution were adopted, one establishing life 
memberships of the association at ten dol- 
lars. The officers elected for 1911 were as 
follows : president, Anna Burns ('08) ; vice- 
president, Louise G. Hinsdale ('98) ; secre- 
tary, Clara Bragg ('04) ; treasurer, Donald 
Hendry ('08) ; ex-president, Edward F. Ste- 
vens ('03) ; additional member, Winona H. 
Buck ('08). 

In the annual Neighborship Fair, Feb. 25, 
the Library School students will attend to 
the refreshment booth and ice-cream tables, 
in Spanish gypsy costume, as the fair is to 
be a Fair of All Nations. 

Preparations for the spring vacation visit 
to libraries are being made, Pennsylvania and 
New Jersey (with a brief run into Maryland, 
at Hagerstown) being the states covered by 
the itinerary. 

The School was lately the recipient of a 
large photograph of the Boone College Li- 
brary at Wuchang, China, of which Miss 
Wood, formerly a special student at the 
School, is librarian. The Boone Review of 
a recent date contained a full account of the 
opening of the library. 

The following changes of position or ac- 
tivities of graduates have been recorded since 
our last report: 
Miss Mary W. Allen .('02) has been ap- 

pointed to the cataloging staff of the His- 
panic Society, New York, 

Mrs. R. H. Coe (nee Rathbone, '03) is giv- 
ing lectures on library administration and 
some work in cataloging at Simmons Col- 

Misses Louise G. Hinsdale ('98) and Ag- 
nes Cowing ('02) have collaborated on a 
"List of books to read," arranged by school 
grades. The list is tentative and is to be 
replaced next year by a revised and anno- 
tated edition. 

MARY W. PLUMMER, Director. 


Summer library course. A summer course 
in library training will be given by the Uni- 
versity of Illinois Library School at Urbana 
during the regular summer session of the 
University beginning Monday, June 19, 1911, 
and continuing for six weeks. The course 
is planned in co-operation with the Illinois 
Library Extension Commission, and is in- 
tended primarily to meet the needs of the 
librarians and library assistants in the small 
libraries of Illinois, though librarians and 
library assistants from other states will be 
welcome as students. 

The 'senior class arranged during January 
an exhibit of books on Forestry and Domes- 
tic science, supplemented by a collection of 
photographs loaned by the United States 
Forest Service. The exhibit was intended 
to be of special interest to the farmers and 
farmers' wives attending the winter course 
in Agriculture offered by the University. 

Mr. J. S. Cleavinger, B.L.S. '10, librarian 
of the Jackson (Michigan) Public Library, 
gave to the School on Jan. 21 an account of 
the work of the Jackson Public Library. 

The faculty and seniors were entertained 
by Miss Arms and Miss Herrick. seniors, 
on Jan. 13 at the residence of Professor and 
Mrs. E. C. Hayes. 


Mrs. Mary McClellan Snushall, '07, has 
been placed in temporary charge of the Chil- 
dren's department of the Wilmington (Del.) 
Institute Free Library. 

Miss Betty H. Pritchet, 1909-10. has ac- 
cepted a position as cataloger in the Waterloo 
(Iowa) Public Library. 

Miss Sabra L. Nason, '07, now organizing 
the library of the Milwaukee Club, Mil- 
waukee, Wis., has been elected librarian of 
the Fort Dodge (Iowa) Public Library. 

Miss Lois Criswell, '10, is organizing the 
Anacortes (Wash.) Public Library. 

Miss Myra O'Brien, B.L.S. '07, is in tem- 
porary charge of the Library of Bradley 
Polytechnic Institute, Peoria, III. 

Miss Sarah Helen Griffiths, '09, has been 
appointed an assistant in the Des Moines 
(Iowa) Public Library. 

March, 1911] 





In connection with the Book selection 
course Mrs. Hobart, supervisor of Stations 
Department of the Cleveland Public Library, 
gave to the library school students two very 
interesting lectures on fiction writers. In 
the first lecture she discussed writers whose 
books were to be avoided, in the second, 
substitutes for books of this type were sug- 

During January the students have been 
having practice work in the children's rooms 
of the Public Library. Beginning with the 
second semester, Feb. i, and continuing for 
the rest of the year the practice work will 
be in the evening at the various branches. 
Work with the public will be the most im- 
portant feature of this assignment. 

At the session of library school faculties 
held in Chicago in connection with the 
League of Library Commissions the School 
was represented by Miss Eastman and Miss 

Miss Eva Morris, a member of this year's 
class, withdrew at the end of the first seme- 
ster. Miss Morris plans to spend the next 
few months in California. On Feb. 10 the 
class gave a farewell supper in her honor. 


DANA, John Cotton. Advertising. (Modern 
American library economy as illustrated by 
the Newark (N. J.) Free Public Library, 
pt. 4-) Elm Tree Press, Woodstock, Vt, 
1910. 31 p. D. 

Mr. Dana's little pamphlet on library ad- 
vertising is one that ought to suggest ideas 
to every librarian of a public library. Indeed, 
"public" might be eliminated from the last 
sentence, for every library, whether its con- 
stituency be a whole state or only a limited 
class in a small college town, must get its re- 
sources and its work systematically and in- 
telligently before the people it is endeavoring 
to serve, in order to do its best work. Mr. 
Dana's pamphlet is written, of course, from 
the point of view of the needs of a public 

The subject is discussed under the follow- 
ing headings : Collection of news for papers : 
a few typical newspaper headings: special ac- 
tivities promote newspaper notes ; posters ; 
general circulars ; special circulars ; bulletins : 
book lists ; study clubs ; lending department ; 
telephone; out of town publications; non- 
library contributions to the local press ; libra- 
rian and staff as advertisers; organizations 
closely related to the library: exhibitions: 
branch libraries and deposit stations ; lectures 
in the library ; work with schools ; the school 
exchange; miscellaneous. 

In his general introduction Mr. Dana lays 

down the following thesis which is the cen- 
tral idea of the whole essay: "Nothing is 
better for a public institution than publicity. 
The people who pay for its support are en- 
titled to know it is part of their education 
to know its receipts, its expenditures, its 
methods, and ambitions." As a public institu- 
tion the library is, therefore, in a position of 
great advantage, for most of the newspapers 
are willing to print things about it, and in 
this way give its work a publicity which, if 
it were a commercial enterprise, could not 
be bought for thousands of dollars. It will 
be found, however, that the larger the city, 
the more difficult it is for the library to get 
the kind of space in the newspapers which it 

In order to get stories for the newspapers 
at Newark each department of the library 
suggests items, or writes out items for the 
press, and sends them to the librarian's office 
for approval; and then Mr. Dana goes on to 
say, "Not very much comes by this method. 
Few assistants know news when they see it." 
The reviewer is of the opinion that few libra- 
rians know news when they see it, and that 
one of the first requisites on the part of a 
librarian in giving an institution proper pub- 
licity is to have, as the newspaper men say, 
"a nose for news." 

The typical newspaper headings which Mr. 
Dana gives are interesting. Doubtless most 
of these were made up in the newspaper of- 
fice. My criticism of the headings is that 
few of them show human interest, and for 
that reason they would get the attention of 
only a few persons : in other words, too many 
of the headings indicate the desire to give the 
library a good-natured boost. I do not be- 
lieve that this is the kind of a heading for 
the kind of publicity that a library- most 
needs. The lack of genuine human interest 
is also manifest in most of the sample posters. 

The value of special activities for advertis- 
ing purposes is, I believe, not generally 
recognized. These things are out of the or- 
dinary run and are, therefore, news. They 
are often worth all the time and effort put 
into them by the library simply from their 
publicity value. In this regard there is hard- 
ly a library in the country that uses its ex- 
hibition and lecture rooms to the extent that 
it might, although Newark perhaps does more 
with these rooms than any other American 

The following is all that is said under the 
heading "Out of town publications": 

"The contributions made by the librarian 
or members of the staff to magazines or jour- 
nals published in other cities are of no small 
advertising value, especially if, as is often the 
case, they are republished in the local pa- 
pers." I believe that a good deal more might 
be said on this subject. To my mind the 
chief value of having publications of this 
kind noticed in the local papers is that it 
helps to give the library and its staff a stand- 
ing in the community which it and they can 



[March, ign 

hardly get otherwise. The same is true re- 
garding articles on the library or reference to 
the work of the library that appear in other 
publications by persons who do not live in 
your own city. It is often impressive, and 
always pleasing to local pride, to have a local 
institution well spoken of by those who are 
from another city. Nevertheless, is is very 
easy to overdo this sort of thing, and as a 
matter of fact the writer for magazines who 
refers to a particular library is likely to ex- 
aggerate, and this in the long run does the 
library no good. 

Newark by no means exhausts the publicity 
methods that have been used with more or 
less success in other communities. These, of 
course, must vary with local conditions. As 
Mr. Dana well says, "The psychology of the 
whole matter of advertising is certainly not 
yet understood." This is true not only with 
reference to librarians, but also with refer- 
ence to general business men. Every libra- 
rian can get much benefit by studying the life 
of Benjamin Franklin, America's greatest 
master in the art of interesting other people 
in the things in which he was interested. 

This I believe is the first extended discus- 
sion on library advertising that has appeared, 
although there have been a number of articles 
on this subject in the last few years. I be- 
lieve that the next 10 years will witness a 
great improvement in this phase of the ad- 
ministration of a library. Too much of what 
librarians give the newspapers with refer- 
ence to their work is of the goody-goody 
nature, and does not have the vital touch 
that will get the attention of "the man on 
the street." 

A most effective form of publicity which 
librarians have cultivated all too little is the 
ability to speak interestingly on the work of 
the library to the people of the community. 
A librarian who can do this in an interesting 
way will have many opportunities of inter- 
esting the public in his institution and it is 
to be regretted that the art of public speak- 
ing is not cultivated to a greater extent by 
librarians for this and other reasons. 

I most heartily endorse Mr. Dana's 
conclusion : 

"If I were to sum up the results of my 
own experience in this line I would say, 'Try 
all things ; keep everlastingly at it ; and es- 
pecially keep everlastingly at it in the news- 
papers.' The value of the newspapers in ex- 
tending the use and usefulness and the in- 
fluence of public libraries is as yet not half 
realized by librarians." S. H. R. 

EVANS, C. American bibliography : a chrono- 
logical dictionary of all books, pamphlets, 
and periodical publications printed in the 
United States of America from the genesis 
of printing in 1639 down to and including 
the year 1820; with bibliographical and bio- 
graphical notes. In ii or 12 vs. v. 4, 1765- 

1773; v. 5, 1774-1778; v. 6, 1779-1785 Chic., 
privately printed for the author by the 
Blakely Press, 1907 ; by the Hollister Press, 
1909; and by the Columbia Press, 1910. 16 
+439 P-, 15+455 P-, 6+445 P- Q- Contains 
titles 9891 to 19,448. 

The three volumes titled above of Mr. 
Charles Evans's American bibliography con- 
tain the record of American printing and 
publishing for 21 years, from the beginning 
of 1765 to the close of 1785, covering the 
eventful periods of the Stamp Act and War 
of the Revolution. Full titles are given of 
books, pamphlets, newspapers, broadside 
sheets, and engraved music, the number 
amounting to 9558, or an average of about 
3200 for each volume. The arrangement is 
chronological, supplemented by indexes of 
authors, classified subject indexes, and dated 
lists of printers, publishers, and booksellers. 
In 1765 there were 24 cities and towns in 
English America in which printing I/was 
done ; in 1785 there were 40. The two cen- 
ters of publishing activity were Boston and 
Philadelphia, with New York ranking third. 
The output for each year varies. If we take 
the average of 455, and assume the same rate 
for the following 35 years, 1786 to 1820, it 
would require five more volumes to complete 
the work. If we allow for an increase it 
would be more likely to fill six volumes. 
Mr. Evans has thus covered fully half of his 
great undertaking, and it is generally well 
done, he having visited most of the large 
libraries and having personally copied a large 
proportion of the titles. The only serious 
criticism one can make of his plan, is that 
he never gives any authorities for borrowed 
information. It is taken as it is found, good, 
bad or indifferent, and its source is never 
credited. The taint of uncertainty or unre- 
liability which belongs to titles of this class 
thus pervades to a certain extent the whole 
work, and one is not always able to tell 
whether Mr. Evans has seen the book 
or has taken the title from an uncertain 
source. W. E. 

MENDELSSOHN'S South African bibliography; 
being the catalogue raisonne of the Men- 
delssohn library of works relating to South 
Africa, including the full titles of the books, 
with synoptical biographical, critical, and 
bibliographical notes on the volumes and 
their authors; together with notices of a 
large number of important works not as 
yet included in the collection, based on 
information gathered by the author in the 
course of researches in many libraries, and 
during a residence in South Africa extend- 
ing over the greater part of a quarter of a 
century, together with a bibliography of 
South African periodical literature, and of 

March, 1911] 



articles on South African subjects in pe- 
riodical literature throughout the world ; 
also a complete list of the British Parlia- 
mentary Bluebooks on South Africa, a 
cartography of South Africa, etc., by Sid- 
ney Mendelssohn, F.Z.S., F.R.C.I., etc., 
with a descriptive introduction by I. D. 
Colvin, F.R.C.I. 2 vols. London: Kegan 
Paul, Trench, Triibner & Co., 1910. 4, cl. 
This is the most satisfactory bibliography 
that has appeared for many years. The title- 
page is one of the old-fashioned kind, giving 
an excellent idea of what one may expect to 
find in the book and sparing the cataloger 
the necessity of reading the work in order to 
provide proper subject headings for her cards. 
In hi? preface the author says that from the 
first he resolved that it should be to all in- 
tents and purposes a "one man's work," and 
we can imagine to some extent the pleasure 
which he must have had in preparing it. The 
alphabetical catalog of the books fills 1657 
pages, and includes over titles. The 
list of South African imperial blue books oc- 
cupies 63 pages, that of South African maga- 
zines and periodicals 71 pages, and that of 
magazine articles 127 pages. The subject 
index of the book takes up 167 pages, and 18 
pages are given to a list of maps of Africa 
contained in the Mendelssohn library. 

The author catalog includes not only the 
books in the collection itself, but also all 
other books on the subj ect known to the com- 
piler, so that the title of bibliography is a 
proper one. Moreover, all titles of books in 
the collection are marked with an asterisk, 
and the location of the rest is given as far 
as possible, e.g.. ''British Museum.'' "Royal 
Library. Hague.'' etc. The number of books 
not in the collection is surprisingly small. 

As stated in the title, the author catalog is 
provided with "synoptical biographical, crit- 
ical, bibliographical notes on the volumes and 
their authors," and these notes are well done 
and in many cases are very interesting. 

In his preface Mr. Mendelssohn says that 
under his will the library is left to the Union 
Parliament of South Africa, that it is not 
presented now, as he is by no means finished 
collecting. He also expresses the hope that 
it will develop into a National Library of 
Africana, to be held, conserved, and aug- 
mented by the Union Parliament, until event- 
ually it should comprise the greater part of 
the literature connected with the continent of 
Africa, and that he has provided funds for 
this purpose, divided into two parts. The 
first part is to be applied, both as regards in- 
terest and principal, to the purchase of such 
works relative to Africa as have been pub- 
lished before the time that the library is 
handed over. The second part is to be" in- 
vested and the income is to be used exclu- 
sively for the purchase of works relative to 
Africa published after the date that the li- 

brary is handed over. It is to be hoped that 
these wishes and intentions will be fully car- 
ried out. 

Especially noteworthy is the introduction 
to the work by Ian D. Colvin, which is a con- 
cise history of the settlement and literature 
of South Africa, and which ought to be 
printed and issued as a separate pamphlet. 
Among other things he says that his task is 
to write of South African books, "otherwise 
it would be pleasant to glance at the history 
of this great library in Cape Town, to say 
something of its patron saint and great orig- 
inal, the good Joachim Nicolas Van Dessin, 
who being a widower made a spouse of his 
library, and caused offence, as Bird tells us, 
because 'at a time of great mortality, when 
sales of the property of the dead and of the 
distressed were held in every part of the 
town.' he 'constantly attended and purchased 
at a low price the books on sale.' He was a 
German and seems to have had the national 
taste for encyclopaedias well developed, if we 
may judge from the fact that there were 899 
of them in his collection." 

It would be necessary to live w ith and work 
over these volumes to obtain a definite opin- 
ion as to the accuracy of the notes and com- 
pleteness of the several lists. We do not find 
in the author list "Sabellicus. secunda pars 
Enneadum. . . . Venetiis 1504," which con- 
tains the earliest account of the discovery of 
the Cape of Good Hope, and the collection is 
very defective in works relating to the lan- 
guages of the native tribes of South Africa. 
No doubt these are deficiencies which will be 
supplied, and in any case are not important. 

As a whole, we have nothing but praise 
for the work, and heartily wish the author 
full success in carrying out his plans. 

schreibung der Herstellung von Buchein- 
banden u. der dabei verwendeten Maschi- 
nen von Geo. A. Stephen. Ubersetzt und 
fiir osterreichische und deutsche Verhalt- 
nisse bearbeitet von Hermann Scheibe. 
Wien und Leipzig: A. Hartleben, 1910. 
8, 240 p. (incl. 45 p. of ads.), 138 illustra- 

This is a translation, and adaptation to 
German and Austrian conditions, of Steph- 
ens' "Commercial bookbinding" (reviewed in 
the LIBRARY JOURNAL for May, 1910). 
Though it deals with edition binding, it is 
full of useful information for the librarian, 
useful to him in his dealings with binders. 
The advantages and disadvantages of various 
methods .(e.g., wire-fastening, casing, etc.), 
and machines (for folding, sewing and the 
various other operations) are clearly set 
forth. Such statements as this that the 
conscientious binder uses only good mate- 
rials, or that collating cannot be controlled, 
which fact enables "the unfair competitor 




to underbid considerably," seem obvious at 
first sight. But they may prove wholesome 
reminders to the librarian all too exultantly 
eager to accept the very lowest bid. Ameri- 
can conditions are considered ; the appendix 
consists of the A. L. A. committee's specifi- 
cations for edition work. To repeat: a 
useful book. F. W. 

OSBORN, Albert S. Questioned documents. 
A study of questioned documents with an 
outline of methods by which the facts may 
be discovered and shown. With an intro- 
duction by Prof. John H. Wigmore. 
Rochester, N. Y., The Lawyers' Co-opera- 
tive Pub. Co., 1910. 24+501 p. il. O. 
This is a manual of the examination of 
documents which are questioned in legal pro- 
ceedings. The author is an expert examiner 
of such papers and his manual is written for 
the legal profession. It has, however, much 
of interest to those who have to do with 
books and manuscripts. 

After passing the introductory matter we 
are given hints on the care of documents, 
and a description of the classes of ques- 
tioned documents with a brief review of 
points to be considered in an examination, 
as paper, ink, conditions affecting handwrit- 
ing, such as sickness, use of ink or pencil. 
After this ground-clearing the author pro- 
ceeds to the more detailed exposition of his 

The microscope plays an important role 
in all tests ; but enlarged photographs which 
bring out the same facts in more permanent 
form are more enlightening to the layman. 
We find transmitted-light photographs used 
to show erasures, and strokes made thicker 
by retouching. Stereoscopic photo-micro- 
graphs bring out minute perspectives and 
show depth, sequence of crossed strokes, etc. 
These portions of the work will be of interest 
to any one interested in photography, and 
especially so to those concerned with photo- 
graphing documents. 

Characteristics of writing naturally receive 
much attention under such heads as pen posi- 
tion, shading, individuality, and muscular 
habits. It is interesting to note that the 
finger movement used in writing the vertical 
hand is the movement that is commonly em- 
ployed in forgeries. The systems of writing 
which have been in vogue in America furnish 
material for an entertaining historical chap- 
ter. Forgeries have been made with dates 
earlier than the introduction of the style in 
which they were written. Even the age and 
individuality of pens is considered ; not all 
pens of the same make and number give 
"exactly" the same strokes. 

Even the blackness of the ink is made to 
illumine the questioned document. There are 
radical differences even between inks that 
seem to be alike. The amount of sediment 

deposited on strokes varies in the same ink 
according to the kind of a well it comes from. 

Erasure preceding forgery is very common 
in questioned documents. Erasure by abra- 
sion is easily detected by careful examina- 
tion. Chemical erasures when skilfully made 
are very difficult to discover. A noteworthy 
illustration of careless care is given in the 
author's comment that the rough, high-quality 
bond or linen papers most commonly used 
for checks and similar forms are just those 
on which chemical erasures show least. The 
best paper for such purposes is a dry, smooth, 
white calendared paper which is not of the 
highest quality. 

The section of the book which is of sur- 
prising originality is that on typewritten for- 
geries. They have, inevitably, increased in 
numbers in recent years, and many have un- 
doubtedly passed without being suspected. 
The idea that forgeries in typewriting cannot 
be discovered is erroneous. Habits of touch, 
speed, the number of threads to the square 
inch of the ribbon, defectivs letters and de- 
terioration in individual machines are among 
the facts brought out by the microscope and 
enlarged photograph to detect forgery. 

The book is well written and can be pleas- 
antly read. It is also well illustrated. There 
is an illustration showing 36 different cross- 
ings of "t" and another showing 63 forms of 
capital "I." 

Every librarian who has the care of manu- 
scripts should certainly read this work for 
the suggestions and points of view it gives. 
If assistants in manuscript rooms could be 
required to pass an examination in it and a 
few other works a needed beginning would 
be made in the development of special train- 
ing in manuscript work, similar to that re- 
quired of European archivists. 

A bibliography (pp. 483-488) and an ample 
index are provided. The bibliography should 
contain the palaeographies of Prou and of 
Paoli the latter in the German edition. 


fcfbrarp Bconerw? an& 


A. L. A. Booklist, February, 1911, an- 
nounces change in rates for the Booklist as 
follows : Additional copies up to 10 are given 
for soc., which makes it possible to secure three 
copies for the price formerly paid for two and 
10 copies for only 50 cents more than five 
formerly cost. Owing to a decision of the 
Post-office Department the press proofs of 
the Booklist can no longer be mailed at 
second class rates. Since this decision makes 
it impossible to supply the proofs at the sub- 
scription price of $i a year they will be dis- 
continued with the March number. Sub- 
scribers will receive beginning with the April 
number two copies of the finished Booklist 




until their subscription to the proofs ex- 

Library Work, January, 1911 covers 28 
pages and notes articles of library importance 
from 23 periodicals. 

Public Libraries, February, contains 
"Should librarians read," by Dr. F. G. Ken- 
yon, an address read before The Library As- 
sistants' Association, October, 1910; 'The 
rural community and the library," by Dr. 
Stanley Coulter ; and "The value of a library 
commission," by W. H. Black. 

Special Libraries, January, contains "The 
earning power of special libraries," by D. N. 
Handy, and discusses the need of a down- 
town business and provincial men's branch of 
the Boston Public Library. 

loii-a Library Quarterly, December, con- 
tains "Creating a demand by supplying it." 
by Miss Fannie Duren, librarian Waterloo 
(la.) Public Library. 

Michigan Libraries, December. 1910, is the 
first number of a new library publication to 
be published semi-annually in the interest of 
the libraries of Michigan by the State Board 
of Library Commissioners and the Michigan 
Library Association. This issue covers 21 
pages and is chiefly devoted to the proceed- 
ings of the Michigan Library Association. 
It is hoped that the next number of the bul- 
letin will be in the nature of a handbook 
of the libraries of the state of Michigan. 

York Libraries, January, contains 
"The New York State Library and the col- 
lege and reference libraries of the state," 
by J. I. Wyer, jr., a paper delivered at the 
annual conference of the New York Library 
Association, Sept. 20, 1910; "School libraries 
in New York State," by L. O. Wiswell. state 
inspector of school libraries, also read before 
the New York Library Association, Sept. 23, 
1910: "160 of the best foreign novels in 
English translation," comp. by F. K. \V. Dru- 
ry. University of Illinois Library; "Recent 
state publications of interest," by F. L. Tol- 
man, also an account of library week at 
Lake George, 1910. 

Wisconsin Library Bulletin, November-De- 
cember. 1910, contains an account of the 
Junior Civic League of Mankato, Minn., by 
Maud Van Buren ; "School duplicate collec- 
tions in the Madison Free Library," by 
Marion F. Weil ; "Moving pictures in libra- 
ry work;" book reviews, notes for librarians 
and reports of Association meetings. 

The Librarian, December, contains a sec- 
ond installment of "The birth of the various 
booktrade catalogues," by Thomas W. Huck, 
to be continued. This is a useful article and 
gives much valuable information in little 
space. A technical supplement on "Book se- 
lection and purchase" is included in the 

Library, The, January, contains, "The li- 
brary of printed books in Worcester cathe- 

dral." by James M. Wilson; "The book bills 
of Katherine Parr," by F. Rose-Troup; "Re- 
cent foreign literature," by Elizabeth Lee; 
"The autographs of Petrarch's 'Rerum vul- 
garium fragmenta'," by Mary Fowler; "False 
dates in Shakespeare quartos," by A. W. 

Library Assistant, February', contains "The 
development of notation in classification" 
(first portion), by H. Rutherford Purnell 
(to be continued). 

Library Association Record, December, 
contains "The personality of the librarian," 
by Guthrie Vine; "Literary history: a libra- 
rian's equipment," by F. E. Nuttall. 

January, contains "Some results of the 

Brussels congresses," by Henry V. Hopwood : 
"Book selection, fundamental principles and 
some applications," by Dr. E. A. Baker, and 
also notes of library meetings. Mr. Hop- 
wood indicates lines along which the L. 
A. U. K. might work for international coop- 
eration as a result of the Brussels congresses. 
Dr. Baker's thoughtful article deserves at- 
tention. He emphasizes the importance of 
studying the needs of the reading community, 
to determine the ratio between the utilita- 
rian and intellectual needs. Then a scheme 
of selection should be outlined and alterna- 
tive methods for such schemes are proposed 
and described as either numerical, based 
upon the number of books to be allowed to 
each section, or the correlative method, which 
is considered the more effective, and which 
considers the books in relation to each other. 

Library World, January, contains "A novel 
catalogue," by L. Stanley Jast ; "English pub- 
lishing trade bibliographies," by Olive E. 
Clarke; "The non-recognition of trained li- 
brarianship," and an article describing "A 
form of work-sheet," by William McGill. 

Bollettino delle Biblioteche Popolari, Jan. 
I, 1911, contains a general summary of the 
work of the Italian Federation of Popular 
Libraries, entitled "What is the Italian Fed- 
eration of Popular Libraries and what does it 
do?," giving the text of its constitution, 
names of its officers, members of its com- 
mittees, statement of the privileges of asso- 
ciated libraries, half-tone cuts of various 
articles of furniture supplied by it, and a 
list of popular books suggested for small 
libraries. The issue for Jan. 15, 1911, con- 
tains a report of the congress of popular li- 
braries and affiliated institutions in Lom- 
bardy, held in Milan on Jan. 8-9, 1911; an 
article by A. Devito Tommasi on the rela- 
tions between popular libraries for economic 
education and the study of government ; a list 
of 31 titles in Italian and 17 in French on eco- 
nomics and sociology suggested for popular 
libraries by E. Rignano ; and an interesting 
statistical statement about the popular libra- 
ries near Milan, giving the number of vol- 
umes, number of readers, characteristics of 
the readers as to occupation, etc.. location of 



[March, ign 

the library, its character, by whom started and 
supported, and its date of founding. L. 

Rivista delle Biblioteche e degli Archivi for 
June-July, 1910, has an article by Giuseppe 
Baccini on Giuseppe Giusti, the Count L. 
Guglielmo de Cambray Dignay. and the poet 
Lorenzo Lorenzini ; and an article by Rosa 
Borghini on "German literature and the an- 
thology of G. P. Viesseux." 

Zentralblatt fur Bibliothekswesen, January, 
1911, has an article on home circula- 
tion in Italian government libraries, by 
G. Leyh (who comments on the very 
limited privileges in this respect) ; a 
report on the loth conference of Swiss 
librarians at Freiburg, Sept. 4 and 5, 1910, 
at which the principal papers were by Max 
v. Diesbach on the moving of the cantonal 
and university library of Freiburg, and Dr. 
Ad. Schmidt on Switzerland's share in the 
union catalog of incunabula ; descriptions of 
the new library buildings at Freiburg and at 
St. Gallen ; and an account, by Emil Jacobs, 
of the manuscripts from the Phillipps collec- 
tion acquired by the Royal Library in Berlin. 


Birmingham .(Ala.) P. L. The Woodlawn 
branch of the Public Library was opened 
with appropriate exercises on Jan 2. 

Brantford (Ct.) P. L. (Rpt year 
1910.) Added, by purchase 317 (fict. 780, 
juv. 376) ; total 24,428. Issued, home use 
100,878 of which 73,155 were fiction and 
27,723 standard works. Of total circulated 
80,112 were drawn by adults and 20,766 by 
children. Receipts $6279.03; expenses $571,- 
898 (books $1144.36, salaries $2699.62, light- 
ing $401.46, heating $196.45). 

California. Convention of county libra- 
rians. The first annual convention of county 
librarians of the state was held on Dec. 28 
in Sacramento. It was stated that over 
$60,000 was appropriated during the year 
for county library work. 

Chicago, III. John Crerar L. The long- 
disputed question as to the location of the new 
building for the John Crerar Library has been 
settled to the extent that the proposed site in 
Grant Park has been definitely vetoed by de- 
cision of the Supreme Court of Illinois. The 
Field Museum of Natural History, by the 
same decision, has also been refused habita- 
tion in Grant Park, and will probably be 
erected in Jackson Park. It is thought that 
the library, on the other hand, will be housed 
in the business section of the city. 

Newberry L. (Rept. year 1910.) 
Added 13,370; total 272,712 (including pms., 
maps, mss., engravings, etc.). The library 
was open 308 days, the number of readers 
to whom books were issued in the several 
departments was 66,410 distributed as fol- 
lows : general reading room and allied de- 
partments 44,349; department of history 

12,918; bibliographkal museum 4924; depart- 
ment of arts and letters 3420; department of 
special collections 799. 

The average daily attendance was 215. 
The number of men using the library was 
greater by 2490 than in 1909, but the number 
of women readers shows a loss of 4049. The 
number of books consulted was about 95,554. 

There were 60 volumes borrowed by other 
libraries. The Catalog department reports 
21,313 cards added to the official catalog. 

"During the year there was a marked 
increase in the use of the books on the fol- 
lowing subjects : bibliography, religion, his- 
tory, genealogy, civil government, military 
and naval arts, literature and sports. The 
Special collections were likewise used to a 
much greater extent than ever before. The 
number of volumes consulted in the Bona- 
parte philological collection was 1267 ; in 
1909 it was 799. Of the Chinese collection 
1280 volumes were used; in 1909 the number 
was 204. In the Egyptology collection 1756 
books were called for as compared with 654 
in 1909." 

The collection of Chinese and Tibetan lit- 
erature which Dr. Berthold Laufer has been 
gathering for the library since 1908 now 
numbers 1157 works in 13,483 volumes, of 
which 143 works are in Japanese, 310 in 
Tibetan, 72 in Mongol, 60 in Manchu (or in 
Manchu and Chinese) and the remainder 
in Chinese. 

Chicago (III.) P. L. A monthly book bul- 
letin was begun with January, 1911. There 
will be 10 issues a year covering all months 
but July and August. The monthly lists will 
be cumulated at the end of the year and an 
annual list will be issued early in 1912. The 
library's list of works in English prose fic- 
tion is in process of revision and it is 
planned to complete the revision of the li- 
brary's Finding list during the year. This 
list was issued in parts and the parts so far 
revised with dates of revision are : His- 
tory and biography, 1901 ; Geography and 
travels, 1904 ; Poetry and drama, 1904 ; Lan- 
guage and literature, 1905 ; Fine arts, 1907 ; 
Useful arts, 1908; Natural sciences, 1909. 
The remaining unrevised parts are: ..(i) 
Political science ; Social science ; and Educa- 
tion ; and (2) Philosophy, religion, medicine 
and law. 

The February number of the Chicago Pub- 
lic Library Book Bulletin includes a brief ar- 
ticle, "Periodicals and newspapers for every- 
body," by Charles A. Larson, describing the 
periodical resources of the Chicago Public 

Friendship, N. Y. It is stated that by the 
will of the late Mrs. Mary Pitt the sum of 
$12,000 has been left to the town for the 
erection of a free library building and $10,000 
for its maintenance. 

Hartford, Ct. Watkinson L. (47th rpt. 
year 1909; from local press.) Added 1088 

March, 1911] 



v., 437 pm. (purchase 868, gifts 657) ; total 

The somewhat lessened purchases ot the 
year have been due to the board's instruc- 
tions to curtail all expenses to the lowest 
point, in view of the impending outlay for 
refitting and furnishing the new rooms from 
the Athenaeum reconstructions. Practically 
all binding was also suspended, which will 
throw a heavier burden upon the coming 
year, when special attention should be paid 
to this branch, as well in pamphlets and 
sets of society publications as in periodicals. 

Harvard University L. The new post of 
Director of the University library was cre- 
ated late in 1910 and Prof. A. C. Coolidge 
was appointed to be its first incumbent, as 
noted in a recent issue of the University's 
Bulletin. While the University's main collec- 
tions are concentrated in Gore Hall there have 
developed side by side with these the large 
special libraries of the Divinity, Medical and 
Law schools, not to mention "the 25 or 30 
department libraries scattered in convenient 
locations all around the precincts of the 

The burden of administration has thus 
fallen upon Mr. Lane, but each of the pro- 
nal schools has had its own librarian, 
who dealt directly with the general authori- 
ties of the University. In the establishment 
of a directorship it was considered that li- 
brary interests of the University could be 
coordinated, leaving nevertheless to the Uni- 
versity librarian and to the librarians of the 
professional schools that freedom of action 
which they have used so effectively in the 

Ithaca, N. Y. Cornell University L. (Rpt. 
year ending June 30, 1910.) Added 
14,645; total 383,696 (pm. 57,ooo). Ref. 
and dept. use 76,577; home use 26,875 (total 
103,472). Registration, univ. officers, 451, 
students 430, special borrowers 37. 

The chief gift of the year was the fund 
of $4000 given by the late Goldwin Smith 
for the increase of the special library in 
Goldwin Smith Hall and the additions for 
the year to that collection have been almost 
entirely purchased from this fund. The num- 
ber of volumes, pamphlets and maps cata- 
loged for the general card catalog during 
the year was 14,004. For these 14,711 cards 
were written and 1817 printed cards were ob- 
tained from the Library of Congress. About 
40 pages of the report are given up to a list 
of the University publications. 

Los Angeles (Cal.) P. L. It is stated that 
Mr. Carnegie has agreed to give $210.000 to 
Los Angeles for the erection of six new- 
branch library 1 buildings to cost $35,000 each. 

Marblehead, Mass. Abbott P. L. (32d 
rpt. year ending Feb. n, 1910.) Added 
401 ; total 18,974 v. 3061 pm. Issued, home 
use 27,521 (fict. and juv. 83 per cent) ; num- 
ber of borrowers' cards 210. Receipts $21,- 

889.83; expenditures $1469.39 (salaries $838, 
books $323.67, newspapers and periodicals, 

Montclair (N. /.) F. P. L. (i7th rpt. 
year 1910.) Added 2928 (1873 by purchase, 
1055 by gift) ; total 31,349. Issued, home 
use 134,549 .(21,558 juv.). Total registration 
12,042; active membership about 6900. 

A mezzanine floor was erected in the li- 
brary during the year greatly relieving the 
crowded condition of books on the main 

Montreal (Canada} F. P. L. (326. annual 
rpt. year ending June 30, 1910.) Added 
1284 (by gift 548, by purchase 736) ; total 
54^228. Books issued 70,178. Receipts $n,- 
967.10 (maintenance account) ; expenses 
$11,875.38 (salaries $3858.50.) 

The average daily attendance has risen to 
339 and 70,178 books have been loaned to 
the members of the circulating library. 

New York P. L. (Rpt.-year 1910.) The 
record of the library's work during the year 
is thus summarized : Reference branches 
added 31,934 v., 5676 pm. ; total available for 
readers 809,878 v., 300,754 pm. ; readers and 
visitors 232,506 ; 163,810 desk applicants con- 
sulted 658,840 volumes. Print department 
now contains 72,980 prints; 7021 periodicals 
currently received. Circulation department 
totals 809,350 v. ; issued, home use 7,506,976. 
Total expenditures $872,835,52, of which 
$216,150.42 was spent for the reference de- 
partment and $656,685.10 for the circulation 
departments, of which $618,452.15 came from 
the city appropriation. Of reference depart- 
ment expenditures $50,693.14 (23.4 per cent.) 
went for books, binding and periodicals ; 
$134,077.60 (62 per cent.) for salaries; $31,- 
379.68 (14.5 per cent.) for all other purposes. 
Of the circulation department expenditures 
$175448.88 (26.7 per cent.) went for books, 
binding and periodicals; $346,638.86 ,(5 2 -7 P er 
cent.) went for salaries; $134,597.36 (20.4 
per cent.) for all other purposes. 

The report covers 96 pages and contains 
illustrations of Seward Park and Mt. Morris 
Park branches. Statistical tables are as 
usual included at the end of the report. 

Progress on the new central building has 
continued. One new contract, that for furni- 
ture and equipment, was let during the year. 
Details of work on various contracts accom- 
plished during the year are given in the re- 
port. It is expected that the new library 
will be opened to the public in May, 1911. 

The work of each department of the li- 
brary is considered separately as usual. 
Under the record of the shelf department 
we note that 3322 volumes and 1156 pam- 
phlets were reclassified and that these in- 
cluded a number of new groups such as 
heraldry, the Milton and Shakespeare collec- 
tions (the latter not yet finished), transla- 
tions from Slavonic literature and various 
minor groups. The subject index to the 


[March, 1911 

library's classification scheme has been prac- 
tically finished. 

The number of volumes newly cataloged 
was 20,155, pamphlets 21,362, and maps 149; 
in addition the cataloging of 1694 volumes 
and 1174 pamphlets was continued or com- 
pleted. There were 10,779 serials, magazines 
and journals, etc., newly cataloged. 

The public index catalog at Astor contains 
1,287,965 cards ; the public catalog at Lenox 
contains 386,740 cards. The two public cata- 
logs thus contain 1,674,705 cards. In the 
new building special catalogs will be needed 
for the collections in the various special 
reading rooms for American history, eco- 
nomics and sociology, etc. 

These collections are represented in the 
general public index catalog by author and 
subject cards; to provide for their special cat- 
alogs seven typewriters have been engaged for 
several months copying cards for groups of 
American local history and genealogy, science 
and art; 31,503 cards copied in this way have 
been multiplied on the duplicating machine 
to about 135,000. 

Preparatory to discontinuing the use of the 
two printed catalogs of the Astor library (is- 
sued in 1860 and 1880) two sets of each have 
been cut up during the year and the entries 
mounted on cards to serve as author records. 
"Over ten years ago a similar set of cards 
was filed in the index catalog to serve as 
subject cards ; when the set of author cards 
is combined with the subject card readers 
will find a complete card record for all books 
and will be spared the necessity of supple- 
menting the card catalog by reference to the 
printed book catalogs. 

"The printing plant in the new building 
was sufficiently equipped by the middle of 
December to begin printing catalog cards. 
During the month the cataloging force furn- 
ished 1717 copy slips from which 225 titles 
were set and 1596 cards printed." 

The documents department received 7861 
volumes, 5873 pamphlets and 544 maps. From 
an estimate based on Platzer's "Jahrbuch der 
statistik" it has been stated that there are 
in the world in active operation 413 statisti- 
cal bureaus, viz., 242 federal and state and 
171 municipal bureaus. The library contains 
reports of 207 federal and state bureaus and 
101 municipal bureaus noted by Platzer in 
addition to several, particularly South Amer- 
ican, not there recorded. The Oriental de- 
partment now contains 13,544 pieces. The 
Hebrew department now contains about 
17,000 volumes and pamphlets. An elaborate 
scheme of classification of Jewish books con- 
taining about 500 subdivisions was specially 
worked out for this department and printed 
in 1901. Since the organization of the de- 
partment in 1897 reference work has been 
made a special feature. Many questions from 
out-of-town students come to this depart- 

The total collection in the Slavonic depart- 

ment numbers 13,274 pieces. In the print 
department the accessions amounted to 2663 
pieces, and the total number of prints now 
recorded is 72,980 (54,280 in the general col- 
lection, 8700 in the A very collection). There 
are also 123,782 pieces in the shape of dupli- 
cates, cuttings from magazines, etc., uncata- 
loged and unaccessioned but arranged by 
Subject for consultation. During the year 
1673 persons visited the print room and con- 
sulted 3985 volumes and 2830 portfolios and 
boxes. The print department catalog con- 
tains 45,649 cards. The report of the Cir- 
culation department records no striking new 

It is planned with the opening of the new 
building to establish a central reserve col- 
lection from which books will be available 
for circulation through the inter-branch loan 
system. "This collection will consist of 
books now in the branches that are no longer 
in active demand but are of sufficient perma- 
nent value to be subject to occasional use by 
readers. It is estimated that this collection 
will start with about 30,000 volumes, in- 
cluding books of all classes, and this nucleus 
will be enlarged by further additions from 
time to time as branches withdraw other 
books from their shelves to make room for 
the newer books in more active demand." 
At the date of this report the work of 
withdrawing the first lot of these books 
from the shelves of the branches and pre- 
paring them for transfer to the new building 
was well under way. 

At the five roof-reading rooms (estab- 
lished at Hamilton Fish Park, Rivington 
Street, St. Gabriel's Park, Seward Park and 
Columbus branches) the attendance during 
the summer was 62,745 readers, or about 
48 per cent, of the total reading-room attend- 
ance at these five branches during the same 

As previously the reading-rooms of six 
branches remained open on Sunday after- 
noons throughout the year. There was a 
decrease of 205 in attendance. The staff of 
the circulation department numbers 505 per- 
sons. Twenty-three persons completed the 
regular nine months' course of instruction 
given by Miss Foote in the library training 
class. In the inter-branch loan system 42,151 
volumes were interchanged among the 
branches, showing an increase of 6378 vol- 
umes over the record of 1909. 

In connection with the work with schools 
an interesting feature is the conduct of 
classes of elementary school children, who 
are thereby given definite instruction in the 
use of books as tools and a working knowl- 
edge of the card catalog. 

The school reference use of the library 
grew from 168,104 in 1909 to 227,856 in 
1910. As a result of the growth of the 
work it has been necessary to enlarge some- 
what the special collections of reference 
books gathered for the use of the schools. 

March, 1911] 


"During the first years of the work with 
schools special stress was laid on the desira- 
bility of purchasing for teachers books neces- 
sary for their professional advancement 
Practically any book that came within the 
scope of the circulation department was 
bought on individual request, the intention 
being in this way to accumulate a sufficient 
supply of books throughout the system to 
meet all reasonable demands. As a result 
of this extensive buying in the past and as a 
further result of an adaptation of the inter- 
branch loan system, it has been possible this 
year to increase the use of the library by 
teachers, even though the purchases made at 
their requests have been less than in the 
past." This work is under the supervision 
of Mr. E. \V. Gaillard, who is also president 
of the library section of the National Edu- 
cation Association. 

Miss Moore's report on the work with 
children will be given further notice in the 
April (school) number of the LIBRARY 
JOURNAL. The circulation from the children's 
rooms represents more than one-third of the 
total circulation reported from the 40 branch 
libraries and from the travelling libraries. 
The total number of volumes shelved in 
children's rooms is 198,641, as compared with 
180,003 in 1909, 

The circulation from travelling libraries 
amounted to 1,189,118 volumes, an increase 
of 15 per cent, over the year 1909. The 
number of stations to which books were sent 
during the year was 802. The circulation of 
travelling libraries through the department 
of education has amounted to 490,599 vol- 
umes, through the fire department 24,694, 
department of health 4842, other city de- 
partments 38,091, parochial and private 
schools 140,212, industrial schools 282,639, 
churches and Sunday-schools 16,773, busi- 
ness stations 52,708, community libraries, 
48,513, study clubs and similar organizations 

In work with the blind the circulation 
shows a total of 15,537, of which 4486 was 
European Braille. In the music collection 
there is a total for circulation of 8030 vol- 

The binding report shows that there have 
been 72,356 volumes rebound. 

In response to the growing demand the 
library has made a special effort to provide 
the best recent books on the useful arts and 
applied sciences. 

The circulation of foreign books during the 
year was 395,661, an increase of 50.401 over 
that recorded in 1909. 

"In connection with the work of the li- 
brary mention should be made of the use of 
branches for activities other than those 
strictly concerned with the circulation of 
books. During the past year the library has 
endeavored so far as was practical to co- 
operate with literary societies and clubs in 
various parts of the city by arranging for 

the use of branch assembly-rooms for meet- 
ings, lectures and entertainments, the general 
stipulation being that such meetings should 
be free to the public." 

As the work of the library develops year 
by year and becomes more intimately related 
to the life and interests of the city, this re- 
port becomes of even greater value, and it 
should be read closely as one of the leading 
annual contributions to library literature. 

Newark (N. /.) F. P. L. Exhibits were 
held in the Art Gallery and museum rooms 
in the library from Feb. 14 to 28, inclusive, 
at which .were shown paintings of city land- 
scapes by American artists, lent by the art- 
ists; Oriental art objects; American paint- 
ings, medals, pottery ; bronzes : material illus- 
trative of the life and art of the Japanese; 
and rare and curious objects of fine and 
industrial art, just received from Thibet, col- 
lected by an American long resident in that 

Ottawa (Can.) P. L. (Rpt year 1910; 
libn's. summary.) Total circulation, 212.933, 
an increase of 19,117 over the preceding year. 
Of the total 134^96 consisted of adult fic- 
tion, 28,254 of juvenile fiction, and 50,183 of 
non-fiction. Two school branches were 
opened during the year, and 10 school libra- 
ries. Fort}' reading lists were published in 
the newspapers ; 6617 volumes were added 
to the library, including 2117 gifts; total in 
library, 42,550; 28 societies and clubs held 
165 meetings in the library during the year. 

Passaic (A'. /.) P. L. (32d rpt year 
ending June 30, 1910.) Added 2809; total 
25,092. Issued, home use 173.378 (increase 
of 4185 over preceding year). Receipts (main 
lib.) $9665.57: expenses (main lib.) $9485.27. 

The circulation from the main library was 
55,283, from the Reid Memorial Library 
107,154, from the German Club 841 volumes. 
The adult fiction has averaged 33 per cent., 
the juvenile fiction 25 per cent, and the 
non-fiction 42 per cent 

The reading room use has been 116,231, 
an increase of 5106 over the preceding year. 
In November, 1909, the Passaic Park branch 
was opened with about 1000 volumes on its 
shelves. It is stated that the library plans 
to open a branch library in the new high 
school building. 

Providence (R. I.) P. L. It is stated that 
the fund of $725 necessary to buy the Lon- 
don collection of books on printing for the 
Providence Public Library is now subscribed, 
the last subscription having come from Mrs. 
John Nicholas Brown of Newport, whose 
husband's generosity was largely responsible 
for the present home of the Providence 

The collection includes nearly one thou- 
sand books and pamphlets on typography, il- 
lustration, and allied topics and is made up 



[March, 1911 

of selected duplicates from the St. Bride 
Foundation Technical Library. It has been 
inspected abroad by D. B. Updike of the 
Alerrymount Press, who made the first sub- 
scription to the fund. 

Most of the best authorities on the his- 
tory and practice of the art of printing to- 
gether with a large number of specimen 
books of typefounders and printers, of ink 
makers and paper manufacturers, are in- 

To these are added works on the byways 
of literature, such as chap-books and broad- 
sides and the history of newspapers is repre- 
sented. The collection offers, with such 
books as the library already possesses in this 
field, the nucleus of a technical library such 
as exists in only one or two cities of the 

Rockfoid .(III.) P. L. (38th rpt year 
ending May 31, 1910.) Added 2025 (net 
increase) ; total 53,365. Issued, home use 
163.807. New registration 3171; cards in 
force 10,411. 

Circulation shows a decrease of 8862 over 
the previous year. The total circulation of 
children': books was 66,262, or 44 per cent, 
of the entire circulation. The circulation of 
books from the children's room of the main 
library was 30,707. The prevalence of scar- 
let fever in the city had much to do with 
the decrease in the circulation. 

New shelving has been erected in the read- 
ing room and contains about 800 volumes of 
the popula: periodicals. There were 52 
teachers' special cards issued and 28 can- 
celled, leaving the total number of special 
cards 258. The circulation of Swedish books 
from the branch library was 4417. 

San Antonio, Tex. Carnegie L. (7th rpt. 
>ear ending May 31, 1910.) Added 2349 
(by purchase), 268 by gift; total 19,036. Is- 
sued, home use 83,028, a gain of 6417 over 
last year. Number of borrowers' cards in 
force 7527. 

There was a slight increase in the number 
of books loaned and the class of books cir- 
culated is good. Of some books a dozen or 
more copies were bought to be loaned 
through the schools. The attendance at 26 
story-hours was 3649. 

Seattle (Wash.) P. L. It is stated that the 
Seattle Public Library board has been of- 
fered $70,000 for the erection of two addi- 
tional branch libraries under condition that 
the board pledges a maintenance fund of 
$7000 annually in addition to the amount 
now being spent on the local library system. 

Tacoma (Wash.) P. L. The library has 
recently opened a sub-library station of 1500 
volumes in one of the factories of the city. 
The books are in charge of a volunteer libra- 
rian chosen from the employees at the fac- 

Wheeling (W. Va.) P. L. The new li- 
brary was opened on Jan. 9, 1911, without 
formal celebration. The circulation of books 
numbered 290. 

Wisconsin State Historical Society L. (Rpt. 

year 1909-10; from local press.) Added 
11,420 books and pm. ; total 331,567. Mu- 
seum specimens, added 2125. 

The most important necessities are for 
more room, an increase in the size of the 
staff and more generous funds to meet the 
increasing expenses and steady upward move- 
ment in prices and in the salaries that must 
be paid in order to retain workers. 


endar, 1911. Oxford, Hart. unp.-|-2l7 p. 

The 1911 issue of the Calendar, this year in 
a yellow cover, presents its usual precise and 
business-like appearance. From the preface 
we glean the following: "The issue for 1911 
is far thicker than any which preceded it. 
This is partly explained by its incorporating 
the special appendix (to the Supplement) 
printed in July last but only partly; and 
the staff, who know that the librarian began 
to be temporarily invalided in the middle of 
August and is only now completing his con- 
valescence, may feel surprise at the amount 
of other matter which has been added. The 
explanation is that part of these additions 
formed the librarian's 'holiday-task' in Sep- 
tember and the rest came into the daily 
'work' prescribed to him at home during his 
recovery in December." 

Bradford (Eng.) P. Ls. (4Oth annual rpt. 

year ending Aug. 12, 1910.) Added 8365; 
total 159,885. Issued, home use 844,177 (in- 
cluding specifications and directories) dis- 
tributed among 25 branches and travelling 
branches. No. borrowers 16,883. Receipts 
12,226 6s. 4d. ; expenses 13,243, is. lod. 

A new branch library building was opened 
at Manningham. A new travelling library 
was also added to the system. 

Cray den (Eng.) P. Ls. The Reader's In- 
dex, January- February, 1911, contains a brief 
article on "Notable books of the year," by 
W. C. Berwick Sayers. 

Belgium. The Frankfurter Zeitung re- 
ports that the International Press Museum, 
connected with the International Biblio- 
graphical Institute, has been enriched by a 
valuable collection left to it by the will of 
the late Mr. Van den Broek. The collec- 
tion consists of about 35,000 specimens of 
newspapers, volumes of newspapers, 475 vol- 
umes relating to journalism, manuscript ma- 
terial on the Belgian press, and about 5000 
duplicates for exchange. 

March, 1911] 



Germany. Inter-library loans. The Bres- 
lauer Zeitung of Dec. 11, 1910 (quoted in 
Borsenblatt for Dec. 20) , reports on the great- 
ly increased usefulness of the large German 
libraries through the introduction of inter- 
library loans. This work, begun by Althoff 
in 1892, has found an "organic finale" through 
ministerial order of Nov. i. From very 
modest beginnings, this arrangement now 
embraces not only all governmental collec- 
ions of books but also such non-governmen- 
tal public libraries and institutes of higher 
education as submit to the regulations. 

Berlin. The public library founded by the 
bookseller Hugo Heimann and supported en- 
tirely by private means, has issued its nth 
annual report. The library comprises 8000 
volumes of belles lettres and 12,000 of "in- 
structive literature;" number of visitors 
133.188; volumes drawn 84,413 (of which 
70,168 circulating) ; non-fiction drawn 33^ 
per cent: of the readers 53 per cent are 

Borsenblatt fur den deutschen Buch- 
handei for Nov. 14, 1910 (p. 13,858) reports 
that the juvenile reading room opened in 
Berlin by the "popular Bund for suppressing 
filth in print and pictures" has met with such 
favor that many fail to get admittance each 

The Volksbund ziir Bekatnpfung des 
Schmutses in Wort und Bild, of Berlin, en- 
couraged by the success of its first children's 
reading room (which is visited daily by 100- 
children) has decided to open another, 
"he cost? of such a reading room for the 
winter are about 600 Marks in all. 

Hamburg. Report of the city library for 
IOOQ is summarized in Zentralblatt fur Bib- 
] iotheksivesen for January, 1910. The library 
is particularly rich in works on the languages 
of India. 

Strassburg. The Kaiserliche Universi- 
tiits nnd Landes-bibliothek has received va- 
rious unimportant gifts from Dr. Martin, 
Dr. Zotemberg (Orientalia), Dr. Bucher 
(old medical books, from 1483 on), etc. 

Russia. The late A. Passower left his li- 
brary of 30.000 volumes, mostly English 
books, to the St. Petersburg Academy of 

Frane. Toulouse University. A large part 
of the- University, including the valuable li- 
brary of the medical faculty, was destroyed 
by fire on Oct. 27. 

Siam. Nationaltidendes (Copenhagen), 
quoted by the Borsenblatt of November, 1910 
(P. I3>859), published an account of the li- 
brary of the late King Chulalongkorn of 
Siam, written by a Dane who was his libra- 
rian for years. The library comprised over 
10,000 volumes, and included much European 
literature, particularly on art. F. W 


BOOKBINDING. Librarians who have had 
unpleasant acquaintance with English books 
with sheets caoutchouc-tipped instead of 
sewn, may enjoy the incidental arraignment 
of the "man of evil counsel" who introduced 
this method, in R. M. Burch's "Colour Print- 
ing*' (1910), p. 191. He was "one Hancock," 
says Burch. F. W. 

Backing for bookbinding. Described 

and illustrated in the Official Gazette of the 
United States Patent Office, January 10, 
1911. 162, p. 507. 

Two claims are allowed for this patent, 
which is for a flexible or accordion plaited 
fabric. Of the persons to whom the patent 
was issued one resides in Belgium and the 
other in Switzerland. 

W. H. Rademaeker has issued a 'list 

of slightly used fiction" in reinforced bind- 
ing, at cost of 75 c. or 80 c. per volume. 

The North Carolina High School Bulletin, 
January, 1911, contains "The Adolescent im- 
agination, its significance for education," by 
H. W. Chase; also "The public high school 
and the literary society," by E. McK. High- 

LIBRARIANSHIP. New York State Library 
School. Librarianship an uncrowded call- 
ing. Albany, N. Y. State Educ. Dept., 1911. 
23 p. D. 

The advantages of librarianship as a pro- 
fession are presented in this pamphlet in a 
series of brief articles in which the oppor- 
tunities afforded to men are first considered 
and the appeal and advantages of the work 
to women are discussed second. 

The increasing opportunities for and the 
need of men in the profession receive partic- 
ular emphasis. 

nal of Gas Lighting, Water Supply, etc., 
Jan. 24, 1911. 113:232-233.) 
This is an account of the papers and the 
discussions at a joint meeting of the Illumin- 
ating Engineering Society and the Library 
Association, in London, Prof. S. P. Thomp- 
son, presiding, for the purpose of discussing 
library lighting. The first paper was by Mr. 
James Duff Brown, librarian of the Islington 
Public Library. He summarizes the prob- 
lems as follows: 

"The chief problems of library lighting 
may be summarized as follows: (i) Reading- 
room tables should be lighted so as to avoid 
glare in the eyes of readers. (2) To prevent 
the casting of strong single or multiple shad- 
ows of any kind. (3) To avoid fixing furni- 
ture or fittings in permanent positions. (4) To 
ensure the illumination of the room generally, 



[March, 1911 

as well as the tables. (5) In open access 
lending or reference libraries, the illumina- 
tion of the book shelves should be arranged 
so as to avoid as much as possible the 
shadows of readers falling on the books, and 
also to ensure the lighting of the lower 
shelves. To obtain these various results, it 
appears to the author that, whatever kind of 
illumination is used, it is necessary in most 
cases to adopt general lighting, reinforced at 
all weak points by local lighting." 

The second paper was by Mr. J. Stanley 
Jast, the chief librarian of the Croydon Pub- 
lic Libraries. 

The third paper was by Mr. John Darch, 
an architect, who has a very poor opinion of 
the lighting of public libraries. He stated 
that there is not a library in London, if in 
England, that is provided with satisfactory 
lighting arrangements, most of them being 
illuminated in such a way that would answer 
very well for a warehouse or restaurant. He 
believes that legislation will be necessary to 
get satisfactory illumination for libraries, and 
that the public would be justified in closing 
some libraries as public nuisances on account 
of poor lighting. The first principles of li- 
brary lighting to be emphasized, he main- 
tained, is that there must be a general light- 
ing in the reading rooms distinct from and 
in addition to the local lighting of desks. It 
is a great mistake to rely on general lighting 
alone. He also maintained that there should 
be a separate light for each reader, and a 
shade for each separate light. 

In the general discussion which followed 
the reading of these three papers it was 
pointed out that there was a great diversity 
of conditions to be met with, and that in each 
case each room in regard to its lighting 
ought to be considered separately, although 
this is rarely done, a general scheme being 
applied throughout the building regardless of 
the outside light coming into the room. An- 
other point brought out in the discussion was 
that different individuals differed greatly as 
to their eyes, and needed different lights, and, 
therefore, it would never be possible for li- 
brarians, architects, and illuminating engi- 
neers, or all together, to succeed in satisfy- 
ing every eye. The abnormal people, there- 
fore, must suffer. 

The report of the meeting states that the 
interest shown was very great, and that there 
was a large attendance. The illuminating 
engineers of London will consider the sub- 
ject still further in the future. 


Horace E. Municipal reference libraries. 

(In the Municipal Journal and Engineer, 

Jan. 18, 1911. 30:82-84.) 

This paper is the report of the Committee 
on Municipal Reference Libraries of the Na- 
tional Municipal League, made at Buffalo 
last November. The following are the con- 

clusions of the Committee, of which Dr. 
Flack is the chairman : 

1. That municipal reference libraries 
should be established in all large cities. 

2. That, as a general rule, such libraries 
should be under the control of the public 

3. That such libraries should be located in 
the City Hall where feasible. 

4. That the qualifications for the head of 
such a library should be a liberal education, 
with special training in political science, eco- 
nomics, municipal government and methods 
of organization and administration, and he 
should be selected for merit alone. 

5. That the head of the municipal refer- 
ence library be selected by the method which, 
in the particular city, will, under the local 
conditions there prevailing, tend most com- 
pletely to eliminate political considerations. 
In some cities the most satisfactory results 
may be obtained by lodging the appointing 
power with the public librarian or library 
trustee. In other cities conditions may make 
it advisable to have appointment made by a 
select, impartial and non-political board. 

6. The functions of the library should not 
be restricted to any particular phase of work 
so long as that work relates only to the col- 
lecting, collating, compiling and disseminat- 
ing of data or information. Of course, the 
principal work will be concerning municipal 
questions and special efforts should be made 
to secure such information for the city offi- 
cials who are responsible for the administra- 
tion of the city's affairs; but to be of the 
greatest value such a library must undertake 
to furnish information to the public gener- 
ally. Such a bureau will be used extensively 
by the press and this is one of the best ways 
of reaching the public. Social, civic and im- 
provement associations will also frequently 
have occasion to use such a library and its 
value to a city cannot easily be overesti- 
mated. If the bureau be under the control 
of the public library it would seem advisa- 
ble to issue a bulletin containing interesting 
comments for newspaper purposes and show- 
ing how the reference library can be of 
assistance to officials and to the public as 
each matter of general interest gets the cen- 
ter of the stage. 

Proceedings of the second annual meeting 
of the Pacific Northwest Library Associa- 
tion, held at Portland, Oregon, June i, 2 
and 3, 1910. 70 p. D. Seattle, Wash. 
A complete record of the last convention 
of the Association. The pamphlet shows 
eareful editorial and typographical work. 

REFERENCE BOOKS. The Milwaukee Normal 
School Bulletin for January, 1911 (v. 7, no. 
3, 36 p. O.), under the title of "The use of 
reference books," offers an outline for a 



brief course in the study of books of refer- 
ence. The pamphlet is obviously compiled 
for home consumption, being made up, as 
the introduction states, of lists of volumes 
in the normal library, and showing a small 
proportion of technical and scientific books 
as compared with literary and philological 

The Bulletin divides the reference books 
into 10 groups, intended for 10 weekly lessons 
for students in the junior year. beginning 
with indexes to periodicals and ending with 
children's reference books, with an added 
note on documents. It contains a list of peri- 
odicals with which the normal student is 
expected to be familiar, and at the end, a 
sample set of reference questions covering 
the points of the course of study. 

The Bulletin is suggestive for instructors 
in normal schools and for librarians con- 
ducting apprentice classes, though perhaps no 
teacher except the compiler, would follow the 
exact outline. In fact, the pamphlet leaves 
the reader in some doubt as to the exact 
points of division of its 10 parts, and also 
leaves something to be desired in the matter 
of its grouping. For example, under the 
heading "Handbooks of general information" 
are found bibliographies of novels, mixed in 
with poetry and various kinds of dictionaries. 
Such combinations are obviously the result 
of trying to compress the course into 10 parts 
and so are not perhaps open to adverse criti- 
cism. E. P. B. 


BANKS, Miss Mary, for 10 years reference 
librarian of the Seattle (Wash.) Public Li- 
brary, and for briefer periods on the library 
staffs of Columbia University, and the In- 
stitute of Musical Art. has given up both her 
work as editorial writer for the Macmillan 
Company, and that for the Library Bureau, 
and will devote all of her time to the organi- 
zation and management of the Public Ser- 
vice Library of New Jersey, located in the 
new Public Service Building at Newark, but 
covering the entire state in its work. 

BENNETT, Miss Norma (Pratt, 'oo). has re- 
signed her position in the Trenton (N. J.) 
Public Library to become librarian at Madi- 
son, N. J. 

CARGILL, Joseph V., who has held the posi- 
tion of superintendent of the Circulating de- 
partment of the Milwaukee Public Library 
for the past fifteen years, has been promoted 
to the position of assistant librarian which 
has been just' created. 

CHIPMAN, Charles P.. has been appointed 
to succeed the late Prof. E. \V. Hall as libra- 
rian of Colby College. He graduated from 
Colby College in 1906 and has held a posi- 
tion in the business department of Missions, 

the Baptist missionary magazine published 
in Boston. 

CUTTER, William Parker, librarian of the 
Forbes Library at Northampton, Mass., has 
tendered his resignation, to take effect March 
i, IQII. He has been appointed librarian of 
the library of the Engineering Societies in 
the United Engineering Society building on 
West 39th street in New York City. 

Mr. Cutter has held his post at Forbes 
Library since 1904, to which he was ap- 
pointed to succeed his uncle, the late Charles 
A. Cutter. Mr. William Cutter was con- 
nected with the Library of Congress for 
about three years and was eight years li- 
brarian of the United States Department of 
Agriculture. He has given tireless service 
to matters of copyright legislation in the 
interest of libraries besides other active ser- 
vice to the American Library Association. 

DUNHAM, Miss Mary, N. Y. State Library 
School, 1902-4, has resigned her position as 
reference librarian at the University of In- 
diana to become librarian of the Iowa State 
Teachers' College, Cedar Falls. 

DURAND, Miss Adah (Pratt, '08) has re- 
signed the librarianship at Millbrook, N. Y., 
to accept that of Grand Forks, N. D. 

EMERSON, Miss Mabel E., after twenty-six 
years of service in the Providence (R, I.) 
Public . Library, resigned her position to 
marry Roaldo F. Colwell, instructor in the 
Providence Technical High School. Miss 
Emerson was reference librarian of the ref- 
erence department in 1891. 

HAWES, Miss Clara A., N. Y. State Li- 
brary School, 1894, has been appointed li- 
brarian of the Y. M. C. A. Training School 
at Springfield, Mass. 

MERRIAM, R. H., until recently connected 
with the library department of the McDevitt- 
Wilson Book Shop, New York, is now in 
charge of the book department just estab- 
lished by William H. Rademaekers, Newark. 
N. J., for the furnishing of books reinforced 
in library binding of all publishers. 

METCALF, Miss Antoinette (Pratt, '02) has 
been appointed reference librarian of Welles- 
ley College. 

MILLER, Miss Edyth (Pratt, '03), has been 
appointed head-cataloger and organizer of 
the cataloging staff at the Hispanic Museum's 
Library, New York. 

MUDGE, Miss Isadpre Gilbert, is at the Co- 
lumbia University Library temporarily for the 
purpose of organizing the new work there 
with university exchanges, especially ex- 
changes with foreign universities and institu- 

PHILLIPS, Miss Grace D., B.L.S., Illinois, 
'05, has resigned her position in the Uni- 



[March, 1911 

versity of Missouri Library to become libra- 
rian of the State Normal School at Warrens- 
burg, Mo. 

TARR, Miss Anna M., N. Y. Library 
School, 1909-10, became librarian of the Clin- 
ton (la.) Public Library on January 5. Since 
last July Miss Tarr has been cataloging at 
the University of Chicago Library. 

THOMPSON, C. Seymour, in charge of the 
Travelling libraries department of the Brook- 
lyn Public Library, has been appointed as- 
sistant librarian in the Public Library of the 
District of Columbia. Mr. Thompson is a 
graduate of Yale University and has served 
the Brooklyn Public Library in various ca- 
pacities for several years. 

WAKEFIELD, Miss Bertha, B.L.S., N. Y. 
State Library School, '10, has resigned her 
position as head cataloger at Vassar College 
Library to become chief of the Catalog de- 
partment of the Seattle (Wash.) Public Li- 

WEBSTER, Miss Caroline F., librarian of 
the Wadsworth Library, Geneseo, N. Y., suc- 
ceeded Miss Zaidee Brown as organizer for 
the New York State Library on Jan. i. Miss 
Webster was graduated from the Drexel In- 
stitute Library School in 1900 and served as 
assistant in the Buffalo Public Library until 
October of the following year when she be- 
came librarian of the Wadsworth Library. 

WHEELER, Joseph L., was appointed to suc- 
ceed George B. Utley as librarian of the 
Jacksonville (Fla.) Public Library. He grad- 
uated from Brown University in 1906, and 
received his M.A. in 1907 and B.L.S. in 
Albany 1909. He was assistant at Brown 
University Library, 1902-06; second assist- 
ant librarian, 1906-07; attendant special li- 
braries department, Providence Public Li- 
brary, 1904-06. He has held the position 
of assistant librarian of the District of Co- 
lumbia Public Library since 1909, and is 
chairman of the Technology section of the 
Special Libraries Association. In October, 
1910, he married Miss Archibald, of the ref- 
erence department of the Washington Public 

WHITNEY, James Lyman. The following 
resolutions in memory of Mr. Whitney were 
adopted at the January meeting of the Mas- 
sachusetts Library Club: 

AFTER many months of weakness and failing 
strength Mr. James Lyman Whitney, formerly li- 
brarian of the Boston Public Library, died at his 
home in Cambridge on September 25, 1910, thus 
ending peacefully a professional service of nearly 
forty-one years. He was the son of Josiah Dwight 
and Clarissa (James) Whitney of Northampton, Mas- 
sachusetts, and was born on November 28, 1835. 
After a childhood of home nurture and an early 
training in the boarding school at Mount Pleasant, 
Amherst, he entered Yale College in 1852 and was 
graduated in course with the Class of 1856, receiv- 
ing the degree of A.M. from his Alma Mater in 

1865. He was in the publishing house of Wiley i: 
Halsted in New York City during 1857-58, and then 
became associated with the publishing house of 
Bridgeman & Co. in Springheld, Massachusetts, 
where he remained for some years. In 1868 he be- 
came assistant librarian of the Cincinnati Public Li- 
brary, and on November 7, 1869, began his connec- 
tion with the Boston Library. In 1874 he was 
made chief of the Catalog Deparrtincnt, and re- 
tained this office until March 31, 1899, when he was 
appointed acting librarian. He was librarian from 
Dec. 22. 1899, until Feb. i, 1903, when he re- 
signed this position, an onerous and exacting one 
to his years and temperament. For the next seven 
years until his death he held the position of chief 
of the Department of Documents and Statistics, and 
of the 'Manuscripts. 

While at Yale, of which he was a devoted and en- 
thusiastic son, he began to evince the fondness for 
books and for contact with them which lasted him 
through life. He was as an undergraduate the as- 
sistant librarian and then librarian of the Society 
of the Brothers of Unity. Scholarly tastes, already 
formed, were more strongly developed by his experi- 
ence after graduation as Berkeley Scholar of the 
House and as one of a few students who came under 
the direct influence of those ripe scholars President 
Theodore Dwight Woolsey and Professor James Had- 
ley, and of his own distinguished half-brother, 
William Dwight Whitney. Mr. Whitney deserves, 
therefore, to be remembered not only as an accom- 
plished librarian but also as a man of learning. 

He is best known to the world of letters as the 
compiler of the "Catalogue of the Spanish Library 
and of the Portuguese books bequeathed by George 
Ticknor to the Boston Public Library," published 
in 1879, which has long since taken its deserved place 
among the memorable bibliographical works of his 
time. A few other printed works, related to his 
immediate labors, gave him full standing among his 
professional brethren, but the Ticknor Catalogue is 
the chief monument to his visible achievements. 

From a technical point of view Mr. Whitney de- 
serves to be best remembered by all who are inter- 
ested in the development of library science on ac- 
count of his unceasing devotion to the building up 
of the card catalog system of the Boston Public 
Library. While he did not inaugurate this system, 
he brought it to a point of efficiency and a breadth 
of scope hardly to have been foreseen at the time of 
its inception. Furthermore he, with his corps of com- 
petent and zealous associates, produced a result so 
excellent on the whole, that since he relinquished 
his work upon it, modifications only, but no radical 
changes have been introduced, in spite of the great 
strain put upon the system by an immense increase 
of books and by the necessary expansion of refer- 
ences. A compromise between a strictly scientific 
and a merely popular niethod of indicating authors, 
subjects and titles in dictionary form, this immense 
card catalog has thus far proved sufficiently elastic 
to meet the heavy demands laid upon it. 

Aside from his faithful and unremitting diligence 
in his chosen field, from which he would consent to 
be torn only for short periods of respite, he was 
not forgetful of his relations to the outer world. He 
served from 1879 to 1887 as chairman of the School 
Committee of Concord, Massachusetts, where he lived 
for some years; and during the same period he was 
secretary for the Committee of the Concord Free 
Library. He was chairman of the Book committee 
of the Bostonian Society. For a time he was the 
head of the finance committee and_ also a treasurer 
of the American Library Association, of which he 
was a charter member. He was eminently compan- 
ionable and tolerant and thus fitted well into these 
positions of trust and honor. 

It may rightly be said of Mr. Whitney that he 
was happy beyond the usual lot of man in his occu- 
pation, one, as we know well, full of burdensome 
and wearying detail and calling for rare patience and 
forbearance. He had a deep affection for his asso- 
ciates, and this affection was returned in kind. He 
had an essential modesty and a singular purity of 
character. But he also had a rich yet never asser- 
tive learning, a deep love of books, though only for 
the best books, and a serene and gentle humor which 
served to tide him over many of the rough places 

March, ign] 



of life. His mellow wit and geniality are beautifully 
displayed in a paper (previously published _in part 
in the LIBRARY JOURNAL and republished in final 
form in the issue for December, 1909). entitled 
"Reminiscences of an old librarian," which he read 
with deep emotion at a dinner tendered him by his 
associates of the Boston Public Library on the 
occasion of the 4oth anniversary of his entering 
the library service. This dinner was held on Nov. 
9, 1909. at the Hotel Vendome in Boston and was 
worthy of the event which called it forth. It 
proved to be the crowning moment of Mr. Whitney's 
long, cheerful and useful life, for shortly after be- 
gan the slow decline which led to a peaceful end a 
few rronths later. 

He may properly be called one of the fathers of 
the well;established library system of America and 
we are justified in saying that his works live after 
him, and that his best memorial is the card catalog 
of the institution he served so honorably and for so 
manv vears. 

atrt Classification 

list of books common to the branches of 
the Public Library of the City of Boston, 
September, 1910. Bost. 1910. 242 p. O. 

ful to teachers : comp. by Minnie A. Dill. 
Decatur, 111., 1911. 16 p. S. 
This list is suggestive rather than com- 

prehensive and does not include the library's 

entire collection on the subject. 

DEWEY, Melvil. Decimal classification. Ed. 7. 

This new edition of the Dewey classifica- 

tion was ready on Feb. 25. 1911. It is in- 

creased in size over previous editions by 

large additions to tables 013, 020, 070, 136. 

; - 37- 54- 611. 612. 621. including 

Electric engineering 623. 640 and 970 to in- 

dex. The index and supplement consoli- 

dated into a single alphabet and enlarged 

from 20.000 to 30.000 heads, including many 

new references greatly increasing value of 

tables has not yet been revised. A descriptive 

circular with sample pages will be sent on re- 

auest. Price net $6 cloth. $7 half turkey or 

full flexible persian, $8 full flexible turkey 

with red gilt edges. Chivers' duroflexil niger 

Postage 40 cents. Index separate, $3 

cloth. $4 half turkey or full persian ; postage 

^? cents. Orders may be sent to regular 

agents, to Library Bureau. Boston, Mass.. or 

direct to publishers. Forest Press, Lake Pla- 

cid Club, Essex Co., N. Y. 

lect list of children's books in attractive 
editions, 1911. no. 6. 96 p. D. 

LIBRARIES. Index catalogue of the Wood- 
side District Library. 2d ed. Glasgow, 
1910. 681 p. S. 

JORDELL. D. Catalogue general de la librairie 
frangaise. XX (table des matieres des 

tomes 18 et 19). ier fasc. A.-Eg.). Paris, 
Jordell, 1910. 8, 240 P- 15 fr- 

toelichting en Gebriuksaanwijzing door Dr. 
H. E. Greve, Graventrage, 1910; vercenig- 
ing voor openbare Leeszalen in Nederland. 
14 p. D. 

extraits des manuscrits de la Bibliotheque 
nationale et autres bibliotheques publics 
par 1' Academic des inscriptions et belles- 
lettres, xxxix. i. Paris, C. Klinckcieck, 
1909- 4, 330 p- et pi. 15 fr. 

Laloy, E. Catalogue des dissertation et 

ecrits academiques provenant des echanges 
avec les universites etrangeres et regus par 
la Bibliotheque nationale en 1907. Paris, 
C. Klincksieck, 1908. 8, 323 p. 3 fr. 50. 
Catalogue des dissertations et ecrits 

academiques provenant des echanges avec 
les Universites etrangeres et rejus par la 
Bibliotheque nationale en 1908. Paris, C. 
Klincksieck, 1909. 8, 347 p. 3 fr. 50. 
PHILIP, Alexander J. Production of the 
printed catalogue. Lond., Atkinson, Jan- 
uary, 1910. 155 p. S. 

logue of the J. William Smith collection; 
comp. by Caroline M. Daggett. Syracuse, 
N. Y., 1910. 43 p. O. 

UNIVERSITY OF PARIS. Catalogue de la Bib- 
liotheque de la Faculte des lettres de 1'Uni- 
versite de Paris, III (Melanges jubilaires 
et publications commemoratives). Paris, 
1908. 8, 55 P- 2 fr. 

April, July, 1910 (v. 3, nos. i, 2, and 3) : 
[Finding list of the social sciences, po- 
litical science, law and education.] Rich- 
mond, Va., 1910. 352 p. D. 
The index in this volume covers 100 pages 
and contains 11,000 entries in which every 
author's name and every principal subject 
word is included. It is much more than a 
list of titles briefly stated. In many instances 
it gives the contents in full of important 
sets of publications. The catalog itself cov- 
ers a broad scope, including books on social 
reform, social pathology, secret societies, 
charities and corrections, local government, 
colonization, emigration and immigration and 
international arbitration. 



[March, 1911 

ACCOUNTING. [Bibliography] (in New York 
State Education Department Bulletin, Jan. 
15, 1911, no. 487, p. 11-14). 

AGRICULTURE. Bricker, G. A. The teaching 
of agriculture in the high school; with an 
introd. by W. C Bagley. N. Y., Macmil- 
lan, 'n. c. 25+202 p. (6 p. bibl.) D. $i net. 

United States Department of Agricul- 
ture Library. Monthly Bulletin, Novem- 
ber, 1910. (Wash., Gov't Printing Office, 
1911.) 316 p. D. 

Widtree, J. A. Dry-farming: a system 

of agriculture for countries under a low 
rainfall. N. Y., Macmillan, '11. c. 'n. 
22+445 p. (8 p. bibl.) il. tabs., D. (Rural 
science ser. ; ed. by L. H. Bailey.) $1.50 

ANTHROPOLOGY. Haddon, A. C., and Quiggin, 
A. H. History of anthropology. N. Y., 
Putnam, '10, ['ii.j c. '10. 194-206 p. .(4/4 p. 
bibl.) il. pors. S. (History of the sciences.) 
75 c. net. 

ARABIA. List of works relating to Arabia 
and the Arabs, pt. i (in New York Public 
Library Bulletin, January, p. 7-40). 

AUTHORS. Phelps, W. L. Essays on Rus- 
sian novelists. N. Y., Macmillan, 'n. c. 
9+322 p. (37 p. bibl.) por. D. $1.25 net. 

BIBLE. O. T. Job. Schmidt, N. The mes- 
sages of the poets; the Book of Job and 
canticles and some minor poems in the Old 
Testament ; with introds., metrical transla- 
tions, and paraphrases. N. Y., Scribner, 
'n. c. 24+415 P- S. (Messages of the Bi- 
ble; ed. by Fk. K. Sanders and C. F. 
Kent.) $1.25 net. 
Bibliography (24 p.). 

CATHOLIC CHURCH. Martin, Rev. C. A. Cath- 
olic religion ; a statement of Christian 
teaching and history; il. with 63 engravings 
in half-tone. Cleveland, O., Apostolate 
Pub. Co., [1910.] c. 7-16+467 p. il. pors. 
diagr., 12, $l. 
Bibliography (6 p.). 

Public Library. List of Catholic books in 
the library, January, 1911. up. T. 
Catholic topics and authors in the Pub- 
lic Library of the District of Columbia: 
a catalog; published by The Catholic Con- 

vert League and The Children of Mary of 
the Sacred Heart. [Wash.,] 1911. 36 p. 

CEMENT. Radford's cyclopedia of cement 
construction ; a general reference work on 
up-to-date practice in the manufacture and 
testing of cements ; the selection of con- 
creting materials, tolls, and machinery; the 
proportioning, mixing, and depositing of 
concrete, and its application to all types 
and details of construction, plain, orna- 
mental, and reinforced ; together with anal- 
ysis of the principles of constructive de- 
sign, cost estimating, and the allied 
branches of stone and brick masonry and 
steel construction; based on the practical 
experience of a large staff of experts in 
actual construction work. In 5 v. Chic., 
Radford Architectural Co., ['11.] c. '10. il. 
pis. (partly fold.) pors. diagrs., 8, $12.80. 
Bibliography (4 p.) repeated at beginning 
of each volume. 

CHILDREN. Mangold, G. B. Child problems. 
N. Y., Macmillan, 1910. c. 15+381 p. D. 
(Citizens' lib. of economics, politics and so- 
ciology; ed. by R: T. Ely.) cl., $1.25 net. 
Bibliography (9 p.). 

CHILDREN'S READING. Kennedy, H. T. Sug- 
gestive list of children's books for a small 
library, recommended by the Wisconsin 
Free Library Commission. Madison, Wis.. 
1910, Free Library Commission. 102 p. D. 
This classed and annotated list contains 483 
titles. The list outlines a good working 
collection for the small public library. It 
contains mainly inexpensive editions and in- 
cludes also five, useful supplementary lists, 
including books for youngest readers, illus- 
trated books for table use, and books for 
mothers and teachers; a number of lists of 
popular stories, grouped by subjects; lists of 
books in series, and author and title indexes. 
This guide is an excellent tool. It is in- 
cluded in the A. L. A. 'Booklist and is recom- 
mended for the use of the children's librarian 
and the librarian of the small library. 

manual of English church history; with a 
preface by the Very Rev. H. Wace. N. Y., 
Longmans, Green, 1910. 7+49 P- D. cl., 
$1.25 net. 
Page references. 

CITY PLANNING. [Special list] (in Salem 
(Mass.) Public Library Bulletin, February, 
P. 158). 

March, 1911] 



DANTE. MANUSCRIPTS. Fiammazzo. Prof. 

A. II codice dantesco della biblioteca di 

Savona. illustrate. Savona, tip. D. Berto- 

lotto e C, 1910. 8, p. 118, con quattro 

facsiinili. L. 2.50. 

English tragicomedy, its origin and history. 

N. Y., [Lemcke & B..] '10. [ f n.] 15+247 p. 

(5 p. bibl.) O. (Columbia Univ. studies 

in English.) $1.50 net. 

DEBATING. List of books in the [San Fran- 
cisco Public] Library which are useful to 
debaters (in San Francisco Public Library 
Monthly Bulletin, February, p. 22-24). 

DIJON, FRANCE. Oursel, C. Inventaire som- 
maire des archives communales, anterieures 
a 1790, ville de Dijon. V. Serie B (sup- 
plement). Registres paroissiaux d'etat 
Civil Dijon, imp. Cails, 1910. 4, viii- 
345 P- 

guides and handbooks for emigrants (in 
Finsburg (Eng.) Public Libraries Quarter- 
ly Guide for Readers, January, p. 83-90). 

FERMENTATION. Bayliss. W. M. The nature 
of enzyme action. 2d ed. N. Y., Long- 
mans, 'n. 11+137 p. (12 p. bibl.) O. 
(Monographs on biochemistry; ed. by R. H. 
Aders Plimmer and F. G. Hopkins.) cl., 
bds.. $1.20 net. 

FULLER, Sarah Margaret. Braun, F. A. Mar- 
garet Fuller and Goethe : the development 
of a remarkable personality : his religion 
and philosophy, and her relation to Emer- 
son, J. F. Gark. and transcendentalism. N. 
Y., Holt, '10, fn.] c. '10. 271 p. D. $1.35 
Bibliography (3 p.)- Index. 

GAZZOLETTI, Antonio. Emmert, Bruno. An- 
tonio Gazzoletti (20 marzo 1813-21 agosto 
1866) : saggio bibliografico. Trento, tip. 
Scotoni e Vitti, 1910. 8, p. n. 
Estr. primo Sufplemento di Pro Cultura. 

GENEALOGY. Syracuse (N. Y.) Public Li- 
brary. List of books on genealogy and 
heraldry in the Syracuse Public Library, 
including parish registers, visitations, his- 
tory of names and allied subjects. Ed. of 
1910. Syracuse, N. Y., 1910. 119 p. D. 
In 1902 the library published a catalog of 

books on local history and genealogy, and in 

1903 a supplement to that catalog. These lists 

being out of date, it was deemed advisable to 

republish the whole catalog with additions to 


GENEALOGY, ENGLAND. List of works relating 

to British genealogy and local history, pt. 

5. (In New York Public Library Bulletin. 

October, p. 578-635.) 

G. The Germans in Texas; a study in 
immigration : reprinted from German- 
Amerian Annals, v. 7. N. Y.. Stechert, 
'09, ['ii.] c. '10. 155 p. maps, fold, map, 
O. $1.50 net. 
Bibliography (7 p.). 

HEREDITY. Walker, C. E. Hereditary char- 
acters and their modes of transmission. 
[N. Y., Longmans, Green,] 1910. 12+ 
239 p. il. O. cl., $2.40 net. 
Bibliography (8 p.). 

HIGHER CRITICISM (of the Bible). Cony- 
beare, F. C. History of New Testament 
criticism. N. Y., Putnam, '10, ['n.] c. 
'10. 13+192 p. (4 p. bibl.) il. pors. fac- 
sims., S. (History of the sciences.) 75 c. 

Mains, G. P. Modern thought and tra- 
ditional faith. N. Y., Eaton & M., ['11.] 
c. 21+279 p. (2 p. bibl.) O. $1.50 net. 

Carnegie Library. [List of] books in the 
Hungarian language (in the library's 
Monthly Bulletin, v. 16, no. I, January, 
p- 48-67). 

INSECTS. Doane, R. W. Insects and disease : 
a popular account of the way in which in- 
sects may spread or cause some of our 
common diseases; with many original il. 
from photographs. N. Y., Holt, 1910. c. 
14+227 p. pis. D. (American nature ser. : 
Group rv., Working with nature.) cl., $1.50 
Bibliography (46 p.). 

JEWELRY. Providence (R. I.) Public Libra- 
ry. Books for workmen relating to jew- 
elry and silversmithing. Providence, R. I., 
1911. 14 p. S. 

JOB. The leading article in the American 
Journal of Semitic Languages and Litera- 
ture, for January, is "The composition of 
the Elihu speeches." Job, Chapter 32-37. 


By Helen Hawley Nichols. Vol. 37, p. 97- 

It is followed by a bibliography of the 
literature of Job, 4 p. 

JONES, David, of Llangau, July 10, 1736-Aug. 
12, 1810. [Special bibliography] (in Car- 
diff Libraries' Review, January, 1911, p. 

MACHINERY. Binghamton (N. Y.) Public 
Library. Books in the library on building, 
foundry practice, machine shop practice, 
plumbing, roads and pavements, steel, sur- 
veying. 1911. 20 p. T. 

-Swenson, B. V., Frankenfield, B., and 
Bryant, J. Myron. Testing of electro-mag- 
netic machinery and other apparatus, v. 2, 
Alternating currents. N. Y., Macmillan, 
'ii. c. 26+323 p. (4 p. bibl.) figs. O. $2.60 

MAMMALS. Osborn, H. F. The age of mam- 
mals in Europe, Asia, and North America. 
N. Y., Macmillan, 1910. c. 17+635 p. il. 
maps, O. cl., $4.50 net. 
Bibliography (30 p.). 

phonse. Inventaire des chartes et cartu- 
laires des duches de Brabant et de Lim- 
bptirg et des pays d'outre-Meuse. ire par- 
tie. I. Bruxelles, Hayez, 1910. 8, viii- 
472 p. 5 fr. 

MATHEMATICS. Katalog der mathematischen 
Ableilung der Stadtbibliothek. Frankfurt 
am Main. Frankfurt am Main, Englert und 
Schlosser, 1909. 8, x-327 p. i f r . 60. 

MOLIERE, Jean Baptiste Poquelin de. Miles, 
D. H. The influence of Moliere on Res- 
toration comedy. N. Y., [Lemcke & B.,] 
'10, ['ii.] c. '10. 11+272 p. (24 p. bibl.) 
D. (Columbia Univ. studies in comparative 
literature.) $1.50 net. 

Public Library. The modern development 
of municipal government; a reference 
guide issued by the Public Library and 
the Chamber of Commerce, Trenton, N. J. 

^T^enton, N. J. 16 p. T. 

Music. Binghamton (N. Y.) Public Libra- 
ry. Music and musicians. 1911. 26 p. T. 

MYTHOLOGY. Gayley, C. M., ed. The classic 
myths in English literature and in art, 
based originally on Bulfinch's "Age of fa- 


bit" (1855) ; accompanied by an interpreta- 
tive and illustrative commentary. New ed., 
rev. and enl. Bost, Ginn, ['ii.] c . 41+ 
597 P- il. maps, fold, geneal. tab., D. $1.60. 

NATURE STUDY. Sunderland (Eng.) Public 
Libraries. Selected list of books on nature 
study, including aquaria, microscopy, and 
taxidermy. February, 1911. 10 p . S. 

NEGROES. McConnell, J. P. Negroes and 
their treatment in Virginia from 1865 to 
1867. [Emory, Va., J. P. McConnell, 'ii.] 
126 p. (3 p. bibl.) 8, $i. 

OCCULTISM. Davies, T. W. "Magic," black 
and white; charms and counter charms; 
divination and demonology among the Hin- 
dus, Hebrews, Arabs and Egyptians; an 
epitome of "supernaturalism" magic, black, 
white and natural; conjuring and its rela- 
tion to prophecy, including Biblical and 
Old Testament terms and words for magic : 
present ed. prepared for publication under 
the editorship of L. W. de Laurence, by 
T. Witton Davies. Chic., De Laurence, 
Scott & Co., '10, ['ii.] c. '10. 16+130 p. 
.(7 P- bibl.) front. 12, $1.50. 

ORATORS AND ORATORY. Knapp, Ella A., and 
French, J. C, eds. The speech for special 
occasions. N. Y., Macmillan, 'ii. c. 43+ 
397 p. D. $1.10 net. 

POLITICAL POEMS. Corson, L. A finding list 
of political poems referring to English 
affairs of the XHI. and xiv. centuries. Cor- 
son, Norristown, Pa. 46 p. D. 
A thesis presented to the faculty of the 
Graduate School of the University of Penn- 
sylvania in partial fulfilment of the re- 
quirements for the degree of Doctor of 

PROSODY. Saintsbury, G. E. B. Historical 
manual of English prosody. [N. Y.,] Mac- 
millan, '10, ['ii.] 17+347 P- (4 p. bibl.) D. 
$1.60 net. 

PSYCHOLOGY. Sully, J. The teacher's hand- 
book of psychology. 5th ed., rewritten and 
enl. N. Y., Appleton, '10, ['n.] 19+ 
606 p. (9 p. bibl.) 12, $2 net. 

PUBLIC DOCUMENTS. Superintendent of docu- 
ments. Index to Monthly catalogue United 
States public documents. Wash., Gov't 
Printing Office, 1911. 24 p. D. 

Superintendent of Documents. Monthly 

March, 1911] 


catalogue United States public documents, 
no. 193, January. 1911. Wash.. Gov't Print- 
ing Office, 1911. 386 p. D. 

RARE BOOKS. Delpy, A. Essai d'unc bibli- 
ographic speciale des livres perdtis ignores 
on connus a 1'etat d'exemplaire unique : 
par A. Delpy. 2e volume. Lettre H a Let- 
tre P. Lille, impr. Lefebvre-Ducrocq. 
Paris, i br. A. Durel, 1911. Grand in-8, 
i/9 P- 

RELIGION-. Cope, Rev. H. F. The efficient 
layman ; or, the religious training of men ; 
thesis for Ph.D. degree Ripon College, 
1908. Phil., Griffith & Rowland Press, 
['ri.] c. 12+244 p. D. $i net. 

SAINTE-MARTHE, Charles de. Ruutz-Rees, 

C. Charles de Sainte-Marthe, (1512-1555.) 
N. Y., [Lemcke & B.,] '10, ['u.] c. '10. 
16+664 P- (33 P- bibl.) D. (Columbia 
Univ. studies in romance philology and lit- 
erature.) $i net. 

SUFFRAGE. Hecker, E. A. A short history 
of women's rights from the days of Au- 
gustus to the present time; with special 
reference to England and the United 
States. N. Y., Putnam, '10, ['11.] c. '10. 
8+292 p. D. $1.50. 
Bibliographies at ends of chapters. 

training of teachers for secondary schools 
in Germany and the United States. N. Y., 
Macmillan, 'n. c. 10+335 P- (4 P. bibl.) 

D. $1.25 net. 

TELEPHONES. Holcomb, A. N. Public own- 
ership of telephones on the continent of 
Europe awarded the David A. Wells prize 
for the year igog-'io, and published from 
the income of the David A. Wells fund. 
Bost, Houghton Mifflin, 'n. c. 'n. 20+ 
482 p. (4 p. bibl.) O. (Harvard economic 
studies.) $2 net. 

History made visible; a synchronic chart 
and statistical tables of United States his- 
tory; with a chronological text by Ernest D. 
Lewis. N. Y:, Windsor Pub., [225 5th 
Ave.,] '10, ['.] (Jay) c . 94 p. il. maps, 
tabs., fold, charts, f, $1.50. 
Bibliography (2 p.). The historical map 
or synchronic chart appended to the volume 
traces visually the course of United States 
history through four centuries. It is a val- 

uable educational feature of the book, and 
might be used helpfully in connection with 
-cliool or bulletin work in libraries. 

Lafayette, Chandler, Julian Alvin Carroll, 
and Hamilton, Jos. Gregoire de Roulhac. 
Our republic; a history of the United 
States for grammar grades. Richmond, 
Ya., Riley & Chandler, 1910. c. 15+550 p. 
il. pors. maps, 12, 65 c. 
Historical library lists for grammar grades 

(2 P.). 

INDUSTRIAL HISTORY. Coman, Katharine. 
The industrial history of the United States. 
New and rev. ed. N. Y., Macmillan, 1910. 
c. 'os-'io. 16+461 p. il. pis. maps, D. cl., 
$1.50 net. 
Bibliography (23^ p.). 

E. G. A bibliography of the conventions 
and constitutions of Virginia, including 
references to essays, letters and speeches in 
the Virginia newspapers. Richmond, Va., 
1910. 441 p. D. 


COLE, George Watson. A portion of the li- 
brary of George Watson Cole, of River- 
side, Conn, [sold at auction] (first session), 
with another consignment (second session) 
Jan. 26 and 27, 1911. N. Y., Anderson 
Auction Co. 54 p. D. 

LANGE, Otto. A catalogue of books relating 
to Asia and Africa, Spain and Portugal, 
voyages in the Pacific. Florence, 1911. 
44 P- D. 

QUARITCH, Bernard. Catalogue of rare and 
valuable books. Lond., 1911. 95 p. D. 
(no. 303, price is.) 

WHITNEY, Josiah Dwight. Catalogue of the 
private library of the late Josiah Dwight 
Whitney, professor of geology of Harvard 
University, including geological and scien- 
tific books, together with miscellaneous 
books. N. Y., Libbie, 1911. 145 p. D. 

"Rotes ano (Queries 

Harvard Library has lately received from the 
estate of the late John Harvey Treat, of the 
Class of 1862, a number of copies of his 
little book on "The catacombs of Rome 
and the history of the tombs of the Apostles 



[March, 1911 

Peter and Paul," published in 1907. The 
Library will be glad to send copies of this 
book to other libraries that may desire them, 
on receipt of eight cents to cover the expense 
of postage. W. C. LANE, Librarian. 


FEB. 6, 1 91 1. 
Editor Library Journal. 

I think that you will wish to call attention 
to "Open air crusaders" a report of the 
Elizabeth McCormick Open Air School, to- 
gether with a general account of open air 
school work in Chicago and a chapter on 
school ventilation, which will be supplied 
free to libraries and clubs upon application 
to the United Charities, 51 La Salle Street, 
Chicago. E. G. ROUTZAHN. 

Peddie, librarian of St. Bride Foundation, 
London, has prepared a course of lectures on 
"Bibliography in the reference library,'' which 
he has delivered during the winter in the lec- 
ture room at the British Museum. A sylla- 
bus of the course outlines the lectures as 
follows : 

Lecture i. General introduction to bibliographical 
research. The value of bibliography. The use of 
reference libraries. Bibliographies of bibliogra- 
phies Universal catalogs and bibliographies. 

Lecture 2. National bibliographies, part i. 

Lecture 3. National bibliographies, part II. 

Lecture . 4. Subject bibliographies. Introduction. 

Lecture 5. Subject bibliographies. Religion. 

Lecture 6. Subject bibliographies. Sociology. 

Lecture 7. Subject bibliographies. Natural science. 
Useful arts. 

Lecture 8. Subject bibliogrgaphies. Fine arts. 

Lecture 9. Subject bibliographies. Literature and 

Lecture 10. Subject bihliographies. History, part i. 

Lecture n. Subject bibliographies. History, part 
II. Biography. 

Lecture 12. Indexes to books and periodicals. 
Anonymous and pseudonymous works. Special 
classes of authors. 

Lecture 13. Methods of research in the reading 
room of the British Museum, part. i. 

Lecture 14. Methods of research in the reading- 
room of the British Museum, part II. 

Lecture 15. Research work in other London li- 
braries. < ir$| 

Mr. Peddie may come to this country in 
the spring to attend the Pasadena conference 
and library schools or clubs might take ad- 
vantage of the opportunity to secure some of 
these lectures from him. 


To the Editor of Library Journal, New York. 

DEAR SIR: Would any library in this coun- 
try possessing two books relating to Porlock, 
Somersetshire, England, be willing to lend 
them to our library? The books are a 
"History of Porlock," by Rev. Walter Hook, 
and "A description of the monuments and 
effigies in Porlock Church," by Mrs. Maria 
Halliday, Torquay, 1882. 

LOUISA M. HOOPER, Librarian Brook- 
line (Mass.) Public Library. 

Pratt Institute Free Library is now offering 
remainder lots of the familiar Harper prints 
at one dollar the set in order to close out the 
consignment. These pictures, originally 
n-umbering over 1600, are a collection of va- 
rious engravings reproduced from Harper's 
periodicals, and are very well adapted for 
picture bulletin and scrap-book work. They 
have been sold in complete sets at $5, and 
in assortments at various prices down to 
single numbers at the rate of half a cent 
each. Many of the original lot are no longer 
available, and the broken set now totals 
something over 1300 different pictures. They 
are printed on uniform mounts 5x7 inches, 
and the shipping weight of the parcel is about 
20 pounds. Upon receipt of one dollar, a 
set will be shipped by express, charges col- 
lect, to any address. Assortments are no 
longer made up, and specimen pictures are 
not shown except to callers at the library. 
Address Pratt Institute Free Library, Brook- 
lyn. N. Y. 

EDWARD F. STEVENS, Librarian. 

Xtbrarg Calendar 


i. Conn. L. A. Middletown, Ct. Wesleyan 

Program: Bookbinding design, by Frank B. 
Gay; Some new fields of library activity, 
by L. N. Wilson; "The popularization of 
psychology," by Raymond Dodge; "The 
Connecticut wits," by H. A. Beers; "The 
historical novel," by G. B. Adams. 

lo-ii. N. J. L. A. and Penn. L. C. Atlantic 
City meeting. Hotel Chelsea. (Rail- 
road rates and Hotel rates were 
given in Feb. L. j.) 

Program: First session. Chairman: Mr. J. 
A. Campbell; Address of welcome, Hon. 
Franklin P. Stoy, Mayor of Atlantic City; 
Outside the walls, Mr. James I. Wyer, jr., 
director New York State Library; Ibsen, 
Nathaniel Schmidt, Cornell University 
Ithaca, N. Y. 

Second session. Chairman: Mr. T. Wilson 
Hedley, librarian Mercantile Library, Phil- 
adelphia; Muricipal periodical literature, 
Clinton Rogers Woodruff, Esq., first vice- 
president, American Civic Association; A 
library outpost, Miss Nellie E. Learning, 
Free Library of Philadelphia; The library 
and the foreign speaking peoples, Peter 
Roberts, Ph.D., secretary, the Internation- 
al Committee Young M'en's Christian As- 

Third session. Chairman: Hon. Thomas 
Lynch Montgomery. State Librarian of 
Pennsylvania; The gentle arts of reading 
and writing, Mr. Leigh Mitchell Hodges, 
The Optimist, Philadelphia North Ameri- 
can; Commercialism and journalism, Ham- 
ilton Holt, A.B., editor The Independent. 

16. L. I. L. C. R'klyn Y. W. C. A. 3 p.m. 

23. N. Y. L. C. Inspection of N. Y. P. L. 
new building. 3 p.m. 



VOL. 36 

APRIL, 1911 

No. 4 

THE Pasadena conference is but two 
months away, and the travel plans of members 
should be promptly determined upon in order 
that the Travel committee of the A. L. A. 
may make the necessary arrangements as 
to special trains. As in the case of the Port- 
land journey of 1905, and the earlier Cali- 
fornia trip of 1891, travel arrangements 
are in the hands of Raymond & Whitcomb 
Co., whose efficiency has been well proved to 
A. L. A. tourists. Members of the official 
party will start from the East on May 12 in 
special Pullmans provided from New York 
City and possibly Boston. By special train 
the party will leave Chicago on May 13, dele- 
gates from such points as St. Louis and cities 
south of the Ohio River joining the train at 
Kansas City. Missouri, May 14. This train 
will be an electric-lighted de train with 
standard and compartment Pullmans, observa- 
tion car, diner, buffet smoker, and a day coach 
for a general meeting place and rendezvous 
while berths are being made up or while places 
in the diner are all occupied. A stop-over 
of practically two days and a night will be 
made at the Grand Canyon, and short stops 
may also be made at Albuquerque, New 
Mexico, and at Laguna, New Mexico, to ex- 
amine the Indian Pueblo village there. The 
party should arrive at Pasadena the day 
after leaving the Grand Canyon, and will 
not leave until Saturday, May 27. There will 
be a Los Angeles day of commingled library 
inspection and sight-seeing, and trips may 
be made from Pasadena to Mt. Lowe, Mt. 
V, ilson, Riverside, with its beautiful Mission 
Inn, and the Riverside Public Library, where 
Mr. Daniels will offer friendly greeting to 
visiting librarians, Redlands, Long Beach, 
and Catalina Island. On the journey from 
Pasadena, the Mission region, and Big Trees 
of California, also Leland Stanford Jr. Uni- 
versity will be visited en route to San Fran- 
cisco, where sufficient stay is planned to see 
this resurrected cify. Stops at Salt Lake City 
and at Manitou, where Pike's Peak may be 
ascended by the cog railroad, and for an 
afternoon and evening in Denver will break 
the homeward journey. The all inclusive 
rate except for Pasadena stay is $241 from 
Xew York, or $106 from Chicago. We give 

this editorial summary because the facts best 
tell the story of the great opportunity given 
to librarians to see their home continent from 
Atlantic to Pacific and apply the A. L. A. 
motto modified for the occasion the best 
travel for the greatest number at the least 
cost Teachers interested in library work 
and none should lack that interest may 
participate in the journey by joining the 
A. L. A. 

"THE library and the community" is the 
broad and general theme about which will be 
grouped the topics considered by the Pasa- 
dena program, a more detailed statement of 
which is given elsewhere. In the first, third 
and fifth sessions emphasis is particularly 
given to this keynote. President Wyer's ad- 
dress, "What the community owes to the li- 
brary," and Dr. Bostwick's ''Exploitation 
of the public library," for the opening 
session, "Some phases of library extension." 
the topic for the third session, and '"Libraries 
and municipalities" the subject of the last 
session, all harmonize in this dominant 
chord. A California program is provided 
for the second general session on Saturday 
morning, May 20, which will be held in con- 
junction with the California Library Associa- 
tion, and at which there will be talented and 
distinguished participants in Governor Hiram 
Johnson, John Muir, Luther Burbank, Lin- 
coln Steffens and Mary Hunter Austin. 
Among other contributions of interest to 
the program should be mentioned addresses 
by Willard Huntington Wright, literary edi- 
tor of the Los Angeles Times, Dr. Benjamin 
Ide Wheeler, president of the University of 
California, and Dr. J. A. B. Scherer, president 
of Throop Polytechnic Institute, Pasadena. 
Also Mr. Olivers will present an illustrated 
address on materials and methods in book- 
binding, which will supplement his valuable 
lecture at Bretton Woods on paper and bind- 
ing. The public meeting of the Children's 
Section, on May 20, to be held under the 
auspices of the Pasadena Women's Clubs, 
and at which Mr. Legler will present an il- 
lustrated lecture on "Modern library work 
with children," will make another session of 
particular interest. 



[April, 1911 

IT is planned that the "library week" of 
the New York State Association and its 
welcome guests from other states should be 
spent next fall in the metropolis, instead of 
amidst rural delights and quiet. This is 
something of a sacrifice to city members, but 
this should be compensated by the larger at- 
tendance of librarians from "up-state" who 
will for the first time enjoy the opportunity of 
inspecting the new home of the New York 
Public Library, which rivals the Library of 
Congress and the new Royal Library at Ber- 
lin as the finest in the world, a pleasure 
which the Library Club of New York 
City enjoyed last month. Besides this the 
other public, collegiate, and other special li- 
braries of Greater New York will keep open 
house and the visitors will spend their time 
in a round of meetings within or near the 
several library buildings. It would be a pity 
to surrender the advantages offered by Lake 
George for library week and Atlantic City 
for the bi-state meetings; but it is perhaps 
of greater importance in New York state 
that there should be visiting of different 
parts of the state by those from other por- 
tions, and that once in a while there should 
be such a city gathering for the inspection of 
urban facilities, as is proposed for the fall. 
Possibly the precedent here set may be fol- 
lowed another year by the bi-state meeting, 
especially as the A. L. A. itself has pretty 
well outgrown the possibility of meetings in 
great cities, where, curiously enough, it is 
more difficult to secure hotel accommodations 
at wholesale than in the summer and winter 
resorts. But city meetings should certainly 
be the exception and not the rule. 

THE Atlantic City meeting should go on 
record as one of the most pleasant and profit- 
able bi-state gatherings that New Jersey and 
Pennsylvania have as yet held. The Hotel 
Chelsea, with its excellent facilities for a 
meeting place, afforded the usual satisfactory 
headquarters, and an attendance of well over 
200 proved how whole-heartedly these oppor- 
tunities were taken advantage of by libra- 
rians. The note struck by the convention 
echoed again the prevailing tone of recent 
library conferences and emphasized the need 
of work "outside the walls," as Mr. Wyer has 
happily phrased it, the importance of closer 
and more intelligent relations with the many 

forces outside the library that are working 
along lines of similar endeavor toward social 
betterment. In Mr. Woodruff's able address 
on municipal periodical literature, in Mr. 
Robert's exposition of the work being done 
for foreign immigrants, Mr. Hamilton Holt's 
paper on "Commercialism and journalism," 
and Professor Schmidt's illuminating and 
dramatic address on Henrik Ibsen, which 
had been previously enjoyed by a library au- 
dience at a Lake George meeting, the broad- 
ening scope in library perspective was in- 
dicated. Though it is to be noticed, and per- 
haps regretted, that there is less discussion 
brought out by the program of library meet- 
ings than heretofore, the general tone of the 
conferences gains in unity of purpose and in- 

IN describing the class-room libraries of 
New York City, Mr. Leland emphasizes the 
importance of a trained children's librarian 
to supervise work in classrooms. He also 
urges more opportunity to be given to school 
children for systematic study of reference 
books and library use. This point was given 
special stress also by Dr. Judd in his note- 
worthy address delivered at Mackinac,' in 
which he advocated the use of the school 
study period as an opportunity in which some 
attention to such instruction might be given. 
The standard of selection of children's books, 
always an important subject to the children's 
librarian, is considered by Miss Burnite in a 
paper prepared for the first annual meeting of 
the recently formed New Zealand Library As- 
sociation, scheduled for Easter week in Auck- 
land, N. Z. The principles set forth in this 
paper are of fundamental importance, and 
Miss Burnite's experience and achievement 
in this line of work give it authoritative 
value. Its publication in this issue will bring 
to the attention of American and other libra- 
rians how world-wide is the common interest 
in this work. 

THE public library, through its children's 
room, and the school library, should empha- 
size one field of usefulness too often over- 
looked. Children should be guided in book 
selection, not only with reference to imme- 
diate reading, but in respect to the choice of 
books as the beginnings of a private library. 
The pride of ownership is strong in the child, 

April, 1911] 



and a good book owned is as good as several 
good books borrowed. Neither young nor old 
should get so much in the habit of depend- 
ence on the public library for books as to 
cease from book purchase and neglect the 
private library, which is, after all, one of the 
most important means of education and cul- 
ture. The public library should supplement 
the home library, but not replace it ; and like- 
wise the school library, and the teacher as 
librarian, can be of the greatest service to the 
child and its parents in indicating what books 
can most wisely be bought for the little 
library which should grow with the growth 
of the child, and by and by prove the nucleus 
of the home library as the child grows to 
man or woman. . This obligation should be 
accepted and exercised with a sense of re- 
sponsibility and in a missionary spirit, which 
can do untold good. 

LIBRARIES and schools are alike interested 
in protecting the children from the demorali- 
zation of comic supplements and the sensa- 
tionalism of saffron newspapers, and two 
movements for "clean journalism" should in- 
terest both. In New York a mass meeting of 
a number of welfare organizations was re- 
cently held to take concerted action against 
the silly, vulgar and generally abominable 
comic supplement of some of the Sunday 
papers; and in New England simultaneous 
meetings were held on March 27, in ninety- 
seven cities and other centers, in favor of 
"clean journalism." These were under the 
auspices of the Christian Science congrega- 
tions, but were not confined to that sect, and 
in fact leading clergymen and other public- 
spirited citizens were among the speakers. 
The central feature of each meeting was an 
address stating the ideals and accomplish- 
ments of the Christian Science Monitor, the 
remarkable daily newspaper originated and 
in large part organized by the leader of that 
sect, two years before her death. This daily, 
published in Boston, but circulated through- 
out the country and to considerable extent in 
other countries, has achieved the phenomenal 
circulation of a quarter million copies, and 
refuses alike demoralizing news and mis- 
leading advertisements. It replaces the news 
of crime by the news of welfare, as for in- 
stance in the librarians' column, so excellently 

cared for by the lamented Foss, though he 
was not himself a Christian Scientist. While 
it has the advantage of ardent and wide sup- 
port throughout the membership of its own 
cult, the success of the paper nevertheless 
emphasizes the value and the possibilities of 
journalism of positive character, divorced 
from crime and gossip. Libraries and schools 
which subscribe to any daily paper may well 
add this to their list, since, despite its origin, 
it is practically non-sectarian, confining itself 
to one distinctively religious article each day ; 
and they should support every endeavor, local 
and general, in behalf of journalism of the 
better sort, thus fighting evil with good. At 
the same time, no effort should be spared to 
keep the comic supplement and the yellow 
journals out of libraries and schools and 
homes, until they are driven out of existence, 
in a journalistic millennium, which may be 
nearer at hand than we are willing to suppose. 

COLUMBIA UNIVESSITY has set an excellent 
model to other universities and colleges hav- 
ing a considerable library staff, in definitely 
relating its library corps with the teaching 
body. At Columbia not only has the librarian 
the standing of a professor, but according to 
the recent regulations the assistant librarian 
ranks with an associate professor, the heads 
of departments with assistant professors, and 
the bibliographers with instructors. This 
plan, vitally as well as formally carried out, 
relates the library with the university in a 
more satisfactory way than the opposite 
course of ruling the library through profes- 
sors as such. Whichever plan is adopted, 
there is room at the head of a university 
library for a library executive of first rank, 
such as Justin Winsor at Harvard, foremost 
among librarians in his day, and those who 
have taken up his mantle in like spirit. 

UNDER the administration of President 
Lowell, the libraries of Harvard University 
are to be given more opportunity, it would 
seem, than under that of his honored prede- 
cessor, President Eliot. Possibly the tetter's 
favorite plan for a storehouse of books made 
him emphasize the live library as a working 
organization less than should have been done, 
and in fact the development of the main li- 
brary of the university has been sadly re- 



[April, 1911 

tarded of late years by the lack of adequate 
funds with which to develop its administra- 
tive possibilities. Mr. Lane has been at great 
disadvantage in this respect, and the mem- 
bers of the library profession who know his 
entire untiring devotion to his work and his 
bibliographical zeal can imagine with what 
regret he was compelled by financial restric- 
tion to leave 70,000 volumes uncataloged. The 
appointment of Professor Coolidge as direc- 
tor of university libraries, while Mr. Lane 
remains the head of the university library 
proper, is expected to show first results in 
pushing forward the recataloging of the li- 
brary, on standard cards throughout, at a 
cost approximating toward $200,000, of which 
a part will be paid by orders from other 
libraries for the printed cards. The Library 
of Congress and the John Crerar Library 
cards will be taken into the plan, and it is 
to be hoped that the cards now in course of 
preparation by the Royal Library of Berlin 
and other European establishments may also 
be considered. The ideal printed card sys- 
tem can only be reached through interna- 
tional as well as national cooperation, in 
which each country will catalog its own books 
and supply printed cards for these to the 
libraries of other nations. 

THE irreparable loss of the great collec- 
tions and priceless treasures of the New 
York State Library is a world- wide misfor- 
tune and example. When the fire started 
at a bookcase in the Assembly library, a 
ready fire extinguisher, a nearby fire alarm, 
or a better organized watch service, might 
have stopped the blaze with a few dollars' 
loss. Books do not burn easily, but wooden 
shelves do, and soon the books become tum- 
bled heaps of kindling. Probably bad politics 
is at the root of the calamity, for whether it 
was defective wiring or the chronic smould- 
ering cigarette which started the blaze, it was 
either poor equipment, poor inspection or poor 
service, all results of graft and "peanut poli- 
tics" that fostered the mischief; and the dra- 
matic climax was reached when the papier- 
mache ceiling, paid for as carved oak during 
the Sheehan regime, fell into the Assembly 
chamber at the debacle of that statesman's 
Senatorial campaign. In 1906 a Senate 
finance committee report referring to the 
State Library included a startling paragraph, 

written by State Librarian Anderson, which 
presented the following prophecy: "The im- 
mense amount of wooden shelving, wooden 
galleries, documents, books and other in- 
flammable material occupying the whole west 
side of the capitol is a constant menace from 
fire, which if once started in these shafts 
and galleries would totally destroy a struc- 
ture which has cost $25,000,000." This re- 
ferred largely to the temporary provision 
made for overflow material, but its warning 
was disregarded. There promises to be some 
salvage of manuscripts and possibly books, 
but the library must be restocked, practically 
de novo, and must depend largely upon its 
friends throughout the country to cooperate 
in this work. The library school quarters 
were entirely burned out and its future ar- 
rangements are problematical. The Brook- 
lyn Public Library has already offered the 
use of its collections, class rooms and audi- 
toriums in case it should be necessary to 
locate the school elsewhere for the next year 
or two. 

THE Library Bureau, though it has spread 
vastly beyond the library field, from which it 
now gets less than a tenth of its support, is 
still of interest to librarians, many of whom 
became shareholders in its early days. It 
has had a career of phenomenal prosperity, 
and has done the business community the 
service of introducing library methods into 
business economy, particularly in the applica- 
tion of the library card system of record and 
administration. Unfortunately its very pros- 
perity betrayed its administration into an in- 
flation which led to the development or pur- 
chase of factories or the establishment of 
numerous and costly offices beyond the needs 
of the business and the resources of its cap- 
ital. This produced an embarrassment, as a 
result of which dividends on the preferred 
stock have been for a time suspended, and 
the administration has passed into new hands. 
The difficulty was that the Library Bureau 
did not take its own medicine, and while it 
sent out business engineers to teach business 
concerns how to manage without waste, was 
itself most wasteful and extravagant. It will 
interest librarians in general to know that the 
embarrassment is likely to be only temporary, 
and that those who continue shareholders 
may hope for a resumption of dividends be- 
fore long. 

April, 1911] 



BY GEORGIA G. RALPH, Russell Sage Foundation 

ON the last afternoon of the Child Welfare 
Exhibit, two friends started out for a final 
survey of some features that had been of par- 
ticular interest. As they came to the build- 
ing the crowds about the two large entrances 
quite eclipsed those at a popular matinee. 
Street traffic in front of the building was 
seriously hindered, while special policemen 
and a squad of soldiers vainly tried to per- 
suade the disappointed visitors that there was 
not room for one more. The large gym- 
nasium of the armory, with floor space for 
six or eight tennis courts and some to spare, 
and with large galleries on four sides of the 
room, had proved quite inadequate to meet 
this public interest in the affairs of child- 
hood an interest that had been gaining mo- 
mentum during the four weeks that the ex- 
hibit had been in progress. 

While this was probably the only day that 
people were turned away, the attendance on 
other days was large, often uncomfortably 
so, and the fact that pay days found many 
studying the exhibit is a clear index of the 
serious interest that was shown by the public 
in the problems of the child. 

The exhibit included a graphic presentation, 
by means of charts, photographs and models, 
of all subjects pertaining to child life, supple- 
mented by daily conferences on allied topics 
at which prominent men and women spoke, 
and by drills, pantomimes and choruses, in 
which the children of various schools and 
other organizations took part. 

The graphic material was divided into 12 
sections, designated as Homes, Streets and 
Recreation, Work and Wages, Health, Mu- 
seums, Libraries, Education, Philanthropy, 
Settlements, Churches, Clubs and Law. These 
sections were arranged around three sides 
of the gymnasium, leaving the center free 
for entertainments and drills. At the ap- 
proach, on the fpurth side, facing the open 
center, stood a large cast of the group, 
'Earth Bound," by Mr. Louis Potter, which 

'The Child Welfare Exhibit was held at the 7ist 
Regiment Armory. Thirty-fourth Street and Fourth 
Avenue, New York, from January i8th to February 
12, 1911. 

was taken to symbolize the reasons for the 
Child Welfare Exhibit. 

In the Handbook of the exhibit this group 
is described as showing "a strong man and 
his wife, bent under life's burdens. With 
one arm the man is striving to help the 
wife bear her burden, which is joined with 
his own. To the left an aged man is shown 
bent under his burden, which is joined with 
the burdens of the others. Beneath the bur- 
dens and the central figure of the group is 
a little city child. As yet he is not touched 
by any visible burden, but his back is bent 
as if by heavy burdens. He, too, is a burden 
bearer but he is bent by the burdens of 
heredity, environment, pre-natal influences, 
lack of play, insufficient food, poverty, sor- 
row, sin and all the economic and social 
influences which have affected his parents." 

On another page of the Handbook, the 
purpose of the exhibit is embodied in a quo- 
tation from Richard Watson Gilder, "I see 
the shining faces of little children from 
whose backs heavy burdens have been lifted." 

Throughout the exhibit the attempt was 
made to show normal child life and to point 
out specific conditions that make such life 
impossible for the average child in New 

As the corner stone of childhood, the sec- 
tion on Homes was given first place. Here 
some plans that promise to relieve the con- 
gestion of population were touched upon as 
the initial step in providing healthful, normal 
home life, but as the distribution of popu- 
lation in New York must needs come slowly, 
greater emphasis was put upon ways of mak- 
ing the small New York apartment more 
cheerful and attractive. 

A three roomed apartment, kitchen, living- 
room and bedroom, was completely furnished 
at a cost of $100. It was designed to show 
that beauty in house furnishing depends upon 
simplicity of form, attention to detail and 
harmony of color rather than upon costly 
materials. Window boxes with common va- 
rieties of blossoming plants, good prints 
taken from second-hand magazines and bound 
in passe-partout, inexpensive but tasteful rugs 



[April, 1911 

and window hangings, all suggested ways of 
securing harmonious effects at small cost. 

A child's corner was fitted up to illustrate 
what can be done for a child's comfort and 
happiness within small limits. 

There was a play shop where durable and 
artistic toys could be seen, and each day 
at a work bench in the shop the art of mak- 
ing simple toys at home was demonstrated 
a process highly educational and of far 
more interest and delight to a child than any 
number of store toys. 

The questions of clothing and nutrition 
were dealt with in much detail. The value 
of milk as a food for children was made 
concrete by specimens showing the nutritive 
value of milk contrasted with equivalent 
values in other foods. Many practical sug- 
gestions were offered as to the most eco- 
nomical materials for clothing, and the su- 
periority in quality and cost of home-made 
over ready made garments was illustrated 
by exhibits of the work done in trade schools 
as compared with factory products. 

In the section on Streets and Recreations, 
we had a picture familiar to all dwellers in 
New York, children alive with the play in- 
stinct, and HO playground but the street. No 
more potent plea for recreation centers and 
roof playgrounds could have been made than 
the record of street accidents for io months, 
in which 67 children were killed and 196 
seriously injured, and the figure of 700 ar- 
rests in one summer month, 300 of which 
were for playing ball and "cat." 

The section on Health had to do mainly 
with the care of babies, the correction of the 
more marked physical defects in school chil- 
dren and with the subject of eugenics. 

If one can judge by the earnestness of the 
visitors who studied the screens on eugenics, 
the work of the committee was abundantly 
worth while. No doubt many were inspired 
with new and strange ideals of sex and pa- 
renthood. Blindness, feeble-mindedness and 
other defects were shown in relation to ad- 
verse living conditions, alcoholism and vene- 
real disease, and a plea was made for in- 
struction of parents in the care of children, 
for natural and happy mating through abund- 
ant, wholesome recreation and social life, and 
for the teaching of true and lofty ideals of 
love, marriage and family life. The stamp of 
authority was put upon this exhibit by a 

quotation from Dr. Charles W. Eliot, in 
which he says that society must be relieved 
of the horrible doctrine that the begetting 
and bearing of children are in the slightest 
degree sinful or foul processes, that there is 
nothing so sacred as the bringing of another 
normal child into the world in marriage, 
and therefore no need for shame and secrecy 
but only for pride and joy. 

The committee on Work and Wages dealt 
primarily with the questions of street trades 
and of home work in the tenements, two 
factors in the economic struggle that seri- 
ously menace the well being of children. 
While the subjects were treated in much de- 
tail, two features stood out with particular 

The power and responsibility of the gen- 
eral public in the solution of the newsboy 
problem was strikingly presented on a screen, 
and some practical suggestions were made 
that any public spirited citizen could easily 
follow. The screen showed photographs of 
a newsstand and of old, lame and blind 
men and women selling on corners. The 
recommendations were : 

Buy from a stand. 

Buy from the aged and handicapped 

Never buy from 
A boy zvithout a badge 
A boy selling after hours 
A girl under 16 

Report violations of the law 

The willow plume industry was shown by 
specimens of the raw and finished product 
and by "flues" arranged to illustrate the pro- 
cess of tying knots, by which the finished 
plumes in the store windows are made. The 
budget of the plume told the starvation wage 
that is paid for this work to mothers and 
little children in tenement homes. More than 
one woman must have realized that the 
health and happiness of tired women and 
children was the price of her adornment. 

The opportunities which the public libra- 
ries and museums offer to children and the 
general work of the schools are too well 
known to need special comment. The coop- 
eration between the schools and the mu- 
seums, by which children may use the re- 
sources of the museums to supplement their 
school work, the children's rooms in the li- 
braries with specially trained librarians and 
the story hours, are so incorporated into the 

April, 191 1 ] 



neral educational system that they are ac- 
pted as a matter of course. The extension 
f educational opportunities to special classes 
of children and the establishment of voca- 
tional schools are later developments and are 
not so generally known. 

A screen in the section on Education, 
showing the increase in special classes and 
the number of children enrolled, was of in- 
terest in this connection: 

Activities established since 1900 

Vocational continuation schools ......... 

Afternoon playgrounds ................ 

Trade schools for boys and girls ........ 

Evening trade schools .................. 

Ungraded classes for defectives ........ 

Rapid progress classes ................. 

Classes for non-English speaking children. 
Employment certificate classes .......... 

Blind in special classes ................ 

Deaf in special classes ................ 

Crippled children in classes ............ 

Anaemic children in classes ............. 

Tuberculous children in classes ......... 

4,5 1 1 










A prophecy as to the further extension of 
public education and of its far reaching in- 
fluence was hinted at in the work of the 
International School Farm League and in 
such screens as: 

The idle moments of a school 
house are a social waste: make 
the school house the neighbor- 
hood house 

Afore visiting teachers needed 
Home economics 

Girls trained in 

Personal cleanliness. 
Home nursing. 
Infant feeding. 
Prevention of disease. 
House furnishing. 

Where the home and the state leave off or 
fall short in providing for the needs of chil- 
dren, numerous private philanthropies, so- 
cial settlements and clubs have grown up to 
conserve the interests of children who are 
wholly or partly dependent, and to promote 
ideals of social improvement for the benefit 
of all children. The right of each child to 
a normal and happy childhood and the de- 
sirability of securing to him a useful and 
wholesome adult life form the basis of the 
work of all these organizations. 

The efforts of philanthropic agencies to 
provide for the dependent child have crys- 
tallized into a well-defined policy which is 
being followed in the main by the more pro- 

gressive organizations. This policy is to 
provide for the child in his own home, if 
possible; failing in this, the nearest ap- 
proach to normal family life is to be sought 
A screen in the section on Philanthropy out- 
lined this policy. 

Ideals in Philanthropy 


in homes where conditions make it efficient. 


for normal children. Sympathetic and refined 
methods are essential. 


most desirable form of institution. Administra- 
tive, educational, physical and moral results are 
satisfactory. Expense not excessive. 


obsolete and undesirable. Abolish city placed 
institutions and rebuild them in the country on 
the cottage system. 

Many institutions and child-helping organ- 
izations furnished special exhibits, which 
showed by charts, photographs and models 
their methods of caring for children and the 
results of their work. 

The function of the social settlement in the 
community was represented as that of the 
"good neighbor," initiating movements for 
the betterment of child life, supplying a con- 
necting link between the needs of the poor 
and the social resources of the city, and pro- 
viding a social centre for the neighborhood. 
Such different activities as visiting nursing, 
day nurseries, infant feeding stations, ath- 
letic clubs, mothers' clubs and summer camps 
were shown by photographs on screens as an 
illustration of the many different neighbor- 
hood needs that the settlement is called upon 
to meet 

Qosely allied to the work of the settle- 
ments is that of the various associations and 
clubs. These organizations take account of 
the gregarious instinct in boys and girls, and 
recognize the great need of special provisions 
for them at the period of adolescence. They 
aim to eliminate the street corner "gang" by 
providing properly supervised and well- 
equipped associations and clubs, that will 
give "all that the boys and girls want, and 
offer it when they want it, where they want 
it and within their reach." Screens showing 
the unsupervised clubs of young men as 
breeding places of criminal and degrading 
impulses were contrasted with others show- 
ing how the various clubs provide whole- 
some recreation and fun, combined with edu- 
cational and religious activities. 

The part of the church in the life of the 



[April, 1911 

child has so expanded that, while retaining its 
original function of the religious teacher, it 
touches so closely many of the other move- 
ments for child betterment that it is often dif- 
ficult to separate them. The extent of the 
church's activities for children was shown by 
screens illustrating the work of the Sunday 
school, special religious services for children, 
provisions for recreation, vocational activities 
and charities. Many of the boys' clubs and 
associations work in conjunction with the 
church, and a large number of philanthropies 
have grown up through the efforts of the 
church to meet the material needs of the 

An indication of the awakening of the 
church to its greater responsibility in meet- 
ing social problems was given in some of 
the screens : 

The church that grasps the prob- 
lem of the city must concentrate 

on the child 
$2.63 a year spent per child in 

the churches 
Is this enough? 

Wanted: A department of child 
training in every church 

Need of a system of accounts 
that shows an actual investment 
and the effect upon these pupils 

To the student of social conditions, the 
exhibit of the Committee on Laws and Ad- 
ministration furnished a large amount of 
valuable material. A study of the juvenile 
court systems in several cities was made the 
basis of a plan for reorganizing and improv- 
ing the juvenile court in New York City. 
The material on these various courts was 
presented in comparative form, so that the 
good and bad features of each stood out 
prominently. A chart assembling the best 
points from the different courts formed a 
sort of model plan which the committee 
hopes to realize, with some modifications, in 
New York. 

The best features 

A Model Court Building 
Milwaukee Children's Court Building 

A Children's Judge 

Boston, Washington, Buffalo, Denver 

A Perfect Probation System 

St Louis 
A Model Detention Home 

School Room Chicago 

Working in Garden Denver 

Playing on Roof Philadelphia 

A Medical and Psychopathic Clinic 

Medical Examination in Philadelphia. 
Psychopathic Clinic in Chicago 

A Reasonable Expenditure of Money 

Chicago in 1909 spent $133,000 on 3300 juvenile 

Denver in 1909 spent $20,000 on 823 juvenile cases 

At the daily afternoon and evening con- 
ferences which formed an important part 
of the exhibit, prominent men and women 
touched upon each phase of the work for 
children that was represented in the sections. 
A few of the subjects treated and the speak- 
ers will serve to show the wide scope of 
these conferences and the expert knowledge 
that was brought to bear upon New York 
problems from the country at large: 

"The hope for the suburbs," by Mr. Gros- 
renor Atterbury; "Pure food for children," 
by Dr. Harvey Wiley; "Next steps in settle- 
ment work," by Miss Jane Addams; "Child 
labor versus child welfare," by Mrs. Flor- 
ence Kelley; "Proper teaching of the sex 
question to the adolescent child," by Dr. 
Richard Cabot; "The religious life of the 
child," by Dr. Felix Adler; and "Children's 
courts," by Judge Harvey Baker, are taken 
from a list of about one hundred topics. 

What we missed in the exhibit were feat- 
ures which would help the poorest of parents 
to feel that, by their own efforts, they could 
add some little mite to the happiness and 
well being of their children. 

The apartment in the section on Homes 
represented an initial outlay that is not with- 
in the hope of the average poor family, and 
a degree of intelligence and good taste that 
the average woman of the poorer class does 
not possess ; the problem of clothing several 
children in home-made garments called for 
an amount of leisure and experience which 
most mothers of the tenements do not have; 
and the porcelain equipment of the milk 
laboratories, without suggestions for simpler 
and less expensive methods of caring for 
milk, might well discourage the mother who 
has little margin between herself and charity. 

The results of the Child Welfare Exhibit 
cannot be quantitatively measured. The im- 
pressions that are made by any undertaking 
of this kind vary according to the point of 

April, 1911] 



view, the special interests and the intelli- 
gence of the individual visitor. One student 
of social conditions characterized the exhibit 
as "profoundly impressive ;" another as "too 
statistical;" another as "statistically weak;" 
the superintendent of an institution for crip- 
pled children found there some suggestions 
for introducing certain play features into her 
school ; a woman who "loved to make things 
grow" found in the display of the Interna- 
tional School Farm League a possible voca- 
tion ; another woman who had become in- 
terested in infant blindness through a per- 
sonal sorrow learned for the first time of the 
simple silver nitrate preventive and went 
forth to spread this knowledge : while an un- 
discerning small boy who was asked what the 
screen meant, which showed the beneficial 
effects of surgical treatment for adenoids, 
said, "These are the children before they 
were dressed up and those are the children 
after they were dressed up." 

These instances illustrate the difficulty of 
adapting material on so large a subject to 
the special needs of all classes, as well as the 

diversity of needs which are concretely met 
by the same material. 

In addition to individual impressions come 
the larger group impressions. We have the 
general satisfaction that must result from 
knowing that so many powerful social agen- 
cies are championing the cause of poor chil- 
dren ; we have the agencies themselves 
brought into closer cooperation and stimu- 
lated to larger activities; we have the awak- 
ening of the more prosperous to the fact 
that, through the clothing which they wear 
and the food which they eat, they are me- 
naced by diseases that are bred in the cheer- 
less and unsanitary homes from which their 
supplies come, so that they can no longer 
say, "These conditions are no concern of 
mine;" we have the middle class home- 
makers learning how their homes may be 
made beautiful and how their children may 
be well clothed and fed without aping the 
elegance of the well-to-do; and we have in 
the large a social conscience that is a little 
more intelligent, a little more tolerant, and a 
little more alive to immediate responsibilities. 

BY CAROLINE BURXITE, Director of Children's Work, Cleveland Public Library 

THE selection of books for children has 
been a question under careful study in the 
progressive libraries of the United States for 
an indeterminate number of years. A note- 
worthy list of books for children, compiled by 
Miss Hewins, librarian of the Hartford Pub- 
lic Library, was published in 1882. It shows 
a definite viewpoint in both selection and ar- 
rangement, as well as the result of personal 
knowledge of children's books of that day and 
of guiding children's reading. Its small volume 
indicates that the larger number of standard 
books for children have been published since 
that time. In 1898 a list entitled "References 
for third grade readers" was published by the 
Cleveland Public Library and widely used ; it 
represented the combined experience of the 
use of books by the school and the library. 
"Reading for the young," by John F. Sargent, 
a librarian, published in 1890, which was four 
years in preparation, has been a great influ- 

* Paper written for the Xew Zealand Library 
Association Conference. Auckland, N. Z., April, 1911. 

ence in the selection of children's books for 
libraries. In 1900 the Carnegie Library of 
Pittsburgh published a catalog of books for 
use in schools, the first of several excellent 
lists published by this library. Of recent 
years lists embodying the experience and 
judgment of certain libraries and state library 
commissions have been published by them, 
notably the libraries of Brooklyn, Pittsburgh, 
Pratt Institute, Cleveland, Utica, and the 
commissions of Iowa, Oregon, Michigan, Wis- 
consin. These last named lists are now in 
general use. They represent the judgment of 
one person in the main; they vary according 
to the viewpoint of the final authority in 
each instance, and this viewpoint is often 
colored by local conditions, the most potent 
of which are the racial traits of the readers 
and the school curriculum. While authorities 
on juvenile literature do not always agree, 
there is probably no greater diversity of 
opinion than in the selection of fiction for 
adults. No list of children's books has value 

1 62 


[April, 1911 

unless each book has been carefully read by 
a competent judge and afterwards tested in 
actual use. 

The writer has fuller knowledge of library 
work with children as conducted in Pitts- 
burgh, New York, Brooklyn, and Cleveland 
than in other libraries, and in a general way 
the principles stated in this paper are those 
consistent with the motives of work of these 
libraries, each of which is serving a popula- 
tion largely foreign born and of various na- 
tionalities. In Cleveland, of the thirty-eight 
libraries but eight are distinctly American in 
the class of readers; others of these centers 
are reaching mainly foreigners, in many of 
them at most 10 per cent, only of the readers 
are American, and in some of them not even 
I per cent, are American. This is largely 
typical of the other cities. 

While under such conditions the problem 
of the American city library must be the de- 
velopment of the foreign child, this does not 
and should not restrict the library opportuni- 
ties offered the Anglo-Saxon child. 

The aim of work with children in the libra- 
ries is primarily to inculcate and foster the 
habit of reading good books as a pleasurable 
experience, the reading of good books for 
children being the first resultant, the reading 
of good books written for adults being the 
ultimate resultant. The secondary aim is to 
assist the teacher in her work of formal edu- 
cation by supplying in various ways reading 
collateral with the school curriculum. The 
library is in all instances a distinct municipal 
institution, as is the school, and with its own 
educational aim. If library work were con- 
ducted through the school only it would of 
course be subservient to the aims of the 
school. It is obvious that these aims need 
not conflict, but that they must be relative. 

The educational force of the library builds 
upon something subtle and delicate the 
spontaneous and conscious interests of the 
child. The fact that all library attendance or 
library use is voluntary on the part of the 
child, means that the books which are used 
to attract him must contain what he wants. 
If they contain the poorest of what he wants, 
or just anything he wants, the influence of 
the library as an educational force is mini- 
mum. If anything may be said in favor of 
the library as a mere agent for meeting the 
interests of the adults without effort toward 

change or betterment of such interests, no 
such theory extended to library work with 
children justifies itself. Library work must 
be an active influence in the mental progress 
of the child. In order that it may not be 
deterrent in such progress, it is evident that 
it should err rather on the side of conserva- 
tism in the inclusion of questionable books 
for children. A library should not recognize 
any negative principle such as, "Give the 
child whatever he wants, in order that he 
may read nothing worse," but act upon the 
belief that the most potent intellectual forces 
are allied with the spiritual, and that it is 
possible to give a child something which he 
wants and at the same time strengthen his 
moral nature through his reading. With 
such principles as a working basis, there are 
three essentials in work with children : first, 
knowledge of classes and types of children ; 
second, knowledge of the appeal to make to 
classes of children and of books which con- 
tain this appeal ; third, skill skill in the 
application of knowledge. 

First. Knowledge of the classes and types 
of children. 

The various classes of children which the 
American city library reaches may be indi- 
cated as follows : 

A. Young children whose reading habit is un- 


B. Older boys and girls who have read little 

but the school text-books and bits of the 
daily papers. (A very large percentage 
of children in new library centers.) 

C. Boys and girls whose parents read a large 

amount of literature of ephemeral in- 
terest and who are decidedly influenced 
by having such books in their homes. 
(Such children are in great need of li- 
brary influence. They may be five per 
cent, of the total number of children 

D. Boys and girls whose reading has been 

cheap literature containing false views 
of life. There is not a marked line of 
division between this class and the pre- 
ceding; both are often on the immo- 
rality line and frequently beyond it. 
The difference is that the foregoing has 
a recognized place given it by a reading 
but indiscriminating adult public, while 
this latter literature is generally dis- 
approved traditionally and in the mind 

April, 1911] 



of almost every child reader has the 
added appeal of stolen fruit. (To this 
class belong a large percentage of chil- 
dren in a neighborhood where library 
agencies are new. There is a tremen- 
dous decrease in interest in this litera- 
ture after the first year of the work of a 

R Boys and girls who have read for several 
years from a well-selected library. (A 
high percentage in the old library cen- 
ters, but modified by the fact that for- 
eign districts are composed of a large 
floating population.) 

F. Boys and girls whose reading is judi- 
ciously guided at home. (These are the 
children who are least in need of the 
library as an educational force, but mere- 
ly as a source of supply. They are prob- 
ably not one per cent, of the children 

Second. Knowledge of the appeal to make 
to classes of children. 

It is obvious from the classes indicated 
that there are two main divisions of children, 
children who are reading something at least, 
and children who are reading nothing at all ; 
in other words children whose reading in- 
terest must be aroused, and children whose 
reading interest should be directed. In the 
first division there is the young child and 
the older unread boy and girl. It is ob- 
vious that the formation of the reading habit 
can be more surely accomplished with the 
young children, therefore, they should not 
be excluded from library privileges. Their 
interests follow closely those of the child- 
hood of the race. The appeal is that of 
tbe myth; of the folk tale with its great 
imagination and subtle ethical quality; of 
the fable, the tale of familiar incident ap- 
plied to moral life; of rhythm verse with 
terse action such as Mother Goose, poetry 
which embodies the imagination and actual 
experiences of a child, as Stevenson, poetry 
which analogizes the life of the human and 
divine child such as the lullaby, and verse 
which embodies a story. 

With the older boys and girls who have 
read little but text-books, their book inter- 
ests are usually similar to the young children. 
Such children often do not have the reading 
facility of a child four years their junior. It 
is wise to recognize this interest in the liter- 

ature of young children; since the thought 
is less complex, such children grasp it more 
fully than literature for older children, and 
this literature also lays the basis for more 
diversified interests. They will probably 
grow out of this period of interest more rap- 
idly than children of the usual years. Next to 
the younger children this class probably of- 
fers the fullest opportunity for the best 

In the second division, children whose 
reading interests must be directed, lie many 
difficult problems. Here are happily the few- 
children whose reading is judiciously guided 
at home. These children are often interested 
in the finest literature the classics ; by clas- 
sics I mean in this connection books which 
have been proven, those which have been 
written long enough for men and women of 
to-day to appreciate their influence upon 
themselves as children. There are English 
books, in many instances, which will do much 
to bring to the children of a far-off land the 
finest spirit of the mother country; some 
American books wkich may show that nobil- 
ity is not indigenous to soil, but that its seed 
spreads far and wide. Such books form the 
finest connection between the juvenile classics 
and the adult classics, because they contain 
that balance of feeling and expression which 
is itself art Of the boys and girls who have 
read for several years from a well-selected 
library little need be said, other than that 
their interests must be frequently freshened 
by opening new avenues. 

In this division are also the other two 
classes: boys and girls whose reading has 
been unsuitable adult books, and those who 
have been reading cheap literature. These 
children have no proper reading back- 
ground. The appeal in the first is that 
of social life, presented in this literature 
usually from its artificial side; of the love 
story, in such books often most sentimental; 
and these children often become acquainted 
with the trend of the problematic novel. The 
solution of handling this class (largely girls) 
has not yet been worked out. Girls who 
have formed such a taste are seldom entirely 
turned into other channels, to a certain ex- 
tent because the influence is continued in 
their homes. They can occasionally be 
brought to read "Jane Eyre," Miss Mulock's 
stories, "The little minister," "Mar jorie Daw." 



[April, 1911 

But it is safe to say that these children are 
never again interested in stories ordinarily 
thought of as belonging to their years, and 
which could contribute to their mental devel- 
opment. A large amount of the solution of 
this problem lies ultimately in arousing the 
parents to a realization that such literature 
is unsuitable for children. 

Our last consideration is the children who 
have been reading cheap literature called 
"nickel libraries" or "dime novels." This class 
more than any other affects the quality of 
book selection and requires great skill in the 
use of the books on the part of the librarian. 

For boys these books contain the following 
appeals : 

To patriotism. Usually in the form of 
war stories in which intense hatred of the 
antagonist is the theme; they are often his- 
torically true in incident, seldom historically 
true in spirit. With us they take the form of 
Revolutionary stories, stories of the Civil 
War, Indian stories. They foster and engen- 
der social prejudice, they are often brutal and 
distinctly false in ethical quality. 

To superstition. Stories of luck. Prob- 
ably the most universal characteristic with 
poor boys is the innate belief in fate, a most 
potent influence in a boy's attitude toward 
work. Literature which fosters the definite 
mental attitude that a boy's success does not 
depend upon his own efforts, has a very dan- 
gerous quality. Such literature is read large- 
ly by street boys, and it includes books of 
diverse interests. 

To the spirit of adventure. These stories 
have considerable originality and resource. 
They are composed of a large number of 
rapidly moving dramatic events, which stunt 
the mind rather than develop it by not giv- 
ing opportunity to expand in one situation 
before presenting another. These books have 
the effect mentally which passing over a 
varied landscape at the rate of a hundred and 
fifty miles an hour has visually. The. intrinsic 
value of any book is its ability to linger in 
the conscious and subconscious mind. With 
these books the reader passes through in- 
numerable highly feverish experiences which 
makes this impossible. The ethical influence 
is often negative, but not always so. 

It is not unusual to hear a well-read indi- 
vidual speak of reading such literature as 
a boy, with the argument, "They didn't hurt 

me." It is undoubtedly true that the reader's 
environment and general influence always 
contributes in a large degree to the mental 
altitude he brings to books. The attitude of 
a boy reader of fairly good reading taste to- 
ward such books is more that of a balanced 
adult reader towards literature generally 
the book and the reader are seldom entirely 
one. The critical faculty and judgment, 
while largely subcurrent are nevertheless in 
place, and with such readers there is lacking 
that intimacy of experience wherein the dan- 
ger lies. At most no argument has been ad- 
vanced that such books are an aid in a boy's 
development, merely that they are not a detri- 

All of these books contain frequently a 
sympathetic attitude toward crime and im- 
morality. The danger of suppression by the 
United States government does much un- 
doubtedly to eliminate the most flagrant use 
of these qualities ; however, it is by no means 

For girls, such books contain views of so- 
cial life, and the relations of individuals 
toward one another which are almost entire- 
ly false. The love interest is always the 
theme, envy is usually the mainspring; the 
scene usually shifts from one of poverty to 
extreme wealth. They foster in an inexperi- 
enced young girl a dangerous trust in strang- 
ers and blunt any inherent acumen on the 
part of the reader as to any possible channels 
for her own life to work out. Largely, I 
think, because this class of literature is so 
entirely a repetition of theme and of situation 
the thread connecting it with good literature 
is almost impossible to find. Nearly all girls 
who read these books do so to the exclusion 
of any others. 

Third: Skill in the application of knowl- 

With a knowledge of the classes of chil- 
dren with whom we have to deal, and the 
appeals to which they usually respond, how 
can such knowledge be used in selecting 
books for children? 

With the knowledge of the varied interests 
and diverse backgrounds which the children 
of a public library have, the conviction fol- 
lows that the books themselves must have a 
wide latitude as literature, varying in merit 
and of diverse subject interest. That in the 
contact with children it should be kept in 

April, 1911] 



mind that certain classes of children should 
be expected to read books of a high standard, 
and that other children read books, certainly 
in the beginning, of a quality which is only 
tolerable to the critic. The children who are 
reading books of high standard are coming 
in contact with a deep inspirational quality, 
but for other children the book of high stan- 
dard may have no inspirational quality at 
all because he can get no pleasure from 
reading it. 

Referring to the classes stated above, the 
standard of the selection of books for little 
children can be and therefore should be very 
high. There is no need of giving a young 
child a poor book if the librarian who comes 
in contact with him has thought out a few 
simple principles of the selection of books of 
this class. Felix Adler's "Moral education" 
is a valuable aid in formulating these prin- 
ciples. With the universality of interest of 
young children the American lists will prob- 
ably be found very helpful and a safe guide. 
Use original versions as a rule rather than 
modified and pedagogicalized texts. The one 
main principle in the selection of folk tales 
is that broadly speaking the mainspring of 
motive must be true. Young children are 
mentally passing through the experience of 
the fairy tale when they read the fairy tale, 
consequently the motive which actuates it 
must be a right one. The pictures which 
illustrate such books must be refined in 

The standard of the selection of books for 
children who are reading books much younger 
than their years needs to vary in no way 
from that of the books for the younger chil- 
dren. It should, however, be definitely kept 
in mind that children at all ages should have 
their interests diversified, and this is specially 
an important aim when children are out- 
growing the folk tale interest. Unless chil- 
dren are surrounded by books of varied in- 
terest at this period they usually develop a 
liking for but one kind of books, read every- 
thing which the library can provide, and may 
then discontinue reading in the children's 
room because there can be no continuous 
Books for children who have been reading 
books of questionable value must undoubt- 
edly contain some elements of their devel- 
oped interest, since the basis of library work 

with children is necessarily the appeal to a 
conscious interest. The children's library 
must be broad enough in its selection to con- 
tain something for any child in the given dis- 
trict any child under fourteen. Beyond 
this age an unread child's reading facility is 
so modified by an undeveloped power of con- 
centration that not every child can be caught. 
Generally speaking, librarians cannot be tu- 
tors, they can only be guides. 

The principle to go upon in the selection 
of books for such a class of boys and girls is 
that the books selected for them should con- 
tain such elements of interest in a lesser de- 
gree, or as few aggravating features as pos- 
sible, depending as aids upon the attractive 
quality of the make-up of the books, the 
contact of the librarian with these readers, 
and the attractive physical features of the 
library. Love stories may be chosen which 
reflect social life, but which are pure in sen- 
timent. For the boys, choose stories of pa- 
triotism, war stones, etc. of high dra- 
matic quality which are nearer true historical 
feeling; stories of poor boys who became 
successful in which the element of luck may 
enter, but where at least the boy has done 
his part ; stories of adventure, less crowded 
with dramatic events, thereby giving larger 
opportunities for a fuller development to- 
wards the climax. Here it is entirely right 
that such books be used which are not fully 
satisfactory to the critic, if they justify their 
use. Only a small number of them should 
be selected, those which can most evidently 
be used towards a purpose and which prove 
that they can be used towards a purpose. 
Herein lies the skill of the librarian. These 
books must be used as a method of grada- 
tion of the children's reading, towards still 
better books of the same interests, and event- 
ually towards books of other interests. War 
stories which eventually lead to history, sto- 
ries of success which suggest biography, sto- 
ries of adventure which lead to travel and 
exploration, and stories for the girls here 
is the unsolved problem! At least we can 
arouse an interest in dramatic and tragic 
characters of history Mary, Queen of 
Scots, Marie Antoinette, Joan of Arc, James 
the First of Scotland, and others. 

The theme of this paper has related almost 
entirely to fiction, which forms on the whole 
about half the reading of all children. The 



[April, 1911 

selection of other books for children is just 
as important but less difficult, since the rules 
for their selection may follow in a general 
way those used for the general adult reader 
truthfulness, an interesting manner of re- 
lation, and an attractive make-up. One spe- 
cial quality must be observed in the selection 
of history, biography, legend and all other 
books which have human quality, that they 
be presented dramatically, not from the in- 
formational viewpoint, not critically and not 
retrospectively. If this principle is applied it 
will account for the failure of many books 
to hold the interest of children. 

Books which are definitely informational, 
such as the useful arts and sciences, should 
be accurate, elementary, and clear. The only 
fully satisfactory way of selecting them is 
with the advice of some one who knows 
about the subject. Through typewritten lists 
such advice when once made available can 
be of service to a large number of libraries. 

The final summing up is this : 

Books must be selected, not picked. They 
must be read, not looked over. They must 
be used with the children, not as a rule left 
on the shelves for their injudicious selection. 

The time consumed by the judicious study 
of a laige class of books is a matter of great 

expense to the library undertaking it, and the 
result of such labor should be open to all 
libraries working under conditions which are 
similar. While the principles underlying the 
selection of books for children in America 
can be largely the same as for the children 
of New Zealand, there must be dissimilar con- 
ditions and interests which would not mean 
in all instances the selection of the same 
books, or the same subjects. So if at all 
possible let there be at least one person who 
may be recognized as bringing to serious 
study and experimentation breadth of mind 
and a student's attitude. Several good Amer- 
ican lists may be used for study, and indi- 
vidual books tried out, but while it is true 
that compilers of lists have aimed for diverse 
interests, a large part of the books are dis- 
tinctly American in atmosphere. 

In closing may I say that it is unfortunate 
that a tone of didacticism has crept into this 
paper, addressed as it is to an audience of 
fellow workers. I hope, however, there may 
be- something in the foregoing pages worthy 
of consideration as applicable to New Zealand 
conditions, and that at no distant date New 
Zealand librarians may give the librarians of 
America the result of their study and experi- 
ence in the selection of books for children. 

BY HARRY FARR, Librarian of the Cardiff Public Libraries 

THE development of library work with 
children during recent years is one of the 
most striking features of modern library pro- 
gress both in Great Britain and America. 

In the early days of the library movement 
it was not recognized that provision for chil- 
dren was desirable. In some libraries juve- 
nile books and periodicals were provided, but 
as a rule, children were either excluded alto- 
gether, or admitted under conditions that did 
not allow of their using the libraries to any 
great extent. As time went on this attitude 
had to be modified. The ability to read, which 
every child acquires under modern educa- 
tional systems, created a demand for books 
which had to be met. 

The power to read, which had been im- 

* Presented at the International Library Con- 
gress, Popular Libraries Section, Brussels, Aug. 28- 
31, 1910. 

parted to the children, was found to be a 
power for evil as well as a power for good. 
The absence of children's libraries and the 
difficulty of obtaining good books in attrac- 
tive form in sufficient numbers, led to the 
wide circulation of poor, worthless, and often 
pernicious juvenile literature. It became nec- 
essary, therefore, to make it as easy for chil- 
dren to obtain good books as it was for them 
to obtain bad books. Librarians and others 
interested in children began to consider the 
whole subject in the light of modern condi- 
tions. Steps were taken to lower and abolish 
the age limit in libraries, and to encourage 
children to use them. Special juvenile sec- 
tions were provided in the lending libraries, 
and special juvenile departments in the read- 
ing rooms. But as soon as children began to 
frequent the libraries in large numbers, diffi- 
culties arose with adult readers. It is im- 

April, 1911] 



possible to suppress the animal spirits of chil- 
dren altogether, and the average adult reader, 
if he is to read in comfort, requires greater 
quiet than can be secured when children are 
present in large numbers. Nor does he care 
to be surrounded by swarms of children when 
he is selecting his books for home reading. 
If adults are not to be driven from the libra- 
ries, separate provision must be made for the 

Experiments in the direction of providing 
separate libraries for children were made, but 
they were few and isolated. While a sepa- 
rate reading room for children is essential in 
a public library, there is no real need to incur 
the extra expense of erecting and maintain- 
ing separate buildings, except where special 
endowments or bequests are available for the 
purpose. In many ways it is better to have all 
the activities of the libraries grouped to- 
gether. The whole trend of modern library 
practice is to make separate provision for the 
children in the public libraries and public 
schools, and not in separate buildings. 

As library work with children developed, 
librarians began to get into closer touch with 
the teachers in the public schools. The views 
of teachers and educationists were ascer- 
tained, and it was found that many teachers 
had realized the aid to teaching which might 
be derived from a well-selected library of 
good books. By obtaining subscriptions, and 
other means, they had established libraries in 
their schools, but could only maintain them 
with difficulty. They welcomed the coopera- 
tion of the libraries, realizing that stability 
and continuity would be given to the school 
libraries if they were provided by a public 

Ultimately conferences were held on the 
subject of the relations of public libraries and 
public education, and the lines upon which 
the best results can be expected have been 
laid down. The essentials of a children's li- 
brary system are : 

(1) The provision of libraries in the public 

schools for children during school life. 

(2) The provision of separate reading rooms, 

or halls, in the libraries for children. 

(3) The provision of juvenile sections in the 

libraries for older children after school 


In the organization of children's libraries 
on an adequate scale there can be no two 
opinions as to the fundamental importance of 


School libraries and the principle that chil- 
dren can be best introduced to books and 
taught to use them intelligently in the public 
schools is now well established. Both from 
an educational and library point of view it is 
of the greatest advantage to provide libraries 
in the schools for home-reading. No public 
library system, however adequate, could hope 
to reach more than a small proportion of the 
children, and no librarian could influence chil- 
dren anything like so effectively as the 

The educational systems of the various 
countries provide a means whereby children's 
libraries can be organized and administered 
with ease, and by which all children can be 
reached, instead of the small percentage at- 
tracted to the public libraries. At a small 
cost every school department can be supplied 
with a library of books covering the wants of 
children of all ages, from infants to upper 
classes, till they are old enough to benefit 
from the use of a public library. School li- 
braries should be recreative, and not educa- 
tional. Though, indirectly, they are of great 
educational value, their main object is to pro- 
mote the love of good bocks ; and for this and 
other reasons it is most desirable that the 
reading of children should be largely under 
the control and guidance of the teachers in 
the public schools. They know the charac- 
ters and capabilities of the children in their 
charge and are able to influence them in 
their reading. They know the books 
which are suitable for the children in their 
particular districts, and in no two districts 
are these quite the same. They touch the life 
of the children at many points and in many 
ways that a librarian cannot hope to do. 

On the other hand, the expert knowledge 
of a librarian is very desirable in the purchase 
and oversight of the library stock. Where it 
is possible for the library and educational 
authorities to cooperate, the educational au- 
thority providing the funds and undertaking 
the distribution of the books to the children, 
and the library authority undertaking the 
preparation of the books for circulation and 
the supervision, and general maintenance of 
the stock, the best results will be attained. 

School libraries are of great moral and edu- 
cational value. To place at the disposal of 
children well-selected libraries containing 
good, wholesome literature is the best means 



[April, 1911 

of cultivating a taste for good reading. If no 
attempt were made to provide children with 
good books, they would turn to inferior 
books, and to books which are frequently of 
a debasing nature. Where efficient school 
library systems exist and children are fully 
supplied with good books, the circulation of 
poor and harmful books is practically non- 
existent. They are effectual auxiliaries of 
educational systems. They strengthen and 
extend the foundations of education, and 
give the best beginnings of that self-educa- 
tion which is all-important for subsequent 
success in life. The Board of Education itself 
recognizes this, emphasizes the great aid they 
render to efficient teaching, and advocates 
their establishment wherever possible. Chil- 
dren who read books become more intelligent, 
and are easier to teach than children who do 
not read. They become familiar with the 
meaning and use of words, thus increasing 
their vocabulary. They enlarge their mental 
outlook and acquire an interest in things 
which they would otherwise ignore. 

After all, the greatest single benefit con- 
ferred upon a child by school education is his 
introduction to books. To learn to love 
books, and to use books, the child must have 
a plentiful and varied supply. For the aver- 
age boy and girl this can only be secured 
through the school library. The reading habit 
formed at school is likely to be a source of 
ceaseless blessing throughout life. 


are another essential feature of a children's 
library system. Formerly regarded as of 
minor importance, the provision usually con- 
sisted of a few tables set apart in the main 
reading room, in which the children's period- 
icals were available. They were supervised 
by the library caretaker or attendant, or else 
left to take care of themselves, subject to the 
intermittent supervision of the library assist- 
ants. Administered in this unsympathetic 
spirit, and on lines which are quite out of 
touch with the spirit of children's library 
work, they entirely failed to reach and influ- 
ence the children. 

But this type has now been superseded, and 
in modern library buildings children's read- 
ing rooms should be provided of at least 
equal importance to the adults' reading room 
and made one of the principal departments of 
the library. The new type of children's read- 

ing room consists of a lofty, well-lighted hall, 
as large as the general reading room. Its 
walls are lined with book-cases of a height 
suitable for children, well stocked with good 
books. Part of the wall space is reserved for 
picture show-cases with sliding glass fronts; 
while higher up are hung well-selected color 
prints. Every detail is carefully thought out 
to make the room attractive. Cleanliness is 
insisted on, and a lavatory is provided for 
children to wash if necessary. In charge of 
the hall should be a lady superintendent, or, 
as she is known in America, a "children's 
librarian." For this position a sympathetic, 
specially qualified woman is required. The 
influence for good of an enthusiastic super- 
intendent can hardly be exaggerated, and her 
work is one of the highest forms of social 
service. The halls should be open to the chil- 
dren after school hours, and may be used at 
other times for the various branches of school 
and library work. Any child should be ad- 
mitted who is able to write out an application 
for a book. So great is the importance of 
children's reading halls on these lines that 
no library service should be regarded as com- 
plete without them. 

It is an open question whether books 
should be only read in the hall. Where an 
efficient school library system exists it is bet- 
ter to keep the hall for reading purposes only. 
Whether books are lent from the children's 
halls or not, it is desirable that children, when 
about to leave school, should be introduced to 
the wider choice of books available at the 
public lending libraries. 


at the public lending libraries supplement and 
carry on the work of the school libraries. The 
uses of the two are quite distinct. School 
libraries serve the younger children and pro- 
vide for them in the elementary stages of 
reading. The juvenile sections serve older 
boys and girls, and provide for them more 
advanced books till they are able to read 
widely and seriously. 


One of the great objects of interesting chil- 
dren in libraries and implanting in them a 
taste for good books is to enable them to use 
libraries intelligently and as a matter of 
course in after life. Some link is needed to 
connect the schools with the libraries, so that 
when children reach the upper classes in 

April, 1911] 



school they may become readers at the libra- 
ries with as little difficulty as possible. One 
method, which has been largely adopted by 
libraries working in close cooperation with 
the schools, is to admit children as readers 
on the recommendation of the head teachers, 
either when the children are leaving school 
or before. No liability for loss of or damage 
to books should be attached to the recom- 
mendation. In practice it is found that the 
privilege is not abused, little loss to the libra- 
ries results, and a great boon is conferred 
upon the children. 


Many American libraries go further and 
seek to attract children as readers by adver- 
tising in schools and elsewhere. General no- 
tices such as this: 

"Boys' NOTICE 

Do you like 

Fairy tales 

Cowboy stories 

Pirate stories 

Railway stories 

Athletic stories 

War stories 

Would you like a free library card? 
Come to the Young People's Department 
of the Public Library and ask for one. 
This will entitle you to borrow books free 
of charge." 

or special notices such as this: 

"The Public Library is pre- 
pared to give special attention to pupils 
in this class who desire to consult books 
of reference in connection with their 
scheduled class work. 

"Pupils in this class are especially in- 
vited to use the library. They will find 
many attractive books of particular in- 
terest to boys and girls that may be bor- 
rowed for their own use at home, and 
also books for their parents." 

are printed and posted in school class-rooms, 
and must have a considerable influence in at- 
tracting children to the libraries. Such en- 
terprising methods are not unknown in Brit- 
ish libraries, but they have only occasionally 
been adopted. They are really 


The question may be asked: Are these 
methods to be commended? Ought not the 
staffs of public libraries in their %vork with 
children to confine themselves to handing out 
books actually asked for, and not seek to 
create a demand by the various activities 
which have come to be known as library ex- 
tensio'h work? 

We must consider this question in its rela- 
tion to present day library conditions. The 
aim of the modern librarian is not only to 
provide books for all classes of readers, but 
to circulate them as freely as possible. He is 
face to face with an entirely new situation, 
which requires to be met by new methods. 
The result of the adoption of compulsory edu- 
cation has been to create in vast numbers 
readers unaccustomed to the use of books and 
libraries, who have been taught to read, but 
not how to read or what to read. 

A passive attitude on the part of librarians 
and library authorities is no longer possible 
if libraries are to be a factor in national pro- 
gress. Various activities have, therefore, 
come to be associated with them, all of which 
are undertaken with a view to making known 
their contents, and to promote a more intelli- 
gent use of their resources. British libraries, 
though heavily handicapped by their financial 
restrictions, have tried many experiments and 
adopted many new methods. In America new 
methods have been more fully developed and 
more systematically applied. 

It is only intended here to consider such 
methods as have been adopted in connection 
with library work with children. If they are 
to benefit from books and libraries in after 
life, it is essential that they should be famil- 
iarized with them and taught how to use them 
intelligently during their most impressionable 
age. One of the most effective means of do- 
ing this is the library lesson. 


The educational value of lessons to classes 
of school children given in the libraries is un- 
doubted ; but, so far, few British public libra- 
ries have systematically taken up this \\ofk. 
Where the work is done the lessons are given 
either by the library staff or by the teachers. 
In some cases lessons are given by the libra- 
rian, and are devoted to explanations of how 
to use the library, how to consult books of 
reference, and so forth. Occasionally lessons 
on books and general subjects, illustrated by 
books in the libraries, have also been success- 
fully given. In other cases the lessons are 
given by teachers, who bring their classes to 
the libraries and draw upcn the library stock 
for books, pictures, and other illustrations of 
the subjects that are being studied in the 
schools. The children are thus enabled to 
get a far better grasp of the subject than is 
possible by means of the ordinary oral in- 


[April, 1911 

struction. The bringing of the classes to the 
libraries familiarizes children with these in- 
stitutions, and encourages them to use the 
libraries and to turn to them habitually for 

Where children's halls or children's read- 
ing rooms form a distinct part of a library 
system in charge of a lady superintendent, 
this work can be easily and effectively car- 
ried on. The superintendent visits the schools 
regularly, arranges with the teachers for the 
visits of the classes, and sees that the illus- 
trations required are provided. The lessons 
can be given either by the school teachers or 
the superintendents of the halls. At Cardiff 
last year 151 classes visited our two halls, 
comprising 6172 scholars. One of our super- 
intendents gave a series of illustrated talks 
on the "History of Cardiff," and this year the 
same superintendent is taking as her subject 
"King Edward vn." These illustrated talks 
meet with the greatest success, and are much 
appreciated by the children. 

Not only can illustrations be used for li- 
brary lessons, they can also be used for illus- 
trating lessons in the schools. 


This is a common feature of American li- 
brary work, but few British libraries have 
attempted it. Why it has not been adopted 
more extensively it is difficult to understand. 
Collections of groups of illustrations can be 
got together very easily and inexpensively. 
When they have accumulated, it is a simple 
matter to print a list and circulate it amongst 
the head teachers of the public schools with 
an intimation . that the groups are at their 
service. Such a system has been built up in 
Cardiff within the last three years, and is now 
working successfully as part of the ordinary 
routine work of the libraries. The groups 
are regularly used and greatly appreciated by 
teachers as aids to school work. The illus- 
trations are drawn from a variety of sources. 
Colored and other supplements to periodicals 
and illustrated papers, disused periodicals and 
magazines, book prospectuses, discarded press 
photographs, etc., furnish a mine of illustra- 
tions, which can be supplemented by the pur- 
chase of special sets, if required. Cut and 
mounted on special mounts of a uniform size, 
with descriptive labels, they are sorted into 
classified groups of from 12 to 25 pictures. 
The most useful groups are those illustrating 
natural history and nature study, history and 

geography, and they are used by teachers to 
illustrate lessons in the schools on these sub- 
jects. Special groups illustrating special sub- 
jects are made up as required. 


Another important and popular branch of 
children's library work is the children's lec- 
ture. The duty of providing lectures for 
adults is admitted, and many of the more im- 
portant libraries engage in this popular form 
of library extension work. A few only have 
attempted to meet the needs of the children 
in this direction. When it is considered that 
the children in our elementary schools are 
growing up in ignorance, not only of foreign 
and classical literature, but of the literature 
of their native tongue, every argument that 
can be used in favor of lectures for adults 
can be urged with far greater force on be- 
half of the children. While school libraries 
are a potent means of interesting children in 
good books, they should be supplemented 
wherever possible by the library lecture. It 
widens the range of children's reading, broad- 
ens their sympathies, and excites their imag- 
inations. We have had an extensive experi- 
ence at Cardiff. Every winter some dozen 
children's lectures are arranged in connec- 
tion with our children's halls, illustrated with 
lantern slides. Some lectures are for the 
older children, and some for .the younger. 
For the older children the lectures deal in a 
simple way with such subjects as birds, ani- 
mals, flowers, books, astronomy, hygiene, 
travel, heroes, and the like. For the younger 
children the subjects are mainly illustrated 
stories, such as "Alice in Wonderland," "The 
Christmas carol," "Fairy tales," "Peter Pan," 
and other classical child stories. The lecture 
halls are invariably crowded with children 
who are very keen to gain admittance. As 
the object in giving these lectures is to widen 
the children's knowledge of books and to 
lead them to read and study for themselves, 
lists of books on the subjects of the lectures 
are printed and distributed, and the books 
referred to are always in great demand. 
Books are introduced to children which other- 
wise they might never think of reading. For 
instance, last winter one of our children's 
lectures dealt with Ruskin's "King of the 
Golden River." Hundreds of children list- 
ened spell-bound as this beautiful legend, 
with its deep moral significance, was un- 
folded to them by a gifted story-teller, and 

April, 1911] 


illustrated by pictures on the lantern screen. 
The probability is that few, if any, of the 
children would ever have become acquainted 
with this story if it had not been made 
known to them in this way. 

Such lectures as the last are really only a 
slightly different form of that popular feature 
of library work with children in America, the 


which has practically no place in British li- 
brary work. The reason, no doubt, is that 
few British libraries have children's halls or 
children's reading rooms on the American 
plan, st perintended by women specially 
trained for the work. These superintendents, 
known as children's librarians, have to pass 
through one of the training schools for chil- 
dren's librarians, and amongst other things 
they are trained to tell stories to children. 
The object is, of course, to interest children 
in the great stories of the world's literature, 
myths, legends, romance and history. The 
scale on which this work is carried on, and 
the great influence it must exert, can be 
judged from the fact that in connection with 
one typical American library over 80,000 chil- 
dren listened to stories told in the libraries, 
schools, and playgrounds in one year. 


may also be organized for children in connec- 
tion with the libraries. The National Home- 
Reading Union is a British organization 
which exists to promote and foster reading 
circles and to give guidance in reading. The 
public libraries are in entire sympathy with 
the objects of the Union, and give every as- 
sistance they can to its work. The junior 
courses of reading are specially adapted for 
children's reading circles, which could very 
well be formed in connection with children's 
halls and reading rooms. But it is not essen- 
tial to work in connection with any organiza- 
tion. Our experience is that reading circles 
sre more easily formed and more success- 
fully carried on in connection with the li- 
braries than with any outside organization. 


It is unnecessary to deal with other activi- 
ties which form part of the ordinary routine 
work of most libraries, such as the prepara- 
tion of children's catalogs, reading lists, and 
so forth. Sufficient has been said to show the 


with regard to library work with children. 
American libraries are undoubtedly in ad- 
vance of British libraries in this department 
of library work, the full significance of which 
we do not seem to have grasped. Some 
American methods have not found favor with 
British librarians, and may not be suitable to 
the different conditions which exist in Great 
Britain. We cannot but admire, however, the 
energy and enthusiasm -which is characteristic 
of the children's work of the best American 
libraries. It is true the more liberal finan- 
cial support which they receive has enabled 
them to experiment and initiate developments 
more freely than has been possible with us. 
More conservative methods of administration 
no doubt prevail in British libraries, but this 
is not the real obstacle to library progress. 
Many British librarians are alive to the neces- 
sity of developing their work with children. 
They are, however, unable to move owing to 
the limited expenditure allowed by the Brit- 
ish Libraries Acts. Except in the larger and 
more progressive towns, where special meas- 
ures have been taken to increase the library 
income, the library movement in Great Britain 
is practically marking time. 

Let me, in conclusion, emphasize the im- 
portance of this work with children. It is a 
necessity of the times. It is a factor in social 
and educational progress, which will have the 
most far-reaching results. The child of to- 
day is the citizen of to-morrow. It depends 
largely upon us whether he is to become a 
responsible and enlightened citizen, or wheth- 
er he is to be ignorant and irresponsible. 
Libraries are steadily advancing in public es- 
timation. Wherever a public library exists 
it makes for the welfare and culture of the 
people. Free from political or religious bias, 
it appeals to, and is used by, all classes of the 
community. It attracts all sorts and condi- 
tions of children as no other institution can, 
and our responsibilities to them cannot be 
evaded. We ought to be able to command 
the interest and support of all that is best in 
public life in this work, and public support 
will follow public appreciation. It is for this 
fuller measure of public appreciation and sup- 
port we must appeal. If we pursue an enlight- 
ened policy, if our administration is public- 
spirited, progressive, open to ideas and touched 
with idealism, ultimate success is certain. 



[April, 191 1 

BY J. I. WYER, JR., Director New York State Library, Albany, N. Y. 

ONCE upon a time, as all true stories begin, 
there went forth to be librarian of the new 
public library in a western city noted for its 
cordial hospitality, a man of high ideals and 
untiring industry armed with the diploma of 
a library school, filled with the library spirit, 
and, so far as everything but real experi- 
ence could decide, of high promise. 

Within a week after beginning his work, 
when he was bending every effort to hurry 
the opening of the library, a gracious lady 
trustee said to him, "Can't you come out to 
my house next Tuesday evening, Mr. X., to 
our little neighborhood social club? You 
will meet some pleasant people who will be 
glad to see the new librarian." "Will there 
be any business which particularly concerns 
the library?" queried the new librarian, who 
on being assured that there would not, the 
gathering being purely informal and social, 
excused himself on the plea that he was 
working day and night just then to hasten the 
library opening. 

On the Tuesday night in question when he 
left his desk at half an hour past midnight, 
he looked with complacent satisfaction at a 
completed and detailed list of the furnishings 
and supplies needed for the Circulation de- 
partment his evening's work. Query 
Measured in real good to his library how 
many dozen evenings such as he spent, would 
it take to equal the social evening he re- 

Again, an educator of distinction, the 
president of an important university who 
has had occasion twice within three years, 
diligently to search the ranks of our calling 
for a librarian at a good salary, told me 
recently that the more he saw of librarians 
and their work the stronger grew his con- 
viction that through excessive attention to 
method and an elaborate technique they were 
missing the very kernel of their work and 
losing sight of and touch with its larger 
relations and significance. He further said 
that he found it harder to find a librarian 
with policies not practices, with more mind 
than method, than to find a professor in any 
other department. 

* Read at bi-state meeting, Atlantic City, March 
10, 1911. 

These incidents suggest that librarians are 
too prone to stay within the walls of their 
library buildings and that their outlook is 
narrowed and their work is hurt thereby. 
And it is to be feared that these are not soli- 
tary incidents. Have we not all known in 
one manifestation or another the conscien- 
tious librarian with the copperplate chirog- 
raphy who would permit no profane Spen- 
cerian hand to write in the accession book, 
but would herself insist upon being sole 
priestess at that much overworshipped altar 
while countless inspiring opportunities for 
vital relations with her townspeople passed 
unheeded in mute and melancholy reproach? 

Why is it that librarians are regarded by 
other people as just a bit "queer?" Do not 
the reasons spring from this very insularity, 
this self-conscious and cloistered aloofness, 
this immured concentration on hyper-profes- 
sional esoterics? There is that acute con- 
sciousness of a "mission;" that accentuated 
and complacent responsibility for the wel- 
fare and improvement of society, that strained 
and overserious attitude towards its own 
work and methods, an attitude which seems 
to regard the contemplation and performance 
of the technical mysteries of our calling as 
a sort of rite or ceremonial. 

There is less of this than formerly. Li- 
brary dogma has lost something of its note 
of authority. Librarians are ceasing to feel 
that they are a peculiar people to whom has 
been given the final revelation ; they are rec- 
ognizing that their gifts and mission differ 
in no wise from those of all serious workers 
for the world's good and that they have 
much to learn outside their own calling. 

But much harm has been done before we 
came even so far as we have now come into 
simpler and more natural relations with the 
work of the world. An unfortunate twist 
was given to library work, an unhappy 
stigma was set upon it, which we and our 
successors must live down by being men 
and women before we are librarians, by 
taking- ourselves less seriously, by paying less 
strenuous heed to our work and more to its 
relations to all other work. 

It is an eternal paradox that the more a 
man looks at a thing the less he can see 

April, 1911] 



it. The more a man learns a thing the less 
he knows it The argument for specializa- 
tion, for the trained expert, would be abso- 
lutely unanswerable if it were really true 
that a man who studies a thing and practices 
it every day goes on seeing more and more 
of its significance. But alas he does not. 
He loses all perspective. He goes on seeing 
more of the thing itself and less and less of 
its significance, its vital relations to other 
and greater things. If you have a library to 
classify and to catalog an expert may be quite 
fit, but if you are to administer a library, 
to give it a sane policy, to make this policy 
vital, to relate the library closely to society, 
beware of being too solely the library expert. 
What the librarian needs more than anything 
else is to be taken outside the walls of his 
library, outside of his work, outside of him- 
self and to judge men, books and affairs 
from a broader angle and a fresh perspective. 
There are few leaders in any profession who 
are able to throw off its routine long enough 
to be inspirational. In these days of over- 
specialization there are few in any profes- 
sion who can talk with interest and informa- 
tion about anything else. 

Every librarian should be broader than 
his business : wider, in sympathies and inter- 
ests, than his work. He should overflow 
the banks of his calling with one or, better 
still, a dozen of what we loosely call "tastes" 
or more tersely "hobbies." 

The gratification of these tastes, the riding 
of these hobbies, serve two purposes. 

1. Whether connected with one's work or 
independent of it they are equally important 
to the completeness of one's self-expression, 
to one's sanity and sweetness of mind. 

2. They make for breadth and quickness 
of mind. One's range of appreciation must 
be wider than his express vocational activi- 
ty. A supple mind is at least as important 
as a supple body. 

I do not wish to appear to be framing 
an indictment against the general and unmis- 
takable effectiveness of most library work. 
Too much of it is done by earnest, conse- 
crated, cultured men and women who bring 
to it an ample appreciation of its larger 
social usefulness and possibilities. On the 
other hand you will, I believe, agree that 
there are instances enough at least to justify 
a word of warning, of this kind of library- 

insularity, of magnifying routine and thereby 
minimizing the vital spirit, of unduly subor- 
dinating humanism to mechanism. I yield 
to no one in recognition of the need of ad- 
ministrative machinery in libraries as every- 
where else, but are we not overdoing the 
technical and formal? Are we not in a way 
painfully fashioning a library skeleton and 
neglecting to clothe it with flesh? How- 
many, many, libraries there are which are 
models of equipment in everything but books. 
Beautiful building; art metal stacks; Library 
Bureau furniture; Tungsten light fixtures; 
vacuum cleaner ; immaculately written records 
of bewildering variety and complexity; a 12- 
page closely printed pamphlet of Rules: but 
pitifully few books, little or no money left to 
buy more and a library staff so busy ob- 
serving all the Rules and Routine that they 
never have discovered what is inside the 
books they have and have no time to think 
of the manifold relations which might easily 
be achieved connecting the waiting, receptive, 
passive library with the world outside the 
walls for which it exists. 

It may be of interest to inquire into or 
speculate a little upon some possible reasons 
for the prevalence of this misplaced emphasis. 
Is it a matter of sex? Three out of four 
librarians are women. Is it a feminine trait 
to refine, to polish, to retouch for the 
pure joy of the work and forgetful of the 
ends to which all the labor is but a means? 
Is the passion for minutiae, for endless de- 
tail, for commas, dots and dashes in just 
these places and no others, for the microsco- 
pic attenuations of over-elaborate catalog- 
ing : are these but concomitants of that ultra- 
conscientiousness which we habitually ascribe 
to the feminine gender? The predilection 
for the rule that altereth not; for exactness 
willy nilly; for thus and so, though the 
heavens fall, for over-elaboration, for the 
established order at all hazard and no matter 
what else calls out to be done; Gentlemen, 
are these qualities chiefly peculiar to that 
sex which we are wont to refer to as the 
gentler? Is the quality which we deprecate 
some by-product of ages of housekeeping in 
which the setting of the house in order has 
been the end in itself and worth limitless 
pains and care; a task which has never re- 
quired fertilization to greater fruitfulness 
from outside impulse or connection? 



[April, 1911 

These are questions merely. But they are 
worth thinking about. The temptation to 
dogmatize in reply should be checked by rec- 
ollection of the fact that there are two times 
in a man's life when he does not understand 
women : one is before he is married and the 
other is after. 

Again, has the prevalent formal training 
for library work which has grown up within 
twenty years, tended to center effort, interest 
and stress upon the technical and mechanical 
side? When library training first began, 
these technical, tangible processes were so 
much more easily codified and formulated for 
purposes of instruction than the ampler 
phases of library administration, that it is 
not unlikely that they may have given to 
the development of library work a dispro- 
portionate twist toward mechanism and away 
from humanism a twist which still persists 
not only in the curricula of library schools 
but in the widening circles of influence which 
have radiated from the hundreds of trained 
workers who have come into the field. 

Or again, if neither sex nor training may 
be adjudged an influence here, has the real 
reason been a mere conspiracy of circum- 
stances? Perhaps the rapid spread of libra- 
ries, the increased use of them, the difficulty 
in securing adequate appropriations for them 
and the consequent low scale of salaries which 
has prevailed perhaps these have operated 
in many cases to prevent the doing of more 
than the routine work necessary to keep the 
library running. Perhaps the routine work 
may not have been too elaborate and inten- 
sive but merely so great in quantity as to 
crowd everything else aside. 

After all, while it may be of interest or 
even of some profit to speculate upon the 
conditions which have brought about the situ- 
ation complained of herein, it is more impor- 
tant to look the matter squarely in the face. 
Are we recluses? Do we tend to become 
unsocial through too close attention to either 
worthy or unworthy routine? Do we stay 
within the walls of our libraries intent on 
relatively inconsequent details and so fail 
to go out into and become usefully and 
effectively related to, the great world out- 
side? These are grave questions and I do 
not expect them to be answered by the audi- 
ence before me. Indeed, I have serious 
doubts whether we librarians are competent 

to answer them. I am not attempting an 
answer in this paper. I am merely suggest- 
ing. If I wanted an answer that should be 
worth anything I should look for it outside 
of library circles and try to see ourselves 
as others see us. 

To illustrate concretely. A librarian says, 
"It is good for libraries to cooperate with 
schools, therefore we will do it." But there 
is more than one way to do it. The closet 
librarian will consult the files of the library 
journals for accounts of some other librari- 
an's theory of how it should be done, will 
devise approved forms of rules and records, 
will select approved books from the best 
graded lists, send a polite note to the super- 
intendent of schools and the principals of the 
schools on which she has designs or, perhaps 
time being precious and the catalog in ar- 
rears, call them up en the telephone. The 
enterprise may seem to flourish (books will 
always be read when brought to the readers) 
but the service of the teachers will be per- 
functory; the interest will lag, the results 
shrink without the personal touch which can 
never come from such work administered by 
telephone and correspondence. There are 
times when the telephone is a delusion and a 
snare; a subtle temptation to be sternly put 
aside. No matter if you know you can make 
the necessary arrangement or secure the de- 
sired consent in three minutes over the 'phone 
when it will take three hours to make calls 
in person. There are times (and it is the 
wise librarian who knows which times these 
are) when the personal call is necessary, 
when nothing else will take its place or do 
its work. Then no visions of books uncata- 
loged, of orders unwritten, should avail to 
keep the closet librarian within the walls. 

The social, outside-the-walls librarian will 
go at the same thing in a different way. 
She will take pains to meet the superintend- 
ent or principal, the manager of the factory, 
the editor, the minister, outside the library, 
or she will ask a member of the board to 
bring them to the library. She will call at 
their schools, go to the works with never a 
word about the axe she is quietly grinding. 
If she is clever the advance will come from 
the other party and the request will be 
granted by the library board. How infinitely 
greater is the chance of success for a pro- 
posal to cooperate with the schools when 

April, 1911] 



every member of the board or committee 
has a pleasant sense of knowing the libra- 
rian personally and apart from her library, 
when she is known as one who is seen at 
their clubs, churches and homes; than for 
that proposal, no matter how useful and 
advantageous may be its terms nor how pro- 
fessionally correct its stipulations, which is 
transmitted by mail to a superintendent and 
by him submitted without interest or enthusi- 
.asm to a board not one of whom has ever 
met the librarian outside her library, and few 
of them in it. 

Again, a young man goes to a town to 
take charge of its public library. He goes 
with some misgivings perhaps because he has 
heard that it is a difficult position, the city 
doesn't support its library adequately; the 
former librarian had favorites on his staff 
and showed it; there is one trustee who 
makes it practically impossible for any libra- 
rian to stay and keep his professional self- 
respect ; the public are too critical and fault 
finding. Now, mark well the different ways 
in which two men will go to work at this 
situation. One of them will go straight to 
the library, perhaps both of them will, but the 
significant difference is that one will stay 
-there and the other will not. He will merely 
use it for headquarters. The former will 
soon discover that the charging system is 
clumsy and requires too much waiting and 
red tape from the patrons, that the classifica- 
tion is too close and throws the books into 
too many little classes, that the cataloger 
doesn't use as many Library of Congress 
cards as she might because she doesn't know 
all the places where the Library of Congress 
order number is printed and besides she has 
been a little afraid that if she used too many 
there might be no work left for her and 
she would lose her place. So one librarian 
enthusiastically throws himself into these 
changes, he thinks he sees clearly just what 
the trouble has been in the past and is sure 
that everything will be all right as soon as 
he readjusts these bits of machinery. The 
second librarian sees these same things but 
his vision being wider he sees other and 
larger things, as well. He has a consultation 
at once with his best trustee, he finds out 
many things from him that the former li- 
brarian lives in town and who her relations 
..are and her principal supporter on the li- 

brary board, which are the trustees that sel- 
dom or never come to meetings, who is the 
mayor, what his business is, something about 
the different newspapers and their creditors; 
he gets letters of introduction to some of 
these people and calls on them without delay, 
especially the newspapers. He calls on the 
superintendent of schools or has the presi- 
dent of his board bring him to the library. 
He goes to see the old librarian and is 
particularly nice to her. He accepts every 
invitation to talk and many that do not call 
for talking. He learns something which helps 
him from everyone he soon knows a^ 
much about the city as the secretary of the 
Chamber of Commerce, which, by the way, 
he joins at once. He makes it a point, the 
first point, to get personally acquainted with 
just as many men, women and children in 
that community as possible, especially with 
those who have been critics of the library or 
indifferent to its work and welfare. When 
he can meet these people in the library well 
and good, when h,e cannot he will go where 
they can be met 

Will not most of us agree, knowing libra- 
rians as we do, that in too many cases these 
typical and hypothetical situations would have 
been worked out inside and not outside the 

Assuming now, as I think we may with 
safety, that my contention is at least rea- 
sonably established, I wish to speak briefly 
of three topics which are directly affected 
by a conscious and consistent "outside the 
walls" policy, or which are intimately re- 
lated to it. They are 

What the public reads. 

Publicity, and 

The danger in books. 

What the public reads. What the Ameri- 
can people reads ought to be a fact of the 
very first interest for librarians. We are 
the custodians and dispensers of a very 
small part of it We are eager to make the 
public library a much more considerable fac- 
tor in our national reading than it now is. 
Sometimes in ill-considered and over-consci- 
entious moments we publicly pose as self- 
constituted censors of American reading and 
in our hours of exaltation are fain to fancy 
that we help to mould it. Yet for librarians 
no fact stands out more sharply than this 
that the American people do far the greater 



[April, ign 

part of their reading outside the walls or 
even beyond the influence of our libraries. 
No librarian who is not a keen observer of 
much more than goes on inside his library 
can any more accurately characterize the 
reading of the American people than he can 
dam Niagara with a toothpick. 

The American people read newspapers, 
magazines, and books. The newspapers are 
read at the breakfast table, in the tube, the 
subway, the elevated, on the cars, the ferry, 
in the office, in the home. But a negligible 
fraction of them is read in the library and 
the library's attitude towards newspapers for 
current reading and newspaper reading- 
rooms is increasingly inhospitable. 

The magazines most read are not read in 
the library or found in library reading- 
rooms. The very names of some of the fol- 
lowing 10 magazines are unknown to many 
librarians : Woman's World, Ladies' Home 
Journal, Saturday Evening Post, Comfort, 
Vickery and Hill list, Associated Sunday 
magazines, McCall's, Home Life, Delineator, 
Munsey's, and yet these are the 10 largest 
circulators in the land. 

The books most read are barely recognized 
as existing by the guardians of our libraries 
and our literary traditions and not a single 
paragraph has ever been devoted to them or 
their authors in any history of literature. 
Not those of the dubious literary aristocracy 
which make up the Bookman's list of best 
sellers, but Mary J. Holmes and E. P. Roe 
are the most popular American authors with 
sales of three and five millions of copies 
respectively of their books, and Mrs. Ann S. 
Stephens and Marion Harland not far be- 

The works of these authors do not appear 
in the A. L. A. Catalog nor in any self- 
respecting library's best books lists, yet they 
are unimpeachable in morals, have undoubted 
earnestness and sincerity and many touches 
of real idealism. Would that all books now 
circulating from our libraries squared with 
these authors in the qualities I have named. 

It is plain, then, that to know what the 
people are reading we must go outside the 
walls of our libraries. 

Publicity. The customary notion of pub- 
licity is some form or another of the use 
of printers' ink. A finding list, a special 
book list, timely news in the local papers, 

cards or circulars in pay envelopes, a sign 
on the building or the street corner, attrac- 
tive bulletins, and the like. All this is admir- 
able, but may we not with profit revise and 
extend the prevalent notion of publicity and 
give to it a distinctly personal touch. Why not 
publicity for the librarian as well as for the 
library? A travelling librarian may be 
more effective than a travelling library; cer- 
tainly a travelling library is more effective 
than a stationary librarian inside the walls of 
a stationary library. 

The danger in books. So much and quite 
enough for the severely practical side of my 
subject. What has been said up to this 
point has been from the purely selfish view 
of the greatest good to the library. Per- 
haps you have assumed that work outside the 
walls was not intrinsically worth while for 
the librarian's personal growth, but merely a 
form of unpleasant, necessary drudgery to 
be endured for the cause and to be performed 
always with an eye to that pleasant and 
profitable season when she could again get 
back to her books. 

Much has been written in praise of books, 
of their charm, their companionship, their 
accumulated embodiment of the best thought 
and speech of the great of all times, of their 
power to move to tears, to high resolve. A 
librarian's days are chiefly passed among 
books. We are usually wont to felicitate 
ourselves upon this. Our sharpest regrets 
are that we can so seldom halt the endless 
procession of new books long enough to 
become really acquainted with one of the 
throng. We are apt to say or to think that 
he who most knows the most books is the 
greatest among us. We speak eloquently 
of the "Seven joys of reading." 

Beware lest we fall into the pit of unduly 
magnifying the powers and virtues of our 
books, for even they that form the chiefest 
part of our library world within the walls 
have distinct limitations. There is a wide, 
deep world beyond the uttermost knowledge 
or power which any book can render. It will 
not do to think that books can solve every 
problem, answer every question, heal every 
wound, still every sorrow. The poets who 
have read deepest in the books of life and 
of nature (the two greatest books which we 
often forget) may confidently be invoked 
for such testimony as: 

April, 1911] 



"Up, up, my friend, and quit your books 
Or surely you'll grow double." 

"Here the heart 

May give a useful lesson to the head and 
Learning wiser grow without his books." 


"Books teach us very little of the world." 


"Books cannot always please, however good: 
Minds are not ever craving for their food." 


We have had no greater literature since 
we have had books than before. It is the 
things of real life and of God's great out-of- 
doors that nourish and strengthen character, 
that develop richness of thought and feeling. 
Books are after all but the commentaries on, 
the pale shadows of the true realities and of 
these realities let us not neglect to fill our 
lives as full as the amplest justice to our- 
selves and our work suggests. 

Thus the very books in the library, the 
true soul of the place, require to be warned 
against ; while iheir external setting, the walls 
of a library or of a children's room or of a 
reference room may sometimes be, indeed 
often are, involuntarily converted into the pre- 
cipitous slopes of a rut, and the over-consci- 
entious librarian, so fearful that she may fail 
in some minor feature of her work, so tor- 
mented by the thought that she may be leav- 
ing undone the thing which she ought to 
have done, becomes the library Hermit, her 
Paternoster, Cutter's Rules, her Rosary, the 
cards in the charging tray. Let us never 
make our work inside the library so much 
our world that we can forget the great throb- 
bing, wicked, beautiful, sordid, wonderful 
world outside its walls. We must touch el- 
bows with it at every point to which we can 
carry the gospel of the book. Touch elbows 
with it at many points where we can see no 
direct professional advantage in the contact. 
Touch elbows with this world outside the 
walls at some points, with no other motive 
than pure fun, no other aim than to get 
away as wholly and as far as possible from 
even-thing bibliothecal. To a certain extent 
the Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde conception 
squares with wholesome, rational, broad 

To be more specific, even in our own work 
we must touch elbows with other library 
workers everywhere. There are three items 
of expense which should be fixed charges 
year after year against your library income. 
Membership in the American Library Asso- 

ciation; membership in your local Library 
Association (state or city), to be supple- 
mented, by attendance whenever possible.; 
subscription to the library journals. And I 
am almost tempted to add membership in 
the National Education Association. These 
will all be anti-rut, anti-Hermit influences. 
The temptation to withdraw into the all 
sufficiency of our own little corner of the 
work is so subtle, so insidious, that we need 
often to be stirred out of ourselves. Let us 
keep a broad outlook, see things in their 
proper proportions, see more than our own 
work, exchange our walls for a horizon and 
our ceilings for the sky, cultivate sympathies 
and interests as wide as the race and so 
save our own work and ourselves from nar- 
rowness, stagnation and weariness. 

Now, nothing that has been said should 
be construed as inciting or approving delib- 
erate and chronic neglect of internal attrac- 
tiveness and efficient service, though I should 
have small quarrel with the librarian who, 
when compelled to choose, goes out for a 
call in the right place and leaves behind a 
bit of work which she might easily have 
lashed her conscience into calling imperative. 
I am not encouraging gadding or gossiping, 
though these in small portions may be some- 
times effective and proper ingredients in the 
formula here prescribed. Much good work 
has been done, is constantly being done in- 
side the library. Understand I would not 
minimize its vital importance for a moment. 
I am simply not talking about it to-day. 
You hear about it and are in the midst of it 
every day. Inside work is but one of the 
oars with which the library boat must be 
rowed. But a boat makes little progress 
when rowed by one oar. Outside the library 
the stream of the great world eddies and 
whirls. Many of the currents rarely or never 
set towards the library door. Let us not 
be over-easily satisfied by letter-perfect 
fulfillment of our duty within the security 
of four walls. Go out into the flood, form 
new channels leading libraryward, set out 
buoys, erect lighthouses, build dams, maintain 
life saving stations; for those who will not 
come inside the walls let us take the library 
outside the walls, confront the people with 
it at every turn, be tactfully aggressive, 
wisely militant, full of the fire of faith and 
all things shall be given unto us. 


[April, 1911 


SINCE 1903 the Board of Education in 
New York City has been doing systematically 
what many individual schools and teachers 
did years before, namely, equipping class- 
rooms with small libraries graded to the 
capacity of the children. These libraries do 
not contain text books or supplementary 
readers ; but real live boys' and girls' books 
by writers like Stevenson, Mark Twain, Kip- 
ling, Alcott, Wiggin, tales of adventure, of 
chivalry and heroic deeds, of home life and 
school life, books that tell you how to make 
and do things. 

With this kind of ammunition the schools 
try at each stage of the child's progress to 
combat the trash of the newsstand and cheap 
press ; and with this kind of bait to lure the 
indifferent into the paths leading to the 
green fields of literature. 

There is nothing new or original about 
this plan. It is time honored, and more than 
one of us doubtless owe to some such plan 
that love of books which is one of the most 
perfect pleasures of life. 

The strong points of the class library plan 

First : The possibility of reaching every 
child, by placing attractive books where he 
cannot very well escape contact with them 
during the formulative period. 

Second : It calls for some interest in chil- 
dren's books from each class teacher, instead 
of delegating all library work to one school 
librarian with one large collection. It 
amounts in short to going to the child and 
the teacher with our books, instead of wait- 
ing for them to come to the books. 

Sphool life is so full of a number of things, 
that unless this volume or that is at hand 
when we want it, it often goes unsought and 

The classroom libraries in New York still 
show signs of increasing life and vitality. If 
statistics impress you, you may be interested 
in knowing that there are half a million books 
in the 12,475 libraries now in operation, and 
that the 600,000 borrowers last year took 
out about 7,000,000 books, or for some un- 
accountable reason nearly 500,000 more than 
the year before. 

In this big field there are very fertile spots 
and some quite barren spots. On the whole 
our books are well used and worn out in the 
service, which is the principal thing to be 
desired, but the school library might be made 
doubly effective if we had in each of the 
larger elementary schools a trained children's 
librarian to supervise the work in the class- 
rooms, to take charge of the teachers' library 

* Read hrfore tho New York State Teachers' Asso- 
ciation library section, Rochester, December, 1910. 

as well, and to teach systematically the use 
of reference books in the last two grades. 

The school library might be a stronger 
factor if teachers came to us from normal 
schools and colleges a little more intimately 
acquainted with children's classics, and books 
in general; if there were more time in the 
school program to devote to book talks and 
reviews, or for reading aloud in the class. 

Just a word about book selection 

One book of inspiration is worth many 
books of information even in a school library. 
The classroom can never hope to offer a 
great variety, but what it does offer should 
be of the very best. First select those books 
which have stood the test of time, and have 
been loved by generations of children. Get 
as attractive editions as your purse will al- 
low. Better have few books with good print 
and good pictures than many so dull and 
ugly on the outside that they tempt no one 
to explore the interior. 

In the primary grades let us begin at once 
with color books of the best quality. In 
these days of distressing newspaper art, that 
finds its way to every home, we should be 
sure there is an antidote in the class library. 
Develop a sense of humor and good taste 
and good manners at the same time with the 
picture books of Caldecott, Crane, Nister, 
Greenaway, or if you can afford it with some 
of the works of Maxfield Parrish, Jessie Wil- 
cox Smith, Howard Pyle, or Boutet de 

Provide the Mother Goose rhymes and 
jingles in attractive form. They are part of 
the birthright of every child, and yet it is 
surprising how many children do not hear 
them at home. 

As the child masters the art of reading 
let there be plenty of the easier myths, fables, 
folk stories, and fairy tales in the class li- 
brary within his reach. JEsop, and La Fon- 
taine, The Arabian nights, Andersen and 
Grimm, Laboulaye and D'Aulnoy should be 
represented, and also native American folk 
lore in the Indian books of Deming, Eastman, 
Judd, Kennedy and others. 

When the fairy story age is passed and 
the imagination well developed, then the 
boys at least should have their fill of King 
Arthur and his knights, tales of chivalry, 
hero stories, accounts of battles and strong 

In this connection I wish every teacher of 
boys would read Sidney Lanier's introduc- 
tion to the Boy's Froissart. Children never 
read prefaces, but teachers might profit by 
them occasionally, especially this one. 

Do not neglect the handicraft and games 
books of Dan Beard and his followers, that 
help train the hand and eye and teach one 
how to use tools and build things, nor a good 

April, 1911] 



tale of school athletics now and then by 
Dudley or Barbour. 

There never were any better books for 
girls than Louisa Alcott's and Kate Douglas 
Wiggin's, and if the girls will continue to 
take their ideas of life and their ideals from 
"Little women" and ''Rebecca" we need not 
care much whether they ever discover Henry 
James or George Meredith. 

Let us have poetry in quantities all the way 
from the "Child's garden" in the lower to 
the Stedman "Anthologies" in the higher 
grades, including Shutes' "Land of song," 
Burt's "Poems every child should know," 
Repplier's "Book of famous verse," Wiggin 
and Smith's "Posey ring," and "Golden 
numbers ;" and, again, let the teacher read 
the introduction and interleaves to the last 
mentioned book. Bring all the poetry pos- 
sible into your recitations, and into school life 
generally: there are countless opportunities. 

In connection with the class library in the 
last two grades of elementary schools there 
should be a reference shelf for pupils' use. 
A window ledge or part of a table will do, 
on which to place as many of Champlin's 
"Young folks' encyclopedia" as possible, a 
statistical almanac, a small atlas, a book of 
synonyms. Bulfinch's "Mythology," one of 
B'rewer's handbooks, and, first of all, a good 

There is no valid excuse nowadays for 
poor or indifferent books in schools, or in 
homes for that matter. Selected lists are to 
be had in many instances for the asking, and 
advice on this subject goes a-begging. It 
doesn't matter so much just how we manage 
it. if we succeed in school in arousing the 
child's interest in good books and giving the 
less fortunate ones some of the stories that 
are childhood's own property, and finally 
make patrons for the public libraries and 
public museums and good citizens for the state. 
If there is a better means to this end than a 
few interesting books in the hands of an in- 
terested teacher. I for one do not know it. 



THE ne\v building of the Reuben McMillan 
Free Library has model equipment for work 
with children and schools. The children's 
room on the main floor adjoins the loan 
room, and is filled with practical and attrac- 
tive devices for facilitating the work. 

The general appearance of the room is 
pleasing. A large fireplace has settles on 
either side eight feet long, with back and 
arms, and the seat is 14 inches from the 
floor. Over the mantel is a plaster cast of 
a Delia Robbia Bambino. There are some 
good pictures on the walls Watts' Sir 
Galahad. The Madonna of the chair, and The 

singing boys. The bookcases practically 
surround the room, being five shelves high 
except on the loan room side, where the case 
is of two shelves. There are bulletin boards, 
some of them adjustable to any part of the 
shelving and at any height. The shelving and 
other furniture were planned as a setting 
for the books, and the result has been a most 
happy one. 

The room has large windows on two sides 
above the cases, admitting direct outside light 
and indirect light on the loan room side. At 
one end the room connects with the open 
stack and at the other with the teachers' and 
parents' room. There is entrance to the 
adult loan room. 

The children's loan desk is specially fitted 
for its work; it is 30 inches high and par- 
tially surrounded by a rail for entrance and 
departure. At present but one set of loan 
trays is required, but the desk is so planned 
that another like equipment may be set in. 

The tables are of two heights 22 inches 
and 26 inches for younger and older children. 
The chairs 14 inches and 16 inches to top 
of seats are not only relative to the size 
of the child, but special care has been taken 
to support at the back, using up and down 
splats. The aprons of the table are inserted 
some 10 inches to accommodate the knees of 
the child. 

The children's librarian has a reference 
desk. There are racks for periodicals and 
picture books, and adjoining these are shelved 
the books for the little ones. There is also 
a window seat, 16 inches from the floor to 
height of the cushion, and 16 inches from 
front edge to back, and without baseboard 
underneath for the child to kick. 

An adjoining room is for the use of teach- 
ers and parents. Copies of books used in 
the school duplicate collections and a teach- 
er's professional library are shelved here, 
other books on education being kept on the 
regular shelves. There are bulletin boards 
and file cases for photographs for school use. 
The room has a large table and comfortable 
chairs. It is further intended to have a 
model library for the child in the home a 
reference collection of picture and other 
books for parents. 

The story-hour room is on the second floor 
and connected by rolling partitions with the 
lecture room, and allowing interchange of 
space when desirable. It is filled with 
wooden benches \4 l / 2 inches high and accom- 
modates some 300 children. 

A stereopticon may be used in either of 
these rooms, the lighting being so arranged 
that it is controlled by the man at the lan- 

The shelving and other furniture except- 
ing chairs and table tops are of steel, as 
elsewhere throughout the building. Over- 
head Tungsten lighting is used. 



[April, 191 1 




THE library of the United States Bureau 
of Education, containing nearly 150,000 books 
and pamphlets, almost exclusively on educa- 
tional subjects, aims to serve the people of 
this country as a central reference bureau 
for bibliographic information on all educa- 
tional problems and activities. The biblio- 
graphic work of the library is carried on 
along three distinct lines: (i) The prepara- 
tion of an annual bibliography of education. 
(2) The compilation of brief bibliographies 
on special subjects. (3) The indexing of cur- 
rent educational periodicals. 

The preparation of an annual bibliography 
of education was first undertaken by the li- 
brary in 1908. The first number covered the 
period from July, 1908, to July, 1909, and 
contained about uoo titles arranged accord- 
ing to the Library of Congress scheme of 
classification for education. The bibliogra- 
phy for 1909 to 1910 is now in process of 
preparation, and will soon be ready for pub- 
lication. This bibliography does not profess 
to be a complete list of all the recent litera- 
ture on education, but aims to present a well- 
balanced selection of the important titles 
which have appeared during the period cov- 
ered, either as separate publications, period- 
ical articles, or the proceedings of educational 
associations and societies. The bibliography 
covers not only educational literature in the 
English language, but includes many works 
in foreign languages, especially German and 
French. The basis for the selection of the 
titles to be incorporated in the bibliography 
depends upon the intrinsic worth and com- 
prehensiveness of the article, the importance 
and present value of the subject covered, the 
prominence of the author, or the amount of 
material already available on that subject. 
The titles of the more important sections, as 
compiled by the library, are submitted to 
specialists in education who examine the lit- 
erature on their special subject and return 
the list with criticisms, additions and annota- 
tions. Some descriptive annotations are pre- 
pared by the library, and in many cases ex- 
tracts and estimates taken from authoritative 
reviews are given. In case favorable and 
adverse criticism is found in the reviews a 
selection on either side is given. An impor- 
tant feature of the bibliography is the prom- 
inence given to the reports of educational 
associations and societies. A great many of 
these reports are entered with tables of con- 
tents, for they are mines of valuable infor- 
mation for those engaged in specialized work 
along educational lines. 

The compilation of brief bibliographies on 
special subjects has come to be an important 
part of the work of the library. Many re- 

quests are daily received from all sections of 
this country, and frequently from foreign 
sources, for lists of references on various 
phases of education. These requests may 
come from the school-boy seeking assistance 
in the preparation of a debate, from the school 
superintendent desiring literature on school 
organization and administration, or from the 
learned German professor asking for biblio- 
graphic information on the present status of 
pedagogy in the United States. In order to 
supply these requests the library now com- 
piles on an average of 40 bibliographies every 
month and sends out nearly three times that 
number. During the official year from 1909 
to 1910, 506 bibliographies were compiled. 
These lists are in typewritten form and range 
in size from one to over 25 pages, containing 
from 10 or 20 to several hundred titles each. 
They are constantly being revised and 
brought up-to-date by the addition of recent 
material. There are now on file in the li- 
brary selective bibliographies on over 700 
different subjects relating to education. These 
are sent out to any one desiring such mate- 
rial, but most of the requests come from 
educational institutions, school officers, teach- 
ers and students. The subjects on which 
bibliographies have been desired cover a wide 
range, and include such characteristic topics 
as Open-air schools ; Consolidation of rural 
schools ; Medical inspection of school chil- 
dren, or even Floor-oils for school rooms, 
and The dignity of labor. In the compilation 
of requested bibliographies the library en- 
deavors to suggest references suitable to the 
inquirer and likely to be available for his use. 
In this connection important distinction 
should be made in respect to the classes of 
people for whom the lists are prepared. Be- 
sides these typewritten lists the library fre- 
quently prepares bibliographies for the an- 
nual reports and bulletins issued by the bu- 
reau. Also each month an annotated list of 
current educational publications, compiled by 
the library, is published in the Educational 
Review. These cumulative lists serve as a 
nucleus in the preparation of the annual bib- 

The library annually receives over 250 edu- 
cational periodicals. About one-half of these 
are from foreign countries, representing all 
the important nations of the world and giving 
current information regarding the progress of 
education in these countries. These foreign 
periodicals and numerous state or official re- 
ports on education are indexed in the bureau 
by specialists in foreign education and serve 
as an important source of information in this 
field. All American periodical? (except those 
indexed in the Reader's Guide) number- 
ing about 125 current publications, the more 
important college magazines, many city and 
state school reports, together with the pro- 
ceedings of educational associations and so- 

April, 1911] 



cieties, are indexed by the library. The 
important articles are entered on cards with 
full bibliographic information and frequent 
descriptive notes. These cards are given 
subject headings and are filed by subjects. 
Since 1907 the library has carefully kept up 
this index, until it now includes over 20,000 
cards and is of valuable assistance in the 
compilation of bibliographies. It is in fact 
a subject bibliography in itself. In connec- 
tion with this index is kept a list of all edu- 
cational organizations in this country, giving 
the date of founding, name of president and 
secretary, and the date and place of next 
meeting, in all cases where such information 
has been ascertainable. 

Although the library is primarily a refer- 
ence library for the use of the staff of the 
Bureau of Education, it is always ready and 
willing to assist any one desiring information 
along educational lines. It endeavors to se- 
cure everything of importance published on 
education and as the largest collection of 
educational literature in this country should 
be availa'.I for all. As the Commissioner 
of Educatior '. ?.= ~aid : "It is the business of 
the bureau to collect and diffuse such infor- 
mation as shall help the people of the United 
States to establish a better system of schools. 
It is concerned all the time with the effort 
to make for this country a better education 
for all the people." In this work the library 
has its part. 



THE story hour, as planned and carried 
out at this library during the past winter has 
been more satisfactory than at any previous 
time. The course, or program, extended 
during the entire school year, from Septem- 
ber until June, and in the coming summer 
the story hour will be discontinued for three 
months, as usual. The September bulletin 
of the library contained an outline of the 
stories to be told, and the books to be found 
in the library, which constituted a brief 
"reading list" on each topic. The popularity 
of the bulletin was so great that it had to be 
reprinted in December to meet the demand. 
The story hour course for the older children 
embraced the hero tales of different lands. 
Each month stories of famous heroes, both 
historical and legendary, of a particular coun- 
try \\ere told to the children. The fairy tales 
of the same country were told to the younger 
children. An attractive picture bulletin was 
posted each Friday, for use and interest in 
conjunction with these stories. Dolls were 
dressed in the costumes of the different coun- 
tries, views of the different lands were placed 
on the bulletin board, and a good collection 

of books relative to the story were placed on 
the story hour shelves. These books, some 
of them for younger children and some for 
older, have been used as a reading course 
supplementary to the story hour. In the printed 
bulletin the titles of the books relating to 
the different stories were listed alphabetically 
and placed on the pages next to the stories 
to be told during a particular month. The 
list was not exhaustive, but consisted of sto- 
ries of the country native to the hero whose 
story was being told, or else it contained sto- 
ries pertaining to the customs of a certain 
day, such as Christmas or Thanksgiving, 
which was commemorated by a story appro- 
priate to that day instead of the usual hero 
or fairy tale. All these stories proved at- 
tractive, whether they were imaginary tales, 
true hero tales, or accounts of life and ad- 
venture in strange lands. JULIA T. RANKIX. 


THE question is sometimes asked, "Why 
does an association need a library when there 
is a public library in the same city?" Yet 
experience shows that the association library 
has a place of its own and is a valuable part 
of the varied activities carried on by the 
Young Woman's Christian Association. 

In the Brooklyn association, the educa- 
tional work is an important feature. There 
are classes for children, for growing girls 
and adults, and the library makes a specialty 
of providing books that will be helpful to 
the students ; a section is devoted to classified 
juvenile literature. The teacher recommends 
certain books, knowing they are in the li- 
brary, and the pupil finds it an advantage to 
get them as she goes to and from the class. 
Many girls come from distant parts of the 
city and some from out of town where there 
is no library convenient of access, and to 
them the Y. W. C. A. library with its pleas- 
ant rooms, open shelves, well-chosen books 
and obliging librarians has a special attrac- 
tion and value. 

The young girls who are in the commercial 
classes from nine to three o'clock naturally 
go to the library in their noon hour; some 
prefer the reading-room with its magazines, 
some browse in the alcoves, some enjoy the 
outlook from the windows and the quiet chat 
they can have in the larger room. There is 
a marked diminution in the circulation when 
the commercial department closes for the 
summer. The library permits each member 
to keep six books through the summer, and 
only one person has failed to return the books 
thus loaned. 

The reading-room is open to any girl or 
woman who wishes to come in. but the cir- 

* Five-minute talk before the Long Island Library 
Club, March 16, 19x1. 

1 82 


[April, 1911 

culation of books is limited to members, and 
is one of the inducements offered for mem- 
bership. A reader can take a book of fiction 
with non-fiction, and music and art studies 
are also circulated. 

The members have a sense of ownership in 
the library, especially the juniors who come 
flocking in after their classes, when often a 
volunteer worker is on hand to help them 
choose books. Sometimes they bring little 
friends and show them around with an air of 
pride. On one occasion the librarian noticed a 
couple of little girls sitting quietly by the chil- 
dren's table busy with some simple embroid- 
ery; after a while they came to ask her to 
"mind" their work while they went to get 
some material, and one of them, throwing 
back her coat, showed the astonished libra- 
rian a kitten underneath which was also en- 
joying the privileges of the library and be- 
having with the utmost decorum and quiet. 

It is the purpose of the librarian to make 
such a home-like atmosphere that comers, 
occasional or frequent, may feel there is a 
friend at hand interested in the individual 
as well as in the book. Many are the chats 
by the desk in the quiet times, and the libra- 
rians have opportunities to sympathize, to 
cheer, to advise, or to direct to other depart- 
ments. Recently a letter was received from 
a crippled girl in no need of financial aid, but 
whose misfortune limits her means of en- 
joyment. She wrote that she had been ill 
and said : "How I miss coming down. I 
always enjoyed it. Many a time have I left 
home for the Y. W. C. A. with a burden on 
my heart, and would leave it there after a 
talk in the library." 

The committee in charge of the library 
arranges a series of informal talks upon 
travel, or on literary, historical and musical 
subjects. All members are invited. The 
talks are held about once a month, and are 
often illustrated by lantern slides, by songs 
or other music, in which the Victor has taken 
a pleasing part, and occasionally a social cup 
of tea is served. 

The Industrial committee of the association 
holds noon meetings in several Brooklyn 
factories, and a few years ago asked the li- 
brary to send books for circulation among 
the girl employees. Small libraries were sent, 
one of the girls acted as librarian, an occa- 
sional talk was given at the noon meeting 
upon literature and reading, and the plan 
quickly showed the advantage to the girls 
of carefully selected books easy of access. 
Recently the Brooklyn Public Library of- 
fered to take up this work, and being of 
course specially equipped for such a task, 
the factory libraries were placed under its 

Wherever there is a library, or whatever 
its name, there may always be found many 
and varied opportunities for mental and 
moral uplift. FANNY D. FISH. 


W!HEN Sunday school loses its attraction, 
the public school becomes more or less of a 
bore, and even home fails to meet his needs 
as it was wont to do, the Young Men's 
Christian Association offers its services to 
the restless youth, trying to fill with useful 
and interesting activity the hours which he is 
sure to spend somewhere away from the in- 
fluence of parents and teachers. 

His admission to the Association gives a 
boy a certain dignity, for he receives a mem- 
bership card which would cause him to be 
favorably recognized, not only in any city of 
his own country, but also in Europe, Asia, 
Africa, South America, or Australia. A 
thorough examination, followed by a physi- 
cian's friendly advice, reveals to him the pos- 
sibility of fullest development. A varied pro- 
gram of athletic and gymnastic exercises 
keeps him in health, adds to his strength, agil- 
ity and grace, and contributes to symmetrical 
growth. He is taught to swim. First aid 
methods are demonstrated until he is com- 
petent to render intelligent assistance in 

Lectures on art, science, literature, history 
and other topics awaken interests which in- 
crease with age. Often he learns to prepare 
short lectures of his own, and to operate the 
stereopticon and reflectoscope used in illus- 
trating those of others. 

Books, carefully selected, are at his dis- 
posal and he is taught to use the larger libra- 
ries with discretion. The best current pe- 
riodicals are in the reading room. 

With his leaders he visits parks, museums, 
places of historic interest, markets, manu- 
facturing plants and steamships. In vacation 
time he goes on tours to other cities and 
meets, now and then, a mayor, a governor, 
or the President of the United States. 

In the spring and summer he visits the 
countryside to study nature, sometimes spend- 
ing weeks under canvas in the Association's 
summer camp. He learns to tell time by the 
sun, find his way by the stars, build his own 
hut, cook his own meals and depend upon 
his own resourcefulness. 

At exhibitions he shows his drawings, 
paintings, airship models, family heirlooms, 
pets, flowers, vegetables, or anything else 
which he has made, grown or collected. 

He wins the Association emblem, not by 
narrow specialization in one sport, but by all- 
around achievement. 

Games, social events and entertainments 
provide hours of relaxation. 

His unexpected needs revealed by early 
business experience are met by individual 
instruction in the Association's evening 

* A five-minute talk on the work with boys of the 
Young Men's Christian Association in Brooklyn de- 
livered before the Long Island Library Club, March 
16, 1911. 

April, 1911] 



school. If. far from home, he finds a welcome 
in the dormitories. 

In Bible classes and religious meetings he 
expresses in manly fashion his thoughts of 
the Creator. 

In all the Association's activities he finds 
that the uppermost thought is service for 
mankind, and as a member of a committee, a 
leader in some enterprise for which he has 
been encouraged to assume responsibility, or 
in his private capacity, he is found at work 
for other boys. W. A. PERRY. 


THE demand of the present municipal 
movement is for facts. What are the facts 
about the city administration? What are the 
facts about its finances? What are the rec- 
ords of candidates? There is an active and 
widespread discussion of a great number of 
municipal questions, and those who are dis- 
cussing them want the facts. Information is 
succeeding vituperation. Discussion is tak- 
ing the place of abuse. The old slogan was 
"Turn the rascals out!" the new one is 
"Turn on the light and keep it turned on !" 
in other words, "publicity" and the found- 
ation of publicity is information based on 
the facts. 

Within the past five years there has grown 
up a great mass of municipal periodicals 
weeklies, monthlies, quarterlies and annuals 
popular and technical, formal and infor- 
mal, official and unofficial. 

At the Cincinnati meeting of the National 
Municipal League 146 publications were enu- 
merated in a report. This list included the 
city papers, like "Philadelphia" and "Denver 
Municipal Facts," publications of official 
bodies, of cities, of civic organizations, pro- 
ceedings of various organizations, as well as 
independent enterprises like the Cincinnati 
Citizens' Bulletin and the California Outlook. 

This long list of publications bears testi- 
mony to the hunger for knowledge concern- 
ing municipal affairs. While it may add to 
the burdens of the librarian to keep track of 
all of them, it constitutes striking evidence 
of the American's awakened interest in the 
problems of city life, and furnishes proof of 
that hopeful outlook for American municipal 
government but recently described by Am- 
bassador Bryce. 

All of this periodical activity is in addition 
to the marvellous increase of attention to 
every conceivable municipal problem by the 
daily press and the general magazine and 

In connection with our work we present a 
list of periodical publications, which has been 

* Outline of address read at the isth annual meet- 
ing of the New Jersey Library Association and Penn- 
sylvania Library Club, Atlantic City, March n, 1911. 

prepared by the secretary of the National 
Municipal League : 


Representing Organizations of Municipal 

The City Hall, Des Moines, Iowa. 
Canadian Municipal Journal, Montreal. 
Proceedings of state leagues of municipalities. 


Ohio (discontinued). 





The Municipality, Madison, Wis. 
Midland Municipalities^ Marshall town, Iowa. 
Pacific Municipality, ban Francisco. 
Municipal World, St. Thomas, Ontario. 


City Record Boston. 

The City Record, New York. 


Progressive Houston. 

Denver Municipal Facts. 

The Municipal Record, San Francisco. 

Proposed municipal bulletins: 



Des Moines. 

St. Louis. 




National Municipal League, clipping sheets. 
American Civic Association, clipping sheets and 

Bureau of Municipal Research, New York, various 


The American City, 93 Nassau street, New York. 
The Christian City, 150 Fifth avenue, New York. 
Municipal Journal and Engineer, New York. 
Municipal Economist, Chicago. 
Municipal Engineering, Indianapolis. 
Engineering News, New York. 
Engineering Record. 
Good Roads Magazine, New York. 
Park and Cemetery, Chicago. 
Contract Record. 
The California Weekly. 

The Townsman, Caxton Building, Cleveland. 
Sanitary News Chicago. 
The Village, New York. 
The Outlook, New York. 
The Survey, New York. 
The Public, Chicago. 
The Annals of the American Academy of Political 

and Social Sciences. 
Good Government, New York. 
National Civic Federation Bulletins. 
American Political Science Review, Baltimore. 
Government, Boston. 
Chief, New York. 
Police Chief, New York. 
Fireman's Herald, New York. 
Fireman's Standard, Boston. 
Western Fireman, Chicago. 
Municipal Affairs, New York (1897-1902). 
City Government, New York (1897-1900). 
City and State, Philadelphia (1897-1902). 
Construction, Pittsburgh (1905-6). 
Public Improvements, New York (1899-1903). 
American Journal of Politics (.American Magazine 

of Civics, New York) (discontinued). 
The Municipality and County, Buffalo, New York 



Street Railway Journal. 

Fire and Water Engineering, New York. 

1 84 


{April, 1911 

Power, Boston. 

Square Deal, New York. 

Public Service Journal, Chicago. 

Street Railway Review, Chicago. 

Public Policy, Chicago (1900-1905). 

Municipal and Railway Record, New York (1899- 

Concerning Municipal Ownership, New York (dis- 


City Affairs, Boston. 

Civic League Bulletin, Newport, R. I. 

Municipal Art Society of Hartford, bulletins. 

Municipal Art Society of New York, bulletins. 

Citizens' Union, New York, bulletins. 

Bulletins of City Club of New York. 

Woman's Municipal League Bulletin, New York. 

Washington Square Association Bulletin, New York. 

Civic Union, Brooklyn, bulletins. 

The Albany Citizen, Albany. 

City Club bulletins, Philadelphia. 

Civic Club of Philadelphia. 

Roland Park Review. Baltimore. 

Washington Civic Center, bulletins. 

The Citizens' Bulletin, Cincinnati. 

Citizens' Association of Chicago, bulletins. 

The Suburbanite. Seattle, Washington. 

The Oregon City, Portland, Oregon. 

Municipal Affairs. Los Angeles (succeeded by The 

Pacific Outlook). 
Civic News, Detroit (1905 to 1907). 


Municipal Facts, 50 Pine street, New York. 

Tax-payers' Magazine, New York. 

Taxpayers' News, Broadway and 4ist street New 

Taxpayers' Hamilton County Review, Cincinnati. 


Portland (Me.) Board of Trade Monthly. 
Boston Chamber of Commerce Bulletin. 
Worcester Magazine, Worcester, Mass. 
Providence Board of Trade Monthly. 
Merchants' Association (New York) Bulletin. 
New York Chamber of Commerce Bulletin. 
Brooklyn League. New York. 
Municipal Record and Advertiser, New York. 
Commerce, Rochester. 
Progress, Atlanta. 
Greater Dayton. 

Chicago Commerce (Chicago Association of Com- 

Grand Rapids Board of Trade Bulletin. 
Merchants' Association, Milwaukee, bulletin. 
Texas Commercial Secretaries, bulletin. 
The Merchant Association's Review, San Francisco. 


Canadian Municipal Journal (see above). 
Municipal Gazette, Montreal. 

Municipal Bulletin of the Ontario Bureau of Indus- 
tries, Toronto. 

Canadian Contract Record, Toronto. 
Western Municipal News, 'Winnipeg. 


Municipal Journal, London. 

Council Journal, London. 

County and Municipal Record, London. 

Tramway and Railway World', London. 

Local Government Journal London. 

The Journal of Gas Lighting, London. 

London Municipal Notes, London. 

Municipal Record and Samtory Journal, Glasgow. 

Les Annales Municipales, Paris. 

Bulletin Municipal Official de la Ville de Paris, 


La Chronique Municipalc, Paris. 
L'Ecole des Communes, taris. 
'/Journal des Communes, Paris. 
L'Journal Municipal. Paris. 
Annais des Sciences' Politiques, Paris. 

Le Municipal, Paris. 

La Municipalise Franchise, Paris. 

Revue Municipale. Paris. 

Revue Pratique d'Hygiene Municipale Urbaine et. 
Rurale, Paris. 

La Vigie Municipale, Paris. 

L'Art Publique, Brussels, Belgium. 

Schwcizerisches Zentralblatt fur Staaten, Berlin. 

Gesundheits-Ingenierin, Munich. 

Der Staedtebau, Berlin, Germany. 

Zeitschift fur Transportwesen und Strassenbau, Ber- 

Staedtebaulische Vortage, Berlin. 

Archiv fur Stadt Kunde, Stuttgart. 

Archiv fur Socialwissenschaft und Socialpolitik, 

Gcmeindc Verwaltung, Zurich, Switzerland. 

Boletin del Ayuntamiento de Madrid. 

Boletin Municipal de Barcelona: Administratiacion, 
legislacion y esta di&tica, Barcelona. 

Revisla Municipal de Santiago de Cuba, Havana. 


Proceedings of the National Municipal League. 

Municipal Engineers of the City of New York Pro- 

The Municipal Year Book, New York (1902). 

Municipal Year Book, London. 

Annual Review of the Commerce, Manufactures and 
the Public and Private Improvements of Chicago. 

Shaw's Local Government Manual and Directory for 
Unions, Urban and Rural District Councils, County 
Councils, 'Metropolitan Boroughs, London. 

Argus Municipal Guide. A poll book and year book 
combined, London. 

Brooklyn League Year Book. 

An examination of this bibliography would 
justify the claim that numerically there are 
certain periodicals enough. The list is in- 
teresting as an exhibit to any one interested 
in all that relates to municipal reform and 
its development, and is a most encouraging 

Of course, if the League can in some way be 
made a means of inter-communication be- 
tween the various publications and the va- 
rious organizations which they represent, 
either by a periodical publication or by so 
adapting its printed bulletins or issues of va- 
rious sorts to this form of inter-communica- 
tion, it would be fulfilling a highly useful 
function ; and your committee hopes that 
steps to that end may be in time taken, and 
perhaps be taken at once. 



Bandini, Mrs. H. E. History of California. 
(New York, Amer. Book Co., 1908.) 

California: resources and possibilities. (Re- 
port Cal. Development Board, San Fran- 
cisco, 1910.) 

California's standard guide book. (Los An- 
geles Times. 1910.) 

Clark, G. The big trees of California. 
(Yosemite Valley, Clark, 1907.) 

Indians of the Yosemite Valley and vicinity. 
(Yosemite Valley, Clark, 1904.) 

Hildrup, J. S. Missions of California and 
the old southwest. (Chicago, McClurg, 

Holder, C. F. Channel islands of California: 

* A popular list, chiefly historical and descriptive. 

April, 1911] 



a book for the angler, sportsman and tour- 
ist. (Chicago, McQurg, igio.) 
Jackson, H. H. Glimpses of California and 
the missions. (Boston, Little, Brown, 1902.) 
James, G. W. In and out of the old missions 
of California. (Boston, Little, Brown, 1907.) 
Through Ramona's country (Boston, Lit- 
tle, Brown, 1909.) 
Muir, J. The mountains of California. (New 

York, Century Co., 1907.) 
Peixotto, E. C. Romantic California. (New 

York, Scribner, 1910.) 

Reid, H. A. History of Pasadena. (Pasa- 
dena History Co., 1895.) 
Van Dyke, J. C The desert. (New York, 

Scribner, 1904.) 

\Yillard, C. D. History of Los Angeles city. 
(Los Angeles, Kingsley, Barnes, 1901.) 
(For reference, see Bancroft, Hittell, Pro- 
ceedings California Academy of Sciences, 
San Francisco; Publications South California 
Historical Society, Los Angeles ; Proceedings 
and Bulletin South California Academy of 
Sciences, Los Angeles; The California blue 
book, Sacramento, 1909-) 


Keep. T. West coast shells. (San Francisco, 
\Yhitaker, Ray, 1910.) 

Bailey. F. A. M. Handbook of birds of the 
western United States. (Boston, Hough- 
ton Mifflin, 1902.) 

Wheelock, I. G. Birds of California. (Chi- 
cago, McClurg, 1904.) 

Eastwood. A. Handbook of the trees of 
California. (San Francisco Cal. Acad. of 
Sciences, 1905.) 

Jepson, W. L. Trees of California. (San 
Francisco, Cunningham. 1009-) 

McLaren, J. Gardening in California, land- 
scape and flower. (San Francisco, Rob- 
ertson, 1909.) 

Parsons. M. E., and Buck, M. W. Wfld 
flowers of California. (San Francisco, 
Payot, Upham, 1904.) 
For reference, see file of the Condor, 

Geological Survey of Cal. (Botany), and 

Jepson. W. L., Silva of California (Berkeley, 

Univ. Press, 1910.) 


California song books. (San Francisco, 


First song books issued. 
-Colton, W. Three years in California. (New 

York, A. S. Barnes, 1850.) 

One of the best authorities on the con- 
quest of California and the period immediate- 
ly following, by an active participant. 
Cummins. E. S. Story of the files : a review 

of California writers and literature brqught 

down to 1893. (Co-operative Printing Co., 

San Francisco, 1893.) 
Dwindle, J. W. Colonial history of San 

Francisco. (San Francisco, Towne & 

Bacon, 1863.) 

Includes copies of Spanish laws, decrees 
-and other papers hardly accessible elsewhere. 

Forbes, A. J. California : a history of upper 
and lower California from their first dis- 
covery. (London, Smith, 1839.) 
The first original work in English on Cali- 

Palou, F. padre. Relacion historica de la 
vida y apostolkas Tareas del venerable 
padre Fray Junipero Serra. (Mexico, 

Robinson, A. Uncle John's stones for good 
California children. (San Francisco, 
Hutchings, 1860.) 

First California story book for children. 
Venegas, M. Natural and civil history of 
California; translated from the Spanish. 
(London, 1759.) 

Wierzbicki, F. P. California as it is and as 
it may be ; or, a guide to the gold regions. 
(San Francisco, Washington Bartlett, 1849.) 
The first book printed in English in Cali- 

Zamorano, A. V. Missions of California: a 
translation of Gov. Figueroa's manifesto; 
printed in Monterey in 1835. (San Fran- 
cisco, 1855.) 

(A special bibliography of rare California 
books was published in the June, 1905, 
Monthly Bulletin, Pasadena Public Library.) 


The California*. (Monterey, 1846-47.) 
The first newspaper printed in California. 

The Pioneer; or California Monthly Maga- 
zine. (San Francisco, W. H. Brooks & 
Co., 1854-1855-) 
The earliest California magazine. 

Hutchings' Illustrated California Magazine. 
(San Francisco, Hutehings & Rosenfield, 
The first illustrated magazine published in 

the state, 

California Magazine and Mountaineer. (San 
Francisco, Brooks & Lawrence, 1860-62.) 
A continuation of Hutchings' Magazine. 

Hesperian Magazine. (San Francisco, J. H. 
Kerr & Co., 1858-63.) N. M. Russ. 


Reprinted from the Publisher? Weekly. 

THE fact that half the fall fiction of 1910 
was published net and that ten publishers, 
including Houghton and Putnam, pub- 
lished all their fiction titles net, is of keen 
interest to libraries. There seems to have 
been no corporate or organized sponsor for 
the net fiction campaign, though doubtless it 
is not wholly spontaneous. The reasons 
given, whenever any are offered, are improve- 
ment of the booktrade and the status of the 
retailer and the increased cost of production. 
Should they involve as a considerable, and to 
librarians a very important, corollary, the ma- 
terial increase in the price of fiction to libra- 
ries? The first of these reasons is perhaps 
plausible. But can not the booktrade be im- 
proved and the retailer once more rehabil- 



[April, 1911 

itated without bringing library prices into the 
matter at all? Why, indeed, does the re- 
tailer require periodical rehabilitation? And 
why, if he does, must libraries contribute so 
substantially to accomplish it? Eight years 
ago, in the face of explicit assurance from the 
publishers that the net price system would not 
increase the cost of books to libraries, but 
would merely operate to maintain the retail 
price, the libraries of the country found their 
book bills increased from 15 to 20 per cent. 
If this generous, though enforced, contribu- 
tion has not yet rehabilitated the retailer, may 
not libraries be pardoned for believing that it 
has gone, where indeed they have from the 
first suspected it was going, into the pockets 
of the publishers. 

The increased cost of production does not 
seem so good a reason. The increased cost 
of production falls upon the manufacturers, 
that is, the publishers. If there has been such 
an increase it would seem that they would 
raise the wholesale price of fiction to the 
dealer, which many dealers distinctly deny 
has been done. Libraries are not disposed to 
dispute the contention that the condition of 
the retailer should be improved; neither are 
they disposed to deny some increase in cost 
of manufacture. They admit, of course, that 
the publishers have a perfect right to set any 
price upon their wares, and that the decision 
as to whether libraries shall pay the price 
fixed is with the libraries themselves. All 
this being true, however, it seems entirely 
proper to state the case as it appears to libra- 
ries, with such observations as seem to them 
pertinent and weighty. 

The apparently just causes for complaint 
by libraries were admirably stated by the 
Committee on bookbuying of the American 
Library Association in a recent report of the 
Council of that body, as follows : "It seems to 
this committee that the libraries have a just 
cause for complaint in the very serious reduc- 
tion in discount allowed them, a reduction 
which in effect involves a greater increase in 
cost of fiction to libraries than to the indi- 
vidual purchaser of single copies. ... It is 
palpably inequitable that the libraries, being 
mainly buyers in bulk if not in quantity, plac- 
ing them on an equal basis with wholesale 
purchasers, should be mulcted in however 
just a cause, in an amount greater than, or 
nearly as great as, the patron of the retailers, 
for whose benefit this movement has been in- 
augurated. If libraries are not wholesale pur- 
chasers, they are at least entitled to more con- 
sideration than retail purchasers, and the 
nominal discount of 10 per cent, by no means 
fairly represents the difference. It is doubt- 
ful if it represents the true difference in ac- 
tual selling cost between handling individual 
sales and the orders of libraries." If the 
library discount on net fiction were 15 or 20 
per cent., and the new net prices were uni- 
formly maintained at a figure sufficiently be- 
low the old long price of $1.50 to persuade 

libraries that the publishers were playing fair 
in fixing the net prices, there would probably 
be little or no feeling among libraries in the 
question of net fiction. The new net prices, 
however, are neither uniform (even when 
the difference in matter in different books is 
considered), nor so low as to persuade libra- 
rians that the net fiction movement is not to- 
repeat the manifest injustices and inequalities 
which attended the original net price move- 
ment of eight years ago. 

There are other reasons, too, which make 
an increased price for fiction less warranted 
than an increased price eight years ago for 
non-fiction. Non-fiction represents the solid 
permanent literature, the sort that is worth 
money, the sort that when bought forms the 
solid, worthy part of any library. Is there 
any similar warrant of increasing the price of 
a class of books so ephemeral, so dubious in 
quality, so devoid of promise o lasting worth 
as is the current fiction now served out to 
readers by American publishers, two-thirds of 
which could be tossed into the fire imme- 
diately on its coming from the press with no 
word of protest from any American library. 

The remarkable success of the English 
seven-penny novels by first-class authors, 
most of them of recent date, tastefully bound 
in cloth, excellent in typography, would seem 
to justify librarians here for doubting that 
such an increase of price as is proposed is 
necessary to enable novels to be published at 
a fair profit for both seller and publisher and 
a substantial royalty for the author. Even 
the difference in wages, cost of living, and the 
compensation of authors (if there be any 
difference here) scarcely explain the disparity 
between sevenpence and the cheapest, satis- 
factory bound form in which current fiction 
has yet been offered in America. 

There are not wanting librarians who ques- 
tion the wisdom or desirability of the public 
library undertaking, as so large a part of its 
\york, to supply to its patrons such vast quan- 
tities of ephemeral reading matter. Several 
of the largest public libraries in the country 
buy relatively few titles of the new novels, 
trying to select the best and duplicating these 
relatively few titles largely. 

When net prices were first broached eight 
years ago, many libraries found that titles 
which seemed desirable when fresh, did not 
seem so necessary at the end of a year; and 
in so far as it tended to more deliberation in 
bookbuying, the net price system was not an 
unmixed evil to libraries. Are not the argu- 
ments for delay, or perhaps for total absten- 
tion, far stronger and more reasonable in the 
case of net fiction than non-fiction? Library 
reports are filled with boasts of the reduced 
per cent, of fiction circulation statistics. It 
seems on all hands to be thought a worthy 
achievement to cut the circulation of this class 
of book. Does not net fiction offer several 
good excuses for going still further in this, 
direction? J. I. WYER. 

April, 1911] 


I8 7 


There are hermit souls that live withdrawn 

In the peace of their self-content; 
There are souls, like stars, that dwell apart, 

In a fellowless firmament; 
There are pioneer souls that blaze their paths 

Where highways never ran; 
But let me live by the side of the road 

And be a friend to man. 

Let me live